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Occupational Employment
in Mining, Construction,
Finance, and Services
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
September 1986
Bulletin 2264




/ ?. 3 :

OOCUMENT COLLECTION

Jayton & Momy. .it;ry Co
Public Library

Occupational Employment
in Mining, Construction,
Finance, and Services
U.S. Department of Labor
William E. Brock, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
September 1986
Bulletin 2264




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402




Preface

This bulletin provides data from a 1984 survey of
occupational employment in mining, construction,
finance, insurance, real estate, and selected services in­
dustries. Occupational employment data from a 1983
survey of hospitals are also included (appendix B).
Earlier surveys of these nonmanufacturing industries
were conducted in 1973, 1975, 1978, and 1981. Results
of the 1981 survey were published in Bulletin 2186,
O c cu p a tio n a l E m p lo y m e n t in M in in g, C on stru ctio n ,
Finance, a n d S ervices. Remaining nonmanufacturing

industries were surveyed in 1982 and the results were
published in Bulletin 2220, O ccu p a tio n a l E m p lo y m e n t
in T ran sportation ,
Trade.

C o m m u n ica tio n s,

U tilities,

and

Surveys of the manufacturing sector have been con­
ducted at 3-year intervals since 1971. Results of the most
recent survey, in 1983, were published in Bulletin 2248,
O ccu pation al E m p lo y m e n t in M an u factu rin g Industries.

These periodic surveys are part of a Federal-State




cooperative program of occupational employment
statistics ( o e s ) . The o e s program provides information
for many data users, including individuals and
organizations engaged in planning vocational education
programs, training programs supported by the Job
Training Partnership Act, and higher education. O E S
data are also used to prepare information for career
counseling, for job placement activities performed at
State employment security offices, and for personnel
planning and market research conducted by private
enterprises.
This bulletin was prepared in the Office of Employ­
ment and Unemployment Statistics, Division of Oc­
cupational and Administrative Statistics, by Peter
Uimonen and Barbara Keitt under the direction of Glyn
Finley. Kevin Tidemann provided data processing sup­
port. Material in this publication is in the public domain
and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced
without permission.




Contents

Page

Introduction....................................................................................................................................
Summary........................................................................................................................................
M ining............................................................................................................................................
Mining, except oil and gas extraction........................................................................................
Oil and gas extraction.................................................................................................................
Construction..................................................................................................................................
General building contractors.....................................................................................................
Heavy construction contractors..................................................................................................
Special trade contractors....................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate................................................................................................
Banks and credit agencies...........................................................................................................
Security and commodity brokers and investment services........................................................
Insurance and real e s ta te ...........................................................................................................
Services............................................................................................................................................
Hotels and other lodging places..................................................................................................
Personal services.........................................................................................................................
Business services.........................................................................................................................
Automotive repair, services, and garages..................................................................................
Miscellaneous repair services.....................................................................................................
Motion pictures...........................................................................................................................
Amusement and recreation services, except motion pictures....................................................
Health services, except hospitals................................................................................................
Legal services..............................................................................................................................
Social services.............................................................................................................................
Museums and botanical and zoological gardens.......................................................................
Membership organizations, except religious organizations......................................................
Miscellaneous services ...............................................................................................................
Tables:
1. Employment in selected nonmanufacturing industries, 1984 ............................................
2. Employment in selected nonmanufacturing industries
by major occupational group, 1984 ..................................................................................
3. Percent distribution of employment in selected nonmanufacturing industries
by major occupational group, 1984 ................................................................................
Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations:
4. Mining, except oil and gas extraction, May 1984 ...............................................................
5. Metal mining, May 1984 ......................................................................................................
6. Bituminous coal and lignite mining, May 1984...................................................................
7. Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals except fuels, May 1984.............................
8. Oil and gas extraction, May 1984........................................................................................
9. Construction, May 1984 ......................................................................................................
10. General building contractors, May 1984.............................................................................
11. Heavy construction contractors, May 1984 .......................................................................




V

1
2
6
6
7
28
28
28
29
47
47
48
49
75
75
75
76
76
77
77
77
78
78
79
79
80
80

4
5
5

8
12
16
20
24
30
35
39

Contents—Continued
Page

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.

Special trade contractors, May 1984 ................................................................................... 43
Banking, May 1984 .............................................................................................................. 51
Credit agencies, except banks, May 1984 ........................................................................... 54
Security and commodity brokers and services, May 1984 .................................................. 57
Holding and other investment offices, May 1984................................................................ 60
Insurance carriers, May 1984 .............................................................................................. 63
Insurance agents, brokers, and services, May 1984 ............................................................ 67
Real estate, May 1984 .......................................................................................................... 70
Combined real estate, insurance, loan, and law offices,May 1984 .................................... 73
Hotels and other lodging places, May 1984......................................................................... 81
Personal services, May 1984 ................................................................................................ 85
Business services, June 1984 ................................................................................................ 89
Automotive repair, services, and garages, May 1984............................................................ 95
Miscellaneous repair services, May 1984............................................................................. 98
Motion pictures, June 1984................................................................................................... 102
Amusement and recreation services, except motion pictures, April 1984 ..........................105
Health services, except hospitals, April 1984 ..........................................
109
Legal services, May 1984.................................................................................................... 113
Social services, April 1984.................................................................................................. 115
Museums and botanical and zoological gardens, April1984 ............................................ 119
Membership organizations, except religious organizations,April 1984 .......................... 121
Miscellaneous services, June 1984 ..................................................................................... 125

Appendixes:
A. Survey methods and reliability of estimates......................................................................
B. Occupational employment in hospitals, April 1983............................................................
C. The OES classification system.......................................... ..................................................
D. OES survey data available from State agencies..................................................................




vi

130
134
139
141

Introduction

percent of total employment, relative error, and the per­
cent of establishments reporting the occupation.2
Employment estimates are based upon survey results
adjusted by total industry employment. The percent of
total employment refers to the percent of total industry
employment in a specific occupation. Relative error is a
measure of variability expressed as a proportion of the
sample estimate. The percentage of establishments
reporting a particular occupation indicates the frequency
of occurrence of an occupation.
Occupations with fewer than 50 workers, or with less
than 0.01 percent of industry employment, or with a
relative error greater than 50 percent are not shown
separately but are included in the appropriate residual
categories. Employment is rounded to the nearest 10.
The relative error and the percent of respondents re­
porting an occupation are rounded to the nearest whole
percent. The percent of total employment was com­
puted from rounded employment data.

The Occupational Employment Statistics ( o e s ) survey
is designed to collect data on occupational employment
of wage and salary workers by industry in
nonagricultural establishments. The Bureau of Labor
Statistics provides the funding, procedures, and technical
assistance for the survey, and State employment security
agencies collect the data. Supplemental funding was pro­
vided by the National Science Foundation.
In 1984, 50 States, the District of Columbia, and
Puerto Rico participated in the survey, compared with
48 States and the District of Columbia in 1981, 43 States
in 1978, 29 States in 1975, and 22 States in 1973. The
estimates in this publication do not include data for
Puerto Rico. Data on occupational employment in each
participating jurisdiction are available from the agencies
listed in appendix D.
Data presented

This bulletin contains the following national data on
occupational employment for 2-digit Standard In­
dustrial Classification (sic)1 industries: Employment,
The SIC system is described in the 1972 edition o f the Standard In­
dustrial Classification Manual (O ffice o f M anagem ent and Budget,
Executive O ffice o f the President, 1972).
1




1

2
O ccupational data at the m ore detailed 3-digit SIC level are
available upon request from the O ffice o f Em ploym ent and
Unem ploym ent Statistics, Bureau o f Labor Statistics. D efinitions for
all occupations surveyed are also available upon request.

Summary

organizations. Occupations included in this group are
plant, office, and sales managers and corporate officers
such as president and treasurer. First-line supervisors,
such as production and clerical supervisors, however,
are included in the same occupational division as the
workers they supervise. The new coding structure con­
tains a new occupation: First-line supervisor—sales.
These supervisory workers are now included in the sales
category rather than in the managers/administrators
group (appendix C).
In 1984, managerial and administrative workers
numbered 1.8 million, or 6.9 percent of total employ­
ment in the nonmanufacturing industries surveyed. The
highest concentrations of these workers were in banks
and credit agencies (290,560) and business services
(281,770), both 16 percent of all managerial and ad­
ministrative workers.

In 1984, employment in the selected nonmanufactur­
ing industries surveyed was approximately 26.9 million,
or more than 28 percent of all nonagricultural wage and
salary employment in the Nation.
As shown in table 1, 58 percent of the workers were
employed in service industries, such as business and
health services. Finance, insurance, and real estate
employed 5.7 million workers, or 22 percent. Construc­
tion and mining, with 4.3 million and 1 million workers,
respectively, accounted for the remainder.
Major occupational groups

The o e s occupational classification system, introduced
in 1983, was used for this survey. It emphasizes occupa­
tions of special interest to many data users, such as
technology-related occupations and those which require
substantial training. In addition, this system is both
more concise and more compatible with the Standard
Occupational Classification System than were older
classification schemes. A detailed explanation of the
o e s classification system is given in appendix C.
Under this system, workers are classified into seven
major occupational groups: Managerial and ad­
ministrative workers; professional, paraprofessional,
and technical workers; sales and related workers;
clerical and administrative support workers; service
workers; agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
workers; and production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling workers. Tables 2
and 3 present the distribution of employment of these
seven major occupational groups in the various in­
dustries surveyed.
The following sections provide descriptive analyses of
the distribution of occupational employment among the
2-digit sic industries surveyed. Throughout, changes in
occupational employment between survey years that
may be due to changes in the classification system,
as opposed to changes in the actual occupational mix
of the establishments, are noted. These sections also
present detailed occupational employment data by
industry.

Persons employed in professional positions usually
deal with theoretical or practical aspects of such fields
as science, engineering, art, education, medicine, law,
and business relations. Most of these occupations re­
quire substantial educational preparation, usually at the
university level. Paraprofessionals work under the
direction of professionals. These occupations usually re­
quire some postsecondary education or, in some in­
stances, a baccalaureate degree. Technical occupations
require knowledge of fundamental scientific, engineer­
ing, mathematical, computer programming, or draft
design principles. This knowledge is acquired through
study at technical schools and junior colleges, through
other formal postsecondary training less extensive than
a 4-year college education, or through equivalent onthe-job training or experience.
In 1984, professional, paraprofessional, and technical
workers numbered 5 million or 19 percent of employ­
ment in the surveyed industries. The largest concentra­
tions of these workers were in health services (over 1
million) and business services (over 770,000).

Managerial and administrative workers

Sales workers

Persons holding positions as managerial and ad­
ministrative workers are primarily concerned with
policymaking, planning, organizing, staffing, directing,
and controlling activities common to many types of

Sales workers in these nonmanufacturing industries
primarily include persons who are required to have
specific knowledge of the commodity or service being
sold. Sales representatives include those who sell com­




Professional, paraprofessional, and technical
workers

2

the surveyed total) employed in the nonmanufacturing
industries in 1984. The greatest number of such workers
was found in banking, insurance and real estate,
business services, and health services. Together, these
industries alone employed 65 percent of these workers in
this survey.

modities on a wholesale basis to wholesale, retail, in­
dustrial, professional, or other establishments. They
solicit orders from established clientele and attempt to
secure new customers; show samples or catalog illustra­
tions of products or services to prospective buyers and
explain their merit; quote prices and credit and discount
terms; arrange delivery schedules; process orders;
resolve customer complaints; and keep informed of the
latest market conditions, product innovations, and price
changes. Sales engineers include workers primarily con­
cerned with selling to businesses goods and services
where a technical background equivalent to a degree in
engineering is required.
In 1984, the number of sales workers employed was 1.5
million or 5.6 percent of surveyed employment. The
highest proportions of total sales workers were employed
in insurance and real estate, business services, and securi­
ty and commodity brokers and investment services.

Persons in this occupational group perform services
for individuals or establishments. Service workers pro­
tect individuals and property, prepare and serve food
and beverages, and clean interiors and equipment of
buildings, offices, stores, vehicles, etc.
In 1984, service workers numbered 4.7 million or 18
percent of estimated employment. Health services,
business services, and hotels and other lodging places
accounted for about 64 percent of the total employment
in this category.

Clerical and administrative support workers

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related workers

Persons employed in this occupational group are con­
centrated in five categories: First-line super­
visors—clerical; selected secretarial and general office
occupations; electronic data processing and other office
machine occupations; selected communication, mail,
and message distributing occupations; and material
recording, scheduling, dispatching, and distributing oc­
cupations. The last group is comprised of plant clerical
workers who plan, coordinate, or expedite production
and the flow of work. They are also involved in the
clerical aspects of receiving, storing, issuing, or shipping
of materials, merchandise, supplies, or equipment. The
other nonsupervisory groups are primarily comprised of
office clerical workers who prepare, systematize,
transcribe, transfer, or preserve written communication
and records, as well as collect accounts and distribute
information.
There were 6.8 million clerical workers (26 percent of

This category includes forestry workers such as choke
setters, log handling equipment operators, nursery
workers, and conservation workers. Agricultural
workers include persons in occupations such as graders
and sorters of agricultural products; gardeners and
groundskeepers, except farm; and farm equipment
operators. In 1984, the selected nonmanufacturing in­
dustries employed only 205,570 of these workers, ac­
counting for less than 1 percent of the total.




Service workers

Production, construction, operating, mainte­
nance, and material handling occupations

This occupational group includes all skilled,
semiskilled, and unskilled workers performing machine
and manual tasks. In 1984, this group accounted for 6.1
million or 23 percent of estimated employment. The
bulk of production jobs were found in the construction
industries (54 percent).

3




Table 1. Employment in selected nonmanufacturing industries, 1984
Employment

Percent of total
nonmanufacturing
employment

T otal.............................................................

26,082,450

100.0

Mining, total ............................................................
Mining, except oil and gas extraction ................
Oil and gas extraction.........................................

968,250
370,070
598,180

3.7
1.4
2.3

Construction, to ta l...................................................
General building contractors ...............................
Heavy construction contractors ..........................
Special trade contractors....................................

4,323,320
1,149,750
779,470
2,394,100

16.6
4.4
3.0
9.2

Finance, insurance, and real estate, to ta l............
Banks and credit agencies.................................
Security and commodity brokers and
investment services.......................................
Insurance and real estate...................................

5,651,860
2,358,080

21.7
9.0

479,520
2,814,260

1.8
10.8

Services, to ta l.........................................................
Hotels and other lodging places.........................
Personal services.................................................
Business services................................................
Auto repair, services, and garages.....................
Miscellaneous repair services.............................
Motion pictures.....................................................
Amusement and recreation services, except
motion pictures...............................................
Health services, except hospitals.......................
Legal services ......................................................
Social services .....................................................
Museums and botanical and zoological gardens
Membership organizations, except religious
organizations ..................................................
Miscellaneous services .......................................

15,139,100
1,267,930
1,002,860
4,069,420
677,880
311,060
229,000

58.0
4.9
3.8
15.6
2.6
1.2
.9

791,470
3,070,950
634,470
1,235,850
39,230

3.0
11.8
2.4
4.7
.2

647,430
1,161,550

2.5
4.5

Industry

4

Table 2. Employment in selected nonmanufacturing industries by major occupational group, 1984

Industry

Managers and
administrative
workers

Professional,
paraprofessional, and
technical
workers

Clerical and
administrative
Sales and
support
related workers
workers

Agricultural,
forestry,
fishing, and
related workers

Production,
construction,
operating,
maintenance,
and material
handling
workers

Service
workers

T o ta l........................................

1,797,040

5,008,400

1,462,030

6,811,300

205,570

6,107,460

4,690,650

Mining, except oil and gas extraction
Oil and gas extraction........................
General building contractors.............
Heavy construction contractors........
Special trade contractors ..................
Banks and credit agencies................
Security and commodity brokers and
investment services......................
Insurance and real estate..................
Hotels and other lodging places .......
Personal services..............................
Business services..............................
Auto repair, services, and garages ....
Miscellaneous repair services...........
Motion pictures ..................................
Amusement and recreation services,
except motion pictures ................
Health services, except hospitals......
Legal services....................................
Social services...................................
Museums and botanical and
zoological gardens .......................
Membership organizations, except
religious organizations..................
Miscellaneous services......................

19,880
51,010
108,840
43,650
117,890
290,560

24,020
117,550
63,260
57,070
100,580
311,760

2,440
14,230
17,520
2,210
39,960
77,860

27,360
93,720
121,950
57,510
229,160
1,617,550

550
630
6,380
2,110
3,050
1,240

291,430
316,420
818,220
612,350
1,894,160
10,770

4,310
4,620
13,580
4,570
9,300
48,340

55,820
244,770
70,210
30,220
281,770
22,600
10,500
23,430

75,450
352,160
32,460
130,030
771,460
8,770
12,050
52,940

124,750
539,830
57,130
105,280
216,520
83,470
26,710
32,150

205,280
1,168,990
182,020
100,840
1,144,900
74,430
47,170
27,050

2,040
77,000
14,100
2,590
14,430
310
1,280
350

7,750
189,830
86,240
267,020
575,420
477,010
209,620
27,980

8,430
241,680
825,770
366,880
1,064,920
11,290
3,730
65,100

42,840
104,560
9,050
93,660

136,680
1,113,020
277,330
446,980

65,880
12,390
20
12,420

61,170
634,910
339,760
214,660

52,970
6,040
400
5,360

59,110
95,910
830
105,820

372,820
1,104,120
7,080
356,950

3,410

9,870

3,530

6,550

2,410

2,590

10,870

97,850
74,520

172,300
742,660

15,570
12,160

176,630
279,690

10,450
1,880

20,980
38,000

153,650
12,640

Table 3. Percent distribution of employment in selected nonmanufacturing industries by major occupational group,
1984

Industry

Managers
All
and
occupations administrative
workers

Professional,
paraprofessional, and
technical
workers

Sales and
related
workers

Clerical and
administrative
support
workers

Agricultural,
forestry,
fishing, and
related
workers

Production,
construction,
operating,
maintenance,
and material
handling
workers

Service
workers

T o ta l........................................

100.0

6.9

19.2

5.6

26.1

0.8

23.4

18.0

Mining, except oil and gas extraction
Oil and gas extraction........................
General building contractors.............
Heavy construction contractors........
Special trade contractors ..................
Banks and credit agencies................
Security and commodity brokers and
investment services......................
Insurance and real estate..................
Hotels and other lodging places .......
Personal services ..............................
Business services..............................
Auto repair, services, and garages ....
Miscellaneous repair services...........
Motion pictures ..................................
Amusement and recreation services,
except motion pictures ................
Health services, except hospitals......
Legal services....................................
Social services...................................
Museums and botanical and
zoological gardens .......................
Membership organizations, except
religious organizations..................
Miscellaneous services......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

5.4
8.5
9.5
5.6
4.9
12.3

6.5
19.7
5.5
7.3
4.2
13.2

.7
2.4
1.5
.3
1.7
3.3

7.4
15.7
10.6
7.4
9.6
68.6

.1
.1
.6
.3
.1
.1

78.8
52.9
71.2
78.6
79.1
.5

1.2
.8
1.2
.6
.4
2.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

11.6
8.7
5.5
3.0
6.9
3.3
3.4
10.2

15.7
12.5
2.6
13.0
19.0
1.3
3.9
23.1

26.0
19.2
4.5
10.5
5.3
12.3
8.6
14.0

42.8
41.5
14.4
10.1
28.1
11.0
15.2
11.8

.4
2.7
1.1
.3
.4
.0
.4
.2

1.6
6.7
6.8
26.6
14.1
70.4
67.4
12.2

1.8
8.6
65.1
36.6
26.2
1.7
1.2
28.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

5.4
3.4
1.4
7.6

17.3
36.2
43.7
36.2

8.3
.4
.0
1.0

7.7
20.7
53.6
17.4

6.7
.2
.1
.4

7.5
3.1
.1
8.6

47.1
36.0
1.1
28.9

100.0

8.7

25.2

9.0

16.7

6.1

6.6

27.7

100.0
100.0

15.1
6.4

26.6
63.9

2.4
1.0

27.3
24.1

1.6
.2

3.2
3.3

23.7
1.1




5

Mining

This industry division comprises establishments engag­
ed in the extraction of minerals, liquids, and gases such as
coal, ores, crude petroleum, and natural gas. Mining also
includes the exploration and development of mineral pro­
perties and other preparations customarily done at the
mine site, or as part of the mining activity.
In 1984, mining employed approximately 1 million
workers or 3.7 percent of all workers in the surveyed in­
dustries. Mining was classified into two major industry
groups: Mining, except oil and gas extraction; and oil
and gas extraction. Nearly 62 percent of these workers
were employed in oil and gas extraction.

Employment in metal mining (sic 10) declined at a
relatively higher than average rate. This may have been
due to the effects of the recession of 1982 and foreign
competition, each of which resulted in a decline in
metals prices and profits. There may have also been
some industry-specific technological developments serv­
ing to decrease demand. For example, the demand for
lead and copper may have declined due to the elimina­
tion of lead from paint and gasoline products and the
greater use of fiber optics rather than copper in the
telecommunications industry. The decline in bituminous
coal and lignite mining employment was moderate com­
pared with the average. This may have been partially ex­
plained by the substitution of coal for oil and natural
gas in many industries.
The largest occupational concentrations of
bituminous coal and lignite mining workers (Sic 12) are
listed below. Together, they constitute about 21 percent
of total industry employment, led by grader, dozer, and
scraper operators, with over 10,000 workers.

Mining, except oil and gas extraction

Establishments in this industry group (S IC ’ s 10,11,12,
and 14) are primarily engaged in metal mining, an­
thracite mining, bituminous coal and lignite mining,
and mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals, ex­
cept fuels.
Of the 370,070 workers in this group of industries in
1984, over half were engaged in mining bituminous coal
and lignite. Thirty percent worked in mining and quar­
rying of nonmetallic minerals, except fuels; 16 percent
in mining metals; and the remainder in mining an­
thracite (tables 4-7).
Total employment in mining, except oil and gas ex­
traction, declined by almost 20 percent between 1981
and 1984. The percentage changes for each 3-digit Sic
industry are shown in text table 1.

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

Grader, dozer, and
scraper op erators............................
Shuttle car o p erators.......................
Underground mine machinery
m ech an ics.........................................
R o o f bolters . . . ..............................
Truckdrivers, heavy or
tractor-trailer. . ....................... ..

Text table 1. Mining, except oil and gas extraction:
Employment by industry, 1981 and 1984
Industry

SIC
code

1981

1984

101
102
103
104

22,310
36,530
6,620
9,630

12,300
17,380
3,320
10,680

-44.9
-52.4
-49.8
10.9

105

400

210

10,130
8,700

5.1
4.4

8,610
7,940

4.3
4.0

7,190

3.6

The five occupations with the highest proportion of
total employees in the nonmetallic mineral mining in­
dustry, excluding fuels (sic 14), are listed below. They
accounted for about 31 percent of total industry
employment. Heavy or tractor-trailer truckdrivers was
the occupation with by far the most workers, 12,340.

Percent
change,
1981-84

Iron o re s ..........................
Copper ores
Lead and zinc o re s ..........
Gold and silver o r e s ........
Bauxite and other
aluminum o r e s ..............
Ferroalloy ores,
except vanadium ..........
Metal mining services. . . .
Miscellaneous metal ores,
Anthracite m ining............
Bituminous coal and
lignite mining ................
Dimension stone..............
Crushed and broken
stone..............................
Sand and gravel ..............
Clay and related
m inerals........................
Chemical and fertilizer
m inerals........................
Miscellaneous nonmetallic minerals ..........

P ercen t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t

-47.5




Employment

106
108
109
111

7,860
6,260
15,770
3,580

4,190
3,920
5,580
2,710

-46.7
-37.4
-64.6
-24.3

121
141

230,080
3,400

198,650
3,450

-13.7
1.5

142
144

39,190
35,580

36,250
34,590

-7.5
-2.8

145

9,590

8,440

-12.0

147

27,480

20,750

-24.5

149

6,540

6,330

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

-3.2

Truckdrivers, heavy or
tractor-trailer.....................................
Excavating and loading
m achine op era to rs............................
Crushing, grinding, m ixing, and
blending m achine operators
and ten d ers.........................................
M aintenance repairers,
general u tility .....................................
First-line supervisors,
construction trades and
extractive w o r k e rs............................

6

P ercen t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t

12,340

11.1

7,340

6.6

6,190

5.6

4,980

4.5

3,550

3.2

Oil and gas extraction
T h is

in d u s tr y

(s ic

13)

c o n s is ts

of

Text table 2. Oil and gas extraction: Employment by
industry, 1981 and 1984

e s t a b lis h m e n ts

e n g a g e d in th e p r o d u c t io n o f c r u d e p e t r o le u m , n a tu r a l
g a s,

and

c y c le

c o n d en sa te,

and

a ls o

in c lu d e s

Employment

th e

SIC
code

Industry

1981

1984

Percent
change,
1981-84

131
132

250,010
6,790

256,130
6,590

2.4
-2.9

138

410,950

335,380

-18.4

r e c o v e r y o f o il fr o m o il s a n d s a n d o il s h a le .
In

1 9 8 4 , o il a n d

g a s e x tr a c t io n

e m p lo y e d

5 9 8 ,1 8 0

Crude petroleum
and natural g a s ...............
Natural gas liquids
Oil and gas field
services

w o r k e r s o r 6 2 p e r c e n t o f a l l w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d in t h e
m in in g

in d u s tr y

(ta b le

8 ).

P r o d u c tio n

and

r e la te d

w o r k e r s m a d e u p th e m a j o r it y w ith 3 1 6 ,4 2 0 o r 53 p e r ­
c e n t o f in d u s tr y e m p lo y m e n t . T h is m a j o r o c c u p a t io n a l
g r o u p w a s f o llo w e d b y p r o fe s s io n a l, p a r a p r o fe s s io n a l,
a n d t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s , w i t h 1 1 7 , 5 5 0 o r 1 9 .7 p e r c e n t o f

T h e f iv e m o s t p o p u lo u s o c c u p a t io n s in th e o il a n d g a s

in d u s tr y e m p lo y m e n t , a n d c le r ic a l a n d a d m in is t r a tiv e

e x tr a c t io n in d u s tr y a r e g iv e n in th e ta b u la t io n b e lo w .

w o r k e r s ( 9 3 , 7 2 0 o r 1 5 .7 p e r c e n t ) .

T h e s e j o b s t o g e t h e r m a d e u p 2 9 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l in d u s t r y

C h a n g e s in t h e

oes

e m p lo y m e n t.

c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t r u c t u r e r e s u l t e d in

s h ifts o f s p e c ific o c c u p a tio n s to d iffe r e n t m a jo r d iv i­
sio n s b e tw e e n

1981 a n d

1 9 8 4 . F o r e x a m p l e , in

The

la r g e s t

s in g le

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

e n g i n e e r s c a t e g o r i z e d in t h e s a l e s o c c u p a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n ,
w h e r e a s t h e s e w o r k e r s w e r e i n c l u d e d in t h e m a n a g e r i a l

P e rc e n t o f
in d u stry
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

P e rc e n t
c h a n g e in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1981-84

76,480
30,320
26,290

12.8
5.1
4.4

-1 5 .9

21,450

3.6

28.0

20,960

3.5

-6 .8

a n d p r o f e s s io n a l d iv is io n s , r e s p e c t iv e ly , in 1 9 8 1 . T h e s e
R o u sta b o u ts................
Service unit operators
Secretaries....................
Derrick operators,
oil and gas extraction
Rotary drill operators,
oil and gas extraction

e x a m p le s d o n o t e x h a u s t th e c h a n g e s in m a j o r d iv is io n
oes

stru c­

tu r e , b u t th e y a re th e m o s t s ig n ific a n t.
E m p l o y m e n t i n t h e o i l a n d g a s e x t r a c t i o n in d u s t r y
(s ic

1 3) d e c lin e d

by

1 0 .4

p ercen t b e tw e e n

w as

1984,

th e r e w e r e 4 ,5 2 0 fir s t-lin e s a le s s u p e r v is o r s a n d 9 6 0 sa le s

e m p lo y m e n t th a t w e r e d u e t o c h a n g e s in th e

o c c u p a tio n

r o u s ta b o u ts (1 2 .8 p e r c e n t).

1981

and

(1)
16.7

1 9 8 4 . T h is m a y h a v e b e e n g e n e r a lly d u e t o th e c o m b in e d
1 Because o f changes in the survey classification system , data for
1981 and 1984 are not com parable.

e f f e c t s o f t h e r e c e s s i o n , a w o r l d w i d e in c r e a s e i n s u p p l y ,
a n d in c r e a s e d c o n s e r v a t i o n e f f o r t s , r e s u l t i n g in a d e c l i n e
in p r i c e s . A s s h o w n i n t e x t t a b l e 2 , t h e e m p l o y m e n t

B e t w e e n 1 9 8 1 a n d 1 9 8 4 , d e r r ic k o p e r a t o r e m p l o y m e n t

d e c lin e w a s c o n c e n tr a t e d in th e o il a n d g a s f ie ld s e r v ic e s

in c r e a s e d b y 2 8 p e r c e n t . D u r i n g t h e s a m e p e r i o d , e m p l o y ­

i n d u s t r y ( s i c 1 3 8 ) . T h i s m a y r e f l e c t a d e c l i n e in i n v e s t ­

m ent

m e n t in d r i l l i n g r ig s a n d e x p l o r a t o r y a c t i v i t y .

r o u s t a b o u t e m p l o y m e n t d e c li n e d b y a l m o s t 1 6 p e r c e n t .




7

of

s e c r e t a r ie s

in c r e a s e d

by

1 6 .7

p e r c e n t,

and

Table 4. Mining, except oil and gas extraction: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984
(SIC 10, 11, 12, 14)

Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T ota l........................................................................................

370,070

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations................................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers............................................
Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas well
drilling managers.....................................................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

19,890
2,630

5.37
.71

n.a.
6

n.a.
26

930
460

.25
.12

9
13

10
7

390
590

.11
.16

18
15

4
5

8,230
4,040
2,620

2.22
1.09
.71

8
7
10

46
25
12

24,040
6,900

6.50
1.86

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

2,900
2,510
170
220

.78
.68
.05
.06

n.a.
8
22
34

n.a.
21
3
2

1,030

.28

9

12

1,190
140

.32
04

10
21

11
2

1,100
540
5,510

.30
.15
1.49

10
19
n.a.

6
3
n.a.

640

.17

6

5

3,140
410
600
720
740

.85
.11
.16
.19
.20

7
17
14
16
12

19
4
5
5
6

3,260

.88

n.a.

n.a.

190
1,110

.05
.30

46
10

1
10

1,120

.30

9

7

840
3,130
620

.23
.85
.17

n.a.
n.a.
8

n.a.
n.a.
5

2,220
290
280

.60
.08
.08

10
24
n.a.

12
3
n.a.

2,000

.54

n.a.

n.a.

1,660

.45

5

6

340

.09

12

2

1,150

.31

n.a.

n.a.

440
560
150
230

.12
.15
.04
.06

22
15
30
21

3
5
2
2

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Accountants and auditors.....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Cost estimators........................................................................
Compliance officers and enforcement
inspectors, except construction...........................................
All other management support workers.................................
Engineers ...................................................................................
Metallurgists, and metallurgical, ceramic,
and materials engineers.......................................................
Mining engineers, including
mine safety .............................................................................
Civil engineers, including traffic..............................................
Mechanical engineers.............................................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Surveying and mapping scientists ............................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Civil engineering technicians and
technologists.........................................................................
Drafters....................................................................................
Surveying and mapping technicians and
technologists.........................................................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Physical scientists......................................................................
Chemists, except biochemists................................................
Geologists, geophysicists, and
oceanographers .....................................................................
All other physical scientists ....................................................
Life scientists..............................................................................
Physical and life science technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Chemical technicians and
technologists, except he a lth ................................................
All other physical and life science
technicians and technologists..............................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aides..................................................
Lawyers......................................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




8

Table 4. Mining, except oil and gas extraction: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 10, 11, 12, 14)

Occupation

Legal assistants and technicians, except
clerical......................................................................................
Registered nurses.....................................................................
All other health professionals,
paraprofessional and technicians...........................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers...............................

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

45
27

1
1

110

.03

n.a.

n.a.

530

.14

n.a.

n.a.

2,430

.66

n.a.

n.a.

.29

8

13

340

.09

16

3

780
230

.21
.06

9
38

9
2

27,310

7.38

n.a.

n.a.

1.310
5.310
100
400
390
210

.35
1.43
.03
.11
.11
.06

10
6
26
14
16
16

12
37
1
6
4
2

550
140
4,620
1,450
450
4,030

.15
.04
1.25
.39
.12
1.09

11
25
5
8
11
5

6
2
38
16
5
32

870

.24

n.a.

n.a.

350
330
190
310

.09
.09
.05
.08

14
12
n.a.
11

4
4
n.a.
5

6,690

1.81

n.a.

n.a.

870

.24

10

5

2,700

.73

4

27

2,660

.72

6

12

460

.12

13

4

480

.13

n.a.

n.a.

4,350

1.18

n.a.

n.a.

320
2,340

.09
.63

23
9

2
12

1,520

.41

n.a.

n.a.

1,430

.39

7

12

90
170

.02
.05

24
n.a.

1
n.a.

580
520

.16
.14

n.a.
39

n.a.
2

60

Sales representatives, scientific and related
products and services, except retail......................................
Sales representatives, except scientific and
related products or services and retail..................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................

0.02
.04

1,080

Sales and related occupations ...................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales

60
140

.02

n.a.

n.a.

Clerical and administrative support
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,

Stenographers...........................................................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping
....................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Production, planning, and expediting
clerks.....................................................................................
Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers,
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
All other material recording, scheduling, and
All other clerical and administrative support

First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
All other service w orkers..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
All other agriculture, forestry, fishing, and

See footnotes at end of table.




9

Table 4. Mining, except oil and gas extraction: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 10, 11, 12, 14)

Occupation

Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers ........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - helpers, laborers,
and material movers, hand ..................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related......................................................
Precision inspectors, testers, and graders ...............................
Production inspectors, testers, graders,
sorters, samplers, and weighers ............................................
All other inspectors, testers and related
occupations.............................................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Machinery maintenance mechanics.......................................
Underground mine machinery mechanics...........................
All other machinery maintenance mechanics.....................
Millwrights................................................................................
Machinery maintenance workers............................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Automotive mechanics ...........................................................
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine
specialists.............................................................................
Mobile heavy equipment mechanics, except
engines..................................................................................
Rail car repairers.....................................................................
Riggers.....................................................................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Brattice builders.......................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters...........................................................................
Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment
operators...............................................................................
Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment
operators...............................................................................
All other construction trades workers....................................
Earth drillers, except oil and g a s ..............................................
Blasters and explosives workers ..............................................
Rock splitters, quarry.................................................................
Roof bolters...............................................................................
Continuous mining machine operators.....................................
Mine cutting and channeling machine operators.....................
All other mining machine operators .........................................
All other extractive workers, except helpers............................
Precision metal workers............................................................
Machinists ...............................................................................
Precision workers, n e c ..............................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
metal and plastic....................................................................

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

291,470

78.76

n.a.

n.a.

25,740

6.96

n.a.

n.a.

6,240

1.69

5

15

12,320

3.33

4

40

2,370

.64

8

8

2,330

.63

13

7

2,480
300

.67
.08

12
17

6
1

1,020

.28

9

6

240
47,130
15,780
10,520
5,260
960
6,780
9,700
920

.06
12.74
4.26
2.84
1.42
.26
1.83
2.62
.25

30
n.a.
n.a.
7
7
13
6
5
11

1
n.a.
n.a.
8
7
1
21
33
4

2,650

.72

9

14

8,760
480
110
990

237
13
03
.27

6
16
20
14

25
1
1
3

14,420
880
2,090
8,150

3.90
.24
.56
2.20

n.a.
21
10
6

n.a.
5
4
16

190

.05

14

2

490

.13

15

1

270

.07

23

1

1,300
1,050
5,410
4,240
1,200
8,300
7,800
4,020
6,050
8,100
1,200
1,200
190

.35
.28
1.46
1.15
.32
2.24
2.11
1.09
1.63
2.19
.32
.32
.05

10
13
7
7
17
7
8
11
17
12
n.a.
11
20

3
2
21
17
4
6
7
6
5
5
n.a.
6
1

400

.11

n.a.

n.a.

Employment1

See footnotes at end of table.




10

Table 4. Mining, except oil and gas extraction: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 10, 11, 12, 14)

Occupation

Employment1

Machine tool cutting operators and tenders,
metal and pla stic..................................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, or kettle
operators and tenders .........................................................
Boiler operators and tenders,
low pressure..........................................................................
Cutting and slicing machine operators and
tenders..................................................................................
Cleaning, washing, and pickling equipment
operators and tenders .........................................................
Separating, filtering, clarifying,
precipitating, and still machine operators
and tenders...........................................................................
Crushing, grinding, mixing, and blending
machine operators and tenders ..........................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and pla stic......................................................
Other hand workers, n e c ..........................................................
Welders and cutters................................................................
Solderers and brazers............................................................
All other hand workers, n e c....................................................
Plant and system workers ........................................................
Stationary engineers...............................................................
All other plant and system operators....................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, heavy or tractor
tra ile r.....................................................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
All other motor vehicle operators ..........................................
Rail yard engineers, dinkey operators, and
hostlers....................................................................................
Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators...........................
All other rail vehicle operatives and
controllers................................................................................
Ail other transportation and motor vehicle
operators.................................................................................
Material moving equipment operators......................................
Excavating and loading
machine operators.................................................................
Dragline operators...................................................................
Dredge operators and dipper tenders...................................
Loading machine operators, underground
mining....................................................................................
Shuttle car operators..............................................................
Grader, dozer, and scraper operators...................................
Hoist and winch operators.....................................................
Crane and tower operators....................................................
Industrial truck and tractor operators....................................
Conveyor operators and tenders ...........................................
Pump operators.......................................................................
Operating engineers................................................................
All other material moving equipment
operators...............................................................................
Helpers - mechanics and repairers ..........................................
Construction trades and extractive worker
helpers.....................................................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand..............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, h a n d ..........................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

400

0.11

25

1

17,360

4.69

n.a.

n.a.

1,550

.42

9

6

170

.05

13

1

270

.07

12

1

1,300

.35

19

4

4,120

1.11

9

7

8,990

2.43

3

37

240

.06

n.a.

n.a.

720
9,430
8,650
60
720
2,650
1,200
1,450
24,460

.19
2.55
2.34
.02
.19
.72
.32
.39
6.61

n.a.
n.a.
6
40
28
n.a.
12
10
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
24
e>

21,880

5.91

4

49

1,620
960

.44
.26

8
24

9
2

790
530

.21
.14

16
17

3
2

690

.19

19

1

680
64,270

.18
17.37

14
n.a.

2
n.a.

13,960
4,030
1,000

3.77
1.09
.27

6
10
8

45
18
7

4,100
9,210
13,140
1,050
1,020
4,110
4,100
1,250
4,240

1.11
2.49
3.55
.28
.28
1.11
1.11
.34
1.15

11
8
9
9
8
9
7
8
15

8
6
17
4
6
17
15
6
12

3,060
2,920

.83
.79

13
11

6
7

5,400
2,860

1.46
.77

10
12

10
8

23,670

6.40

5

18

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

1

n.a.
3
3
n.a.

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

11

Table 5. Metal mining: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984
(SIC 10)

Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

57,680

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations................................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas well
drilling managers.....................................................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

2,730
400

4.73
.69

n.a.
7

n.a.
30

190
80

.33
.14

6
7

16
9

70
120

.12
.21

19
19

5
8

750
650
470

1.30
1.13
.81

10
8
8

44
30
19

7,750
1,430

13.44
2.48

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

690

1.20

n.a.

n.a.

220

.38

7

17

240

.42

6

15

140
140
1,710

.24
.24
2.96

10
n.a.
n.a.

7
n.a.
n.a.

450

.78

5

25

810
50
190
210
250

1.40
.09
.33
.36
.43

4
10
9
9
13

37
5
10
10
14

900

1.56

n.a.

n.a.

50
310

.09
.54

17
7

2
24

210

36

7

12

330
1,860
240

.57
3.22
.42

n.a.
n.a.
7

n.a.
n.a.
14

1,520
100

2.64
.17

5
10

49
8

730

1.27

n.a.

n.a.

550

.95

7

17

180

.31

10

9

340

.59

n.a.

n.a.

170
170
60
60

.29
.29
.10
.10

12
12
17
22

6
10
3
3

80

.14

n.a.

n.a.

330

.57

n.a.

n.a.

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Compliance officers and enforcement
inspectors, except construction...........................................
All other management support workers.................................
Engineers ...................................................................................
Metallurgists, and metallurgical, ceramic,
and materials engineers.......................................................
Mining engineers, including
mine s a fe ty.............................................................................
Civil engineers, including traffic..............................................
Mechanical engineers.............................................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Surveying and mapping scientists ............................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Civil engineering technicians and
technologists.........................................................................
Drafters....................................................................................
Surveying and mapping technicians and
technologists.........................................................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Physical scientists......................................................................
Chemists, except biochemists................................................
Geologists, geophysicists, and
oceanographers .....................................................................
All other physical scientists ....................................................
Physical and life science technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Chemical technicians and
technologists, except health ................................................
All other physical and life science
technicians and technologists..............................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Lawyers......................................................................................
Registered nurses......................................................................
All other health professionals,
paraprofessional and technicians...........................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
See footnotes at end of table.




12

Table 5. Metal mining: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984— Continued
(SIC 10)

Occupation

Sales and related occupations ...................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks .................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Production, planning, and expediting
clerks.....................................................................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage yard .........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
workers ....................................................................................
Service occupations .....................................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
All other service workers ..........................................................

Employment1

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

0.26

n.a.

n.a.

90
60

.16
.10

16
n.a.

8
n.a.

4,270

7.40

n.a.

n.a.

220
1,110
60
90
80

.38
1.92
.10
.16
.14

9
5
12
11
12

13
59
7
7
5

110
730
190
460

.19
1.27
.33
.80

9
7
7
8

9
36
17
21

200
100
100
60

.35
.17
.17
.10

n.a.
9
n.a.
7

n.a.
7
n.a.
7

820

1.42

n.a.

n.a.

190

.33

10

5

480

.83

7

16

150

.26

n.a.

n.a.

140

.24

n.a.

n.a.

890
480

1.54
.83

n.a.
7

n.a.
18

310
100

.54
.17

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

10

.02

n.a.

n.a.

41,880

72.61

n.a.

n.a.

4,620

8.01

n.a.

n.a.

1,580

2.74

7

19

2,080

3.61

7

34

430

.75

17

8

210

.36

18

7

320
270

.55
.47

14
n.a.

7
n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.




Relative error (in
percentage)2

150

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers ........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - helpers, laborers,
and material movers, hand ..................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related.....................................................
Inspectors and related occupations .........................................

Percent of total
employment

13

Table 5. Metal mining: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984— Continued
(SIC 10)

Occupation

Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Machinery maintenance mechanics.......................................
Underground mine machinery mechanics...........................
All other machinery maintenance mechanics.....................
Millwrights................................................................................
Machinery maintenance workers............................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Automotive mechanics ...........................................................
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine
specialists.............................................................................
Mobile heavy equipment mechanics, except
engines..................................................................................
Rail car repairers.....................................................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters...........................................................................
Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment
operators...............................................................................
All other construction trades workers....................................
Earth drillers, except oil and g a s ..............................................
Blasters and explosives workers ..............................................
Roof bolters...............................................................................
Mine cutting and channeling machine operators.....................
All other mining machine operators .........................................
All other extractive workers, except helpers............................
Precision metal workers............................................................
Machinists ...............................................................................
Precision workers, n e c ..............................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, or kettle
operators and tenders .........................................................
Boiler operators and tenders,
low pressure..........................................................................
Cleaning, washing, and pickling equipment
operators and tenders .........................................................
Separating, filtering, clarifying,
precipitating, and still machine operators
and tenders..........................................................................
Crushing, grinding, mixing, and blending
machine operators and tenders ..........................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and plastic .....................................................
Hand working occupations, including assemblers
Plant and system workers ........................................................
Stationary engineers...............................................................
All other plant and system operators....................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, heavy or tractor
tra ile r.....................................................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers...................................................................
Rail yard engineers, dinkey operators, and
hostlers....................................................................................
Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators...........................
All other rail vehicle operatives and
controllers................................................................................
All other transportation and motor vehicle
operators.................................................................................
Material moving equipment operators......................................

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

8,700
3,290
1,070
2,220
330
680
1,400
400

15.08
5.70
1.86
3.85
.57
1.18
2.43
.69

n.a.
n.a.
11
8
26
10
11
17

n.a.
n.a.
11
11
3
12
25
8

530

.92

12

8

1,620
240
210

2.81
.42
.36

7
11
n.a.

18
3
n.a.

3,030
200
1,930

5.25
.35
3.35

n.a.
8
7

n.a.
9
20

80

.14

16

4

400

.69

17

5

280
140
1,320
1,250
210
1,450
1,050
1,230
510
510
100

.49
.24
2.29
2.17
.36
2.51
1.82
2.13
.88
.88
.17

20
20
8
13
21
21
14
20
n.a.
19
28

3
2
25
16
3
5
5
5
n.a.
10
1

3,590

6.22

n.a.

n.a.

480

.83

12

8

80

.14

13

3

70

.12

19

2

870

1.51

10

10

1,900

3.29

6

22

20

.03

n.a.

n.a.

170

.29

n.a.

n.a.

1,730
540
370
170
2,300

3.00
.94
.64
.29
3.99

n.a.
n.a.
20
21
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
4
3
n.a.

2,130

3.69

9

17

170

29

20

5

90
90

.16
.16

23
28

2
2

130

.23

20

2

280
4,740

.49
8,22

21
n.a.

2
n.a.

Employment1

See footnotes at end of table.




14

Table 5. Metal mining: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984—Continued
(SIC 10)

Occupation

Employment’

Excavating and loading
machine operators.................................................................
Dragline operators...................................................................
Loading machine operators, underground
mining....................................................................................
Shuttle car operators..............................................................
Grader, dozer, and scraper operators...................................
Hoist and winch operators.....................................................
Crane and tower operators....................................................
Industrial truck and tractor operators....................................
Conveyor operators and tenders ...........................................
Pump operators.......................................................................
Operating engineers................................................................
All other material moving equipment
operators...............................................................................
Helpers - mechanics and repairers ..........................................
Construction trades and extractive worker
helpers.....................................................................................
Freight stock and material movers, hand...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, h a n d ..........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

800
80

1.39
.14

8
36

15
2

870
240
970
320
220
350
200
160
380

1.51
.42
1.68
.55
.38
.61
.35
.28
.66

28
22
8
13
20
8
11
20
14

5
2
13
8
3
7
5
5
6

150
530

.26
.92

24
17

4
7

780
370

1.35
.64

14
18

13
7

2,610

4.52

9

13

360

.62

n.a.

n.a.

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




15

Table 6. Bituminous coal and lignite mining: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984
(SIC 12)

Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

198,650

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations................................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas well
drilling managers.....................................................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

10,830
1,110

5.45
.56

n.a.
14

n.a.
38

580
270

.29
.14

15
21

32
21

230
370

.12
.19

30
23

11
15

4,700
2,040
1,530

2.37
1.03
.77

14
14
16

61
51
32

11,510
4,010

5.79
2.02

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

1,360
1,130
230

.68
.57
.12

n.a.
17
n.a.

n.a.
36
n.a.

620

.31

14

33

710
60

.36
.03

17
42

29
4

910
350
2,850

.46
.18
1.43

12
28
n.a.

24
9
n.a.

1,980
230
240
400
420

1.00
.12
.12
.20
.21

12
29
33
n.a.
21

51
10
9
n.a.
17

1,800
630

.91
.32

n.a.
18

n.a.
27

760

.38

13

26

410
730
170

.21
.37
.09

n.a.
n.a.
25

n.a.
n.a.
10

400
160
240

.20
.08
.12

49
44
n.a.

16
8
n.a.

410

.21

n.a.

n.a.

290

.15

17

10

120

.06

31

5

610

.31

n.a.

n.a.

230
290
90
140

.12
.15
.05
.07

41
29
49
34

10
12
5
8

300

.15

n.a.

n.a.

470

.24

n.a.

n.a.

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Accountants and auditors.....................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Cost estimators........................................................................
Compliance officers and enforcement
inspectors, except construction...........................................
All other management support workers.................................
Engineers ...................................................................................
Mining engineers, including
mine safety .............................................................................
Civil engineers, including tra ffic..............................................
Mechanical engineers.............................................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Surveying and mapping scientists ............................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Drafters....................................................................................
Surveying and mapping technicians and
technologists.........................................................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Physical scientists......................................................................
Chemists, except biochemists................................................
Geologists, geophysicists, and
oceanographers .....................................................................
All other physical scientists ....................................................
Life scientists.............................................................................
Physical and life science technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Chemical technicians and
technologists, except he a lth ................................................
All other physical and life science
technicians and technologists..............................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aides..................................................
Lawyers ......................................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations ....................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




16

Table 6. Bituminous coal and lignite mining: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 12)

Occupation

First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales representatives, scientific and related
products and services, except retail......................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers...........................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Production, planning, and expediting
clerks.....................................................................................
Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers,
recordkeeping ......................................................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage y a rd .........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
workers....................................................................................
Service occupations .....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
All other service w orkers..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers........................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

170

0.09

47

4

100
200

.05
.10

43
n.a.

3
n.a.

12,390

6.24

n.a.

n.a.

760
2,430
60
240
180
90

.38
1.22
.03
.12
.09
.05

17
13
43
23
35
38

29
51
3
16
8
4

330
90
1,710
800
260
1,600

.17
.05
.86
.40
.13
.81

18
41
12
14
18
13

17
5
41
33
13
33

440

.22

n.a.

n.a.

180
130
130
160

.09
.07
.07
.08

27
29
n.a.
21

11
10
n.a.
14

2,920

1.47

n.a.

n.a.

380

.19

20

13

580

.29

17

19

1,720

.87

9

37

240

.12

24

8

320

.16

n.a.

n.a.

2,280

1.15

n.a.

n.a.

160
1,340

.08
.67

43
15

7
24

710

.36

n.a.

n.a.

660

.33

15

23

50
70

.03
.04

40
n.a.

2
n.a.

400

.20

n.a.

n.a.

160,770

80.93

n.a.

n.a.

14,720

7.41

n.a.

n.a.

3,670

1.85

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

17

9

42

Table 6. Bituminous coal and lignite mining: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 12)

Occupation

First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - helpers, laborers,
and material movers, hand ..................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related.....................................................
Precision inspectors, testers, and graders ..............................
Production inspectors, testers, graders,
sorters, samplers, and weighers............................................
All other inspectors, testers and related
occupations.............................................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Machinery maintenance mechanics.......................................
Underground mine machinery mechanics...........................
All other machinery maintenance mechanics.....................
Machinery maintenance workers............................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Automotive mechanics ...........................................................
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine
specialists.............................................................................
Mobile heavy equipment mechanics, except
engines..................................................................................
Rail car repairers.....................................................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Brattice builders.......................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment
operators...............................................................................
All other construction trades workers....................................
Earth drillers, except oil and g a s ..............................................
Blasters and explosives workers ..............................................
Roof bolters...............................................................................
Continuous mining machine operators.....................................
Mine cutting and channeling machine operators.....................
All other mining machine operators .........................................
All other extractive workers, except helpers............................
Precision metal workers............................................................
Machinists ...............................................................................
Precision workers, n e c ....................................................... ......
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
metal and plastic....................................................................
Machine tool cutting operators and tenders,
metal and plastic..................................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Cleaning, washing, and pickling equipment
operators and tenders.........................................................
Separating, filtering, clarifying,
precipitating, and still machine operators
and tenders...........................................................................
Crushing, grinding, mixing, and blending
machine operators and tenders ..........................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and plastic ......................................................
Other hand workers, n e c ..........................................................
Welders and cutters................................................................
All other hand workers, nec....................................................

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

6,670

336

7

42

1,470

.74

13

23

1,490

.75

20

19

1,420
220

.71
.11

20
23

15
3

390

.20

22

10

210
24,460
10,420
8,610
1,810
4,260
3,250
220

.11
12.31
5.25
4.33
.91
2.14
1.64
.11

34
n.a.
n.a.
8
17
10
14
29

5
n.a.
n.a.
29
16
35
24
7

1,000

.50

22

14

4,500
230
580

2.27
.12
.29

11
31
n.a.

34
3
n.a.

8,990
420
2,000
4,940

4.53
.21
2.49

n.a.
44
10
9

n.a.
9
22
43

960
670
2,500
2,120
7,940
7,190
1,820
4,200
5,750
450
450
60

.48
34
1.26
1.07
4.00
3.62
.92
2.11
2.89
.23
.23
.03

13
18
14
12
7
18
24
16
n.a.
18
33

12
7
32
33
33
36
14
18
17
n.a.
16
2

210

.11

n.a.

n.a.

210

.11

42

1

3,840

1.93

n.a.

n.a.

940

.47

27

12

1,800

.91

18

18

860

.43

27

15

30

.02

n.a.

n.a.

210
5,410
5,100
310

.11
2.72
2.57
.16

n.a.
n.a.
9
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
40
n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

18

1.01

9

Table 6. Bituminous coal and lignite mining: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 12)

Occupation

Employment'

Plant and system workers ........................................................
Stationary engineers...............................................................
All other plant and system operators....................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, heavy or tractor
tra ile r.....................................................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
All other motor vehicle operators..........................................
Rail yard engineers, dinkey operators, and
hostlers....................................................................................
Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators...........................
All other rail vehicle operatives and
controllers................................................................................
All other transportation and motor vehicle
operators .................................................................................
Material moving equipment operators......................................
Excavating and loading
machine operators.................................................................
Dragline operators...................................................................
Loading machine operators, underground
mining....................................................................................
Shuttle car operators..............................................................
Grader, dozer, and scraper operators...................................
Hoist and winch operators......................................................
Crane and tower operators....................................................
Industrial truck and tractor operators....................................
Conveyor operators and tenders ...........................................
Pump operators.......................................................................
Operating engineers................................................................
All other material moving equipment
operators...............................................................................
Helpers - mechanics and repairers..........................................
Construction trades and extractive worker
helpers.....................................................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, h a n d ...........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

1,070
480
590
8,180

0.54
.24
.30
4.12

n.a.
24
20
n.a.

n.a.
8
8
n.a.

7,190

3.62

10

40

420
570

.21
.29

26
39

12
3

580
300

.29
.15

22
29

7
5

510

.26

25

5

220
38,300

.11
19.28

27
n.a.

4
n.a.

5,760
2,160

2.90
1.09

15
19

33
23

2,520
8,700
10,130
420
300
1,370
2,160
620
1,640

1.27
4.38
5.10
.21
.15
.69
1.09
.31
.83

15
8
11
19
21
26
13
14
38

17
30
48
9
7
14
20
17
8

2,520
1,880

1.27
.95

15
16

21
19

3,090
610

1.56
.31

17
50

11
8

15,260

7.68

7

39

290

.15

n.a.

n.a.

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

19

Table 7. Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals, except fuels: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, May 1984
(SIC 14)

Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

110,860

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations................................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas well
drilling managers.....................................................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

6,170
1,100

5.57
.99

n.a.
4

n.a.
23

130
110

.12
.10

6
5

4
4

100
80

.09
.07

10
10

2
2

2,730
1,310
610

2.46
1.18
.55

3
4
6

42
18
6

4,680
1,420

4.22
1.28

n.a.

n.a.

840
750
90

76
68
08

n.a
4
n.a.

15
n.a.

180

.16

4

5

230

.21

5

6

60
110
910

.05
.10
.82

8
n.a.
n.a

2
n.a.
n.a.

140

.13

9

2

330
120
160
160
60

.30
.11
.14
.14
.05

5
9
11
12
9

7
2
2
2
2

550
160

50
.14

n.a.
8

n.a.
3

150

.14

15

1

240
550

.22
.50

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

300
250

.27
.23

15

n.a.

4
n.a.

860

.78

n.a.

n.a.

100
100

.09
.09

n.a.
10

n.a.
2

230

.21

n.a.

n.a.

1,800

1.62

n.a.

n.a.

820

.74

5

16

210

.19

13

3

680
90

.61
.08

5
12

12
1

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Accountants and auditors.....................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Compliance officers and enforcement
inspectors, except construction...........................................
All other management support workers.................................
Engineers...................................................................................
Metallurgists, and metallurgical, ceramic,
and materials engineers.......................................................
Mining engineers, including
mine sa fe ty.............................................................................
Civil engineers, including traffic..............................................
Mechanical engineers.............................................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Surveying and mapping scientists ............................................
Engineering and related technicians
Drafters....................................................................................
Surveying and mapping technicians and
technologists.........................................................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Physical scientists......................................................................
Geologists, geophysicists, and
oceanographers .....................................................................
All other physical scientists ....................................................
Physical and life science technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Computer scientists and related

All other professional,
paraprnfassinnal, and technical workers................................
Rales and related occupations ....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
Sales representatives, scientific and related
Sales representatives, except scientific and

See footnotes at end of table.




20

Table 7. Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals, except fuels: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 14)

Occupation

Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists .......................................................................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Production, planning, and expediting
clerks.....................................................................................
Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers,
recordkeeping ......................................................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage yard .........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
workers....................................................................................
Service occupations.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers ........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - helpers, laborers,
and material movers, hand .................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related.....................................................
Production inspectors, testers, graders,
sorters, samplers, and weighers ............................................

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

10,470

9.44

n.a.

n.a.

300
1,740
110
120

.27
1.57
.10
.11

5
3
7
9

7
30
3
3

110
2,150
440
160
1,950

.10
1.94
.40
.14
1.76

6
2
5
7
3

3
38
12
3
34

230
100
130
90

.21
.09
.12
.08

n.a.
8
n.a.
5

n.a.
2
n.a.
3

2,900

2.62

n.a.

n.a.

270

.24

11

3

1,980

1.79

3

33

450

.41

5

6

200

.18

9

3

170

.15

n.a.

n.a.

1,090

.98

n.a.

n.a.

110
490

.10
.44

23
5

1
8

490

.44

n.a.

n.a.

140
140

.13
.13

n.a.
15

n.a.
2

86,510

78.04

n.a.

n.a.

6,280

5.66

n.a.

n.a.

960

.87

5

8

3,550

3.20

3

42

460

.41

7

5

570

.51

6

5

740

.67

8

4

360

.32

8

4

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

21

Table 7. Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals, except fuels: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 14)

Occupation

All other inspectors, testers and related
occupations.............................................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Machinery maintenance mechanics.......................................
Underground mine machinery mechanics...........................
All other machinery maintenance mechanics.....................
Millwrights................................................................................
Machinery maintenance workers............................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Automotive mechanics ...........................................................
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine,
specialists.............................................................................
Mobile heavy equipment mechanics, except
engines..................................................................................
Riggers.....................................................................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Brattice builders.......................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment
operators...............................................................................
Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment
operators...............................................................................
All other construction trades workers....................................
Earth drillers, except oil and g a s ..............................................
Blasters and explosives workers ..............................................
Rock splitters, quarry........................................... ......................
Roof bolters...............................................................................
Continuous mining machine operators.....................................
Mine cutting and channeling machine operators.....................
All other mining machine operators .........................................
All other extractive workers, except helpers............................
Precision metal workers............................................................
Machinists ...............................................................................
Machine tool cutting operators and tenders,
metal and p lastic..................................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, or kettle
operators and tenders .........................................................
Boiler operators and tenders,
low pressure.........................................................................
Cutting and slicing machine operators and
tenders..................................................................................
Cleaning, washing, and pickling equipment
operators and tenders .........................................................
Separating, filtering, clarifying,
precipitating, and still machine operators
and tenders..........................................................................
Crushing, grinding, mixing, and blending
machine operators and tenders ..........................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and plastic .....................................................
Other hand workers, n e c ..........................................................
Welders and cutters................................................................
All other hand workers, nec....................................................
Plant and system workers ........................................................
Stationary engineers...............................................................
All other plant and system operators....................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, heavy or tractor
tra ile r.....................................................................................

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

100
13,680
2,060
830
1,230
600
1,760
4,980
290

0.09
12.34
1.86
.75
1.11
.54
1.59
4.49
.26

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
9
7
15
4
3
10

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
2
4
1
20
37
2

1,100

.99

4

15

2,570
70
250

2.32
.06
.23

3
20
n.a.

25
(3
)
n.a.

2,130
240
60
1,210

1.92
22
05
1 09

n.a.
9
15
4

n.a.
2
1
8

80

.07

10

1

250

.23

15

1

50
240
1,500
810
1,000
140
530
750
770
890
220
220

.05
.22
1.35
.73
.90
.13
.48
.68
.69
.80
.20
.20

32
21
4
4
7
13
11
9
16
10
n.a.
10

(3
)
1
17
13
6
1
2
4
2
2
n.a.
2

160

.14

26

1

9,800

3.84

n.a.

n.a.

1,040

.94

12

6

80

.07

15

1

260

.23

12

2

250

.23

9

3

1,390

1.25

9

3

6,190

5.58

3

45

190

.17

n.a.

n.a.

400
2,130
1,890
240
1,010
340
670
13,510

.36
1.92
1.70
.22
.91
.31
.60
12.19

n.a.
n.a.
3
23
n.a.
15
13
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
22
1
n.a.
2
2
n.a.

12,340

11.13

2

59

Employment1

See footnotes at end of table.




22

Table 7. Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals, except fuels: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 14)

Occupation

Employment1

Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers...................................................................
All other motor vehicle operators ..........................................
Rail yard engineers, dinkey operators, and
hostlers....................................................................................
Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators...........................
All other transportation and motor vehicle
operators .................................................................................
Material moving equipment operators......................................
Excavating and loading
machine operators.................................................................
Dragline operators...................................................................
Dredge operators and dipper tenders...................................
Loading machine operators, underground
mining....................................................................................
Shuttle car operators..............................................................
Grader, dozer, and scraper operators...................................
Hoist and winch operators......................................................
Crane and tower operators.....................................................
Industrial truck and tractor operators....................................
Conveyor operators and tenders ...........................................
Pump operators.......................................................................
Operating engineers................................................................
All other material moving equipment
operators...............................................................................
Helpers - mechanics and repairers ..........................................
Construction trades and extractive worker
helpers.....................................................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, h a n d ...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, h a n d ..........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

1,020
150

0.92
.14

8
12

9
1

120
140

.11
.13

11
14

2
1

180
20,680

.16
18.65

24
n.a.

1
n.a.

7,340
1,660
960

6.62
1.50
.87

2
4
7

54
20
10

700
280
1,860
290
490
2,350
1,720
450
2,200

.63
.25
1.68
.26
.44
2.12
1.55
.41
1.98

7
12
5
11
7
4
5
10
6

6
1
10
3
7
19
16
3
14

380
460

.34
.41

10
9

3
3

1,520
1,880

1.37
1.70

7
8

10
9

5,630

5.08

5

14

130

.12

n.a.

n.a.

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

23

Table 8. Oil and gas extraction: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984
(SIC 13)

Occupation

Employment'

Percent of total
employment

Flelative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

598,180

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations................................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers............................................
Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas well
drilling managers.....................................................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

51,010
9,350

8.53
1.56

n.a.
8

n.a.
30

1,360
2,440

.23
.41

10
14

7
12

1,230
2,820

.21
.47

12
10

4
7

12,430
10,610
10,770

2.08
1.77
1.80

7
10
10

35
21
11

117,550
28,560

19.65
4.77

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

16,780
13,820
890
2,070

2.81
2.31
.15
.35

n.a.
7
13
16

n.a.
20
3
3

2,430

.41

18

7

2,050
470

.34
.08

9
23

6
2

510
6,320
29,260
19,970
1,040
1,580
1,180
490
2,060
2,940
1,540

.09
1.06
4.89
3.34
.17
.26
.20
.08
.34
.49
.26

21
13
n.a.
7
12
15
16
21
16
n.a.
22

3
5
n.a.
21
2
2
3
3
4
n.a.
3

12,070

2.02

n.a.

n.a.

570

.10

15

1

1,310

.22

17

3

800
4,550

.13
.76

19
8

1
10

1,270

.21

17

2

3,570
21,670
860

.60
3.62
.14

10
n.a.
23

4
n.a.
1

20,350
460

3.40
.08

7
24

17
1

8,330

1.39

n.a.

n.a.

830

.14

28

2

6,150

1.03

12

6

1,350

.23

18

2

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Accountants and auditors.....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Cost estimators........................................................................
Compliance officers and enforcement
inspectors, except construction...........................................
All other management support workers.................................
Engineers...................................................................................
Petroleum engineers...............................................................
Chemical engineers.................................................................
Civil engineers, including traffic..............................................
Electrical and electronic engineers........................................
Safety engineers, except mining............................................
Mechanical engineers.............................................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Surveying and mapping scientists ............................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Civil engineering technicians and
technologists.........................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineering
technicians and technologists..............................................
Mechanical engineering technicians
and technologists .................................................................
Drafters....................................................................................
Surveying and mapping technicians and
technologists.........................................................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Physical scientists......................................................................
Chemists, except biochemists................................................
Geologists, geophysicists, and
oceanographers .....................................................................
All other physical scientists ....................................................
Physical and life science technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Chemical technicians and
technologists, except he a lth ................................................
Petroleum technicians and
technologists...........................................................................
All other physical and life science
technicians and technologists..............................................
See footnotes at end of table.




24

Table 8. Oil and gas extraction: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 13)

Occupation

Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aides.................................................
Social scientists, including urban and regional
planners...................................................................................
Lawyers ......................................................................................
Law clerks..................................................................................
Paralegal personnel...................................................................
All other legal assistants and technicians,
except clerical.........................................................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity writers ................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers...............................
Sales and related occupations ...................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales engineers.........................................................................
Sales representatives, scientific and related
products and services, except retail......................................
Sales representatives, except scientific and
related products or services and retail..................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers...........................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Order clerks, materials, merchandise, and
service......................................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operators....................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Dispatchers, except police, fire, and
ambulance............................................................................
Production, planning, and expediting
clerks.....................................................................................
Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers,
recordkeeping ......................................................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage yard .........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

8,330

1.39

n.a.

n.a.

5,030
2,640
660

.84
.44
.11

11
10
14

5
5
2

340
1,710
80
280

.06
.29
.01
.05

n.a.
13
35
27

n.a.
4
(3
)
1

600

.10

46

1

400

.07

25

2

4,380

.73

n.a.

n.a.

14,230

2.38

n.a.

n.a.

4,520
960

.76
.16

11
24

14
2

4,030

.67

14

7

3,160
1,560

.53
.26

14
28

6
2

93,720

15.67

n.a.

n.a.

5,190
26,290
890
3,870
2,630
1,640

.87
4.39
.15
.65
.44
.27

8
5
15
10
12
14

12
42
2
18
7
5

1,180
1,560

.20
.26

18
11

5
4

640
16,770
2,050
580
16,710

.11
2.80
.34
.10
2.79

18
6
11
21
6

3
36
13
2
34

5,430

.91

n.a.

n.a.

80

.01

38

(3
)

2,460
200
1,850
840
700

.41
.03
.31
.14
.12

10
21
15
13
12

5
1
5
2
6

5,380

.90

n.a.

n.a.

2,040

.34

12

5

1,680

.28

15

3

120

.02

33

1,240

.21

18

5

300

.05

23

1

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

25

ft

Table 8. Oil and gas extraction: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 13)

Occupation

All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................
Service occupations.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
w orkers....................................................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
All other service w orkers..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
All other agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
related workers........................................................................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers ........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - helpers, laborers,
and material movers, hand ..................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related......................................................
Precision inspectors, testers, and graders ...............................
All other inspectors, testers and related
occupations.............................................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Machinery maintenance mechanics.......................................
Machinery maintenance workers............................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Automotive mechanics ...........................................................
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine
specialists.............................................................................
Mobile heavy equipment mechanics, except
engines..................................................................................
Precision instrument repairers................................................
Mechanical control and valve installers and
repairers................................................................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Pipelayers................................................................................
All other construction trades workers....................................
Blasters and explosives workers ..............................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

2,210

037

13

3

4,620

.77

n.a.

n.a.

480
820

.08
.14

24
16

2
3

1,180

.20

29

1

1,680

.28

n.a.

n.a.

1,420

.24

14

8

260
460

.04
.08

47
n.a.

1
n.a.

630
490

.11
.08

n.a.
32

n.a.
2

140

.02

n.a.

n.a.

316,420

52.90

n.a.

aa.

23,920

4.00

n.a.

n.a.

1,960

.33

12

6

15,800

2.64

7

32

830

.14

25

3

2,020

.34

18

3

3,310
2,940

.55
.49

13
29

5
2

1,600
21,730
6,300
370
5,800
1,290

.27
3.63
1.05
.06
.97
.22

n.a.
n.a.
12
25
13
15

n.a.
n.a.
13
1
12
7

3,190

.53

13

8

1,480
900

.25
.15

18
19

4
3

1,100
1,300

.18
.22

21
n.a.

1
n.a.

3,000
510
1,230
600
660
1,520

.50
.09
.21
.10
.11
.25

n.a.
26
16
48
40
48

n.a.
2
4
0
1
2

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

26

Table 8. Oil and gas extraction: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 13)

Occupation

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

20,960
21,450
30,320
76,480
1,920
10,060
1,930
1,930

3.50
3.59
5.07
12.79
.32
1.68
.32
.32

9
9
8
5
35
14
n.a.
25

19
15
21
41
(3
)
5
n.a.
1

510

.09

n.a.

n.a.

110

.02

47

(3
)

400

.07

41

(*)

5,810
5,470
4,780
690
9,130
2,500
810

.97
.91
.80
.12
1.53
.42
.14

n.a.
n.a.
12
n.a.
n.a.
18
32

n.a.
n.a.
12
n.a.
n.a.
3
1

710
2,440
570
2,100
18,080

.12
.41
.10
.35
3.02

35
25
47
30
n.a.

1
2
1
1
n.a.

14,600

2.44

10

20

3,160
320
160
600

.53
.05
.03
.10

18
39
38
16

6
1
(3
)
2

420
33,570
9,800
12,180
870

.07
5.61
1.64
2.04
.15

29
n.a.
15
14
35

1
n.a.
12
15
1

2,260
90
1,570
1,150
580
250
1,220
2,440

.38
.02
.26
.19
.10
.04
.20
.41

20
42
23
38
24
35
33
25

1,160
2,620

.19
.44

29
18

1
7

4,970
1,390

.83
.23

20
25

3
4

13,790

2.31

13

7

2,070

.35

n.a.

n.a.

Employment1

Rotary drill operators, oil and gas extraction...........................
Derrick operators, oil and gas extraction.................................
Service unit operators...............................................................
Roustabouts...............................................................................
Mining machine operators ........................................................
All other extractive workers, except helpers............................
Precision metal workers............................................................
Machinists ...............................................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
metal and plastic....................................................................
Machine tool cutting operators and tenders,
metal and plastic..................................................................
Combination machine tool operators and
tenders, metal and plastic....................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Other hand workers, n e c ..........................................................
Welders and cutters................................................................
All other hand workers, n e c....................................................
Plant and system workers ........................................................
Gas plant operators................................................................
Petroleum pump system operators........................................
Petroleum refinery and control panel
operators...............................................................................
Gaugers...................................................................................
Stationary engineers...............................................................
All other plant and system operators....................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, heavy or tractor
tra ile r.....................................................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
All other motor vehicle operators ..........................................
Pilots, sh ip ..................................................................................
Aircraft pilots and flight engineers............................................
All other transportation and motor vehicle
operators.................................................................................
Material moving equipment operators......................................
Oil pumpers, except well head...............................................
Well head pumpers.................................................................
Gas compressor operators....................................................
Excavating and loading
machine operators.................................................................
Dragline operators...................................................................
Grader, dozer, and scraper operators...................................
Hoist and winch operators......................................................
Crane and tower operators.....................................................
Industrial truck and tractor operators....................................
Pump operators.......................................................................
Operating engineers................................................................
All other material moving equipment
operators...............................................................................
Helpers - mechanics and repairers ..........................................
Construction trades and extractive worker
helpers.....................................................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, ha n d ...........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

3
2
1
1
1
4

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




4
0

27

Construction

This industry division (sic’s 15-17) includes new con­
struction, additions, alterations, and repair work. Three
broad types of activities are covered: Building construc­
tion by general contractors or operative builders; other
construction by general contractors; and special trade
contractors.
In 1984, the construction industry employed approx­
imately 4.3 million workers or 17 percent of the workers
in the surveyed industries. About 55 percent of these
construction workers were engaged in special trades
contracting, such as electrical work, masonry, and
plumbing (table 9).
The largest occupational group in the construction in­
dustry consisted of 3.3 million production and related
workers, accounting for over three-fourths of industry
employment. Special trades contracting employed 57
percent of the workers in this major group. Clerical
workers, ranking second of the seven major groups,
made up 9.5 percent of total employment in the con­
struction industry.

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

C arpenters......... ...........
Carpenters’ helpers . .
Construction
m a n agers.....................
First-line supervisors,
construction tr a d e s ..
S ecretaries.....................

P e rc e n t
c h a n g e in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1 981-84

319,410
116,700

27.8
10.1

8.1
49.6

65,940

5.7

(1)

64,300
44,580

5.6
3.9

(1)
35.3

1 Because o f changes in the survey design system , data for 1981 and
1984 are not com parable.

Carpenters’ helpers increased by almost 50 percent in
the general building contractors’ industry between 1981
and 1984. The number of carpenters increased by over 8
percent during the same period. The number of
secretaries increased by about 35 percent.
Heavy construction contractors

Establishments in this industry (sic 16) are primarily
engaged in heavy construction such as highways and
streets, bridges, sewers, railroads, irrigation projects,
flood control projects and marine construction, and
miscellaneous types of construction work other than
buildings.
In 1984, these establishments employed 779,470
workers or 18 percent of the total employed in construc­
tion. This was a 16.6-percent decline in employment
from 1981.
As shown in text table 3, the heavy construction in­
dustry, excluding highways and streets (sic 162), declin­
ed the most. Although fixed investment recovered in
1983 and 1984 after the recession, the component made
up of spending on structures did not increase. This may
explain the employment decline in sic 162.
As shown in table 11, heavy construction contractors
employed 612,350 production and related workers, ac­
counting for 78.6 percent of total industry employment.

General building contractors

This industry (sic 15) includes establishments
primarily engaged in the construction of residential,
farm, industrial, commercial, and other buildings. The
industry employed over 1.1 million workers in 1984, or
27 percent of all workers employed in construction. This
level of employment was 4.7 percent higher than in
1981.
As shown in table 10, the 818,220 production and
related workers accounted for 71 percent of total in­
dustry employment. Clerical and administrative support
workers ranked second, with 11 percent. The third
largest group was managerial and administrative
workers, with 9.5 percent. Sales and service workers
made up 1.5 and 1.2 percent of industry employment,
respectively.
A change in the o e s structure resulted in the inclusion
of 4,200 first-line sales supervisors and sales engineers in
the sales group in 1984, occupations which were
previously included under managers and officers. Also,
about 73,000 workers were classified in other first-line
supervisory occupations, many of which were included
in the managerial group in 1981.
The five most populous occupations are shown in the
following tabulation. Together, they accounted for over
53 percent of total employment in the industry.



P ercen t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

Text table 3. Heavy construction contractors: Employment
by industry, 1981 and 1984
Industry

Highway and street
construction..................
Heavy construction,
except highway and
street ............................

28

Employment
1981

1984

Percent
change,
1981-84

161

267,130

258,140

-3.4

162

667,710

521,290

-21.9

SIC
code

ment, followed by the managerial and administrative
group with approximately 4.9 percent. Professional,
paraprofessional, and technical occupations made up 4.2
percent of industry employment.
The 1984 data includes about 4,500 first-line sales
supervisors and sales engineers in the sales group, oc­
cupations which were previously included in the
managerial and professional groups. In 1984, there were
84,540 first-line production supervisors, whereas there
were only 27,670 nonworking production supervisors in
1981. Some of this difference is likely due to changes in
the OES classification system.
The five most populous jobs in special trades contrac­
ting are listed in the following tabulation:

Clerical and administrative support workers and profes­
sional, paraprofessional, and technical workers
numbered 57,510 (7.4 percent) and 57,070 (7.3 percent),
respectively.
Sales engineers and first-line supervisors accounted
for 1,320 sales workers in 1984. These occupations were
included in the professional and managerial categories
in 1981.
The five largest occupations in this industry are listed
below:

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

P e rc e n t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t

49,970
43,790

6.4
5.6

43,730

5.6

33,100
29,970

4.3
3.8

Truckdrivers, heavy
or tractor-trailer .........................
Operating engineers .....................
Graders, dozers, and scraper
o p e r a to r s .......................................
First-line supervisors,
construction t r a d e s .....................
P ip elayers.........................................

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

E lectricia n s..................
Plumbers, pipefitters,
and steam fitters.........
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance . . .
C arpenters....................
Heating, airconditioning, and
refrigeration
mechanics and
installers ....................

Special trades contractors

This industry (sic 17) includes establishments engaged
in specialized activities such as electrical work, plumbing,
and painting. Establishments engaged in miscellaneous
specialized activities such as industrial machinery and
equipment installation, gas leakage detection, and water
well drilling are also included.
In 1984, this industry employed almost 2.4 million
workers, constituting 55 percent of employment in the
construction industry. This was an 8.7-percent increase
from 1981.
As shown in table 12, 79 percent of the industry’s
workers, approximately 1.9 million, were production and
related workers. Clerical and administrative support
workers accounted for 9.6 percent of industry employ­




P e rc e n t o f
in d u stry
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

231,820

9.7

3.7

166,370

7.0

-1 .1

106,840
95,210

4.5
4.0

8.8
7.6

93,610

3.9

n

P ercen t
ch an ge in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1981-84

1 Because o f changes in the survey classification system , data for
1981 and 1984 are not com parable.

Employment in painting and paperhanging occupa­
tions increased by 8.8 percent in the special trades con­
tracting industry between 1981 and 1984. Employment of
carpenters and electricians increased by 7.6 and 3.7 per­
cent, respectively, while employment of plumbers,
pipefitters, and steamfitters declined by about 1 percent.

29

Table 9. Construction: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations, May
May 1984
(SIC 15, 16 and 17)

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

6.25
1.31

n.a.
1

n.a.
22

1,490
1,870

.03
.04

6
7

1
1

2,110
3,200
154,600
41,240
9,380

.05
.07
3.58
.95
.22

7
7
1
2
7

1
1
40
13
2

220,930
143,080

5.11
3.31

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

25,330
23,860
570
900

.59
.55
.01
.02

n.a.
2
11
23

n.a.
10
0

13,280

.31

3

6

1,070
95,000
4,820
3,580
37,890
18,660
5,770
1,230
580
8,000
3,650
1,080
1,600

.02
2.20
.11
.08
.88
.43
.13
.03
.01
.19
.08
.02
.04

12
1
13
n.a.
n.a.
11
10
22
9
8
n.a.
12
7

(*>
30
1
n.a.
n.a.
3
1
(3
)
0
2
n.a.
<*)
1

29,800

.69

n.a.

n.a.

1,710

.04

14

(3
)

3,970

.09

14

(3
)

510
19,160

.01
.44

18
3

0

2,000

.05

10

(3
)

2,450

.06

n.a.

n.a.

2,800

.06

n.a.

n.a.

1,140
1,660

.03
.04

14
11

540
740

.01
.02

n.a.
17

n.a.

3,400

.08

n.a.

n.a.

59,690

1.38

n.a.

n.a.

1,990
8,080

.05
.19

10
5

1
2

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

T ota l........................................................................................

4,323,300

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations................................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
Construction managers .............................................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

270,390
56,500

Occupation

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Accountants and auditors.....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Cost estimators........................................................................
Construction and building inspectors.....................................
All other management support workers.................................
Engineers ...................................................................................
Civil engineers, including traffic..............................................
Electrical and electronic engineers........................................
Industrial engineers, except sa fe ty........................................
Safety engineers, except mining............................................
Mechanical engineers.............................................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Architects, except landscape and marine................................
Surveying and mapping scientists ............................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Civil engineering technicians and
technologists.........................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineering
technicians and technologists..............................................
Mechanical engineering technicians
and technologists .................................................................
Drafters....................................................................................
Surveying and mapping technicians and
technologists.........................................................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Health practitioners, technologists,
technicians, and related
health w orkers.........................................................................
Interior designers .......................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations ....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related w orkers................................................................
Sales engineers..........................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




30

0

5

0

1

0

Table 9. Construction: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984—Continued
(SIC 15, 16 and 17)

Occupation

Sales representatives, scientific and related
products and services, except retail......................................
Sales representatives, except scientific and
related products or services and retail..................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers............................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Procurement clerks....................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks.......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Dispatchers, except police, fire, and
ambulance............................................................................
Production, planning, and expediting
clerks.....................................................................................
Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers,
recordkeeping .......................................................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage yard ..........................................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving
clerks.....................................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
workers ....................................................................................
Service occupations .....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Crossing guards .........................................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
All other protective service workers.........................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
w orkers....................................................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households...................................
All other service w orkers..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
All other agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
related workers........................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

ft

1,060

0.02

17

37,700
10,860

.87
.25

3
7

9
1

408,610

9.45

n.a.

n.a.

6,580
132,270
540
4,040
13,640
4,520

.15
3.06
.01
.09
.32
.10

4
1
15
5
3
7

730
1,160
860
93,990
22,850
1,080
91,640

.02
.03
.02
2.17
.53
.02
2.12

8
14
19
1
2
7
1

6,140

.14

n.a.

n.a.

1,480

.03

10

1

2,040
1,920
700
1,290

.05
.04
.02
.03

11
13
n.a.
12

1
1
n.a.
1

24,020

.56

n.a.

n.a.

1,730

.04

14

1

1,780

.04

15

0

440

.01

12

ft

18,640

.43

3

980

.02

19

ft

450

.01

28

ft

3,260

.08

n.a.

n.a.

27,450

.63

n.a.

n.a.

1,490
750
3,450
620

.03
.02
.08
.01

12
11
12
27

ft
ft

940

.02

25

ft

18,920

.44

n.a.

n.a.

16,890

.39

4

5

2,030
1,280

.05
.03

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

11,550
10,500

.27
.24

n.a.
7

n.a.
2

1,050

.02

23

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

31

3
40

ft

2
5
2

ft
ft
ft
35
12
1
27

7

ft
ft

ft

Table 9. Construction: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984—Continued
(SIC 15, 16 and 17)

Occupation

Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers ........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.............. ,....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - helpers, laborers,
and material movers, hand ..................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related......................................................
Precision inspectors, testers, and graders ...............................
All other inspectors, testers and related
occupations.............................................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Millwrights................................................................................
Machinery maintenance workers............................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Automotive mechanics ...........................................................
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine
specialists.............................................................................
Mobile heavy equipment mechanics, except
engines..................................................................................
Telephone and cable TV line installers and
repairers................................................................................
Electric home appliance and power tool
repairers................................................................................
Electrical powerline installers and repairers..........................
All other electrical and electronic equipment
mechanics, installers, and repairers....................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration
mechanics and installers......................................................
Elevator installers and repairers.............................................
Riggers.....................................................................................
Installers and repairers, manufactured
buildings, mobile homes, and travel trailers .......................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
moving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Ceiling tile installers and acoustical
carpenters.............................................................................
Drywall installers......................................................................
Tapers......................................................................................
Lathers.....................................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Brickmasons............................................................................
Stonemasons...........................................................................
Tile setters, hard .....................................................................
Concrete and terrazzo finishers.............................................
Reinforcing metal workers .....................................................
Plasterers and stucco m asons...............................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters...........................................................................
Pipelaying fitte rs ......................................................................
Pipelayers................................................................................

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

3,324,680

76.90

n.a.

n.a.

195,560

4.52

n.a.

n.a.

4,140

.10

7

1

179,870

4.16

1

35

1,830

.04

10

1

5,370

.12

7

1

4,350
1,720

.10
.04

7
22

1
(3
)

990
263,610
20,070
4,090
38,890
4,810

.02
6.10
.46
.09
.90
.11

n.a.
n.a.
5
6
4
4

n.a.
n.a.
2
1
8
2

6,170

.14

4

2

20,650

.48

3

6

26,530

.61

8

1

1,230
12,640

.03
.29

20
11

O
1

3,660

.08

15

(3
)

96,160
12,070
5,780

2.22
.28
.13

2
8
25

7
0
(3
)

780
10,080

.02
.23

26
n.a.

0
n.a.

1,704,470
441,380

39.43
10.21

n.a.
1

n.a.
25

15,720
58,370
22,430
10,580
250,360
88,360
7,760
13,380
87,710
19,640
19,000

.36
1.35
.52
.24
5.79
2.04
.18
.31
2.03
.45
.44

6
3
4
6
1
2
7
6
2
5
5

1
4
3
1
9
8
1
1
10
2
2

122,940

2.84

1

8

202,210
2,420
34,270

4.68
.06
.79

2
14
5

11
(3)
3

See footnotes at end of table.




32

Table 9. Construction: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984—Continued
(SIC 15, 16 and 17)

Occupation

Carpet installers......................................................................
Floor layers, except carpet, wood, and hard
tile s ........................................................................................
Floor sanding machine operators..........................................
Air hammer operators.............................................................
Pile driving operators..............................................................
Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment
operators...............................................................................
Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment
operators...............................................................................
Insulation workers ...................................................................
Sheet metal duct installers ....................................................
Roofers....................................................................................
Glaziers....................................................................................
Structural metal workers ........................................................
Fence erectors .......................................................................
All other construction trades workers....................................
Earth drillers, except oil and g a s ..............................................
Blasters and explosives workers ..............................................
All other extractive workers, except helpers............................
Precision metal workers............................................................
Sheet- metal workers..............................................................
Boilermakers...........................................................................
All other precision metal workers ..........................................
Precision woodworkers..............................................................
Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters ..................................
Precision workers, n e c ..............................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
metal and plastic....................................................................
Machine tool cutting operators and tenders,
metal and plastic..................................................................
Metal fabricators, structural
metal products........................................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Sawing machine operators and tenders ...............................
Crushing, grinding, mixing, and blending
machine operators and tenders ..........................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and plastic .....................................................
Precision assemblers, m etal.....................................................
Fitters, structural metal, precision.............................................
All other precision assemblers, m etal......................................
Other hand workers, n e c ..........................................................
Welders and cutters............... ................................................
Carpet cutters, diagrammers, and
seamers................................................................................
All other hand workers, n e c...................................................
Plant and system workers ........................................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, heavy or tractor
trailer .....................................................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
All other motor vehicle operators ..........................................
All other transportation and motor vehicle
operators .................................................................................
Material moving equipment operators......................................
Excavating and loading
machine operators.................................................................
Dragline operators...................................................................
Dredge operators and dipper tenders...................................
Grader, dozer, and scraper operators...................................
Hoist and winch operators.....................................................
Crane and tower operators....................................................
Industrial truck and tractor operators....................................
Pump operators......................................................................
Operating engineers................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

11,740

0.27

7

1

5,330
2,370
9,420
3,100

.12
.05
.22
.07

9
12
7
13

1
(3
)
2
(3
)

28,930

.67

4

3

1,660
42,420
2,460
88,210
20,390
50,280
14,050
27,580
9,250
1,770
1,710
94,660
80,880
11,930
1,850
11,310
11,310
710

.04
.98
.06
2.04
.47
1.16
.32
.64
.21
.04
.04
2.19
1.87
.28
.04
.26
.26
.02

27
4
15
2
4
4
5
5
5
16
23
n.a.
3
8
n.a.
n.a.
7
25

11,410

.26

n.a.

(3
)
2
(3
)
5
2
4
1
2
1
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.
6
1
n.a.
n.a.
1
(3
)
*
n.a.

440

.01

23

10,970

.25

6

1

9,030
480

.21
.01

n.a.
40

n.a.
(3
)

6,240

.14

8

1

760

.02

35

1,550
5,960
5,410
550
33,220
.29,070

.04
.14
.13
.01
.77
.67

n.a.
n.a.
15
29
n.a.
5

n.a.
n.a.
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.
4

810
3,340
1,860
111,080

.02
.08
.04
2.57

21
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

72,700

1.68

2

11

36,350
2,030

.84
.05

2
17

11
0

1,170
199,330

.03
4.61

23
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.

36,810
3,220
880
62,340
2,610
8,130
6,460
1,430
75,030

.85
.07
.02
1.44
.06
.19
.15
.03
1.74

3
8
28
2
15
7
9
13
2

6
1
(3
)
8
1
2
1
(3
)
9

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

33

(3
)

(3
)

Table 9. Construction: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984— Continued
(SIC 15, 16 and 17)

Occupation

All other material moving equipment
operators................................................................................
Helpers - mechanics and repairers ..........................................
Helpers - brick and stone masons,
and hard tile setters...................................................................
Helpers - carpenters and related..............................................
Helpers - electricians and powerline
transmission installers ............................................................
Helpers - painters, paperhangers, plasterers,
and stucco masons.................................................................
Helpers - plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters...............................................................................
Helpers - roofers........................................................................
Helpers - all other construction tra d e s....................................
Helpers - extractive workers......................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, h a n d ...........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations..............................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

2,420
13,620

0.06
.32

10
5

(3
)
3

69,130
157,770

1.60
3.65

2
2

7
13

50,410

1.17

4

3

26,210

.61

3

3

53,920
20,420
34,370
2,210
19,480

1.25
.47
.79
.05
.45

3
4
4
11
4

5
2
3
(3
)
5

217,920

5.04

2

12

400

.01

n.a.

n.a.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate "All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

34

Table 10. General building contractors: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984
(SIC 15)

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

9.47
1.72

n.a.
3

n.a.
25

640
680

.06
.06

11
9

2
2

1,290
1,900
65,940
15,000
3,580

.11
.17
5.74
1.30
.31

8
11
2
4
10

3
3
54
17
3

63,260
44,210

5.50
3.85

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

9,030
8,400
240
390

.79
.73
.02
.03

n.a.
4
15
20

n.a.
12
1
1

3,760

.33

6

7

470
26,860
2,400
1,690
6,660
4,790
290
180
150
740
510
930
160
320

.04
2.34
.21
.15
.58
.42
.03
.02
.01
.06
.04
.08
.01
.03

21
3
16
n.a.
n.a.
8
36
25
13
31
n.a.
13
25
18

1
29
2
n.a.
n.a.
5
ft
ft
1
1
n.a.
2
ft
ft

8,220

.71

n.a.

n.a.

630
6,130

.05
.53

21
6

1
8

530

.05

23

930

.08

n.a.

n.a.

1,120

.10

n.a.

n.a.

330
610
180

.03
.05
.02

16
14
14

1
1
1

400
590

.03
.05

n.a.
19

n.a.
1

650

.06

n.a.

n.a.

17,520

1.52

n.a.

n.a.

1,290
2,910

.11
.25

13
11

2
3

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

T o ta l................................................................................

1,149,750

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations................................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers............................................
Construction managers .............................................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

108,840
19,810

Occupation

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Accountants and auditors.....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Cost estimators........................................................................
Construction and building inspectors.....................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineers ...................................................................................
Civil engineers, including traffic..............................................
Electrical and electronic engineers........................................
Industrial engineers, except sa fe ty........................................
Safety engineers, except m ining............................................
Mechanical engineers.............................................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Architects, except landscape and marine................................
Landscape architects................................................................
Surveying and mapping scientists ............................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Civil engineering technicians and
technologists.........................................................................
Drafters....................................................................................
Surveying and mapping technicians and
technologists .........................................................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer a ides..................................................
Health practitioners, technologists,
technicians, and related
health w orkers.........................................................................
Interior designers .......................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers...............................
Sales and related occupations ....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales engineers..........................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




35

ft

Table 10. General building contractors: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 15)

Occupation

Sales representatives, scientific and related
products and services, except retail......................................
Sales representatives, except scientific and
related products or services and retail..................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers...........................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Procurement clerks....................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks .................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Dispatchers, except police, fire, and
ambulance............................................................................
Production, planning, and expediting
clerks.....................................................................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage yard ..........................................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving
clerks.....................................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
workers....................................................................................
Service occupations .....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Protective service occupations..................................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
workers ....................................................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
All other service w orkers................................. ........................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
All other agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
related workers........................................................................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

650

0.06

25

6,040
6,630

.53
.58

9
9

3
3

121,950

10.61

n.a.

n.a.

2,860
44,580
400
1,960
4,350
1,720

.25
3.88
.03
.17
38
15

7
2
19
7
6
10

6
44
0
5
6
3

320
530
270
29,300
5,770
440
24,020

.03
.05
.02
2.55
.50
.04
2.09

12
25
16
2
4
12
3

1
1
1
37
12
1
25

1,480

.13

n.a.

n.a.

710
770
620

.06
.07
.05

9
n.a.
9

2
n.a.
2

1,980

.17

n.a.

n.a.

130

.01

31

(3
)

660

.06

20

1

810

.07

15

2

220

.02

24

(3
)

160

.01

n.a.

n.a.

1,350

.12

n.a.

n.a..

13,580

1.18

n.a.

n.a.

940
1,760

.08
.15

16
n.a.

1
n.a.

640

.06

30

(3
)

9,480

.82

n.a.

n.a.

8,400

.73

8

7

1,080
760

.09
.07

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

6,380
6,120

.55
.53

n.a.
9

n.a.
4

260

.02

39

(3
)

818,220

71.17

n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

36

(3
)

n.a.

Table 10. General building contractors: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 15)

Occupation

First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - helpers, laborers,
and material movers, hand ..................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related.....................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Millwrights................................................................................
Machinery maintenance workers............................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Automotive mechanics ...........................................................
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine
specialists.............................................................................
Mobile heavy equipment mechanics, except
engines..................................................................................
All other electrical and electronic equipment
mechanics, installers, and repairers....................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration
mechanics and installers.....................................................
Riggers.....................................................................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Ceiling tile installers and acoustical
carpenters.............................................................................
Drywall installers......................................................................
Tapers......................................................................................
Lathers.....................................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Brickmasons............................................................................
Stonemasons..........................................................................
Concrete and terrazzo finishers.............................................
Reinforcing metal workers .....................................................
Plasterers and stucco masons...............................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters...........................................................................
Pipelaying fitte rs ......................................................................
Pipelayers................................................................................
Carpet installers......................................................................
Air hammer operators.............................................................
Pile driving operators..............................................................
Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment
operators...............................................................................
Insulation workers ...................................................................
Sheet metal duct installers....................................................
Roofers....................................................................................
Glaziers....................................................................................
Structural metal workers ........................................................
Fence erectors ........................................................................
All other construction trades workers....................................
Earth drillers, except oil and g a s ..............................................
All other extractive workers, except helpers............................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

69,170

6.02

n.a.

n.a.

950

.08

18

1

64,300

5.59

2

38

450

.04

22

1

2,200

.19

12

1

1,270
26,840
5,930
810
12,770
390

.11
2.33
.52
.07
1.11
.03

15
n.a.
11
16
7
15

1
n.a.
2
1
8
1

360

.03

19

1

2,370

.21

9

4

200

.02

35

2,440
180
1,390

.21
.02
.12

23
40
n.a.

n.a.

449,260
319,410

39.07
27.78

n.a.
1

n.a.
75

1,160
7,850
1,920
450
8,770
19,210
580
22,530
4,010
710

.10
.68
.17
.04
.76
1.67
.05
1.96
.35
.06

43
10
14
46
10
6
26
6
10
26

(3
)
4
2
(3
)
5
10
(3
)
12
2
(*)

14,480

1.26

6

9

13,740
490
820
240
350
150

1.20
.04
.07
.02
.03
.01

10
35
28
37
24
29

5
(*)
(*)
0
(3
)
(3
)

2,040
1,890
500
4,800
210
14,830
690
7,430
390
240

.18
.16
.04
.42
.02
1.29
.06
.65
.03
.02

19
22
32
12
49
8
45
12
42
46

1
(3
)
(3
)
3

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

37

(3
)
1
0

C)

5
(3
)
2
0
0

Table 10. General building contractors: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 15)

Occupation

Precision metal workers............................................................
Sheet- metal workers..............................................................
Boilermakers............................................................................
All other precision metal workers ..........................................
Precision woodworkers..............................................................
Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters..................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Sawing machine operators and tenders ................................
Woodworking machine operators and tenders,
except sawing.......................................................................
Crushing, grinding, mixing, and blending
machine operators and tenders ..........................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and plastic ......................................................
Precision assemblers, m etal......................................................
Fitters, structural metal, precision.............................................
All other precision assemblers, m etal......................................
Other hand workers, n e c ..........................................................
Welders and cutters................................................................
All other hand workers, n e c....................................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, heavy or tractor
tra ile r.....................................................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
All other motor vehicle operators ..........................................
All other transportation and motor vehicle
operators .................................................................................
Material moving equipment operators......................................
Excavating and loading
machine operators.................................................................
Dragline operators...................................................................
Grader, dozer, and scraper operators....................................
Hoist and winch operators......................................................
Crane and tower operators.....................................................
Industrial truck and tractor operators....................................
Operating engineers................................................................
All other material moving equipment
operators...............................................................................
Helpers - mechanics and repairers ..........................................
Helpers - brick and stone masons,
and hard tile setters...................................................................
Helpers - carpenters and related..............................................
Helpers - electricians and powerline
transmission installers ............................................................
Helpers - painters, paperhangers, plasterers,
and stucco masons.................................................................
Helpers - plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters..............................................................................
Helpers - roofers........................................................................
Helpers - all other construction trades ....................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, ha n d ...........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

4,490
2,830
1,540
120
7,000
7,000

0.39
.25
.13
.01
.61
.61

n.a.
15
25
n.a.
n.a.
9

n.a.
1
(3
)
n.a.
n.a.
4

2,580
190

22
02

n.a.
38

n.a.
O

140

.01

38

(3
)

210

.02

34

(3
)

1,740

.15

n.a.

n.a.

300
720
560
160
5,340
5,180
160
15,440

.03
.06
.05
.01
.46
.45
.01
1.34

n.a.
n.a.
36
47
n.a.
11
n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.
3
n.a.
n.a.

8,080

.70

6

8

6,680
680

.58
.06

6
22

8
(3
)

220
17,980

.02
1.56

32
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.

1,320
120
2,330
300
1,250
380
11,890

.11
.01
.20
.03
.11
.03
1.03

15
31
14
21
13
22
6

1
(3
)
2
(3
)
1
(3
)
10

390
2,110

.03
.18

22
16

(3
)
2

11,430
116,700

.99
10.15

7
2

6
41

860

.07

33

4,330

.38

10

2

2,720
1,270
8,390
3,570

.24
.11
.73
.31

13
20
10
13

2
1
2
3

66,420

5.78

n.a.

n.a.

750

.07

n.a.

n.a.

(3
)

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment: relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

38

Table 11. Heavy construction contractors: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984
(SIC 16)

Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

779,470

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations...............................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
Construction managers.............................................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

43,650
7,170

5.60
.92

n.a.
4

n.a.
28

750
1,070

.10
.14

8
10

5
5

650
990
21,690
8,310
3,020

.08
.13
2.78
1.07
.39

13
10
3
4
16

3
4
52
24
4

57,070
22,980

7.32
2.95

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

5,150
4,340
320
490

.66
.56
.04
.06

n.a.
5
16
40

n.a.
17
1
1

2,400

.31

8

9

550
11,350
1,880

.07
1.46
.24

15
3
25

2
35
2

200
1,450
22,590

.03
.19
2.90

19
19
n.a.

1
2
n.a.

160
12,230
2,540
1,030
370
3,370
2,890
130
920

.02
1.57
.33
.13
.05
.43
.37
.02
.12

35
17
18
26
10
17
n.a.
26
10

ft
14
1
1
3
2
n.a.
ft
3

6,980

.90

n.a.

n.a.

920

.12

14

2

380

.05

24

ft

340
2,970

.04
.38

23
12

ft
4

1,440

.18

12

3

930

.12

n.a.

n.a.

1,700

.22

n.a.

n.a.

650
810
240

.08
.10
.03

20
19
15

1
3
1

1,770

.23

n.a.

n.a.

2,210

.28

n.a.

n.a.

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Accountants and auditors....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Cost estimators........................................................................
Construction and building inspectors.....................................
Compliance officers and enforcement
inspectors, except construction...........................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineers...................................................................................
Mining engineers, including
mine s a fe ty............................................................................
Civil engineers, including traffic..............................................
Electrical and electronic engineers........................................
Industrial engineers, except sa fe ty........................................
Safety engineers, except mining............................................
Mechanical engineers.............................................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Architects, except landscape and marine................................
Surveying and mapping scientists............................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Civil engineering technicians and
technologists.........................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineering
technicians and technologists..............................................
Mechanical engineering technicians
and technologists .................................................................
Drafters....................................................................................
Surveying and mapping technicians and
technologists.........................................................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer a ides..................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations ....................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




39

Table 11. Heavy construction contractors: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 16)

Occupation

First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales engineers..........................................................................
Sales representatives, scientific and related
products and services, except retail......................................
Sales representatives, except scientific and
related products or services and retail..................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers...........................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Procurement clerks....................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Dispatchers, except police, fire, and
ambulance............................................................................
Production, planning, and expediting
clerks.....................................................................................
Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers,
recordkeeping .......................................................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage yard .........................................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving
clerks.....................................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................
Service occupations.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Crossing guards .........................................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
All other protective service workers.........................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households...................................
All other service w orkers..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

1
3

270
1,050

0.03
.13

21
14

130

.02

26

460
300

.06
.04

12
30

1
1

57,510

7.38

n.a.

n.a.

2,420
13,470
140
1,200
2,150
1,200

.31
1.73
.02
.15
.28
.15

7
3
18
7
12
20

12
40
1
8
6
2

380
590
500
10,620
4,740
540
11,700

.05
.08
.06
1.36
.61
.07
1.50

12
17
30
3
4
9
5

2
2
1
39
24
4
31

3,050

.39

n.a.

n.a.

200

03

47

1

1,110
1,160
580
420

14
15
.07
.05

18
20
n.a.
8

4
3
n.a.
3

3,810

.49

n.a.

n.a.

620

.08

8

4

950

.12

24

2

400

.05

12

2•

1,110

.14

18

4

610

.08

28

1

120

.02

24

1

580

.07

n.a.

n.a.

4,570

.59

n.a.

n.a.

390
710
1,140
240

.05
.09
.15
.03

21
12
20
33

1
2
2
(3
)

1,770

.23

n.a.

n.a.

1,580

.20

7

7

190
320

.02
.04

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

2,110

.27

n.a.

n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

40

(3
)

Table 11. Heavy construction contractors: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 16)

Occupation

Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
All other agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
related workers.......................................................................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................... ............................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers ........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - helpers, laborers,
and material movers, hand ..................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related.....................................................
Precision inspectors, testers, and graders ...............................
All other inspectors, testers and related
occupations.............................................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Millwrights................................................................................
Machinery maintenance workers............................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Automotive mechanics ...........................................................
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine
specialists.............................................................................
Mobile heavy equipment mechanics, except
engines..................................................................................
Telephone and cable TV line installers and
repairers................................................................................
Electrical powerline installers and repairers..........................
All other electrical and electronic equipment
mechanics, installers, and repairers....................................
Riggers................................................,....................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Lathers.....................................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Brickmasons............................................................................
Stonemasons..........................................................................
Concrete and terrazzo finishers .............................................
Reinforcing metal workers .....................................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters...........................................................................
Pipelaying fitte rs ......................................................................
Pipelayers................................................................................
Septic tank servicers and
sewer pipe cleaners ..............................................................
Air hammer operators.............................................................
Pile driving operators..............................................................
Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment
operators...............................................................................
Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment
operators...............................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

1,600

0.21

17

510

.07

35

(3
)

612,350

78.56

n.a.

n.a.

41,860

5.37

n.a.

n.a.

2,310

.30

8

8

33,100

4.25

2

49

1,250

.16

11

4

2,850

.37

8

4

2,350
690

.30
.09

10
27

3
1

630
59,860
4,100
2,850
7,010
2,460

.08
7.68
.53
.37
.90
.32

n.a.
n.a.
14
7
8
7

n.a.
n.a.
2
8
13
8

3,830

.49

6

11

14,470

1.86

3

31

13,830
5,880

1.77
.75

12
18

4
1

550
3,880
1,000

.07
.50
.13

30
36
n.a.

1
1
n.a.

149,520
26,750
140
9,780
1,720
390
12,010
3,380

19.18
3.43
.02
1.25
.22
.05
1.54
.43

n.a.
4
36
13
13
25
5
13

n.a.
21
0
4
3
1
15
4

1,610

.21

14

2

22,100
1,450
29,970

2.84
.19
3.84

11
19
5

6
1
19

100
5,640
2,290

.01
.72
.29

49
11
16

(3
)
8
3

14,740

1.89

5

12

1,620

.21

28

1

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

41

3

Table 11. Heavy construction contractors: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 16)

Occupation

Insulation w orkers...................................................................
Sheet metal duct installers.....................................................
Structural metal workers ........................................................
Fence erectors ........................................................................
All other construction trades workers....................................
Earth drillers, except oil and g a s ..............................................
Blasters and explosives workers ..............................................
All other extractive workers, except helpers............................
Precision metal workers............................................................
Machinists ................................................................................
Boilermakers............................................................................
All other precision metal workers ..........................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic........................................................
Crushing, grinding, mixing, and blending
machine operators and tenders ..........................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and plastic ......................................................
Precision assemblers, m etal......................................................
Fitters, structural metal, precision.............................................
Other hand workers, n e c ..........................................................
Welders and cutters................................................................
Solderers and brazers ............................................................
All other hand workers, n e c....................................................
Plant and system workers .........................................................
Stationary engineers...............................................................
All other plant and system operators....................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, heavy or tractor
tra ile r.....................................................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
All other motor vehicle operators ..........................................
All other transportation and motor vehicle
operators.................................................................................
Material moving equipment operators......................................
Excavating and loading
machine operators.................................................................
Dragline operators...................................................................
Dredge operators and dipper tenders...................................
Grader, dozer, and scraper operators...................................
Hoist and winch operators......................................................
Crane and tower operators.....................................................
Industrial truck and tractor operators....................................
Pump operators.......................................................................
Operating engineers................................................................
All other material moving equipment
operators...............................................................................
Helpers - mechanics and repairers ..........................................
Helpers - brick and stone masons.
and hard tile setters...................................................................
Helpers - carpenters and related..............................................
Helpers - electricians and powerline
transmission installers ............................................................
Helpers - plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters...............................................................................
Helpers - all other construction trades ....................................
Helpers - extractive workers......................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, ha n d ...........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations..............................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

1,450
360
5,780
1,130
7,110
2,250
1,250
1,120
5,840
600
4,750
490

0.19
.05
.74
.14
.91
.29
.16
.14
.75
.08
.61
.06

24
42
14
18
13
15
22
32
n.a.
24
15
n.a.

1
(3
)
3
1
3
3
2
0
n.a.
1
2
n.a.

4,860

.62

n.a.

n.a.

3,520

.45

12

6

700

.09

n.a.

n.a.

640
2,170
2,170
14,220
12,780
90
1,350
1,540
160
1,380
57 700

08
28
.28
1.82
1.64
.01
.17
.20
.02
.18
7.40

n.a.
n.a.
34
n.a.
9
46
n.a.
n.a.
41
12
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
1
n.a.
15
(3
)
n.a.
n.a.
ft
3
n.a.

49,970

6.41

2

52

6,540
1,190

.84
.15

6
25

13
1

810
123,050

.10
15.79

31
n.a.

1
n.a.

22,520
2,620
760
43,730
1,670
4,280
1,860
340
43,790

2.89
.34
.10
5.61
.21
.55
.24
.04
5.62

4
10
31
3
22
12
27
27
3

28
7
1
40
2
8
2
1
32

1,480
6,260

.19
.80

13
7

2
15

960
10,940

.12
1.40

25
8

1
10

3,240

.42

19

1

7,220
14,950
700
2,670

.93
1.92
.09
.34

10
7
25
15

5
8

97,780

12.54

n.a.

n.a.

260

.03

n.a.

n.a.

ft

3

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

42

Table 12. Special trade contractors: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984
(SIC 17)

Occupation

Employment'

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

2,394,100

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations................................
Financial managers....................................................................
All other administrative managers............................................
Construction managers .............................................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

117,890
29,530
700
66,960
17,930
2,770

4.92
1.23
.03
2.80
.75
.12

n.a.
2
n.a.
1
3
n.a.

n.a.
20
n.a.
34
10
n.a.

100,580
75,880

4.20
3.17

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

11,150

.47

n.a.

n.a.

7,120
56,780
830
8,640
2,940
3,890
1,810
360

.30
2.37
.03
.36
.12
.16
.08
.02

3
1
n.a.
n.a.
10
6
n.a.
14

5
29
n.a.
n.a.
1
2
n.a.
0

14,600

.61

n.a.

n.a.

3,540
10,060

.15
.42

15
3

1
5

1,000

.04

n.a.

n.a.

1,100

.05

n.a.

n.a.

39,960

1.67

n.a.

n.a.

430
4,120

.02
.17

14
6

(*>
2

280

.01

28

0

31,200
3,930

1.30
.16

3
10

12
1

229,160

9.57

n.a.

n.a.

1,310
74,220
880
7,130
1,600
54,070
12,340
55,920

.05
3.10
.04
.30
.07
2.26
.52
2.34

9
1
14
3
7
1
2
1

1
39
1
5
1
33
11
27

1,620

.07

n.a.

n.a.

18,230

.76

n.a.

n.a.

16,720

.70

2

9

1,510

.06

n.a.

n.a.

1,840

.08

n.a.

n.a.

9,300

.39

n.a.

n.a.

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Cost estimators........................................................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineers ...................................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers........................................
Mechanical engineers.............................................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Surveying and mapping scientists............................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineering
technicians and technologists..............................................
Drafters....................................................................................
All other engineering an<j related
technicians and technologists..............................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations ....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales engineers..........................................................................
Sales representatives, scientific and related
products and services, except retail......................................
Sales representatives, except scientific and
related products or services and retail..................................
All other sales and related w orkers.........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage y a rd ..........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................
Service occupations .....................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




43

Table 12. Special trade contractors: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
( S ia i7 )

Occupation

Guards and watch guards.........................................................
All other protective service workers.........................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
All other service workers ..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
All other agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
related workers........................................................................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers ........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - helpers, laborers,
and material movers, hand ..................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related.....................................................
Inspectors and related occupations .........................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Millwrights................................................................................
Machinery maintenance workers............................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Automotive mechanics ...........................................................
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine
specialists.............................................................................
Mobile heavy equipment mechanics, except
engines..................................................................................
Telephone and cable TV line installers and
repairers................................................................................
Electric home appliance and power tool
repairers................................................................................
Electrical powerline installers and repairers..........................
All other electrical and electronic equipment
mechanics, installers, and repairers....................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration
mechanics and installers.....................................................
Elevator installers and repairers.............................................
Riggers.....................................................................................
Installers and repairers, manufactured
buildings, mobile homes, and travel trailers .......................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
moving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Ceiling tile installers and acoustical
carpenters.............................................................................
Drywall installers......................................................................
Tapers......................................................................................
Lathers.....................................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Brickmasons............................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

570
400

0.02
.02

31
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.

7,680

.32

n.a.

n.a.

6,920

.29

5

5

760
650

.03
.03

27
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.

3,050
2,780

.13
.12

n.a.
10

n.a.
1

270

.01

43

(3
)

1,894,160

79.12

n.a.

n.a.

84,540

3.53

n.a.

n.a.

890

.04

14

(3
)

82,480

3.45

1

32

320

.01

23

(3
)

850
1,200
176,900
10,040
420
19,110
1,960

.04
.05
7.39
.42
02
80
08

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
6
30
4
5

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
1
(3
)
7
2

1,980

.08

6

1

3,810

.16

6

2

12,620

.53

11

1

1,180
6,650

.05
.28

20
15

(3
)
0

2,910

.12

18

(3
)

93,610
12,060
1,720

3.91
.50
.07

2
8
13

9
1
(3
)

560
8,270

.02
.35

25
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.

1,105,570
95,210

46.18
3.98

n.a.
2

n.a.
11

14,560
50,510
20,500
10,000
231,820
67,430

.61
2.11
.86
.42
9.68
2.82

6
3
4
6
1

2
4
3
1
12
8

2

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

44

Table 12. Special trade contractors: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 17)

Occupation

Stonemasons..........................................................................
Tile setters, hard .....................................................................
Concrete and terrazzo finishers.............................................
Reinforcing metal workers .....................................................
Plasterers and stucco masons...............................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters...........................................................................
Pipelaying fitte rs ......................................................................
Pipelayers................................................................................
Septic tank servicers and
sewer pipe cleaners ..............................................................
Carpet installers.......................................................................
Floor layers, except carpet, wood, and hard
tile s ........................................................................................
Floor sanding machine operators..........................................
Air hammer operators.............................................................
Pile driving operators..............................................................
Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment
operators...............................................................................
Insulation workers...................................................................
Sheet metal duct installers ....................................................
Roofers....................................................................................
Glaziers....................................................................................
Structural metal workers ........................................................
Fence erectors ........................................................................
All other construction trades workers....................................
Earth drillers, except oil and g a s ..............................................
Blasters and explosives workers ..............................................
All other extractive workers, except helpers............................
Precision metal workers............................................................
Sheet- metal workers..............................................................
Boilermakers...........................................................................
All other precision metal w orkers..........................................
Precision woodworkers..............................................................
Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters ..................................
Precision workers, n e c ..............................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
metal and plastic....................................................................
Machine tool cutting operators and tenders,
metal and plastic..................................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Crushing, grinding, mixing, and blending
machine operators and tenders..........................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and plastic .....................................................
Precision assemblers, m etal.....................................................
Fitters, structural metal, precision.............................................
All other precision assemblers, m etal......................................
Other hand workers, n e c ..........................................................
Welders and cutters................................................................
Carpet cutters, diagrammers, and
seamers................................................................................
All other hand workers, nec...................................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, heavy or tractor
tra ile r.....................................................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
Material moving equipment operators......................................
Excavating and loading
machine operators.................................................................
Dragline operators...................................................................
Grader, dozer, and scraper operators...................................
Hoist and winch operators.....................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

6,790
13,230
53,170
12,260
18,230

0.28
.55
2.22
.51
.76

8
6
2
6
5

1
2
8
2
2

106,840

4.46

1

9

166,370
480
3,470

6.95
.02
.14

2
23
7

13
(3
)
1

260
11,500

.01
.48

46
7

0

5,210
2,330
3,430
650

.22
.10
.14
.03

9
13
7
26

0
1
(3
)

12,160
39,080
1,590
83,380
20,170
29,660
12,230
13,050
6,620
490
350
84,330
77,580
5,640
1,110
4,280
4,280
600

.51
1.63
.07
3.48
.84
1.24
.51
.55
.28
.02
.01
3.52
3.24
.24
.05
.18
.18
.03

4
4
19
2
4
4
5
6
5
18
31
n.a.
3
11
n.a.
n.a.
11
29

2
3
(3
)
7
2
'3
1
2
2
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.
8
1
n.a.
n.a.
(3
)
(3
)

240

.01

n.a.

n.a.

240

.01

30

(3
)

12,760

.53

n.a.

n.a.

2,510

.10

11

1

9,290

.39

n.a.

n.a.

960
3,020
2,690
330
13,730
11,120

.04
.13
.11
.01
.57
.46

n.a.
n.a.
10
41
n.a.
5

n.a.
n.a.

800
1,810
37,790

.03
.08
1.58

21
n.a.
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.
n.a.

14,660

.61

4

4

23,130
58,120

.97
2.43

2
n.a.

12
n.a.

12,980
490
16,280
640

.54
.02
.68
.03

4
16
4
15

4
f)
5
(3
)

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

45

1
1

0

(3
)
n.a.
3

Table 12. Special trade contractors: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 17)

Occupation

Employment1

Crane and tower operators.....................................................
Industrial truck and tractor operators....................................
Pump operators.......................................................................
Operating engineers................................................................
All other material moving equipment
operators...............................................................................
Helpers - mechanics and repairers ..........................................
Helpers - brick and stone masons,
and hard tile setters...................................................................
Helpers - carpenters and related..............................................
Helpers - electricians and powerline
transmission installers ............................................................
Helpers - painters, paperhangers, plasterers,
and stucco masons.................................................................
Helpers - plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters...............................................................................
Helpers - roofers........................................................................
Helpers - all other construction tra d e s ....................................
Helpers - extractive workers......................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, h a n d ...........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations..............................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

.81

8
7
16
3

1
1
(3
)
5

550
5,250

.02
.22

20
7

(3
)
2

56,730
30,120

2.37
1.26

2
3

8
5

46,310

1.93

4

4

21,650

.90

4

4

43,990
19,020
11,040
1,360
13,240

1.84
.79
.46
.06
.55

3
4
6
12
4

7
3
2
(3
)
5

54,220

2.26

3

7

690

.03

2,600
4,230
1,000
19,350

0.11
.18
.04

n.a.

n.a.

are estimated al the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

46

Finance, Insurance, and
Real Estate

Text table 4. Banks and credit agencies: Employment by
industry, 1981 and 1984

In 1 9 8 4 , fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d re a l e s ta te e m p lo y e d
o v e r 5 . 6 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s o r 2 2 p e r c e n t o f a ll w o r k e r s in
th e in d u s tr ie s s u r v e y e d . T h e b a n k in g a n d in s u r a n c e in ­

SIC
code

Industry

d u s tr ie s , w ith 2 .9 m illio n w o r k e r s , a c c o u n te d fo r m o r e

Employment

Percent
change,
1981-84

1981

1984

601

24,480

23,650

-3.4

602
603

1,474,160
74,350

1,511,610
76,930

2.5
3.5

604

2,490

3,780

51.8

605

42,280

51,550

21.9

611
612

3,090
264,980

4,550
322,710

47.2
21.8

613

17,330

18,670

7.7

614

205,620

202,300

-1.6

615

32,850

40,660

23.8

616

61,860

100,770

62.9

t h a n h a lf th e t o t a l in th is in d u s tr y d iv is io n . T h e r e a l
Federal Reserve banks.
Commercial and stock
savings banks
Mutual savings banks . . . .
Nondeposit trust
companies
Establishments perform­
ing functions closely
related to banking
Rediscount and financing
institutions ....................
Savings and loans
Agricultural credit
institutions ....................
Personal credit
institutions ....................
Business credit
institutions ....................
Mortgage bankers and
brokers ..........................

e s t a t e i n d u s t r y e m p l o y e d o v e r 1 m i l l i o n o r 1 8 .7 p e r c e n t ;
th e r e m a in in g 3 0 p e r c e n t w e r e d is tr ib u t e d a m o n g th e
o th e r f iv e in d u s tr ie s in t h e g r o u p .
O c c u p a tio n a l

e m p lo y m e n t

fo r

th e s e

in d u s tr ie s

is

s h o w n in t a b l e s 13 t h r o u g h 2 0 .

Banks and credit agencies
T h is

in d u s tr y

group

( s i c ’s

60

and

61)

in c lu d e s

e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in a c c e p t i n g d e p o s i t s o r i s s u i n g
s h a r e s a n d e x te n d in g c r e d it in t h e f o r m
o th e r

w o rd s,

th e y

serve

as

o f lo a n s . In

in t e r m e d ia r ie s

b etw e e n

p r im a r y le n d e r s a n d b o r r o w e r s .
In

1984,

m illio n

th e se

w o rk ers,

e s t a b lis h m e n ts
a c c o u n tin g
th e

9

in d u s tr ie s

percent

over
of

su rv ey ed .

2 .3
to ta l

e m p lo y m e n t

in

e m p lo y e d

p e r c e n t o f t h e w o r k e r s i n t h i s in d u s t r y

t io n a c c o u n ts a n d in te r e s t-b e a r in g c h e c k in g a c c o u n ts o n

A s s h o w n in t a b l e 1 3 , b a n k i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s e m p l o y e d

t i o n o f t h e r is e i n e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e m o r t g a g e b a n k i n g

71

a ll

fo r

e m p lo y e d

B anks

group.

a c o m p e t it iv e b a s is w ith c o m m e r c ia l b a n k s . A l s o , a p o r ­

n e a r l y 1 .2 m i l l i o n c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s i n 1 9 8 4 , o r 7 0 p e r c e n t

a n d b r o k e r in g in d u s tr y m a y h a v e b e e n d u e t o th e d e c lin e

o f t h e w o r k e r s in t h i s i n d u s t r y . T h e r e m a i n i n g e m p l o y ­

in in te r e s t r a te s a n d th e in c r e a s e d d e m a n d fo r h o u s in g

m e n t in b a n k i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s w a s d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s :

d u r in g 1 9 8 3 a n d 1 9 8 4 .

P r o f e s s io n a l, p a r a p r o fe s s io n a l, a n d te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s ,

T h e f i v e la r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n s in t h e b a n k i n g in d u s t r y

13 p e r c e n t ; m a n a g e r i a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r k e r s , 12

a r e l i s t e d i n t h e t a b u l a t i o n b e l o w . T h e y m a d e u p n e a r ly

p e r c e n t; s e r v ic e a n d s a le s w o r k e r s , 2 p e r c e n t e a c h ; a n d

4 3 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in t h e i n d u s t r y .

p r o d u c t i o n a n d a g r ic u l t u r a l w o r k e r s , le s s t h a n 1 p e r c e n t .
The

1 9 8 4 d a ta in c lu d e s 4 ,2 3 0 fir s t-lin e s a le s s u p e r ­
E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

P e rc e n t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

P e rc e n t
c h a n g e in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1981-84

374,350
109,830
88,800

22.4
6.6
5.3

2.6
-8 .5
14.2

73,200

4.4

n

67,760

4.1

12.3

v i s o r s a n d 5 , 9 0 0 c a s h i e r s in t h e s a l e s g r o u p . T h e s e w e r e
c l a s s i f i e d in t h e m a n a g e r i a l a n d c l e r i c a l g r o u p s i n 1 9 8 1 .
T h e b a n k in g in d u s tr y a ls o e m p lo y e d 2 ,8 4 0 r e a l e s t a te
T e lle r s ...........................
General office clerks .
Secretaries.....................
First-line supervisors,
c le r ic a l.........................
Bookkeeping, account­
ing, and auditing
c le r k s ...........................

a p p r a is e r s , w h o w e r e r e c la s s if ie d fr o m th e p r o f e s s io n a l
to

th e

s a le s

c a te g o r y

c o u n s e lo r s , n u m b e r in g
p r o f e s s io n a l g r o u p in

in

1984.

5 9 ,2 2 0 ,

Loan

o ff ic e r s

w e r e c la s s if ie d

in

and
th e

1 9 8 4 , b u t w e r e in c lu d e d in th e

m a n a g e r i a l c a t e g o r y in 1 9 8 1 .
E m p lo y m e n t c h a n g e s b e tw e e n 1981 a n d 1 9 8 4 fo r e a c h
3 -d ig it in d u s tr y m a k in g u p b a n k s a n d c r e d it a g e n c ie s

1 Because o f the changes in the survey classification system, data for
1981 and 1984 are not comparable.

( s i c ’s 6 0 1 - 6 1 6 ) a r e l i s t e d i n t e x t t a b l e 4 .
T h e r e la tiv e ly h ig h e m p lo y m e n t g r o w th r a te s fo r s a v ­
n o n d e p o s it tr u st c o m p a n ie s m a y

T h e n u m b e r o f s e c r e t a r ie s e m p l o y e d b y t h e b a n k i n g i n ­

h a v e b e e n d u e t o fin a n c ia l d e r e g u la t io n , w h ic h a llo w e d

d u s t r y in c r e a s e d b y 1 4 .2 p e r c e n t b e t w e e n 1 9 8 1 a n d 1 9 8 4 .

m a n y o f th e s e e s ta b lis h m e n ts to o f f e r c o n s u m e r tr a n s a c -

B o o k k e e p i n g , a c c o u n t i n g , a n d a u d i t i n g c le r k s in c r e a s e d

in g s a n d

lo a n s a n d




47

b y 1 2 .3 p e r c e n t a n d t e l le r s , b y 2 . 6 p e r c e n t . E m p l o y m e n t

in h o ld in g a n d o t h e r in v e s t m e n t o f f i c e s . O th e r o c c u p a ­

o f g e n e r a l o f f i c e c le r k s d e c l i n e d b y 8 .5 p e r c e n t d u r in g t h i s

t i o n a l g r o u p s w i t h la r g e n u m b e r s o f w o r k e r s in t h e s e i n ­
d u s tr ie s w e r e

p e r io d .

s a le s w o r k e r s

(3 4 p e r c e n t) a n d

p r o fe s­

s io n a l, p a r a p r o fe s s io n a l, a n d te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s (1 2 p e r ­

C le r ic a l w o r k e r s w e r e a l s o p r e d o m i n a n t in c r e d it a g e n ­
c ie s o t h e r t h a n b a n k s , a c c o u n t i n g f o r t w o - t h i r d s o f t o t a l

c e n t ) in s e c u r i t y a n d c o m m o d i t y b r o k e r s a n d s e r v i c e s ;

e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s in d u s t r y ( t a b l e 1 4 ). T h e r e m a i n in g

and

e m p lo y m e n t w a s d is tr ib u te d a s fo llo w s : M a n a g e r ia l a n d

w orkers

a d m in is tr a tiv e

p r o fe s s io n a l,
(2 4

p a r a p r o fe s s io n a l,

p e r c e n t),

and

and

m a n a g e r ia l

te c h n ic a l
and

ad­

p er c e n t;

p r o fe s s io n a l,

m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r k e r s ( 1 9 p e r c e n t ) in h o l d i n g a n d o t h e r

p a r a p r o fe s s io n a l, a n d te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s,

1 3 .2 p e r c e n t ;

in v e s tm e n t o f f ic e s .

w o rk ers,

1 3 .5

s a le s w o r k e r s , 6 p e r c e n t; a n d se r v ic e w o r k e r s , 1 p e r c e n t.

S e c u r ity a n d c o m m o d it y b r o k e r s ( s i c 6 2 ) e m p lo y e d

In 1 9 8 4 , th e s a le s g r o u p in c lu d e d 4 ,4 3 0 r e a l e s ta te a p ­

3 ,3 1 0 c a s h ie r s in 1 9 8 4 . C a s h ie r s , c la s s if ie d a s a s a le s o c ­

p r a is e r s ,

4 ,8 0 0

fir s t-lin e

s a le s

s u p e r v iso r s,

and

c u p a tio n

6 ,9 2 0

in

1984,

c le r ic a l g r o u p .

c a s h ie r s . T h e s e o c c u p a t io n s w e r e r e c la s s ifie d fr o m p r o ­

w ere

F ir s t -lin e

p r e v io u s ly
su p e r v is o r s

c la s s if ie d
( 7 ,1 3 0

in

in

th e

1984)

f e s s i o n a l , m a n a g e r i a l , a n d c le r ic a l c a t e g o r i e s , r e s p e c t i v e ­

w e r e r e c la s s ifie d t o th e s a le s fr o m th e m a n a g e r ia l g r o u p .

l y , u s e d in 1 9 8 1 . L o a n o f f i c e r s a n d c o u n s e l o r s , n u m b e r ­

F o r h o ld in g a n d o th e r in v e s tm e n t c o m p a n ie s ( s i c 6 7 ),

in g 2 5 , 0 0 0 in 1 9 8 4 , w e r e r e c l a s s i f i e d f r o m t h e m a n a g e r i a l

1 9 8 4 d a ta in c lu d e d 3 ,6 4 0 fir s t- lin e s a le s s u p e r v is o r s a n d

c a te g o r y to th e p r o fe s s io n a l g r o u p .

8 6 0 c a s h i e r s i n t h e s a l e s c a t e g o r y p r e v i o u s l y c l a s s i f i e d in

The

ta b u la tio n

o c c u p a tio n s

in

b e lo w

c r e d it

li s t s

th e

g e t h e r , t h e y c o n s t i t u t e d 4 4 .7

fiv e

m ost

th e m a n a g e r ia l a n d c le r ic a l g r o u p s , r e s p e c t iv e ly .

p o p u lo u s
T o­

T h e f i v e m o s t p o p u l o u s o c c u p a t i o n s in s e c u r i t y a n d

p e r c e n t o f t o t a l in d u s t r y

c o m m o d it y b r o k e r s a n d s e r v ic e s , w h ic h a c c o u n t e d fo r

a g e n c ie s ,

e x c lu d in g

b an k s.

5 7 .5 p e r c e n t o f in d u s tr y e m p lo y m e n t , a r e lis te d b e lo w :

e m p lo y m e n t.

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

P e rc e n t o f
in d u stry
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

P e rc e n t
ch an ge in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1981-84

129,210
67,550
46,140
35,960

18.7
9.8
6.7
5.2

31.3

Tellers ............................
Loan and credit clerks.
Financial m an agers. . .
General office clerks ..
Bookkeeping, account­
ing, and auditing
c le r k s ...........................

Sales agents—
securities, com ­
m odities, and finan­
cial services................
Brokerage c le rk s.........
Secretaries.....................
General office clerks .
General m anagers and
top e x e c u tiv e s............

(1)

n
1.0
14.9

4.3

29,420

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

1 Because o f changes in the survey classification system, data for 1981
and 1984 are not comparable.

by

over

31

p ercen t b e tw e e n

1981

and

P ercen t
c h a n g e in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1981-84

95,010
44,050
31,920
13,940

28.0
13.0
9.4
4.1

O
196.0
21.2
1.9

10,150

3.0

(1)

1 B e ca u se o f c h a n g es in th e su rvey c la s sific a tio n sy ste m , d a ta for
1981 an d 1984 are n o t co m p a r a b le .

T h e n u m b e r o f te lle r s e m p lo y e d b y c r e d it a g e n c ie s in ­
crea sed

P ercen t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

1984.

T h is in d u s tr y e m p lo y e d o v e r 4 4 ,0 0 0 b r o k e r a g e c le r k s

B o o k k e e p i n g , a c c o u n t i n g , a n d a u d i t i n g c l e r k s in c r e a s e d
b y a b o u t 15 p e r c e n t , w h i l e t h e n u m b e r o f g e n e r a l o f f i c e

in 1 9 8 4 , a 1 9 6 -p e r c e n t in c r e a s e f r o m

1981. T here w as

c le r k s r e m a in e d a b o u t th e s a m e .

a ls o

e m p lo y m e n t

in

th e

u n d e r w r itin g ,

p u rch ase,

s a le ,

in c r e a s e

in

th e

of

o f f i c e c le r k s in c r e a s e d b y a b o u t 2 p e r c e n t.
T h e f iv e la r g e s t o c c u p a t io n s in h o ld in g a n d o th e r in ­

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p (SIC’s 6 2 a n d
en gage

2 1 -p e r c e n t

s e c r e ta r ie s d u r in g t h e p e r io d . E m p lo y m e n t o f g e n e r a l

Security and commodity brokers and investment
services
67)

a

v e s t m e n t o f f i c e s , w h ic h m a d e u p 3 9 p e r c e n t o f in d u s tr y

or

e m p lo y m e n t , a r e s h o w n b e lo w :

b r o k e r a g e o f s e c u r itie s a n d c o m m o d it ie s ; e x c h a n g e o f

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

P ercen t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

P ercen t
c h a n g e in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1 981-84

16,970
10,960

12.1
7.8

20.6

9,440

6.7

52.3

9,300
7,850

6.6
5.6

14.4
11.0

s e c u r itie s a n d c o m m o d it ie s ; a n d in v e s t m e n t tr u s ts , in ­
c lu d in g

in v e s tm e n t, h o ld in g , a n d

c o m m o d it y tr a d in g

c o m p a n ie s .
In 1 9 8 4 , s e c u r ity a n d c o m m o d it y b r o k e r s a n d se r v ic e s
Secretaries.....................
Financial managers . .
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing
c le r k s ............................
A ccountants and
a u d ito r s.......................
General office clerks .

e m p l o y e d 3 3 9 , 1 5 0 , o r 7 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e w o r k e r s in t h i s
in d u s tr y g r o u p . H o ld in g a n d o th e r in v e s t m e n t o f f ic e s
a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g e m p l o y m e n t , w i t h 1 4 0 ,3 7 0
w ork ers.
A s s h o w n in t a b l e s 15 a n d 1 6 , c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , t h e
la r g e s t

o c c u p a tio n a l

group

in

th e se

in d u s tr ie s ,

ac­

c o u n t e d f o r 4 4 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in s e c u r i t y

1 Because o f changes in the survey classification system , data for
1981 and 1984 are not com parable.

a n d c o m m o d ity b r o k e r s a n d 3 9 p e r c e n t o f e m p lo y m e n t




(1)

48

B e tw e e n 1981 a n d 1 9 8 4 , h o ld in g a n d o th e r in v e s tm e n t

E m p l o y m e n t o f u n d e r w r it e r s in c r e a s e d b y a l m o s t 10

o f f i c e s in c r e a s e d e m p l o y m e n t o f b o o k k e e p i n g , a c c o u n t ­

p ercen t b e tw e e n

i n g , a n d a u d i t i n g c le r k s b y 5 . 2 p e r c e n t . E m p l o y m e n t o f

a n d p la c e r s in c r e a s e d b y 6 .5 p e r c e n t w h i l e g e n e r a l o f f i c e

s e c r e t a r ie s in c r e a s e d b y 2 0 . 6 p e r c e n t ; t h e n u m b e r o f a c ­

c le r k s d e c l i n e d s l ig h t l y .

c o u n t a n t s a n d a u d i t o r s in c r e a s e d b y 1 4 .4 p e r c e n t ; a n d

C le r ic a l

g e n e r a l o f f i c e c le r k s in c r e a s e d b y 11 p e r c e n t .

h a lf— 53

1981 a n d

w orkers

1 9 8 4 . I n s u r a n c e sa le s a g e n ts

a ls o

p e r c e n t— o f

a cco u n te d

to ta l

fo r

e m p lo y m e n t

m ore
in

th a n

in s u r a n c e

a g e n t s , b r o k e r s , a n d s e r v i c e s ( t a b le 1 8 ). S a le s w o r k e r s ,
t h e s e c o n d la r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p , a c c o u n t e d f o r 2 5

Insurance and real estate

p e r c e n t.

T h is in d u s t r y g r o u p ( s i c ’s 6 3 - 6 6 ) i n c l u d e s in s u r a n c e

w orkers m ad e up

c a r r ie r s o f a ll t y p e s ; a g e n t s a n d b r o k e r s d e a l i n g in i n ­

and

p o lic y h o ld e r s ;

real

e sta te

C hanges

o p e r a to r s;

te c h n ic a l

1 4 , p e r c e n t a n d m a n a g e r ia l a n d a d ­

in

th e

O ES

str u c tu r e

r e s u lte d

in

th e

1 8 ,7 3 0 in 1 9 8 4 , f r o m t h e m a n a g e r i a l t o t h e s a l e s g r o u p in

a n d b r o k e r s ; a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s r e g u la r l y e n g a g e d in a n y

s ic 64.

o f i n s u r a n c e , r e a l e s t a t e , l o a n s , a n d la w
The

w h e r e n o o n e o f th e s e a c tiv itie s d o m in a te s th e b u s in e s s .
In

and

r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i r s t - lin e s a l e s s u p e r v i s o r s , n u m b e r i n g

o w n e r s a n d le s so r s o f rea l p r o p e r ty ; d e v e lo p e r s , a g e n ts ,

c o m b in a tio n

p a r a p r o fe s s io n a l,

m in is tr a tiv e w o r k e r s m a d e u p 6 p e r c e n t.

s u r a n c e a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e r i n g s e r v i c e s t o in s u r a n c e
c o m p a n ie s

P r o fe s s io n a l,

1 9 8 4 , th e s e e s ta b lis h m e n ts e m p lo y e d

2 .8

fiv e

la r g e s t

o c c u p a tio n s

in

in s u r a n c e

a g e n ts,

b r o k e r s , a n d s e r v ic e s a r e lis te d b e lo w :

m illio n

w o r k e r s o r 1 0 .8 p e r c e n t o f t h e w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y t h e
P e rc e n t o f

P e rc e n t

in d u s tr y

c h a n g e in

E m p lo y m e n t,

e m p lo y m e n t,

e m p lo y m e n t,

1984

1984

1981-84

107,230

20.9

78.7

63,860

12.5

35,860

7.0

(2)
49.0

s u r v e y . I n s u r a n c e c a r r ie r s a c c o u n t e d f o r 4 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e
e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s in d u s t r y g r o u p . T h e r e a l e s t a t e i n ­
d u s t r y e m p l o y e d 3 7 .5 p e r c e n t o f t h e w o r k e r s i n t h i s i n ­
d u str y

group.

The

r e m a in in g

d is t r ib u t e d a s f o l l o w s :

e m p lo y m e n t

w as

In su ra n ce a g e n ts, b ro k ers, an d

Sales agents and
placers, insurance 1

s e r v ic e s , 18 p e r c e n t; a n d c o m b in e d r e a l e s t a t e , in s u r a n c e ,

Insurance policy

l o a n , a n d l a w o f f i c e s , le s s t h a n 1 p e r c e n t .
A s sh ow n

in t a b l e

processing clerk s. . . .
U nderw riters................

1 7 , c le r ic a l w o r k e r s , n u m b e r i n g

6 5 5 , 0 6 0 , a c c o u n t e d f o r 5 3 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in
th e

in s u r a n c e

c a r r ie r s

in d u s t r y .

O th er

Bookkeeping, account­

o c c u p a tio n a l

ing, and auditing

g r o u p s w it h la r g e n u m b e r s o f w o r k e r s w e r e p r o f e s s i o n a l ,
p a r a p r o fe s s io n a l,

and

te c h n ic a l

w orkers

and

c le r k s ...........................

28,010

5.5

43.9

General o ffice clerks .

sa le s

26,870

5.2

-3 7 .0

w o r k e r s , w it h 1 8 .9 a n d 1 8 .1 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
1 Excludes the self-em ployed.

T h e s a l e s o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d 2 6 , 8 0 0 f ir s t li n e

s a le s

su p e r v iso r s

in

1984.

T h is

o c c u p a tio n

2 Because o f changes in the survey classification system , data for

w as

1981 and 1984 are not com parable.

p r e v io u s ly c la s s if ie d u n d e r th e m a n a g e r ia l g r o u p . T itle
search ers,

n u m b e r in g

4 ,5 0 0 ,

w ere

sh ifte d

c le r ic a l t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p in t h e

fro m

th e

1984 su rv ey .
E m p lo y m e n t o f in s u r a n c e s a le s a g e n ts a n d p la c e r s in ­

T h e f i v e m o s t p o p u l o u s o c c u p a t i o n s in t h e in s u r a n c e

c r e a s e d b y 7 8 .7 p e r c e n t b e tw e e n

c a r r ie r s in d u s t r y , w h i c h t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 3 8

1981 a n d

1984. T he

n u m b e r o f u n d e r w r i t e r s in c r e a s e d b y 4 9 p e r c e n t , a n d

p e r c e n t o f t o t a l in d u s tr y e m p lo y m e n t, a r e lis te d in th e

b o o k k e e p i n g , a c c o u n t i n g , a n d a u d i t i n g c le r k s i n c r e a s e d

ta b u la tio n b e lo w :

by

44

p erc e n t.

E m p lo y m e n t

o f g e n e r a l o ffic e

c le r k s

d e c lin e d b y 3 7 p e r c e n t.
In r e a l e s t a t e , c le r ic a l a n d s e r v ic e w o r k e r s n u m b e r e d

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

P e rc e n t o f
in d u stry
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

P ercen t
ch an ge in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1981-84

2 3 5 ,9 8 0

( 2 2 .3

2 2 3 , 3 8 0 ( 2 1 .1

percent

of

in d u s tr y

e m p lo y m e n t)

p e r c e n t) , r e s p e c t iv e ly (t a b le

and

1 9 ). T h e s e

w e r e f o l l o w e d b y s a l e s w o r k e r s , 1 7 .2 p e r c e n t ; p r o d u c ­
t i o n a n d r e l a t e d w o r k e r s , 1 6 .9 p e r c e n t ; a n d m a n a g e r i a l

Sales agents and
placers, insurance . .
General office clerks .
Insurance policy
processing clerks . . .
Insurance adjusters,
examiners, and inv estig a to rs................
U nderw riters..............

a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r k e r s , 1 1 .1 p e r c e n t .
187,650
91,460

15.3
7.4

6.5
-1.1

71,080

5.8

(1)

In

e m p lo y m e n t

in

th e

u n d e r t h e m a n a g e r i a l g r o u p in

s a le s

group

in c lu d e d

1 9 8 1 . R ea l e sta te a p ­

p r a i s e r s , 1 0 ,9 2 0 i n 1 9 8 4 , w e r e s h i f t e d f r o m t h e p r o f e s ­
s io n a l t o th e s a le s c a t e g o r y . T itle s e a r c h e r s , n u m b e r in g
67,740
49,700

5.5
4.0

(1)
9.8

4 ,5 3 0

w orkers

in

1984,

w ere

r e c la s s ifie d

fr o m

th e

c le r i c a l t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p .
T h e f i v e m o s t p o p u l o u s o c c u p a t i o n s in t h e r e a l e s t a t e

1 Because o f changes in the survey classification system, data for 1981
and 1984 are not comparable.




1984,

3 4 ,8 7 0 fir s t-lin e s a le s s u p e r v is o r s w h o w e r e c la s s if ie d

in d u s t r y a r e l i s t e d o n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e .

49

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

P ercen t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

P e rc e n t
ch a n g e in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1981-84

42

p ercent

b e tw e e n

1981

and

1984.

G ardeners

and

g r o u n d s k e e p e r s in c r e a s e d b y 16 p e r c e n t. J a n it o r s a n d
c le a n e r s d e c lin e d b y 8 .4 p e r c e n t, w h ile r e a l e s t a te s a le s
a g e n ts d e c lin e d s lig h tly .

M aintenance repairers, general
u tilit y ...........................
Janitors and cleaners,
except m aids and
household cleaners . .
Sales agents, real
estate 1 .........................
Gardeners and
groundskeepers,
except f a r m ................
Property and real
estate managers and
adm inistrators .........

In c o m b in e d r e a l e s t a t e , in s u r a n c e , lo a n , a n d la w o f ­
122,630

11.6

fic e s , s a le s w o r k e r s m a d e u p 3 8 .6 p e r c e n t o f in d u s tr y

41.9

e m p lo y m e n t a n d c le r ic a l w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d
105,820

10.0

- 8 .4

3 7 .7

89,870

8.5

- .7

75,260

7.1

15.9

44,730

4.2

T h e f i v e la r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n s in c o m b i n e d r e a l e s t a t e ,
i n s u r a n c e , l o a n , a n d la w o f f i c e s a r e g i v e n b e l o w :

(2)

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

Sales agents and
placers, in su r a n c e ................ ...........
Sales agents, real
estate ......................................... .........
S e c re ta rie s...........................................
General office c le r k s.........................
Brokers, real e s t a t e ................ ...........

1 Excludes the self-em ployed.
2 Because o f changes in the survey classification system , data for
1981 and 1984 are not com parable.
E m p l o y m e n t o f m a i n t e n a n c e r e p a ir e r s i n c r e a s e d b y




fo r

p e r c e n t (ta b le 2 0 ).

50

P ercen t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t

2,260

15.2

1,830
1,690
1,060
920

12.3
11.4
7.1
6.2

Table 13. Banking: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984
(SIC 60)

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

11.84
3.79

n.a.
3

n.a.
79

7,040
1,740

.42
.10

5
8

33
15

6,150
6,790
250
56,860
55,500

.37
.41
.01
3.41
3.33

6
15
17
2
2

28
15
2
48
32

220,450
163,580

13.22
9.81

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

128,910
460
21,310
59,220
25,000
2,230
20,690

7.73
.03
1.28
3.55
1.50
.13
1.24

n.a.
27
5
3
4
7
8

n.a.
2
38
48
45
10
23

1,320

.08

10

9

6,150
240
2,760
24,200
490

.37
.01
.17
1.45
.03

5
16
9
10
16

19
1
7
14
1

440

.03

23

1

27,280

1.64

n.a.

n.a.

10,540
13,400
3,340
10,820

.63
.80
.20
.65

8
7
9
n.a.

16
18
7
n.a.

3,230
900
4,490
2,200

.19
.05
.27
.13

10
30
9
n.a.

6
1
8
n.a.

2,560
1,520
1,040
1,670
180
360

.15
.09
.06
.10
.01
.02

n.a.
7
38
7
11
14

n.a.
5
1
8
2
2

710

.04

34

2

3,960

.24

9

11

8,400

.50

n.a.

n.a.

37,050

2.22

n.a.

n.a.

4,230

.25

9

8

24,680

1.48

n.a.

n.a.

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

T o ta l................................................................................

1,667,950

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations................................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers............................................
Food service and lodging managers........................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

197,560
63,230

Occupation

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Undewriters..........................................................................
Credit analysts......................................................................
Loan officers and counselors ..............................................
Accountants and auditors.....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Cost estimators........................................................................
Management analysts.............................................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineers...................................................................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aid e s..................................................
Mathematical scientists and related workers...........................
Operations and systems researchers and
analysts, except computer......................................................
Statisticians................................................................................
Financial analysts, statistical.....................................................
All other mathematical scientists..............................................
Social scientists, including urban and regional
planners...................................................................................
Economists, including market research analysts.....................
All other social scientists..........................................................
Lawyers......................................................................................
Law clerks..................................................................................
Paralegal personnel...................................................................
All other legal assistants and technicians,
except clerical..........................................................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity w riters................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related w orkers................................................................
Sales representatives and salespersons,
services....................................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




51

Table 13. Banking: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984— Continued
(SIC 60)

Occupation

Sales agents and placers, insurance ....................................
Brokers, real estate.................................................................
Sales agents, real estate .......................................................
Appraisers, real estate............................................................
Sales agents, securities, commodities,
financial services..................................................................
Sales agents, selected business services.............................
All other sales representatives and
salespersons, service...........................................................
Cashiers......................................................................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations..............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Tellers.........................................................................................
New accounts cle rks.................................................................
Transit c le rks.............................................................................
Loan interviewers.......................................................................
Credit authorizers.......................................................................
Credit checkers..........................................................................
Loan and credit clerks...............................................................
Adjustment clerks.......................................................................
Statement cle rks........................................................................
Brokerage cle rks........................................................................
Insurance examining cle rks.......................................................
Bill and account collectors ........................................................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers............................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping..............................................................................
Correspondence clerks .............................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Statistical cle rks.........................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks.......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators.......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Duplicating machine operators...............................................
Mail machine operators, preparation and
handling ................................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operators....................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Mail clerks, except mail machine operators and
postal service...........................................................................
Messengers................................................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage y a rd ..........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................
Service occupations.....................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

650
240
280
2,840

0.04
.01
.02
.17

21
25
19
11

2
1
1
8

17,450
810

1 05
05

10
17

16
2

2,410
5,900
2,240

.14
.35
.13

12
14
n.a.

4
8
n.a.

1,164,820

69.84

n.a.

n.a.

73,200
374,350
58,880
18,240
9,130
2,400
11,030
59,330
18,010
34,190
5,720
1,240
14,620
88,800
3,500
11,750
13,960
6,660

4.39
22.44
3.53
1.09
.55
.14
.66
3.56
1.08
2.05
.34
.07
.88
5.32
.21
.70
.84
.40

3
1
2
5
6
13
5
2
6
4
10
10
5
2
9
6
7

7

47
89
67
24
19
6
23
64
21
39
11
6
24
75
8
32
19
19

3,780
1,990
13,450
2,260
67,760
4,130
2,180
109,830

.23
.12
.81
.14
4.06
.25
.13
6.58

6
17
5
18
3
6
16
2

20
3
24
3
61
21
4
43

78,860

4.73

n.a.

n.a.

9,350
1,380

.56
.08

9
9

12
7

1,850

.11

8

8

17,080
6,830
26,370
16,000
9,700

1.02
.41
1.58
.96
.58

4
8
6
6
4

28
12
32
14
42

7,750
14,030

.46
.84

5
4

24
36

5,330

.32

n.a.

n.a.

2,700

.16

4

17

2,630

.16

23

3

38,760

2.32

n.a.

n.a.

39,380

2.36

n.a.

n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

52

Table 13. Banking: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984—Continued
(SIC 60)

Occupation

Employment'

First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
workers....................................................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
All other service workers..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related.....................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
All other construction and extractive workers,
except helpers........................................................................
Plant and system workers ........................................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers...................................................................
Taxi drivers and chauffeurs ...................................................
All other transportation and material moving
equipment operators...............................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand..............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, h a n d ..........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

2,340
12,650

0.14
.76

8
6

10
16

3,020

.18

10

7

20,890

1.25

n.a.

n.a.

18,630

1.12

4

36

2,260
480

.14
.03

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

810
810

.05
.05

n.a.
17

n.a.
3

7,880

.47

n.a.

n.a.

620

.04

n.a.

n.a.

170

.01

21

1

450
3,560
3,060
500

.03
.21
.18
.03

n.a.
20
6
14

n.a.
13
11
1

190
190

.01
.01

n.a.
9

n.a.
2

570
430
1,210

.03
.03
.07

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

640
570

.04
.03

14
14

2
3

340
380

.02
.02

24
29

2
1

260

.02

25

1

320

.02

n.a.

n.a.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

53

Table 14. Credit agencies, except banks: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984
(SIC 61)

Occupation

Employment'

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

690,130

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations................................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

93,000
46,140

13.48
6.69

n.a.
1

n.a.
80

2,430
720

.35
.10

3
4

10
4

2,870
2,360
22,660
15,820

.42
34
3 28
2 29

4
6
3
n.a.

11
6
26
n.a.

91,310
74,620

13.23
10.81

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

65,860
2,160
20,010
25,000
12,760
650
5,280

9.54
.31
2.90
3.62
1.85
.09
.77

n.a.
8
3
3
3
8
5

n.a.
4
31
20
26
2
- 9

480

.07

10

2

2,260
100
760
5,160

.33
.01
.11
.75

4
26
10
9

6
(3
)
2
5

8,310

1.20

n.a.

n.a.

3,240
4,100
970
2,460

.47
.59
.14
.36

6
4
6
n.a.

7
7
3
n.a.

790
130
1,460
80

.11
.02
.21
.01

10
21
8
n.a.

2
(3
)
3
n.a.

370
1,140
120
170

.05
.17
.02
.02

n.a.
6
13
9

n.a.
3
1
1

400

.06

24

1

1,980

.29

6

8

1,740

.25

n.a.

n.a.

40,810

5.91

n.a.

n.a.

4,800

.70

5

5

28,140
690
330
940
4,430

4.08
.10
.05
.14
.64

n.a.
13
29
19
6

n.a.
1
1
1
9

19,140

2.77

5

12

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Underwriters..........................................................................
Credit analysts......................................................................
Loan officers and counselors ..............................................
Accountants and auditors.....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Cost estimators........................................................................
Management analysts.............................................................
All other management support workers................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer a ides..................................................
Mathematical scientists and related workers...........................
Operations and systems researchers and
analysts, except computer.....................................................
Statisticians................................................................................
Financial analysts, statistical.....................................................
All other mathematical scientists..............................................
Social scientists, including urban and regional
planners...................................................................................
Lawyers ......................................................................................
Law clerks..................................................................................
Paralegal personnel...................................................................
All other legal assistants and technicians,
except clerical..........................................................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity writers ................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers...............................
Sales and related occupations ....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales representatives and salespersons,
services....................................................................................
Sales agents and placers, insurance ....................................
Brokers, real estate.................................................................
Sales agents, real e sta te .......................................................
Appraisers, real estate............................................................
Sales agents, securities, commodities,
financial services ..................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




54

Table 14. Credit agencies, except banks: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 61)

Occupation

Sales agents, selected business services.............................
All other sales representatives and
salespersons, service...........................................................
Cashiers......................................................................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Tellers.........................................................................................
New accounts cle rks.................................................................
Transit cle rks.............................................................................
Loan interviewers.......................................................................
Credit authorizers.......................................................................
Credit checkers.........................................................................
Loan and credit clerks...............................................................
Adjustment clerks.......................................................................
Statement c le rks........................................................................
Brokerage cle rks........................................................................
Insurance examining cle rks......................................................
Bill and account collectors.......................................................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers...........................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
Correspondence clerks .............................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Statistical c le rks.........................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks .................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Duplicating machine operators...............................................
Mail machine operators, preparation and
handling ................................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operators....................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Mail clerks, except mail machine operators and
postal service..........................................................................
Messengers................................................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage yard ..........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................
Service occupations.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
workers....................................................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

670

0.10

18

1

1,940
6,920
950

.28
1.00
.14

10
5
n.a.

2
10
n.a.

452,730

65.60

n.a.

n.a.

26,820
129,210
27,610
850
7,020
860
8,360
67,550
6,340
6,010
340
1,720
15,500
29,160
1,270
7,790
5,230
2,580

3.89
18.72
4.00
.12
1.02
.12
1.21
9.79
.92
.87
.05
.25
2.25
4.23
.18
1.13
.76
.37

2
1
2
8
5
16
4
2
12
4
14
10
3
2
9
3
7
6

19
48
25
2
7
1
15
61
5
10
1
3
18
43
3
21
8
7

1,170
760
5,110
460
29,420
1,870
1,510
35,960

.17
.11
.74
.07
4.26
.27
.22
5.21

4
18
4
17
2
4
43
3

5
1
11
1
46
8
1
31

15,230

2.21

n.a.

n.a.

1,810
370

.26
.05

8
7

3
2

700

.10

12

2

4,830
770
5,960
790
4,180

.70
.11
.86
.11
.61

4
10
7
10
3

11
2
9
2
17

2,210
2,400

.32
.35

4
5

6
9

1,360

.20

n.a.

n.a.

1,040

.15

5

4

320

.05

16

1

6,870

1.00

n.a.

n.a.

8,960

1.30

n.a.

n.a.

630
1,050

.09
.15

12
9

2
2

400

.06

18

1

6,740

.98

n.a.

n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

55

Table 14. Credit agencies, except banks: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 61)

Occupation

Employment1

Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
All other service w orkers..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations..............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related......................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Machine setters, set-up operators, operators
and tenders..............................................................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route w orkers...................................................................
Taxi drivers and chauffeurs ....................................................
All other transportation and material moving
equipment operators...............................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, h a n d ...........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

6,160

0.89

4

15

580
140

.08
.02

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

430
430

.06
.06

n.a.
13

n.a.
1

2,890

.42

n.a.

n.a.

290

.04

n.a.

n.a.

140

.02

24

(3
)

150
1,470
1,250
220

.02
.21
.18
.03

n.a.
35
10
24

n.a.
4
3
(3
)

90
220

.01
.03

22
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.

140
80

.02
.01

35
27

0

230
120

.03
.02

25
23

(*>
0

170

.02

21

0

300

.04

n.a.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment: relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

0

n.a.

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

56

Table 15. Security and commodity brokers and services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations, May 1984
(SIC 62)

Occupation

Employment'

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

339,150

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations...............................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

28,950
7,400

8.54
2.18

n.a.
7

n.a.
42

520
160

.15
.05

10
16

6
3

970
1,610
10,150
8,140

.29
.47
2.99
2.40

14
31
9
n.a.

6
4
29
n.a.

41,060
12,850

12.11
3.79

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

8,980
230
540
5,640
310
2,260

2.65
.07
.16
1.66
.09
.67

n.a.
39
29
11
19
n.a.

n.a.
1
1
17
2
n.a.

280

.08

23

2

510
250
2,830
200

.15
.07
.83
.06

15
26
n.a.
46

4
1
n.a.
1

8,410

2.48

n.a.

n.a.

3,320
4,620
470
8,440

.98
1.36
.14
2.49

24
14
21
n.a.

7
10
2
n.a.

1,160
6,800
480

.34
2.01
.14

31
11
n.a.

1
14
n.a.

3,660
930
190
180

1.08
.27
.06
.05

n.a.
20
33
29

n.a:
6
1
1

120

.04

27

1

280

.08

35

2

5,800

1.71

n.a.

n.a.

115,370

34.02

n.a.

n.a.

7,130

2.10

6

40

100,340

29.59

n.a.

n.a.

95,010
1,630

28.01
.48

2
35

70
3

3,700
3,310
4,590

1.09
.98
1.35

18
9
n.a.

3
24
n.a.

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations....„ .......................................................
Management support workers..................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Underwriters.........................................................................
Credit analysts......................................................................
Accountants and auditors....................................................
Budget analysts ....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Management analysts.............................................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineers ...................................................................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer a ides..................................................
Mathematical scientists and related workers...........................
Operations and systems researchers and
analysts, except computer.....................................................
Financial analysts, statistical....................................................
All other mathematical scientists..............................................
Social scientists, including urban and regional
planners...................................................................................
Lawyers......................................................................................
Law clerks..................................................................................
Paralegal personnel ...................................................................
All other legal assistants and technicians,
except clerical.........................................................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity writers ................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers...............................
Sales and related occupations ...................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales representatives and salespersons,
services....................................................................................
Sales agents, securities, commodities,
financial services..................................................................
Sales agents, selected business services............................
All other sales representatives and
salespersons, service...........................................................
Cashiers......................................................................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
See footnotes at end of table.




57

Table 15. Security and commodity brokers and services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 62)

Occupation

Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
New accounts cle rks.................................................................
Transit cle rks.............................................................................
Loan and credit clerks...............................................................
Adjustment clerks.......................................................................
Statement c le rks........................................................................
Brokerage cle rks........................................................................
All other bank clerks..................................................................
Bill and account collectors .......................................................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers............................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
Correspondence clerks .............................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Statistical c le rks.........................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office cle rks.................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Duplicating machine operators...............................................
Mail machine operators, preparation and
handling ................................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operators....................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Mail clerks, except mail machine operators and
postal service...........................................................................
Messengers................................................................................
Material recording, scheduling,.
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage y a rd ..........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................
Service occupations.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
w orkers....................................................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households...................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

150,040

44.24

n.a.

n.a.

6,520
720
230
130
960
300
44,050
180
220
31,920
380
3,330
2,570
2,650

1.92
.21
.07
.04
.28
.09
12.99
.05
.06
9.41
.11
.98
.76
.78

8
22
39
49
29
35
6
n.a.
34
5
29
7
11
10

17
5
1
(3
)
2
1
43
n.a.
1
72
3
31
9
13

510
440
1,250
350
9,770
710
150
13,940

.15
.13
.37
.10
2.88
.21
.04
4.11

11
35
13
23
13
11
46
9

4
1
5
1
30
7
1
32

11,220

3.31

n.a.

n.a.

170
550

.05
.16

28
16

1
3

350

.10

23

3

2,950
590
4,890
1,720
2,360

.87
.17
1.44
.51
.70

14
15
11
20
7

12
3
14
6
22

1,740
5,570

.51
1.64

9
9

8
11

630

.19

n.a.

n.a.

330

.10

15

2

300

.09

32

1

7,240

2.13

n.a.

n.a.

1,810

.53

n.a.

n.a.

140
680

.04
.20

20
16

1
2

230

.07

40

1

760

.22

n.a.

n.a.

630

.19

18

3

130

.04

n.a.

n.a.

100

.03

n.a.

n.a.

Employment1

See footnotes at end of table.




58

Table 15. Security and commodity brokers and services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 62)

Occupation

Employment1

Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Precision production occupations.............................................
Transportation equipment operators........................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

1,820
940
340
600
70
170

0.54
.28
.10
.18
.02
.05

n.a.
69
27
42
47
n.a.

n.a.
2
2
(3
)
(*)
n.a.

640

.19

n.a.

n.a.

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate "All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

59

Table 16. Holding and other investment offices: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984
(SIC 67)

Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

140,370

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations................................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
Food service and lodging managers........................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

26,870
10,960

19.14
7.81

n.a.
3

n.a.
63

1,030
170

.73
.12

8
16

8
3

1,130
1,410
110
7,400
4,660

.81
1.00
.08
5.27
3.32

10
20
35
4
7

9
8
1
35
18

34,390
16,320

24.50
11.63

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

11,730
130
170
350
9,300
380
1,400

8.36
.09
.12
.25
6.63
.27
1.00

n.a.
31
24
23
5
15
19

n.a.
1
1
2
37
3
6

320

.23

18

3

1,070
610
2,590
1,650

.76
.43
1.85
1.18

11
37
n.a.
30

6
2
n.a.
5

700
380
150

.50
.27
.11

19
30
44

4
1

4,280

3.05

n.a.

n.a.

1,560
2,310
410
2,550

1.11
1.65
.29
1.82

9
8
15
n.a.

9
10
2
n.a.

570
1,550
270
160

.41
1.10
.19
.11

43
10
n.a.
46

1
10
n.a.
O

610
280
330
1,900
200

.43
.20
.24
1.35
.14

n.a.
18
38
8
16

n.a.
2
1
12
2

160

.11

n.a.

n.a.

290

.21

n.a.

n.a.

550

.39

21

4

4,650

3.31

n.a.

n.a.

9,380

6.68

n.a.

n.a.

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Underwriters..........................................................................
Credit analysts ......................................................................
Loan officers and counselors ..............................................
Accountants and auditors.....................................................
Budget analysts ....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products ....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Management analysts.............................................................
All other management support workers.................................
Engineers ...................................................................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Physical scientists......................................................................
Life scientists.............................................................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aides..................................................
Mathematical scientists and related workers...........................
Operations and systems researchers and
analysts, except computer......................................................
Financial analysts, statistical.....................................................
All other mathematical scientists..............................................
Mathematical technicians..........................................................
Social scientists, including urban and regional
planners...................................................................................
Economists, including market research analysts.....................
All other social scientists..........................................................
Lawyers......................................................................................
Paralegal personnel...................................................................
All other legal assistants and technicians,
except clerical..........................................................................
Health practitioners, technologists,
technicians, and related
health w orkers.........................................................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity writers ................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations ....................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




60

0

Table 16. Holding and other investment offices: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 67)

Occupation

First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales representatives and salespersons,
services....................................................................................
Brokers, real estate.................................................................
Sales agents, real estate .......................................................
Sales agents, securities, commodities,
financial services..................................................................
Sales agents, selected business services............................
All other sales representatives and
salespersons, service...........................................................
Cashiers......................................................................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Tellers........................................................................................
New accounts cle rks.................................................................
Transit cle rks.............................................................................
Loan and credit clerks...............................................................
Adjustment clerks......................................................................
Brokerage cle rks.......................................................................
All other bank clerks..................................................................
Bill and account collectors.......................................................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers...........................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Statistical c le rk s........................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Duplicating machine operators...............................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operators....................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Mail clerks, except mail machine operators and
postal service..........................................................................
Messengers................................................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage y a rd .........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................
Service occupations....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
workers....................................................................................

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

3,640

2.59

6

23

4,050
90
90

2.89
.06
.06

n.a.
37
34

n.a.
1
1

2,320
900

1.65
.64

14
15

8
4

650
860
830

.46
.61
.59

21
19
n.a.

2
4
n.a.

55,240

39.35

n.a.

n.a.

1,880
680
240
110
370
210
1,010
190
290
16,970
700
2,180
1,090
1,390

1.34
.48
.17
.08
.26
.15
.72
.14
.21
12.09
.50
1.55
.78
.99

8
29
29
37
26
28
21
n.a.
31
3
21
6
10
9

11
1
(3
)
(3
)
1
1
3
n.a.
1
69
4
22
8
9

360
610
90
9,440
1,010
220
7,850

.26
.43
.06
6.73
.72
.16
5.59

11
17
35
4
8
21
7

4
3
1
50
10
1
28

4,400

3.13

n.a.

n.a.

60
180

.04
.13

49
21

(3
)
1

1,720
260
1,800
380
940

1.23
.19
1.28
.27
.67

9
25
10
n.a.
11

11
1
9
n.a.
10

540
660

.38
.47

9
12

4
6

490

.35

n.a.

n.a.

330

.24

24

2

160

.11

33

1

1,320

.94

n.a.

n.a.

6,620

4.72

n.a.

n.a.

340
980

.24
.70

27
19

2
3

2,040

1.45

23

3

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

61

Table 16. Holding and other investment offices: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 67)

Occupation

Employment’

Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
All other service w orkers..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
All other agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
related workers........................................................................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related......................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
All other construction and extractive workers,
except helpers.........................................................................
Precision production occupations.............................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, operators
and tenders.............................................................................
Hand working occupations, including assemblers
and fabricators.........................................................................
Plant and system workers ........................................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers...................................................................
Taxi drivers and chauffeurs ....................................................
All other transportation and material moving
equipment operators...............................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, h a n d ..........................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

2,290

1.63

n.a.

n.a.

1,480

1.05

9

10

810
970

.58
.69

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

1,940
1,440

1.38
1.03

n.a.
13

n.a.
6

500

.36

24

1

5,930

4.22

n.a.

n.a.

430

.31

n.a.

n.a.

80

.06

30

1

100

.07

28

1

250
1,830
1,500
330

.18
1.30
1.07
.24

19
40
10
30

2
11
9
2

160
160

.11
.11

n.a.
34

n.a.
1

750
90

.53
.06

n.a.
36

n.a.
(3
)

360

.26

35

1

430
90
350

.31
.06
.25

29
n.a.
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.
n.a.

240
110

.17
.08

26
18

2
2

590
370

.42
.26

21
25

3
2

480

.34

25

2

.

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: (Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment: relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

62

Table 17. Insurance carriers: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984
(SIC 63)

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

7.73
1.01

n.a.
6

n.a.
31

3,460
820

.28
.07

5
6

16
6

6,480
8,240

.53
.67

5
8

17
15

1,230
150
28,860
33,270

.10
.01
2.35
2.71

12
15
4
5

3
1
34
24

232,740
131,570

18.94
10.71

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

72,970
49,700
550
16,900
1,630
4,190

5.94
4.04
.04
1.38
.13
.34

n.a.
2
13
4
7
9

n.a.
35
2
25
5
5

870
13,650

.07
1.11

8
5

4
22

5,000
750
1,140
310

.41
.06
.09
.03

5
30
31
26

12
1
1
1

23,690
13,190
4,590
4,120
470

1.93
1.07
.37
.34
.04

5
7
n.a.
7
20

18
10
n.a.
8
1

550
170

.04
.01

n.a.
18

n.a.
1

380

.03

n.a.

n.a.

44,770

3.64

n.a.

n.a.

16,560
24,580
3,630
16,520

1.35
2.00
.30
1.34

7
7
9
n.a.

11
13
5
n.a.

5,180
1,430
4,560
2,950
1,200
1,200

.42
.12
.37
.24
.10
.10

10
10
6
13
30
19

5
3
7
3
1
1

710
5,150
310
710
4,500
6,250

.06
.42
.03
.06
.37
.51

n.a.
4
11
8
6
5

n.a.
12
2
3
7
8

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

T o ta l................................................................................

1,228,720

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations................................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers............................................
Property and real estate managers and
administrators...........................................................................
Food service and lodging managers........................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

94,940
12,430

Occupation

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Underwriters..........................................................................
Credit analysts......................................................................
Accountants and auditors.....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products ....................................
Special agents, insurance......................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Cost estimators........................................................................
Construction and building inspectors.....................................
Assessors................................................................................
Claims examiners, property and casualty
insurance..............................................................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineers...................................................................................
Safety engineers, except mining............................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Drafters....................................................................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aides..................................................
Mathematical scientists and related workers...........................
Operations and systems researchers and
analysts, except computer......................................................
Statisticians................................................................................
Actuaries ....................................................................................
Financial analysts, statistical....................................................
All other mathematical scientists..............................................
Mathematical technicians..........................................................
Social scientists, including urban and regional
planners...................................................................................
Lawyers......................................................................................
Law clerks..................................................................................
Paralegal personnel...................................................................
Title searchers...........................................................................
Title examiners and abstractors................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




63

Table 17. Insurance carriers: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 63)

Occupation

All other legal assistants and technicians,
except clerical..........................................................................
Librarians, professional .............................................................
Registered nurses......................................................................
Licensed practical nurses..........................................................
All other health professionals,
paraprofessional and technicians...........................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity w riters................................................................
Photographers............................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations ....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales representatives and salespersons,
services....................................................................................
Sales agents and placers, insurance ....................................
Sales agents, real e sta te ........................................................
Appraisers, real estate............................................................
All other sales representatives and
salespersons, service...........................................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations..............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support w orkers..........................
Credit checkers..........................................................................
Loan and credit clerks...............................................................
Adjustment clerks.......................................................................
Insurance adjusters, examiners, and
investigators.............................................................................
Insurance appraisers, auto damage.........................................
Insurance examining cle rks.......................................................
Insurance claims clerks.............................................................
Insurance policy processing clerks...........................................
Bill and account collectors........................................................
Library assistants and bookmobile drivers...............................
Real estate clerks......................................................................
Legal secretaries........................................................................
All other secretaries...................................................................
Stenographers............................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping..............................................................................
Correspondence clerks .............................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Statistical c le rk s.........................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks.......................................................
General office cle rk s .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators.......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Duplicating machine operators...............................................
Mail machine operators, preparation and
handling ................................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment..............................................................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operators....................................
Data entry keyers, except composing....................................
All other office machine operators ........................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

1,420
260
1,260
150

0.12
.02
.10
01

14
13
6
22

2
1
5
1

1,620

.13

10

3

1.680
160

.14
.01

7
9

5
1

10,560

.86

n.a.

n.a.

222,710

18.13

n.a.

n.a.

26,800

2.18

2

42

194,470
187,650
590
160

15.83
15.27
.05
.01

n.a.
2
47
29

n.a.
50
(3
)
1

6,070
1,440

.49
.12

8
n.a.

6
n.a.

655,060

53.31

n.a.

n.a.

42,180
170
4,450
4,160

3.43
.01
.36
.34

3
18
7
9

31
1
6
3

67,740
5,770
5,830
44,760
71,080
3,390
140
450
2,280
53,330
5,760
8,640
31,100
15,330

5.51
.47
.47
3.64
5.78
.28
.01
.04
.19
4.34
.47
.70
2.53
1.25

3
8
13
4
3
9
14
17
8
2
15
4
3
4

33
8
3
29
35
4
1
1
7
60
8
27
33
25

3,140
9,490
29,760
5,520
32,030
2,880
16,960
91,460

.26
.77
2.42
.45
2.61
.23
1.38
7.44

5
6
3
9
3
6
4
3

12
6
31
6
38
11
13
44

42,760

3.48

n.a.

n.a.

2,270
1,630

.18
.13

8
6

4
5

2,070

.17

11

6

10,080
2,750
20,200
3,760

.82
.22
1.64
.31

7
8
4
8

14
5
18
4

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

64

Table 17. Insurance carriers: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 63)

Occupation

Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Mail clerks, except mail machine operators and
postal service..........................................................................
Messengers................................................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage y a rd .........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
workers....................................................................................
Service occupations....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisorc service ................................................
Guards and watch guards'.........................................................
All other protective service workers.........................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
workers ....................................................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
All other service workers ..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related.....................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers .......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
All other construction and extractive workers,
except helpers........................................................................
Precision printing workers.........................................................
Precision compositors, typesetters, and
arrangers...............................................................................
Job printers .............................................................................
Precision workers, n e c ..............................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, operators
and tenders.............................................................................
Plant and system workers ........................................................
Stationary engineers...............................................................
All other plant and system operators....................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route w orkers...................................................................
All other transportation and material moving
equipment operators..............................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand.............................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

4,890

0.40

3

25

10,970
1,980

.89
.16

3
7

23
6

4,430

.36

n.a.

n.a.

3,120

.25

5

10

1,310

.11

9

2

32,230

2.62

n.a.

n.a.

13,630

1.11

n.a.

n.a.

2,230
2,130
230

.18
.17
.02

10
10
n.a.

4
3
n.a.

2,500

.20

15

2

6,260

.51

n.a.

n.a.

5,430

.44

6

9

830
280

.07
.02

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

470
470

.04
.04

n.a.
14

n.a.
2

9,170

.75

n.a.

n.a.

630

.05

n.a.

n.a.

190

.02

29

(3
)

440
2,590
1,820
770

.04
.21
.15
.06

n.a.
31
6
25

n.a.
6
5
1

640
210
430

.05
.02
.03

n.a.
12
13

n.a.
1
1

380
1,690

.03
.14

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

440
1,250
440

.04
.10
.04

11
12
31

2
3
(3
)

620
460
320
140

.05
.04
.03
.01

29
n.a.
14
23

1
n.a.
1
(3
)

480

.04

14

2

240
410

.02
.03

n.a.
22

n.a.
1

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

65

Table 17. Insurance carriers: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 63)

Occupation

Employment’

All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, h a n d ...........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

380

0.03

27

(3
)

210

.02

n.a.

n.a.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

66

Table 18. Insurance agents, brokers, and services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984
(SIC 64)

Occupation

Employment'

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

512,610

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations...............................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers............................................
Property and real estate managers and
administrators...........................................................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

31,320
14,300

6.11
2.79

n.a.
3

n.a.
26

610
150

.12
.03

7
10

2
1

1,180
1,300

.23
.25

9
16

2
2

230
9,660
3,890

.04
1.88
.76

26
3
n.a.

11
n.a.

73,620
60,170

14.36
11.74

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

42,550
35,860
80
5,640
250
720

8.30
7.00
.02
1.10
.05
.14

n.a.
2
21
4
37
20

n.a.
23
ft
10

120
7,630

.02
1.49

20
6

ft
8

850
180

.17
.04

23
41

ft

6,270
2,570
1,270
1,090
180

1.22
.50
.25
.21
.04

6
n.a.
n.a.
17
35

6
n.a.
n.a.
1

150
80

.03
.02

n.a.
35

n.a.
ft

70

.01

n.a.

n.a.

3,470

.68

n.a.

n.a.

1,340
1,750
380
2,530

.26
.34
.07
.49

25
7
11
n.a.

1
2
1
n.a.

290
1,590
340
240
70
200
680
130
420
1,110

.06
.31
.07
.05
.01
.04
.13
.03
.08
.22

23
13
26
n.a.
38
32
13
17
22
15

ft

220
740
240

.04
.14
.05

n.a.
26
34

380

.07

27

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Underwriters..........................................................................
Credit analysts......................................................................
Accountants and auditors.....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Special agents, insurance.......................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Construction and building inspectors.....................................
Claims examiners, property and casualty
insurance..............................................................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineers ...................................................................................
Safety engineers, except m ining............................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Drafters....................................................................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aid e s..................................................
Mathematical scientists and related workers...........................
Operations and systems researchers and
analysts, except computer.....................................................
Actuaries ....................................................................................
Financial analysts, statistical.....................................................
All other mathematical scientists..............................................
Mathematical technicians..........................................................
Economists, including market research analysts.....................
Lawyers......................................................................................
Paralegal personnel...................................................................
Title searchers...........................................................................
Title examiners and abstractors................................................
All other legal assistants and technicians,
except clerical..........................................................................
Registered nurses......................................................................
Licensed practical nurses.........................................................
All other health professionals,
paraprofessional and technicians...........................................
See footnotes at end of table.




67

ft

ft

1

1

ft

1
ft
n.a.

ft
ft

1

ft
1
1
n.a.

ft
ft
ft

\

Table 18. Insurance agents, brokers, and services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 64)

Occupation

Employment'

Public relations specialists
and publicity w riters................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations ....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales representatives and salespersons,
services....................................................................................
Sales agents and placers, insurance ....................................
Brokers, real estate.................................................................
Sales agents, real e sta te .......................................................
Appraisers, real estate............................................................
All other sales representatives and
salespersons, service...........................................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Credit checkers ..........................................................................
Loan and credit clerks...............................................................
Adjustment clerks.......................................................................
Insurance adjusters, examiners, and
investigators.............................................................................
Insurance appraisers, auto damage.........................................
Insurance examining cle rks.......................................................
Insurance claims clerks.............................................................
Insurance policy processing clerks...........................................
Bill and account collectors ........................................................
Real estate clerks......................................................................
Legal secretaries........................................................................
All other secretaries...................................................................
Stenographers............................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
Correspondence clerks .............................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Statistical c le rks.........................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks .................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks.......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators.......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Duplicating machine operators...............................................
Mail machine operators, preparation and
handling ................................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operators....................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators..............................................................
Mail clerks, except mail machine operators and
postal service...........................................................................
Messengers................................................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

290

0.06

20

1,620

.32

n.a.

n.a.

129,850

25.33

n.a.

n.a.

18,730

3.65

2

26

110,300
107,230
140
310
90

21.52
20.92
.03
.06
.02

n.a.
1
41
32
47

n.a.
67
ft
(3
)
(3
)

2,530
820

.49
.16

11
18

1
1

272,350

53.13

n.a.

n.a.

5,140
80
880
310

1.00
.02
.17
.06

5
44
16
19

6
(3
)
1
(3
)

22,630
2,670
450
16,430
63,860
520
830
340
40,650
900
9,880
11,450
6,670

4.41
.52
.09
3.21
12.46
.10
.16
.07
7.93
.18
1.93
2.23
1.30

4
11
23
3
2
14
17
17
2
11
3
3
4

12
3
(3
)
23
44
1
1
(3
)
44
1
21
13
12

400
350
11,050
880
28,010
990
3,570
26,870

.08
.07
2.16
.17
5.46
.19
.70
5.24

12
15
3
14
2
8
6
3

1
(3
)
17
1
45
3
4
23

7,080

1.38

n.a.

n.a.

1,550
140

.30
.03

13
14

300

.06

9

1,300
340
3,170
280
3,000

.25
.07
.62
.05
.59

8
17
7
29
4

2,480
340

.48
.07

5
10

6
1

510

.10

n.a.

n.a.

3,130

.61

n.a.

n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

68

ft

3

ft
1
2

ft

3

ft

9

Table 18. Insurance agents, brokers, and services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 64)

Occupation

Employment'

Service occupations.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Protective service occupations..................................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
workers....................................................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
All other service w orkers..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.................. ; .........................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
Inspectors and related occupations.........................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Precision printing workers.........................................................
Job printers.............................................................................
Transportation equipment operators........................................
Helpers - laborers and material
movers, h a n d ..........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

3,940

0.77

n.a.

n.a.

230
200

.04
.04

20
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.

90

.02

32

(3
)

2,840

.55

n.a.

n.a.

2,680

.52

6

6

160
580

.03
.11

33
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.

250
250

.05
.05

n.a.
18

n.a.
0

1,280
80
430
160
160
170

.25
.02
.08
.03
.03
.03

n.a.
40
n.a.
n.a.
21
n.a.

n.a.
0
n.a.
n.a.
(*)
n.a.

220

.04

n.a.

n.a.

220

.04

n.a.

n.a.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

69

Table 19. Real estate: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984
(SIC 65)

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

11.08
2.79

n.a.
3

n.a.
27

860
570

.08
.05

8
11

2
1

2,120
3,510

.20
.33

8
10

3
3

44,730
8,930
14,970
12,080

4.23
.84
1.41
1.14

4
9
4
6

17
5
13
7

44,730
19,470

4.23
1.84

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

13,610
140
12,600
330
540

1.29
.01
1.19
.03
.05

n.a.
36
4
12
n.a.

n.a.
(3
)
12
*1
n.a.

320
110

.03
.01

14
32

1
(3
)

410
400
640
3,980
1,120
170
950
500
300
130

.04
.04
.06
.38
.11
.02
.09
.05
.03
.01

20
17
18
n.a.
n.a.
35
16
16
16
41

1
1
1
n.a.
n.a.
(3
)
1
1
1

2,040
1,490

.19
.14

n.a.
10

n.a.
2

150

.01

43

(3
)

400

.04

48

(3
)

1,390

.13

n.a.

n.a.

340
750
300
510

.03
.07
.03
.05

14
10
13
n.a.

1
1
1
n.a.

220
290

.02
.03

n.a.

n.a.

160
1,400
240
4,530
5,680

.02
.13
.02
.43
.54

n.a.

18
16
5
4

n.a.
1
(3
)
3
4

680
730
530

.06
.07
.05

n.a.
25
26

n.a.
(3
)
0

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

T o ta l................................................................................

1,058,070

100 00

Managerial and administrative occupations................................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers............................................
Property and real estate managers and
administrators...........................................................................
Food service and lodging managers........................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

117,240
29,470

Occupation

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Underwriters..........................................................................
Accountants and auditors.....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Special agents, insurance.......................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Cost estimators........................................................................
Construction and building inspectors.....................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineers ...................................................................................
Safety engineers, except mining............................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Architects, except landscape and marine................................
Landscape architects ................................................................
Surveying and mapping scientists............................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Drafters....................................................................................
Surveying and mapping technicians and
technologists.........................................................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aides..................................................
Mathematical scientists and related workers...........................
Operations and systems researchers and
analysts, except computer.....................................................
Mathematical scientists.............................................................
Social scientists, including urban and regional
planners...................................................................................
Lawyers......................................................................................
Paralegal personnel...................................................................
Title searchers...........................................................................
Title examiners and abstractors................................................
All other legal assistants and technicians,
except clerical..........................................................................
Registered nurses......................................................................
Licensed practical nurses.........................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




70

22

0

O

Table 19. Real estate: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984— Continued
(SIC 65)

Occupation

All other health professionals,
paraprofessional and technicians...........................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity writers ................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations ...................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales representatives and salespersons,
services....................................................................................
Sales agents and placers, insurance....................................
Brokers, real estate.................................................................
Sales agents, real e sta te .......................................................
Appraisers, real estate............................................................
All other sales representatives and
salespersons, service...........................................................
All other sales and related w orkers.........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Loan interviewers.......................................................................
Credit checkers..........................................................................
Loan and credit clerks...............................................................
Adjustment clerks.......................................................................
Selected insurance workers .....................................................
Bill and account collectors .......................................................
Real estate clerks......................................................................
Legal secretaries........................................................................
All other secretaries...................................................................
Stenographers...........................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
T ypists........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
Correspondence clerks .............................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Mail clerks, except mail machine operators and
postal service..........................................................................
Messengers................................................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing w orkers...................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage y a rd ..........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
workers .....................................................................................
Service occupations.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................

Employment’

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

1,940

0.18

23

700

.07

11

1

2,680

.25

n.a.

n.a.

181,540

17.16

n.a.

n.a.

34,870

3.30

3

25

142,250
4,150
31,420
89,870
10,920

13.44
.39
2.97
8.49
1.03

n.a.
10
3
3
8

n.a.
3
19
18
4

5,890
4,420

.56
.42

9
12

3
2

235,980

22.30

n.a.

n.a.

5,590
170
130
4,860
220
400
820
18,460
800
61,100
2,260
26,030
6,140
4,420

.53
.02
.01
.46
.02
.04
.08
1.74
.08
5.77
.21
2.46
.58
.42

6
34
48
9
26
n.a.
15
7
19
2
12
4
5
6

6
(3
)
(3
)
3
(3
)
n.a.
1
11
1
42
2
19
5
4

320
380
780
44,540
2,780
400
37,320

.03
.04
.07
4.21
.26
.04
3.53

11
29
10
2
6
16
3

1
(3
)
1
37
5
1
25

4,440

.42

n.a.

n.a.

700
3,040
700
7,600

.07
.29
.07
.72

10
7
n.a.
8

1
3
n.a.
6

480
1,180

.05
.11

13
13

1
2

860

.08

n.a.

n.a.

470

.04

13

1

390

.04

32

3,500

.33

n.a.

n.a.

223,380

21.11

n.a.

n.a.

8,100
43,880

.77
4.15

6
4

4
11

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

71

0

0

Table 19. Real estate: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984— Continued
(SIC 65)

Occupation

Employment'

All other protective service workers.........................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
w orkers....................................................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
Elevator operators...................................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households....................................
All other service workers ..........................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

1,600

0.15

n.a.

n.a.

19,160

1.81

8

3

138,290

13.07

n.a.

n.a.

105,820
6,950

10.00
.66

3
12

30
1

25,520
12,350

2.41
1.17

6
n.a.

7
n.a.

76,240
75,260

7.21
7.11

n.a.
3

n.a.
28

980

.09

35

0

178,960

16.91

n.a.

n.a.

7,820

.74

n.a.

n.a.

3,510

.33

8

2

270

.03

26

(3
)

4,040
130
125,120
122,630
2,490

.38
.01
11.83
11.59
.24

9
38
22
2
21

4
0
44
43
1

24,440
11,150
1,220

2.31
1.05
.12

n.a.
7
12

n.a.
6
1

11,380

1.08

6

7

690

.07

15

1

2,270

.21

16

1

150
1,850
1,300
550

.01
.17
.12
05

38
n.a.
23
28

n.a.
1

1,990
250

.19
.02

13
33

3,600
2,170

.34
.21

12
19

1
1

8,870

.84

10

3

300

.03

n.a.

n.a.

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations..............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
All other agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
related workers........................................................................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations..............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related......................................................
Inspectors and related occupations.........................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Electricians...............................................................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters............................................................................
All other construction and extractive workers,
except helpers.........................................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, operators
and tenders.............................................................................
Plant and system workers ........................................................
Stationary engineers...............................................................
All other plant and system operators....................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route w orkers...................................................................
Aircraft pilots and flight engineers............................................
All other transportation and material moving
equipment operators...............................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, h a n d ...........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations..............................................................................

Percent of total
employment

0

0

2
0

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other" categories.

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.

2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.




3 Less than 0.5 percent,
n.a. = not available.

72

Estimated

Table 20. Combined real estate, insurance, loan, and law offices: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, May 1984
(SIC 66)

Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

14,860

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations...............................
Selected staff and administrative specialty
managerial occupations..........................................................
Property and real estate managers and
administrators..........................................................................
General managers and top executives....................................

1,270

8.55

n.a.

n.a.

440

2.96

n.a.

n.a.

670
160

4.51
1.08

5
10

25
5

1,070
800

7.20
5.38

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

800
680
120

5.38
4.58
.81

n.a.
7
n.a.

n.a.
16
n.a.

150

1.01

n.a.

n.a.

120

.81

n.a.

n.a.

5,730

38.56

n.a.

n.a.

510

3.43

7

16

5,220
2,260
920
1,830
130

35.13
15.21
6.19
12.31
.87

n.a.
3
4
6
10

n.a.
59
35
24
7

80

.54

20

1

5,600
70

37.69
.47

n.a.
33

n.a.
1

100
130

.67
.87

17
18

3
2

70
270
1,690
590
250
90
920
1,060

.47
1.82
11.37
3.97
1.68
.61
6.19
7.13

n.a.
8
n.a.
9
9
13
3
5

n.a.
11
n.a.
20
11
5
45
29

120
60

.81
.40

n.a.
14

n.a.
3

180

1.21

n.a.

n.a.

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers..................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Underwriters.........................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Legal assistants and technicians, except
clerical......................................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations ...................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales representatives and salespersons,
services....................................................................................
Sales agents and placers, insurance ....................................
Brokers, real estate.................................................................
Sales agents, real e sta te .......................................................
Appraisers, real estate............................................................
All other sales representatives and
salespersons, service...........................................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
Loan and credit clerks...............................................................
Insurance adjusters, examiners, and
investigators............................................................................
Insurance policy processing clerks...........................................
All other insurance examiners, appraisers, and
clerks........................................................................................
Real estate clerks......................................................................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
workers ....................................................................................
Service occupations .....................................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
All other service workers ..........................................................

730

4.91

n.a.

n.a.

630
100

4.24
.67

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................

40

.27

n.a.

n.a.

Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................

420
270

2.83
1.82

n.a.
14

n.a.
5

See footnotes at end of table.




73

Table 20. Combined real estate, insurance, loan, and law offices: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 66)

Occupation

Employment1

Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

270

1.82

14

5

150

1.01

n.a.

n.a.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

74

Services

This industry division includes establishments which
provide a wide variety of services for individuals,
businesses, government, and other organizations.
In 1984, services employed approximately 15 million
workers or 58 percent of the workers covered by the
survey. The largest industry segment in services was
business services, with 27 percent of employment.
Health services, except hospitals, employed over 3
million workers, or 20 percent of employment in this in­
dustry division.

9.3 percent. Employment of maids and housekeeping
cleaners declined by 7.5 percent.
Personal services

Establishments in this industry (sic 72) provide serv­
ices generally involving care of the person or of apparel.
They include laundries, drycleaning plants, portrait
photographic studios, and beauty and barber shops.
As shown in table 22, the personal services industry
employed 1 million workers, which accounted for 6.6 per­
cent of total services employment. The service occupa­
tional group was the largest in personal services, with
366,880 workers, or about 37 percent of industry employ­
ment. Other occupational groups with large numbers of
workers in this industry included: Production and related
workers, with 26.6 percent of employment; professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers, with 13 percent;
sales workers, with 10.5 percent; and clerical workers, with
about 10 percent.
In 1984, 60,810 counter and rental clerks, as well as
14,860 cashiers, were classified in the sales group. They
were previously classified in the clerical occupations.
Data from 1984 also include 3,160 first-line sales super­
visors who were previously classified in the managerial
group and are currently included in the sales group.
Funeral directors and morticians, numbering 22,060 in
1984, who were previously classified in the managerial
category, appear in the professional group.
The tabulation below lists the five most populous oc­
cupations in the industry.

Hotels and other lodging places

This industry (sic 70) includes commercial and in­
dustrial establishments furnishing lodging, lodging and
meals, and camping space and facilities on a fee basis.
In 1984, these establishments employed over 1.2
million workers, constituting nearly 5 percent of all
workers covered by the survey and 8 percent of the
workers employed in services.
The largest occupational group in hotels and other
lodging places consisted of 825,770 service workers, ac­
counting for 65 percent of total employment (table 21).
Other occupations were distributed as follows: Clerical
and administrative support workers, 14.4 percent; pro­
duction and related workers, 6.8 percent; managerial
and administrative workers, 5.5 percent; sales workers,
4.5 percent; and professional, paraprofessional, and
technical workers, 2.6 percent.
The sales group included 31,530 cashiers and 8,330
first-line sales supervisors in 1984. These occupations
were previously classified under the clerical and
managerial groups, respectively.
The five most populous occupations in hotels and other
lodging places, which together accounted for 48 percent of
total employment, are listed in the tabulation below:

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

Maids and housekeeping cleaners----Waiters and waitresses.
H otel desk c le r k s .........
Cooks, restaurant . . . .
First-line supervisors,
service.........................

P ercen t o f
in d u stry
em p lo ym en t,
1984

19.5
13.0
7.7
4.1

-7.5
9.3
10.7
20.1

48,390

3.8

Hairdressers, hair­
stylists, and
cosm etologists.........
Counter and rental
c le r k s .........................
Pressing machine
operators, textile
and related ................
Laundry and drycleaning machine
operators, except
pressing .....................
Receptionists and
information clerks . .

P ercen t
change in
em p lo ym en t,
1981-84

247,010
164,200
97,360
51,360

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

0

1 Because o f changes in the survey classification system, data for
1981 and 1984 are not comparable.

P ercen t
change in
e m p lo ym en t,
1981-84

256,000

25.5

(1)

60,810

6.1

7.5

45,340

4.5

0

43,790

4.4

0)

35,330

3.5

52.7

1 Because o f changes in the survey classification system , data for 1981
and 1984 are not comparable.

Employment of restaurant cooks increased by 20 per­
cent between 1981 and 1984. Hotel desk clerks increased
by 10.7 percent, and waiters and waitresses increased by




P ercen t o f
in du stry
em p lo ym en t,
1984

Between 1981 and 1984, employment of receptionists
and information clerks in the personal services industry in75

help supply industry, which grew rapidly between 1981
and 1984. During the 1983-84 recovery, firms may have
sought to reduce unit labor costs by substituting tem­
porary help for permanent employees.
The five most populous occupations in business serv­
ices are listed below:

creased by 52.7 percent. Employment of counter and
rental clerks increased by 7.5 percent.
Business services

Establishments in this industry (sic 73) render services
to business establishments on a fee or contract basis.
These services include advertising; mailing serv­
ices; building maintenance services; employment and per­
sonnel supply services; management and consulting ser­
vices; protective services; equipment rental and leasing;
and commercial research, development, and testing.
Business services employed approximately 4 million
workers in 1984, or 16 percent of all workers covered by
the survey and 27 percent of the workers in the services
industries.
As shown in table 23, the largest occupational group
in business services consisted of 1.1 million clerical
workers, who accounted for 28 percent of industry
employment. Service workers constituted 26 percent.
The third largest occupational group was made up of
771,460 professional, paraprofessional, and technical
workers, with almost 19 percent of total employment.
Production and related workers ranked fourth with 14
percent. The remaining employment was distributed as
follows: Managerial and administrative workers, with
6.9 percent; and sales workers, with 5.3 percent.
In 1984, the sales group included 29,300 first-line
sales supervisors, previously classified in the managerial
group, and 3,130 sales engineers, who had previously
been classified in the professional category. The sales
group also included 23,180 counter and rental clerks
and 7,780 cashiers. These occupations were classified in
the clerical group in previous surveys.
Employment changes since 1981 for each 3-digit sic in­
dustry making up business services are given in text table 5.
T e x t t a b le 5 . B u s i n e s s s e r v ic e s :
1 9 8 1 -8 4

Industry
Advertising......................
Credit reporting and
collection ....................
Mailing, reproduction,
and stenographic........
Building services ............
News syndicates ............
Personnel supply
services ......................
Computer and data
processing services
Miscellaneous business
services ......................

SIC
code

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

Janitors and cleaners,
except maids and
h o u s e k e e p in g .........
Guards and watch
guards .......................
Secretaries.....................
General o ffice clerks .
General managers and
top e x e c u tiv e s.........

1981

1984

156,870

183,560

76,080

80,100

127,290
519,280
7,070

161,930
613,300
8,110

27.2
18.1
14.7

736

604,450

813,630

34.6

737

331,990

468,740

41.2

739

1,440,290

1,714,890

19.1

Industry employment growth was led by computer
and data processing services (SIC 737) and personnel
supply services (sic 736). The growing use of minicom­
puters along with a wide variety of software packages,
which reduced costs and increased potential uses of
computer-related services, may account for the employ­
ment change in sic 737. About three-quarters of person­
nel supply services employment was in the temporary




47.2

384,020
171,970
145,430

9.4
4.2
3.6

25.1
36.7
27.3

109,420

2.7

0)

This industry (sic 75) includes establishments fur­
nishing automotive repair, rental, leasing, and parking
services to the general public.
In 1984, automotive repair, services, and garages
employed 677,880 workers, constituting 4 percent of
services employment.
The largest occupational group consisted of 477,010
production and related workers, accounting for 70 per­
cent of total employment in this industry (table 24).
Sales workers, numbering 83,470, ranked second with
about 12 percent. Clerical and administrative support
workers made up 11 percent.
First-line sales supervisors, numbering 18,930 in
1984, were reclassified from the managerial to the sales
group. Occupations which were shifted from the clerical
to the sales group included counter and rental clerks,
numbering 25,910 in 1984, and cashiers, numbering
15,960. Data for 1984 include 38,070 first-line produc­
tion supervisors; there were only 6,830 nonworking pro­
duction supervisors employed in 1981. Part of the dif­
ference may have been due to the reclassification of
some employees from the managerial group to the oc­
cupation of first-line production supervisor.
The five largest occupations in automotive repair,
services, and garages are listed on the following page.
Together, they accounted for approximately 49 percent
of total industry employment.

5.3

733
734
735

10.8

Automotive repair, services, and garages

17.0

732

438,080

This industry employed 47.2 percent more janitors
and cleaners in 1984 than in 1981, mostly in building
services. Employment of secretaries increased by 36.7
percent, and general office clerks increased by 27.3 per­
cent. Most of these workers were employed in the per­
sonnel supply services industry. Guards and watch
guards increased by over 25 percent.

Percent
change,
1981-84

731

P e rc e n t
ch a n g e in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1 981-84

1 Because o f changes in the survey classification system , data for
1981 and 1984 are not com parable.

E m p lo y m e n t b y in d u s try

Employment

P ercen t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

76

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

123,970

18.3

88,330

13.0

53,300

7.9

35,750

5.3

31,420

tronic home entertainment equipment repairers each in­
creased by over 23 percent.

P e rc e n t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t

4.6

A u tom otive m ech a n ics..................
A utom otive body and
related repairers............................
Vehicle washers and
equipment c le a n e r s .....................
First-line supervisors,
m echanics and rep airers............
Bus and truck m echanics and
diesel engine sp ecia lists..............

Motion pictures

This industry (sic 78) includes establishments produc­
ing and distributing motion pictures, exhibiting motion
pictures in commercially operated theaters, and fur­
nishing services to the motion picture industry.
In 1984, the motion picture industry employed
229,000 workers, or about 1.5 percent of the workers
employed in total services. As shown in table 26, service
workers, who totaled 65,100, made up the largest oc­
cupational group, with 28 percent of total industry
employment. Other occupational groups were
distributed as follows: Professional, paraprofessional,
and technical workers, 23 percent of industry employ­
ment; sales workers, 14 percent; production and related
workers, 12 percent; clerical and administrative support
workers, 11.8 percent; and managerial and ad­
ministrative workers, 10 percent.
In 1984, cashiers were classified in the sales category,
while in 1981, they were included with clerical workers.
Employment in this occupation was 22,950 in 1984.
The five most populous occupations in the motion
picture industry, accounting for 50 percent of total in­
dustry employment, are listed in the tabulation below:

Miscellaneous repair services

Establishments in this industry (Sic 76) are engaged in
electrical repair; watch, clock, and jewelry repair;
reupholstery and furniture repair; and other
miscellaneous repair and services.
These establishments employed 311,060 workers in
1984, accounting for 2 percent of services employment.
Production and related workers, numbering 209,620,
constituted the largest occupational group in the in­
dustry, with 67 percent of total employment (table 25).
Clerical and administrative support workers, with
47,170, and sales workers, with 26,710, made up 15 per­
cent and 8.6 percent, respectively.
First-line sales supervisors, numbering 8,600 in 1984,
were previously classified under the managerial group.
In addition, 1,010 cashiers and 320 counter and rental
clerks were classified as sales workers; they had been in­
cluded in clerical occupations in 1981. There were
14,090 first-line production supervisors in 1984, while
there were 2,360 nonworking supervisors in 1981. Part
of this difference may have been due to a shift of some
employees from the managerial group to the occupation
of first-line supervisor.
The five largest occupations in miscellaneous repair
services, which together accounted for one-fourth of
total industry employment, are as follows:

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

W elders and cutters ..
Electric m otor, transform er, and related
repairers ..................
Electronic hom e entertainm ent equipm ent
repairers ..................
First-line supervisors,
m echanics and
repairers ..................
General o ffice clerks .

P ercen t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

21,670

23.5

15,410

5.0

34.6

13,890

4.5

23.1

13,120
13,120

4.2
4.2

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket
ta k e r s.........................
Producers, directors,
actors, and other
en tertain ers..............
C ash iers.........................
Counter attendants,
lunchroom , coffee
shop, or cafeteria . .
Janitors and cleaners,
except m aids and
h o u se k e e p in g .........

P e rc e n t
c h a n g e in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1981-84

7.0

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

0)
42.9

P e rc e n t o f
in d u stry
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

P e rc e n t
ch a n g e in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1981-84

28,440

12.4

2.1

24,880
22,950

10.9
10.0

15.1
13.7

14,770

6.4

138.6

8,840

3.9

-2 0 .0

Employment of janitors and cleaners declined by 20
percent between 1981 and 1984. During the same
period, employment of lunchroom, coffee shop, and
cafeteria counter attendants increased by 138.6 percent.
Producers, directors, actors, and other entertainers in­
creased by over 15 percent, while cashiers increased by
13.7 percent. The number of ushers, lobby attendants,
and ticket takers increased by about 2 percent.

1 Because o f changes in the survey classification system , data for
’ 981 and 1984 are not com parable.

Amusement and recreation services, except
motion pictures

Between 1981 and 1984, employment of general office
clerks increased by almost 43 percent. The number of
electric motor, transformer, and related repairers in­
creased by 34.6 percent. Welders and cutters and elec­

Establishments in this industry (sic 79) provide
amusement or entertainment for a fee or admission
charge. Such establishments include dance halls,
theatrical producers, bowling alleys, and golf courses.




77

in 1984, accounting for 11.7 percent of surveyed employ­
ment and 20 percent of services employment (table 28).
Professional, paraprofessional, and technical workers
numbered 1.1 million. There were also about the same
number of service workers; each of these occupational
groups accounted for about 36 percent of industry
employment. Other major occupational groups included:
Clerical and administrative support workers, 20.7 per­
cent; managerial and administrative occupations, 3.4 per­
cent; production and related occupations, 3.1 percent;
and sales workers, less than 1 percent.
In 1984, the health services industry employed 9,000
cashiers, who were classified among sales workers. This
occupation was included with clerical workers in
previous surveys. There were 23,870 first-line service
supervisors in 1984 classified in the service group,
whereas there were only 2,090 nonworking service
supervisors employed in 1981. Part of the difference
may have resulted from the reclassification of some
first-line supervisors as managerial employees in 1984.
The service occupational group in 1984 also included
136,630 dental assistants, who were previously included
with technical workers. Physical and corrective therapy
assistants and aides, numbering 15,670 in 1984, were
reclassified from the technical to the service occupa­
tional group. Dispensing and measuring opticians,
numbering 19,570 in 1984, were shifted from the
maintenance, construction, repair, material handling,
and powerplant occupational category to the profes­
sional, paraprofessional, and technical group.
The five most populous occupations in the health serv­
ices, except hospitals, are listed in the tabulation below:

Amusement and recreation services employed 791,470
persons in 1984, accounting for 5 percent of services
employment. As shown in table 27, the largest occupa­
tional group in amusement and recreation services con­
sisted of 372,820 service workers or 47 percent of total
industry employment. Other occupational groups were
distributed as follows: Professional, paraprofessional,
and technical workers, 17.3 percent; sales workers, 8.3
percent; clerical and administrative support workers,
7.7 percent; production and related workers, 7.5 per­
cent; and managerial and administrative workers, 5.4
percent.
The 1984 data included 1,730 first-line sales super­
visors in the sales group who were previously classified
in the managerial category. Cashiers and counter and
rental clerks, numbering 49,100 and 3,600, respectively,
in 1984, were included in the sales group. These occupa­
tions were classified among the clerical occupations in
1981. Also, the 1984 survey distinguished between pro­
duction and related occupations and agricultural,
forestry, fishing, and related occupations whereas these
occupations were combined under maintenance, con­
struction, repair, material handling, and power plant
occupations in 1981.
The five most populous occupations in amusement
and recreation services, in order of predominance, are
listed below:

E m p lo y m e n t,
198 4

A m usem ent and
recreation attendants ...........................
W aiters and waitresses
C a sh iers.........................
Gardeners and
groundskeepers, except fa r m ..................
Musicians, instrumental

P ercen t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t,
198 4

P ercen t
ch a n g e in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1981-84

95,610
61,560
49,100

12.1
7.8
6.2

0)
0.8
25.4

44,490
30,710

5.6
3.9

1.9
-2 .8

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants
Physicians and
surgeons . . . . . . . .
Registered n u r s e s ___
Licensed practical
n u rses.........................
Receptionists and
inform ation clerks .

1 Because o f changes in the survey classification system , data for
1981 and 1984 are not com parable.

The number of cashiers employed in this industry in­
creased by 25.4 percent between 1981 and 1984.
Gardeners and groundskeepers increased by 2 percent
while employment of waiters and waitresses increased
by 1 percent. The number of instrumental musicians
declined by almost 3 percent during the period.

P ercen t
ch a n g e in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1 981-84

497,460

16.2

1.9

209,990
209,940

6.8
6.8

22.1
13.9

173,440

5.7

28.3

163,080

5.3

31.3

Employment of registered nurses increased by over 39
percent between 1981 and 1984. The number of recep­
tionists and information clerks also increased by over 31
percent. There were 28 percent more licensed practical
nurses, and physicians and surgeons increased by more
than 22 percent. There were 2 percent more workers
employed as nurses aides, orderlies, and attendants be­
tween 1981 and 1984.

Health services, except hospitals

This industry (sic 80, except 806) includes licensed
practitioners who provide health care in their offices,
nursing and personal care facilities, medical
laboratories, outpatient care facilities, and other allied
services.
These health services employed over 3 million workers




P ercen t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

Legal services

Establishments in this industry (sic 81) are headed by
members of the bar and offer legal advice and service.
78

teachers increased from 84,380 to 145,910 in the profes­
sional group. Also in the professional category were
89,470 social workers and 32,070 social service techni­
cians in 1984. In 1981, there were 57,230 caseworkers in
the professional group and no social service technicians.
In the service occupational group, 1984 data include
11,770 first-line service supervisors, whereas there were
only 3,440 nonworking service supervisors in 1981.
Some of the difference may have resulted from the
reclassification of some managerial occupations to the
occupation of first-line service supervisor between 1981
and 1984.
The five most populous occupations in social services
are listed in the tabulation below:

These establishments employed 634,470 persons in
1984, or 4 percent of the workers employed in services.
About 98 percent of total employment in legal services
was accounted for by two major occupational groups.
Clerical workers, numbering 339,760, made up nearly
54 percent (table 29). Professional, paraprofessional,
and technical workers, numbering 277,330, ranked second
with 44 percent of legal services employment.
The five largest occupations in this industry, which
together accounted for 77 percent of total industry
employment, are listed in the tabulation below:

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

L a w y ers.......................
Legal secreta ries----Paralegal personnel .
B ookkeeping, accounting, and
auditing clerks . . .
Law c le r k s..................

P ercen t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

P e rc e n t
ch a n g e in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1981-84

206,810
199,360
37,950

32.6
31.4
6.0

46.9

23,390
22,040

3.7
3.5

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

(1)
22.8

143,130
85,870

11.6
7.0

71,370

5.8

57,100
47,240

4.6
3.8

Teachers, preschool and
kindergarten.....................................
Child care workers ...........................
T eachers’ aides and educational
assistants, c le r ic a l.........................
Social workers, except
medical and p s y c h ia tr ic ..............
H om e health a id e s..............................

32.4
15.6

1 Because o f changes in the survey classification system , data for
1981 and 1984 are not com parable.

The number of lawyers employed in the legal services
industry increased by 47 percent between 1981 and 1984.
Employment of bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing
clerks increased by 32.4 percent; paralegal personnel in­
creased by almost 23 percent; law clerks increased by
15.6 percent; and the number of legal secretaries in­
creased by almost 5 percent.

Museums and botanical and zoological gardens

This industry (sic 84) includes museums, art galleries,
and botanical and zoological gardens which are not
operated commercially.
In 1984, these establishments employed 39,230
workers. As shown in table 31, occupational employ­
ment was as follows: Service occupations accounted for
10,870 workers, or 27.7 percent of industry employ­
ment; professional, paraprofessional, and technical
workers, 25.2 percent; clerical workers, 16.7 percent;
managerial and sales occupations, 8.7 and 9 percent
respectively; and production workers, 6.6 percent.
The five largest occupations in museums and
botanical and zoological gardens are listed below:

Social services

This industry (SIC 83) consists of establishments pro­
viding social and rehabilitation services to persons with
social or personal problems, the handicapped, or the
disadvantaged. Organizations soliciting funds to be used
directly for these and related services are included.
Social services employed 1.2 million persons in 1984,
accounting for 4.7 percent of surveyed employment and
8 percent of services employment. As shown in table 30,
the largest occupational group was made up of 446,980
professional, paraprofessional, and technical workers,
or 36 percent of all workers employed in social services.
Service occupations, totaling 356,950, constituted 29
percent of industry employment. The third largest oc­
cupational group consisted of 214,660 clerical workers,
with 17.4 percent of industry employment. Production
and related workers accounted for 8.6 percent;
managerial and administrative occupations, 7.6 percent;
and sales workers, only 1 percent.
The 1984 data include 2,350 first-line sales super­
visors and 3,350 cashiers in the sales group. These oc­
cupations were previously classified in the managerial
and clerical groups, respectively. Between 1981 and
1984, the number of elementary and/or preschool




P ercen t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

Guards and watch
guards .......................
G u id e s ...........................
Curators, archivists,
m useum technicians, and restorers
C ash iers.........................
Secretaries....................

P e rc e n t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

P e rc e n t
ch a n g e in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1981-84

3,660
3,390

9.3
8.6

7.3
-1 1 .9

3,360
2,160
2,140

8.6
5.5
5.5

31.2
170.0
39.0

Between 1981 and 1984, employment of cashiers in­
creased 170 percent. The number of secretaries increased
by 39 percent; and employment of curators, archivists,
museum technicians, and restorers increased by over 31
percent. The number of guards and watch guards in79

workers in 1984, accounting for 7.7 percent of services
employment. As shown in table 33, the largest occupa­
tional group consisted of professional, paraprofes­
sional, and technical workers, numbering 742,660, or 64
percent of the workers employed in miscellaneous serv­
ices. Clerical workers, totaling 279,690, ranked second
with 24 percent. Managerial and administrative workers
made up 6.4 percent of industry employment. The re­
maining occupational employment was distributed as
follows: Production and related workers, 3 percent; and
service and sales workers, 1 percent each.
The 1984 sales group data include 1,270 first-line sales
supervisors and 3,160 sales engineers. These occupa­
tions were previously classified in the managerial and
professional categories, respectively. In the professional
and technical occupational group, the number of ac­
countants and auditors increased from 44,800 to
172,440 between 1981 and 1984.
The five most populous occupations in miscellaneous
services are listed below:

creased by 7.3 percent, while employment of guides
declined by almost 12 percent.

Membership organizations, except religious
organizations

This industry (sic 86, except 866) includes organiza­
tions operating on a membership basis to promote the
interests of its members. Such organizations include
trade associations; professional membership organiza­
tions; labor unions and similar labor organizations;
civic, social, and fraternal associations; and political
organizations.
In 1984, membership organizations employed 647,430
workers or 4.3 percent of all workers employed in serv­
ices.
Clerical and administrative support workers, number­
ing 176,630, made up the largest occupational group,
with 27.3 percent of total membership organization
employment (table 32). This group was followed by pro­
fessional, paraprofessional, and technical workers, with
26.6 percent; and service workers, with 23.7 percent.
The five most populous occupations in membership
organizations, other than religious groups are listed in
the tabulation below:

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

S e c r e ta r ie s.........................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations sp e c ia lists.....................
B a rten d ers.........................................
General managers and top
e x ec u tiv es.......................................
General o ffice cle rk .........................

8.5

43,460
38,020

6.7
5.9

30,430
28,540

A ccountants and
a u d ito r s................
D r a fter s.....................
Secretaries. . . . . . . .
Civil engineers,
including traffic .
B ookkeeping, acaccounting and
auditing clerks ..

P ercen t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t

54,730

E m p lo y m e n t,
1984

4.7
4.4

P e rc e n t
ch a n g e in
e m p lo y m e n t,
1981-84

172,440
107,000
84,590

14.9
9.2
7.3

19.1
7.4
25.9

67,310

5.8

36.5

52,920

4.6

28.0

The rate of increase of accountant and auditor
employment between 1981 and 1984 was 285 percent.
The number of civil engineers increased by 36.5 percent.
Employment of bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing
clerks increased by 28 percent, and the number of
secretaries increased by about 26 percent. The number
of workers employed as drafters increased by 7.4 per­
cent during the period.

Miscellaneous services

Establishments in this industry (sic 89) perform serv­
ices such as those rendered by engineers, architects, ac­
countants, artists, lecturers, and writers.
These establishments employed more than 1.1 million




P ercen t o f
in d u s tr y
e m p lo y m e n t,
1984

80

Table 21. Hotels and other lodging places: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984
(SIC 70)

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

5.54
.58

n.a.
7

n.a.
31

2,260
1,400

.18
.11

6
6

15
12

3,430
1,710
34,540
10,470
9,020

.27
.13
2.72
.83
.71

5
9
3
5
8

17
7
64
36
14

32,460
14,290

2.56
1.13

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

9,900
8,970
390
540

.78
.71
.03
.04

n.a.
5
13
14

n.a.
26
2
2

1,420

.11

12

8

1,070

.08

7

7

340
1,560
1,680

.03
.12
.13

16
n.a.
9

1
n.a.
6

1,360

.11

10

3

1,020

.08

n.a.

n.a.

350
430
240
6,970

.03
.03
.02
.55

13
18
14
6

2
2
1
8

1,120
420
340
290

.09
.03
.03
.02

26
23
17
41

870

.07

33

1

620

.05

11

3

220
1,230
560

.02
.10
.04

23
18
25

1
2
(3
)

1,470

.12

n.a.

n.a.

57,130

4.51

n.a.

n.a.

8,330

.66

7

25

10,600
8,380

.84
.66

n.a.
7

n.a.
19

2,220
5,330
31,530
1,340

.18
.42
2.49
.11

17
8
4
15

6
9
33
3

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

T o ta l................................................................................

1,267,930

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations...............................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ........,...................................
Food service and lodging managers........................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

70,210
7,380

Occupation

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers..................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Accountants and auditors....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Compliance officers and enforcement
inspectors, except construction...........................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineers...................................................................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aides..................................................
Recreation workers....................................................................
Instructors and coaches, sports and
physical training.........................................................................
All other teachers and instructors ............................................
Registered nurses......................................................................
Licensed practical nurses.........................................................
All other health professionals,
paraprofessional and technicians...........................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity w riters................................................................
Music directors, singers, composers, and
related workers.......................................................................
Musicians, instrumental.............................................................
Dancers and choreographers...................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers...............................
Sales and related occupations ...................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales representatives and salespersons,
services....................................................................................
Sales agents, selected business services............................
All other sales representatives and
salespersons, service...........................................................
Salespersons, retail ...................................................................
Cashiers......................................................................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
See footnotes at end of table.




81

2
0
2
1

Table 21. Hotels and other lodging places: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 70)

Occupation

Clerical and administrative support
occupations..............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Adjustment clerks.......................................................................
Travel c le rks...............................................................................
Hotel desk cle rks.......................................................................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers............................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
T ypists........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping..............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Order clerks, materials, merchandise, and
service......................................................................................
Procurement clerks....................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks.......................................................
General office c le rk s .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators.......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment..............................................................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers....................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage y a rd ..........................................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving
clerks.....................................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................
Service occupations.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Housekeepers .............................................................................
All other service supervisors and
manager/supervisors..............................................................
Detectives and investigators, except public.............................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
All other protective service workers.........................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
workers....................................................................................
Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge or
coffee s h o p ...........................................................................
Bartenders...............................................................................
Waiters and waitresses..........................................................
Food servers, outside.............................................................
Dining room and cafeteria attendants, and
bartender helpers.................................................................
Counter attendants, lunchroom,
coffee shop, or cafeteria......................................................
Bakers, bread and pastry........................................................
Butchers and meat cu tte rs.....................................................
Cooks, restaurant....................................................................
Cooks, institution or cafeteria.................................................
Cooks, specialty fast fo o d ......................................................
Cooks, short o rd e r..................................................................

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

182,020

14.36

n.a.

n.a.

6,940
750
2,560
97,360
16,240
260
6,010
1,300
580

.55
.06
.20
7.68
1.28
.02
47
10
05

4
14
11
2
4
14
16
10
11

20
3
6
72
36
1
11
5
4

1,250
510

.10
.04

5
10

9
3

580
650
18,220
4,620
790
5,240

.05
.05
1.44
.36
.06
.41

8
7
3
7
9
10

3
5
42
18
4
13

1,770

.14

n.a.

n.a.

610

.05

13

2

470
390
300
10,660

.04
.03
.02
.84

11
16
n.a.
4

2
2
n.a.
19

4,030

.32

n.a.

n.a.

2,660

.21

5

11

1,190

.09

14

5

180

.01

26

1

1,700

.13

n.a.

n.a.

825,770

65.13

n.a.

n.a.

48,390
34,610

3.82
2.73

n.a.
5

n.a.
57

13,780
2,060
15,880
1,110

1.09
.16
1.25
.09

9
10
4
17

14
4
22
2

414,710

32.71

n.a.

n.a.

16,640
38,850
164,200
17,440

1.31
3.06
12.95
1.38

3
3
2
5

31
43
49
13

44,560

3.51

3

32

3,620
3,170
940
51,360
4,300
1,400
3,370

.29
.25
.07
4.05
.34
.11
.27

8
5
6
2
7
14
9

7
11
6
47
11
3
6

Employment1

See footnotes at end of table.




82

Table 21. Hotels and other lodging places: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 70)

Occupation

Food preparation workers......................................................
Combined food preparation and service workers.................
All other food service w orkers...............................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Maids and housekeeping cleaners........................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
Elevator operators...................................................................
Ail other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists .........................
Amusement and recreation attendants....................................
Baggage porters and bellhops..................................................
All other service workers..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
All other agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
related workers........................................................................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related......................................................
Inspectors and related occupations .........................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Automotive mechanics ...........................................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration
mechanics and installers......................................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters...........................................................................
All other construction and extractive workers,
except helpers.........................................................................
Precision production occupations.............................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Laundry and drycleaning machine operators and
tenders, except pressing .....................................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and p la stic......................................................
Hand working occupations, including assemblers
and fabricators.........................................................................
Plant and system workers ........................................................
Stationary engineers...............................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

40,960
6,160
17,740

3.23
.49
1.40

3
12
5

37
7
14

294,180
247,010

23.20
19.48

n.a.
2

n.a.
80

40,060
460

3.16
.04

4
26

42
1

6,650
300
21,670
21,240
6,230

.52
.02
1.71
1.68
.49

7
28
12
3
n.a.

7
1
6
26
n.a.

14,100
13,800

1.11
1.09

n.a.
5

n.a.
28

300

.02

38

1

86,240

6.80

n.a.

n.a.

2,460

.19

n.a.

n.a.

810

.06

11

3

250

.02

17

1

1,400
240
41,380
38,300
470

.11
.02
3.26
3.02
.04

9
23
33
3
10

8
1
70
60
2

1,030
1,580

.08
.12

7
14

5
3

6,040
1,730
1,100

.48
.14
.09

n.a.
7
7

n.a.
7
5

2,560

.20

7

9

650

.05

10

3

710
240

.06
.02

11
29

1
1

21,510

1.70

n.a.

n.a.

20,610

1.63

3

33

240

.02

16

1

660

.05

19

1

630
1,500
1,360

.05
.12
.11

20
n.a.
11

2
n.a.
3

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

83

Table 21. Hotels and other lodging places: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 70)

Occupation

Employment1

All other plant and system operators....................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
Bus drivers ..............................................................................
Taxi drivers and chauffeurs ....................................................
All other motor vehicle operators ..........................................
Parking lot attendants ...............................................................
All other transportation and material moving
equipment operators...............................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand..............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, h a n d ..........................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

140
4,060

0.01
.32

24
n.a.

1
n.a.

700
650
2,430
280
3,220

.06
.05
.19
.02
.25

21
15
10
17
9

2
1
5
1
4

920
620

.07
.05

37
14

1
1

2,710

21

13

4

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

84

Table 22. Personal services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984
(SIC 72)

Occupation

Employment'

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

1,002,860

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations...............................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

30,220
10,330

3.01
1.03

n.a.
3

n.a.
12

710
260

.07
.03

8
8

1
1

1,960
550
10,600
5,810

.20
.05
1.06
.58

6
9
3
5

3
1
10
4

130,030
23,490

12.97
2.34

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

22,450
17,970
4,200
280

2.24
1.79
.42
.03

n.a.
9
6
n.a.

n.a.
2
4
n.a.

160

.02

10

360
520
310

.04
.05
.03

12
n.a.
10

110

.01

16

(3
)

840

.08

n.a.

n.a.

140
580
120
11,570

.01
.06
.01
1.15

15
17
14
7

(3
)
1
(3
)
1

33,920
8,020
2,060
1,170
620
1,010

3.38
.80
.21
.12
.06
.10

4
9
13
20
18
28

4
2
1
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

1,240
15,100
22,060
6,970

.12
1.51
2.20
.70

19
3
1
3

(3
)
5
12
6

1,540

.15

n.a.

n.a.

105,280

10.50

n.a.

n.a.

3,160

.32

7

2

430

.04

17

(3
)

11,700
60,810
14,860
14,320

1.17
6.06
1.48
1.43

5
2
5
4

5
13
5
3

100,840

10.06

n.a.

n.a.

2,310

.23

6

3

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers..................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Tax preparers.......................................................................
Accountants and auditors....................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineers...................................................................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aides.................................................
Lecturers ....................................................................................
Instructors and coaches, sports and
physical training.........................................................................
All other teachers and instructors ............................................
Registered nurses......................................................................
Licensed practical nurses.........................................................
Dietitians and nutritionists........................................................
Dietetic technicians....................................................................
All other health professionals,
paraprofessional and technicians...........................................
Photographers...........................................................................
Funeral directors and morticians ..............................................
Embalmers.................................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers...............................
Sales and related occupations ...................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales representatives, scientific and related
products and services, except retail......................................
Sales representatives, except scientific and
related products or services and retail..................................
Counter and rental cle rk s .........................................................
Cashiers......................................................................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
See footnotes at end of table.




85

0
(3
)
n.a.
1

Table 22. Personal services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984—Continued
(SIC 72)

Occupation

Employment'

Percent of total
employment

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Secretaries.................................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks .......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping..............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Order clerks, materials, merchandise, and
service......................................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators.......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment..............................................................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage y a rd ..........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................

12,530
35,330
1,680
590

1.25
3.52
.17
.06

2
2
10
16

14
22
2
1

180
620

.02
.06

11
24

0

3,730
14,090
2,950
330
15,650

.37
1.40
29
03
1.56

8
3
5
12
3

2
15
4
(3
)
12

1,690

.17

n.a.

n.a.

180

.02

15

(3
)

500
760
250
660

.05
.08
.02
.07

20
11
n.a.
11

1
1
n.a.
1

4,140

.41

n.a.

n.a.

2,420

.24

8

2

1,720

.17

18

1

4,360

.43

n.a.

n.a.

Service occupations .....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
workers....................................................................................
Ambulance drivers and attendants, except
emergency medical technicians.............................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Maids and housekeeping cleaners........................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households...................................
Barbers.......................................................................................
Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists .........................
Manicurists.................................................................................
Shampooers...............................................................................
Child care workers.....................................................................
Funeral attendants.....................................................................
All other service w orkers..........................................................

366,880

36.58

n.a.

n.a.

16,230
640

1.62
.06

3
21

11
(3
)

1,600

.16

17

f)

720

.07

14

(3
)

27,410
5,760

2.73
.57

n.a.
5

n.a.
5

19,500

1.94

4

13

2,150
18,480
256,000
11,480
11,300
1,460
13,580
7,980

.21
1.84
25.53
1.14
1.13
.15
1.35
.80

18
4
1
4
4
11
2
n.a.

(3
)
4
45
7
6
1
8
n.a.

2,590
2,590

.26
.26

n.a.
6

267,020

26.63

n.a.

n.a.

5,140

.51

n.a.

n.a.

550

.05

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers ........................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




86

9

1

'

n.a.
3

1

Table 22. Personal services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984—Continued
(SIC 72)

Occupation

First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related.....................................................
Production inspectors, testers, graders,
sorters, samplers, and weighers............................................
All other inspectors, testers and related
occupations.............................................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Machinery maintenance mechanics.......................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Automotive mechanics ...........................................................
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine
specialists.............................................................................
Menders - garments, linens, and related..............................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
moving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
All other construction and extractive workers,
except helpers.........................................................................
Precision textile, apparel, and furnishings
workers............................, ......................................................
Custom tailors and sewers ....................................................
Shoe and leather workers and repairers,
precision................................................................................
Spotters, dry cleaning.............................................................
Pressers, delicate fabrics........................................................
Precision d ye rs........................................................................
All other precision textile, apparel, and
furnishings workers...............................................................
Precision workers, n e c ..............................................................
Precision photographic process workers...............................
All other precision workers, n e c.............................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Sewing machine operators, garment.....................................
Sewing machine operators, nongarment...............................
Shoe sewing machine operators
and tenders............................................................................
Laundry and drycleaning machine operators and
tenders, except pressing......................................................
Pressing machine operators and tenders,
textile, garment, and
related materials...................................................................
Photographic processing machine operators and
tenders..................................................................................
Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, or kettle
operators and tenders .........................................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and p la stic......................................................
Other hand workers, n e c ..........................................................
Pressers, hand........................................................................
Sewers, h a n d ...........................................................................
All other hand workers, n e c....................................................
Plant and system workers ........................................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
Taxi drivers and chauffeurs....................................................
Driver/sales workers...............................................................
All other transportation and material moving
equipment operators...............................................................
Helpers - mechanics and repairers..........................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

690

0.07

10

1

3,900

.39

n.a.

n.a.

6,770

.68

5

3

620
17,670
2,210
6,530
480

.06
1.76
.22
.65
.05

14
49
9
5
7

(3
)
16
2
6
1

220
6,420
1,810

.02
.64
.18

10
4
14

ft
5
1

130
130

.01
.01

n.a.
25

n.a.
(3
)

290

.03

n.a.

n.a.

50,220
9,660

5.01
.96

n.a.
5

n.a.
6

4,110
13,760
21,290
480

.41
1.37
2.12
.05

4
3
3
18

1
9
8
ft

920
2,890
2,470
420

.09
.29
.25
.04

20
n.a.
8
24

ft
n.a.
1
ft

99,680
4,360
690

9.94
.43
.07

n.a.
7
26

n.a.
3
ft

560

.06

22

43,790

4.37

3

14

45,340

4.52

2

13

2,970

.30

8

1

860

.09

10

1

100

.01

n.a.

n.a.

1,010
12,970
5,270
800
6,900
240
33,440

.10
1.29
.53
.08
.69
.02
3.33

19
n.a.
7
14
7
22
n.a.

ft
n.a.
3
1
2
ft
n.a.

14,400
1,700
17,340

1.44
.17
1.73

3
8
3

8
1
5

2,250
420

.22
.04

20
15

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

87

ft

ft
ft

Table 22. Personal services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984—Continued
(SIC 72)

Occupation

Employment1

Machine feeders and offbearers...............................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand..............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, ha n d ..........................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

14,480
4,420

1.44
.44

5
7

3
2

15,390

1.53

4

3

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

88

Table 23. Business services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984
(SIC 73)

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

T o ta l................................................................................

4,069,420

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations...............................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

281,770
41,870

6.92
1.03

n.a.
2

n.a.
24

15,350
5,310

.38
.13

4
6

9
4

47,650
17,760
109,420
44,410

1.17
.44
2.69
1.09

3
4
2
4

15
8
38
10

771,460
130,350

18.96
3.20

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

37,190
3,290
25,430
2,310
6,160

.91
.08
.62
.06
.15

n.a.
10
5
7
10

n.a.
1
10
1
2

10,160

.25

5

4

39,800

.98

6

5

11,470
2,990
14,140
550
14,050
79,920

.28
.07
.35
.01
.35
1.96

11
11
9
24
8
n.a.

4
1
2
(3
)
2
n.a.

2,310

.06

27

(3
)

1,950
670
5,430
2,360
4,980
35,190
3,640
920
14,480
7,990
1,320
740

.05
.02
.13
.06
.12
.86
.09
.02
.36
.20
.03
.02

18
34
19
22
11
7
13
21
9
n.a.
21
32

(3
)
(3
)
1
(3
)
1
3
1
(3
)
2
n.a.
(3
)
(3
)

71,310

1.75

n.a.

n.a.

6,830

.17

16

1

24,400

.60

8

2

820

.02

20

6,750
18,530

.17
.46

10
7

2,830

.07

20

(3
)

11,150
20,270
4,640
9,920

.27
.50
.11
.24

10
n.a.
23
9

1
n.a.
(3
)
2

Occupation

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers..................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Credit analysts......................................................................
Accountants and auditors....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Employment interviewers, private or public
employjment service ............................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Cost estimators.......................................................................
Management analysts.............................................................
Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents...................
All other management support workers................................
Engineers...................................................................................
Aeronautical and astronautical
engineers ...............................................................................
Metallurgists, and metallurgical, ceramic,
and materials engineers ......................................................
Petroleum engineers...............................................................
Chemical engineers.................................................................
Nuclear engineers...................................................................
Civil engineers, including traffic..............................................
Electrical and electronic engineers........................................
Industrial engineers, except sa fe ty........................................
Safety engineers, except mining............................................
Mechanical engineers.............................................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Architects, except landscape and marine................................
Surveying and mapping scientists ............................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Civil engineering technicians and
technologists........................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineering
technicians and technologists..............................................
Industrial engineering technicians
and technologists.................................................................
Mechanical engineering technicians
and technologists.................................................................
Drafters....................................................................................
Surveying and mapping technicians and
technologists........................................................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Physical scientists......................................................................
Physicists and astronomers...................................................
Chemists, except biochemists................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




89

(3
)
1

3

Table 23. Business services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 73)

Occupation

Geologists, geophysicists, and
oceanographers .....................................................................
All other physical scientists ....................................................
Life scientists..............................................................................
Agricultural and food scientists..............................................
Biological scientists.................................................................
All other life scientists............................................................
Physical and life science technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Biological, agricultural, and food
technicians and technologists,
except health ........................................................................
Chemical technicians and
technologists, except he a lth ................................................
Nuclear technicians and technologists..................................
Petroleum technicians and
technologists...........................................................................
All other physical and life science
technicians and technologists..............................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aides..................................................
Mathematical scientists and related workers...........................
Operations and systems researchers and
analysts, except computer......................................................
Statisticians................................................................................
Financial analysts, statistical.....................................................
All other mathematical scientists..............................................
Mathematical technicians..........................................................
Social scientists, including urban and regional
planners...................................................................................
Economists, including market research analysts.....................
Urban and regional planners.....................................................
Psychologists..............................................................................
All other social scientists..........................................................
Lawyers......................................................................................
Legal assistants and technicians, except
clerical......................................................................................
Librarians, professional .............................................................
Vocational and educational counselors...................................
Instructional coordinators..........................................................
Registered nurses......................................................................
Licensed practical nurses.........................................................
All other health professionals,
paraprofessional and technicians...........................................
Writers and editors.....................................................................
Technical w riters........................................................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity w rite rs................................................................
Reporters and correspondents .................................................
Photographers............................................................................
Artists and related workers.......................................................
Designers, except interior designers........................................
Interior designers .......................................................................
Merchandise displayers and window trim m ers........................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales representatives and salespersons,
services....................................................................................
Sales agents, selected business services.............................
Sales agents, advertising........................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

2,430
3,280
8,280
1,920
5,200
1,160

0.06
.08
.20
.05
.13
.03

17
15
n.a.
22
13
n.a.

1
(3
)
n.a.
(3
)
1
n.a.

18,760

.46

n.a.

n.a.

3,740

.09

16

(3
)

7,610
1,540

.19
.04

11
28

1
(3
)

1,340

.03

32

(3
)

4,530

.11

18

(3
)

172,330

4.23

n.a.

n.a.

58,040
98,990
15,300
17,550

1.43
2.43
.38
.43

4
3
5
n.a.

7
10
4
n.a.

9,150
2,720
2,140
2,910
630

.22
.07
.05
.07
.02

8
13
18
15
31

2
1
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

12,630
8,880
830
1,340
1,580
1,700

.31
.22
.02
.03
.04
.04

n.a.
10
29
22
21
9

n.a.
1
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
1

1,590
2,050
940
2,480
36,890
24,040

.04
.05
.02
.06
.91
.59

23
11
34
13
7
8

(3
)
1
(3
)
1
2
1

37,210
15,070
6,370

.91
.37
.16

9
5
7

2
5
2

11,130
2,890
11,590
29,570
19,140
7,560
1,240

.27
.07
.28
.73
.47
.19
.03

9
12
8
4
6
11
32

3
(3
)
3
6
3
1
(3
)

26,540

.65

n.a.

n.a.

216,520

5.32

n.a.

n.a.

29,300

.72

3

12

88,350
46,670
23,360

2.17
1.15
.57

n.a.
3
6

n.a.
14
4

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

90

Table 23. Business services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984— Continued
(SIC 73)

Occupation

All other sales representatives and
salespersons, service...........................................................
Sales engineers.........................................................................
Sales representatives, scientific and related
products and services, except retail......................................
Sales representatives, except scientific and
related products or services and retail..................................
Counter and rental cle rk s .........................................................
Cashiers......................................................................................
News and street vendors, telephone solicitors,
door-to-door sales
workers, and other related workers.......................................
Demonstrators, promoters, and models...................................
All other sales and related w orkers.........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support w orkers..........................
Credit authorizes.......................................................................
Credit checkers..........................................................................
Investigators, clerical.................................................................
Bill and account collectors .......................................................
Library assistants and bookmobile drivers...............................
Advertising clerks.......................................................................
Proofreaders and copy markers................................................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers...........................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
Correspondence clerks .............................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Order clerks, materials, merchandise, and
service......................................................................................
Statistical c le rks.........................................................................
Interviewing clerks, except personnel and
social welfare...........................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Duplicating machine operators...............................................
Mail machine operators, preparation and
handling ................................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operators....................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
Data keyers, composing.........................................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Mail clerks, except mail machine operators and
postal service...........................................................................
Messengers................................................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Dispatchers, except police, fire, and
ambulance.............................................................................
Production, planning, and expediting
clerks.....................................................................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage y a rd ..........................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

18,320
3,130

0.45
.08

8
14

3
1

9,610

.24

8

2

18,680
23,180
7,780

.46
.57
.19

6
7
17

4
3
1

11,710
7,630
17,150

.29
.19
.42

13
14
8

1
1
2

1,144,900

28.13

n.a.

n.a.

60,710
1,540
8,430
3,340
27,900
1,080
1,620
3,940
171,970
11,930
44,500
61,470
51,400

1.49
.04
.21
.08
.69
.03
.04
.10
4.23
.29
1.09
1.51
1.26

2
29
7
12
3
10
25
13
2
7
3
4
5

26
ft
2
1
6
1
ft
1
40
2
16
9
9

5,020
3,940
24,270

.12
.10
.60

7
14
5

3
1
6

12,610
5,510

.31
.14

7
16

4
1

40,710
72,900
11,060
8,580
145,430

1.00
1.79
.27
.21
3.57

7
2
4
6
3

2
28
9
3
25

163,590

4.02

n.a.

n.a.

4,620
8,860

.11
.22

12
8

1
3

16,190

.40

7

2

40,070
7,920
76,260
4,950
4,720
53,890

.98
.19
1.87
.12
.12
1.32

4
9
4
15
15
5

8
2
9
1
1
9

16,680
23,490

.41
.58

7
10

4
4

68,990

1.70

n.a.

n.a.

7,500

.18

10

3

16,550

.41

7

4

24,440

.60

10

4

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

91

Table 23. Business services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 73)

Occupation

Traffic, shipping, and receiving
clerks.....................................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
workers ....................................................................................
Service occupations.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Housekeepers ............................................................................
All other service supervisors and
manager/supervisors..............................................................
Detectives and investigators, except public.............................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
All other protective service workers.........................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
workers ....................................................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Maids and housekeeping cleaners........................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
Pest controllers and assistants..............................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
All other service workers ..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Animal caretakers, except farm ................................................
All other agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
related workers........................................................................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers ........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related.....................................................
Precision inspectors, testers, and graders ..............................
Production inspectors, testers, graders,
sorters, samplers, and weighers ............................................
All other inspectors, testers and related
occupations.............................................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Automotive mechanics ...........................................................
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine
specialists.............................................................................
Data processing equipment repairers....................................
Electric home appliance and power tool
repairers................................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

11,490

0.28

5

4

9,010

.22

14

1

38,400

.94

9

4

1,064,920

26.17

n.a.

n.a.

36,590
16,580

.90
.41

n.a.
6

n.a.
4

20,010
14,580
384,020
18,730

.49
.36
9.44
.46

4
11
1
10

6
2
8
2

28,940

.71

14

1

539,160
46,110

13.25
1.13

n.a.
6

n.a.
3

438,080
38,310

10.77
.94

1
4

19
4

16,660
42,900

.41
1.05

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

14,430
9,900
870

.35
.24
.02

n.a.
10
31

n.a.
2
(3
)

3,660

.09

23

(3
)

575,420

14.14

n.a.

n.a.

20,880

.51

n.a.

n.a.

7,560

.19

6

3

2,860

.07

12

1

2,300

.06

12

1

8,160
7,110

.20
.17

6
13

3
1

7,260

.18

10

1

6,660
83,670
35,460
3,150

.16
2.06
.87
.08

14
170
7
13

1
15
7
1

3,420
11,880

.08
.29

15
12

1
1

440

.01

32

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

92

(3
)

Table 23. Business services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 73)

Occupation

Electronics repairers, commercial and
industrial equipment.............................................................
All other electrical and electronic equipment
mechanics, installers, and repairers....................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration
mechanics and installers.....................................................
Coin and vending machine servicers and
repairers................................................................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
moving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters...........................................................................
All other construction and extractive workers,
except helpers........................................................................
Precision metal workers............................................................
Machinists ...............................................................................
Precision workers, n e c ..............................................................
Precision photographic process workers ..............................
All other precision workers, n e c.............................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
metal and plastic....................................................................
Machine forming operators and tenders,
metal and p lastic..................................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Offset lithographic press setters and set-up
operators...............................................................................
Printing press machine operators and
tenders..................................................................................
Photoengraving and lithographing machine
operators and tenders .........................................................
Bindery machine operators....................................................
Photographic processing machine operators and
tenders..................................................................................
Packaging and filling machine operators
and tenders..........................................................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and pla stic.....................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

3,920

0.10

15

1

12,380

.30

12

1

1,530

.04

20

(3
)

1.320
10,170

.03
.25

31
12

(3
)
2

24,390
8,540
8,180

.60
.21
.20

n.a.
g
11

n.a.

4,350

.11

12

1

3.320

.08

13

1

13,200
4.630
4.630
12,810
7,200
5,610

.32
.11
.11
.31
.18
.14

14
n.a.

n.a.

11

1

n.a.
9
12

n.a.
2
1

2.900

.07

n.a.

n.a.

2.900

.07

22

(3
)

73,790

1.81

n.a.

n.a.

2,260

.06

13

1

8,600

.21

8

2

3,620
5,860

.09
.14

13
29

1
1

28,360

.70

6

3

7,440

.18

13

1

6,070

.15

13

1

11,580

.28

10

1

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

93

1
1

1

Table 23. Business services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 73)

Occupation

Employment1

Other hand workers, nec ..........................................................
Welders and cutters................................................................
Solderers and brazers ............................................................
Painting, coating, and decorating,
workers, hand .......................................................................
Engraving and printing workers, hand...................................
All other hand workers, n e c....................................................
Plant and system workers ........................................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
Taxi drivers and chauffeurs ....................................................
Driver/sales workers...............................................................
Aircraft pilots and flight engineers............................................
Material moving equipment operators......................................
Industrial truck and tractor operators.......................................
All other transportation and material moving
equipment operators...............................................................
Helpers - mechanics and repairers ..........................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand...............................
Hand packers and packagers...................................................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, h a n d ...........................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

24,810
3,930
2,490

0.61
.10
.06

n.a.
11
19

n.a.
1
(3
)

1,200
1,390
15,800
1,920
47,960

.03
.03
.39
.05
1.18

22
22
10
17
n.a.

(3
)
(3
)
1
(3
)
n.a.

34,830
2,940
10,190
1,750
8,360
8,360

.86
.07
.25
.04
.21
.21

7
26
10
24
n.a.
14

7
(3
)
2
(3
)
n.a.
1

25,110
7,010
45,520
46,480

.62
.17
1.12
1.14

10
10
7
8

2
2
3
2

109,200

2.68

5

5

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment: relative standard errors




Percemt of total
employment

94

Table 24. Automotive repair, services, and garages: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations, May 1984
(SIC 75)

Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

677,880

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations...............................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers............................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

22,600
9,810

3.33
1.45

n.a.
3

n.a.
15

250
230

.04
.03

11
12

1
1

520
490
7,660
3,640

.08
.07
1.13
.54

11
11
4
7

1
1
10
3

8,770
6,810

1.29
1.00

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

3,800
3,530
270

.56
.52
.04

n.a.
5
n.a.

n.a.
6
n.a.

1,980

.29

7

3

290
310
430

.04
.05
.06

22
22
20

(3
)
0
0

310

.05

29

(3
)

1,060

.16

n.a.

n.a.

210
850

.03
.13

22
15

(3
)
1

590

.09

n.a.

n.a.

83,470

12.31

n.a.

n.a.

18,930

2.79

2

23

460

.07

19

(3
)

3,950
2,080
13,790
25,910
15,960
2,390

.58
.31
2.03
3.82
2.35
.35

8
11
4
3
4
11

3
2
13
11
9
1

74,430

10.98

n.a.

n.a.

1,610
280
14,550
3,540
1,660
220

.24
.04
2.15
.52
.24
.03

8
18
3
6
7
16

3
0
20
6
2
(3
)

200
380

.03
.06

14
15

(3
)
1

330
21,910
2,240
370

.05
3.23
.33
.05

23
2
6
15

(3
)
30
4
1

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Accountants and auditors.....................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products ....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Cost estimators........................................................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations ....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales representatives, scientific and related
products and services, except retail......................................
Sales representatives, except scientific and
related products or services and retail..................................
Salespersons, retail ...................................................................
Salespersons, p a rts...................................................................
Counter and rental clerks .........................................................
Cashiers......................................................................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Adjustment clerks.......................................................................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Order clerks, materials, merchandise, and
service......................................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




95

Table 24. Automotive repair, services, and garages: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 75)

Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage y a rd ..........................................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving
clerks.....................................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................

20,590

3 04

3

22

1,350

.20

n.a.

n.a.

140

.02

21

(3
)

290
590
330
250

.04
.09
.05
.04

16
12
n.a.
10

ft

1
n.a.
1

3,930

.58

n.a.

n.a.

3,220

.48

6

5

280

.04

13

1

430

.06

16

1

1,020

.15

n.a.

n.a.

Service occupations.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
All other service w orkers..........................................................

11,290

1.67

n.a.

n.a.

1,520
970

.22
.14

9
15

1
1

6,560

.97

n.a.

n.a.

6,250

.92

5

9

310
2,240

.05
.33

35
n.a.

ft
n.a.

310
310

.05
.05

n.a.
19

n.a.
1

477,010

70.37

n.a.

n.a.

38,070

5.62

n.a.

n.a.,

35,750

5.27

2

37

80

.01

36

ft

1,340

.20

8

900
440

.13
.06

10
30

660
272,790
360
8,020
123,970
88,330

.10
40.24
.05
1.18
18.29
13.03

25
n.a.
n.a.
7
2
2

31,420
240

4.64
.04

4
29

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers ........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related.....................................................
Precision inspectors, testers, and graders ...............................
All other inspectors, testers and related
occupations.............................................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Machinery maintenance mechanics.......................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Automotive mechanics...........................................................
Automotive body and related repairers.................................
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine
specialists.............................................................................
Small engine specialists.........................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




96

1

1
ft

ft

n.a.
n.a.
6
42
28
10

ft

Table 24. Automotive repair, services, and garages: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 75)

Occupation

Employment1

Electric motor, transformer, and related
repairers................................................................................
Electrical installers and repairers,
transportation equipment.....................................................
All other electrical and electronic equipment
mechanics, installers, and repairers....................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration
mechanics and installers.....................................................
Installers and repairers, manufactured
buildings, mobile homes, and travel trailers .......................
Tire repairers and changers...................................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
moving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
All other construction ?nd extractive workers,
except helpers........................................................................
Precision metal workers............................................................
Machinists ...............................................................................
All other precision metal workers ..........................................
Precision textile, apparel, and furnishings
workers...................................................................................
Upholsterers............................................................................
Precision workers, n e c ..............................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Sewing machine operators, nongarment ..............................
Painters, transportation equipment........................................
Coating, painting, and spraying machine
setters and set-up operators................................................
Coating, painting, and spraying machine
operators and tenders .........................................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and plastic .....................................................
Other hand workers, n e c ..........................................................
Welders and cutters................................................................
All other hand workers, n e c...................................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
Driver/sales workers...............................................................
All other motor vehicle operators ..........................................
Service station attendants........................................................
Parking lot attendants ...............................................................
All other transportation and material moving
equipment operators...............................................................
Helpers - mechanics and repairers ..........................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand..............................
Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, h a n d ..........................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

910

0.13

30

(3
)

1,120

.17

23

0

460

.07

37

(3
)

150

.02

40

0

300
10,870
6,640

.04
1.60
.98

36
7
n.a.

(3
)
6
n.a.

250
250

.04
.04

n.a.
27

n.a.
(3
)

510
4,210
4,020
190

.08
.62
.59
.03

n.a.
n.a.
11
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
2
n.a.

5,420
5,420
220

.80
.80
.03

n.a.
10
48

n.a.
2
(3
)

11,970
240
9,290

1.77
.04
1.37

n.a.
38
6

n.a.
(3
)
6

510

.08

25

(3
)

180

.03

42

(3
)

620

.09

31

(3
)

1,130
5,780
4,080
1,700
32,860

.17
.85
.60
.25
4.85

20
n.a.
11
n.a.
n.a.

1
n.a.
3
n.a.
n.a.

14,790
920
17,150
16,600
17,030

2.18
.14
2.53
2.45
2.51

5
20
6
5
5

10
1
4
7
2

6,190
2,250
2,240
53,300

.91
.33
.33
7.86

11
10
11
2

1
2
2
18

6,220

.92

8

3

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

97

Table 25. Miscellaneous repair services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984
(SIC 76)

Occupation

Total
Managerial and administrative occupations
Financial managers...................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers.................................
Purchasing managers...............................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers.................................
Administrative services managers...........
General managers and top executives ....
All other managers and administrators ....
Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................
Management support workers..................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................
Cost estimators.......................................
All other management support workers .
Engineers...................................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists..................................
Physical and life science technicians
and technologists..................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ...................................
Computer programmers..........................
Health practitioners, technologists,
technicians, and related
health workers........................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers
Sales and related occupations .......................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers...................................
Sales representatives, scientific and related
products and services, except retail.........
Sales representatives, except scientific and
related products or services and retail......
Salespersons, retail ......................................
Salespersons, parts......................................
Counter and rental clerks.............................
Cashiers.........................................................
All other sales and related workers............
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.......................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ....
Secretaries..........................................................
Receptionists and information clerks................
Typists.................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment.................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.......................................................
File clerks............................................................
Order clerks, materials, merchandise, and
service...............................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

311,060

100.00

10,500
5,430

3.38
1.75

n.a.
3

n.a.
17

90
140

.03
.05

13
11

1
1

180

12

1

3,370
1,080

.06
.07
1.08
.35

20
4
13

9
2

12,050
4,330

3.87
1.39

1,780

.57

2,190

210

1

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

.70

4

7

90
140
130
2,240

.03
.05
.04
.72

21

4,110

1.32

7

280

.09

42

310

.10

120

190

.04
.06

33
24

80

.03

n.a.

700

.23

26,710

8.59

n.a.

n.a.

8,600

2.76

3

22

500

.16

16

1

1,920
12,430
880
320

.62
4.00
.28

8

3
20

1,010

1,050

.32
.34

47,170

15.16

740
11,450
240
1,940
330

.24
3.68
.08
.62

9
2
13
6

2
31

.11

11

1

60
90

.02

.03

16
17

560

.18

14

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

98

.10

16
26
23

(3)
(3)
(3)

5
(3)

n.a.
(3)

(3)

n.a.
n.a.

4
13
20
12
12

1
1

2
1

n.a.

1

5

O
(3)

1

Table 25. Miscellaneous repair services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 76)

Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage yard .........................................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving
clerks.....................................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing w orkers..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................

11,140
1,070
200
13,120

3.58
.34
.06
4.22

2
6
13
2

33
5
1
29

950

.31

n.a.

n.a.

300

.10

12

1

310
340
230

.10
.11
.07

17
n.a.
24

1
n.a.
1

4,510

1.45

n.a.

n.a.

1,560

.50

5

4

2,540

.82

4

8

410

.13

23

1

540

.17

n.a.

n.a.

Service occupations.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
workers....................................................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
All other service w orkers..........................................................

3,730

1.20

n.a.

n.a.

160
180

.05
.06

18
27

0
0

110

.04

50

(3
)

2,990

.96

n.a.

n.a.

2,480

.80

7

7

510
290

.16
.09

43
27

1,280
1,280

.41
.41

n.a.
26

n.a.
1

209,620

67.39

n.a.

n.a.

14,090

4.53

n.a.

n.a.

13,120

4.22

2

31

240

.08

16

1

70

.02

23

660
340

.21
.11

10
16

2
1

190
105,530
1,970

.06
33.93
.63

37
n.a.
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.
n.a.

370
1,600

.12
.51

37
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related......................................................
Precision inspectors, testers, and graders...............................
All other inspectors, testers and related
occupations.............................................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Machinery maintenance mechanics....................................
Machinery maintenance mechanics, marine
equipment...........................................................................
All other machinery maintenance mechanics.....................
See footnotes at end of table.




99

(3
)
(*)

<*)

Table 25. Miscellaneous repair services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 76)

Occupation

Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Automotive mechanics ...........................................................
Automotive body and related repairers.................................
Motorcycle repairers ...............................................................
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine
specialists.............................................................................
Mobile heavy equipment mechanics, except
engines..................................................................................
Farm equipment mechanics....................................................
Small engine specialists.........................................................
Radio mechanics.....................................................................
All other communications equipment mechanics,
installers, and repairers.......................................................
Data processing equipment repairers....................................
Electronic home entertainment equipment
repairers................................................................................
Electric home appliance and power tool
repairers................................................................................
Electric motor, transformer, and related
repairers................................................................................
Electronics repairers, commercial and
industrial equipment.............................................................
Electrical installers and repairers,
transportation equipment.....................................................
All other electrical and electronic equipment
mechanics, installers, and repairers....................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration
mechanics and installers......................................................
Precision instrument repairers................................................
Electromedical and biomedical equipment
repairers................................................................................
Camera and photographic equipment repairers....................
Watchmakers..........................................................................
Musical instrument repairers and tuners...............................
Locksmiths and safe repairers...............................................
Office machine and cash register servicers..........................
Installers and repairers, manufactured
buildings, mobile homes, and travel trailers .......................
Bicycle repairers......................................................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters...........................................................................
Septic tank servicers and
sewer pipe cleaners ..............................................................
All other construction and extractive workers,
except helpers........................................................................
Precision metal workers............................................................
Precision instrument makers..................................................
Machinists ...............................................................................
Tool grinders, filers, sharpeners, and other
precision grinders.................................................................
Jewelers and silversmiths......................................................
Precision hand workers, jewelry and related
products................................................................................
Sheet- metal workers..............................................................
Boilermakers...........................................................................
All other precision metal workers ..........................................
Precision woodworkers..............................................................
Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters ..................................
Furniture finishers....................................................................
All other precision woodworkers............................................
Precision textile, apparel, and furnishings
workers...................................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

12,100
3,010
430
130

3.89
.97
.14
.04

4
9
27
40

11
3
(3
)
(3
)

1,810

.58

12

1

920
480
2,230
3,000

.30
.15
.72
.96

16
26
10
10

1
(3
)
3
2

2,070
630

.67
.20

17
20

1
1

13,890

4.47

4

10

8,750

2.81

5

7

15,410

4.95

4

10

1,530

.49

17

1

610

.20

25

2,580

.83

13

1

11,900
4,950

3.83
1.59

5
8

8
3

140
930
1,080
200
7,730
1,380

.05
.30
.35
.06
2.49
.44

50
18
12
34
7
13

(3
)
1
1
(3
)
4
1

160
190
5,320

.05
.06
1.71

35
38
n.a.

(3
)
(3
)
n.a.

10,920
940
1,560

3.51
.30
.50

n.a.
16
11

n.a.
1
2.

210

.07

26

1,980

.64

10

2

6,230

2.00

8

4

720
19,030
160
9,410

.23
6.12
.05
3.03

18
n.a.
45
5

(3
)
n.a.
(3
)
11

4,290
2,000

1.38
.64

9
8

3
1

250
370
2,020
530
4,770
790
3,690
290

.08
.12
.65
.17
1.53
.25
1.19
.09

30
22
13
24
n.a.
13
6
26

0
(3
)
1
(3
)
n.a.
1
3
(3
)

8,510

2.74

n.a.

n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

100

(3
)

(3
)

Table 25. Miscellaneous repair services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, May 1984—Continued
(SIC 76)

Occupation

Employment1

Upholsterers............................................................................
Precision workers, n e c ..............................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Sewing machine operators, nongarment ..............................
Painters, transportation equipment........................................
Coating, painting, and spraying machine
setters and set-up operators................................................
Coating, painting, and spraying machine
operators and tenders .........................................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and pla stic.....................................................
Other hand workers, n e c ..........................................................
Welders and cutters................................................................
Solderers and brazers............................................................
Painting, coating, and decorating,
workers, hand .......................................................................
All other hand workers, nec....................................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
Driver/sales workers...............................................................
All other motor vehicle operators..........................................
All other transportation and material moving
equipment operators...............................................................
Helpers - mechanics and repairers ..........................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand...............................
Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, ha n d ..........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

8,510
1,060

2.74
.34

3
20

8
1

4,850
2,490
140

1.56
.80
.05

n.a.
5
24

n.a.
5
(3
)

230

.07

33

(3
)

130

.04

43

(3
)

140

.05

40

(3
)

1,720
24,260
21,670
200

.55
7.80
6.97
.06

18
n.a.
3
35

1
n.a.
16
(3
)

300
2,090
7,220

.10
.67
2.32

27
n.a.
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.
n.a.

6,290
350
580

2.02
.11
.19

3
24
19

15
1
1

500
690
2,260
700

.16
.22
.73
.23

n.a.
15
7
35

n.a.
1
4
(3
)

3,890

1.25

9

4

90

.03

n.a.

n.a.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

101

Table 26. Motion pictures: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
June 1984
(SIC 78)

Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

229,000

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations................................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
Food service and lodging managers........................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

23,430
2,320

10.23
1.01

n.a.
17

n.a.
11

700
280

.31
.12

28
22

4
3

1,690
4,680
860
6,010
6,890

.74
2.04
.38
2.62
3.01

19
6
14
8
9

10
34
6
32
18

52,940
3,760

23.12
1.64

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

1,640
1,260
100
280

.72
.55
.04
.12

n.a.
13
21
20

n.a.
7
1
1

330

.14

27

3

210
1,580
870

.09
.69
.38

45
13
n.a.

1
4
n.a.

1,620

.71

n.a.

n.a.

540

.24

36

3

1,080

.47

39

2

670

.29

n.a.

n.a.

300
370
220
1,660

.13
.16
.10
.72

15
25
43
21

1
2
2
6

530
310
790
2,300
2,630
2,310
1,100

.23
.14
.34
1.00
1.15
1.01
.48

17
31
37
23
22
24
33

2
1
4
8
7
5
2

1,210
2,320
710

.53
1.01
.31

39
31
45

1
1

24,880

10.86

4

9

5,050

2.21

n.a.

n.a.

32,150

14.04

n.a.

n.a.

750

.33

21

6

2,150
22,950

.94
10.02

15
3

10
56

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Accountants and auditors.....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
All other management support workers.................................
Engineers...................................................................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineering
technicians and technologists..............................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Librarians, professional .............................................................
Writers and editors.....................................................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity writers ................................................................
Announcers, radio and television..............................................
Photographers............................................................................
Camera operators, television and motion picture....................
Film editors ................................................................................
Artists and related workers........................................................
Designers, except interior designers........................................
Music directors, singers, composers, and
related workers........................................................................
Musicians, instrumental.............................................................
Dancers and choreographers....................................................
Producers, directors, actors, and other
entertainers.............................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales representatives, except scientific and
related products or services and retail..................................
Cashiers......................................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




102

f)

Table 26. Motion pictures: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
June 1984—Continued
(SIC 78)

Occupation

News and street vendors, telephone solicitors,
door-to-door sales
workers, and other related workers.......................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers...........................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Order clerks, materials, merchandise, and
service......................................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office cle rk s .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Production, planning, and expediting
clerks.....................................................................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage yard .........................................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving
clerks.....................................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
workers....................................................................................
Service occupations .....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
All other protective service workers.........................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
w orkers....................................................................................
Waiters and waitresses..........................................................
Counter attendants, lunchroom,
coffee shop, or cafeteria......................................................
Cooks, specialty fast food ......................................................
Food preparation workers......................................................
Combined food preparation and service workers.................
All other food service workers...............................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households ..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households...................................
Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists.........................
Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers.............................
Wardrobe, and locker and dressing room
attendants................................................................................
All other service workers ..........................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

1,100
5,200

0.48
2.27

28
n.a.

2
n.a.

27,050

11.81

n.a.

n.a.

1,370
7,300
140
1,450
610
280

.60
3.19
.06
.63
.27
.12

15
9
35
17
22
36

7
24
1
8
3
2

170
300

.07
.13

21
30

2
2

460
3,910
440
3,940

.20
1.71
.19
1.72

27
10
24
13

3
19
2
13

1,040

.45

n.a.

n.a.

80

.03

42

1

310
530
120
340

.14
.23
.05
.15

18
27
n.a.
15

2
2
n.a.
3

3,020

1.32

n.a.

n.a.

790

.34

27

4

460

.20

28

3

1,460

.64

22

6

310

.14

24

1

2,280

1.00

n.a.

n.a.

65,100

28.43

n.a.

n.a.

930
1,500
200

.41
.66
.09

16
12
31

5
5
ft

23,400
340

10.22
.15

n.a.
38

n.a.
ft

14,770
790
1,670
3,810
2,020

6.45
.34
.73
1.66
.88

6
19
20
19
n.a.

30
3
5
2
n.a.

9,200

4.02

n.a.

n.a.

8,840

3.86

4

45

360
830
28,440

.16
.36
12.42

n.a.
39
3

n.a.

260
340

.11
.15

27
n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

103

ft

49

ft
n.a.

Table 26. Motion pictures: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
June 1984—Continued
(SIC 78)

Occupation

Employment'

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

350
350

0.15
.15

n.a.
18

n.a.
2

27,980

12.22

n.a.

n.a.

370

.16

n.a.

n.a.

60

.03

48

1

90

.04

28

220
400
1,870
1,230
280
360

.10
17
82
54
12
.16

n.a.
32
n.a.
13
47
n.a.

n.a.
2
n.a.
10
2
n.a.

1,780
820
580

.78
.36
.25

n.a.
31
26

n.a.
1
1

310

.14

31

1

70

.03

29

(3
)

130
180
180

.06
.08
.08

40
n.a.
35

(3
)
n.a.
(3
)

60
60
60

.03
.03
.03

n.a.
34
n.a.

n.a.
(3
)
n.a.

60
1,200

.03
.52

37
n.a.

(3
)
n.a.

17,170

7.50

n.a.

n.a.

2,140

.93

27

3

14,350

6.27

n.a.

n.a.

680

.30

n.a.

n.a.

220
1,190

.10
.52

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

560
190
440
1,100

.24
.08
.19
.48

32
50
33
43

2
(*)
1
2

1,450

.63

n.a.

n.a.

800

Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers ........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related.....................................................
Inspectors and related occupations.........................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Camera and photographic equipment repairers....................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
moving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters...........................................................................
All other construction and extractive workers,
except helpers.........................................................................
Precision metal workers............................................................
Machinists ...............................................................................
Precision textile, apparel, and furnishings
workers...................................................................................
Custom tailors and sewers ....................................................
Precision printing workers...............................'..........................
Precision compositors, typesetters, and
arrangers...............................................................................
Precision workers, n e c ..............................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Photographic processing machine operators and
tenders..................................................................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and p la stic.....................................................
Hand working occupations, including assemblers
and fabricators.........................................................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
Driver/sales workers...............................................................
All other motor vehicle operators ..........................................
Freicht, stock, and material movers, hand...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, ha n d ...........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

.35

n.a.

n.a.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

104

(3
)

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

Table 27. Amusement and recreation services, except motion pictures: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, April 1984
(SIC 79)

Occupation

Employment’

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

791,470

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations...............................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
Food service and lodging managers........................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

42,840
10,930

5.41
1.38

n.a.
3

n.a.
29

720
450

.09
.06

8
7

3
3

6,180
850
6,820
10,550
6,340

.78
.11
.86
1.33
.80

5
10
4
3
5

16
3
20
26
11

136,680
6,400

17.27
.81

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

4,350
3,970
150
230

.55
.50
.02
.03

n.a.
4
13
11

n.a.
12
1
1

410

.05

12

2

360
1,280
500
190
310

.05
.16
.06
.02
.04

9
10
n.a.
17
10

1
2
n.a.
1
1

1,520

.19

n.a.

n.a.

1,350

.17

18

2

170

.02

38

(3
)

730

.09

n.a.

n.a.

110
500
120
9,070
110
12,740

.01
.06
.02
1.15
.01
1.61

10
9
10
9
46
4

(3
)
2
1
6
(3
)
7

23,590
1,010
420

2.98
.13
.05

5
24
9

19
1
1

1,100

.14

n.a.

n.a.

3,330
2,950
320
420
370
1,210

.42
.37
.04
.05
.05
.15

7
23
18
22
19
15

8
2
1
1
1
2

3,720
30,710
6,700

.47
3.88
.85

13
6
11

4
7
3

12,490
12,020

..58
1.52

9
6

4
6

5,250

.66

n.a.

n.a.

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Accountants and auditors....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineers ...................................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers........................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineering
technicians and technologists..............................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aid e s..................................................
Recreation workers....................................................................
Lecturers ....................................................................................
Instructors, nonvocational education........................................
Instructors and coaches, sports and
physical training.........................................................................
All other teachers and instructors ............................................
Registered nurses......................................................................
All other health professionals,
paraprofessional and technicians...........................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity writers ................................................................
Announcers, radio and television..............................................
Announcers, except radio and television.................................
Broadcast technicians...............................................................
Artists and related workers.......................................................
Designers, except interior designers........................................
Music directors, singers, composers, and
related workers.......................................................................
Musicians, instrumental.............................................................
Dancers and choreographers...................................................
Producers, directors, actors, and other
entertainers .............................................................................
Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers ...................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers...............................
See footnotes at end of table.




105

Table 27. Amusement and recreation services, except motion pictures: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, April 1984—Continued
(SIC 79)

Occupation

Sales and related occupations ....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Sales representatives, scientific and related
products and services, except retail......................................
Sales representatives, except scientific and
related products or services and retail..................................
Counter and rental clerks .........................................................
Cashiers......................................................................................
News and street vendors, telephone solicitors,
door-to-door sales
workers, and other related workers.......................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

8.32

n.a.

n.a.

1,730

22

6

5

300

.04

34

(3
)

1,460
3,600
49,100

.18
.45
6.20

9
8
2

3
3
27

2,980
6,710

.38
.85

14
7

2
4

61,170

7.73

n.a.

n.a.

1,920
12,210
200
9,250
1,490
590

.24
1.54
.03
1.17
.19
.07

5
4
14
6
9
16

7
28
0
15
4
2

370
300

.05
.04

7
17

2
1

880
13,600
2,420
310
10,310

.11
1.72
.31
.04
1.30

28
2
5
19
4

1
37
9
1
19

1,350

.17

n.a.

n.a.

230

.03

12

1

490
440
190
2,150

.06
.06
.02
.27

7
9
n.a.
7

2
2
n.a.
5

2,070

.26

n.a.

n.a.

240

.03

15

1

950

.12

8

3

280

.04

8

1

600

.08

18

(3
)

1,750

.22

n.a.

n.a.

372,820

47.10

n.a.

n.a.

8,780
2,720

1.11
.34

n.a.
5

n.a.
7

6,060
1,150
16,040
3,390

.77
.15
2.03
.43

4
6
4
13

6
1
12
2

174,890

22.10

n.a.

n.a.

2,940

Clerical and administrative support
occupations..............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers............................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping..............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Order clerks, materials, merchandise, and
service......................................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks.......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators.......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment..............................................................................
Data entry keyers, except composing....................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Production, planning, and expediting
clerks.....................................................................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage y a rd ..........................................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving
clerks.....................................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................

65,880

.37

4

7

First-line supervisors and

All other service supervisors and

All nthfir prntfictive service workers .........................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge or

See footnotes at end of table.




106

Table 27. Amusement and recreation services, except motion pictures: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, April 1984—Continued
(SIC 79)

Occupation

Bartenders...............................................................................
Waiters and waitresses..........................................................
Dining room and cafeteria attendants, and
bartender helpers.................................................................
Counter attendants, lunchroom,
coffee shop, or cafeteria.....................................................
Cooks, restaurant....................................................................
Cooks, specialty fast food .....................................................
Cooks, short o rd e r..................................................................
Food preparation workers......................................................
Combined food preparation and service workers.................
All other food service workers...............................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Maids and housekeeping cleaners........................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households...................................
Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists .........................
Amusement and recreation attendants....................................
Guides ........................................................................................
Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers.............................
Wardrobe, and locker and dressing room
attendants................................................................................
Child care workers.....................................................................
All other service w orkers..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Animal caretakers, except fa rm ................................................
All other agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
related workers........................................................................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related.....................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Small engine specialists.........................................................
Coin and vending machine servicers and
repairers................................................................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters...........................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

28,670
61,560

3.62
7.78

2
2

33
31

16,360

2.07

3

14

9,930
15,900
6,350
3,020
18,430
6,710
5,020

1.25
2.01
.80
.38
2.33
.85
.63

6
3
6
7
3
7
6

8
24
7
4
20
2
4

37,300
7,770

4.71
.98

n.a.
4

n.a.
10

27,710

3.50

2

35

1,820
180
95,610
4,390
14,220

.23
.02
12.08
.55
1.80

11
21
2
13
6

2
0
34
2
6

3,700
6,160
7,010

.47
.78
.89

6
4
n.a.

5
10
n.a.

52,970
44,490
8,060

6.69
5.62
1.02

n.a.
2
7

n.a.
28
3

420

.05

20

1

59,110

7.47

n.a.

n.a.

2,040

.26

n.a.

n.a.

710

.09

7

3

300

.04

14

1

160

.02

13

1

870
31,520
23,560
720

.11
3.98
2.98
.09

11
n.a.
3
17

2
n.a.
33
2

3,880
3,360

.49
.42

12
n.a.

3
n.a.

5,670
2,890
1,710

.72
.37
.22

n.a.
8
9

n.a.
4
3

750

.09

8

2

320

.04

7

1

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

107

Table 27. Amusement and recreation services, except motion pictures: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, April 1984—Continued
(SIC 79)

Occupation

Employment1

All other construction and extractive workers,
except helpers........................................................................
Precision metal workers............................................................
Machinists ...............................................................................
Precision textile, apparel, and furnishings
workers...................................................................................
Custom tailors and sewers ....................................................
Precision workers, n e c ..............................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Laundry and drycleaning machine operators and
tenders, except pressing .....................................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and plastic .....................................................
Hand working occupations, including assemblers
and fabricators.........................................................................
Plant and system workers ........................................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
Bus drivers ..............................................................................
Driver/sales workers...............................................................
All other motor vehicle operators ..........................................
Captains, water vessel ..............................................................
Parking lot attendants ...............................................................
All other transportation and motor vehicle
operators.................................................................................
Material moving equipment operators......................................
Industrial truck and tractor operators....................................
All other material moving equipment
operators...............................................................................
Helpers - mechanics and repairers ..........................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand..............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, ha n d ..........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

710
400
400

0.09
.05
.05

10
n.a.
15

1
n.a.
0

490
490
1,000

.06
.06
.13

n.a.
13
n.a.

n.a.
1
n.a.

1,900

.24

n.a.

n.a.

900

.11

6

2

190

.02

n.a.

n.a.

810

.10

n.a.

n.a.

900
120
2,370

.11
.02
.30

n.a.
21
n.a.

n.a.
(3
)
n.a.

1,370
320
150
530
160
3,950

.17
.04
.02
.07
.02
.50

14
20
49
16
36
6

2
1
(3
)
1
ft
3

300
870
450

.04

n.a.

.06

26
n.a.
14

420
610
1,790

.05
.08
.23

20
10
20

3,610

.46

10

3

700

.09

n.a.

n.a.

.11

ft

ft
ft

1
2

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

108

Table 28. Health services, except hospitals: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, April 1984
(SIC 80)

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

3.40
.81

n.a.
4

n.a.
16

3,030
2,590

.10
.08

6
8

4
3

1,680
6,220
36,270
5,950
14,270
9,560

.05
.20
1.18
.19
.46
.31

6
4
3
5
4
5

2
5
20
5
10
5

1,113,020
18,670

36.24
.61

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

14,240
13,050
400
790

.46
.42
.01
.03

n.a.
5
17
18

n.a.
8
(3
)
♦ 1

660

.02

10

1

1,350
2,420

.04
.08

8
n.a.

2
n.a.

910

.03

n.a.

n.a.

360

.01

48

550
400
3,220
2,000
1,220

.02
.01
.10
.07
.04

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
17
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
1
n.a.

920

.03

n.a.

n.a.

2,960

.10

n.a.

n.a.

1,010
1,340
610

.03
.04
.02

15
12
12

1
1
1

10,470
10,100
370
28,780
6,000
10,010
860
2,290

.34
.33
.01
.94
.20
.33
.03
.07

n.a.
8
26
5
6
11
11
6

n.a.
3
0
9
4
3
1
2

1,370
2,750
209,990
70,120
13,900
4,370

.04
.09
6.84
2.28
.45
.14

18
12
2
2
4
8

4,650
5,150
4,990
20,620

.15
.17
.16
.67

8
12
6
4

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

T o ta l................................................................................

3,070,950

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations...............................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers............................................
Medicine and health services managers.................................
Food service and lodging managers........................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

104,560
24,990

Occupation

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Accountants and auditors....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Industrial engineering technicians
and technologists .................................................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Physical scientists......................................................................
Life scientists.............................................................................
Medical scientists....................................................................
All other life scientists............................................................
Physical and life science technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aides..................................................
Social scientists, including urban and regional
planners...................................................................................
Psychologists.............................................................................
All other social scientists..........................................................
Social workers, medical and psychiatric..................................
Social workers, except medical and psychiatric......................
Social service technicians.........................................................
Clergy..........................................................................................
Nursing instructors.....................................................................
Teachers and instructors, vocational education
and training .............................................................................
All other teachers and instructors ............................................
Physicians and surgeons..........................................................
Dentists.......................................................................................
Optometrists ..............................................................................
Podiatrists...................................................................................
All other health diagnosing and treating
practitioners.............................................................................
Respiratory therapists................................................................
Occupational therapists.............................................................
Physical therapists.....................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




109

0

ft

1
34
17
7
3
2
1
4
9

Table 28. Health services, except hospitals: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, April 1984—Continued
(SIC 80)

Occupation

Employment'

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

Corrective and manual arts therapists.....................................
Speech pathologists and audiologists......................................
Recreational therapists..............................................................
All other therapists.....................................................................
Registered nurses......................................................................
Licensed practical nurses .........................................................
Emergency medical technicians................................................
Physicians assistants.................................................................
Opticians, dispensing and measuring.......................................
Pharmacists ...............................................................................
Dietitians and nutritionists.........................................................
Dietetic technicians....................................................................
Medical and clinical laboratory technologists...........................
Medical and clinical laboratory technicians..............................
Dental hygienists........................................................................
Medical records technicians and technologists.......................
Nuclear medicine technologists................................................
Radiologic technologists...........................................................
Radiologic technicians...............................................................
Electroencephalograph technicians and
technologists............................................................................
Electrocardiograph technicians and
technologists............................................................................
Surgical technicians............... ...................................................
All other health professionals,
paraprofessional and technicians...........................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity w rite rs................................................................
Photographers............................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................

340
6,090
14,320
2,530
209,940
173,440
450
34,300
19,570
2,380
7,080
5,140
30,910
29,810
78,280
9,680
950
10,880
25,070

0.01
.20
.47
.08
6.84
5.65
.01
1.12
.64
.08
.23
.17
1.01
.97
2.55
.32
.03
.35
.82

21
8
3
12
2
2
36
5
4
7
5
9
4
4
2
4
19
9
5

(3
)
4
7
1
32
24
(3
)
8
7
2
6
3
6
7
15
6
(3
)
3
7

660

.02

26

(3
)

1,780
1,160

.06
.04

15
20

1
1

18,380

.60

7

4

1,120
390

.04
.01

10
34

1
(3
)

4,970

.16

n.a.

n.a.

Sales and related occupations ....................................................
Cashiers......................................................................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................

12,390
9,000
3,390

.40
.29
.11

n.a.
7
8

n.a.
4
1

634,910

20.67

n.a.

n.a.

16,730
116,360
78,110
1,020
163,080
30.500
5,270

.54
3.79
2.54
.03
5.31
.99
.17

4
2
3
10
1
4
8

9
29
26
1
46
12
3

1,270
20,550

.04
.67

6
5

2
7

1,020
610
1,380

.03
.02
.04

10
9
17

1
1
1

2,300
70,360
7,350
18,360
66,500

.07
2.29
.24
.60
2.17

11
2
6
5
3

1
32
7
8
21

15,050

.49

n.a.

n.a.

7,790

.25

8

3

2,040
4,600
620
8,970

.07
.15
.02
.29

8
7
n.a.
5

2
3
n.a.
6

Clerical and administrative support
occupations..............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Medical secretaries....................................................................
All other secretaries...................................................................
Stenographers ............................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Order clerks, materials, merchandise, and
service......................................................................................
Procurement clerks....................................................................
Statistical c le rk s.........................................................................
Interviewing clerks, except personnel and
social welfare...........................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office c le rk s .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment..............................................................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators..............................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




no

Table 28. Health services, except hospitals: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, April 1984—Continued
(SIC 80)

Occupation

Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage y a rd ..........................................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving
clerks.....................................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
workers....................................................................................
Service occupations.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Housekeepers ............................................................................
All other service supervisors and
manager/supervisors..............................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
workers....................................................................................
Waiters and waitresses..........................................................
Food servers, outside.............................................................
Dining room and cafeteria attendants, and
bartender helpers.................................................................
Counter attendants, lunchroom,
coffee shop, or cafeteria......................................................
Bakers, bread and pastry.......................................................
Cooks, institution or cafeteria.................................................
Cooks, short o rd e r..................................................................
Food preparation workers.......................................................
All other food service workers...............................................
Health service and related workers..........................................
Dental assistants.....................................................................
Medical assistants...................................................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants...............................
Home health aides..................................................................
Psychiatric aides .....................................................................
Physical and corrective therapy
assistants and a id e s............................................................
Occupational therapy assistants and aides...........................
Ambulance drivers and attendants, except
emergency medical technicians..........................................
Pharmacy assistants...............................................................
All other health service workers ............................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Maids and housekeeping cleaners ........................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists .........................
Social welfare service aides......................................................
Child care workers.....................................................................
All other service w orkers..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

2,870

0.09

n.a.

n.a.

1,300

.04

6

2

830

.03

10

1

740

.02

n.a.

n.a.

7,250

.24

n.a.

n.a.

1,104,120

35.95

n.a.

n.a.

23,870
19,420

.78
.63

n.a.
4

n.a.
8

4,450
3,090

.14
.10

8
7

2
1

142,390
4,280
14,650

4.64
.14
.48

n.a.
15
7

n.a.
(3
)
2

8,280

.27

9

1

400
320
39,790
960
64,010
9,700
800,580
136,630
80,600
497,460
47,980
3,380

.01
.01
1.30
.03
2.08
.32
26.07
4.45
2.62
16.20
1.56
.11

28
18
2
20
3
n.a.
n.a.
1
3
1
6
26

(3
)
(3
)
10
(3
)
7
n.a.
n.a.
20
14
12
3
0

15,670
2,770

.51
.09

4
9

7
2

770
1,360
13,960

.03
.04
.45

41
16
7

120,680
74,260

3.93
2.42

n.a.
2

n.a.
13

43,960

1.43

3

16

2,460
1,660
7,930
1,190
2,730

.08
.05
.26
.04
.09

n.a.
8
15
29
n.a.

n.a.
1
1
(3
)
n.a.

6,040
6,040

.20
.20

n.a.
7

n.a.
3

95,910

3.12

n.a.

n.a.

2,370

.08

n.a.

n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

Ill

0
1
3

Table 28. Health services, except hospitals: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting
selected occupations, April 1984—Continued
(SIC 80)

Occupation

Employment1

First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers ........................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related.....................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Precision workers, n e c ..............................................................
Precision optical goods w orkers............................................
Precision dental laboratory
technicians............................................................................
All other precision workers, n e c.............................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Laundry and drycleaning machine operators and
tenders, except pressing .....................................................
Pressing machine operators and tenders,
textile, garment, and
related materials...................................................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and plastic ......................................................
Hand working occupations, including assemblers
and fabricators.........................................................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
All other motor vehicle operators ..........................................
All other transportation and motor vehicle
operators .................................................................................
Helpers - laborers and material
movers, hand ..........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

1,210

0.04

9

1

1,160
17,670
16,310
1,360

.04
.58
.53
.04

n.a.
n.a.
3
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.
9
n.a.

1,060
35,000
380

.03
1.14
.01

n.a.
n.a.
23

n.a.
n.a.
(3
)

33,720
900

1.10
.03

4
n.a.

4
n.a.

25,510

.83

n.a.

n.a.

24,190

.79

3

7

370

.01

30

(3
)

240

.01

n.a.

n.a.

710

.02

n.a.

n.a.

1,140
10,300

.04
.34

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

6,430
3,870

.21
.13

5
11

3
1

660

.02

20

(3
)

1,680

.05

24

(3
)

520

.02

n.a.

n.a.

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

112

Table 29. Legal services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984
(SIC 81)

Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

634,470

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations...............................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
All other administrative managers............................................
Property and real estate managers and
administrators..........................................................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

9,050
3,810

1.43
.60

n.a.
10

n.a.
11

700
630
210

.11
.10
.03

8
16
n.a.

5
4
n.a.

770
2,240
690

.12
.35
.11

26
13
n.a.

1
7
n.a.

277,330
3,100

43.71
.49

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

2,380

.38

n.a.

n.a.

280
440

.04
.07

16
n.a.

2
n.a.

770

.12

n.a.

n.a.

110
460
200
206,810
22,040
37,950
1,200
960

.02
.07
.03
32.60
3.47
5.98
.19
.15

19
30
25
1
5
4
24
29

1
2
1
86
29
40

1,160
2,700

.18
.43

26
8

3
10

640

.10

n.a.

n.a.

(3
)

n.a.

n.a.

339,760

53.55

n.a.

n.a.

3,240
630
840
810
199,360
16,400
5,380
18,900
4,320
19,590

.51
.10
.13
.13
31.42
2.58
.85
2.98
.68
3.09

9
46
8
42
1
8
16
4
14
5

9
1
3
(3
)
88
14
4
37
6
23

520
9,250
23,390
1,140
650
12,900

.08
1.46
3.69
.18
.10
2.03

18
7
4
15
14
7

2
18
45
6
3
20

5,330

.84

n.a.

n.a.

1,830
1,500

.29
.24

16
11

6
4

230

.04

16

1

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations................ ............................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
All other management support workers................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aides..................................................
Lawyers......................................................................................
Law clerks..................................................................................
Paralegal personnel...................................................................
Title searchers...........................................................................
Title examiners and abstractors................................................
All other legal assistants and technicians,
except clerical.........................................................................
Librarians, professional .............................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers...............................
Sales and related occupations....................................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Bill and account collectors .......................................................
Library assistants and bookmobile drivers..............................
Real estate clerks......................................................................
Legal secretaries........................................................................
All other secretaries...................................................................
Stenographers...........................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office c le rks.................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Duplicating machine operators...............................................
Mail machine operators, preparation and
handling ................................................................................

20

See footnotes at end of table.




113

3
2

Table 29. Legal services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
May 1984—Continued
(SIC 81)

Occupation

Employment1

Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operators....................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators..............................................................
Mail clerks, except mail machine operators and
postal service...........................................................................
Messengers................................................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage yard ..........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................
Service occupations .....................................................................
Detectives and investigators, except public.............................
All other protective service workers.........................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
w orkers....................................................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
All other service w orkers..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations..............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations..............................................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route w orkers...................................................................
All other transportation and material moving
equipment operators...............................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

600
90
950
130
5,870

0.09
.01
.15
.02
.93

16
35
16
38
7

3
(3
)
4
1
15

1,620
7,080

.26
1.12

10
7

4
12

490

.08

n.a.

n.a.

300

.05

13

2

190

.03

41

(3
)

2,050

.32

n.a.

n.a.

7,080
1,230
190

1.12
.19
.03

n.a.
20
n.a.

n.a.
2
n.a.

310

.05

23

1

5,150
200

.81
.03

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

400
400

.06
.06

n.a.
36

n.a.
1

830

.13

n.a.

n.a.

150

.02

49

(3
)

150

.02

n.a.

n.a.

530

.08

n.a.

n.a.

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

114

Table 30. Social services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
April 1984
(SIC 83)

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

7.58
1.51

n.a.
3

n.a.
39

2,460
960

.20
.08

5
10

7
3

2,830
6,220
7,670
3,190
7,880
26,420
17,410

.23
.50
.62
.26
.64
2.14
1.41

6
4
4
5
6
2
3

6
10
11
7
13
39
18

446,980
22,670

36.17
1.83

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

8,210
6,510
940
760

.66
.53
.08
.06

n.a.
4
8
10

n.a.
15
2
2

560

.05

7

2

1,990

.16

9

2

4,760
250

.39
.02

6
15

7
1

510
6,390

.04
.52

20
6

1
7

530

.04

26

1

330

.03

18

(3
)

1,270

.10

n.a.

n.a.

290
630
350
420

.02
.05
.03
.03

13
8
9
n.a.

1
2
1
n.a.

8,280
360
7,440
480
32,370
57,100
32,070
16,130
1,320
680
370
270
1,060
460

.67
.03
.60
.04
2.62
4.62
2.59
1.31
.11
.06
.03
.02
.09
.04

n.a.
22
11
n.a.
4
3
4
5
n.a.
10
26
40
14
22

n.a.
1
7
n.a.
14
31
18
14
n.a.
2
1
0
1
0

190
220
143,130
2,780

.02
.02
11.58
.22

n.a.
37
1
11

n.a.

17,670

1.43

4

9

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

T o ta l................................................................................

1,235,850

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations...............................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
Education administrators...........................................................
Medicine and health services managers.................................
Food service and lodging managers........................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

93,660
18,620

Occupation

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Accountants and auditors.....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Employment interviewers, private or public
employjment service ............................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Cost estimators........................................................................
Compliance officers and enforcement
inspectors, except construction...........................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Physical and life science technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer a ides..................................................
Mathematical scientists.............................................................
Social scientists, including urban and regional
planners...................................................................................
Urban and regional planners....................................................
Psychologists.............................................................................
All other social scientists..........................................................
Social workers, medical and psychiatric..................................
Social workers, except medical and psychiatric......................
Social service technicians.........................................................
Recreation workers....................................................................
Religious workers.......................................................................
Clergy..........................................................................................
Directors, religious activities and education.............................
All other religious w orkers........................................................
Lawyers ......................................................................................
Paralegal personnel...................................................................
All other legal assistants and technicians,
except clerical.........................................................................
Lecturers ....................................................................................
Teachers, preschool and kindergarten ....................................
Teachers, elementary sch o o l....................................................
Teachers and instructors, vocational education
and training .............................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




115

fl
29
1

Table 30. Social services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
April 1984—Continued
(SIC 83)

Occupation

Instructors, nonvocational education........................................
Instructors and coaches, sports and
physical training.........................................................................
All other teachers and instructors ............................................
Librarians, professional .............................................................
Technical assistants, library......................................................
Vocational and educational counselors...................................
Instructional coordinators..........................................................
Physicians and surgeons..........................................................
Occupational therapists.............................................................
Physical therapists.....................................................................
Corrective and manual arts therapists.....................................
Recreational therapists..............................................................
All other therapists.....................................................................
Registered nurses......................................................................
Licensed practical nurses.........................................................
Pharmacists...............................................................................
Dietitians and nutritionists.........................................................
Dietetic technicians....................................................................
Medical records technicians and technologists.......................
All other health professionals,
paraprofessional and technicians...........................................
Writers and editors.....................................................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity w rite rs................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Cashiers......................................................................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support w orkers..........................
Welfare eligibility workers and interviewers..............................
Library assistants and bookmobile drivers..............................
Teachers aides and educational assistants,
clerical......................................................................................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers...........................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Interviewing clerks, except personnel and
social welfare..........................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office cle rks.................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Duplicating machine operators...............................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators........................................
Switchboard operators..............................................................
Mail clerks, except mail machine operators and
postal service..........................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

13,600

1.10

6

8

860
13,280
220
170
14,390
2,320
1,660
1,800
1,400
280
1,740
2,240
17,350
11,820
180
2,970
780
1,120

.07
1.07
.02
.01
1.16
.19
.13
.15
.11
.02
.14
.18
1.40
.96
.01
.24
.06
.09

12
6
18
28
4
8
8
9
9
27
6
9
3
3
14
6
10
7

1
5
1
(3
)
9
3
3
3
3
(3
)
3
3
16
10
1
8
1
3

10,030
390

.81
.03

6
14

4
1

4,960

.40

6

10

5,420

.44

n.a.

n.a.

12,420

1.00

n.a.

n.a.

2,350
3,350
6,720

.19
.27
.54

9
8
9

2
2
3

214,660

17.37

n.a.

n.a.

6,090
2,830
230

.49
.23
.02

4
8
17

9
2
(3
)

71,370
43,820
660
14,110
8,090
1,980

5.77
3.55
.05
1.14
.65
.16

2
2
9
4
4
7

23
51
1
23
11
4

840
1,690

.07
.14

4
10

3
3

650
24,010
3,390
790
19,230

.05
1.94
.27
.06
1.56

14
2
4
6
4

1
44
10
2
19

3,410

.28

n.a.

n.a.

700
380

.06
.03

11
8

2
1

640
1,310
380
3,200

.05
.11
.03
.26

8
18
n.a.
4

2
2
n.a.
8

680

.06

12

1

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

116

Table 30. Social services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
April 1984—Continued
(SIC 83)

Occupation

Messengers................................................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage yard .........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
workers....................................................................................
Service occupations ....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Housekeepers ............................................................................
All other service supervisors and
manager/supervisors..............................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
workers....................................................................................
Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge or
coffee s h o p ..........................................................................
Waiters and waitresses..........................................................
Dining room and cafeteria attendants, and
bartender helpers.................................................................
Counter attendants, lunchroom,
coffee shop, or cafeteria.....................................................
Cooks, restaurant....................................................................
Cooks, institution or cafeteria.................................................
Cooks, specialty fast food .....................................................
Food preparation workers......................................................
All other food service workers...............................................
Health service and related workers..........................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants...............................
Home health aides..................................................................
Psychiatric aides .....................................................................
Physical and corrective therapy
assistants and aid e s............................................................
Occupational therapy assistants and aides...........................
All other health service workers............................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Maids and housekeeping cleaners........................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households...................................
Amusement and recreation attendants....................................
Social welfare service aides.....................................................
Child care workers....................................................................
All other service workers ..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Animal caretakers, except fa rm ................................................
All other agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
related workers.......................................................................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors • production,
construction, maintenance, and related
w orkers.................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers ........................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

410

0.03

8

1

2,890

.23

n.a.

n.a.

1,870

.15

10

3

1,020

.08

12

1

4,290

.35

n.a.

n.a.

356,950

28.88

n.a.

n.a.

11,770
6,720

.95
.54

n.a.
5

n.a.
10

5,050
5,460

.41
.44

6
6

5
5

72,400

5.86

n.a.

n.a.

380
6,230

.03
.50

14
7

1
2

5,980

.48

6

3

710
360
32,960
370
20,740
4,670
105,080
47,200
47,240
1,280

.06
.03
2.67
.03
1.68
.38
8.50
3.82
3.82
.10

15
15
2
23
3
n.a.
n.a.
3
3
17

'1
0
36
(3
)
16
n.a.
n.a.
9
4
(3
)

720
490
8,150

.06
.04
.66

15
15
8

1
1
3

43,450
16,560

3.52
1.34

n.a.
3

n.a.
12

25,480

2.06

3

27

1,410
1,400
22,570
85,870
8,950

.11
.11
1.83
6.95
.72

n.a.
15
6
3
n.a.

n.a.
1
3
17
n.a.

5,360
4,460
230

.43
.36
.02

n.a.
6
29

n.a.
7
(3
)

670

.05

20

1

105,820

8.56

n.a.

n.a.

12,880

1.04

n.a.

n.a.

6,730

.54

6

8

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

117

Table 30. Social services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected occupations,
April 1984—Continued
(SIC 83)

Occupation

Employment1

First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers.....................................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related......................................................
Inspectors and related occupations.........................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Electricians...............................................................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters............................................................................
All other construction and extractive workers,
except helpers.........................................................................
Precision production occupations.............................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic........................................................
Laundry and drycleaning machine operators and
tenders, except pressing......................................................
Pressing machine operators and tenders,
textile, garment, and
related materials...................................................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and pla stic......................................................
Hand working occupations, including assemblers
and fabricators.........................................................................
Plant and system workers .........................................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
Bus drivers...............................................................................
Bus drivers, school..................................................................
Driver/sales workers...............................................................
All other motor vehicle operators ..........................................
All other transportation and material moving
equipment operators...............................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, h a n d ...........................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

870

0.07

14

1

600

.05

11

2

4,680
1,250
12,840
11,850
990

.38
.10
1.04
.96
.08

7
14
16
3
13

3
1
19
18
1

5,440
4,150
240

.44
.34
.02

n.a.
7
11

n.a.
4
1

910

.07

16

1

140

.01

12

(3
)

1,740
440

.14
.04

12
19

1
(3
)

4,390

.36

n.a.

n.a.

2,730

.22

4

4

220

.02

14

0

480

.04

45

ft

960

.08

18

(3
)

19,960
140
25,830

1.62
.01
2.09

8
16
n.a.

2
0
n.a.

4,940
8,240
8,100
480
4,070

.40
.67
.66
.04
.33

6
6
4
13
7

6
8
7

1,030
3,860

.08
.31

16
9

1
3

16,020

1.30

7

3

ft

4

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Perce nt of total
employment

118

Table 31. Museums and botanical and zoological gardens: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations, April 1984
(SIC 84)

Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

39,230

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations...............................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

3,410
390

8.69
.99

n.a.
6

n.a.
31

120
50

.31
.13

9
15

11
5

340
280
1,370
860

.87
.71
3.49
2.19

6
9
3
n.a.

25
19
69
n.a.

9,870
890

25.16
2.27

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

520
280

1.33
.71

n.a.
16

n.a.
5

170

.43

19

3

50
290
960
1,010
480
250

.13
.74
2.45
2.57
1.22
.64

42
16
9
13
7
8

1
7
23
12
24
12

3,360
260

8.56
.66

4
8

69
13

380
270

.97
.69

6
8

26
15

1,220

3.11

n.a.

n.a.

3,530

9.00

n.a.

n.a.

540
2,160
830

1.38
5.51
2.12

7
6
9

29
33
13

6,550

16.70

n.a.

n.a.

630
140
2,140
80
730
280
80
680
80
650

1.61
.36
5.46
.20
1.86
.71
.20
1.73
.20
1.66

8
10
3
14
6
8
11
4
8
10

27
7
63
3
39
12
7
45
8
19

150
190

.38
.48

n.a.
6

n.a.
13

240

.61

n.a.

n.a.

170

.43

15

6

70

.18

13

1

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers...................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Life scientists.............................................................................
Physical and life science technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Social scientists, including urban and regional
planners...................................................................................
Lecturers ....................................................................................
Instructors, nonvocational education........................................
All other teachers and instructors ............................................
Librarians, professional .............................................................
Technical assistants, library......................................................
Curators, archivists, museum technicians, and
restorers ..................................................................................
Writers and editors.....................................................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity writers ................................................................
Designers, except interior designers........................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations ....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Cashiers......................................................................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Library assistants and bookmobile drivers...............................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers...........................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage y a rd ..........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




119

Table 31. Museums and botanical and zoological gardens: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments
reporting selected occupations, April 1984—Continued
(SIC 84)

Occupation

Employment'

All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................
Service occupations .....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
workers....................................................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
Guides ........................................................................................
All other service workers ..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Animal caretakers, except fa rm ................................................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related......................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
All other construction and extractive workers,
except helpers.........................................................................
Hand working occupations, including assemblers
and fabricators.........................................................................
Plant and system workers ........................................................
Transportation equipment operators........................................
Helpers - laborers and material
movers, h a n d ..........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

480

1.22

n.a.

n.a.

10,870

27.71

n.a.

n.a.

480
3,660

1.22
9.33

6
4

23
34

1,000

2.55

8

9

1,980

5.05

n.a.

n.a.

1,660

4.23

5

54

320
3,390
360

.82
8.64
.92

8
7
15

16
25
4

2,410
1,400
1,010

6.14
3.57
2.57

n.a.
5
6

n.a.
33
10

2,590

6.60

n.a.

n.a.

220

.56

n.a.

n.a.

70

.18

9

5

150
1,130
1,010
120

.38
2.88
2.57
.31

n.a.
21
5
15

n.a.
35
32
3

510
280
80

1.30
.71
.20

n.a.
8
9

n.a.
14
5

150

.38

17

6

80

.20

n.a.

n.a.

70
70
150

.18
.18
.38

17
n.a.
n.a.

2
n.a.
n.a.

280

.71

n.a.

n.a.

80

.20

n.a.

n.a.

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment: relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

120

Table 32. Membership organizations, except religious organizations: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, April 1984
(SIC 86, except SIC 866)

Occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

T o ta l................................................................................

647,430

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations...............................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
Education administrators...........................................................
Medicine and health services managers.................................
Food service and lodging managers........................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

97,850
18,400

15.11
2.84

n.a.
2

n.a.
30

4,770
450

.74
.07

8
7

5
2

2,900
3,720
1,630
280
1,560
30,430
33,710

.45
.57
.25
.04
.24
4.70
5.21

6
7
7
13
6
2
3

5
5
3
1
3
31
19

172,300
66,870

26.61
10.33

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

9,310
7,450
280
1,580

1.44
1.15
.04
.24

n.a.
4
11
9

n.a.
12
1

220

.03

10

1

270

.04

17

1

43,460
80

6.71
.01

3
23

16
(3
)

2,720
10,810
490

.42
1.67
.08

12
6
17

1
6
(3
)

1,380
80
280

.21
.01
.04

13
30
23

1
(3
)
0

410

.06

30

(3
)

1,900

.29

n.a.

n.a.

640
920
340
920
600
320

.10
.14
.05
.14
.09
.05

8
6
9
n.a.
n.a.
36

1
2
1
n.a.
n.a.
(3
)

890
460
210
220
1,010
3,810
1,650
26,010
250
2,230
200
120

.14
.07
.03
.03
.16
.59
.25
4.02
.04
.34
.03
.02

n.a.
16
29
n.a.
10
7
9
4
n.a.
7
18
22

n.a.
1
(3
)
n.a.
1
3
2
8
n.a.
3
(3
)
(3
)

380
250
3,380

.06
.04
.52

21
33
6

(3
)
(3
)
2

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers..................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Accountants and auditors....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Employment interviewers, private or public
employjment service ............................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Cost estimators.......................................................................
Compliance officers and enforcement
inspectors, except construction...........................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineers...................................................................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Physical scientists......................................................................
Life scientists.............................................................................
Physical and life science technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................... ............................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aides.................................................
Mathematical scientists and related workers...........................
Mathematical scientists.............................................................
Mathematical technicians..........................................................
Social scientists, including urban and regional
planners...................................................................................
Economists, including market research analysts.....................
Urban and regional planners....................................................
All other social scientists..........................................................
Social workers, medical and psychiatric..................................
Social workers, except medical and psychiatric......................
Social service technicians.........................................................
Recreation workers....................................................................
Religious workers......................................................................
Lawyers......................................................................................
Law clerks..................................................................................
Paralegal personnel...................................................................
All other legal assistants and technicians,
except clerical.........................................................................
Lecturers....................................................................................
Teachers, preschool and kindergarten ....................................
See footnotes at end of table.




121

2-

Table 32. Membership organizations, except religious organizations: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, April 1984—Continued
(SIC 86, except SIC 866)

Occupation

Teachers and instructors, vocational education
and training .............................................................................
Instructors, nonvocational education........................................
Instructors and coaches, sports and
physical training.........................................................................
All other teachers and instructors ............................................
Librarians, professional .............................................................
Technical assistants, library......................................................
Vocational and educational counselors...................................
Instructional coordinators............................... „ ........................
Physicians and surgeons ..........................................................
Physical therapists.....................................................................
Recreational therapists..............................................................
Registered nurses......................................................................
Licensed practical nurses.........................................................
Pharmacists ...............................................................................
Dietitians and nutritionists.........................................................
Dietetic technicians....................................................................
Medical records technicians and technologists.......................
All other health professionals,
paraprofessional and technicians...........................................
Writers and editors.....................................................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity writers ................................................................
Music directors, singers, composers, and
related workers........................................................................
Musicians, instrumental.............................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations ....................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers................................................................
Cashiers......................................................................................
All other sales and related workers .........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Welfare eligibility workers and interviewers..............................
Travel c le rks..............................................................................
Library assistants and bookmobile drivers ..............................
Teachers aides and educational assistants,
clerical......................................................................................
Secretaries.................................................................................
Stenographers...........................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
Typists ........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping.............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Interviewing clerks, except personnel and
social welfare..........................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................
Payroll and timekeeping cle rks.................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Duplicating machine operators...............................................
Mail machine operators, preparation and
handling ................................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................

Employment'

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

3,980
7,600

0.61
1.17

9
6

2
3

18,930
2,100
490
210
520
500
470
80
190
790
330
70
290
360
90

2.92
.32
.08
.03
.08
.08
.07
.01
.03
.12
.05
.01
.04
.06
.01

4
n.a.
9
19
19
11
41
34
26
15
21
47
33
18
34

5
n.a.
1
(3
)
1
1
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
1
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

1,140
5,720

.18
.88

n.a.
4

n.a.
8

7,670

1.18

4

11

*
310
1,050

.05
.16

28
24

(3
)
(3
)

6,900

1.07

n.a.

n.a.

15,570

2.40

n.a.

n.a.

2,160
2,670
10,740

.33
.41
1.66

7
6
4

3
2
4

176,630

27.28

n.a.

n.a.

6,200
320
6,640
190

.96
.05
1.03
.03

4
22
7
20

7
(3
)
3
(3
)

2,760
54,730
2,630
14,540
6,420
4,020

.43
8.45
.41
2.25
.99
.62

8
1
6
3
4
4

2
50
3
19
8
6

490
2,410

.08
.37

21
6

1
4

770
23,270
2,190
530
28,540

.12
3.59
.34
.08
4.41

25
2
5
12
2

(3
)
36
5
1
23

6,480

1.00

n.a.

n.a.

280
650

.04
.10

15
7

1,710

.26

5

4

990

.15

7

2

See footnotes at end of table.




Perce nt of total
employment

122

ft

2

Table 32. Membership organizations, except religious organizations: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, April 1984—Continued
(SIC 86, except SIC 866)

Occupation

Peripheral EDP equipment operators....................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators..............................................................
Mail clerks, except mail machine operators and
postal service...........................................................................
Messengers................................................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage y a rd .........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
workers....................................................................................
Service occupations.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Housekeepers ............................................................................
All other service supervisors and
manager/supervisors..............................................................
Guards and watch guards.........................................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
workers....................................................................................
Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge or
coffee s h o p ...........................................................................
Bartenders...............................................................................
Waiters and waitresses..........................................................
Dining room and cafeteria attendants, and
bartender helpers.................................................................
Counter attendants, lunchroom,
coffee shop, or cafeteria......................................................
Cooks, restaurant....................................................................
Cooks, institution or cafeteria.................................................
Cooks, specialty fast fo o d ......................................................
Cooks, short o rd e r..................................................................
Food preparation workers......................................................
All other food service workers...............................................
Health service and related workers..........................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants...............................
Home health aides..................................................................
All other health service w orkers............................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Maids and housekeeping cleaners........................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
Elevator operators...................................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
Amusement and recreation attendants....................................
Child care workers.....................................................................
All other service w orkers..........................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Animal caretakers, except fa rm ................................................
All other agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
related workers........................................................................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

140
2,390
320
3,300

0.02
.37
.05
.51

20
6
16
4

t3
)
3
(3
)
7

2,020
320

.31
.05

5
10

4
1

1,940

.30

n.a.

n.a.

960

.15

6

2

980

.15

11

1

5,920

.91

7

3

153,650

23.73

n.a.

n.a.

2,320
790

.36
.12

n.a.
7

n.a.
2

1,530
5,840

.24
.90

7
6

2
5

97,960

15.13

n.a.

n.a.

820
38,020
27,670

.13
5.87
4.27

7
2
3

1
18
12

8,260

1.28

6

5

720
7,340
2,570
380
160
9,600
2,420
1,100
310
480
310

.11
1.13
.40
.06
.02
1.48
.37
.17
.05
.07
.05

19
3
6
15
15
4
12
n.a.
24
28
n.a.

8
3
1
(3
)
7
1
n.a.
(3
)
(3
)
n.a.

27,690
4,510

4.28
.70

n.a.
5

n.a.
5

22,420
200

3.46
.03

2
21

27
f)

560
7,760
5,100
5,880

.09
1.20
.79
.91

13
6
6
n.a.

1
3
3
n.a.

10,450
5,280
3,840

1.61
.82
.59

n.a.
7
7

n.a.
5
2

1,330

.21

16

1

20,980

3.24

n.a.

n.a.

3,910

.60

n.a.

n.a.

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

123

(3
)

Table 32. Membership organizations, except religious organizations: Employment, relative error, and percent of
establishments reporting selected occupations, April 1984— Continued
(SIC 86, except SIC 866)

Occupation

Employment1

First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers ........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related......................................................
Inspectors and related occupations .........................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters............................................................................
All other construction and extractive workers,
except helpers.........................................................................
Precision production occupations.............................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic........................................................
Laundry and drycleaning machine operators and
tenders, except pressing ......................................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and plastic ......................................................
Plant and system workers .........................................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers................................................................
Bus drivers ..............................................................................
Bus drivers, school..................................................................
All other motor vehicle operators ..........................................
All other transportation and material moving
equipment operators...............................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand...............................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, hand ...........................................................................
All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

4

3,260

0.50

6

230

.04

28

420
360
8,060
7,580
480

.06
.06
1.24
1.17
.07

n.a.
26
16
4
12

n.a.
(3
)
9
9
(3
)

790
330
150

.12
.05
.02

n.a.
13
14

n.a.
1
(3
)

240

.04

17

(3
)

70

.01

22

(3
)

350
330

.05
.05

22
21

(3
)
(3
)

1,020

.16

n.a.

n.a.

280

.04

11

1

350

.05

15

1

390
180
2,120

.06
.03
.33

n.a.
42
n.a.

n.a.
(3
)
n.a.

910
300
290
620

.14
.05
.04
.10

11
12
13
11

1
(3
)
(3
)
1

410
830

.06
.13

n.a.
16

n.a.
1

2,440

.38

13

1

180

.03

n.a.

n.a.

(3
)

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

124

Table 33. Miscellaneous services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1984
(SIC 89)

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

6.42
1.33

n.a.
5

n.a.
23

2,220
1,060

.19
.09

6
10

7
3

3,250
8,560
3,860
25,110
15,000

.28
.74
.33
2.16
1.29

8
7
17
4
6

7
11
3
20
8

742,660
218,750

63.94
18.83

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

198,070
20,260
172,440
1,400
3,970

17.05
1.74
14.85
.12
.34

n.a.
7
2
21
15

n.a.
12
42
2
3

2,020

.17

10

3

1,940
5,200
4,990
6,530
160,510

.17
.45
.43
.56
13.82

9
11
11
10
n.a.

4
5
2
4
n.a.

1,920

.17

23

1

830

.07

21

1

620
1,340
4,290
2,600
67,310
240
30,980
3,270
660
29,870
2,110
14,470
44,430
19,600

.05
.12
.37
.22
5.79
.02
2.67
.28
.06
2.57
.18
1.25
3.83
1.69

41
29
15
21
4
39
6
14
26
6
25
15
6
8

1
1
3
1
23

4,600

.40

n.a.

n.a.

192,070

16.54

n.a.

n.a.

25,620

2.21

6

14

16,820

1.45

8

7

440

.04

37

(3
)

6,220
107,000

.54
9.21

11
3

3
37

25,440

2.19

7

12

10,530

.91

12

3

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

T o ta l................................................................................

1,161,550

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations...............................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers ............................................
Construction managers .............................................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators....................................

74,520
15,460

Occupation

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers..................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Tax preparers.......................................................................
Accountants and auditors....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Cost estimators.......................................................................
Management analysts.............................................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineers ...................................................................................
Aeronautical and astronautical
engineers ...............................................................................
Metallurgists, and metallurgical, ceramic,
and materials engineers......................................................
Mining engineers, including
mine s a fe ty............................................................................
Petroleum engineers...............................................................
Chemical engineers.................................................................
Nuclear engineers...................................................................
Civil engineers, including traffic..............................................
Agricultural engineers.............................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers........................................
Industrial engineers, except sa fe ty........................................
Safety engineers, except mining............................................
Mechanical engineers.............................................................
Marine engineers.....................................................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Architects, except landscape and marine................................
Surveying and mapping scientists ............................................
All other architects and surveying and mapping
scientists..................................................................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Civil engineering technicians and
technologists........................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineering
technicians and technologists..............................................
Industrial engineering technicians
and technologists.................................................................
Mechanical engineering technicians
and technologists.................................................................
Drafters....................................................................................
Surveying and mapping technicians and
technologists........................................................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
See footnotes at end of table.




125

0

12
2
1
12
1
3
16
10

Table 33. Miscellaneous services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1984—Continued
(SIC 89)

Occupation

Physical scientists............................................................
Physicists and astronomers............................................
Chemists, except biochemists.........................................
Atmospheric and space scientists...................................
Geologists, geophysicists, and
oceanographers ...........................................................
All other physical scientists ............................................
Life scientists...................................................................
Biological scientists........................................................
Medical scientists...........................................................
All other life scientists....................................................
Physical and life science technicians
and technologists..........................................................
Biological, agricultural, and food
technicians and technologists,
except health ..............................................................
Chemical technicians and
technologists, except health .........................................
Nuclear technicians and technologists..............................
Petroleum technicians and
technologists................................................................
All other physical and life science
technicians and technologists........................................
Computer scientists and related
workers ......................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing ..........................................................
Computer programmers..................................................
All other computer systems analysts,
programmers, and programmer aides ............................
Mathematical scientists and related workers.......................
Operations and systems researchers and
analysts, except computer..............................................
Statisticians.....................................................................
Actuaries ........................................................................
Financial analysts, statistical.............................................
All other mathematical scientists........................................
Mathematical technicians..................................................
Social scientists, including urban and regional
planners........................................................................
Economists, including market research analysts..................
Urban and regional planners.............................................
Psychologists...................................................................
All other social scientists..................................................
Social workers, medical and psychiatric..............................
Social workers, except medical and psychiatric...................
Social service technicians.................................................
Lawyers..........................................................................
Legal assistants and technicians, except
clerical..........................................................................
Lecturers ........................................................................
Instructors, nonvocational education...................................
All other teachers and instructors ......................................
Librarians, professional .....................................................
Technical assistants, library...............................................
Curators, archivists, museum technicians, and
restorers .......................................................................
Instructional coordinators..................................................
Registered nurses............................................................
Medical and clinical laboratory technologists.......................
Medical and clinical laboratory technicians..........................
All other health professionals,
paraprofessional and technicians.....................................
Writers and editors...........................................................
Technical writers..............................................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity writers.......................................................
Photographers.................................................................
Artists and related workers................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

10,770
2,020
2,200
810

0.93
.17
.19
.07

n.a.
19
13
28

n.a.
1
1
(3
)

3,520
2,220
7,640
4,130
2,210
1,300

.30
.19
.66
.36
.19
.11

11
15
n.a.
13
20
n.a.

3
2
n.a.
1
1
n.a.

7,970

.69

n.a.

n.a.

2,340

.20

17

1

1,490
1,180

.13
.10

20
25

1
(3
)

460

.04

32

(3
)

2,500

.22

18

1

18,400

1.58

n.a.

n.a.

7,130
9,000

.61
.77

8
7

6
9

2,270
6,820

.20
.59

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

1,930
720
1,900
410
950
910

.17
.06
.16
.04
.08
.08

16
27
1
1
18
26
23

1
1
1
1
(3
)
(3
)

4,720
750
1,110
1,070
1,790
480
1,080
720
800

.41
.06
.10
.09
.15
.04
.09
.06
.07

n.a.
21
22
25
22
35
24
40
16

n.a.
1
1
1
1
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
2

440
210
880
2,120
1,150
380

.04
.02
.08
.18
.10
.03

n.a.
39
29
22
9
1
1

n.a.
(3
)
(3
)
1
4
1

150
2,060
990
1,560
520

.01
.18
.09

43
21
23

(3
)

.13

25

.04

30

(3
)
(3
)

1,690
2,120
2,660

.15
.18
.23

n.a.
12
10

n.a.

1,080
500
2,690

.09
.04
.23

13
15

3
1

13

2

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

126

1
1

2

3

Table 33. Miscellaneous services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1984—Continued
(SIC 89)

Occupation

Designers, except interior designers...................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers...........................
Sales and related occupations .............................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, sales
and related workers.......................................................
Sales agents, selected business services.........................
Sales engineers................................................................
Sales representatives, scientific and related
products and services, except retail.................................
Sales representatives, except scientific and
related products or services and retail..............................
All other sales and related workers ...................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations...................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ......................
Library assistants and bookmobile drivers ..........................
Proofreaders and copy markers.........................................
Secretaries......................................................................
Stenographers.................................................................
Receptionists and information clerks..................................
Typists ............................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment...................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping...................................................................
File clerks........................................................................
Order clerks, materials, merchandise, and
service..........................................................................
Statistical clerks...............................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.....................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks..........................................
Billing, cost and rate clerks...............................................
General office clerks ........................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators...............................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators....................................................................
Duplicating machine operators........................................
Mail machine operators, preparation and
handling .....................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment...................................................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operators ......................................
Data entry keyers, except composing..............................
All other office machine operators ...................................
Switchboard operators ......................................................
Mail clerks, except mail machine operators and
postal service................................................................
Messengers.....................................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers..............................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage yard...............................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving
clerks.........................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers .....................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
workers.........................................................................
Service occupations...........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service .........................................
Guards and watch guards..................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

11,880

1.02

11

5

10,220

.88

n.a.

n.a.

12,160

1.05

n.a.

n.a.

1,270
3,410
3,160

.11
.29
.27

22
18
15

2
2
3

1,980

.17

18

2

1,280
1,060

.11
.09

14
30

2
1

279,690

24.08

n.a.

n.a.

9,410
600
1,280
84,590
2,420
14,940
10,190
18,620

.81
.05
.11
7.28
.21
1.29
.88
1.60

5
11
10
2
10
4
6
4

14
2
2
69
2
26
12
24

1,200
4,560

.10
.39

13
11

4
8

1,540
2,870
52,920
3,210
1,000
27,440

.13
.25
4.56
.28
.09
2.36

17
24
4
9
12
5

2
1
48
8
2
24

26,660

2.30

n.a.

n.a.

950
1,850

.08
.16

28
7

1
5

480

.04

19

1

11,210
590
10,680
900
2,350

.97
.05
.92
.08
.20

6
17
7
20
7

14
1
1
1
1
7

2,110
1,700

.18
.15

6
9

5
5

3,660

.32

n.a.

n.a.

1,580

.14

18

2

940

.08

15

2

1,140

.10

29

1

6,420

.55

15

3

12,640

1.09

n.a.

n.a.

1,200
1,700

.10
.15

14
16

2
1

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

127

Table 33. Miscellaneous services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1984—Continued
(SIC 89)

Occupation

Food and beverage preparation and service
workers.........................................................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households.........................................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners..........................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...............................
All other service workers..................................................
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations...................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm......................
Animal caretakers, except farm .........................................
All other agriculture, forestry, fishing, and
related workers..............................................................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations...................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers ......................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - production and
operating workers........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/superv-transp and
material moving machine and
vehicle workers...........................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related..............................................
Precision inspectors, testers, and graders...........................
All other inspectors, testers and related
occupations...................................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers....................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility...............................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers....................
Construction trades workers, except material
moving.........................................................................
Carpenters.....................................................................
Electricians....................................................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance.........................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters.................................................................
All other construction and extractive workers,
except helpers...............................................................
Precision metal workers....................................................
Machinists .....................................................................
Precision workers, nec......................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, operators
and tenders...................................................................
Other hand workers, nec..................................................
Welders and cutters.......................................................
All other hand workers, nec.............................................
Motor vehicle operators....................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers..........................................................
All other transportation and material moving
equipment operators.......................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand..........................
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, hand................................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

1,080

0.09

29

1

6,680

.58

n.a.

n.a.

5,380

.46

8

7

1,300
1,980

.11
.17

35
26

1
1

1,880
840
740

.16
.07
.06

n.a.
20
23

n.a.
1
0

300

.03

n.a.

n.a.

38,000

3.27

n.a.

n.a.

2,360

.20

n.a.

n.a.

800

.07

23

1

830

.07

16

1

130

.01

34

600
2,050

.05
.18

22
23

1
1

1,820
5,860
4,260
1,600

.16
.50
.37
.14

26
50
17
33

1
4
3
1

2,340
800
770

.20
.07
.07

n.a.
38
23

n.a.
1
1

280

.02

33

0

490

.04

35

0

3,270
2,500
2,500
2,880

.28
.22
.22
.25

22
n.a.
21
17

1
n.a.
1
1

870
3,260
870
2,390
1,330

.07
.28
.07
.21
.11

39
n.a.
27
n.a.
n.a.

1
n.a.
1
n.a.
n.a.

1,330

.11

23

1

1,050
1,770

.09
.15

28
26

1
1

6,100

.53

14

2

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

128

0

Table 33. Miscellaneous services: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, June 1984—Continued
(SIC 89)

Occupation

Employment1

All other production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.........................................................

540

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percent of total
employment

0.05

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

n.a.

n.a.

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3. For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding. Estimated
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

129

Appendix A. Survey Methods
and Reliability of Estimates

Scope of the Survey

Concepts

The survey covered private nonmanufacturing
establishments in Standard Industrial Classification
(sic) codes 10-17, 60-67, 70-81 (except 806), 83-86 (ex­
cept 866), and 89. The reference date of the survey was
the week that included April 12, May 12, or June 12,
1984, depending on the SIC of the sampled unit as shown
below:
SIC code

Reference date

10-17 ......................
60-67 ......................
70, 75, 76 ............... ............... May 12
72,73,78 ...............
79...........................
80 (except 806)........ ............... April 12
81........................... ............... May 12
83-86(except 866) ...
89...........................
The survey covered all 50 States, the District of Co­
lumbia, and Puerto Rico. (Puerto Rico data are not in­
cluded in the national estimates in this publication.)
Occupational and industrial classification

The OES classification system is based primarily on
the D ictionary o f Occupational Titles ( d o t ) , fourth edi­
tion, and is compatible with the 1980 Standard Occupa­
tional Classification (soc) system. The d o t was used to
develop the definitions of o e s occupations because it is
the most comprehensive system for classifying occupa­
tions. In addition, each OES occupation is directly
related to a 1980 census occupation, except in those
cases where a census occupation is not within the scope
of the o e s survey. “ Crosswalks” have been developed
between the two systems so that users may integrate o e s
data with data from sources using the Census classifica­
tion. (See appendix C.)
The industrial classification system is that described
in the 1972 edition of the Standard Industrial Classifica­
tion M anual, 1 whereby reporting establishments are
classified into industries on the basis of major product
or activity.1
1 Standard Industrial Classification Manual (O ffice o f M anage­
m ent and Budget, Executive O ffice o f the President, 1972), as am end­
ed in Supplement, 1977.




130

An establishment is an economic unit which produces
goods or services. Generally, it is at a single physical
location and is engaged predominantly in one type of
economic activity. Where a single physical location en­
compasses two or more distinct activities, these are
treated as separate establishments if separate payroll
records are available and certain other criteria are met.
Employment includes full- and part-time workers;
workers on paid vacations or other types of leave;
workers on unpaid short-term absences (i.e., illness, bad
weather, temporary layoff, jury duty); salaried officers,
executives, and staff of incorporated firms; employees
temporarily assigned to other units; and employees for
whom that unit is their permanent (home) duty station,
regardless of whether the unit prepares their paycheck.
Excluded from coverage are proprietors (owners and
partners of unincorporated firms), self-employed, un­
paid family workers, and workers on extended leave
(i.e., pensioners and members of the Armed Forces).
Occupation refers to the occupation in which
employees are working rather than the occupation for
which they may have been trained. For example, an
employee trained as an engineer but working as a
drafter is reported as a drafter.
W orking supervisors (those spending 20 percent or
more of their time at work similar to that done by
workers under their supervision) are reported in the oc­
cupation most closely related to their work.
Part-tim e workers, learners, and apprentices are
reported in the occupation in which they ordinarily
work.
M u ltip le jobholders (employees who perform the
duties of two or more occupations in an establishment)
are reported in the occupation that requires the highest
level of skill or in the occupation where the most time
is spent if there is no measurable difference in skill
requirements.
Survey procedures

The survey is conducted over a 3-year cycle; manufac­
turing industries are surveyed in 1 year and nonmanu­
facturing industries in the other 2 years. Data
are collected from a sample of establishments primarily
by mail; telephone followups and personal visits are
made when an establishment response is critical to the

survey. The survey is based on a probability sample,
stratified by industry and size of employment, designed
to represent the total or “ universe” of establishments
covered by the survey. Data are requested for the pay
period including the 12th of the reference month, which
is standard for all Federal agencies collecting employ­
ment data.

allocations resulted in a total initial sample size of
158,023 ui reporting units.
Response

Method of collection

Survey schedules were mailed to most sample
establishments; personal visits were made to some larger
companies. Two additional mailings were sent to
nonrespondents at approximately 6-week intervals.
Nonrespondents considered critical to the survey (due to
size) were followed up by telephone or personal visit.
Sampling procedure

The sampling frame for this survey was the list of
units in the specified SIC’s as reported to State
Unemployment Insurance (ui) agencies. The reference
date of the sampling frame was the second quarter of
1983.
The universe was stratified into sic and size classes.
The size classes were determined by employment as
follows:
Size class

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

A weight was determined for each sample unit from
which a usable response was received. Each weight was
composed of two factors. The first factor was the in­
verse of the probability of selection. The second was the
nonresponse adjustment factor, used to correct for
questionnaires that were not returned or not usable. For
each of the 3-digit sic/State/size class sampling cells,
a nonresponse factor was calculated that was equal to:
Weighted sample employment of all eligible units in sample

Sample employment was taken from the sampling
frame. If the factor in a cell was greater than a predeter­
mined maximum factor, which increased as the number
of respondents in a cell increased, the cell was collapsed
with other homogeneous cells within the SIC until the
factor for the combined cells was not greater than the
appropriate maximum factor. If the collapsing pro­
cedure terminated (i.e., no more cells were available for
collapse) before satisfying the above constraint, then the
appropriate maximum factor was used. For size classes
1-6, homogeneous cells were determined to be other size
cells within the sic and State. For size classes 7-9,
homogeneous cells were determined to be other S ta te
cells within the sic and size class. The weight for each
establishment was the product of the two factors.
A combined ratio estimate of occupational employ­
ment was used to develop the national estimates. The
auxiliary variable used was total employment. The
estimating formula is:

1-3
4-9
10-19
20-49
50-99
100-249
250-249
500-999
1,000 and over

Ui reporting units with 1-3 employees were not sampled
in all States, but units with 4-9 employees were given
larger weights to represent the employment in the
smaller size class, ui reporting units with 250 or more
employees were included in the sample with certainty.
Sample sizes intended to produce State estimates with
target relative errors of 10, 15, and 20 percent at one
standard deviation were developed for the noncertainty
size classes. This was done for groups of SIC’s based on
averages of occupational rates and coefficients of varia­
tion (cv’s) from the previous survey of those sic’s for a
set of typical occupations. This sic sample size was
allocated to the size classes proportionally to size class
employment. The sample was selected systematically
with equal probability within each State/sic/area/size
class cell.
The States were given the option of three target
relative errors in designing their samples. Some States
varied the target relative error by sic. This was done to
decrease the cost by reducing the sample size. The above




Estimation

Weighted sample employment of all responding eligible units

Employees

......................

Of those selected, 149,213 were final eligible units
(i.e., excluding establishments that were out of business
or out of scope, etc.). Usable responses were obtained
from 110,305 units, producing a response rate of 73.9
percent based on units and 68.0 percent based on
weighted employment. Subsequent to the closeout date
for national estimates, additional data were received by
States and used in preparing State estimates. Response
rates in most States were much higher than the response
rate used to develop national estimates.

22 wijk Pijk

j i ___ __. Mi
2 2 Wjjk e ijk

Lj k

Where: p
i
j
131

2- digit industry occupational
employment estimate
3- digit industry within a 2-digit
industry
size class

k
W
jjk

=

Pi*

®
ijk
Mi

=

Where:

establishment
weight after nonresponse
adjustment in i-th industry, j-th
size class, and k-th establishment
occupational employment in i-th
industry, j-th size class, and k-th
establishment
total employment in i-th industry,
j-th size class, and k-th estab­
lishment
population total employment in
i-th industry

Mjj

Ri

k

Wjjk = C„ for all k in a given ij cell
That is, the weights are equal to a constant C within a
given 3-digit industry/size class cell. At this time, the
total effect of this assumption on the variance estimates
has not been measured.

=

Var(f»)

=

? ? TuV 2
1 J 1 VU

Ty

=
=
=

[By] • [Dy] . [F.J2
(My —ey)/(My)
(Gy)/(Hy)
f 1 wjk'l f 2 W k']
j
U ’JU
')

Hij

=

( M

Fy

=

( M , ) / ( f £ W e,’k
i’1 )

V .2

=

2 wijk • Ljjk
k

Ljjk

=

(Pijk—Rjeijk) - (Pjj RiCjj)

Gij




2 e ijk

All other terms are as defined above. This formula is
almost a computational form of the standard formula
given above. One simplifying assumption has been
made:

? ? N ij2 (1—f„) . A h
1J
nS
j
= S 2 + R? SJij - 2R, Ku Sp Stij
m
i,
Ajj
= variance of p
Where: V(p)
3-digit industry within a 2-digit
i
industry
= size class
j
— total number of units in the i-th
Ni;
industry and j-th size class
sampling fraction in the i-th
fii
industry and j-th size class
number of sample units in the i-th
nij
industry and j-th size class
= standard deviation of p within the
Spij
i-th industry and j-th size class
= standard deviation of e within the
Se
ij
i-th industry and j-th size class
correlation coefficient between p
Ku
and e within the i-th industry and
j-th size class.
The variances for the occupational estimates were esti­
mated from the following formula:

®
ij
Di,

( f k W Pijk) / ( f k W
iJk
ijkeijk)

Cij

The population value of total employment (Mj) was
obtained from the b l s Current Employment Statistics
program, a monthly employment survey of nonagricultural establishments.
The standard form for the sampling variance for a
combined ratio estimate is:
V(p)

benchmark total employment in
the i-th industry and j-th size
class

- ( k w* )

132

Reliability of estimates

Estimates developed from the sample may differ from
the results of a complete survey of all the establishments
in the sampled lists. Two types of errors, sampling and
nonsampling, are possible in an estimate based on a
sample survey. Sampling error occurs because observa­
tions are made only on a sample, not on the entire
population. Nonsampling error can be attributed to
many sources, e.g., inability to obtain information
about all cases in the sample; differences in the
respondents’ interpretation of questions; inability of
respondents to provide correct information; errors in
recording, coding, or processing the data; errors in
estimating values for missing data; and failure to repre­
sent all units in the population.
The particular sample used in this survey is one of a
large number of all possible samples of the same size
that could have been selected using the same sample
design. Estimates derived from the different samples
would differ from each other; the difference between a
sample estimate and the average of all possible sample
estimates is called the sampling deviation. The standard
or sampling error of a survey estimate is a measure of
the variation among the estimates from all possible
samples. The relative standard error is defined as the
standard error of the estimate divided by the value being
estimated; the variance is defined as the standard error
squared.
The sample estimate and an estimate of its standard
error enable one to construct interval estimates with
prescribed confidence that the interval includes the
average result of all possible samples that could be ob­
tained from the sample design for the survey.
To illustrate, if all possible samples were selected, and
if each of these were surveyed under essentially the same

An inference that the complete coverage value would
be within the indicated ranges would be correct in ap­
proximately the relative frequencies shown.
For example, suppose an estimated total is shown as
5,000 with an associated relative error of 2 percent.
Then the standard error is 100 (2 percent of 5,000) and
there is a 68-percent chance that the average of all possi­
ble sample totals would be between 4,900 and 5,100,
and it is almost certain that the average of all possible
sample totals would be between 4,700 and 5,300.
The relative errors provided primarily indicate the
magnitude of the sampling error, but do not measure
biases in the data due to nonsampling error. Efforts
were made to reduce the biases due to errors in record­
ing, coding, and processing the data. The adjustment
made for nonrespondents assumed that the
characteristics of the nonrespondents were the same as
those of the respondents at a given level. To the extent
this is not true, bias is introduced in the data. The
magnitude of these biases is not known.
Particular care should be exercised in the interpreta­
tion of small estimates, estimates based on a small
number of cases, or small differences between estimates
because the sampling errors are relatively large and the
magnitude of the biases is unknown.

conditions and an estimate and its estimated sample er­
ror were calculated from each sample, then:
1. Approximately 68 percent of the intervals from
one standard error below to one standard error
above the derived estimate would include the
average value of all possible samples. This in­
terval is called a 68-percent confidence
interval.
2.

Approximately 90 percent of the intervals
from 1.6 standard errors below to 1.6 stand­
ard errors above the derived estimate would
include the average of all possible
samples. This interval is called a 90-percent
confidence interval.

3. Approximately 95 percent of the intervals from
two standard errors below to two standard er­
rors above the derived estimate would include
the average of all possible samples. This inter­
val is called a 95-percent confidence interval.
4. Almost all intervals from three standard errors
below to three standard errors above the deriv­
ed estimate would include the average of all
possible samples.




133

Appendix B. Occupational Employment
in Hospitals, 1983

Among the service employees, there were 383,750 nurs­
ing aides, orderlies, and attendants and 142,960 maids
and housekeeping cleaners. A total of 659,320 persons
were employed in clerical and related occupations, ac­
counting for 15.9 percent of industry employment.
Secretaries (both medical and other) numbered 124,430,
or 18.9 percent of clerical employment in the industry.
Another 73,570 were employed as general office clerks.
The five most populous occupations in hospitals are
listed in the tabulation below:

Hospitals include establishments providing diagnostic
services, extensive medical treatment, and continuous
nursing services. These establishments contain an
organized medical staff, inpatient beds, and equipment
and facilities to provide either specialty or complete
health care. Establishments surveyed included private
and State and local government hospitals, but excluded
Federal Government hospitals.
As shown in table B-l, employment in private and
State and local government hospitals (sic 806) totaled
4.2 million in 1983, representing 4.7 percent of all
nonagricultural wage and salary employment in the Na­
tion.
The largest occupational group in hospitals in 1983
was professional, paraprofessional, and technical
workers, with about 2.1 million workers, accounting for
50 percent of total employment. About 60 percent of
these professional workers were either registered or
licensed practical nurses. There were another 1.1 million
persons employed in service occupations in 1983.




Employment,
1984
Registered n u rses................................
Nursing aides, orderlies,
and a tten d a n ts................................
Licensed practical n u r s e s ................
M aids and housekeeping cleaners .
M edical and clinical laboratory
te c h n o lo g is ts ..................................

134

Percent o f
industry
employment

922,490

22.2

383,750
334,690
142,960

9.2
8.1
3.4

97,190

2.3

Table B-1. Hospitals: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, April 1983
Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

Employment1

Percent of total
employment

T o ta l................................................................................

4,152,360

100.00

Managerial and administrative occupations................................
Financial managers....................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations managers..................................................................
Purchasing managers................................................................
Marketing, advertising, and public
relations managers..................................................................
Administrative services managers............................................
Medicine and health services managers.................................
Food service and lodging managers........................................
General managers and top executives....................................
All other managers and administrators................. ...................

153,910
9,130

3.71
.22

n.a.
1

n.a.
66

7,130
4,920

.17
.12

1
1

59
56

3,780
9,400
46,100
6,840
29,760
36,850

.09
.23
1.11
.16
.72
.89

2
3
2
2
3
2

37
29
76
60
91
47

2,081,910
42,490

50.14
1.02

n.a.
n.a.

n.a.
n.a.

13,480
8,600
1,780
3,100

.32
.21
.04
.07

n.a.
3
2
5

n.a.
42
16
12

5,100

.12

2

44

6,120

.15

3

32

3,950
13,840
5,140
420
640
630
1,580
1,870

.10
.33
.12
.01
.02
.02
.04
.05

11
n.a.
n.a.
7
5
5
5
8

8
n.a.
n.a.
3
4
5
8
9

2,930

.07

n.a.

n.a.

1,070

.03

6

4

1,860
1,650
690
960
9,360
4,270
4,220
870

.04
.04
.02
.02
.23
.10
.10
.02

n.a.
n.a.
10
35
n.a.
9
9
24

n.a.
n.a.
3
1
n.a.
8
7
1

5,760

.14

n.a.

n.a.

2,050

.05

24

1

1,460

.04

14

1

2,250

.05

16

1

12,540

.30

n.a.

n.a.

4,520
4,420
3,600
480

.11
.11
.09
.01

5
3
4
n.a.

15
18
13
n.a.

8,340
7,710
630
31,490
5,340

.20
.19
.02
.76
.13

n.a.
4
17
3
5

n.a.
16
1
56
14

Occupation

Professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations.............................................................
Management support workers.....................................................
Accountants, auditors, and other
financial specialists...............................................................
Accountants and auditors....................................................
Budget analysts....................................................................
All other financial specialists................................................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale
and retail trade, and farm products....................................
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists..............................................................
Compliance officers and enforcement
inspectors, except construction...........................................
All other management support workers................................
Engineers...................................................................................
Civil engineers, including traffic..............................................
Electrical and electronic engineers........................................
Industrial engineers, except sa fe ty........................................
Mechanical engineers.............................................................
All other engineers..................................................................
Engineering and related technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineering
technicians and technologists..............................................
All other engineering and related
technicians and technologists..............................................
Physical scientists......................................................................
Chemists, except biochemists................................................
All other physical scientists ....................................................
Life scientists.............................................................................
Biological scientists.................................................................
Medical scientists....................................................................
All other life scientists ............................................................
Physical and life science technicians
and technologists...................................................................
Biological, agricultural, and food
technicians and technologists,
except health ........................................................................
Chemical technicians and
technologists, except h ealth................................................
All other physical and life science
technicians and technologists..............................................
Computer scientists and related
workers .................................................................................
Systems analysts, electronic
data processing....................................................................
Computer programmers..........................................................
Computer programmer aides..................................................
Mathematical scientists and related workers...........................
Social scientists, including urban and regional
planners...................................................................................
Psychologists.............................................................................
All other social scientists..........................................................
Social workers, medical and psychiatric..................................
Social workers, except medical and psychiatric......................
See footnotes at end of table.




135

_

Table B-1. Hospitals: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, April 1983—Continued

Occupation

Social service technicians.........................................................
Religious workers.......................................................................
Clergy..........................................................................................
Nursing instructors.....................................................................
Teachers and instructors, vocational education
and training ..............................................................................
All other teachers and instructors ............................................
Librarians, professional .............................................................
Technical assistants, library.......................................................
Physicians and surgeons ..........................................................
Dentists.......................................................................................
All other health diagnosing and treating
practitioners..............................................................................
Therapists..................................................................................
Respiratory therapists.........................................................
Occupational therapists......................................................
Physical therapists..............................................................
Corrective and manual arts therapists...............................
Speech pathologists and audiologists...............................
Recreational therapists.......................................................
All other therapists.............................................................
Registered nurses......................................................................
Licensed practical nurses.........................................................
Emergency medical technicians................................................
Physicians assistants.................................................................
Pharmacists ................................................................................
Dietitians and nutritionists.........................................................
Dietetic technicians....................................................................
Medical and clinical laboratory technologists...........................
Medical and clinical laboratory technicians..............................
Dental hygienists........................................................................
Medical records technicians and technologists.......................
Nuclear medicine technologists................................................
Radiologic technologists...........................................................
Radiologic technicians...............................................................
Electroencephalograph technicians and
technologists............................................................................
Electrocardiograph technicians and
technologists............................................................................
Surgical technicians...................................................................
All other health professionals,
paraprofessional and technicians...........................................
Public relations specialists
and publicity writers ................................................................
Photographers............................................................................
All other professional,
paraprofessional, and technical workers................................
Sales and related occupations ....................................................
Cashiers......................................................................................
All other sales and related w orkers.........................................
Clerical and administrative support
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors and manager/supervisors,
clerical and administrative support workers ..........................
Library assistants and bookmobile drivers...............................
Medical secretaries....................................................................
All other secretaries...................................................................
Stenographers............................................................................
Receptionists and information cle rks.......................................
T ypists........................................................................................
Typists, word processing equipment........................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping..............................................................................
File clerks...................................................................................
Order clerks, materials, merchandise, and
service......................................................................................
Procurement clerks....................................................................
Statistical c le rks.........................................................................
Interviewing clerks, except personnel and
social welfare...........................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.........................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

4,850
4,250
4,250
14,450

0.12
.10
.10
.35

4
n.a.
3
2

16
n.a.
23
37

4,450
8,000
2,500
1,490
92,690
1,860

.11
.19
.06
.04
2.23
.04

5
7
3
7
1
9

9
17
23
9
34
7

2,610
95,840
50,100
9,680
20,200
640
4,440
6,620
4,160
922,490
334,690
14,790
5,490
33,030
15,000
8,800
97,190
54,640
710
24,880
8,530
37,540
33,800

.06
2.31
1.21
.23
.49
.02
.11
.16
.10
22.22
8.06
.36
.13
.80
.36
.21
2.34
1.32
.02
.60
.21
.90
.81

14
n.a.
2
3
2
8
3
3
5
(3
)
0
4
5
2
2
3
2
2
6
2
2
3
2

2
n.a.
66
30
58
2
18
24
10
98
95
20
11
76
67
33
78
70
5
80
41
52
63

5,230

.13

2

33

16,410
36,060

.40
.87

2
3

46
64

60,310

1.45

n.a.

n.a.

3,080
1,250

.07
.03

2
4

25
8

9,480

.23

n.a.

n.a.

14,880
14,040
840

.36
.34
.02

n.a.
3
8

n.a.
42
3

659,320

15.88

n.a.

n.a.

37,050
1,560
47,640
76,790
8,270
35,610
55,030
4,480

.89
.04
1.15
1.85
.20
.86
1.33
.11

2
7
3
2
9
3
3
6

62
9
65
60
13
50
65
13

6,430
19,970

.15
.48

1

4

44
36

5,060
5,260
7,520

.12
.13
.18

7
3
3

15
36
23

38,940
22,440

.94
.54

2
2

42
70

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

136

Table B-1. Hospitals: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, April 1983—Continued

Occupation

Payroll and timekeeping clerks .................................................
Billing, cost and rate cle rks......................................................
General office clerks .................................................................
Electronic data processing and other
office machine operators......................................................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators...............................................................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment.............................................................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operators....................................
Data entry keyers, except composing...................................
All other office machine operators ........................................
Switchboard operators ..............................................................
Material recording, scheduling,
dispatching, and distributing workers...................................
Dispatchers, police, fire, and
ambulance............................................................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse or
storage yard ..........................................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving
clerks.....................................................................................
All other material recording, scheduling, and
distributing workers ..............................................................
All other clerical and administrative support
w orkers....................................................................................
Service occupations.....................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors, service ................................................
Housekeepers ..........................................................................
All other service supervisors and
manager/supervisors...........................................................
Guards and watch guards......................................................
Food and beverage preparation and service
w orkers....................................................................................
Waiters and waitresses..........................................................
Food servers, outside.............................................................
Dining room and cafeteria attendants, and
bartender helpers.................................................................
Counter attendants, lunchroom,
coffee shop, or cafeteria......................................................
Bakers, bread and pastry.......................................................
Butchers and meat cu tte rs....................................................
Cooks, institution or cafeteria.................................................
Cooks, short o rd e r..................................................................
Food preparation workers......................................................
All other food service workers...............................................
Health service and related workers..........................................
Dental assistants.....................................................................
Medical assistants...................................................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants..............................
Home health aides..................................................................
Psychiatric aides .....................................................................
Physical and corrective therapy
assistants and a ides............................................................
Occupational therapy assistants and aides...........................
Ambulance drivers and attendants, except
emergency medical technicians..........................................
Pharmacy assistants...............................................................
All other health service w orkers............................................
Cleaning and building service workers, except
private households..................................................................
Maids and housekeeping cleaners........................................
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
and housekeeping cleaners.................................................
Elevator operators...................................................................
All other cleaning and building service
workers, except private households ...................................
Barbers.......................................................................................
Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists.........................
Social welfare service aides......................................................
Child care workers.....................................................................
All other service workers ..........................................................

Employment1

Relative error (in
percentage)2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

7,780
46,080
73,570

0.19
1.11
1.77

3
2
3

53
78
57

28,680

.69

n.a.

n.a.

4,290

.10

5

13

7,320
830
14,770
1,470
33,700

.18
.02
.36
.04
.81

2
7
2
6
2

27
3
45
6
75

34,310

.83

n.a.

n.a.

1,180

.03

9

3

22,380

.54

2

58

4,200

.10

3

20

6,550

.16

5

11

63,150

1.52

1,090,200

O

39

26.25

n.a.

n.a.

47,240
28,510

1.14
.69

n.a.
2

n.a.
67

18,730
32,960

.45
.79

3
2

42
39

227,580
2,350
47,370

5.48
.06
1.14

n.a.
11
2

n.a.
3
32

16,090

.39

3

20

10,110
2,580
510
34,950
2,270
72,100
39,250
562,830
1,590
18,550
383,750
2,770
59,580

.24
.06
.01
.84
.05
1.74
.95
13.55
.04
.45
9.24
.07
1.43

3
2
9
2
3
2
3
n.a.
5
3
(3
)
11
1

20
19
3
86
9
68
31
n.a.
6
26
89
6
12

15,110
4,350

.36
.10

2
6

48
15

3,240
26,940
46,950

.08
.65
1.13

27
1
4

5
57
26

207,650
142,960

5.00
3.44

n.a.

54,460
1,420

1.31
.03

2
10

50
2

8,810
490
750
420
4,850
5,430

.21
.01
.02
.01
.12
.13

9
6
5
18
14
8

10
3
5
1

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of total
employment

137

0

n.a.
83

4
5

Table B-1. Hospitals: Employment, relative error, and percent of establishments reporting selected
occupations, April 1983—Continued

Occupation

Employment1

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations.............................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ..........................
Production, construction, operating,
maintenance, and material handling
occupations.............................................................................
First-line supervisors,
manager/supervisors - production,
construction, maintenance, and related
workers .................................................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - mechanics,
installers and repairers ........................................................
First-line supervisors and
manager/supervisors - construction trades
and extractive workers.........................................................
All other first-line supervisors and manager/
supervisors - production, construction,
maintenance and related......................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers.........................................
Machinery maintenance mechanics.......................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility....................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration
mechanics and installers.....................................................
Electromedical and biomedical equipment
repairers................................................................................
Menders - garments, linens, and related...............................
All other mechanics, installers, and repairers.......................
Construction trades workers, except material
m oving....................................................................................
Carpenters...............................................................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Painters and paperhangers, construction
and maintenance..................................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters...........................................................................
All other construction trades workers....................................
Machinists ...............................................................................
Precision workers, n e c ..............................................................
Machine setters, set-up operators, and tenders,
except metal and plastic.......................................................
Sewing machine operators, nongarment ...............................
Laundry and drycleaning machine operators and
tenders, except pressing .....................................................
Pressing machine operators and tenders,
textile, garment, and
related materials...................................................................
Boiler operators and tenders,
low pressure.........................................................................
All other machine setters and set-up
operators, except metal and plastic....................................
All other machine operators and tenders,
except metal and plastic .....................................................
Other hand workers, n e c ..........................................................
Plant and system workers ........................................................
Stationary engineers...............................................................
All other plant and system operators....................................
Motor vehicle operators............................................................
Truck drivers, light, include delivery
and route workers...................................................................
All other motor vehicle operators ..........................................
All other transportation and motor vehicle
operators .................................................................................
Material moving equipment operators......................................
Helpers - laborers and material
movers, ha n d ..........................................................................

Relative error (in
percentage)1
2

Percent of
establishments
reporting
the occupation

6,990
6,990

0.17
.17

n.a.
2

n.a.
40

145,150

3.50

n.a.

n.a.

8,630

.21

n.a.

n.a.

4,580

.11

3

29

1,370

.03

4

7

2,680
48,110
4,370
29,380

.06
1.16
.11
.71

4
n.a.
4
2

14
n.a.
11
76

4,580

.11

2

21

5,100
1,780
2,900

.12
.04
.07

3
3
5

23
13
8

25,910
6,120
6,050

.62
.15
.15

n.a.
2
3

n.a.
29
29

6,800

.16

2

34

4,020
2,920
430
1,110

.10
.07
.01
.03

3
4
10
n.a.

20
7
2
n.a.

34,480
1,150

.83
.03

n.a.
4

n.a.
8

21,240

.51

2

39

4,810

.12

4

9

4,980

.12

3

14

1,020

.02

9

3

1,280
1,400
7,840
6,920
920
5,320

.03
.03
.19
.17
.02
.13

9
n.a.
n.a.
3
7
n.a.

3
n.a.
n.a.
16
3
n.a.

2,900
2,420

.07
.06

5
10

12
8

1,610
690

.04
.02

17
n.a.

3
n.a.

9,620

.23

7

9

1 Estimates of fewer than 50 workers, or with less than 0.01
percent of industry employment, or with a relative error greater than
50 are generally not shown separately since such estimates are
considered unreliable. Estimates that are not shown have been
counted in the appropriate “ All other” categories.
2 Relative standard errors apply equally to data on estimated
employment and percent of total employment; relative standard errors




Percen t of total
employment

138

are estimated at the level of 2 chances out of 3.
For further
information on sampling variability and other types of errors, see
appendix A.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.a. = not available.
NOTE: Detail may not add to totals due to rounding.
employment is rounded to the nearest 10.

Estimated

Appendix C. The OES
Classification System

The new o e s system (with an entirely new 5-digit
coding system) organizes all occupations into four
levels: Division, major group, minor group, and detail.
The following sections discuss the first three levels, and
also explain the new coding structure.

There are seven divisions in the new o e s system:
1. Managerial and administrative occupations
2. Professional, paraprofessional, and technical
occupations
3. Sales and related occupations
4. Clerical and administrative support occupations
5. Service occupations
6. Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related ococcupations
7. Production, construction, operating, main­
tenance, and material handling occupations

Professional, paraprofessional, and technical occupa­
tions. This division is organized into nine major groups

Some of the more significant changes made at the
division level are:
• The exclusion of first-line managers/supervisors
from the managerial and administrative division. These
workers are classified in separate and specific categories
in the other divisions. For example, in the second divi­
sion, first-line managers/supervisors are classified with
the workers they supervise.
• The combination of professional and technical
workers into a single integrated division in order to
lessen the growing ambiguity between the two
categories.
T h e c r e a tio n o f a n e w a g ricu ltu re d iv isio n w h ic h

a llo w s su p p le m e n ta tio n o f d a ta fr o m non-OES su rv ey
so u r c e s.

• The significant organizational and occupational
revision of the production division.
Major and minor group levels

A significant amount of change has taken place at the
major and minor group levels, particularly in restructur­
ing. Since it would be impossible to describe every
change in this appendix, some of the highlights of the




Managerial and administrative occupations. This divi­

sion is organized into three major groups. The first con­
tains specialized occupations by function, and the se­
cond contains specialized occupations by industry. Both
of these categories are generally at the middle-manage­
ment level. When function and industry overlap, func­
tion takes precedence and is listed first. The third and
final group includes the division residual as well as
workers, usually in upper management, whose duties
are more general in nature.

Division level

•

major and minor group structure of each division are
given below:

139

and a residual category. These major groups were created
by combining those professional, paraprofessional, and
technical occupations requiring common bodies of
knowledge and expertise. Unlike the Standard Occupa­
tional Classification (soc) system, distinctions between
technical and professional workers, if made, are found
at the minor group level rather than at the major group
or division level.
The first major group is management support. This
group was placed in the professional division rather
than the managerial division, as in the soc, for it was
felt that respondents consider individual management
support occupations functionally closer to the profes­
sional specialties of the division than to the upper and
middle management occupations of the first division.
The management support group also includes a residual
allowing the combination of this major group with the
management division, if soc compatibility is required.
The remaining major groups primarily follow soc
order: “ Hard” sciences, including engineering; the
social sciences and related disciplines, such as law and
teaching; health fields; and, writing, art, and related
fields. The two exceptions to the soc order, the techni­
cian and computer groups, were moved so that these oc­
cupations would appear in closer proximity to the oc­
cupations they most commonly support.

Sales and related occupations. The soc arranges the

sales division into four segments:
Supervisory; sale of most services; sale of retail pro­
ducts; and sales-related occupations. In both the new
o e s system and the soc, retail sales is not an industry
designation but rather an occupational designation for
sales activities which are directed towards individuals
rather than organizations or businesses.
Unlike the soc, the new o e s system includes all ser­
vice sales occupations in the major groups as “ sales oc­
cupations, service.”
In addition, a new major group was created by com­
bining the last three SOC categories because they involve
the sale of products rather than services. A few salesrelated occupations such as demonstrators have also
been included in this new group.
The new o e s sales division is somewhat larger in
scope than the previous o e s category because of the ad­
dition of occupations such as sales engineers and
cashiers. These additions to the sales group in the new
o e s structure do not, however, diminish the magnitude
of the increase in sales personnel in manufacturing in­
dustries between 1980 and 1983.
Clerical and administrative support occupations. This
division is organized into six major groups and a
residual category. As with the other divisions, the super­
visory category is first. The next major group includes
industry-specific clerical occupations. This group is
placed near the top of the clerical division so that
respondents can more easily locate these occupations.
These two major groups are followed by the general
secretarial and related group, an office machine group,
a communications group, and a material recording
group.
Service occupations. The previous

O ES system included
protective services, food service, and cleaning service
occupations as summary occupational groups. The new
system includes these as major groups and adds health
and personal service occupations, while expanding the
cleaning group to encompass building service organiza­
tions.

A griculture, forestry, fishing, and related occupations.

Because many of the occupations related to this divi­
sion are found in industries outside the scope of the o e s
survey, the previous o e s system coding structure had no
comparable category. At present, the division covers
only those occupations needed for the o e s survey as
defined by its current nonagricultural scope. In the 1983




140

manufacturing survey, for example, only the lumber
and wood products industry (sic 24) and, to a lesser
degree, food and kindred products (sic 20) had signifi­
cant employment in this category.
Production, construction, operating, maintenance,
and material handling occupations. As in the previous
oes
oes

system, this is the largest and most diverse of all the
divisions. The major groups are listed below:
Supervisory
Inspecting
Repair
Construction and extraction
Precision production
Machine setting and operating
Assembling and handworking
Plant and system operation
Transportation and material handling
Helpers and laborers

To understand the organization of this division, it is
important to be familiar with soc principles. The first
basic principle of organization is that occupations are
grouped by function (e.g., inspecting, repairing, produc­
ing). An equally important principle is organization by
skill requirements (e.g., precision, setup, operating,
helping).
A third organizing principle in many of these groups
is the distinction made between machine and hand
operations. In this case, hand operations include the use
of hand-held power tools. The hand and machine
categories are not exhaustive, however, since both preci­
sion hand work and precision machine work are placed
in the same category. For o e s purposes, an exception to
the soc placement was made, and precision assembling
occupations were placed in the hand working category,
allowing for proximity to the other assembling occupa­
tions.
The soc and the new o e s systems also distinguish be­
tween “ manual” occupations, such as material hand­
ling, and “ hand” occupations, such as grinding. Here,
the distinction is made according to whether or not the
worker is directly working on the manufacture of a pro­
duct.
Within the large production and precision and
machine groups, distinctions are made on the basis of
materials worked (e.g., metal/plastic, wood, textile,
assorted/other). The assorted/other category includes
working with combined materials as well as working
with single materials, such as stone, which have not
previously been specified.

Appendix D. OES Survey Data
Available from State Agencies

State data on occupational employment in the industries covered in this bulletin are available as indicated in the
following table. These data may be obtained from the State employment security agencies listed on the inside back
cover of this publication.

Table D-1. OES survey data available by State and year
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas ..................................
California ..................................
C olorado.....................................
C o n n e c tic u t...............
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida .......................................

G eorgia.......................................
Hawaii .......................................
Idaho .........................................
Illin o is .........................................
In d ia n a .......................................
Io w a ...........................................
Kansas .......................................
Kentucky ..................................
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
M is s is s ip p i................................




X

1978

1981

X

1973

X

X

X

1975

1984

State

1973

1975

1978

X

X

X

X

X

Missouri ..................................
Montana
Nevada
New Hampshire
New J e rs e y ..............................
New M e x ic o ............................
New Y o r k ............................
North Carolina
North Dakota
N e b ra s k a ................................
Ohio .........................................

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X
X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X
X
X

X
X

X

X
X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania............................
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South D a k o ta ...............
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont ..................................
Virginia
Washington
West V irginia............................
W isconsin ................................
W yom ing..................................

141

1981

1984

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X
X

X
X

X

X

X

X
X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

x

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

x

X

X

X

X

x

X

X

X

x

x

X

X

X
X

X

x

X

X

X

X

X
x

x

x

X

x
x

X

X

X

X

X

x
X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

BLS projections
of employment
Revised projections of employment, output, and
demand for 1995 by industry and occupation are
presented in this collection of four articles from
the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w . Additional data and
a detailed methodology also are provided.
Subjects include:
• The labor force— expected changes in size and
composition.
• Gross national product— alternative trends and
major assumptions.
• Distribution of demand— changing patterns in
the major sectors of consumption, business
investment, government expenditures, and
foreign trade.
• Industry output and employment.
• Changing occupational employment require­
ments.
Mail order form to:
Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402

Order form

□
□
□
□
□

or

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Publications Sales Center
P.O. Box 2145
Chicago, III. 60690

Please send_______ copies of E m p l o y m e n t P r o j e c t i o n s f o r 19 95 : D a t a a n d M e t h o d s ,
Bulletin 2253, gpo Stock No. 029-001-02897-1 at $6.50 each for a total o f_______
Enclosed is a check or money order payable to the Superintendent of Documents.
Charge to my
Charge to my

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Name
Organization
(if applicable)
Street address
City, State, Zip




U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
REGION I -BOSTON
Suite 1603
John Fitzgerald Kennedy Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
REGION V - CHICAGO
9th Floor
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, 111. 60604

REGION II -NEW YORK
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N .Y . 10036

REGION VI - DALLAS
Room 221
525 Griffin Street
Dallas, Tex. 75202

REGION III -PHILADELPHIA
3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101

REGIONS VII and VIII - KANSAS CITY
15th Floor
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106

REGION IV - ATLANTA
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree Street, NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367

REGIONS IX and X - SAN FRANCISCO
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Franciso, Calif. 94102

COOPERATING STATE AGENCIES
Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) Program

BLS
Region

IV

X

BLS
R egion

ALABAMA

ALASKA

IX

ARIZONA

VI

ARKANSAS

IX
VIII
I

CALIFORNIA
COLORADO
CONNECTICUT

III

DELAWARE

III

DIST. OF COL.

IV

FLORIDA

IV

GEORGIA

IX

HAWAII

X

IDAHO

V

ILLINOIS

V

INDIANA

VII

IOWA

VII

KANSAS

IV

KENTUCKY

VI

LOUISIANA

I
III

I

MAINE
MARYLAND

MASSACHUSETTS

V

MICHIGAN

V

MINNESOTA




- Department o f Industrial Relations,
IV
Industrial Relations Building, Room 427,
Montgomery 36130
VII
- Employment Security Division, Department
o f Labor, P.O . Box 1149, Juneau 99802
VIII
- Department o f Economic Security, P.O. Box
6123, Phoenix 85005
VII
- Employment Security Division, Department"
o f Labor, State Capitol Mall, P.O. Box
IX
2981, Little Rock 72203
- Employment Development Department, P.O.
I
Box 1679, Sacramento 95808
- Division o f Employment and Training, 1330
II
Fox Street, Denver 80204
- Employment Security Division, Labor
VI
Department, 200 Folly Brook Boulevard,
Wethersfield 06109
II
- Department o f Labor, University Plaza
Office Complex, P.O. Box 9029, Newark
^9711
IV
- Division o f Labor Market Information,
Research and Analysis, Department of
VIII
Employment Services, 500 C Street, N .W .,
V
Room 411, Washington 20001
- Department o f Labor and Employment
VI
Security, 2574 Seagate Drive, Room 201,
Tallahassee 32301
- Department o f Labor, 254 Washington
X
Street, S.W ., Atlanta 30334
- Department o f Labor and Industrial Rela­
tions, 830 Punchbowl Street, Room 304,
III
Honolulu 96813
- Department o f Employment, 317 Main
II
Street, P.O . Box 35, Boise 83735
- Bureau o f Employment Security, 910 South
I
Michigan Avenue, 12th Floor, Chicago
60605
IV
- Employment Security Division, 10 North
Senate Avenue, Indianapolis 46204
VIII
- Department o f Job Service, 1000 East Grand
Avenue, Des Moines 50319
IV
- Department o f Human Resources, 401
Topeka Avenue, Topeka 66603
- Division for Unemployment Insurance,
VI
Cabinet for Human Resources, 275 East
Main Street, Frankfort 40621
VIII
- Department o f Labor, P.O . Box 44094,
Capitol Station, 1001 North 23rd Street,
I
Baton Rouge 70804
- Bureau o f Employment Security, Department
III
o f Labor, 20 Union Street, Augusta 04330
- Department o f Human Resources, Employ­
X
ment Security Administration, 1100 North
Eutaw Street, Baltimore 21201
III
- Division o f Employment Security, Charles F.
Hurley Building, Government Center,
V
Boston 02114
- Employment Security Commission, 7310
VIII
Woodward Avenue, Detroit 48202
- Department o f Economic Security, 390
North Robert Street, St. Paul 55101

MISSISSIPPI
MISSOURI
M ONTANA
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
NEW HAMPSHIRE
NEW JERSEY
NEW MEXICO
NEW YORK

NORTH CAROLINA
NORTH DAKOTA
OHIO
OKLAHOMA

OREGON

PENNSYLVANIA
PUERTO RICO
RHODE ISLAND
SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKOTA
TENNESSEE

TEXAS
UTAH
VERMONT
VIRGINIA
WASHINGTON
WEST VIRGINIA
WISCONSIN
WYOMING

- Employment Security Commission, P.O . Box
1699, Jackson 39205
- Division o f Employment Security, P.O . Box
59, Jefferson City 65104
- Department o f Labor and Industry, P.O.
Box 1728, Helena 59601
- Division o f Employment, Department o f
Labor, P.O. Box 94600, Lincoln 68509
- Employment Security Department, 500 East
Third Street, Carson City 89713
- Department o f Employment Security, 32
South Main Street, Concord 03301
- Department o f Labor, P.O. Box 2765, Tren­
ton 08625
- Employment Security Department, P.O . Box
1928, Albuquerque 87103
- Division o f Research and Statistics, Depart­
ment o f Labor, State Campus, Building 12,
Albany 12240
- Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box
25903, Raleigh 27611
- Job Service, P.O. Box 1537, Bismarck 58502
- Bureau o f Employment Services, P.O . Box
1618, Columbus 43216
- Employment Security Commission, 310 Will
Rogers Memorial Office Building,
Oklahoma City 73105
- Employment Division, Department of
Human Resources, 875 Union Street, N .E .,
Salem 97311
- Department o f Labor and Industry, Seventh
and Forster Streets, Harrisburg 17121
- Bureau o f Employment Security, 505 Munoz
Rivera A ve., 15th Floor, Hato Rey 00918
- Department o f Employment Security, 24
Mason Street, Providence 02903
- Employment Security Commission, P.O . Box
995, Columbia 29202
- Department o f Labor, P.O . Box 1730,
Aberdeen 57401
- Department o f Employment Security, Cor­
dell Hull Office Building, Room 519,
Nashville 37219
- Employment Commission, 15th and Congress
Avenue, Austin 78778
- Department o f Employment Security, P.O.
Box 11249, Salt Lake City 84147
- Department o f Employment and Training,
P.O. Box 488. Montpelier 05602
- Employment Commission, P.O . Box 1358,
Richmond 23211
- Employment Security Department, 212
Maple Park, Olympia 98504
- Department o f Employment Security, 112
California Avenue, Charleston 25305
- Department o f Industry, Labor, and Human
Relations, P.O . Box 7944, Madison 53707
- Employment Security Commission, P.O . Box
2760, Casper 82602

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212
Official Business
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