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Glossary
o f c u r r e n t ly used

W A G E TERM S

Bulletin No. 983
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Com m issioner




June 1950




Glossary
of currently used

W A G E TER M S

B ulletin N o. 983
U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF LAB O R
M aurice J. T obin, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 15 cents







Letter of Transm ittal

U nited S tates D epartm ent
B ureau

of

of

L a b or ,

L ab or Statistics ,

Washington , D . C., M ay 1 5 ,1 9 5 0 .

The S ec reta ry

of

L abor:

I have the honor to transmit herewith a glossary o f wage terms in current use.

The prepara­

tion o f the Glossary was undertaken in an effort to clarify the meaning o f the many wage and
salary terms now employed in such areas as collective bargaining, wage administration, and
statistical reporting.
The Glossary was prepared in the Bureau’s Division o f Wage Statistics.

Initial work was

undertaken by Philip Arnow and carried through to completion by Charles Rubenstein.

Edith

M. Olsen also participated at one stage in the preparation o f the definitions.
E w an C lague , Commissioner.

Hon. M au rice J. T obin ,
Secretary of Labor.




iii

Preface
The Glossary of Currently Used W age Terms was issued in multilithed form in December 1949.
The demand for copies was so great that an early printing appeared advisable.

Except for

minor revisions, the present edition does not differ from the original multilithed version.
A preliminary draft o f the Glossary was made available to numerous individuals in govern­
ment, labor, business, and universities for critical comment.

Many valuable suggestions were

received, and the Bureau would like to take this opportunity to thank all o f those who gave
generously o f their time in reviewing the preliminary definitions.

N o glossary o f this type is

ever complete, hence additional suggestions will be most welcome.
The present Glossary takes account o f the fact that a wide variety o f terms relating to wages
are used in wage and salary administration, collective bargaining, accounting, government
regulation and statistical reporting.
minology has been developed.

In each field, to a certain extent, special-purpose ter­

Many o f the terms now in use are not too clearly defined; some

appear to be similar but have different meanings and cannot be readily distinguished.
The variety o f terms employed stems largely from the equally wide variety o f uses to which
wage and salary information is put.

In collective bargaining alone, for instance, wage informa­

tion is used to make various kinds o f comparisons between wages in one plant and wages in other
plants; to measure the trend o f wages in relation to the trend o f living costs, production, profits,
or other factors; to determine the proper internal alignment o f wage structures; and for other
purposes.

Wage information for these various uses may be required in the form o f rates o f pay

unrelated to the earnings o f individual workers, in the form o f hourly or weekly earnings o f
workers regardless o f the method o f wage payment or rates o f pay, or in the form o f indexes o f
wage rates or earnings.
In some instances, differences in the meaning o f similar terms are a reflection o f differences
in systems o f wage payment.

The basic difference between the concepts o f “ wages” and “ sal­

aries” lies in the method o f payment.

A “ wage” system is ordinarily regarded as one under

which payment is made by the hour or day to workers, most o f whom do manual work; a “ salary”
system is one under which payment is usually made on a weekly, semimonthly, or monthly basis
to workers, most o f whom do “ white-collar” or nonmanual work o f some sort (some o f it super­
visory).,

There are many kinds o f wage and salary systems, each giving rise to some new

terminology.
Some o f the terms used are purely statistical or accounting formulations, somewhat abstractly
created, and frequently not found in day-to-day wage administration or collective bargaining.
They may have been designed to describe specially constructed series o f data, such as the Bureau
o f Labor Statistics “ Urban Wage Rates” series, or to describe a series o f estimated data like the
Bureau’s “ Average Hourly Earnings Exclusive o f Overtime Payments.”
Brief clarifying descriptions o f the terms most frequently used are essential to full under­
standing and accurate use o f wage and salary information.

The compilation o f terms and

definitions contained in this glossary was based largely on experience gained in the work o f the
Bureau o f Labor Statistics and other government agencies.

The definitions, except in a few

cases where official government definitions or regulations are quoted, have been specially pre­
pared for this Glossary, and are designed to indicate current usage and, insofar as possible,
variation in usage o f individual terms.

The definitions are not presented, therefore, as “ stand­

ard” or “ correct” descriptions o f usage.




iv

GLOSSARY OF CURRENTLY USED
WAGE TERMS
Across-the-B oard Increase

to operating time in computing the

simultaneously all or most o f the
employees within a plant, company,
or industry. Such an increase may

standard time allowed for a par­
ticular operation as the basis for
establishing piece rates or produc­
tion bonuses.

be granted in uniform percentage or

Ann ual Earnings

A general wage increase affecting

cents-per-hour terms. In the former
case, the absolute amount o f increase
will differ among employees in ac­

The total amount o f compensa­
tion received for services by a worker
during the year, including wages,

cordance with their original rate

salaries, and bonuses. The total
annual earnings o f a worker may be

levels.

Advance on W ages

the result o f work performed for a

In general, refers to any practice
by which employees are entitled to
draw wages or salaries in advance o f
actual work performance; e. g., wage
advances to new employees, ad­
vances during slack seasons to work­
ers on commission basis o f wage
payment, etc. Also applies to the

single employer or a number o f em­
ployers in a given year.

A nn ual W age or E m ploy­
m en t Guarantee
An arrangement under which any
employer guarantees his workers a
minimum amount o f wages or em­
ployment during the year. Under

payment o f wages in advance o f the

the Fair Labor Standards Act, as

regular pay day for services already

amended in October 1949, employers

rendered.

may enter agreements, with certified

Allowed T im e

labor unions, which set a maximum

Under incentive wage systems, the

o f 2,240 hours o f employment in a

total time allowed or set as standard

specified 52-week period and which

to

guarantee not less than 1,840 hours

complete

thereof.

a

task

or

element

Also relates to the amount

(or not less than 46 weeks at the

o f time permitted a worker for the

normal number o f hours worked per

care o f tools, for rest periods, or for

week, but not less than 30 hours per

other reasons.

week)

This time is added




1

and not more than 2,080

hours. Under such agreements, em­
ployers are relieved from the over­
time pay requirement for the first
12 hours o f work in a day, or 56 in a
week, during the guarantee period.

width o f the rate ranges and the
number o f steps within each range
may vary among occupations, estab­
lishments, and industries, but under

Thereafter they are liable for over­
time pay at time and one-half for all
hours after 40 in a week up to 2,080

are received at specified time in­
tervals until the maximum rate for

all fully automatic plans increments

the jo b is reached. Some plans
combine automatic progression up
to a specific point (for example, the

hours, and for all hours o f work
after 2,080 hours in the 52-week
period.

I f the 2,240-hour maximum

midpoint) within the range, with
discretionary increases, usually based

limit is exceeded, the entire agree­
ment is made retroactively inef­
fective. {See also Guaranteed Wage
Plan and Wage Advance Plan.)

on some type o f merit review, up to
the top o f the range.

Also refers to

the automatic movement from a
trainee rate to a jo b classification
single rate or to the minimum o f a
jo b classification rate range.

Apprentice R ate
The schedule o f rates applicable to
workers being given formal ap­
prenticeship training for a skilled
job, in accordance with set standards*
The rate schedule is usually estab­
lished in such a manner as to permit
the gradual achievement o f the
minimum journeyman rate.

Average H ourly Earnings
Exclusive of Overtime
Paym ents
In general, average hourly earn­
ings from which the effect o f premium
payments for overtime work has
been eliminated. Also, a measure o f

Apprentice Scale

average hourly earnings published
by the Bureau o f Labor Statistics in

{See Apprentice Rate.)

which gross average hourly earnings

Assessm ent

in manufacturing are adjusted sta­

A charge levied by a union on each

tistically to eliminate the influence o f

member for a purpose not covered
by the regular dues.

premium overtime payments at time
and one-half the regular rate o f pay

Assessments

may be either one-time or periodic

after 40 hours o f work a week.

charges.

The

adjustment does not compensate for

A u to m a tic Progression

other forms o f overtime payment
nor for other types o f premium pay.

A policy by which rates o f pay o f
workers in jobs with established rate

{See

ranges are increased automatically

Hourly Earnings and Gross Average

and

Hourly Earnings.)

at

set

time

intervals.




The

2

also

Average

Straight-Time

Average S traight-T im e
H ourly Earnings

Base Rate
The amount o f pay for a unit o f
time; e. g., hour, day, week, month,
or year, exclusive o f premium pay
for overtime or other premium pay­
ments. Under incentive wage sys­
tems, other than piece-rate systems,
the term may refer to the rate to be

Average wages earned per hour
excluding premium overtime pay­
ments and shift differentials. Com­
missions, production bonuses, and
cost-of-living bonuses are included,
but nonproduction bonuses (such as
Christmas,

profit-sharing,

paid for production at “ standard,”
before the addition o f extra earnings
for production above standard; more

attend­

ance, and service), tips, and allow­
ances for room or board or other

generally, under piece-rate or other
incentive systems, the term may

payments in kind are excluded.
This concept is used by the Bureau
o f Labor Statistics in virtually all

refer to the amount guaranteed per
hour or other time period. (See
also Guaranteed Rate.)

o f its occupational wage rate studies
and by numerous private organiza­
tions engaged in wage survey work.
This definition, however, is not

Bonus
A broad term which refers to any
payment above regular or base rates.
It includes extra payments for night
work, hazardous work, regular at­
tendance, and overtime, as well as
any annual or regular allotment such
as a Christmas bonus. It also refers
to extra earnings o f incentive work­
ers above the base or guaranteed
rate. Specific forms o f bonuses are
usually preceded by descriptive terms

universally accepted. There appears
to be general agreement on the
elimination o f overtime premium
payments; but differences are found
as to the treatment o f shift dif­
ferentials and the monetary value
o f some other wage and related
practices. (See also Average Hourly
Earnings Exclusive o f Overtime
Payments and Gross Average Hourly
Earnings.)

such as “ Christmas bonus,” “ at­
tendance

Back Pay

bonus,”

etc.

(See

also

Nonproduction Bonus and Produc­
tion Bonus.)

Delayed payment o f part o f the
wages for a particular period o f

Bootleg W ages

time, arising from arbitration awards,
grievance procedure regarding par­

The wages above those at the

ticular rates, errors in computation
o f pay, or current legal interpretation

prevailing rate or the union scale
which an employer may pay in a

o f wage legislation.
active Pay.)

employees.

(See also Retro­




tight labor market to hold or attract

3

M ay also refer to wages

at rates below the prevailing or
union rate which an employee may
accept in order to obtain employ­
ment. {See also Kick-back.)

o f more than 1 year, or beyond the
termination date o f the agreement,
whichever occurs sooner.

C lothing Allowance

C all-B ack Pay
The

pay

(usually

An

allowance

granted

by an

at premium

employer to those o f his employees

rates) received by a worker called
back to duty after completing his

who are required to buy special

regular assignment.

Union

clothing, such as uniforms and safety
garments, in connection with the

agree­

ments frequently provide for pay for

performance o f their work.

a minimum number o f hours for

C om m ission Earnings

workers called back to duty, usually

Compensation to sales personnel
based on a percentage o f value o f
sales. Commission earnings may be
in addition to a guaranteed salary

at premium rates.

C a ll-In Pay
The amount o f pay guaranteed to
a worker who is called to work on a
day on which he otherwise would
not have reported, and finds no work
available or is not given a full or half
shift's employment. Call-in pay may
be higher than the amount o f re­
porting pay, and may be provided
for at premium rates on specified
premium days, such as Saturdays,
Sundays, and holidays.
Reporting Pay.)

or may constitute total pay. Sales
personnel on straight commission
usually have a fixed drawing account
which is balanced against actually
realized commission earnings at
specified periods. {See also Draw­
ing Account.)

C o m m o n Labor R ate
In general, the hourly rate paid to

{See also

adult males for physical or manual
labor o f a general character and

Check-O ff

simple nature, requiring no special
training or skill and requiring little

The practice whereby the em­
ployer, by agreement with the union,

or no previous experience.

regularly withholds from the wages

establishments, this rate may apply

In some

o f his union workers assessments and

to a common labor crew or pool who

dues, and transmits these funds to
the union. Under the Labor Man­

are assigned to specific tasks as
required, while in other establish­

agement Relations Act o f 1947, the

ments it may refer to the rate paid

employer must receive from each
employee a written assignment which

for specific unskilled tasks, such as
sweeping, hand trucking, loading,

shall not be irrevocable for a period

and unloading.




4

C o m m u n ity W age Survey

Contributory Pension Plan

A general term used to describe a
survey designed to reveal the struc­
ture and level o f wages within a
particular geographical area for a
given industry or, more typically,
for broad categories o f industry.

A pension plan for the benefit o f
the employee under which the cost
is shared by both the employer and
the employee. (See also Noncon­
tributory Pension Plan.)

C o st-o f-L iv in g A d ju stm en t
Com parable R ate
An adjustment o f wages or salaries
in accordance with changes in the
cost o f living as measured by an
appropriate index o f the retail prices
o f goods and services that enter into
the consumption o f low- or moder­

A rate paid for work agreed or
determined to be comparable within
a plant or within an area. Com­
parisons o f this type may be limited
to virtually identical occupations
within a specific industry or be

ate-income families. Limitations as
to the extent o f wage adjustment are

broadened to include occupations
with similar characteristics in various
industries. Such comparisons are

sometimes provided for.
Escalator Clause.)

(See also

used in wage negotiations and wage
determinations.

Daily Rate

Com petitive W age

For a worker hired on a daily rate
basis, the rate o f pay is normally
expressed as a rate for a standard
number o f work hours per day.
Like the hourly rate, the quotation
o f a daily rate normally excludes
premiums that may be paid for lateshift work or overtime hours, as

In economic theory, the wage
within a given labor market required
to balance the demand for and supply
o f labor o f a particular type. More
popularly, the wage level a company
must maintain to compete with other
firms in the same labor market for
particular types o f labor.

well as bonuses for special conditions

Also used

o f work or for other reasons unrelated
directly to production.

in the sense o f the wage level that is
required by a company to maintain
a competitive price position with

Danger Zone Bonus

other firms in the same industry.

A bonus paid to employees who
are required to work in an area where

Contract W age P aym ent
An

arrangement

worker

contracts

specific jo b

for

whereby
to

a

perform

either the material or machinery is

the

particularly

a

880479°— 50------2

S u ch

manufacturing industry and in the

amount o f compensation.



h azard ou s.

bonuses are common in the explosives

predetermined

5

a period o f time. The amount o f
the payment to any one employee is
usually related to the amount o f his
regular wages and his length o f

work o f longshoremen. During the
war, special payments were made to
members of the merchant marine as
war-risk bonuses.

service.

Deadheading Pay
D ism issal Pay
A special payment to a transporta­
tion worker who is required to report
for work at a point far removed

{See Dismissal Compensation.)

Disposable In com e

from his home terminal. “ Dead­
heading” refers to the extra time

{See Spendable Earnings tf«</TakeHome Pay.)

consumed in traveling to and from
the place o f work.

Doubleheading Pay
Refers to the extra compensation

Dead T im e

given the railroad engineer where
Time lost by a worker because o f
lack o f materials, a break-down o f
machinery, or from other causes
beyond his control. An incentive
worker usually receives his guaran­
teed or base rate during this period.
( See also Down Time.)

very steep grades require the use o f
more than one engine for some
distance. The specific rules regulat­
ing payment under these conditions
are found in the various union
agreements.

Downgrading
Dead W ork

The reassignment o f workers to

A term used in mining, referring

tasks with lower skill requirements

to nonproductive work, including

and lower rates o f pay.

the removal o f rock, debris, and

resorted to when a marked change in

other waste matter from the product

products or in methods o f produc­

mined.

Usually

tion occurs and a lesser degree o f
skill in work performance is re­

D ism issal C om pensation

quired; also applied in reductions o f

A specific payment, in addition to

force which require reassignments

regular wages, which is given an

o f workers to jobs o f lower skills.

employee upon permanent termina­

Downgrading was used by

tion o f employment through no fault

establishments after World War II

o f his own.

when conversion from war work to

The dismissal compensa­

some

tion, or wage, may be paid in one

the manufacture o f civilian goods

sum at the time employment is

required less skilled operations.
also Upgrading.)

terminated, or it may be spread over



6

{See

Down T im e

establishment. In the case o f a
skilled worker, the rate may be
slightly less than or equivalent to the
minimum jo b rate; it may also be
identical with the probationary rate.
The entrance rate for unskilled work­
ers may be synonymous with the
minimum plant rate, and may be
increased after designated time in­

Brief periods o f idleness while
waiting for repair, set-up, or adjust­
ment o f machinery. (See also Dead
Time.)

Drawing Account
A weekly allowance given to sales
personnel working on a straight com­
mission basis in retail and wholesale
trade.

The

drawing

account

tervals. (See also Minimum plant
rate and Probationary Rate.)

is

balanced against total commission
earnings at specified periods, in
some cases 6 months or more. The
anticipated earning power o f sales
personnel is usually the determining

Equal Pay for Equal W ork
The payment o f equal compensa­
tion to

all employees within an

establishment or other unit perform­
ing the same kind and amount o f
work, regardless o f race, sex, or other

factor in establishing the amount o f
the drawing account. (See also
Commission Earnings.)

characteristics
workers.

D ual Pay
A system o f wage payment used
by railroads under which employees
are paid on a mileage or hours basis.
A standard mileage is defined as a
basic day, usually 8 hours, for the
purpose o f determining the daily

of

the

individual

Escalator Clause
A provision in a union agreement
allowing for the adjustment o f wages
in accordance with specified changes
in the cost o f living as measured by
an appropriate index, or in the price
o f materials used in production, or

rate. Wages are computed on the
number o f hours or miles, whichever
yields the greater compensation to
the employee.

in accordance with some other
agreed-upon criterion, such as pro­

Earnings

duction index or price o f product.
(See also Cost-of-Living Adjustment.)

The total remuneration o f a worker
or group o f workers for services

Expected Earning Level

rendered, including wages, overtime
(See Target.)

pay, bonuses, commissions, etc.

Expense Account

Entrance R ate
The hourly rate which a worker

An account o f expenses paid or

receives upon being hired into an

incurred by an employee in connec­




7

Fixed Sh ift

tion with the performance o f his
services, usually covering such items
as transportation, meals, and lodging
while in a travel status and away
from home. These expenses are
reimbursable to the employee; pay­
ment is usually made after the

The term applied to the type o f
shift on which a group o f workers
maintains the same schedule o f hours
week after week rather than rotating
time-of-day assignments periodically
with other groups.

expense account has been audited.

(See also Rotat­

ing Shift, Shift, Split Shift, and
Swing Shift.)

Explosive Trucking Bonus
A bonus paid to workers in the
explosives manufacturing industry
who are engaged in moving highly

Flat R ate (A.uto Repair)

dangerous explosives by means o f
hand trucks.

auto repair shops. The flat rate
refers to the labor charge made for a
repair jo b and is usually based on the

F in ish -G o -H o m e Basis of
Pay

standard time specified in an official

A system o f remuneration used in

automobile repair manual. The auto
mechanic receives a percentage o f
the total labor cost, which is com­
puted at a rate which allows a margin
o f profit for the employer. I f the
actual time spent on a jo b is greater
than the standard allowance, the
actual time is the determining factor
in computing the labor cost.

A practice under which employees
are permitted to go home after com­
pleting a specific work assignment
generally considered a standard day’s
work. An example o f the “ finishgo-home” basis o f pay may be found
in nonferrous smelters. Charging
the furnace in less than 8 hours
permits more time for the actual

Floor Under W ages

smelting process and workers are

(See Minimum Wage.)

encouraged to complete charging in
less than 8 hours but are paid for a
full shift.

Fringe Benefit

Similar standards for a

day’s work are set up in unloading o f
railroad

cars

facilities,

in

or

other

shake-out

A benefit supplemental to wages

shipping
work

received by workers, at a cost to

in

employers.

Among these benefits,

commonly designated as “ fringe,”

foundries, and in other industries.
Essentially, this may be considered

are paid holidays, paid vacations,

an

pensions,

incentive

generally

method

involves

o f pay;

making

it

costly

facilities available for use as quickly

tion,

as possible.

“ fringe”




and

insurance

benefits

(life, accident, health, hospitaliza­

8

and

m ed ica l).

was

widely

The

term

applied

to

benefits o f this type during World
War II in connection with the wage
stabilization program.

industry basis for comprehensive
groups o f manufacturing and non­
manufacturing industries by the
Bureau o f Labor Statistics in its
employment and pay-roll reporting
program. {Seealso Average StraightTime Hourly Earnings and Average
Hourly Earnings Exclusive o f Over­
time Payments.)

F u ll-T im e Earnings
Earnings received for working a
regular schedule o f hours over a
stated period o f time. Full-time
earnings may be defined in terms o f
a day, week, month, or other period.

Gross Average W eekly
Earnings

F u ll-T im e W orker Rate

A measure o f weekly wages typic­
ally obtained by dividing total com­

A rate paid to a full-time or regular
worker, as distinguished from that

pensation prior to pay-roll deductions

paid to a part-time or temporary
worker.

for taxes, social security payments,
or other purposes for a given weekly
pay-roll period (or, by the use o f a
conversion factor for a period o f
longer duration) by total employ­

G arnish m ent of W ages
The practice o f legally attaching
the wages o f a debtor and collecting

ment or, alternatively, by multiply­
ing average hourly earnings by
average weekly hours. Computed
monthly on an industry basis for
comprehensive groups o f manu­
facturing and nonmanufacturing in­
dustries by the Bureau o f Labor
Statistics in its employment and
pay-roll reporting program.

the debt directly from his employer.

G oing Rate
{See Prevailing Rate.)

Gross Average Hourly
Earnings
As used by the Bureau o f Labor
Statistics, a measure o f hourly wages
obtained by dividing total compensa­

Guaranteed Rate

tion prior to pay-roll deduction for
taxes, social security, or other pur­

The rate o f pay guaranteed to an

poses for a given pay-roll period by

incentive worker.

man-hours worked plus hours paid
for sick leave, holidays, and vaca­

production bonus worker, this rate

tions.

the base rate.

In the case o f a

may be equivalent to or higher than

Total compensation includes

When earnings at

premium payments for overtime and
late shift work, as well as recurrent
production and nonproduction bo­

bring earnings up to the guaranteed

nuses.

levels.

incentive are lower than the guar­
anteed rates, allowances are made to

Computed monthly on an




9

{See also Base Rate.)

G uaranteed W age Plan
An arrangement, written or un­
written, by which an employer
guarantees or assures to some or all
o f his employees, in advance, a
definite period o f employment or a
specific amount o f wages. In a
study conducted by the Bureau o f
Labor Statistics in 1945 and 1946,

Under the Federal Fair Labor
Standards Act, rates below the legal
minimum wage may be established
for handicapped workers in accord­
ance with regulations issued pursuant
to section 14 o f the Act. {See also
Substandard Rate.)

H istorical W age Differential
{See Wage Differential.)

this term was defined to include
guarantees o f employment for at
least 3 months a year or an equiv­
alent amount o f wages. ( See also
Annual Wage or Employment Guar­

Holiday Pay
Pay to workers, typically at
regular rates, for holidays not worked.
For work on such days payments

antee and Wage Advance Plan.)

are often provided at premium rates.

Guarantee on Trial Rate
H ourly R ate

A minimum guaranteed rate that
remains in effect during the time
that trial runs are made on new work
and a trial or temporary piece rate
is in effect. The level o f these
guaranteed rates is usually higher
than plant minimum jo b or base
rates and is related to past earnings
o f the individual or the group o f
workers affected.

Typically, the rate o f pay ex­
pressed in terms o f cents-per-hour,
usually thought o f as applying to
manual and other workers remu­
nerated on a time basis. Hourly
rates are normally basic rates; i. e.,
exclusive o f extra payments for shift
work and overtime, and exclusive o f
production or nonproduction bonus

In order to pro­

vide an inducement to the worker

p aym en ts.

to return on an incentive basis as

“ hourly

H ow ev er,

soon as possible, the trial rate is

terpreted to mean “ earned rate per

rate”

is

the

term

sometimes

in­

frequently set at 95 or 98 percent o f

hour” under incentive methods o f

the average earnings o f the worker
for a given number o f weeks prior

wage payment.

Im provem ent Factor

to the trial run. {See also Temporary

A

Rate.)

term used in an agreement

negotiated by the United Automo­

H andicapped W orker R ate

bile Workers (CIO) with the General

A lower rate o f pay for a worker
whose efficiency is impaired because

Motors Corporation in M ay 1948,
describing an annual increase in

o f physical or mental handicaps.

wages o f a stipulated amount during




10

Intercity Differential

the life o f the agreement. The im­
provement factor is designed to
enable the wage earner to share in
the benefits resulting from increased
productivity in the economy. Costof-living adjustments were also pro­

Differences in prevailing wage
levels among a group o f cities.
Usually such differences are meas­
ured by rates for comparable occupa­
tions and industries from city to
city, but more general measures are
sometimes employed. In particular
negotiations, historical relationship

vided for in this contract.

Incentive R ate
The term “ incentive rate” may
apply to a piece rate, a rate o f pay

in rates between various cities may

per unit for production above a pre­
determined minimum standard o f
output, a ratio o f management-labor
sharing o f labor cost savings resulting

instances, the rank o f a particular
city with respect to other cities may
be o f more significance than the
percentage relationships among the

from the operation o f an incentive

cities over a period o f years.

be o f prime importance.

system, etc. The incentive plan
may contain as an integral part o f
its operation one or more kinds o f
special rates which also influence the

In such

Job Classification
An arrangement o f jobs in an
establishment or industry into a
series o f categories, each o f which is
based on progressively higher re­
quirements in terms o f skill, experi­
ence, training, and similar considera­
tions. Essentially, this process re­
sults in a rough grouping o f occupa­
tions where distinctions between jobs
are clear and sharp. Usually job
descriptions are used as a basis for

worker’s pay: a guaranteed rate, a
base rate, a down time rate, special
rates for try-out on experimental
work, etc.

Individual R ate
In many establishments, there is
no formal wage structure (either job
rates or rate ranges), and the rates
paid are known as individual rates.

classification.

These rates may be based in a loose

{See also Job Evalua­

tion and Labor Grade.)

way upon the job being done, or may

Job Description

be related to the training, ability,
skill, and bargaining power o f the
individual worker.

A written statement listing the

The term “ in­

elements o f a particular jo b

dividual rate” is also used to indicate

occupation.

the rate actually received by the
individual worker, as distinguished

or

Job Evaluation

from the job rate shown in the rate

The evaluation or rating o f jobs

structure maintained by an employer.

to determine their position in a job




11

hierarchy. The evaluation may be
achieved through the assignment o f
points or the use o f some other
systematic rating method for essen­
tial jo b requirements such as skill,
experience, and responsibility. Job
evaluation is widely used in the
establishment o f wage rate structures
and in the elimination o f wage in­
equalities. It is always applied to
jobs rather than the qualities o f
individuals in the jobs. (See also

skilled trade or craft, who has com­
pleted an apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training. Typically, such rate
is a minimum rate for the trade in a
particular area or a union scale;
some journeymen, however, may
receive rates above or below the
union scale. The latter are gener­
ally paid to certain employees (super­
annuated or handicapped) by special
arrangement with the respective
unions.

Job Classification and Labor Grade.)

K ick-back
Job Rate
(See Minimum
Standard Rate.)

job

rate

and

A practice by which an employer
or his representative arranges with
his workers for a return o f a part o f

parel industries, the unions have

their wages, established by union
contract or by law, as a condition o f
employment. A Federal anti-kick­
back law was enacted in 1934,
prohibiting kick-backs by workers
employed on public construction
work or on any work financed wholly
or in part by Federal funds. (See
also Bootleg Wages.)

achieved a relatively high degree o f

Labor Grade

Joint Rate Setting
The process o f establishing rates
jointly by representatives o f manage­
ment and labor. The extent o f labor
participation in the actual process o f
rate setting varies from industry to
industry and from establishment to
establishment. In some o f the ap­

participation through formal joint
organizational machinery.

One o f a series o f rate steps (single

At the

rate or rate ranges) in the wage rate

other extreme are situations where

structure o f an establishment. Labor

management alone sets rates, but
labor

through

its grievance

grades are an outcome typically o f

ma­

some form o f jo b evaluation in which

chinery has the right to “ protest”

various occupational classifications

specific rates, and to adjust them in

are rated on the basis o f such labor

conference with management if the

requirements

grievance is found to have validity.

as skill,

experience*

training, working conditions,

Journeym an Rate

etc.

The rate o f pay for a journeyman

The occupations are then grouped
into a limited number o f steps or

or a fully qualified worker in a

grades, so that occupations o f ap-




12

proximately equal" value” or" worth”
fall into the same grade. ( See also Job
Classification and Job Evaluation.

Learner Rate

the term is also associated with the
practice o f permitting employees to
earn a full week’s wages by making
up for lost time.

The rate or, more frequently, the
schedule o f rates applicable to
workers inexperienced in the job for

M erit Increase

which they are employed, during

performance or service. This is
widely used as a method o f advancing

their period o f training. The sched­
ule o f rates is usually established in
such a manner as to permit the
gradual achievement o f the mini­
mum job rate as the learner develops
competence on the job. Under the
Fair Labor Standards Act, an em­
ployer may be permitted to employ
learners in a specified plant at a wage
lower than the legal minimum,
whenever employment o f learners at
such lower rate is believed necessary
to prevent curtailment o f employ­
ment opportunities. Hearings are
held by the Administrator to de­
termine under what limitations as
to wages, time, number, proportion,
and length o f service, special cer­
tificates authorizing the employment
o f learners at subminimum rates may
be issued to an employer for certain

An increase in the wage rate o f
an individual worker on the basis o f

workers within

established

ranges, sometimes
with a provision

rate

in conjunction
for automatic

increases over part o f the range.
Merit increases may be administered
informally at the discretion o f the
employer, or provision may exist
for the periodic review o f the per­
formance o f employees for granting
o f merit increases.

{See also Wage

Review.)

M in im u m Rate
There are several kinds o f mini­
mum rates, those that are applicable
to specific jobs and those that are
applicable to entire establishments.
Normally, those that are applicable to
specific jobs are called minimum job
rates and those applicable to entire

occupations in his plant.

establishments are called minimum

Loose Rate

plant rates.

In addition, there are

several varieties o f guaranteed mini­

{See Runaway Rate.)

mum rates, usually applicable to

M a k e-u p Pay

individual jobs under wage incentive
systems.
Minimum job

Allowances given by employers to

rate.— The

mini­

piece workers to make up differences
between actual piece-work earnings

mum rate o f pay for experienced

and earnings at guaranteed rates or

workers on a given job.

statutory minimum rates.

mum rate may be either a single rate

880479°—50-----3




At times,

13

The mini­

or the minimum o f a rate range.
Union rates or union scales are
usually minimum job rates. Nor­
mally, entrance rates, probationary

N oncontributory Pension
Plan

rates, or learner rates fall below the

cost is borne by the employer. {See
also Contributory Pension Plan.)

A pension plan for the benefit o f
the employee under which the entire

minimum job rates.
Minimum plant rate.— Normally

N onproduction Bonus

the minimum rate o f pay for ex­
perienced workers in the lowest-

A bonus that depends on factors
other than the output o f an in­
dividual worker or a group o f work­

paid job in the establishment. The
term may, however, mean different
things in plants

with

differently

organized wage structures.

ers. Profit-sharing, safety, attend­
ance, waste elimination, and Christ­

In some

plants, the term refers to the rate
for the lowest-paid production job,
although lower rates may exist for
such jobs as common labor or janitor.

mas bonuses are examples o f non­
production bonuses. {See also Bo­
nus and Production Bonus.)

O ccupational Rate

In some plants, there are different
minimum rates for men and women
workers, or for white and Negro
workers. In some plants, the socalled minimum rate may actually
be a hiring or probationary rate. {See
also Entrance Rate.)

Rates (single or ranges) that are
designated for particular occupations
in an establishment, area, or in­
dustry. Generally, these rates are
formal rates, and are paid to any
worker who is qualified to perform
the work o f the occupation.

M in im u m W age

O ccupational W age
R elationship

Rates o f wages, established legally
or through collective bargaining,
below

which

workers

cannot

be

The relationship o f wage rates

The Fair Labor Stand­

among occupations representative of

ards Act establishes the legal mini­

a range o f duties, skills, and re­

mum wage to be paid to workers
engaged in interstate commerce,

sponsibilities.

employed.

a community or region, or on an

unless such workers are covered by
State laws which provide for higher
minimum wages. Minimum rates
are also established through col­
lective bargaining and are applicable
to individual plants, or to groupings
o f plants within an area or an
industry.



Relationships may be

analyzed within an individual plant,
industry basis.

O n e-M a n Car Differential
In the transportation industry, a
premium paid to streetcar operators
who operate vehicles without the
assistance o f conductors.

14

O u t-o f-L in e Rate

P art-T im e Worker Rate

(See Runaway Rate.)

Overtim e Prem ium Pay
Payment o f wages at a premium
rate for time worked beyond the
regular hours o f employment estab­
lished by union agreement, employer
or industry practice, or law. In
the United States, payment is
typically made at one and a half
times the regular rate o f pay.
Higher premium rates are found to a
limited extent.

(See also Premium

Rate.)

A rate paid to a part-time, tem­
porary, or contingent worker, as
distinguished from that paid to a
regular or full-time worker. Parttime rates may be equal to, or lower
or higher than, regular or full-time
rates. During periods o f ample labor
supply, part-time rates are usually
lower, but may become equivalent
or higher when the labor market is
tight because o f keen competition
for such help.

Retail trade estab­

lishments and restaurants are among
the industries dependent on parttime or temporary help to carry on

Pace Setter

their normal functions.

A worker who is better than
average on a particular job, and
whose production is used by the
employer as a standard for measur­
ing the amount o f work which can
be done in a given period o f time.

Paym ent by Result

Package
A term used to describe a com­
bination o f benefits received by
workers as a result o f collective
bargaining. A package may include
wage increases and other benefits o f
monetary value, such as insurance,
paid holidays, paid vacations, and
sick leave. The term generally

Pay-R oll Deduction
A deduction from an employee's
gross earnings made by his employer
for social security, unemployment
insurance, Federal income tax, local
government pay-roll tax, union dues,

implies that during the bargaining

special

process the parties agreed that a

union

assessments,

group

insurance premiums, etc.

specified amount o f increase was to

P ay-R oll Period

be applied partly to rates o f pay and

The established frequency with

partly to the financing o f the related

which workers are paid in a particular

benefits.




Refers to any method o f wage
payment where the amount o f the
wage depends upon the amount of
output. The term applies to straight
piecework or other types o f incentive
systems. The production to which
wages are related may be the output
o f an individual worker or the output
o f a group o f workers.

15

Perm anent Piece R ate

industry, regardless o f the time to
which the rate applies. Thus, hourly
rated workers may be paid weekly,
biweekly, semi-monthly, or monthly.

A rate established for a piece­
work jo b calculated to yield an
appropriate level o f earnings and
based, generally, on experience with
trial rates for the jo b assignment;
such rates are expected to persist
until basic conditions change.

Similarly, workers on an annual or
monthly rate basis may be paid
weekly; the pay-roll period in this
case is a week. The minimum
frequency o f pay-roll periods is often
specified in State legislation.

Perquisite

P ay-R oll Tax

Relates to the furnishing by em­
ployers o f food, lodging, and other
payments in kind to workers in
addition to monetary compensation.

Taxes levied by the Government
and paid by employers, employees,
or both, creating funds from which
employees receive retirement, unem­
ployment, or other benefits. Also

Thus, waitresses are generally al­
lowed a certain number o f meals,
depending upon the ‘ length o f the

may refer to employer contributions,
based on fixed percentages o f total
pay roll, to union or other private
health and welfare and vacation
funds, and to pay-roll taxes levied
by cities.

shift; board and lodging are usually
supplied to workers in lumber camps
and in some cases to farm labor.

Piece Rate
Under an incentive wage system,
the predetermined amount paid to
a worker for each unit o f output.

Peg Point
An occupational rate for a key
unskilled, semiskilled, or skilled job,
establishing differentials within the
wage structure. Term first used by
the National War Labor Board in
its decision on wages in the cotton
textile industry in 1945 (see 21

Rates may be based on individual or
group output.
Rate.)

(See also Incentive

Piece Scale
(See Price List.)

W. L. B. 882), and thereafter applied

P. M .

to the wage structure through col­
lective bargaining.

An incentive payment to sales
personnel in retail trade to push and

Penalty R ate

sell items on which the margin o f

An extra rate which is paid for

profit is large, to dispose o f slow

hazardous jobs, late-shift work, Sun­

moving items, or to clear out old

day and holiday work, or for over­

stock.

time.

money,” and “ push money.”

(See also Premium Rate.)




16

Also referred to as “ premium

P ortal-to-P ortal Pay
In mining, the computation o f
hours worked and paid for so as to
include travel time between the
mine entry and the place o f work at
the start and completion o f the work
shift. Also applies to payments
made by other industries for time
spent on company premises in getting
to and from the working places.

P rem iu m M oney

found in an area in numerous estab­
lishments, the geographic unit may
be narrow as, for example, the
metropolitan area. I f labor has to
be induced to migrate to the area
where the prevailing rate is to be set,
and no local labor is available, the
geographic unit upon which de­
termination is made may be a
locality far removed from the site
under consideration; at times, addi­
tional pay may be provided to
induce labor to move. Such situa­

(See P. M .)

tions frequently arise under DavisBacon Act determinations. Under

P rem iu m Rate

Public Contracts Act determinations,
prevailing minimum wage determina­

An extra rate paid for overtime,
work on late shifts, holiday and
Sunday work, or for work in par­
ticularly dangerous or unpleasant
occupations. The term is also used
in reference to extra rates paid to
employees, usually because o f ex­
ceptional ability or skill in the
occupation. (See also Overtime Pre­
mium Pay, Penalty Rate, and Skill
Differential.)

Typically, the predominant or
more common rate paid to a group o f

tions usually refer to an entire
industry in the United States as a
whole.
Another set o f variations in the
application o f the term “ prevailing
rate” arises from differences in
industry limits used as a reference.
Thus, certain occupations are found
only in metalworking establishments,
and prevailing rates for engine lathe
operators in an area, for example,
are in effect rates found in that
portion o f industry that employs

workers, usually with reference to

such workers, whether or not the

specific occupations in an industry or

limits are specified in the determina­

Prevailing Rate

labor market area.

tion.

In actual appli­

Other

occupations,

on

the

cation, the term “ prevailing rate” is

other hand, may be found in all

used in a variety o f ways.

industries in an area.

Some o f

Frequently, variation in the con­

the variations arise from differences
in the concept o f the geographic
unit or industry that is pertinent to
a particular situation. For example,
where comparable occupations are



cept o f prevailing rate arises from
differences

in

rate

structure

in

particular occupations and in bar­
gaining conditions.

17

Thus, in the

building trades and in some o f the

ment on a new jo b or in a new plant.

metal trades, there is a tendency
toward single rate formation in an
area, even though bargaining is con­
ducted with reference to a minimum
rate only, or a union scale.

The probationary rate is usually
lower than the minimum rate for the
jo b (in which case it is usually
indistinguishable

from

the

hiring

rate for the jo b ), although it may

Another source o f variation in the
use o f prevailing rate concept arises

sometimes be the minimum rate
applicable to the individual job. {See

from the use o f quantitative or
statistical descriptions o f prevailing

also Entrance Rate.)

rates.

Production Bonus

Some

o f these

terms

are

rather loosely conceived as, for
example, “ going rate,” when refer­

A bonus payment directly related
to the output o f an individual worker

ence is made to the rate received by
a substantial number o f workers,
possibly the modal rate. In some
situations, notably locality wage
surveys, measures o f prevailing rates
relate to the arithmetic mean or to
the median.

or a group o f workers. Usually paid
for production in excess o f a quota
or for the completion o f a job in less
than

standard

time.

The

bonus

may be a flat amount paid for all
production above standard or it may
increase in various proportions as
production increases. {See also Bo­
nus and Nonproduction Bonus.)

In view o f these variations, the
use o f the term “ prevailing rate”
requires specific mention o f the area,
occupation, industry, rate, and type
o f quantitative measure involved to
have definite meaning.

Protest Price
In some industries, notably pot­
tery and women’s dresses, piece rates
on new work are determined on the

Price List

basis o f previously developed time

A listing o f piece prices or rates to

elements.

A worker may not be

be paid by a company or a group o f

able to earn an appropriate amount

companies making similar products*

under such estimated time allowances

In unionized establishments, price

and piece rates.

lists are established typically upon

enough, he enters a protest but con­

I f he does not earn

agreement between the union and

tinues to work at these rates until a

the employer.

review is made and new rates are
set.

Probationary Rate
The rate o f pay for an experienced

protest or to the time the worker
was started on the new work. {See
also Temporary Rate.)

and otherwise qualified worker dur­
ing the initial period o f his employ­




Any adjustment in rates is

usually retroactive to the time o f

18

Push M oney

specific rates between a set minimum

{See P. M .)

and a set maximum rate ($1.60-A
rate, $1.55— B rate, $1.50— C rate,
$1.45— D rate, $1.40— E rate). In
the latter case, the individual A-BC-D-E-points within the range may
actually represent different jobs or
classes or grades within jobs rather

Race Differential
Differentials in rates paid to
workers o f different races in the
same occupation for similar or
identical duties and responsibilities.

than parts o f the same range.

R ate C u ttin g
Term generally refers to reduc­
tion by employers o f established
incentive

or

time

rates

in

the

M ay

the requirements for the rates related
to job content rather than to the
merit and ability o f the individual

absence o f changes affecting jo b
content.

This

would be the case, for instance, if

worker.

also refer to rate

A rate range, like a single rate, is

reductions in cases in which tech­

usually established for experienced
workers, and the minimum rate o f

nological or other changes have
altered jo b content and methods, or
in which incentive rates were set
“ too high” in terms o f earnings

the range is not intended for workers
who are not at all experienced in the
jo b .

levels for similar work in the industry

A complete and separate rate

structure below the minimum rate of
the range, including learner or ap­
prenticeship schedules, is frequently
established for workers not fully
qualified for the full jo b rates.
Automatic progression from the
minimum to the maximum o f the
range after specified periods o f
service is common.

or area.

R ate Range
A range o f rates for the same job ,
with the specific rates o f individual
workers within the range determined
by merit, length o f service, or a
combination o f various concepts o f
merit and length o f service. Rate
ranges may be set up with various

R ate Setting

degrees o f formality and more or less
rigid rules respecting the position

The process o f establishing rates

within the range at which new work­

through joint union-management ac­

ers are hired and the rules concerning

tion or by management alone.

their

nonautomatic

involve use o f jo b evaluation and,

advancement to the maximum rate.

in the case o f incentive plans, time
and motion study. Job evaluation is

automatic

or

May

The range may be expressed as a
spread from a set minimum to a set

used primarily for setting time rates

maximum rate (e. g., a spread o f

or incentive base rates in proper

$1.40 to $1.60) or as a series o f

relation to each other, taking into




19

account for each job such factors as
skill, responsibility, and working
conditions. Incentive rate-setting
involves the establishment o f a

sions. In the United States, atten­
tion has tended to focus on dif­
ferentials that prevail between the
South and the North. Such dif­

production standard by time or
other study methods. Rate setting
may also involve comparison with

ferences have particular significance

rates for similar work in the industry
or local labor market.

Real W ages

chased with money wages; i. e., real
wages are an expression o f the pur­
power

portant examples are: hosiery, tex­
tiles, lumber, furniture, and cotton
garments.

Real wages are represented by the
goods and services typically con­
sumed by workers that can be pur­

chasing

in individual industries that are
found in the South and in other
parts o f the United States. Im­

of

money

wages.

There are also

signifi­

cant differences in wage levels among
other regions in the United States
(New England, Pacific Coast, Middle
West, etc.).

Regular R ate

Over periods o f time, changes in
real wages are obtained by dividing
indexes o f money wages by an ap­
propriate index o f consumers’ prices.
Thus, if wages increase by 5 percent
and consumers’ prices by 10 percent,
real wages have declined by 4.5

The rate o f pay received by a
worker for all hours o f work per­
formed at straight-time rates. Also
refers to the rate o f pay at which a
worker is predominantly engaged
when he is subject to assignments
at varying rates.

percent (105-s-llOX 100=95.5, the
new level o f real wages). The

Reporting Pay

Bureau o f Labor Statistics maintains

The amount o f pay guaranteed to

a series on Gross Average Weekly

a worker who reports for work at

Earnings in Current and 1939 Dol­

the usual hour, without notification

lars, which indicates changes in the

to the contrary, and finds no work

level o f weekly earnings prior to and

available or is not given a full shift’s

after

employment.

adjustment

for

changes. in

Typically, pay for a

purchasing power as determined from

minimum number o f hours at regular

the Bureau’s Consumers’ Price Index,

rate is provided for in union agree­

the year 1939 having been selected

ments.

(See also Call-in-Pay.)

for the base period.

Retroactive Pay
Regional Differential

Delayed payment o f part o f the

Differences in wage levels among

wages for a particular period, re­

several broad geographic sub-divi­

sulting from a retroactive applica­




20

tion o f wage increases arising from
wage negotiations. (See also Back
Pay.)

The system o f rotating the crews
where two or more shifts are worked
in an establishment. This system

and the American Federation o f
Musicians, although the term is not
the official designation for such pay­
ments. In these cases, the applica­
tion o f the term stems, at least in
part, from the fact that employer
contributions are based on tons o f
coal mined and number o f musical

is designed to distribute day and
night work on an equal basis among

records produced.
For some types o f professional

the various workers.

workers, such as musicians, singers,
and writers, payment fo> work is
frequently based on a percentage on

R otatin g Shift

In some in­

dustries, where 7-day operations are
common, the work schedules may be
arranged so that workers are given
different days off in each week.
(See also Fixed Shift, Shift, Split
Shift, and Swing Shift.)

sales o f the final product (book,

R ound of W age Increases

A piece rate or other incentive
rate which results in earnings that
are out o f line with earnings in other

article, or song). Such payments
are referred to as royalties.

Runaway Rate

A term widely used after the end
o f World War II to describe broad
wage movements affecting large
segments o f the economy. Thus,
the “ first round” o f postwar wage
increases is identified largely with
the period between VJ-day and the
autumn o f 1946; the “ second round”
with 1947, etc. Actually, these
wage movements exhibited great
internal diversity and were in no

jobs o f similar requirements. This
situation may occur because o f
changed technology or from faulty
rate setting and may cause earnings
to reach levels beyond normal
expectations.

Salary and C om m ission
(See Commission Earnings.)

sense uniform among industries or
occupational groups or even, in

Salary Rate
For workers hired on a weekly,

many cases, among establishments

monthly, or annual basis, the rate o f

in the same industry.

pay is normally expressed in terms

R oyalty

o f dollars per week, month, or year.

In relation to wages, the pay­
ments to union health and welfare

Workers employed on a monthly or
annual salary basis may actually be

funds,

paid

such

as

those

benefiting

members o f the United Mine Workers




monthly,

semi-monthly,

more frequently.

21

Usually,

or
t he

length o f the workweek is specified
and a policy is established for com­
pensation in the event that longer or
shorter hours than a full week are
worked.

Severance Pay

(2) a percentage over earnings at the
regular day shift rates; (3) shorter
hours with full daily pay, or (4) both
shorter hours and additional mone­
tary compensation above full daily
pay.

Single R ate

CSee Dismissal Compensation.)

A rate which is the same for all

Sex Differential

workers on the same jo b or in the

Differences in rates paid to men
and women in the same occupation

same jo b classification, and under
which the individual worker on a

for work o f comparable quality and

jo b receives the same rate during the

quantity. Where quality or quan­
tity o f output differs as between men

job.

and women, differences in pay are
not necessarily differentials based
on sex.

entire time that he is holding the
The single rate usually is paid

to experienced workers in jobs re­
quiring varying degress o f skill.

A term applied to a work period
where two or more groups o f workers
are employed at different hours
during the operating time o f an
establishment; e. g., an establish­
ment may operate two shifts o f 8

Learners or apprentices may be paid
according to rate schedules which
start below the single rate and permit
the worker to achieve the full job
rate over a period o f time. In the
less skilled jobs, the rates for begin­
ners and experienced workers may
be identical because the period o f
time necessary to become familiar

hours each or 16 hours a day.

with all phases o f the work is rel­

S h ift

In

some industries, the term “ trick” or

atively short.

“ tour” is used instead o f “ shift.”

may occasionally be paid above or

Individual workers

{See also Fixed Shift, Rotating Shift,

below the single rate for special

Split Shift, and Swing Shift.)

reasons, but such payments are re­
garded as exceptions to the usual

Sh ift Differential

rule.

The definition o f a “ jo b ” or

Added compensation to workers

“ classification” may be very narrow

who are employed on a work schedule

or very broad, and the single rate

other

daytime

may therefore be applicable to as

schedule. Shift differentials may be
paid in a number o f ways: (1) a

few as one or two workers doing

than

the

regular

identical jobs, or as many as several

fixed amount per hour above the

thousands performing a number o f

rate paid on the regular day shift;

essentially different jobs which are




22

nevertheless regarded
the same rate of pay.

as meriting

available for private spending or
saving, but this usage would include
certain types o f deductions (e. g.,
union dues) as spendable earnings.
“ Net spendable average weekly earn­
ings” is a series developed by the
Bureau o f Labor Statistics in which
Federal social security and income

Skill Differential
Differences in wage rates paid to
workers engaged in occupations re­
quiring varying levels o f skill in
work performance. M ay also refer
to differentials in rates o f workers in

taxes are deducted from gross aver­

the same occupation, higher rates
being paid to those who usually

age weekly earnings for workers
with specified number o f dependents.
{See also Take-Home Pay.)

perform

the more complex tasks.

{See also Premium Rate.)

Split Shift

Sound and Tested Going
Rate

The daily working time that is
not continuous but split into two or
more working periods. “ Split shifts”
are usually found in industries such
as local transportation, which is

{See Wage Rate Bracket.)

Special Perm it Rate
A rate paid to a union worker

affected by peaks or rush periods at
various times o f the day. {See
also Fixed Shift, Rotating Shift,
Shift, and Swing Shift.)

who comes from another city and is
employed under a special permit
because o f local labor shortages.
The rate received is the same as that
paid to a permanent worker in the
area. In the unionized brewery
industry, this term refers to the
rates paid to special workers who
are temporarily employed during

Standard Rate
A basic rate o f pay established for
an occupation in a plant, industry,
or community through collective
bargaining, company regulation, or

the peak summer period. These
rates are usually lower than those

by law.

M ay also refer to estab­

received by “ regular” union workers.

lished rates for services rendered in
a community in connection with

Spendable Earnings

maintenance and repair o f auto­

In general, the money earnings o f

mobiles, appliances, buildings, etc.

Starting Rate

workers less various amounts de­
ducted for taxes and other purposes

{See Entrance Rate.)

from pay rolls; hence, “ spendable

Style Developm ent Rate

earnings” may be identified broadly
with “ take home” earnings.

Similar to temporary, experimen­

Term

tal, or trial rate.

also used in the sense o f the earnings



23

The term is used in

the hosiery manufacturing industry

efficiency is impaired because o f
physical or mental handicaps. The
term is also used to refer to rates
below Federal or State minimum

and relates to work on new styles
for which no piece rates have yet
been set. Generally, hourly rates
are paid on such work. Usually
these hourly rates average close to

wage levels or below prevailing levels
for an occupation in an industry or

the workers* previous piece-rate
earnings. The style development

area. (See also Handicapped Worker
Rate.)

rates are in effect for a specified time

Superannuated Rate

and are then replaced by new piece

A rate o f pay below the prevailing

rates.

level for a worker above a certain

S u b m in im u m Rate

age.

A rate below the minimum estab­
lished for an occupation, establish­

lowed in union agreements. At
times, the agreement requires the
employment o f a certain ratio o f

ment, industry, or area by union
agreement,

law,

or

policy.

older workers at superannuated
rates. Superannuated workers with
long service are sometimes retained
in an employed status because o f
their economic need; also, their
services are sometimes sought during
periods o f labor shortages.

Such

rates may be paid to learners and to
substandard, superannuated, pro­
bationary, or special permit workers.

Subsistence Allowance
A payment to a worker for ex­
penses covering meals, lodging, and
transportation while in a traveling
status for his employer.

Such rates are frequently al­

Supplem ents to W ages and
Salaries

Such al­

lowances may be based on a fixed

As defined by the U. S. Depart­

amount for meals and lodging plus

ment

other expenditures or on the actual

income purposes: “ Supplements to

expenses

Wages and Salaries is the monetary

incurred

for

all

items.

of

Commerce

for

national

There are also cases where institu­

compensation o f employees not com­

tional workers (e. g., nurses) receive
a subsistence allowance for living

monly regarded as wages and salaries.

outside the institution, since free

for social insurance, employer con­

It consists o f employer contributions

room and board are incorporated

tributions to private pension and

into the wage structure.

welfare

funds,

compensation

for

injuries, directors* fees, pay o f the

Substandard Rate
A rate o f pay below the prevailing

military reserve, and a few other
minor items o f labor income.** Term

or standard level for a worker whose

sometimes used more broadly to




24

refer to all supplements to basic
wage or salary rates.

Swing Sh ift
An extra or “ swing” shift o f
workers required in establishments
where continuous or seven-day opera­
tions are scheduled, to provide the
other crews with days off. The
“ swing crew” usually rotates among
all o f the other shifts. Also refers to
the practice o f one o f three rotating
shifts staying on the jo b through two
shift periods, thus “ swinging” the
shifts into their new assignments.
(See also Fixed Shift, Rotating Shift,
Shift, and Split Shift.)

T a k e-H o m e Pay
Typically, earnings for a pay-roll
period, less required deductions.
(See also Spendable Earnings.)

Target
In piece-rate systems, a rate is set
with the objective o f making it pos­
sible for a worker to earn, on the
average, 10, 15, or some other per­
centage above the base rate.

rates are established. These rates
are later revised and are made per­
manent when found to be satis­
factory. Sometimes they are called
“ experimental” or “ trial” rates.
These are alternate designations in
various industries. (See also Guar­
antee on Trial Rate and Protest Price.)

T ip
A gratuity given by a customer or
patron in recognition o f satisfactory
personal service or through custom.
Tips are considered as compensation
by the Bureau o f Internal Revenue,
thus constituting taxable income.
A substantial proportion o f the
earnings o f some categories o f work­
ers in hotels, restaurants, steam­
ships, and barber and beauty shops
is realized from tips.

Tonnage Rate
Pay for a unit o f work applicable
to incentive workers, and common
in such industries as coal mining and
basic iron and steel, where output
for important categories o f workers
can be measured on a tonnage basis.

The

Tool M aintenance T im e

expected earnings to which the piece
rate is geared is referred to as a
target.

(See Allowed Time.)

Trainee

Tem porary Rate

The

A rate set tentatively on new

term “ trainee”

applies to

workers who receive formal training

under piece rates in some industries

for occupations requiring a limited
degree o f skill. The training may

and it is not known whether or not

include some classroom work.

the initial rates can be properly set

trainee differs from a learner in that

for the tasks involved, temporary

a learner does not receive formal

work.

When new work is started




25

A

training but learns his jo b through

Urban Wage Rate Index

actual perform ance,
supervision.

under

Series maintained by the Bureau
o f Labor Statistics, beginning in 1943,
to measure the movement o f wage

The time spent traveling to and

rates in urban areas in manufactur­

Travel T im e
from a designated point and place

ing, major manufacturing industry

o f work. Such travel includes portalto-portal in mining, deadheading on

groups, and selected nonmanufac­
turing industries.

railroads,

Vacation Pay

and

out-of-town

work

performed by building tradesmen,
Payment for a period o f time

mechanics, musicians, etc.

U nion Rate
An hourly rate, usually a single
rate for an occupation or trade,

received by workers for vacation
purposes. The time period fre­
quently varies with length o f service.
During busy times or in a tight labor

established by agreement reached

market, workers may be given the

through collective bargaining. A
union rate or scale is usually the
minimum rate that may be paid to
qualified persons in the jo b ; there
are usually no restrictions prohibit­
ing the employer from paying higher

option o f accepting vacation pay in
lieu o f time ofF.

rates.

U nion Scale

{See Union Rate.)

W age Advance Plan
Advancing o f wages in work­
weeks o f short duration under plans
obligating employers to maintain
weekly wages up to a specified mini­
mum level. Wages must be repaid
during later weeks in which regular
or longer hours are worked.

Upgrading

No

The process o f a more rapid than

repayment is required unless the
employer provides sufficient work to

normal advancement o f workers to

enable the advance to be repaid.

jobs having greater skill require­

(See also Annual Wage or Employ­

ments and commanding higher rates

ment Guarantee and Guaranteed
Wage Plan.)

o f pay.

This measure is largely

resorted to when experienced help is

W age Arbitration

difficult to secure, as was the case
during World War II, and when

The

new work o f long or permanent dur­

referral

of

wage

disputes

between employers and unions to an

ation is undertaken requiring higher

arbitrator or board o f arbitration.

degrees o f skill on the part o f the

The arbitrator's award or decision is
customarily binding upon both par-

labor force.

{See also Downgrading.)




26

ties. Arbitration is usually volun­
tary, both parties having agreed to
refer the dispute to a third party for
a d e c i s i o n . ( See also W a g e
Mediation.)

Wage inequalities can be considered
either on an intraplant or interplant
basis. The elimination o f wage
inequalities is often accomplished
through jo b review or the adoption
o f job evaluation plans. During
World War II, the concept was a
major basis upon which the National
War Labor Board was authorized to
permit exceptions from the general
stabilization o f wages. The “ wage

W age A ssignm ent
A voluntary transfer by a worker
o f some o f his earned wages or com­
missions to another party or parties.
Such assignments may be used for
payment o f purchased goods and
debts, purchase o f savings bonds,
and payment o f union dues and
assessments.

rate bracket” procedure was an
application o f the inequality policy.
(See also Wage Inequity.)

W age Inequity
W age D eterm ination

An unjust relationship between

The process o f establishing wage
rates and wage structures through
collective bargaining, arbitration,
individual employer determination,

the wage rates o f workers or o f job
classifications. The concept was a
major basis upon which the National
War Labor Board was authorized to
permit exceptions from the general
stabilization o f wages during World
War II. (See also Wage Inequality.)

etc. The process may involve com­
parisons with rates paid by other
firms, the use o f job evaluation, or
other techniques. The term is also
applied to findings, orders, or deci­
sions o f wage regulatory bodies such
as minimum wage boards.

W age Leadership
The influence exercised by the
wage settlements reached by a large
firm or group o f firms on other settle­
ments in an industry or labor market.

W age Differential

“ Follow-the-leader”

Differences in wages among occu­
pations, industries, or areas.

ments

His­

appear

to

wage
be

adjust­

particularly

torical wage differentials, to which

significant in some industries.

frequent reference is made, are those
which have existed over long periods

also relate to a policy adopted by a
firm o f maintaining a position o f wage

o f time.

leadership in an industry or area.

W age Inequality

W age Level

An unjust disparity between rates

M ay

o f workers whose duties and re­

The level o f wages received by
workers in an occupation, establish­

sponsibilities are similar or identical.

ment,




27

industry,

or

area.

Wage

levels are generally indicated
average rates.

by

W age M ediation
The entrance o f a disinterested
third party into a wage dispute in an
effort to effect a settlement. Unlike
arbitration, the mediator merely
makes recommendations and assists
the disputant parties in reaching a
settlement. This is the principal
function o f the Federal Mediation
and Conciliation Service.

{See also

Wage Rate Bracket
In the administration o f wartime
wage stabilization policy by the
National War Labor Board, the
term referred to a range o f “ sound
and tested going rates” for an occu­
pation in a labor market area. The
minimum o f the range or bracket,
the most important point in actual
wage administration, was frequently
set at the level o f the first substantial
cluster o f rates in a wage distribu­
tion. The minimum o f the bracket
was the point up to which the War

Wage Arbitration.)

W age Policy
A formalized practice o f an estab­
lishment or industry relating to
elements o f wages, such as wage rate
scales, shift differentials, overtime
provisions, nonproduction bonuses,
automatic increments, paid holidays,
paid vacations, pensions, and insur­
ance benefits. In a broader sense,
criteria for wage adjustments are
stated in terms o f objectives (e. g.,
stabilization, rising standard o f liv­

Labor Board would permit adjust­
ments in interplant inequity cases.

W age Reopening
A provision or clause in a union
agreement permitting the question
o f wages to be reopened for negotia­
tion before the expiration o f the
agreement.

W age Review
A

periodic review o f the per­

ing, etc.) or in terms o f prevailing

formance o f workers to determine or

economic conditions.

select

those

who

deserve

merit

increases or advancement to higher

W age Rate

p ay i n g j o b s .
Increase.)

The monetary compensation for a

{See

also

Merit

given unit o f time or effort by which

W age and Salary A d m in ­
istration

a worker’s pay is calculated. There
are several kinds o f wage rates,
related to the system o f wage pay­

The managing and supervision o f

ment used in an establishment.
The principal kinds are hourly rates,

the wage structure o f an employer.

daily rates, weekly rates, monthly

and salary adjustments, according

rates,

to established policies, and the
analysis o f data such as cost o f living,

annual

rates,

and

It involves the application o f wage

various

kinds o f incentive rates.



28

area and interregional variations in
rates o f pay; (5) methods o f pay;

prices, wage and salary surveys,
which have a direct bearing on the
wage structure and are used in wage
negotiations. M ay also involve the
establishment o f new rates through
jo b evaluation, job analysis, and
time studies.

(6) provisions for lunch and rest
periods; and (7) supplementary
benefits, such as vacations, insurance,
sick leave, and holiday provisions.

W age Survey

W age and Salary Receipts

income purposes: “ Wage and Salary
Receipts is equal to wages and

A general term used to describe a
wage study based on the collection,
tabulation, and analysis o f original
data. Wage surveys are o f many
types, and the kinds o f data col­

salaries less employee contributions

lected

for social insurance, except that
retroactive wages are counted when

which the surveys are put.

As defined by the U. S. Depart­
ment o f Commerce for national

depend upon

W ages and Salaries

paid rather than when earned.”

As defined by the U. S. Depart­
ment o f Commerce for national

W age Structure
The sum total o f the various
elements and considerations that
characterize a specific rate schedule
in an establishment, industry, area,
or country as a whole. Typical o f
such elements are: (1) relationship
between rates o f occupations o f dif­
ferent skills; (2) relationship between
rates o f pay for men, women, and

income purposes: “ Wages and Sal­
aries consists o f the monetary re­
muneration o f employees commonly
regarded as wages and salaries,
inclusive o f executives* compensa­
tion, commissions, tips, and bonuses,
and o f payments in kind which
represent income to the recipients.**
More generally, this term refers to
remuneration to individuals for pro­

workers o f different races and color
in the same occupations; (3) provi­

ductive effort.

sions for extra pay for late shift

W aitin g T im e

work, overtime, hazardous, unpleas­
ant, or unhealthful work; (4) inter­




the uses to

(See Dead Time.)

29




Index
Page

Account, drawing.......................................
Account, expense........................................

Page

7
7

Comparable rate.........................................
Compensation, dismissal...........................

5
6

Across-the-board-increase.........................

1

Competitive wage......................................

5

Adjustment, cost o f living........................

5

Contract wage payment............................

5

Administration, wage and salary.............

28

Contributory pension plan.......................

5

Advance on wages......................................

1

Cost-of-living adjustment.........................

5

Allowance, clothing....................................

4

Cutting, rate...............................................

19

Allowance, subsistence..............................

24

Daily rate....................................................

5

Allowed time...............................................

1

Danger zone bonus.....................................

5

Annual earnings.........................................

1

Deadheading p ay.......................................

6

Annual wage or employment guarantee.

1

Dead time....................................................

6

Apprentice rate..........................................

2

Dead work...................................................

6

Apprentice scale.........................................
Arbitration, wage.......................................

2
26

Deduction, pay-roll....................................

15

Description, j o b ..........................................

11

Assessment..................................................

2

Determination, wage.................................

27

Assignment, wage......................................

27

Differential, historical wage.....................

10

Automatic progression..............................

2

Differential, intercity.................................

11

Differential, one-man car..........................

14
19
20

Average hourly earnings, exclusive o f
overtime payments................................
Average straight-time hourly earnings. ..

2
3

Differential, race........................................
Differential, regional..................................

Back p ay .....................................................

3

Differential, sex..........................................

22

Base rate.....................................................

3

Differential, shift........................................

22

Benefit, fringe.............................................

8

Differential, skill........................................

23

Bonus............................................................
Bonus, danger zone....................................
Bonus, explosive trucking.........................

3
5
8

Differential, wage.......................................
Dismissal compensation............................

27
6

Dismissal p ay ..............................................

6

Bonus, nonproduction...............................

14

Disposable income......................................

6

Bonus, production......................................

18

Doubleheading pay....................................

6

Bootleg wages.............................................

3

Down-grading.............................................

6
7

Bracket, wage rate.....................................

28

Down time. ................................................

Call-back p ay ..............................................

4

Drawing account........................................

7

Call-in p ay..................................................

4

Dual p ay.....................................................

7

Check-off.....................................................

4

Earning level, expected.............................

7

Classification, j o b .......................................

11

Earnings......................................................

7

Clause, escalator.........................................

7

Earnings, annual........................................

1

Clothing allowance.....................................

4

Earnings, average hourly, exclusive o f

Commission earnings.................................

4

overtime payments................................

2

Commission, salary and............................

21

Earnings, average straight-time hourly..

3

Common labor rate....................................

4

Earnings, commission................................

4

Community wage survey..........................

5

Earnings, full-time.....................................

9




31

Page
Earnings, gross average hourly..............
Earnings, gross average weekly............. .

Page

9
9

Labor grade.................................................

12

Leadership, wage........................................

27

23
7
7
7
11
7
7

Learner rate................................................... 13
Level, wage........... ...................................... 27

Minimum rate...............................................

Going rate................................................. .

8
10
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9

Grade, labor..............................................
Gross average hourly earnings............... .
Gross average weekly earnings.............. .

.

12

Guarantee, annual wage or employment

Earnings, spendable................................. .
Entrance rate........................................... .
Equal pay for equal work....................... .
Escalator clause....................................... .
Evaluation, j o b ........................................ .
Expected earning level............................ .
Expense account......................................
Explosive trucking bonus....................... .
Factor, improvement............................... .
Finish-go-home basis o f p ay................... .
Fixed shift................................................. .
Flat rate (auto repair)............................ .
Floor under wages...................................
Fringe benefit........................................... .
Full-time earnings.................................... .
Full-time worker rate..............................

List, price.......................................................

18

Loose rate....................................
Make-up p ay.................................................
Mediation, wage.........................................
Merit increase. ..............................................
Minimum wage. .........................................

13
28
13
13
14

Money, premium........................................

17

Money, push...............................................

19

Noncontributory pension plan.................

14

Nonproduction bonus................................

14

Occupational rate.........................................

14

Occupational wage relationship...............

14

One-man car differential...........................

14

Out-of-line rate..............................................

15

Overtime premium p ay................................

15

Pacesetter.....................................................
Package..........................................................

15
15

1

Part-time worker rate..................................
Pay, back.....................................................

15
3

Guaranteed rate.......................................

9

Pay, call-back.............................................

4

Guaranteed wage plan............................

. 10

Pay, call-in..................................................

4

10

Pay, deadheading.......................................

6

. 10
. 10

Pay, dismissal.............................................

6

Pay, doubleheading....................................

6

.
.
.

10

Pay, dual.....................................................

7

10
10

Pay, equal for equal work.........................

7

Pay, finish-go-home basis o f .....................

8

Incentive rate........................................... .

11

Pay, holiday................................................

10

Garnishment o f wages.............................

Guarantee on trial rate........................... .
Handicapped worker rate.......................
Historical wage differential.....................
Holiday p ay ..............................................
Hourly rate...............................................
Improvement factor................................

9
9

Income, disposable...................................

6
1
Increase, merit......................................... . 13
Individual rate......................................... . 11
Inequality, wage...................................... . 27
Inequity, wage.......................................... . 27
Intercity differential................................ . 11
Job classification...................................... . 11
Job description......................................... . 11
Job evaluation.......................................... . 11
Job rate..................................................... . 12
Joint rate setting...................................... . 12

Pay, make-up................................................

Increase, across-the-board......................

Payment by result........................................

15

Payment, contract wage...........................

5

Pay, overtime premium...............................

15

Journeyman rate...................................... .

12

Pay, vacation..............................................

.

12

Peg point........................................................

Kick-back..................................................




Pay, portal-to-portal....................................

13

17

Pay, reporting.............................................

20

Pay, retroactive..........................................

20

Pay-roll deduction........................................

15

Pay-roll period..............................................

15

Pay-roll tax....................................................
Pay, severance............................................
Pay, take-home.............................................

32

16
22
25
26
16

Page

Page

Penalty rate...................................................

16

Rate, out-of-line.........................................

Pension plan, contributory.......................

5

Rate, part-time worker.............................

15

Pension plan, noncontributory...................

14

Rate, penalty..............................................

16

Period, pay-roll.............................................

15

Rate, permanent piece...............................

16

Permanent piece rate...................................

16

16
17
17

15

Perquisite.......................................................

16

Piece rate.......................................................

16

Rate, piece..................................................
Rate, premium...........................................
Rate, prevailing..........................................

16

Rate, probationary....................................

18

Rate, regular...............................................

20
21

Piece scale......................................................
Plan, wage advance...................................

26

P. M ...............................................................

16

Rate, runaway............................................

Point, peg......................................................

16

Rate range...................................................

19

Rate, salary.................................................

21
19

Policy, wage................................................

28

Portal-to-portal p ay.....................................

17

Rate setting................................................

Premium m oney...........................................

17

Rate setting, jo in t......................................

12

Premium rate................................................

17

Rate, single.................................................

22

Prevailing rate..............................................

17

Rate, sound and tested going...................

23

Pricelist.........................................................

18

Rate, special permit...................................

23

Price, protest.................................................

18

Rate, standard............................................

23

Probationary rate.........................................

18

Rate, starting..............................................

23

Production bonus.........................................

18

Rate, style development...........................

23

Progression, automatic..............................

2

Rate, subminimum.....................................

24

Protest price..................................................

18

Rate, substandard......................................

24

Push m oney...................................................

19

Rate, superannuated..................................

24

Race differential...........................................

19

Rate, temporary.........................................

25

Range, rate....................................................
Rate, apprentice.........................................

19
2

Rate, tonnage.............................................
Rate, union.................................................

25
26

Rate, base...................................................
Rate, common labor..................................

3
4

Rate, wage..................................................

28

Rate, comparable.......................................

5

Real wages..................................................
Receipts, wage and salary........................

20
29

Rate cu ttin g .................................................

19

Regional differential..................................

20

Rate, daily..................................................

5

Regular rate................................................

20

Rate, entrance............................................

7

Reopening, wage........................................

28

Rate, flat (auto repair)..............................

8

Reporting p ay .............................................

20

Rate, full-time worker...............................

9

Result, payment b y ...................................

15

Rate, going..................................................

9

Retroactive p ay ..........................................

20

Rate, guaranteed........................................

9

Review, wage..............................................

28

Rate, guarantee on trial............................

10

Rotating shift.............................................

21

Rate, handicapped worker........................

10

Round o f wage increases...........................

21
21

Rate, hourly................................................

10

R oyalty........................................................

Rate, incentive...........................................

11

Runaway rate.............................................

21

Rate, individual..........................................

11

Salaries, wages and....................................

29

Rate, jo b ......................................................

12

Salary and commission..............................

21

Rate, journeyman......................................

12

Salary rate..................................................

21

Rate, learner...............................................

13

Scale, apprentice........................................

2

Rate, loose...................................................

13

Scale, piece..................................................

16

Rate, minimum..........................................

13

Scale, union.................................................

26

Rate, occupational.....................................

14

Setter, pace.................................................

15




33

Page
Setting, rate................................................

19

Severance pay.............................................

22

Page
Travel time........... ...............
Union rate...................................................

26
26

Sex differential............................................

22

Shift.............................................................

22

Union scale........... ......................................
Upgrading....................................................

26
26
26

Shift differential.........................................

22

Urban wage rate index..............................

Shift, fixed...................................................

8

Vacation p ay ...............................................

26

Shift, rotating.............................................

21

Wage advance plan....................................

26

Shift, split...................................................
Shift, swing.................................................

23
25

Wage arbitration........................................

26

Wage assignment........................................

27

Single rate...................................................

22

Wage, competitive.....................................

5

Skill differential..........................................

23

Wage determination...................................

27

Sound and tested going rate.....................

23

Wage differential........................................

27

Special permit rate.....................................

23

Wage increases, round o f ..........................

21

Spendable earnings....................................

23

Wage inequality.........................................

27

Split shift.....................................................

23

Wage inequity.............................................

27

Standard rate..............................................

23

Wage leadership.........................................

27

Starting rate...............................................

23

Wage level...................................................

27

Structure, wage..........................................

29

Wage mediation........... ..............................

28

Style development rate.............................

23

Wage, minimum.........................................

14

Subminimum rate......................................

24

Wage plan, guaranteed............................

10

Subsistence allowance................................
Substandard rate........................................

24
24

28
28
28
26

Superannuated rate...................................

24

Wage policy................................................
Wage rate....................................................
Wage rate bracket......................................

Supplements to wages and salaries.........

24

Wage rate index, urban.............................

Survey, community wage..........................

5

Wage relationship, occupational..............

14

Survey, wage...............................................

29

Wage reopening..........................................

28
28

Swing shift..................................................

25

Wage review................................................

Take-home p ay ...........................................

25

Wages, advance o n .....................................

1

Target..........................................................

25

Wage and salary administration..............

28
29

Tax, pay-roll...............................................

16

Wage and salary receipts..........................

Temporary rate..........................................

25

Wage structure..........................................

29

Time, allowed.............................................

1

Wage survey................................................

29

Time, dead..................................................

6

Wages and salaries.....................................

29

Time, dow n.................................................

7

Wages, bootleg............................................

3

Time, tool maintenance............................

25

Wages, floor under.....................................

8

Time, travel................................................

26

Wages, garnishment o f ..............................

9

Time, waiting..............................................

29

Wages, real..................................................

20

T ip ................................................................

25

Wages and salaries, supplements to. . . .

24

Tonnage rate...............................................

25

Waiting time...............................................

29

Tool maintenance time..............................

25

Work, dead..................................................

6

Trainee.........................................................

25




34

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1980


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102