View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

Occupational Employment in
Transportation, Communications,
Utilities, and Trade
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
December 1984
Bulletin 2220

L <R. 3

'

DQCUM-b

OULL C';! -

FEB 27 1985

Occupational Employment in
Transportation, Communications,
Utilities, and Trade
U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
December 1984
Bulletin 2220

F o r sa le by th e Su p erin ten d en t o f D ocu m en ts, U .S. G overnm ent P r in tin g Office
W ash in gton , D.C. 20402

Preface

This bulletin provides data from a 1982 survey o f oc­
cupational employment in the transportation, com­
munications, utilities, and wholesale and retail trade in­
dustries. (Occupational employment data from a 1982
survey o f State and local government are also included;
see appendix A). Earlier surveys o f transportation, com­
munications, utilities, and trade were conducted in
1973, 1976, and 1979. Results of the 1979 survey were
published in Bulletin 2116, Occupational Employment

statistics (OES). The OES program provides information
for many data users, including individuals and
organizations engaged in planning vocational education
programs, training programs supported by the Job
Training Partnership Act, and higher education. O es
data also are used to prepare information for career
counseling, for job placement activities performed at
State employment security offices, and for personnel
planning and market research conducted by private
enterprises.
This bulletin was prepared in the Office of Employ­
ment and Unemployment Statistics, Division of Oc­
cupational and Administrative Statistics, by Patricia Y.
Hyland under the direction o f Glyn T. Finley. John
Shew and Barbara L. Keitt provided data processing
support. Typing assistance was provided by Minnie L.
Dickerson.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced
without permission.

in Transportation, Communications, Utilities, and
Trade. Other selected nonmanufacturing industries
were surveyed in 1981 and results were published in
Bulletin 2186, Occupational Employment in Mining,

Construction, Finance, and Services.
Surveys o f the manufacturing sector were conducted
in 1971, 1974, 1977, and 1980. Results o f the 1980
survey were published in Bulletin 2133, Occupational

Employment in Manufacturing Industries.
These periodic surveys are part of a Federal-State
cooperative program of occupational employment

iii

■

Contents

Page
Introduction...................................................................................................................................................

1

Sum m ary...............................................................

2

Transportation .............................................................................................................................................
Local and suburban transit and interurban highway passenger transportation.....................
Motor freight transportation and warehousing.............................................................................
Water transportation.........................................................................................................................
Air transportation................................................................................................................................
Pipe lines, except natural g a s ..................................................... . .....................................................
Transportation services .....................................................................................................................

7
7
7
8
8
9
9

Communications.......................................................................................................................................... 23
U tilities.......................................................

27

Wholesale trade............................................................................................................................................ 31
Durable g o o d s...................................................................................................................................... 31
Nondurable good s................................................................................................................................ 31
Retail trade.....................................................................................................................................
Building materials, hardware, garden supply stores, and mobile home dealers......................
General merchandise sto r es...............................................................................................................
Food stores.............................................................................................................................................
Automotive dealers and gasoline service sta tio n s.........................................................................
Apparel and accessory stores.............................................................................................................
Furniture, home furnishings, and equipment sto res....................................................................
Eating and drinking places.................................................................................................................
Miscellaneous retail sto r es.....................

42
42
43
43
43
43
44
44
44

Tables:
1. Employment in transportation, communications, utilities, and wholesale and
retail trade, 1982 ....................................................................................................................... 5
2. Employment by major occupational g r o u p ........................................................................... 6
3. Percent distribution o f employment by major occupational g ro u p .................................. 6
4. Transportation industries: Percent distribution o f employment in major
occupational groups by in d u stry............................................................................................ 10
Employment, relative error, and percent o f establishments reporting selected occupations:
5. Local and suburban transit and interurban highway passenger transportation.............
6. Motor freight transportation and w arehousing....................................................................
7. Water transportation...................................................................................................................
8. Air transportation.......................................................................................................................
9. Pipe lines, except natural g a s ..................................................................................................
10. Transportation services...............................................................................................................
11. C om m unications.........................................................................................................................

v

11
13
15
17
19
21
24

Contents—Continued
Page
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Electric, gas, steam, water, and sanitary services..................................................................
Wholesale tra d e............................................................................................................................
Wholesale trade—durable g o o d s..............................................................................................
Wholesale trade—nondurable good s.......................................................................................
Retail trade: Percent distribution o f employment in major occupational groups
by industry, 1982 .......................................................................................................................
Retail trade....................................................................................................................................
Building materials, hardware, garden supply stores, and mobile home d ealers.............
General merchandise stores ......................................................................................................
Food stores....................................................................................................................................
Automotive dealers and gasoline servicestations..................................................................
Apparel and accessory sto r e s....................................................................................................
Furniture, home furnishings, and equipment s to r e s ............................................................
Eating and drinking p la c es..................................................................................... ,. ................
Miscellaneous retail stores ........................................................................................................

28
33
36
39
45
46
49
51
54
56
58
60
62
64

Appendixes:
A. State and local governm ent........................................................................................................ 67
B. Survey methods and reliability o f estim ates............................................................................. 76
C. O es survey data available from State agencies........................................................................ 80

vi

Introduction

cent o f total employment, relative error, and percent o f
establishments reporting the occupation.

The Occupational Employment Statistics ( o e s ) survey
is designed to collect data on occupational employment
o f wage and salary workers by industry in
nonagricultural establishments. The Bureau o f Labor
Statistics provides the procedures and technical
assistance for the survey, State employment security
agencies collect the data, and the Employment and Train­
ing Administration provides administrative support.
In 1982 and in 1979, 48 States and the District o f Col­
umbia participated in the survey, compared with 43
States in 1978, 29 States in 1975, and 22 in 1973. B ls
conducted a supplemental survey in 1982, with the
financial aid o f the National Science Foundation, to col­
lect data in the nonparticipating States and to develop
national estimates.
This bulletin presents national data only. Data on oc­
cupational employment in each participating State are
available from the State employment security agencies
which are listed on the last page of this bulletin.

Employment is based upon survey results adjusted to
reflect total industry employment. The percent o f total
employment refers to total employment in the industry.
Relative error measures the level o f confidence to be
placed on each estimate. The percent o f establishments
reporting a particular occupation indicates the frequen­
cy o f occurrence o f the occupation.
Occupations with fewer than 50 workers, or with less
than 0.01 percent o f industry employment, or with a
relative error greater than 50 are not shown separately
but are included in the appropriate residual categories.
Employment is rounded to the nearest ten. The
relative error and the percent o f respondents reporting
the occupation are rounded to the nearest whole per­
cent. The percent o f total employment was computed
from rounded employment data.

Data presented
1 Occupational employment data at the more detailed 3-digit level
are available upon request from the Office of Employment and
Unemployment Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Definitions for
all occupations surveyed are also available upon request.

This bulletin presents occupational employment for
2-digit sic industries.1 Data are presented for each in­
dustry under the following headings: Employment, per­

1

t

decline, with a 4 percent drop in employment from 1979
to 1982. Airlines and trucking, both o f which were
deregulated in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s, led the
overall decline. During the 1979-82 period, railroads
and airlines were characterized by bankruptcies and ag­
gressive and increased competition, including fierce fare
and rate discounting (price wars). Wholesale and retail
trade experienced lagging sales, low profits, and high in­
terest rates; these factors may have contributed to the
very slow job growth during this period. In contrast,
employment growth was strong in the communications
industry. Included among the factors partially responsi­
ble for this em ploym ent growth were rapid
technological change; increased deregulation; and the
increased demand for telecommunication and broad­
casting services (satellite communications, international
telephone services, cable television services, etc.).
Utilities also had strong employment growth from 1979
to 1982. This may be attributable to improved revenues,
increased rate allowances, and decreased construction
spending.

In 1982, 25.2 million, or 29 percent, o f all
nonagricultural wage and salary workers in the Nation
were employed in transportation, communications,
utilities, and trade, the industries covered by this survey.
Of these, almost 82 percent, or 20.6 million, were
employed in trade. Just under three-quarters were
employed in retail trade, the same proportion as in
1979; the balance was in wholesale trade. The transpor­
tation industries employed more than 9 percent o f the
workers surveyed, or about 2.4 million. Motor freight
transportation and warehousing employed the largest
proportion o f workers in transportation, accounting for
slightly more than half o f the transportation workers.
Communications, the third largest industry surveyed,
employed 1.4 million workers or almost 6 percent of the
total workers surveyed. Utilities, the smallest industry,
accounted for a little more than 3 percent o f total
employment, or 867,000 workers. (See table 1.)
For comparative purposes, data from the 1979 survey
o f occupational employment in these industries1 appear
in the following tabulation:
Employment
1979
1982
Transportation.................. 2,467,290
Communications................
1,316,460
Utilities................................
796,460
Wholesale and retail
trade.................................. 20,320,980

Major occupational groups

Percent
change

2,368,240
1,421,120
866,770
20,571,860

In this study, workers are classified into seven major
occupational groups: Managers and officers; profes­
sional workers; technical workers; service workers;
operating, maintenance, construction, repair, material
handling, and powerplant workers; clerical workers;
and sales workers. Tables 2 and 3 present the distribu­
tion of employment in the various industries surveyed.
Subsequent sections in this publication deal with the
four major industry groups and discuss employment in
each by major occupational group. These sections also
present occupational employment data by industry seg­
ment (two-digit SIC).

-4
8
9
1

The tabulation shows the transportation industry as
the only surveyed industry to experience a decline in
employment from 1979 to 1982. In 1982, there were
almost 100,000 or 4 percent fewer transportation
workers than in 1979. Both communications and
utilities had the largest percentage gains in employment,
while in wholesale and retail trade employment increas­
ed by only 1 percent.
Between 1979 and 1982, many economic and
regulatory changes took place in the economy. These
changes, some industry-specific, may provide a partial
explanation for the changes in employment experienced
by these industries in 1982.
The recessions o f 1980 and 1981-82 affected many in­
dustries, including those covered in this publication.
Transportation, as a whole, showed the greatest cyclical

Managers and officers

Managers and officers are primarily concerned with
the policymaking, planning, organizing, staffing, direc­
ting, and controlling o f activities common to many
types of organizations. Also included are persons
responsible for the operation of an enterprise or
establishment (usually small) in which they may engage,
in part, in the same activities as the workers they super­
vise. Occupations included in this group are plant, o f­
1 See Occupational Employment in Transportation, Communica­ fice, and sales managers, and corporate officers such as
president, secretary, and treasurer.
tions, Utilities, and Trade, 1979, Bulletin 2116 (April 1982).
2

and equipment of buildings, offices, stores, etc., and
provide repair services in all industries.
There were 5.0 million service workers in 1982, a 5
percent increase over 1979, and they accounted for
almost 20 percent o f the employment covered by this
survey . More than four-fifths o f the service workers
were employed in eating and drinking establishments.

In the industries surveyed in 1982, managers and of­
ficers numbered 2.7 million (table 2), compared to 2.3
million in 1979, an increase of 16 percent between the
survey years. Eleven percent of the employees covered
by the 1982 survey were managers and officers. (See
table 3.)
As might be expected, the largest concentration of
managers and officers was found in wholesale and retail
trade. They accounted for 83 percent o f the managers
and officers in all the surveyed industries. In order of
predominance, the largest employers of managers and
officers in wholesale and retail trade were eating and
drinking places (381,000 or 14 percent o f all managers
and officers surveyed); wholesale firms selling durable
goods (350,000 or 13 percent); and food stores (257,000
or 9 percent).

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling, and powerplant workers
Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling, and powerplant workers include all
skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled workers performing
machine and manual tasks.
This was the largest o f the seven major occupational
groups, and accounted for 6.3 million or 25 percent of
the total surveyed employment in 1982. This was the on­
ly major occupational group to experience a decrease in
total employment from 1979 to 1982. Employment
declined by 7 percent over this period, from 6.7 million
to 6.3 million. The largest concentrations o f operating
workers were in motor freight transportation and
warehousing, and in wholesale firms selling durable
goods. Each employed about 14 percent of all the
operating workers surveyed.

Professional workers
Professional workers usually deal with the theoretical
or practical aspects o f science, engineering, technical
work, art, education, medicine, law, and business rela­
tions. Most o f these occupations require substantial
educational preparation, usually at the university level.
In 1982, professional workers numbered 959,000,
nearly 5 percent more than the 914,000 in 1979. They ac­
counted for 4 percent of the employment covered by the
1982 survey. The largest proportion of professional
workers was in wholesale firms selling durable goods,
with 18 percent. Communications ranked second,
employing 157,000 or 16 percent.

Clerical workers
Clerical workers are classified as either office clerical
workers or plant clerical workers. Office clerical
workers prepare, transcribe, transfer, systematize, and
preserve written communications and records, as well as
collect accounts and distribute information. Plant
clerical workers plan, coordinate, or expedite produc­
tion and the flow o f work. These workers are also in­
volved in the clerical aspects o f receiving, storing, issu­
ing, or shipping o f materials, merchandise, supplies, or
equipment.
Clerical workers ranked second among the seven oc­
cupational groups in 1982, with 5.4 million or 22 per­
cent o f total employment in the surveyed industries.
From 1979 to 1982, employment increased by 20,000
workers or less than 1 percent. The largest concentra­
tion o f clerical workers in 1982, 908,000 or 17 percent,
was in the durable goods segment o f the wholesale trade
industry. Food stores followed, with 15 percent.

Technical workers
Technical workers require theoretical knowledge of
fundamental scientific, engineering, mathematical,
computer programming, or drafting principles; they
provide assistance and independently operate and pro­
gram technical equipment and systems. Their
knowledge is acquired through study at technical
schools and junior colleges, through other formal posthigh school training less extensive than a 4-year college
course, or through equivalent on-the-job training or ex­
perience.
Technical occupations were the smallest group among
the major groups in 1982. There were 370,000 technical
workers in 1982 compared to 291,000 in 1979, a 27 per­
cent increase, the largest increase in employment among
the occupational groups. More than half o f the
technical workers were employed in wholesale firms sell­
ing durable goods and in the communications industry.
Air transportation employed 13 percent, four-fifths of
whom were airplane pilots.

Sales workers
Sales workers include sales representatives and sales
clerks. Sales representatives (also called sales agents or
sales associates) must have specific knowledge o f the
commodity or service being sold. Sales clerks sell any of
a large variety o f goods or services, and usually only re­
quire familiarity with the pricing of those goods and
services.
In 1982, 4.5 million sales workers made up 18 percent
o f the total employment in the surveyed industries.

Service workers
Service workers perform services for individuals oi
establishments. They protect individuals and property,
prepare and serve food and beverages, clean interiors
3

From 1979 to
: o f only
Wholes

all o f the sales workers in 1982. General merchandise
stores employed the largest number— 1 million.

in employoccupational
for almost

•

'

•

'

.

4

Table 1. Employment in transportation, communications, utilities, and wholesale
and retail trade, 1982
Employment

Percent distribution

Total.............................................................

25,227,990

100.0

Transportation ........................................................
Local and suburban transit and interurban
highway passenger transportation................
Motor freight transportation and warehousing ....
Water transportation............................................
Air transportation.................................................
Pipe lines, except natural g a s .............................
Transportation services.......................................

2,368,240

9.4

268,890
1,207,840
212,600
440,590
22,650
215,670

1.1
4.8
.8
1.7
.1
.9

Communications.....................................................

1,421,120

5.6

Utilities....................................................................

866,770

3.4

Wholesale and retail trade.....................................

20,571,860

81.5

Wholesale tra d e ..................................................
Durable g oods................................................
Nondurable goods..........................................

5,325,780
3,117,780
2,208,000

21.1
12.4
8.8

Retail trade ..........................................................
Building materials, hardware, garden supply,
and mobile home dealers .........................
General merchandise stores...........................
Food stores.....................................................
Automotive dealers and gasoline service
stations ......................................................
Apparel and accessory stores........................
Furniture, home furnishings, and equipment
stores.........................................................
Eating and drinking places..............................
Miscellaneous retail.........................................

15,246,080

60.4

599,580
2,150,570
2,466,270

2.4
8.5
9.8

1,637,690
933,620

6.5
3.7

573,880
4,985,150
1,899,320

2.3
19.8
7.5

Industry

5

Table 2. Employment in transportation, communications, utilities, and wholesale and retail trade by major occupational
group, 1982

Industry

T o ta l.............................................
Local and suburban transit and
interurban highway.......................
Motor freight transportation and
warehousing.................................
Water transportation...........................
Air transportation ...............................
Pipe lines, except natural g a s ...........
Transportation services......................
Communications ................................
Electric, gas, steam, water, and
sanitary services...........................
Wholesale trade-durable goods........
Wholesale trade-nondurable goods ..
Building materials, hardware, garden
supply, and mobile home dealers
General merchandise stores.............
Food sto re s........................................
Automotive dealers and gasoline
service stations.............................
Apparel and accessory stores..........
Furniture, home furnishings, and
equipment stores..........................
Eating and drinking places................
Miscellaneous retail............................

Managers and
officers

Professional
workers

Technical
workers

Service work­
ers

Operating,
maintenance,
construction,
repair, material
handling, and
powerplant
workers

Clerical work­
ers

Sales workers

2,676,580

959,370

369,520

4,996,640

6,257,240

5,420,240

4,548,400

15,440

2,710

15,530

6,690

194,830

32,490

1,200

100,750
30,770
25,140
2,040
39,840
163,290

10,650
6,940
18,100
3,150
60,030
157,470

1,950
2,290
55,070
1,520
680
70,850

10,770
11,420
70,290
100
7,190
13,300

871,600
131,190
125,900
1 12,890
28,490
389,430

187,590
26,790
139,060
2,930
70,230
559,630

24,530
3,200
7,030
20
9,210
67,150

68,350
349,530
224,490

97,330
177,100
79,430

51,230
131,120
14,880

16,760
27,290
43,240

412,070
861,860
775,160

214,990
907,570
617,480

6,040
663,310
453,320

87,760
197,430
257,440

17,400
54,220
34,920

800
4,660
2,380

8,630
124,990
273,840

170,090
239,200
679,100

141,140
529,290
806,040

173,760
1,000,780
412,550

242,780
158,760

19,440
24,230

2,240
490

46,240
12,980

775,370
74,540

291,610
122,790

260,010
539,830

89,230
380,520
243,020

24,180
21,470
150,600

2,910
920
10,000

13,560
4,254,510
54,840

143,840
54,230
317,450

122,130
211,660
436,820

178,030
61,840
686,590

1 Includes pipe line transportation, petroleum and extraction workers.

Table 3. Percent distribution of employment in transportation, communications, utilities, and wholesale and retail trade by
major occupational group, 1982

Industry

All
occupations

Managers
and officers

T ota l.............................................
Local and suburban transit and
interurbaK highway .......................
Motor freight transportation and
warehousing .................................
Water transportation...........................
Air transportation ...............................
Pipe lines, except natural g a s...........
Transportation services......................
Communications ................................
Electric, gas, steam, water, and
sanitary services...........................
Wholesale trade-durable goods........
Wholesale trade-nondurable goods ..
Building materials, hardware, garden
supply, and mobile home dealers
General merchandise stores.............
Food sto re s........................................
Automotive dealers and gasoline
service stations............................
Apparel and accessory stores..........
Furniture, home furnishings, and
equipment stores..........................
Eating and drinking places................
Miscellaneous retail............................

100.0

10.6

3.8

1.5

19.8

100.0

5.7

1.0

5.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

8.3
14.5
5.7
9.0
18.5
11.5

.9
3.3
4.1
13.9
27.8
11.1

100.0
100.0
100.0

7.9
11.2
10.2

100.0
100.0
100.0

Professional
workers

Technical
workers

Service
workers

Operating,
maintenance,
construction,
repair, mat­
erial handling,
and powerplant workers

Clerical
workers

Sales work­
ers

24.8

21.5

18.0

2.5

72.5

12.1

.4

.2
1.1
12.5
6.7
.3
5.0

.9
5.4
16.0
.4
3.3
.9

72.2
61.7
28.6
’ 57
13.2
27.4

15.5
12.6
31.6
12.9
32.6
39.4

2.0
1.5
1.6
.1
4.3
4.7

11.2
5.7
3.6

5.9
4.2
.7

1.9
.9
2.0

47.5
27.6
35.1

24.8
29.1
28.0

.7
21.3
20.5

14.6
9.2
10.4

2.9
2.5
1.4

.1
.2
.1

1.4
5.8
11.1

28.4
11.1
27.5

23.5
24.6
32.7

29.0
46.5
16.7

100.0
100.0

14.8
17.0

1.2
2.6

.1
.1

2.8
1.4

47.3
8.0

17.8
13.2

15.9
57.8

100.0
100.0
100.0

15.5
7.6
12.8

4.2
.4
7.9

.5
(2
)
.5

2.4
85.3
2.9

25.1
1.1
16.7

21.3
4.2
23.0

31.0
1.2
36.1

,

1 Includes pipe line transportation, petroleum and extraction workers.

2 Less than 0.1 percent.

6

Transportation

In 1982, 2.4 million persons were employed in the
transportation industries. The motor freight transporta­
tion and warehousing industry was the largest employer,
with 51 percent o f all transportation workers (table 4).
Air transportation ranked second, with nearly 19 per­
cent. Local and surburban transit and interurban
highway passenger transportation employed 11 percent,
and services incidental to transportation employed 9
percent, as did water transportation. Pipeline transpor­
tation (except natural gas) employed only 1 percent.
The transportation industry, as a whole, experienced
a slight employment decline since 1979. The following
tabulation shows the change in employment for the
transportation industries from 1979 to 1982:

between neighboring municipalities, or between a
municipality and its surrounding locale. Also included
are establishments which supply sightseeing transporta­
tion. (Interurban rail service is not included). Firms
which supply terminal and maintenance services also
make up part of this industry.
In 1982, this industry employed 269,000 persons or 11
percent o f total employment in transportation. Nearly a
third o f these workers were employed in establishments
that provide local and suburban passenger transporta­
tion. Bus drivers (including school bus) and emergency
medical technicians were the largest occupations.
Of the workers employed in this industry, 72 percent
were in operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling, and powerplant occupations (table
Percent
Employment
5). Clerical occupations ranked second with 12 percent
1982
change
1979
o f total industry employment. About 6 percent o f the
jobs were filled by technical workers, nine-tenths o f
2,368,240
-4
T otal.................................... 2,467,290
whom were emergency medical technicians. Managers
Local and suburban transit
and interurban highway
and officers ranked fourth, also with about 6 percent o f
2
262,570
268,890
passenger transportation .
the total industry work force. Service and professional
Motor freight transporta­
workers accounted for 3 percent of employment in the
tion and
1,207,840
-11
warehousing...................... 1,351,960
industry; the remaining workers were in sales and ac­
212,600
2
207,560
Water transportation........
counted for less than 1 percent o f the industry’s
443,910
440,590
-1
Air transportation..............
Pipelines, except natural
workers.
12
20,310
22,650
gas......................................
Employment in local and suburban transit and in­
180,980
215,670
19
Transportation services . . .
terurban highway passenger transportation increased by
Since 1979, the only transportation industries to ex­
6,300, or 2 percent between 1979 and 1982. Two o f the
perience declines in employment have been motor
occupations in this industry that experienced large abfreight transportation and warehousing and air i solute and percentage employment changes between
transportation, declining by 11 percent and 1 percent,..
1979 and 1982 are shown in the following tabulation:
respectively. Transportation services had an employ­
ment gain o f 19 percent, the largest percentage increase
Employment
Percent
1979
1982
change
o f any o f the transportation industries. Pipelines ex­
perienced an increase o f 12 percent; the remaining
Taxi drivers....................
41,480
27,920
-33
transportation industries had employment gains of 2
Emergency medical
technicians....................
7,270
14,740
103
percent or less.
Several events occurred between 1979 and 1982 that
Adverse economic conditions, increased energy costs,
may provide a partial explanation for the employment
and increased use o f public transportation may have
changes in transportation. These are discussed in more
contributed to the decline in taxi driver employment,
detail in the following sections.
while increased demand for health care may have led to
the rise in emergency medical technicians.

Local and suburban transit and interurban
highway passenger transportation

Motor freight transportation and warehousing

Establishments in this industry include firms which
provide transportation o f passengers by automobile,
bus, taxi, rail, or subway within a single municipality,

This industry consists o f establishments which furnish
local or long-distance trucking, or those engaged in the
storage o f farm products, furniture or other household
7

goods, or commercial goods o f any nature. The opera­
tion o f terminal facilities for handling freight, with or
without maintenance facilities, is also included.
(Establishments engaged in field warehousing or storing
natural gas are excluded).
Of the industry’s 1.2 million workers, local and long­
distance trucking accounted for 93 percent; public
warehousing, 7 percent; and terminal and maintenance
facilities for trucking, 1 percent.
Slightly more than 72 percent o f all workers in the
motor freight transportation and warehousing industry
were in operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling, and powerplant occupations. (See
table 6.) Of these, 56 percent were truck drivers, threefourths o f whom drove tractor-trailers. Clerical workers
accounted for 16 percent o f industry employment. The
remaining industry employment consisted o f managers
and officers, with 8 percent o f the work force; sales
workers, with 2 percent; service, technical, and profes­
sional workers, each with less than 1 percent.
Employment in the motor freight transportation and
warehousing industry dropped more than 11 percent
from 1979 to 1982. Three occupations that experienced
large employment declines during this period are shown
in the following tabulation:
Employment
1982
1979
Tractor-trailer truck driver.
Truck driver helper............
Light truck driver..............

455,940
64,480
59,820

355,720
50,280
48,420

tion establishments accounted for 30 percent, while the
remaining 15 percent worked in firms providing
transportation on rivers and canals, deep sea domestic
services and transportation services on the Great LakesSt. Lawrence Seaway.
Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling, and powerplant occupations ac­
counted for the largest number o f workers, 131,000, or
62 percent o f the employment in water transportation.
(See table 7.) Within this group, the predominant oc­
cupations were ordinary seamen, able seamen, and
ships’ engineers. Managers and officers ranked second
among the major occupational groups with 14 percent,
while clerical workers accounted for 13 percent. Service
workers accounted for 5 percent; professional occupa­
tions, 3 percent; and sales and technical workers com­
bined, only 2 percent.
From 1979 to 1982, employment in the water
transportation industry increased by 2 percent. Sizable
changes in employment occurred in a number o f oc­
cupations, however, two of which are shown in the
tabulation:
Employment
1982
1979
Water vessel captain . . . .
Rigger..............................

Percent
change

10,560
1,140

13,780
580

Percent
change
30
-49

Air transportation

-22
-22
-19

Primarily furnishing foreign and domestic air
transportation, this industry also consists o f firms that
operate airports and flying fields, and perform terminal
services.
The air transportation industry employed 441,000
workers in 1982. Carriers certificated under the Civil
Aeronautics Act to transport revenue passengers, cargo,
or freight, accounted for 81 percent o f the workers in air
transportation. Establishments which operate and
maintain airports and flying fields and service, repair,
and store aircraft accounted for 11 percent. Noncertificated air carriers employed 6 percent.
Numbering 139,000, clerical workers held 32 percent
of the jobs in air transportation in 1982. The majority
of these workers were employed either as ticket agents
or reservation agents. (See table 8.) Employees in
operating, maintenance, construction, repair, material
handling, and powerplant occupations ranked second
with 29 percent o f the employment. Aircraft mechanics
made up 40 percent o f these workers. Service workers
accounted for 16 percent o f total industry employment,
while technical workers accounted for 12 percent.
Managers and officers made up 6 percent; professional
workers, 4 percent; and sales workers, 2 percent.
Employment in the air transportation industry
decreased by 3,000 workers or by 1 percent from 1979 to
1982. The following tabulation shows two occupations

Several factors may have contributed to the employ­
ment decline in the motor carrier industry. Deregula­
tion, under the Motor Carrier Act o f 1980, relaxed entry
requirements and restrictions on carriers’ route opera­
tions, which allowed many new small carriers to enter
the business. The intense rate competition that followed
caused the larger, more established carriers to suffer
losses in truckload business. This, coupled with adverse
economic conditions, and the declining profitability of
the industry, may have contributed to the loss in truck
driver jobs. (Self-employed truck drivers were not
covered by this survey.)

Water transportation
Included in this industry are establishments that
transport freight and passengers on the open seas or in­
land waterways, and those which furnish incidental ser­
vices such as lighterage, canal operation, and towing.
Also included are excursion boats, sightseeing boats,
and water taxis. Charter and party fishing boats are
excluded.
In 1982, this industry employed 213,000 persons.
Fifty-four percent of the workers were employed in
miscellaneous water transportation services. Local
water transportation and deep sea foreign transporta­
8

in this industry that experienced large decreases in
employment over this period:
Employment
1979
1982
Reservation ag en ts..........
Aeronautical engineers___

48,680
1,200

30,220
560

transport goods from shippers to receivers for a fee
covering the entire transportation, and in turn use serv­
ices o f other transportation establishments for delivery,
accounted for 25 percent o f the employment in
transportation services. Eight percent o f the workers in
this industry were employed in establishments which
provide miscellaneous services such as packing and
crating goods for shipment, and the operation o f
highway bridges, tunnels, and toll roads. The remaining
2 percent were employed in establishments which rent
railroad cars to transport passengers and freight.
With one-third o f industry employment, clerical oc­
cupations accounted for the largest number o f workers
in the transportation services industry. Professional
workers ranked second, with 28 percent. Almost all of
the professional workers were travel agents and travel
accommodations appraisers. (See table 10.) Managers
and officers ranked third among the occupational
groups, with 18 percent o f the industry employment.
Operating, maintenance, construction, repair, material
handling, and powerplant occupations accounted for 13
percent of the industry work force; and sales, serv­
ice, and technical occupations constituted the remaining
8 percent.
Employment in the transportation services industry in­
creased by 35,000 workers, or by 19 percent from 1979 to
1982. The following tabulation shows three occupations
that experienced large absolute and percent gains in
employment from 1979 to 1982:

Percent
change
-38
-53

As with trucking, airlines were deregulated in 1979,
resulting in increased competition among firms, in­
cluding fare discounting and price wars. As a result,
there was an increase in airline company bankruptcies
which, in combination with the recessions o f 1980 and
1981-82, may have adversely affected employment
levels.

Pipelines, except natural gas
This industry is made up o f firms that move
petroleum and other commodities (except natural gas)
through pipe lines. Pipelines operated by petroleum
producing or refining companies and separately
reported are also included.
There were 23,000 workers in this industry in 1982, a
gain o f 12 percent over 1979. Over one-half o f these
workers held jobs in operating, maintenance, construc­
tion, repair, material handling, and powerplant occupa­
tions. (See table 9.) Professional workers were the se­
cond largest occupational group, accounting for 14 per­
cent o f industry employment. Nearly half o f these pro­
fessional workers were engineers. Thirteen percent of
the workers held clerical jobs, 9 percent were managers
and officers, and 7 percent held technical jobs. The
smallest group, service and sales workers, accounted for
less than 1 percent o f total industry employment.

Employment
1979
1982
Travel agent and/or travel
accommodations appraiser
Sightseeing gu id e................
Computer operator............

Transportation services
This industry is comprised of firms that provide serv­
ices incidental to transportation such as the arrange­
ment o f passenger and freight transportation, and for­
warding and packing services.
There were 216,000 persons employed in this industry
in 1982. Two-thirds o f the workers primarily furnished
travel information, acted as agents in arranging tours
and transporting passengers, or acted as independent
agents for transportation establishments. Also included
were persons arranging for the transportation of freight
and cargo. However, workers in establishments which

44,900
601
528

55,620
2,330
1,620

Percent
change
24
288
207

A substantial part—more than 35 percent-- o f total
employment growth in transportation services between
1979-82 was related to recreation. To the extent that the
economic climate o f 1981-82 curtailed foreign travel by
Americans, it might be suggested that more U.S.
citizens have been taking vacations in the continental
United States, thereby increasing the demand for
recreation-related transportation service workers.

9

Table 4. Transportation industries: Percent distribution of employment in major occupational groups by industry, 1982

Industry

Total

Total................................................
2,368,240
Percent....................................
100.00
Local and suburban transit and
interurban highway passenger
transportation .............................
11.35
Motor freight transportation and
warehousing ..............................
51.00
Water transportation........................
8.98
Transportation by a ir .......................
18.60
Pipe lines, except natural g a s.........
.96
Transportation services ..................
9.11

Clerical
workers

Sales work­
ers

1,364,900
100.00

459,090
100.00

45,190
100.00

6.28

14.27

7.08

2.66

10.12
10.73
66.02
.09
6.75

63.86
9.61
9.22
.94
2.09

40.86
5.84
30.29
.64
15.30

54.28
7.08
15.56
.04
20.38

Managers
and officers

Professional
workers

Technical
workers

Service
workers

213,980
100.00

101,580
100.00

77,040
100.00

106,460
100.00

7.22

2.67

20.16

47.08
14.38
11.75
.95
18.62

10.48
6.83
17.82
3.10
59.10

2.53
2.97
71.48
1.97
.88

10

Operating,
maintenance,
construction,
repair, mat­
erial handling,
and powerplant workers

Table 5. Local and suburban transit and interurban highway passenger transportation: Employment, relative error, and
percent of establishments reporting selected occupations, June 1982
(SIC 41)

Occupation

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of total
employment

Employment’

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Total ....................................................................

268,890

100.00

-

-

Managers and officers...............................................

15,440

5.74

n.a.

n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Purchasing agent and/or buyer.............................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
All other professional workers...............................

2,710
60
200
1,110
310
1,030

1.01
.02
.07
.41
.12
.38

n.a.
36
7
7
8
n.a.

n.a.
1
3
11
3
n.a.

Technical occupations...............................................
Computer programmer...........................................
Engineering technicians.........................................
Emergency medical technician .............................
All other technicians...............................................

15,530
60
60
14,740
670

5.78
.02
.02
5.48
.25

n.a.
25
46
6
n.a.

n.a.
1
(3
)
12
n.a.

Service occupations ..................................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Food service workers.............................................
Supervisor, nonworking-service only ....................
Baggage porter, transportation .............................
School and/or school bus monitor........................
All other service workers .......................................

6,690
1,590
170
180
260
900
2,490
1,100

2.49
.59
.06
.07
.10
.33
.93
.41

n.a.
5
16
28
11
12
17
n.a.

n.a.
9
1
(3
)
2
2
3
n.a.

194,830
14,490
7,310
1,080
5,460
360
280
760
1,470
52,810
3,960
120
1,680
1,000
1,210
290
110
27,920

72.46
5.39
2.72
.40
2.03
.13
.10
.28
.55
19.64
1.47
.04
.62
.37
.45
.11
.04
10.38

n.a.
n.a.
3
7
5
26
n.a.
27
9
3
4
30
5
9
6
17
11
3

n.a.
n.a.
32
7
13
1
n.a.
1
2
26
18
1
12
6
9
2
1
16

1,020
160
7,570
69,260
10,050
140
300
510

.38
.06
2.82
25.76
3.74
.05
.11
.19

8
7
10
2
8
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

5
2
5
28
10
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

32,490
20,630
120
190
150
80
1,320
320
1,360
610
120
200

12.08
7.67
.04
.07
.06
.03
.49
.12
.51
.23
.04
.07

n.a.
n.a.
14
18
n.a.
15
16
16
6
10
16
18

n.a.
n.a.
1
2
n.a.
1
9
1
16
4
1
1

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, automotive........................................
Automotive body repairer..................................
Diesel mechanic.................................................
Mechanic, maintenance.....................................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Baggage handler....................................................
Bus driver................................................................
Cleaner, vehicle......................................................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Maintenance repairer, general u tility.....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Oiler .........................................................................
Painter, automotive.................................................
Taxi driver ...............................................................
Service station attendant, fuel pump attendant
and/or lubricator...............................................
Tire changer ...........................................................
Chauffeur.................................................................
Bus driver, school ..................................................
Ambulance driver and/or attendant ......................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers........
All other laborers and unskilled workers ..............
Clerical occupations...................................................
Office clerical workers, to ta l..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator....
Computer operator...............................................
All other office machine operators .....................
Stenographer .......................................................
Accounting cle rk...................................................
Reservation agent................................................
Bookkeeper, hand................................................
Cashier..................................................................
Claim adjuster......................................................
File c le rk...............................................................
See footnotes at end of table.

11

>

Table 5. Local and suburban transit and interurban highway passenger transportation: Employment, relative error, and
percent of establishments reporting selected occupations, June 1982—Continued
(SIC 41)

Occupation

Office clerical workers— Continued
General office clerk .............................................
Information clerk..................................................
Order c le rk ...........................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping c le rk ........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Receptionist .........................................................
Secretary..............................................................
Switchboard operator ..........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Ticket a g e nt.........................................................
Typist ....................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t......................
All other office clerical workers...........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Production clerk and/or coordinator ..................
Shipping and/or receiving c le rk ..........................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
ya rd ....................................................................
Meter reader, taxi or bus ....................................
Dispatcher, vehicle, service or w ork...................
Dispatcher, police, fire and ambulance..............
All other plant clerical workers...........................
Sales occupations.....................................................
Traffic agent ...........................................................
All other sales agents, associates, and/or
representatives..................................................
Sales c le rk ..............................................................

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

4,550
1,600
70
910
120
230
2,080
1,340
470
3,630
330
450
380
11,860
70
500

1.69
.60
.03
.34
.04
.09
.77
.50
.17
1.35
.12
.17
.14
4.41
.03
.19

5
20
19
6
16
13
5
14
17
4
10
11
n.a.
n.a.
11
10

25
6
1
12
2
4
19
5
4
11
3
3
n.a.
n.a.
1
2

430
200
9,060
1,470
130

.16
.07
3.37
.55
.05

7
24
3
11
n.a.

5
2
37
7
n.a.

1,200
580

.45
.22

n.a.
10

n.a.
6

540
80

.20
.03

n.a.
27

n.a.
(3
)

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

12

employment and percent of total employment: relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

Table 6. Motor freight transportation and warehousing: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations, May 1982
(SIC 42)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

T o ta l...................................................................

1,207,840

100.00

-

-

Managers and officers...............................................

100,750

8.34

n.a.

n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers...............................................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Purchasing agent and/or buyer............................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
All other professional workers...............................

10,650
670
550
650
6,890
1,350
540

.88
.06
.05
.05
.57
.11
.04

n.a.
17
12
13
7
8
n.a.

n.a.
1
2
4
14
5
n.a.

Technical occupations..............................................
Computer programmer...........................................
Engineering technicians.........................................
All other technicians..............................................

1,950
1,080
230
640

.16
.09
.02
.05

n.a.
11
36
n.a.

n.a.
3
(3
)
n.a.

Service occupations .................................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Supervisor, nonworking-service only ....................
All other service workers .......................................

10,770
7,040
2,210
830
690

.89
.58
.18
.07
.06

n.a.
6
13
20
n.a.

n.a.
15
4
1
n.a.

871,600
54,170
9,050
1,100
41,410
960

72.16
4.48
.75
.09
3.43
.08

n.a.
n.a.
7
15
3
19

n.a.
n.a.
12
2
31
2

360
1,290
85,370
48,420
355,720
160
2,050
2,040
88,380
190
22,360
870
19,340
470
8,520
6,480
540
2,130
170
16,180
190
460
1,760

.03
.11
7.07
4.01
29.45
.01
.17
.17
7.32
.02
1.85
.07
1.60
.04
.71
.54
.04
.18
.01
1.34
.02
.04
.15

30
n.a.
5
7
2
26
11
20
5
28
4
38
7
23
8
11
17
32
25
13
38
16
14

1
n.a.
19
12
56
1
3
2
14
1
26
(3
)
14
1
14
8
2
1
1
3
(3
)
1
3

2,280
1,340
850
50,280
3,680
2,520
6,370
88,310

.19
.11
.07
4.16
.30
.21
.53
7.31

15
9
40
6
21
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

4
5
(3
)
13
2
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

15.53
9.42
.61

n.a.
n.a.
6

n.a.
n.a.
13

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, automotive........................................
Automotive body repairer..................................
Diesel mechanic ................................................
Mechanic, maintenance.....................................
Refrigeration mechanic and/or air conditioning
mechanic......................................................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver, heavy................................................
Truck driver, lig h t...................................................
Tractor trailer truck driver......................................
Carpenter................................................................
Cleaner, vehicle......................................................
Crane, derrick, and hoist operators.......................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Electrician................................................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Rigger.....................................................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Inspector.................................................................
Maintenance repairer, general utility .....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Oiler ........................................................................
Order fille r...............................................................
Painter, automotive................................................
Refuse collector.....................................................
Stationary engineer................................................
Tire fabricator and/or repairer ..............................
Welder and/or flamecutter ....................................
Service station attendant, fuel pump attendant
and/or lubricator..............................................
Tire changer ...........................................................
Conveyor operator or tender.................................
Truck driver helper.................................................
Locker plant attendant...........................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers........
All other laborers and unskilled workers..............
Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, to ta l..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator....

•

187,590
113,830
7,420

See footnotes at end of table.

13

I

Table 6. Motor freight transportation and warehousing: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations, May 1982—Continued
(SIC 42)

Occupation

Office clerical workers — Continued
Computer operator...............................................
Keypunch operator...............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
All other office machine operators .....................
Stenographer.......................................................
Accounting clerk..................................................
Bookkeeper, hand...............................................
Adjustment clerk..................................................
Cashier.................................................................
Claim adjuster......................................................
File cle rk...............................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping cle rk........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Receptionist.........................................................
Secretary..............................................................
Switchboard operator ..........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Typist ...................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t......................
All other office clerical workers..........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Shipping packer...................................................
Shipping and/or receiving c le rk ..........................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
ya rd ...................................................................
Dispatcher, vehicle, service or w ork...................
Manifest clerk ......................................................
Rate clerk, freight................................................
All other plant clerical workers............................
Sales occupations.....................................................
Crating-and-moving estimator..............................
Traffic agent ...........................................................
All other sales agents, associates, and/or
representatives.................................................
Sales c le rk ..............................................................

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

1,780
1,840
680
330
460
9,390
11,330
3,080
1,850
1,020
1,580
39,670
2,380
810
530
16,810
880
1,570
2,430
2,960
5,030
73,760
14,780
8,340

0.15
.15
.06
.03
.04
.78
.94
.26
.15
.08
.13
3.28
.20
.07
.04
1.39
.07
.13
.20
.25
.42
6.11
1.22
.69

11
9
16
n.a.
17
6
6
7
10
10
10
4
6
10
20
4
14
7
11
9
n.a.
n.a.
10
13

5
4
1
n.a.
1
16
20
7
5
3
4
42
10
4
2
29
3
8
4
6
n.a.
n.a.
8
9

10,900
25,690
1,210
11,160
1,680

.90
2.13
.10
.92
.14

9
4
12

13
35
3
19
n.a.

24,530
8,100
8,500

2.03
.67
.70

n.a.
8

n.a.

7

13

7,050
880

.58
.07

n.a.
32

n.a.
1

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

/

Percent of total
employment

7
n.a.

7

employment and percent of continued employment-relative stan­
dard errors are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For fur­
ther information on sampling variability and other types of errors,
see appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

Table 7. Water transportation: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, April 1982
(SIC 44)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Total ....................................................................

212,600

100.00

-

-

Managers and officers...............................................
Captain, water vessel .............................................
Pilot, ship.................................................................
All other managers .................................................

30,770
13,780
3,180
13,810

14.47
6.48
1.50
6.50

n.a.
5
10
n.a.

n.a.
33
12
n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers, total ......................................................
Marine engineer.................................................
Mechanical engineer..........................................
All other engineers.............................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Purchasing agent and/or buyer............................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
All other professional workers...............................

6,940
2,060
1,030
600
430
290
1,240
2,080
530
740

3.26
.97
.48
.28
.20
.14
.58
.98
.25
.35

n.a.
n.a.
10
18
n.a.
15
13
9
12
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
10
3
n.a.
4
14
18
8
n.a.

Technical occupations...............................................
Computer programmer ...........................................
Engineering technicians, total ...............................
Surveyor..............................................................
All other engineering technicians......................
Radio operator .......................................................
All other technicians...............................................

2,290
300
830
750
80
960
200

1.08
.14
.39
.35
.04
.45
.09

n.a.
11
n.a.
29
n.a.
11
n.a.

n.a.
4
n.a.
1
n.a.
5
n.a.

Service occupations ..................................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
Guards and doorkeepers .......................................
Food service workers.............................................
Supervisor, nonworking-service only ....................
Steward, sh ip ..........................................................
All other service workers .......................................

11,420
690
920
6,440
610
1,280
1,480

5.37
.32
.43
3.03
.29
.60
.70

n.a.
13
15
8
16
21
n.a.

n.a.
9
7
15
5
3
n.a.

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, automotive........................................
Diesel mechanic .................................................
Engineering equipment mechanic.....................
Marine mechanic and/or repairer .....................
Mechanic, maintenance.....................................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Carpenter ................................................................
Crane, derrick, and hoist operators.......................
Delivery and/or route w o rker................................
Electrician................................................................
Firer, marine ...........................................................
Supervisor, nonworking ..........................................
Rigger ......................................................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Maintenance repairer, general utility .....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Marine service station attendant ..........................
Oiler ........................................................................
Painter, maintenance..............................................
Plumber and/or pipefitter.......................................
Stationary engineer.................................................
Welder and/or flamecutter ....................................
Plastic boat patcher................................................
Shipwright................................................................
Boatswain................................................................
Able seaman...........................................................
Ordinary seaman....................................................
Signaller...................................................................
Ship engineer .........................................................

131,190
6,670
660
1,030
190
3,350
690
750
1,340
670
2,260
140
760
820
5,350
580
3,110
1,970
1,460
1,020
1,520
830
80
170
1,930
260
360
1,730
8,780
17,460
470
8,880

61.71
3.14
.31
.48
.09
1.58
.32
.35
.63
.32
1.06
.07
.36
.39
2.52
.27
1.46
.93
.69
.48
.71
.39
.04
.08
.91
.12
.17
.81
4.13
8.21
.22
4.18

n.a.
n.a.
15
13
34
11
21
n.a.
27
17
15
37
18
16
7
19
14
12
12
16
10
19
30
36
15
25
29
11
8
4
20
7

n.a.
n.a.
6
9
1
22
4
n.a.
7
9
14
1
7
2
20
4
9
14
11
7
6
7
1
1
10
4
2
6
11
30
2
16

See footnotes at end of table.

15

Table 7. Water transportation: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, April 1982—Continued
(SIC 44)

Occupation

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations— Continued
Motorboat operator.................................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers........
All other laborers and unskilled workers ..............

Percent of total
employment

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

900
1,300
4,640
55,730

0.42
.61
2.18
26.21

23
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

4
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, total ..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator ....
Computer operator...............................................
Keypunch operator...............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
All other office machine operators .....................
Stenographer.......................................................
Accounting cle rk..................................................
Reservation agent................................................
Bookkeeper, hand................................................
Cashier..................................................................
File cle rk...............................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping c le rk........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Receptionist.........................................................
Secretary..............................................................
Switchboard operator ..........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Ticket a g e nt.........................................................
Typist ....................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t......................
All other office clerical workers...........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Production clerk and/or coordinator ..................
Shipping packer...................................................
Shipping and/or receiving c le rk .........................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
ya rd ....................................................................
All other plant clerical workers............................

26,790
21,810
420
420
320
170
240
200
2,360
540
1,230
590
280
4,320
800
260
340
3,960
160
500
480
1,050
1,300
1,870
4,980
430
920
1,630

12.60
10.26
.20
.20
.15
.08
.11
.09
1.11
.25
.58
.28
.13
2.03
.38
.12
.16
1.86
.08
.24
.23
.49
.61
.88
2.34
.20
.43
.77

n.a.
n.a.
24
10
15
19
n.a.
19
7
27
8
18
13
7
7
12
12
5
14
7
22
9
12
n.a.
n.a.
19
25
25

n.a.
n.a.
4
7
3
2
n.a.
2
17
2
20
6
4
29
16
5
6
32
3
11
2
11
11
n.a.
n.a.
4
3
6

950
1,050

.45
.49

21
n.a.

7
n.a.

Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales clerk ..............................................................

3,200
2,420
780

1.51
1.14
.37

n.a.
8
19

n.a.
19
7

employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
n.a. = not available.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

16

Table 8. Air transportation: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
June 1982
(SIC 45)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

T o ta l...................................................................

440,590

100.00

--

-

Managers and officers...............................................

25,140

5.71

n.a.

n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers, total ......................................................
Aeronautical engineer........................................
Electrical and electronic engineers...................
Industrial engineer..............................................
All other engineers.............................................
Natural and mathematical scientists .....................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Teacher and/or instructor, vocational education
or training..........................................................
Purchasing agent and/or buyer............................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Lawyer....................................................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Public relations practitioner...................................
All other professional workers...............................

18,100
1,490
560
240
280
410
140
2,000

4.11
.34
.13
.05
.06
.09
.03
.45

n.a.
n.a.
17
20
18
n.a.
17
17

n.a.
n.a.
1
1
1
n.a.
(3
)
3

3,050
1,880
3,220
140
880
400
4,900

.69
.43
.73
.03
.20
.09
1.11

11
14
14
13
13
16
n.a.

13
9
13
2
5
4
n.a.

Technical occupations..............................................
Computer programmer...........................................
Engineering technicians, total ...............................
Electrical and electronic technicians................
All other engineering technicians......................
Flight engineer........................................................
Airplane p ilo t...........................................................
Radio operator .......................................................
All other technicians..............................................

55,070
1,610
1,420
980
440
6,510
43,890
700
940

12.50
.37
.32
.22
.10
1.48
9.96
.16
.21

n.a.
18
n.a.
16
n.a.
11
2
13
n.a.

n.a.
3
n.a.
3
n.a.
4
39
4
n.a.

Service occupations .................................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Food service workers.............................................
Flight attendants ....................................................
Supervisor, nonworking-service only ....................
Baggage porter, transportation .............................
Security checker.....................................................
All other service workers.......................................

70,290
2,080
810
3,890
56,990
2,380
2,690
380
1,070

15.95
.47
.18
.88
12.93
.54
.61
.09
.24

n.a.
8
19
13
1
8
11
23
n.a.

n.a.
13
3
3
7
8
6
1
n.a.

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, aircraft...............................................
Mechanic, automotive........................................
Mechanic, maintenance.....................................
Radio mechanic.................................................
Electronic mechanic...........................................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Baggage handler....................................................
Carpenter ................................................................
Cleaner, vehicle......................................................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Electrician................................................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Machinist.................................................................
Maintenance repairer, general u tility.....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Painter, maintenance..............................................
Welder and/or flamecutter ....................................
Line service attendant............................................
Painter, aircraft.......................................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers........
All other laborers and unskilled workers..............

125,900
60,420
50,530
1,910
690
950
2,720
3,620
1,680
4,860
140
6,820
2,170
310
5,480
590
600
2,470
1,220
100
250
34,520
380
1,700
1,090
1,100

28.58
13.71
11.47
.43
.16
.22
.62
.82
.38
1.10
.03
1.55
.49
.07
1.24
.13
.14
.56
.28
.02
.06
7.83
.09
.39
.25
.25

n.a.
n.a.
3
7
20
12
20
n.a.
16
14
20
8
22
31
7
27
23
10
13
30
37
5
26
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
54
10
2
5
4
n.a.
6
4
1
11
3
1
19
1
1
12
4
1
1
41
2
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.

17

Table 8. Air transportation: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
June 1982—Continued
(SIC 45)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment’

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, total ..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator ....
Computer operator...............................................
Keypunch operator...............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
All other office machine operators .....................
Stenographer .......................................................
Accounting clerk..................................................
Reservation agent...............................................
Bookkeeper, hand...............................................
Adjustment clerk..................................................
Cashier.................................................................
File cle rk...............................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping c le rk........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Receptionist.........................................................
Secretary..............................................................
Switchboard operator ..........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Ticket a g e nt.........................................................
Typist ...................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t......................
All other office clerical workers..........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Shipping and/or receiving c le rk .........................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
y a rd ...................................................................
Dispatcher, airplane.............................................
Crew scheduler....................................................
Transportation agent............................................
All other plant clerical workers...........................

139,060
111,150
240
870
1,230
260
380
550
5,500
30,220
1,090
590
360
770
4,690
780
640
620
7,620
230
340
45,250
1,100
4,680
3,140
27,910
650

31.56
25.23
.05
.20
.28
.06
.09
.12
1.25
6.86
.25
.13
.08
.17
1.06
.18
.15
.14
1.73
.05
.08
10.27
.25
1.06
.71
6.33
.15

n.a.
n.a.
38
13
15
17
n.a.
10
9
5
9
18
15
18
6
8
14
11
6
13
13
2
12
8
n.a.
n.a.
16

n.a.
n.a.
1
4
2
1
n.a.
3
18
14
15
4
3
3
27
10
5
7
40
2
6
34
5
12
n.a.
n.a.
4

5,840
2,360
1,240
17,180
640

1.33
.54
.28
3.90
.15

9
7
8
6
n.a.

13
12
5
21
n.a.

Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales c le rk ..............................................................

7,030
6,090
940

1.60
1.38
.21

n.a.
9
16

n.a.
23
7

employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

18

Table 9. Pipe lines, except natural gas: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1982
(SIC 46)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Total ....................................................................

22,650

100.00

-

-

Managers and officers...............................................

2,040

9.01

n.a.

n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers, total ......................................................
Civil engineer .....................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers...................
Mechanical engineer..........................................
Safety engineer..................................................
All other engineers.............................................
Natural and mathematical scientists .....................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Purchasing agent and/or buyer.............................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Right-of-way agent ................................................
All other professional workers...............................

3,150
1,290
240
280
520
60
190
80
220
80
580
140
70
690

13.91
5.70
1.06
1.24
2.30
.26
.84
.35
.97
.35
2.56
.62
.31
3.05

n.a.
n.a.
16
14
11
16
n.a.
44
23
16
13
13
14
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
10
17
22
6
n.a.
2
5
7
13
10
9
n.a.

Technical occupations...............................................
Engineering technicians, total ...............................
Drafter.................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians ................
All other engineering technicians......................
Airplane p ilo t...........................................................
All other technicians...............................................

1,520
1,190
250
710
230
80
250

6.71
5.25
1.10
3.13
1.02
.35
1.10

n.a.
n.a.
11
9
n.a.
25
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
14
39
n.a.
3
n.a.

Service occupations .................................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
All other service workers .......................................

100
60
40

.44
.26
.18

n.a.
32
n.a.

n.a.
5
n.a.

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations 3 ........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, maintenance.....................................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Corrosion control fitter ...........................................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Dispatcher, relay ....................................................
Electrician................................................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
G ager.......................................................................
Heavy equipment operator ....................................
Line walker..............................................................
Maintenance repairer, general utility .....................
Station engineer, main lin e ....................................
Stationary engineer.................................................
Welder and/or flamecutter ....................................
Field mechanical meter tester...............................
Pipeliner...................................................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers........
All other laborers and unskilled workers ..............

12,890
630
540
90
490
80
210
850
350
1,610
2,370
70
80
500
1,410
350
310
240
2,440
150
400
350

56.91
2.78
2.38
.40
2.16
.35
.93
3.75
1.55
7.11
10.46
.31
.35
2.21
6.23
1.55
1.37
1.06
10.77
.66
1.77
1.55

n.a.
n.a.
10
n.a.
21
18
22
12
17
5
7
21
37
13
16
24
10
16
6
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
31
n.a.
19
8
5
23
18
69
55
6
4
24
19
11
25
19
51
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, total ..................................
Office machine operators ......................................
Accounting cle rk..................................................
File cle rk...............................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Secretary ..............................................................
Typist ....................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or plant ......................
All other office clerical workers...........................

2,930
2,790
80
310
50
580
660
90
120
900

12.94
12.32
.35
1.37
.22
2.56
2.91
.40
.53
3.97

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
13
16
12
9
16
15
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
15
4
33
29
10
13
n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.

19

Table 9. Pipe lines, except natural gas: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1982—Continued
(SIC 46)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
ya rd ....................................................................
All other plant clerical workers...........................

140

0.62

n.a.

n.a.

50
90

.22
.40

26
n.a.

5
n.a.

Sales occupations.....................................................

20

.09

n.a.

n.a.

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3
Includes pipe line transportation, petroleum, and extraction
workers.
n.a. = not available.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors

20

Table 10. Transportation services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, April 1982
(SIC 47)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Total ...................................................................

215,670

100.00

-

-

Managers and officers..............................................

39,840

18.47

n.a.

n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers...............................................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Purchasing agent and/or buyer............................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Travel agent and/or travel accommodations
appraiser ...........................................................
All other professional workers...............................

60,030
350
310
560
1,490
240

27.83
.16
.14
.26
.69
.11

n.a.
28
17
21
10
15

n.a.
1
1
2
7
2

55,620
1,460

25.79
.68

3
n.a.

54
n.a.

Technical occupations..............................................
Computer programmer...........................................
Engineering technicians.........................................
All other technicians..............................................

680
400
70
210

.32
.19
.03
.10

n.a.
11
29
n.a.

n.a.
2
(3
)
n.a.

Service occupations .................................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Supervisor, nonworking-service only ....................
Guide, travel ...........................................................
Guide, sightseeing or establishment.....................
All other service workers.......................................

7,190
1,010
230
110
2,340
2,330
1,170

3.33
.47
.11
.05
1.08
1.08
.54

n.a.
16
43
45
16
30
n.a.

n.a.
6
1
1
4
2
n.a.

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, automotive........................................
Mechanic, maintenance.....................................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Carpenter ................................................................
Crater......................................................................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Maintenance repairer, general utility.....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Painter, maintenance.............................................
Welder and/or flamecutter....................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers........
All other laborers and unskilled workers ..............

28,490
1,040
350
120
570
5,380
260
880
3,760
1,000
1,320
760
200
260
930
620
1,880
10,200

13.21
.48
.16
.06
.26
2.49
.12
.41
1.74
.46
.61
.35
.09
.12
.43
.29
.87
4.73

n.a.
n.a.
24
25
n.a.
17
21
20
17
11
20
17
27
19
17
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
2
1
n.a.
7
(3
)
1
5
4
3
3
1
1
1
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, to ta l..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator....
Computer operator...............................................
Keypunch operator..............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
All other office machine operators .....................
Stenographer.......................................................
Accounting cle rk..................................................
Reservation agent................................................
Bookkeeper, hand................................................
Cashier..................................................................
File cle rk...............................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Order c le rk ...........................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping c le rk........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Receptionist.........................................................
Secretary ..............................................................
Switchboard operator ..........................................

70,230
60,340
1,810
1,620
790
390
680
580
5,730
1,530
6,180
510
1,330
14,130
1,050
610
280
1,500
5,850
440

32.56
27.98
.84
.75
.37
.18
.32
.27
2.66
.71
2.87
.24
.62
6.55
.49
.28
.13
.70
2.71
.20

n.a.
n.a.
11
14
18
18
n.a.
19
6
19
6
18
14
7
20
16
18
12
6
17

n.a.
n.a.
9
5

See footnotes at end of table.

21

3
1
n.a.
2
21
2
29
2
5
27

3
3
2
8
24

3

Table 10. Transportation services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, April 1982—Continued
(SIC 47)

Occupation

Office clerical workers— Continued
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Ticket a gent.........................................................
Typist ...................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t......................
All other office clerical workers...........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Shipping packer...................................................
Shipping and/or receiving c le rk ..........................
Weigher, recordkeeping ......................................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
y a rd ...................................................................
Dispatcher, vehicle, service or w ork...................
Manifest clerk ......................................................
Rate clerk, freight................................................
All other plant clerical workers...........................
Sales occupations.....................................................
Grating-and-moving estimator..............................
Traffic agent ...........................................................
All other sales agents, associates, and/or
representatives.................................................
Sales clerk ..............................................................

Percent of total
employment

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

1,390
970
4,820
2,630
5,520
9,890
2,720
1,360
150

0.64
.45
2.23
1.22
2.56
4.59
1.26
.64
.07

10
33
10
8
n.a.
n.a.
19
20
32

11
1
12
8
n.a.
n.a.
4
4
1

900
820
710
2,610
600

.42
.38
.33
1.21
.28

23
19
28
13
n.a.

3
4
3
8
n.a.

9,210
540
4,970

4.27
.25
2.30

n.a.
31
11

n.a.
2
13

3,260
440

1.51
.20

n.a.
24

n.a.
1

employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

22

Communications

The communications industry includes firms that fur­
nish services between two or more parties, whether by
wire or radio, and whether intended to be received
visually or aurally. These services can be domestic, in­
ternational, marine, or aeronautical. Radio and televi­
sion broadcasting is a relatively small but significant
part o f the industry. The industry also includes home
rental o f cable TV service, transradio press service,
operation o f radar stations, and services for the ex­
change or recording o f messages.
In 1982, 1.4 million persons were employed in the
communicatiqns industry. Telephone communications
employed 1 million workers, or 76 percent o f the total.
Fifteen percent o f the workers were employed in radio
and television broadcasting. Firms in communication
services, which provide point-to-point services outside
the scope o f telephone or telegraph communications,
accounted for 7 percent of the employment in this in­
dustry. Telegraph communications employed only 1
percent o f all communications workers.
Clerical occupations, with 560,000 workers or 39 per­
cent o f the employment, dominated the industry. (See
table 11.) Next in importance, with more than onefourth o f the em ploym ent, were operating,
maintenance, construction, repair, material handling,
and powerplant occupations. The third largest group of
workers consisted o f managers and officers, with 12

23

percent o f the industry employment. Professional
workers accounted for 11 percent; workers employed in
technical and sales occupations, 10 percent; and service
workers, 1 percent.
Employment in the communications industry grew by
8 percent from 1979 to 1982. The following tabulation
shows employment in each o f the three-digit industries
in communications for 1979 and 1982:
Employment
1979
1982
Telephone.............................
Telegraph............................
Radio and television
broadcasting ....................
Communication services. . .

Percent
change

1,058,540
18,510

1,077,460
19,510

2
5

187,990
51,410

218,970
105,120

16
104

Communication services had the largest employment
growth. This industry experienced a number o f changes
over the past 3 to 4 years which may help to explain the
increase in employment. These changes include: Rapid
technological advance in telecommunications; an in­
creased number of competitors in the industry; and ex­
pansion in both cable television services and the number
o f cable television users.
Comparisons o f 1979 and 1982 employment in detail­
ed occupations in the communications industry could
not be made. The survey design was different for the 2
years and therefore, the data are not comparable.

Table 11. Communications: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
June 1982
(SIC 48)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

T o ta l....................................................................

1,421,120

100.00

--

-

Managers and officers...............................................

163,290

11.49

n.a.

n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers, total ......................................................
Civil engineer .....................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers...................
Industrial engineer..............................................
Mechanical engineer..........................................
All other engineers.............................................
Natural and mathematical scientists .....................
Economist ...............................................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing.......
Photographer..........................................................
Television camera operator...................................
Purchasing agent and/or buyer.............................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Announcer, radio and television ............................
Broadcast news analyst.........................................
Commercial a rtis t....................................................
Writer and/or editor................................................
Film editor...............................................................
Lawyer.....................................................................
Librarian, professional ............................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Public relations practitioner ...................................
Reporters and correspondents .............................
Right-of-way agent ................................................
Technical director ..................................................
All other professional workers...............................

157,470
33,100
1,250
21,860
3,940
800
5,250
320
380
5,340
3,580
4,130
1,030
6,880
44,890
6,900
1,530
7,200
1,200
860
670
6,940
2,400
9,490
890
3,240
16,500

11.08
2.33
.09
1.54
.28
.06
.37
.02
.03
.38
.25
.29
.07
.48
3.16
.49
.11
.51
.08
.06
.05
.49
.17
.67
.06
.23
1.16

n.a.
n.a.
22
7
17
21
n.a.
25
35
15
10
11
10
9
3
8
9
6
10
18
13
13
9
6
12
10
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
2
39
2
1
n.a.
1
(3
)
4
7
8
5
11
41
18
8
24
6
2
3
9
9
18
3
8
n.a.

Technical occupations...............................................
Computer programmer ...........................................
Engineering technicians, total ...............................
Drafter.................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians ................
Sound recording and reproduction technician ...
Video-recording engineer..................................
Broadcast technician .........................................
Light technician..................................................
Industrial engineering technician.......................
All other engineering technicians......................
Science technicians................................................
Radio operator .......................................................
All other technicians...............................................

70,850
8,170
58,110
6,400
26,360
540
1,150
19,360
380
390
3,530
2,650
520
1,400

4.99
.57
4.09
.45
1.85
.04
.08
1.36
.03
.03
.25
.19
.04
.10

n.a.
15
n.a.
10
8
21
26
6
19
28
n.a.
n.a.
36
n.a.

n.a.
4
n.a.
9
23
2
2
20
1
1
n.a.
n.a.
1
n.a.

Service occupations ..................................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Food service workers.............................................
Supervisor, nonworking-service only ....................
All other service workers.......................................

13,300
10,080
590
410
1,340
880

.94
.71
.04
.03
.09
.06

n.a.
9
19
37
14
n.a.

n.a.
28
1
1
4
n.a.

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, automotive........................................
Mechanic, maintenance....................................
Radio mechanic.................................................
Electronic mechanic..........................................
All other mechanics and repairers...................
Truck driver............................................................
Automatic maintainer, telegraph ...........................
Cable installer........................................................
Cable repairer........................................................
Cable splicer..........................................................

389,430
14,020
3,300
160
1,980
7,320
1,260
1,180
1,390
8,510
10,110
32,790

27.40
.99
.23
.01
.14
.52
.09
.08
.10
.60
.71
2.31

n.a.
n.a.
10
26
26
23
n.a.
23
18
9
11
7

n.a.
n.a.
6
1
2
2
n.a.
2
1
6
5
18

See footnotes at end of table.

24

Table 11. Communications: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
June 1982—Continued
(SIC 48)

Occupation

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations— Continued
Central office repairer.............................................
Cleaner, vehicle......................................................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Electrician...............................................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Frame wirer.............................................................
Ground worker, utilities ..........................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Inspector ................................................................
Installer repairer and/or section maintainer..........
Line installer repairer.............................................
Maintenance repairer, general utility.....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Station installer.......................................................
Stationary engineer................................................
Shop repairer, instrument ......................................
Telegraph equipment maintainer ...........................
Telegraph plant maintainer....................................
Teletype installer....................................................
Trouble locator, test desk......................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers........
All other laborers and unskilled workers..............
Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, to ta l..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator....
Computer operator..............................................
Keypunch operator..............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
All other office machine operators .....................
Stenographer .......................................................
Accounting cle rk..................................................
Bookkeeper, hand...............................................
Adjustment clerk..................................................
Cashier..................................................................
Collector...............................................................
File cle rk...............................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Order c le rk ...........................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping c le rk........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Private branch service advisor...........................
Receptionist .........................................................
Secretary..............................................................
Statistical clerk ....................................................
Switchboard operator ..........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Counter clerk, telegraph office ............................
Script c le rk ...........................................................
Traffic c le rk ..........................................................
Typist ....................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or plant ......................
Directory assistance operator..............................
Central office operator.........................................
Customer service representative ........................
All other office clerical workers...........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Production clerk and/or coordinator ..................
Shipping and/or receiving c le rk ..........................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
ya rd ...................................................................
Dispatcher, vehicle, service or w ork...................
All other plant clerical workers...........................

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

43,610
220
1,070
560
48,990
16,260
640
430
610
91,520
37,260
5,690
1,100
29,460
1,810
1,760
1,820
820
380
19,940
9,760
2,280
5,440

3.07
.02
.08
.04
3.45
1.14
.05
.03
.04
6.44
2.62
.40
.08
2.07
.13
.12
.13
.06
.03
1.40
.69
.16
.38

2
20
23
48
1
13
22
27
20
1
7
11
21
5
18
35
39
30
43
13
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

20
1
2
1
26
11
2
(3
)
1
29
25
11
2
11
3
2
1
(3
)
1
11
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

559,630
498,850
3,350
5,800
2,770
2,390
2,820
6,580
18,370
4,690
9,660
5,860
4,580
3,980
77,950
7,830
3,340
2,080
1,530
830
24,130
17,450
1,860
1,880
350
180
6,470
13,200
32,740
36,310
86,320
74,350
39,200
60,780
21,860
1,470

39.38
35.10
.24
.41
.19
.17
.20
.46
1.29
.33
.68
' .41
.32
.28
5.49
.55
.24
.15
.11
.06
1.70
1.23
.13
.13
.02
.01
.46
.93
2.30
2.56
6.07
5.23
2.76
4.28
1.54
.10

n.a.
n.a.
10
12
10
18
n.a.
15
9
10
5
8
16
21
1
22
19
12
21
13
6
12
21
8
37
24
4
16
8
2
1
1
n.a.
n.a.
8
19

n.a.
n.a.
12
7
4
3
n.a.
6
23
19
3
14
8
3
44
4
7
6
3
5
46
6
4
10
(3
)
1
28
14
14
5
14
18
n.a.
n.a.
11
5

9,070
9,140
19,240

.64
.64
1.35

7
9
n.a.

15
10
n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.

25

Table 11. Communications: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
June 1982—Continued
(SIC 48)

Occupation

Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales c le rk ..............................................................

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

67,150
59,820
7,330

4.73
4.21
.52

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

26

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

n.a.
4
10

n.a.
60
8

employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

Utilities

Firms that provide utility and sanitary services to the
public make up the utility industry. Such establishments
generate, transmit, or distribute electricity, gas, or
steam, and may also provide related transportation,
communication, and refrigeration services. Other types
o f services include water supply and irrigation systems,
and sanitation systems which collect and dispose o f gar­
bage, sewage, and other wastes.
In 1982, employment in utilities totaled 867,000.
Almost half o f the job holders worked in electric ser­
vices. Establishments providing combination electric,
gas, and other utility services employed 23 percent, and
firms that produce and distribute gas accounted for 20
percent. The balance was in sanitary services (6
percent), water supply and irrigation systems (2
percent), and the steam supply industry (less than 1
percent).
About half o f the workers in utilities held operating,
maintenance, construction, repair, material handling,
and powerplant jobs. (See table 12.) Clerical occupa­
tions accounted for a quarter of the industry’s workers.
The two largest clerical occupations were general office
clerks and customer service representatives. The in­
dustry’s professional workers accounted for 11 percent
of utilities employment. Engineers were almost half of

27

the professional employees; the majority were employed
in electric services. Managers and officers ranked
fourth among the occupational groups; nearly 40 per­
cent were employed in electric services.
Technical workers made up 6 percent o f industry
employment. The largest technical occupation was elec­
trical or electronic technician. More than half of the in­
dustry’s service workers—2 percent o f industry
employment—were janitors, porters, and cleaners. The
smallest occupational group, sales workers, accounted
for less than 1 percent o f utilities employment. Gas pro­
duction and distribution employed almost two-fifths o f
the industry’s sales workers.
Employment in the utilities industry grew by 9 percent
from 1979 to 1982. The following tabulation shows
employment in these industries in 1979 and 1982:
Employment
1979
1982
Electric services..................
Combined electric, gas,
and other utilities..............
Gas production/distribution
Sanitary services................
Water supply......................
Irrigation system s..............
Steam supply......................

Percent
change

368,850

417,200

13

193,000
164,890
46,766
20,300
1,800
810

199,890
174,860
50,290
20,700
2,560
1,240

4
6
8
2
42
53

Table 12. Electric, gas, steam, water, and sanitary services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations, April 1982
(SIC 49)

Occupation

Total ....................................................................

Percent of total
employment

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

100.00

866,770

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

-

--

Managers and officers...............................................

68,350

7.89

n.a.

n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers, total ......................................................
Chemical engineer..............................................
Civil engineer .....................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers...................
Industrial engineer..............................................
Mechanical engineer..........................................
Nuclear engineer................................................
All other engineers.............................................
Natural and mathematical scientists .....................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing.......
Purchasing agent and/or b uyer............................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Lawyer.....................................................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Right-of-way agent ................................................
Home economist....................................................
All other professional workers...............................

97,330
42,930
1,200
4,530
18,860
2,240
4,950
2,230
8,920
3,020
5,760
2,670
13,830
1,280
4,570
2,330
860
20,080

11.23
4.95
.14
.52
2.18
.26
.57
.26
1.03
.35
.66
.31
1.60
.15
.53
.27
.10
2.32

n.a.
n.a.
12
12
6
8
9
14
n.a.
7
7
6
4
8
5
6
7
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
3
10
21
6
8
2
n.a.
6
8
12
25
4
14
11
5
n.a.

Technical occupations...............................................
Computer programmer...........................................
Engineering technicians, total ...............................
Drafter.................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians ................
Surveyor..............................................................
Mechanical engineering technician...................
Estimator & drafter, utilities...............................
All other engineering technicians......................
Science technicians................................................
All other technicians...............................................

51,230
5,110
37,270
7,250
13,260
1,420
1,440
6,100
7,800
2,820
6,030

5.91
.59
4.30
.84
1.53
.16
.17
.70
.90
.33
.70

n.a.
7
n.a.
7
6
9
17
7
n.a.
8
n.a.

n.a.
8
n.a.
15
18
7
3
11
n.a.
5
n.a.

Service occupations .................................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Food service workers.............................................
Supervisor, nonworking-service o n ly ....................
All other service workers .......................................

16,760
9,320
2,880
570
3,000
990

1.93
1.08
.33
.07
.35
.11

n.a.
5
8
15
22
n.a.

n.a.
30
5
2
5
n.a.

412,070
65,240
9,480
1,250
2,400

47.54
7.53
1.09
.14
.28

n.a.
n.a.
4
11
10

n.a.
n.a.
24
4
4

6,650
4,070
1,060

.77
.47
.12

6
10
14

13
6
2

11,460
7,430
2,100
610
410
9,510
8,810
15,720
3,910
1,870
6,800
2,170
1,950

1.32
.86
.24
.07
.05
1.10
1.02
1.81
.45
.22
.78
.25
.22

9
8
13
13
15
6
n.a.
5
10
20
8
9
10

8
7
3
3
1
10
n.a.
25
4
3
6
6
4

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, automotive........................................
Diesel mechanic ................................................
Electrical instrument repairer............................
Electric meter installer, cut-in, cut-out, or
outside ..........................................................
Gas meter installer.............................................
Engineering equipment mechanic.....................
Hydroelectric machinery mechanic,
powerhouse repairer, and/or gas plant
repairer..........................................................
Mechanic, maintenance.....................................
Power transformer repairer...............................
Treatment plant mechanic ................................
Water meter installer..........................................
Gas and electric appliance repairer..................
All other mechanics and repairers...................
Truck driver............................................................
Cable splicer..........................................................
Carpenter ...............................................................
Control room operator, steam ..............................
Corrosion control fitter ..........................................
Crane, derrick, and hoist operators......................
See footnotes at end of table.

28

'

Table 12. Electric, gas, steam, water, and sanitary services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations, April 1982—Continued
(SIC 49)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations— Continued
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Diesel plant operator..............................................
Electrician................................................................
Auxiliary equipment operator.................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Gas compressor operator......................................
Dispatcher, gas ......................................................
Gas pumping station operator...............................
Ground worker, utilities ..........................................
Heavy equipment operator....................................
Rigger.....................................................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Inspector .................................................................
Instrument repairer.................................................
Line installer repairer..............................................
Machinist.................................................................
Maintenance repairer, general u tility.....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Oiler ........................................................................
Painter, maintenance..............................................
Pipelayer..................................................................
Pipe wrapping machine operator...........................
Plumber and/or pipefitter.......................................
Power reactor operator..........................................
Refuse collector.....................................................
Sewage plant operator...........................................
Stationary boiler fire r..............................................
Stationary engineer................................................
Substation operator................................................
Switchboard operator, generating p lant................
Trouble shooter, power lin e ...................................
Turbine operator.....................................................
Water treatment plant operator.............................
Pump station operator, waterworks.......................
Welder and/or flamecutter....................................
Surveyor helper......................................................
Dispatcher, load .....................................................
Tree trim m er...........................................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers........
All other laborers and unskilled w orkers..............

420
430
16,470
8,560
34,640
5,150
1,740
1,790
7,360
9,240
340
780
5,290
8,450
55,710
2,060
18,920
16,820
1,640
1,000
3,050
100
12,780
1,710
12,260
940
1,050
1,520
4,900
3,790
9,110
3,690
2,320
630
6,730
720
2,640
3,040
13,320
15,200
18,100

0.05
.05
1.90
.99
4.00
.59
.20
.21
.85
1.07
.04
.09
.61
.97
6.43
.24
2.18
1.94
.19
.12
.35
.01
1.47
.20
1.41
.11
.12
.18
.57
.44
1.05
.43
.27
.07
.78
.08
.30
.35
1.54
1.75
2.09

20
40
5
8
4
9
10
18
6
5
20
13
6
5
4
9
7
5
19
11
9
29
8
11
7
25
18
16
8
10
7
10
9
14
7
10
8
11
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

2
1
17
7
47
6
6
2
14
23
1
3
11
19
30
5
31
22
2
4
4
(3
)
13
1
12
3
1
2
5
4
12
4
7
1
19
4
5
4
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, to ta l..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator....
Computer operator...............................................
Keypunch operator...............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
All other office machine operators .....................
Stenographer.......................................................
Accounting clerk..................................................
Bookkeeper, hand................................................
Adjustment clerk..................................................
Cashier..................................................................
Collector...............................................................
File clerk..............................................................
General office clerk ............................................
Order c le rk ..........................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping c le rk.......................
Personnel clerk...................................................
Receptionist........................................................
Secretary.............................................................
Switchboard operator .........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist.....................

214,990
166,880
3,020
2,770
2,900
1,470
2,800
7,030
12,240
3,440
3,780
7,240
4,830
2,730
34,510
1,210
1,780
1,680
910
16,930
1,300
820

24.80
19.25
.35
.32
.33
.17
.32
.81
1.41
.40
.44
.84
.56
.31
3.98
.14
.21
.19
.10
1.95
.15
.09

n.a.
n.a.
7
6
5
8
n.a.
5
5
7
8
5
6
8
4
9
6
10
15
3
5
7

n.a.
n.a.
15
9
9
4
n.a.
13
28
18
8
31
15
7
53
5
12
7
5
44
9
10

See footnotes at end of table.

29

Table 12. Electric, gas, steam, water, and sanitary services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations, April 1982—Continued
(SIC 49)

Occupation

Office clerical workers— Continued
Typist ....................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or plant ......................
Customer service representative ........................
All other office clerical workers...........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Meter reader, utilities...........................................
Shipping and/or receiving c le rk ..........................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
y a rd ...................................................................
Dispatcher, vehicle, service or w ork...................
All other plant clerical workers...........................
Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales clerk ..............................................................

Percent of total
employment

Employment’

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

11
20
23
n.a.
n.a.
43
5

6,440
9,570
23,660
13,820
48,110
27,140
1,450

0.74
1.10
2.73
1.59
5.55
3.13
.17

7
5
4
n.a.
n.a.
3
10

11,170
4,660
3,690

1.29
.54
.43

4
5
n.a.

34
18
n.a.

6,040
5,770
270

.70
.67
.03

n.a.
5
26

n.a.
20
1

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

30

/

employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

Wholesale Trade

maintenance, construction, repair, material handling,
and powerplant occupations were almost as large a
group as clerical, with 862,000 or 28 percent o f the
employment. Of these workers, more than one-fourth
were mechanics and repairers. The next largest group,
sales workers, had 663,000 employees or 21 percent of
wholesale durable goods employment. Sales agents,
associates, and representatives made up almost ninetenths o f these workers. Managers and officers con­
stituted 11 percent of total employment; professionals,
6 percent; technical workers, 4 percent; and the smallest
group, service workers, had less than 1 percent.
Wholesale durable goods employment increased less
than 1 percent from 1979 to 1982. The largest increase
was in technical occupations (25 percent). Service oc­
cupations had the largest decrease in employment, also
25 percent.
Wholesale firms selling durable goods endured hard­
ships similar to those most other industries faced from
1979 to 1982—lagging sales, high operating costs, and
static profits. Employment in wholesaling remained
relatively stable partly because o f the diversity o f the in­
dustry’s customer markets. Working hours tended to be
reduced more often than employment.

The wholesale trade industry group is principally
engaged in selling large quantities of goods to retailers;
to industrial, commercial, institutional, farm, or profes­
sional business users; and to other wholesalers. The in­
dustry also includes agents or brokers who buy and sell
merchandise to other wholesalers or agents. In addition
to selling, wholesale establishments are involved in
maintaining inventories o f goods; extending credit;
physically assembling, sorting, and grading goods in
large lots; delivery; refrigeration; and various types of
promotion.
There were 5.3 million persons employed in wholesale
trade in 1982. (See table 13.) The durable goods segment
o f the industry, with 3.1 million workers, accounted for
over half, or 59 percent, of the employment in the in­
dustry group. Nondurable goods establishments
employed 2.2 million workers.
Employment in wholesale trade increased only 2 per­
cent from 1979 to 1982. Almost all o f the employment
growth took place in nondurable goods, as shown in the
following tabulation:
Employment
1979
1982
Wholesale trade, total........
Durable go o d s....................
Nondurable goods..............

5,245,260
3,115,850
2,129,410

5,325,780
3,117,780
2,208,000

Percent
change
2
4

Nondurable goods
Firms in this industry group are primarily engaged in
the wholesale distribution o f the following kinds o f mer­
chandise: Paper and paper products; drugs, drug pro­
prietaries, and druggists’ sundries; apparel, piece goods,
and notions; groceries and related products; farmproduct raw materials; chemicals and allied products;
petroleum and petroleum products; beer, wine, and
distilled alcoholic beverages; and miscellaneous non­
durable goods.
In 1982, 2.2 million persons were employed in non­
durable goods. The three largest industries within non­
durable goods, constituting 59 percent of nondurable
goods employment, were: Groceries and related pro­
ducts with 700,000 workers; miscellaneous nondurable
goods with 394,000; and petroleum and petroleum pro­
ducts with 228,000.
The largest number o f workers was in operating,
maintenance, construction, repair, material handling,
and powerplant occupations—775,000 or 35 percent of
nondurable goods employment. (See table 15.) A
quarter o f this group were delivery and route workers,

Durable goods
This industry group includes establishments primarily
engaged in the wholesale distribution of the following
kinds o f merchandise: Motor vehicles and automotive
parts and supplies; furniture and home furnishings;
lumber and other construction materials; sporting,
recreational, photographic, hobby goods, and toys and
supplies; metals and minerals, except petroleum; elec­
trical goods; hardware, plumbing, and heating equip­
ment and supplies; machinery, equipment, and supplies;
and miscellaneous durable goods.
There were 3.1 million persons employed in wholesale
durable goods in 1982. The three largest industries in
this segment, constituting 70 percent o f durable goods
employment were: Machinery, equipment, and supplies,
with 1.4 million workers; electrical goods, with 432,000;
and motor vehicles and automotive parts and supplies,
with 408,000.
Clerical occupations ranked highest, with 908,000
employees or 29 percent of wholesale durable goods
employment. (See table 14.) Workers in operating,
31

79,000 professional workers; 43,000 service workers;
and 15,000 technical workers.
Employment in the nondurable goods sector increas­
ed by 4 percent between 1979 and 1982. The largest ab­
s o lu te
in c r e a se
occurred
in
te c h n ic a l
occupations—4,210 workers (39 percent). Employment
decreased by 15 percent or 7,440 employees in service
occupations, the largest decrease in any of the major oc­
cupational groups in this industry.

making up the largest segment in this major occupa­
tional group. Clerical occupations ranked second, with
617,000 employees or 28 percent o f nondurable goods
employment. Stock clerks and general office clerks ac­
counted for almost three-tenths o f the workers in this
group. Sales occupations accounted for 453,000 or 21
percent o f industry employment as sales representatives
made up the bulk—over four-fifths—o f this group. In
addition, there were 224,000 managers and officers;

32

Table 13. Wholesale trade: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
June 1982
(SIC 50, 51)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Total ...................................................................

5,325,770

100.00

Managers and officers...............................................
Manager, merchandise...........................................
Manager, retail store .............................................
Manager, automobile service department............
Manager, automotive parts department................
Wholesaler..............................................................
All other managers ................................................

574,020
169,380
16,930
1,210
1,310
210,600
174,590

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers, total ......................................................
Chemical engineer..............................................
Electrical and electronic engineers...................
Mechanical engineer..........................................
All other engineers.............................................
Statistician...............................................................
All other mathematical scientists...........................
Chemist ..................................................................
Life scientist............................................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Purchasing agent and/or buyer............................
Buyer, retail and/or wholesale trade.....................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Commercial a rtis t...................................................
Writer and/or editor................................................
Lawyer....................................................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Pharmacist..............................................................
Public relations practitioner...................................
Designer.................................................................
All other professional workers...............................

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

-

-

10.78
3.18
.32
.02
.02
3.95
3.28

n.a.
2
13
14
15
2
n.a.

n.a.
41
2
(3
)
(3
)
48
n.a.

256,520
35,380
850
12,520
9,790
12,220
880
840
1,990
1,290
22,790
5,460
69,680
68,360
3,270
1,600
1,030
4,660
1,100
1,660
6,900
29,630

4.82
.66
.02
.24
.18
.23
.02
.02
.04
.02
.43
.10
1.31
1.28
.06
.03
.02
.09
.02
.03
.13
.56

n.a.
n.a.
28
12
10
n.a.
23
n.a.
12
50
13
7
2
3
12
22
14
7
32
17
11
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
(3
)
1
1
n.a.
(3
)
n.a.
1
(3
)
2
2
19
20
1
(3
)
(3
)
2
(3
)
1
1
n.a.

Technical occupations..............................................
Computer programmer...........................................
Engineering technicians, total ...............................
Drafter................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians................
Mechanical engineering technician...................
All other engineering technicians......................
Science technicians...............................................
All other technicians..............................................

146,000
19,480
109,740
5,270
99,560
1,570
3,340
3,580
13,200

2.74
.37
2.06
.10
1.87
.03
.06
.07
.25

n.a.
11
n.a.
10
5
24
n.a.
28
n.a.

n.a.
3
n.a.
1
6
(3
)
n.a.
(3
)
n.a.

Service occupations .................................................
Janitors, porters and cleaners...............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Food service workers, total ...................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Butcher and/or meat cutter...................................
Kitchen helper ........................................................
Waiter/waitress ......................................................
All other food service workers..............................
Supervisor, nonworking-service only ....................
All other service workers.......................................

70,520
40,060
3,190
21,580
40,060
3,190
14,110
1,150
1,360
4,960
1,030
4,660

1.32
.75
.06
.41
.75
.06
.26
.02
.03
.09
.02
.09

n.a.
3
12
n.a.
3
12
17
26
29
n.a.
20
n.a.

n.a.
14
1
n.a.
14
1
1
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.
(3
)
n.a.

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations.........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l.............................
Mechanic, aircraft..............................................
Protective signal installer and/or repairer........
Mechanic, automotive.......................................
Automotive body repairer.................................
Diesel mechanic................................................
Electric motor repairer......................................
Farm equipment mechanic...............................
Gasoline engine or mower repairer.................
Engineering equipment mechanic....................
Mechanic, maintenance....................................

1,637,020
279,600
1,640
1,670
89,010
1,280
50,000
2,030
6,980
1,290
23,220
3,680

30.74
5.25
.03
.03
1.67
.02
.94
.04
.13
.02
.44
.07

n.a.
n.a.
38
40
4
27
7
34
17
29
10
16

n.a.
n.a.
(3
)
(3
)
11
(3
)
4
(3
)
1
(3
)
2
1

See footnotes at end of table.

33

Table 13. Wholesale trade: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
June 1982—Continued
(SIC 50, 51)

Occupation

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations— Continued
Office machine servicer and/or cash register
servicer .........................................................
Refrigeration mechanic and/or air conditioning
mechanic......................................................
Television servicer and repairer, radio repairer
and/or tape recorder repairer......................
Data processing machine repairer....................
Gas and electric appliance repairer..................
Elevator installer and/or repairer......................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Cabinetmaker..........................................................
Carpenter ................................................................
Cleaner, vehicle......................................................
Crane, derrick, and hoist operators.......................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Merchandise displayer and window trim m er........
Electrician................................................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Furnace installer and repairer, hot a ir...................
Glazier ....................................................................
Heavy equipment operator ....................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Instrument repairer.................................................
Jeweler and/or silversmith ....................................
Machinist ................................................................
Maintenance repairer, general utility .....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Oil burner installer and servicer............................
Order fille r...............................................................
Painter, automotive................................................
Painter, maintenance..............................................
Plumber and/or pipefitter.......................................
Production packager, hand or machine................
Sewing machine operator, regular equipmentgarment.............................................................
Sewing machine operator, regular equipmentnongarment.......................................................
Tire fabricator and/or repairer ..............................
Watchmaker............................................................
Welder and/or flamecutter ....................................
Furniture assembler and installer ............... ..........
Service station attendant, fuel pump attendant
and/or lubricator..............................................
Tire changer ...........................................................
Optician, dispensing and/or optical mechanic......
Stock clerk, sales floor ..........................................
Wood machinist......................................................
Woodworking machine operator...........................
Conveyor operator or tender.................................
Truck driver helper.................................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers.......
All other laborers and unskilled workers..............
Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, to ta l..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator....
Computer operator...............................................
Keypunch operator...............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator ....................
All other office machine operators.......................
Stenographer.........................................................
Accounting c le rk ...................................................
Bookkeeper, hand ................................................
Adjustment c le rk ...................................................

Percent of total
employment

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

2

43,180

0.81

9

3,580

.07

20

O

1,100
29,230
2,300
2,700
19,410
202,540
1,200
4,450
1,410
11,150
265,520
1,190
4,230
78,520
680
3,860
2,260
50,740
960
780
12,100
63,300
4,810
1,510
169,880
640
980
2,660
28,580

.02
.55
.04
.05
.36
3.80
.02
.08
.03
.21
4.99
.02
.08
1.47
.01
.07
.04
.95
.02
.01
.23
1.19
.09
.03
3.19
.01
.02
.05
.54

42
4
33
42
n.a.
2
47
19
29
7
3
34
18
2
42
22
26
5
41
42
12
4
16
21
3
26
27
29
11

(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.
29
(3
)
1
(3
)
2
26
(3
)
1
20
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
9
(3
)
(3
)
1
13
1
(3
)
19
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
1

2,420

.05

30

(3
)

1,110
2,310
740
9,040
930

.02
.04
.01
.17
.02

43
29
30
11
39

(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

15,040
3,650
3,200
9,320
1,730
1,000
5,040
4,490
39,520
108,900
232,330

.28
.07
.06
.17
.03
.02
.09
.08
.74
2.04
4.36

10
18
33
12
39
37
13
28
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

1
1
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

1,525,060
1,079,480
61,490
13,050
15,380
5,380
3,860
2,270
78,420
111,360
4,370

28.64
20.27
1.15
.25
.29
.10
.07
.04
1.47
2.09
.08

n.a.
n.a.
3
5
7
8
n.a.
11
3
2
8

n.a.
n.a.
18
5
4
1
n.a.
1
20
30
1

See footnotes at end of table.

34

1
(3
)
1
1
(3
)
1
(3
)
(3
)

Table 13. Wholesale trade: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
June 1982—Continued
(SIC 50, 51)

Occupation

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of total
employment

Employment'

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Office clerical workers— Continued
Cashier...................................................................
Collector.................................................................
File clerk ................................................................
General office cle rk...............................................
Order clerk.............................................................
Credit authorizer ...................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping clerk .........................
Personnel cle rk.....................................................
Procurement clerk ................................................
Credit reference clerk ...........................................
Receptionist...........................................................
Secretary................................................................
Service clerk..........................................................
Switchboard operator............................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist.......................
Typist......................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or plant........................
All other office clerical workers............................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Shipping packer....................................................
Shipping and/or receiving clerk............................
Weigher, recordkeeping........................................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
ya rd ....................................................................
Dispatcher, vehicle, service or w o rk....................
Marking cle rk.........................................................
All other plant clerical workers.............................

52,580
5,040
5,400
237,970
129,010
2,850
4,390
2,440
2,240
3,130
4,070
172,480
6,480
3,090
6,890
60,650
66,160
19,030
445,580
119,570
103,240
2,380

0.99
.09
.10
4.47
2.42
.05
.08
.05
.04
.06
.08
3.24
.12
.06
.13
1.14
1.24
.36
8.37
2.25
1.94
.04

5
7
7
2
2
8
5
6
10
8
7
2
10
12
11
3
3
n.a.
n.a.
4
2
19

10
2
2
39
22
1
3
2
1
1
2
35
1
1
4
14
16
n.a.
n.a.
16
24
1

206,500
4,400
2,900
6,590

3.88
.08
.05
.12

2
8
15
n.a.

27

Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales clerk ..............................................................
Demonstrator..........................................................
Sales clerk supervisor............................................
All other sales workers ..........................................

1,116,630
960,290
135,190
5,760
1,800
13,590

20.97
18.03
2.54
.11
.03
.26

n.a.
1
3
31

----C---------------------1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

17
n.a.

n.a.
66
15
(3
)
1
n.a.

employment and percent of total employment: relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

<

35

2
(3
)
n.a.

Table 14. Wholesale trade-durable goods: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, June 1982
(SIC 50)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Total ....................................................................

3,117,780

100.00

Managers and officers...............................................
Manager, merchandise...........................................
Manager, retail store ..............................................
Manager, automobile service department............
Manager, automotive parts department................
Wholesaler..............................................................
All other managers .................................................

349,530
101,130
10,490
1,060
1,220
123,080
112,550

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers, total ......................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers...................
Mechanical engineer..........................................
All other engineers.............................................
Statistician...............................................................
All other mathematical scientists...........................
Physical scientists..................................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Purchasing agent and/or buyer............................
Buyer, retail and/or wholesale trade.....................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Commercial a rtis t...................................................
Writer and/or editor................................................
Lawyer....................................................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Public relations practitioner ...................................
Designer..................................................................
All other professional workers...............................

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

-

-

11.21
3.24
.34
.03
.04
3.95
3.61

n.a.
2
20
16
16
2
n.a.

n.a.
41
2
1
1
49
n.a.

177,100
31,650
12,210
8,800
10,640
350
390
350
20,800
3,850
43,380
44,260
1,290
700
530
2,920
1,010
3,040
22,580

5.68
1.02
.39
.28
.34
.01
.01
.01
.67
.12
1.39
1.42
.04
.02
.02
.09
.03
.10
.72

n.a.
n.a.
12
11
n.a.
44
n.a.
n.a.
14
9
3
5
16
30
25
10
26
16
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
2
2
n.a.
(3
)
n.a.
n.a.
3
2
21
22
1

Technical occupations..............................................
Computer programmer...........................................
Engineering technicians, total ...............................
Drafter.................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians................
Mechanical engineering technician...................
All other engineering technicians......................
Science technicians................................................
All other technicians...............................................

131,120
15,390
104,910
4,950
95,820
1,460
2,680
1,080
9,740

4.21
.49
3.36
.16
3.07
.05
.09
.03
.31

n.a.
13
n.a.
10
5
26
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
3
n.a.
2
9
(3
)
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

Service occupations .................................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
Guards and doorkeepers .......................................
Food service workers.............................................
Supervisor, nonworking-service only ....................
All other service workers.......................................

27,290
21,760
1,730
820
400
2,580

.88
.70
.06
.03
.01
.08

n.a.
4
19
n.a.
25
n.a.

n.a.
14
1
n.a.
O
n.a.

861,860
256,260
1,540
1,670
75,490
1,210

27.64
8.22
.05
.05
2.42
.04

n.a.
n.a.
40
40
5
28

n.a.
n.a.
(3
)
(3
)
12
(3
)

510
46,530
2,000
6,690
1,180
22,690
2,450

.02
1.49
.06
.21
.04
.73
.08

47
8
35
17
31
10
22

(3
)
6
(3
)
1
(3
)
3
1

42,480

1.36

9

3

3,210

.10

22

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations.........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l.............................
Mechanic, aircraft..............................................
Protective signal installer and/or repairer........
Mechanic, automotive.......................................
Automotive body repairer.................................
Camera repairer and/or motion picture camera
repairer.........................................................
Diesel mechanic ................................................
Electric motor repairer......................................
Farm equipment mechanic...............................
Gasoline engine or mower repairer.................
Engineering equipment mechanic....................
Mechanic, maintenance....................................
Office machine servicer and/or cash register
servicer........................................................
Refrigeration mechanic and/or air conditioning
mechanic.....................................................
See footnotes at end of table.

36

0
(3
)
2
1
1
n.a.

0

Table 14. Wholesale trade-durable goods: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, June 1982—Continued
(SIC 50)

Occupation

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations— Continued
Television servicer and repairer, radio repairer
and/or tape recorder repairer......................
Data processing machine repairer....................
Gas and electric appliance repairer..................
Elevator installer and/or repairer......................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Carpenter ................................................................
Cleaner, vehicle......................................................
Crane, derrick, and hoist operators.......................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Electrician................................................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Glazier ....................................................................
Heavy equipment operator ....................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Instrument repairer.................................................
Jeweler and/or silversmith ....................................
Machinist.................................................................
Maintenance repairer, general utility .....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Order fille r...............................................................
Painter, automotive................................................
Painter, maintenance..............................................
Plumber and/or pipefitter.......................................
Production packager, hand or machine................
Tire fabricator and/or repairer ..............................
Watchmaker............................................................
Welder and/or flamecutter....................................
Furniture assembler and installer ..........................
Service station attendant, fuel pump attendant
and/or lubricator..............................................
Tire changer ...........................................................
Optician, dispensing and/or optical mechanic......
Stock clerk, sales floor ..........................................
Wood machinist......................................................
Variety saw operator ..............................................
Woodworking machine operator...........................
Truck driver helper.................................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers........
All other laborers and unskilled workers..............
Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, total ..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator ....
Computer operator...............................................
Keypunch operator...............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
All other office machine operators .....................
Stenographer .......................................................
Accounting cle rk..................................................
Bookkeeper, hand................................................
Adjustment clerk..................................................
Cashier..................................................................
Collector...............................................................
File clerk...............................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Credit authorizer..................................................
Order clerk ...........................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping c le rk........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Procurement c le rk...............................................
Credit reference c le rk ..........................................

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

1,090
29,190
2,150
2,690
16,180
78,740
3,950
1,030
10,220
67,950
3,720
48,960
3,600
1,650
21,880
930
770
11,700
39,310
4,100
76,310
610
820
2,530
4,990
2,040
740
8,670
900

0.03
.94
.07
.09
.52
2.53
.13
.03
.33
2.18
.12
1.57
.12
.05
.70
.03
.02
.38
1.26
.13
2.45
.02
.03
.08
.16
.07
.02
.28
.03

42
4
35
42
n.a.
3
22
32
7
4
20
3
23
33
7
42
42
13
6
18
3
27
31
30
17
32
30
12
40

940
3,040
3,200
3,790
1,720
400
1,000
820
30,670
64,720
96,490

.03
.10
.10
.12
.06
.01
.03
.03
.98
2.08
3.09

42
20
33
16
40
43
37
22
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

1
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

907,570
658,500
36,580
7,300
8,080
3,470
1,950
1,400
45,400
65,610
2,680
15,500
3,330
3,250
147,700
1,750
85,890
2,410
1,440
1,500
2,200

29.11
21.12

n.a.
n.a.
3
7
11
10
n.a.
14
3
2
10
6
8
8
3
10
3
7
8
13
9

n.a.
n.a.
18
5
4
2
n.a.
1
21
29
1
9
2
2
40
2
25
3
2
1
1

1.17
.23
.26
.11
.06
.04
1.46
2.10
.09
.50
.11
.10
4.74
.06
2.75
.08
.05
.05
.07

See footnotes at end of table.

37

(3
)
1
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.
27
1
(3
)
4
19
1
23
1
(3
)
8
(3
)
(3
)
2
11
1
19
(3
)
1
(3
)
1
(3
)
(3
)
2
(3
)
(3
)
1
(3
)

Table 14. Wholesale trade-durable goods: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, June 1982—Continued
(SIC 50)

Occupation

Office clerical workers— Continued
Receptionist.........................................................
Secretary ..............................................................
Service clerk ........................................................
Switchboard operator ..........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Typist ...................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or plant ......................
All other office clerical workers...........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Shipping packer...................................................
Shipping and/or receiving clerk .........................
Weigher, recordkeeping ......................................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
y a rd ...................................................................
Dispatcher, vehicle, service or w ork...................
Marking clerk .......................................................
All other plant clerical workers...........................
Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales c le rk ..............................................................
Demonstrator..........................................................
Sales clerk supervisor............................................
All other sales workers ..........................................

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

2,830
114,230
4,760
1,990
4,560
39,740
40,580
12,370
249,070
54,670
63,000
420

0.09
3.66
.15
.06
.15
1.27
1.30
.40
7.99
1.75
2.02
.01

9
2
12
17
17
3
4
n.a.
n.a.
4
3
22

2
38
2
2
4
17
17
n.a.
n.a.
17
27
(3
)

125,130
2,540
900
2,410

4.01
.08
.03
.08

3
11
27
n.a.

32
2
(3
)
n.a.

663,310
575,810
76,430
1,300
840
8,930

21.28
18.47
2.45
.04
.03
.29

n.a.
1
4
37
19
n.a.

n.a.
74
*17
(3
)
0
n.a.

employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

38

Table 15. Wholesale trade-nondurable goods: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, June 1982
(SIC 51)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Total ....................................................................

2,208,000

100.00

-

-

Managers and officers...............................................
Manager, merchandise...........................................
Manager, retail store ..............................................
Wholesaler..............................................................
All other managers .................................................

224,490
68,250
6,440
87,520
62,280

10.17
3.09
.29
3.96
2.82

n.a.
2
10
3
n.a.

n.a.
42
2
47
n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers, total ......................................................
Chemical engineer..............................................
Electrical and electronic engineers...................
Mechanical engineer..........................................
All other engineers.............................................
Statistician...............................................................
All other mathematical scientists...........................
Chemist ...................................................................
All other physical scientists...................................
Life scientist............................................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Purchasing agent and/or buyer.............................
Buyer, retail and/or wholesale trade.....................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Commercial a rtis t....................................................
Writer and/or editor................................................
Lawyer.....................................................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Pharmacist..............................................................
Public relations practitioner ...................................
Designer..................................................................
All other professional workers...............................

79,430
3,730
680
320
990
1,740
520
450
1,720
260
1,230
1,990
1,610
26,300
24,100
1,980
900
500
1,740
550
650
3,860
7,340

3.60
.17
.03
.01
.04
.08
.02
.02
.08
.01
.06
.09
.07
1.19
1.09
.09
.04
.02
.08
.02
.03
.17
.33

n.a.
n.a.
34
27
19
n.a.
25
n.a.
14
n.a.
n.a.
12
11
4
4
17
30
13
8
39
19
14
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
(3
)
(3
)
1
n.a.
(3
)
n.a.
1
n.a.
n.a.
2
2
16
19
1
(3
)
(3
)
2
(3
)
1
1
n.a.

Technical occupations...............................................
Computer programmer...........................................
Engineering technicians, total ...............................
Drafter.................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians ................
All other engineering technicians......................
Science technicians................................................
All other technicians...............................................

14,880
4,090
4,830
320
3,740
770
2,500
3,460

.67
.19
.22
.01
.17
.03
.11
.16

n.a.
10
n.a.
20
12
n.a.
23
n.a.

n.a.
3
n.a.
(3
)
2
n.a.
1
n.a.

Service occupations ..................................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Butcher and/or meat cutter...................................

43,240
18,310
1,450
14,110
1,040
1,170
430
4,010
630
2,090

1.96
.83
.07
.64
.05
.05
.02
.18
.03
.09

n.a.
5
14
17
28
29
45
n.a.
28
n.a.

n.a.
15
1
1
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.
(3
)
n.a.

775,160
23,330
13,520
3,470
540
1,220

35.11
1.06
.61
.16
.02
.06

n.a.
n.a.
5
10
40
16

n.a.
n.a.
10
2
(3
)
1

700

.03

26

(3
)

370
3,510
123,800
500
920

.02
.16
5.61
.02
.04

29
n.a.
3
26
36

Kitchen helper .................................................................

Waiter/waitress ......................................................
Cook, restaurant......................................................
All other food service workers..............................
Supervisor, nonworking-service only ....................
All other service w orkers.......................................
Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, automotive........................................
Diesel mechanic .................................................
Engineering equipment mechanic.....................
Mechanic, maintenance.....................................
Office machine servicer and/or cash register
servicer .........................................................
Refrigeration mechanic and/or air conditioning
mechanic......................................................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Carpenter ................................................................
Crane, derrick, and hoist operators.......................
See footnotes at end of table.

39

(3
)
n.a.
31
(3
)
(3
)

Table 15. Wholesale trade-nondurable goods: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, June 1982—Continued
(SIC 51)

Occupation

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations— Continued
Delivery and/or route worker ................................
Merchandise displayer and window trim m er........
Electrician................................................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Heavy equipment operator ....................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Machinist.................................................................
Maintenance repairer, general utility .....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Oil burner installer and servicer.............................
Order fille r...............................................................
Production packager, hand or machine................
Sewing machine operator, regular equipmentgarm ent.............................................................
Tire fabricator and/or repairer ..............................
Welder and/or flamecutter ....................................
Bagger ....................................................................
Service station attendant, fuel pump attendant
and/or lubricator..............................................
Tire changer ...........................................................
Stock clerk, sales floor ..........................................
Conveyor operator or tender.................................
Truck driver helper.................................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers.......
All other laborers and unskilled w orkers..............
Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, total ..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator....
Computer operator...............................................
Keypunch operator...............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
All other office machine operators .....................
Stenographer .......................................................
Accounting clerk..................................................
Bookkeeper, hand................................................
Adjustment clerk..................................................
Cashier..................................................................
Collector ...............................................................
File cle rk...............................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Credit authorizer..................................................
Order c le rk ...........................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping c le rk ........................
Personnel cle rk....................................................
Procurement c le rk ................................................
Credit reference c le rk..........................................
Receptionist .........................................................
Secretary..............................................................
Service clerk .......................................................
Switchboard operator .........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist.....................
Typist ...................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t.....................
All other office clerical workers..........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l...................................
Shipping packer..................................................
Shipping and/or receiving c le rk .........................
Weigher, recordkeeping .....................................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
ya rd ...................................................................
Dispatcher, vehicle, service or w ork..................
Marking clerk ......................................................
All other plant clerical workers...........................

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

197,580
940
500
29,560
610
28,870
400
24,000
710
1,290
93,570
23,590

8.95
.04
.02
1.34
.03
1.31
.02
1.09
.03
.06
4.24
1.07

4
39
15
3
38
6
35
5
20
20
4
13

34
(3
)
1
18
(3
)
9
(3
)
14
1
(3
)
18
2

2,370
270
370
460

.11
.01
.02
.02

30
46
23
40

(3
)
(3
)
0
(3
)

14,100
610
5,520
4,790
3,680
11,820
44,980
136,020

.64
.03
.25
.22
.17
.54
2.04
6.16

11
34
17
13
34
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

2
(3
)
1
2
1
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

617,480
420,980
24,910
5,750
7,310
1,900
1,910
870
33,020
45,750
1,690
37,080
1,710
2,140
90,270
1,100
43,120
1,980
1,000
730
940
1,240
58,250
1,720
1,100
2,340
20,910
25,580
6,660
196,500
64,890
40,240
1,960

27.97
19.07
1.13
.26
.33
.09
.09
.04
1.50
2.07
.08
1.68
.08
.10
4.09
.05
1.95
.09
.05
.03
.04
.06
2.64
.08
.05
.11
.95
1.16
.30
8.90
2.94
1.82
.09

n.a.
n.a.
4
7
7
14
n.a.
17
4
2
11
6
12
11
3
15
4
8
9
16
15
11
3
16
13
7
5
4
n.a.
n.a.
5
4
23

n.a.
n.a.
17
5
4
1
n.a.
1
19
30
1
12
1
2
37
1
19
3
2
1
1
2
32
1
1

81,380
1,860
2,000
4,170

3.69
.08
.09
.19

5
10
18
n.a.

23
2
(3
)
n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.

40

4

12
16
n.a.
n.a.
15
20
1

Table 15. Wholesale trade-nondurable goods: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, June 1982—Continued
(SIC 51)

Occupation

Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales c le rk ..............................................................
Demonstrator..........................................................
Sales clerk supervisor............................................
All other sales workers ..........................................

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

20.53
17.41
2.66
.20
.04
.21

453,320
384,470
58,760
4,460
970
4,660

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

n.a.
2
6
39
27
n.a.

n.a.
58
14
(3
)
1
n.a.

employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.

41

Retail Trade

Establishments or businesses that sell merchandise for
personal or household consumption and also render ser­
vices incidental to the sale o f those goods make up the
retail trade industries.
There were 15.2 million workers in retail trade in
1982. Eating and drinking places employed the greatest
number o f workers, 5.0 million or about one-third. (See
table 16.) Food stores ranked second with 2.5 million or
16 percent. Employment in general merchandise stores
was almost as large—2.2 million or 14 percent.
Miscellaneous retail stores employed 1.9 million
workers or 12 percent; automotive dealers and gasoline
service stations, 1.6 million workers or 11 percent.
Employment in apparel and accessory stores accounted
for 6 percent of the total employment in retail trade; the
remaining two industries, building material dealers and
furniture dealers, each accounted for 4 percent.
Service workers made up the largest occupational
group in retail trade—4.8 million workers, or 31 percent
o f industry employment. (See table 17.) Sales occupa­
tions, with 22 percent o f industry employment, ranked
second. These were followed by 2.7 million clerical
workers, who accounted for 17 percent o f total industry
employment. The remaining occupations were
distributed as follows: Operating, maintenance, con­
struction, repair, material handling, and powerplant oc­
cupations, 16 percent; managers and officers, 11 per­
cent; and professional and technical workers combined,
2 percent.
Employment in retail trade establishments increased
by 170,000 workers, or 1 percent, from 1979 to 1982.
Contributing to the slow employment growth in retail
trade were high interest rates, increased State and local
taxes, and increased unemployment in manufacturing.
These helped to weaken consumer confidence and to
reduce retail sales.
Food stores experienced the largest percentage in­
crease in employment (8 percent) from 1979 to 1982, as
their sales—along with those o f restaurants and
bars—were leaders in the nondurable sector.
Automotive dealers and gasoline service stations ex­
perienced the largest percentage decline in employment
from 1979 to 1982. A possible explanation for the
decline could be the increase in self-service gasoline sta­
tions resulting in less service station attendants.
The following tabulation shows employment for the
major retail trade industries and the percent change in
employment from 1979 to 1982:

Employment
1979
1982
Retail trade, total .............. 15,075,730
Building materials, hard­
ware, garden supply
stores, and mobile home
dealers................................
645,760
General merchandise stores
2,205,580
Food stores..........................
2,278,610
Automotive dealers and
gasoline service stations ..
1,835,350
Apparel and accessory
stores..................................
933,750
Furniture, home fur­
nishings, and equipment
stores..................................
610,810
Eating and drinking places. 4,706,190
Miscellaneous retail............
1,859,680

Percent
change

15,246,080

1

599,580
2,150,570
2,466,270

-7
-2
8

1,637,690

-11

933,620
573,880
4,985,150
1,899,320

-6
6
2

Building materials, hardware, garden supply
stores, and mobile home dealers
This industry consists o f establishments that sell
lumber and other building materials; paint, glass, and
wallpaper; hardware; nursery stock; lawn and garden
supplies; and mobile homes.
This industry employed 600,000 workers in 1982. The
largest industry within this group was lumber and other
building material dealers, with 51 percent of the
employment. Hardware stores employed another 25
percent.
Sales occupations accounted for the largest number
o f workers in this industry, with 29 percent o f the
employment. (See table 18.) More than half o f the sales
workers were sales agents, representatives, and
associates. Ranking second, with 28 percent o f industry
employment, were operating, maintenance, construc­
tion, repair, material handling, and powerplant
workers. Almost one-fifth o f the workers in this oc­
cupation were truck drivers. Clerical workers were the
third largest occupational group in this industry, with 24
percent of industry employment. Managers and officers
accounted for 15 percent; professional workers, 3 per­
cent; service occupations, 1 percent; and technical
workers, less than 1 percent.
Employment in this industry declined by 7 percent
between 1979 and 1982. The largest decline in employ­
ment (20 percent) was in operating, maintenance, con­
struction, repair, material handling, and powerplant oc­
cupations.
42

General merchandise stores
Stores that sell apparel and accessories, furniture and
home furnishings, dry goods, small wares, hardware,
and food make up the general merchandise store in­
dustry.
In 1982, 2.2 million workers were employed in these
stores. Department stores employed the most, 84 per­
cent o f the total; variety stores employed 10 percent;
and miscellaneous general merchandise stores, 5 percent
of the industry total.
The largest number o f workers—47 percent—was
employed in sales occupations. (See table 19.) Twothirds of the sales workers were sales clerks. Ranking se­
cond, with 25 percent of industry employment, were
clerical occupations. Cashier, the largest occupation in
this group, accounted for more than a quarter o f the
clerical workers. The third largest group in this in­
dustry, with 11 percent of the employment, was
operating, maintenance, construction, repair, material
handling, and powerplant occupations. Managers and
officers accounted for 9 percent; service workers, 6 per­
cent; professional workers, 3 percent; and technical oc­
cupations, less than 1 percent.

Food stores
This industry consists o f establishments selling food
for home preparation and consumption.
Grocery stores employed 2.2 million, or 88 percent,
of all food store workers in 1982. Retail bakeries ac­
counted for 5 percent; meat and seafood markets, in­
cluding freezer provisioners and stores selling dairy pro­
ducts, each accounted for 2 percent o f food store
employment; the remaining 3 percent was distributed
among miscellaneous food stores (those engaged in the
retail sale of specialized foods such as coffee, tea,
spices, etc.).
Clerical occupations accounted for about 33 percent
of total employment in food stores. (See table 20.) Fourfifths of the clerical workers were cashiers—the in­
dustry’s largest occupation. Operating, maintenance,
repair, construction, material handling, and powerplant
workers constituted another one-fourth o f food store
employment. Sales floor stock clerks accounted for over
half o f the employment in this group. The third largest
occupational group, with 17 percent o f employment,
was sales workers, numbering 413,000. Service occupa­
tions ranked fourth with 11 percent, almost half of
whom were butchers or meat cutters. Managers and o f­
ficers accounted for 10 percent o f industry employment,
and professional workers accounted for 1 percent. The
smallest occupational group consisted o f 2,380 technical
workers.

automotive vehicles such as dune buggies, snowmobiles,
and go-carts; and new automobile parts and accessories.
Gasoline service stations are also included.
In 1982, 1.6 million workers were employed in this in­
dustry. Persons working in dealerships selling new and
used motor vehicles numbered 696,000, or 43 percent of
industry employment. Gasoline service stations ac­
counted for 554,000 or 34 percent. Sixteen percent held
jobs in auto and home supply stores selling products
such as tires, batteries, radios, and television sets. The
remaining 8 percent were employed by establishments
selling used motor vehicles; motorcycle or boat dealers;
recreational and utility trailer dealers; and
miscellaneous automotive dealers.
Almost half, or 775,000 workers in this industry were
employed in operating, maintenance, construction,
repair, material handling, and powerplant occupations.
(See table 21.) More than two-fifths o f these worked as
mechanics and repairers. Clerical workers ranked se­
cond, with 18 percent o f total employment. Cashiers
made up one-third o f the employment in this group.
Sales workers were the third largest group, with 16 per­
cent of the employment, and managers and officers
followed with 15 percent. The remaining 4 percent were
in professional, technical, and service occupations.
Employment among automotive dealers and gasoline
service stations declined by 11 percent from 1979 to
1982. The operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling, and powerplant occupations together
had the largest percentage employment decline (16 per­
cent) o f any o f the major occupational groups. The
number of service station attendants dropped by 25 per­
cent, and automobile repair service estimators decreased
by 47 percent, as shown in the following tabulation:
Employment
1979
1982
Service station attendants..
Automobile repair service
estimators..........................

Percent
change

316,460

240,340

-24

10,200

5,430

-47

Apparel and accessory stores
This industry includes establishments engaged in the
retail sale o f new clothing, shoes, hats, underwear, and
related articles for personal wear and adornment. Fur­
riers and custom tailors carrying stocks o f materials are
also included.
Apparel and accessory stores employed 934,000
workers in 1982. Women’s ready-to-wear stores ac­
counted for 36 percent of industry employment; shoe
stores ranked second with 22 percent. Family clothing
stores accounted for 18 percent, and men’s and boys’
clothing and furnishings stores, 13 percent.
Establishments selling miscellaneous apparel and ac­
cessories, such as bathing suits, sports apparel, and
uniforms, employed 5 percent. The remaining employ­
ment in retail apparel stores was in: Children’s and in­

Automotive dealers and gasoline service stations
Included in this industry are establishments engaged
in the retail sale of new and used automobiles, boats,
recreational and utility trailers, and motorcycles; other
43

fants’ wear stores, 3 percent; women’s apparel and ac­
cessory stores, 2 percent; and furriers and fur shops, less
than 1 percent.
The industry’s 540,000 sales workers made up the
largest occupational group, accounting for 58 percent of
industry employment. (See table 22.) Managers and o f­
ficers ranked second, with 159,000 or 17 percent.
Clerical workers accounted for 13 percent; operating,
maintenance, construction, repair, material handling,
and powerplant occupations, 8 percent; professionals, 3
percent; service workers, 1 percent; and technical
workers, less than 1 percent.
Employment in this industry decreased by less than 1
percent from 1979 to 1982. The operating, maintenance,
construction, repair, material handling, and powerplant
occupations had the largest decline (15 percent), while
technical occupations grew almost 70 percent.

Furniture,
stores

home

furnishings,

Eating and drinking places
This industry group includes firms engaged in the sale
of prepared foods and drinks for consumption on the
premises, and lunch counters and refreshment stands
selling prepared foods and drinks for immediate con­
sumption. Restaurants and lunch counters operated by
hotels and department stores are excluded.
There were 5.0 million persons employed in eating
and drinking places in 1982. This industry employed the
largest number o f workers in retail trade.
The majority (4.3 million) or 85 percent o f the
workers in this industry were in service occupations.
Almost all o f these (97 percent) were food service
workers. (See table 24.) Managers and officers made up
the second largest occupational group, with 8 percent o f
industry employment. Clerical workers ranked third
with 212,000, or 4 percent. Most o f these were cashiers.
The other four major occupational groups combined ac­
counted for only 3 percent o f the employment in eating
and drinking places.

and equipment

Firms that sell furniture, floor coverings, draperies,
housewares, stores, refrigerators, and other household
electrical and gas appliances make up the furniture,
home furnishings, and equipment store industry.
Sixty-one percent o f the employment in this industry
was in furniture, home furnishings, and equipment
stores (except appliances). Radio, television, and music
stores accounted for 26 percent o f the employment, and
the remaining 13 percent was in household appliance
stores.
Numbering 178,000, sales occupations made up the
largest occupational group, accounting for 31 percent of
industry employment. (See table 23.) Sales agents,
associates, and representatives made up almost threefifths o f the employment in this group. Operating,
maintenance, construction, repair, material handling,
and powerplant workers ranked second in employment,
with 144,000 or 25 percent. Clerical workers, numbering
122,000, accounted for 21 percent o f total employment.
Managers and officers, with 16 percent, ranked fourth.
Professional occupations accounted for 4 percent, near­
ly half o f whom were designers. Service workers ac­
counted for 2 percent; the smallest occupational group
consisted o f technical workers.
Over the 1979-82 period, employment declined by 6
percent in this industry. The largest percentage employ­
ment decrease (12 percent) was in home appliance
stores. Of all the major occupational groups in this in­
dustry, the operating, maintenance, construction,
repair, material handling, and powerplant occupations
experienced the largest percentage decrease (16 percent),
and technical occupations had the largest increase in
employment (139 percent).

Miscellaneous retail stores
Included in this industry are firms engaged in the
retail sale of miscellaneous goods, other than those
previously discussed. Among such firms are drug stores,
liquor stores, used merchandise stores, nonstore
retailers, fuel and ice dealers, miscellaneous shopping
goods stores, and florists.
Employment in miscellaneous retail stores was 1.9
million in 1982. Miscellaneous shopping goods stores
(book stores; jewelry stores; hobby, toy, and game
shops; sporting goods stores; etc.) employed 607,000
workers (29 percent o f the industry total). Drug stores
employed 490,000 (26 percent). Other retail stores
(florists, cosmetic stores, cigar stores and stands, etc.)
employed 14 percent, and nonstore retailers, such as
mail order houses and automatic merchandising
machine operators, accounted for 13 percent. Liquor
stores employed 7 percent, fuel and ice dealers, 5 per­
cent, and used merchandise stores, 3 percent.
Sales workers constituted the largest occupational
group in this industry, with 687,000 or 36 percent o f
total industry employment. (See table 25.) Clerical oc­
cupations accounted for 437,000 or 23 percent. Ranking
third were operating, maintenance, construction,
repair, material handling, and powerplant occupations,
with 17 percent o f industry employment. Managers and
officers accounted for 13 percent; professional work­
ers, 8 percent. Half o f the professional workers were
pharmacists. Service workers made up only 3 percent,
and technical workers less than 1 percent, o f total
employment.

44

Table 16. Retail trade: Percent distribution of employment in major occupational groups by industry, 1982

Industry

Total

Total ................................................... 15,246,080
Percent................................................
100.00
Building materials, hardware,
garden supply, and mobile
3.93
home dealers............................
General merchandise stores..........
14.11
Food stores.....................................
16.18
Automotive dealers and gasoline
service stations..........................
10.74
Apparel and accessory stores........
6.12
Furniture, home furnishings, and
equipment stores.......................
3.76
Eating and drinking places.............
32.70
Miscellaneous retail.........................
12.46

Clerical
workers

Sales work­
ers

Professional
workers

Technical
workers

1,656,940
100.00

346,460
100.00

24,400
100.00

4,789,590
100.00

2,453,820
100.00

2,661,480
100.00

3,313,390
100.00

5.30
11.92
15.54

5.02
15.65
10.08

3.28
19.10
9.75

.18
2.61
5.72

6.93
9.75
27.68

5.30
19.89
30.29

5.24
30.20
12.45

14.65
9.58

5.61
6.99

9.18
2.01

.97
.27

31.60
3.04

10.96
4.61

7.85
16.29

5.39
22.97
14.67

6.98
6.20
43.47

11.93
3.77
40.98

.28
88.83
1.14

5.86
2.21
12.94

4.59
7.95
16.41

5.37
1.87
20.72

Managers
and officers

45

Service
workers

Operating,
maintenance,
construction,
repair, mat­
erial handling,
and powerplant workers

Table 17. Retail trade: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations, June
1982
(SIC 52-59)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

15,246,170

100.00

-

-

Managers and officers...............................................
Director, food and beverage and/or catering
manager ............................................................
Manager, merchandise...........................................
Manager, retail store ..............................................
Manager, automobile service department ............
Manager, automotive parts department................
Wholesaler..............................................................
Manager, eating and/or drinking establishment ....
All other managers ................................................

1,656,920

10.87

n.a.

n.a.

30,960
93,600
933,700
55,590
36,990
1,720
317,800
186,560

.20
.61
6.12
.36
.24
.01
2.08
1.22

9
2
1
2
3
14
2
n.a.

1
13
69
6
5
(3
)
8
n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing.......
Purchasing agent and/or buyer............................
Buyer, retail and/or wholesale trade.....................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Commercial a rtis t...................................................
Writer and/or editor...............................................
Musician, instrumental............................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Pharmacist ..............................................................
Public relations practitioner ...................................
Designer.................................................................
All other professional workers...............................

346,510
3,140
3,470
118,080
33,540
5,800
2,330
9,950
9,260
79,750
1,600
56,240
23,350

2.27
.02
.02
.77
.22
.04
.02
.07
.06
.52
.01
.37
.15

n.a.
11
10
2
3
6
7
17
4
2
12
4
n.a.

n.a.
(3
)
1
12
5
1
(3
)
(3
)
2
4
(3
)
4
n.a.

Technical occupations...............................................
Computer programmer...........................................
Drafter.....................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians.....................
Pharmacy helper....................................................
All other technicians..............................................

24,410
5,150
1,600
3,160
7,050
7,450

.16
.03
.01
.02
.05
.05

n.a.
7
16
20
9
n.a.

n.a.
1
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.

Service occupations .................................................
Janitors, porters and cleaners...............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Food service workers, total ...................................
Baker, bread and/or pastry ..............................
Bartender............................................................
Dining room attendant, bartender helper, or
cafeteria attendant .......................................
Butcher and/or meat cu tte r..............................
Host/hostess, restaurant, lounge or coffee
shop ..............................................................
Kitchen helper....................................................
Waiter/waitress..................................................
Counter attendant, lunchroom, coffee shop, or
cafeteria........................................................
Cook, short order and/or specialty fast foods ..
Cook, restaurant................................................
Food preparation and service worker, fast food
restaurant .....................................................
Pantry, sandwich and/or coffee m aker............
Cook, institution or cafeteria.............................
All other food service workers..........................
Cosmetologist and/or hairstylist........................
Supervisor, nonworking-service only ....................
Checker, fitting room ..............................................
Store detective.......................................................
All other service workers .......................................

4,789,580
187,600
28,170
4,471,780
45,440
251,510

31.41
1.23
.18
29.33
.30
1.65

n.a.
3
7
n.a.
5
4

n.a.
15
2
n.a.
2
4

182,700
133,800

1.20
.88

5
2

3
4

98,980
417,490
1,254,570

.65
2.74
8.23

5
3
1

3
6
7

193,930
363,040
313,700

1.27
2.38
2.06

8
4
3

2
4
5

1,087,200
55,720
12,300
61,400
15,690
34,140
8,150
17,750
26,300

7.13
.37
.08
.40
.10
.22
.05
.12
.17

1
7
26
n.a.
6
7
5
3
n.a.

3
1
(3
)
n.a.
1
1
1
1
n.a.

2,453,850
455,030
282,590
41,380
5,830
8,860

16.09
2.98
1.85
.27
.04
.06

n.a.
n.a.
1
3
15
11

n.a.
n.a.
10
2
(3
)
1

T o ta l...................................................................

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, automotive........................................
Automotive body repairer..................................
Bicycle repairer..................................................
Diesel mechanic ................................................
See footnotes at end of table.

46

Table 17. Retail trade: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations, June
1982—Continued
(SIC 52-59)

Occupation

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations— Continued
Gasoline engine or mower repairer ..................
Marine mechanic and/or repairer .....................
Mechanic, maintenance.....................................
Office machine servicer and/or cash register
servicer .........................................................
Refrigeration mechanic and/or air conditioning
mechanic......................................................
Television servicer and repairer, radio repairer
and/or tape recorder repairer......................
Coin machine servicer and/or vending
machine repairer...........................................
Motorboat mechanic..........................................
Gas and electric appliance repairer..................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Automobile repair service estimator......................
Cabinetmaker..........................................................
Carpet cutter and/or carpet layer..........................
Carpenter ................................................................
Cleaner, vehicle......................................................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Merchandise displayer and window trim m er.........
Electrician................................................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Glazier .....................................................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Jeweler and/or silversmith ....................................
Machinist.................................................................
Maintenance repairer, general u tility.....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Oil burner installer and servicer.............................
Musical instrument repairer ...................................
Order fille r................. .............................................
Painter, automotive.................................................
Painter, maintenance..............................................
Production packager, hand or machine................
Custom sewer.........................................................
Sewing machine operator, regular equipmentgarment .............................................................
Sewing machine operator, regular equipmentnongarment.......................................................
Sewing machine operator, special and/or
automatic equipment-nongarment...................
Alteration ta ilo r.......................................................
Tire fabricator and/or repairer ..............................
Watchmaker............................................................
Furniture assembler and installer ..........................
Bagger .....................................................................
Service station attendant, fuel pump attendant
and/or lubricator...............................................
Tire changer ...........................................................
Optician, dispensing and/or optical mechanic....
Household appliance installer ...............................
Stock clerk, sales floor ..........................................
Furniture finisher ....................................................
Furniture upholsterer ..............................................
Baker .......................................................................
Cake decorator.......................................................
Doughnut maker and/or doughnut machine
operator.............................................................
Wood machinist......................................................
Ceiling tile installer and/or floor layer...................
Truck driver helper..................................................
Mobile home repairer .............................................
Mobile home set-up operator ...............................
Picture fram er.........................................................

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

1

5,850
2,990
7,790

0.04
.02
.05

8
11
6

(3
)

2,300

.02

22

(3
)

4,040

.03

10

1

20,230

.13

6

2

15,900
4,640
35,390
17,240
94,140
5,620
8,560
11,150
14,060
43,470
179,300
13,560
1,890
40,660
12,250
14,610
8,710
1,630
54,250
32,430
10,410
3,160
35,450
13,240
2,180
31,120
3,050

.10
.03
.23
.11
.62
.04
.06
.07
.09
.29
1.18
.09
.01
.27
.08
.10
.06
.01
.36
.21
.07
.02
.23
.09
.01
.20
.02

9
8
5
n.a.
3
8
13
9
8
4
4
3
13
3
9
5
9
16
4
5
5
16
6
5
14
6
14

1
(3
)
3
n.a.
8
1
(3
)
1
1
3
13
2
(3
)
5
1
1
1
(3
)
6
2
1
(3
)
2
1
(3
)
1
(3
)

3,060

.02

23

(3
)

3,480

.02

17

(3
)

4,120
36,500
7,650
4,220
5,460
184,800

.03
.24
.05
.03
.04
1.21

18
4
11
11
11
3

(3
)
4
(3
)
1
1
2

246,490
50,840
12,720
9,350
555,720
4,400
1,990
18,370
4,110

1.62
.33
.08
.06
3.64
.03
.01
.12
.03

2
4
19
8
2
9
17
8
10

5
3
(3
)
1
13
1
(3
)
1
(3
)

11,030
7,300
2,260
3,090
4,940
5,340
2,000

.07
.05
.01
.02
.03
.04
.01

8
11
20
18
9
8
23

1
1

See footnotes at end of table.

47

1

(3
)
(3
)
1
1
(3
)

Table 17. Retail trade: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations, June
1982—Continued
(SIC 52-59)

Occupation

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations— Continued
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers.......
All other laborers and unskilled workers ..............

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

25,880
44,180
104,620

0.17
.29
.69

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

Clerical occupations...................................................
Office clerical workers, to ta l..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator ....
Computer operator ................................................
Keypunch operator................................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator ....................
All other office machine operators.......................
Accounting c le rk ....................................................
Bookkeeper, hand ................................................
Adjustment c le rk...................................................
Cashier...................................................................
Collector.................................................................
File c le rk ................................................................
General office cle rk...............................................
Order clerk.............................................................
Credit authorizer ...................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping clerk .........................
Personnel c le rk .....................................................
Procurement c le rk .................................................
Credit reference clerk ...........................................
Receptionist...........................................................
Secretary................................................................
Service clerk..........................................................
Switchboard operator............................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist.......................
Typist.....................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or plant........................
All other office clerical workers............................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Shipping packer....................................................
Shipping and/or receiving clerk............................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
ya rd ....................................................................
Dispatcher, vehicle, service or w o rk ....................
Marking clerk.........................................................
All other plant clerical workers.............................

2,661,530
2,288,650
16,800
8,780
13,480
4,410
7,280
118,880
215,640
31,340
1,260,030
12,180
7,750
252,660
37,010
12,970
10,060
7,060
2,280
6,890
5,450
100,680
40,380
12,820
8,780
10,190
26,100
58,750
372,880
23,600
70,130

17.46
15.01
.11
.06
.09
.03
.05
.78
1.41
.21
8.26
.08
.05
1.66
.24
.09
.07
.05
.01
.05
.04
.66
.26
.08
.06
.07
.17
.39
2.45
.15
.46

n.a.
n.a.
4
5
5
7
n.a.
2
1
5
1
14
7
2
5
7
4
4
15
7
8
2
3
5
5
7
4
n.a.
n.a.
5
3

n.a.
n.a.
3
1
1
ft
n.a.
13
28
1
26
1
1
22
2
1
2
2

221,370
2,870
46,070
8,840

1.45
.02
.30
.06

2
8
4
n.a.

14
1
2
n.a.

Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales c le rk ..............................................................
Demonstrator..........................................................
Sales clerk supervisor............................................
All other sales workers ..........................................

3,313,370
1,006,310
2,203,810
6,680
47,660
48,910

21.73
6.60
14.45
.04
.31
.32

n.a.
1
1
18
6
n.a.

n.a.
32
42

ft

1
1
13
3
2
2
1
3
n.a.
n.a.
1
9

ft

1
n.a.

employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

48

Table 18. Building materials, hardware, garden supply stores, and mobile home dealers: Employment, relative error,
and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations, June 1982
(SIC 52)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Total ...................................................................

599,580

100.00

Managers and officers...............................................
Manager, merchandise...........................................
Manager, retail store ..............................................
Wholesaler..............................................................
All other managers ................................................

87,760
14,700
66,770
230
6,060

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers ................................................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Purchasing agent and/or buyer............................
Buyer, retail and/or wholesale trade.....................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Commercial a rtis t...................................................
Writer and/or editor...............................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Designer.................................................................
All other professional workers...............................

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

-

-

14.64
2.45
11.14
.04
1.01

n.a.
4
1
26
n.a.

n.a.
24
81
(3
)
n.a.

17,400
160
110
170
11,030
4,470
190
90
180
630
370

2.90
.03
.02
.03
1.84
.75
.03
.02
.03
.11
.06

n.a.
n.a.
17
17
4
6
17
31
13
19
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
(3
)
(3
)
18
11
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
1
n.a.

Technical occupations...............................................
Computer programmer ...........................................
Drafter.....................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians.....................
All other technicians...............................................

800
190
460
80
70

.13
.03
.08
.01
.01

n.a.
15
23
40
n.a.

n.a.
(3
)
1
(3
)
n.a.

Service occupations .................................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Food service workers.............................................
Store detective.......................................................
All other service workers.......................................

8,630
6,920
570
140
60
940

1.44
1.15
.10
.02
.01
.16

n.a.
6
20
n.a.
29
n.a.

n.a.
13
1
n.a.
(3
)
n.a.

170,090
8,170
580
60
160
5,210

28.37
1.36
.10
.01
.03
.87

n.a.
n.a.
18
49
46
8

n.a.
n.a.
1
(3
)
(3
)
7

80
340
1,740
32,820
420
140
10,390
11,920
130
5,150
12,120
170
7,960
5,290
440
980
980
310
140
660
20,450
7,220
180
220
340
2,380

.01
.06
.29
5.47
.07
.02
1.73
1.99
.02
.86
2.02
.03
1.33
.88
.07
.16
.16
.05
.02
.11
3.41
1.20
.03
.04
.06
.40

41
29
n.a.
4
42
41
9
6
47
6
9
41
7
8
34
17
27
34
36
35
5
11
30
25
25
10

(3
)

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, automotive........................................
Diesel mechanic.................................................
Farm equipment mechanic................................
Gasoline engine or mower repairer..................
Television servicer and repairer, radio repairer
and/or tape recorder repairer......................
Gas and electric appliance repairer..................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Cabinetmaker..........................................................
Carpet cutter and/or carpet layer..........................
Carpenter ................................................................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Electrician................................................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Glazier ....................................................................
Heavy equipment operator ....................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Maintenance repairer, general u tility.....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Order fille r...............................................................
Painter, maintenance..............................................
Plumber and/or pipefitter.......................................
Production packager, hand or machine................
Welder and/or flamecutter ....................................
Stock clerk, sales floor ..........................................
Wood machinist......................................................
Variety saw operator ..............................................
Woodworking machine operator...........................
Truck driver helper.................................................
Mobile home repairer.............................................
See footnotes at end of table.

49

1
n.a.
25
(3
)
(3
)
7
13
(3
)
10
6
(3
)
9
8
(3
)
1
(3
)
1
(3
)
(3
)
19
5
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
4

Table 18. Building materials, hardware, garden supply stores, and mobile home dealers: Employment, relative error,
and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations, June 1982—Continued
(SIC 52)

Occupation

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations— Continued
Mobile home set-up operator...............................
Picture fram er.........................................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers.......
All other laborers and unskilled workers ..............

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

5,300
380
3,530
7,850
24,050

0.88
.06
.59
1.31
4.01

8
31
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

6
(3
)
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, total ..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator ....
Computer operator..............................................
Keypunch operator..............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
All other office machine operators .....................
Accounting clerk..................................................
Bookkeeper, hand...............................................
Adjustment clerk..................................................
Cashier.................................................................
Collector ...............................................................
File clerk...............................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Credit authorizer..................................................
Order c le rk ...........................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping cle rk........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Procurement c le rk...............................................
Credit reference c le rk..........................................
Receptionist .........................................................
Secretary..............................................................
Service clerk ........................................................
Switchboard operator ..........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Typist ...................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t......................
All other office clerical workers..........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Shipping and/or receiving c le rk .........................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
ya rd ...................................................................
Dispatcher, vehicle, service or w ork...................
Marking clerk .......................................................
All other plant clerical workers...........................

141,140
103,580
180
430
520
100
200
11,590
20,990
340
31,820
180
190
23,100
190
470
340
120
170
100
100
10,140
190
170
230
240
700
780
37,560
9,540

23.54
17.28
.03
.07
.09
.02
.03
1.93
3.50
.06
5.31
.03
.03
3.85
.03
.08
.06
.02
.03
.02
.02
1.69
.03
.03
.04
.04
.12
.13
6.26
1.59

n.a.
n.a.
29
13
22
38
n.a.
5
3
24
4
25
13
4
23
18
14
23
29
16
37
4
46
18
14
17
13
n.a.
n.a.
6

n.a.
n.a.
(3
)
1
1
(3
)
n.a.
18
40
(3
)
22
(3
)
1
30
1
1
1
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
19
(3
)
(3
)
1
(3
)
1
n.a.
n.a.
16

27,120
280
220
400

4.52
.05
.04
.07

4
15
18
n.a.

23
1
(3
)
n.a.

Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales clerk ..............................................................
Sales clerk supervisor............................................
All other sales workers ..........................................

173,760
92,110
79,510
1,080
1,060

28.98
15.36
13.26
.18
.18

n.a.
3
3
22
n.a.

n.a.
54
37
(3
)
n.a.

employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

50

Table 19. General merchandise stores: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1982
(SIC 53)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment’

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Total ....................................................................

2,150,570

100.00

-

-

Managers and officers...............................................
Director, food and beverage and/or catering
manager............................................................
Manager, merchandise...........................................
Manager, retail store ..............................................
Manager, automobile service department............
Manager, automotive parts department................
Wholesaler..............................................................
Manager, eating and/or drinking establishment ....
All other managers .................................................

197,430

9.18

n.a.

n.a.

280
22,260
88,200
3,060
1,400
270
2,200
79,760

.01
1.04
4.10
.14
.07
.01
.10
3.71

15
5
3
4
7
36
5
n.a.

2
30
88
12
7
(3
)
10
n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers ................................................................
Mathematical scientists..........................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Purchasing agent and/or buyer.............................
Buyer, retail and/or wholesale trade.....................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Commercial a rtis t...................................................
Writer and/or editor................................................
Lawyer.....................................................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Pharmacist ..............................................................
Public relations practitioner ...................................
Designer..................................................................
All other professional workers...............................

54,220
420
460
1,190
1,020
28,720
3,320
3,070
1,550
300
5,890
1,490
620
2,360
3,810

2.52
.02
.02
.06
.05
1.34
.15
.14
.07
.01
.27
.07
.03
.11
.18

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
18
12
6
14
7
8
30
4
16
18
8
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
2
2
16
5
6
3
(3
)
18
2
2
5
n.a.

Technical occupations...............................................
Computer programmer ...........................................
Drafter......................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians.....................
Pharmacy helper....................................................
All other technicians...............................................

4,660
2,030
570
390
570
1,100

.22
.09
.03
.02
.03
.05

n.a.
10
33
24
21
n.a.

n.a.
2
1
(3
)
1
n.a.

Service occupations ..................................................
Janitors, porters and cleaners...............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Food service workers, total ...................................
Baker, bread and/or pastry ..............................
Dining room attendant, bartender helper, or
cafeteria attendant.......................................
Butcher and/or meat cu tte r..............................
Host/hostess, restaurant, lounge or coffee
shop ..............................................................
Kitchen helper.....................................................
Waiter/waitress...................................................
Counter attendant, lunchroom, coffee shop, or
cafeteria........................................................
Cook, short order and/or specialty fast foods ..
Cook, restaurant.................................................
Food preparation and service worker, fast food
restaurant .....................................................
Pantry, sandwich and/or coffee m aker............
Cook, institution or cafeteria..............................
All other food service workers...........................
Cosmetologist and/or hairstylist............................
Supervisor, nonworking-service only ....................
Checker, fitting room ..............................................
Store detective.......................................................
All other service workers.......................................

124,990
32,990
8,120
42,030
400

5.81
1.53
.38
1.95
.02

n.a.
3
6
n.a.
16

n.a.
36
11
n.a.
1

2,090
560

.10
.03

8
33

3
1

1,720
5,230
15,100

.08
.24
.70

7
7
6

5
7
10

6,890
3,350
2,780

.32
.16
.13

7
8
8

8
7
7

1,470
650
560
1,230
13,830
1,480
7,530
14,720
4,290

.07
.03
.03
.06
.64
.07
.35
.68
.20

16
11
18
n.a.
6
12

1
2
1
n.a.
6

5

9
19
n.a.

239,200
45,530
10,680
720
770

11.12
2.12
.50
.03
.04

n.a.
n.a.

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, automotive........................................
Bicycle repairer..................................................
Laundry machine mechanic ..............................
See footnotes at end of table.

51

3
n.a.

5
8
17

*

5

n.a.
n.a.
11
4
1

Table 19. General merchandise stores: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1982—Continued
(SIC 53)

Occupation

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations— Continued
Mechanic, maintenance.....................................
Television servicer and repairer, radio repairer
and/or tape recorder repairer......................
Gas and electric appliance repairer..................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Carpet cutter and/or carpet layer..........................
Carpenter ................................................................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Merchandise displayer and window trim m er........
Electrician................................................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Maintenance repairer, general u tility.....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Order fille r...............................................................
Painter, maintenance..............................................
Production packager, hand or machine................
Custom sewer.........................................................
Sewing machine operator, regular equipmentgarm ent.............................................................
Stationary engineer................................................
Alteration ta ilo r.......................................................
Watchmaker............................................................
Bagger ....................................................................
Service station attendant, fuel pump attendant
and/or lubricator...............................................
Tire changer ...........................................................
Optician, dispensing and/or optical mechanic......
Drapery and upholstery measurer .........................
Household appliance installer...............................
Stock clerk, sales floor ..........................................
Furniture finisher ....................................................
All-around tailor .....................................................
Baker ......................................................................
Truck driver helper..................................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers........
All other laborers and unskilled workers..............
Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, to ta l..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator....
Computer operator..............................................
Keypunch operator..............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
All other office machine operators .....................
Stenographer .......................................................
Accounting cle rk..................................................
Bookkeeper, hand................................................
Adjustment clerk..................................................
Cashier..................................................................
Collector...............................................................
File c le rk...............................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Credit authorizer..................................................
Order c le rk ...........................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping c le rk........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Procurement c le rk ...............................................
Credit reference c le rk.........................................
Receptionist........................................................
Secretary.............................................................
Service clerk .......................................................
Switchboard operator .........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist.....................

Percent of total
employment

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

6,410

0.30

6

7

1,380
18,490
7,080
4,640
250
1,020
3,300
9,490
830
6,310
2,050
7,960
1,080
3,730
520
550
1,330

.06
.86
.33
.22
.01
.05
.15
.44
.04
.29
.10
.37
.05
.17
.02
.03
.06

13
8
n.a.
8
24
11
12
3
13
5
12
6
12
12
11
19
12

2
6
n.a.
7
1
3
6
20
2
13
2
14
2
3
2
1
2

250
710
7,690
270
870

.01
.03
.36
.01
.04

25
9
5
11
29

(3
)
2
16
1
ft

1,470
8,610
370
380
1,630
88,810
820
770
240
880
11,480
7,120
18,240

.07
.40
.02
.02
.08
4.13
.04
.04
.01
.04
.53
.33
.85

12
5
26
14
14
5
17
14
27
19
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

3
9
1
1
2
36
3
1
ft
1
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

529,290
404,730
2,020
2,820
5,760
2,130
3,900
750
21,520
11,380
26,570
137,070
6,330
3,690
45,920
10,570
10,490
3,910
4,720
1,260
4,900
970
14,990
16,720
8,710
3,480

24.61
18.82
.09
.13
.27
.10
.18
.03
1.00
.53
1.24
6.37
.29
.17
2.14
.49
.49
.18
.22
.06
.23
.05
.70
.78
.41
.16

n.a.
n.a.
12
10
7
9
n.a.
26
5
5
5
4
23
12
4
8
9
6
4
25
8
21
6
5
4
8

n.a.
n.a.
2
4
5
4
n.a.
1
21
25
17
58
4
3
33
9
8
12
15
1
5
3
22
11
15
6

See footnotes at end of table.

52

Table 19. General merchandise stores: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1982—Continued
(SIC 53)

Occupation
Office clerical workers— Continued
Typist ....................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t......................
All other office clerical workers...........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Shipping packer...................................................
Shipping and/or receiving c le rk ..........................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
ya rd ....................................................................
Dispatcher, vehicle, service or w ork...................
Marking clerk .......................................................
All other plant clerical workers...........................
Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales c le rk ..............................................................
Demonstrator..........................................................
Sales clerk supervisor............................................
All other sales workers ..........................................

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

3,970
12,740
37,440
124,560
10,620
21,630

0.18
.59
1.74
5.79
.49
1.01

14
6
n.a.
n.a.
6
5

4
17
n.a.
n.a.
11
31

51,280
610
37,940
2,480

2.38
.03
1.76
.12

4
11
4
n.a.

34
2
21
n.a.

1,000,780
269,590
664,820
4,490
35,790
26,090

46.54
12.54
30.91
.21
1.66
1.21

n.a.
2
1
17
6
n.a.

n.a.
31
74
4
14
n.a.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

53

employment and percent of total employment: relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

Table 20. Food stores: Employment, relative error, and percent of est' .-lishments reporting selected occupations, June
1982
(SIC 54)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

2,466,270

100.00

Managers and officers...............................................
Manager, merchandise...........................................
Manager, retail store ..............................................
Wholesaler..............................................................
Manager, eating and/or drinking establishment ....
All other managers .................................................

257,440
5,220
230,920
270
540
20,490

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers ................................................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Purchasing agent and/or buyer............................
Buyer, retail and/or wholesale trade.....................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Commercial a rtis t...................................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Pharmacist ..............................................................
Designer..................................................................
All other professional workers...............................

Total ...................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

-

-

10.44
.21
9.36
.01
.02
.83

n.a.
13
2
24
18
n.a.

n.a.
4
78
(3
)
1
n.a.

34,920
270
660
470
22,650
2,040
600
840
2,910
490
3,990

1.42
.01
.03
.02
.92
.08
.02
.03
.12
.02
.16

n.a.
n.a.
26
32
6
15
17
14
11
32
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
1
1
14
2
1
2
2
1
n.a.

Technical occupations...............................................
Computer programmer ...........................................
Drafter.....................................................................
Pharmacy helper....................................................
All other technicians...............................................

2,380
680
270
490
940

.10
.03
.01
.02
.04

n.a.
17
34
18
n.a.

n.a.
1
(3
)
1
n.a.

Service occupations .................................................
Janitors, porters and cleaners...............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Food service workers, to ta l...................................
Baker, bread and/or pastry ..............................
Dining room attendant, bartender helper, or
cafeteria attendant.......................................
Butcher and/or meat cu tte r..............................
Host/hostess, restaurant, lounge or coffee
shop ..............................................................
Kitchen helper....................................................
Waiter/waitress..................................................
Counter attendant, lunchroom, coffee shop, or
cafeteria........................................................
Cook, short order and/or specialty fast foods ..
Cook, restaurant................................................
Food preparation and service worker, fast food
restaurant .....................................................
Pantry, sandwich and/or coffee m aker............
Cook, institution or cafeteria.............................
All other food service workers..........................
Supervisor, nonworking-service only ....................
Store detective.......................................................
All other service workers.......................................

273,840
22,870
2,890
242,760
27,040

11.10
.93
.12
9.84
1.10

n.a.
5
14
n.a.
6

n.a.
19
1
n.a.
14

900
129,810

.04
5.26

34
2

1
37

320
10,240
14,440

.01
.42
.59

31
10
12

(3
)
7
4

17,660
11,640
4,450

.72
.47
.18

23
13
14

5
6
1

3,020
8,290
600
14,350
490
1,640
3,190

.12
.34
.02
.58
.02
.07
.13

19
14
28
n.a.
24
19
n.a.

1
1
(3
)
n.a.
(3
)
1
n.a.

679,100
2,180
820
540

27.54
.09
.03
.02

n.a.
n.a.
19
19

n.a.
n.a.
1
(3
)

360
460
12,750
300
9,510
3,140
3,030
5,800
270
7,580
28,700

.01
.02
.52
.01
.39
.13
.12
.24
.01
.31
1.16

19
n.a.
9
25
15
26
15
9
29
17
6

1
n.a.
5
1
7
1
1
6
(3
)
1
14

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, automotive........................................
Diesel mechanic ................................................
Refrigeration mechanic and/or air conditioning
mechanic......................................................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Carpenter ................................................................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Maintenance repairer, general utility .....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Order fille r...............................................................
Production packager, hand or machine................
See footnotes at end of table.

54

Table 20. Food stores: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations, June
1982—Continued
(SIC 54)

Occupation

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations— Continued
Bagger ....................................................................
Service station attendant, fuel pump attendant
and/or lubricator...............................................
Stock clerk, sales floor ..........................................
Baker ......................................................................
Cake decorator.......................................................
Doughnut maker and/or doughnut machine
operator.............................................................
Truck driver helper..................................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers.......
All other laborers and unskilled workers ..............

Percent of total
employment

Employment’

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

183,710

7.45

3

23

580
368,310
16,800
3,660

.02
14.93
.68
.15

41
2
8
10

(3
)
40
9
4

10,670
380
1,600
3,720
16,410

.43
.02
.06
.15
.67

7
35
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

9
(3
)
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

Clerical occupations...................................................
Office clerical workers, to ta l..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator ....
Computer operator...............................................
Keypunch operator...............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
All other office machine operators .....................
Accounting cle rk...................................................
Bookkeeper, hand................................................
Adjustment clerk..................................................
Cashier..................................................................
File cle rk...............................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Order clerk ...........................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping c le rk........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Procurement c le rk ................................................
Receptionist.........................................................
Secretary..............................................................
Service clerk ........................................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Typist ....................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t......................
All other office clerical workers...........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Shipping packer....................................................
Shipping and/or receiving c le rk ..........................
Weigher, recordkeeping ......................................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
y a rd ....................................................................
Dispatcher, vehicle, service or w ork...................
Marking clerk .......................................................
All other plant clerical workers............................

806,040
746,780
370
1,000
1,360
410
510
14,380
26,660
970
654,340
340
21,410
1,380
1,180
670
310
530
9,750
1,150
460
1,010
2,510
6,080
59,260
1,730
3,460
250

32.68
30.28
.02
.04
.06
.02
.02
.58
1.08
.04
26.53
.01
.87
.06
.05
.03
.01
.02
.40
.05
.02
.04
.10
.25
2.40
.07
.14
.01

n.a.
n.a.
29
11
16
23
n.a.
12
4
21
1
34
6
30
9
14
23
21
8
21
15
18
18
n.a.
n.a.
29
10
37

n.a.
n.a.
(3
)
2
1
n.a.
8
24
1
54
1
13
1
2
1
(3
)
1
9
1
1
1
2
n.a.
n.a.
1
3
(3
)

46,450
310
3,670
3,390

1.88
.01
.15
.14

7
17
20
n.a.

12
1
1
n.a.

Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales clerk ..............................................................
Demonstrator..........................................................
Sales clerk supervisor............................................
All other sales workers ..........................................

412,550
27,740
368,100
1,200
4,200
11,310

16.73
1.12
14.93
.05
.17
.46

n.a.
17
3
21
24
n.a.

n.a.
8
53
1
1
n.a.

0

employment and percent of total employment: relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

' Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other" categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

55

Table 21. Automotive dealers and gasoline service stations: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations, June 1982
(SIC 55)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Total ....................................................................

1,637,690

100.00

Managers and officers...............................................
Manager, merchandise...........................................
Manager, retail store ..............................................
Manager, automobile service department ............
Manager, automotive parts department................
Wholesaler..............................................................
Manager, eating and/or drinking establishment ....
All other managers ................................................

242,780
900
132,450
52,210
35,200
390
320
21,310

14.82
.05
8.09
3.19
2.15
.02
.02
1.30

n.a.
20
2
2
3
23
25
n.a.

n.a.
1
65
37
29
1
(3
)
n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Buyer, retail and/or wholesale trade.....................
Accountants and auditors......................................
All other professional workers...............................

19,440
250
17,890
1,300

1.19
.02
1.09
.08

n.a.
28
4
n.a.

n.a.
(3
)
17
n.a.

Technical occupations...............................................
Computer programmer ...........................................
Electrical and electronic technicians.....................
All other technicians...............................................

2,240
230
240
1,770

.14
.01
.01
.11

n.a.
21
47
n.a.

n.a.
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.

Service occupations ..................................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Dining room attendant, bartender helper, or
cafeteria attendant............................................
Kitchen helper ........................................................
Waiter/waitress ......................................................
Cook, short order and/or specialty fast foods......
Cook, restaurant.....................................................
All other food service workers..............................
Supervisor, nonworking-service only ....................
All other service workers .......................................

46,240
21,650
480

2.82
1.32
.03

n.a.
4
30

n.a.
14
1

280
3,790
10,180
5,780
1,200
910
180
1,790

.02
.23
.62
.35
.07
.06
.01
.11

36
16
14
16
27
n.a.
34
n.a.

(3
)
1
2
2
(3
)
n.a.
(3
)
n.a.

775,370
323,600
1,220
262,410
41,070
7,960
200
2,950
170
4,550
450
2,620
13,840
5,430
340
43,400
18,550
14,280
690
7,970
28,020
690
13,200
200
7,370

47.35
19.76
.07
16.02
2.51
.49
.01
.18
.01
.28
.03
.16
.85
.33
.02
2.65
1.13
.87
.04
.49
1.71
.04
.81
.01
.45

n.a.
n.a.
13
1
3
12
47
11
31
8
38
n.a.
8
8
26
4
6
5
29
8
5
34
5
30
11

n.a.
n.a.
(3
)
57
15
4
(3
)
2
(3
)
3
O
n.a.
7
5
(3
)
21
11
12
1
6
14
(3
)
9
(3
)
3

240,340
41,900
950
2,560
1,010
3,550
7,480

14.68
2.56
.06
.16
.06
.22
.46

2
5
27
13
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

28
14
0
2
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, aircraft...............................................
Mechanic, automotive........................................
Automotive body repairer..................................
Diesel mechanic ................................................
Gasoline engine or mower repairer..................
Marine mechanic and/or repairer .....................
Mechanic, maintenance.....................................
Motorboat mechanic..........................................
Gas and electric appliance repairer..................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Automobile repair service estimator......................
Carpenter ................................................................
Cleaner, vehicle......................................................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Machinist.................................................................
Maintenance repairer, general u tility.....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Order fille r...............................................................
Painter, automotive................................................
Painter, maintenance..............................................
Tire fabricator and/or repairer ..............................
Service station attendant, fuel pump attendant
and/or lubricator..............................................
Tire changer ..........................................................
Stock clerk, sales floor ............... * .......................
Mobile home repairer ............................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers..........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers.......
All other laborers and unskilled w orkers.............
See footnotes at end of table.

56

-

--

Table 21. Automotive dealers and gasoline service stations: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations, June 1982—Continued
(SIC 55)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, to ta l..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator....
Computer operator..............................................
Keypunch operator..............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
Accounting clerk..................................................
Bookkeeper, hand...............................................
Adjustment clerk..................................................
Cashier..................................................................
Collector...............................................................
File cle rk...............................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Credit authorizer..................................................
Order c le rk ...........................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping c le rk........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Credit reference c le rk..........................................
Receptionist.........................................................
Secretary..............................................................
Service c le rk ........................................................
Switchboard operator ..........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Typist ...................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t......................
All other office clerical workers...........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Shipping packer...................................................
Shipping and/or receiving c le rk ..........................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
ya rd ...................................................................
Dispatcher, vehicle, service or w ork...................
All other plant clerical workers...........................

291,610
251,120
510
760
580
360
22,150
43,160
260
89,350
660
880
47,450
220
560
1,000
200
210
480
16,750
19,630
1,020
1,070
920
630
2,310
40,490
300
780

17.81
15.33
.03
.05
.04
.02
1.35
2.64
.02
5.46
.04
.05
2.90
.01
.03
.06
.01
.01
.03
1.02
1.20
.06
.07
.06
.04
.14
2.47
.02
.05

n.a.
n.a.
18
16
16
26
4
3
28
5
25
13
3
24
28
11
21
27
27
4
5
13
13
15
21
n.a.
n.a.
21
20

n.a.
n.a.
1
1
1
(3
)
18
34
(3
)
24
1
1
30
' (3
)
(3
)
2
(3
)
(3
)
1
16
13
1
2

38,200
790
420

2.33
.05
.03

4

22

14
n.a.

n.a.

Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales c le rk ..............................................................
Sales clerk supervisor............................................
All other sales workers ..........................................

260,010
199,430
57,220
870
2,490

15.88
12.18
3.49
.05
.15

n.a.
2
5
29
n.a.

1

1
n.a.

47
17
(3
)
n.a.

employment and percent of total employment: relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

\

1
1
n.a.
n.a.
(3
)

57

Table 22. Apparel and accessory stores: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1982
(SIC 56)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment'

Total ...................................................................

933,620

100.00

Managers and officers...............................................
Manager, merchandise...........................................
Manager, retail store ..............................................
All other managers ................................................

158,760
12,800
137,490
8,470

Professional occupations..........................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Purchasing agent and/or buyer............................
Buyer, retail and/or wholesale trade.....................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Commercial a rtis t...................................................
Writer and/or editor...............................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Designer.................................................................
All other professional workers...............................

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

-

-

17.00
1.37
14.73
.91

n.a.
5
1
n.a.

n.a.
16
86
n.a.

24,230
250
140
20,330
930
640
130
500
300
1,010

2.60
.03
.01
2.18
.10
.07
.01
.05
.03
.11

n.a.
21
33
5
11
15
26
11
24
n.a.

n.a.
(3
)
(3
)
19
1
1
(3
)
1
(3
)
n.a.

Technical occupations..............................................
Computer programmer ...........................................
All other technicians..............................................

490
410
80

.05
.04
.01

n.a.
15
n.a.

n.a.
1
n.a.

Service occupations .................................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Waiter/waitress ......................................................
Counter attendant, lunchroom, coffee shop, or
cafeteria ............................................................
All other food service workers..............................
Cosmetologist and/or hairstylist ...........................
Checker, fitting room .............................................
Store detective.......................................................
All other service workers .......................................

12,980
8,290
790
550

1.39
.89
.08
.06

n.a.
5
16
33

n.a.
11
1
(3
)

140
510
860
520
710
610

.01
.05
.09
.06
.08
.07

45
n.a.
28
20
16
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.
(3
)
(3
)
1
n.a.

74,540
550
2,100
3,640
290
1,370
830
1,470

7.98
.06
.22
.39
.03
.15
.09
.16

n.a.
15
15
8
22
12
34
25

n.a.
1
3
6
1
2
(3
)
1

2,250

.24

28

(3
)

410
28,570
290
24,980
500
830
4,300
2,160

.04
3.06
.03
2.68
.05
.09
.46
.23

42
4
45
7
22
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

(3
)
20
(3
)
13
(3
)
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

122,790
94,520
310
730
1,090
260
7,920
15,830
590
38,480
830
330

13.15
10.12
.03
.08
.12
.03
.85
1.70
.06
4.12
.09
.04

n.a.
n.a.
33
15
13
21
6
4
20
4
16
25

n.a.
n.a.
(3
)
1
1
(3
)
9
23
(3
)
18
1
(3
)

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Truck driver.............................................................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Merchandise displayer and window trim m er........
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Maintenance repairer, general utility .....................
Order fille r...............................................................
Custom sewer.........................................................
Sewing machine operator, regular equipmentgarment .............................................................
Sewing machine operator, special equipment
and/or automatic equipment-garment............
Alteration ta ilo r.......................................................
Custom tailor ..........................................................
Stock clerk, sales floor ..........................................
All-around tailor .....................................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers.......
All other laborers and unskilled w orkers..............
Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, to ta l..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator ....
Computer operator..............................................
Keypunch operator..............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
Accounting clerk..................................................
Bookkeeper, hand...............................................
Adjustment clerk..................................................
Cashier..................................................................
Collector ...............................................................
File c le rk...............................................................
See footnotes at end of table.

58

Table 22. Apparel and accessory stores: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1982—Continued
(SIC 56)

Occupation
Office clerical workers— Continued
General office clerk .............................................
Credit authorizer..................................................
Order clerk ...........................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping c le rk ........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Credit reference c le rk ..........................................
Receptionist.........................................................
Secretary..............................................................
Service clerk ........................................................
Switchboard operator ..........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Typist ....................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t......................
All other office clerical workers...........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Shipping packer....................................................
Shipping and/or receiving c le rk ..........................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
y a rd ....................................................................
Marking clerk .......................................................
All other plant clerical workers............................
Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales clerk ..............................................................
Sales clerk supervisor............................................
All other sales workers ..........................................

Percent of total
employment

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

16,150
900
450
700
330
600
130
4,340
530
460
360
440
810
1,950
28,270
1,130
11,020

1.73
.10
.05
.07
• .04
.06
.01
.46
.06
.05
.04
.05
.09
.21
3.03
.12
1.18

6
12
34
14
10
14
25
8
19
11
15
16
15
n.a.
n.a.
18
8

14
1
(3
)
1
1
1
(3
)
7
(3
)
1
1
(3
)
1
n.a.
n.a.
1
12

12,570
3,100
450

1.35
.33
.05

8
12
n.a.

9
1
n.a.

539,830
126,930
408,900
2,470
1,530

57.82
13.60
43.80
.26
.16

n.a.
4
2
26
n.a.

n.a.
27
72
1
n.a.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

59

Table 23. Furniture, home furnishings, and equipment stores: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, June 1982
(SIC 57)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Total ....................................................................

573,880

100.00

-

Managers and officers...............................................
Manager, merchandise...........................................
Manager, retail store ..............................................
All other managers .................................................

89,230
10,840
70,350
8,040

15.55

n.a.

12.26
1.40

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers ................................................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Buyer, retail and/or wholesale trade.....................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Commercial a rtis t...................................................
Writer and/or editor................................................
Musician, instrumental............................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Public relations practitioner ...................................
Designer..................................................................
All other professional workers...............................

24,180
80
100
9,160
570
320
70
330
100
60
12,330
1,060

Technical occupations...............................................
Computer programmer...........................................
Engineering technicians, total ...............................
Electrical and electronic technicians................
All other engineering technicians......................
All other technicians...............................................
Service occupations .................................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Food service workers.............................................
All other service workers .......................................
Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Refrigeration mechanic and/or air conditioning
mechanic......................................................
Television servicer and repairer, radio repairer
and/or tape recorder repairer......................
Gas and electric appliance repairer..................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Cabinetmaker..........................................................
Carpet cutter and/or carpet layer..........................
Carpenter ................................................................
Delivery and/or route worker ................................
Merchandise displayer and window trim m er........
Electrician................................................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Maintenance repairer, general u tility.....................
Musical instrument repairer ...................................
Order fille r...............................................................
Sewing machine operator, regular equipmentnongarment .......................................................
Sewing machine operator, special and/or
automatic equipment-nongarment...................
Furniture assembler and installer ..........................
Drapery hanger.......................................................
Household appliance installer...............................
Stock clerk, sales floor ..........................................
Furniture finisher ....................................................
Furniture upholsterer .............................................
Ceiling tile installer and/or floor layer...................
Truck driver helper.................................................
Picture fram er.........................................................

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation
-n.a.

5
2

18
80

n.a.

n.a.

4.21
.01
.02
1.60
.10
.06
.01
.06
.02
.01
2.15
.18

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
(3
)

n.a.

n.a.

2,910
260
1,600
1,510
90
1,050

.51
.05
.28
.26
.02
.18

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

13,560
8,600
300
4,190
470

2.36
1.50
.05
.73
.08

n.a.

n.a.

6
48

15

n.a.
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.
n.a.

143,840
30,850

25.06
5.38

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

3,190

.56

12

4

18,240
7,860
1,560
7,840
7,940
10,610
1,500
31,620
150
460
2,990
220
1,990
3,130
520

3.18
1.37
.27
1.37
1.38
1.85
.26
5.51
.03
.08
.52
.04
.35
.55
.09

7
7

16
11

n.a.

n.a.

2,890

.50

19

2

3,550
5,020
830
7,550
7,140
3,270
1,740
2,070
790
730

.62
.87
.14
1.32
1.24
.57
.30
.36
.14
.13

20
11
24
10
10
10
18
22
21
45

2
5
1
8
7
5
2
1
1

1.89

See footnotes at end of table.

60

26
6
18
24
30
44
20
42
8

34
n.a.

35

7
14
9
24
4
34
37
9
47
16
16
31

15
1
1

(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

10

1
n.a.

1

9
3
6
2
27
(3
)
(3
)

5
(3
)

3
4
(3
)

(3
)

t

Table 23. Furniture, home furnishings, and equipment stores: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, June 1982—Continued
(SIC 57)

Occupation

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations— Continued
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers........
All other laborers and unskilled workers ..............

Percent of total
employment

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

1,280
2,420
4,740

0.22
.42
.83

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, total ..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator....
Computer operator...............................................
Keypunch operator..............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
All other office machine operators .....................
Accounting cle rk..................................................
Bookkeeper, hand................................................
Adjustment clerk..................................................
Cashier..................................................................
Collector...............................................................
File clerk...............................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Credit authorizer..................................................
Order c le rk ...........................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping cle rk........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Credit reference c le rk..........................................
Receptionist.........................................................
Secretary..............................................................
Service c le rk ........................................................
Switchboard operator ..........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Typist ....................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t......................
All other office clerical workers...........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Shipping packer...................................................
Shipping and/or receiving c le rk ..........................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
ya rd ....................................................................
All other plant clerical workers............................

122,130
96,440
100
420
400
190
100
9,720
20,360
390
14,280
1,280
180
27,150
410
380
170
70
530
1,670
9,800
590
720
1,840
160
4,660
870
25,690
3,110
6,810

21.28
16.80
.02
.07
.07
.03
.02
1.69
3.55
.07
2.49
.22
.03
4.73
.07
.07
.03
.01
.09
.29
1.71
.10
.13
.32
.03
.81
.15
4.48
.54
1.19

n.a.
n.a.
50
21
20
27
n.a.
8
4
33
7
20
27
4
29
40
17
25
22
13
6
16
23
10
38
8
n.a.
n.a.
13
7

n.a.
n.a.
(3
)
1
1
(3
)
n.a.
13
34
1
12
1
(3
)
30
1
1
1
(3
)
1
4
16
1
2
4
(3
)
9
n.a.
n.a.
4
11

15,490
280

2.70
.05

6
n.a.

15
n.a.

Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales c le rk ............................................................*
Demonstrator..........................................................
Sales clerk supervisor............................................
All other sales workers ..........................................

178,030
105,680
71,160
220
200
770

31.02
18.41
12.40
.04
.03
.13

n.a.
3
4
35
44
n.a.

n.a.
55
29
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.

' Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

61

Table 24. Eating and drinking places: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1982
(SIC 58)

Occupation

Employment'

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Total ....................................................................

4,985,150

100.00

-

-

Managers and officers...............................................
Director, food and beverage and/or catering
manager............................................................
Manager, retail store ..............................................
Manager, eating and/or drinking establishment ....
All other managers ................................................

380,520

7.63

n.a.

n.a.

30,350
14,300
314,170
21,700

.61
.29
6.30
.44

9
18
2
n.a.

12
3
71
n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Purchasing agent and/or buyer............................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Musician, instrumental............................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
All other professional workers...............................

21,470
1,070
2,390
9,600
960
7,450

.43
.02
.05
.19
.02
.15

n.a.
23
23
18
27
n.a.

n.a.
1
3
2
2
n.a.

Technical occupations...............................................
Computer programmer ...........................................
All other technicians..............................................

920
520
400

.02
.01
.01

n.a.
49
n.a.

n.a.
1
n.a.

Service occupations .................................................
Janitors, porters and cleaners...............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Food service workers, to ta l...................................
Baker, bread and/or pastry ..............................
Bartender............................................................
Dining room attendant, bartender helper, or
cafeteria attendant.......................................
Butcher and/or meat cu tte r..............................
Host/hostess, restaurant, lounge or coffee
shop ..............................................................
Kitchen helper....................................................
Waiter/waitress..................................................
Counter attendant, lunchroom, coffee shop, or
cafeteria........................................................
Cook, short order and/or specialty fast foods ..
Cook, restaurant................................................
Food preparation and service worker, fast food
restaurant .....................................................
Pantry, sandwich and/or coffee m aker............
Cook, institution or cafeteria.............................
All other food service workers..........................
Supervisor, nonworking-service only ....................
All other service workers .......................................

4,254,510
66,750
12,390
4,133,070
17,860
249,020

85.34
1.34
.25
82.91
.36
5.00

n.a.
7
14
n.a.
10
4

n.a.
23
3
n.a.
7
36

177,870
3,200

3.57
.06

5
23

24
1

95,810
396,520
1,210,110

1.92
7.95
24.27

5
3
1

26
49
60

164,810
339,050
303,610

3.31
6.80
6.09

9
5
3

10
32
43

1,080,020
44,380
10,080
40,730
31,440
10,860

21.66
.89
.20
.82
.63
.22

1
9
31
n.a.
8
n.a.

28
11
2
n.a.

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers........................................
Truck driver.............................................................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Maintenance repairer, general utility .....................
Baker ......................................................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers.......
All other laborers and unskilled w orkers..............

54,230
1,330
1,580
24,940
690
14,470
1,250
1,190
2,980
5,800

1.09
.03
.03
.50
.01
.29
.03
.02
.06
.12

n.a.
n.a.
39
25
36
10
47
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
1
3
1
8

Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, to ta l..................................
Computer operator..............................................
All other office machine operators .....................
Accounting cle rk..................................................
Bookkeeper, hand...............................................
Cashier..................................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping cle rk........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Secretary..............................................................
Switchboard operator ..........................................

211,660
209,200
630
880
9,690
31,360
132,600
14,330
1,650
560
11,320
990

4.25
4.20
.01
.02
.19
.63
2.66
.29
.03
.01
.23
.02

n.a.
n.a.
36
n.a.
13
5
6
9
16
26
10
45

n.a.
n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.

62

11

n.a.

1
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

1
n.a.
7

17
22
8
3

1
8
(3
)

Table 24. Eating and drinking places: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1982—Continued
(SIC 58)

Occupation
Office clerical workers— Continued
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t......................
All other office clerical workers...........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
ya rd ....................................................................
All other plant clerical workers............................
Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales clerk ..............................................................
All other sales workers ..........................................

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

600
1,080
3,510
2,460

0.01
.02
.07
.05

38
26
n.a.
n.a.

1
1
n.a.
n.a.

1,820
640

.04
.01

36
n.a.

1
n.a.

61,840
5,060
55,570
1,210

1.24
.10
1.11
.02

n.a.
31
13
n.a.

n.a.
2
3
n.a.

employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

' Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

63

Table 25. Miscellaneous retail stores: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1982
(SIC 59)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Total ....................................................................

1,899,320

100.00

-

-

Managers and officers...............................................
Director, food and beverage and/or catering
manager ............................................................
Manager, merchandise...........................................
Manager, retail store ..............................................
Wholesaler..............................................................
Manager, eating and/or drinking establishment ....
All other managers .................................................

243,020

12.80

n.a.

n.a.

200
26,420
193,240
310
460
22,390

.01
1.39
10.17
.02
.02
1.18

23
4
1
31
21
n.a.

ft
15
69
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers ................................................................
Statistician...............................................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Purchasing agent and/or b uyer............................
Buyer, retail and/or wholesale trade.....................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Commercial a rtis t...................................................
Writer and/or editor................................................
Optometrist .............................................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Pharmacist..............................................................
Public relations practitioner...................................
Designer..................................................................
All other professional workers...............................

150,600
280
200
470
240
25,550
1,920
860
370
890
640
75,300
290
39,700
3,890

7.93
.01
.01
.02
.01
1.35
.10
.05
.02
.05
.03
3.96
.02
2.09
.20

n.a.
n.a.
25
16
19
4
9
21
20
36
10
2
25
5
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
12
1
1
(3
)
(3
)
1
14
ft
10
n.a.

Technical occupations...............................................
Computer programmer...........................................
Electrical and electronic technicians.....................
Pharmacy helper....................................................
All other technicians...............................................

10,000
820
760
5,990
2,430

.53
.04
.04
.32
.13

n.a.
13
36
11
n.a.

n.a.
1
(3
)
1
n.a.

Service occupations .................................................
Janitors, porters and cleaners...............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Food service workers, to ta l...................................
Bartender............................................................
Dining room attendant, bartender helper, or
cafeteria attendant.......................................
Host/hostess, restaurant, lounge or coffee
shop ..............................................................
Kitchen helper....................................................
Waiter/waitress..................................................
Counter attendant, lunchroom, coffee shop, or
cafeteria........................................................
Cook, short order and/or specialty fast foods ..
Cook, restaurant................................................
Food preparation and service worker, fast food
restaurant.....................................................
Pantry, sandwich and/or coffee m aker............
Cook, institution or cafeteria.............................
All other food service workers..........................
Cosmetologist and/or hairstylist............................
Supervisor, nonworking-service o n ly ....................
Store detective.......................................................
All other service workers.......................................

54,840
19,530
2,640
26,230
1,470

2.89
1.03
.14
1.38
.08

n.a.
5
13
n.a.
31

n.a.
10
1
n.a.
(3
)

750

.04

24

(3
)

790
1,410
2,780

.04
.07
.15

31
23
24

ft
(3
)

4,130
2,710
780

.22
.14
.04

14
22
28

1
1
(3
)

2,510
2,330
920
5,650
830
510
200
4,900

.13
.12
.05
.30
.04
.03
.01
.26

20
17
24
n.a.
30
16
42
n.a.

(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.
(3
)
ft
ft
n.a.

317,450
43,300
7,610
4,980
710

16.71
2.28
.40
.26
.04

n.a.
n.a.
12
17
16

n.a.
n.a.
4
1

2,090

.11

23

1

15,550
8,230

.82
.43

9
7

3
5

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, automotive.......................................
Bicycle repairer.................................................
Mechanic, maintenance....................................
Office machine servicer and/or cash register
servicer........................................................
Coin machine servicer and/or vending
machine repairer..........................................
Gas and electric appliance repairer.................
See footnotes at end of table.

64

1

ft

Table 25. Miscellaneous retail stores: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1982—Continued
(SIC 59)

Occupation

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations— Continued
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Carpenter................................................................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Jeweler and/or silversmith ....................................
Machinist.................................................................
Maintenance repairer, general u tility.....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Oil burner installer and servicer............................
Order fille r...............................................................
Production packager, hand or machine................
Alteration ta ilo r.......................................................
Watchmaker............................................................
Service station attendant, fuel pump attendant
and/or lubricator..............................................
Optician, dispensing and/or optical mechanic......
Stock clerk, sales floor ..........................................
Truck driver helper.................................................
Picture fram er.........................................................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers.......
All other laborers and unskilled workers..............

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

4,130
20,120
210
77,360
7,810
1,120
8,450
300
9,400
2,170
10,280
20,880
1,340
230
3,920

0.22
1.06
.01
4.07
.41
.06
.44
.02
.49
.11
.54
1.10
.07
.01
.21

n.a.
5
38
3
7
16
9
34
9
34
5
7
27
44
12

n.a.
8
(3
)
21
4
(3
)
3
(3
)
4
(3
)
3
5
(3
)
(3
)
2

2,560
12,280
44,740
320
830
7,370
15,030
27,430

.13
.65
2.36
.02
.04
.39
.79
1.44

15
20
5
35
35
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

1
1
10
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, to ta l..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator ....
Computer operator...............................................
Keypunch operator...............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
All other office machine operators .....................
Accounting clerk..................................................
Bookkeeper, hand...............................................
Adjustment clerk..................................................
Cashier..................................................................
Collector...............................................................
File cle rk...............................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Credit authorizer..................................................
Order c le rk ...........................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping cle rk........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Procurement c le rk................................................
Credit reference c le rk ..........................................
Receptionist.........................................................
Secretary..............................................................
Service c le rk ........................................................
Switchboard operator ..........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Typist ...................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t......................
All other office clerical workers...........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Shipping packer...................................................
Shipping and/or receiving c le rk ..........................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
ya rd ...................................................................
Dispatcher, vehicle, service or w ork...................
Marking clerk .......................................................
All other plant clerical workers...........................

436,820
382,250
13,050
2,000
3,370
860
2,200
21,900
45,900
1,690
162,090
1,380
2,010
57,150
590
22,820
1,120
400
220
440
1,080
23,590
1,440
470
750
3,030
2,950
9,750
54,570
6,340
16,540

23.00
20.13
.69
.11
.18
.05
.12
1.15
2.42
.09
8.53
.07
.11
3.01
.03
1.20
.06
.02
.01
.02
.06
1.24
.08
.02
.04
.16
.16
.51
2.87
.33
.87

n.a.
n.a.
5
11
9
18
n.a.
4
3
10
3
23
14
4
22
6
9
10
22
38
24
4
20
13
11
10
15
n.a.
n.a.
11
6

n.a.
n.a.
8
1
1
(3
)
n.a.
12
26
(3
)
20
(3
)
(3
)
20
(3
)
7
1
1
0
(3
)
1
13
(3
)
1
1
1
1
n.a.
n.a.
1
8

28,430
640
1,000
1,620

1.50
.03
.05
.09

6
17
38
n.a.

9
1
(3
)
n.a.

Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....

686,590
179,780

36.15
9.47

n.a.
3

n.a.
27

See footnotes at end of table.

65

Table 25. Miscellaneous retail stores: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1982—Continued
(SIC 59)

Occupation

Sales occupations— Continued
Sales clerk ..............................................................
Sales clerk supervisor............................................
All other sales workers ..........................................

Percent of total
employment

Employment'

498,540
2,930
5,340

26.25
.15
.28

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate "All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

2
30
n.a.

49
(3
)
n.a.

employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

66

Local government

State government

For purposes o f this survey, local government in­
cludes government establishments engaged in providing
the same services as those listed under State government.
Employment in local government totaled 3.6 million
in 1982, representing about 4 percent o f all
nonagricultural wage and salary employment in the Na­
tion. (In 1979, local government employment was ap­
proximately 3.9 million.)
The two largest occupational groups in local govern­
ment in 1982 were service workers and operating,
maintenance, construction, repair, material handling,
and powerplant workers, with about 1.1 million
workers and 931,000, respectively. (See table A-2.)
These two groups together accounted for 57 percent of
total employment. Highway maintenance men ac­
counted for 11 percent of the employment in operating
occupations and police patrol officers were 27 percent
of service worker employment.
Clerical workers accounted for 20 percent of employment
in local government. Typists made up the largest occupation
in this group. They accounted for 13 percent of the employ­
ment. Professional occupations ranked fourth, with 12 per­
cent of total surveyed employment. Caseworker was the
largest occupation in this major group, accounting for 12
percent of professional employment.
The remaining occupational employment was
distributed as follows: Managers and officers, 9 per­
cent; technical workers, 3 percent; and sales workers,
less than 1 percent.

For this survey, State government employment in­
cludes government establishments engaged in providing
police and fire protection; public safety; human or
social services; recreational facilities; public transporta­
tion; public housing; judiciary services; environmental
quality programs such as sanitation, waste management
and water control; library facilities; and medical and
health services, except hospitals. Educational institu­
tions are excluded.
There were 1.7 million employees in State government
in 1982, representing about 2 percent of all nonagricultural
wage and salary employment in the Nation.
Professional workers, the largest occupational group,
accounted for 29 percent of the employment in State
government. (See table A -l.) Caseworkers and accoun­
tants and auditors were the two largest occupations in this
group. Clerical workers accounted for 26 percent of the
employment in State government. Typists and general of­
fice clerks had the largest employment in this major group
with 5 percent and 4 percent, respectively. Service occupa­
tions ranked third, with 19 percent of total surveyed
employment. Correction officers and jailers accounted for
4 percent of the employment in this group.
The remaining occupational employment was
distributed as follows: Operating, maintenance, construc­
tion, repair, material handling, and powerplant workers,
11 percent; managers and officers, 9 percent; technical
workers, 6 percent; and sales occupations, less than 1 per­
cent of total surveyed employment in this industry.

67

Table A-1. State government: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1982
Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

T o ta l....................................................................

1,748,410

100.00

-

Managers and officers...............................................
Public administration inspectors, except
construction ......................................................
Construction inspector ...........................................
Chief executives, general administrators, and
legislators..........................................................
All other managers .................................................

148,900

8.52

n.a.

37,380
5,840

2.14
.33

100
88

14,560
91,120

.83
5.21

98
n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers, total ......................................................
Civil engineer.......................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers ....................
Mechanical engineer ...........................................
Safety engineer...................................................
Traffic engineer...................................................
All other engineers ..............................................
Mathematical scientists, to ta l................................
Financial analyst ..................................................
Statistician............................................................
All other mathematical scientists........................
Physical scientists, to ta l.........................................
Chemist ................................................................
All other physical scientists................................
Life scientists, to ta l.................................................
Agricultural scientist.............................................
Biological scientist...............................................
Forester and conservation scientist...................
All other life scientists.........................................
Social scientists, to ta l.............................................
Economist ............................................................
Psychologist.........................................................
Sociologist............................................................
Urban and regional planner................................
All other social scientists....................................
Therapists, to ta l......................................................
Physical therapist.................................................
Occupational therapist ........................................
Manual arts, music, and/or recreational
therapist .........................................................
All other therapists...............................................
Occupational therapist.......................................
All other therapists.............................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Audio visual specialist............................................
Claims taker, unemployment benefits...................
Speech pathologist and/or audiologist.................
Teacher and/or instructor, vocational education
or training..........................................................
Vocational and educational counselor..................
Photographer..........................................................
Purchasing agent and/or buyer............................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Landscape architect...............................................
Architect..................................................................
Budget analyst........................................................
Caseworker.............................................................
Commercial a rtis t...................................................
Dietitian and/or nutritionist....................................
Writer and/or editor...............................................
Employment interviewer.........................................
Law cle rk.................................................................
Lawyer....................................................................
Librarian, professional ............................................
Curator, museum....................................................
Nurse, professional................................................
Paralegal personnel...............................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists.............
Physician and/or surgeon......................................

499,100
38,820
25,170
840
740
730
5,180
6,160
5,240
1,550
2,480
1,210
6,530
2,770
3,760
15,570
1,790
6,700
4,680
2,400
16,860
3,860
5,240
1,400
3,230
3,130
8,880
2,140
1,580

28.55
2.22
1.44
.05
.04
.04
.30
.35
.30
.09
.14
.07
.37
.16
.22
.89
.10
.38
.27
.14
.96
.22
.30
.08
.18
.18
.51
.12
.09

n.a.
n.a.
100
78
80
59
63
n.a.
n.a.
84
94
n.a.
n.a.
100
n.a.
n.a.
90
100
98
n.a.
n.a.
96
100
31
92
n.a.
n.a.
80
80

1,460
3,700
1,580
3,700
8,040
880
22,510
1,400

.08
.21
.09
.21
.46
.05
1.29
.08

73
n.a.
80
n.a.
98
57
92
84

12,710
13,150
810
2,590
33,430
700
980
3,780
72,250
920
1,810
1,130
22,260
3,140
16,860
2,400
430
20,630
3,500
10,160
5,050

.73
.75
.05
.15
1.91
.04
.06

86
100
94
100
100

See footnotes at end of table.

68

.22
4.13
.05
.10
.06
1.27
.18

.96
.14
.02
1.18
.20
.58

.29

88
94
100
100
94
100
92
96
98
100
100
75
98
100
100
100

Table A-1. State government: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1982—Continued
<
Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Professional occupations— Continued
Public relations practitioner...................................
Right-of-way agent ................................................
Veterinarian.............................................................
Designer..................................................................
Community organization worker............................
Welfare investigator................................................
Judge ......................................................................
Magistrate ...............................................................
Tax examiner, collector and/or revenue a g e n t....
Assessor..................................................................
Appraiser, real e sta te .............................................
Group recreation w orker........................................
All other professional workers...............................

3,380
2,320
730
370
2,990
3,910
9,410
1,180
12,530
1,200
2,110
3,590
101,960

0.19
.13
.04
.02
.17
.22
.54
.07
.72
.07
.12
.21
5.83

100
80
96
53
88
76
92
31
94
53
86
82
n.a.

Technical occupations...............................................
Computer programmer...........................................
Engineering technicians, total ...............................
Drafter.................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians................
Surveyor..............................................................
Traffic technician................................................
Civil engineering technician ..............................
All other engineering technicians......................
Science technicians................................................
Licensed practical nurse........................................
Physician’s assistant...............................................
Museum technician and/or restorer......................
Radio operator .......................................................
Technical assistant, library ....................................
Medical and dental technicians and technologists
Emergency medical technician .............................
All other technicians ..........................................

100,340
8,950
40,270
4,930
2,360
1,870
2,510
15,830
12,770
7,460
10,740
960
410
2,500
1,020
11,110
350
16,570

5.74
.51
2.30
.28
.13
.11
.14
.91
.73
.43
.61
.05
.02
.14
.06
.64
.02
.95

n.a.
100
n.a.
94
92
75
67
88
n.a.
96
96
65
69
69
78
98
27
n.a.

Service occupations ..................................................
Janitors, porters, and cleaners..............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Kitchen h e lper........................................................
Cook, institution or cafeteria .................................
All other food service workers..............................
Supervisor, nonworking-service only ....................
Nurse aide and/or orderly.....................................
Recreation facility attendant..................................
Usher, lobby attendant, ticket taker and/or
drive-in theater attendant................................
Forest conservation worker...................................
Fish and game wardens ........................................
C hild -ca re w orker ..................................................
Lifeguard .................................................................
Social service aide.................................................
Police and detective supervisor.............................
Detective, police.....................................................
Police patrol officer.................................................
Parking enforcement officer ..................................
Correction officer and/or jailer..............................
S heriff.....................................................................
Bailiff.......................................................................
Fire inspector..........................................................
Fire fighter...............................................................
Fire fighting and prevention supervisor.................
All other service workers.......................................

330,160
25,080
7,350
4,480
5,670
7,500
11,170
36,520
3,610

18.88
1.43
.42
.26
.32
.43
.64
2.09
.21

n.a.
98
98
65
96
n.a.
96
76
65

590
7,880
5,790

.03
.45
.33

14
82
86

9,470

.54

65

1,000
15,440
11,330
6,340
40,720
1,240
77,750
180
690
730
4,690
990
43,950

.06
.88
.65
.36
2.33
.07
4.45
.01
.04
.04
.27
.06
2.51

31
98
86
96
16
96
14
41
55
45
47
n.a.

199,680
19,480
7,910
1,070
2,090

11.42
1.11
.45
.06
.12

n.a.
n.a.
94
43
55

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, automotive........................................
Diesel mechanic................................................
Engineering equipment mechanic.....................
See footnotes at end of table.

69

90

Table A-1. State government: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1982—Continued
Occupation

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations— Continued
Hydroelectric machinery mechanic,
powerhouse repairer, and/or gas plant
repairer..........................................................
Mechanic, maintenance.....................................
Radio mechanic.................................................
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Bus driver................................................................
Carpenter ................................................................
Cement m ason.......................................................
Crane, derrick, and hoist operators.......................
Delivery and/or route w orker................................
Electrician................................................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Ground worker, utilities ..........................................
Heavy equipment operator....................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Instrument repairer.................................................
Machinist.................................................................
Maintenance repairer, general utility .....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Painter, maintenance..............................................
Plumber and/or pipefitter.......................................
Press operator and/or plate printer ......................
Sewage plant operator...........................................
Stationary boiler fire r..............................................
Stationary engineer................................................
Substation operator................................................
Animal caretaker....................................................
Water treatment plant operator.............................
Welder and/or flamecutter....................................
Service station attendant, fuel pump attendant
and/or lubricator..............................................
Highway maintenance man ...................................
Surveyor helper......................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers ............................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers........
All other laborers and unskilled workers ..............
Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, total ..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator ....
Computer operator..............................................
Keypunch operator..............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
All other office machine operators .....................
Stenographer .......................................................
Accounting cle rk..................................................
Bookkeeper, hand...............................................
Cashier..................................................................
File cle rk...............................................................
General office clerk ............................................
Library assistant ..................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping cle rk........................
Personnel cle rk....................................................
Procurement c le rk ...............................................
Receptionist.........................................................
Secretary ..............................................................
Statistical clerk ....................................................
Survey worker......................................................
Switchboard operator ..........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Typist ...................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t......................
Eligibility worker, welfare.....................................

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

310
4,930
600
2,570
7,950
2,170
2,970
230
240
640
3,370
16,850
1,000
22,090
340
460
550
8,620
2,810
2,320
1,770
1,500
400
1,470
2,820
250
650
180
840

0.02
.28
.03
.15
.45
.12
.17
.01
.01
.04
.19
.96
.06
1.26
.02
.03
.03
.49
.16
.13
.10
.09
.02
.08
.16
.01
.04
.01
.05

16
84
53
n.a.
82
22
96
41
27
37
100
96
22
90
31
51
84
92
78
96
96
82
29
69
78
16
49
25
90

1,060
39,120
2,520
5,210
5,740
16,770
27,290

.06
2.24
.14
.30
.33
.96
1.56

43
84
59
94
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

458,920
445,800
690
5,130
15,090
6,060
9,040
34,640
23,330
2,590
9,120
10,760
65,300
1,120
1,900
4,200
770
2,680
64,090
5,440
420
2,540
1,260
87,010
17,840
28,150

26.25
25.50
.04
.29
.86
.35
.52
1.98
1.33
.15
.52
.62
3.73
.06

n.a.
n.a.
69
100
90
84
n.a.
96
100
61
86
80
96
84
67
92
73
84
100
86

See footnotes at end of table.

70

.11
.24
.04
.15
3.67

.31
.02
.15
.07
4.98

1.02
1.61

20
92
53
100
96
75

Table A-1. State government: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1982—Continued
Occupation

Employment1

Office clerical workers— Continued
Court clerk............................................................
License cle rk........................................................
All other office clerical workers...........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Production clerk and/or coordinator ..................
Shipping and/or receiving clerk ..........................
Weigher, recordkeeping ......................................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
y a rd ....................................................................
Dispatcher, vehicle, service or w ork...................
Dispatcher, police, fire and ambulance..............
All other plant clerical workers............................

Percent of total
employment

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

9,050
6,500
31,080
13,120
630
440
690

.42
.05
.13
.05

98
51
73
n.a.

11,310
900
10,410

' Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less
than 0.01 percent of industry employment, or with a
relative error greater than 50 are generally not shown
separately since such estimates are considered

80
80
n.a.
n.a.
59
53
29

7,430
830
2,300
800

Sales occupations.....................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales c le rk ..............................................................

0.52
.37
1.78
.75
.04
.03
.04

.65
.05
.60

n.a.
63
67

unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories,
n.a. = not available,

%

71

Table A-2. Local government: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1982

Occupation

Employment'

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

T o ta l....................................................................

3,621,670

100.00

-

-

Managers and officers...............................................
Public administration inspectors, except
construction......................................................
Construction inspector ...........................................
Chief executives, general administrators, and
legislators..........................................................
All other managers .................................................

325,190

8.98

n.a.

n.a.

29,950
24,550

.83
.68

20
7

25
32

124,810
145,880

3.45
4.03

3
n.a.

62
n.a.

Professional occupations..........................................
Engineers, total ......................................................
Civil engineer.......................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers ....................
Mechanical engineer ...........................................
Safety engineer...................................................
Traffic engineer...................................................
All other engineers ..............................................
Life scientists, to ta l.................................................
Agricultural scientist.............................................
Biological scientist ...............................................
Forester and conservation scientist...................
All other life scientists.........................................
Financial analyst ....................................................
Statistician...............................................................
Chemist ...................................................................
Social scientists, to ta l.............................................
Economist............................................................
Psychologist.........................................................
Urban and regional planner................................
All other social scientists....................................
Therapists, to ta l......................................................
Physical therapist................................................
Occupational therapist ........................................
Manual arts, music, and/or recreational
therapist .........................................................
All other therapists...............................................
Systems analyst, electronic data processing........
Audio visual specialist............................................
Claims taker, unemployment benefits...................
Teacher and/or instructor, vocational education
or training..........................................................
Vocational and educational counselor..................
Photographer..........................................................
Purchasing agent and/or b uyer............................
Accountants and auditors......................................
Landscape architect...............................................
Appraiser, general merchandise and related ........
Architect..................................................................
Budget analyst........................................................
Caseworker.............................................................
Commercial a rtis t...................................................
Dietitian and/or nutritionist....................................
Writer and/or editor...............................................
Employment interviewer.........................................
Law cle rk................................................................
Lawyer....................................................................
Librarian, professional ...........................................
Curator, museum...................................................
Nurse, professional...............................................
Paralegal personnel...............................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists............
Public relations practitioner ..................................
Right-of-way agent ...............................................
Community organization worker............................
Judge ......................................................................
Magistrate ..............................................................
Tax examiner, collector and/or revenue agent ....
Assessor.................................................................
Appraiser, real estate............................................

420,130
30,120
20,520
4,150
1,460
440
1,110
2,440
4,170
1,590
1,290
900
390
1,080
740
2,360
15,600
890
2,110
10,440
2,160
3,460
930
930

11.60
.83
.57
.11
.04
.01
.03
.07
.12
.04
.04
.02
.01
.03
.02
.07
.43
.02
.06
.29
.06
.10
.03
.03

n.a.
n.a.
14
28
46
22
14
n.a.
n.a.
22
32
19
n.a.
19
25
28
n.a.
22
28
13
n.a.
n.a.
35
47

n.a.
n.a.
27
4
2
2
5
n.a.
n.a.
5
3
4
n.a.
3
2
5
n.a.
2
3
15
n.a.
n.a.
3
2

680
920
5,120
370
370

.02
.03
.14
.01
.01

39
n.a.
20
38
21

2
n.a.
10
2
1

3,560
2,630
1,220
5,000
24,660
1,210
610
1,660
4,160
48,960
1,170
2,230
480
1,520
2,980
32,090
21,350
820
30,120
3,620
6,640
2,150
1,400
14,820
10,770
9,100
12,170
18,460
4,610

.10
.07
.03
.14
.68
.03
.02
.05
.11
1.35
.03
.06
.01
.04
.08
.89
.59
.02
.83
.10
.18
.06
.04
.41
.30
.25
.34
.51
.13

38
30
31
10
20
22
31
37
16
3
18
21
24
14
16
18
12
21
22
47
19
15
17
45
8
16
13
10
16

3
3
4
18
31
4
2
2
10
17
3
7
2
5
6
40
23
3
16
7
14
8
4
10
21
8
18
24
6

See footnotes at end of table.

72

Table A-2. Local government: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1982—Continued

Occupation

Professional occupations— Continued
Group recreation worker........................................
All other professional workers...............................

Percent of total
employment

Employment’

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

43,190
43,380

1.19
1.20

13
n.a.

19
n.a.

Technical occupations..............................................
Computer programmer ...........................................
Engineering technicians, total ...............................
Drafter.................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians ................
Surveyor..............................................................
Traffic technician................................................
Civil engineering technician ..............................
All other engineering technicians......................
Science technicians................................................
Licensed practical nurse........................................
Physician’s assistant..............................................
Museum technician and/or restorer......................
Radio operator .......................................................
Technical assistant, library ....................................
Emergency medical technician .............................
All other medical and dental technologists and
technicians........................................................
All other technicians...............................................

102,110
7,020
31,660
9,270
3,870
3,300
2,080
7,320
5,820
2,910
12,510
760
880
2,060
11,290
17,460

2.82
.19
.87
.26
.11
.09
.06
.20
.16
.08
.35
.02
.02
.06
.31
.48

n.a.
29
n.a.
10
21
12
12
18
n.a.
20
20
48
29
20
20
15

n.a.
12
n.a.
17
5
10
5
11
n.a.
5
8
2
2
3
10
7

6,900
8,660

.19
.24

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

Service occupations .................................................
Janitors, porters and cleaners...............................
Guards and doorkeepers.......................................
Food service workers, to ta l...................................
Kitchen helper....................................................
Cook, institution or cafeteria.............................
All other food service workers...........................
Supervisor, nonworking-service o n ly ....................
Nurse aide and/or orderly.....................................
Recreation facility attendant..................................
Forest conservation worker...................................
Fish and game wardens ........................................
School crossing guard............................................
Child-care worker ..................................................
Lifeguard .................................................................
Social service aide.................................................
Police and detective supervisor............................
Detective, police.....................................................
Police patrol officer................................................
Parking enforcement o ffic e r..................................
Correction officer and/or ja iler..............................
S heriff.....................................................................
Bailiff.......................................................................
Fire inspector..........................................................
Fire fighter...............................................................
Fire fighting and prevention supervisor.................
All other service workers.......................................

1,130,220
76,960
12,040
21,910
7,130
8,990
5,790
15,170
44,120
31,150
1,530
600
47,930
5,560
26,760
20,990
82,790
36,920
308,070
5,840
45,720
24,710
5,580
7,310
224,330
54,990
29,240

31.21
2.12
.33
.60
.20
.25
.16
.42
1.22
.86
.04
.02
1.32
.15
.74
.58
2.29
1.02
8.51
.16
1.26
.68
.15
.20
6.19
1.52
.81

n.a.
2
19
n.a.
18
16
n.a.
23
12
15
28
42
11
26
13
21
2
16
1
14
8
16
16
26
3
3
n.a.

n.a.
52
9
n.a.
6
14
n.a.
12
7
15
2
1
16
3
8
10
36
22
46
11
15
18
9
14
23
16
n.a.

930,960
78,130
31,280
8,530

25.71
2.16
.86
.24

n.a.
n.a.
12
48

n.a.
n.a.
28
7

2,200
980
3,300

.06
.03
.09

17
39
19

3
1
6

2,250
10,100
1,540
6,720
6,060

.06
.28
.04
.19
.17

41
17
20
12
13

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations..........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, to ta l..............................
Mechanic, automotive........................................
Diesel mechanic ................................................
Electric meter installer, cut-in, cut-out, or
outside..........................................................
Gas meter installer.............................................
Engineering equipment mechanic.....................
Hydroelectric machinery mechanic,
powerhouse repairer, and/or gas plant
repairer..........................................................
Mechanic, maintenance.....................................
Radio mechanic.................................................
Treatment plant mechanic................................
Water meter installer..........................................

‘

See footnotes at end of table.

73

1
10
3
8
8

Table A-2. Local government: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1982—Continued

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

Operating, maintenance, construction, repair,
material handling and powerplant
occupations— Continued
All other mechanics and repairers....................
Truck driver.............................................................
Bus driver................................................................
Carpenter ................................................................
Cement mason.......................................................
Crane, derrick, and hoist operators.......................
Delivery and/or route worker ................................
Electrician................................................................
Supervisor, nonworking..........................................
Ground worker, utilities ..........................................
Heavy equipment operator ....................................
Industrial truck operator.........................................
Instrument repairer........................:........................
Line installer repairer.............................................
Maintenance repairer, general u tility.....................
Helper, trades.........................................................
Subway/streetcar operator....................................
Painter, maintenance..............................................
Pipelayer.................................................................
Plumber and/or pipefitter.......................................
Press operator and/or plate printer ......................
Refuse collector.....................................................
Sewage plant operator...........................................
Stationary engineer................................................
Animal caretaker....................................................
Trouble shooter, power line...................................
Water treatment plant operator.............................
Pump station operator, waterworks.......................
Welder and/or flamecutter ....................................
Service station attendant, fuel pump attendant
and/or lubricator..............................................
Highway maintenance man ...................................
Surveyor helper......................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers ...........................
Bus driver, school ..................................................
Ambulance driver and/or attendant......................
All other skilled craft and kindred workers...........
All other operatives and semiskilled workers........
All other laborers and unskilled workers ..............

5,170
49,040
56,090
6,960
1,940
1,910
1,000
15,210
46,970
5,760
65,740
4,560
1,870
11,970
49,180
13,840
4,500
6,670
11,680
6,500
1,040
63,860
37,380
8,630
5,490
1,910
27,800
4,350
3,310

0.14
1.35
1.55
.19
.05
.05
.03
.42
1.30
.16
1.82
.13
.05
.33
1.36
.38
.12
.18
.32
.18
.03
1.76
1.03
.24
.15
.05
.77
.12
.09

n.a.
12
6
18
18
45
35
39
9
24
6
23
20
15
9
28
19
16
17
22
14
10
8
25
14
21
8
15
39

n.a.
24
9
11
4
2
2
12
30
3
36
3
3
4
32
10
(3
)
9
6
7
4
20
25
4
11
2
22
6
7

4,100
101,400
3,970
56,010
1,260
8,690
18,560
36,560
107,120

.11
2.80
.11
1.55
.03
.24
.51
1.01
2.96

32
6
13
9
43
20
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

5
33
8
28
1
3
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

Clerical occupations..................................................
Office clerical workers, total ..................................
Bookkeeping and/or billing machine operator ....
Computer operator..............................................
Keypunch operator...............................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operator...................
All other office machine operators .....................
Stenographer.......................................................
Accounting clerk..................................................
Bookkeeper, hand...............................................
Cashier.................................................................
File c le rk...............................................................
General office clerk .............................................
Library assistant ..................................................
Payroll and/or timekeeping cle rk........................
Personnel clerk....................................................
Procurement c le rk...............................................
Receptionist.........................................................
Secretary..............................................................
Statistical clerk ....................................................
Switchboard operator ..........................................
Switchboard operator/receptionist......................
Typist ....................................................................
Clerical supervisor, office or p la n t......................
Eligibility worker, welfare.....................................
Court clerk............................................................

709,280
613,710
4,620
6,790
7,180
2,950
3,760
17,130
37,920
16,000
24,750
16,480
89,140
40,890
7,650
4,560
1,800
5,760
77,520
5,150
4,630
4,510
95,440
24,250
18,500
23,630

19.58
16.95
.13
.19
.20
.08
.10
.47
1.05
.44
.68
.46
2.46
1.13
.21
.13
.05
.16
2.14
.14
.13
.12
2.64
.67
.51
.65

n.a.
n.a.
11
10
17
49
n.a.
18
6
8
17
21
3
13
15
13
18
19
7
18
16
14
3
10
37
12

n.a.
n.a.
9
18
11
4
n.a.
14
39
27
19
11
39
19
23
13
7
11
57
7
9
15
37
16
6
22

See footnotes at end of table.

74

Table A-2. Local government: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1982—Continued

Occupation
Office clerical workers— Continued
Town clerk............................................................
License clerk........................................................
All other office clerical workers...........................
Plant clerical workers, to ta l....................................
Meter reader, utilities...........................................
Production clerk and/or coordinator ..................
Shipping and/or receiving clerk ..........................
Weigher, recordkeeping ......................................
Stock clerk, stockroom, warehouse or storage
y a rd ....................................................................
Dispatcher, police, fire and ambulance..............
All other plant clerical workers............................
Sales occupations......................................................
Sales agent, associate, and/or representative.....
Sales clerk ..............................................................

Percent of total
employment

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments reporting
the occupation

18,840
6,610
47,250
95,570
21,790
1,040
400
580

0.52
.18
1.30
2.64
.60
.03
.01
.02

5
30
n.a.
n.a.
6
36
24
19

35
8
n.a.
n.a.
23
2
2
2

10,740
53,280
7,740

.30
1.47
.21

18
6
n.a.

16
35
n.a.

3,780
610
3,170

.10
.02
.09

n.a.
41
42

n.a.
1
1

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated

75

employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors
are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

Appendix B. Survey Methods
and Reliability of Estimates

Scope of survey

the 1970 Census. ‘Crosswalks’ have been developed be­
tween the two systems so that users may integrate o e s
data with data from sources using the Census classifica­
tion.
The industrial classification system is that described
in the 1972 edition o f the Standard Industrial Classifica­
tion Manual,2 whereby reporting establishments are
classified into industries on the basis o f major product
or activity.

The survey covered selected private nonmanufactur­
ing establishments in Standard Industrial Classification
(Sic) codes 41-59, (excluding 43), and State and local
government units excluding hospitals and education.
The reference date o f the survey was the week that in­
cluded April 12, May 12, or June 12, 1982, depending
on the sic o f the sampled unit as shown below:

SIC

Reference date
Concepts
An establishment is an economic unit which produces

41 ......... . ....................................... June 12
4 2 ........................................................ May12
4 4 .......................................................April12
45 ........................................................June12
46 ........................................................June12
4 7 .......................................................April12
4 8 ........................................................May12
4 9 .......................................................April12
50 ....................................................... June12
51 ....................................................... June12
52 ....................................................... June12
53 ....................................................... June12
54 ........................................................June12
55 ....................................................... June12
56 ....................................................... June12
57 ....................................................... June12
58 ....................................................... June12
59 ....................................................... June12
State government..................................May12
Local government................................May12

goods or services. Generally, it is at a single physical
location and is engaged predominantly in one type of
economic activity. Where a single physical location en­
compasses two or more distinct activities, these are
treated as separate establishments if separate payroll
records are available and certain other criteria are met.
Employment includes full- and part-time workers;
workers on paid vacations or other types o f leave;
workers on unpaid short-term absences (i.e., illness, bad
weather, temporary layoff, jury duty); salaried officers,
executives, and staff of incorporated firms; employees
temporarily assigned to other units; and employees for
whom that unit is their permanent (home) duty station,
regardless o f whether the unit prepares their paycheck.
Excluded from coverage are proprietors (owners and
partners o f unincorporated firms), self-employed, un­
paid family workers, and workers on extended leave
(i.e., pensioners and members o f the Armed Forces).
Occupation refers to the occupation in which
employees are working rather than the occupation for
which they may have been trained. For example, an
employee trained as an engineer but working as a
drafter is reported as a drafter.
Working supervisors (those spending 20 percent or'
more o f their time at work similar to that done by
workers under their supervision) are reported in the oc­
cupation most closely related to their work.
Part-time workers, learners, and apprentices are
reported in the occupation in which they ordinarily
work.

The survey covered all 50 States and the District of
Columbia.

Occupational and industrial classification
The o e s classification system combines two widely us­
ed systems—the Dictionary o f Occupational Titles
( d o t ) and the system used for the 1970 Census of
Population. Occupational titles and descriptions in the
survey are based primarily on the Dictionary o f Occupa­
tional Titles.1 The d o t was used to develop the defini­
tions o f occupations because it is the most detailed
classification available. Summary categories and
residual groups generally follow the categories used in

2 Standard Industrial Classification Manual (Office of Manage­
ment and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 1972), as amend­
ed in Supplement, 1977.

1 Dictionary o f Occupational Titles, fourth edition (U.S. Employ­
ment Service, U.S. Department of Labor, 1977.)

76

Multiple jobholders (employees who perform the
duties o f two or more occupations in an establishment)
are reported in the occupation that requires the highest
level o f skill or in the occupation where the most time
is spent if there is no measurable difference in skill
requirements.

Reporting units with 1-3 employees were not sampled
in all States, but units with 4-9 employees were given
larger weights to represent the employment in the
smaller size class. Reporting units with 250 or more
employees were included in the sample with certainty in
cooperating States; units with 1,000 or more employees
were included with certainty in the three supplemental
States. Sample sizes intended to produce State estimates
with target relative errors o f 10, 15, and 20 percent at
one standard deviation were developed for the noncer­
tainty size classes. This was done for groups o f s ic ’s
based on averages o f occupational rates and coefficients
of variation (c v ’s) from the previous survey for a set of
typical occupations. This sic sample size was allocated
to the size classes in proportion to size class employ­
ment. The sample was selected systematically with equal
probability within each State/sic size class cell.
States were given the option o f three target relative er­
rors in designing their samples. Some States varied the
target relative error by sic to allow reductions in sample
size for cost reasons.
The sample size for the supplemental States was
developed by first determining the sample size required
for national estimates in each two-digit sic with a target
relative error o f 10 percent at one standard deviation.
This was done by averaging c v ’s and occupational rates
for a set of occupations from the previous survey.
Establishments with 1,000 or more employees were in­
cluded with certainty. This national sic sample size was
then allocated to the size class cells o f the three non­
cooperating States in proportion to employment.
The above allocations resulted in a total initial sample
size of 239,580 reporting units.

Survey procedures
The survey is conducted over a 3-year cycle; manufac­
turing industries are surveyed in one year and non­
manufacturing industries in the other two years. Data
are collected from a sample o f establishments primarily
by mail; telephone followups and personal visits are
made when an establishment response is critical to the
survey. The survey is based on a probability sample,
stratified by industry and size of employment, designed
to represent the total or “ universe” o f establishments
covered by the survey. Data are requested for the pay
period including the 12th o f the reference month, which
is standard for all Federal agencies collecting employ­
ment data. The reference months for the 1982 survey
were April, May, and June.
For the 1982 survey, 10 separate questionnaires were
used, each having detailed occupations related
specifically to a particular industry’s activity. For exam­
ple, “ security checker” was surveyed in only one
industry—
-air transportation.

Method of collection
Survey schedules were mailed to most sample
establishments; personal visits were made to some larger
companies. Two additional mailings were sent to
nonrespondents at approximately 6-week intervals.
Nonrespondents considered critical to the survey (due to
size) were followed up by telephone or personal visit.

Response

Sampling procedure

There were 228,244 final eligible units in the sample
(i.e., excluding establishments that were out of business,
out o f scope, etc.). Usable responses were obtained
from 239,598 units, producing a response rate of 74.8
percent based on units and 73.8 percent based on
weighted employment. Subsequent to the national
estimates, States received additional data to prepare
State estimates.

The sampling frame for this survey was the list of
units in the specified s ic ’s as reported to State
unemployment insurance agencies. Because each
cooperating State selected its own sample, the reference
date o f the sampling frame varied depending on when
the last updates to the frame were made and when
sampling took place. The reference date for the frame
used for sampling in the three supplemental States was
the first quarter o f 1981.
The universe was stratified into sic and size classes.
The size classes were determined by employment as
follows:

Size class
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Estimation
A weight was determined for each sample unit from
which a usable response was received. Each weight was
composed o f two factors. The first factor was the in­
verse o f the probability of selection. The second was the
nonresponse adjustment factor, used to correct for
questionnaires that were not returned or not usable. For
each of the three-digit SIC/State/size class sampling
cells, a nonresponse factor was calculated that was
equal to:

Employees

........................

1-3
4-9
10-19
20-49
50-99
100-249
250-249
500-999
1,000 and over

Weighted sample employment of all eligible units in sample
Weighted sample employment of all responding eligible units
77

Sample employment was taken from the sampling
frame. If the factor in a cell was greater than a predeter­
mined maximum factor, which increased as the number
o f respondents in a cell increased, the cell was collapsed
with other homogeneous cells within the SIC until the
factor for the combined cells was not greater than the
appropriate maximum factor. If the collapsing pro­
cedure terminated (i.e., no more cells were available for
collapse) before satisfying the above constraint, then the
appropriate maximum factor was used. For size classes
1-6, homogeneous cells were determined to be other size
cells within the SIC and State. For size classes 7-9,
homogeneous cells were determined to be other State
cells within the SIC and size class. The weight for each
establishment was the product of the two factors.
A combined ratio estimate of occupational employ­
ment was used to develop the national estimates. The
auxiliary variable used was total employment. The
estimating formula is:

K#

The variances for the occupational estimates were esti­
mated from the following formula:
Var(f>)

2- digit industry occupational
employment estimate

Where: p

=
=
=

[By] • [Dy] • [Fjj]2
( M ,j e.j) / ( M (J
)
(Gy)/(Hy)

=

Hij

? S wljk eijk
Lj k

? ? j1« v >2
lJ jvj

G,

wijk Pijk

=

T'j
®
ij
D,

J_k__________

f)

sampling fraction in the i-th
industry and j-th size class
number of sample units in the i-th
industry and j-th size class
standard deviation of p within the
i-th industry and j-th size class
standard deviation of e within the
i-th industry and j-th size class
correlation coefficient between p
and e within the i-th industry and
j-th size class.

= U
=

f 2 wjjk
Y
f 2 w2^
’J - U
JJ

= ( M ,) / ( f k W C k
,,t ,J ]
F,
3- digit industry within a 2-digit
2 wiik • L.2*
.k
*
'J
V 2
= ^ U
=
industry
size class
j
= (Pijk- R ie ijk) - (Pij-Rje,,)
LjJ
k
establishment
k
Where:
weight after nonresponse
w ijk
benchmark total employment in
Mij
adjustment in i-th industry, j-th
the i-th industry and j-th size
size class and k-th establishment
class
occupational employment in i-th
PiJ
k
= (j"k W ^ k / ( f k W ^ k
Ri
industry, j-th size class and k-th
'^
)
'
j
establishment
2ejjk
=
e'j
total employment in i-th industry,
k
C
ijk
j-th size class and k-th estab­
All other terms are as defined above. This formula is
lishment
almost a computational form of the standard formula
population total employment in
Mi
given above. One simplifying assumption has been
i-th industry
made:
The population value o f total employment (M;) was
obtained from the BLS Current Employment Statistics
Wijk = C„ for all k in a given ij cell
program, a monthly employment survey o f nonagricultural establishments.
That is, the weights are equal to a constant C within a
The standard form for the sampling variance for a
given three-digit industry/size class cell. At this time,
combined ratio estimate is:
the total effect o f this assumption on the variance
. A,.
estimates has not been measured.
V(?>)
“
1J
n„
A jj

Where: V(p)
i
j
N*

Si, — Kij Spj, Stij
2R,

=

SJij + R?

=
=

variance of p
3-digit industry within a 2-digit
industry
size class
total number of units in the i-th
industry and j-th size class

=
=

Reliability of estimates
Estimates developed from the sample may differ from
the results o f a complete survey o f all the establishments
in the sampled lists. Two types o f errors, sampling and
nonsampling, are possible in an estimate based on a
sample survey. Sampling error occurs because observa­
tions are made only on a sample, not on the entire
78

include the average o f all p o ssib le
samples. This interval is called a 90-percent
confidence interval.

population. Nonsampling error can be attributed to
many sources, e.g., inability to obtain information
about all cases in the sample; differences in the
respondents’ interpretation of questions; inability of
respondents to provide correct information; errors in
recording, coding, or processing the data; errors in
estimating values for missing data; and failure to repre­
sent all units in the population.
The particular sample used in this survey is one of a
large number of all possible samples of the same size
that could have been selected using the same sample
design. Estimates derived from the different samples
would differ from each other; the difference between a
sample estimate and the average of all possible sample
estimates is called the sampling deviation. The standard
or sampling error of a survey estimate is a measure of
the variation among the estimates from all possible
samples. The relative standard error is defined as the
standard error of the estimate divided by the value being
estimated; the variance is defined as the standard error
squared.
The sample estimate and an estimate of its standard
error enable one to construct interval estimates with
prescribed confidence that the interval includes the
average result o f all possible samples that could be ob­
tained from the sample design for the survey.
To illustrate, if all possible samples were selected, and
if each of these were surveyed under essentially the same

3.

Approximately 95 percent o f the intervals from
two standard errors below to two standard er­
rors above the derived estimate would include
the average of all possible samples. This inter­
val is called a 95-percent confidence interval.

4.

Almost all intervals from three standard errors
below to three standard errors above the deriv­
ed estimate would include the average of all
possible samples.

An inference that the complete coverage value would
be within the indicated ranges would be correct in ap­
proximately the relative frequencies shown.
For example, suppose an estimated total is shown as
5,000 with an associated relative error o f 2 percent.
Then the standard error is 100 (2 percent o f 5,000) and
there is a 68-percent chance that the average o f all possi­
ble sample totals would be between 4,900 and 5,100,
and it is almost certain that the average o f all possible
sample totals would be between 4,700 and 5,300.
The relative errors provided primarily indicate the
magnitude of the sampling error, but do not measure
biases in the data due to nonsampling error. Efforts
were made to reduce the biases due to errors in recor­
conditions and an estimate and its estimated sample er­
ding, coding, and processing the data. The adjustment
ror were calculated from each sample, then:
made for nonrespondents assum ed that the
1. Approximately 68 percent of the intervals from
characteristics o f the nonrespondents were the same as
one standard error below to one standard error
those of the respondents at a given level. To the extent
above the derived estimate would include the
this is not true, bias is introduced in the data. The
average value of all possible samples. This in­
magnitude of these biases is not known.
terval is called a 68-percent confidence
Particular care should be exercised in the interpretainterval.
* tion of small estimates, estimates based on a small
number of cases, or small differences between estimates
2. Approximately 90 percent of the intervals
because the sampling errors are relatively large and the
from 1.6 standard errors below to 1.6 stand­
magnitude of the biases is unknown.
ard errors above the derived estimate would

79

Appendix C. OES Survey Data
Available from State Agencies

State data on occupational employment in the industries covered in this bulletin are available as indicated in the following table. These data may be ob-

tained from the State employment security agencies
listed on the next page of this publication,

Table C-1. OES survey data available by State and year
State
Alabama................
A la s k a ..................
Arizona..................
Arkansas
California..............
Colorado
Connecticut..........
Delaware..............
District of Columbia
F lorida..................
Georgia ................
H a w a ii..................
Id a h o ....................
Illinois....................
Indiana..................
Iow a......................
Kansas ..................
Kentucky..............
Louisiana..............
Maine....................
M aryland............
Massachusetts
Michigan ..............
Minnesota ............
Mississippi............
Missouri................

1973

1976

1979

1982

State

X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

Montana
Nevada..............................
New Hampshire........................
New Jersey ..............................
New Mexico . .
New York
North Carolina..........................
North Dakota..............
Nebraska..........................
Oklahoma
Oregon ......................................
O h io ..............................

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X

X

X
X

X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X

Pennsylvania............................
Rhode Island
South Carolina..........................
South Dakota............................
Tennessee
Texas ........................................
Utah
Vermont....................................
Virginia
Washington..............................
West V irginia............................
Wisconsin ................................
W yom ing..................................

U.S. Government Printing Office : 1985 - 461-566/25857

80

1973

1976

X

X

X

X

X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X

X

1979

X
X
X
X

X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X

X

X
X

X
X
X

X

X

X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X

Here, in 43 charts and 56 pages, the
Bureau of Labor Statistics celebrates
100 years of providing social and
economic statistics to the American public.
The chartbook presents a graphic picture of
some of the changes in the U.S. economy
during the past century. Included in Bulletin
2211 are charts on the labor force,
employment and unemployment, earnings,
prices and living conditions, work stoppages,
productivity, economic growth and employment
projections, and occupational injuries and
illnesses. In addition, the Bureau’s regular publi­
cations, listed in the back of the book, contain
more comprehensive and detailed information on
changing economic trends.

Please send your order
to the Bureau of Labor
Statistics Regional
Office nearest you:

1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
1515 Broadway, Suite 3400
New York, N.Y. 10036

1371 Peachtree, N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367
9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604

3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia. Pa. 19101

Order form

Please send
Bulletin 2211

2nd Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas. Tex. 75202

You may also send your
order directly to:

911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106

Superintendent of
Documents
U.S. Government Printing
Office
Washington, D.C. 20402

450 Golden Gate Avenue,
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102

copies of Our Changing Economy: A BLS Centennial Chartbook,
Stock No. 029-001-02818-1, at $2.75 a copy.

□

Enclosed is a check or money order payable to Superintendent of Documents.

□

Charge to GPO Deposit Account N o ________________________________________

□

Charge to my MasterCard* Account No_____________________________________ Expiration date.

□

Charge to my VISA* Account N o .__________________________________________ Expiration date.
*Acceptable only on orders sent to the Superintendent of Documents.

Name
Organization (if applicable)
Address

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
REGION I— BOSTON
John Fitzgerald Kennedy Federal Bldg.
Government Center— Room 1603 A
Boston, Mass. 02203
REGION V—CHICAGO
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, 111. 60604

REGION II—NEW YORK
1515 Broadway—Suite 3400
New York. N.Y. 10036

REGION VI— DALLAS
Federal Building
555 Griffin Sq., 2nd FI.
Dallas, Tex. 75202

REGION III—PHILADELPHIA
3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101

REGIONS VII & VIII— KANSAS CITY
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106

REGION IV—ATLANTA
1371 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367

REGIONS IX & X —SAN FRANCISCO
450 Golden Gate Avenue, Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102

State Agencies Cooperating In the OES Program
BLS
Region
IV
X
IX
VI
IX
VIII
I
III
III
IV
IV
IX
X
V

ALABAMA
ALASKA
ARIZONA
ARKANSAS
CALIFORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT
DELAWARE
DIST. OF COL.
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
HAWAII
IDAHO
ILLINOIS

V INDIANA
VIII IOWA
VII KANSAS
IV
VI
I
III
I
V
V

KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
MAINE
MARYLAND
MASSACHUSETTS
MICHIGAN
MINNESOTA

IV MISSISSIPPI
VII MISSOURI
VII NEBRAKSA
IX NEVADA
I NEW HAMPSHIRE
II NEW JERSEY
VI NEW MEXICO
II NEW YORK
IV
VIII
V
VI

NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA

X OREGON
III PENNSYLVANIA
II
I
IV
VIII
IV
VI
VIII
I
III

PUERTO RICO
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGINIA

X WASHINGTON
III WEST VIRGINIA
V WISCONSIN
VIII WYOMING

-Department of Industrial Relations, Industrial Relations Building, Room 427, Montgomery 36130
-Department of Labor, Employment Security Division, P.O. Box 1149, Juneau 99801
-Department of Economic Security, Labor Market Information, P.O. Box 6123, Phoenix 85005
-Department of Labor, Employment Security Division, P.O. Box 2981, Little Rock 72203
-Employment Development Department, P.O. Box 1679, Sacramento 95808
-Division of Employment and Training, 251 East 12th Avenue, Denver 80203
-Department of Labor, Employment Security Division, 200 Folly Brook Boulevard, Wethersfield 06109
-Department of Labor, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, P.O. Box 9092, Newark 19711
-Department of Employment Services, Division of Labor Market Information, Research, and Analysis, 500 C
Street, N.W.—Room 201, Washington 20001
-Department of Labor and Employment Security, Caldwell Bldg., Tallahassee 32302
-Department of Labor, Labor Information Systems, 254 Washington Street, S.W., Atlanta 30334
-Department of Labor and Industrial Relations, P.O. Box 3680, Honolulu 96811
-Department of Employment, Research and Analysis Division, P.O. Box 35, Boise 83707
-Bureau of Employment Security, Research and Analysis Division, 910 South Michigan Avenue, 12th Floor,
Chicago 60605
-Employment Security Division, 10 North Senate Avenue, Indianapolis 46204
-Department of Job Service, Research and Analysis—LMI Unit, 1000 E. Grand Avenue, Des Moines 50319
-Department of Human Resources, Research and Analysis Section, Division of Staff Services, 401 Topeka
Avenue, Topeka 66603
-Department of Human Resources, 275 E. Main Street, 2nd Floor West, Frankfort 40621
-Department of Labor, P.O. Box 44094, Capitol Station, Baton Rouge 70804
-Department of Manpower Affairs, Employment Security Commission, 20 Union Street, Augusta 04330
-Department of Human Resources, 1100 North Eutaw Street, Baltimore 21201
-Division of Employment Security, Research and Statistics Division, Charles F. Hurley Bldg., Boston 02114
-Employment Security Commission, Research and Statistics Division, 7310 Woodward Avenue, Detroit 48202
-Department of Economic Secruity, Research and Statistical Services Office, 390 North Robert Street, St. Paul
55101
-Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box 1699, Jackson 39295
-Department of Labor and Industrial Relations, Division of Employment Security, P.O. Box 59, Jefferson City
65101
-Department of Labor, Division of Employment, P.O. Box 94600, State House Station, Lincoln 68509
-Employment Security Department, Employment Security Research Division, 500 E. Third Street, Carson City
89713
-Department of Employment Security, 32 South Main Street, Concord 03301
-Department of Labor and Industry, Division of Planning and Research, o e s Survey, P.O. Box 359,
Trenton 08625
-Department of Human Services, Employment Service Division, P.O. Box 1928, Albuquerque 87103
-N.Y. State Department or Labor, Division of Research and Statistics, State Campus—Building 12,
Albany 12201
-Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box 25903, Raleigh 27611
-Job Service North Dakota, Research and Statistics—oes Unit, P.O. Box 1537, Bismarck 58502
-Bureau of Employment Services, Research and Statistics Division, 145 S. Front Street, Columbus 43216
-Employment Security Commission, Research and Planning, Room 310, Will Rogers Memorial Office
Building, Oklahoma City 73105
-Department of Human Resources, Employment Division, 875 Union Street N.E., Salem 97311
-Department of Labor and Industry, Office of Employment Security, Research and Statistics—Room 1225,
7th and Forster Streets, Harrisburg 17121
-Department of Labor and Human Resources, Bureau of Employment Security, 15th Floor
505 Munoz Rivera Avenue Hato Rey, Puerto Rico 00918
-Department of Employment Security, Research and Statistics, 24 Mason Street, Providence 02903
-Employment Security Commission, P. O. Box 995, Columbia 29202
-Department of Labor, Research and Statistics—o es Unit, P.O. Box 1730, Aberdeen 57401
-Department of Employment Security, Room 519, Cordell Hull Office Building, Nashville 37219
-Employment Commission, t e c Building, 15th and Congress Avenue, Austin 78778
-Department of Employment Security, lmi Services Section, P.O. Box 11249, Salt Lake City 84147
-Department of Employment and Training, Research and Statistics, P.O. Box 488, Montpelier 05602
-Employment Commission, Division of Research and Analysis—o e s , 703 E. Main Street, P.O. Box 1358,
Richmond 23211
-State Employment Security Department, Research and Statistics, 212 Maple Park, Olympia 98504
-Department of Employment Security, Labor and Economic Research—o e s , 112 California Avenue,
Charleston 25305
-Department of Industry, Labor, and Human Relations, P.O. Box 7944, Madison 53707
-Employment Security Commission, Research and Analysis, P.O. Box 2760, Casper 82602


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102