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l~ 3 -. 3 :

Analyzing 1S81 Earnings Data from the
Current Population Survey
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
September 1982
Bulletin 2149




T C°U £CPn/ /
£

' Ub!ic U b ^ r y Co

Analyzing 1981 Earnings Data (from the
Current Population
U .S . D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r
R a y m o n d J. D o n o v a n , S e c r e ta r y
B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s
J a n e t L. N o rw o o d , C o m m is s io n e r
S e p te m b e r 1 9 8 2
B u lle tin 2 1 4 9




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $3.75




Usual weekly earnings: another look at
ietergroup differences and basic trends
Recent years o f inflation and recession
held real earnings o f wage and salary workers
below 1973 levels; the pay gap
between black and white full-tim e employees
narrowed after 1967,
but the wide earnings disparity by sex remains

E a r l F. M

ellor a n d

G

eorge

D . St a m a s

Interest in earnings differences among various popula­
tion groups— men and women, blacks and whites,
young and old— has grown over the years since data on
usual weekly earnings were first published in the Review
a decade ago. Because of this, the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics has expanded the collection and publication of
the demographically oriented data on weekly and hour­
ly earnings from the Current Population Survey ( c p s ).
Previously collected only in May of each year, these
data are now obtained monthly from one-fourth of the
CPS sample and are published on a quarterly basis.1
Aggregation of the new data into annual averages
yields the most reliable measures of the earnings dif­
ferences among the various population groups. At the
same time, the quarterly data, although subject to lower
statistical reliability,2 give at least a broad indication of
how the earnings of the various demographic groups are
affected by cyclical (or short-term) changes in economic
conditions. This article focuses first on the annual aver­
age data for 1981 to re-examine the intergroup dif­
ferences in earnings among both full- and part-time
workers and then looks at some of the quarterly data to
see how the earnings of the various groups have been
Earl F. Mellor and George D. Stamas are economists in the Division
of Labor Force Studies, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Annice Tyler
Mee, of the same division, provided statistical assistance.




changing over time. Other articles in this issue, by Nan­
cy F. Rytina and Sylvia Lazos Terry, deal more speci­
fically with the relationship of pay to race, sex, occupa­
tional tenure, and work experience.

Major differences among full-time workers
Of all persons employed as wage and salary workers
in 1981, about 72 million usually worked full time—
that is, 35 or more hours a week— and 16 million usu­
ally worked part time. On an annual average basis, the
median weekly earnings for full-time workers were
$289, but this average masked very wide differences
among the various population groups.
Disparities in earnings among groups are largely a re­
flection of differences in the amount, type, and location
of work performed. If the number of hours worked by
each group were the same, and if each group were
equally distributed among the various occupations, in­
dustries, and geographic areas, the inter-group differ­
ences in earnings would probably not be very large.
But, in reality, there are differences among the various
population groups in terms of hours worked— even
within the full-time universe—and in terms of the spe­
cific occupations and industries in which the work is
performed. And, in the case of the principal racial and
ethnic groups, there are also wide differences in terms of
geographic concentration, which are known to have a
IS

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW April 1982 o Usual Weekly Earnings
further effect on earnings. Other factors, such as differ­
ences in age, education, job tenure, and the subtle and
not so subtle effects of discrimination may also have
some impact on a group’s earnings, but it is not the
purpose of this article to identify all such factors, and
even less to attempt to quantify their effects. Neverthe­
less, the most obvious are cited when comparing widely
different levels of earnings.
Men and women. For men working full time, median
weekly earnings in 1981 were $347. For women, the
median was $224, or 65 percent of that for men. With­
out searching for all the factors which produce this ra­
tio— a most difficult task even when carried out
through a complex econometric model—it can be
pointed out that men worked more hours than women
even within the full-time universe3and, more important­
ly, were generally more concentrated within high-pay
occupations in such fields as management and adminis­
tration, professional and technical work, and the vari­
ous crafts. Women, on the other hand, tend to be more
concentrated in such lower-paying fields as clerical and
service jobs.
Male-female gaps in earnings prevail even within each

occupation, but they are generally smaller than at ag­
gregate levels. To take an extreme example, the median
weekly earnings for women in sales were only 52 per­
cent of those for men in the same field (table 1). How­
ever, a further look at this broad occupational group
shows women to be largely concentrated in retail sales,
where median weekly earnings for all full-time workers
were only $197. By contrast, men were more heavily
grouped in “other sales,” where the overall weekly me­
dian was $382. Within each of these two fields, sex
earnings ratios were significantly higher than the 52 per­
cent average for all salesworkers. Specifically, the ratio
was 61 percent in retail sales and 66 percent for “other”
sales work. Needless to say, this was still far below par­
ity, and one would have to dig much deeper for the
causes of the remaining gap. Unfortunately, it has not
been possible to explain all of the male-female disparity
in earnings even when more detailed data on the work
roles of men and women are available.4
Among some of the personal characteristics which
are difficult to quantify but which may have a signifi­
cant effect on the male-female earnings ratio is the dis­
continuous work experience of many women. Although
this practice has changed considerably in recent years, it

Table 1. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by selected demographic characteristics, annual
averages, 1981
A g e , m a jo r o c c u p a tio n a l
g ro u p , a n d y e a r s o f
s c h o o l c o m p le te d

W h ite

A ll ra c e s

B la c k

H is p a n ic

B o th
sexes

M en

W om en

B o th
sexes

M en

W om en

B o th
sexes

M en

W om en

$289
204
163
219
316
302
335
329
317
227

$347
225
173
241
378
346
406
408
386
270

$224
184
150
193
237
242
241
231
227
190

$296
206
164
222
325
310
345
340
326
228

$356
227
174
244
389
354
416
417
396
275

$226
185
151
195
239
245
243
234
231
189

$238
185
148
192
251
248
267
248
243
216

$271
196
150
207
290
280
311
295
281
233

$210
174
145
179
220
223
227
213
198

289
377
407
306
233
352
242
303
238
192
179

347
439
466
366
328
360
298
307
244
238
183

224
316
283
190
220
239
187
237
193
165
148

296
381
410
311
233
356
246
314
241
195
181

356
443
471
372
335
364
304
319
247
245
185

226
315
282
191
219
239
189
237
193
165
148

238
324
347
221
230
309
222
257
217
182
147

316
242
227
256
333
291
334
417
393
443

378
290
259
314
402
363
398
482
459
507

237
180
169
187
249
222
259
325
299
362

325
249
232
268
341
298
342
422
402
445

389
301
268
326
409
372
405
490
471
510

239
182
171
190
251
224
261
326
301
359

251
211
203
217
273
243
283
350
321
416

B o th
sexes

M en

W om en

$229
187

$252
197

$192
172

Age

Total, 16 years and over ..................................
16 to 24 y e a rs ...............................................
16 to 19 years ..........................................
20 to 24 years ..........................................
25 years and over ........................................
25 to 34 years ..........................................
35 to 44 years ..........................................
45 to 54 years ..........................................
55 to 64 years ..........................................
65 years and over ....................................

-

_
246
_

-

_
282
-

-

201
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(’ )

-

-

-

271
352
391
249
286
314
267
258
220
214
154

210
308
303
182
220
239
179

252
386
381
286
280
304
231
261
225
190
191

192
285
271
( 1)
214
( 1)
169

( 1)

229
336
347
240
226
296
199
261
222
173
185

290
241
225
257
317
294
325
396
354
449

220
172
160
177
237
209
246
326
296
384

246
210
199
235
293
264
316
371
340
421

282
232
221
266
349
319
370
414
384
446

201
167
158
185
234
211
258
308
285
(’ )

O c c u p a tio n

Total, 16 years and over .................................
Professional and technical workers .............
Managers and administrators, except farm ..
Salesworkers.................................................
Clerical w orkers.............................................
Craft and kindred workers ...........................
Operatives, except transport.........................
Transport equipment operatives ..................
Nonfarm laborers..........................................
Service w orkers.............................................
Farmworkers.................................................

(’ )
( 1)
166

n
n
147
( 1)

Y e a r s o f s c h o o l c o m p le te d

Total, 25 years and over .................................
Less than 4 years of high schoo l..................
8 years of school or le s s ...........................
1 to 3 years of high school ......................
4 years of high school or m o re ....................
4 years of high school...............................
1 to 3 years of college .............................
4 years of college or more ......................
4 years of colle ge.................................
5 years of college or m ore....................
' Median not shown where base is less than 50,000.

16




Note : Dashes indicate data not available.

used to be customary for women to leave the job mar­
ket for many years in order to bear and rear their chil­
dren. This affected not only their accumulation of
seniority, but also the advancement of their skills.5
An age-earnings profile of CPS data clearly shows
that, for one or a number of reasons, the average week­
ly earnings of women reach a peak at a younger age'
than do the earnings of men. As shown in chart 1, me­
dian weekly earnings of women show no further rise af­
ter reaching a peak of about $240 at ages 25 to 34. For
men, however, the peak value of about $410 reported
for the 35-to-44 and the 45-to-54 age groups was con­
siderably higher than the median for the 25-to-34 age
group.
One question raised by the chart is whether the rela­
tively narrow earnings gap which now exists between
younger men and women will widen as these workers
age, or whether the disparity exhibited by older workers
merely reflects wage and employment patterns by sex
that are gradually being eroded. Only time can answer
this question, but it should be noted that, over the past
14 years, the overall sex-earnings ratio has not changed
much. It was 62 percent in May 1967 and had risen
only to 64 percent by the second quarter of 1981.
Blacks and Hispanics. The earnings differences among
whites, blacks, and Hispanics are shown in table 1 in
terms of age, sex, occupation, and education. The tabu­
lation below summarizes the usual weekly earnings of
full-time workers by racial and ethnic origin and major
age-sex groups based on annual averages for 1981.
White

Black_______ Hispanic

Level Level Percent Level Percent
of white
of white
earnings
earnings
Total .............

$296

$238

80

$229

77

Men:
16 to 24 years old .
25 years and over . .

227
389

196
290

86
75

197
282

87
72

Women:
16 to 24 years old .
25 years and over . .

185
239

174
220

94
92

172
201

93
84

As shown above, the overall median weekly earnings
of blacks were 80 percent of the overall median for
whites, and the median for Hispanics was 77 percent of
that for whites. The greatest racial and ethnic differ­
ences in earnings, both in absolute and relative terms,
were among men 25 years and over. Within this group,
the medians for blacks and Hispanics were about 75
percent of that for whites. Among women, the racialethnic differences were much smaller.
But even among men, the racial-ethnic differences in
earnings were significantly smaller when examined by
occupation. Whereas the overall black-to-white ratio for



Quart 1. Earnings profile of full-time wage and
salary workers, by sex and age, 1981
Usual weekly earnings
$500

Men

100

0
16 20
to to
19 24

25
to
34

35
to
44

45
to
54

55
to
64

65
and
over

AGE

men was 76 percent, the ratios for most of the occupa­
tional groups exceeded 80 percent for men and were
much higher for women. (See table 1.) The reason the
overall ratios are so much lower, particularly for men,
is because of the relatively high concentration of blacks
in low-skill, low-pay occupations, which could, in turn,
-reflect differences in education or training, or the linger­
ing effects of discrimination. That the racial-ethnic earn­
ings gaps are very small among young workers, both
male and female, probably reflects the fact that there is,
as yet, little difference among these groups in terms of
educational attainment, skills, and general experience on
the job.
Regional differences in earnings, coupled with the un­
equal geographical distribution of the various racial-eth­
nic groups, also contribute to the earnings variation
among these groups. In the South, which employs more
than half of all black men with jobs, but less than a
third of all white men, workers of each race earned less
than their counterparts in the other regions.6 And, at
$237 per week, the earnings of black men in the South
were 71 percent of those for white men ($332), a ratio
lower than in any other region.
Hispanic men as a group earned $252 per week,
about 93 percent as much as black men and 71 percent

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW April 1982 © Usual Weekly Earnings
as much as white men. A comparison of the earnings of
Hispanic men with the earnings of all white men shows
a pattern similar to that for blacks— that is, more fa­
vorable earnings ratios within individual occupational
groups than overall.
The lower earnings figure for Hispanic men also re­
flects the fact that a relatively large proportion of them
are under 25 years of age. Within age categories, black
and Hispanic men earned about the same per week.
Men in the major Hispanic ethnic groups— Mexicans,
Puerto Ricans, and Cubans— had roughly similar earn­
ings.
For women, there were generally smaller differences
among the median weekly earnings of whites, blacks,
and Hispanics. Black teenage women had earnings
equal to those of their white counterparts. In the older
age groups the black-white earnings ratios were about
90 percent. Differences within specific occupational
groups were generally small between white and Hispan­
ic women. Hispanic women earned about the same as
white women in clerical jobs and as managers and ad­
ministrators working full time. But they earned less
than their white counterparts— and still less than black
women—in factory operative and service jobs.7
Education. Earnings are closely related to education, as
better educated workers generally have access to higher­
paying jobs. For full-time workers over age 24 (most of
whom had completed their education), median usual
earnings in 1981 ranged from $242 for those with less
than 4 years of high school to $443 for those with 5
years of college or more. (See table 1.)
Among the highly educated workers, earnings of
women and minority men compared more favorably

with those of white men than among the less educated.
On the average, women with 4 years of college earned
65 percent as much as men with the same attainment,
and those with 5 or more years of college earned 71
percent as much as men at the same level of education.
On the other hand, among workers with only a high
school education, the median weekly earnings of women
were only 61 percent of those of men. Working women
with any college education are, on the average, younger
than men with the same educational attainment, and so
have less work experience in their chosen vocation. This
may explain, in part, apparent earnings disparities by
educational attainment.
Earnings of black men generally hovered around 80
percent those of white men with the same level of edu­
cation, but blacks with 5 or more years of college
earned about 90 percent as much. Relatively fewer
black men fit this category, however; 5 percent had 5 or
more years of college compared to 12 percent of white
men. Several researchers have found that, after
standardizing for work experience, returns to education
for black men equal or exceed those of white men.8 At
higher levels of educational attainment, black men are,
on the average, younger than white men with similar
education.
As can be seen in table 1, younger black men had a
more favorable earnings ratio relative to white men
their age than did older black men. This is at least part­
ly because, relative to the white counterparts of each
group, younger blacks have received more and better
quality schooling than did older blacks. It remains to
be seen whether young blacks can carry with them this
improvement in relative earning power throughout their
lives.9

Table 2. Percent distribution of full-time wage and salary workers, by usual weekly earnings for major industry groups,
annual averages, 1981
In d u s tr y g r o u p

Total ...................................................................
Private se cto r...............................................
Goods-producing industries.......................
Agriculture.............................................
Mining ....................................................
Construction...........................................
Manufacturing ......................................
Durable goods ..................................
Nondurable goods................................
Service-producing industries....................
Transportation and public u tilities.........
Trade ....................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate . . .
Private households................................
Miscellaneous services.........................
Public sector ...............................................
Federal......................................................
State ........................................................
Local ........................................................

Num ber
of
w o rk e rs
(in
th o u s a n d s )

72,491
59,112
25,813
1,050
1,055
3,658
20,050
12,300
7,750
33,299
5,033
11,593
4,645
369
11,660
13,379
2,929
3,162
7,162

P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n b y w e e k ly e a r n in g s

T o ta l

Under
$150

$150
to
$199

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

9.8
10.6
7.1
29.1
1.3
4.0
6.8
4.3
10.9
13.3
2.5
17.7
7.8
70.7
13.9
6.1
2.7
6.5
7.3

14.5
15.4
12.9
26.3
3.7
9.4
13.4
10.6
17.8
17.4
6.8
20.0
19.8
14.6
18.4
10.6
6.2
12.1
11.8

$200
to
$249

$250
to
$299

$300
to
$349

$350
to
$399

$400
to
$499

$500
or
m o re

15.9
16.2
15.6
19.9
7.5
15.9
15.7
15.2
16.6
16.6
11.3
16.7
19.4
10.0
17.8
15.0
10.9
16.3
16.2

12.3
11.8
11.9
9.5
8.8
10.8
12.4
12.8
11.8
11.8
10.2
11.2
13.3
2.4
12.8
14.6
12.1
15.4
15.3

11.2
10.7
11.4
5.2
10.9
11.6
11.8
12.2
11.0
10.2
12.3
9.6
9.6
1.1
10.5
12.9
11.4
12.9
13.6

8.3
7.9
9.1
3.8
10.6
8.7
9.3
10.2
7.9
7.0
10.8
6.2
6.2
0.2
6.5
10.1
12.2
9.0
9.7

13.3
12.8
15.6
3.2
24.5
17.4
15.4
17.7
11.7
10.7
22.9
8.6
8.0
0.8
8.9
15.2
22.2
12.6
13.6

14.7
14.6
16.4
3.0
32.7
22.3
15.2
17.1
12.3
13.1
23.1
10.0
16.0
0.5
11.2
15.3
22.4
15.3
12.5

M e d ia n

$289
282
310
189
423
342
306
329
269
261
381
236
261
114
249
313
377
298
297

No te : Small values in the percent distributions are subject to relatively large sampling errors and should be interpreted with caution. Specifically, values of less than 1 percent are subject to rela­
tive errors of 25 percent or more.

Digitized 18 FRASER
for


Occupation and industry. Workers in managerial or ad­
ministrative jobs had the highest median weekly
earnings ($407) among the major occupational groups.
Professional and technical workers were the second
highest-paid group. These two groups included all but
one of the eight specific occupations with median week­
ly earnings of $500 or more in 1981: lawyers, sales
managers other than retail trade, engineers, economists,
stock and bond sales agents, airplane pilots, computer
systems analysts, and physicians.1 The same two groups
0
included most of the specific occupations with medians
between $450 and $499: school administrators, opera­
tions and systems reseachers and analysts, chemists,
and pharmacists. (There also was one blue-collar occu­
pation-structural metal workers.)
Lowest median earnings among the major occupa­
tional groups were reported for farmworkers, $179, and
service workers, $192. The services field included all of
the specific occupations with median weekly earnings
below $150.
It is generally recognized that the most precise data
on earnings patterns by industry are those collected not
through a household survey such as the CPS, but
through a survey of establishments such as the “790”
survey conducted monthly by the BLS.11 Nevertheless,
data from the CPS are still a valuable complement to the
establishment-based earnings data, as the latter cannot
generally be crosstabulated with any of the characteris­
tics of the earners, such as sex and full- or part-time
status. The CPS data can be disaggregated by these char­
acteristics and, at least until 1980, could also be
crosstabulated with union membership.1
2
In 1981, full-time workers in the private sector had
median weekly earnings of $282, with respective medi­
ans of $310 in goods-producing industries and $261 in
the service sector. (See table 2.) In the public sector,
full-time workers had median weekly earnings of $313,
with Federal employees reporting higher average earn­
ings than employees of State or local governments.
From an all-inclusive list of 46 industry groups in the
private sector, the six with the highest reported earnings
for full-time workers—medians of $400 or more—in­
cluded four in manufacturing (petroleum and coal prod­
ucts, motor vehicle and equipment manufacture, aircraft
and parts manufacture, and ordnance), mining, and one
in the service-producing sector (railroad transportation).
These industries typically have higher than average pro­
portions of professional and technical workers, manag­
ers and administrators, and craftworkers. They also
have above-average proportions of workers who are
covered by union agreements and below-average pro­
portions of women employees. This is clearly illustrated
in the following tabulation which, in addition to the
median weekly earnings for full-time workers in the six
highest- and lowest-paying industries, also shows the



percentage of wage and salary workers who were repre­
sented by a union as of May 1980 and the percentage
who are women.
Median
weekly
earnings

Percent
represented
by a union

Percent
who are
women

$289

29

39

. . 433
. . 423
. . 422

36
36
82

20
15
7

. . 414
. . 410

50
37

23
22

. . 407

63

15

114
170

1
27

90
79

174

8

55

185
188

24
18
4

61
59
16°

All full-time workers.
Highest-paying industries:
Petroleum and coal
p roducts...........................
M in in g ................................
Railroad transportation . .
Aircraft and parts
manufacture ...................
Ordnance ...........................
Motor vehicle and
equipment manufacture .

Lowest-paying industries:
Private h o u seh o ld s........... . .
Apparel manufacture. . . . . .
Eating and drinking
places ................................ . .
Leather and leather
products............................. . .
Personal services................ . •
Agriculture..........................

Low earners and high earners. Medians are probably the
most useful measure of earnings one can use for inter­
group comparison. However, information on the distri­
bution of earnings within groups— that is, the propor­
tion of workers at given levels of earnings— show more
fully the extent of differences in earnings. For example,
while the median earnings of two groups of workers
might be about the same, one group could have a larger
proportion of very low earners than the other.
From the distribution of earnings in table 3, we see
that about 7 million full-time wage and salary workers,
or 10 percent of the total, were reported as earning un­
der $150 a week in 1981. About 600,000 of them were
earning under $100 a week, or considerably less than
they could earn if they received the minimum wage
($3.35 per hour at the time) and worked a 40-hour
week.
Earnings below $150 a week were most common
among youth, women, and minority employees. The ex­
tent to which these groups were overrepresented among
low earners in 1981 can be seen by comparing their
share of the full-time work force with their share of the
low-earning universe:

Workers 16 to 24 years . . . .
Women .....................................
Blacks ........................................
H isp a n ics...................................

Percent o f
full-time
workers
19
39
10
5

Percent
earning
under $150
41
66
17
10
19

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW April 1982 o Usual Weekly Earnings
Some occupations and industries have a substantially
higher share of low earners than others. About 40 per­
cent of service workers and 34 percent of farmworkers,
compared to about 3 percent of professional and techni­
cal workers, managers and administrators, and craftworkers were reported as earning under $ 150 for full-time
work in 1981.
Among the major industry groups, private house­
holds, agriculture, and trade had the highest proportion
of workers reporting less than $150 for full-time work.
Mining, transportation and public utilities, and the Fed­
eral Government had the lowest proportions in this lowearning bracket.
At the upper end of the earnings spectrum, 11 mil­
lion full-time employees reported weekly earnings of
$500 or more per week. They constituted about 15 per­
cent of all full-time workers. An overwhelming majority
of the high earners (86 percent) were white males age
25 and over, most of them married. Men with 4 or
more years of college— 13 percent of all full-time em­
ployees—made up 41 percent of the workers with $500

or more in weekly earnings, while women with the same
level of education were underrepresented among these
high earners. Three occupational groups— professional
and technical, managerial and administrative, and craft
— accounted for 76 percent of the high earners, but
only 43 percent of all full-time workers.
Part-tim e workers
For the 16 million persons who were reported as usu­
ally working part time, median weekly earnings were
$82 in 1981. This was equivalent to 28 percent of the
median for full-time workers, for workweeks that were
almost half as long.1
3
In addition to the shorter workweek, the occupation­
al distribution and demographic composition of parttime workers figured in their lower earnings. For exam­
ple, part-time workers include a higher proportion of
women and of persons outside the prime earning ages
(25 to 54 years). The following tabulation shows the per­
centages of the part-time and full-time work forces
accounted for by various demographic groups in 1981.

Table 3. Percent distribution of full-time wage and salary workers, by usual weekly earnings and selected demographic
characteristics, annual averages, 1981

C h a r a c te r is tic

N um ber
of
w o rk e rs
(in
th o u s a n d s )

P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n b y w e e k ly e a r n in g s

T o ta l

U nder
$150

$150
to
$199

$200
to
$249

$250
to
$299

$300
to
$349

$350
to
$399

$400
to
$499

$500
or
m o re

M e d ia n

Sex and age

Total, 16 years and o v e r ....................................
16 to 24 years ..........................................
25 years and o v e r ......................................

72,491
13,702
58,789

100.0
100.0
100.0

9.8
21.2
7.1

14.5
26.6
11.7

15.9
21.2
14.7

12.3
11.9
12.5

11.2
7.6
12.0

8.3
4.4
9.2

13.3
4.7
15.2

14.7
2.4
17.6

$289
204
316

Men, 16 years and o v e r..................................
16 to 24 years ...........................................
25 years and o v e r ......................................

43,888
7,672
36,216

100.0
100.0
100.0

5.4
10.4
3.1

9.0
22.3
6.2

12.7
21.7
10.7

11.3
13.1
10.9

12.1
9.6
12.6

10.0
6.0
10.9

17.8
7.1
20.0

21.7
3.7
25.5

347
225
378

Women, 16 years and over ...........................
16 to 24 years ...........................................
25 years and o v e r ......................................

28,603
6,030
22,573

100.0
100.0
100.0

16.4
27.4
13.4

23.0
32.0
20.5

21.0
20.5
21.1

14.0
10.2
15.0

9.7
5.1
10.9

5.6
2.3
6.5

6.3
1.7
7.6

4.1
0.8
4.9

224
184
237

W hite...............................................................
M e n .............................................................
W omen........................................................

63,241
38,874
24,367

100.0
100.0
100.0

9.0
4.8
15.6

14.0
8.4
22.8

15.6
12.1
21.1

12.2
11.0
14.2

11.3
12.1
10.0

8.5
10.2
5.8

13.7
18.2
6.4

15.8
23.1
4.1

296
356
226

B la c k ...............................................................
M e n .............................................................
Women........................................................

7,499
4,023
3,477

100.0
100.0
100.0

16.0
11.2
21.6

19.3
15.1
24.1

18.9
17.9
20.2

13.0
13.4
12.6

10.2
12.1
8.0

6.8
8.5
4.8

9.7
13.5
5.3

6.1
8.4
3.4

238
271
210

Hispanic..........................................................
M e n ............................................................
W omen........................................................

4,284
2,759
1,525

100.0
100.0
100.0

16.9
11.8
26.1

21.2
17.7
27.5

19.7
19.7
19.7

12.0
12.5
11.3

8.7
10.1
6.0

6.3
7.6
3.9

8.8
11.5
4.0

6.4
9.0
1.5

229
252
192

12,870
7,864
3,601
14,066
10,558
9,440
2,792
3,227
7,305
766

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

2.5
2.8
13.1
10.2
2.9
13.6
5.5
15.2
29.3
33.6

4.7
5.9
13.4
23.6
7.3
20.5
12.3
19.7
24.1
27.7

9.6
9.2
12.1
24.2
13.4
18.6
17.6
19.3
18.2
19.6

13.0
10.5
9.9
14.8
12.1
12.5
13.7
12.1
9.8
8.1

14.1
11.0
11.3
9.8
13.5
10.3
12.6
10.3
6.8
4.2

10.9
9.1
6.8
6.2
11.4
7.8
9.5
8.2
3.9
3.2

18.4
15.2
11.3
7.4
22.0
11.8
15.8
10.7
4.8
1.6

26.8
36.4
22.2
3.7
17.3
4.8
13.0
4.6
3.2
2.1

377
407
306
233
352
242
303
238
192
179

R a c e , H is p a n ic o rig in , a n d s e x

O c c u p a tio n

Professional and technical workers................
Managers and administrators, except farm ..
Salesworkers.................................................
Clerical workers .............................................
Craft and kindred w o rkers....................
Operatives, except transport ........................
Transport equipment operatives....................
Nonfarm laborers ..........................................
Service workers .............................................
Farmworkers .................................................

Note : Small values in the percent distributions are subject to relatively large sampling errors and should be interpreted with caution. Specifically, values of less than 1 percent are subject to rela­
tive errors of 25 percent or more.

20




Part time

Full time

69
43
15

39
19
12

W o m e n ...................................................
Persons under 25 y e a r s ....................
Persons 55 years and older . . . .
W h i t e ......................................................
B l a c k ......................................................
H is p a n ic ................................................

89
9
4

87
10
5

The unique industry composition of the part-time
work force also contributed to its lower earnings. Al­
most nine-tenths of all part-time employment, com­
pared with about two-thirds of full-time employment, is
in the service-producing sector, where pay scales are rel­
atively low.
Women as a group earned slightly more per week
than men for part-time work in 1981 ($84 versus $78).
However, this is largely because one-half the women
but only one-sixth the men in part-time work are age 25
to 54. Within each age group, women earned less than
men for part-time work. (See table 4.) The gap was
least for workers under 25 years and widest for those
age 35 to 44.
Median weekly earnings of part-time workers by oc­
cupation ranged from $32 for private household work
and $59 for farm work to $123 for professional and
technical jobs. In each occupation, the ratio of median
weekly earnings, part time to full time, was lower than
the ratio of mean hours between the two groups. (See
table 5.)

Trends in weekly earnings
An examination of the broad earnings trends for the
period beginning with May 1967 and ending with the
second quarter of 1981 reveals significant gains in con­
stant dollars (current dollars deflated by the CPl-w) up
to 1973 and some erosion thereafter.1 The erosion re­
4
flects both the effects of the recession of 1974-75 and of
the slowdown that began in 1980, as well as the acceler­
ation in prices over this period. For 1981 no group
shown in table 6 had constant-dollar earnings exceeding
their 1973 level.
Overall, the median earnings for all full-time workers
Table 4. Median weekly earnings of part-time workers, by
age and sex, annua! averages, 1981
m e d ia n w e e k ly e a r n in g s
Age

W o m e n ’s
e a r n in g s
as a
p e rc e n t
o f m e n ’s

B o th
sexes

M en

W om en

Total, 16 years and o v e r .........

$82

$78

$84

108

16 to 19 years ....................
20 to 24 vears ....................
25 to 34 years ....................
35 to 44 years ....................
45 to 54 years ....................
55 to 64 years ....................
65 years and o v e r...............

61
84
103
104
99
91
71

62
86
119
150
119
105
78

59
83
100
101
97
88
65

95
97
84
67
82
84
83




Table 5. Weekly earnings and hours of part-time workers
and as a percent of those of full-time workers, by
occupation, annual averages, 1981
M e d ia n w e e k ly e a rn in g s
O c c u p a tio n g r o u p

Total ........................................
Professional and technical
workers.............................
Managers and administrators,
except fa rm ......................
Salesworkers ......................
Clerical workers ..................
Craft and kindred workers ..
Operatives, except transport.
Transport equipment
operatives........................
Nonfarm laborers ................
Service workers ..................
Private household workers
Other service workers .. .
Farmworkers ......................

M e a n h o u rs '

P a r t-tim e
w o rk e rs

A s a p e rc e n t
o f fu ll-tim e
e a rn in g s

P a r t-tim e
w o rk e rs

A s a p e rc e n t
o f fu ll-tim e
h o u rs

$82

28

>9.0

46

123

33

19.1

45

108
73
88
105
91

27
24
38
30
38

20.7
19.1
19.7
20.1
20.4

46
44
50
48
50

93
70
69
32
73
59

31
29
36
30
37
33

19.1
17.8
18.2
13.5
18.9
16.5

43
44
44
31
46
33

'Hours are for wage and salary workers who usually work part time for non-economic
reasons and for wage and salary workers on full-time schedules.

were about 4 percent lower in. real terms in 1981 than
in 1967. This overall decline, however, was partly a
function of changes in the demographic composition of
the work force. Most of the gains in employment over
the 1967-81 period were made by women and very
young workers, whose earnings are generally much low­
er than those of adult men. Thus, the increase in the
youth and female proportions of the work force had a
depressing effect on the earnings average for all full­
time workers.
As shown in table 6, the inflation-adjusted earnings
of men 25 and over were still 5 percent higher in
mid-1981 than in 1967, while those of women 25 and
over were 9 percent higher. It was only the earnings of
young workers 16 to 24 that were lower in real terms in
mid-1981 than in 1967, a phenomenon that has been
widely attributed to the very rapid increase in the num­
ber of youth entering the labor force over this period.1
5
A more encouraging development was the relatively
sizable gain in the earnings of blacks. During 1967-73,
black men and women experienced gains in earnings ad­
justed for inflation about twice as large, in percentage
terms, as those of their white counterparts. Moreover,
subsequent periods of recession and spiraling prices
eroded the gains of black workers much less. After al­
lowance for inflation, median weekly earnings were 12
percent greater for black men and 24 percent greater for
black women in 1981 than in 1967. In contrast, white
men had real earnings equal to their 1967 level, while
white women had earnings only 4 percent higher than
their 1967 level. Thus, there was significant narrowing
in the racial earnings gap over this period.
The disparity between the earnings of men and wom­
en also narrowed slightly, but continued to be large.
The tabulation below shows the earnings of women
21

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW April 1982 o Usual Weekly Earnings
working full time as a percentage of the earnings of
men of comparable age for 1967 and 1981.
1967
(May)
16 years and over .
16 to 24 years . .
25 years and over

1981
(Second
quarter)

61.9
76.8
60.5

64.2
80.4
62.6

More recently, over the 2-year period ended with the
fourth quarter of 1981, median weekly earnings of full­
time workers rose by 19.1 percent, while consumer
prices rose by 23.1 percent. This resulted in a 3.3-percent decline in constant-dollar earnings, most of which
occurred during 1980. For most of the major groups,
the changes between the fourth quarters of 1980 and
1981 were not statistically significant. The fact that
there was no further erosion of real earnings over this
period reflects a slowdown in the increase in the CPI-W
(from 12.6 to 9.4 percent annually) rather than an ac­
celeration in current-dollar earnings.
Although the recession which began in the latter part
of 1981 had a negative impact on the number of full­
time workers, it did not have a noticeable effect on the
average weekly earnings of this group. This reflects con­
tractual and other factors working against reducing
wage increases (for example, cost-of-living adjustments).
Also, during a production cutback, workers with the
least seniority on the job are generally laid off- first, and
this may result in a smaller but higher-tenured and
higher-paid workforce.

A look at hourly earnings
Of all wage and salary workers, about three-fifths, or
a little under 52 million, were paid by the hour in 1981.
The data on the hourly earnings of these workers, when
crossed with their demographic characteristics, provide
some additional insight on the earnings distribution,
particularly in terms of those who are at the lower end.
Workers paid by the hour are highly concentrated in
lower skilled occupations. Those most likely to be paid
hourly rates in 1981 were factory operatives and non­
farm laborers; the least likely were professional and
technical workers and managers and administrators. In
terms of industries, hourly wage workers accounted for
more than two-thirds of construction, manufacturing,
and trade employees, but for only one-fourth of those in
finance, insurance, and real estate.
Within the hourly earnings universe— which, to a
certain extent, tends to group workers according to
skills and education— the inter-group differences in
earnings are not as large relatively as they are for all
wage and salary workers. For example, as shown in ta­
ble 7, the median hourly earnings for black men were
$5.93 in 1981. This was 87 percent of the median for
white men paid by the hour, compared with a 76 per­

22


cent ratio of the weekly medians for the two groups.
The median hourly earnings of black women ($4.27)
were only slightly lower than those of white women
($4.36).
Men had much higher hourly earnings than women
at every age. And, as in the case of weekly earnings,
women reached a peak in hourly earnings at an earlier
age than did men. According to the cross-sectional data
for 1981, women reached a peak in median hourly earn­
ings at ages 25 to 34, whereas the median for men con­
tinued to rise through the 35-to-44 age group and
remained about the same for men age 45 to 54.
In terms of distribution, about 6.8 million workers
paid by the hour, or 13 percent, made $10 or more in
1981. An overwhelming majority of them, 80 percent,
Table 6. Median w eekly earnings o f wage and salary
w o rkers w ho usually w o rk full time, by selected
characteristics, 1967, 1973, and 1981
M e d ia n w e e k ly e a r n in g s

In d e x o f c o n s ta n t
d o lla rs
( M a y 1 9 6 7 = 1 0 0 .0 )

C h a r a c te r is tic
1967
(M a y )

1973
(M a y )

1981
(S e c o n d
q u a r te r )

1973
(M a y )

Both sexes, 16 years and over ................
16 to 24 years ......................................
25 years and over ...............................

$109
84
115

$159
119
170

$285
202
312

110.1
107.1
111.3

96.3
89.3
100.0

Men, 16 years and over ......................
16 to 24 years .................................
25 years and o v e r.............................

125
97
131

188
136
203

344
225
374

113.6
106.2
116.8

101.6
85.6
105.3

Women, 16 years and o v e r ..................
16 to 24 years .................................
25 years and o v e r.............................

78
74
79

116
103
121

221
181
234

112.8
105.4
115.2

105.1
90.5
108.9

W hite......................................................
M e n ...................................................
Women .............................................

113
130
79

162
193
117

293
353
223

108.0
112.3
111.4

95.6
100.0
103.8

Black and other races' .........................
M e n ...................................................
Women .............................................

79
90
63

129
149
107

238
274
210

124.1
125.6
128.6

111.4
112.2
123.8

Men, 16 years and over:
Never married ..................................
Married, spouse present ..................
Other marital status .........................

95
131
113

134
200
171

238
377
344

106.3
115.3
114.2

92.6
106.1
112.4

Women, 16 years and over:
Never married .................................
Married, spouse present ..................
Other marital status ........................

79
79
75

114
117
115

206
226
225

108.9
111.4
116.0

96.2
105.1
110.7

145

212

368

110.3

93.8

164
113
91
131
-

238
163
130
195
132
169
138
107
96

409
301
230
347
243
299
236
189
179

109.8
108.8
107.7
112.2
-

92.1
98.2
93.4
97.7
93.5
100.0
113.8

1981
(S e c o n d
q u a r te r )

S ex and age

Race

M a rita l s ta tu s

O c c u p a tio n

Professional and technical workers . . .
Managers and administrators, except
fa rm ...................................................
Salesworkers........................................
Clerical w o rkers....................................
Craft and kindred w orkers....................
Operatives, except transport2 .............
Transport equipment operatives2 .........
Nonfarm labo rers..................................
Service w o rk e rs....................................
Farmworkers ........................................

-

93
70
58

-

111.8
115.7
125.9

1Data for blacks (exclusive of other races) are not available prior to 1978.
2 Data not available prior to 1972.

Table 7 . Median hourly earnings of wage and salary workers paid hourly rates, by selected demographic characteristics,
annual averages, 1981
Total
Age and years of school completed

Both
sexes

Men

White
Women

Both
sexes

$4.35
3.75
3.39
4.17
4.74
4.98
4.84
4.63
4.45
3.76

$5.30
4.06
3.48
4.75
6.25
6.36
6.51
6.35
5.99
4.03

Men

Black
Women

Both
sexes

$4.36
3.76
3.39
4.19
4.77
4.99
4.85
4.68
4.49
3.79

$5.01
3.88
3.39
4.24
5.43
5.56
5.64
5.32
5.26
3.53

Men

Hispanic
Women

Both
sexes

Men

Women

Age
Total, 16 years and over .................................
16 to 24 y e a rs ...............................................
16 to 19 years ..........................................
20 to 24 years ..........................................
25 years and over ........................................
25 to 34 years ...........................................
35 to 44 years ..........................................
45 to 54 years ..........................................
55 to 64 years ..........................................
65 years and over ....................................

$5.27
4.04
3.47
4.68
6.13
6.24
6.38
6.18
5.88
3.98

$6.72
4.41
3.61
5.25
7.92
7.53
8.49
8.65
8.05
4.35

$6.84
4.44
3.64
5.31
8.14
7.69
8.77
8.96
8.26
4.41

$5.93
4.11
3.40
4.58
6.64
6.50
6.98
6.77
6.67
3.75

$4.27
3.70
3.38
3.93
4.51
4.81
4.63
4.35
4.09
3.41

$4.90
4.08
_
_
5.35
-

_

$5.45
4.34
_
_
6.38
_
_

-

-

_

_

-

-

$4.15
3.80
_
_
4.37
_
_
_
_
-A- .

Years of school completed
Total, 25 years and over ..................................
Less than 4 years of high schoo l..................
8 years of school or le s s ...........................
1 to 3 years of high school ......................
4 years of high school or more ....................
4 years of high school...............................
1 to 3 years of college .............................
4 years of college or more ......................
4 years of colle ge.................................
5 years of college or m ore....................

6.13
5.30
5.06
5.50
6.47
6.19
6.91
7.21
6.93
7.92

7.92
6.77
6.09
7.40
8.45
8.43
8.60
8.22
8.09
8.53

4.74
4.05
3.88
4.18
5.03
4.71
5.49
6.36
5.97
7.40

6.25
5.43
5.17
5.79
6.53
6.28
6.96
7.22
6.95
7.88

1 Median not shown where base is less than 50,000.

8.14
7.00
6.29
7.65
8.62
8.61
8.78
8.31
8.21
8.51
N ote :

were white men. Only 12 percent of the high wage earn­
ers were women, 8 percent were black, and 5 percent
were Hispanic.
At the low end of the earnings scale, about 1.4 mil­
lion of the workers paid an hourly wage earned less
than $3 an hour in 1981, when the prevailing minimum
wage under the Fair Labor Standards Act was $3.35.
Of course, the Act exempts certain types of workers
from the minimum wage provisions and permits a lower
minimum for others.1 About half of the workers who
6

4.77
4.10
3.92
4.24
5.02
4.71
5.47
6.29
5.92
7.28

5.43
4.71
4.44
4.90
6.03
5.65
6.69
7.03
6.86
7.95

6.64
5.65
5.19
6.16
7.27
7.05
7.74
7.56
7.58

4.51
3.86
3.63
3.98
5.03
4.71
5.70
6.46
6.22

5.35
4.82
4.53
5.44
6.32
6.07
7.09
6.55
6.36

( ')

V)

( 1)

6.38
5.45
5.19
6.59
7.77
7.54
8.48
7.05
C)
(’ )

4.15
3.80
3.73
3.92
4.60
4.46
4.73
(’ )
( 1)
( 1)

Dashes indicate data not available.

earned less than the prevailing minimum were employed
in retail trade— two-thirds of them in eating and drink­
ing places, where exemptions from the minimum are
very prevalent. One-tenth worked in private households.
Workers who reported that they earned less than the
minimum wage were predominently young (57 percent
were under 25 years of age), and female. Among both
whites and blacks, about 7 percent of the hourly em­
ployees reported earnings below the prevailing mini­
mum.
□

FOOTNOTES
' Quarterly data on weekly earnings from the CPS have been
available since early 1979 and are published in a press release entitled
“Weekly Earnings of Workers and Their Families.” The release is
available free of charge from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Before 1979, roughly comparable data on weekly earnings by demo­
graphic group were collected each May from 1967 to 1978, except for
1968. The data were published in press releases and occasional articles
in the Monthly Labor Review. The first such article was Paul O. Flaim
and Nicholas I. Peters, “Usual weekly earnings of American work­
ers,” Monthly Labor Review, March 1972, pp. 28-38. The most recent
was Janice N. Hedges and Earl F. Mellor, “Weekly and hourly earn­
ings of U.S. workers, 1967-78,” Monthly Labor Review, August 1979,
pp. 31-41.
The switch from annual to more frequent collection of earnings
data in the CPS was made after two methodological tests indicated it
was feasible to collect these data more often and that they would
meet BLS standards of statistical reliability. The most important test
was conducted in January 1977, when information on the earnings of
about 4,000 workers was obtained directly from them or from mem­
bers of their households and was then compared with information
from their respective employers. Median hourly earnings for workers
paid at hourly rates were $3.53 on the basis of the household reports
and $3.64 on the basis of the employer reports— a difference of 11
cents or 3 percent. Median weekly earnings (excluding tips or com­
missions) were $170.24 on the basis of the household reports and




$179.50 on the basis of the employer reports, for a difference of $9.26
or 5 percent. See Larry Carstensen and Henry Woltman, “Comparing
Earnings Data From the CPS and Employer Records,” Proceedings of
the Social Statistics Section, 1979 (Washington, American Statistical
Association, 1979), pp. 168-74.
2For detailed information with regard to the reliability and other
technical aspects of the quarterly earnings data from the CPS, see
Earl F. Mellor, Technical Description o f the Quarterly Data on Weekly
Earnings From the Current Population Survey, Bulletin 2113 (Bureau
of Labor Statistics, 1982).
3During 1981, women on full-time schedules worked an average of
39.5 hours per week, compared to 43.1 hours for men.
4The usual method for measuring intragroup wage differences is to
estimate wage equations for each group through regression techniques
which adjust for productivity-related personal characteristics. For ex­
ample, see Burton G. Malkiel and Judith A. Malkiel, “Male-female
pay differentials in professional employment,” American Economic Re­
view, September 1973, pp. 693-705.
This analysis rests in part on the foundation of human capital theo­
ry, which views schooling and training as investments increasing
worker productivity and so future earnings. This theory is presented
by Gary Becker in Human Capital (New York, Columbia University
Press, 1964) and by Jacob Mincer in Schooling, Experience, and Earn­
ings (New York, Columbia University Press, 1974), probably the two
names most associated with the theory. In addition to variables mea­

23

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW April 1982 o Usual weekly earnings
suring human capital accumulation, wage equations typically include
other variables thought to have a role in the wage determining pro­
cess. Estimates of coefficients in wage equations, including any residu­
al difference in earnings levels that remain after controlling for levels
of the determining variables, are sensitive to the variables included in
the equation as well as relevant variables that have been left out. The
difference in earnings that remains may be due to discrimination but
could also be due to variables not considered.
There are economists who view the science’s understanding of wage
determination as seriously incomplete, and who question the relevance
of human capital theory and wage regressions. For examples, see Les­
ter C. Thurow, Generating Inequality (New York, Basic Books, Inc.,
1975); and Michael J. Piore, “The importance of human capital theo­
ry to labor economics: a dissenting view,” Industrial Relations Re­
search Association's 26th Annual Winter Proceedings.
5The discontinuous work experience of many women may depress
their earnings, in at least two ways. First, for periods when a woman
does not have a job she is not accumulating work experience. Second,
her skills accumulated in previous periods may depreciate. Women’s
fewer years of employment overall and at their current job lead to
less on-the-job training. In addition, as suggested by Steven H.
Sandell and David Shapiro, receipt of on-the-job training may in­
crease with preferences for future labor force attachment and women
may underestimate their future attachment and so underinvest in
training. See “Work expectations, human capital accumulation, and
the wages of young women,” Journal of Human Resources, Summer
1980, pp. 335-53.
Mary Corcoran and Greg J. Duncan observed more likely and fre­
quent interruption of work experience among women with the Panel
Study on Income Dynamics. They found years of training completed
on the current job explained 11 percent of the difference in earnings
of white men and women while other work history explained 28 per­
cent. After controlling for the levels of a long list of personal charac­
teristics their technique left more than half of the wage differential
unexplained. Results of their analysis suggest continuity of work expe­
rience had limited impact on earnings, implying that the impact of
human capital depreciation during labor force withdrawal on earnings
is minimal if it exists at all. See “Work history, labor force attach­
ment and earnings differences between the races and the sexes,” The
Journal o f Human Resources, Winter 1979, pp. 3-20. This evidence
conflicts with that of Jacob Mincer and Solomon Polochek. See
“Fgmily investments in human capital: Earnings of women,” Journal
o f Political Economy, Vol. 82, no. 2, part 2, March/April 1974, pp.
S76-S108.
Bureau of Labor Statistics data from the CPS show that in January
1978, the average length of time at the current job (job tenure) was
4.5 years for men and 2.6 years for women. See Edward S.
Sekscenski, “Job tenure declines as work force changes,” Monthly La­
bor Review, December 1979, pp. 48-50, reprinted with additional data
as Special Labor Force Report No. 235.
6The South includes the South Atlantic (Delaware, the District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Caroli­
na, Virginia, and West Virginia), the East South Central (Alabama,
Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee), and the West South Central
(Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas) divisions. Using CPS
data from May 1978, George D. Stamas estimated hourly earnings in
the South 10 percent lower for blacks, and 4 percent lower for whites,
compared to workers with similar characteristics in the rest of the
country. See “The puzzling lag in southern earnings,” Monthly Labor
Review, June 1981, pp. 27-36.
7Some comparisons of earnings by occupation could not be made
because there were not enough minority women in some occupations
to provide reliable estimates of their median earnings. This was the
case for black women employed as transport equipment operatives
and farmworkers, and for Hispanic women employed as salesworkers,

Digitized 24 FRASER
for


craftworkers, transport equipment operatives, nonfarm laborers, and
farmworkers.
s For an analysis of recent differences in the earnings of black men
and white men, see Daniel E. Taylor, “Education, on-the-job training,
and the black-white pay gap,” Monthly Labor Review, April 1981, pp.
28-34. Corcoran and Duncan used a more precise measure of on-thejob training and work experience and found returns for blacks and
whites to be similar. See Corcoran and Duncan, “Work history.”
"James P. Smith and Finis Welch espouse this view in their “vin­
tage” cohort improvement hypothesis. See “Race differences in earn­
ings: a survey and new evidence,” in Peter Mieszkowski and Mahlon
Straszheim, eds., Current Issues in Urban Economics (Baltimore, Johns
Hopkins University Press, 1979), pp. 40-73. An alternative hypothesis
is that this pattern of race-earnings ratios by age represents the life
cycle and that as cohorts age, earnings of black men will fall relative
to those of white men.
1 There are additional occupations in this Bureau of the Census list
0
of 428 for which the data indicate that earnings may be at least as
high as those listed. However, the estimated number of full-time wage
and salary workers in these jobs was less than the 50,000 required to
provide reasonably reliable estimates of median earnings. Examples
are physicists and astronomers, geologists, judges, and air traffic con­
trollers.
1 The Current Employment Statistics Survey, also known as the
1
“establishment” survey or the “790” survey (collected via BLS Form
790) is conducted monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to gather
information on employment and earnings for detailed industries. Data
from this survey are published in Employment and Earnings.
1 Employment and earnings data on workers by union status are
2
published in Earnings and Other Characteristics o f Organized Workers,
May 1980, Bulletin 2105 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1981).
"Comparisons of weekly hours in 1981 represent mean hours re­
ported by workers at work in the reference weeks: 41.7 hours for
those at work full time and 19.0 hours for those at work part time
who usually work part time.
1 Data from the quarterly series are not strictly comparable to
4
those collected in May of prior years. See Earl F. Mellor, Technical
Description. The earnings data are not seasonally adjusted, and only
second quarter data from the quarterly series may be used in any
comparisons with earlier figures. The extent of seasonal fluctuations
cannot be accurately determined, and adjustments cannot be made
until the data have been collected for at least 5 years. Hence, the
quarterly series should not be used at this time to track quarter-toquarter changes.
1 For several summaries of research on the subject of generational
5
crowding see Proceedings o f the Social Statistics Section, 1979 (Wash­
ington, American Statistical Association, 1979), pp. 37-56.
In a separate paper, James P. Smith and Finis Welch reported that
the difference in lifetime earnings between the smallest and the largest
cohort entering the labor market since 1940 may be 4 percent for high
school graduates and 10 percent for college graduates, with most of
the impact on employment and earnings occurring during the early
stages of work careers. See “No Time to be Young: The Economic
Prospects for Large Cohorts in the United States,” Population and De­
velopment Review, March 1981, pp. 71-83.
1 Examples of such workers are those in small retail and service es­
6
tablishments, persons employed as outside salesworkers, many
agricultural workers, part-time workers attending school full time,
and employees who earn tips. Tips also can be credited up to 40 per­
cent of the minimum wage. The Fair Labor Standards Act and its
coverage is outlined in Minimum Wage and Maximum Hours Under
the Fair Labor Standards Act, An Economic Effects Study Submitted to
Congress, 1981 (U.S. Department of Labor, Employment Standards
Administration, 1981).

Earnings of men and women:
a look at specific occupations
Occupations in which women workers dominate
tend to rank lower in terms o f earnings;
men dominate higher paid occupations

N a n c y F. R y t i n a

As a result of growing concern over the persistence of
earnings differences between men and women, policy­
makers, researchers, and others have become increasing­
ly interested in obtaining earnings data by sex at the
finest level of occupational detail possible. Wide-ranging
information of this nature can generally be collected
only through a household survey such as the Current
Population Survey ( cps ). Until 1978, reliable estimates
of earnings from the CPS could generally be presented
only for aggregated groupings of occupations because of
the limited number of sample observations in many oc­
cupations. However, changes in the collection of the cps
earnings data since 1979 have made it possible to con­
struct annual average estimates to examine the earnings
for a much larger number of detailed occupations.1
This report presents 1981 annual average data on the
number of men and women working full time in each
occupation and on their usual weekly earnings. Earn­
ings data are shown only where wage and salary em­
ployment is at least 50,000, because estimates of
earnings derived from a smaller base are considered too
unreliable to publish. For the most part, this allows
earnings comparisons at the Census Bureau’s “threedigit” level of classification of occupations.2 However,

Nancy F. Rytina is a demographer in the Division of Labor Force
Studies, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Francis W. Horvath of the same
division was responsible for the development of the tables, and Muriel
K. Nelson, also of that division, assisted in the preparation of the
data.




for occupational groupings which did not contain any
three-digit occupation with a sufficiently large employ­
ment base, the data are shown for the two-digit occupa­
tions, the next higher level of aggregation. The use of
two- as well as three-digit occupations increases the
number of occupations among which earnings can be
compared and also makes possible some comparisons
between men and women that would otherwise have
had to be ignored because there were either too few
men or too few women employed in the occupation.
For example, there are almost no male registered nurses
(a three-digit occupational category), but the earnings of
the sexes can be compared in the two-digit category—
nurses, dieticians, and therapists— because the number
of male workers exceeded 50,000 in the larger grouping.
The data in table 1 show the employment and medi­
an earnings for 250 two- and three-digit occupations.
These accounted for about 95 percent of the total full­
time wage and salary work force in 1981. There are
more occupations where men’s earnings are shown than
is the case for women (192 for men versus 129 for
women). This occurs because the number of women
working full time is lower than that of men and they
are more concentrated in fewer occupations.
The 91 occupations for which both men’s and wom­
en’s earnings are shown are predominantly white collar,
the field which employed the majority of full-time
working men and women in 1981. Forty of these occu­
pations are professional or managerial, and 24 are sales
or clerical. In contrast, just 2 of the 91 occupations are
25

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, April 1982 o Occupational Earnings o f Men and Women
Table 1. Median weekly earnings of wage and salary workers employed full time in occupations with tota! employment of
50,000 or more, by sex,1 1981 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
T o ta l,
b o th s e x e s

M en

W om en

O c c u p a tio n
T o ta l
e m p lo y e d

W e e k ly
e a r n in g s

T o ta l
e m p lo y e d

W e e k ly
e a r n in g s

T o ta l
e m p lo y e d

W e e k ly
e a r n in g s

R a tio
fe m a le /
m a le
e a r n in g s
tim e s 1 00

P e rc e n t
fe m a le
w o rk e rs

Total2 ..............................................................................................................

72,491

$289

43,888

$347

28,603

$224

64.7

39.5

Professional, technical, and kindred w o rkers............................................................
Accountants............................................................................................................
Architects................................................................................................................
Computer specialists..............................................................................................
Computer programmers.....................................................................................
Computer systems analysts..............................................................................
Engineers................................................................................................................
Aeronautical and astronautical engineers..........................................................
Chemical engineers............................................................................................
Civil engineers.....................................................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers ...................................................................
Industrial engineers............................................................................................
Mechanical engineers .......................................................................................
Engineers, n.e.c....................................................................................................

12,870
960
60
583
345
199
1,459
83
64
186
368
222
239
226

377
379
428
454
422
519
540
614
575
505
549
530
540
527

7,358
579
57
429
247
149
1,392
81
59
182
355
194
233
219

439
433
432
488
447
546
547
619
583
507
555
549
547
530

5,512
381
3
154
98
50
68
1
5
4
13
28
6
7

316
308
—
355
329
420
371
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

71.8
71.2
—
72.8
73.6
76.9
67.8
' —

42.8
39.7
5.0
26.4
28.4
25.1
4.7
1.2
7.8
2.1
3.5
12.6
2.5
3.1

Foresters and conservationists..............................................................................
Lawyers and judges ..............................................................................................
Law yers..............................................................................................................
Librarians, archivists, and curators ........................................................................
Librarians ............................................................................................................
Life and physical scientists.....................................................................................
Biological scientists ............................................................................................
Chemists ............................................................................................................
Operations and systems researchers and analysts .............................................
Personnel and labor relations workers .................................................................

60
299
279
146
136
277
53
132
212
419

331
550
546
323
320
474
423
467
485
402

53
237
219
25
20
219
33
104
160
215

341
579
574
—
—
512
—
492
515
514

Physicians, dentists, and related practitioners ......................................................
Pharmacists .......................................................................................................
Physicians, medical and osteopathic.................................................................
Nurses, dieticians, and therapists ..........................................................................
Registered nurse s..............................................................................................
Therapists...........................................................................................................
Health technologists and technicians ...................................................................
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians .............................................
Radiologic technologists and technicians..........................................................
Health technologists, n.e.c...................................................................................

314
98
189
1,168
924
199
511
232
82
155

468
463
501
327
332
305
287
295
290
268

242
74
148
106
39
65
161
55
31
72

Religious workers ...................................................................................................
Clergy ................................................................................................................
Social scientists .....................................................................................................
Economists.........................................................................................................
Psychologists .....................................................................................................
Social and recreation workers ..............................................................................
Social workers ..................................................................................................
Recreation w o rke rs............................................................................................
Teachers, college and university, ..........................................................................
Teachers, except college and university ...............................................................
Adult education teachers ...................................................................................
Elementary schoolteachers ..............................................................................
Prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers ......................................................
Secondary schoolteachers.................................................................................
Teachers, except college and university, n.e.c...................................................

268
231
238
133
77
454
357
97
438
2,624
54
1,244
143
1,115
69

284
284
461
536
394
295
309
226
444
333
394
322
262
351
312

Engineering and science technicians.................................... .................................
Chemical technicians..........................................................................................
Drafters ..............................................................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineering technicians .............................................
Surveyors............................................................................................................
Engineering and science technicians, n.e.c.........................................................
Technicians, except health, engineering, science .................................................
Airplane p ilo ts .....................................................................................................
Radio operators ................................................................................................
Vocational and educational counselors.................................................................

1,056
106
319
259
80
224
172
53
56
156

Writers, artists, and entertainers............................................................................
Athletes and kindred w o rkers............................................................................
Designers...........................................................................................................
Editors and reporters..........................................................................................
Painters and sculptors.......................................................................................
Photographers ..................................................................................................
Public relations men and publicity writers..........................................................
Writers, artists, and entertainers, n.e.c................................................................
Research workers, not specified............................................................................
Managers and administrators, except f a r m ...............................................................
Bank officers and financial managers ...................................................................
Buyers, wholesale and retail trade ........................................................................

See footnotes at end of table.


26


—
—
—
—
—

7
62
60
121
115
58
19
28
52
204

_

—

410
407
319
318
363
—
—
422
330

70.7
71.0
—
—
70.9
—
—
82.0
64.3

11.7
20.7
21.5
82.9
84.6
20.9
35.8
21.2
24.5
48.7

495
471
561
344
—
335
324
324
—
317

73
25
41
1,062
885
134
350
177
52
83

401
—
—
326
331
293
273
286
268
240

80.9
—
—
94.7
—
87.5
84.2
88.1
—
75.7

23.2
25.5
21.7
90.9
95.8
67.3
68.5
76.3
63.4
53.5

244
220
158
98
38
185
141
44
310
864
38
221
4
571
29

286
285
522
580
—
339
358
—
485
384
—
379
—
387
—

25
10
81
36
40
269
216
52
128
1,760
15
1,022
138
545
40

—

—

—
391
—
—
273
286
186
389
311
—
311
264
321
—

—
74.9
—
—
80.4
79.9
—
80.3
80.9
—
82.2
—
82.9
—

9.3
4.3
34.0
27.1
51.9
59.3
60.5
53.6
29.2
67.1
27.8
82,2
96.5
48.9
58.0

348
352
343
387
310
344
375
530
233
388

868
76
259
235
80
174
128
53
23
77

371
384
364
397
311
383
437
530
—
451

188
29
60
25
0
50
43
0
33
79

279
—
277
—
—
277
—
—
—
336

75.3
—
76.2
—
—
72.2
—
—
—
74.5

17.8
27.4
18.8
9.7
.0
22.3
25.0
.0
58.9
50.6

791
59
176
158
100
52
100
66
157

350
254
421
351
297
309
402
363
362

525
44
134
86
55
47
56
42
96

387
—
448
382
329
—
465
—
437

266
15
42
72
45
6
44
23
61

302
—
—
324
—
—
—
—
307

78.2
—
—
85.0
—
~
—
—
70.3

33.6
25.4
23.9
45.6
45.0
11.5
44.0
34.8
38.9

7,864
658
139

407
411
316

5,630
417
73

466
514
400

2,235
240
66

283
310
250

60.8
60.2
62.3

28.4
36.5
47.5

Table 1. Continued— Median weekly earnings of wage and salary workers employed full time in occupations with total
employment of 50,000 or more, by sex,1 1981 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
T o ta l,
b o th s e x e s

M en

W om en

O c c u p a tio n
T o ta l
e m p lo y e d

W e e k ly
e a r n in g s

T o ta l
e m p lo y e d

W e e k ly
e a r n in g s

Credit and collection managers ............................................................................
Health administrators ............................................................................................
Inspectors, except construction, public administration..........................................
Managers and superintendents, building ...............................................................
Office managers, n.e.c.............................................................................................
Officials and administrators; public administration, n.e.c.........................................
Officials of lodges, societies, and unions...............................................................
Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c.......................................................................
Restaurant, cafeteria, and bar managers ............................................................
Sales managers and department heads, retail trade ..........................................
Sales managers, except retail tra d e .....................................................................
School administrators, college ..............................................................................
School administrators, elementary and secondary...............................................
Managers and administrators, n.e.c.........................................................................

60
200
104
96
444
443
106
260
393
330
353
129
262
3,713

351
431
380
278
313
441
429
390
275
300
540
491
475
431

36
102
93
46
140
324
79
182
227
204
307
88
176
2,984

545
388
—
423
484
501
453
312
380
566
552
520
481

24
98
10
50
304
120
27
78
166
126
46
41
85
729

285
223
216
—
—
363
281

Salesworkers..............................................................................................................
Advertising agents and salesworkers ...................................................................
Insurance agents, brokers, and underwriters........................................................
Real estate agents and b ro k e rs ............................................................................
Stock and bond sales agents.................................................................................
Sales representatives, manufacturing industries...................................................
Sales representatives, wholesale tra d e .................................................................
Salesclerks, retail tra d e ..........................................................................................
Salesworkers except clerks, retail t ra d e ...............................................................
Salesworkers, services and construction...............................................................

3,601
100
399
218
123
369
768
1,032
379
169

306
334
341
326
535
434
396
178
288
332

2,412
50
285
100
101
310
686
410
334
112

366
418
402
390
589
473
407
229
305
397

1,189
50
115
118
21
59
82
622
44
56

190
258
270
277
—
306
303
154
—
235

52.0
61.7
67.1
70.9
—
64.7
74.3
67.4

Clerical and kindred w o rke rs.....................................................................................
Bank tellers ...........................................................................................................
Billing c le rk s ...........................................................................................................
Bookkeepers .........................................................................................................
Cashiers ................................................................................................................
Clerical supervisors, n.e.c........................................................................................
Collectors, billing and accounting ..........................................................................
Counter clerks, except fo o d ...................................................................................
Dispatchers and starters, vehicle ..........................................................................
Estimators and investigators, n.e.c..........................................................................

14,066
464
123
1,290
712
227
76
252
106
477

233
189
216
227
168
331
233
201
327
319

3,032
28
19
121
106
71
26
59
65
219

328

220
188
209
222
166
291
215
195
—
256

67.0

—
320
180
460
—
240
385
394

11,034
436
105
1,169
606
156
50
192
41
258

Expediters and production controllers...................................................................
File clerks ..............................................................................................................
Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators ...............................................
Library attendants and assistants..........................................................................
Mail carriers, post office .......................................................................................
Mail handlers, except post office ..........................................................................
Messengers and office helpers..............................................................................
Office machine operators .....................................................................................
Computer and peripheral equipment operators ...............................................
Keypunch operators .........................................................................................

248
230
183
61
222
138
60
844
506
212

328
192
270
203
406
222
198
238
260
223

148
37
75
9
196
70
47
227
185
11

366
—
356
—
408
245
—
324
342
—

100
192
107
52
26
67
13
616
320
201

275
189
230
197
202
—
223
232
222

Payroll and timekeeping c lerks..............................................................................
Postal clerks............................................................................................................
Receptionists .........................................................................................................
Secretaries..............................................................................................................
Secretaries, legal ..............................................................................................
Secretaries, medical .........................................................................................
Secretaries, n.e.c.................................................................................................
Shipping and receiving c le rk s .................................................................................
Statistical clerks .....................................................................................................
Stenographers .......................................................................................................

203
256
458
3,199
159
71
2,969
480
333
55

247
400
200
230
260
218
229
247
242
275

40
172
9
21
1
0
20
376
71
7

163
84
449
3,178
158
71
2,949
104
261
48

237
382
199
229
260
218
228
205
227
—

Stock clerks and storekeepers..............................................................................
Teacher aides, except school m onitors.................................................................
Telephone operators..............................................................................................
Ticket, station, and express agents........................................................................
T ypists.....................................................................................................................
Miscellaneous clerical w orkers..............................................................................
Not specified clerical workers ..............................................................................

461
168
261
132
801
997
336

264
167
240
407
213
233
227

305
6
20
78
29
184
70

156
163
241
54
772
813
267

217
166
239
370
211
222
217

—
88.3
—
68.3
74.6

Craft and kindred w orkers.........................................................................................
B a k e rs ................................................................................................................
Brickmasons and stonemasons .......................................................................
Bulldozer operators............................................................................................
Carpenters.........................................................................................................
Compositors and typesetters ............................................................................
Crane, derrick, and hoist operators...................................................................
Decorators and window dressers .....................................................................
Electricians.........................................................................................................
Electric power line and cable installers and repairers......................................
Excavating, grading, road machine operators; except bulldozer......................
Blue-collar work supervisors, n.e.c......................................................................
Inspectors, n.e.c...................................................................................................

10,558
76
87
90
699
142
136
66
591
122
269
1,772
131

352
234
401
327
325
274
402
210
419
409
337
394
370

9,963
56
87
90
689
98
136
22
581
121
268
1,587
119

595
20
0
1
10
44
0
43
10
1
2
186
12

239
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
262

66.5
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
64.2

_

—

—

407
—

—
—
—

—
263
326
—
304
—
—
419
—

325
292
360
264
401
329
326
311
402
—

420
410
337
409
383

T o ta l
e m p lo y e d

W e e k ly
e a r n in g s

R a tio
fe m a le /
m a le
e a r n in g s
tim e s 1 0 0

_

_

357
—
226
277
337

65.5
—
—
65.5
69.6
—
62.9
71.6
57.0
—
—
69.9
58.5

—

—

—

59.1

P e rc e n t
fe m a le
w o rk e rs

40.0
49.0
9.6
52.1
68.5
27.1
25.5
30.0
42.2
38.2
13.0
31.8
32.4
19.6
33.0
50.0
28.8
54.1
17.1
16.0
10.7
60.3
11.6
33.1

81.3
—
65.0

78.4
94.0
85.4
90.6
85.1
68.7
65.8
76.2
38.7
54.1

75.2
—
64.7
—
—
82.3
—
68.8
67.8
—

40.3
83.5
58.5
85.2
11.7
48.5
21.7
73.0
63.2
94.8

—

80.3
32.8
98.0
99.3
99.4
100.0
99.3
21.7
78.4
87.3

—

—
69.4
92.0
63.4
—

93.9
—

—
—
—

—
78.2
69.7
—
71.6
—

33.8
97.0
92.3
40.9
96.4
81.5
79.5
5.6
26.3
.0
1.1
1.4
31.0
.0
65.2
1.7
.8
.7
10.5
9.2

See footnotes at end of table.




27

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW April 1982 © Occupational Earnings o f Men and Women
Table 1. Continued — Median weekly earnings of wage and salary workers employed full time in occupations with total
employment of 50,000 or more, by sex,1 1981 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Total,
both sexes

IVIen

Women

Occupation
Total
employed

Weekly
earnings

Total
employed

Weekly
earnings

Total
employed

Job and die setters, metal ................................................................................
Machinists............................................................................................................

95
532

358
356

92
512

360
360

4
19

Mechanics and repairers.......................................................................................
Air conditioning, heating and refrigeration mechanics ......................................
Aircraft mechanics..............................................................................................
Automobile body repairers.................................................................................
Automobile mechanics.......................................................................................
Data processing machine repairers...................................................................
Heavy equipment mechanics, including d ie s e l.................................................
Household appliance, accessory installers and mechanics .............................
Office machine repairers ...................................................................................
Radio and television repairers............................................................................
Railroad and car shop mechanics.....................................................................
Miscellaneous mechanics and repairers ..........................................................

2,888
166
121
137
813
95
958
96
71
83
57
193

326
335
427
295
285
395
346
309
327
336
405
323

2,827
166
116
136
808
88
942
90
66
80
56
187

328
335
429
294
286
401
348
315
331
344
405
325

Millwrights ..............................................................................................................
Molders, metal .......................................................................................................
Painters, construction and maintenance ...............................................................
Plumbers and pipe fitte rs .......................................................................................
Printing press operators.........................................................................................
Roofers and slaters................................................................................................
Sheetmetal workers and tinsmiths ........................................................................
Stationary engineers..............................................................................................
Structural metal craftworkers................................................................................
Telephone installers and repairers .......................................................................
Telephone line installers and repairers .................................................................
Tool and die m a ke rs..............................................................................................

105
52
258
377
156
78
140
180
77
316
75
164

443
253
271
404
320
267
381
375
455
412
387
433

105
42
248
376
139
77
135
178
77
284
71
159

Operatives, except tran sport.....................................................................................
Assemblers ...........................................................................................................
Bottling and canning operatives ............................................................................
Checkers, examiners, and inspectors; manufacturing..........................................
Clothing ironers and pressers ..............................................................................
Cutting operatives, n.e.c...........................................................................................
Drillers, earth .........................................................................................................
Filers, polishers, sanders, and buffers...................................................................
Furnace tenders, smelters, and pourers ..............................................................
Garage workers and gas station attendants ........................................................

9,440
1,088
51
782
87
259
51
111
62
217

242
236
279
265
164
226
393
223
374
179

Laundry and dry cleaning operatives, n.e.c.............................................................
Meat cutters and butchers, except manufacturing ...............................................
Meat cutters and butchers, manufacturing............................................................
Mine operatives, n.e.c..............................................................................................
Mixing operatives ..................................................................................................
Packers and wrappers, except meat and produce...............................................
Painters, manufactured articles ............................................................................
Photographic process w o rkers..............................................................................
Precision machine operatives................................................................................
Drill press operatives.........................................................................................
Grinding machine operatives..............................................................................
Lathe and milling machine operatives ...............................................................
Precision machine operatives, n.e.c.....................................................................

126
150
88
265
79
493
146
69
339
56
129
100
54

Punch and stamping press operatives...................................................................
Sawyers..................................................................................................................
Sewers and stitchers..............................................................................................
Shoemaking machine operatives ..........................................................................
Furnace tenders and stokers, except m eta l..........................................................
Textile operatives ..................................................................................................
Spinners, twisters, and winders..........................................................................
Textile operatives, n.e.c.......................................................................................
Welders and flame cutters.....................................................................................
Winding operatives, n.e.c.........................................................................................
Machine operatives, miscellaneous specified........................................................
Machine ooeratives, not specified..........................................................................
Miscellaneous operatives.......................................................................................
Not specified operatives .......................................................................................

Weekly
earnings

Ratio
female /
male
earnings
times 100

Percent
female
workers

4.2
3.6

—

—

60
1
5
1
6
7
16
5
4
4
1
6

275
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

83.9
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
•
—
—
—

—

—

443
—
275
404
329
266
385
375
455
417
384
436

0
10
10
0
17
1
5
3
0
32
4
5

—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

_
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—

—

5,775
515
31
358
20
180
50
73
60
204

298
297
—
348
—
252
393
246
376
181

3,664
573
20
423
67
79
0
38
2
12

$187
205
—
219
153
185
—
—
—

62.9
69.0
—
63.1
—
73.3
—
—
—

—

—

38.8
52.7
39.2
54.1
77.0
30.5
.0
34.2
3.2
5.5

166
316
251
413
283
204
269
230
301
267
312
322
258

38
141
62
260
77
190
124
33
296
44
115
95
43

—
325
287
413
287
226
282
—
317
—
325
327
—

88
10
26
5
3
303
22
36
42
12
14
5
11

151
—
—
—
—
193
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
85.4
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

69.8
6.7
29.5
1.9
3.8
61.5
15.1
52.2
12.4
21.4
10.9
5.0
20.4

105
118
734
71
82
261
83
123
678
56
1,261
328
724
150

292
204
157
154
342
200
207
194
334
237
273
251
232
271

72
107
24
20
81
101
26
54
643
31
908
241
480
101

316
208
—
—
342
229
—
219
338
—
309
281
262
311

33
10
710
52
1
161
57
69
35
25
353
87
244
48

—
—
156
147
—
186
189
180
—
—

—
—
—
—
—

31.4
8.5
96.7
73.2
1.2
61.7
68.7
56.1
5.2
44.6
28.0
26.5
33.7
32.0

Transport equipment operatives................................................................................
Bus drivers..............................................................................................................
Delivery and route workers ...................................................................................
Forklift and tow motor operatives ........................................................................
Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs..............................................................................
Truckdrivers............................................................................................................

2,792
173
446
373
112
1,560

303
298
274
284
240
314

2,656
124
421
352
104
1,528

307
331
280
284
246
315

Nonfarm labo rers.......................................................................................................
Carpenters’ helpers ..............................................................................................
Construction laborers, except carpenters' h e lp e rs ...............................................

3,227
50
654

238
223
250

2,893
50
642

244
223
252

See footnotes at end of table.


28


81.3
—
82.1
—

—

206
202
185
—

66.8
71.9
70.5
—

136
48
25
21
8
32

237
—
—
—

77.2
—
—
—
—

—

—

335
0
11

193
—

79.3
—

—

—

—

2.1
.6
4.1
.7
.7
7.4
1.7
5.2
5.6
4.8
1.8
3.1
.0
19.2
3.9
.0
10.9
1.3
3.6
1.7
.0
10.1
5.3
3.0

4.9
27.7
5.6
5.6
7.1
2.1
10.4
.0
1.7

Table 1. Continued — Median weekly earnings of wage and salary workers em ployed full tim e in occupations with total
em ploym ent of 50,000 or more, by sex,1 1981 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
T o ta l,
b o th s e x e s

W e e k ly
e a r n in g s

R a tio
fe m a le /
m a le
e a r n in g s
tim e s 1 0 0

78.0

W om en

M en

O c c u p a tio n
T o ta l
e m p lo y e d

W e e k ly
e a r n in g s

T o ta l
e m p lo y e d

W e e k ly
e a r n in g s

T o ta l
e m p lo y e d

Freight and material handlers................................................................................
Garbage collectors ................................................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm .....................................................
Timber cutting and logging workers .....................................................................
Stock handlers.......................................................................................................
Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners ............................................................
Warehouse laborers, n.e.c.......................................................................................
Miscellaneous laborers ..........................................................................................
Not specified labo rers...........................................................................................

641
62
349
55
522
124
267
168
241

259
189
200
246
212
220
267
297
245

579
60
332
55
372
103
253
155
215

266
189
202
246
228
220
270
308
246

62
2
16
0
149
21
15
12
26

207

—

—

Farmworkers ..............................................................................................................
Farm laborers, wage workers ..............................................................................
Service workers, except private household...............................................................
Cleaning service workers.......................................................................................
Lodging quarters cleaners, except private ........................................................
Building interior cleaners, n.e.c............................................................................
Janitors and sextons .........................................................................................
Food service workers ............................................................................................
Bartenders .........................................................................................................
Waiters' assistants ............................................................................................
Cooks, except private household .....................................................................
Dishwashers.......................................................................................................
Food counter and fountain w orkers...................................................................
W aiters................................................................................................................
Food service workers, n.e.c., except private household....................................

729
701
6,990
1,651
99
559
993
1,987
170
70
764
105
107
532
239

176
174
196
200
142
184
219
162
195
143
171
135
141
150
165

641
614
3,475
1,106
5
253
848
770
94
57
375
73
15
79
76

180
178
238
222

88
86
3,515
544
94
306
145
1,216
76
13
389
32
91
453
163

146
146
170
168
141
168
188
148
179

81.1
82.3
71.3
75.6
79.2
83.6
79.7
84.4

148

73.4

140
144
160

72.0
90.0

Health service workers ..........................................................................................
Dental assistants................................................................................................
Health aides, except nursing..............................................................................
Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants............................................................
Practical nurses ................................................................................................
Personal service workers.......................................................................................
Attendants, recreation and amusement............................................................
Child-care workers, except private household .................................................
Hairdressers and cosmetologists .....................................................................
Housekeepers, except private household..........................................................

1,415
97
220
832
263
624
88
83
191
96

188
183
209
172
227
191
182
151
179
219

178
3
38
130
6
207
49
11
29
32

1,237
95
182
701
256
417
39
72
163
64

185
182
201
167
227
179

Protective service w orkers.....................................................................................
Firefighters .........................................................................................................
G uards................................................................................................................
Police and detectives.........................................................................................
Sheriffs and bailiffs ............................................................................................
Private household workers .......................................................................................
Child-care workers, private household...............................................................
Maids and servants, private household ............................................................

1,313
218
500
508
70
315
148
110

315
362
232
363
324
107
80
126

1,214
216
436
481
66
17
4
9

'Excludes any earnings from self-employment.
2Data for “ total” refer to all full-time workers, including those in occupations not shown.

in the crafts category, largely because men made up the
overwhelming majority (95 percent) of all full-time
craftworkers.

Ranking occupations
To illustrate the occupational earnings differences be­
tween men and women, the occupations in table 1 were
ranked from high to low on the basis of male earnings,
female earnings, the ratio of women’s to men’s earnings,
and the percentage of female workers in each occupa­
tion. (See tables 2 to 5.) For each criterion the top 20
occupations are ranked. The rankings by male and fe­
male earnings are approximate because the earnings in
very closely ranked occupations are often not statistical­
ly different.3 In addition, the occupations appearing in
the female earnings ranking contain more two-digit oc­
cupations than the male earnings ranking because wom­



—

213
225
186
212
144
202
136

—

200
178
216

—
—
203
—
224
—
—
—
—
322
364
236
368
325

—
—
—

100
3
64
27
4
298
144
101

—
—
—

185
—

—
—

—
—

—
—
—
81.2
—
—
—

—

—
—
—

P e rc e n t
fe m a le
w o rk e rs

9.7
3.2
4.6
.0
28.5
16.9
5.6
7.1
10.8
12.1
12.3
50.3
32.9
94.9
54.7
14.6
61.2
44.7
18.6
50.9
30.5
85.0
85.1
68.2

85.4

145
172
205

—
—
82.2
—
80.0
—
—
—
—

87.4
97.9
82.7
84.3
97.3
66.8
44.3
86.7
85.3
66.7

226

70.3

7.6
1.4
12.8
5.3
5.7
94.6
97.3
91.8

—

—
214
—
—
104
79
124

—
90.7
—
—
—
—

Note : Not elsewhere classified is abbreviated n.e.c. Dashes indicate earnings not shown
where base is less than 50,000.

en are concentrated in fewer occupations, and in many
occupations their number is less than 50,000. Of course,
the ranking by the sex-earnings ratio includes just those
occupations in which both men’s and women’s earnings
are reported in table 1. Lastly, the occupations ranked
by the percent of females employed are based on all oc­
cupations in table 1.
Male earnings ranks. Not surprisingly, the most highly
paid occupations for men are from the professional and
managerial groups. (See table 2.) Nineteen of the 20 are
in one of these groupings. The only exception is “stock
and bonds, sales agents,” which is classified in the sales
category.
Within the professional group, engineering specialties
clearly stand out in the ranking, accounting for 7 of the
top 20 occupations. The median usual weekly earnings
29

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW April 1982 © Occupational Earnings of Men and Women
T a b le 2 .
O c c u p a t io n s w i t h h ig h e s t m e d ia n w e e k ly
e a r n in g s f o r m e n e m p lo y e d f u ll t im e in w a g e a n d s a la r y
w o r k , 1 1 ©S1 a n n u a l a v e r a g e s

Table 3. O ccupations w ith highest median weekly
earnings fo r wom en em ployed full tim e in wage
and salary w o rk,1 1931 annual averages

Male earnings

Occupational title2

Female earnings

Aerospace and astronautical engineers ...............................................
Stock and bond sales agents ...............................................................
Chemical engineers ..............................................................................
Economists ............................................................................................
Lawyers..................................................................................................
Sales managers, except retail tra d e ......................................................
Physicians, medical and osteopathic......................................................
Electrical and electronics engineers......................................................
School administrators, college and university ......................................
Industrial engineers.................................................................................

$619
589
583
580
574
566
561
555
552
549

Operations and systems researchers and analysts ...............................
Computer systems analysts.....................................................................
Law yers.....................................................................................................
Physicians, dentists, and related practitioners ........................................
Social scientists .......................................................................................
Teachers, college and university ............................................................
Postal clerks..............................................................................................
Engineers..................................................................................................
Ticket, station, and express agents..........................................................
School administrators, elementary and secondary.................................

$422
420
407
401
391
389
382
371
370
363

Mechanical engineers............................................................................
Computer systems analysts .................................................................
Health administrators ............................................................................
Engineers, not elsewhere classified .....................................................
Airplane pilots .......................................................................................
School administrators, elementary and secondary...............................
Operations and systems researchers and analysts .............................
Bank officers and financial m anagers...................................................
Personnel and labor relations workers .................................................
Civil engineers .......................................................................................

547
546
545
530
530
520
515
514
514
507

Occupational title2

'Excludes any earnings from self-employment.
Occupations listed are those in which male employment was 50,000 or more in 1981.

of men in those specialties ranged from $619 for aero­
space and astronautical engineers to $507 for civil engi­
neers. The high ranking of engineers occurs partly
because the data are restricted to wage and salary
workers and exclude some of the most highly paid
workers in occupations where self-employment is quite
common, for example, lawyers and physicians. None­
theless, although restricted only to the wage and salary
portion, the median usual weekly earnings of lawyers
($574) and physicians ($561) were in the upper half of
the ranking.
The top 20 also included a number of technical and
administrative occupations. Among the former are econ­
omists, airplane pilots, and two very high growth occu­
pations, computer systems analysts, and operations and
systems researchers and analysts. Among the latter oc­
cupations are school administrators at the college, sec­
ondary, and elementary levels; health administrators;
and bank officers and financial managers.
Female earnings ranks. Much like the situation for men,
the most highly paid occupations for women are in the
professional and managerial categories. (See table 3.)
The median usual weekly earnings in the top 20 occupa­
tions for women ranged from a high of $422 for opera­
tions and systems researchers and analysts to $318 for
librarians. Many of the occupations appearing in the fe­
male ranking are the same or similar to those which ap­
pear in the male ranking. Among these (in addition to
operations and systems researchers and analysts) are
lawyers, engineers, physicians, dentists and related prac­
titioners, social scientists, health administrators, elemen­
tary and secondary school administrators, computer
systems analysts, and personnel and labor relations

30


Life and physical scientists........................................................................
Health administrators ..............................................................................
Public administration officials and administrators, not elsewhere classified
Vocational and educational counselors...................................................
Registered nurses.....................................................................................
Personnel and labor relations workers ...................................................
Computer programmers ..........................................................................
Editors and reporters................................................................................
Secondary schoolteachers........................................................................
Librarians..................................................................................................

357
357
337
336
331
330
329
324
321
318

’ Excludes any earnings from self-employment.
Occupations listed are those in which female employment was 50,000 or more in 1981.

workers. This suggests that the most highly paid occu­
pations for women are about the same as those for men.
However, the earnings of women in these occupations
do not approach the earnings of men. The $422 median
usual weekly earnings of female operations and systems
researchers and analysts, for example, would place just
above the pay of electricians for men, an occupation
which is well below the top 20 on the male ranking.
The pay for women librarians is just above that of men
working as precision machine operatives, a classification
which is in the bottom third of the male earnings rank­
ing.
Table 4. O ccupations o f full-tim e wage and salary
w orkers w ith highest ratios o f w om en’s to men’s median
w eekly earnings,1 1981 annual averages
O c c u p a tio n a l title 2

R a tio f e m a le /m a le
e a r n in g s tim e s 1 0 0

Postal clerks...................................................................................
Cashiers .......................................................................................
Guards and watchmen .................................................................
Food service workers, not elsewhere classified, excluding
private household .....................................................................
Ticket, station, and express agents...............................................
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians .........................
Therapists .....................................................................................
Packers and wrappers, except meat and produce......................
Editors and reporters.....................................................................

93.9
92.0
90.7

Bartenders.....................................................................................
Mechanics and repairers...............................................................
Janitors and sextons.....................................................................
Secondary schoolteachers............................................................
Mail handlers, except post office .................................................
Farm laborers, wage workers ......................................................
Elementary schoolteachers ..........................................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants ......................................
Textile operatives, not elsewhere classified.................................
Operations and systems researchers and analysts ....................
Counter clerks, except fo o d ..........................................................

84.4
83.9
83.6
82.9
82.3
82.3
82.2
82.2
82.1
82.0
81.3

90.0
88.3
88.1
87.5
85.4
85.0

'Excludes any earnings from self-employment.
Occupations listed are those in which both male and female employment was 50,000 or
more in 1981.

Occupations which do not appear in the top male
earnings rankings but appear in the top female rankings
highlight other aspects of variation between men’s and
women’s occupational earnings. Public sector employ­
ment is typical of several of the occupations which rank
high in terms of female earnings. These include postal
clerks, public administration officials and administrators

(not elsewhere classified), vocational and educational
counselors, and secondary schoolteachers. Elementary
and secondary school administrators is the only public
sector occupation which also appears in the top 20 oc­
cupations in terms of men’s earnings. Postal clerks
ranked well below the top 20 for men. And as indicated
in table 4, some of the highly paid public sector occupa­
tions for women are characterized by relatively high ra­
tios of women’s to men’s earnings. Among postal
clerks, women’s earnings averaged almost 94 percent of
men’s. And a sex-earnings ratio of more than 80 per­
cent is reported for secondary schoolteachers. This sug­
gests that while the public sector may not offer the
most highly paid employment, it may well afford wom­
en more equal opportunities than are found elsewhere.
Another characteristic of occupations ranking high in
terms of female earnings is that they typically do not
rank among those with the largest percentages of female
workers. (See table 5.) The occupation of registered
nurse, for example, is the only one which had both a
high percentage of female workers (96 percent) and also
ranked among the most highly paid occupations for
women. (Compare table 3 with table 5.) Most of the oc­
cupations in which 90 percent of the workers or more
are women are in the clerical category. By contrast, the
very highly paid occupations, professional and manage­
rial, are male-dominated. Women’s earnings, much like
men’s, are highest in these occupations.
□

1See Earl F. Mellor, Technical Description o f the Quarterly Data on
Weekly Earnings from the Current Population Survey, Bulletin 2113,
Bureau of Labor Statistics, January 1982.
2The Census Bureau classifies occupations on the basis of one-,
two-, and three-digit groupings. The one-digit classification is the least
detailed and consists of the major occupation groups, for example,
professional, technical, and kindred workers; managers and adminis­
trators, except farm; and salesworkers. The three-digit classification is
the most detailed. It includes specific occupations such as account-

ants, architects, aerospace and astronautical engineers, and civil engi­
neers, all of whom come under the one-digit professional grouping.
The two-digit classification is more detailed than the one-digit scheme
and contains a number of broad occupations such as engineers and
secretaries, under which are found such three-digit occupations as
aerospace and astronautical engineers, or civil engineers, and legal
secretaries, medical secretaries, and so forth.
' The magnitude of the standard errors on occupational earnings
ranged from roughly $10 to $30 at the .10 significance level.

T a b le 5 .
O c c u p a t io n s w ith h ig h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f fe m a le
w o r k e r s in f u l l - t i m e w a g e a n d s a l a r y w o r k , 1 1 9 8 1 a n n u a l
a v e ra g e s
Occupational title2

Percent female

Secretaries, m edical..............................................................................
Secretaries, legal ................................................................................
Secretaries, not elsewhere classified ...................................................
Receptionists .........................................................................................
Dental assistants ...................................................................................
Practical nurses .....................................................................................
Child-care workers, private household .................................................
Teachers aides, except school m onitors...............................................
Sewers and stitchers ............................................................................
Prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers..........................................

100.0
99.4
99.3
98.0
97.9
97.3
97.3
97.0
96.7
96.5

Typists.....................................................................................................
Registered nurses .................................................................................
Lodging quarters cleaners, except private household...........................
Keypunch operators ..............................................................................
Bank tellers ............................................................................................
Telephone operators..............................................................................
Maids and servants, private household.................................................
Bookkeepers ..........................................................................................
Stenographers.......................................................................................
Child-care workers, except private household......................................

96.4
95.8
94.9
94.8
94.0
92.3
91.8
90.6
87.3
86.7

'Excludes self-employed workers.
Occupations listed are those in which female employment was 50,000 or more in 1981.




31

Appendix

This report contains, in addition to the two articles from the April
issue of the Monthly Labor Review, the following material:

Explanatory note--'--- ---- ------- —

1982

Page
------------- ------ ----- ---------- --------- A - 2

Supplementary tables:
Percent distribution of usual weekly earnings of full-time
wage and salary workers, by age and sex, 198 1 annual averages----------A - 9
A-2„
Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers; by region of residence, sex, race, and Hispanic origin,
1981 annual averages------------------------------------------------------- A - 9
A-3.
Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers, by years of school completed, sex, race, and Hispanic
origin, 1981 annual averages--------------------------------------- —
— -A-9
A-4.
Percent distribution of usual weekly earnings of full-time
wage and salary workers, by major occupation group and sex,
1981 annual averages-------------------------------------------------- ---- A-10
A~5.
Median usual weekly earnings of wage and salary workers, by
number of hours usually worked per week and sex, 1981 annual
averages-------------------------------------------------- — ----------- --- A-10
A - 6 . Percent distribution of usual weekly earnings of part-time wage
and salary workers, by age and sex, 198 1 annual averages------------------ A -ll
A - 7 . Percent distribution of usual weekly earnings of part-time wage
and salary workers, by major occupation group and sex, 1981
annual a verges-------------------------------------- ------ - “
-------------"-A-ll




-

A-1.

A-1

E

x p l a n a t o r y

Collection of the data.

S \3 ® t@

The Current Population Survey is conducted for the

Bureau of Labor Statistics by the Bureau of the Census for a scientifically
selected sample covering every State and the District of Columbia.

In 1981, the

monthly sample consisted of about 60,000 households eligible for interview.
Data on usual weekly earnings are provided from responses to the question
"How much does ...

USUALLY earn per week at this job before deductions?

Include any overtime pay commissions, or tips usually received."
earnings are derived from two questions:
job?"

If yes, "How much does ...

"Is ...

Data on hourly

paid by the hour on this

earn per hour?"

Questions refer to the sole

or principal job of the respondent.
The term "usual"is as perceived by the respondent.

If the respondent asks for

a definition of "usual," interviewers are instructed to define the term as more
than half the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months.

Reliability of the data.

Estimates from the CPS are subject to two types of

error— sampling and nonsampling „

Sampling errors are variations in the data

which occur by chance because a sample, rather than the whole of the population,
is surveyed.

The standard error is an estimate of such potential variation.

The chances are about 68 out of 100 that an estimate from the survey differs
from a figure that would be obtained from a complete census by less than 1
standard error.

The chances are about 90 out of 100 that it would be less than

1.64 times the standard error.

All statements of comparison in the two articles

in this Special Labor Force Report are significant at the 90-percent level.
example of the standard error is as follows:

Median weekly earnings of black

full-time workers were estimated at $238 in 1981.
with this estimate was $1.42.

The standard error associated

Hence, the 90 percent confidence interval ranges

from $238 minus $2.33 to $238 plus $2.33, or from about $236 to $240.

Tables 1

and 2 show approximations of the standard errors of estimated numbers and



An

A-2

percentages.

The values should be interpreted as an indication of the order of

magnitude of the standard error rather than a precise standard error for any
specific item.
Nonsampling errors occur in complete censuses as well as sample surveys.
Examples of nonsampling errors include inability to obtain information about all
cases* definitional difficulties,

inability or unwillingness on the part of

respondents to provide correct information, and errors in processing.

The full

extent of nonsampling error cannot be detected.

Differences between the CPS earninos series for May and the quarterly series.
Although data from the new series (primarily those for the second quarter— April, May, and June) and the May data from the previous series can be used to
track broad trends in the earnings of workers over time, certain differences in
collection procedures, processing methods, and in the definition of wage and
salary workers should be noted.

For example, the quarterly series is based on a

monthly collection of information from one-fourth the CPS sample, cumulated to
provide quarterly and annual averages, whereas the May series was based on a
collection from the full sample.

The reliability of the quarterly series is

almost as high, and that of the annual average series is much higher, than the
reliability of the May series.
Another difference is that the new series imputes the earnings of
nonrespondents in order to minimise any nonsampling bias resulting from
differences in response rate's among groups with vastly different earnings.

The

allocation procedure used to impute missing earnings information is similar to
that used in processing other CPS data and the decennial census.

(See ’ Computer
’

Method to Process Missing Income and Work Experience Information in the Current
Population Survey,’ by Emmett F. Spiers and Joseph J. Knott, the American
5
Statistical Association, Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section,
The May series was not adjusted for nonresponses.

1969.)

This change represents a

substantial improvement since earnings questions tend to have higher nonresponse



A-3

rates than other questions in the CPS, running about 20 percent for weekly
earnings and 15 percent for hourly earnings in the May series, and about 17
percent for weekly earnings and 14 percent for hourly earnings in the first two
years of the quarterly series.
Still another change is that the new earnings series,

in contrast to the

May series, excludes from the universe those self-employed workers who are
classified as wage and salary employees because their business is incorporated.
Seasonal factors also affect the comparability of the two series.

May is

not an ideal proxy for the second quarter, largely because many students enter
low-paying, summer jobs in June.

Special tabulations showed that second quarter

e a r n in g s in 1979 w ere s l i g h t l y lo w er th an t h o s e f o r May a lo n e b e c a u se o f a drop
in June e a r n in g s „
For these reasons, caution should be exercised in comparing relative
changes in the earnings of demographic groups.

For additional technical

information relating to comparability of the two series and on sampling and
nonsampling errors, see Earl F. Mellor, Technical Description of the Quarterly
Data on U'eeklv Earnings From the Current Population Survey, BLS Bulletin 2113,

1982.

Comparison between CPS and establishment data from the Current
Employment Statistics Survey CCES).

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has

collected information on weekly earnings from establishments through the CES for
many years.

The results, which are published for major industry groups and for

individual industries, differ from those based on the household data because of
differences in definition, coverage, and computation.

The household data

represent the usual weekly earnings of all wage and salary workers who usually
work full time, and are expressed as medians.
data

The establishment, or payroll,

represent the earnings in a given week of all (full- and part-time)

production workers in mining and manufacturing, construction workers in the
construction industry, and nonsupervisory workers in other industries of the



A-4

private nonagricultural economy.

Earnings are expressed as means.

difference is in the handling of workers with two or more jobs.

Another

Each job is

'counted separately in the establishment data, but only the primary job is
counted in the household data.
Because of these differences, data from the two surveys differ.
of differences varies by industry.

The extent

For some of the major industry groups and

some of the more detailed groups for which comparisons can be made, the
differences are small.

They are under 5 percent in mining, manufacturing, and

in the transportation and public utilities group —

groups in which definitions

and coverage of the two surveys are more similar than for other groups.

The

differences are greatest in trade, services, and construction (15 percent or
more).

For example, the establishment data, which cover 18.1 million workers in

trade (1981 annual averages) show mean earnings of $190, while the CPS data,
with a universe of 11.6 million workers, show an earnings median of $236.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes other establishment-based data.
The Employment Cost Index (ECI) measures quarterly changes in the rate of total
employee compensation.

Information on both wages and salaries and on employer

costs for employee benefits are collected for a full range of occupations in the
private nonfarm sector.

The index is composed of 2 components*

a

"straight-time, average hourly earnings component, and a benefit cost component.
?
The former includes some items not picked up in the usual weekly earnings series
(such as production bonuses), and excludes other pay that may be included in the
household data (such as overtime pay and shift premiums received regularly).
Some of these items, however, are included in the benefits component.
While the ECI covers a wide range of industries and occupations, there are
other BLS establishment surveys more narrow in scope.

The Industry Wage Surveys

provide data for occupations selected to represent the full range of activities
performed by workers in specific industries.

Area Wage Surveys provide detailed

data for occupations common to a wide variety of industries in individual
metropolitan areas.



The National Survey of Professional, Administrative,

A-5

Technical, and Clerical Pay (PATC) covers selected occupations, by levels of
duties and responsibilities.

The PATC survey is used to compare the

compensation of employees in specific jobs in private industry with those in the
Federal Government.

Definitions of terms

Employed persons.

The universe of employed persons comprises (a) a l l those who

during the survey reference week did any work at all as paid employees, worked
in their own business, profession, or farm, or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid
workers in an enterprise operated by a member of the family; and (b) all those
who were not working but who had jobs or businesses from which they were
temporarily absent because of illness, bad weather, vacation, laboi— management
dispute, or personal reasons, whether or not they were paid by their employers
for the time off, or whether or not they were seeking other jobs.

Each employed person is counted only once.

Those who held more than one job

are counted in the job at which they worked the greatest number of hours during
the survey reference week.

Wage and salary workers.

Wage and salary workers are employed persons who

receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in kind, or piece rates.
The group includes employees in both the private and public sectors but excludes
self-employed persons.

Full-time workers. Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week at
their principal job.

Part-time workers.

Part-time workers are those who usually work fewer than 35

hours per week at their principal job.



A-6

Usual weekly earnings.

Data on usual weekly earnings are provided from

responses to the question "How much does ...
before deductions?
received."

USUALLY earn per week at this job

Include any overtime pay, commissions? or tips usually

The response is for the worker's sole or principal job.

"usually" is as perceived by the respondent.

The term

If the respondent asks for a

definition of "usually?" interviewers are instructed to define the term as more
than half the weeks worked during the past A or 5 months.

The usual weekly,

earnings of families is determined by aggregating the usual weekly earnings of
all family members 16 years and older who were employed as wage and salary
workers during the survey reference week.

Hourly earnings.

Data on hourly earnings, as obtained in the CPS? relate only

to employed wage and salary workers who are reported as being paid by the hour
at their principal job.

(Those for whom yes is entered in item 25B of the

questionnaire.) The amount of earnings is determined by the response to item
25C, "How much does ...

earn per hour?"

Change in constant dollars.

The Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and

Clerical Workers (CPI-W) is used to convert current dollars to constant dollars.

Survey, reference week.

The survey reference week is the calendar week? Sunday

through Saturday? which includes the 12th of the month.

Hi spani c origin.

This term refers to persons who are of Mexican? Puerto Rican?

Cuban, Central or South American? or other Hispanic origin or descent.

Persons

of Hispanic origin may be of any race? hence? they are included among the
numbers for both whites and blacks.




A-7

Table 1. Standard errors of estimates of annual average levels, by selected characteristics
(Num bers in thousands)
Men

Botfesexefc
Estimated level

Part-tim e
workers

Total or fu ll-tim e w orkers
All races
or white

Black

Part-tim e
w orkers

!

Total o r fu ll-tim e w orkers
All races

W hite

Women
Total, full- or part-tim e
workers
All races
Black
or white

Black

1 0 .....................................
5 0 .....................................
7 5 .....................................
10 0.....................................
1 5 0 .....................................

3
6
7
8
10

3
7
8
9
11

3
7
8
9
11

3
6
7
8
10

3
7
8
9
11

3
7
8
9
11

3
7
8
9
11

3
6
7
8
10

3
6
7
8
10

2 0 0 .....................................
2 5 0 .....................................
3 0 0 .....................................
5 0 0 .....................................
7 5 0 .....................................

12
13
14
18
22

13
15
16
21
25

13
15
16
20
25

12
13
14
18
22

13
15
16
21
25

13
15
16
21
25

13
14
16
20
24

12
13
14
18
22

12
13
14
18
22

1.000.....................................
1.500.....................................
2,0 00.....................................
2,5 00.....................................
3 ,0 00.....................................

26
32
37
41
45

29
36
41
46
50

28
34
39
42
46

26
32
36
41
44

29
35
41
45
50

29
35
41
45
49

27
32
35
37
38

26
32
36
41
44

25
30
34
37
40

5,000.....................................
7,500.....................................
10,000.....................................
15,000.....................................
20,000.....................................

57
70
80
97
110

64
78
89
107
121

54
58
55

57
68
78
92
103

63
75
85
98
107

62
75
84
96
104

35
—
—
—
—

57
69
78
93
105

46

25,000.....................................
30,000.....................................
40,000.....................................
50,000.....................................
75,000.....................................
100,000.....................................

122
131
147
160
179
186

132
141
154
162
164
138

—

112
118
126
—

—

—

107
106
93
_
_

—
—
—

—

—

112
114
108
_
—
—

—

-

—

—

_
—
—

NOTE: Dashes indicate the standard error is not a p plicab le because
the num ber of w orkers having the indicate d ch a ra cte ristic is less than

_

—
—

—
—

_

114
121
130
—
—
—

—

—
—
—
—

—

th a t liste d in the estim a ted level colum n,

Table 2. Standard errors of estimated percentages— annual averages
Estim ated percentages
ease

ot

esumaiea percenxage
(thousands)

0.5 or
99.5

1 or
99

2 or
98

3 or
97

5 or
95

10 or
90

15 or
85

20 or
80

25 or
75

30 or
70

50

50
75
100
150
200

.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................

0.93
.76
.65
.53
.46

1.31
1.07
.92
.75
.65

1.84
1.50
1.30
1.06
.92

2.24
1.83
1.58
1.29
1.12

2.86
2.34
2.02
1.65
1.43

3.94
3.21
2.78
2.27
1.97

4.69
3.83
3.31
2.71
2.34

5.25
4.29
3.71
3.03
2.62

5.68
4.64
4.02
3.28
2 84

6.01
4.91
4.25
3.47
3.01

6.56
5.36
4.64
3.79
3.28

250
300
500
750
1,000

.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................

.41
.38
.29
24

.58
.53
.41
.34
.29

.82
.75
.58
.47
.41

1.00
.91
.71
.58
.50

1.28
1.17
.90
.74
.64

1.76
1.61
1.24
1.02
.88

2.10
1.91
1.48
1.21
1.05

2.35
2.14
1.66
1.36
1.17

2.54
2.32
1.80
1.47
1.27

2.69
2.45
1.90
1.55
1.34

2.93
2.68
2.07
1.69
1.47

1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
5,000

.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................

.17
.15
.13
.12
.09

.24
.18
.17
.13

.34
.29
.26
.24
.18

.41
.35
.32
.29
.22

.52
.45
.40
.37
.29

.72
.62
.56
.51
.39

.86
.74
.66
.60
.47

.96
.83
.74
.68
.52

1.04
90
.80
.73
.57

1.10
.95
.85
.78
.60

1.20
1.04
.93
.85
.66

7,500
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000

.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................

.08
.07
.05
.05
.04

.11
.09
.08
.07
.06

.15
.13
.11
.09
.08

.18
.16
.13
.11
.10

.23
.20
.17
.14
.13

.32
28
.23
.20
18

.38
.33
.27
.23
.21

.43
.37
.30
.26
.23

.46
.40
.33
.28
.25

49
.43
.35
.30
.27

.54
.46
.38
.33
.29

30,000
50,000
75,000
100,000

.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................

04
.03
.02
.02

.05
.04
.03
.03

.08
.06
.05
.04

.09
.07
.06
.05

.12
.09
.07
.06

.16
.12
.10
.09

.19
.15
.12
.10

.21
.17
.14
.12

.23
.18
.15
.13

.25
.19
.16
.13

.27
.21
.17
.15

.2 1

.2 1

NOTE: For part-tim e w orkers, w om en, and fam ilies m a intained by
women, m u ltip ly the above values by 0.89. For H ispanics: M u ltip ly by
1.43 fo r both sexes; by 1.21 fo r men, all fam ilies, husband-w ife fam ilies,




.

and fa m ilie s m aintained by men; and by 1.04 for w om en and fam ilies
m a intained by women.

T a b le A -1. P e rc e n t d is trib u tio n of u s u al w e e k ly e a rn in g s o f fu ll-tim e w a g e and s a la ry w o rk e rs , by a g e and sex,
1981 a n n u a l a ve rag e s

Age and sex

BOTH SEXES
Total. 16 years and over............
16 to 24 years.....................
16 to 19 years..................
20 to 24 years..................
25 years and over.................
25 to 34 years. .'................
35 to 44 years..................
45 to 54 years..................
55 to 64 years..................
MEN
Total, 16 years and over............
16 to 24 years.....................
16 to 19 years..................
25
35
45
55

Total,

to
to
to
to

34
44
54
64

years..................
years..................
years..................
years..................

WOMEN
16 years and over............

16 to 19 years..................
25 years and over.................
25 to 34 years..................

65 years and over...............

Number
of
workers
(in
thou­
sands)

Percent distribution by weekly earnings
Medi an

I
$400 I $500
to I or
$499 I more

Total

Under
$100

$100
to
$149

$150
to
$199

$200
to
$249

$250
to
$299

$300
to
$349

$350
to
$399

72,491
13,702
2,825
10,877
58,789
22,602
15,147
12,063
8,106
87 1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

0 .9
1.6
3.5
1 .1
.7
.6
.5
.7
1. 0
7. 1

8.9
19.7
37.4
15. 1
6.3
5.9
5.8
6.5
7.2
17.8

14.5
26.6
33.0
25.0
11.7
12.3
10.9
11.2
12.0
16.2

15.9
21.2
15.4
22.7
14.7
16.1
13.2
14. 1
14.5
15.9

12.3
11.9
4.5
13.8
12.5
14.5
11.6
10.8
11.3
9. 1

11.2
7.6
2.8
8.8
12.0
13.5
11.2
10.9
11.4
7.6

8.3
4.4
1.5
5. 1
9.2
9.8
9.4
8.6
8.6

43,888
7,672
1,644
6,028
36,216
13,819
9,337
7,429
5,10 1
530

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.5
1.0
2.3
.6
.4
.3
.2
.3
.4
6.4

5.0
15.5
32.6
10.8

12.7
21.7
18. 1
22.7

11.3
13. 1
5.8
15.1

12. 1
9.6
3.6
11.2

10.0
6.0
2.2
7.0

2.9
2.0
2.3
3.3
13.8

9.0
22.3
32.2
19.7
6.2
7.6
5. 1
4.7
6 .1
12.5

I
I 14.7
2.4
.7
I
2.8
17.6
13.0
I 21.0
I 21.2
I 19.1
j
I
I
17.8 I 21.7
7. 1 I 3.7
2. 1 I 1.1
4.4

12.5
8.9
9.7
10.5
13.8

13.2
9.6
9.2
10.0
8.4

14.5
11.2
11.5
12.3

11.6
10.9
10.1
10.2
7 7

18.9
21.5
21.1
19.8
10.6

28,603
6,030
1, 180
4,850
22,573
8,783
5,8 10
4,634
3,005
341

100.0

1.5
2.3
5.3
1.6
1.3
1. 0
.8
1.4
2. 1
8.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
10 0.0
100.0
100.0

Note : Detail may not add to totals because of rounding. Small values in percent distributions are subject to relatively large sampling errors and should
be used with caution. Specifically, values of less than 1.0 percent are subject

13.3
4.7
1.3
5.6
15.2
14.5
16.4
15.9
15.0

I
I
I
I
j
I
I
6.3 I
j
.1 I

14.8

23.0

21.0

14.0

9.7

5.6

44.2

34.0

11.6

2.5

1.6

.5

12. 1
10.5
12.0
13.4
13.9
24.0

20.5
19.6
20.2
21.7
22.0
21.9

21.1
21.8
20 . 1
21.1
21.2
19.0

15.0
16.5
14.8

10.9
11.9
11.1

6.5
6.9

7.6
7.5

13.5
10.0

9.8
5.4

5 l7
4.6

j
6.9 |
4. 1 I

$289
204
163
219
316
302
335
329
317
227
347
225
173
24 1

13.5
30.6
31.1
27.4
17.7

346
406
408
386
270

4. 1

224

.3

150

4.9
4.4
5.6

237
242

4.9
3.2

227
190

to relative errors of 25 percent or more. In addition, all percentages derived
from bases of less than 500,000 are subject to relatively large errors,

Table A-2. M edian usual w eekly earnings of full-tim e w age and salary w orkers, by region of residence, sex,
race, 'and H ispanic origin, 1081 annual averages
Median weekly earnings
Region of residence

All races
Both
sexes

Men

Whi te

Women Both
sexes

Men

H spani c

Black
Women Both
sexes

Men

Women Both
sexes

Men IWomen
I
__

Total........................................... $289
Mor-thea st.....................................
290
New England.................................
279
Middle Atlantic.............................
294
North Central.................................
304
East North Central..........................
312
West North Central..........................
286
South.........................................
259
South Atlantic..............................
253
East South Central..........................
248
West South Central..........................
276
West..........................................
319
Mountai n ....................................
305
Paci fi c .....................................
325

$347
342
329
346
367
373
343
316
307
308
334
385
367
392

$224
226
222
228
228
232
2 19
207
207
194
215
248
230
256

$296
295
28 1
30 1
306
314
2S8
272
267
263
284
324
309
331

$356
347
331
355
369
376
351
332
327
326
343
392
372
400

$226
226
222
229
227
231
220
212
212
199
219
249
231
258

$238
249
244
249
283
288
252
213
213
193
231
290
255
295

$27 1
283
27 1
285
334
341
299
237
234
218
267
331
( 1)
$335

$210
223
2 16
224
335
240
206
187
188
173
197
250
(1)
$254

$229
225
226
224
247
245
264
215
21 1
( 1)
$216
238
254
235

$252
245
( 1)
$245
30 1
295
( 1)
$233
242
( 1)
$237
263
2 98
254

I

I$ 192
I 195
I ( 1)
I$195
I 199
I 198
l (D
I$ 176
I 173
I (D
I$ 178
1 205
1 197
I 207

1 Median not shown where the base is less than 50,000.

Table A-3. M edian usual w eekly earnings of full-tim e w age and salary w orkers, by years of school com pleted,
sex, race, and H ispanic origin, 1981 annual averages
Median weekly earnings
All races

Years of school completed

Both
sexes
Total
Les
s
1
4 yc
4
1
4

Men

$289
228
220
233
304
263
304
403
370
440

$347
266
247
279
372
330
367
466
440
503

Women Both
sexes
$224
175
167
180
235
210
240
314
289
358

1 Median not shown where the base is less than 50,000.




Whi te

A-9

$296
233
224
240
3 11
269
3 11
407
378
44 1

Men

$356
274
253
288
380
537
375
473
447
507

Hi spani c

Black
Women Both
sexes
$226
177
168
181
236
212
24 1
314
289
354

$238
203
200
206
252
227
266
342
3 13
412

Men

$27 1
23 1
222
238
294
265
309
390
349
443

Women Both
sexes
$210
169
159
173
224
198
253
315
287
379

$229
198
191
216
264
239
284
358
329
419

Men

Women

$252
2 18
2 10
233
315
284
342
408
377
445

$ 192
163
155
179
217
198
235
298
277
(1)

T a b le A-4. P e rc e n t d is trib u tio n of usual w e e k ly e a rn in g s of fu ll-tim e w a g e and s a la ry w o rk e rs, by m a jo r
o c c u p a tio n grou p and sex, 1981 a n n u a l a verag es
Number j
Percent
of
I
workers|
(in |
Under j$100
thou- |Total I$100 | to
sands) j
$149

Major occupation group
and sex

I

BOTH SEXES
Total...............................
Professional and technical workers.
Managers and administrators, except farm |
Sales workers........... ..........
Clerical workers..................
Craft and kindred workers.........
Operatives, except transport......
Transport equipment operatives....
Monfarm laborers..................
Service workers...................
Farm workers......................

I
72,491|
12,870|
7,864|
3,60 1|
14,0661
10,558|
9,440 |
2,7 92 |
3,227 |
7,305 |
766 |

distribution by weekly earnings
Median
1$150
j to
I$199
1

r
100.01
100.0|
100.01
100.01
100.0|
100.01
100.01
100.01
100.01
100.01
100.01

MEN
Total...............................
43,888 | 100.01
Professional and technical workers.
7,358| 100.0|
Managers and administrators, except farm | 5,630 | 100.0|
Sales workers.....................
2,4121 100.01
Clerical workers..................
3,0321 100.01
Craft and kindred workers.........
9,9631 100.01
Operatives, except transport......
5,775j 100.01
Transport equipment operatives....
2,656| 100.01
Nonfarm laborers................ .
2,8931 100.0|
Service workers...................
3,4921 100.0|
677 | 100.01
Farm workers......................
WOMEN
Total...............................
28,6031 100.01
Professional and technical workers.
5,5121 100.0|
Managers and administrators, except farm | 2,235 I 100.01
Sales workers.....................
1 189| 100.01
,
11,0341 100.01
Clerical workers........... .......
Craft and kindred workers.........
595 I 100.01
3,6641 100.01
Operatives, except transport......
Transport equipment operatives....
136 I 100.01
335 | 100.01
Nonfarm laborers........ ..........
3,813| 100.01
Service workers...................
90 | 100.01
Farm workers......................
_______ l
Note: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding. Small values

in percent distributions are subject to relatively large sampling errors and
should be used with caution. Specifically, values of less than 1.0 percent

I

0.9 |
.5 |
.4 |
.7 I
.4 I
.2 I
.4 |
.4 I
1.0 |
4.2 I
6.6 j

8.9 |
2.0 |
2.4 I
12.3j
9.8 I
2.7 I
13.21
5. 11
14.31
25.11
26.9|

I$200
| to
|$249
I
r

$250 |$300
to j to
$299 j$349

$350
to
$399

15.9
9.6
9.2
12. 1
24.2
13.4
18.6
17.6
19.3
18.2
19.6

12.31
13.0|
10.5|
9.9|
14.8|
12. 1|
12.51
13.7|
12.1|
9.8 |
8. 1i

11.2
14. 1
11.0
11.3
9.8
13.5
10.3
12.6
10.3
6.8
4.2

8.3
10.9
9. 1
6.8
6.2
11.4
7.8
9.5
8.2
3.9
3.2

13.3
18.4
15.2
11.3
7.4
22.0
11.8
15.8
10.7
4.8
1.6

14.7
26.8
36.4
22.2
3.7
17.3
4.8
13.0
4.6
3.2
2. 1

$289
377
407
306
233
352
242
303
238
192
179

.5 | 5.0|
9.0|
.4 I 1.1| 2.9 |
1.1| 2.6 |
.31
.31 4.0 | 8.5|
•4| 4.8 I 10.2 (
•2| 2.2 I 6.5 |
.31 6 .1| 13.0 i
•2| 4.8| 12.0|
.9 | 13.0| 19.0|
1.2| 15.7| 18.6 1
5.7| 25.5| 27.4|

12.7
6.0
5.7
11.4
14.2
12.9
17.2
17.3
19.2
18.8
20.8

11.3|
8.8 |
8.0|
9.8 j
13.2j
12.0|
13.8|
13.6|
12.4|
13.2|
8.5|

12.1
11.2
10.4
13.4
12.7
13.7
13.5
12.6
10.5
11.0
4.6

10.0
9.9
9.4
8.2
12.3
11.6
11.2
9.7
8.7
6.8
3.5

17.8
20.8
16.8
14.3
20.2
22.8
17.6
16.2
11.4
8.7
1.6

21.7
39.0
45.8
30.2
12.0
18. 1
7.4
13.4
5.0
6.2
2.4

347
439
466
366
328
360
298
307
244
238
183

14.0|
18.6|
16.7|
10.0|
15.31
14.9|
10.6 1
15.2|
9. 11
6.7 |
5.2|
...1

9.7
18.0
12.5
7 .1
9.0
10.6
5.4
11.1
8.7
3.0
1.0

5.6
12.2
8.5
4.0
4.5
8.0
2.5
4.2
4.3
1.3
1.4

6.3
15.3
11.1
5.2
3.9
9.2
2.6
8.4
4.2
1.2
1.4

4. 1
10.5
12.6
5.8
1.4
3.2
.7
5.6
.9
.5
.2

224
516
283
190
220
239
187
237
193
165
148

1.5|
.6 1
•9|
1.7 |
.4 |
.41
"
7
4.11
1.2|
6.9 |
13.4|

14.8|
3. 1|
5.5 |
29.1|
11.1j
10.9|
24.41
10.51
25.9|
33.6|
37.5|

23.0| 21.0
7.2 | 14.4
14.21 17.9
23.4| 13.7
27.31 27.0
21.7| 21.0
32.51 20.7
17.91 23. 1
26.0| 19.9
29.1| 17.6
29.51 10.41
_____1

are subject to relative errors of 25 percent or more. In addition, all percen­
tages derived from bases of less than 500,000 are subject to relatively
large errors.

Median weekly earnings
Hours usually worked




$500
or
more

14.5|
4.7|
5.9 I
13.4|
23.6|
7.3|
20.51
12.3|
19.7 1
24.1|
27.7|

Table A»5. IMIedlan usual weekly earnings of wage and salary workers,
by number of hours usually worked per week and sex, 1981 annual
averages
_______________ _

Total

$400
to
$499

I
---------Both
! sexes
___________ I
_________
I
........................ .......... ! $248
.......... i
82
.......... I
53
.......... I
69
.......... j
98
.......... I
135
.......... |
289
.......... |
2 19
.......... j
296
.......... j
279
.......... i
374
.......... j
348
.......... j
398
.......... !
398
i

A -1 0

Men

Women

$325
78
54
65
95
137
347
30 1
349
334
403
382
42 1
42 1

$ 188
84
53
70
100
134
224
199
229
224
285
27 1
313
280

|
I

I
I
i
i
|

T a b le A -6. P e rc e n t d is trib u tio n of usu al w e e k ly e a rn in g s of p a rt-tim e w a g e and s a la ry w o rke rs , by a g e and
sex, 1981 a n n u a l a ve rag e s
--------------------------------------------- r -----1Number
1 of
Major occupation group
workers
and sex
(in
thou­ Total
sands)

Percent distribution by weekly earnings
Medi an
Under
$50

$50
to
$59

$6 0
to
$74

$75
to
$99

17.7
17.7
17.0
18.8
17.7
16.3
17.4
18. 1
18.8
20 . 1

15.8
13.6
10.8
18.0
17.3
17.3
17.7
13.4
16.5
14.7

6.3
3.8
2.0
6.6
8.2
3.4
9.3
9.3
8.3
3.5

7.5
4.1
1.5
8. 1
10.1
11.4
11.6
10.6
9. 1
4. 1

3.7
1.5
.5
3. 1
5.3
6.7
6 .1
5. 1
4.0
2.0

4.7
1.4
.3
3. 1
7 .1
8.5
8.5
6.3
6. 1
2.4

$82
68
61
84
96
103
1C4
99
91
71

3.6
1.7
.5
3.8
6.7
8.9
11.5
5.8
6.5
2.4

6.7
1.7
.2
4.5
14.9
16.3
26.9
26.5
16.8
3.3

78
68
62
86
104
1 19
150
119
105
73

67

$100
to
$124

$125
to
$149

$150
to
$199

$200
to
$249

$250
cr
more

BOTH SEXES
16 to 24 years..........................
16 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 yesrs........................
25
35
45
55
65

to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

years........................
years........................
years........................
years........................
and over....................

MEN
Total, 16 years and over.................
16 to 24 years..........................
16 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years........................
25 years and over.......................
25 to 34 years........................
35 to 44 years........................
55 to 64 years........................

16,025
6,86 1
4,165
2,696
9 , 164
2,997
2,099
1,603
1,369
1,095

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

21.7
28.9
55.4
18.9
16.3
14.9
13.5
13.3
17.0
29. 1

8.2
10.6
12.3
7.9
5.3
6.5
6.8
6.7
9.0

14.4
18.4
20.2
15.6
11.4
10.5
9.4
11.5
13.5
15.3

4,956
3,079
1,995
1, 084
1,877
631
225
189
284
548

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

23.7
28.9
34.3
19.0
15.5
12.7
11.6
12.0
12.5
22.3

8.5
10.1
11.2
8.0
6.0
4.3
4.8
4.4
5.6
9.2

15.0
18. 1
20.3
14. 1
9.8
8.2
5.4
7.7
9.3
14.6

17.7
18.7
18.7
18.8
16 .0
12.8
9.5
15.0
18.6
21.4

13.9
13.4
11.1
17'.7
14.6
14.6
9.9
13.5
14.7
16.7

4.9
5.4
2.0
6 .1
7.3
9.9
8.5
6.4
6.7
4.4

6 .0
3.9
1.7
8.0
9.3
12.0
11.9
8.8
9. 1

11,069
3,732
2,170
1,612
7,287
2,366
1,874
1,4 14
1, 085
548

100.0
100.0
10 0.0
100.0
10 0.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

20.8
29.0
36.6
18.8
16.5
15.6
13.S
15.6
18. 1
35.4

8 .1
10.9
13.2
7.9
6.6
5.5
6.5
7.2
7.0
8.8

14.2
18.6
20.2
16.5
11.9

17.7
16.8
15.4
18.8
18. 1
17.3
18.4
18.5
18.9
18.8

13.8
10 6
18.2
13.0
18.7
18.6
19.1
17.0
12.6

4.2

4.2

WOMEN
16 to 24 years..........................

25
35
45
55
65

to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years

years........................
years........................
years........................
years........................
and over.....................

Note : D e tail m ay n o t add to to ta ls beca use o f ro u n d in g . S m all v a lu e s in
p e rc e n t d is trib u tio n s are s u b je c t to re la tiv e ly large s a m p lin g erro rs and
sh o u ld be used w ith c a u tio n . S p e c ific a lly , value s o f less th a n 1.0 p e rc e n t

11.1

9.9
12. C
14.6
16.1

8.0
9.4
9.7
8.8
2.5

__

11.2
11.6
10.8
9. 1
2.8

1.3

1 .1

2 6

7.0

2.2

6. 1
5.4
5.0
3.3
1.6
_____

6.5
6.4
4. 1
3.2
1.5

100
10 1
97
88
65
L
__

are s u b je c t to re la tiv e erro rs o f 25 p e rc e n t o r m ore. In a d d itio n , a ll perc e n ta g e s derived fro m bases o f le s s th a n 500,000 are s u b je c t to re la tiv e ly
large errors.

Table A-7. Percent distribution of usual weekly earnings of part-time wage and salary workers, by major
occupation group and sex, 1981 annual averages
Major occupation group
and sex

BOTH SEXES
Total......................... ............
Professional and technical workers.....
Managers and administrators, except farm
Craft and kindred workers..............
Operatives, except transport...........
Transport equipment operatives.........
Nonfarm laborers........................
Service workers.........................
Farm workers............................
MEN
Total.....................................
Managers and administrators, except farm
Sales workers...........................
Clerical workers........................
Craft and kindred workers..............
Operatives, except transport...........
Nonfarm laborers.............. .........
Farm workers............................
WOMEN
Total.....................................
Managers and administrators, except farm
Sales workers...........................
Clerical workers........................
Craft and kindred workers..............
Operatives, except transport...........
Transport equipment operatives.........
Service workers.........................
Farm workers............................

Number
Percent distribution by weekly earnings
of
workers
I
Cin
IUnder $50
$60
$75 $100 $125 $150 $200
thou­ Total l $50
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
sands)
$74
$99 $124 $149 $199 $249
$59
I

16,025
1,948
370
1,655
3,S83
525
778
402
1,039
5,208
2 17

I
100.01
100.oi
100.0]
100.01
100 .0 i
100.01
100.01
100.0|
100.0|
100 .0 j
100.01

21.7
13.2
14.1
21.6
16.2
12.4
17.0
15.7
29.4
29.4
41.9

8.2
4.6
5.8
11.1
7.3
6.8
6.8
6 .0
9.7
9.7
8.2

14.4
7.9
8.0

17.7
10.7
16.5

15.8
14. 1
15.8

14.9
11.0
12.9
12.3
14.5
16.5
16.0

20.3
15.8
19.9
20.6
18.3
17.3
16.5

18.2
17.8
19.9
14.0
13.0
14.4
12.7

6.3
8.0
8.7
4.0
8.0
6 .1
8.8
8.6
4.4
5. 1
1.5

4,956
5 16
125
383
4S9
4 18
357
25 1
884
1,376
157

i
100.0|
100.01
100.0!
100.01
100.0]
100.01
100.0]
100.01
100.Oj
100.0|
100.0|

23.7
15.9
12.7
24.8
19.2
12.4
21.6
17.6
30.5
27.4
43.9

8.5
5.0
7.2
7.2
6.9
6.7
8.6
6.6
9.5
11.5
6.9

15.0
6.5
7.8
15.3
13.3
10.0
14.0
14.3
14.0
20.0
15.7

17.7
13.0
14.8
16.3
20.4
15.5
20 . 1
20.9
18.2
18.4
16. 1

13.9
15. 1
16.7
17.8
15. 1
16.0
14.4
11.3
12.6

4.9
5.2
8.2
3.9
5.9
6.0
5. 1
5.2
3.9

11.7

1.5

i
11,069
100.01
1,432
100.0 j
245
100.oi
1,272
100.0]
3,394
100.0]
108 100.Oj
42 1 100.01
151
100.01
155
100.01
3,832
100.01
59 100.01
___
1

20.8
12.2
14.7
20.7
15.8
12.0
13.1
13.0
21.9
30. 1
36.4

8. 1
4.5
5 .1
12.3
7.3
7.3
5.3
5.0
10.9
9. 1
11.6

14.2
8.5
3. 1
18.8
14.4
14.9
12.0
8.9
17 . 1
15.2
16.9

17.7
9 .9
17.4
21.0
20.3
17.0
19.6
20.2
18.7
16.9
17.5

16.6
13.7
15.4
16.0
18.6
25.0
24.6
18.4
15.3
15.1
15.3

8.9
4.0
8.3
6.2
11.9
14.4
6 9
5. 1
1.6

N o t e :D e tail m ay n o t add to to ta ls b e ca use o f ro u n d in g . S m all v a lu e s in
p e rc e n t d is trib u tio n s are s u b je c t to re la tiv e ly large s a m p lin g erro rs and
s h o u ld be used w ith c a u tio n . S p e c ific a lly , v alue s o f less th a n 1.0 p e rc e n t




7.5
14. 1
15.2
8.6
11.8
8. 1
11.0
5. 1
4.6
1.4

Medi an
$250
or
more

3 7
9.8
8.1
1.8

17.4
7.8

6 .1
3.4
5.8
2.9
1.6
.9

12.2
3. 1
5.7
2.9
1.5
.6

3.6

6.0
8.9
12.6
3.7
5.6
11.9
6.9

8.0
4.0

5.3

2.8

6.7
23.8
12. 1
7.0
5.1
14.8
5.3
8.9
3. 1

1.3

11

11.0
8 .1
1.2
3.7
4.2
3. 1
4.9
3.5
1.7
.2

15. 1
5.8
1.7
2.7
1.9
1.2
.9

16.0
16.6
4.5
9.0
11.4
9.2
14.5
5. 1
.7

6.6
3.9

1 '?

$82
123
108
73
S3
105
91
93
70
69
59
73
115
110
78
81
107
81
88
70
67
58
84
127
107
73
89
97
99
103
74
70
61

are s u b je c t to re la tiv e erro rs o f 25 p e rc e n t o r m ore. In a d d itio n , all per­
c e n ta g e s derived fro m bases o f less th a n 500,000 are s u b je c t to re la tiv e ly
large errors.

A-11

☆

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1982

0 - 5 2 2 - 0 3 2 (6879)

Eeenomfe Projections

t© 1990

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