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/ Wage Chronology: Railroads— Nonoperating Employees, 1920-77 U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics May 1980 Bulletin 2041 Wage Chronology: Railroads— Nonoperating Employees, 1920-77 U.S. Department of Labor Ray Marshall, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner May 1980 Bulletin 2041 Preface This bulletin is one of a series prepared by the Bu reau of Labor Statistics that traces changes in wage scales and related benefits negotiated by individual em ployers or combinations of employers with a union or group of unions. Benefits unilaterally introduced by an employer generally are included. The information is largely obtained from collective bargaining agreements and other documents voluntarily filed with the Bureau. Descriptions of the course of collective bargaining are derived from the news media and confirmed and sup plemented by the parties to the agreement. Wage chro nologies deal only with selected features of collective bargaining or wage determination. They are intended primarily as a tool for research, analysis, and wage ad ministration. References to job security, grievance pro cedures, methods of piece-rate adjustment, and similar matters are omitted. For a detailed explanation of the purpose and scope of the chronology program, see “Wage Chronologies and Salary Trend Reports,” BLS Handbook o f Methods, Bulletin 1910 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1976), chapter 22. This chronology summarizes changes in wages and supplementary compensation practices since May 1920 negotiated by the railroads with unions representing nonoperating employees. This bulletin replaces Wage Chronology: Railroads—Nonoperating Employees, 192062, published as BLS Report 208. Materials previously published have been supplemented by a new introduc tion, contract changes negotiated for the 1964-77 peri od, and text and tables chronicling changes (from their establishment) in the railroad unemployment insurance and retirement systems. Earlier material generally is in cluded as originally published. The Bureau has introduced new job titles to eliminate those that denote sex stereotypes. For purposes of this bulletin, however, old titles have been retained where they refer specifically to contractual definitions. Titles used in the generic sense and not to describe a contract term have been changed to eliminate the sex stereotype. The introduction, analysis of contract changes for the 1964-77 period, and material chronicling changes in rail road unemployment insurance and retirement systems were prepared in the Division of Trends in Employee Compensation by John J. Lacombe II. Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission of the Fed eral Government. Please credit the Bureau of Labor Statistics and cite Wage Chronology: Railroads—Nonop erating Employees 1920-77, Bulletin 2041. iii Contents Page Introduction........................................................................................... Scope of chronology...................................................................... Major legislation affecting railroad bargaining........................... Railroad bargaining stru ctu re...................................................... Wage structure............................................................................... \ 1 2 3 5 Summary of contract negotiations ...................................................... May 1920 - January 1932 .............................................................. February 1932 - July 1937 ....................... .................................... August 1937 - August 1941 .......................................................... September 1941 - December 1945 ................................................ January 1946 - August 1947.......................................................... September 1947 - January 1951.................................................... February 1951 - November 1955 .....................................^ . December 1955 — June 1960 ........................................................ . July 1960-January 1962 .............................................................. February 1962 - December 1963 ..................... January 1964 - December 1966 ................... January 1967 - June 1973 ............. ............................................... July 1973 - December 1974............................................................ January 1975 - December 1977 .................................................... ^ ^ ^ ^ g p jq jq jj jj ^ 12 j^ 2q 2j Major developments in railroad retirement and unemployment insurance systems...................................................... Railroad retirement system............................................................ Railroad unemployment insurance system................................... 24 24 25 Chart: Railway collective bargaining procedures and “ status quo” periods under the Railway Labor A c t................... 8 Tables: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. General wage changes, 1920-62 ............................................ General wage changes, 1964-77 ............................................ Basic hourly wage rates for shop crafts, 1920-62 .................. Basic hourly wage rates for shop crafts, 1964-77 ................. Supplementary compensation practices................................. Overtime pay .................................................................. Premium pay for work on weekends or rest day ............ Holiday pay .................................................................... Vacation p ay .................................................................... Jury-duty p a y ................................................................. Travel time and expense pay .......................................... Job protection agreements............................................. Layoff n o tic e ..................... Health and welfare.......................................................... Supplemental sickness benefit p la n ............................... Railroad unemployment insurance provisions..................... v 27 30 38 39 41 41 41 41 42 43 44 44 45 46 49 51 Contents—Continued Page 7. Railroad retirement system.................................................... 54 Appendixes: A. Supplemental sickness benefits effective 1973 ......................... B. Supplemental sickness benefits effective 1976 ......................... 71 72 Wage chronologies available................................................................ 73 vi Introduction Scope of chronology also true for independent actions by carriers. No at tempt has been made to report deviations from the pat tern, unless it affects a significant group of unions such as an alignment of shopcraft organizations or nonshop organizations. The chronology covers most of the period since 1920, when the railroads were returned to private ownership after World War I. Agreements prior to this period, although negotiated with a group of employers, were geographically limited and confined primarily to the operating brotherhoods. From 1923 to 1932, the non operating employee organizations conducted negotia tions with individual railroads which did not result in uniform changes in existing agreements, and therefore such changes are not reported here. Wage changes are reported for 1920 to 1922 and from 1932 to the present, while changes in supplementary compensation practices are confined to those contained in the 1932 and subse quent national agreements. Although legislated by Con gress, the initial provisions of the railroad retirement and unemployment systems and their subsequent mod ifications also are summarized. Labor and management usually pariticipate in the formulation of such legislation. This wage chronology summarizes changes in wages and supplementary compensation practices which are the result of national agreements negotiated for the ma jor railroad and switching and terminal companies (as well as a number of smaller companies) through the National Railway Labor Conference (NRLC)' with the major nonoperating employee organizations (represent ing over 260,000 railroad workers in 1978) that tradi tionally have coordinated their bargaining efforts.2The NRLC members constitute the bulk of the industry, ac counting for about 95 percent of the Nation’s track mileage. Virtually all of the agreements between other rail companies and the nonoperating organizations fol low the pattern set by these national agreements. The chronology also summarizes changes affecting the par ties as a result of government orders and directives, ar bitration awards, and Federal legislation which are na tionwide in scope. The number of covered nonoperating organizations joining together in coordinated bargaining has varied at times, and in some years the agreements reached by the unions that have negotiated independently have dif fered from those reached by the major group. This is Employees (BMWE), 1887; Brotherhood o f Railway Carmen of America (BRC), 1888; and Brotherhood o f Railroad Signalmen o f America (BRS), 1901. Covered nonoperating organizations with sig nificant representation in the railroad industry, but with their mem bers primarily in other industries are the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAM), 1888; International Broth erhood o f Electrical Workers (IBEW), 1891; International Brother hood o f Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders, Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers (BBF)—Boilermakers, 1880, Blacksmiths, 1889; Sheet Metal Workers’ International Association (SMWIA), 1888; International Brotherhood o f Firemen and Oilers (IBFO), 1889; and Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union (HREU), 1890. Present-day organizations representing workers in the railroad in dustry not covered by the chronology are the Brotherhood o f Lo comotive Engineers; American Train Dispatchers Association; Rail road Yardmasters o f America (which includes the Railroad Yardmasters o f North America merged into it in 1969); Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; the American Railway and Airway Supervi sors Association; United Transportation Union (formed in 1969 through the merger o f the Order o f Railway Conductors and Brakemen, Brotherhood o f Locom otive Firemen and Engineers, Brother hood o f Railroad Trainmen, and Switchmen’s Union o f North Amer ica); Transport Workers Union o f America; National Marine Engi neers’ Beneficial Association; International Organization o f Masters, Mates and Pilots; and Seafarers’ International Union o f North America. 'The NRLC is the bargaining agent for management in national negotiations on the basis o f a grant o f power o f attorney from the individual carriers (the number granting this power varies from one bargaining round to another). The NRLC had almost 180 member companies in 1978, o f which only 15 employed about 85 percent o f all workers in the industry. Although there were approximately 250 nonmember companies, they accounted for only a small portion o f the industry’s workers. In earlier years, most o f the member companies were classified as Class I railroad companies by the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). Because o f changes in the ICC’s definition o f Class I compa nies, the proportion o f operators falling within that classification has declined relative to Class II and Class III roads. Class I companies, as defined by the ICC, are those having, over a 3-year period, a gross average annual operating revenue o f $50 million or more ($1 million before 1956, $3 million before 1965, $5 million before 1976, and $10 million before 1978). In 1978 there were 42 Class I line-haul railroads and only 1 Class I switching and terminal company. 2The covered nonoperating organizations having a major propor tion o f their members in the railroad industry and the dates they were organized are the Brotherhood o f Railway, Airline and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station Employees (BRASC), 1898; Order o f Railway Telegraphers (ORT), 1886, later renamed the Transportation Communication Employees Union (TCE), which merged with and became the Transportation-Communications D ivi sion o f the BRASC in 1969; Brotherhood o f Maintenance o f Way 1 Major legislation affecting railroad bargaining favorable to union growth. As a result, membership in all railroad unions increased materially, especially in the shop, maintenance of way, and clerks unions. Wages and working conditions were regulated by the Railroad Administration. On May 25, 1918, it issued General Or der No. 27, which, with its supplements, established occupational groupings, known as “crafts or classes,” of employees for purposes of collective bargaining. Gen eral Order 27 recognized the 8-hour workday and pro vided for a sliding scale of pay increases, retroactive to January 1, 1918, for virtually all railroad workers. Rates of pay for the mechanical trades were standardized by Supplement No. 4 to General Order No. 27, also effec tive January 1, 1918.’ In September 1918, standard min imum rates for clerical, terminal, and maintenance of way employees were established by Supplement Nos. 7 and 8. In December, a similar order (Supplement No. 13) was issued for telegraphers and station agents.4Fur ther wage increases to shopcraft employees were grant ed on August 25, 1919. In addition, some of the sup plements issued during the period of Federal control covered working conditions and, in general, served to make these conditions uniform by extending them to all railroads under Federal control. Federal control was terminated by the Transporta tion Act of 1920, which also set up the U.S. Railroad Labor Board. This Board was authorized to hold hear ings and make decisions on any dispute between rail road workers and their employers involving wages, rules, or working conditions if agreement could not be reached by the parties themselves. Although no means were provided for enforcing the decisions of the Board, both the unions and the carriers accepted the awards it issued in 1920 and 1921. Dissatisfaction with the Board reached such a high pitch by 1922, however, that it was almost completely ineffective from that time until it was abolished in 1926. Both labor and management were unhappy with the form of compulsory arbitration that had emerged. Representatives of both parties then worked together to draft language for new legislation for handling of collective bargaining and disputes in the industry. The result was the Railway Labor Act of 1926,5which was passed by Congress essentially as written by labor and management and reflected their knowledge of con ditions in the industry. The five basic purposes of the act were to prevent the interruption of service, insure the right of employees to organize, provide complete The nature of the railroad industry and the impor tance of uninterrupted service have focused more gov ernment attention on labor-management relations in the industry than on any other. Government has been a third party in railroad bargaining either directly or in directly. Even when settlements are reached without government intervention, negotiators for labor and man agement have had to bear in mind possible government reactions in the case of an impasse or dispute. The first Federal law for management and labor in the railroad industry was the Arbitration Act of 1888, which was a response to a number of serious strikes. It provided for voluntary arbitration by a 3-member board and for Presidential boards of investigation. No case was ever arbitrated under the act, however, and a com mission appointed to investigate the Pullman strike of 1894 had no meaningful influence in the settlement of the strike. This act was superseded by the Erdman Act of 1898 which continued the old law’s voluntary arbi tration features, but not its investigatory aspects. Sig nificantly, the new law recognized the function of me diation in promoting settlement, which was to be un dertaken by the U.S. Commissioner of Labor and the Chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Ad ditionally, a “status quo” period during the course of arbitration was adopted. The act also made it a crimi nal offense to dismiss a railroad employee or discrimi nate against a prospective employee because of union membership, but this section of the act was invalidated by the U.S. Supreme Court. A number of cases were successfully mediated under the act; a few cases were arbitrated. The Newlands Act of 1913, which amended the Erdman Act, established a permanent Board of Me diation and Conciliation to handle disputes arising out of negotiation and interpretation of agreements, which frequently was successful in resolving disputes. In 1916, a basic 8-hour workday for workers engaged in interstate commerce on the railroads was established by “ad hoc” legislation—the Adamson Act. This was a Congressionally arbitrated solution to a dispute which had threatened a nationwide shutdown after mediation and arbitration had been refused. From December 28, 1917, until March 1, 1920, the Federal government assumed control of the railroads under existing legislation that allowed government op eration in wartime. During the period, the Director General of the Railroad Administration issued a great number of general orders having an important influence on the industry and its bargaining structure. The Di rector General also negotiated the first national agree ments with a labor organization. The first such agree ment, dated Sept. 20, 1919, was with the Railway Em ployees’ Department of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and covered wages and work rules. By prohibiting discrimination against union members, Federal operation of the railroads created a climate ’Addendum 1 established minimum and maximum rates for some occupations not covered by the original order, and Addendum 2 es tablished differentials for some skilled occupations. 4Some supplements not mentioned dealt with rates o f pay o f nu merically smaller groups o f employees such as police department employees. 5For a more comprehensive explanation o f the Railway Labor Act, see The Railway Labor Act at Fifty, National Mediation Board (1976), and Handling o f R ail Disputes under the Railway Labor Act, 1950-69, BLS Bulletin 1753 (1972). 2 independence of organization by both parties, assist in prompt settlement of disputes over wages, work rules, or working conditions, and assist in settlement of dis putes over interpretation of existing contracts and in resolving grievances. The law provided for a series of procedures, which are still in effect, designed to promote settlement of disputes. (See chart.) The basic mediation function was to be provided by a 5-member Board of Mediation. The parties were required to give 30-day notice of an intended change in an agreement. Confer ences had to begin within 30 days and could continue until either a settlement or a deadlock was reached. Ei ther party could request mediation services of the Board or the Board proffered its services. If mediation failed or was refused, the Board proffered arbitration. If ar bitration was refused and in the judgement of the Board the dispute would “threaten substantially to interrupt interstate commerce”, the President could appoint an emergency board to investigate and report on the dis pute within 30 days. During this series of procedures and for 30 days after the emergency board’s report, carriers were to refrain from making any changes in conditions of employment, and employees were pro hibited from striking. (See chart.) In 1934, important amendments to the 1926 Act protected the right of employees to organize for col lective bargaining," established the National Railroad Adjustment Board to take over the handling of griev ances and disputes over interpretation or application of agreements under the act, renamed the Board of Me diation the National Mediation Board, and reduced the number of the Board’s members from 5 to 3. The Na tional Mediation Board also was authorized to handle employee representation disputes. As originally enacted, the Act had provided no express authority or machin ery to resolve representation disputes. A 1951 amend ment permitted carriers and labor organizations to make union shop agreements. bor Organizations (those certified under the Railway Labor Act), acting either individually or in groups, with the serving upon the individual carriers of generally concurrent and similar notices requesting contract changes. The notices also include a request that if the proposals are not settled on the individual property, the carrier join with other carriers to authorize a Carriers’ Conference Committee to represent it in talks at the national level. These notices along with authorization are then forwarded to the Carriers’ Conference Com mittee. The carriers also propose agreement changes to the various labor organizations. Although railroad agreements traditionally have not had fixed durations, for many years the parties have agreed on “moratori ums” for various contract items thereby prohibiting any changes during the specified period. Usually the mor atoriums for certain items have varied. This resulted in a staggering of the dates of submission of notices for various contract item changes. More recently, howev er, the parties covered by this chronology have agreed to a common moratorium for all national agreements and issues. Multi-employer and -multi-union bargaining with re spect to wages as we know it today began in 1931. As a result of the depression, management served propo sals under the Railway Labor Act for a 15-percent re duction in wages and asked the unions to negotiate on a joint national basis. Such joint negotiations occurred, resulting in a national settlement for a 10-percent re duction in wages. A series of national agreements in the early 1930’s gradually eliminated the reduction; the final agreement included an understanding that future general movements would be handled on a national ba sis. National negotiations undertaken in 1936 at the sug gestion of Congressional committees resulted in the Washington Job Protection Agreement of 1936. In the following year, at the request of President Roosevelt, national negotiations were undertaken which resulted in agreement upon and labor-management sponsorship of legislation that became the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937. A general wage movement also was handled on a joint national basis in 1937. Joint national handling of working conditions began with the vacation agree ment of 1941. Railroad bargaining structure Representatives of labor and management conduct collective bargaining negotiations at both the local and national levels within the framework of the Railway Labor Act. Each of the carriers maintains agreements with all or most of the major labor organizations and in many cases with various small or independent un ions. About 6,800 such agreements exist in the indus try. The agreements contain some provisions which are applicable nationally as well as provisions which are local in nature. Certain items such as general wage in creases, holidays, vacations, national work rules, and health and welfare are negotiated at the national level with the resultant terms being incorporated into the many local contracts. National negotiations are referred to as national “movements” which may be initiated by either party. They usually are initiated by the Standard Railway La Employers. The National Railway Labor Conference (NRLC) represents virtually all of railroad management in negotiations which are national in scope, with its chairman acting as spokesman and chief negotiator for management on the basis of a grant of power of attor ney from the individual carriers. National bargaining in the industry evolved gradually from negotiations for a ‘T h e amendment provided that “no carrier . . . shall require any person seeking employment to sign any contract or agreement prom ising to join or not to join a labor organization”, and provided the authority to enforce this provision. 3 section of a railroad, then to systemwide talks, and later to regional bargaining. In response to union attempts in the early 1900’s to achieve more uniformity in agree ments beyond the systemwide scale, the carriers estab lished three regional conferences to handle their nego tiations on a regional basis. These conferences were composed of representatives of many major railroads in the Eastern, Western, and Southeast rail territories. Informal cooperation developed among these confer ences, and in later years the regional committees often agreed upon a single spokesman for national bargain ing. In 1963, the carriers formally consolidated the han dling of national labor relations matters by establishing the NRLC. Ultimate power to ratify an agreement on the behalf of management, however, typically rested with the regional conference committees until 1972 when the National Carriers’ Conference Committee was formed within the NRLC to assume the jurisdiction formerly held by the regional committees which were concurrently disolved. A recent development that may have a significant effect on managements’ bargaining structure was the establishment of the Consolidated Rail Corporation (ConRail). ConRail was established effective April 1, 1976, as a result of the Rail Reorganization Act of 1973, signed into law on January 2, 1974. The act set in mo tion a process of reorganizing seven railroads that were in bankruptcy proceedings. The result was ConRail, the largest corporate reorganization in American history. It is a for-profit organization dealing primarily in freight operations8 from Boston to East St. Louis (through 15 States, 2 Canadian provinces, and the District of Co lumbia) and employing about one-fifth of all railroad workers in the United States. It is affiliated with the NRLC, but due to legislative mandates to conclude sin gle agreements for each craft, it has decided to nego tiate independently with the unions rather than through the NRLC in recent bargaining efforts. Since ConRail is such a large component of management and employs so many workers, any independent action by it could significantly affect the present bargaining structure if it deviates from the national pattern. Similarly, Amtrak, a for-profit corporation which be gan operations May 1, 1971, created by the Rail Pas senger Service Act of 1970 to preserve a basic nation al passenger network, has not been represented by the NRLC in national negotiations. It has, however, nego tiated terms similar to those negotiated by the NRLC. Amtrak began as a contractor using services and equip ment of the railroads over which it operated. It since has been given authority to purchase equipment and to assume many servicing, repair, and maintenance func tions previously performed by the operating companies. With the acquisition of the “Northeast Corridor” op erations9 from ConRail on April 1, 1976, Amtrak be came an operating railroad. When Amtrak began, its trains and stations were staffed by employees of the operating railroads. It slowly assumed station, on-board, and maintenance functions by switching railroad em ployees to the Amtrak payroll. By December 1976, Amtrak had about 18,400 employees—about 7,600 of whom were in the Northeast Corridor. Unions. On the labor side, individual unions of rail road workers had agreements with many of the railroad and switching and terminal companies (or their prede cessors) before 1900. Nonoperating employees had gained sufficient strength by the 1890’s to negotiate for the settlement of grievances; for example, by 1893, the Order of Railroad Telegraphers had 15,000 members and agreements with 25 carriers. During their forma tive years, the unions negotiated separate agreements with individual companies. In 1902, however, the Or der of Railway Conductors (ORC) was joined by the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, and these negotia tions initiated the multi-employer bargaining pattern that has prevailed throughout the industry since that time. These early agreements, although negotiated with a group of employers, were geographically limited and confined primarily to the operating unions. Union organization of railroad workers has been along craft lines. Crafts or classes of such workers have been distinct and generally recognized for many years. Two types of crafts or classes have developed in the industry—the first conforming mainly to the old craft guilds and closely restricted to employees in one par ticular occupation and the second combining into one group various occupations generally related to a par ticular line of endeavor. There are two major cooperative organizations, neither of which originally was established as a bargaining agency. The Railway Employes’ Depart ment (RED) was chartered by the AFL in 1909 primarily to further legislation and bring about uniformity in work rules. In the mid-1930’s, the RED emerged as a major bargaining group representing the shopcraft organizations (organizations of craft workers in maintenance shops). Today the RED is composed of the Boilermakers (BBF), Carmen (BRC), Firemen and Oilers (IBFO), and Electrical Workers (IBEW); the Machinists (IAM) and Sheet Metal Workers (SMWIA) withdrew in 1973. Prior to each bargain ing round, each affiliated organization typically gives the RED authorization to negotiate for it. Coincident with enactment of the Railway Labor Act, the Railway Labor Executives’ Association (RLEA) was organized in 1926, largely to watch over administration of the 7These railroads were the Penn Central, Lehigh Valley, Central o f New Jersey, Reading, Lehigh & Hudson River, and Erie Lackawan na. Also included was the Ann Arbor Railroad controlled by the Penn Central. 8Under contract to various agencies and Amtrak, it also provides track and operating personnel for passenger trains. 9Routes acquired include the Boston-Washington, N ew HavenSpringfield, and Philadelphia-Harrisburg lines. 4 largely due to jurisdictional disputes. In 1969, howev er, this situation changed significantly when four of the five operating unions merged. In contrast to the past factionalism mentioned, all of the major labor organizations representing railroad workers, except the SMWIA, agreed in 1973 to nego tiate as a single group. Most of them did so and settled concurrently. The labor organizations agreed to coor dinated bargaining prior to the 1975 round by seeking uniform wage increases, establishment of an escalator clause, and similar fringe benefits, but each union was free to negotiate independently. The organizations set tled on similar agreements. In the 1978 bargaining round, cooperation among labor organizations was fragmented over a variety of issues. Act. Most of the organizations representing railway workers have been affiliated with the RLEA (19 as of 1975). It is composed of the president of the AFL-CIO’s RED and a major official of each of the affiliated or ganizations. The RLEA now functions as a policy-mak ing body on legislative and other matters of common interest to railroad workers. Although not directly in volved in collective bargaining,1 the RLEA has pro 0 vided a more cohesive bargaining front by being a fo rum for discussions among labor leaders. Organizations not affiliated with the RLEA usually have acted con temporaneously with its members. All but one member, an operating union, are affiliated with the AFL-CIO. The BRASC and four other organizations withdrew from the RLEA over a dispute involving retirement legislation and formed the Congress of Railway Unions in 1969. In 1975, all of these unions, except the BRASC, reaffiliated with the RLEA. In 1977, the BRASC also rejoined the RLEA. The labor organizations traditionally have bargained according to two major functional categories—nonop erating organizations (for workers not directly involved in the movement of trains) and operating organizations (for those directly involved in the movement of trains). The nonoperating unions, most of which are covered by this chronology (see footnote 2), are a mixed group of craft and industrial unions and generally have coor dinated their bargaining efforts and have been referred to as the “cooperating railroad labor organizations”. In some more recent bargaining rounds, mostly in the 1960’s, this group had split into various coalitions at different times and over different issues—primarily along shopcraft and nonshop lines. This trend largely has resulted from the influence of settlements outside the railroad industry in formulating demands of shopcraft unions; most of their members are employed in other industries and an ease of mobility across industry lines exists for shopcraft workers. The opposite has been the case for unions having their representational base within the railroad industry (see footnote 2). Tradition ally, the operating unions have not bargained as a group, Wage structure Wage rates for most shopcraft employees generally are uniform on most railroads. Pay rates of other non operating employees do not reflect the same uniformi ty ahd vary among companies and geographic regions. Nonoperating employees are paid on the basis of an hourly or daily wage or a weekly or monthly salary. Wage adjustments which have resulted from general wage movements have been uniform throughout the industry in most cases, although there have been peri ods when the increases for different crafts or classes of nonoperating employees varied (e.g., when wage hikes varied along shopcraft and nonshop lines in the 1960’s). Rates of pay for most operating employees perform ing the same work generally also are uniform through out the industry, although operating employees in road service (on train) have a dual pay system. Under this dual pay system, actual compensation depends on the number of miles traveled as well as the number of hours worked in covering those miles. 10The RLEA, however, did become directly involved in some ne gotiations such as wage negotiations in 1932 and negotiations for the Washington Job Protection Agreement o f 1936. 5 Summary of Contract Negotiations May 1920-January 1932 for which disagreements had been certified. The shop unions reluctantly accepted the new rules. Following this action, the Board established a uniform basis for certain working rules for maintenance of way, clerical and station employees, signalmen, and firemen and oil ers. Shortly thereafter, the Board issued decisions set ting working standards for train dispatchers, superviso ry mechanics, telegraphers, stationary engineers, and yardmasters. By the end of 1921, the working condi tions of virtually all nonoperating employees were af fected by rules promulgated by a government agency and written into system agreements. When the economic downturn of 1921 continued into 1922, the Board acted favorably on employer petitions for a further wage decrease. Virtually all categories of nonoperating employees were affected by the reduc tions, which averaged 5 percent and ranged up to 20 percent. Dissatisfaction with the Board’s overtime rules and the increased practice of contracting out work by the carriers, in combination with two wage decreases in 2 years, precipitated a strike in 1922 by the shop crafts. The dispute, which continued for more than 2 months, was terminated in effect by a Federal court injunction prohibiting picketing of railroad properties. Much of the membership gained by the shop crafts during the period of Federal operation was lost when “A large number of roads ... refused to take back the strikers and fostered the formation of new organizations on their lines with whom they negotiated wage scales, rules, and working conditions.” 1 Under these circumstances, 2 the shop craft unions were forced to discontinue their efforts to negotiate a national agreement.1 Other unions 1 The Transportation Act of 1920, enacted the year the railroads were returned to private ownership" pro vided for the establishment of the U.S. Railroad Labor Board. This Board was authorized to hold hearings and make decisions on any dispute between railroad work ers and their employers involving wages, rules, or work ing conditions if agreement could not be reached by the parties themselves. Although no means were pro vided for enforcing the decisions of the Board, both the organizations and the carriers accepted the awards it issued in 1920 and 1921. However, dissatisfaction with the Board reached such a high pitch by the end of 1922 that it was almost completely ineffective from that time until it was abolished in 1926. Among other matters, the Board ordered a wage in crease of approximately 22 percent, effective May 1, 1920, and a wage reduction of about 12 percent, effec tive July 1, 1921, for operating and nonoperating forces. The Board also considered the advisability of continu ing the national agreements and other working rules established by the Railroad Administration. In its April 14, 1921, decision to terminate the national agreements on July 1, the Board ordered the parties to negotiate agreements for each railroad in conformance with 16 specified criteria. By mid-June, some railroads and em ployees had agreed on all rules; in most cases, howev er, there were certain rules upon which no agreement had been reached and in a significant number of cases conferences had not begun. The principal rules on which agreement could not be reached were those governing the payment of overtime. On June 27, 1921, the Board issued an addendum to its April 14 decision which continued in effect, where rules had not been agreed to by the parties, the work rules of the Railroad Administration. The addendum provided that overtime in excess of the established hours was to be paid at the pro rata wage rate. This order was not to apply on railroads where the parties had reached agreement on an overtime rate, or to employ ees who were receiving more than the pro rata rate before a Railroad Administration order on wages and working conditions had been issued. Meanwhile, the Board attempted to redraft certain of the rules apply ing to the shop crafts. Instead of drafting individual road rules, the Board finally decided on seven uniform working standards relating to overtime pay for all roads 1' See Introduction for brief history o f period o f Federal control o f the railroads. 1 Harry E. Jones, Railroad Wages and Labor Relations, 1900-19522 An Historical Survey and Summary o f Results (N ew York, Bureau o f Information o f the Eastern Railways, 1953), pp. 80-81. 1 On July 3, 1922, the Railroad Labor Board, by resolution, recom 3 mended that “the carriers and the employees remaining in service and the new employees succeeding those who have left the serv ice... take steps as soon as practicable to prefect on each carrier such organizations as may be deemed necessary...” to function as repre sentatives o f the employees before the Railroad Labor Board, “in order that the effectiveness o f the transportation act may be maintained.” 6 returned to the prewar practice of bargaining with in dividual roads. In a few instances, negotiations were conducted on a regional scale. Nonoperating employees were able to obtain small increases after 1922 through negotiations with individ ual railroads. Wage rates of shop craft employees were increased 2 cents an hour in 1923-24 and 3 cents in 1926. Many roads granted time and one-half for work on Sundays and holidays. Where this was not done, an ad ditional 1 cent an hour was added to basic wage rates. Dissatisfaction with the decisions of the Railroad La bor Board resulted in an agreement between the Asso ciation of Railway Executives and the chief officers of the railway labor organizations that led to the repeal of the labor provisions (Title III) of the Transportation Act and the enactment of the Railway Labor Act of 1926.1 This law abolished the Railroad Labor Board 4 and its functions and established mediation and arbitra tion (as provided in earlier regulatory statutes) under a Board of Mediation. In addition, the act provided for appointment of Presidential emergency boards to inves tigate and report on disputes if mediation failed, arbi tration was refused, and interstate commerce was threat ened with substantial interference; a cooling-off period following the report was prescribed. (See chart.) Under the new act, the operating brotherhoods were able to negotiate relatively uniform regional wage in creases, but during the ensuing years, the nonoperating employees continued to negotiate with individual roads. Proceedings under the 1926 act were instituted by the mechanical trades organizations on the New York Cen tral Railway in 1928. A Board of Arbitration decision, released January 18, 1929, provided a 5-cent-an-hour increase to shopcraft employees of that system, effec tive January 1. The award established a pattern, and similar increases were granted to such employees by most roads. Increases negotiated by other organizations were not nearly as uniform. Early in 1931, the railroad employee organizations attempted to arrange a conference with a representa tive group of railroad presidents to consider a program for employment stabilization. While this and a subse quent proposal did not succeed, they were the forerun ners of the first national wage conference held in Chi cago in the closing months of 1931. ated in June 1933 under the Emergency Railroad Trans portation Act of 1933). On April 26, 1934, the parties agreed to the complete cancellation of the 10-percent deduction over a period of 9 months; reducing it to 7.5 percent on July 1, 1934, to 5.0 percent on January 1, 1935, and to a complete cancellation on April 1, 1935. The Emergency Railroad Transportation Act of 1933, which was enacted primarily to bolster the sagging rail roads by eliminating unnecessary duplication of serv ices and facilities, also made provision (section 7) for the maintenance of employment levels and earnings. Before the expiration of the job protection provision of that act in June 1935, the operating and nonoperating organizations jointly opened negotiations with the Car riers’ Joint Conference Committee to continue the job protection provision through collective bargaining. These negotiations resulted in an agreement, the “Wash ington Job Protection Agreement of May 1936,” pro viding specified protection to employees adversely af fected by mergers or consolidations involving two or more railroads. " Nonoperating unions did not fully recover from the effect of the shopcrafts strike until the Railway Labor Act of 1926 was amended in 1934 “to outlaw so-called ‘company unions’ and to insure, so far as possible, that collective bargaining agencies would be national labor organization.” ' Since that time, collective bargaining on wages and many related benefits has been conduct ed at the national level by committees representing la bor and management. Under the 1934 amendment, the present National Mediation Board was authorized to handle disputes involving representation of employees, as well as to continue the mediation functions which formerly had been handled by the Board of Mediation. The amendement also established the National Railroad Adjustment Board with authority to decide grievances and disputes involving application of existing agreements. August 1937-August 1941 Early in 1937, 14 nonoperating unions met in Chica go and drew up a series of proposals which were pre sented to the managers of the individual roads. They noted that the national wage agreement of April 26, 1934, provided that future negotiations would be con1 Frank J. Murphy, “Agreement on the Railroads-The Joint Rail 4 way Conference o f 1926,” Labor Law Journal, September 1960, pp. 823-836, 864. 1 For these negotiations, the carriers were represented by a Con 5 ference Committee o f Managers. In subsequent negotiations, the rail roads were represented by Eastern, Western, and Southeastern Car riers’ Conference Committees. 1 The Transportation Act o f 1940 provided similar protection, al 6 though the duration and level o f benefits differed from those avail able under the Washington Agreement. Benefits were available un der the Washington Agreement on agreement o f the parties; when the parties were unable to agree, the provisions o f the Transporta tion Act were applied by the Interstate Commerce Commission. 1 Jones, op. cit., p. 104. 7 February 1932-July 1937 Late in 1931, the railroads opened negotiations on a nationwide basis with the labor organizations for a 15percent reduction in basic rates of pay.15 The nego tiations resulted in a 1-year agreement that reduced — earnings temporarily by 10 percent, effective February 1, 1932, but left basic rates of pay unchanged. In De cember 1932, the unions agreed to an extension of the deduction to October 31, 1933. A further extension to June 30, 1934, was made at the request of the Federal Coordinator of Transportation (whose office was cre 7 Chart Railway collective bargaining procedures and “status quo” periods under the Railway Labor Act “ STATUS QUO” (IN ABSENCE OF AGREEMENT) 8 reconvene and issue revised recommendations. The Board declined to do so. During the period, another emergency board had recommended a 4-cent-an-hour increase for operating employees which was approved by the Economic Sta bilization Director. The operating unions, however, re fused to accept the recommendation. When the parties could not agree on the operating organizations’ other demands, the matters in dispute were arbitrated by the President of the United States and an additional 5 cents an hour was granted in lieu of claims for premium pay for work in excess of 40 hours a week and for expenses while away from home. Additional proceedings involving the nonoperating employees included a special Emergency Board, which, on November 4, 1943, recommended a gradual wage increase ranging from 4 cents an hour for the highest paid employees to 10 cents for those receiving less than 47 cents an hour. The labor organizations also rejected this recommendation. Following the arbitration of the operating employees’ case, the President reconvened the “non-ops” special Emergency Board with instruc tion to consider the organizations’ claim for payments for, or in lieu of, overtime. Under the auspices of the Board, agreement was reached on January 17, 1944. The agreement provided that the November 4, 1943, recommendations of the Board were to be made effec tive February 1, 1943, and an additional increase in lieu of overtime, on an ascending scale from 1 to 5 cents an hour, was made effective December 27, 1943. The com bined increases ranged from 9 cents an hour for the highest paid employees to 11 cents for those who had been receiving less than 47 cents an hour. In June 1944, 14 nonoperating unions proposed that their vacation agreement (which provided generally for a 1 week’s vacation with pay) be revised to provide 12 days’ paid vacation for employees with 1 year’s serv ice, 15 days for those with 2 years’, and 18 days for those with 3 years’ service. This proposal was rejected by the railroads. Shortly before the dispute was to be referred to an Emergency Board, the parties, at the re quest of the National Mediation Board, resumed nego tiations and reached agreement on February 23, 1945. The agreement provided a 6-day paid vacation for em ployees with 1 year’s service and 12 days for those with 5 or more years’ service. ducted at the national level and, therefore, requested the appointment of a national carrier committee to meet with a committee representing the nonoperating em ployee organizations. The unions proposed a 20-centan-hour increase, guaranteed full-time pay for all reg ularly assigned men, and two-thirds of full-time for standby men. The national negotiations were suspended in mid-1937 when the carriers’ final offer of 2 cents an hour was refused by the unions. After the organizations took a strike vote, negotiations were resumed in July at the request of the National Mediation Board. The second series of conferences failed to produce agreement, but mediation by a member of the Board was successful, and in August, the railroads agreed to increase wages 5 cents an hour and to terminate share-the-work-practices when requested by the presidents of the unions. During the recession of 1938, the railroads’ request for a 15-percent wage reduction was referred to an Emergency Board by the President of the United States. The Board’s recommendation that there should be no reduction was accepted by the carriers. September 1941-December 1945 In 1940, a group of 14 nonoperating unions drew up requests for 2 weeks’ vacation with pay and, in 1941, made another request for a 30-cent-an-hour wage in crease and a 70-cent-an-hour minimum rate. The Western railroads countered with a proposal for a 10-percent wage reduction. Later, the Southeastern and Western carriers jointly asked for various rule changes. The dispute was submitted to an Emergency Board which recommended an increase of 9 cents an hour and a minimum rate of 45 cents an hour, effective September 1, 1941, and a 1-week vacation with pay. When the recommendations of the Board were not accepted by the unions, the Presi dent, at the unions’ request, reconvened the Board. After further hearings, the Board held that no new evidence had been presented that was sufficient to persuade it to alter its previous findings. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, however, the parties, through the mediation efforts of the Board, agreed to a 9-cent-an-hour wage increase and a 45-cent-an-hour minimum rate retroactive to September 1, 1941, an additional 1 cent an hour effective December 1 (with a 46-cent-an-hour minimum), and a 1-week vacation With pay after 1 year’s service. Clerks and telegraphers were granted a 9-day vacation after 2 years’ service and 12 days after 3 years. Fifteen unions joined in a national wage movement in September 1942. They requested an increase of 20 cents an hour, a 70-cent minimum wage rate, and the union shop. After hearings that extended from March 1 to May 7, 1943, an Emergency Board recommended an 8-cent-an-hour increase. The request for the union shop was denied. In addition to disapproving the rec ommendation, the Director of Economic Stabilization, on June 22, 1943, instructed the Emergency Board to January 1946-August 1947 In the summer and fall of 1945, 15 participating un ions presented varying proposals to the carriers for re duction in hours of work and other rule changes. When the Government modified its stabilization policy late that year, the unions abandoned their initial requests in favor of a request for a 30-cent-an-hour wage increase. An Arbitration Board, on April 3, 1946, awarded a 16cent increase retroactive to January 1, 1946. On April 9 February 1951-November 1955 15, the organizations, contending that the increase was inadequate, requested an additional 14 cents. During this period, a parallel Arbitration Board had under con sideration requests for wage increases by firemen, con ductors, and switchmen, and hearings were also being held by an Emergency Board on requests for wage in creases and changes in rules involving engineers and trainmen; the wage increases awarded by the Board of Arbitration and recommended by the Emergency Board were identical to those previously granted to the “non ops.” Dissatisfaction with these recommendations led to a short strike by the engineers and trainmen. The President of the United States intervened and proposed that the parties compromise on an 18.5-cent-an-hour in crease. Acceptance of the President’s proposal by the parties entitled nonoperating workers to an additional 2.5 cents effective May 22, 1946. The railroads were operated by the Government for 9 days while the Pres ident’s proposals were being considered. On October 25, 1950, 15 nonoperating organizations served uniform notices on all carriers proposing a 25cent-an-hour increase. By January 19, 1951, negotiations reached an impasse and mediation under the auspices of the National Mediation Board began. With the as sistance of the labor adviser to the President, agreement was reached on March 1, 1951. The agreement provid ed for a 12.5-cent-an-hour general wage increase effec tive February 1, 1951 and an escalator clause for the adjustment of wages to changes in the cost of living, based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer’s Price Index. The 1951 agreement contained a unique reopening clause. This provision permitted further wage discus sions after July 1, 1952, if the Government clarified the wage stabilization policy in effect during the Korean conflict to permit annual improvement (productivity) increases. It permitted the parties to meet with the Pres ident, or his appointed representative, to discuss wheth er a further wage increase was justified under existing conditions and stabilization policies. If agreement could not be reached, the President was to be requested to appoint a referee to decide the issue. In 1952, when an agreement could not be reached in discussions with a Presidential representative, he then sat as referee and ruled that stabilization policy did per mit the reopening. After further hearings, the referee, on March 18, 1953, awarded a 4-cent-an-hour increase retroactive to December 1, 1952. Both the carriers and 19 participating organizations had agreed to accept the award. In 1953, a nationwide movement was started with a request by 15 labor organizations for improved vaca tio n pay, paid holidays, a health and welfare plan, pre mium pay for Sunday work, and more liberal free trans portation privileges. In response to the May 22 notice by the organizations, the carriers requested revision of 31 work rules and contended that health and welfare benefits and transportation privileges were not subjects for negotiation under the Railway Labor Act. By De cember, the dispute reached emergency status and an Emergency Board was appointed to hear the case. In the interval, the carriers sought a declaratory judge ment from a Federal district court that the Railway Labor Act did not require them to bargain on health and welfare and free transportation. This action was dismissed by the court during the course of the Emer gency Board hearings on the ground that it did not present a justifiable case, but its decision was reversed by an appellate court. An appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court was pending when the parties reached agreement. The Supreme Court vacated the decision of the court of appeals and, on the ground that the question was moot, directed the district court to dimiss the case. The Emergency Board’s recommendations of May 15, 1954, September 1947-January 1951 Seventeen nonoperating labor organizations partici pated in the 1947 wage movement, the first to take place after the removal of wage and price controls following World War II. An Arbitration Board appointed under the provisions of the Railway Labor Act of 1926, as amended in 1934, considered the unions’ request for a 20-cent increase and made an award of 15.5 cents an hour, effective September 1, 1947. The wage negotiations of 1948-49 were directed pri marily at reducing hours of work and increasing takehome earnings. In April 1948, a request for a 25-centan-hour wage increase and the establishment of a 40hour workweek with premium pay for work on Satur days, Sundays, and holidays was presented to the car riers by 16 nonoperating organizations. This dispute was also referred to an Emergency Board, which recom mended an additional 7-cent-an-hour wage increase, ef fective October 1, 1948, a 40-hour 5-day week adjust ment in basic rates to compensate for a reduction in weekly hours of work, time and one-half for work on rest days or in excess of 8 hours a day and/or 40 hours a week, and continuation of premium pay for holidays where the practice existed. The recommendations also pointed out the necessity of changing some working rules to conform to the proposed workweek and dealt with the effect of the change on specific groups of em ployees. When the parties could not reach an agree ment based on the recommendations, they asked the members of the Emergency Board to assist them, and later, when a compromise could not be reached, to de cide the dispute as referees. The referees’ decision was embodied in an agreement dated March 19, 1949. Ad justment to the 40-hour week increased hourly rates of pay (exclusive of the 7-cent-an-hour increase which be came effective October 1, 1948) by about 20 percent. 10 included improved vacations, 7 paid holidays, and a contributory health insurance plan with the benefits to be negotiated. Specific recommendations were made on seven of the carriers’ rules proposals. The agreements of August 1954 closely followed the Board’s recom mendations, although problems developed in regard to acceptance of the health insurance plan by some carri ers. On January 18, 1955, the railroad and union com mittees jointly took out a hospital-surgical insurance policy. By agreement of December 3, 1954, the parties dis continued the cost-of-living escalator provisions which had been established in the agreement of March 1, 1951, and incorporated into basic rates of pay the 13-cent-anhour allowance then in effect. (since the unions were no longer willing to accept a long-term agreement), and improvement of the health and welfare plan and a $5,000 life insurance policy for each employee. When it was evident the parties could not agree, the National Mediation Board attempted to mediate the dispute. When mediation failed and arbi tration was refused, these facts were reported to the President, who appointed an Emergency Board on April 22, 1960. On June 8, the Board recommended (1) a 5-cent-an-hour general wage increase effective July 1, 1960, (2) incorporation of the existing 17-cent cost-ofliving allowance into basic rates and discontinuance of the escalator clause, and (3) in lieu of a further wage increase in 1961, certain improvements in the health and welfare plan (including employer financed life in surance), with increased employer contributions to fi nance the changes and maintain the financial stability of the fund. The Board further proposed that 2 weeks’ vacation be provided after 3 instead of 5 years’ service and that the steadily diminishing work opportunities characteristic of the industry be recognized by liberal izing vacation eligibility requirements. Improvements in rules regarding eligibility for holiday pay were also recommended. A settlement was concluded by the parties on Au gust 19, 1960, some 15 months after negotiations started. The parties accepted the Board’s recommendations for a general wage increase, incorporation of the cost-ofliving allowance into basic rates, and elimination of the cost-of-living escalator clause. The Board’s recommen dations on health and welfare were, on the whole, also accepted: Benefits equal to those for employees except for home and office calls were provided for dependents; life insurance was provided for covered employees; and health and welfare benefits and life insurance were ex tended for 3 months after layoff to furloughed employ ees who had been employed for at least 5 months be fore furlough. The new health benefits were to be fi nanced by additional employer contributions (including a monthly contribution of 81 cents for the costs of treat ing on-duty injuries—previously covered by another arrangement). In addition, qualifying provisions for va cations were liberalized, and rules regarding eligibility and qualifications for holiday pay were revised. The agreement was to remain in effect until changed in ac cordance with the provisions of the Railway Labor Act, December 1955-June 1960 A request of April 2, 1955, for assumption by the carriers of the entire cost of the health program and another request on August 1 by 11 organizations for a 25-cent-an-hour wage increase was placed in the hands of an Emergency Board in November. The Board’s rec ommendations of a pay raise of 14.5 cents an hour, ex cept for dining car employees, and assumption of the full cost of the health and welfare plan was accepted in December 1955 by the parties. In June 1956, a request for a 25-cent-an-hour wage increase was presented to the carriers by 11 nonopera ting organizations. The carriers in turn asked for a 6.5cent-an-hour wage reduction. The assistance of the Na tional Mediation Board was requested in September when it became apparent that the parties could not compromise their differences. With the assistance of the Board, a 3-year agreement was concluded on Novem ber 1, 1956. It provided for a 10-cent-an-hour increase on November 1, 1956, and two deferred increases of 7 cents each, effective November 1 of 1957 and 1958. In addition, a new cost-of-living escalator provision was incorporated into the agreement, and health insurance benefits were provided for the dependents of railroad workers. July 1960-January 1962 Collective bargaining was initiated by the unions on May 29, 1959, with proposals for liberalized holiday and vacation pay. Because of declining employment since 1945, the 11 participating organizations,1 repre 8 sented about one-half million workers. In their June 8 reply, the carriers contended the negotiations on holi day and vacation pay were barred until the November 1 expiration date of the agreement then in effect. The carriers’ position was overruled by the National Medi ation Board in November 1959. By September 1, the organizations had expanded their proposals to include a 25-cent-an-hour general wage increase, incorporation of the existing cost-of-living allowance into basic rates, cancellation of the cost-of-living escalator provision 1 8 Unions cooperating in the 1959 nationwide movement were as follows: International Association o f Machinists; International Broth erhood o f Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders, Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers; Sheet Metal Workers’ International Association; Inter national Brotherhood o f Electrical Workers; Brotherhood o f Rail way Carmen o f America; International Brotherhood o f Firemen and Oilers; Brotherhood o f Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight Han dlers, Express and Station Employes; Brotherhood o f Maintenance o f Way Employees; Order o f Railroad Telegraphers; Brotherhood o f Railroad Signalmen o f America; and Hotel & Restaurant Employ ees and Bartenders International Union. 11 evaluation program with proper safeguards. It also rec ommended that the unions and carriers agree to a rule requiring not less than 5 days’ advance notice of layoff or furlough for other than emergency conditions. The Board found that the prevalent practice in railroad agreements was either 4 or 5 days’ notice, and that none of the agreements required more than 15 days’ notice. The organizations and the carriers resumed bargain ing on May 23 and reached a settlement on June 5, 1962. This agreement provided for a total wage increase of 10.28 cents an hour—4 cents retroactive to Febru ary 1, 1962, and 6.28 cents retroactive to May 1, 1962. The participating unions had requested that the 2.5-per cent increase recommended by the Emergency Board to be effective May 1 be converted to a uniform 6.28 cents per hour, which was equivalent in amount but, of course, affected individual workers differently. Ad vance notice of layoff of at least 5 days was provided by the agreement, except under emergency conditions covered by the August 21, 1954, agreement. This agreement was to remain in effect until changed in accordance with the provisions of the Railway La bor Act, with provision that notices for changes in rates of pay could be served on or after February 1, 1963, although such changes could not be made effective be fore May 1, 1963. except that changes in basic rates of pay could not be made on a regional or national basis before November 1, 1961. February 1962-December 1963 Negotiations on wage rates and layoff guarantees with the Nation’s Class I railroads were initiated on September 1, 1961, by the 11 cooperating railway labor organizations, " representing at that time approximately 500,000 nonoperating workers. The unions proposed a 25-cent-an-hour increase in the basic rates of all non operating employees and agreement on a new rule re quiring at least 6 months’ advance notice (except in certain emergency situations) to employees affected by abolition of positions or reduction in forces, both to be effective November 1, 1961. The railroads’ four-point counterproposal was made during the initial conference held late in September be tween the individual roads and the union representa tives of the roads. They provided for a 20-percent re duction in the wage rates of specified unskilled occu pational levels in six crafts, the same reduction in the entrance rates for certain clerical occupations coupled with 4-percent annual increases over 5 years until the established rates were again reached, a decrease to a flat hourly rate of $1.25 for dining car waiters and oth er employees serving food and drinks, and elimination of all rules requiring more than 24 hours’ advance no tice of layoff. The proposed rate reductions would have affected approximately 150,000 employees. On September 21, the unions requested the regional railroad organizations to establish negotiating commit tees for the purpose of bargaining on the union propo sals on a national basis. On October 5, the railroad re gional organizations stated they could not establish the committees until the handling of both the railroad and union notices on individual roads had been clarified. The unions then requested the assistance of the Nation al Mediation Board. Following an unsuccessful attempt at mediation and the completion of a strike vote,2 a 0 National Mediation Board offer of arbitration on Feb ruary 2 was refused by the unions. The carriers agreed to accept arbitration if a satisfactory agreement to ar bitrate could be reached. The President, on March 3, appointed an Emergency Board, which convened on March 6, 1962, to hold hearings and make recommendations. On May 3, 1962, the Emergency Board reported to the President, recommending wage increases of 4 cents an hour, retroactive to February 1, 1962, and 2.5 per cent an hour, effective May 1, 1962. The second raise was recommended as a percentage increase in rates be cause, as the Board noted, the industry practice of ne gotiating uniform pay increases had “compressed the wage structure of all classes and crafts of nonoperating employees.” To deal with this problem, the Board sug gested that a study be made on the feasibility of a job January 1964-December 1966 The united bargaining front used by the 11 standard nonoperating railroad organizations since 1937 crum bled when they, acting sometimes in groups and some times individually, presented wage and supplemental benefit proposals to the carriers in 1962 and 1963. This segmentation resulted in six separate sets of proposals and the eventual appointment of three Emergency Boards. Individual requests for general wage increases were proposed by the BRS, the six shopcraft organizations (BBF, BRC, SMWIA, IBFO, IAM, and IBEW), and the four remaining nonshop organizations (BRASC, BMWE, HREU, and TCE). All of the organizations cooperated in the development of common proposals for supplemental benefits, except for those on employ ment security. A program to insure some measure of income security for a reasonable period after termina tion of employment was sought by the shopcraft orThese unions were as follows: International Association o f Ma chinists; International Brotherhood o f Boilermakers, Iron Ship Build ers, Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers; Sheet Metal Workers’ Inter national Association; International Brotherhood o f Electrical Work ers; Brotherhood o f Railway Carmen o f America; International Broth erhood o f Firemen and Oilers; Brotherhood o f Railway and Steam ship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station Employes; Broth erhood o f Maintenance o f Way Employes; The Order o f Railroad Telegraphers; Brotherhood o f Railroad Signalmen; and Hotel & Res taurant Employees and Bartenders International Union. 20The organizations started taking a strike vote on November 27, 1961. 12 performed by supervisors, and crossing of craft lines. Agreement on the job protection issues came on Octo ber 10. The settlement extended parts of the Washing ton Job Protection Agreement to most job reduction situations. Under the applicable provisions, employees whose job situations were changed would be given a 5-year guarantee at their last rate of pay, while employ ees laid off would be given a monthly allowance equal to 60 percent of pay from 6 months to 5 years, depend ing on length of service. Other improvements covering severance options and moving expense protection also were provided. BRS wage negotiations. Following a mandate of their 1961 convention, negotiators for the BRS, on February 1, 1963, served notice on the carriers independently. They demanded a 25-percent wage increase, to become effective on May 1, 1963. The carriers’ counterpropos als, made several days after the entrance of the NMB, called for no change in wages and for alterations in work rules governing assignments of employees and work. Efforts at settling the BRS dispute were unsuccess ful throughout the summer of 1963 and negotiations were halted in October after the NMB ceased its me diation efforts. The NMB had requested that the par ties submit the issues to arbitration. The BRS agreed to this if the carriers would drop their work-rule propo sals. The carriers refused, and on November 20 the or ganization set a strike deadline of January 6, 1964. Three days before the strike was to begin, an Emer gency Board was appointed. Hearings were held for several months, during which time the carriers agreed to drop their work-rule proposals with the understand ing that this action would not affect their position in other negotiations. The Board issued its report on April 3, 1964, and recommended a 6-cent-an-hour increase for all employees plus an additional 4 cents for skilled employees, retroactive to January 1, 1964. About 80 percent of the 11,800 workers were classified as skilled. These recommendations were accepted by the parties on May 1, 1964. Similar wage increases were extended to the employees on January 1 of 1965 and 1966, by an agreement reached in late December 1964. ganizations; the nonshop organizations concentrated on the retention of jobs for their members. According to the findings of the Emergency Boards, the change in the established practice of bargaining as a group was caused by the desire of skilled workers to restore former wage relationships and by the differing employment security needs of the shop and nonshop employees. In order to allow a clearer exposition of the several negotiations, the course of bargaining will be traced in each of three groups—one for each of the resulting Emergency Boards. Shopcraft security negotiations. The six shopcrafts be gan employment security negotiations by serving no tices on October 15, 1962. Extension of the Washing ton Job Protection Agreement to all situations which reduced employment, an end to the “farming out” of work, preservation of craft lines, and restrictions on work performed by foremen were among the organi zations’ key demands. The carriers did not make coun terproposals until the first formal bargaining session in mid-September 1963, when they proposed work-rule changes that would increase carrier authority over work and employee assignments. Negotiations broke off the next month, and the National Mediation Board (NMB) was formally asked to enter into the negotiations. While the NMB was meeting separately with the parties, the shopcrafts conducted a strike vote which resulted in authorization for a walkout; however, no strike dead line was announced. On December 7, 1963, bargaining was resumed and continued until late January 1964. The parties were asked by the NMB on February 8 to submit their dis pute to arbitration. The organizations accepted this pro posal under the condition that the carriers withdraw their demands for work-rule changes. The carriers re fused, leading to the appointment of a Presidential Emer gency Board on March 17, 1964, to deal with the situation. The Emergency Board began its hearings on March 18, which culminated in an August 7 repdrt recommen ding several job security changes. It proposed that em ployees whose jobs were altered be given a 5-year guar antee at their former wage rate; that laid-off employees receive 60 percent of their former pay for up to 5 years; and that the employers minimize the amount of work sent to subcontractors and supervisors. Bargaining resumed after the report but again was unsuccessful and broke off in late August. On Septem ber 18, the organizations set a strike deadline of 6 a.m., September 22, 1964. On the night before the strike deadline, the negotia tors for the employee organizations postponed the strike and announced that agreement had been reached on all but the job protection provisions of the security nego tiations. Settled issues included subcontracting, work Wage and supplementary benefit negotiations in various groups o f nonoperating organizations. Negotiators rep resenting various groups of the 11 nonoperating organ izations presented the Nation’s carriers with sets of de mands on May 31, 1963. These demands covered wage, job security, and supplementary benefit issues as a group. The 11 organizations presented supplementary benefit demands which included a 4th week of paid vacation after 10 years of service; 8th and 9th paid holidays; in creased carrier-paid life insurance of $6,000 (from $4,000), with $2,000 for future retirees; and increased carrier contributions to finance health and welfare ben efits. The five nonshop organizations (BRASC, BMWE, 13 BRS, HREU, and TCE), in a separate action, present ed employment security demands. They asked for an end to the subcontracting out of work, a 2-percent-perannum ceiling on work force reductions, a 90-day no tice of changes in job situations, a severance pay option for employees who did not wish to accept transfer, and compensation for employees who incurred losses as a result of changes in their job situations. The six shopcrafts and four of the five nonshop organizations (BRASC, BMWE, HREU, and TCE) presented wage demands to the carriers. The shopcrafts requested a 10percent plus 14-cent-an-hour increase in wages effec tive June 30, 1963; the four nonshop organizations asked for 29 cents an hour. In addition, all of these organiza tions sought deferred increases of 3.5 percent a year plus cost-of-living adjustments. Carrier representatives released their counterpropos als in mid-June 1963. They proposed that the average wage bill be left unchanged but that a widening of the spread in rates be accomplished by a 10-cent-an-hour cut in pay for employees with below-average wages and a proportional increase for employees above the average. The carriers also demanded that work-rule re strictions on subcontracting be changed, the use of non regular help, and the right to install new equipment and techniques—an extension of Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act benefits was proposed for such affected workers. Actual bargaining sessions between the organizations and the carriers did not begin for a considerable peri od of time after initial positions were announced by the parties. The carriers refused a request to begin negoti ations on October 24, 1963. The parties finally agreed to start negotiations on December 4, 1963. Bargaining continued intermittently from then until mid-January, at which time the parties requested the NMB to aid separately in the 11 nonoperating organizations’ sup plemental benefit discussions and the shopcraft wage talks. The nonshop organizations requested a similar separate action of the NMB shortly thereafter for their wage and security negotiations. Mediation attempts in the four disputes continued for several months until talks were broken off and volun tary arbitration requests were turned down. An Emer gency Board then was appointed to deal with the dis putes. Hearings continued until October 20, 1964, when the Board issued its report recommending wage in creases averaging 9 cents an hour each on January 1 of 1964, 1965, and 1966 for the six shopcrafts and the four nonshop organizations involved. Recommendations on job security for the five nonshop organizations were similar to those previously negotiated for the shopcrafts. On other supplemental benefit issues, the Board recom mended that employees represented by all 11 of the nonoperating organizations by given a 4th week of va cation, an 8th paid holiday, $2,000 life insurance for re tirees, and the maintenance of the health and welfare plan at carrier expense. Eight of the eleven organizations—the BRASC, BMWE, BRS, HREU, TCE, BBF, BRC, and IBFO— signed wage and supplemental benefit agreements on November 20-21 based on recommendations of the Emergency Board. With the exception of the BRS, which signed only a benefit agreement (they had set tled on wages earlier), the agreements provided for wage increases of 9 cents on each January 1 of 1964, 1965, and 1966. Discussion by the five nonshop organ izations on job security issues and the three shopcraft organizations that had not settled (SMWIA, IAM, and IBEW) on wages and benefits continued. The latter had not settled because of skilled employees’ demands for restoration of wage differentials. A scheduled strike by the three shopcrafts was post poned when the Secretary of Labor interceded. Talks were continued but negotiations again were broken off and another strike date was set. A Federal court issued a 10-day restraining order on December 14, 1964, on complaint by the carriers but lifted it when the court found, on December 24, that the organizations had a right to strike. However, the three organizations said they would not call a strike until after New Year’s Day. Talks between the SMWIA, IAM, and IBEW and the carriers continued past the January 1, 1965, dead line and an agreement was reached on February 4, 1965. On that date, the three organizations agreed to accept a benefit package similar to that accepted by the eight other organizations. In addition, they accepted a wage agreement providing increases of 9 cents an hour (6 cents for regular apprentices) retroactive to January 1, 1964; 4 percent for journeymen mechanics, 9 cents for helpers and helpers’ apprentices, and 6 cents for regu lar apprentices on January 1,1965; and 3.5 percent, 9 cents, and 6 cents, respectively, on January 1, 1966. Agreement on job security issues between the carri ers and the 5 nonshop organizations was reached on February 7, 1965, thereby completing the round of col lective bargaining for the 11 organizations and carriers. January 1967-June 1973 During this period, as in the previous round of rail road negotiations, the 11 nonoperating railroad organ izations2 split off into various bargaining groups which ' settled separately with the carriers on terms generally structured along nonshop and shopcraft lines. Signifi cantly, the duration of moratoriums varied; past agree ments tended to be reopenable on the same date. The first round of bargaining resulted in agreement mora toriums which lasted 1 year for the Clerks (BRASC), :iOn February 23, 1969, the number o f organizations was reduced to 10 when the Transportation Communication Employees Union merged with and became a division o f the BRASC—the Transpor tation-Communications Division. 14 question of travel time and expenses for employees re quired to work away from their home stations would be handled by negotiations beginning in mid-1967 or by arbitration if necessary. After failure of such nego tiations, an arbitration award announced in October 1967 provided increased expense payments for nonshop employees required to work away from home. (See ta ble 3 for details.) 18 months for the four remaining nonshop organiza tions, and 2 years for the shopcraft organizations. Var iation continued until the 1971 and 1972 settlements which provided for a common reopening date. Also of interest were the relatively quick settlements of the nonshop organizations, which contrasted with the ex tended negotiations of the shopcrafts that sometimes had to be settled by legislated agreements. January 1967-June 1968 nonshop agreements. In May 1966, the nonshop organizations, representing about 275,000 railroad workers, served formal notices for changes in wages and supplementary compensation practices to be effective January 1, 1967. They demand ed an 18-percent increase in straight-time rates plus 3.5percent “annual improvement factor” increases; a costof-living escalator clause with semiannual reviews pro viding adjustments of 1 cent for each 0.3-point change in the BLS-CPI; double-time pay instead of time and a half for regular overtime work, work on holidays, va cation days, and rest days; longevity pay of 1 cent an hour for each year of service (up to 20); 3 additional paid holidays; liberalized vacations providing up to 6 weeks’ paid vacation for 20-year employees; and im proved travel time and expense payments for employ ees assigned to live away from home. The carriers served their counterproposals in July. They included a 20-percent cut in starting pay for new employees; a provision allowing a carrier to schedule an employee’s day off for any time in a workweek; and a lower com pulsory retirement age. Services of the NMB were in voked by the organizations, but mediation proved fruit less. On September 28, bargaining commenced on a na tional scale with many issues to be resolved. An im passe was reached and strike votes were conducted by the organizations; strike authorization was announced in December. On December 15, 1966, the BRASC reached an agree ment with the carriers, providing a 5-percent wage in crease effective January 1, 1967, and 3 weeks of paid vacation after 10 years of service, instead of 15 years. Significantly, the BRASC settled 2 weeks before the end of their moratorium. Railroad negotiations usually involved prolonged negotiations and often the appoint ment of an Emergency Board. The agreement had a 1-year moratorium. The four remaining nonshop organizations, the BMWE, BRS, TCE, and HREU, reached agreements with the carriers on January 13, 1967—less than 2 weeks after the end of their contracts’ moratoriums. The pacts provided the same terms as the BRASC settlement ex cept for an additional wage increase of 2.5-percent on January 1, 1968. Their moratoriums were for 18 months and for the first time, agreements for nonoperating em ployees had moratoriums of different durations. All of the nonshop settlements stipulated that the January 1967-December 1968 shopcraft agreements. On May 17, 1966, the six shopcraft organizations2, acting 2 for 137,000 workers, served notices upon the carriers requesting a general increase of 20 percent in all wage rates, establishment of a cost-of-living escalator clause, shift differentials, additional overtime pay, holiday and vacation improvements, jury-duty pay, and establish ment of a 30-minute paid lunch period. All changes were to be effective January 1, 1967. In June, the individual carriers responded with var ious proposals of their own. Among the proposals were revision of the vacation agreement, elimination of cer tain craft jurisdictional barriers, greater freedom to in stitute technological and organizational changes, adop tion of entrance rates, elimination of the advance no tice requirement for emergency force reductions, a low ering of the compulsory retirement age, and revision of the 40-hour workweek rules. Conferences were held between the individual carri ers and organizations, but when no agreements could be reached, national handling of the dispute was authorized. National talks for shopcrafts began on September 28. The parties agreed to seek the assistance of the Nation al Mediation Board (NMB), which was obtained start ing October 19. Talks continued intermittently without success through January 6, 1967, when the NMB prof fered arbitration, which was acceptable to the carriers but not to the unions. On January 13, the NMB noti fied the parties that it was terminating its services. The NMB then notified the President that, in its judgement, the “dispute threatened to substantially in terrupt interstate commerce so as to deprive the coun try of essential transportation service.” The organiza tions had polled their members on October 25, 1966, and received strike authorization if a satisfactory set tlement was not reached—the strike date was set as February 13, 1967. An Emergency Board was created by the President on January 28, 1967, and its report was submitted on March 10. The railroads were prepared to accept the Board’s findings, but the unions were not. The Board recommended a 5-percent wage increase effective Jan uary 1, 1967; a 3rd week of vacation after 10 years (in22They were the Railway Carmen, Boilermakers, Fireman and Oil ers, Sheet Metal Workers, Machinists, and Electrical Workers. 15 stead of 15); a 2-year agreement with a wage reopener at the end of the 1st year; and a separate arrangement to deal with the “wage compression” problem (the nar rowing of the percentage differential between rates for skilled and nonskilled workers). The NMB requested the parties to meet again, but when such talks resulted in an impasse with a second strike deadline of April 13 approaching, the President requested and received from Congress authorization for a 20-day extension of the period of statutory restraint to May 3. A Special Mediation Panel was appointed by the President on April 12. The Panel met with the parties separately and together. On April 21, it made its own proposal for settlement which was rejected by all par ties. This proposal called for a 6-percent hike for all workers in January 1967 plus 5-cent increases for jour neymen and mechanics in April and October of 1967 and April of 1968. To prevent a strike scheduled for May 3, the Presi dent on April 28 again requested and received from Congress authorization for an extension of the period of restraint—this time for 47 days. On May 4, the President sent a message to Congress recommending special legislation (including a 90-day no-strike and no-lockout period and establishment of a presidentially-appointed Special Board) to resolve the dispute. During the period Congress was working on such legislation, the period of statutory strike restraint terminated, but the organizations promised not to take any unilateral action for a reasonable period of time. Congress was notified on July 11 that the guarantee not to engage in unilateral action was being withdrawn at the end of that week; on July 16-17, interruptions in service occurred on most of the Class I railroads in the United States. On July 17, Congress passed and the President signed a measure to stop the strike and provide for the ap pointment of a Special Board (the President did so on July 18) to study the merits of the April 22 proposal of the Special Mediation Panel. The parties’ arguments then would be heard. Following this, the April 22 pro posal, with any appropriate modifications, was to be transmitted to Congress and the President as the Board’s final determination to end the dispute. The determina tion would continue in effect from January 1, 1967, un til such time as the Board considered appropriate—not to exceed 2 years—if the parties did not agree on oth er terms by October 15. On September 15, the Special Board announced its determination, which was to be binding unless the par ties reached agreement by October 15 (they did not). The determination provided for a general wage increase of 6 percent retroactive to January 1, 1967, plus a de ferred general increase of 5 percent of workers’ thencurrent rates, effective July 1, 1968. Journeymen and mechanics were to receive additional 5-cent increases on April 1, 1967, October 1, 1967, April 1, 1968, and October 1, 1968. The determination was to remain in effect through December 31, 1968. The shopcraft organizations also were parties to a January 11, 1968, health and welfare agreement with the carriers. (See table 3 for details.) July 1968-December 1969 nonshop agreements. About 144.000 workers represented by the BRASC were af fected by a December 29, 1967, settlement with the carriers.2 This was the second time in as many bargain ing rounds that agreement was reached before the end of their moratorium. The new 2-year moratorium pro vided for wage increases of 2.5 percent on January 1, 1968 (the same as provided in the 1967 settlement for the other nonshop organizations), 3.5 percent on July 1, 1968, 2 percent on January 1, 1969, and 3 percent on July 1, 1969. The carriers also agreed to set aside 5 cents an hour per employee to adjust wage inequities. Other terms included 2 weeks of paid vacation after 2 instead of 3 years of service. An employee also would receive an additional day’s pay if a holiday fell on a regularly scheduled day off. On May 17, 1968, the BMWE (for about 89,000 work ers) and the HREU (for about 6,000 workers) settled with the carriers on an 18-month moratorium on wages providing general wage hikes of 3.5, 2, and 3 percent on July 1, 1968, January 1, 1969, and July 1, 1969, re spectively—the same as for workers represented by the BRASC on those dates. Additionally, about 35,000 BMWE workers received another 12 cents on July 1, 1968, financed by an inequity fund like that of the BRASC. HREU workers gained a 2-step reduction from 205 to 180 in monthly work hours with no loss in pay. Both organizations settled on the same liberalization in vacations as for BRASC workers and also in holidays in the case of BMWE workers. The TCE settled on an 18-month moratorium for wages with the carriers on June 24, 1968. The pact covered about 25,000 workers and provided the same wage increases and holiday and vacation changes as the BMWE pact. An inequity fund of 5 cents an hour also was established. Almost a year later, on April 21, 1969, the BRS signed an 18-month settlement with the carriers for about 10.000 workers, retroactive to July 1, 1968. The agree ment, which generally followed recommendations of a Presidential Emergency Board, averted a nationwide rail strike. Skilled workers, who constituted about 80 percent of the membership, received wage increases of 22 cents plus 3.5 percent retroactive to July 1, 1968; other workers received 9 cents plus 3.5 percent. The accord also provided general wage hikes of 2 percent 21The settlement included the Transportation-Communications D i vision o f the Clerks (BRASC). The agreement’s moratorium was from January 1968 through December 1969. 16 retroactive to January 1, 1969, and 3 percent effective July 1, 1969. The same holiday and vacation changes were provided as for other nonshop workers. The pact also provided for on-duty off-track injury insurance. All five nonshop wage moratoriums were to remain in effect through December 31, 1969. In addition to the above changes, all of the nonshop and shopcraft organizations had signed a 2-year health and welfare agreement with the carriers on January 11, 1968, which provided for substantial increases in such benefits. (See table 3 for details.) This agreement was a uniform plan covering all rail workers as proposed by the carriers. Notices had been served by the non shops in September and October 1967. The BRASC was the first of the five nonshop organ izations in the bargaining round to serve notices for changes in wages and working conditions—the other nonshop organizations were not free to do so because of their longer moratoriums. The BRASC sought a 2-year moratorium for wages with wage increases of 7.5 percent each year, an escalator clause, increased overtime pay, longevity pay, establishment of an hour ly minimum of $3.40, a classification evaluation funu, and also 3 additional holidays, substantial improvements in vacations, and improved health and welfare provi sions. Additionally, in conjunction with the other four nonshops, notice was served on March 15, 1967, for improvement in the employment security provisions of the job stabilization agreement and to expand its cov erage (this notice subsequently was withdrawn by all of the organizations when their wage issues were settled). The BMWE and HREU settlements were the result of protracted meetings between the organizations and carriers which included discussion of a number of is sues which developed out of the employment security notice of March 15, 1967. The negotiations avoided the formal procedures of the Railway Labor Act in that wage-benefit notices were not served. Terms sought centered around those of the BRASC. On May 29, 1968, the TCE had submitted wage-rule notices which included general wage increases of 6 per cent annually plus adoption of an escalator clause. The organization had been bargaining with the carriers on the job security notice and the carriers eventually sug gested negotiating a package settlement. In March 1968, the BRS had served notice separate ly from the other organizations for general wage in creases of 10, 8, and 7 percent plus five adjustments in skill differentials and an escalator clause. Upon failure to reach agreement, services of the NMB were invoked on August 16. On December 16, the NMB terminated its services after mediation failed and the BRS refused arbitration. The BRS set a strike deadline of January 16,1969. On January 13, the President created an Emer gency Board to hear the dispute, thereby delaying a strike. The Board issued its report on March 7, 1969, which recommended wage hikes of 3.5 percent retro active to July 1, 1968, 2 percent on January 1, 1969, 3 percent on July 1, 1969, an additional 20 cents an hour for skilled workers, and withdrawal of cost-of-living escalator clause proposals. The BRS rejected the rec ommendations. Negotiations were resumed, but an im passe in negotiations resulted in a new strike date being set for April 14, 1969. The Secretary of Labor inter vened only 24 hours before the strike deadline and ne gotiations were resumed, resulting in the agreement which was signed on April 21. January 1969-December 1970 shopcraft agreements. An 18-month dispute was ended on April 10,1970, affect ing about 48,000 workers represented by the BBF, SMWIA, IAM, and IBEW on railroads, when the Pres ident signed a bill imposing a previously rejected set tlement on the workers. The action came only a day before expiration of a 37-day legislated prohibition of any work stoppage. The 2-year mandated settlement provided for retroactive wage increases of 2 percent on January 1, 1969, 3 percent (plus an additional 5 cents for journeymen) on July 1, 1969, 10 cents on Septem ber 1, 1969, 5 percent on January 1, 1970, 7 cents for journeymen on February 19, 1970, and a 4-cent increase on both April 1, 1970 and August 1, 1970. The settle ment also provided that wage rates for hourly rated workers be rounded up to the next whole cent prior to application of the January 1969 increase. Subsequent percentage adjustments were to be rounded to the near est whole cent. On April 24, 1970, the BRC, representing 51,000 workers, agreed to the same terms as in the mandated settlement except that the 7-cent hike for journeymen was effective April 24 rather than February 19. The round of shopcraft negotiations was completed when agreement was reached on June 12 for 18,000 workers represented by the IBFO. This agreement also followed terms of the mandated package except that a 5-cent wage increase was provided on September 1, 1969 (in stead of 10 cents) with an additional 5 cents applied before the 5-percent increase on January 1, 1970, and there was no second skill adjustment. In addition to the above increases, the BBF along with the BRC had signed a separate agreement with the carriers on September 9, 1969, to equalize the pay of blacksmiths, boilermakers, passenger carmen, and their regular apprentices with rates of sheet-metal work ers, machinists, and electricians to restore a long-stand ing equality among the various shopcrafts. The dispar ity grew out of different increases in 1965 and 1966. Rates of pay were to be equalized prior to the applica tion of the January 1969 retroactive increase. The ef fect was to provide additional increases to skilled BBF and BRC workers but a net decrease for BBF and BRC regular apprentices. This agreement ended a dispute which arose out of notices served in November 1966. 17 Additionally, all shopcraft employees would receive liberalizations involving holiday, vacation, and juryduty pay as a result of a mediated agreement signed on September 2, 1969, by the six shopcrafts and carriers. These improvements grew out of notices served on the carriers in May 1968. On November 8, 1968, the BBF, SMWIA, IAM, and IBEW had served uniform notices upon the carriers proposing a 10-percent general wage hike effective Jan uary 1, 1969, plus two 10-cent skill adjustments, an es calator clause, uniform minimum rates of pay, shift pre miums, and overtime for weekend work. The BRC and IBFO served notices on November 20 and 30, respec tively, which were similar to those of the other four shopcraft unions, but tailored to fit their own needs. The carriers responded with a number of proposals for work-rule changes. Following a stalemate in negotia tions for the four unions which had served uniform no tices, the parties jointly invoked services of the NMB. Mediation was unsuccessful and the NMB terminated its services on September 3 after arbitration had been refused. A strike ballot had been circulated among the employees on August 21 resulting in strike authoriza tion; a strike subsequently was called for October 4 on six carriers. The President then created an Emergency Board on October 3 and its report was submitted to the President on November 2. Its recommendations included wage increases of 2 percent on January 1, 1969, and 3 per cent on July 1, 1969; uniform minimum rates of pay; that a general mechanic rate be established not less than 20 cents above the regular mechanic rate; and that a special increase be made on the basis of increased pro ductivity resulting from work-rule changes. All of the shopcraft organizations served new notices on November 26 for further wage adjustments of 20 percent on January 1, 1970, 15 percent on January 1, 1971, and 15 percent on January 1, 1972, and a revised demand for an escalator clause. Following the Emergency Board report, talks were resumed but were unsuccessful. Further negotiations were held, aided by the Department of Labor and the NMB, and on December 4, 1969, the four organizations which had negotiated together reached tentative agree ment, subject to ratification by members of each organ ization. The SMWIA membership rejected the settle ment because of a work-rule change that permitted crafts to cross skill lines and perform “incidental” work ordinarily done by other crafts—the workers said this jeopardized their jobs. The carriers had offered the shopcrafts the 7-cent skill adjustment (effective Febru ary 19, 1970) in return for an agreement on the “inci dental” work-rule change. Because of a procedure agreed to earlier by the four shopcraft organizations, the SMWIA rejection was binding upon all of them. Preparations for selected strikes then were made which were countered by the carriers who threatened a na tionwide lockout. Both parties were enjoined from any such actions, and the organizations then planned a na tionwide strike to be effective March 5, 1970. The strike was prohibited and the dispute finally resolved when Congress assumed jurisdiction of the dispute and im plemented, by Public Law 91-226 of April 9, 1970, the memorandum of understanding of December 4, 1969, including the “incidental” work-rule change, changing only the date of the 7-cent skill adjustment. On April 24, the BRC reached agreement with the carriers, and on June 12, the round of shopcraft negotiations was completed when the IBFO reached agreement with the carriers. All six of the shopcraft moratoriums were to remain in effect through December 31, 1970. In addition to the above developments, all of the or ganizations reached agreement with the carriers on Feb ruary 20, 1970, for health and welfare improvements, as did nonshop organizations. (See table 3 for details. ) January 1970-June 1973 nonshop agreements. A 1-1/2day walkout by workers represented by the BRASC (including the TCE), BMWE, and HREU was ended on December 10, 1970, when Public 91-541 was signed. The stop-gap measure provided retroactive interim wage increases of 5 percent on January 1, 1970, and 32 cents on November 1, 1970. These organizations repre sented about 220,000 railroad workers. On February 10, 1971, the BMWE and HREU signed 42-month wage moratoriums with the carriers with wage terms similar to a package recommended by a Presidential Emergency Board. The settlements cov ered about 77,000 and 3,000 workers, respectively. Later that month, on February 25, a 42-month wage settle ment was signed for 149,000 workers represented by the BRASC (including the TCE). The three pacts in corporated the two wage increases already in effect provided by the December law, plus wage increases of 4 percent on January 1, 1971; 5 percent on October 1, 1971, April 1, 1972, and October 1, 1972; and 25 cents on April 1, 1973, for BMWE and HREU workers, and 15 cents and 10 cents on January 1 and April 1 of 1973, respectively, for BRASC (and TCE) workers. The 1973 hikes were in addition to the Emergency Board’s rec ommendations. The settlements also provided for a 9th paid holiday (except for HREU workers), a 5th week of vacation after 25 years of service, extension of paid jury duty to a maximum of 60 days a year, and on-duty off-track injury insurance. The round of bargaining for the BRASC (and TCE), BMWE, and HREU had begun on May 29, 1969 when notices for vacation changes were served upon the car riers requesting up to 5 weeks of vacation after 20 years of service and vacation pay of 150 percent of the em ployee’s pay rate. On September 2, 1969, the same or ganizations served notices requesting a 3-year agree ment with wage increases of 12 percent each year, an 18 escalator clause, a new classification and evaluation fund, longevity pay, increased overtime rate, three ad ditional holidays, and on-duty off-track injury insur ance. Also, at various times in 1969, the carriers served counterproposals including changes in long-standing work rules. Mediation by the NMB was invoked in mid-January 1970. After long and fruitless talks, its services were terminated on August 10 upon refusal of the organiza tions to submit the dispute to voluntary arbitration. This “started the clock running” and allowed a strike 30 days thereafter (September 10). At the request of the De partment of Labor, the organizations agreed not to strike until September 15 while negotiation was attempted. Three railroads (the Baltimore and Ohio, Southern Pa cific, and Chesapeake and Ohio) were selected as strike targets and their employees walked off their jobs on the 15th of September. A Federal judge had signed a temporary restraining order, effective until September 23, just minutes before the strike deadline, but copies of the order were not delivered until several hours later, at which time workers were ordered back on their jobs. An Emergency Board was appointed on September 18 and its recommendations were sent to the President on November 9. They included wage increases of 37 per cent (compounded) over 3 years, withdrawal of holi day and vacation demands because of the financial con dition of the railroads and the size of the wage hikes, a number of work-rule changes to increase productiv ity, and a standing committee to consider other unre solved issues. The Board’s recommendations were re jected as “not enough” by the organizations as the re port dealt mainly with wages and offered little in fringes. On December 10, workers went on a Nationwide strike. On that same day, Congress passed legislation to end the strike and provide interim wage increases. Further negotiations resulted in settlement. Congress again intervened by approving emergency legislation, Public Law 92-17, on May 18, 1971, to end a walkout by 10,000 members of the BRS. The BRS was barred from striking until October 1. Interim wage increases provided under the measure were 5 percent retroactive to January 1, 1970, and 18 cents (30 cents for skilled workers) retroactive to November 1, 1970. A Presidential Emergency Board had recommended a package for the BRS similar to those for other nonshop organizations, but the BRS continued to hold out be cause it felt its workers were more skilled than the oth er workers. On November 16, 1971, the BRS signed a 42-month wage agreement incorporating the previously legislated increases, plus wage increases following the pattern of earlier shopcraft settlements, of 10 cents retroactive to January 1, 1971, 15 cents for skilled workers and 8 cents for others retroactive to April 1, 1971, 5 percent retro active to October 1, 1971, and 5 percent on April 1, 1972, October 1, 1972, and April 1, 1973. Minimum pay scales were established for certain classifications begin ning in 1971. The settlement also provided for the same supplementary benefits as for the earlier nonshop pacts, plus agreement to establish a supplemental sick leave benefit equal to 70 percent of an employee’s pay. (Oth er nonshops, except the BRASC, also agreed to estab lish such benefits.) In October 1969, the BRS had served wage notices calling for general wage increases of 12, 10, and 8 per cent over a 3-year agreement, respectively, plus six ad ditional hikes of 4 percent for skilled workers and 1.5 percent for semiskilled workers; uniform rates compa rable to those on eastern roads; increased overtime; shift differential pay; longevity pay; and interest on retroac tive increases. Carrier counterproposals included a num ber of modifications in work rules. The parties jointly invoked the services of the NMB on April 9, 1970. The BRS served notice for fringe benefit improvements in May 1970. Mediation of all issues commenced on July 28 and continued intermittently until January 22, 1971, when the NMB proffered arbitration which was refused by the BRS. An Emergency Board then was created on March 4 and it issued its report on April 14, recom mending wage hikes similar to other nonshop pacts. These recommendations were rejected by the BRS on the grounds that workers represented by it deserved larger increases because they were more skilled than most nonshop workers. A strike occurred on May 17. The next day, a joint resolution of Congress, which ex tended to October 1971, was passed, ending the strike and providing interim adjustments. Talks were resumed and settlement eventually was reached on November 16. The nonshop moratoriums were to remain in effect through June 30, 1973. In addition to the above events, two 2-year agree ments for improvements in the health and welfare plan were reached for all railroad workers on February 20, 1970, and February 24, 1972. (See table 3 for details.) January 1971-June 1973 shopcraft agreements. A set tlement for the carriers and 90,000 workers represent ed by the BBF, BRC, IAM, and IBEW was reached on October 7, 1971. The 30-month agreements provid ed for a 10-cent wage increase retroactive to January 1, 1971, 15 cents for mechanics and 8 cents for others retroactive to April 1, 1971, 5-percent on October 1, 1971, April 1, 1972, and October 1, 1972, and 25 cents on April 1, 1973. The pacts also provided for a 9th paid holiday, a 5th week of vacation after 25 years of serv ice, and agreement in principle for the future establish ment of supplemental sick pay benefits paid for by the carriers. The pacts were subject to Pay Board approv al, which subsequently was obtained, under the Feder al Government’s economic stabilization program. On February 11, 1972, the IBFO, representing about 13,000 workers, reached agreement with the carriers 19 on a pact providing terms identical to the earlier shopcraft settlements, except that the 15 cents was paid to stationary engineers rather than mechanics. Addition ally, employees below $3.31 an hour were to receive an additional 2 cents and those at $3.31, an additional 1 cent. The SMWIA, representing about 6,300 workers, was the last shopcraft organization to reach agreement with the carriers, primarily because of a dispute over the “incidental” work rule (allowing crafts to cross skill lines and perform some work ordinarily done by other crafts) mandated by the previous settlement. The ac cord, reached on May 12, followed recommendations of a Presidential Emergency Board and was similar to earlier shopcraft agreements. The disputed work rule, although retained, was tightened up to minimize mis understandings. In addition, the parties agreed to con tinue a “good faith” effort to solve problems of reclas sification of positions and pay adjustment on an indi vidual carrier basis. The shopcraft moratoriums, as for the nonshop mor atoriums, were to remain in effect through June 30, 1973. The BBF, BRC, IAM, and IBEW served wage and working condition notices on the carriers in November 1970. Changes sought included improvements such as uniform rates of pay; two 20-percent wage increases; and adoption of an escalator clause, longevity pay, at tendance incentive pay, shift premiums, and bereave ment leave. The carriers in December proposed a new classification of a “general mechanic” who would have the right to perform work of all the shopcrafts (except for IBFO jobs). The carriers also proposed tightening up the holiday rules and a number of other changes. Direct negotiations resolved some of the organiza tions’ demands, but, in June 1971, the parties jointly re quested the NMB to mediate remaining issues such as uniform minimum rates and adjustment of straight-time rates and differentials. Following lengthy mediation, settlement was reached on October 7, 1971, and work er ratification was completed in November. Separate notices were served independently on the carriers by the IBFO and SMWIA in November 1970. Demands were similar to those of the other shopcrafts, but the SMWIA sought a third wage hike tied to wages in the airline and trucking industries, and elimination of the “incidental” work rule. Carrier counterpropos als were those made to other shopcrafts. In November 1971, the IBFO and carriers had requested mediation by the NMB after negotiations had failed to produce an agreement and on February 11, 1972, settlement was finally reached. The SMWIA also had invoked services of the NMB in July 1971 following prolonged and un successful talks, and such services were eventually ter minated March 1, 1972, after the SMWIA refused a proffer of arbitration. The SMWIA announced its in tention to strike on April 1, 1972, and an Emergency Board was created on March 31. Its report was sub mitted to the President on April 30. On May 12, 1972, following a resumption of negotiations, the parties ar rived at a settlement similar to terms recommended by the Emergency Board. Worker ratification was com pleted by June. On February 24, 1972, the shopcrafts along with the nonshop organizations reached agreement with the car riers on a new 2-year health and welfare plan. July 1973-December 1974 The 1973-74 round of bargaining was initiated when the various labor organizations served notices on wages, benefits, and work rules beginning in January 1973. Generally, the notices called for wage increases ranging from 10 to 15 percent in each year of a 2-year agree ment, establishment of a cost-of-living escalator clause, longevity pay, increased overtime pay, shift premium pay, 3 additional holidays, up to 6 weeks of paid vaca tion, and a number of other changes. For the first time in the history of railroad bargain ing, the carriers and all of the major railroad labor or ganizations (including nonoperating and operating un ions), with the exception of the SMWIA, engaged in coordinated bargaining through a Joint Negotiating Committee. This committee was created in response to a financial crisis confronting the Railroad Retirement System. Increasingly, more people were receiving ben efits relative to the number of workers paying into the system. A recent 20-percent increase in benefits with no accompanying increase in financing also had hurt the system. Financing of the system was discussed throughout the industry and government via various forums. With the serving of wage-rule notices, negoti ations on these items were begun, but it soon became obvious that retirement issues should be included in the talks. The pace of negotiations was accelerated because of the need to restructure retirement financing to insure the system’s solvency. The labor organizations discussed with the carriers the possiblility of finding a new source of income for the system and also proposed that the individual’s retirement tax be lowered as well as the retirement age. The carriers’ response was to propose an 18-month moratorium, that the total cost of wages and other ben efits (including a greater share of retirement tax to be paid by the carriers) be taken into consideration so that any retirement tax cost would be recognized as part of the carrier’s overall labor cost, that the health and wel fare contract be extended through December 1974 with an increase in the major medical maximum, that all or ganizations accept the agreement, and that retirement discussions continue. On March 8, 1973, an 18-month tentative accord was reached between representatives of the various carriers and 15 labor organizations—well in advance of the June 30 expiration of the moratoriums. For the first time in 20 dispute, agreement on all items could not be achieved. The SMWIA refused a proffer of arbitration and, on May 1, the NMB announced that it was terminating its services. An Emergency Board was appointed on May 21 after workers gave authorization to strike. On Au gust 16, 1974, a memorandum of understanding was signed providing the 4-percent wage hike provided oth er workers. The Emergency Board had recommended essentially the same terms as provided in earlier settle ments in a July 2, 1974, report. The SMWIA, howev er, opted to accept the wage hike but to defer other issues to the next bargaining round. The understanding did not dispose of the wage issues, but workers were to receive the increase, and in return the SMWIA agreed to continue with negotiations—the incidental work-rule situation was frozen. In mid-1973, the shopcrafts, the BRS, BMWE, and HREU implemented supplemental sick pay plans agreed to earlier which generally provided 70 percent of av erage straight-time pay (including any Railroad Unem ployment Insurance Act payments) for up to 1 year. The programs were to remain in effect through De cember 31, 1975. many years, all of the organizations and all national is sues would have a common moratorium (through De cember 31, 1974). The parties agreed to a 4-percent general wage increase effective January 1, 1974,2 an 4 extension of the insurance contract through December 1974 with an increase in the major medical lifetime maximum to $250,000 (from $50,000), the carriers to pay the amount of the employee’s retirement tax that would be over the maximum social security employee tax, retirement at age 60 after 30 years’ service without reduction (previously applicable only to women), and carrier payment for and administration of a national dues checkoff system. The retirement changes were subject to legislative approval of Congress—such ap proval was subsequently obtained. Final agreements were signed on April 23 by all the shopcraft organiza tions. On May 10, the AFL-CIO’s Railway Employes’ Department (RED) signed for the BBF, BRC, IBFO, and IBEW. The IAM and SMWIA, however, did not sign. The IAM contended that it had withdrawn its au thorization for the RED to represent it because the RED had exceeded its authority in bargaining. The IAM’s objections were that the 4-percent wage hike was too small, that the pact did nothing about subcon tracting, and that the pension financing was inadequate. On March 23, 1973, the IAM rejected the settlement. The organization withdrew from the RED. After a pro longed impasse, the carriers filed suit in a Federal dis trict court in December 1973 to have the IAM accept the March 8 settlement. The court ruled that the RED constitution did not allow a member to withdraw rep resentation authority after a bargaining round had be gun and that ratification by the other RED members was binding upon the IAM. On March 22, 1974, in compliance with the court order, the IAM signed the March 8, 1973 accord, opting not to appeal the order because it soon would be free to initiate bargaining on July 1 for changes to be effective January 1, 1975. At the time of the IAM signing, the SMWIA still had not settled with the carriers. Mediation of the dis pute had begun on March 12, 1973, after all parties jointly requested the services of the NMB. The SMWIA had withdrawn representation authorization from the RED prior to the start of bargaining and had served separate notices upon the carriers in February 1973. The SMWIA objected to the March 8 accord because it felt that the pact did not protect workers from the rapid rise in living costs—the SMWIA had sought a 16-percent increase in wages and an escalator clause— and also because of inadequate jurisdictional work rules involving the “incidental” work rule. The SMWIA also disaffiliated from the RED after such action by the IAM. During intermittent talks, the carriers insisted that the SMWIA accept the package agreed to by other or ganizations. Although mediation narrowed the issues in January 1975-December 1977 In July and August of 1974, the major nonoperating organizations served wage-rule and health and welfare notices, respectively, upon the Nation’s carriers. Prior to the serving of such notices, most of the organizations had agreed to serve notices individually but to request uniform wage increases and to insist on a cost-of-living clause. Generally, the notices called for a 2-year agree ment with wage increase of 20 percent in 1975 and 15 percent in 1976, an escalator clause, uniform minimum rates, shift premium and longevity pay, 3 additional paid holidays, liberalized vacations with up to 6 weeks of vacation, bereavement leave, health plan improvements including adoption of dental and vision care, and revi sion of job protection agreements. Other items dealt with problems specific to one craft or class of employ ees such as inequity adjustments, jurisdiction, and subcontracting. Bargaining on the issues was delayed until Novem ber 1974 because labor and management were involved in the development of legislation to restructure the rail road retirement system. Modifications in the system were passed by Congress on October 16. The parties agreed to coordinated bargaining with the understand ing that any organization could withdraw and negoti ate on its own at any time. The parties began the round of talks by agreeing to put off joint talks on common issues in order to concentrate on potentially costly side 24 The wage increase was not applicable to workers for certain in solvent railroads, including the Penn Central and Reading railroads. These carriers preferred to negotiate wages separately for better terms. 21 issues (jurisdiction, subcontracting, etc.). This compli cated attempts at settlement. Although organizations such as the shopcrafts and BRASC were very con cerned about side issues, some organizations had made wages their top priority. By the end of November 1974, the carriers felt that they had made enough progress on side issues with a sufficient number of organizations to make their first offer on common issues. The offer included a first-year wage increase of 9 percent and deferred increases of 3 percent each in the second and third years of an agreement plus a limited escalator clause. This offer was rejected, but the offer shifted much of the bargaining activity to common issues. By early January 1975, side issues had been resolved with the BMWE and BRS and common issues were negotiated jointly with these two organizations. The carriers and these organizations had decided to proceed with talks on common items, with the other organiza tions being free to join the talks when they resolved their individual issues. Tentative 3-year agreements were reached on January 21, 1975, by the carriers and the BMWE (for 58,000 workers) and the BRS (for 10,400 workers), which set the pattern for the rest of the industry. The pacts were signed on January 29. They provided for general wage increases of 10 per cent on January 1, 1975, 5 percent on October 1, 1975, 3 percent on April 1, 1976, and 4 percent on July 1, 1977; adoption of a cost-of-living escalator clause pro viding adjustments in January and July of 1976 and 1977 of 1 cent for each 0.4-point change in the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Price Index for the first three adjustments and for each 0.3-point change for the last adjustment, with periodic incorporations of por tions of the allowance into basic rates and subject to maximum adjustments (68 cents overall); and a 10th paid holiday. The moratorium on all issues was to re main in effect through December 31, 1977. On January 22, the SMWIA reached an agreement with the carriers for 4,800 workers, which ended a 2-year dispute. This pact also was signed on January 29 and provided terms similar to those in the BMWE and BRS pacts and, additionally, incorporated terms of settlements reached by the other unions in the 1973 bargaining round but never formally adopted by the SMWIA. The organization, however, had accepted a wage increase in 1974 on an interim basis. The new pact also limited the amount of sheet-metal workers’ work performed by carmen under the “incidental” work-rule. Selective strikes scheduled for January 24 were averted by the settlement. This was the only or ganization free to strike at the time because it techni cally had been negotiating unresolved issues from the 1973 round and the required procedures under the RLA had been exhausted. An agreement for about 25,000 IAM workers was signed on March 12. This pact also was similar to the “pattern” and, in addition, limited subcontracting. Serv ices of the NMB had been requested on January 10, but settlement was reached before a mediator was appoint ed. The major factor in acceptance of the pact was a new clause restricting unlimited subcontracting. The pact was ratified by early April. On March 18, an agreement for 3,500 workers was signed by the HREU and Amtrak. The pact was iden tical to earlier settlements, except that an additional 2 cents was added to hourly rates effective January 1, 1976, in lieu of an additional paid holiday. The BRASC settled with the carriers for 117,000 workers on July 18, on an agreement similar to the in dustry pattern, except that an additional cost-of-living adjustment of up to 23 cents was possible effective Jan uary 1, 1978 (the day after expiration of the moratori um). Management officials felt that the timing of this adjustment would prevent other organizations from re opening their pacts as they could negotiate this item in the next bargaining round. The pact also provided for a reduction in the number of workers exempted from union membership. The BRASC had invoked services of the NMB on January 10, and mediation sessions were held in February and March. The NMB had proffered arbitration on March 14 which was refused, and its services were terminated on March 18. The carriers were insisting that the BRASC should follow the pat tern set by earlier settlements, whereas the BRASC felt that it had the right to bargain on its own members’ needs. The BRASC had put emphasis on expanding job stabilization protection to lower seniority workers and on decreasing the number of workers exempted from union membership. The carriers considered the costs of these items too high in that the BRASC would not agree to a wage package less than those of other un ions—the BRASC felt that other settlements were in adequate to offset inflation. The BRASC issued a strike call for April 18 and the NMB resumed mediation on April 8. Little progress was made and, on April 16, an Emergency Board was appointed by the President. The Emergency Board recommended on May 23, 1975, that the package for the BRASC be within the framework of earlier settlements but that the 5-percent increase of October 1975 be converted to 31 cents; the July 1977 increase be advanced to February in return for BRASC acceptance of lower entry rates; and also that local han dling of the number of workers exempted from union membership (with a suggested reduction in the number of exempted employees) be allowed. The BRASC threatened to strike on June 23 but rescheduled the strike, which would exempt ailing railroads, out of “re spect and appreciation for the last-minute efforts” of Federal mediators; to avoid antagonizing Congress which was considering railroad unemployment pay; and also because of the negative effects a walkout would have on certain railroads that were in the process of reorganization. Talks broke down on June 16 but were 22 resumed 3 days later under the mediation of a Presi dential “troubleshooter” and the NMB. An impasse was reached over a new BRASC demand for a 5th escala tor adjustment to be effective upon termination of the moratorium and objection by the carriers to the Emer gency Board suggestion covering exempt employees. On July 17, the BRASC again agreed to postpone a strike for a week at the request of the mediators, who were then also trying to resolve a postal dispute. The parties reached a tentative agreement on July 18 which was signed July 23. Ratification by the union member ship was not necessary. On December 4, 1975, a settlement was reached by the carriers and the Railway Employes’ Department (RED), representing 75,O X members of the BBF, BRC, C) IBFO, and IBEW. The settlement, which averted a na tionwide walkout, completed the industry bargaining round and followed the industry pattern with the ex ception of the addition of a 3-cent wage increase effec tive January 1, 1978 (the day after moratorium expira tion) for journeymen and mechanics (to eliminate the differential between them and signal mechanics). The agreement also reduced subcontracting by expanding the definition of craft work, reducing the amount of workers furloughed due to subcontracting, and adding penalties payable by carriers to affected railroad em ployees when advance notice of subcontracting was not properly provided. The four organizations had struck three major railroads in late January 1975 because of a lack of progress in negotiations, and the walkout was ended the next day by a court order based on proce dures under the RLA. Carriers had invoked services of the NMB, thereby precluding a strike until mediation failed. The parties then agreed to negotiate until a me diator was appointed, but ceased talks on March 14. Carrier counterproposals were made on March 24 and mediation began on April 1. Talks again bogged down and the NMB terminated its services on August 4 fol lowing the refusal of a proffer of arbitration made July 11. The RED members were not objecting to the wagebenefit package of other settlements but were intent upon limiting subcontracting, reducing wage inequities, and obtaining other work-rule changes. The RED is sued a strike call for September 4 and the NMB re sumed mediation. When the NMB could not resolve the dispute, an Emergency Board was appointed on September 2. On October 10, the Board recommended that a wage inequity between shopcraft mechanics and signal mechanics be remedied without offset in the next bargaining round and that contract language on sub contracting be clarified. The RED had threatened a strike in November but agreed to postpone it pending an interpretation of the Emergency Board’s subcontrac ting recommendation which was delivered to the Pres ident on November 26. The RED contended that the “clarification” intended further restrictions, but the Board rejected this contention. A nationwide walkout was scheduled for December 4. The key issue in the dispute was settled when restrictions on subcontracting were tightened up and agreement was reached Decem ber 4. Workers ratified the pact on January 12 (no worker ratification was necessary for the IBFO). The health and welfare talks were conducted con currently with other negotiations and on October 10, 1975, a 3-year agreement acceptable to all parties was reached. (See table 3 fpr details.) In September 1975, the six shopcrafts and BRS served supplemental sickness plan notices jointly upon the car riers proposing extension of the programs through June 30, 1978, increased benefits of up to 80 percent of pay (including any Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act payments), a benefit period of up to 3 years (instead of 1), and coverage after 5 months of compensated serv ice (instead of 7) in a qualifying year. In March 1976, new supplemental sickness plans were agreed to by the shopcrafts, providing increased benefit amounts because of increased pay rates and reducing the compensated service requirement to 5 months. The programs were to remain in effect through June 30, 1978. Notices were served separately by the BMWE and HREU and sim ilar agreements were subsequently reached for workers represented by these unions. The tables on pages 27-70 bring the wage chronolo gy for nonoperating railroad employees up to date through December 31, 1977 (the moratorium expiration date) for wages and supplementary compensation practices. 23 Major Developments in Railroad Retirement and Unemployment Insurance Systems The 1937 Act provided annuities based on creditable railroad earnings and service with a maximum of $120 a month. Creditable earnings were limited to $300 a month and no more than 30 years of service could be credited if years before 1937 were included. Annuities could be paid at age 65 or over, regardless of service or on a reduced basis at age 60-64 with 30 years’ serv ice. Disability annuities were restricted to total and per manent disability with a full benefit payable after 30 years’ service and a reduced benefit payable at age 6064 with less than 30 years. A survivor could receive a lump sum equal to 4 percent of the employee’s credit able earnings after 1936, less any annuities paid. A re tiring employee could elect a reduced annuity to pro vide an annuity to his surviving spouse. Employees on the railroads’ private pension rolls were to be trans ferred to the new system’s rolls. The system was fi nanced by a schedule of taxes shared equally by the employer and employee based on a percentage of the first $300 of monthly compensation (taxable compensation). Subsequent amendments after 1937 increased benefits a number of times and added features similar to those of the social security system. Amendments enacted in 1946 and 1951 provided for coordination of certain fea tures with the social security system laying the foun dation for the present railroad retirement system. The 1946 amendments established survivor benefits similar to those of social security, but higher, with jurisdiction of such benefits coordinated among the two systems, added occupational disability benefits, added a mini mum benefit for those with 5 years of service or more, eliminated the reduction in total and permanent dis ability benefits while easing the requirements for such, and ended the actuarial reduction for women employ ees. Benefits were increased by amendments in 1948. The 1951 amendments increased benefits, established Railroad retirement system The first formal pension plan in the railroad industry was established in 1874. ' By 1927, over 80 percent of all railroad employees worked for employers with pen sion plans. Only a small proportion of such employees ever received benefits under these plans, however, since credits could not be transferred from one employer to another and employers could terminate the plans at any time. The plans generally paid inadequate benefits and made only limited provision for disability. The plans also were usually under-financed. The depression of the 1930’s led railroad labor to press for a national retire ment program providing adequate benefits for aged and disabled employees. Congress enacted legislation for a special railroad re tirement system which excluded railroad service from the social security system being planned at the time. The Railroad Retirement Act of 1934 set up the first retirement system for nongovernment workers to be administered by the Federal Government. This act, however, was declared unconstitutional by a Federal district court, and in May 1935 the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the decision on the ground that it appropriated future earnings of the railroads for past services already compensated. In an attempt to avoid the constitutional problems encountered by the 1934 Act, the Railroad Retirement and Carriers’ Taxing Acts of 1935 were en acted, but these too were challenged by the carriers. A Federal district court ruled that employers and employ ees could not be forced to pay a retirement tax. The payment of benefits was not prohibited, however, and the first benefit payments were made in July 1936. At the request of President Roosevelt, management and labor met to negotiate their differences and a memo randum of agreement was reached which led to the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 and a companion bill, the Carriers’ Taxing Act. These became law in June 1937. After this legislation, there was an immediate re duction in the number of employed and unemployed older workers in the industry. By the end of 1938, the number of workers age 65 or older in active service was less than one-half that of 2 years earlier. 25 The information contained in this and the following section is largely derived from the Informational Conference Handbook, 1978, referred to as the “Blue Book”, prepared by the U.S. Railroad Re tirement Board. 24 Negotiating Committee produced some preliminary rec ommendations for revising the railroad retirement sys tem which Congress enacted into law in 1973. These amendments reduced the employees’ tax rate to the per centage paid by employees under social security with the employer paying the balance, eliminating the actu arial reduction for male employees at least 60 years old with 30 years’ service (as previously done for female employees), and “passing through” any social security benefit increases during the 18-month period ending December 31, 1974, to railroad annuities paid under regular formulas. Final recommendations were present ed to Congress by management and labor in 1974. These included the “two-tier” formula mentioned earlier with an 8-year grandfather clause to provide a smoother transition from the old formula to the new one, phas ing out of dual railroad retirement and social security benefits for those not having vested rights as of De cember 31, 1974 under both systems and providing an additional “dual benefit windfall” amount for vested employees (although not subject to increases for social security service after 1974 or future social security in creases after such an employee’s retirement), cost-ofliving increases in the Tier-1 component automatically in the same way as for social security and in the Tier-2 component similar to an aluminum industry settlement formula,26 provision of supplemental annuities to employ ees age 60 with 30 years of service and their spouses, an increase in survivors benefits to 130 percent of the com parable social security benefit, incorporation of the 1970, 1971, and 1972 amendments’ benefit increases on a per manent basis, and some financial changes. These recommendations were reflected in duplicate bills filed in Congress in June 1974. These were amended during Congressional hearings, but retained the funda mental recommendations agreed to by management and labor. Congress acted on the bills in September 1974 and the proposed legislation was sent to the President. The proposed legislation was vetoed, however, primar ily because of objection to financing dual benefits “phase-out” costs from general revenues. On October 15 and 16, respectively, the House and Senate overrode the veto and the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 went into effect on January 1, 1975. annuities for wives (and dependent husbands) equal to one-half of the employee’s annuity subject to a maxi mum, provided for social security to assume jurisdic tion of railroad workers with less than 10 years’ serv ice, added a minimum quarantee that railroad benefits be no less than the benefit or additional benefit payable under social security based on railroad and social secu rity covered service combined, and provided for finan cial interchange between the two systems to equitably apportion benefit costs and taxes relating to railroad service. Amendments in 1956 increased benefits, as did the 1959 amendments. The latter also increased the mini mum guarantee to 110 perecent of what social security would pay for combined service. Provison was made in 1965 to coordinate the railroad retirement system’s tax base (taxable compensation) and tax rate with those under social security. Benefits were increased by 1966 amendments, and a supplemental annuity funded by a special man-hour tax was added for certain long-service employees awarded regular annuities after June 1966. The supplemental an nuity legislation resulted from an agreement between management and labor and was designed to make rail road retirement income more comparable to that re ceived by retirees from other industries, such as steel and autos. Although initially provided on a temporary basis, 1970 amendments made the supplemental annui ty a permanent feature of the system. During Congressional hearings in 1970 on a proposed 15-percent increase in benefits, the Chairman of the Railroad Retirement Board expressed concern that the hike would jeopardize the system unless it was ade quately financed. Following this testimony, Congress enacted an annuity increase of 15 percent in 1970, on a temporary basis. Congress also directed that a Com mission on Railroad Retirement be formed to study the structure of the system and make recommendations on providing adequate benefits on a firfancially sound ba sis. While the Commission was studying the problem, Congress legislated temporary increases for 1971 and 1972 of 10 and 20 percent, respectively, following sim ilar increases in social security. The Commission’s report was released in 1972. It recommended four major changes which involved re structuring of the system into two tiers—one being a separate social security benefit and the other a supple mental railroad benefit; phasing out dual railroad-social security benefits while protecting vested rights already acquired; a self-supporting financial plan; and changing benefit formulas to provide more equitable benefits among various types of beneficiaries. Upon release of the report, Congress ordered management and labor to submit a joint report of their own recommendations taking into account the Commission’s report. The Joint Labor-Management Railroad Retirement Railroad unemployment insurance system Unemployment insurance benefits for railroad work ers were first provided by various State plans which were established under certain provisions of the Social Security Act of 1935. It soon became obvious that a 26 1974 settlements in the aluminum industry had provided for auto matic cost-of-living escalator adjustments in pension benefits in 1976 and 1977 by an amount equal to 65 percent o f any rise in the Bureau o f Labor Statistics’ Consumer Price Index during the preceding 12 months. Retirement benefits, including social security, were limited to 85 percent o f the retiree’s average annual earnings for the highest 2 consecutive years. 25 uniform national plan was needed to correct inequities among the various State laws. At the time, it was pos sible for employees with identical jobs on the same rail road to receive different treatment and benefits, and employees required to cross State lines might not be eligible for benefits in any of the States in which they worked. A national unemployment benefit system for railroad workers was established by the Railroad Unemploy ment Insurance Act of 1938. The program was effec tive July 1, 1939, and was to be financed by an employ er-paid payroll tax. Eligibility requirements were the same as for railroad retirement coverage. Benefits were paid for up to 80 days after a 15-day waiting period according to a schedule which ranged from $1.75 to $3 a day, depending upon earnings in a base year. The following year, the maximum daily rate was in creased to $4 and the maximum duration of benefits was increased to 100 days. The waiting period for ben efits was reduced to 7 days and a uniform benefit year was established. Amendments in 1946 increased the daily maximum to $5 and increased the duration to up to 130 days. Sickness benefits were established under the system and were calculated in the same manner as for unemploy ment benefits. Maternity benefits also were established at this time and were payable for up to 116 days at the same rate for unemployment or sickness, except for the first 14 claim days and the 14 days following birth which were paid at 1.5 times that usual rate (making the max imum benefits payable equivalent to the 130 days pay able for unemployment and sickness). The daily benefit rate maximum was raised to $7.50 and $8.50 by amendments in 1952 and 1954, respective ly. The 1954 amendments also established a daily ben efit guarantee of 50 percent of the last daily rate of pay (in a base year), raised the maximum creditable com pensation to $350 a month, and limited total benefits to total base-year compensation. Amendments of 1959, retroactive to 1958, raised dai ly benefits to a maximum of $10.20 and the rate guar antee to 60 percent of the last daily rate of pay (up to the daily benefit maximum). The waiting period for un employment benefits was removed and benefits became payable for all days of unemployment over 4 in em ployee’s first registration period. The amendments also established extended unemployment benefits for those who had exhausted normal benefits and had at least 10 years of service, of up to an additional 65 days or up to an additional 130 days, depending on years of serv ice—extended benefits were also provided for employ ees with less than 10 years’ service under certain con ditions, but only on a temporary basis. Accelerated ben efits also were provided for employees with 10 years of service or more if they qualified for unemployment benefits in the following benefit year but not in current one, so that they could receive benefits early. By the same amendments, maximum creditable compensation was increased to $400 a month effective in 1959. Special legislation enacted in 1961 provided tempo rary extended unemployment benefits under certain con ditions for those who had exhausted normal benefits and permanent extended benefits. 1968 amendments increased the maximum daily ben efit to $12.70 and established extended and accelerated sickness benefits on the same basis as permanent extend ed and accelerated unemployment benefits. Additional ly, maternity benefits were replaced as such by regular sickness benefits for those unable to work because of pregnancy or childbirth. Amendments enacted in 1975 modified the benefit structure significantly as well as benefit levels as a re sult of joint recommendations by management and la bor. The new daily benefit rate calculation for unem ployment and sickness provided an amount equal to 60 percent of an employee’s last daily base year rate of pay with a daily benefit minimum of $12.70 (the old maximum) and a maximum of $24 (increased to $25 in 1976). This legislation also made allowance for the pay ment of sickness benefits for all days of sickness after an initial 4 consecutive days in an employee’s first reg istration period, and provided extended unemployment benefits for less-than-10-year employees during “peri ods of high unemployment”. Such periods become ef fective when either the railroad rate or the national in sured rate reaches and maintains a specified level (cur rently 4.5 percent). 26 Table 1. General wage changes,1 1920-62 Effective date May 1,1920 (Decision 2, Railroad Labor Board, dated July 20, 1920). Provision Increases averaging about 22 percent. July 1, 1921 (Decision 147, Railroad Labor Board, dated June 1, 1921). Decreases averaging about 12 percent. Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Increases varied among the operating departments and by occupation within the departments as follows: Clerical and station employees—13 cents an hour for most occupations; 12 cents for team track freight handlers and truckers; 10 cents for janitors, elevator operators, watch men, etc.; 8.5 cents for common laborers; 6.5 cents for clerks with less than 1 year’s experience; 5 cents for office boys, messengers, etc. Maintenance of way employees—15 cents an hour for most occupations; 10 cents for shop and roundhouse laborers; 8.5 cents for occupations with the largest proportion of employees, including helpers, track laborers, common laborers, crossing watchmen, drawbridge tenders, pile driver firemen, etc. Shop employees—13 cents an hour for most occupations; 5 cents for car cleaners. Stationary engine and boiler employees—13 cents an hour for most occupations; 10 cents for water tenders and coal passers. Signal employees—13 cents an hour for most employees; 10 cents for helpers. Telegraphers and agents—10 cents an hour for most occu pations; 5 cents for agents in nontelegraph stations. Decision 147 originally applied to 72 railroads. Subsequent to June 1, other railroads, not parties to the original proceed ings, applied to the Board for the same reductions and awards were made in the form of additions to the original decision. The decreases varied among the operating de partments and by occupation within the departments as follows: Clerical and station emplpyees—6 cents an hour for a large group of occupations; 13 cents for clerks with 1 but less than 2 years’ experience; 10 cents for crew callers, train an nouncers, gatemen, janitors, elevator operators, watch men, etc.; 8.5 cents for common laborers; 6.5 cents for clerks with less than 1 year’s experience; 5 cents for of fice boys, messengers, etc. Differentials between truckers and certain other classes maintained. Maintenance of way employees—10 cents an hour for some occupations; 8.5 cents for track laborers, common laborers, crossing watchmen, drawbridge tenders, pile drivers, etc.; 7.5 cents for helpers. Shop employees—8 cents an hour for most occupations; car cleaners to receive 2 cents above track laborer rate. Stationary engine and boiler employees—8 cents an hour for most occupations; 6 cents for water tenders and coal passers. Signal employees—8 cents an hour for most occupations; 6 cents for helpers. Telegraphers and agents—6 cents an hour for most occupa tions; 5 cents for agents in nontelegraph stations. Three Railroad Labor Board decisions, relating to different July 1, 1922 (Railroad Decreases averaging about 5 percent. groups of employees, were as follows:2 Labor Board deci Decision 1028, dated May 25, 1922: sions as noted). Maintenance of way employees—5 cents an hour for most occupations; 4 cents for mechanics; 3 cents for track foremen and assistant track foremen; 1 cent for mechanics’ helpers. Decision 1036, dated June 5, 1922: Shop employees—7 cents an hour for most occupations; 9 cents for freight carmen; 5 cents for car cleaners. Decision 1074, dated June 10, 1922: Clerical and station employees—3 and 4 cents an hour. Stationary engine and boiler employees—2 cents an hour. Signal employees—5 cents an hour for most occupa tions; 6 cents for helpers. During this period, negotiations were conducted with individual railroads by most of the railroad nonoperating employee 1923 to 1932 organizations. The shop crafts bargained on individual roads as a group. There was not sufficient uniformity in the level or timing of the general wage increases negotiated during this period to permit presentation within the format of a wage chronology. I ______________________________________ i ______________________________________ _ See footnotes at end of table. 27 Table 1. General wage changes,1 1920-62—Continued Effective date Feb. 1,1932 (agreement dated Jan. 31, 1932). Dec. 21, 1932 (agree ment of same date). June 21, 1933 (agree ment of same date). July 1,1934 (agreement dated Apr. 26, 1934). Jan. 1,1935 (agreement dated Apr. 26, 1934). Apr. 1,1935 (agreement dated Apr. 26, 1934). Aug. 1,1937 (mediation agreement dated Aug. 5, 1937). Dec. 1,1941 (mediation agreement dated Dec. 15, 1941). Provision 10 percent decrease in earnings- Part of deduction rescinded; earnings reduction changed to 7.5 percent. Part of deduction rescinded; earnings reduction changed to 5 percent. Earnings deduction eliminated. 5 cents an hour increase. 10 cents an hour increase? Feb. 1,1943 (agreement 4 to 10 cents an hour increase3 dated Jan. 17, 1944). Dec. 27, 1943 (agree ment dated Jan. 17, 1944). 1 to 5 cents an hour increase3 Jan. 1, 1946 (decision 16 cents an hour increase.3 of Board of Arbitra tion, dated Apr. 3, 1946). May 22, 1946 (agree 2.5 cents an hour increase.3 ment dated May 25, 1946) . Sept. 1, 1947 (decision 15.5 cents an hour increase.3 of Board of Arbitra tion, dated Sept. 2, 1947) . Oct. 1, 1948 (Referee’s 7 cents an hour increase.3 decision of Mar. 13 and agreement dated Mar. 19, 1949).5 Sept. 1, 1949 (agree 20 percent increase, averaging 23.5 cents an hour3 ment dated Mar. 19, 1949, in accordance with referee’s deci sion of Mar. 13, 1949).5 Feb. 1,1951 (agreement dated Mar. 1, 1951). 12.5 cents an hour increase3 Apr. 1,1951................. July 1,1951.................. Oct. 1,1951................. Jan. 1,1952.................. Apr. 1,1952 ................. July 1,1952.................. Oct. 1,1952.................. 6 cents an hour increase. 1 cent an hour increase . No change 4 cents an hour increase. 1 cent an hour decrease ■ 2 cents an hour increase. 2 cents an hour increase • See footnotes at end of table. Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Decrease in the form of a deduction from employees’ earn ings, with no change in basic wage rates. Agreement to ter minate Feb. 1, 1933. Earnings deduction extended to Oct. 31, 1933. Earnings deduction extended to June 30, 1934. Daily, weekly, monthly, and piecework rates increased an equivalent amount. General increase applied so as to pro duce the same increase for all employees irrespective of the method of payment. 9 cents an hour retroactive to Sept. 1, 1941. Minimum rate of 46 cents an hour established (minimum of 45 cents retroactive to Sept. 1,1941), subject to reasonable deductions for board, lodging, or other facilities furnished to the extent deductions were made on Aug. 31, 1941, by employer and permissible under the Fair Labor Standards Act.4 This and a further increase, effective Dec. 27,1943, approved by Economic Stabilization Director, Jan. 18,1944. Increases varied by hourly rate range as follows: Hourly rate range (cents) Increase (cents) Less than 4 7 ................................................... 10 47 but less than 5 7 ............................................... 9 57 but less than 7 0 ............................................... 8 70 but less than 8 0 ............................................... 7 80 but less than 9 0 ............................................... 6 90 but less than 9 7 ............................................... 5 97 and o ve r........................................................... 4 Designated by parties as amount due in lieu of overtime after 40 hours a week. 1 cent an hour for employees receiving 8, 9, and 10 cents an hour increase effective Feb. 1, 1943, 2 cents for those receiving 7 cents, 3 cents for those receiv ing 6 cents, 4 cents for those receiving 5 cents, and 5 cents for those receiving 4 cents. Increase applied to rates in effect Sept. 30, 1948. Amount agreed to as necessary to maintain weekly earnings on reduction of workweek from 48 to 40 hours. Applied to all hourly and daily rates and all hourly and daily differentials, arbitrages, and special allowances. Not applicable to weekly and monthly rates based on a 6-day week. Agreement provided detailed formulas for converting earnings of weekly and monthly rated employees in the various crafts. Agreement provided for quarterly cost-of-living adjustments of 1 cent an hour for each 1-point change in the Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer Price Index above the level of 178.0 (1935-39=100).6 Quarterly adjustment of cost-of-living allowance. Do. Quarterly review of cost-of-living allowance. Quarterly adjustment of cost-of-living allowance. Do. Do. Do. ________________________________________________________________ Table 1. General wage changes,1 1920-62—Continued Effective date Dec. 1, 1952 (referee’s memorandum and award dated Mar. 18, 1953). Jan. 1, 1953................. Apr. 1,1953 ................. July 1, 1953.................. Oct. 1,1953................. Jan. 1,1954.................. Apr. 1,1954 ................. July 1,1954 ................. Oct. 1,1954 ................. Dec. 3, 1954 (agree ment of same date). Dec. 1,1955 (agreement dated Dec. 21, 1955). Nov. 1,1956 (agreement of same date). May 1,1957................. Nov. 1,1957 (agreement dated Nov. 1, 1956). Nov. 1,1957 ............... May 1,1958................. Nov. 1, 1958 (agreement dated Nov. 1, 1956). Nov. 1, 1958 ............... May 1,1959................. Nov. 1,1959 ................ May 1,1960................. July 1,1960 (agreement dated Aug. 19, 1960). Feb. 1,1962 (agreement dated June 5, 1962). May 1,1962 (agreement of above date). Provision 4 cents an hour increase.7 Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Quarterly adjustment of cost-of-living allowance. Do. Quarterly review of cost-of-living allowance. Quarterly adjustment of cost-of-living allowance. Quarterly review of cost-of-living allowance. Do. Do. Do. Cost-of-living escalator provision discontinued and allowance (13 cents) incorporated into basic rates. 1 cent an hour decrease . 3 cents an hour decrease. No change. 3 cents an hour increase. No change . No change. No change. No change. 14.5 cents an hour increase.3 10 cents an hour increase.3 Agreement provided for semiannual cost-of-living adjust ments of 1 cent an hour for each 0.5-point change in the BLS Consumer Price Index above the level of 117.1 (194749 = 100).8 The agreement also provided deferred increases of 7 cents an hour effective Nov. 1, 1957 and 1958. Semiannual adjustment of cost-of-living allowance. Deferred increase. Semiannual adjustment of cost-of-living allowance. Do. Deferred increase. 3 cents an hour increase. 7 cents an hour increase3 5 cents an hour Increase. 4 cents an hour increase. 7 cents an hour increase.3 1 cent an hour increase. No change. 3 cents an hour increase1 cent an hour increase. 5 cents an hour increase.3 4 cents an hour increase.3 6.28 cents an hour increase.3 Semiannual adjustment of cost-of-living allowance. Semiannual review of cost-of-living allowance. Semiannual adjustment of cost-of-living allowance. Do. Cost-of-living escalator provision discontinued and allowance (17 cents) incorporated into basic rates. 180.0 and less than 181.0....................................... 2 cents an hour. 181.0 and less than 182.0....................................... 3 cents an hour. and so forth, with corresponding 1-cent-an-hour adjustments for each 1-point change in the index. By agreement of Sept. 16, 1953, the parties converted to the revised BLS Consumer Price Index (1947-49 = 100), using a new lower limit of 107.0, and a 1-cent-an-hour adjustment for each 0.6-point change in the index. 7The Mar. 1, 1951, agreement permitted a reopening only if the Gov ernment’s wage stabilization policy permitted annual improvement wage increases and provided for discussions by the parties on this sub ject. If the parties were unable to agree that such an increase was per missible, the President of the United States was authorized to appoint a referee to decide the matter. A referee appointed by the President decided that annual improvement increases were permissible under the existing stabilization policies and after a separate hearing on whether an increase was justified in this case, handed down the award indicated. 8The agreement provided cost-of-living adjustments effective May 1 and Nov. 1, based on the BLS Consumer Price Index for the months of March and September, as follows: Consumer Price Index Cost-of-living (1947-49=100) allowance 1General wage changes are upward or downward adjustments affect ing a substantial number of workers at one time. Not included are adjustments in individual rates (promotions, length-of-service increases, etc.) and adjustments in wage structure that do not have an immediate and noticeable effect on the average wage level. The changes listed are the major adjustments in wage rates made during the period covered. Because of fluctuations in earnings occa sioned by changes in classification systems and other factors, the total of the general changes listed will not necessarily coincide with the changes in straight-time average hourly earnings over the period. Subsequent decisions dealt primarily with individual railroads. 3Daily, weekly, and monthly rates were adjusted by the same hourly amount as the general wage change, and piecework rates were adjusted by an equivalent amount; thus all employees received the equivalent of the hourly adjustment regardless of the method of pay. Fixed rates, paid for all services rendered, were adjusted to give effect to the number of hours used in establishing these rates and to equivalent hours for the special allowances included in them. Special allowances, not included in the fixed rates of pay, were not adjusted. 4This provision was included in all subsequent agreements. 5 See also Dec. 17, 1948, report of Emergency Board, No. 66. 6The agreement provided cost-of-living adjustments effective Apr. 1, July 1, Oct. 1, and Jan. 1, based on the BLS Consumer Price Index for the months of February, May, August, and November as follows: Consumer Price Index Cost-of-living (1935-39=100) allowance 178.0 and less than 179.0....................................... None. 179.0 and less than 180.0....................................... 1 cent an hour. 117.1 and less than 117.6....................................... 117.6 and less than 118.1....................................... 118.1 and lessthan 118.6....................................... 118.6 and less than 119.1....................................... and so forth, with 1-cent-an-hour adjustments change in the index. 29 None. 1 cent an hour. 2 cents an hour. 3 cents an hour. for each 0.5-point Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77 Effective date Agreement date Jan. 1, 1964 May 1, 1964— BRS; Nov. 20, 1964— BMWE, BRASC, HREU, ORT; Nov. 21, 1964 — BBF, BRC, IBFO; Feb. 4, 1965— SMWIA, IAM, IBEW. 9 cents 9 cents 9 cents TCE (ORT) 9 cents Jan. 1, 1965 Nov. 20, 1964— BMWE, BRASC, HREU, ORT; Nov. 21, 1964— BBF, BRC, IBFO; Dec. 29, 1964 (letter)—BRS; Feb. 4, 1965— SMWIA, IAM, IBEW. 9 cents 9 cents 9 cents Jan. 1, 1966 Nov. 20, 1964 — BMWE, BRASC, HREU, ORT; Nov. 21, 1964— BBF, BRC, IBFO; Dec. 29, 1964 (letter)—BRS; Feb. 4, 1965— SMWIA, IAM, IBEW. 9 cents 9 cents Jan. 1, 1967 Dec. 15, 1966— BRASC; Jan. 13, 1967— BMWE, HREU, TCE, BRS; Sept. 15, 1967— BBF, BRC, IBFO, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW. 5 percent 5 percent Sept. 15, 1967— BBF, BRC, IBFO, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW. Oct. 1, 1967 Sept. 15, 1967— BBF, BRC, IBFO, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW. Apr. 1, 1967 See footnotes at end of table. BRASC BMWE HREU BRS Union2 BBF BRC IBFO SMWIA IAM IBEW Applications, exceptions, and other related matters 9 cents 10 cents signalmen, signal maintainers, mechanics; 6 cents others 9 cents 9 cents 6 cents regular apprentices, 9 cents others 6 cents regular apprentices, 9 cents others 6 cents regular apprentices, 9 cents others Initial increases provided by agreements which also pro vided additional increases effective Jan. 1, 1965 and Jan. 1, 1966 except for BRS agreement. 9 cents 10 cents 9 cents signalmen, signal maintainers, mechanics; 6 cents others 9 cents 9 cents 4 percent mechanics; 9 cents helpers and helpers’ apprentices; 6 cents regular apprentices 4 percent mechanics; 9 cents helpers and helpers’ apprentices; 6 cents regular apprentices 4 percent mechanics; 9 cents helpers and helpers’ apprentices 6 cents regular apprentices BRS —letter of agreement also provided deferred increase effective Jan. 1, 1966. 9 cents 9 cents 9 cents 10 cents signalmen, signal maintainers, mechanics; 6 cents others 9 cents 9 cents • 3.5 percent mechanics; 9 cents helpers and helpers’ apprentices; 6 cents regular apprentices 3.5 percent mechanics; 9 cents helpers and helpers’ apprentices; 6 cents regular apprentices 3.5 percent mechanics; 9 cents helpers and helpers' apprentices; 6 cents regular apprentices 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 6 percent 6 percent 6 percent 6 percent 6 percent 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 6 percent 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 cents journeymen and mechanics BMWE, HREU, TCE, BRS— agreement also provided deferred increase effective Jan. 1, 1968. BBF, BRC, IBFO, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW—award of special board appointed pursuant to Public Law 90-54 which also provided additional increases effective Apr. 1, 1967, Oct. 1, 1967, Apr. 1, 1968, July 1, 1968, and Oct. 1, 1968. Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77—Continued Effective date Agreement date BRASC BMWE HREU TCE (ORT) BRS Jan. 1, 1968 Jan. 13, 1967— BMWE, HREU, TCE, BRS; Dec. 28, 1967— BRASC. 2.5 percent 2.5 percent 2.5 percent 2.5 percent Union^ BBF 2.5 percent Apr. 1, 1968 Sept. 15, 1967— BBF, BRC, IBFO, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW. 3.5 percent July 1, 1968 Sept. 15, 1967— BBF, BRC, IBFO, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW; Dec. 28, 1967— BRASC; May 17, 1968— BMWE, HREU; June 24, 1968— TCE; Apr. 21, 1969— BRS. Oct. 1, 1968 Dec. 28, 1967 — BRASC; May 17, 1968— BMWE, HREU; June 24, 1968— TCE; Apr. 21, 1969— BRS; Apr. 9, 1970— BBF, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW; Apr. 24, 1970— BRC; June 12, 1970— IBFO. 3.5 percent 3.5 percent 3.5 percent all, follow ing applica tion of 22 cents for mechanics and higher rated workers and 9 cents all others Sept. 15, 1967— BBF, BRC, IBFO, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW. Jan. 1, 1969 3.5 percent See footnotes at end of table. 2 percent 2 percent 2 percent 2 percent 2 percent BRC IBFO SMWIA IAM IBEW Applications, exceptions, and other related matters BRASC—in addition, Classifica tion and Evaluation Fund established equivalent to 5-cent-an-hour average to be allocated by July 1, 1968 to higher rated and higher-skilled workers. Agreement also pro vided deferred increases effective July 1, 1968, Jan. 1, 1969, and July 1, 1969. 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 percent 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 percent 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 percent 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 percent 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 percent 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 5 percent 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 2 percent 5 cents journeymen and mechanics V 2 percent 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 2 percent 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 2 percent 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 2 percent 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 2 percent BMWE, HREU—in addition, Classification and Evaluation Funds established equivalent to 5-cent-an-hour average to be allocated to higher-rated and higher-skilled maintenance of way (BMWE) workers and to reduce basic work month for dining car (HREU) workers without change in basic monthly pay. Agreement also provided deferred increases effective Jan. 1, 1969 and July 1, 1969. TCE—in addition, Classification and Evaluation Fund estab lished equivalent to 5-cent-anhour average to be allocated to higher-rated and higherskilled workers. Agreement also provided deferred in creases effective Jan. 1,1969 and July 1, 1969. BRS—agreement also provided additional increases effective Jan. 1, 1969 and July 1, 1969. BBF and BRC—by agreement dated Jan. 9, 1969, boiler makers, blacksmiths, carmen, and regular apprentices were to have their wage rates equalized with the rates of pay of sheet metal workers, electricians, and machinists effective Jan. 1, 1969 prior to the application of the 2 per cent increase. This resulted in additional increases for BBF and BRC workers, except in the case of regular appren tices who experienced a net decrease. Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77—Continued Effective date Agreement date BRASC BMWE HREU TCE (ORT) BRS Union2 BBF BRC IBFO SMWIA IAM IBEW BBF, BRC, IBFO, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW—agreements provided that hourly rates of pay for all hourly-rated workers be rounded up to the next whole cent prior to the Jan. 1,1969 2-percent adjustment. In deter mining future percentage ad justments, the increase was to be rounded to the nearest whole cent. BBF, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW—by Public Law 91-226. Agreement also provided additional in creases effective July 1, 1969, Sept. 1, 1969, Jan. 1, 1970, Feb. 19, 1970, Apr. 1, 1970, and Aug. 1, 1970. BRC—agreement also provided additional increases effective July 1, 1969, Sept. 1, 1969, Jan. 1, 1970, Apr. 1, 1970, Apr. 24, 1970, and Aug. 1, 1970. IBFO—agreement also provided additional increases effective July 1, 1969, Sept. 1, 1969, Jan. 1, 1970, Apr. 1, 1970, and Aug. 1, 1970. Jan. 1, 1969— continued Dec. 28, 1967— BRASC; May 17, 1968— BMWE, HREU; June 24, 1968— TCE3; Apr. 21, 1969— BRS; Apr. 9, 1970— BBF, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW; Apr. 24, 1970— BRC; June 12, 1970— IBFO. Sept. 1, 1969 Apr. 9, 1970— BBF, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW; Apr. 24, 1970— BRC; June 12, 1970— IBFO. July 1, 1969 Sec footnotes at end of table. Applications, exceptions and other related matters 3 percent 3 percent 3 percent 3 percent 3 percent 3 percent all, plus 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 3 percent all, plus 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 3 percent all, plus 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 3 percent all, plus 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 3 percent all, plus 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 3 percent all, plus 5 cents journeymen and mechanics 10 cents 10 cents 5 cents 10 cents 10 cents 10 cents Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77—Continued Effective date Agreement date Jan. 1, 1970 Apr. 9, 1970— BBF, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW; Apr. 24, 1970— BRC; June 12, 1970— IBFO; Feb. 10, 1971 — BMWE, HREU; Feb. 25, 1971BRASC; Nov. 16, 1971 — BRS. Feb. 19, 1970 Apr. 9, 1970— BBF, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW. Apr. 1, 1970 Apr. 9, 1970— BBF, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW; Apr. 24, 1970— BRC; June 12, 1970— IBFO. Apr. 24, 1970— BRC. Apr. 24, 1970 Aug. 1, 1970 Nov. 1, 1970 Jan. 1, 1971 BRASC BMWE HREU 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent Apr. 9, 1970— BBF, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW; Apr. 24, 1970— BRC; June 12, 1970— IBFO. 32 cents Feb. 10, 1971 — BMWE, HREU; Feb. 25, 1971BRASC; Nov. 16, 1971 — BRS. Oct. 7, 1971 — BBF, BRC, IAM, IBEW; Nov. 16, 1971 — BRS; Feb. 11, 1972— IBFO; May 12, 1972— SMWIA. at end of table. See footnotes TCE (ORT) < 3) BRS 5 percent Union^ BBF BRC 5 percent 5 percent 32 cents 32 cents (3) 30 cents mechanics and higher rated workers; 18 cents others 10 cents 10 cents SMWIA IAM IBEW 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 7 cents journeymen and mechanics 4 cents 7 cents journeymen and mechanics 4 cents 7 cents journeymen and mechanics 4 cents 4 cents 4 cents 4 cents 10 cents 10 cents 10 cents BMWE, HREU—agreement also provided additional increases effective Nov. 1, 1970, Apr. 1, 1971, Oct. 1, 1971, Apr. 1, 1972, Oct. 1, 1972, and Apr. 1, 1973. BRASC—agreement also pro vided additional increases effective Nov. 1, 1970, Apr. 1, 1971, Oct. 1, 1971, Apr. 1, 1972, Oct. 1, 1972, Jan. 1, 1973, and Apr. 1, 1973. BRS—agreement also provided for additional increases effec tive Nov. 1, 1970, Jan. 1, 1971, Apr. 1, 1971, Oct. 1, 1971, Apr. 1, 1972, Oct. 1, 1972, and Apr. 1, 1973. 4 cents 10 cents Applications, exceptions, and other related matters 7 cents journeymen and mechanics 4 cents 7 cents journeymen and mechanics 4 cents 4 cents 4 cents IBFO 5 cents applied to previous rates plus 5 percent 4 cents 10 cents BBF, BRC, IBFO, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW—agreement also pro vided additional increases effective Apr. 1, 1971, Oct. 1, 1971, Apr. 1, 1972, Oct. 1, 1972, and Apr. 1, 1973. Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77—Continued Effective date Agreement date Apr. 1, 1971 Feb. 10, 1971 — BMWE, HREU; Feb. 25, 1971 — BRASC; Oct. 7, 1971 — BBF, BRC, IAM, IBEW; Nov. 16, 1971 — BRS; Feb. 11, 1972— IBFO; May 12, 1972SMWIA. Feb. 10, 1971 — BMWE, HREU; Feb. 25, 1971 — BRASC; Oct. 7, 1971 — BBF, BRC, IAM, IBEW; Nov. 16, 1971 — BRS; Feb. 11, 1972— IBFO; May 12, 1972— SMWIA. Feb. 10, 1971 — BMWE, HREU; Feb. 25, 1971 — BRASC; Oct. 7, 1971 — BBF, BRC, IAM, IBEW; Nov. 16, 1971 — BRS; Feb. 11, 1972— IBFO; May 12, 1972— SMWIA. Feb. 10, 1971 — BMWE, HREU; Feb. 25, 1971 — BRASC; Oct. 7, 1971 — BBF, BRC, IAM, IBEW; Nov. 16, 1971 — BRS; Feb. 11, 1972— IBFO; May 12, 1972— SMWIA. Feb. 25, 1971 — BRASC. Oct. 1, 1971 Apr. 1, 1972 Oct. 1, 1972 Jan. 1, 1973 http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ at end of table. See footnotes Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis BRC IBFO SMWIA IAM IBEW BRASC BMWE HREU TCE (ORT) 4 percent 4 percent 4 percent (3) 15 cents mechanics and higher-rated workers; 8 cents others 15 cents journeymen and mechanics; 8 cents others 15 cents journeymen and mechanics; 8 cents others 15 cents journeymen and mechanics; 8 cents others 15 cents journeymen and mechanics; 8 cents others 15 cents journeymen and mechanics; 8 cents others 15 cents journeymen and mechanics; 8 cents others 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent < 3) 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent (3) 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent < 3) 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 15 cents <3) BRS Union2 BBF Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77—Continued Effective date Agreement date Apr. 1, 1973 Feb. 10, 1971 — BMWE, HREU; Feb. 25, 1971BRASC; Oct. 7, 1971 — BBF, BRC, IAM, IBEW; Nov. 16, 1971 — BRS; Feb. 11, 1972— IBFO; May 12, 1972— SMWIA. 10 cents 25 cents 25 cents Jan. 1, 1974 Apr. 27, 1973— BRASC, BMWE, HREU, BRS; May 10, 1973— BBF, BRC, IBFO, IBEW; May 22, 1974— IAM; Jan. 29, 1975— SMWIA. Jan. 29, 1975— BMWE, BRS, SMWIA; Mar. 12, 1975— IAM; July 23, 1975— BRASC; Dec. 4, 1975— BBF, BRC, IBFO, IBEW; Mar. 18, 1975— HREU. 4 percent 4 percent 4 percent 10 percent 10 percent 10 percent Jan. 1, 1975 See footnotes at end of table. BRASC BMWE HREU TCE (ORT) BRS Union^ BBF BRC IBFO SMWIA IAM IBEW 25 cents 25 cents 25 cents 25 cents 25 cents 25 cents 25 cents (3) 4 percent 4 percent 4 percent 4 percent 4 percent 4 percent 4 percent (3) 10 percent 10 percent 10 percent 10 percent 10 percent 10 percent 10 percent Applications, exceptions, and other related matters (3) Agreements also (1) provided additional increases effective Oct. 1, 1975, Apr. 1, 1976, and July 1, 1977, and (2) re established a cost-of-living escalator clause providing for 4 semiannual adjustments in Jan. and July based on Con sumer Price Indexes for Sept, and Mar., respectively (the BRASC pact provided a 5th adjustment effective Jan. 1, 1978) beginning Jan. 1, 1976 calculated (a) for the 1st 3 ad justments, at 1 cent for each 0.4-point change in the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Price Index (1967= 100) over the CPI for March 1975 but not more than the maximum allowed4 and (b) for the 4th adjustment, 1 cent for each 0.3-point change between the CPI’s for Sept. 1976 and Mar. 1977 up to specified maxi mum,4 and (c) in the case of the 5th adjustment for BRASC workers, of 1 cent for each 0.3-point change in the CPI for Sept. 1977 over that for Mar. 1977 (maximum 23 cents). Portions of the accumulated cost-of-living allowance were to be incorporated into basic rates on Dec. 31, 1976, June 30, 1977, and Dec. 31, 1977.5 Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77 Effective date Agreement date Oct. 1, 1975 Jan. 29, 1975— BMWE, BRS, SMWIA; Mar. 12, 1975— IAM; July 23, 1975— BRASC; Dec. 4, 1975— BBF, BRC, IBFO, IBEW; Mar. 18, 1975— HREU. Jan. 1, 1976 Apr. 1, 1976 July 1, 1976 BRC IBFO SMWIA IAM IBEW 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent 12 cents 12 cents 12 cents 12 cents 12 cents 12 cents 12 cents Jan. 29, 1975— BMWE, BRS, SMWIA; Mar. 12, 1975— IAM; July 23, 1975— BRASC; Dec. 4, 1975— BBF, BRC, IBFO, IBEW; Mar. 18, 1975— HREU. (3> 3 percent 3 percent 3 percent 3 percent 3 percent 3 percent - 3 percent 12 cents (3) 12 cents 12 cents 12 cents 12 cents 12 cents 12 cents 12 cents — — — — — — — — Jan. 1, 1977 - 13 cents 13 cents 13 cents (3) 13 cents 13 cents 13 cents 13 cents 13 cents 13 cents June 30, 1977 — — — — — — — Jan. 29, 1975— BMWE, BRS, SMWIA; Mar. 12, 1975— IAM; July 23, 1975— BRASC; Dec. 4, 1975— BBF, BRC, IBFO, IBEW; Mar. 18, 1975— HREU. HREU TCE (ORT) 5 percent 5 percent 5 percent (3) 5 percent 12 cents 12 cents 12 cents (3) 3 percent 3 percent 3 percent 12 cents 12 cents - BRS 13 cents — BBF - - - See footnotes at end of table. 4 percent 4 percent 4 percent < 3) 4 percent 4 percent 4 percent 4 percent 4 percent 4 percent 4 percent 18 cents Applications, exceptions, and other related matters 5 percent BMWE — — Dec. 31, 1976 July 1, 1977 Union^ BRASC 18 cents 18 cents <3) 18 cents 18 cents 18 cents 18 cents 18 cents 18 cents 18 cents Cost-of-living adjustment, the maximum permitted by the formula. Semiannual adjustment of costof-living allowance. 18 cents of accumulated costof-living allowance incorpo rated into basic rates. Semiannual adjustment of costof-living allowance. 6 cents of accumulated cost-ofliving allowance incorporated into basic rates. Semiannual adjustment of costof-living allowance. Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77—Continued Effective date Agreement date BRASC Dec. 31, 1977 - - Jan. 1, 1978 HREU TCE (ORT) - - Union2 BBF BRS - 19 cents — „ — (3 > BRC IBFO SMWIA IAM IBEW - - - - - - 3 cents journeymen and mechanics - Dec. 4, 1975— BBF, BRC, IBFO, IBEW. — co -si BMWE 3 cents journeymen and mechanics 3 cents journeymen and mechanics — — — — 1 General wage changes are upward or downward adjustments affecting a substantial number of workers at one time. Not included are adjustments in individual rates (promotions, length-of-service increases, etc.) and adjustments in the wage structure that do not have an immediate and noticeable effect on the average wage level. The changes listed are the major adjustments in wage rates made during the period covered. Because of fluc tuations in earnings occasioned by changes in classification systems and other factors, the total of the general changes will not necessarily coincide with the change in straight-time average hourly earnings over the period. Daily, weekly, and monthly rates were adjusted by the same hourly amount as the general wage change, and piecework rates were adjusted by an equivalent amount; thus all employees received the equivalent of the hourly adjustment regardless of the method of pay. Fixed rates, paid for all services rendered, were adjusted to give effect to the number of hours used in establishing these rates and to equivalent hours for the special allowances included in them. Special allowances, not included in the fixed rates of pay, were not adjusted. 2 Unions were BRASC— Brotherhood of Railway, Airline and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station Employees; BMWE— Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Employees; HREU— Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union; TCE—Transportation-Communication Employees Union (for merly the Order of Railroad Telegraphers and became a division of BRASC on Feb. 20,1969); BRS—Brotherhood of Railroad Signalmen; BBF—International Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders, Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers; BRC— Brotherhood of Railway Carmen of the United States and Canada; IBFO— Inter national Brotherhood of Firemen and Oilers; SMWIA —Sheet Metal Workers’ International Association; 1AM—In ternational Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers; IBEW—International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. 2 Employees represented by the BRASC and the TCE, which became a division of the BRASC following their merger on Feb. 20, 1969, were covered by the same agreement and wage increases for all such employees were identical. Applications, exceptions, and other related matters 16 cents of accumulated cost-of-living allowance incor porated into basic rates. 3 cents journeymen and mechanics — — - BRASC—semiannual adjustment of cost-of-living allowance. 4 Maximums were as follow: Maximum cumulative allowance (in cents) Jan. 1,1976............................................................................................... 12 July 1,1976 ............................................................................................... 28 Jan. 1,1977 ............................................................................................... 45* July 1,1977 .............................................................................................. 68* 'Includes amounts incorporated into base rates as specified in footnote 5. 2 Portions of accumulated cost-of-living allowance to be incorporated into base rates were as follow: Effective Dec. 31, 1976, 75 percent of allowance then in effect; effective June 30, 1977, remainder of allowance in effect as of Dec. 31, 1976 and still payable; and effective Dec. 31, 1977, 50 percent of allowance then in effect. The cost-of-living allowance was not included in wage rates for the purpose of calculating percentage basic wage increases until incorporated into base rates. While a cost-of-living allowance was in effect, it was to apply to straight-time, overtime, vacations, and holidays, and to special allowances and arbitraries in the same manner as basic wage adjustments were applied in the past. Effective date of adjustment Table 3. Basic hourly wage rates1 for shop crafts,2 specified dates, 1920-62 Occupation Blacksmiths................................. Boilermakers ............................... Car repairmen, passenger............ Carmen, other............................... Electrical workers ....................... Linemen ............................... Groundmen........................... Coal pier elevator and hoist operators........................... M achinists................................... Sheet-metal workers................... Apprentices, regular: First period........................... Eighth perio d....................... Apprentices, helper: First period........................... Sixth period ......................... Helpers, all crafts......................... May 1, July 1, July 1, Feb. 1, Aug. 1 Dec. 1, Feb. 1, Dec. 27, Jan. 1, May 22, Sept. 1, Oct. 1, 1947 1948 1921 1922 19321 1937 3 2 1941 19434 1943 1946 1946 1920 $0.85 $0.77 $0.70 $0.80 $0.85 $0.95 $1.00 $1.05 $1.21 $1,235 $1.39 $1.46 1.46 1.05 1.21 1.235 1.39 .77 .80 .85 .95 1.00 .85 .70 1.46 .77 1.00 1.05 1.21 1.235 1.39 .85 .70 .80 .85 .95 .94 1.14 1.165 1.32 .72 .63 .73 .78 .88 .98 1.39 .80 1.21 1.235 1.39 1.46 .77 .80 .85 .95 1.00 1.05 .85 .70 1.42 1.17 1.195 1.35 .73 .66 .76 .81 .91 .96 1.01 .81 1.11 1.36 .67 .91 .95 1.135 1.29 .75 .60 .70 .75 .85 1.04 .78 .88 1.065 1.22 1.29 .68 .60 .53 .63 .68 .85 .77 .80 .85 .95 1.21 .85 .70 1.00 1.05 1.235 1.39 1.46 .85 .77 .70 .80 .85 .95 1.00 1.05 1.21 1.235 1.39 1.46 .42 .67 .62 .72 .62 .34 .59 .54 .64 .54 .27 .52 .47 .57 .47 .37 .62 .57 .67 .57 .42 .67 .62 .72 .62 .52 .77 .72 .82 .72 .61 .86 .79 .88 .79 .63 .88 .82 .91 .82 .79 1.04 .98 1.07 .98 .815 1.065 1.005 1.105 1.005 .97 1.22 1.16 1.26 1.16 1.04 1.29 1.23 1.33 1.23 Sept. 1, Feb. 1, Dec. 1, Dec. 3, Dec. 1, Nov. 1, Nov. 1, Nov. 1, July 1, Feb. 1, May 1, 1949 1952 1954s 1955 1957 1951 1956 1958 1960s 1962 1962 Blacksm iths................................... Boilermakers................................... Car repairmen, passenger.............. Carmen, other................................. Electrical workers........................... Linemen................................... Groundmen............................. Coal pier elevator and hoist operators............................. Machinists ..................................... Sheet-metal workers ..................... Apprentices, regular: First period............................. Eighth period ......................... Apprentices, helpers: First period............................. Sixth period............................. Helpers, all crafts........................... $1,738 $1,863 1.738 1.863 1.738 1.863 1.654 1.779 1.738 1.863 1.690 1.815 1.618 1.743 1.534 1.659 1.738 1.863 1.738 1.863 1.234 1.534 1.462 1.582 1.462 1.359 1.659 1.587 1.707 1.587 $1,903 $2,033 $2,178 $2,278 1.903 2.033 2.178 2.278 1.903 2.033 2.178 2.278 1.819 1.989 2.134 2.234 1.903 2.033 2.178 2.278 1.855 1.985 2.130 2.230 1.783 1.913 2.058 2.158 1.699 1.829 1.974 2.074 1.903 2.033 2.178 2.278 1.903 2.033 2.178 2.278 1.399 1.699 1.627 1.747 1.627 1.529 1.829 1.757 1.877 1.757 1.774 2.074 2.002 2.122 2.002 $2,418 2.418 2.418 2.378 2.418 2.370 2.298 2.214 2.418 2.418 $2,638 2.638 2.638 2.598 2.638 2.590 2.518 2.434 2.638 2.638 1.844 2.144 2.072 2.192 2.072 1.914 2.274 2.142 2.262 2.142 2.134 2.434 2.362 2.482 2.362 $2,678 $2.7408 2.678 2.7408 2.678 2.7408 2.634 2.6968 2.678 2.7408 2.630 2.6928 2.558 2.6208 2.474 2.5368 2.678 2.7408 2.678 2.7408 2.174 2.474 2.402 2.522 2.402 2.2368 2.5368 2.4648 2.5848 2.4648 4 Includes a 1-cent increase on some railroads to remove intraindustry inequities. includes 13-cent cost-of-living allowance incorporated into base wage rates. includes 17-cent cost-of-living allowance incorporated into base wage rates. 1 Does not include cost-of-living adjustments for the periods such pro visions were in effect (Feb. 1951 to Dec. 1954; Nov. 1956 to July 1960). 2Most prevalent wage rate; on some roads the rate for a particular occupation was slightly higher or lower. 3 From Feb. 1,1932, to Apr. 1,1935, the parties agreed to deduct speci fied percentages from each worker’s earnings (table 1); basic wage rates, however, were not reduced and remained at the Feb. 1,1932, level. 1.674 1.974 1.902 2.022 1.902 $2,348 2.348 2.348 2.304 2.348 2.300 2.228 2.144 2.348 2.348 38 Table 4. Basic hourly wage rates1 for shop crafts,2 specified dates, 1964-77 Jan. 1, 1965 Jan. 1, 1966 Jan. 1, 1967 Apr. 1, 1967 Oct. 1, 1967 Apr. 1, 1968 July 1, 1968 $2.8308 $2.9208 2.8308 2.9208 2.8308 2.9208 2.7868 2.8768 2.8308 2.9450 2.7828 2.8950 2.7108 2.8008 2.8308 2.9450 2.8308 2.9450 $3.0108 3.0108 3.0108 2.9668 3.0475 2.9950 2.8908 3.0475 3.0475 $3.1914 $3.2414 3.1914 3.2414 3.1914 3.2414 3.1448 3.1948 3.2304 3.2804 3.1747 3.2247 3.0642 unchgd 3.2304 3.2804 3.2304 3.2804 $3.2914 3.2914 3.2914 3.2448 3.3304 3.2747 unchgd 3.3304 3.3304 $3.3414 3.3414 3.3414 3.2948 3.3804 3.3247 unchgd 3.3804 3.3804 $3.5085 $3.5585 3.5085 3.5585 3.5085 3.5585 3.4595 3.5095 3.5494 3.5994 3.4909 3.5409 3.2174 unchgd 3.5494 3.5994 3.5494 3.5994 2.3268 2.6148 2.4168 2.7048 2.5068 2.7948 2.6572 unchgd 2.9625 unchgd unchgd unchgd unchgd unchgd 2.7901 unchgd 3.1106 unchgd 2.2968 2.5848 2.3568 2.6448 2.4168 2.7048 2.5618 unchgd 2.8671 unchgd unchgd unchgd unchgd unchgd 2.6899 unchgd 3.0105 unchgd 2.5548 2.6748 2.5548 2.6448 2.7648 2.6448 2.7348 2.8548 2.7348 2.8989 unchgd 3.0261 unchgd 2.8989 unchgd unchgd unchgd unchgd unchgd unchgd unchgd 3.0438 unchgd 3.1774 unchgd 3.0438 unchgd Jan. 1, July 1, Sept. 1, 19695 1969 1969 Jan. 1, 1970 Feb. 19, 1970 Apr. 1, 1970 Aug. 1, 1970 Jan. 1, 1971 Apr. 1, 1971 Oct. 1, 1971 Apr. 1, 1972 $3.93 3.93 3.93 3.88 3.93 3.88 3.48 3.93 3.93 $4.13 4.13 4.13 4.07 4.13 4.07 3.65 4.13 4.13 $4.20 4.20 unchgd unchgd 4.20 4.14 unchgd 4.20 4.20 $4.24 4.24 4.247 4.187 4.24 4.18 3.69 4.24 4.24 $4.28 4.28 4.28 4.22 4.28 4.22 3.73 4.28 4.28 $4.38 4.38 4.38 4.32 4.38 4.32 3.83 4.38 4.38 $4.53 4.53 4.53 4.47 4.53 4.47 3.91 4.53 4.53 $4.76 4.76 4.76 4.70 4.76 4.69 4.11 4.76 4.76 $5.00 5.00 5.00 4.94 5.00 4.92 4.32 5.00 5.00 2.92 3.27 3.07 3.43 unchgd unchgd 3.11 3.47 3.15 3.51 3.25 3.61 3.33 3.69 3.50 3.87 3.68 4.06 3.30 3.44 3.30 3.47 3.61 3.47 unchgd unchgd unchgd 3.51 3.65 3.51 3.55 3.69 3.55 3.65 3.79 3.65 3.73 3.87 3.73 3.92 4.06 3.92 4.12 4.26 4.12 Jan. 1, 1964 Occupation Blacksmiths..................................... Boilermakers................................... Carmen (A and B)3........................... Carmen (C and D)4 ........................... Electrical workers (A) ..................... Linemen................................... Groundmen ............................. Machinists....................................... Sheet metal workers....................... Regular apprentices: BBF, BRC First period............................... Eighth period........................... IAM, IBEW, SMWIA First period............................... Eighth period........................... Helper apprentices: First period............................... Sixth period............................. Skilled trades helpers..................... Blacksmiths................................. $3.67® $3.83 3.676 3.83 Boilermakers ............................... Carmen (A and B)3 ...................... 3.676 3.83 3.62 3.78 Carmen (C and D)4 ....................... 3.67 3.83 Electrical workers (A)................... Linemen ............................... 3.62 3.78 Groundmen........................... 3.28 3.38 3.67 3.83 M achinists................................... 3.67 3.83 Sheet metal workers................... Regular apprentices: IAM, IBEW, SMWIA, BBF, BRC6 2.74 2.82 First period........................... Eighth perio d....................... 3.08 3.17 Helper apprentices: 3.11 3.20 First period........................... 3.24 3.34 Sixth period ......................... 3.11 3.20 Skilled trades helpers.................. See footnotes at end of table. 39 Oct. 1, 1968 Table 4. Basic hourly wage rates1 for shop crafts,2 specified dates, 1964-77—Continued Occupation Blacksmiths....................................... Boilermakers..................................... Carmen (A and B)3 ............................. Carmen (C and D)4 ............................. Electrical workers (A) ....................... Linemen..................................... Groundmen ............................... Machinists......................................... Sheet metal workers......................... Regular apprentices: IAM, IBEW, SMWIA, BBF, BRC6 First period................................. Eighth period............................. Helper apprentices: First period................................. Sixth p eriod............................... Skilled trades helpers....................... Oct. 1, 1972 Apr. 1, 1973 Jan. 1, 1974 Jan. 1, 1975 Oct. 1, 1975 Apr. 1, 1976 $5.25 5.25 5.25 5.19 5.25 5.17 4.54 5.25 5.25 $5.50 5.50 5.50 5.44 5.50 5.42 4.79 5.50 5.50 $5.72 5.72 5.72 5.66 5.72 5.62 4.97 5.72 5.72 $6.29 6.29 6.29 6.23 6.29 6.18 5.47 6.29 6.29 $6.60 6.60 6.60 6.54 6.60 6.49 5.74 6.60 6.60 $6.80 6.80 6.80 6.74 6.80 6.68 5.91 6.80 6.80 $6.98 6.98 6.98 6.92 6.98 6.86 6.09 6.98 6.98 $7.07 7.04 7.04 6.98 7.04 6.92 6.15 7.04 7.04 3.86 4.26 4.11 4.51 4.27 4.69 4.69 5.16 4.92 5.42 5.07 5.58 5.25 5.76 5.31 5.82 5.52 6.05 5.68 6.21 4.33 4.47 4.33 4.58 4.72 4.58 4.76 4.91 4.76 5.24 5.40 5.24 5.50 5.67 5.50 5.67 5.84 5.67 5.85 6.02 5.85 5.91 6.08 5.91 6.15 6.32 6.15 6.31 6.48 6.31 July 1, Dec. 31, 1977 197710 $7.32 $7.4811 7.32 7.4811 7.32 7.4811 7.26 7.4211 7.32 7.4811 7.20 7.3611 6.40 6.56 7.32 7.48 7.32 7.48 6Sept. 9, 1969 agreement provided for equalization of BBF and BRC skilled and regular apprentice rates with those of SMWIA, IAM, and IBEW. Pates include a 4-cent increase on Apr. 1, 1970 and a 7-cent in crease on Apr. 24, 1970 (comparable workers in other unions received the 7 cents on Feb. 19, 1970). 8Result of incorporation of 18 cents of accumulated cost-of-living allowance into base rates. 9Result of incorporation of 6 cents of accumulated cost-of-living allowance into base rates. 10Result of incorporation of 16 cents of accumulated cost-of-living allowance into base rates. 11Such rates were to be further increased by 3 cents an hour effect ve Jan. 1, 1978. 1Rates do not include cost-of-living allowance for the period such provisions were in effect (beginning Jan. 1, 1976) until incorporated into base rates. 2Most prevalent wage rate; on some roads the rate for a particular occupation was slightly higher or lower. Previously designated as “ car repairmen, passenger” before 1964. Previously designated as “carmen, other” before 1964. Beginning with the Jan. 1,1969 wage increase, agreements provided that increases for these workers would be the money amount of the increases for “ carmen (A and B)” in order to preserve the existing differential between the two categories of workers. 5Shopcraft agreements provided that wage rates be rounded to nearest whole cent prior to application of the Jan. 1, 1969 adjustment and in determining future percentage adjustments. Dec. 31, June 30, 19768 19779 40 Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1 Effective date Provision Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Overtime pay 1932............................. Sept. 1, 1949 (agree ment dated Mar. 19, 1949). No national provision.2 Time and one-half for work in excess of 40 straight-time hours a week. 1932............................. Sept. 1, 1949 (agree ment dated Mar. 19, 1949). No national provision.2 Time and one-half for work on 6th and 7th day of workweek. Feb. 17, 1970 (agree ments dated Apr. 9, 1970—BBF, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW; Apr. 24, 1970—BRC; June 12, 1970—IBFO). Added: Double time paid for 7th consecutive day worked. Existing local and system rules for payment of daily overtime to remain unchanged. Time and one-half not paid for hours in excess of 40 resulting from worker moving from one assignment to another, to or from an extra or furlough list, or when operational require ments made it necessary to split the 2 days of rest so em ployee worked more than five 8-hour days a week. In computing weekly hours of work after which overtime was payable, (a) the following were included: (1) hours (not in excess of 8) paid for on holidays, (2) hours paid for chang ing shifts, and (3) time for which an allowance in lieu of regular rate was paid for attending court, deadheading, travel, etc., during assigned hours; and (b) the following were excluded: (1) daily overtime, (2) arbitraries or special allowances for time outside of assigned working hours or not previously included under existing rules and computa tions leading to overtime. Premium pay for work on weekends or rest day Eliminated: Local and system provisions for payment of puni tive rates for work on Sunday as such. Premiums not paid for work on 6th and 7th days resulting from worker moving from one assignment to another, to or from an extra or furlough list, or when operational require ments made it necessary to split the 2 days of rest so em ployee worked more than five 8-hour days a week.3 Holiday pay 1932............................. May 1, 1954 (agree ment dated Aug. 21, 1954). No national provision. 7 paid holidays, for which regularly assigned workers received 8 hours’ pay at regular rates, provided holiday fell on a scheduled workday.4 July 1, 1960 (agree ment dated Aug. 19, 1960). Jan. 1, 1965 (agree ments dated Nov. 20, 1964— BRASC, BMWE, ORT, BRS, HREU; Nov. 21, 1964—BBF, BRC, IBFO; Feb. 4, 1965— SMWIA, IAM, IBEW). Added: 1 additional paid holiday (total 8). See footnotes at end of table. 41 Holidays were: New Year’s Day, Washington’s Birthday, Memorial Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving, and Christmas. To qualify for holiday pay, employee must have been paid for work on the day immediately preceding and following holi day. Days of sickness not credited as workdays. National agreement not to reduce number of holidays or change method of pay for holidays under existing rules or practices. Added: (a) For regularly assigned employees—holiday pay provided if employee was available but not assigned to work on days immediately preceding and following holi days. (b) For other than regularly assigned employees— holiday pay provided only if holiday fell on a workday, unless employee was relieving a regular employee under specified conditions, in which case the same qualifying conditions for employee being relieved were applied; to be eligible, employee must have (1) worked 11 of the 30 calen dar days preceding holiday and (2) had at least 60 days’ seniority or 60 days’ continuous service preceding holiday. To qualify, employee must, on workday preceding and follow ing holiday, either have (1) been paid for work, or (2) been available for work. Holiday was employee’s birthday. If birthday fell on other than a workday for regularly assigned employee or other than workday employee would have worked for nonregularly assigned employee, employee received an addi tional day’s pay in lieu of day off. Established: HREU—2 days of pay added to annual compen sation in lieu of time off. Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued Effective date Provision Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Holiday pay—Continued Added: Holiday pay for holiday that fell during employee’s vacation period. Added: If holiday fell on employee’s regular scheduled day off, employee received additional day’s pay. Jan. 1, 1968 (agree ments dated Dec. 28, 1967—BRASC; May 17, 1968 —BMWE; June 24, 1968—TCE; Apr. 21, 1969—BRS; Sept. 2, 1969—BBF, BRC, SMWIA, IBFO, IAM, IBEW). 1972 (agreements dated Feb. 10, 1971 — BMWE; Feb. 25,1971 — BRASC (TCE); Oct. 7, 1971 —BRC, BBF, IAM, IBEW; Nov. 16, 1971 —BRS; Feb. 11, 1972—IBFO; May 12, 1972—SMWIA). 1973 (agreements dated Added: 1 additional paid holiday (total 9). Feb. 10, 1971 — BMWE; Feb. 25,1971 —BRASC (TCE); Oct. 7, 1971—BRC, BBF, IAM, IBEW; Nov. 16, 1971— BRS; Feb. 11, 1972— IBFO; May 12, 1972—SMWIA). 1976 (agreements dated Added: 1 additional paid holiday (total 10). Jan. 29, 1975 — BMWE, BRS, SMWIA; Mar. 12, 1975—IAM; Mar. 18,1975—HREU; July 23,1975—BRASC (TCE); Dec. 4, 1975— BBF, BRC, IBEW, IBFO). Changed: Good Friday substituted for employee’s birthday. Holiday was Veterans Day. Holiday was Christmas Eve. HREU—2 cents was added to hourly rates of pay effective Jan. 1, 1976 to reflect an in crease of an additional day’s pay to the employee’s annual rate. Vacation pay 1932............................. Jan. 1,1942 (agreement dated Dec. 17, 1941). No national provision. 6 days’ vacation with pay for employees with 160 days or more of compensated service in preceding calendar year.3 Jan. 1,1945 (agreement dated Feb. 23, 1945). Added: 12 days’ vacation with pay at regular rates for em ployees with 5 or more years’ continuous employment and 160 days’ compensated service in each of 5 years, not necessarily continuous. Changed: Days of vacation, to 5 and 10. Sept. 1,1949 (agreement dated Mar. 19, 1949). Jan. 1,1950 (agreement dated Mar. 19, 1949). Jan. 1,1954 (agreement dated Aug. 21, 1954). Additional 3 days’ vacation with pay after 2 years’ service anc 6 days after 3 years’ continuous service provided employees, represented by the Brotherhood of Railway Clerks and the1 Order of Railroad Telegraphers.5 Pay in lieu of vacation provided when employee could not be released for a vacation. Benefits not provided when employment relationship was terminated, except by statutory retirement, before employee took vacation. National agreement not to deprive employees of more liberal vacations under existing rules or practices. No change in vacation provisions for certain employees rep resented by the Clerks and Telegraphers.5 Changed to: 151 days’ compensated service in 1949 re quired for 1950 vacation; 133 days required in 1950 and thereafter for vacation in following year. Added: 15 days’ vacation with pay at regular rates for employees with 15 or more years’ continuous employ ment and 133 days’ compensated service in each of 15 years, not necessarily continuous.6 Jan. 1,1955 (agreement dated Aug. 21, 1954). 1 L See footnotes at end of table. 42 Based on Emergency Board recommendations of Dec. 17, 1948, that parties agree to change in existing rules not con sistent with the 40-hour workweek. 71z days’ vacation with pay after 2 years’ service and 10 days / after 3 years’ continuous service provided certain em ployees represented by the Clerks and Telegraphers.5 Qualifying years accumulated prior to 1949 for extended vacations not changed. Days of sickness or occupational injury counted as service up to maximum of 10 days for employees with less than 5 years’ service, 20 days for 5 but less than 15 years, and 30 days for 15 or more years. Vacation allowance earned prior to death of employee paid to surviving widow or dependent minor children. No additional pay provided when holiday fell on regularly assigned workday during vacation period. Time and one-half plus vacation pay provided employee required to work during vacation unless local or system agreements contain more liberal provisions. Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued Effective date Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision Vacation pay—Continued Changed to: Service for 10 days’ vacation reduced to Employees eligible for 10 days’ paid vacation in 1960 under 3 continuous years. changed but not old provision to receive additional 5 days’ pay. Days of compensated service in qualifying years reduced Changed: Days of sickness and injury counted as service up to 120 days for 5 days’ vacation, 110 days for 10 days’ to maximum of 10 days for employees with less than 3 vacation, and 100 days for 15 days’ vacation. years’ service and 20 days for 3 but less than 15 years’ ser vice. Vacation allowance became vested when employee qualified. Jan. 1,1965 (agreements Added: 20 workdays (or 4 workweeks) of vacation with pay dated Nov. 20,1964— for employees with 20 years or more of continuous ser BRASC, BMWE, ORT, vice who qualified for existing 15 workdays (or 3 work BRS, HREU; Nov. 21, weeks) vacation. 1964 —BBF, BRC, IBFO; Feb. 4, 1965— SMWIA, IAM, IBEW). Jan. 1,1967 (agreements Changed: Service requirement for 15 workdays (or 3 work dated Dec. 15,1966— weeks) of vacation to 10 years of continuous service. BRASC; Jan. 13, 1967—BMWE, HREU, TCE, BRS; Sept. 27, 1967— BBF, BRC, IBFO, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW). Jan. 1,1968 (agreements Changed: Service requirement for 10 workdays (or 2 work Added: Holiday pay for holiday which fell during vacation dated Dec. 28,1967— weeks) of vacation to 2 years of continuous service. period. BRASC; May 17, 1968— BMWE, HREU; June 24, 1968—TCE; Apr. 21, 1969—BRS; Sept. 2, 1969—BBF, BRC, IBFO, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW). Added: Full credit allowed for military service for vacation Jan. 1,1969 (agreements purposes. dated Sept. 2,1969— BBF, BRC, IBFO, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW). Jan. 1,1973 (agreements Added: 25 workdays (or 5 workweeks) of vacation with pay Added: BRASC (TCE), BMWE, HREU, BRS—full credit allowed for employees with 25 years or more of continuous for military service for vacation purposes. dated Feb. 10,1971 — service who qualified for existing 20 workdays (or 4 BMWE, HREU; Feb. 25, 1971—BRASC workweeks) of vacation. (TCE); Oct. 7, 1971 — BBF, BRC, IAM, IBEW; Nov. 16,1971 — BRS; Feb. 11, 1972— IBFO; May 12,1972— SMWIA). Jury-duty pay Jan. 1,1970 (agreements dated Apr. 9, 1970— BBF, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW; Apr. 24,1970— BRC; June 12,1970— Established: National provision for jury duty with em ployee paid for actual time lost with maximum of a IBFO); basic day’s pay at straight time less jury pay, for up to Jan. 1,1973 (agreements dated Feb. 10,1971 — 60 days per year. BMWE, HREU; Feb. 25, 1971—BRASC (TCE); Nov. 16,1971 — BRS). Jan. 1,1961 (agreement dated Aug. 19, 1960). See footnotes at end of table. 43 Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued Effective date Oct. 15, 1967 (arbitra tion award of Sept. 30, 1967 —BRASC, BMWE, BRS, TCE, HREU). 1932............................. June 18, 1936 (Wash ington Job Protection agreement dated May 21, 1936). Provision Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Travel time and expense pay Established: Uniform travel time and expense allowances Labor organizations affected by the award represented about for employees required to work away from home station 65 percent of all nonoperating employees. as follows: (1) Emloyees required to live away from home in camp Previously, travel time and allowances for workers involved cars, highway trailers, hotels, or motels were to had been determined locally and varied considerably. This condition continued to exist for other nonoperating em receive (a) fully furnished accommodations (linen, ployees. wash-up facilities, etc.) if lodging provided by carrier, otherwise up to $4 a day for actual ex penses, (b) meal allowance of $1, $2, or $3 a day, depending on extent carrier made provision for meals, (c) cost of transportation if not provided at rate of 9 cents a mile if personal auto used, and (d) travel time, pay between work points at straighttime rate outside of work hours; (2) Employees (other than those above or dining car employees) required to be away from headquarters point, including those filling relief assignments or performing extra or temporary service, were to re ceive (a) up to $7 a day for actual meal and lodging expenses when unable to return to headquarters point, (b) free transport or reimbursement for travel on another carrier, or 9 cents a mile if personal auto used for travel between work point and headquar ters, and (c) travel time pay between headquarters and work point or to next work point at straighttime rate for time over 1 hour spent in travel (includ ing waiting time) with private auto use calculated at rate of 2 minutes per mile traveled; (3) Dining car employees required to lay over away from home terminal were to receive (a) lodging fur nished by carrier and (b) meal allowance of $1.50 for a layover of 8 hours or more and an additional $1.50 for a layover of 24 hours or more. Job protection agreements7 No national provision. Employees required to accept new position or separated Washington Job Protection Agreement benefits not available from employment because of unification, consolida to displacements or separations resulting from other than tion, merger, or pooling (coordination) of separate facil defined causes. ities, operations, or services of two or more railroads to receive the following benefits: Displacement allowance: Employees unable in the normal Employee not required to exercise rights to a position which exercise of seniority to obtain a position with pay at required change of residence if another position not re least equal to that of former position guaranteed—for quiring a change was available. Guarantee applied if earn 5 years after merger, consolidation, etc.,—an allow ings of position not requiring change of residence were ance equal to average monthly earnings during 12 below earnings of former job. months immediately preceding displacement less Employees required to move residence within 3 years reim earnings lost because of voluntary absences. Time bursed for (1) moving expenses, (2) travel expenses for self worked in excess of hours worked during 12-month test and family, (3) living expenses for self and family, and (4) wage period not used in computing pay due, if any, under loss during period of transfer and up to 2 days thereafter guarantee. while searching for living quarters. Employees required to move residence and furloughed within 3 years of initial reassignment could elect to return to orig inal place of employment with carrier bearing expense of moving household and personal belongings. Employees required to change point of employment, and thereafter residence, protected against loss resulting from sale of home for less than fair value, or from loss (to extent of fair value of equity) and further obligations under pur chase contract or unexpired lease. Severance allowance: For each month employee was not Employee considered separated when (1) position with home employed by home road or new operation—allowance road was abolished or (2) position was lost as a result equal to 60 percent of average monthly earnings during of seniority by another employee whose position was the 12 months immediately preceding separation for abolished (or by other employees as proximate cause), and period ranging from 6 months for employees with 1 and (3) another position could not be obtained through the less than 2 years’ service to 60 months for employees exercise of seniority rights. with 15 or more years’ service. Lump-sum payment, Employees not considered separated in cases of resignation, equivalent to 60 days’ pay, provided employees with death, retirement with old age or disability pension, dis less than 1 year’s service.8 missal for cause, or furlough for seasonal reasons. Employees eligible to receive severance allowance given Employee receiving allowance subject to recall to position option to resign and, in lieu of all other benefits under reasonably comparable to job previously held (and for agreement, receive lump-sum payment ranging from 3 which employee was physically and mentally qualified) and to 12 months’ pay.9 and not requiring change in residence or infringement of other employees’ rights. On return to service, severance allowance stopped and displacement allowance provisions became effective. See footnotes at end of table. 44 Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued Effective date June 18, 1936— Continued. Nov. 1,1964 (agreement dated Sept. 25,1964— IAM, IBEW, SMWIA, BBF, BRC, IBFO). (agreement dated Feb. 7,1965—BMWE, BRS, ORT, HREU, BRASC). Effective 30 days after agreement date (agreements dated Dec. 4, 1975—BBF, BRC, IBFO, IBEW; Mar. 12, 1975—IAM). Provision Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Job protection agreements7—Continued Allowance for employees hired by other railroads than home road or merged, consolidated, etc., operation reduced by amount earnings in new employment and allowance ex ceeded earnings on which allowance was based. Shop Crafts-. Protective benefits of the Washington Job Employee not considered deprived of employment or in a Protection Agreement extended to workers who were worse position relative to compensation if employee “deprived of employment” or "placed in a worse posi resigned, died, retired, was dismissed with cause, failed to tion relative to compensation” due to transfer of work; exercise seniority rights, was laid off due to decline in abandonment, discontinuance for 6 months or more, or carrier business, seasonal factors, or was a temporary consolidation of facilities or services (or portions of employee. same); contracting out of work; use of externally ser Employee not to lose benefits of previous employment if laid viced equipment; voluntary or involuntary discontinu off. ance of contracts; technological change; trade-in or 60 days’ notice required of abolition of job; 90 if change of repurchase of equipment or unit exchange. Protection residence required. benefits included: A Shop Craft Special Board of Adjustment was established to (1) Displacement allowance expedite any dispute. (2) Severance Allowance (3) Lump-sum payment option (4) Travel expense protection (5) Home sale protection Non-shop Crafts: Employees in the following categories Employer allowed to reduce-force, including protected em were to be retained in active service until removed by ployees if average business for 30 days fell below 1963 -64 natural attrition or loss of protective status: average by 5 percent. Employees were to be reinstated (1) Non-seasonal employees with 2 years or more when business recovered. experience and 15 days of service in 1964, in active On 16 hours’ notice employers allowed to reduce force, includ service Oct. 1, 1964, or restored to active service ing protected employees, in case of emergency when work between Oct. 1, 1964 and the date of agreement. could not be performed. Employees were to be reinstated Any such employees on furlough on the date of when business recovered. agreement were to be returned to active status Reduction of work force by attrition not to exceed 6 percent before Mar. 1, 1965 and retained from then on. per annum. (2) Seasonal employees with service in 1962, 1963, Protected employee could be used for temporary assign and 1964 were to be offered at least equivalent ments; travel paid where applicable. employment to what they performed in 1964. Protection lost if employee resigned, died, retired, was dis missed for cause, failed to retain or obtain position in exer cise of seniority rights, failed to report for extra work when furloughed, or failed to accept employment in employee’s craft anywhere on carrier. Employees holding regular assignment Oct. 1, Protected employee using seniority to bid in a job or who was 1964, were not to be placed in a worse position bumped in normal way to be compensated at rate of pay with respect to compensation at that time. Such and conditions of job bid for (but not when forced to be cause of technological, operational, or organizational base compensation was to be adjusted to in changes). clude subsequent wage increases. All other employees were not to be placed in a worse position with respect to compensation received in previous 12 months. Employee required to transfer, who had 15 or more 60 day’s notice required if change to be instituted, 90 days if years of service, given choice of: required change of residence. 30 days’ notice required if ( 1 ) Transfer, with Travel and Home Sale Pro change involved not more than 5 employees across senior tection per Washington Job Protection ity craft lines. Agreement plus a transfer allowance of $400 and 5 instead of 2 days time (also ap plicable to employee required to transfer, who had less than 15 years): or (2) Resignation in lieu of transfer, receive lump-sum separation allowance per the Washington Job Protection Plan lump„ sum payment option schedule. Added: Shop Crafts—if carrier violated advance notice requirements for subcontracting, amount paid equal to 10 percent of man-hours billed by contractor times weighted average of straight-time hourly rates of affected employees; divided equitably among them. Layoff notice 1932............................. Nov. 1,1954 (agreement dated Aug. 21, 1954). July 16, 1962 (agree ment dated June 5, 1962). No national provision. Rules in individual agreements requiring advance notice of elimination of positions or reduction in forces mod ified to provide for not more than 16 hours’ notice if emergency conditions required carrier to suspend all or part of service. Added: Not less than 5 days’ advance notice required before abolishing regular positions by layoff or fur lough.10 See footnotes at end of table. 45 Emergency conditions defined as flood, snow, storm, hurri cane, earthquake, fire, or strike. Applied to employees whose positions were abolished or who were laid off because work no longer existed or could not be performed. Did not revise existing local rules or provisions for more than 5 days’ notice. Not applicable in emergency conditions. Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued Effective date Provision Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Health and welfare 1932............................. Feb. 1,1955 (agreement dated Aug. 21, 1954). No national provision. Plan established to provide hospital-surgical-medical benefits (a) for contributing employees on railroads not having hospital associations and (b) through hospital associations on roads where such associations were in operation. Mar. 1,1955 (agreement dated Aug. 21, 1954). Feb. 1,1956 (agreement dated Dec. 21, 1955). Hospital-surgical-medical benefit plan became effective. Benefits for nonhospital-association railroads were as follows: Hospital benefits: Inpatient care— all charges for semiprivate room, board, and general nursing care for maximum of 120 days per disability, 10 days for maternity. Outpatient care— up to $500, plus 75 percent of charges in excess of $500, for any one accident or sickness. Miscellaneous hospital services— up to $500, plus 75 percent of charges in excess of $500. Surgical benefits: Surgical schedule— up to $300. Anesthesia allowance—Up to $25 or one-fifth of sur gical allowance, whichever was less. Medical benefits: In-hospital doctor care— up to $4 for each day of confinement, $480 maximum. Out-of-hospital doctor care— up to $4 for office and $5 for home visits after first visit for bodily injury and third visit for sickness, limited to 1 call per day and maximum of 120 calls in any 12-month period. Diagnostic X-ray and laboratory examinations—Up to $50 during any 6 consecutive months. Poliomyelitis— up to $5,000 per case. Major medical expense benefits—75 percent of excess of “ covered expenses” each calendar year over the sum of (a) $100 plus (b) benefits under other provisions of the plan plus (c) 25 percent of excess of miscellaneous hospital charges over $500—up to lifetime total of $5,000. Changed: Employer assumed full cost of hospital-surgicalmedical plan. Nov. 1,1956 (agreement of same date). Increased: Employer payment, to provide benefits for dependents. Dec. 1,1956 (agreement dated Nov. 1, 1956). Added: Dependent benefits, providing: Hospital benefits: Inpatient care— a\\ charges for semiprivate room, board, and general nursing care for maximum of 120 days per disability. Outpatient care— up to $200, including maximum of $25 for ambulance service, for any one accident or sickness. Miscellaneous hospital services— up to $200, includ ing maximum of $25 for ambulance service. Maternity— up to $75 per prfegnancy. See footnotes at end of table. 46 On nonhospital-association railroads—qualified employees required to contribute $3.40 a month; employers to match employee contribution. Employers to retain 1 percent of total contribution for administrative costs. Difference between insurance premium ($5.95 a month) and net contri bution ($6,732) to be held by insurer in special reserve account, at interest. Funds in special account to be used to provide part of increased premiums in subsequent years. On railroads where hospital associations operated—employ ers were to assume 50 percent of dues, up to $3.40 a month per employee. (The benefits provided by these associa tions, which differ from one railroad to another, are not reported here.) Not available for dental work or treatment, or cosmetic sur gery, except to repair damage caused by bodily injury. Provisions relating to the various categories of medical bene fits prevented doubling up to collect the same benefit under more than one provision. Not payable for dental care or eye refractions. Each employer paid $6.80 a month, less 1 percent for admin istrative costs, for each qualifying employee who rendered compensated service during the month. Hospital association railroads assumed full association dues up to $6.80 a month per employee. Payment increased to $11.05 a month per employee on rail roads not having hospital associations, and set at $4.25 a month per employee on hospital association railroads. Dependents of employees on hospital association roads insured by plan protecting employees on nonassociation roads. Both contributions less 1 percent for administrative costs.11 Maximum employer payment for hospital association dues unchanged. ^ Dependent defined as wife or husband and unmarried children under 19 years of age residing in the United States or Canada. Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued Effective date Provision Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Health and welfare—Continued Dec.1,1956—Continued. Surgical benefits: Not available for dental work or treatment, or cosmetic sur Surgical schedule— up to $250. gery, except to repair damage caused by bodily injury. Anesthesia allowance— up to $25 or one-fifth of sur gical allowance, whichever was less. Medical benefits: Not payable for dental care or eye refractions. In-hospital doctor care— up to $3 a day for each day of confinement, $360 maximum. Poliomyelitis—up to $5,000 per case. Feb. 1,1961 (agreement Increased: Employer payment, to provide hospital-surgical- Employer payment for employee and dependent benefits dated Aug. 19,1960). medical benefits for furloughed employees, improved increased to $21.82 a month per employee by nonhospital benefits for dependents, and life insurance for em association roads and for dependent benefits to $13.11 by ployees. hospital association roads, both contributions less 1 per cent for administrative costs. On hospital association roads, maximum payment toward association dues increased to $7.58 a month per employee, plus cost of 3-month extension of benefits for furloughed employees (limited to equivalent of 32 cents a month for each employee in active service) and cost of treating onduty injuries.12 Mar. 1,1961 (agreement Added: dated Aug. 19, t960). For employees—Life insurance—$4,000 per qualifying Qualifying employees were those eligible to participate in the employee. hospital-surgical-medical benefits plan. For furloughed employees and their dependents: Hospital-surgical-medical benefits—up to 3 months beyond layoff provided employment relationship was not terminated and employer had paid a mini mum of 3 monthly contributions for employee prior to furlough.13 Changed: For dependents: Hospital-surgical-medical benefits— same as benefits for employees, except that home and office doctor care not included. Mar. 1,1964 (agreements Added: $2,000 life insurance for retirees who retired sub Increased: Employer payment for employee and dependent dated Nov. 20,1964— sequent to Mar. 1, 1964. (and retiree life insurance) to $22.32 a month per employee BRASC, BRS, BMWE, (included separate on-duty injury premium of 81 cents per HREU, ORT; Nov. 21, employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14 1964— BBF, BRC, IFBO; Feb. 4, 1965— SMWIA, IAM, IBEW). Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $25.72 a month Feb. 1, 1966 (by agree ments of above dates). per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of 81 cents per employee) by nonhospital association rail roads.14 Added: Health and welfare plan coordinated with Medicare July 1,1966 (agreement For employees and dependents: dated Feb. 17, 1966). Increased: Hospital extras—to $500 plus 80 percent to prevent duplication of benefits, with plan to pay Medi of charges over $500. care Part B premium for eligible employees. Increased: Surgical benefits— Surgical schedule— maximum to $420. Anesthesia—to $84 or 20 percent of surgical fees, whichever was less. Changed: Diagnostic X-ray and laboratory examina tions—to $100 per calendar year. Changed: Major medical—to 80 percent of charges Added: $1,000 annual restoration provision for major medical, (50 percent for out-of-hospital psychiatric care) plus full restoration if recovery complete. over $100 deductible, up to $5,000 lifetime max imum. Added: Radiation therapy—up to $300 per calendar year. Mar. 1,1968 (agreement dated Jan. 11, 1968). For employees and dependents: Increased: HospitalizationHospital room and board— benefit period to 180 days. Hospital extras—to $1,000, plus 80 percent of charges over $1,000. Increased: Medical benefits— In-hospital doctor’s care—to $6 per day up to $1,080. Out-of-hospital doctor’s care—for employees, to $6 for office and $7.50 for home calls after 1st visit for injury and 3rd visit for sickness, up to 180 visits. Increased: Major medical— maximum to $10,000. Increased: Polio—maximum to $10,000. See footnotes at end of table. 47 Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $30.50 a month per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of $1.24 per employee) by nonhospital association railroad.14 Agreement provided for consolidation of all national plans into a single uniform plan for all employee groups. Expanded: Definition of dependent to include child disabled before age 19 as long as disabled and full time students under age 25. Expanded: Definition of hospitals which previously did not qualify. Increased: Time for emergency out-patient care to 72 hours from 24. Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued Effective date Provision Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Health and welfare—Continued -----------------------------------r Mar. 1. 1968—Continued For employees: Increased: Life insurance—to $6,000. Increased: Accidental death and dismembermentup to $4,000. July 1,1969 (agreement Established: Off-track vehicle injury insurance to cover dated Apr. 21,1969— accidents while employees were riding in, boarding, or BRS). alighting from off-track vehicles authorized by carrier and were deadheading under orders or being transported at carrier expense as follows: Accidental death and dismemberment—$50,000 for loss of bodily member (sight of one eye, or loss of one foot or one hand) and $100,000 for loss of life or more than one bodily member. Medical and hospital care—up to $3,000 for actual expenses. Time loss—employee injured and unable to work beginning 30 days after accident to receive 80 per cent basic pay for time actually lost, up to $100 a week, for a period of 156 continuous weeks after accident. Reduced by any sickness benefit payable under Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act. Mar. 1,1970 (agreement For employees and dependents: dated Feb. 26, 1970). Increased: Surgical benefits— Surgical schedule—maximum to $550. Anesthesia—to $110 or 20 percent surgical fees, whichever was less. Increased: Diagnostic X-ray and laboratory examina tions— maximum to $150. Increased: Radiation therapy—maximum to $400. Increased: Major medical— lifetime maximum to $ 20 , 000 . May 1,1971 (agreements Established: Off-track vehicle injury insurance for dated Feb. 10,1971 — workers represented by BRASC, BMWE, and HREU. BMWE, HREU; Feb. (Same benefits provided as those shown under July 1, 25, 1971 —BRASC). 1969 entry in this section for BRS-represented workers.) Sept. 1, 1971 Jan. 1,1972 (agreements dated Oct. 7, 1971 — BBF, BRC, IAM, IBEW). Mar. 1,1972 (agreement dated Feb. 24, 1972). Apr. 1,1972 (agreement dated Feb. 11,1972— IBFO); Aug. 1,1972 (agreement dated May 12,1972— SMWIA). Mar. 1, 1973 July 1,1973 (agreement dated Mar. 13, 1973). Mar. 1, 1974 Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $40.29 a month per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of $1.63 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14 Added: Retiree life insurance continued for employees of discontinued employers. Dependent coverage extended to child at birth (was after 15 days). Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $41.29 a month per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of $1.63 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14 Reduced: Employer payment for benefits to $41.06 a month per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of $1.63 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14 Established: Off-track vehicle injury insurance for workers represented by BBF, BRC, IAM, and IBEW. (Same bene fits provided as those shown under July 1, 1969 entry in this section for BRS-represented workers.) For employees and dependents: Increased: Hospital room and board— benefit period Added: New period of hospital confinement to begin after to 365 days. 30 days had elapsed since release from hospital. Added: Intensive care excess charges handled as Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $54.99 a month hospital extras. for employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of $2.72 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14 Increased: Surgical benefit— Changed: Insurance continued for 5 full months (was 1 month) Surgical schedule—maximum to $650. for pregnant employee following month last worked with Anesthesia—to $162.50 or 25 percent surgical provision for 14 days’ coverage of newborn if birth occurred fees, whichever was less. Increased: Major medical—lifetime maximum to thereafter. $50,000, automatic restoration amount to $2,000 Added: Maternity benefits under nonhospital association road plan forfemaleemployeeof hospital association road. annually, and out-of-hospital psychiatric payment to 65 percent (was 50 percent). Added: Immediate reinstatement for returning veterans with immediate maternity benefits for their wives. Added: Continued coverage for dismissed employees basically the same as for furloughed employees. Established: Off-track vehicle injury insurance for workers represented by IBFO and SMWIA. (Same benefits pro vided as those shown under July 1, 1969 entry in this section for BRS-represented workers.) For employees and dependents: Increased: Major medical— lifetime maximum to $250,000. See footnotes at end of table. Carrier not liable for any amount over $1 million for any one accident regardless of number of casualties. 48 Reduced: Employer payment for benefits to $54.77 a month per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of $2.50 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14 Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $54.98 a month per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of $2.71 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14 Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued Effective date Oct. 1, 1975 Jan. 1, 1976 Mar. 1,1976 (agreement dated Oct. 10, 1975). July 1,1973 (agreement dated May 9,1973— IBFO, BRC, BBF, IAM, IBEW, SMWIA, BRS). Jan. 1,1976 (agreements dated Mar. 25,1976— IBFO, BRC, BBF, IAM, IBEW, SMWIA). July 1,1976 (agreements dated Mar. 25,1976— IBFO, BRC, BBF, IAM, IBEW, SMWIA). Provision Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Health and welfare—Continued Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $62.73 a month per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of $3.44 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14 Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $73.17 a month per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of $3.44 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14 For employees and dependents: Increased: Employer payment for benefits (not including the Established: Dental plan (carrier financed) which paid newly-established dental benefits) to $73.38 a month per (a) 75 percent of covered expenses for preventative and employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of basic services and emergency visits, (b) 50 percent of $3.65 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14 covered expenses for prosthetic services, including Employer contribution for dental plan was set at $8.31 a crowns and gold restorations with both (a) and (b) sub month per employee. ject to annual deductible of $50 per individual and annual maximum of $500; and (c) 50 percent of covered expenses for orthodontic treatment for dependents under age 19, subject to lifetime maximum of $500 per child. Supplemental sickness benefit plan Established: Supplemental Sickness Benefit Plan for Carrier financed. accidental injury or a sickness while insured, and as a BMWE and HREU negotiated supplemental sickness plans result employee was unable to perform any available that differed from plan shown in this table. Other organiza work in craft or if no job available in craft, unable to tions not having such a program had other sick leave perform last job worked before disability. arrangements or chose other benefits instead. Eligibility: Employee had to (1) have 30 days of continuous employment with same participating railroad during which employee was represented by signatory labor organization and (2) be a “qualified employee,” with respect to “ base year” compensation, under Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act (RUIA). See table 6 for RUIA qualifications and also RUIA benefit rates. (1) above was waived for insured furloughed employee who began work for another participating railroad. Benefits: Amounts ranging from (1) for employee eligible Benefits were not provided for first 4 days of disability; after 12 months of same disability; noncertified treatment; any for RUIA sickness benefits—$171 to $315 a month or day of work for remuneration; a disability that began after $5.70 to $10.50 a day, depending on rate of pay (but start of regular work for participating railroad on position subject to reduction if RUIA benefits increased over not under agreement with signatory labor organization specified limits) or (2) for employees not eligible for (unless last job before disability was such a position); selfRUIA sickness benefits—$371 to $515 a month or inflicted injury; injury sustained in commission of crime; $12.37 to $17.17 a day, depending on rate of pay. (See injury from war, rebellion, or riot; pregnancy, childbirth, appendix A.) Offsets were made for annuity payments abortion, or miscarriage (unless from injury); period eligible under Railroad Retirement Act, insurance payments for RUIA sickness benefit but not paid for same for any under any other unemployment, sickness or maternity reason, including failure to apply; after age 65; or discompensation law or for benefits under private plans to bility that began after employment terminated (except which employer contributed, including life insurance, where supplemental benefit period extended because group annuity contract, pension or annuity plan, acci vacation period fell during disability period). dent or sickness plan, and off-track vehicle accident benefits. Changed: Benefits—amounts ranging from (1) for em Provisions of BRS supplemental sickness benefit agreement of July 14, 1976, differed somewhat from those shown ployee eligible for RUIA sickness benefits—$127 to $242 a month or $4.23 to $8.07 a day, depending on rate here. of pay (but subject to reduction if RUIA benefits in creased over specified limits) or (2) for employee who exhausted RUIA sickness benefits—$558 to $764 a month or $19.60 to $25.47 a day, depending on rate of pay. (See appendix B.) Previous offsets were continued. Changed: Benefits—amount for Class 2 and Class 3 employee eligible for RUIA sickness benefits—$135 or $66 a month, respectively, or $4.50 or $2.20 a day, respectively (subject to reduction if RUIA benefits in creased). (See appendix B.) 1The only benefits shown are those included in the national agree ments. Local or system agreements contain provisions governing service on rest days, call-in pay, standby pay, guarantees, travel time, waiting time, deadheading, court attendance pay, starting time pay, pay for work on unassigned days, sick leave, change of shift pay, transfer pay, split shift pay, and other work rules. 2While there was no national provision for overtime pay and premium pay for work on weekends or rest days, some local agreements provided for premium pay for work on those days. 3Work on assigned rest days was paid for under local call or rest day rules. Call rules, while not uniform, provided for pay at time and one-half with certain specified minimums. Rest day rules generally provided a full day’s pay at time and one-half for employees assigned to relief work on a rest day. 4Rules on individual railroads required payment of time and one-half to most classes of nonoperating employees for work on holidays. 5Provision in effect prior to 1941. Not applicable to custodians, care takers, and small nontelegraph agents represented by the Telegraphers. 49 Footnotes for Table 5— Continued 6Former service requirements, 151 days in 1949 and 160 days for each year before 1949, retained for years of prior service. 7ConRail and Amtrak employees currently are also job protected under the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 and the Rail Passen ger Act of 1970, respectively. 8Monthly allowance provided as follows: Length of service 1 but less than 2 years................. 2 but less than 3 years.................. 3 but less than 5 years................. 5 but less than 10 years................ 10 but less than 15 years.............. 15 years and over......................... 11The insurance premium for employee benefits was adjusted down ward, and the cost of dependent benefits was met in part out of the balance available and later through the special account surplus. 12Cost of treating on-duty injuries had previously been provided under another type of arrangement. 13Under the initial policy and subsequent amendments, benefits were available to individual employees only during the month following a month in which a contribution was made for such employee. In effect, this arrangement made benefits available to employees for 1 month after furlough. The 1960 amendments to the plan extend this period by an additional 3 months. 14Amount (less 1 percent prior to 1967 and approximately 1 percent starting in 1967) transmitted by nonhospital association railroads to insurers. During certain periods the amount transmitted equaled the peremployee premium charged by the insurers to provide the benefits indi cated; during other periods the amount exceeded the premium, and the excess was credited to the special accounts; during the remaining periods the amount transmitted was supplemented by amounts with drawn from the special accounts which had been accumulated from the excess transmittals, retroactive rate credits, special payments, and interest on accumulated balances. Hospital association railroads provided hospital, surgical, and medical benefits for employees through the respective hospital asso ciations, and such benefits for dependents, plus life insurance and acci dental death and dismemberment benefits for employees and life insurance for retirees, when applicable, through insurers, at a total per employee contribution liability equivalent to the contribution by non hospital association railroads. Period of payment 6 months. 12 months. . 18 months. . 36 months. . 48 months. . 60 months. 9Lump-sum payment was as follows: Length of service Amount of lump-sum payment Less than 1 year......................... 5days for each month of service. 1 but less than 2 years............... 3months. 2 but less than 3 years............... 6months. 3 but less than 5 years............... 9months. 5 years and over....................... 12 months. 10Work or pay guarantees were implicit in the advance notice require ments. 50 Table 6. Railroad unemployment insurance provisions Provision Established: Unemployment benefits financed by payroll tax on taxable compensation. Paid entirely by employer. Nov. 1, 1940 (P.L. 833, Oct. 10, 1940). July 1, 1946 (P.L. 572, July 31, 1946). Jan. 1, 1952 (P.L. 234, Oct. 30, 1951). Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Daily unemployment benefit rate—$1.75 to $3, depending on creditable compensation in base year (calendar year before start of fiscal year).1 Duration of unemployment benefits—up to 80 days (21 Vi weeks), with maximum of $24 per registration period (15 days) and $240 per benefit year (benefit year began with individual’s 1st compensable registration period). Effective date July 1, 1939 (Railroad Unemployment In surance Act of 1938 as amended, P.L. 722, June 21, 1939). Maximum creditable and taxable compensation was $300 a month. Base year compensation required for eligibility was $150. Noncompensable 15-day waiting period containing at least 8 days of unemployment; thereafter, benefits paid for all days of unemployment over 7 in subsequent 15-day registration periods in same year. Employee was disqualified for (a) any day of strike in viola tion of Railway Labor Act or labor organization, (b) 30 days for voluntary quit without good cause, (c) 30 days for failure to accept suitable work without good cause, (d) 75 days (also possible fine or jail sentence) for making false or fraudulent claim for benefits, or (e) any day for which an nuity, unemployment benefits, or other social insurance payments were payable under Federal or State law. Increased: Daily unemployment benefit rate—to range of $1.75 to $4, depending on creditable compensation in base year (changed to calendar year before start of benefit year).2 Increased: Duration of unemployment benefits—up to 100 days (20 weeks), with maximum of $40 per registra tion period (changed to 14 days) and $400 per benefit year (changed to uniform year starting July 1). Increased: Daily unemployment benefit rate—to range of $1.75 to $5, depending on creditable compensation in base year. 3 Increased: Duration of unemployment benefits—up to 130 days (26 weeks), with maximum $50 per registra tion period and $650 per benefit year. Established: Sickness benefits effective July 1,1946 with benefits payable effective July 1,1947 with same daily benefit rate and duration of benefits as for unemploy ment benefits and subject to same maximum as for unemployment benefits. Definitions for registration period, base year, and benefit year also were the same as for unemployment benefits. Established: Maternity benefits effective July 1,1946 with benefits payable effective July 1, 1947 with same daily benefit rate as for unemployment. Benefit period was 116 days, starting 57 days before expected date of birth and ending latter of (a) 115th day after 1st day or (b) 31st day after birth, with a maximum benefit of $650 per maternity benefit period. Benefits paid for each day in benefit period; payment for the 1st 14 days and 14 days after birth was made at one and one-half times usual rate. See footnotes at end of table. 51 Changed: Benefits paid for all days of unemployment over 7 in initial registration period in a benefit year and all days of unemployment over 4 for subsequent registration periods in same year. Added: Employee disqualified for 30 days for failure to apply for work or report to unemployment office without good cause and disqualified for any Sunday or holiday not preceded by days of unemployment unless last day of registration period and preceded by day of unemployment. Added: Provision under disqualifications so that if other so cial insurance payments under other laws were not for unemployment, difference between Railroad Unemploy ment Insurance Act benefits and other benefits could be paid. Added: Sickness and maternity benefits under another Fed eral or State law were social insurance payments that would be disqualifying. Sickness benefits paid for all days of sickness over 7 in ini tial registration period in a benefit year and all days of sickness over 4 for subsequent registration periods in same year. A day of sickness was any day in which claimant was unable to work because of illness or injury, to which no remunera tion was paid or accrued and a statement of sickness (by a doctor) was filed within 10 days. Employee disqualified for sickness benefits for (a) 75 days (also possible fine or jail sentence) for making false or fraudulent claim for benefits, (b) indefinitely from date of refusal to take medical examination, and (c) any day for which social insurance payments were payable under another Federal or State law, except that, if other payments were not for unemployment or sickness, the dif ference between RUIA benefits and other benefits could be paid. A day of maternity sickness was any day in maternity period for which no remuneration was paid or accrued and a statement of maternity sickness (by a doctor) was filed. Disqualifications for maternity benefits were the same as for sickness benefits. Added: No day was day of sickness or maternity sickness if no remuneration was paid or accrued because of restric tions in union agreement or because of layover between regular tours of duty. Table 6 Railroad unemployment insurance provisions—Continued Effective date July 1, 1952 (P.L. 343, May 15, 1952). Provision Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Increased: Daily unemployment and sickness (and mater Increased: Base year creditable compensation required for nity) benefit rate—to range of $3 to $7.50, depending unemployment and sickness eligibility to $300. on creditable compensation in base year. 4 Increased: Unemployment and sickness benefits— maximum benefits to $75 per registration period and $975 per benefit year. Increased: Maternity maximum to $975 per maternity ben efit period. July 1, 1954 (P.L. 746, Increased: Daily unemployment and sickness (and mater Increased: Maximum creditable and taxable compensation Aug. 31, 1954). nity) benefit rate—to range of $3.50 to $8.50, depending to $350 a month. on creditable compensation in base year.5 In addition, Increased: Base year creditable compensation required for benefit rate guarantee established of at least 50 per unemployment and sickness eligibility to $400. cent of last daily rate of pay in base year (maximum, $8.50). Increased: Unemployment and sickness benefits—maxi mum benefits to $85 per registration period and $1,105 per benefit year. In addition, wage limit established so that total benefits could not exceed total base year creditable compensation. Increased: Maternity maximum to $1,105 per maternity benefit period. In addition, wage limit established so that total benefits could not exceed total base year creditable compensation. Jan. 1,1958 (P.L 86-28, Established: Extended unemployment benefits—after Applicable to those who did not voluntarily quit without good exhaustion of normal benefit period, extended benefits May 19, 1959). cause or did not voluntarily retire. started with next day of unemployment and lasted up Added: Accelerated unemployment benefits provision so that to (a) for employee with 10-14 years of service—7 con employee with 10 years of service not qualified for current secutive 14-day registration periods (65 additional days year, but qualified for following benefit year, could start of benefits) and (b) for employee with at least 15 years following year early if unemployed 14 consecutive days or of service—13 consecutive 14-day registration periods more. (130 additional days of benefits). Temporary extended Changing the beginning or the ending of a benefit year by benefits also were provided less than 10-year employ accelerating or extending benefits for one type of benefit ees of up to 65 additional days under certain condi also changed the start or end of year for benefits of the tions.6 other type. July 1,1958 (P.L. 86-28, Increased: Daily unemployment and sickness (and mater Increased: Base year creditable compensation required for May 19, 1959). nity) benefit rate—to range of $4.50 to $10.20, depend eligibility to $500. ing on creditable compensation in base year.7 Rate Changed: Benefits paid for all days of unemployment over 4 guarantee increased to 60 percent of last daily rate of in initial registration period in a benefit year and all days pay in base year (maximum, $10.20). over 4 for subsequent registration periods in same year. Increased: Unemployment (normal) and sickness benefits Changed: Sundays and holidays defined as days of unem —maximum benefits to $102 per registration period ployment on same basis as other days. and $1,326 per benefit period. Changed: Employee disqualified for unemployment or sick Increased: Maternity maximum to $1,326 per maternity ness (and maternity) because of social insurance pay benefit period. ments for unemployment, sickness, or maternity under any law (by amendments approved Sept. 6, 1958). June 1, 1959 (P.L 86Increased: Maximum creditable and taxable compensation 28, May 19, 1959). after May 1959 to $400 a month. Apr. 8, 1961 (P.L. 87-7, Added: Temporary extended unemployment benefits were Mar. 24, 1961). provided up to 65 additional days, but not more than 50 percent of normal benefits or more than 195 days total for benefit year, for all employees who exhausted nor mal and regular extended benefits under certain condi tions.® July 1, 1963 (P.L. 88Increased: Base year creditable compensation required for 133, Oct. 5, 1963). eligibility to $750, plus if employee did not previously work in railroad industry, railroad earnings in at least 7 months of base year. Changed (effective Oct. 5, 1963): Employee disqualified for voluntary quit until return to work and employee earned $750 or more. If voluntary quit was with good cause, dis qualified only if eligible for State unemployment benefits. July 1, 1968 (P.L. 90- Increased: Daily unemployment and sickness benefit rate Increased: Base year creditable compensation required for 257, Feb. 15, 1968). —to range of $8 to $12.70, depending on creditable eligibility to $1,000 (previous 7-month test continued for compensation in base year.9 Rate guarantee continued employees new to industry). at 60 percent of last daily rate of pay in base year but maximum increased to $12.70. Changed: Employee disqualified for voluntary quit without Increased: Normal unemployment and normal sickness good cause until return to work and at least $1,000 earned. benefits—maximum benefits to $127 per registration Added: Employee disqualified for unemployment or sickness period and normal maximum of $1,651 per benefit year. for separation allowance until end of period about equal to time required to earn amount of separation allowance (ef fective for days after June 30, 1968 but applie'd to separa tion allowances paid after Feb. 15, 1968). Established: Extended sickness benefits—same as Applicable to employees under age 65 who did not voluntarily extended unemployment benefits (except for temporary retire. extended unemployment benefits). Added: Accelerated sickness benefits on same basis as ac celerated unemployment benefits, except employee had to be under age 65. See footnotes at end of table. 52 Table 6. Railroad unemployment insurance provisions—Continued Effective date Provision Applications, exceptions, and other related matters July 1,1968—Continued Eliminated: Maternity benefits as such. Regular sickness Added: Day of sickness to include for female employee, days benefits made payable effective July 1, 1968 for inabil on which unable to work or work would be injurious to ity to work because of pregnancy or childbirth. health because of pregnancy, miscarriage, or childbirth. July 1, 1975 (P.L. 93-94, Increased: Daily unemployment and sickness benefit rate Changed: Employee new to industry required to have earn Aug. 9, 1975). —to amount equal to 60 percent of last daily rate of pay ings in at least 5 months (was 7) of 1st year in industry. in base year with a minimum of $12.70 and a maximum of $24 ($25 effective July 1, 1976). Increased: Normal unemployment and normal sickness Changed: Benefits paid for all days of sickness after an ini tial 4 consecutive sick days in first registration period in a benefits—maximum benefit to $240 ($250 effective benefit year and all days over 4 for subsequent registration July 1, 1976) per registration period and $3,120 ($3,250 periods in same year. effective July 1,1976) per benefit year. Normal benefits could not exceed total base year compensation count ing earnings up to $775 a month. Added: Extended unemployment benefits—employee with less than 10 years of service could receive benefits for up to 7 consecutive 14-day registration periods (65 additional days), but (a) unemployment can not become compensable until a “ period of high unemployment” has begun and (b) such extended benefits cannot exceed one-half base year compensa tion counting earnings up to $775 a month. Extended benefits to employees with less than 10 years of ser vice previously were provided on a temporary basis under certain conditions. 1Benefit rate was determined as follows: Creditable compensation Benefitrate $150 - $199 $1.75 200 474 2.00 475 749 2.25 750 - 1,024 .................................................. 2.50 1,025 - 1,299 .................................................. 2.75 1.300 andover ................................................. 3.00 2Benefit rate was determined as follows: Creditable compensation Benefit rate $150 - $199 $1.75 200 474 2.00 475 749 2.25 750 999 2.50 1.000 - 1,299 ................................................. 3.00 1.300 - 1,599 ................................................. 3.50 1.600 andover ................................................. 4.00 3Benefit rate was determined as follows: Creditable compensation Benefit rate $150 - $199 $1.75 200 474 2.00 475 749 2.25 750 999 2.50 1.000 - 1,299 ................................................. 3.00 1.300 - 1,599 ................................................. 3.50 1.600 - 1,999 ................................................. 4.00 2.000 - 2,499 ................................................. 4.50 2.500 and over ................................................. 5.00 4Benefit rate was determined as follows: Creditable compensation Benefit rate $300 - $474 $3.00 475 749 3.50 750 999 4.00 1.000 - 1,299 ................................................. 4.50 1.300 - 1,599 ................................................. 5.00 1.600 - 1,999 ................................................. 5.50 2.000 - 2,499 ................................................. 6.00 2.500 - 2,999 ................................................. 6.50 3.000 - 3,499 ................................................. 7.00 3.500 and over ................................................. 7.50 1,300 1,600 2.000 2.500 3.000 3.500 4.000 ....................................................... ....................................................... ....................................................... ....................................................... ....................................................... ....................................................... ..................................................... 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 8.00 8.50 tem porary extended unemployment benefits were applicable to those who exhausted normal benefits after June 30, 1957 and before Apr. 1, 1959 and were payable for registration periods begun June 19, 1958 through June 30, 1959. 7Benefit rate was determined as follows: Creditable compensation Benefit rate $500 700 1.000 1,300 1,600 1,900 2,200 2.500 2,800 3,100 3.500 4.000 - $699 $4.50 999 5.00 1,299 ..................................................... 5.50 - 1,599 ..................................................... 6.00 - 1,899 ..................................................... 6.50 - 2,199 ..................................................... 7.00 - 2,499 ..................................................... 7.50 - 2,799 ..................................................... 8.00 - 3,099 ................................................ .. . 8.50 - 3,499 ..................................................... 9.00 - 3,999 ..................................................... 9.50 andover .................................................... 10.20 tem porary extended unemployment benefits were applicable to those who exhausted normal and regular extended benefits after June 30, 1960 and before Apr. 1, 1962 and were payable for registration periods during such period starting Apr. 8,1961 and before July 1,1962, but after Apr. 1, 1962 only if previously entitled. 9Benefit rate was determined as follows: Creditable compensation Benefit rate $1,000 1,300 1,600 1,900 2,200 2.500 2,800 3,100 3.500 4,000 5Benefit rate was determined as follows: Creditable compensation Benefit rate $400 $499 $3.50 500 749 4.00 750 999 4.50 1.000 - 1,299 ................................................ 5.00 - 1,599 - 1,999 - 2,499 - 2,999 - 3,499 - 3,999 and over - $1,299 ..................................................... - 1,599 ..................................................... - 1,899 ..................................................... - 2,199 ..................................................... - -2,499 ..................................................... - 2,799 ..................................................... - 3,099 ..................................................... - 3,499 ..................................................... - 3,999 ..................................................... andover ................................................. $8.00* 8.50 9.00 9.50 10.00 10.50 11.00 11.50 12.00 12.70 ‘ Employees with $750-$999 creditable compensation qualified for 1968-69 benefit year, but were not entitled to increased daily rate. 53 Table 7. Railroad retirement system Effective date (unless noted) Aug. 29,1935 (1935 Act, P.L. 400, Aug. 29, 1935). Jan. 1, 1937 (1937 Act, P.L. 174, June 29, 1937). Jan. 1, 1947 (P.L. 572, July 31, 1946). Nov. 1, 1951 (P.L. 234, Oct. 30, 1951). July 1, 1956 (1956 Amendments, Aug. 7, 1956). June 1, 1959 (P.L. 8628, May 19, 1959). Jan. 1, 1965 (P.L. 8764, June 30, 1961). Oct. 1, 1965 (P.L. 89212, Sept. 29, 1965). Nov. 1, 1966 (P.L. 89699, Oct. 30, 1966). Jan. 1, 1967 (P.L. 89699, Oct. 30, 1966). Jan. 1, 1968 (P.L. 90257, Jan. 2, 1968). Mar. 17, 1970 (P.L. 91215, Mar. 17, 1970). Jan. 1, 1973 (P.L. 92336, July 1, 1972). Oct. 1, 1973 (P.L. 9369, July 10, 1973). Provision Applications, exceptions, and other related matters A. Payroll tax and other financing 7 percent of taxable compensation had been scheduled to be paid through Feb. 28, 1937 (payable half by employer and half by employee), but no such taxes were paid due to court rulings. Rate on taxable compensation: 1 Payroll tax was payable one-half by employer and one-half by Period Percent employee.2 1937-39................................... ..................... 5.5 Beginning July 1, 1937, railroad retirement system took over 1940-42 ................................... ..................... 6.0 pensioners on carrier rolls on Mar. 1, 1937. 1943-45 ................................... ..................... 6.5 1946 ......................................... ..................... 7.0 Rate on taxable compensation: 1 Period Percent 1947-48 ................................... ................... 11.5 1949-51 ................................... ................... 12.0 1952 and after......................... ................... 12.5 Railroad retirement system paid Old Age and Survivors Insur ance (OASI) contributions on railroad payrolls and received the additional benefits that would be payable under the Social Security Act (SSA) on the basis of railroad service. This financial interchange provision was retroactive to Jan. 1, 1937. Financial interchange extended to Disability Trust Fund. Rate on taxable compensation: 1 Period Percent 6/59-61 ..................................... ................... 13.5 1962-64 ..................................... ................... 14.5 Rate on taxable compensation: 1 Period Percent 1/65-9/65 ................................... ..................16.25 Rate on taxable compensation:1 Period Percent 10/65-12/65 ............................... ................. 14.25 1966 ........................................... ..................15.20 (0.7) Established: Tax on employers of 2 cents per compensated hour to finance supplemental annuities. Rate on taxable compensation:1 Period Percent 1967 ........................................... ................... 16.3 (J 0) Rate on taxable compensation:1 Period Percent 1968 ......................................... ................... 16.6 (1.2) 1969-70 ..................................... ................... 17.9 (1.2) 1971-72 ..................................... ................... 18.7 (1.2) Changed: Tax on employers for supplemental annuities to “ pay-as-you-go” basis. Rate on taxable compensation:1 Percent Period 1973 ........................................... ................... 19.2 (2.0) Rate on taxable compensation: 1 Percent Period 1974-77 ..................................... ................... 19.4 (1.8) See footnotes at end of table. Jan. 1, 1974 (P.L. 93233, Dec. 31, 1973). 54 Rates shown do not include Health Insurance tax rates for Medicare Part A (which are shown separately in parentheses) payable one-half by employer and one-half by employee. Financial interchange provisions provided for col lection of Health Insurance taxes by Railroad retirement system although such benefits were to be paid directly by the Social Security Administration. Tax credits were allowed for reduction in supplemental annuities due to private pensions. Employers to pay taxes at rate determined quarterly by Railroad Retirement Board. Tax not paid for employees covered by negotiated pension plans, but RRA supplemen tal account reimbursed for costs incurred by these people (effective Apr. 1, 1970). Effective Oct. 1,1973, employee tax rate reduced to SSA em ployee contribution rate; balance of combined rate paid by employer (i.e., rate equal to employee rate plus 9.5 percen tage points).2 Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued Effective date (unless noted) Provision Applications, exceptions, and other related matters A. Payroll tax and o th er fin an cin g -—C on tin ued Jan. 1, 1975 (P.L. 93455, Oct. 16, 1974). Jan. 1, 1978 (P.L 95216, Dec. 20, 1977). Rate on taxable compensation: Period Percent Tier 1 Tier 2 1978 ............................... ..................10.1 (2.0) 9.5 1979-80 ......................... ................. 10.16 (2.1) 9.5 1981 ............................... ................. 10.7 (2.6) 9.5 1982-84 ......................... ................. 10.8 (2.6) 9.5 1985 ............................... ................. 11.4 (2-7) 9.5 1986-89 ......................... ................. 11.4 (2.9) 9.5 1990 and a fte r............... ................. 12.4 (2-9) 9.5 Effective date (unless noted) Supplemental annuity employer tax collected on same basis as before (“ pay-as-you-go”) assuming supplemental annu ity range of $45-$70 even though such annuity to range from $23-$43 starting in 1975. The excess funds transferred to the regular annuity account to offset increases in regular annuities as a result of elimination of reduction (for those receiving lower supplemental annuity) for sup plemental annuity (no net change in system funding). General funds of Treasury to assume cost of paying the “windfall benefit” phase-out costs. Tier-1 rates (payable one-half by employer and one-half by employee) applied to SSA taxable compensation and Tier-2 rates (payable by employer) applied to RRA taxable com pensation. (See Section B of this table). Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision B. C om pu tatio n of em plo yee an nu ities Aug. 29, 1935 (1935 Act, P.L. 399, Aug. 29, 1935). Employee monthly annuity formula Basic annuity: Years of ser vice times factor equal to 2 percent of 1st $50 of AMC, plus 1.5 percent of next $100, plus 1 percent of remainder. Average monthly compensation (AMC)3 Average based on total cred itable compensation for all creditable service; 1924-31 average used for service before 1937 (see 1937 Act). Jan. 1, 1937 (1937 Act, P.L. 162, June 24, 1937). If service in 1924-31 insuffi cient for equitable aver age, Board could use an other method. Compensation after age 65 used if it raised average. Jan. 1, 1947 (P.L 572, July 31, 1946). No compensation after age 65 used. Creditable (taxable) compensation Up to $300 a month. See footnotes at end of table. 55 Military service after 1936 creditable at rate of $160 a month. Maximum 30 years of cred itable service allowed (continuity not required). Service before enactment date (Aug. 29, 1935) credited only if employee connected with industry on or after that date. Reduction for retirement after age 65 unless by agreement. No limit on creditable years of service except 30-year maximum when service before 1937 used. For crediting service before 1937, employment status or connection with in dustry on Aug. 29, 1935 re quired. Service after age 65 not credited. Minimum employee benefit generally $40 for em ployees in service at age 65 with 20 years’ service. Annuity not payable for any month of work for em ployer under Railroad Retirement Act (RRA) or last non-railroad employer. Service before 1937 gener ally could be credited if employee had 6 months of service after Aug. 29,1935 and before 1946 (effective July 31, 1946). Military service performed during war or emergency period also creditable if preceded by RR service in same or preceding year. Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued Effective date (unless noted) Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision B. C o m p u tatio n of em plo yee a n n u itie s — C on tin ued Employee monthly annuity formula Average monthly compensation (AMC) Jan. 1, 1947— Continued. July 1, 1948 (P.L. 744, June 23, 1948). Nov. 1, 1951 (P.L. 234, Oct. 30, 1951). Annuity factor increased 20 percent, to 2.4 percent of 1st $50 of AMC, plus 1.8 percent of next $100, plus 1.2 percent of remainder. Annuity factor increased 15 percent, to 2.76 percent of 1st $50 of AMC, plus 2.07 percent of next $100, plus 1.38 percent of remainder. Sept. 1, 1954 (P.L 746, Aug. 31, 1954). July 1, 1956 (P.L 1013, Aug. 7, 1956). Compensation after age 65 used on a par with other compensation. Compensation and service after year of 65th birthday used only if it raised bene fit amount (retroactive to Nov. 1, 1951). Annuity factor increased 10 percent, to 3.04 percent of 1st $50 of AMC, plus 2.28 percent of next $100, plus 1.52 percent of remainder. See footnotes at end of table. 56 Creditable (taxable) compensation Changed: Minimum monthly employee benefit least of (a) $50, (b) $3 times years of service, or (c) average monthly compensation applicable to employee with 5 years of service with current connection (generally defined as 12 months of service in the 30 months before retire ment). D is a b ility a n n u ity te r minated if annuitant under age 65 earned $75 or more in 6-month period. Increased: M inim um monthly employee benefit least of (a) $60, (b) $3.60 times years of service, or (c) average monthly com pensation. Service after age 65 used as creditable service. Added: Reduction in em ployee annuity due to ser vice before 1937 by amount of SSA benefit. Increased: Minimum monthly employee benefit least of (a) $69, (b) $4.14 times years of service, or ic) average monthly compen sation. SSA minimum fam ily guarantee in troduced to insure that RRA benefits would be no less than benefits the SSA would have paid based on railroad service alore. Benefits computed under this formula therefore would increase automati cally when SSA benef ts increased. Benefits calculated uncer the RRA formula for em ployee annuitants, however, would generally produce a higher amount. Additional work restric tions applied to annui tants receiving benefits under the guarantee. Up to $350 a month for ser Changed: The additional re vice after June 1954. striction for disability an nuitants to suspension for each month with earnings (from other than employer covered by RRA or last nonrailroad employer) over specified amount (with penalty for not report ing such earnings). Increased: Minimum montnly employee benefit least of (a) $75.90, (b) $4.55 times years of service, or(c) aver age monthly compensa tion. Eliminated: Reduction in employee annuity because of SSA benefit. Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued Effective date (unless noted) Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision B. C o m p u tatio n of em plo yee a n n u itie s — C ontinued Employee monthly annuity formula Sept. 6, 1958 (P.L. 85927, Sept. 6, 1958) . June 1, 1959 (P.L. Annuity factor increased 10 8628, May 19, percent, to 3.35 percent of 1959) . 1st $50 of AMC, plus 2.51 percent of next $100, plus 1.67 percent of remainder. Average monthly compensation (AMC)3 Average rounded to last full dollar. Up to $400 a month for ser vice after May 1959. Nov. 1, 1963 (P.L. 88133, Oct. 5, 1963). Jan. 1, 1965 (P.L. 89212, Sept. 29, 1965). Nov. 1, 1966 (P.L. 89-699, Oct. 30, 1966). Feb. 1, 1968 (P.L. 90-257, Feb. 15, 1968). Up to $450 a month for ser vice after Oct. 1963. Monthly maximum after Sept. 1965 changed to 1/12 of SSA annual max imum but not less than $450 ($550 for service after Dec. 1965). Annuity Factor on 1st $450 of AMC increased 7 per cent resulting in following factor: 3.58 percent of 1st $50 of AMC, plus 2.69 per cent of next $100, plus 1.79 percent of next $300, plus 1.67 percent of re mainder. Subject to partial reduction for receipt of SSA benefits (but not to amount less than would have been payable under previous law). Supplemental annuity estab lished for longer service employees, of $45 for 25 years of service, plus $5 for each year of service over 25 (maximum $70), reduced by amount of private railroad pension attributable to employer contributions. Regular annuity computed under previous law if sup plemental annuity pay able. Basic annuity factor to 3.58 percent of 1st $50 of AMC, plus 2.69 percent of next $100, plus 1.79 percent of remainder, with no reduc tion for SSA benefits. Table increase ranging from $10 to $31.46, depending on AMC, added to basic annuity (see opposite schedule), subject to re duction if eligible for sup plemental annuity and/or SSA benefit. The provision that regular annuity be computed with previous law if supple mental annuity was pay able (see 1966 listing in this section) was elimi nated. Increased: Minimum monthly employee benefit least of (a) $83.50, (b) $5 times years of service, or (c) 110 percent of average monthly compensation. Increased: SSA minimum guarantee for fam ily benefits raised to 110 per cent. Increased: Minimum monthly employee benefit least of (a) $89.35, (b) $5.35 times years of service, (c) 118 percent of average monthly compensation if no supplemental annuity payable, or (d) guaranteed 7 percent increase in com bination of basic and sup plemental annuities (sub ject to partial reduction if e lig ib le for SSA benefits). Supplemental annuity was available to those awarded regular annuities after June 30, 1966. Up to $650 a month for ser vice after 1967. Military service after 1967 creditable at rate of $260 a month. Table increase: AMC Increase Up to $100........ ........$10.00 $101-150 .......... ........ 11.22 151-200.......... ........ 12.87 201-250 .......... ........ 14.63 251-300.......... ........ 16.17 301-350.......... ........ 17.82 351-400.......... ........ 19.47 401-450.......... ........ 20.90 451-500.......... ........ 22.55 501-550.......... ........ 24.09 551-600 .......... ........ 27.83 601 and over . . ........ 31.46 See footnotes at end of table. Creditable (taxable) compensation 57 Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued Effective date (unless noted) Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision B. C o m p u tatio n of em plo yee a n n u itie s — C on tin ued Employee monthly annuity formula Average monthly compensation (AMC) Creditable (taxable) compensation Minimum table increase was $10 less reduction for sup plemental annuity or, if none, $10 minus 5.8 per cent of lesser of 1967 SSA benefit or basic annuity. Table increase with offsets as in basic formula added to basic RRA minimum. Minimum monthly employee benefit increased same as for basic annuity formula. Feb. 1, 1968— Continued. Jan. 1, 1970 (P.L. 91-377, Aug. 12, 1970). Jan. 1, 1971 (P.L. 92-46, July 2, 1971). Sept. 1, 1972 (P.L. 92-460, Oct. 4, 1972). July 1, 1973 (P.L. 93-69, July 10, 1973). Jan. 1, 1975 (P.L. 93-455, Oct. 16, 1974). Basic annuity benefit under 1968 law increased by 15 percent ($50 maximum for employee annuitant) ef fective for period Jan. 1970 through June 1972, with the 15 percent in crease subject to reduc tion if employee eligible for SSA benefit (but not below $10 for employee annuitant).4 Basic annuity benefit under 1968 law as increased by 1970 law increased by 10 percent effective for period Jan. 1971 through June 1973. Basic annuity benefit under 1968 law as increased by 1970 and 1971 laws in creased by 20 percent ef fective for period Sept. 1972 through June 1973. Basic annuity benefit in creases of 1970,1971, and 1972 extended for 18 months through Dec. 1974. Basic annuity formula un changed but increases in SSA benefits during period July 1, 1973 through Dec. 31, 1974 were to be “ passed through” to annuitants (see opposite paragraph). Annuity formula revised to provide two-tier system of annuities to phase out separate entitlements to both railroad retirement and social security bene fits, and a “ windfall” benefit was added to com pensate long-service employees for loss of dual benefits earned before 1975. Up to $750 a month for ser vice after 1971. Up to $900 a month for ser vice in 1973. Monthly max imum for years after 1974 subject to automatic ad justment according to changes in national wage levels. Up to $1,100 a month for ser vice in 1974. First auto matic adjustment to be applicable in 1975 as originally scheduled. Pre-1975 AMC based on total creditable compensation for all creditable service before 1975; 1924-31 aver age used if available for service before 1937. Post-1974 AMC based on to tal creditable compensa tion for all creditable ser vice after 1974. See footnotes at end of table. 58 Minimum monthly employee benefit increased same as for basic annuity formjla. Minimum monthly employee benefit increased same as for basic annuity formula. Up to $1,175 a month for ser vice in 1975, $1,275 in 1976, and $1,375 in 1977. Military service after 1974 creditable up to SSA maxi mum on taxable wages. “ Pass-through” arrange ment—in event SSA bene fit increased during July 1, 1973-Dec. 31, 1974 pe riod, annuitants received increases equal to dollar amounts received by SSA b e n e ficia rie s w ith equivalent wage credits (increases not subject to offsets if annuitant also entitled to SSA benefits). SSA benefits subse quently were increased by 11 percent in 2 stages which resulted in in creases for railroad an nuitants effective Mar. 1, 1974 and June 1, 1974. Every employee who was en titled to a benefit under the 1935 or 1937 Railroad Retirement Acts as of Dec. 31, 1974, to be en titled to benefit under the 1974 Act. This amount was to be at least as large as the benefit under the 1937 Act and was divided into Tier 1 and Tier 2 for purposes of computing cost-of-living increases. Table 7 Railroad retirement system—Continued Effective date (unless noted) Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision B. C o m pu tation of em plo yee a n n u itie s — C on tin ued Jan. 1, 1975— Continued Employee monthly Average monthly annuity formula compensation (AMC)3 Compensation and ser Basic annuity formula was: vice after 65th birthday (1) Tier-1-every employee had bene used only if it raised fit based on social security bene benefit amount. fit formula using combined rail road and social security earn ings (up to the SSA annual limit), reduced by any social se curity benefit payable (those not eligible under SSA were given a deemed Tier-1 benefit) and if em ployee was entitled to full annu ity under RRA the Tier-1 amount would not be reduced for early retirement even though it would be under SSA; and (2) Tier-2-a benefit, paid on top of Tier-1 amount, based on employee’s service and taxable compensation in railroad in dustry only and calculated as follows: (a) Past service annuity-tor pre1975 railroad service, an amount as calculated under 1937 Act as amended, re duced for imputed benefit cal culated under social security formula based on railroad ser vice before 1975 alone; plus (b) Past service bonus-for those with some creditable service after 1974, $1.50 a month for each of 1st 10 years of service before 1975, plus $1 a month for each additional year of service before 1975; plus (c) Future service component-for post-1974 railroad service, 0.5 percent of AMC for each year of creditable service after 1974, plus $4 for each year of service after 1974. Supplemental annuity—for those awarded such annuity after 1974, $23 for 25 years of service plus $4 for each year of service over 25 (maximum $43), reduced by amount of private railroad pen sion attributable to employer contributions. No longer reduc tion in basic annuity because of supplemental annuity for those receiving $23 to $43 rate. For em ployees retired before 1975, pre vious supplemental annuity amounts paid. Dual benefit windfall— for those with vested rights5 to both railroad retirement and social security benefits as of Dec. 31, See footnotes at end of table. 59 Creditable (taxable) compensation Established: Automatic cost-of-living increases in retirement benefits as follows— Tier 1— benefits of railroad annui tants to rise automatically by same percentage as social security bene fits, whenever the latter were In creased (previously, increases in railroad benefits to match social security had to be legislated, ex cept for cases paid under the special SSA minimum guarantee). Tier-2— (A) Before retirment-A fixed in creases effective Jan. 1, of 1978, 1979, 1980, and 1981 for those retiring after the last of the 4 ad justments as follows— (1) Past service annuity— in creased by 65 percent of change in BLS-CPI from Sept. 1976 and Sept, of the year pregeding year (but not after 1981) in which employee retired. (2) Past service bonus-no in crease. (3) Future service annuity— (a) Portion that gave $4 per year of service after 1974 was fully adjusted by same percentage increase as in (A) (1) above. (b) Portion that gave 0.5 per cent of AMC per year of service after 1974 was increased by same percen tage as in (A) (1) above, but offset by difference be tween amount based on AMC limited by 1980 rail road retirement maximum and the amount based on AMC limited by the 1976 railroad retirement max imum (offset intended to eliminate effect of any duplication between costof-living increases and rise in monthly taxable limit after 1976). (B) After retirem ent—for benefi ciaries on the rolls on May 31 of 1977, 1978, 1979, and 1980, in creases effective June 1 of such years in Tier 2 past service annu ity (but not past service bonus) and future service annuity of 32.5 percent of the increase in the CPI between the 1st quarter of the prior year and the 1st quarter of the current year. In addition, an employee who retires be tween Jan. 1 and June 1 in the years 1978-1980 could receive in year of retirement separate costof-living increases both as a nonretired and retired employee. Windfall dual benefit—was fro zen at the 1974 level except that social security cost-of-living in creases between Dec. 31, 1974 Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued Effective date (unless noted) Jan. 1, 1975— Continued. Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision B. C om pu tatio n of em plo yee a n n u itie s — C ontin ued Employee monthly Average monthly Creditable (taxable) compensation (AMC)3 annuity formula compensation 1974 (or end of year of last railroad employment before 1975)6, an amount by which the sum of the benefits that would have been payable under the social security formula on ser vice before 1975 (or end of year of last railroad employment before 1975)°, based (a) solely on railroad service, and (b) solely on social security credits, exceeded (c) the corresponding benefit based on combined railroad and social security earnings. See footnotes at end of table. 60 and the annuity beginning date were to be included in calcula tion. The windfall was to be increased as it would have been under automatic cost-of-living adjustment and windfall benefit would not increase as a result of any general benefit increases enacted by Congress. Grandfather clause—annuity of employee and spouse retiring during 8 years after change-over date (Jan. 1, 1975) could not be less than they would have re ceived under the 1937 Act not counting any SSA benefits. Tax rebate lump-sum—employee with at least 10 years’ service and not e lig ib le for the "windfall” to receive lump sum at retirement computed by sum ming for each year from 1951 through 1974, the product of the SSA tax rate times excess of employee’s combined earnings for the year over (approx.) the maximum creditable for the year under the 1937 Act. (Survivors could receive the refund if employee died before receiving it). A year of creditable service was 12 months, but remainder of 6 months or more rounded to full year; 5 months or less counted as value of fraction. Minimum of 120 months required to meet 10year service requirement. Past service bonus was not pay able, as result of P.L. 94-93 enacted Aug. 9, 1975, to those retired before 1975 unless employee returned to railroad service and com pleted 12 months post-1974 railroad ser vice or if disability annuitant returned to railroad service after recovery. (Retroactive to Jan. 1, 1975.) Added: Tier-1 portion of annuity based on railroad earnings after 1974 and for all SSA earnings was subject to SSA work restric tion if insured on basis of such earnings as were windfall dua benefits. Other RRA work restric tions were continued. Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued Effective date (unless noted) Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision B. C om p u tatio n of em plo yee a n n u itie s — C on tin ued June 1,1975 June 1,1976 June 1,1977 Jan. 1, 1978 June 1,1978 Jan. 1, 1979 June 1,1979 Employee monthly annuity formula Increased: Tier-1 benefit as a result of 8 percent cost-of-living adjust ment factor. Increased: Tier-1 benefit as a result of 6.4 percent cost-of-living ad justment factor. Increased: Tier-1 benefit as a result of 5.9 percent cost-of-living ad justment factor and Tier-2 after retirement benefit as a result of 1.9 percent cost-of-living adjust ment factor. Increased: Tier-2 before retirement benefit as a result of 4.3 per cent cost-of-living adjustment factor. Increased: Tier-1 benefit as a result of 6.5 percent cost-of-living ad justment factor and Tier-2 after retirement benefit as a result of 2.1 percent cost-of-living adjust ment factor. Increased: Tier-2 before retirement benefit as a result of 10 per cent cost-o f-living a dju st ment factor. Increased: Tier-1 benefit as a result of 9.9 percent cost-of-living ad justment factor and Tier-2 after retirement benefit as a result of 3.2 percent cost-of-living adjust ment factor. Average monthly compensation (AMC)3 Creditable (taxable) compensation Up to $1,475 for 1978 for SSA and RRA. Up to 1,575 for 1979 for RRA and to $1,908.33 for 1979, $2,158.33 for 1980, and $2,475 for 1981 for SSA. * C . Types of em plo yee an nu ities Normal age Aug. 29, 1935 (1935 Act, P.L. 399, Aug. 29, 1935). Payable to those re tiring at age 65 (penalty for later retirement). Jan. 1, 1937 (1937 Act, P.L. 162, June 24, 1937). Eliminated: Penalty for retirement after age 65. Jan. 1, 1947 (P.L 572, July 31, 1946). Nov. 1, 1957 (P.L. 234, Oct. 30, 1951). Added: 10-year over all service retirement. Total and permanent Occupational disability disability Payable to those re Payable to those re tiring at ages 50tired because of 64 with 30 years physical or mental d isa b ility under of service, actuarially reduced. age 65 with 30 years of service. Changed: Payable to Added: Benefit pay those retiring at able under age 65 ages 60-64 with 30 with 30 years of years of service, service if totally a c tu a ria lly reand permanently duced. disabled. Actuari a lly reduced benefit for those totally and per manently disabled retiring at ages 60-64 with less than 30 years of service. Eliminated: Actuarial Changed: Payable to Added: Payable to reduction for wothose totally and those occupationmen. permanently dis ally disabled retir abled retiring under ing under age 60 age 60 with 10 with 20 years of years of service or service or ages 60at ages 60-64 re 64 regardless of gardless of service. service (current Reduction elim i conn ection re nated. quired.) Added: 10-year over Added: 10-year over all service requireall service requirement. ment. Prenormal age See footnotes at end of table. 61 Current connection generally defined as 12 months of service in the 30 m onths before retirement. Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued Effective date (unless noted) Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision C . Types of e m p lo yee a n n u itie s — C ontin ued Normal age June 1,1959 (1959 Amendments, May 19, 1959). Oct. 1, 1961 (P.L. 87-285, Sept. 22, 1961). Nov. 1, 1966 (P.L. 89-699, Oct. 30, 1966). Mar. 17, 1970 (P.L. 91-215, Mar. 17, 1970). July 1, 1973 (P.L. 93-69, July 10, 1973). Jan. 1, 1975 (P.L. 93-455, Oct. 16, 1974). Added: Supplemental annuity for annui tant at age 65 or over (awarded after June 1966) with 25 years of service or more with current connection (pay able through Oct. 1971). Supplemental annu ity made perma nent with forfeiture for railroad service beyond certa in “ closure dates.” Added: Supplemental annuity for those retiring after June 1974 at age 60 with 30 years of service or more (current connection re quired). Occupational disability Prenormal age Added: Actuarially reduced annuity for women retiring at ages 62-64 with 10 but less than 30 years of service. Added: Actuarially reduced annuity for men retiring at ages 62-64 with 10 but less than 30 years of service. See Normal age. Total and permanent disability_____ See Normal age. See Normal age. See Normal age. See Normal age. See Normal age. Changed: For men retiring after June 1974 at least age 60 with 30 years of service or more, an unreduced basic annuity (previously only female em ployees had been granted this advan tage). See Normal age. See Normal age. See Normal age. 0 . Spouse b e n e fit (wives and d epen dent husbands) Eligibility Amount Nov. 1, 1951 (P.L. 234, O ct. 30, 1951). Spouse eligible if retired employee was age 65 and (a) spouse age 65, or (b) young wife with minor child who would be entitled to survivor’s benefits if employee were to die. One-half of employee’s annuity before any offsets. Maximum $40 a month. Sept. 1, 1954 (P.L. 746, Aug. 31, 1954). Added: Young wife with dis abled child age 18 or older, if disabled before age 18, who would be eligible for survivo r’s benefit if employee were to die. Sept. 1, 1955 (P.L. 383, Aug. 13, 1955). Increased: Maximum to high est spouse amount possible under SSA ($54.30 in 1955). Reduction in spouse’s benefit Reduced by other RRA annuity or SSA benefit based on spouse’s own earnings. (if spouse also eligible for SSA spouse benefit, annuity reduced only by amount SSA-OASDI benefit exceeded SSA spouse benefit.) _____________________ _____________________ See footnotes at end of table 62 Same work restrictions as for annuitants and payable only when employee annuity payable. Special SSA minimum guarantee for family benefits provided that RRA benefits would be no less than benefit SSA would have paid based on railroad ser vice alone. Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued D. Spouse b e n efit (wives and d e pen de nt hu sb and s)— C on tin u ed Eligibility May 1, 1959 (P.L. 86-28, May 19, 1959). Oct. 1, 1961 (P.L. 87-285, Sept 22, 1961). Jan. 1, 1965 (P.L. 89-97, July 30, 1965). Oct. 1. 1965 (P L. 89-212, Sept• 29, 1965). Nov. 1, 1966 (P.L. 89-700 and P.L. 89-699, Oct. 30, 1966). Amount Added: Actuarially reduced annuities for spouse age 62-64 if retired employee age 65. Changed: Period of marriage requirement to 1 year (from 3) and eliminated if eligible for widow’s, parent’s, or disabled child’s benefit before marriage. Changed: Maximum to 110 percent of highest spouse amount possible under SSA ($69.90 in Feb. 1960). Increased: Maximum to (result of 1967 SSA amend ments): 2/1/68 -$104.50 1/1/69 - 112.20 1/1/70 - 115.50 Increased: Maximum to $138 on 1/1/70 (result of Dec. 30, 1969 SSA amendments). Jan. 1, 1970 (P.L. 91-172, Dec. 30, 1969; P.L. 91- 377, Aug. 12, 1970). Jan. 1, 1971 (P.L. 92-5, Mar. 17, 1971) . Sept. 1, 1972 (P.L. 92-603, July 1, 1972) . Mar. 1, 1974 Jan. 1, 1975 (P.L. 93-455, Oct. 16, 1974). Increased: Maximum to— 1/1/65 -$74.80 1/1/67 - 83.60 1/1/68 - 92.40 Changed: For young wife, child no longer had to be eligible for survivor’s bene fit if employee were to die. Feb. 1, 1968 (P.L. 90-257, Feb. 15, 1968; P.L. 90- 248, Jan. 2, 1968). Jan 1, 1973 (P.L. 9358, July 6, 1975). Reduction in spouse’s benefit Added: Certain wives allowed to qualify under age 62 with grandchildren in their care or children who became disabled between ages 18-22. Added: Spouse eligible if employee retired (1) after June 1974 and at least age 60 with 30 years of service or more and spouse (a) age 60, or (b) young wife with minor or disabled child in her care, or (2) after 1974 and age 62 and spouse (a) age 65, or (b) young wife within minor or disabled child in her care. An actuarialiy reduced benefit was payable to spouse age 62-64 under (2) (a) above. Increased: Maximum to $151.70 on 1/1/71 (result of Mar. 17, 1971 SSA amend ments). Increased: Maximum to (re sult of July 1, 1972 SSA amendments): 9/1/72 -$182.10 1/1/73 - 188.50 1/1/74 - 203.30 Increased: Maximum to (re sult of SSA amendments): 3/1/74 -$217.50 6/1/74 - 225.70 1/1/75 - 246.95 Changed: Benefit to one-half employee’s Tier-1 amount (before any offsets for em ployee’s early retirement or SSA benefit), plus onehalf employee’s Tier-2 amount (before any off sets for employee’s early retirement), with total of spouse’s Tier-1 (before re duction for any SSA bene fit spouse entitled to) and Tier-2benefit limited to 110 percent of SSA maximum ($247 on 1/1/75). See footnotes at end of table. 63 Eliminated: Reduction for other RRA annuity or SSA benefit based on spouse’s own earnings. Increases due to higher em ployee annuities reduced, but not below zero, by amount of 1965 increase in SSA benefit received by spouse. Increases due to higher em-/ ployee annuities reduced, but not below $5, by amount of 1967 increase in SSA benefit received by spouse. Increases due to higher em ployee annuities reduced, but not below $5, by amount of 1969 increase in SSA benefit received by spouse. Changed: Spouse’s Tier-1 benefit reduced by amount of SSA benefit spouse en titled to but not below 0 and Tier-2 benefit reduced in case (a) spouse’s bene fit was over 110 percent of SSA maximum, (b) family maximum, or (c) spouse received windfall benefit based on spouse’s own earnings. Spouse benefit subject to same cost-of-living per centage increases as em ployee benefits. This in cludes the portion of the spouse’s Tier-2 benefit based on the employee’s past service bonus. Wind fall benefit could increase as result of automatic cost-of-living increases but not after employee re tired. Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued Effective date (unless noted) Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision D. Spouse be nefit (wives and de pendent husbands) Eligibility Amount Jan. 1. 1975 — continued Added: Spouse could re ceive "windfall'' benefit if spouse or em ployee vested for dual RRA-SSA benefits as of Dec. 31, 19745 of (1) if vested on spouse’s earnings, lesser of (a) SSA benefit based on spouse’s earnings through Dec. 31, 1974 or end of year employee last worked for RR6 or (b) one-half employee’s full Tier-1 amount based on employee's RR earnings alone, or (2) if only employee vested, spouse's windfall one-half employ ee's windfall. Neither (1) (a) nor (1) (b) could be less than one-half employee's windfall if employee also vested. June 1,1975 Increased: Maximum (Tier-1 plus Tier-2) benefit to $266.75. Increased: Maximum (Tier-1 plus Tier-2) benefit to $283.36. Increased: Maximum (Tier-1 plus Tier-2) benefit to $301.51. Increased: Maximum (Tier-1 plus Tier-2) benefit to $311.85. Increased: Maximum (Tier-1 plus Tier-2) benefit to $330.22. Increased: Maximum (Tier-1 plus Tier-2) benefit to $342.32. Increased: Maximum (Tier-1 plus Tier-2) benefit to $364.54. Increased: Maximum (Tier-1 plus Tier-2) benefit to $376.64. Increased: Maximum (Tier-1 plus Tier-2) benefit to $413.93. Jan. 1, 1976 June 1,1976 Jan. 1, 1977 June 1,1977 Jan. 1, 1978 June 1,1978 Jan. 1, 1979 June 1,1979 See footnotes at end of table. 64 Reduction in spouse’s benefit Changed: O/M (overall mini mum) guarantee for em ployees and spouses was 100 percent (instead of 110 percent) of the amount or the additional amount the family would receive under the SSA if em ployee’s compensation after 1936 were credited as wages. Employees and spouses retiring before 1983 were not to receive less than they would have under the 1937 Act. Established: Ceiling on total family annuity (before windfall) as of the initial award could not exceed the greater of $1,200 or the amount determined from 100 percent of such por tion of the “final AMC ’ as was less than one-half of current maximum SS taxable wage base in year of retirement plus 80 per cent of remainder of “final AMC.” Final AMC being employee’s average tax able RR taxable limit earn ings from both systems in the highest 2 years out of the last 10. If maximum exceeded, spouse’s Tier-2 reduced, then employee's supplemental annuity re duced, and then employee’s Tier-2 reduced. Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued Effective date (unless noted) Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision E. D eath be nefits Death benefit annuity Aug. 29, 1935 (1935 Act, Aug. 29,1935). Jan. 1, 1937 (1937 Act, June24,1937). One-half of retired employee’s annuity payable to widow for 12 months. Discontinued: Death benefit annuity. Jan. 1, 1947 (P.L. 572, July 31,1946). July 1, 1948 (P.L 744, June23,1948). Elective survivor annuity to spouse Based on actuarial equivalent joint and survivor option. Added: Required to elect 5 years before retirement or show proof of good health. New elections discontinued (no new elections after July 1946). May 1, 1959 (P.L. 86-28, May 19, 1959). Residual lump sum Added: 4 percent of total creditable compensation after 1936 payable to sur vivor, less any annuity benefits paid. Discontinued. Reinstated: 4 percent of creditable compensation after 1936 but before 1947 plus 7 percent of creditable compensation after 1946, less benefits paid. Changed: 7.5 percent of creditable compensation after 1958 and 8 percent of creditable compensation after 1961, less benefits paid. Changed: One-half percent age point above employee contribution rate (exclusive of Medicare) of creditable compensation after 1965, less benefits paid. Changed: Compensation after 1974 not taken into ac count. Oct. 30, 1966 (P.L. 89-700, Oct. 30, 1966). Jan. 1, 1975 (P.L. 93-455, Oct. 16, 1974). Residual lump sum insured that beneficiary would re ceive more in benefits than employee had paid into railroad system. The pay ment was not made to designated beneficiary if survivor of employee would be entitled to survi vor benefit in future. F. Survivor’s be n efits Type and amount of benefits Jan. 1, 1947 (P.L. Aged widow’s annuity: Un 572, July 31,1946). married widow age 65 or older of completely insured employee received V* of basic amount. Widowed mother's annuity: Unmarried widow of com pletely or partially insured employee in care of his child eligible for child’s annuity received 3 of A basic amount. Children's annuity: Depen dent unmarried child under age 18 of completely or partially insured employee to receive Vi of basic amount. Parent’s annuity: Unremar ried parent age 65 or more of completely insured em ployee who left no eligible widow or child received Vi of basic amount. Insurance lump sum: 8 times basic amount if completely or partially insured em ployee left no survivor eli gible for monthly benefits in month of employee’s death. See footnotes at end of table. Basic amount calculation 40 percent of 1st $75 of AMR, plus 10 percent of remain der, increased by 1 percent for each year with earnings of $200 or more. Minimum basic amount $10. 65 Average monthly remuneration (AMR) Combined RRA and SSA earnings divided by total calendar months after 1936 or age 22 and up to retire ment (including disability) or death. Maximum was $250. RRA and SSA credits were combined both as to quar ters of coverage and re muneration. If insured under RRA, then benefit payable by RRB; otherwise by SSA. Other RRA or SSA benefits were deducted. Employee had completely insured status if he had current connection (genererally 12 months’ service in 30 months before death or retirement) and either (1) Vi of quarters after 1936, or after age 21, to retirement or death, or (2) 40 quarters. Minimum was 6 quarters. Status granted to pensioners or annui tants who retired before 1948 with 10 years of ser vice. Employee had partially in sured status if he had cur rent connection and 6 quarters of coverage in approximately the last 3 years before death. Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued Effective date (unless noted) Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision F. Survivor’s b e n e fits — C ontinued Type and amount of benefits Such amount paid to widow/or widower if living with employee at time of death, or to other survivors, or if none, to persons who paid burial expenses (limited to such expenses). Basic amount calculation Nov. 1, 1951 (P.L. 234, Oct. 30,1951). Increased: Aged widow's annuity—to full basic amount. Expanded: Aged widow’s annuity—to include depen dent widower age 65 or more. Increased: Widowed mother’s annuity—to full basic amount. Increased: Children’s annu ity—to 2/3 of basic amount. Increased: Parent’s annuity— to 2 of basic amount. /a Increased: Insurance lump sum—to 10 times basic amount. Increased: Minimum basic amount to $14. Sept. 1, 1954 (P.L. 746, Aug. 31,1954). Changed: Aged widow’s and widower's annuity— age requirement reduced to60. Expanded: Children's annu ity—to include dependent disabled children age 18 and over if disability began before age 18. Changed: Parent’s annuity— age requirement reduced to 60. Jan. 1, 1947— Continued. Sept. 1, 1955 (P.L. 383, Aug. 13,1955). July 1, 1956 (1956 Amendments, Aug. 7, 1956). June 1, 1959 (1959 Amendments, May 19, 1959). Survivors other than widow (or widower) made ineligi ble for lump sum by P.L. 85-927, (Sept. 6, 1958). Increased: Maximum to $300 retroactive to 1937. Increased: Maximum to $350. Increased: 44 percent of 1st $75 of AMR, plus 11 per cent of remainder, in creased by 1 percent for each year with earnings of $200 or more. Minimum basic amount of $15.40. Increased: 49 percent of 1st $75 of AMR, plus 12 per cent of remainder, in creased by 1 percent for each month with earnings of $200 or more. Minimum basic amount to $16.95. See footnotes at end of table. Average monthly remuneration (AMR) 66 Maximum to family generally least of $120,2 times basic amount, or 80 percent of AMR (divided on a propor tional basis among the survivors if so adjusted). Work restrictions were work for railroad employer re gardless of earnings or other earnings of $25 or more a month. Added: 10-year service re quirement for completely or partially insured status. Others transferred to Old Age and Survivors Insur ance. Changed: Work restriction on nonrailroad wages to $50 or more a month. Increased: Regular family maximum to least of $160 or 22/3 times basic amount. Survivor benefit subject to overall SSA family guaran tee so that benefit would not be less than benefits or additional benefits SSA would pay on same railroad service. This would result in automatic increases in survivors benefits calcu lated under the minimum guarantee to reflect in creases in SSA benefits. Added: Widow’s benefit to be at least equal to amount of wife’s benefit previously paid, if any. Eliminated: Reduction for RRA retirement annuity based on own earnings. Changed: Work restriction on nonrailroad earnings to agree with restrictions under SSA. Eliminated: Reduction for SSA benefits. Increased: Regular family maximum increased to lesser of $176 or 22/3 of basic amount. Increased: Maximum to $400. Added: Conditions for com pletely or partially insured status under RRA not to be less favorable than for those under SSA (1958 technical amendment). Increased: Regular family maximum to lesser of $193.60 or 22/3 times basic amount. Overall minimum guarantee raised to 110 percent of benefits or additional ben efits SSA would pay on same RR service. Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued Effective date (unless noted) Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision F. Survivor’s b e n e fits — C on tin ued Type and amount of benefits Oct. 1, 1961 (P.L. 87-285, Sept. 22, 1961). Nov. 1, 1963 (P.L. 88-133, Oct. 5, 1963). Jan. 1, 1966 (1965 A m e n d m e n ts, Sept. 29, 1965). Nov. 1, 1966 (P.L. 89-700, Oct. 30, 1966). Feb. 1, 1968 (P.L. 90-257, Feb. 15, 1968). Basic amount calculation Added: Aged widow’s and widower’s annuity and also widowed mother’s annu ity— remarried widow ben eficiary eligible on 2nd husband’s earnings if he died within 1 year. Added: Aged widow’s and widower’s annuity and also widowed mother’s annu ity — benefits provided widow even though not liv ing with husband at death. Expanded: Children’s annu ity—to include survivor children ages 18-21 if full time students (retroactive to Jan. 1, 1965). Student child did not qualify wid owed mother. Added: Aged widow’s and widower’s annuity—82.5 percent of table increase based on AMC (see far right column) added to basic amount. Added: Widowed mother’s annuity—82.5 percent of table increase based on AMC (see far right column) added to basic amount. Added: Children's annuity75 percent of table in crease based on AMC (see far right column) added to 2/3 of basic amount. Expanded: Children’s annu ity—to include adopted children and stepchildren. Added: Parent’s annuity— 82.5 percent of table in crease based on AMC (see far right column) added to z/3 of basic amount. Established: Disabled wid ow’s benefit—to totally and permanently disabled widow of completely in sured employee (10 years service and current con nection) age 50 or more if disability began before end of 7 years after widow hood or after widowed mother’s benefit ended. Benefit same as for aged widow but reduced by 0.3 percent for each month under age 60 when benefit began. Increased: 52.4 percent of 1st $75 of AMR, plus 12.8 percent of next $375, plus 12 percent of remainder, increased by 1 percent for each year with earnings of $200 or more. Minimum basic amount to $18.14. Increased: 52.4 percent of 1st $75 of AMR, plus 12.8 percent of remainder, in creased by 1 percent for each year with earnings of $200 or more. Increased: Maximum to $450 after Oct. 1963. Increased: Maximum to 1/12 of SSA annual maximum but not less than $450 after Sept. 1965 ($550 for service after 1965). Increased: Maximum to $650 after 1967. Changed: Method of using pre-1951 earnings was simplified. Unreduced RRA survivors benefit was subject to par tial reduction for receipt of SSA benefits (but not tc amount less than would have been payable under previous law). Regular family maximum to lesser of $207.15 or 22/3 times basic amount. Eliminated: Reduction in basic amount because of receipt of SSA benefit. Table increases was as fol lows: AMC Increase Up to $100 ... . .$10.00 $101—150 . . . . . 11.22 151—200 . . . . . 12.87 201—250 . . . . . 14.63 251—300 ... . . 16.17 301—350 . . . . . 17.82 351 —400 . . . . . 19.47 401—450 . . . . . 20.90 451—500 ... . . 22.55 501 —550 . . . . . 24.09 551 —600 . . . . . 27.83 601 and over . . 31.46 Table increase reduced by 17.3 percent of 1967 SSA benefits. Minimum table increase was $5 minus 5.8 percent or lesser of SSA benefit or part of annuity based on basic amount. Family maximum increased by sum of fractions of table increase for ail mem bers of family (subject to reduction). Changed: Duration of mar riage requirement to 9 months from 1 year. The 9 month requirement was reduced to 3 months if employee’s death was ac cidental or occurred while on active duty in Armed Forces. See footnotes at end of table. Average monthly remuneration (AMR) 67 Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued Effective date (unless noted) Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision F. Survivor’s b e n e fits — C ontinued Type and amount of benefits Jan. 1, 1970 (P.L. Increased: All types of sur 91-377, Aug. 12, vivor annuities—15 per 1970). cent increase applied in same manner as for regu lar employee annuities ($25 maximum increase) subject to reduction if eli gible for SSA benefit (but not below $5). Jan. 1, 1971 (P.L. Increased: All types of sur 92-46, July 2, vivor annuities—10 per 1971). cent increase applied in same manner as for regu lar employee annuities. Sept. 1, 1972 (P.L. Increased: All types of sur 92-460, Oct. 4, vivor annuities—20 per 1972). cent increase applied in same manner as for regu lar employee annuities. (Minimum guarantee cases were further increased by SSA changes and RRB changes.) Jan. 1, 1973 (P.L. Expanded: Widowed mother's 93-58, July 6, annuity—to include wid 1973). ows under age 60 with grandchildren in their care, or children who became disabled between ages 18-22. Expanded: Children’s annu ity— to include children disabled before age 22, dependent grandchildren living with grandparent if natural parents disabled or dead, adopted children and also continuation of fulltime students through school term in which stu dent attained age 22. July 1, 1973 (P.L. Added: All types of survivor 93-69, July 10, annuities—“pass-through” 1973). increase applied in same way as for regular employ ees annuities. See footnotes at end of table. Basic amount calculation Average monthly remuneration (AMR) Increased: Maximum to $750 after 1971. Increased: Maximum to $900 for 1973. Increased: Maximum to $1,100 for 1974. 68 Changed: Nine-month mar riage requirement waived if widow and employee previously married for 9 months but divorced and remarried and 3-month re quirement waived if em ployee’s death was acci dental or occurred while in Armed Forces. Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued Effective date (unless noted) Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision F. Survivor’s b e n e fits — C ontinued Jan. 1, 1975 (P.L. 93-455, Oct. 16,1974). June 1, 1975 June 1, 1976 Type and amount of benefits Changed: Widow's and widower's annuity— Tier-1 and Tier-2 amounts reduced by 19/40 percent for each month under age 65 at start of benefits, but widow age 60-61 was deemed 62 in computingTier-1 amount. Added: Windfall bene fit- to r widow or widower fully in sured under SSA before 1975 if em ployee had 10 years service before 1975. Changed: Widowed mother’s annuity and also children’s annu ity— 75 percent of Tier-1 PIA, plus 30 percent of such amount in accor dance with Tier-2 calculation. Changed: Disabled widow's and widow er’s annuity—Tier-1 and Tier-2 amounts reduced by 28.5 per cent, plus 43/240 per cent for each month under age 60 at start of benefits. Changed: Parent’s an nuity—82.5 percent of Tier-1 PIA, plus 30 percent of such amount in accor dance with Tier-2 calculation. Changed: Insurance lumpsum—10 times the basic amount calculation under the 1937 Act on earn ings through 1974 only if employee had 10 years’ service be fore 1975 or amount SSA would have paid if employee had less than 10 years before 1975. Increased: Tier-1 (and Tier-2) amount by 8 percent (resulted from cost-of-living adjustment). Increased: Tier-1 (and Tier-2)amount by 6.4 percent (resulted from cost-of-living adjustment). Annuity components (effective 1974 Act) Annuities for all survi vors to be recalculated as follows effective Jan. 1, 1975: Tier-1—amount payable to survivor under SSA based on employee’s combined earnings after 1936, less any SSA benefit received (additional restrictions for widow who received annuity as railroad employee); plus Tier-2—30 percent of Tier-1 before reduc tions for work or en titlement to SSA ben efit (or RRA employee annuity); and Windfall benefit (for eli gible widow’s and w idow er’s only) — amount equal to the sum of (1) the SSA benefit based on the widow’s or widower’s earnings through 1974 and (2) a widow’s or w idow er’s annuity computed under an alternate basic amount formula under the 1937 Act7 based on the de ceased employee’s RRA and SSA earnings through 1974, ex ceeded (3) 130 percent of the SSA widow’s or w idow er’s benefit based on the employ ee’s combined earn ings through 1975. Basic amount calculation (Under 1937 Act). The Tier-1 benefits of survivors were to increase automatically for cost-of-living adjustments by the same percentages as SSA benefits (just as for em ployees and spouses). As a result, the portion of the Tier-2 benefit which was equal to 30 percent of the Tier-1 amount would rise by whatever per centage increase was made in the Tier-1 benefit. Annuity not payable for any month in which survivor en gaged in railroad employment. Entire benefit subject to SSA work restrictions. Benefits exclusive of the wind fall were subject to SSA in creases. The windfall was frozen as of the earlier of the employee's death or start of employee’s annuity. The wind fall was to be increased as it would have been under an automatic cost-of-living ad justment but would not par ticipate in a general benefit increase enacted by Congress. For widow or widower, total ben efit, exclusive of windfall, could not be less than amount received as spouse in month before employee’s death (con tinuation of spouse minimum guarantee in 1937 Act). Total Tier-1 amount payable to widow (or widower) and chil dren was subject to a maxi mum of 130 percent of the SSA family maximum based on railroad earnings and non railroad earnings. See footnotes at end of table. Average monthly remuneration (AMR) (Under 1937 Act). 69 Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued Effective date (unless noted) Applications, exceptions, and other related matters Provision F. Survivor’s b e n e fits —C o n tin u e d Nov. 1, 1976 (P.L. 94-547 Oct. 18, 1976). June 1,1977 June 1, 1978 Type and amount of benefits Changed: Method of computing windfall benefit. Increased: Tier-1 (and Tier-2) amount by 5.9 percent (resulted from cost-of-living adjustment). Increased: Tier-1 (and Tier 2)amount by 6.5 percent (resulted from cost-of-living adjustment). Annuity components (effective 1974 Act) Windfall benefit equal to the amount the widow would receive under the 1937 Act basic amount fo r mula7, adjusted for automatic cost-of-liv ing increasesafter 1974 to the latter of the date the widow's annuity began to accrue or the first month the widow is entitled to an SSA benefit based on own earnings, that is in ex cess of the total of the Tier-1 and Tier-2 amounts to which widow(er) is entitled as of the latter of the date the annuity began to accrue or the date the SSA benefit began to accrue. Basic amount calculation Special guarantee provided for widow(er) who previously re ceived a spouse's benefit that included a windfall amount based on own earnings. In this case widow(er) guaranteed to receive as much as she(he) did as a spouse beneficiary in the month the employee died. was defined as having 10 years of railroad service on change-over and, in addition, having enough quarters of coverage under the social security program to be entitled to a benefit at age 62 if no further social security credits were acquired after Dec. 31,1974. Dual benefits were retained, in effect, through provision for payment of an additional amount in "heir annuities referred to as a dual benefit “ windfall” (so called because an advantageous tax-benefit ratio allowed dual beneficiaries under pre vious law). Such windfall amounts, however, were not allowed to in crease because of any social security service performed after Dec. 31, 1974, nor would they be subject to future cost-of-living or other legisla tive increases in social security benefits subsequent to a vested em ployee’s retirement. 6Applied only if employee did not work for a railroad in 1974, or had less than 25 years of service, or did not have a current connection with the railroad as of Dec. 31, 1974, or at employee’s retirement. 7The O/M guarantee under the 1937 Act and the spouse minimum were disregarded in computation. 1Taxable compensation amounts were the same as creditable com pensation amounts which are shown in Section B of this table. Effective in 1979, SSA creditable and taxable compensation amounts differed from RRA creditable and taxable compensation and are shown separately in Section B. 2Payable one-half by employer and one-half by employee before Oct. 1973. Employee rate reduced to Social Security Act employee rate with balance of combined rate paid by employer beginning Oct. 1973 (i.e., employee rate was one-half of combined rate less 4.75 percentage points and employer rate was employee rate plus 9.5 percentage points). Health Insurance tax rates (shown in parentheses) were payable one-half by employer and one-half by employee. 3Earnings base for Tier-2 after 1974. 4The 1967 Social Security Act benefit for the 1968 formula was approx imated as 87 percent of the 1969 SSA benefits. 5New hires and individuals not vested as of Dec. 31,1974, under both systems were not to receive dual benefits. For career employees, vesting Average monthly remuneration (AMR) 70 Appendix A. Supplemental Sickness Benefits Effective 1973 Schedule A. Benefits Amount Last position worked before disability Class 1—mechanic or comparable or higher rated positions Class 2—helper or comparable position, rated below mechanic Class 3—lower rated positions Employee eligible for RUIA sickness benefits Per day Per month $10.50 $315.00 Rate of pay as of Dec. 31, 19721 Hourly Monthly $895.00 $5.15 or more or more $4.20 but less than $5.15 Less than $4.20 Employee not eligible for RUIA sickness benefits2 Per day Per month $17.17 $515.00 $222.00 1lncluded any differential regularly paid on the position. Weekly-rated positions were classified as to rate of pay on the basis of the weekly rate multiplied by 41 to obtain a monthly rate of pay. A Applicable to employee eligible for benefits under this plan who ex hausted benefits under RUIA. Did not apply to additional days of RUIA waiting period (5th, 6th, and 7th days of disability) in effect before July 1, $ 7.40 $422.00 $14.07 $171.00 $730.00 but less than $895.00 Less than $730.00 $ 5.70 $371.00 $12.37 1975 when employee was eligible for benefits under the plan and under the RUIA, but benefits were then not payable under the RUIA. (Before July 1,1975, sickness benefits under the RUIA began with the 8th day of sickness in the first registration period in a benefit year; effective July 1, 1975, sickness benefits under the RUIA began with the 5th day of sick ness in the first registration period). Schedule B. Limits (In the event RUIA sickness daily benefits increased)1 Class Rate of pay as of Dec. 31, 1972 Average straighttime monthly earnings $925.00 $647.50 $780.00 $546.00 $700.00 Hourly Monthly $5.15 $895.00 1 or more or more $4.20 $730.00 but but 2 less than less than $5.15 $895.00 Less than Less than 3 $4.20 $730.00 1lf RUIA was amended to increase RUIA daily sickness benefits, and the sum of (a) 21.75 times the “ average daily benefit for the class under the RUIA as amended” plus (b) the amount shown in schedule A above ($315, $222, or $171, as appropriate) should exceed 70 percent of average straight-time monthly compensation ($647.50, $546, or $490, as appro priate), the per month and per day amounts for employees eligible for RUIA sickness benefits as shown in schedule A were to be reduced to 70 percent of average straight-time monthly earnings $490.00 the extent that the sum of (a) and (b) would not exceed 70 percent of average straight-time monthly compensation. The “average daily benefit for the class under the RUIA as amended” for purposes of schedule B was the benefit that would be payable to an employee who had worked full time in base year and whose rate of pay at the Dec. 31, 1972 wage level was: Class 1—$5.25; Class 2—$4.50; Class 3—$4.00. 71 Appendix B. Supplemental Sickness Benefits Effective 1976 Schedule A. Benefits Amount Last position worked before disability Class 1—mechanic or comparable or higher rated positions Class 2—helper or comparable position, rated below mechanic Class 3—lower rated positions Rate of pay as of Jan. 1, 19761 Hourly $6.61 or more Monthly $1150 or more $5.46 but less than $6.61 Less than $5.46 Employee eligible for RUIA sickness benefits Per month Per day $8.07 $242 $ 950 but less than $1150 Less than $ 950 Employee who exhausted RUIA sickness benefits Per day Per month $764 $25.47 $1412 $4.702 $657 $21.9C $ 662 $4.232 $588 $19.60 Class 2 employee Per Per month day $135 $4.50 included any differential regularly paid on the position plus any ap plicable cost-of-living allowance. Weekly-rated positions were classified as to rate of pay on the basis of the weekly rate multiplied by AVi to obtain a monthly rate of pay. 2Amounts for Class 2 and Class 3 employees eligible for RUIA sickness benefits were to be subsequently changed on July 1, 1976, as follows: Class 3 employee Per Per month day $66 $2.20 Schedule B. Limits (In the event RUIA sickness daily benefits increased)1 Class 1 2 3 Rate of pay as of Jan. 1, 1976 Hourly $6.61 or more $5.46 but less than $6.61 Less than $5.46 Monthly $1150 or more $ 950 but less than $1150 Less than $ 950 1lf the RUIA was amended so as to increase RUIA daily sickness benefits, and the sum of (a) 21.75 times the “average daily benefit for the class under the RUIA as amended” plus (b) the appropriate amount shown in schedule A above should exceed the “ combined benefit limit” in this schedule B, the per monthand per day amounts for employees eligible for RUIA sickness benefits as shown in schedule A were to be reduced to the extent that the sum of (a) and (b) would not exceed the “ combined benefit limit.” Combined benefit limit $819 $709 $636 The “average daily benefit for the class under the RUIA as amended” for purposes of schedule B was the benefit that would be payable to an employee who had worked full time in base year and whose rate of pay at the Dec. 31, 1975, wage level was: Class 1—$6.60; Class 2—$5.70; Class 3—$5.10. 72 Wage Chronologies Available The following wage chronologies are available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, or from the regional offices of the Bureau of Labor Statistics listed on the inside back cover. Some publications are out of print and not available from the Superintendent of Documents but may be obtained, as long as supplies are available, from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Wash ington, D.C. 20212, or from the Bureau’s regional of fices. Out-of-print items also may be available for reference in leading public, college, or university libraries. Before July 1965, basic wage chronologies and their supplements were published in the Monthly Labor Review and released as Bureau reports. Wage chronologies published later are available only as bulletins (and their supplements). Summaries of general wage changes and new or changed working practices are added to bulletins as new contracts are negotiated. Aluminum Company of America with United Steel workers of America and Aluminum Workers Interna tional Union— November 1939—January 1974, BLS Bulletin 1815. February 1974—May 1977, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1815. The Anaconda Co. (Montana Mining Division) and the Steelworkers— 1941-77, BLS Bulletin 1953. 1977-80, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1953. Armour and Company— 1941-72, BLS Bulletin 1682. 1973-79, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1682. A.T.&T.—Long Lines Department and Communica tions Workers of America (AFL-CIO)— October 1940—July 1974, BLS Bulletin 1812. July 1974—August 1977, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1812. Atlantic Richfield and the Oil Workers (Former Sinclair Oil Facilities)— 1941-77, BLS Bulletin 1915. 1977-79, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1915. Berkshire Hathaway Inc. and the Textile Workers— June 1943—April 1975, BLS Bulletin 1849. 1975—78, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1849. Bethlehem Steel Corp. (Shipbuilding Department) and the IUMSW— June 1941—August 1975, BLS Bulletin 1866. 1975-78, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1866. Bituminous Coal Mine Operators and United Mine Workers of America— October 1933—November 1974, BLS Bulletin 1799. 1974-77, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1799. The Boeing Co. (Washington Plants) and the Interna tional Association of Machinists— June 1936—September 1977, BLS Bulletin 1895. 1977-80, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1895. Commonwealth Edison Co. and the Electrical Workers (IBEW)— October 1945—March 1974, BLS Bulletin 1808. 1974- 79, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1808. Dan River Inc. and the Textile Workers (UTWA)— 1943-79, BLS Bulletin 2048, FMC Corp., Chemical Group—Fiber Division and the TWUA— 1945-77, BLS Bulletin 1924. 1977-79, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1924. Federal Employees under the General Schedule Pay System— July 1924—October 1974, BLS Bulletin 1870. 197577, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1870. Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. and B.F. Goodrich Co. (Akron Plants)— 1937-79, BLS Bulletin 2011. Ford Motor Co. and the Auto Workers— Volume I, June 1941—September 1973, BLS Bulle tin 1787. Volume II, 1973-79, BLS Bulletin 1994. International Harvester Co. and the Auto Workers— February 1946—September 1976, BLS Bulletin 1887. 197679, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1887. International Paper Co., Multiple Mill Group, and the Paperworkers and the Electrical Workers— 1937-79, BLS Bulletin 2023. International Shoe Co., the Shoe Workers, and the Boot and Shoe Workers— 1945-78, BLS Bulletin 2010. 73 Lockheed—California Company (a division of Lock heed Aircraft Corp.) and Machinists’ Union— March 1937—October 1977, BLS Bulletin 1904. 1977-80, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1904. Martin Marietta Aerospace and the Auto Workers— March 1944—November 1975, BLS Bulletin 1884. 1975-78, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1884. Massachusetts Shoe Manufacturers and the Shoe Workers— 1945—79, BLS Bulletin 1993. New York City Laundries and the Clothing Workers— November 1945—November 1975, BLS Bulletin 1845. 1975-78, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1845. North Atlantic Longshoremen— 1934-80, BLS Bulletin 2063. Pacific Coast Shipbuilders and Various Unions— 1941-77, BLS Bulletin 1982. Pacific Gas and Electric Co.— 1943-72, BLS Bulletin 1761. 1972-79, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1761. Pacific Maritime Association and the ILWU— 1934-78, BLS Bulletin 1960. Railroads—Nonoperating Employees-^ 1920-77, BLS Bulletin 2041. Rockwell International (Electronics, North American Aircraft/Space Operations) and the Auto Workers— May 1941—September 1977, BLS Bulletin 1893. United States Steel Corporation and United Steel workers of America— March 1937—April 1974, BLS Bulletin 1814. May 1974—July 1977, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1814. Western Greyhound Lines— 1945-67, BLS Bulletin 1595.1 1968-77, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1595. Western Union Telegraph Co. and the Telegraph Workers and the Communications Workers— 1943-76, BLS Bulletin 1927. 1976-79, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1927. 'Out o f print. See Directory o f Wage Chronologies, 1948-June 1977 for M onthly Labor Review issue in which reports and supplements pub lished before July 1965 appeared. 74 Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices A M E RIC A N Region I 1603 JFK Federal Building Government Center Boston, Mass. 02203 Phone: (617) 223-6761 Region IV 1371 Peachtree Street, N.E. Atlanta, Ga. 30309 Phone: (404) 881-4418 Region V Region II Suite 3400 1515 Broadway New York, N.Y. 10036 Phone: (212) 944-3121 Region III 3535 Market Street P.O. Box 13309 Philadelphia, Pa. 19101 Phone: (215) 596-1154 9th Floor Federal Office Building 230 S. Dearborn Street Chicago, III. 60604 Phone: (312) 353-1880 Region VI Second Floor 555 G riffin Square Building Dallas, Tex. 75202 Phone: (214) 767-6971 Regions VII and VIII 911 Walnut Street Kansas City, Mo. 64106 Phone: (816) 374-2481 Regions IX and X 450 Golden Gate Avenue Box 36017 San Francisco, Calif. 94102 Phone: (415) 556-4678