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Wage Chronology:
Railroads— Nonoperating
Employees,

1920-77
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
May 1980
Bulletin 2041




Wage Chronology:
Railroads— Nonoperating
Employees,

1920-77
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
May 1980
Bulletin 2041







Preface

This bulletin is one of a series prepared by the Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics that traces changes in wage
scales and related benefits negotiated by individual em­
ployers or combinations of employers with a union or
group of unions. Benefits unilaterally introduced by an
employer generally are included. The information is
largely obtained from collective bargaining agreements
and other documents voluntarily filed with the Bureau.
Descriptions of the course of collective bargaining are
derived from the news media and confirmed and sup­
plemented by the parties to the agreement. Wage chro­
nologies deal only with selected features of collective
bargaining or wage determination. They are intended
primarily as a tool for research, analysis, and wage ad­
ministration. References to job security, grievance pro­
cedures, methods of piece-rate adjustment, and similar
matters are omitted. For a detailed explanation of the
purpose and scope of the chronology program, see
“Wage Chronologies and Salary Trend Reports,” BLS
Handbook o f Methods, Bulletin 1910 (Bureau of Labor
Statistics, 1976), chapter 22.
This chronology summarizes changes in wages and
supplementary compensation practices since May 1920
negotiated by the railroads with unions representing
nonoperating employees. This bulletin replaces Wage




Chronology: Railroads—Nonoperating Employees, 192062, published as BLS Report 208. Materials previously
published have been supplemented by a new introduc­
tion, contract changes negotiated for the 1964-77 peri­
od, and text and tables chronicling changes (from their
establishment) in the railroad unemployment insurance
and retirement systems. Earlier material generally is in­
cluded as originally published.
The Bureau has introduced new job titles to eliminate
those that denote sex stereotypes. For purposes of this
bulletin, however, old titles have been retained where
they refer specifically to contractual definitions. Titles
used in the generic sense and not to describe a contract
term have been changed to eliminate the sex stereotype.
The introduction, analysis of contract changes for the
1964-77 period, and material chronicling changes in rail­
road unemployment insurance and retirement systems
were prepared in the Division of Trends in Employee
Compensation by John J. Lacombe II.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and may be reproduced without permission of the Fed­
eral Government. Please credit the Bureau of Labor
Statistics and cite Wage Chronology: Railroads—Nonop­
erating Employees 1920-77, Bulletin 2041.

iii




Contents




Page
Introduction...........................................................................................
Scope of chronology......................................................................
Major legislation affecting railroad bargaining...........................
Railroad bargaining stru ctu re......................................................
Wage structure...............................................................................

\
1
2
3
5

Summary of contract negotiations ......................................................
May 1920 - January 1932 ..............................................................
February 1932 - July 1937 ....................... ....................................
August 1937 - August 1941 ..........................................................
September 1941 - December 1945 ................................................
January 1946 - August 1947..........................................................
September 1947 - January 1951....................................................
February 1951 - November 1955 .....................................^
.
December 1955 —
June 1960 ........................................................ .
July 1960-January 1962 ..............................................................
February 1962 - December 1963 .....................
January 1964 - December 1966 ...................
January 1967 - June 1973 ............. ...............................................
July 1973 - December 1974............................................................
January 1975 - December 1977 ....................................................

^
^
^
^
g
p
jq
jq

jj
jj

^
12
j^
2q
2j

Major developments in railroad retirement and
unemployment insurance systems......................................................
Railroad retirement system............................................................
Railroad unemployment insurance system...................................

24
24
25

Chart: Railway collective bargaining procedures and
“ status quo” periods under the Railway Labor A c t...................

8

Tables:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

General wage changes, 1920-62 ............................................
General wage changes, 1964-77 ............................................
Basic hourly wage rates for shop crafts, 1920-62 ..................
Basic hourly wage rates for shop crafts, 1964-77 .................
Supplementary compensation practices.................................
Overtime pay ..................................................................
Premium pay for work on weekends or rest day ............
Holiday pay ....................................................................
Vacation p ay ....................................................................
Jury-duty p a y .................................................................
Travel time and expense pay ..........................................
Job protection agreements.............................................
Layoff n o tic e .....................
Health and welfare..........................................................
Supplemental sickness benefit p la n ...............................
Railroad unemployment insurance provisions.....................
v

27
30
38
39
41
41
41
41
42
43
44
44
45
46
49
51

Contents—Continued




Page
7.

Railroad retirement system....................................................

54

Appendixes:
A. Supplemental sickness benefits effective 1973 .........................
B. Supplemental sickness benefits effective 1976 .........................

71
72

Wage chronologies available................................................................ 73

vi

Introduction

Scope of chronology

also true for independent actions by carriers. No at­
tempt has been made to report deviations from the pat­
tern, unless it affects a significant group of unions such
as an alignment of shopcraft organizations or nonshop
organizations.
The chronology covers most of the period since 1920,
when the railroads were returned to private ownership
after World War I. Agreements prior to this period,
although negotiated with a group of employers, were
geographically limited and confined primarily to the
operating brotherhoods. From 1923 to 1932, the non­
operating employee organizations conducted negotia­
tions with individual railroads which did not result in
uniform changes in existing agreements, and therefore
such changes are not reported here. Wage changes are
reported for 1920 to 1922 and from 1932 to the present,
while changes in supplementary compensation practices
are confined to those contained in the 1932 and subse­
quent national agreements. Although legislated by Con­
gress, the initial provisions of the railroad retirement
and unemployment systems and their subsequent mod­
ifications also are summarized. Labor and management
usually pariticipate in the formulation of such legislation.

This wage chronology summarizes changes in wages
and supplementary compensation practices which are
the result of national agreements negotiated for the ma­
jor railroad and switching and terminal companies (as
well as a number of smaller companies) through the
National Railway Labor Conference (NRLC)' with the
major nonoperating employee organizations (represent­
ing over 260,000 railroad workers in 1978) that tradi­
tionally have coordinated their bargaining efforts.2The
NRLC members constitute the bulk of the industry, ac­
counting for about 95 percent of the Nation’s track
mileage. Virtually all of the agreements between other
rail companies and the nonoperating organizations fol­
low the pattern set by these national agreements. The
chronology also summarizes changes affecting the par­
ties as a result of government orders and directives, ar­
bitration awards, and Federal legislation which are na­
tionwide in scope.
The number of covered nonoperating organizations
joining together in coordinated bargaining has varied
at times, and in some years the agreements reached by
the unions that have negotiated independently have dif­
fered from those reached by the major group. This is

Employees (BMWE), 1887; Brotherhood o f Railway Carmen of
America (BRC), 1888; and Brotherhood o f Railroad Signalmen o f
America (BRS), 1901. Covered nonoperating organizations with sig­
nificant representation in the railroad industry, but with their mem­
bers primarily in other industries are the International Association of
Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAM), 1888; International Broth­
erhood o f Electrical Workers (IBEW), 1891; International Brother­
hood o f Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders, Blacksmiths, Forgers and
Helpers (BBF)—Boilermakers, 1880, Blacksmiths, 1889; Sheet Metal
Workers’ International Association (SMWIA), 1888; International
Brotherhood o f Firemen and Oilers (IBFO), 1889; and Hotel and
Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union (HREU),
1890.
Present-day organizations representing workers in the railroad in­
dustry not covered by the chronology are the Brotherhood o f Lo­
comotive Engineers; American Train Dispatchers Association; Rail­
road Yardmasters o f America (which includes the Railroad Yardmasters o f North America merged into it in 1969); Brotherhood of
Sleeping Car Porters; the American Railway and Airway Supervi­
sors Association; United Transportation Union (formed in 1969
through the merger o f the Order o f Railway Conductors and Brakemen, Brotherhood o f Locom otive Firemen and Engineers, Brother­
hood o f Railroad Trainmen, and Switchmen’s Union o f North Amer­
ica); Transport Workers Union o f America; National Marine Engi­
neers’ Beneficial Association; International Organization o f Masters,
Mates and Pilots; and Seafarers’ International Union o f North
America.

'The NRLC is the bargaining agent for management in national
negotiations on the basis o f a grant o f power o f attorney from the
individual carriers (the number granting this power varies from one
bargaining round to another). The NRLC had almost 180 member
companies in 1978, o f which only 15 employed about 85 percent o f
all workers in the industry. Although there were approximately 250
nonmember companies, they accounted for only a small portion o f
the industry’s workers.
In earlier years, most o f the member companies were classified as
Class I railroad companies by the Interstate Commerce Commission
(ICC). Because o f changes in the ICC’s definition o f Class I compa­
nies, the proportion o f operators falling within that classification has
declined relative to Class II and Class III roads. Class I companies,
as defined by the ICC, are those having, over a 3-year period, a gross
average annual operating revenue o f $50 million or more ($1 million
before 1956, $3 million before 1965, $5 million before 1976, and $10
million before 1978). In 1978 there were 42 Class I line-haul railroads
and only 1 Class I switching and terminal company.
2The covered nonoperating organizations having a major propor­
tion o f their members in the railroad industry and the dates they were
organized are the Brotherhood o f Railway, Airline and Steamship
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station Employees (BRASC),
1898; Order o f Railway Telegraphers (ORT), 1886, later renamed
the Transportation Communication Employees Union (TCE), which
merged with and became the Transportation-Communications D ivi­
sion o f the BRASC in 1969; Brotherhood o f Maintenance o f Way




1

Major legislation affecting railroad bargaining

favorable to union growth. As a result, membership in
all railroad unions increased materially, especially in
the shop, maintenance of way, and clerks unions. Wages
and working conditions were regulated by the Railroad
Administration. On May 25, 1918, it issued General Or­
der No. 27, which, with its supplements, established
occupational groupings, known as “crafts or classes,”
of employees for purposes of collective bargaining. Gen­
eral Order 27 recognized the 8-hour workday and pro­
vided for a sliding scale of pay increases, retroactive to
January 1, 1918, for virtually all railroad workers. Rates
of pay for the mechanical trades were standardized by
Supplement No. 4 to General Order No. 27, also effec­
tive January 1, 1918.’ In September 1918, standard min­
imum rates for clerical, terminal, and maintenance of
way employees were established by Supplement Nos.
7 and 8. In December, a similar order (Supplement No.
13) was issued for telegraphers and station agents.4Fur­
ther wage increases to shopcraft employees were grant­
ed on August 25, 1919. In addition, some of the sup­
plements issued during the period of Federal control
covered working conditions and, in general, served to
make these conditions uniform by extending them to
all railroads under Federal control.
Federal control was terminated by the Transporta­
tion Act of 1920, which also set up the U.S. Railroad
Labor Board. This Board was authorized to hold hear­
ings and make decisions on any dispute between rail­
road workers and their employers involving wages,
rules, or working conditions if agreement could not be
reached by the parties themselves. Although no means
were provided for enforcing the decisions of the Board,
both the unions and the carriers accepted the awards
it issued in 1920 and 1921. Dissatisfaction with the Board
reached such a high pitch by 1922, however, that it
was almost completely ineffective from that time until
it was abolished in 1926. Both labor and management
were unhappy with the form of compulsory arbitration
that had emerged. Representatives of both parties then
worked together to draft language for new legislation
for handling of collective bargaining and disputes in the
industry.
The result was the Railway Labor Act of 1926,5which
was passed by Congress essentially as written by labor
and management and reflected their knowledge of con­
ditions in the industry. The five basic purposes of the
act were to prevent the interruption of service, insure
the right of employees to organize, provide complete

The nature of the railroad industry and the impor­
tance of uninterrupted service have focused more gov­
ernment attention on labor-management relations in the
industry than on any other. Government has been a
third party in railroad bargaining either directly or in­
directly. Even when settlements are reached without
government intervention, negotiators for labor and man­
agement have had to bear in mind possible government
reactions in the case of an impasse or dispute.
The first Federal law for management and labor in
the railroad industry was the Arbitration Act of 1888,
which was a response to a number of serious strikes. It
provided for voluntary arbitration by a 3-member board
and for Presidential boards of investigation. No case
was ever arbitrated under the act, however, and a com­
mission appointed to investigate the Pullman strike of
1894 had no meaningful influence in the settlement of
the strike. This act was superseded by the Erdman Act
of 1898 which continued the old law’s voluntary arbi­
tration features, but not its investigatory aspects. Sig­
nificantly, the new law recognized the function of me­
diation in promoting settlement, which was to be un­
dertaken by the U.S. Commissioner of Labor and the
Chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Ad­
ditionally, a “status quo” period during the course of
arbitration was adopted. The act also made it a crimi­
nal offense to dismiss a railroad employee or discrimi­
nate against a prospective employee because of union
membership, but this section of the act was invalidated
by the U.S. Supreme Court. A number of cases were
successfully mediated under the act; a few cases were
arbitrated. The Newlands Act of 1913, which amended
the Erdman Act, established a permanent Board of Me­
diation and Conciliation to handle disputes arising out
of negotiation and interpretation of agreements, which
frequently was successful in resolving disputes.
In 1916, a basic 8-hour workday for workers engaged
in interstate commerce on the railroads was established
by “ad hoc” legislation—the Adamson Act. This was
a Congressionally arbitrated solution to a dispute which
had threatened a nationwide shutdown after mediation
and arbitration had been refused.
From December 28, 1917, until March 1, 1920, the
Federal government assumed control of the railroads
under existing legislation that allowed government op­
eration in wartime. During the period, the Director
General of the Railroad Administration issued a great
number of general orders having an important influence
on the industry and its bargaining structure. The Di­
rector General also negotiated the first national agree­
ments with a labor organization. The first such agree­
ment, dated Sept. 20, 1919, was with the Railway Em­
ployees’ Department of the American Federation of
Labor (AFL) and covered wages and work rules.
By prohibiting discrimination against union members,
Federal operation of the railroads created a climate



’Addendum 1 established minimum and maximum rates for some
occupations not covered by the original order, and Addendum 2 es­
tablished differentials for some skilled occupations.
4Some supplements not mentioned dealt with rates o f pay o f nu­
merically smaller groups o f employees such as police department
employees.
5For a more comprehensive explanation o f the Railway Labor Act,
see The Railway Labor Act at Fifty, National Mediation Board (1976),
and Handling o f R ail Disputes under the Railway Labor Act, 1950-69,
BLS Bulletin 1753 (1972).

2

independence of organization by both parties, assist in
prompt settlement of disputes over wages, work rules,
or working conditions, and assist in settlement of dis­
putes over interpretation of existing contracts and in
resolving grievances. The law provided for a series of
procedures, which are still in effect, designed to promote
settlement of disputes. (See chart.) The basic mediation
function was to be provided by a 5-member Board of
Mediation. The parties were required to give 30-day
notice of an intended change in an agreement. Confer­
ences had to begin within 30 days and could continue
until either a settlement or a deadlock was reached. Ei­
ther party could request mediation services of the Board
or the Board proffered its services. If mediation failed
or was refused, the Board proffered arbitration. If ar­
bitration was refused and in the judgement of the Board
the dispute would “threaten substantially to interrupt
interstate commerce”, the President could appoint an
emergency board to investigate and report on the dis­
pute within 30 days. During this series of procedures
and for 30 days after the emergency board’s report,
carriers were to refrain from making any changes in
conditions of employment, and employees were pro­
hibited from striking. (See chart.)
In 1934, important amendments to the 1926 Act
protected the right of employees to organize for col­
lective bargaining," established the National Railroad
Adjustment Board to take over the handling of griev­
ances and disputes over interpretation or application of
agreements under the act, renamed the Board of Me­
diation the National Mediation Board, and reduced the
number of the Board’s members from 5 to 3. The Na­
tional Mediation Board also was authorized to handle
employee representation disputes. As originally enacted,
the Act had provided no express authority or machin­
ery to resolve representation disputes. A 1951 amend­
ment permitted carriers and labor organizations to make
union shop agreements.

bor Organizations (those certified under the Railway
Labor Act), acting either individually or in groups, with
the serving upon the individual carriers of generally
concurrent and similar notices requesting contract
changes. The notices also include a request that if the
proposals are not settled on the individual property, the
carrier join with other carriers to authorize a Carriers’
Conference Committee to represent it in talks at the
national level. These notices along with authorization
are then forwarded to the Carriers’ Conference Com­
mittee. The carriers also propose agreement changes to
the various labor organizations. Although railroad
agreements traditionally have not had fixed durations,
for many years the parties have agreed on “moratori­
ums” for various contract items thereby prohibiting any
changes during the specified period. Usually the mor­
atoriums for certain items have varied. This resulted in
a staggering of the dates of submission of notices for
various contract item changes. More recently, howev­
er, the parties covered by this chronology have agreed
to a common moratorium for all national agreements
and issues.
Multi-employer and -multi-union bargaining with re­
spect to wages as we know it today began in 1931. As
a result of the depression, management served propo­
sals under the Railway Labor Act for a 15-percent re­
duction in wages and asked the unions to negotiate on
a joint national basis. Such joint negotiations occurred,
resulting in a national settlement for a 10-percent re­
duction in wages. A series of national agreements in
the early 1930’s gradually eliminated the reduction; the
final agreement included an understanding that future
general movements would be handled on a national ba­
sis. National negotiations undertaken in 1936 at the sug­
gestion of Congressional committees resulted in the
Washington Job Protection Agreement of 1936. In the
following year, at the request of President Roosevelt,
national negotiations were undertaken which resulted
in agreement upon and labor-management sponsorship
of legislation that became the Railroad Retirement Act
of 1937. A general wage movement also was handled
on a joint national basis in 1937. Joint national handling
of working conditions began with the vacation agree­
ment of 1941.

Railroad bargaining structure

Representatives of labor and management conduct
collective bargaining negotiations at both the local and
national levels within the framework of the Railway
Labor Act. Each of the carriers maintains agreements
with all or most of the major labor organizations and
in many cases with various small or independent un­
ions. About 6,800 such agreements exist in the indus­
try. The agreements contain some provisions which are
applicable nationally as well as provisions which are
local in nature. Certain items such as general wage in­
creases, holidays, vacations, national work rules, and
health and welfare are negotiated at the national level
with the resultant terms being incorporated into the
many local contracts.
National negotiations are referred to as national
“movements” which may be initiated by either party.
They usually are initiated by the Standard Railway La­



Employers. The National Railway Labor Conference
(NRLC) represents virtually all of railroad management
in negotiations which are national in scope, with its
chairman acting as spokesman and chief negotiator for
management on the basis of a grant of power of attor­
ney from the individual carriers. National bargaining in
the industry evolved gradually from negotiations for a
‘T h e amendment provided that “no carrier . . . shall require any
person seeking employment to sign any contract or agreement prom­
ising to join or not to join a labor organization”, and provided the
authority to enforce this provision.

3

section of a railroad, then to systemwide talks, and later
to regional bargaining. In response to union attempts
in the early 1900’s to achieve more uniformity in agree­
ments beyond the systemwide scale, the carriers estab­
lished three regional conferences to handle their nego­
tiations on a regional basis. These conferences were
composed of representatives of many major railroads
in the Eastern, Western, and Southeast rail territories.
Informal cooperation developed among these confer­
ences, and in later years the regional committees often
agreed upon a single spokesman for national bargain­
ing. In 1963, the carriers formally consolidated the han­
dling of national labor relations matters by establishing
the NRLC. Ultimate power to ratify an agreement on
the behalf of management, however, typically rested
with the regional conference committees until 1972
when the National Carriers’ Conference Committee was
formed within the NRLC to assume the jurisdiction
formerly held by the regional committees which were
concurrently disolved.
A recent development that may have a significant
effect on managements’ bargaining structure was the
establishment of the Consolidated Rail Corporation
(ConRail). ConRail was established effective April 1,
1976, as a result of the Rail Reorganization Act of 1973,
signed into law on January 2, 1974. The act set in mo­
tion a process of reorganizing seven railroads that were
in bankruptcy proceedings. The result was ConRail, the
largest corporate reorganization in American history.
It is a for-profit organization dealing primarily in freight
operations8 from Boston to East St. Louis (through 15
States, 2 Canadian provinces, and the District of Co­
lumbia) and employing about one-fifth of all railroad
workers in the United States. It is affiliated with the
NRLC, but due to legislative mandates to conclude sin­
gle agreements for each craft, it has decided to nego­
tiate independently with the unions rather than through
the NRLC in recent bargaining efforts. Since ConRail
is such a large component of management and employs
so many workers, any independent action by it could
significantly affect the present bargaining structure if it
deviates from the national pattern.
Similarly, Amtrak, a for-profit corporation which be­
gan operations May 1, 1971, created by the Rail Pas­
senger Service Act of 1970 to preserve a basic nation­
al passenger network, has not been represented by the
NRLC in national negotiations. It has, however, nego­
tiated terms similar to those negotiated by the NRLC.
Amtrak began as a contractor using services and equip­
ment of the railroads over which it operated. It since
has been given authority to purchase equipment and to
assume many servicing, repair, and maintenance func­
tions previously performed by the operating companies.
With the acquisition of the “Northeast Corridor” op­
erations9 from ConRail on April 1, 1976, Amtrak be­
came an operating railroad. When Amtrak began, its
trains and stations were staffed by employees of the



operating railroads. It slowly assumed station, on-board,
and maintenance functions by switching railroad em­
ployees to the Amtrak payroll. By December 1976,
Amtrak had about 18,400 employees—about 7,600 of
whom were in the Northeast Corridor.
Unions. On the labor side, individual unions of rail­
road workers had agreements with many of the railroad
and switching and terminal companies (or their prede­
cessors) before 1900. Nonoperating employees had
gained sufficient strength by the 1890’s to negotiate for
the settlement of grievances; for example, by 1893, the
Order of Railroad Telegraphers had 15,000 members
and agreements with 25 carriers. During their forma­
tive years, the unions negotiated separate agreements
with individual companies. In 1902, however, the Or­
der of Railway Conductors (ORC) was joined by the
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, and these negotia­
tions initiated the multi-employer bargaining pattern
that has prevailed throughout the industry since that
time. These early agreements, although negotiated with
a group of employers, were geographically limited and
confined primarily to the operating unions.
Union organization of railroad workers has been
along craft lines. Crafts or classes of such workers have
been distinct and generally recognized for many years.
Two types of crafts or classes have developed in the
industry—the first conforming mainly to the old craft
guilds and closely restricted to employees in one par­
ticular occupation and the second combining into one
group various occupations generally related to a par­
ticular line of endeavor. There are two major cooperative
organizations, neither of which originally was established
as a bargaining agency. The Railway Employes’ Depart­
ment (RED) was chartered by the AFL in 1909 primarily
to further legislation and bring about uniformity in work
rules. In the mid-1930’s, the RED emerged as a major
bargaining group representing the shopcraft organizations
(organizations of craft workers in maintenance shops).
Today the RED is composed of the Boilermakers (BBF),
Carmen (BRC), Firemen and Oilers (IBFO), and Electrical
Workers (IBEW); the Machinists (IAM) and Sheet Metal
Workers (SMWIA) withdrew in 1973. Prior to each bargain­
ing round, each affiliated organization typically gives
the RED authorization to negotiate for it. Coincident
with enactment of the Railway Labor Act, the Railway
Labor Executives’ Association (RLEA) was organized
in 1926, largely to watch over administration of the

7These railroads were the Penn Central, Lehigh Valley, Central o f
New Jersey, Reading, Lehigh & Hudson River, and Erie Lackawan­
na. Also included was the Ann Arbor Railroad controlled by the
Penn Central.
8Under contract to various agencies and Amtrak, it also provides
track and operating personnel for passenger trains.
9Routes acquired include the Boston-Washington, N ew HavenSpringfield, and Philadelphia-Harrisburg lines.

4

largely due to jurisdictional disputes. In 1969, howev­
er, this situation changed significantly when four of the
five operating unions merged.
In contrast to the past factionalism mentioned, all of
the major labor organizations representing railroad
workers, except the SMWIA, agreed in 1973 to nego­
tiate as a single group. Most of them did so and settled
concurrently. The labor organizations agreed to coor­
dinated bargaining prior to the 1975 round by seeking
uniform wage increases, establishment of an escalator
clause, and similar fringe benefits, but each union was
free to negotiate independently. The organizations set­
tled on similar agreements. In the 1978 bargaining round,
cooperation among labor organizations was fragmented
over a variety of issues.

Act. Most of the organizations representing railway
workers have been affiliated with the RLEA (19 as of
1975). It is composed of the president of the AFL-CIO’s
RED and a major official of each of the affiliated or­
ganizations. The RLEA now functions as a policy-mak­
ing body on legislative and other matters of common
interest to railroad workers. Although not directly in­
volved in collective bargaining,1 the RLEA has pro­
0
vided a more cohesive bargaining front by being a fo­
rum for discussions among labor leaders. Organizations
not affiliated with the RLEA usually have acted con­
temporaneously with its members. All but one member,
an operating union, are affiliated with the AFL-CIO.
The BRASC and four other organizations withdrew
from the RLEA over a dispute involving retirement
legislation and formed the Congress of Railway Unions
in 1969. In 1975, all of these unions, except the BRASC,
reaffiliated with the RLEA. In 1977, the BRASC also
rejoined the RLEA.
The labor organizations traditionally have bargained
according to two major functional categories—nonop­
erating organizations (for workers not directly involved
in the movement of trains) and operating organizations
(for those directly involved in the movement of trains).
The nonoperating unions, most of which are covered
by this chronology (see footnote 2), are a mixed group
of craft and industrial unions and generally have coor­
dinated their bargaining efforts and have been referred
to as the “cooperating railroad labor organizations”. In
some more recent bargaining rounds, mostly in the
1960’s, this group had split into various coalitions at
different times and over different issues—primarily
along shopcraft and nonshop lines. This trend largely
has resulted from the influence of settlements outside
the railroad industry in formulating demands of shopcraft unions; most of their members are employed in
other industries and an ease of mobility across industry
lines exists for shopcraft workers. The opposite has been
the case for unions having their representational base
within the railroad industry (see footnote 2). Tradition­
ally, the operating unions have not bargained as a group,




Wage structure

Wage rates for most shopcraft employees generally
are uniform on most railroads. Pay rates of other non­
operating employees do not reflect the same uniformi­
ty ahd vary among companies and geographic regions.
Nonoperating employees are paid on the basis of an
hourly or daily wage or a weekly or monthly salary.
Wage adjustments which have resulted from general
wage movements have been uniform throughout the
industry in most cases, although there have been peri­
ods when the increases for different crafts or classes of
nonoperating employees varied (e.g., when wage hikes
varied along shopcraft and nonshop lines in the 1960’s).
Rates of pay for most operating employees perform­
ing the same work generally also are uniform through­
out the industry, although operating employees in road
service (on train) have a dual pay system. Under this
dual pay system, actual compensation depends on the
number of miles traveled as well as the number of hours
worked in covering those miles.

10The RLEA, however, did become directly involved in some ne­
gotiations such as wage negotiations in 1932 and negotiations for the
Washington Job Protection Agreement o f 1936.

5

Summary of Contract
Negotiations

May 1920-January 1932

for which disagreements had been certified. The shop
unions reluctantly accepted the new rules. Following
this action, the Board established a uniform basis for
certain working rules for maintenance of way, clerical
and station employees, signalmen, and firemen and oil­
ers. Shortly thereafter, the Board issued decisions set­
ting working standards for train dispatchers, superviso­
ry mechanics, telegraphers, stationary engineers, and
yardmasters. By the end of 1921, the working condi­
tions of virtually all nonoperating employees were af­
fected by rules promulgated by a government agency
and written into system agreements.
When the economic downturn of 1921 continued into
1922, the Board acted favorably on employer petitions
for a further wage decrease. Virtually all categories of
nonoperating employees were affected by the reduc­
tions, which averaged 5 percent and ranged up to 20
percent.
Dissatisfaction with the Board’s overtime rules and
the increased practice of contracting out work by the
carriers, in combination with two wage decreases in 2
years, precipitated a strike in 1922 by the shop crafts.
The dispute, which continued for more than 2 months,
was terminated in effect by a Federal court injunction
prohibiting picketing of railroad properties. Much of
the membership gained by the shop crafts during the
period of Federal operation was lost when “A large
number of roads ... refused to take back the strikers and
fostered the formation of new organizations on their
lines with whom they negotiated wage scales, rules,
and working conditions.” 1 Under these circumstances,
2
the shop craft unions were forced to discontinue their
efforts to negotiate a national agreement.1 Other unions
1

The Transportation Act of 1920, enacted the year
the railroads were returned to private ownership" pro­
vided for the establishment of the U.S. Railroad Labor
Board. This Board was authorized to hold hearings and
make decisions on any dispute between railroad work­
ers and their employers involving wages, rules, or work­
ing conditions if agreement could not be reached by
the parties themselves. Although no means were pro­
vided for enforcing the decisions of the Board, both
the organizations and the carriers accepted the awards
it issued in 1920 and 1921. However, dissatisfaction with
the Board reached such a high pitch by the end of 1922
that it was almost completely ineffective from that time
until it was abolished in 1926.
Among other matters, the Board ordered a wage in­
crease of approximately 22 percent, effective May 1,
1920, and a wage reduction of about 12 percent, effec­
tive July 1, 1921, for operating and nonoperating forces.
The Board also considered the advisability of continu­
ing the national agreements and other working rules
established by the Railroad Administration. In its April
14, 1921, decision to terminate the national agreements
on July 1, the Board ordered the parties to negotiate
agreements for each railroad in conformance with 16
specified criteria. By mid-June, some railroads and em­
ployees had agreed on all rules; in most cases, howev­
er, there were certain rules upon which no agreement
had been reached and in a significant number of cases
conferences had not begun. The principal rules on which
agreement could not be reached were those governing
the payment of overtime.
On June 27, 1921, the Board issued an addendum to
its April 14 decision which continued in effect, where
rules had not been agreed to by the parties, the work
rules of the Railroad Administration. The addendum
provided that overtime in excess of the established hours
was to be paid at the pro rata wage rate. This order
was not to apply on railroads where the parties had
reached agreement on an overtime rate, or to employ­
ees who were receiving more than the pro rata rate
before a Railroad Administration order on wages and
working conditions had been issued. Meanwhile, the
Board attempted to redraft certain of the rules apply­
ing to the shop crafts. Instead of drafting individual
road rules, the Board finally decided on seven uniform
working standards relating to overtime pay for all roads



1' See Introduction for brief history o f period o f Federal control o f
the railroads.
1 Harry E. Jones, Railroad Wages and Labor Relations, 1900-19522
An Historical Survey and Summary o f Results (N ew York, Bureau o f
Information o f the Eastern Railways, 1953), pp. 80-81.
1 On July 3, 1922, the Railroad Labor Board, by resolution, recom­
3
mended that “the carriers and the employees remaining in service
and the new employees succeeding those who have left the serv­
ice... take steps as soon as practicable to prefect on each carrier such
organizations as may be deemed necessary...” to function as repre­
sentatives o f the employees before the Railroad Labor Board, “in
order that the effectiveness o f the transportation act may be
maintained.”

6

returned to the prewar practice of bargaining with in­
dividual roads. In a few instances, negotiations were
conducted on a regional scale.
Nonoperating employees were able to obtain small
increases after 1922 through negotiations with individ­
ual railroads. Wage rates of shop craft employees were
increased 2 cents an hour in 1923-24 and 3 cents in 1926.
Many roads granted time and one-half for work on
Sundays and holidays. Where this was not done, an ad­
ditional 1 cent an hour was added to basic wage rates.
Dissatisfaction with the decisions of the Railroad La­
bor Board resulted in an agreement between the Asso­
ciation of Railway Executives and the chief officers of
the railway labor organizations that led to the repeal
of the labor provisions (Title III) of the Transportation
Act and the enactment of the Railway Labor Act of
1926.1 This law abolished the Railroad Labor Board
4
and its functions and established mediation and arbitra­
tion (as provided in earlier regulatory statutes) under a
Board of Mediation. In addition, the act provided for
appointment of Presidential emergency boards to inves­
tigate and report on disputes if mediation failed, arbi­
tration was refused, and interstate commerce was threat­
ened with substantial interference; a cooling-off period
following the report was prescribed. (See chart.)
Under the new act, the operating brotherhoods were
able to negotiate relatively uniform regional wage in­
creases, but during the ensuing years, the nonoperating
employees continued to negotiate with individual roads.
Proceedings under the 1926 act were instituted by the
mechanical trades organizations on the New York Cen­
tral Railway in 1928. A Board of Arbitration decision,
released January 18, 1929, provided a 5-cent-an-hour
increase to shopcraft employees of that system, effec­
tive January 1. The award established a pattern, and
similar increases were granted to such employees by
most roads. Increases negotiated by other organizations
were not nearly as uniform.
Early in 1931, the railroad employee organizations
attempted to arrange a conference with a representa­
tive group of railroad presidents to consider a program
for employment stabilization. While this and a subse­
quent proposal did not succeed, they were the forerun­
ners of the first national wage conference held in Chi­
cago in the closing months of 1931.

ated in June 1933 under the Emergency Railroad Trans­
portation Act of 1933). On April 26, 1934, the parties
agreed to the complete cancellation of the 10-percent
deduction over a period of 9 months; reducing it to 7.5
percent on July 1, 1934, to 5.0 percent on January 1,
1935, and to a complete cancellation on April 1, 1935.
The Emergency Railroad Transportation Act of 1933,
which was enacted primarily to bolster the sagging rail­
roads by eliminating unnecessary duplication of serv­
ices and facilities, also made provision (section 7) for
the maintenance of employment levels and earnings.
Before the expiration of the job protection provision of
that act in June 1935, the operating and nonoperating
organizations jointly opened negotiations with the Car­
riers’ Joint Conference Committee to continue the job
protection provision through collective bargaining.
These negotiations resulted in an agreement, the “Wash­
ington Job Protection Agreement of May 1936,” pro­
viding specified protection to employees adversely af­
fected by mergers or consolidations involving two or
more railroads. "
Nonoperating unions did not fully recover from the
effect of the shopcrafts strike until the Railway Labor
Act of 1926 was amended in 1934 “to outlaw so-called
‘company unions’ and to insure, so far as possible, that
collective bargaining agencies would be national labor
organization.” ' Since that time, collective bargaining
on wages and many related benefits has been conduct­
ed at the national level by committees representing la­
bor and management. Under the 1934 amendment, the
present National Mediation Board was authorized to
handle disputes involving representation of employees,
as well as to continue the mediation functions which
formerly had been handled by the Board of Mediation.
The amendement also established the National Railroad
Adjustment Board with authority to decide grievances
and disputes involving application of existing
agreements.
August 1937-August 1941
Early in 1937, 14 nonoperating unions met in Chica­
go and drew up a series of proposals which were pre­
sented to the managers of the individual roads. They
noted that the national wage agreement of April 26,
1934, provided that future negotiations would be con1 Frank J. Murphy, “Agreement on the Railroads-The Joint Rail­
4
way Conference o f 1926,” Labor Law Journal, September 1960, pp.
823-836, 864.
1 For these negotiations, the carriers were represented by a Con­
5
ference Committee o f Managers. In subsequent negotiations, the rail­
roads were represented by Eastern, Western, and Southeastern Car­
riers’ Conference Committees.
1 The Transportation Act o f 1940 provided similar protection, al­
6
though the duration and level o f benefits differed from those avail­
able under the Washington Agreement. Benefits were available un­
der the Washington Agreement on agreement o f the parties; when
the parties were unable to agree, the provisions o f the Transporta­
tion Act were applied by the Interstate Commerce Commission.
1 Jones, op. cit., p. 104.
7

February 1932-July 1937

Late in 1931, the railroads opened negotiations on a
nationwide basis with the labor organizations for a 15percent reduction in basic rates of pay.15 The nego­
tiations resulted in a 1-year agreement that reduced —
earnings temporarily by 10 percent, effective February
1, 1932, but left basic rates of pay unchanged. In De­
cember 1932, the unions agreed to an extension of the
deduction to October 31, 1933. A further extension to
June 30, 1934, was made at the request of the Federal
Coordinator of Transportation (whose office was cre­



7

Chart

Railway collective bargaining procedures and “status quo” periods
under the Railway Labor Act




“
STATUS QUO”
(IN ABSENCE OF
AGREEMENT)

8

reconvene and issue revised recommendations. The
Board declined to do so.
During the period, another emergency board had
recommended a 4-cent-an-hour increase for operating
employees which was approved by the Economic Sta­
bilization Director. The operating unions, however, re­
fused to accept the recommendation. When the parties
could not agree on the operating organizations’ other
demands, the matters in dispute were arbitrated by the
President of the United States and an additional 5 cents
an hour was granted in lieu of claims for premium pay
for work in excess of 40 hours a week and for expenses
while away from home.
Additional proceedings involving the nonoperating
employees included a special Emergency Board, which,
on November 4, 1943, recommended a gradual wage
increase ranging from 4 cents an hour for the highest
paid employees to 10 cents for those receiving less than
47 cents an hour. The labor organizations also rejected
this recommendation. Following the arbitration of the
operating employees’ case, the President reconvened
the “non-ops” special Emergency Board with instruc­
tion to consider the organizations’ claim for payments
for, or in lieu of, overtime. Under the auspices of the
Board, agreement was reached on January 17, 1944.
The agreement provided that the November 4, 1943,
recommendations of the Board were to be made effec­
tive February 1, 1943, and an additional increase in lieu
of overtime, on an ascending scale from 1 to 5 cents an
hour, was made effective December 27, 1943. The com­
bined increases ranged from 9 cents an hour for the
highest paid employees to 11 cents for those who had
been receiving less than 47 cents an hour.
In June 1944, 14 nonoperating unions proposed that
their vacation agreement (which provided generally for
a 1 week’s vacation with pay) be revised to provide 12
days’ paid vacation for employees with 1 year’s serv­
ice, 15 days for those with 2 years’, and 18 days for
those with 3 years’ service. This proposal was rejected
by the railroads. Shortly before the dispute was to be
referred to an Emergency Board, the parties, at the re­
quest of the National Mediation Board, resumed nego­
tiations and reached agreement on February 23, 1945.
The agreement provided a 6-day paid vacation for em­
ployees with 1 year’s service and 12 days for those with
5 or more years’ service.

ducted at the national level and, therefore, requested
the appointment of a national carrier committee to meet
with a committee representing the nonoperating em­
ployee organizations. The unions proposed a 20-centan-hour increase, guaranteed full-time pay for all reg­
ularly assigned men, and two-thirds of full-time for
standby men.
The national negotiations were suspended in mid-1937
when the carriers’ final offer of 2 cents an hour was
refused by the unions. After the organizations took a
strike vote, negotiations were resumed in July at the
request of the National Mediation Board. The second
series of conferences failed to produce agreement, but
mediation by a member of the Board was successful,
and in August, the railroads agreed to increase wages
5 cents an hour and to terminate share-the-work-practices when requested by the presidents of the unions.
During the recession of 1938, the railroads’ request
for a 15-percent wage reduction was referred to an
Emergency Board by the President of the United States.
The Board’s recommendation that there should be no
reduction was accepted by the carriers.
September 1941-December 1945

In 1940, a group of 14 nonoperating unions drew up
requests for 2 weeks’ vacation with pay and, in 1941,
made another request for a 30-cent-an-hour wage in­
crease and a 70-cent-an-hour minimum rate. The Western
railroads countered with a proposal for a 10-percent wage
reduction. Later, the Southeastern and Western carriers
jointly asked for various rule changes. The dispute was
submitted to an Emergency Board which recommended
an increase of 9 cents an hour and a minimum rate of
45 cents an hour, effective September 1, 1941, and a
1-week vacation with pay. When the recommendations
of the Board were not accepted by the unions, the Presi­
dent, at the unions’ request, reconvened the Board. After
further hearings, the Board held that no new evidence had
been presented that was sufficient to persuade it to alter
its previous findings. After the attack on Pearl Harbor,
however, the parties, through the mediation efforts of the
Board, agreed to a 9-cent-an-hour wage increase and a
45-cent-an-hour minimum rate retroactive to September 1,
1941, an additional 1 cent an hour effective December 1
(with a 46-cent-an-hour minimum), and a 1-week vacation
With pay after 1 year’s service. Clerks and telegraphers were
granted a 9-day vacation after 2 years’ service and 12
days after 3 years.
Fifteen unions joined in a national wage movement
in September 1942. They requested an increase of 20
cents an hour, a 70-cent minimum wage rate, and the
union shop. After hearings that extended from March
1 to May 7, 1943, an Emergency Board recommended
an 8-cent-an-hour increase. The request for the union
shop was denied. In addition to disapproving the rec­
ommendation, the Director of Economic Stabilization,
on June 22, 1943, instructed the Emergency Board to



January 1946-August 1947

In the summer and fall of 1945, 15 participating un­
ions presented varying proposals to the carriers for re­
duction in hours of work and other rule changes. When
the Government modified its stabilization policy late
that year, the unions abandoned their initial requests in
favor of a request for a 30-cent-an-hour wage increase.
An Arbitration Board, on April 3, 1946, awarded a 16cent increase retroactive to January 1, 1946. On April
9

February 1951-November 1955

15, the organizations, contending that the increase was
inadequate, requested an additional 14 cents. During
this period, a parallel Arbitration Board had under con­
sideration requests for wage increases by firemen, con­
ductors, and switchmen, and hearings were also being
held by an Emergency Board on requests for wage in­
creases and changes in rules involving engineers and
trainmen; the wage increases awarded by the Board of
Arbitration and recommended by the Emergency Board
were identical to those previously granted to the “non­
ops.” Dissatisfaction with these recommendations led
to a short strike by the engineers and trainmen. The
President of the United States intervened and proposed
that the parties compromise on an 18.5-cent-an-hour in­
crease. Acceptance of the President’s proposal by the
parties entitled nonoperating workers to an additional
2.5 cents effective May 22, 1946. The railroads were
operated by the Government for 9 days while the Pres­
ident’s proposals were being considered.

On October 25, 1950, 15 nonoperating organizations
served uniform notices on all carriers proposing a 25cent-an-hour increase. By January 19, 1951, negotiations
reached an impasse and mediation under the auspices
of the National Mediation Board began. With the as­
sistance of the labor adviser to the President, agreement
was reached on March 1, 1951. The agreement provid­
ed for a 12.5-cent-an-hour general wage increase effec­
tive February 1, 1951 and an escalator clause for the
adjustment of wages to changes in the cost of living,
based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer’s
Price Index.
The 1951 agreement contained a unique reopening
clause. This provision permitted further wage discus­
sions after July 1, 1952, if the Government clarified the
wage stabilization policy in effect during the Korean
conflict to permit annual improvement (productivity)
increases. It permitted the parties to meet with the Pres­
ident, or his appointed representative, to discuss wheth­
er a further wage increase was justified under existing
conditions and stabilization policies. If agreement could
not be reached, the President was to be requested to
appoint a referee to decide the issue.
In 1952, when an agreement could not be reached in
discussions with a Presidential representative, he then
sat as referee and ruled that stabilization policy did per­
mit the reopening. After further hearings, the referee,
on March 18, 1953, awarded a 4-cent-an-hour increase
retroactive to December 1, 1952. Both the carriers and
19 participating organizations had agreed to accept the
award.
In 1953, a nationwide movement was started with a
request by 15 labor organizations for improved vaca­
tio n pay, paid holidays, a health and welfare plan, pre­
mium pay for Sunday work, and more liberal free trans­
portation privileges. In response to the May 22 notice
by the organizations, the carriers requested revision of
31 work rules and contended that health and welfare
benefits and transportation privileges were not subjects
for negotiation under the Railway Labor Act. By De­
cember, the dispute reached emergency status and an
Emergency Board was appointed to hear the case. In
the interval, the carriers sought a declaratory judge­
ment from a Federal district court that the Railway
Labor Act did not require them to bargain on health
and welfare and free transportation. This action was
dismissed by the court during the course of the Emer­
gency Board hearings on the ground that it did not
present a justifiable case, but its decision was reversed
by an appellate court. An appeal to the U.S. Supreme
Court was pending when the parties reached agreement.
The Supreme Court vacated the decision of the court
of appeals and, on the ground that the question was
moot, directed the district court to dimiss the case. The
Emergency Board’s recommendations of May 15, 1954,

September 1947-January 1951

Seventeen nonoperating labor organizations partici­
pated in the 1947 wage movement, the first to take place
after the removal of wage and price controls following
World War II. An Arbitration Board appointed under
the provisions of the Railway Labor Act of 1926, as
amended in 1934, considered the unions’ request for a
20-cent increase and made an award of 15.5 cents an
hour, effective September 1, 1947.
The wage negotiations of 1948-49 were directed pri­
marily at reducing hours of work and increasing takehome earnings. In April 1948, a request for a 25-centan-hour wage increase and the establishment of a 40hour workweek with premium pay for work on Satur­
days, Sundays, and holidays was presented to the car­
riers by 16 nonoperating organizations. This dispute was
also referred to an Emergency Board, which recom­
mended an additional 7-cent-an-hour wage increase, ef­
fective October 1, 1948, a 40-hour 5-day week adjust­
ment in basic rates to compensate for a reduction in
weekly hours of work, time and one-half for work on
rest days or in excess of 8 hours a day and/or 40 hours
a week, and continuation of premium pay for holidays
where the practice existed. The recommendations also
pointed out the necessity of changing some working
rules to conform to the proposed workweek and dealt
with the effect of the change on specific groups of em­
ployees. When the parties could not reach an agree­
ment based on the recommendations, they asked the
members of the Emergency Board to assist them, and
later, when a compromise could not be reached, to de­
cide the dispute as referees. The referees’ decision was
embodied in an agreement dated March 19, 1949. Ad­
justment to the 40-hour week increased hourly rates of
pay (exclusive of the 7-cent-an-hour increase which be­
came effective October 1, 1948) by about 20 percent.



10

included improved vacations, 7 paid holidays, and a
contributory health insurance plan with the benefits to
be negotiated. Specific recommendations were made on
seven of the carriers’ rules proposals. The agreements
of August 1954 closely followed the Board’s recom­
mendations, although problems developed in regard to
acceptance of the health insurance plan by some carri­
ers. On January 18, 1955, the railroad and union com­
mittees jointly took out a hospital-surgical insurance
policy.
By agreement of December 3, 1954, the parties dis­
continued the cost-of-living escalator provisions which
had been established in the agreement of March 1, 1951,
and incorporated into basic rates of pay the 13-cent-anhour allowance then in effect.

(since the unions were no longer willing to accept a
long-term agreement), and improvement of the health
and welfare plan and a $5,000 life insurance policy for
each employee. When it was evident the parties could
not agree, the National Mediation Board attempted to
mediate the dispute. When mediation failed and arbi­
tration was refused, these facts were reported to the
President, who appointed an Emergency Board on April
22, 1960. On June 8, the Board recommended (1) a
5-cent-an-hour general wage increase effective July 1,
1960, (2) incorporation of the existing 17-cent cost-ofliving allowance into basic rates and discontinuance of
the escalator clause, and (3) in lieu of a further wage
increase in 1961, certain improvements in the health
and welfare plan (including employer financed life in­
surance), with increased employer contributions to fi­
nance the changes and maintain the financial stability
of the fund. The Board further proposed that 2 weeks’
vacation be provided after 3 instead of 5 years’ service
and that the steadily diminishing work opportunities
characteristic of the industry be recognized by liberal­
izing vacation eligibility requirements. Improvements
in rules regarding eligibility for holiday pay were also
recommended.
A settlement was concluded by the parties on Au­
gust 19, 1960, some 15 months after negotiations started.
The parties accepted the Board’s recommendations for
a general wage increase, incorporation of the cost-ofliving allowance into basic rates, and elimination of the
cost-of-living escalator clause. The Board’s recommen­
dations on health and welfare were, on the whole, also
accepted: Benefits equal to those for employees except
for home and office calls were provided for dependents;
life insurance was provided for covered employees; and
health and welfare benefits and life insurance were ex­
tended for 3 months after layoff to furloughed employ­
ees who had been employed for at least 5 months be­
fore furlough. The new health benefits were to be fi­
nanced by additional employer contributions (including
a monthly contribution of 81 cents for the costs of treat­
ing on-duty injuries—previously covered by another
arrangement). In addition, qualifying provisions for va­
cations were liberalized, and rules regarding eligibility
and qualifications for holiday pay were revised. The
agreement was to remain in effect until changed in ac­
cordance with the provisions of the Railway Labor Act,

December 1955-June 1960

A request of April 2, 1955, for assumption by the
carriers of the entire cost of the health program and
another request on August 1 by 11 organizations for a
25-cent-an-hour wage increase was placed in the hands
of an Emergency Board in November. The Board’s rec­
ommendations of a pay raise of 14.5 cents an hour, ex­
cept for dining car employees, and assumption of the
full cost of the health and welfare plan was accepted
in December 1955 by the parties.
In June 1956, a request for a 25-cent-an-hour wage
increase was presented to the carriers by 11 nonopera­
ting organizations. The carriers in turn asked for a 6.5cent-an-hour wage reduction. The assistance of the Na­
tional Mediation Board was requested in September
when it became apparent that the parties could not
compromise their differences. With the assistance of the
Board, a 3-year agreement was concluded on Novem­
ber 1, 1956. It provided for a 10-cent-an-hour increase
on November 1, 1956, and two deferred increases of 7
cents each, effective November 1 of 1957 and 1958. In
addition, a new cost-of-living escalator provision was
incorporated into the agreement, and health insurance
benefits were provided for the dependents of railroad
workers.
July 1960-January 1962

Collective bargaining was initiated by the unions on
May 29, 1959, with proposals for liberalized holiday
and vacation pay. Because of declining employment
since 1945, the 11 participating organizations,1 repre­
8
sented about one-half million workers. In their June 8
reply, the carriers contended the negotiations on holi­
day and vacation pay were barred until the November
1 expiration date of the agreement then in effect. The
carriers’ position was overruled by the National Medi­
ation Board in November 1959. By September 1, the
organizations had expanded their proposals to include
a 25-cent-an-hour general wage increase, incorporation
of the existing cost-of-living allowance into basic rates,
cancellation of the cost-of-living escalator provision



1
8 Unions cooperating in the 1959 nationwide movement were as
follows: International Association o f Machinists; International Broth­
erhood o f Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders, Blacksmiths, Forgers
and Helpers; Sheet Metal Workers’ International Association; Inter­
national Brotherhood o f Electrical Workers; Brotherhood o f Rail­
way Carmen o f America; International Brotherhood o f Firemen and
Oilers; Brotherhood o f Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight Han­
dlers, Express and Station Employes; Brotherhood o f Maintenance
o f Way Employees; Order o f Railroad Telegraphers; Brotherhood
o f Railroad Signalmen o f America; and Hotel & Restaurant Employ­
ees and Bartenders International Union.

11

evaluation program with proper safeguards. It also rec­
ommended that the unions and carriers agree to a rule
requiring not less than 5 days’ advance notice of layoff
or furlough for other than emergency conditions. The
Board found that the prevalent practice in railroad
agreements was either 4 or 5 days’ notice, and that none
of the agreements required more than 15 days’ notice.
The organizations and the carriers resumed bargain­
ing on May 23 and reached a settlement on June 5,
1962. This agreement provided for a total wage increase
of 10.28 cents an hour—4 cents retroactive to Febru­
ary 1, 1962, and 6.28 cents retroactive to May 1, 1962.
The participating unions had requested that the 2.5-per­
cent increase recommended by the Emergency Board
to be effective May 1 be converted to a uniform 6.28
cents per hour, which was equivalent in amount but,
of course, affected individual workers differently. Ad­
vance notice of layoff of at least 5 days was provided
by the agreement, except under emergency conditions
covered by the August 21, 1954, agreement.
This agreement was to remain in effect until changed
in accordance with the provisions of the Railway La­
bor Act, with provision that notices for changes in rates
of pay could be served on or after February 1, 1963,
although such changes could not be made effective be­
fore May 1, 1963.

except that changes in basic rates of pay could not be
made on a regional or national basis before November
1, 1961.
February 1962-December 1963

Negotiations on wage rates and layoff guarantees
with the Nation’s Class I railroads were initiated on
September 1, 1961, by the 11 cooperating railway labor
organizations, " representing at that time approximately
500,000 nonoperating workers. The unions proposed a
25-cent-an-hour increase in the basic rates of all non­
operating employees and agreement on a new rule re­
quiring at least 6 months’ advance notice (except in
certain emergency situations) to employees affected by
abolition of positions or reduction in forces, both to be
effective November 1, 1961.
The railroads’ four-point counterproposal was made
during the initial conference held late in September be­
tween the individual roads and the union representa­
tives of the roads. They provided for a 20-percent re­
duction in the wage rates of specified unskilled occu­
pational levels in six crafts, the same reduction in the
entrance rates for certain clerical occupations coupled
with 4-percent annual increases over 5 years until the
established rates were again reached, a decrease to a
flat hourly rate of $1.25 for dining car waiters and oth­
er employees serving food and drinks, and elimination
of all rules requiring more than 24 hours’ advance no­
tice of layoff. The proposed rate reductions would have
affected approximately 150,000 employees.
On September 21, the unions requested the regional
railroad organizations to establish negotiating commit­
tees for the purpose of bargaining on the union propo­
sals on a national basis. On October 5, the railroad re­
gional organizations stated they could not establish the
committees until the handling of both the railroad and
union notices on individual roads had been clarified.
The unions then requested the assistance of the Nation­
al Mediation Board. Following an unsuccessful attempt
at mediation and the completion of a strike vote,2 a
0
National Mediation Board offer of arbitration on Feb­
ruary 2 was refused by the unions. The carriers agreed
to accept arbitration if a satisfactory agreement to ar­
bitrate could be reached. The President, on March 3,
appointed an Emergency Board, which convened on
March 6, 1962, to hold hearings and make
recommendations.
On May 3, 1962, the Emergency Board reported to
the President, recommending wage increases of 4 cents
an hour, retroactive to February 1, 1962, and 2.5 per­
cent an hour, effective May 1, 1962. The second raise
was recommended as a percentage increase in rates be­
cause, as the Board noted, the industry practice of ne­
gotiating uniform pay increases had “compressed the
wage structure of all classes and crafts of nonoperating
employees.” To deal with this problem, the Board sug­
gested that a study be made on the feasibility of a job



January 1964-December 1966

The united bargaining front used by the 11 standard
nonoperating railroad organizations since 1937 crum­
bled when they, acting sometimes in groups and some­
times individually, presented wage and supplemental
benefit proposals to the carriers in 1962 and 1963. This
segmentation resulted in six separate sets of proposals
and the eventual appointment of three Emergency
Boards.
Individual requests for general wage increases were
proposed by the BRS, the six shopcraft organizations
(BBF, BRC, SMWIA, IBFO, IAM, and IBEW), and
the four remaining nonshop organizations (BRASC,
BMWE, HREU, and TCE). All of the organizations
cooperated in the development of common proposals
for supplemental benefits, except for those on employ­
ment security. A program to insure some measure of
income security for a reasonable period after termina­
tion of employment was sought by the shopcraft orThese unions were as follows: International Association o f Ma­
chinists; International Brotherhood o f Boilermakers, Iron Ship Build­
ers, Blacksmiths, Forgers and Helpers; Sheet Metal Workers’ Inter­
national Association; International Brotherhood o f Electrical Work­
ers; Brotherhood o f Railway Carmen o f America; International Broth­
erhood o f Firemen and Oilers; Brotherhood o f Railway and Steam­
ship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station Employes; Broth­
erhood o f Maintenance o f Way Employes; The Order o f Railroad
Telegraphers; Brotherhood o f Railroad Signalmen; and Hotel & Res­
taurant Employees and Bartenders International Union.
20The organizations started taking a strike vote on November 27,
1961.

12

performed by supervisors, and crossing of craft lines.
Agreement on the job protection issues came on Octo­
ber 10. The settlement extended parts of the Washing­
ton Job Protection Agreement to most job reduction
situations. Under the applicable provisions, employees
whose job situations were changed would be given a
5-year guarantee at their last rate of pay, while employ­
ees laid off would be given a monthly allowance equal
to 60 percent of pay from 6 months to 5 years, depend­
ing on length of service. Other improvements covering
severance options and moving expense protection also
were provided.
BRS wage negotiations. Following a mandate of their
1961 convention, negotiators for the BRS, on February
1, 1963, served notice on the carriers independently.
They demanded a 25-percent wage increase, to become
effective on May 1, 1963. The carriers’ counterpropos­
als, made several days after the entrance of the NMB,
called for no change in wages and for alterations in
work rules governing assignments of employees and
work.
Efforts at settling the BRS dispute were unsuccess­
ful throughout the summer of 1963 and negotiations
were halted in October after the NMB ceased its me­
diation efforts. The NMB had requested that the par­
ties submit the issues to arbitration. The BRS agreed to
this if the carriers would drop their work-rule propo­
sals. The carriers refused, and on November 20 the or­
ganization set a strike deadline of January 6, 1964.
Three days before the strike was to begin, an Emer­
gency Board was appointed. Hearings were held for
several months, during which time the carriers agreed
to drop their work-rule proposals with the understand­
ing that this action would not affect their position in
other negotiations. The Board issued its report on April
3, 1964, and recommended a 6-cent-an-hour increase
for all employees plus an additional 4 cents for skilled
employees, retroactive to January 1, 1964. About 80
percent of the 11,800 workers were classified as skilled.
These recommendations were accepted by the parties
on May 1, 1964. Similar wage increases were extended
to the employees on January 1 of 1965 and 1966, by an
agreement reached in late December 1964.

ganizations; the nonshop organizations concentrated on
the retention of jobs for their members.
According to the findings of the Emergency Boards,
the change in the established practice of bargaining as
a group was caused by the desire of skilled workers to
restore former wage relationships and by the differing
employment security needs of the shop and nonshop
employees.
In order to allow a clearer exposition of the several
negotiations, the course of bargaining will be traced in
each of three groups—one for each of the resulting
Emergency Boards.
Shopcraft security negotiations. The six shopcrafts be­
gan employment security negotiations by serving no­
tices on October 15, 1962. Extension of the Washing­
ton Job Protection Agreement to all situations which
reduced employment, an end to the “farming out” of
work, preservation of craft lines, and restrictions on
work performed by foremen were among the organi­
zations’ key demands. The carriers did not make coun­
terproposals until the first formal bargaining session in
mid-September 1963, when they proposed work-rule
changes that would increase carrier authority over work
and employee assignments. Negotiations broke off the
next month, and the National Mediation Board (NMB)
was formally asked to enter into the negotiations. While
the NMB was meeting separately with the parties, the
shopcrafts conducted a strike vote which resulted in
authorization for a walkout; however, no strike dead­
line was announced.
On December 7, 1963, bargaining was resumed and
continued until late January 1964. The parties were
asked by the NMB on February 8 to submit their dis­
pute to arbitration. The organizations accepted this pro­
posal under the condition that the carriers withdraw
their demands for work-rule changes. The carriers re­
fused, leading to the appointment of a Presidential Emer­
gency Board on March 17, 1964, to deal with the
situation.
The Emergency Board began its hearings on March
18, which culminated in an August 7 repdrt recommen­
ding several job security changes. It proposed that em­
ployees whose jobs were altered be given a 5-year guar­
antee at their former wage rate; that laid-off employees
receive 60 percent of their former pay for up to 5 years;
and that the employers minimize the amount of work
sent to subcontractors and supervisors.
Bargaining resumed after the report but again was
unsuccessful and broke off in late August. On Septem­
ber 18, the organizations set a strike deadline of 6 a.m.,
September 22, 1964.
On the night before the strike deadline, the negotia­
tors for the employee organizations postponed the strike
and announced that agreement had been reached on all
but the job protection provisions of the security nego­
tiations. Settled issues included subcontracting, work



Wage and supplementary benefit negotiations in various
groups o f nonoperating organizations. Negotiators rep­
resenting various groups of the 11 nonoperating organ­
izations presented the Nation’s carriers with sets of de­
mands on May 31, 1963. These demands covered wage,
job security, and supplementary benefit issues as a group.
The 11 organizations presented supplementary benefit
demands which included a 4th week of paid vacation
after 10 years of service; 8th and 9th paid holidays; in­
creased carrier-paid life insurance of $6,000 (from
$4,000), with $2,000 for future retirees; and increased
carrier contributions to finance health and welfare ben­
efits. The five nonshop organizations (BRASC, BMWE,
13

BRS, HREU, and TCE), in a separate action, present­
ed employment security demands. They asked for an
end to the subcontracting out of work, a 2-percent-perannum ceiling on work force reductions, a 90-day no­
tice of changes in job situations, a severance pay option
for employees who did not wish to accept transfer, and
compensation for employees who incurred losses as a
result of changes in their job situations. The six shopcrafts and four of the five nonshop organizations
(BRASC, BMWE, HREU, and TCE) presented wage
demands to the carriers. The shopcrafts requested a 10percent plus 14-cent-an-hour increase in wages effec­
tive June 30, 1963; the four nonshop organizations asked
for 29 cents an hour. In addition, all of these organiza­
tions sought deferred increases of 3.5 percent a year
plus cost-of-living adjustments.
Carrier representatives released their counterpropos­
als in mid-June 1963. They proposed that the average
wage bill be left unchanged but that a widening of the
spread in rates be accomplished by a 10-cent-an-hour
cut in pay for employees with below-average wages
and a proportional increase for employees above the
average. The carriers also demanded that work-rule re­
strictions on subcontracting be changed, the use of non­
regular help, and the right to install new equipment and
techniques—an extension of Railroad Unemployment
Insurance Act benefits was proposed for such affected
workers.
Actual bargaining sessions between the organizations
and the carriers did not begin for a considerable peri­
od of time after initial positions were announced by the
parties. The carriers refused a request to begin negoti­
ations on October 24, 1963. The parties finally agreed
to start negotiations on December 4, 1963. Bargaining
continued intermittently from then until mid-January,
at which time the parties requested the NMB to aid
separately in the 11 nonoperating organizations’ sup­
plemental benefit discussions and the shopcraft wage
talks. The nonshop organizations requested a similar
separate action of the NMB shortly thereafter for their
wage and security negotiations.
Mediation attempts in the four disputes continued for
several months until talks were broken off and volun­
tary arbitration requests were turned down. An Emer­
gency Board then was appointed to deal with the dis­
putes. Hearings continued until October 20, 1964, when
the Board issued its report recommending wage in­
creases averaging 9 cents an hour each on January 1 of
1964, 1965, and 1966 for the six shopcrafts and the four
nonshop organizations involved. Recommendations on
job security for the five nonshop organizations were
similar to those previously negotiated for the shopcrafts.
On other supplemental benefit issues, the Board recom­
mended that employees represented by all 11 of the
nonoperating organizations by given a 4th week of va­
cation, an 8th paid holiday, $2,000 life insurance for re­



tirees, and the maintenance of the health and welfare
plan at carrier expense.
Eight of the eleven organizations—the BRASC,
BMWE, BRS, HREU, TCE, BBF, BRC, and IBFO—
signed wage and supplemental benefit agreements on
November 20-21 based on recommendations of the
Emergency Board. With the exception of the BRS,
which signed only a benefit agreement (they had set­
tled on wages earlier), the agreements provided for
wage increases of 9 cents on each January 1 of 1964,
1965, and 1966. Discussion by the five nonshop organ­
izations on job security issues and the three shopcraft
organizations that had not settled (SMWIA, IAM, and
IBEW) on wages and benefits continued. The latter had
not settled because of skilled employees’ demands for
restoration of wage differentials.
A scheduled strike by the three shopcrafts was post­
poned when the Secretary of Labor interceded. Talks
were continued but negotiations again were broken off
and another strike date was set. A Federal court issued
a 10-day restraining order on December 14, 1964, on
complaint by the carriers but lifted it when the court
found, on December 24, that the organizations had a
right to strike. However, the three organizations said
they would not call a strike until after New Year’s Day.
Talks between the SMWIA, IAM, and IBEW and
the carriers continued past the January 1, 1965, dead­
line and an agreement was reached on February 4, 1965.
On that date, the three organizations agreed to accept
a benefit package similar to that accepted by the eight
other organizations. In addition, they accepted a wage
agreement providing increases of 9 cents an hour (6
cents for regular apprentices) retroactive to January 1,
1964; 4 percent for journeymen mechanics, 9 cents for
helpers and helpers’ apprentices, and 6 cents for regu­
lar apprentices on January 1,1965; and 3.5 percent, 9
cents, and 6 cents, respectively, on January 1, 1966.
Agreement on job security issues between the carri­
ers and the 5 nonshop organizations was reached on
February 7, 1965, thereby completing the round of col­
lective bargaining for the 11 organizations and carriers.
January 1967-June 1973

During this period, as in the previous round of rail­
road negotiations, the 11 nonoperating railroad organ­
izations2 split off into various bargaining groups which
'
settled separately with the carriers on terms generally
structured along nonshop and shopcraft lines. Signifi­
cantly, the duration of moratoriums varied; past agree­
ments tended to be reopenable on the same date. The
first round of bargaining resulted in agreement mora­
toriums which lasted 1 year for the Clerks (BRASC),
:iOn February 23, 1969, the number o f organizations was reduced
to 10 when the Transportation Communication Employees Union
merged with and became a division o f the BRASC—the Transpor­
tation-Communications Division.

14

question of travel time and expenses for employees re­
quired to work away from their home stations would
be handled by negotiations beginning in mid-1967 or
by arbitration if necessary. After failure of such nego­
tiations, an arbitration award announced in October
1967 provided increased expense payments for nonshop
employees required to work away from home. (See ta­
ble 3 for details.)

18 months for the four remaining nonshop organiza­
tions, and 2 years for the shopcraft organizations. Var­
iation continued until the 1971 and 1972 settlements
which provided for a common reopening date. Also of
interest were the relatively quick settlements of the
nonshop organizations, which contrasted with the ex­
tended negotiations of the shopcrafts that sometimes
had to be settled by legislated agreements.
January 1967-June 1968 nonshop agreements. In May
1966, the nonshop organizations, representing about
275,000 railroad workers, served formal notices for
changes in wages and supplementary compensation
practices to be effective January 1, 1967. They demand­
ed an 18-percent increase in straight-time rates plus 3.5percent “annual improvement factor” increases; a costof-living escalator clause with semiannual reviews pro­
viding adjustments of 1 cent for each 0.3-point change
in the BLS-CPI; double-time pay instead of time and a
half for regular overtime work, work on holidays, va­
cation days, and rest days; longevity pay of 1 cent an
hour for each year of service (up to 20); 3 additional
paid holidays; liberalized vacations providing up to 6
weeks’ paid vacation for 20-year employees; and im­
proved travel time and expense payments for employ­
ees assigned to live away from home. The carriers
served their counterproposals in July. They included a
20-percent cut in starting pay for new employees; a
provision allowing a carrier to schedule an employee’s
day off for any time in a workweek; and a lower com­
pulsory retirement age. Services of the NMB were in­
voked by the organizations, but mediation proved fruit­
less. On September 28, bargaining commenced on a na­
tional scale with many issues to be resolved. An im­
passe was reached and strike votes were conducted by
the organizations; strike authorization was announced
in December.
On December 15, 1966, the BRASC reached an agree­
ment with the carriers, providing a 5-percent wage in­
crease effective January 1, 1967, and 3 weeks of paid
vacation after 10 years of service, instead of 15 years.
Significantly, the BRASC settled 2 weeks before the
end of their moratorium. Railroad negotiations usually
involved prolonged negotiations and often the appoint­
ment of an Emergency Board. The agreement had a
1-year moratorium.
The four remaining nonshop organizations, the
BMWE, BRS, TCE, and HREU, reached agreements
with the carriers on January 13, 1967—less than 2 weeks
after the end of their contracts’ moratoriums. The pacts
provided the same terms as the BRASC settlement ex­
cept for an additional wage increase of 2.5-percent on
January 1, 1968. Their moratoriums were for 18 months
and for the first time, agreements for nonoperating em­
ployees had moratoriums of different durations.
All of the nonshop settlements stipulated that the



January 1967-December 1968 shopcraft agreements. On
May 17, 1966, the six shopcraft organizations2, acting
2
for 137,000 workers, served notices upon the carriers
requesting a general increase of 20 percent in all wage
rates, establishment of a cost-of-living escalator clause,
shift differentials, additional overtime pay, holiday and
vacation improvements, jury-duty pay, and establish­
ment of a 30-minute paid lunch period. All changes
were to be effective January 1, 1967.
In June, the individual carriers responded with var­
ious proposals of their own. Among the proposals were
revision of the vacation agreement, elimination of cer­
tain craft jurisdictional barriers, greater freedom to in­
stitute technological and organizational changes, adop­
tion of entrance rates, elimination of the advance no­
tice requirement for emergency force reductions, a low­
ering of the compulsory retirement age, and revision of
the 40-hour workweek rules.
Conferences were held between the individual carri­
ers and organizations, but when no agreements could
be reached, national handling of the dispute was
authorized.
National talks for shopcrafts began on September 28.
The parties agreed to seek the assistance of the Nation­
al Mediation Board (NMB), which was obtained start­
ing October 19. Talks continued intermittently without
success through January 6, 1967, when the NMB prof­
fered arbitration, which was acceptable to the carriers
but not to the unions. On January 13, the NMB noti­
fied the parties that it was terminating its services.
The NMB then notified the President that, in its
judgement, the “dispute threatened to substantially in­
terrupt interstate commerce so as to deprive the coun­
try of essential transportation service.” The organiza­
tions had polled their members on October 25, 1966,
and received strike authorization if a satisfactory set­
tlement was not reached—the strike date was set as
February 13, 1967.
An Emergency Board was created by the President
on January 28, 1967, and its report was submitted on
March 10. The railroads were prepared to accept the
Board’s findings, but the unions were not. The Board
recommended a 5-percent wage increase effective Jan­
uary 1, 1967; a 3rd week of vacation after 10 years (in22They were the Railway Carmen, Boilermakers, Fireman and Oil­
ers, Sheet Metal Workers, Machinists, and Electrical Workers.

15

stead of 15); a 2-year agreement with a wage reopener
at the end of the 1st year; and a separate arrangement
to deal with the “wage compression” problem (the nar­
rowing of the percentage differential between rates for
skilled and nonskilled workers). The NMB requested
the parties to meet again, but when such talks resulted
in an impasse with a second strike deadline of April 13
approaching, the President requested and received from
Congress authorization for a 20-day extension of the
period of statutory restraint to May 3.
A Special Mediation Panel was appointed by the
President on April 12. The Panel met with the parties
separately and together. On April 21, it made its own
proposal for settlement which was rejected by all par­
ties. This proposal called for a 6-percent hike for all
workers in January 1967 plus 5-cent increases for jour­
neymen and mechanics in April and October of 1967
and April of 1968.
To prevent a strike scheduled for May 3, the Presi­
dent on April 28 again requested and received from
Congress authorization for an extension of the period
of restraint—this time for 47 days.
On May 4, the President sent a message to Congress
recommending special legislation (including a 90-day
no-strike and no-lockout period and establishment of a
presidentially-appointed Special Board) to resolve the
dispute. During the period Congress was working on
such legislation, the period of statutory strike restraint
terminated, but the organizations promised not to take
any unilateral action for a reasonable period of time.
Congress was notified on July 11 that the guarantee not
to engage in unilateral action was being withdrawn at
the end of that week; on July 16-17, interruptions in
service occurred on most of the Class I railroads in the
United States.
On July 17, Congress passed and the President signed
a measure to stop the strike and provide for the ap­
pointment of a Special Board (the President did so on
July 18) to study the merits of the April 22 proposal of
the Special Mediation Panel. The parties’ arguments
then would be heard. Following this, the April 22 pro­
posal, with any appropriate modifications, was to be
transmitted to Congress and the President as the Board’s
final determination to end the dispute. The determina­
tion would continue in effect from January 1, 1967, un­
til such time as the Board considered appropriate—not
to exceed 2 years—if the parties did not agree on oth­
er terms by October 15.
On September 15, the Special Board announced its
determination, which was to be binding unless the par­
ties reached agreement by October 15 (they did not).
The determination provided for a general wage increase
of 6 percent retroactive to January 1, 1967, plus a de­
ferred general increase of 5 percent of workers’ thencurrent rates, effective July 1, 1968. Journeymen and
mechanics were to receive additional 5-cent increases
on April 1, 1967, October 1, 1967, April 1, 1968, and



October 1, 1968. The determination was to remain in
effect through December 31, 1968.
The shopcraft organizations also were parties to a
January 11, 1968, health and welfare agreement with
the carriers. (See table 3 for details.)
July 1968-December 1969 nonshop agreements. About
144.000 workers represented by the BRASC were af­
fected by a December 29, 1967, settlement with the
carriers.2 This was the second time in as many bargain­
ing rounds that agreement was reached before the end
of their moratorium. The new 2-year moratorium pro­
vided for wage increases of 2.5 percent on January 1,
1968 (the same as provided in the 1967 settlement for
the other nonshop organizations), 3.5 percent on July
1, 1968, 2 percent on January 1, 1969, and 3 percent on
July 1, 1969. The carriers also agreed to set aside 5
cents an hour per employee to adjust wage inequities.
Other terms included 2 weeks of paid vacation after 2
instead of 3 years of service. An employee also would
receive an additional day’s pay if a holiday fell on a
regularly scheduled day off.
On May 17, 1968, the BMWE (for about 89,000 work­
ers) and the HREU (for about 6,000 workers) settled
with the carriers on an 18-month moratorium on wages
providing general wage hikes of 3.5, 2, and 3 percent
on July 1, 1968, January 1, 1969, and July 1, 1969, re­
spectively—the same as for workers represented by the
BRASC on those dates. Additionally, about 35,000
BMWE workers received another 12 cents on July 1,
1968, financed by an inequity fund like that of the
BRASC. HREU workers gained a 2-step reduction from
205 to 180 in monthly work hours with no loss in pay.
Both organizations settled on the same liberalization in
vacations as for BRASC workers and also in holidays
in the case of BMWE workers.
The TCE settled on an 18-month moratorium for
wages with the carriers on June 24, 1968. The pact
covered about 25,000 workers and provided the same
wage increases and holiday and vacation changes as the
BMWE pact. An inequity fund of 5 cents an hour also
was established.
Almost a year later, on April 21, 1969, the BRS signed
an 18-month settlement with the carriers for about
10.000 workers, retroactive to July 1, 1968. The agree­
ment, which generally followed recommendations of a
Presidential Emergency Board, averted a nationwide
rail strike. Skilled workers, who constituted about 80
percent of the membership, received wage increases of
22 cents plus 3.5 percent retroactive to July 1, 1968;
other workers received 9 cents plus 3.5 percent. The
accord also provided general wage hikes of 2 percent

21The settlement included the Transportation-Communications D i­
vision o f the Clerks (BRASC). The agreement’s moratorium was from
January 1968 through December 1969.

16

retroactive to January 1, 1969, and 3 percent effective
July 1, 1969. The same holiday and vacation changes
were provided as for other nonshop workers. The pact
also provided for on-duty off-track injury insurance.
All five nonshop wage moratoriums were to remain
in effect through December 31, 1969.
In addition to the above changes, all of the nonshop
and shopcraft organizations had signed a 2-year health
and welfare agreement with the carriers on January 11,
1968, which provided for substantial increases in such
benefits. (See table 3 for details.) This agreement was
a uniform plan covering all rail workers as proposed
by the carriers. Notices had been served by the non­
shops in September and October 1967.
The BRASC was the first of the five nonshop organ­
izations in the bargaining round to serve notices for
changes in wages and working conditions—the other
nonshop organizations were not free to do so because
of their longer moratoriums. The BRASC sought a
2-year moratorium for wages with wage increases of
7.5 percent each year, an escalator clause, increased
overtime pay, longevity pay, establishment of an hour­
ly minimum of $3.40, a classification evaluation funu,
and also 3 additional holidays, substantial improvements
in vacations, and improved health and welfare provi­
sions. Additionally, in conjunction with the other four
nonshops, notice was served on March 15, 1967, for
improvement in the employment security provisions of
the job stabilization agreement and to expand its cov­
erage (this notice subsequently was withdrawn by all
of the organizations when their wage issues were
settled).
The BMWE and HREU settlements were the result
of protracted meetings between the organizations and
carriers which included discussion of a number of is­
sues which developed out of the employment security
notice of March 15, 1967. The negotiations avoided the
formal procedures of the Railway Labor Act in that
wage-benefit notices were not served. Terms sought
centered around those of the BRASC.
On May 29, 1968, the TCE had submitted wage-rule
notices which included general wage increases of 6 per­
cent annually plus adoption of an escalator clause. The
organization had been bargaining with the carriers on
the job security notice and the carriers eventually sug­
gested negotiating a package settlement.
In March 1968, the BRS had served notice separate­
ly from the other organizations for general wage in­
creases of 10, 8, and 7 percent plus five adjustments in
skill differentials and an escalator clause. Upon failure
to reach agreement, services of the NMB were invoked
on August 16. On December 16, the NMB terminated
its services after mediation failed and the BRS refused
arbitration. The BRS set a strike deadline of January
16,1969. On January 13, the President created an Emer­
gency Board to hear the dispute, thereby delaying a
strike. The Board issued its report on March 7, 1969,



which recommended wage hikes of 3.5 percent retro­
active to July 1, 1968, 2 percent on January 1, 1969, 3
percent on July 1, 1969, an additional 20 cents an hour
for skilled workers, and withdrawal of cost-of-living
escalator clause proposals. The BRS rejected the rec­
ommendations. Negotiations were resumed, but an im­
passe in negotiations resulted in a new strike date being
set for April 14, 1969. The Secretary of Labor inter­
vened only 24 hours before the strike deadline and ne­
gotiations were resumed, resulting in the agreement
which was signed on April 21.
January 1969-December 1970 shopcraft agreements. An
18-month dispute was ended on April 10,1970, affect­
ing about 48,000 workers represented by the BBF,
SMWIA, IAM, and IBEW on railroads, when the Pres­
ident signed a bill imposing a previously rejected set­
tlement on the workers. The action came only a day
before expiration of a 37-day legislated prohibition of
any work stoppage. The 2-year mandated settlement
provided for retroactive wage increases of 2 percent
on January 1, 1969, 3 percent (plus an additional 5 cents
for journeymen) on July 1, 1969, 10 cents on Septem­
ber 1, 1969, 5 percent on January 1, 1970, 7 cents for
journeymen on February 19, 1970, and a 4-cent increase
on both April 1, 1970 and August 1, 1970. The settle­
ment also provided that wage rates for hourly rated
workers be rounded up to the next whole cent prior to
application of the January 1969 increase. Subsequent
percentage adjustments were to be rounded to the near­
est whole cent.
On April 24, 1970, the BRC, representing 51,000
workers, agreed to the same terms as in the mandated
settlement except that the 7-cent hike for journeymen
was effective April 24 rather than February 19. The
round of shopcraft negotiations was completed when
agreement was reached on June 12 for 18,000 workers
represented by the IBFO. This agreement also followed
terms of the mandated package except that a 5-cent
wage increase was provided on September 1, 1969 (in­
stead of 10 cents) with an additional 5 cents applied
before the 5-percent increase on January 1, 1970, and
there was no second skill adjustment.
In addition to the above increases, the BBF along
with the BRC had signed a separate agreement with
the carriers on September 9, 1969, to equalize the pay
of blacksmiths, boilermakers, passenger carmen, and
their regular apprentices with rates of sheet-metal work­
ers, machinists, and electricians to restore a long-stand­
ing equality among the various shopcrafts. The dispar­
ity grew out of different increases in 1965 and 1966.
Rates of pay were to be equalized prior to the applica­
tion of the January 1969 retroactive increase. The ef­
fect was to provide additional increases to skilled BBF
and BRC workers but a net decrease for BBF and BRC
regular apprentices. This agreement ended a dispute
which arose out of notices served in November 1966.
17

Additionally, all shopcraft employees would receive
liberalizations involving holiday, vacation, and juryduty pay as a result of a mediated agreement signed on
September 2, 1969, by the six shopcrafts and carriers.
These improvements grew out of notices served on the
carriers in May 1968.
On November 8, 1968, the BBF, SMWIA, IAM, and
IBEW had served uniform notices upon the carriers
proposing a 10-percent general wage hike effective Jan­
uary 1, 1969, plus two 10-cent skill adjustments, an es­
calator clause, uniform minimum rates of pay, shift pre­
miums, and overtime for weekend work. The BRC and
IBFO served notices on November 20 and 30, respec­
tively, which were similar to those of the other four
shopcraft unions, but tailored to fit their own needs.
The carriers responded with a number of proposals for
work-rule changes. Following a stalemate in negotia­
tions for the four unions which had served uniform no­
tices, the parties jointly invoked services of the NMB.
Mediation was unsuccessful and the NMB terminated
its services on September 3 after arbitration had been
refused. A strike ballot had been circulated among the
employees on August 21 resulting in strike authoriza­
tion; a strike subsequently was called for October 4 on
six carriers.
The President then created an Emergency Board on
October 3 and its report was submitted to the President
on November 2. Its recommendations included wage
increases of 2 percent on January 1, 1969, and 3 per­
cent on July 1, 1969; uniform minimum rates of pay;
that a general mechanic rate be established not less than
20 cents above the regular mechanic rate; and that a
special increase be made on the basis of increased pro­
ductivity resulting from work-rule changes.
All of the shopcraft organizations served new notices
on November 26 for further wage adjustments of 20
percent on January 1, 1970, 15 percent on January 1,
1971, and 15 percent on January 1, 1972, and a revised
demand for an escalator clause.
Following the Emergency Board report, talks were
resumed but were unsuccessful. Further negotiations
were held, aided by the Department of Labor and the
NMB, and on December 4, 1969, the four organizations
which had negotiated together reached tentative agree­
ment, subject to ratification by members of each organ­
ization. The SMWIA membership rejected the settle­
ment because of a work-rule change that permitted
crafts to cross skill lines and perform “incidental” work
ordinarily done by other crafts—the workers said this
jeopardized their jobs. The carriers had offered the
shopcrafts the 7-cent skill adjustment (effective Febru­
ary 19, 1970) in return for an agreement on the “inci­
dental” work-rule change. Because of a procedure
agreed to earlier by the four shopcraft organizations,
the SMWIA rejection was binding upon all of them.
Preparations for selected strikes then were made which
were countered by the carriers who threatened a na­



tionwide lockout. Both parties were enjoined from any
such actions, and the organizations then planned a na­
tionwide strike to be effective March 5, 1970. The strike
was prohibited and the dispute finally resolved when
Congress assumed jurisdiction of the dispute and im­
plemented, by Public Law 91-226 of April 9, 1970, the
memorandum of understanding of December 4, 1969,
including the “incidental” work-rule change, changing
only the date of the 7-cent skill adjustment. On April
24, the BRC reached agreement with the carriers, and
on June 12, the round of shopcraft negotiations was
completed when the IBFO reached agreement with the
carriers.
All six of the shopcraft moratoriums were to remain
in effect through December 31, 1970.
In addition to the above developments, all of the or­
ganizations reached agreement with the carriers on Feb­
ruary 20, 1970, for health and welfare improvements,
as did nonshop organizations. (See table 3 for details. )
January 1970-June 1973 nonshop agreements. A 1-1/2day walkout by workers represented by the BRASC
(including the TCE), BMWE, and HREU was ended
on December 10, 1970, when Public 91-541 was signed.
The stop-gap measure provided retroactive interim
wage increases of 5 percent on January 1, 1970, and 32
cents on November 1, 1970. These organizations repre­
sented about 220,000 railroad workers.
On February 10, 1971, the BMWE and HREU signed
42-month wage moratoriums with the carriers with
wage terms similar to a package recommended by a
Presidential Emergency Board. The settlements cov­
ered about 77,000 and 3,000 workers, respectively. Later
that month, on February 25, a 42-month wage settle­
ment was signed for 149,000 workers represented by
the BRASC (including the TCE). The three pacts in­
corporated the two wage increases already in effect
provided by the December law, plus wage increases of
4 percent on January 1, 1971; 5 percent on October 1,
1971, April 1, 1972, and October 1, 1972; and 25 cents
on April 1, 1973, for BMWE and HREU workers, and
15 cents and 10 cents on January 1 and April 1 of 1973,
respectively, for BRASC (and TCE) workers. The 1973
hikes were in addition to the Emergency Board’s rec­
ommendations. The settlements also provided for a 9th
paid holiday (except for HREU workers), a 5th week
of vacation after 25 years of service, extension of paid
jury duty to a maximum of 60 days a year, and on-duty
off-track injury insurance.
The round of bargaining for the BRASC (and TCE),
BMWE, and HREU had begun on May 29, 1969 when
notices for vacation changes were served upon the car­
riers requesting up to 5 weeks of vacation after 20 years
of service and vacation pay of 150 percent of the em­
ployee’s pay rate. On September 2, 1969, the same or­
ganizations served notices requesting a 3-year agree­
ment with wage increases of 12 percent each year, an
18

escalator clause, a new classification and evaluation
fund, longevity pay, increased overtime rate, three ad­
ditional holidays, and on-duty off-track injury insur­
ance. Also, at various times in 1969, the carriers served
counterproposals including changes in long-standing
work rules.
Mediation by the NMB was invoked in mid-January
1970. After long and fruitless talks, its services were
terminated on August 10 upon refusal of the organiza­
tions to submit the dispute to voluntary arbitration. This
“started the clock running” and allowed a strike 30 days
thereafter (September 10). At the request of the De­
partment of Labor, the organizations agreed not to strike
until September 15 while negotiation was attempted.
Three railroads (the Baltimore and Ohio, Southern Pa­
cific, and Chesapeake and Ohio) were selected as strike
targets and their employees walked off their jobs on
the 15th of September. A Federal judge had signed a
temporary restraining order, effective until September
23, just minutes before the strike deadline, but copies
of the order were not delivered until several hours later,
at which time workers were ordered back on their jobs.
An Emergency Board was appointed on September 18
and its recommendations were sent to the President on
November 9. They included wage increases of 37 per­
cent (compounded) over 3 years, withdrawal of holi­
day and vacation demands because of the financial con­
dition of the railroads and the size of the wage hikes,
a number of work-rule changes to increase productiv­
ity, and a standing committee to consider other unre­
solved issues. The Board’s recommendations were re­
jected as “not enough” by the organizations as the re­
port dealt mainly with wages and offered little in fringes.
On December 10, workers went on a Nationwide strike.
On that same day, Congress passed legislation to end
the strike and provide interim wage increases. Further
negotiations resulted in settlement.
Congress again intervened by approving emergency
legislation, Public Law 92-17, on May 18, 1971, to end
a walkout by 10,000 members of the BRS. The BRS
was barred from striking until October 1. Interim wage
increases provided under the measure were 5 percent
retroactive to January 1, 1970, and 18 cents (30 cents
for skilled workers) retroactive to November 1, 1970.
A Presidential Emergency Board had recommended a
package for the BRS similar to those for other nonshop
organizations, but the BRS continued to hold out be­
cause it felt its workers were more skilled than the oth­
er workers.
On November 16, 1971, the BRS signed a 42-month
wage agreement incorporating the previously legislated
increases, plus wage increases following the pattern of
earlier shopcraft settlements, of 10 cents retroactive to
January 1, 1971, 15 cents for skilled workers and 8 cents
for others retroactive to April 1, 1971, 5 percent retro­
active to October 1, 1971, and 5 percent on April 1,
1972, October 1, 1972, and April 1, 1973. Minimum pay



scales were established for certain classifications begin­
ning in 1971. The settlement also provided for the same
supplementary benefits as for the earlier nonshop pacts,
plus agreement to establish a supplemental sick leave
benefit equal to 70 percent of an employee’s pay. (Oth­
er nonshops, except the BRASC, also agreed to estab­
lish such benefits.)
In October 1969, the BRS had served wage notices
calling for general wage increases of 12, 10, and 8 per­
cent over a 3-year agreement, respectively, plus six ad­
ditional hikes of 4 percent for skilled workers and 1.5
percent for semiskilled workers; uniform rates compa­
rable to those on eastern roads; increased overtime; shift
differential pay; longevity pay; and interest on retroac­
tive increases. Carrier counterproposals included a num­
ber of modifications in work rules. The parties jointly
invoked the services of the NMB on April 9, 1970. The
BRS served notice for fringe benefit improvements in
May 1970. Mediation of all issues commenced on July
28 and continued intermittently until January 22, 1971,
when the NMB proffered arbitration which was refused
by the BRS. An Emergency Board then was created
on March 4 and it issued its report on April 14, recom­
mending wage hikes similar to other nonshop pacts.
These recommendations were rejected by the BRS on
the grounds that workers represented by it deserved
larger increases because they were more skilled than
most nonshop workers. A strike occurred on May 17.
The next day, a joint resolution of Congress, which ex­
tended to October 1971, was passed, ending the strike
and providing interim adjustments. Talks were resumed
and settlement eventually was reached on November
16.
The nonshop moratoriums were to remain in effect
through June 30, 1973.
In addition to the above events, two 2-year agree­
ments for improvements in the health and welfare plan
were reached for all railroad workers on February 20,
1970, and February 24, 1972. (See table 3 for details.)
January 1971-June 1973 shopcraft agreements. A set­
tlement for the carriers and 90,000 workers represent­
ed by the BBF, BRC, IAM, and IBEW was reached
on October 7, 1971. The 30-month agreements provid­
ed for a 10-cent wage increase retroactive to January
1, 1971, 15 cents for mechanics and 8 cents for others
retroactive to April 1, 1971, 5-percent on October 1,
1971, April 1, 1972, and October 1, 1972, and 25 cents
on April 1, 1973. The pacts also provided for a 9th paid
holiday, a 5th week of vacation after 25 years of serv­
ice, and agreement in principle for the future establish­
ment of supplemental sick pay benefits paid for by the
carriers. The pacts were subject to Pay Board approv­
al, which subsequently was obtained, under the Feder­
al Government’s economic stabilization program.
On February 11, 1972, the IBFO, representing about
13,000 workers, reached agreement with the carriers
19

on a pact providing terms identical to the earlier shopcraft settlements, except that the 15 cents was paid to
stationary engineers rather than mechanics. Addition­
ally, employees below $3.31 an hour were to receive
an additional 2 cents and those at $3.31, an additional
1 cent.
The SMWIA, representing about 6,300 workers, was
the last shopcraft organization to reach agreement with
the carriers, primarily because of a dispute over the
“incidental” work rule (allowing crafts to cross skill
lines and perform some work ordinarily done by other
crafts) mandated by the previous settlement. The ac­
cord, reached on May 12, followed recommendations
of a Presidential Emergency Board and was similar to
earlier shopcraft agreements. The disputed work rule,
although retained, was tightened up to minimize mis­
understandings. In addition, the parties agreed to con­
tinue a “good faith” effort to solve problems of reclas­
sification of positions and pay adjustment on an indi­
vidual carrier basis.
The shopcraft moratoriums, as for the nonshop mor­
atoriums, were to remain in effect through June 30,
1973.
The BBF, BRC, IAM, and IBEW served wage and
working condition notices on the carriers in November
1970. Changes sought included improvements such as
uniform rates of pay; two 20-percent wage increases;
and adoption of an escalator clause, longevity pay, at­
tendance incentive pay, shift premiums, and bereave­
ment leave. The carriers in December proposed a new
classification of a “general mechanic” who would have
the right to perform work of all the shopcrafts (except
for IBFO jobs). The carriers also proposed tightening
up the holiday rules and a number of other changes.
Direct negotiations resolved some of the organiza­
tions’ demands, but, in June 1971, the parties jointly re­
quested the NMB to mediate remaining issues such as
uniform minimum rates and adjustment of straight-time
rates and differentials. Following lengthy mediation,
settlement was reached on October 7, 1971, and work­
er ratification was completed in November.
Separate notices were served independently on the
carriers by the IBFO and SMWIA in November 1970.
Demands were similar to those of the other shopcrafts,
but the SMWIA sought a third wage hike tied to wages
in the airline and trucking industries, and elimination
of the “incidental” work rule. Carrier counterpropos­
als were those made to other shopcrafts. In November
1971, the IBFO and carriers had requested mediation
by the NMB after negotiations had failed to produce
an agreement and on February 11, 1972, settlement was
finally reached. The SMWIA also had invoked services
of the NMB in July 1971 following prolonged and un­
successful talks, and such services were eventually ter­
minated March 1, 1972, after the SMWIA refused a
proffer of arbitration. The SMWIA announced its in­
tention to strike on April 1, 1972, and an Emergency



Board was created on March 31. Its report was sub­
mitted to the President on April 30. On May 12, 1972,
following a resumption of negotiations, the parties ar­
rived at a settlement similar to terms recommended by
the Emergency Board. Worker ratification was com­
pleted by June.
On February 24, 1972, the shopcrafts along with the
nonshop organizations reached agreement with the car­
riers on a new 2-year health and welfare plan.
July 1973-December 1974

The 1973-74 round of bargaining was initiated when
the various labor organizations served notices on wages,
benefits, and work rules beginning in January 1973.
Generally, the notices called for wage increases ranging
from 10 to 15 percent in each year of a 2-year agree­
ment, establishment of a cost-of-living escalator clause,
longevity pay, increased overtime pay, shift premium
pay, 3 additional holidays, up to 6 weeks of paid vaca­
tion, and a number of other changes.
For the first time in the history of railroad bargain­
ing, the carriers and all of the major railroad labor or­
ganizations (including nonoperating and operating un­
ions), with the exception of the SMWIA, engaged in
coordinated bargaining through a Joint Negotiating
Committee. This committee was created in response to
a financial crisis confronting the Railroad Retirement
System. Increasingly, more people were receiving ben­
efits relative to the number of workers paying into the
system. A recent 20-percent increase in benefits with
no accompanying increase in financing also had hurt
the system. Financing of the system was discussed
throughout the industry and government via various
forums. With the serving of wage-rule notices, negoti­
ations on these items were begun, but it soon became
obvious that retirement issues should be included in the
talks. The pace of negotiations was accelerated because
of the need to restructure retirement financing to insure
the system’s solvency. The labor organizations discussed
with the carriers the possiblility of finding a new source
of income for the system and also proposed that the
individual’s retirement tax be lowered as well as the
retirement age.
The carriers’ response was to propose an 18-month
moratorium, that the total cost of wages and other ben­
efits (including a greater share of retirement tax to be
paid by the carriers) be taken into consideration so that
any retirement tax cost would be recognized as part of
the carrier’s overall labor cost, that the health and wel­
fare contract be extended through December 1974 with
an increase in the major medical maximum, that all or­
ganizations accept the agreement, and that retirement
discussions continue.
On March 8, 1973, an 18-month tentative accord was
reached between representatives of the various carriers
and 15 labor organizations—well in advance of the June
30 expiration of the moratoriums. For the first time in
20

dispute, agreement on all items could not be achieved.
The SMWIA refused a proffer of arbitration and, on
May 1, the NMB announced that it was terminating its
services. An Emergency Board was appointed on May
21 after workers gave authorization to strike. On Au­
gust 16, 1974, a memorandum of understanding was
signed providing the 4-percent wage hike provided oth­
er workers. The Emergency Board had recommended
essentially the same terms as provided in earlier settle­
ments in a July 2, 1974, report. The SMWIA, howev­
er, opted to accept the wage hike but to defer other
issues to the next bargaining round. The understanding
did not dispose of the wage issues, but workers were
to receive the increase, and in return the SMWIA agreed
to continue with negotiations—the incidental work-rule
situation was frozen.
In mid-1973, the shopcrafts, the BRS, BMWE, and
HREU implemented supplemental sick pay plans agreed
to earlier which generally provided 70 percent of av­
erage straight-time pay (including any Railroad Unem­
ployment Insurance Act payments) for up to 1 year.
The programs were to remain in effect through De­
cember 31, 1975.

many years, all of the organizations and all national is­
sues would have a common moratorium (through De­
cember 31, 1974). The parties agreed to a 4-percent
general wage increase effective January 1, 1974,2 an
4
extension of the insurance contract through December
1974 with an increase in the major medical lifetime
maximum to $250,000 (from $50,000), the carriers to
pay the amount of the employee’s retirement tax that
would be over the maximum social security employee
tax, retirement at age 60 after 30 years’ service without
reduction (previously applicable only to women), and
carrier payment for and administration of a national
dues checkoff system. The retirement changes were
subject to legislative approval of Congress—such ap­
proval was subsequently obtained. Final agreements
were signed on April 23 by all the shopcraft organiza­
tions. On May 10, the AFL-CIO’s Railway Employes’
Department (RED) signed for the BBF, BRC, IBFO,
and IBEW. The IAM and SMWIA, however, did not
sign.
The IAM contended that it had withdrawn its au­
thorization for the RED to represent it because the
RED had exceeded its authority in bargaining. The
IAM’s objections were that the 4-percent wage hike
was too small, that the pact did nothing about subcon­
tracting, and that the pension financing was inadequate.
On March 23, 1973, the IAM rejected the settlement.
The organization withdrew from the RED. After a pro­
longed impasse, the carriers filed suit in a Federal dis­
trict court in December 1973 to have the IAM accept
the March 8 settlement. The court ruled that the RED
constitution did not allow a member to withdraw rep­
resentation authority after a bargaining round had be­
gun and that ratification by the other RED members
was binding upon the IAM. On March 22, 1974, in
compliance with the court order, the IAM signed the
March 8, 1973 accord, opting not to appeal the order
because it soon would be free to initiate bargaining on
July 1 for changes to be effective January 1, 1975.
At the time of the IAM signing, the SMWIA still
had not settled with the carriers. Mediation of the dis­
pute had begun on March 12, 1973, after all parties
jointly requested the services of the NMB. The SMWIA
had withdrawn representation authorization from the
RED prior to the start of bargaining and had served
separate notices upon the carriers in February 1973.
The SMWIA objected to the March 8 accord because
it felt that the pact did not protect workers from the
rapid rise in living costs—the SMWIA had sought a
16-percent increase in wages and an escalator clause—
and also because of inadequate jurisdictional work rules
involving the “incidental” work rule. The SMWIA also
disaffiliated from the RED after such action by the
IAM. During intermittent talks, the carriers insisted that
the SMWIA accept the package agreed to by other or­
ganizations. Although mediation narrowed the issues in



January 1975-December 1977

In July and August of 1974, the major nonoperating
organizations served wage-rule and health and welfare
notices, respectively, upon the Nation’s carriers. Prior
to the serving of such notices, most of the organizations
had agreed to serve notices individually but to request
uniform wage increases and to insist on a cost-of-living
clause. Generally, the notices called for a 2-year agree­
ment with wage increase of 20 percent in 1975 and 15
percent in 1976, an escalator clause, uniform minimum
rates, shift premium and longevity pay, 3 additional paid
holidays, liberalized vacations with up to 6 weeks of
vacation, bereavement leave, health plan improvements
including adoption of dental and vision care, and revi­
sion of job protection agreements. Other items dealt
with problems specific to one craft or class of employ­
ees such as inequity adjustments, jurisdiction, and
subcontracting.
Bargaining on the issues was delayed until Novem­
ber 1974 because labor and management were involved
in the development of legislation to restructure the rail­
road retirement system. Modifications in the system
were passed by Congress on October 16. The parties
agreed to coordinated bargaining with the understand­
ing that any organization could withdraw and negoti­
ate on its own at any time. The parties began the round
of talks by agreeing to put off joint talks on common
issues in order to concentrate on potentially costly side
24 The wage increase was not applicable to workers for certain in­
solvent railroads, including the Penn Central and Reading railroads.
These carriers preferred to negotiate wages separately for better
terms.

21

issues (jurisdiction, subcontracting, etc.). This compli­
cated attempts at settlement. Although organizations
such as the shopcrafts and BRASC were very con­
cerned about side issues, some organizations had made
wages their top priority. By the end of November 1974,
the carriers felt that they had made enough progress
on side issues with a sufficient number of organizations
to make their first offer on common issues. The offer
included a first-year wage increase of 9 percent and
deferred increases of 3 percent each in the second and
third years of an agreement plus a limited escalator
clause. This offer was rejected, but the offer shifted
much of the bargaining activity to common issues.
By early January 1975, side issues had been resolved
with the BMWE and BRS and common issues were
negotiated jointly with these two organizations. The
carriers and these organizations had decided to proceed
with talks on common items, with the other organiza­
tions being free to join the talks when they resolved
their individual issues. Tentative 3-year agreements
were reached on January 21, 1975, by the carriers and
the BMWE (for 58,000 workers) and the BRS (for
10,400 workers), which set the pattern for the rest of
the industry. The pacts were signed on January 29.
They provided for general wage increases of 10 per­
cent on January 1, 1975, 5 percent on October 1, 1975,
3 percent on April 1, 1976, and 4 percent on July 1,
1977; adoption of a cost-of-living escalator clause pro­
viding adjustments in January and July of 1976 and
1977 of 1 cent for each 0.4-point change in the Bureau
of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Price Index for the first
three adjustments and for each 0.3-point change for the
last adjustment, with periodic incorporations of por­
tions of the allowance into basic rates and subject to
maximum adjustments (68 cents overall); and a 10th
paid holiday. The moratorium on all issues was to re­
main in effect through December 31, 1977.
On January 22, the SMWIA reached an agreement
with the carriers for 4,800 workers, which ended a
2-year dispute. This pact also was signed on January
29 and provided terms similar to those in the BMWE
and BRS pacts and, additionally, incorporated terms of
settlements reached by the other unions in the 1973
bargaining round but never formally adopted by the
SMWIA. The organization, however, had accepted a
wage increase in 1974 on an interim basis. The new
pact also limited the amount of sheet-metal workers’
work performed by carmen under the “incidental”
work-rule. Selective strikes scheduled for January 24
were averted by the settlement. This was the only or­
ganization free to strike at the time because it techni­
cally had been negotiating unresolved issues from the
1973 round and the required procedures under the RLA
had been exhausted.
An agreement for about 25,000 IAM workers was
signed on March 12. This pact also was similar to the



“pattern” and, in addition, limited subcontracting. Serv­
ices of the NMB had been requested on January 10, but
settlement was reached before a mediator was appoint­
ed. The major factor in acceptance of the pact was a
new clause restricting unlimited subcontracting. The
pact was ratified by early April.
On March 18, an agreement for 3,500 workers was
signed by the HREU and Amtrak. The pact was iden­
tical to earlier settlements, except that an additional 2
cents was added to hourly rates effective January 1,
1976, in lieu of an additional paid holiday.
The BRASC settled with the carriers for 117,000
workers on July 18, on an agreement similar to the in­
dustry pattern, except that an additional cost-of-living
adjustment of up to 23 cents was possible effective Jan­
uary 1, 1978 (the day after expiration of the moratori­
um). Management officials felt that the timing of this
adjustment would prevent other organizations from re­
opening their pacts as they could negotiate this item in
the next bargaining round. The pact also provided for
a reduction in the number of workers exempted from
union membership. The BRASC had invoked services
of the NMB on January 10, and mediation sessions were
held in February and March. The NMB had proffered
arbitration on March 14 which was refused, and its
services were terminated on March 18. The carriers
were insisting that the BRASC should follow the pat­
tern set by earlier settlements, whereas the BRASC felt
that it had the right to bargain on its own members’
needs. The BRASC had put emphasis on expanding job
stabilization protection to lower seniority workers and
on decreasing the number of workers exempted from
union membership. The carriers considered the costs of
these items too high in that the BRASC would not
agree to a wage package less than those of other un­
ions—the BRASC felt that other settlements were in­
adequate to offset inflation. The BRASC issued a strike
call for April 18 and the NMB resumed mediation on
April 8. Little progress was made and, on April 16, an
Emergency Board was appointed by the President. The
Emergency Board recommended on May 23, 1975, that
the package for the BRASC be within the framework
of earlier settlements but that the 5-percent increase of
October 1975 be converted to 31 cents; the July 1977
increase be advanced to February in return for BRASC
acceptance of lower entry rates; and also that local han­
dling of the number of workers exempted from union
membership (with a suggested reduction in the number
of exempted employees) be allowed. The BRASC
threatened to strike on June 23 but rescheduled the
strike, which would exempt ailing railroads, out of “re­
spect and appreciation for the last-minute efforts” of
Federal mediators; to avoid antagonizing Congress
which was considering railroad unemployment pay; and
also because of the negative effects a walkout would
have on certain railroads that were in the process of
reorganization. Talks broke down on June 16 but were
22

resumed 3 days later under the mediation of a Presi­
dential “troubleshooter” and the NMB. An impasse was
reached over a new BRASC demand for a 5th escala­
tor adjustment to be effective upon termination of the
moratorium and objection by the carriers to the Emer­
gency Board suggestion covering exempt employees.
On July 17, the BRASC again agreed to postpone a
strike for a week at the request of the mediators, who
were then also trying to resolve a postal dispute. The
parties reached a tentative agreement on July 18 which
was signed July 23. Ratification by the union member­
ship was not necessary.
On December 4, 1975, a settlement was reached by
the carriers and the Railway Employes’ Department
(RED), representing 75,O X members of the BBF, BRC,
C)
IBFO, and IBEW. The settlement, which averted a na­
tionwide walkout, completed the industry bargaining
round and followed the industry pattern with the ex­
ception of the addition of a 3-cent wage increase effec­
tive January 1, 1978 (the day after moratorium expira­
tion) for journeymen and mechanics (to eliminate the
differential between them and signal mechanics). The
agreement also reduced subcontracting by expanding
the definition of craft work, reducing the amount of
workers furloughed due to subcontracting, and adding
penalties payable by carriers to affected railroad em­
ployees when advance notice of subcontracting was not
properly provided. The four organizations had struck
three major railroads in late January 1975 because of a
lack of progress in negotiations, and the walkout was
ended the next day by a court order based on proce­
dures under the RLA. Carriers had invoked services of
the NMB, thereby precluding a strike until mediation
failed. The parties then agreed to negotiate until a me­
diator was appointed, but ceased talks on March 14.
Carrier counterproposals were made on March 24 and
mediation began on April 1. Talks again bogged down
and the NMB terminated its services on August 4 fol­
lowing the refusal of a proffer of arbitration made July
11. The RED members were not objecting to the wagebenefit package of other settlements but were intent
upon limiting subcontracting, reducing wage inequities,
and obtaining other work-rule changes. The RED is­
sued a strike call for September 4 and the NMB re­




sumed mediation. When the NMB could not resolve
the dispute, an Emergency Board was appointed on
September 2. On October 10, the Board recommended
that a wage inequity between shopcraft mechanics and
signal mechanics be remedied without offset in the next
bargaining round and that contract language on sub­
contracting be clarified. The RED had threatened a
strike in November but agreed to postpone it pending
an interpretation of the Emergency Board’s subcontrac­
ting recommendation which was delivered to the Pres­
ident on November 26. The RED contended that the
“clarification” intended further restrictions, but the
Board rejected this contention. A nationwide walkout
was scheduled for December 4. The key issue in the
dispute was settled when restrictions on subcontracting
were tightened up and agreement was reached Decem­
ber 4. Workers ratified the pact on January 12 (no
worker ratification was necessary for the IBFO).
The health and welfare talks were conducted con­
currently with other negotiations and on October 10,
1975, a 3-year agreement acceptable to all parties was
reached. (See table 3 fpr details.)
In September 1975, the six shopcrafts and BRS served
supplemental sickness plan notices jointly upon the car­
riers proposing extension of the programs through June
30, 1978, increased benefits of up to 80 percent of pay
(including any Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act
payments), a benefit period of up to 3 years (instead of
1), and coverage after 5 months of compensated serv­
ice (instead of 7) in a qualifying year. In March 1976,
new supplemental sickness plans were agreed to by the
shopcrafts, providing increased benefit amounts because
of increased pay rates and reducing the compensated
service requirement to 5 months. The programs were
to remain in effect through June 30, 1978. Notices were
served separately by the BMWE and HREU and sim­
ilar agreements were subsequently reached for workers
represented by these unions.
The tables on pages 27-70 bring the wage chronolo­
gy for nonoperating railroad employees up to date
through December 31, 1977 (the moratorium expiration
date) for wages and supplementary compensation
practices.

23

Major Developments in
Railroad Retirement and
Unemployment Insurance
Systems

The 1937 Act provided annuities based on creditable
railroad earnings and service with a maximum of $120
a month. Creditable earnings were limited to $300 a
month and no more than 30 years of service could be
credited if years before 1937 were included. Annuities
could be paid at age 65 or over, regardless of service
or on a reduced basis at age 60-64 with 30 years’ serv­
ice. Disability annuities were restricted to total and per­
manent disability with a full benefit payable after 30
years’ service and a reduced benefit payable at age 6064 with less than 30 years. A survivor could receive a
lump sum equal to 4 percent of the employee’s credit­
able earnings after 1936, less any annuities paid. A re­
tiring employee could elect a reduced annuity to pro­
vide an annuity to his surviving spouse. Employees on
the railroads’ private pension rolls were to be trans­
ferred to the new system’s rolls. The system was fi­
nanced by a schedule of taxes shared equally by the
employer and employee based on a percentage of the
first $300 of monthly compensation (taxable
compensation).
Subsequent amendments after 1937 increased benefits
a number of times and added features similar to those
of the social security system. Amendments enacted in
1946 and 1951 provided for coordination of certain fea­
tures with the social security system laying the foun­
dation for the present railroad retirement system. The
1946 amendments established survivor benefits similar
to those of social security, but higher, with jurisdiction
of such benefits coordinated among the two systems,
added occupational disability benefits, added a mini­
mum benefit for those with 5 years of service or more,
eliminated the reduction in total and permanent dis­
ability benefits while easing the requirements for such,
and ended the actuarial reduction for women employ­
ees. Benefits were increased by amendments in 1948.
The 1951 amendments increased benefits, established

Railroad retirement system

The first formal pension plan in the railroad industry
was established in 1874. ' By 1927, over 80 percent of
all railroad employees worked for employers with pen­
sion plans. Only a small proportion of such employees
ever received benefits under these plans, however, since
credits could not be transferred from one employer to
another and employers could terminate the plans at any
time. The plans generally paid inadequate benefits and
made only limited provision for disability. The plans
also were usually under-financed. The depression of the
1930’s led railroad labor to press for a national retire­
ment program providing adequate benefits for aged and
disabled employees.
Congress enacted legislation for a special railroad re­
tirement system which excluded railroad service from
the social security system being planned at the time.
The Railroad Retirement Act of 1934 set up the first
retirement system for nongovernment workers to be
administered by the Federal Government. This act,
however, was declared unconstitutional by a Federal
district court, and in May 1935 the U.S. Supreme Court
upheld the decision on the ground that it appropriated
future earnings of the railroads for past services already
compensated. In an attempt to avoid the constitutional
problems encountered by the 1934 Act, the Railroad
Retirement and Carriers’ Taxing Acts of 1935 were en­
acted, but these too were challenged by the carriers. A
Federal district court ruled that employers and employ­
ees could not be forced to pay a retirement tax. The
payment of benefits was not prohibited, however, and
the first benefit payments were made in July 1936.
At the request of President Roosevelt, management
and labor met to negotiate their differences and a memo­
randum of agreement was reached which led to the
Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 and a companion bill,
the Carriers’ Taxing Act. These became law in June
1937. After this legislation, there was an immediate re­
duction in the number of employed and unemployed
older workers in the industry. By the end of 1938, the
number of workers age 65 or older in active service
was less than one-half that of 2 years earlier.



25 The information contained in this and the following section is
largely derived from the Informational Conference Handbook, 1978,
referred to as the “Blue Book”, prepared by the U.S. Railroad Re­
tirement Board.

24

Negotiating Committee produced some preliminary rec­
ommendations for revising the railroad retirement sys­
tem which Congress enacted into law in 1973. These
amendments reduced the employees’ tax rate to the per­
centage paid by employees under social security with
the employer paying the balance, eliminating the actu­
arial reduction for male employees at least 60 years old
with 30 years’ service (as previously done for female
employees), and “passing through” any social security
benefit increases during the 18-month period ending
December 31, 1974, to railroad annuities paid under
regular formulas. Final recommendations were present­
ed to Congress by management and labor in 1974. These
included the “two-tier” formula mentioned earlier with
an 8-year grandfather clause to provide a smoother
transition from the old formula to the new one, phas­
ing out of dual railroad retirement and social security
benefits for those not having vested rights as of De­
cember 31, 1974 under both systems and providing an
additional “dual benefit windfall” amount for vested
employees (although not subject to increases for social
security service after 1974 or future social security in­
creases after such an employee’s retirement), cost-ofliving increases in the Tier-1 component automatically
in the same way as for social security and in the Tier-2
component similar to an aluminum industry settlement
formula,26 provision of supplemental annuities to employ­
ees age 60 with 30 years of service and their spouses, an
increase in survivors benefits to 130 percent of the com­
parable social security benefit, incorporation of the 1970,
1971, and 1972 amendments’ benefit increases on a per­
manent basis, and some financial changes.
These recommendations were reflected in duplicate
bills filed in Congress in June 1974. These were amended
during Congressional hearings, but retained the funda­
mental recommendations agreed to by management and
labor. Congress acted on the bills in September 1974
and the proposed legislation was sent to the President.
The proposed legislation was vetoed, however, primar­
ily because of objection to financing dual benefits
“phase-out” costs from general revenues. On October
15 and 16, respectively, the House and Senate overrode
the veto and the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974 went
into effect on January 1, 1975.

annuities for wives (and dependent husbands) equal to
one-half of the employee’s annuity subject to a maxi­
mum, provided for social security to assume jurisdic­
tion of railroad workers with less than 10 years’ serv­
ice, added a minimum quarantee that railroad benefits
be no less than the benefit or additional benefit payable
under social security based on railroad and social secu­
rity covered service combined, and provided for finan­
cial interchange between the two systems to equitably
apportion benefit costs and taxes relating to railroad
service.
Amendments in 1956 increased benefits, as did the
1959 amendments. The latter also increased the mini­
mum guarantee to 110 perecent of what social security
would pay for combined service. Provison was made
in 1965 to coordinate the railroad retirement system’s
tax base (taxable compensation) and tax rate with those
under social security.
Benefits were increased by 1966 amendments, and a
supplemental annuity funded by a special man-hour tax
was added for certain long-service employees awarded
regular annuities after June 1966. The supplemental an­
nuity legislation resulted from an agreement between
management and labor and was designed to make rail­
road retirement income more comparable to that re­
ceived by retirees from other industries, such as steel
and autos. Although initially provided on a temporary
basis, 1970 amendments made the supplemental annui­
ty a permanent feature of the system.
During Congressional hearings in 1970 on a proposed
15-percent increase in benefits, the Chairman of the
Railroad Retirement Board expressed concern that the
hike would jeopardize the system unless it was ade­
quately financed. Following this testimony, Congress
enacted an annuity increase of 15 percent in 1970, on
a temporary basis. Congress also directed that a Com­
mission on Railroad Retirement be formed to study the
structure of the system and make recommendations on
providing adequate benefits on a firfancially sound ba­
sis. While the Commission was studying the problem,
Congress legislated temporary increases for 1971 and
1972 of 10 and 20 percent, respectively, following sim­
ilar increases in social security.
The Commission’s report was released in 1972. It
recommended four major changes which involved re­
structuring of the system into two tiers—one being a
separate social security benefit and the other a supple­
mental railroad benefit; phasing out dual railroad-social
security benefits while protecting vested rights already
acquired; a self-supporting financial plan; and changing
benefit formulas to provide more equitable benefits
among various types of beneficiaries. Upon release of
the report, Congress ordered management and labor to
submit a joint report of their own recommendations
taking into account the Commission’s report.
The Joint Labor-Management Railroad Retirement



Railroad unemployment insurance system

Unemployment insurance benefits for railroad work­
ers were first provided by various State plans which
were established under certain provisions of the Social
Security Act of 1935. It soon became obvious that a
26 1974 settlements in the aluminum industry had provided for auto­
matic cost-of-living escalator adjustments in pension benefits in 1976
and 1977 by an amount equal to 65 percent o f any rise in the Bureau
o f Labor Statistics’ Consumer Price Index during the preceding 12
months. Retirement benefits, including social security, were limited
to 85 percent o f the retiree’s average annual earnings for the highest
2 consecutive years.

25

uniform national plan was needed to correct inequities
among the various State laws. At the time, it was pos­
sible for employees with identical jobs on the same rail­
road to receive different treatment and benefits, and
employees required to cross State lines might not be
eligible for benefits in any of the States in which they
worked.
A national unemployment benefit system for railroad
workers was established by the Railroad Unemploy­
ment Insurance Act of 1938. The program was effec­
tive July 1, 1939, and was to be financed by an employ­
er-paid payroll tax. Eligibility requirements were the
same as for railroad retirement coverage. Benefits were
paid for up to 80 days after a 15-day waiting period
according to a schedule which ranged from $1.75 to $3
a day, depending upon earnings in a base year.
The following year, the maximum daily rate was in­
creased to $4 and the maximum duration of benefits
was increased to 100 days. The waiting period for ben­
efits was reduced to 7 days and a uniform benefit year
was established.
Amendments in 1946 increased the daily maximum
to $5 and increased the duration to up to 130 days.
Sickness benefits were established under the system and
were calculated in the same manner as for unemploy­
ment benefits. Maternity benefits also were established
at this time and were payable for up to 116 days at the
same rate for unemployment or sickness, except for the
first 14 claim days and the 14 days following birth which
were paid at 1.5 times that usual rate (making the max­
imum benefits payable equivalent to the 130 days pay­
able for unemployment and sickness).
The daily benefit rate maximum was raised to $7.50
and $8.50 by amendments in 1952 and 1954, respective­
ly. The 1954 amendments also established a daily ben­
efit guarantee of 50 percent of the last daily rate of pay
(in a base year), raised the maximum creditable com­
pensation to $350 a month, and limited total benefits to
total base-year compensation.
Amendments of 1959, retroactive to 1958, raised dai­
ly benefits to a maximum of $10.20 and the rate guar­
antee to 60 percent of the last daily rate of pay (up to
the daily benefit maximum). The waiting period for un­
employment benefits was removed and benefits became




payable for all days of unemployment over 4 in em­
ployee’s first registration period. The amendments also
established extended unemployment benefits for those
who had exhausted normal benefits and had at least 10
years of service, of up to an additional 65 days or up
to an additional 130 days, depending on years of serv­
ice—extended benefits were also provided for employ­
ees with less than 10 years’ service under certain con­
ditions, but only on a temporary basis. Accelerated ben­
efits also were provided for employees with 10 years
of service or more if they qualified for unemployment
benefits in the following benefit year but not in current
one, so that they could receive benefits early. By the
same amendments, maximum creditable compensation
was increased to $400 a month effective in 1959.
Special legislation enacted in 1961 provided tempo­
rary extended unemployment benefits under certain con­
ditions for those who had exhausted normal benefits
and permanent extended benefits.
1968 amendments increased the maximum daily ben­
efit to $12.70 and established extended and accelerated
sickness benefits on the same basis as permanent extend­
ed and accelerated unemployment benefits. Additional­
ly, maternity benefits were replaced as such by regular
sickness benefits for those unable to work because of
pregnancy or childbirth.
Amendments enacted in 1975 modified the benefit
structure significantly as well as benefit levels as a re­
sult of joint recommendations by management and la­
bor. The new daily benefit rate calculation for unem­
ployment and sickness provided an amount equal to 60
percent of an employee’s last daily base year rate of
pay with a daily benefit minimum of $12.70 (the old
maximum) and a maximum of $24 (increased to $25 in
1976). This legislation also made allowance for the pay­
ment of sickness benefits for all days of sickness after
an initial 4 consecutive days in an employee’s first reg­
istration period, and provided extended unemployment
benefits for less-than-10-year employees during “peri­
ods of high unemployment”. Such periods become ef­
fective when either the railroad rate or the national in­
sured rate reaches and maintains a specified level (cur­
rently 4.5 percent).

26

Table 1. General wage changes,1 1920-62
Effective date
May 1,1920 (Decision 2,
Railroad Labor Board,
dated July 20, 1920).

Provision
Increases averaging about 22 percent.

July 1, 1921 (Decision
147, Railroad Labor
Board, dated June 1,
1921).

Decreases averaging about 12 percent.

Applications, exceptions, and other related matters
Increases varied among the operating departments and by
occupation within the departments as follows:
Clerical and station employees—13 cents an hour for most
occupations; 12 cents for team track freight handlers and
truckers; 10 cents for janitors, elevator operators, watch­
men, etc.; 8.5 cents for common laborers; 6.5 cents for
clerks with less than 1 year’s experience; 5 cents for office
boys, messengers, etc.
Maintenance of way employees—15 cents an hour for most
occupations; 10 cents for shop and roundhouse laborers;
8.5 cents for occupations with the largest proportion of
employees, including helpers, track laborers, common
laborers, crossing watchmen, drawbridge tenders, pile
driver firemen, etc.
Shop employees—13 cents an hour for most occupations;
5 cents for car cleaners.
Stationary engine and boiler employees—13 cents an hour
for most occupations; 10 cents for water tenders and coal
passers.
Signal employees—13 cents an hour for most employees;
10 cents for helpers.
Telegraphers and agents—10 cents an hour for most occu­
pations; 5 cents for agents in nontelegraph stations.

Decision 147 originally applied to 72 railroads. Subsequent to
June 1, other railroads, not parties to the original proceed­
ings, applied to the Board for the same reductions and
awards were made in the form of additions to the original
decision. The decreases varied among the operating de­
partments and by occupation within the departments as
follows:
Clerical and station emplpyees—6 cents an hour for a large
group of occupations; 13 cents for clerks with 1 but less
than 2 years’ experience; 10 cents for crew callers, train an­
nouncers, gatemen, janitors, elevator operators, watch­
men, etc.; 8.5 cents for common laborers; 6.5 cents for
clerks with less than 1 year’s experience; 5 cents for of­
fice boys, messengers, etc. Differentials between truckers
and certain other classes maintained.
Maintenance of way employees—10 cents an hour for some
occupations; 8.5 cents for track laborers, common laborers,
crossing watchmen, drawbridge tenders, pile drivers, etc.;
7.5 cents for helpers.
Shop employees—8 cents an hour for most occupations; car
cleaners to receive 2 cents above track laborer rate.
Stationary engine and boiler employees—8 cents an hour for
most occupations; 6 cents for water tenders and coal
passers.
Signal employees—8 cents an hour for most occupations;
6 cents for helpers.
Telegraphers and agents—6 cents an hour for most occupa­
tions; 5 cents for agents in nontelegraph stations.
Three Railroad Labor Board decisions, relating to different
July 1, 1922 (Railroad Decreases averaging about 5 percent.
groups of employees, were as follows:2
Labor Board deci­
Decision 1028, dated May 25, 1922:
sions as noted).
Maintenance of way employees—5 cents an hour for
most occupations; 4 cents for mechanics; 3 cents for
track foremen and assistant track foremen; 1 cent for
mechanics’ helpers.
Decision 1036, dated June 5, 1922:
Shop employees—7 cents an hour for most occupations;
9 cents for freight carmen; 5 cents for car cleaners.
Decision 1074, dated June 10, 1922:
Clerical and station employees—3 and 4 cents an hour.
Stationary engine and boiler employees—2 cents an
hour.
Signal employees—5 cents an hour for most occupa­
tions; 6 cents for helpers.
During this period, negotiations were conducted with individual railroads by most of the railroad nonoperating employee
1923 to 1932
organizations. The shop crafts bargained on individual roads as a group. There was not sufficient uniformity in the level or
timing of the general wage increases negotiated during this period to permit presentation within the format of a wage
chronology.
I
______________________________________ i ______________________________________
_
See footnotes at end of table.



27

Table 1. General wage changes,1 1920-62—Continued
Effective date
Feb. 1,1932 (agreement
dated Jan. 31, 1932).
Dec. 21, 1932 (agree­
ment of same date).
June 21, 1933 (agree­
ment of same date).
July 1,1934 (agreement
dated Apr. 26, 1934).
Jan. 1,1935 (agreement
dated Apr. 26, 1934).
Apr. 1,1935 (agreement
dated Apr. 26, 1934).
Aug. 1,1937 (mediation
agreement dated
Aug. 5, 1937).
Dec. 1,1941 (mediation
agreement dated
Dec. 15, 1941).

Provision
10 percent decrease in earnings-

Part of deduction rescinded; earnings reduction changed
to 7.5 percent.
Part of deduction rescinded; earnings reduction changed
to 5 percent.
Earnings deduction eliminated.
5 cents an hour increase.
10 cents an hour increase?

Feb. 1,1943 (agreement 4 to 10 cents an hour increase3
dated Jan. 17, 1944).

Dec. 27, 1943 (agree­
ment dated Jan. 17,
1944).

1 to 5 cents an hour increase3

Jan. 1, 1946 (decision 16 cents an hour increase.3
of Board of Arbitra­
tion, dated Apr. 3,
1946).
May 22, 1946 (agree­ 2.5 cents an hour increase.3
ment dated May 25,
1946)
.
Sept. 1, 1947 (decision 15.5 cents an hour increase.3
of Board of Arbitra­
tion, dated Sept. 2,
1947)
.
Oct. 1, 1948 (Referee’s 7 cents an hour increase.3
decision of Mar. 13
and agreement dated
Mar. 19, 1949).5
Sept. 1, 1949 (agree­ 20 percent increase, averaging 23.5 cents an hour3
ment dated Mar. 19,
1949, in accordance
with referee’s deci­
sion of Mar. 13,
1949).5
Feb. 1,1951 (agreement
dated Mar. 1, 1951).

12.5 cents an hour increase3

Apr. 1,1951.................
July 1,1951..................
Oct. 1,1951.................
Jan. 1,1952..................
Apr. 1,1952 .................
July 1,1952..................
Oct. 1,1952..................

6 cents an hour increase.
1 cent an hour increase .
No change 4 cents an hour increase.
1 cent an hour decrease ■
2 cents an hour increase.
2 cents an hour increase •

See footnotes at end of table.



Applications, exceptions, and other related matters
Decrease in the form of a deduction from employees’ earn­
ings, with no change in basic wage rates. Agreement to ter­
minate Feb. 1, 1933.
Earnings deduction extended to Oct. 31, 1933.
Earnings deduction extended to June 30, 1934.

Daily, weekly, monthly, and piecework rates increased an
equivalent amount. General increase applied so as to pro­
duce the same increase for all employees irrespective of
the method of payment.
9 cents an hour retroactive to Sept. 1, 1941.
Minimum rate of 46 cents an hour established (minimum of
45 cents retroactive to Sept. 1,1941), subject to reasonable
deductions for board, lodging, or other facilities furnished
to the extent deductions were made on Aug. 31, 1941, by
employer and permissible under the Fair Labor Standards
Act.4
This and a further increase, effective Dec. 27,1943, approved
by Economic Stabilization Director, Jan. 18,1944. Increases
varied by hourly rate range as follows:
Hourly rate range (cents)
Increase (cents)
Less than 4 7 ...................................................
10
47 but less than 5 7 ............................................... 9
57 but less than 7 0 ............................................... 8
70 but less than 8 0 ............................................... 7
80 but less than 9 0 ............................................... 6
90 but less than 9 7 ............................................... 5
97 and o ve r........................................................... 4
Designated by parties as amount due in lieu of overtime after
40 hours a week. 1 cent an hour for employees receiving 8,
9, and 10 cents an hour increase effective Feb. 1, 1943, 2
cents for those receiving 7 cents, 3 cents for those receiv­
ing 6 cents, 4 cents for those receiving 5 cents, and 5 cents
for those receiving 4 cents.

Increase applied to rates in effect Sept. 30, 1948. Amount
agreed to as necessary to maintain weekly earnings on
reduction of workweek from 48 to 40 hours.
Applied to all hourly and daily rates and all hourly and daily
differentials, arbitrages, and special allowances. Not
applicable to weekly and monthly rates based on a 6-day
week. Agreement provided detailed formulas for converting
earnings of weekly and monthly rated employees in the
various crafts.
Agreement provided for quarterly cost-of-living adjustments
of 1 cent an hour for each 1-point change in the Bureau of
Labor Statistics Consumer Price Index above the level of
178.0 (1935-39=100).6
Quarterly adjustment of cost-of-living allowance.
Do.
Quarterly review of cost-of-living allowance.
Quarterly adjustment of cost-of-living allowance.
Do.
Do.
Do.

________________________________________________________________

Table 1. General wage changes,1 1920-62—Continued
Effective date
Dec. 1, 1952 (referee’s
memorandum and
award dated Mar. 18,
1953).
Jan. 1, 1953.................
Apr. 1,1953 .................
July 1, 1953..................
Oct. 1,1953.................
Jan. 1,1954..................
Apr. 1,1954 .................
July 1,1954 .................
Oct. 1,1954 .................
Dec. 3, 1954 (agree­
ment of same date).
Dec. 1,1955 (agreement
dated Dec. 21, 1955).
Nov. 1,1956 (agreement
of same date).

May 1,1957.................
Nov. 1,1957 (agreement
dated Nov. 1, 1956).
Nov. 1,1957 ...............
May 1,1958.................
Nov. 1, 1958 (agreement dated Nov. 1,
1956).
Nov. 1, 1958 ...............
May 1,1959.................
Nov. 1,1959 ................
May 1,1960.................
July 1,1960 (agreement
dated Aug. 19, 1960).
Feb. 1,1962 (agreement
dated June 5, 1962).
May 1,1962 (agreement
of above date).

Provision
4 cents an hour increase.7

Applications, exceptions, and other related matters

Quarterly adjustment of cost-of-living allowance.
Do.
Quarterly review of cost-of-living allowance.
Quarterly adjustment of cost-of-living allowance.
Quarterly review of cost-of-living allowance.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Cost-of-living escalator provision discontinued and allowance
(13 cents) incorporated into basic rates.

1 cent an hour decrease .
3 cents an hour decrease.
No change.
3 cents an hour increase.
No change .
No change.
No change.
No change.
14.5 cents an hour increase.3
10 cents an hour increase.3

Agreement provided for semiannual cost-of-living adjust­
ments of 1 cent an hour for each 0.5-point change in the
BLS Consumer Price Index above the level of 117.1 (194749 = 100).8
The agreement also provided deferred increases of 7 cents
an hour effective Nov. 1, 1957 and 1958.
Semiannual adjustment of cost-of-living allowance.
Deferred increase.
Semiannual adjustment of cost-of-living allowance.
Do.
Deferred increase.

3 cents an hour increase.
7 cents an hour increase3
5 cents an hour Increase.
4 cents an hour increase.
7 cents an hour increase.3
1 cent an hour increase.
No change.
3 cents an hour increase1 cent an hour increase.
5 cents an hour increase.3
4 cents an hour increase.3
6.28 cents an hour increase.3

Semiannual adjustment of cost-of-living allowance.
Semiannual review of cost-of-living allowance.
Semiannual adjustment of cost-of-living allowance.
Do.
Cost-of-living escalator provision discontinued and allowance
(17 cents) incorporated into basic rates.

180.0 and less than 181.0....................................... 2 cents an hour.
181.0 and less than 182.0....................................... 3 cents an hour.
and so forth, with corresponding 1-cent-an-hour adjustments for each
1-point change in the index.
By agreement of Sept. 16, 1953, the parties converted to the revised
BLS Consumer Price Index (1947-49 = 100), using a new lower limit of
107.0, and a 1-cent-an-hour adjustment for each 0.6-point change in the
index.
7The Mar. 1, 1951, agreement permitted a reopening only if the Gov­
ernment’s wage stabilization policy permitted annual improvement
wage increases and provided for discussions by the parties on this sub­
ject. If the parties were unable to agree that such an increase was per­
missible, the President of the United States was authorized to appoint a
referee to decide the matter. A referee appointed by the President
decided that annual improvement increases were permissible under the
existing stabilization policies and after a separate hearing on whether
an increase was justified in this case, handed down the award indicated.
8The agreement provided cost-of-living adjustments effective May 1
and Nov. 1, based on the BLS Consumer Price Index for the months of
March and September, as follows:
Consumer Price Index
Cost-of-living
(1947-49=100)
allowance

1General wage changes are upward or downward adjustments affect­
ing a substantial number of workers at one time. Not included are
adjustments in individual rates (promotions, length-of-service increases,
etc.) and adjustments in wage structure that do not have an immediate
and noticeable effect on the average wage level.
The changes listed are the major adjustments in wage rates made
during the period covered. Because of fluctuations in earnings occa­
sioned by changes in classification systems and other factors, the total
of the general changes listed will not necessarily coincide with the
changes in straight-time average hourly earnings over the period.
Subsequent decisions dealt primarily with individual railroads.
3Daily, weekly, and monthly rates were adjusted by the same hourly
amount as the general wage change, and piecework rates were adjusted
by an equivalent amount; thus all employees received the equivalent of
the hourly adjustment regardless of the method of pay. Fixed rates, paid
for all services rendered, were adjusted to give effect to the number of
hours used in establishing these rates and to equivalent hours for the
special allowances included in them. Special allowances, not included
in the fixed rates of pay, were not adjusted.
4This provision was included in all subsequent agreements.
5 See also Dec. 17, 1948, report of Emergency Board, No. 66.
6The agreement provided cost-of-living adjustments effective Apr. 1,
July 1, Oct. 1, and Jan. 1, based on the BLS Consumer Price Index for the
months of February, May, August, and November as follows:
Consumer Price Index
Cost-of-living
(1935-39=100)
allowance
178.0 and less than 179.0....................................... None.
179.0 and less than 180.0....................................... 1 cent an hour.




117.1 and less than 117.6.......................................
117.6 and less than 118.1.......................................
118.1 and lessthan 118.6.......................................
118.6 and less than 119.1.......................................
and so forth, with 1-cent-an-hour adjustments
change in the index.

29

None.
1 cent an hour.
2 cents an hour.
3 cents an hour.
for each 0.5-point

Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77
Effective
date

Agreement
date

Jan. 1, 1964 May 1, 1964—
BRS;
Nov. 20, 1964—
BMWE, BRASC,
HREU, ORT;
Nov. 21, 1964 —
BBF, BRC, IBFO;
Feb. 4, 1965—
SMWIA, IAM,
IBEW.

9 cents

9 cents

9 cents

TCE
(ORT)
9 cents

Jan. 1, 1965

Nov. 20, 1964—
BMWE, BRASC,
HREU, ORT;
Nov. 21, 1964—
BBF, BRC, IBFO;
Dec. 29, 1964
(letter)—BRS;
Feb. 4, 1965—
SMWIA, IAM,
IBEW.

9 cents

9 cents

9 cents

Jan. 1, 1966

Nov. 20, 1964 —
BMWE, BRASC,
HREU, ORT;
Nov. 21, 1964—
BBF, BRC, IBFO;
Dec. 29, 1964
(letter)—BRS;
Feb. 4, 1965—
SMWIA, IAM,
IBEW.

9 cents

9 cents

Jan. 1, 1967

Dec. 15, 1966—
BRASC;
Jan. 13, 1967—
BMWE, HREU,
TCE, BRS;
Sept. 15, 1967—
BBF, BRC, IBFO,
SMWIA, IAM,
IBEW.

5 percent

5 percent

Sept. 15, 1967—
BBF, BRC, IBFO,
SMWIA, IAM,
IBEW.
Oct. 1, 1967 Sept. 15, 1967—
BBF, BRC, IBFO,
SMWIA, IAM,
IBEW.

Apr. 1, 1967

See footnotes at end of table.




BRASC

BMWE

HREU

BRS

Union2
BBF

BRC

IBFO

SMWIA

IAM

IBEW

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

9 cents
10 cents
signalmen,
signal
maintainers,
mechanics;
6 cents
others

9 cents

9 cents

6 cents
regular
apprentices,
9 cents
others

6 cents
regular
apprentices,
9 cents
others

6 cents
regular
apprentices,
9 cents
others

Initial increases provided by
agreements which also pro­
vided additional increases
effective Jan. 1, 1965 and
Jan. 1, 1966 except for BRS
agreement.

9 cents

10 cents
9 cents
signalmen,
signal
maintainers,
mechanics;
6 cents
others

9 cents

9 cents

4 percent
mechanics;
9 cents
helpers and
helpers’
apprentices;
6 cents
regular
apprentices

4 percent
mechanics;
9 cents
helpers and
helpers’
apprentices;
6 cents
regular
apprentices

4 percent
mechanics;
9 cents
helpers and
helpers’
apprentices
6 cents
regular
apprentices

BRS —letter of agreement also
provided deferred increase
effective Jan. 1, 1966.

9 cents

9 cents

9 cents
10 cents
signalmen,
signal
maintainers,
mechanics;
6 cents
others

9 cents

9 cents

• 3.5 percent
mechanics;
9 cents
helpers and
helpers’
apprentices;
6 cents
regular
apprentices

3.5 percent
mechanics;
9 cents
helpers and
helpers’
apprentices;
6 cents
regular
apprentices

3.5 percent
mechanics;
9 cents
helpers and
helpers'
apprentices;
6 cents
regular
apprentices

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

6 percent

6 percent

6 percent

6 percent

6 percent

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics

6 percent

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics

BMWE, HREU, TCE, BRS—
agreement also provided
deferred increase effective
Jan. 1, 1968.
BBF, BRC, IBFO, SMWIA, IAM,
IBEW—award of special board
appointed pursuant to Public
Law 90-54 which also provided
additional increases effective
Apr. 1, 1967, Oct. 1, 1967,
Apr. 1, 1968, July 1, 1968, and
Oct. 1, 1968.

Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77—Continued
Effective
date

Agreement
date

BRASC

BMWE

HREU

TCE
(ORT)

BRS

Jan. 1, 1968

Jan. 13, 1967—
BMWE, HREU,
TCE, BRS;
Dec. 28, 1967—
BRASC.

2.5 percent

2.5 percent

2.5 percent

2.5 percent

Union^
BBF

2.5 percent

Apr. 1, 1968 Sept. 15, 1967—
BBF, BRC, IBFO,
SMWIA, IAM,
IBEW.
3.5 percent
July 1, 1968 Sept. 15, 1967—
BBF, BRC, IBFO,
SMWIA, IAM,
IBEW;
Dec. 28, 1967—
BRASC;
May 17, 1968—
BMWE, HREU;
June 24, 1968—
TCE;
Apr. 21, 1969—
BRS.

Oct. 1, 1968

Dec. 28, 1967 —
BRASC;
May 17, 1968—
BMWE, HREU;
June 24, 1968—
TCE;
Apr. 21, 1969—
BRS;
Apr. 9, 1970—
BBF, SMWIA,
IAM, IBEW;
Apr. 24, 1970—
BRC;
June 12, 1970—
IBFO.

3.5 percent

3.5 percent

3.5 percent
all, follow­
ing applica­
tion of 22
cents for
mechanics
and higher­
rated
workers and
9 cents all
others

Sept. 15, 1967—
BBF, BRC, IBFO,
SMWIA, IAM,
IBEW.

Jan. 1, 1969

3.5 percent


See footnotes at end of table.


2 percent

2 percent

2 percent

2 percent

2 percent

BRC

IBFO

SMWIA

IAM

IBEW

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters
BRASC—in addition, Classifica­
tion and Evaluation Fund
established equivalent to
5-cent-an-hour average to be
allocated by July 1, 1968 to
higher rated and higher-skilled
workers. Agreement also pro­
vided deferred increases
effective July 1, 1968, Jan. 1,
1969, and July 1, 1969.

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
5 percent

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
5 percent

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
5 percent

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
5 percent

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
5 percent

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
5 percent

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
2 percent

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
V
2 percent

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
2 percent

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
2 percent

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
2 percent

5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
2 percent

BMWE, HREU—in addition,
Classification and Evaluation
Funds established equivalent
to 5-cent-an-hour average to
be allocated to higher-rated
and higher-skilled maintenance
of way (BMWE) workers and
to reduce basic work month
for dining car (HREU) workers
without change in basic
monthly pay. Agreement also
provided deferred increases
effective Jan. 1, 1969 and
July 1, 1969.
TCE—in addition, Classification
and Evaluation Fund estab­
lished equivalent to 5-cent-anhour average to be allocated
to higher-rated and higherskilled workers. Agreement
also provided deferred in­
creases effective Jan. 1,1969
and July 1, 1969.
BRS—agreement also provided
additional increases effective
Jan. 1, 1969 and July 1, 1969.

BBF and BRC—by agreement
dated Jan. 9, 1969, boiler­
makers, blacksmiths, carmen,
and regular apprentices were
to have their wage rates
equalized with the rates of
pay of sheet metal workers,
electricians, and machinists
effective Jan. 1, 1969 prior to
the application of the 2 per­
cent increase. This resulted in
additional increases for BBF
and BRC workers, except in
the case of regular appren­
tices who experienced a net
decrease.

Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77—Continued
Effective
date

Agreement
date

BRASC

BMWE

HREU

TCE
(ORT)

BRS

Union2
BBF

BRC

IBFO

SMWIA

IAM

IBEW

BBF, BRC, IBFO, SMWIA, IAM,
IBEW—agreements provided
that hourly rates of pay for
all hourly-rated workers be
rounded up to the next whole
cent prior to the Jan. 1,1969
2-percent adjustment. In deter­
mining future percentage ad­
justments, the increase was
to be rounded to the nearest
whole cent.
BBF, SMWIA, IAM, IBEW—by
Public Law 91-226. Agreement
also provided additional in­
creases effective July 1, 1969,
Sept. 1, 1969, Jan. 1, 1970,
Feb. 19, 1970, Apr. 1, 1970,
and Aug. 1, 1970.
BRC—agreement also provided
additional increases effective
July 1, 1969, Sept. 1, 1969,
Jan. 1, 1970, Apr. 1, 1970,
Apr. 24, 1970, and Aug. 1, 1970.
IBFO—agreement also provided
additional increases effective
July 1, 1969, Sept. 1, 1969,
Jan. 1, 1970, Apr. 1, 1970, and
Aug. 1, 1970.

Jan. 1, 1969—
continued

Dec. 28, 1967—
BRASC;
May 17, 1968—
BMWE, HREU;
June 24, 1968—
TCE3;
Apr. 21, 1969—
BRS;
Apr. 9, 1970—
BBF, SMWIA,
IAM, IBEW;
Apr. 24, 1970—
BRC;
June 12, 1970—
IBFO.
Sept. 1, 1969 Apr. 9, 1970—
BBF, SMWIA,
IAM, IBEW;
Apr. 24, 1970—
BRC;
June 12, 1970—
IBFO.
July 1, 1969


Sec footnotes at end of table.


Applications, exceptions
and other related matters

3 percent

3 percent

3 percent

3 percent

3 percent

3 percent
all, plus
5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics

3 percent
all, plus
5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics

3 percent
all, plus
5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics

3 percent
all, plus
5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics

3 percent
all, plus
5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics

3 percent
all, plus
5 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics

10 cents

10 cents

5 cents

10 cents

10 cents

10 cents

Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77—Continued
Effective
date

Agreement
date

Jan. 1, 1970

Apr. 9, 1970—
BBF, SMWIA,
IAM, IBEW;
Apr. 24, 1970—
BRC;
June 12, 1970—
IBFO;
Feb. 10, 1971 —
BMWE, HREU;
Feb. 25, 1971BRASC;
Nov. 16, 1971 —
BRS.

Feb. 19, 1970

Apr. 9, 1970—
BBF, SMWIA,
IAM, IBEW.

Apr. 1, 1970

Apr. 9, 1970—
BBF, SMWIA,
IAM, IBEW;
Apr. 24, 1970—
BRC;
June 12, 1970—
IBFO.
Apr. 24, 1970—
BRC.

Apr. 24, 1970

Aug. 1, 1970

Nov. 1, 1970

Jan. 1, 1971

BRASC

BMWE

HREU

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

Apr. 9, 1970—
BBF, SMWIA,
IAM, IBEW;
Apr. 24, 1970—
BRC;
June 12, 1970—
IBFO.
32 cents
Feb. 10, 1971 —
BMWE, HREU;
Feb. 25, 1971BRASC;
Nov. 16, 1971 —
BRS.
Oct. 7, 1971 —
BBF, BRC, IAM,
IBEW;
Nov. 16, 1971 —
BRS;
Feb. 11, 1972—
IBFO;
May 12, 1972—
SMWIA.

 at end of table.
See footnotes


TCE
(ORT)
<
3)

BRS
5 percent

Union^
BBF

BRC

5 percent

5 percent

32 cents

32 cents

(3)

30 cents
mechanics
and higher­
rated
workers; 18
cents others
10 cents
10 cents

SMWIA

IAM

IBEW

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

7 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
4 cents

7 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
4 cents

7 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
4 cents
4 cents

4 cents

4 cents

10 cents

10 cents

10 cents

BMWE, HREU—agreement also
provided additional increases
effective Nov. 1, 1970, Apr. 1,
1971, Oct. 1, 1971, Apr. 1, 1972,
Oct. 1, 1972, and Apr. 1, 1973.
BRASC—agreement also pro­
vided additional increases
effective Nov. 1, 1970, Apr. 1,
1971, Oct. 1, 1971, Apr. 1,
1972, Oct. 1, 1972, Jan. 1, 1973,
and Apr. 1, 1973.
BRS—agreement also provided
for additional increases effec­
tive Nov. 1, 1970, Jan. 1, 1971,
Apr. 1, 1971, Oct. 1, 1971,
Apr. 1, 1972, Oct. 1, 1972, and
Apr. 1, 1973.

4 cents

10 cents

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

7 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
4 cents

7 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
4 cents
4 cents

4 cents

IBFO
5 cents
applied to
previous
rates plus
5 percent

4 cents

10 cents

BBF, BRC, IBFO, SMWIA, IAM,
IBEW—agreement also pro­
vided additional increases
effective Apr. 1, 1971, Oct. 1,
1971, Apr. 1, 1972, Oct. 1, 1972,
and Apr. 1, 1973.

Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77—Continued
Effective
date

Agreement
date

Apr. 1, 1971

Feb. 10, 1971 —
BMWE, HREU;
Feb. 25, 1971 —
BRASC;
Oct. 7, 1971 —
BBF, BRC, IAM,
IBEW;
Nov. 16, 1971 —
BRS;
Feb. 11, 1972—
IBFO;
May 12, 1972SMWIA.
Feb. 10, 1971 —
BMWE, HREU;
Feb. 25, 1971 —
BRASC;
Oct. 7, 1971 —
BBF, BRC, IAM,
IBEW;
Nov. 16, 1971 —
BRS;
Feb. 11, 1972—
IBFO;
May 12, 1972—
SMWIA.
Feb. 10, 1971 —
BMWE, HREU;
Feb. 25, 1971 —
BRASC;
Oct. 7, 1971 —
BBF, BRC, IAM,
IBEW;
Nov. 16, 1971 —
BRS;
Feb. 11, 1972—
IBFO;
May 12, 1972—
SMWIA.
Feb. 10, 1971 —
BMWE, HREU;
Feb. 25, 1971 —
BRASC;
Oct. 7, 1971 —
BBF, BRC, IAM,
IBEW;
Nov. 16, 1971 —
BRS;
Feb. 11, 1972—
IBFO;
May 12, 1972—
SMWIA.
Feb. 25, 1971 —
BRASC.

Oct. 1, 1971

Apr. 1, 1972

Oct. 1, 1972

Jan. 1, 1973


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ at end of table.
See footnotes
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

BRC

IBFO

SMWIA

IAM

IBEW

BRASC

BMWE

HREU

TCE
(ORT)

4 percent

4 percent

4 percent

(3)

15 cents
mechanics
and
higher-rated
workers;
8 cents
others

15 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics;
8 cents
others

15 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics;
8 cents
others

15 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics;
8 cents
others

15 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics;
8 cents
others

15 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics;
8 cents
others

15 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics;
8 cents
others

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

<
3)

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

(3)

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

<
3)

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

15 cents

<3)

BRS

Union2
BBF

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77—Continued
Effective
date

Agreement
date

Apr. 1, 1973

Feb. 10, 1971 —
BMWE, HREU;
Feb. 25, 1971BRASC;
Oct. 7, 1971 —
BBF, BRC, IAM,
IBEW;
Nov. 16, 1971 —
BRS;
Feb. 11, 1972—
IBFO;
May 12, 1972—
SMWIA.

10 cents

25 cents

25 cents

Jan. 1, 1974

Apr. 27, 1973—
BRASC, BMWE,
HREU, BRS;
May 10, 1973—
BBF, BRC,
IBFO, IBEW;
May 22, 1974—
IAM;
Jan. 29, 1975—
SMWIA.
Jan. 29, 1975—
BMWE, BRS,
SMWIA;
Mar. 12, 1975—
IAM;
July 23, 1975—
BRASC;
Dec. 4, 1975—
BBF, BRC,
IBFO, IBEW;
Mar. 18, 1975—
HREU.

4 percent

4 percent

4 percent

10 percent

10 percent

10 percent

Jan. 1, 1975


See footnotes at end of table.


BRASC

BMWE

HREU

TCE
(ORT)

BRS

Union^
BBF

BRC

IBFO

SMWIA

IAM

IBEW

25 cents

25 cents

25 cents

25 cents

25 cents

25 cents

25 cents

(3)

4 percent

4 percent

4 percent

4 percent

4 percent

4 percent

4 percent

(3)

10 percent

10 percent

10 percent

10 percent

10 percent

10 percent

10 percent

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

(3)

Agreements also (1) provided
additional increases effective
Oct. 1, 1975, Apr. 1, 1976,
and July 1, 1977, and (2) re­
established a cost-of-living
escalator clause providing for
4 semiannual adjustments in
Jan. and July based on Con­
sumer Price Indexes for Sept,
and Mar., respectively (the
BRASC pact provided a 5th
adjustment effective Jan. 1,
1978) beginning Jan. 1, 1976
calculated (a) for the 1st 3 ad­
justments, at 1 cent for each
0.4-point change in the Bureau
of Labor Statistics’ Consumer
Price Index (1967= 100) over
the CPI for March 1975 but
not more than the maximum
allowed4 and (b) for the 4th
adjustment, 1 cent for each
0.3-point change between the
CPI’s for Sept. 1976 and Mar.
1977 up to specified maxi­
mum,4 and (c) in the case of
the 5th adjustment for BRASC
workers, of 1 cent for each
0.3-point change in the CPI
for Sept. 1977 over that for
Mar. 1977 (maximum 23 cents).
Portions of the accumulated
cost-of-living allowance were
to be incorporated into basic
rates on Dec. 31, 1976, June
30, 1977, and Dec. 31, 1977.5

Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77
Effective
date

Agreement
date

Oct. 1, 1975

Jan. 29, 1975—
BMWE, BRS,
SMWIA;
Mar. 12, 1975—
IAM;
July 23, 1975—
BRASC;
Dec. 4, 1975—
BBF, BRC,
IBFO, IBEW;
Mar. 18, 1975—
HREU.

Jan. 1, 1976
Apr. 1, 1976

July 1, 1976

BRC

IBFO

SMWIA

IAM

IBEW

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

12 cents

12 cents

12 cents

12 cents

12 cents

12 cents

12 cents

Jan. 29, 1975—
BMWE, BRS,
SMWIA;
Mar. 12, 1975—
IAM;
July 23, 1975—
BRASC;
Dec. 4, 1975—
BBF, BRC,
IBFO, IBEW;
Mar. 18, 1975—
HREU.

(3>

3 percent

3 percent

3 percent

3 percent

3 percent

3 percent

-

3 percent

12 cents

(3)

12 cents

12 cents

12 cents

12 cents

12 cents

12 cents

12 cents

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

Jan. 1, 1977

-

13 cents

13 cents

13 cents

(3)

13 cents

13 cents

13 cents

13 cents

13 cents

13 cents

June 30, 1977

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

Jan. 29, 1975—
BMWE, BRS,
SMWIA;
Mar. 12, 1975—
IAM;
July 23, 1975—
BRASC;
Dec. 4, 1975—
BBF, BRC,
IBFO, IBEW;
Mar. 18, 1975—
HREU.

HREU

TCE
(ORT)

5 percent

5 percent

5 percent

(3)

5 percent

12 cents

12 cents

12 cents

(3)

3 percent

3 percent

3 percent

12 cents

12 cents

-

BRS

13 cents
—

BBF

-

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.

4 percent

4 percent

4 percent

<
3)

4 percent

4 percent

4 percent

4 percent

4 percent

4 percent

4 percent

18 cents




Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

5 percent

BMWE

—

—

Dec. 31, 1976

July 1, 1977

Union^
BRASC

18 cents

18 cents

<3)

18 cents

18 cents

18 cents

18 cents

18 cents

18 cents

18 cents

Cost-of-living adjustment, the
maximum permitted by the
formula.

Semiannual adjustment of costof-living allowance.
18 cents of accumulated costof-living allowance incorpo­
rated into basic rates.
Semiannual adjustment of costof-living allowance.
6 cents of accumulated cost-ofliving allowance incorporated
into basic rates.

Semiannual adjustment of costof-living allowance.

Table 2. General wage changes,1 1964-77—Continued
Effective
date

Agreement
date

BRASC

Dec. 31, 1977

-

-

Jan. 1, 1978

HREU

TCE
(ORT)

-

-

Union2
BBF

BRS
-

19 cents

—

„

—

(3 >

BRC

IBFO

SMWIA

IAM

IBEW

-

-

-

-

-

-

3 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics

-

Dec. 4, 1975—
BBF, BRC,
IBFO, IBEW.
—

co
-si

BMWE

3 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics

3 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics

—

—

—

—

1 General wage changes are upward or downward adjustments affecting a substantial number of workers at
one time. Not included are adjustments in individual rates (promotions, length-of-service increases, etc.) and
adjustments in the wage structure that do not have an immediate and noticeable effect on the average wage level.
The changes listed are the major adjustments in wage rates made during the period covered. Because of fluc­
tuations in earnings occasioned by changes in classification systems and other factors, the total of the general
changes will not necessarily coincide with the change in straight-time average hourly earnings over the period.
Daily, weekly, and monthly rates were adjusted by the same hourly amount as the general wage change, and
piecework rates were adjusted by an equivalent amount; thus all employees received the equivalent of the hourly
adjustment regardless of the method of pay. Fixed rates, paid for all services rendered, were adjusted to give
effect to the number of hours used in establishing these rates and to equivalent hours for the special allowances
included in them. Special allowances, not included in the fixed rates of pay, were not adjusted.
2 Unions were BRASC— Brotherhood of Railway, Airline and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and
Station Employees; BMWE— Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Employees; HREU— Hotel and Restaurant
Employees and Bartenders International Union; TCE—Transportation-Communication Employees Union (for­
merly the Order of Railroad Telegraphers and became a division of BRASC on Feb. 20,1969); BRS—Brotherhood
of Railroad Signalmen; BBF—International Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders, Blacksmiths,
Forgers and Helpers; BRC— Brotherhood of Railway Carmen of the United States and Canada; IBFO— Inter­
national Brotherhood of Firemen and Oilers; SMWIA —Sheet Metal Workers’ International Association; 1AM—In­
ternational Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers; IBEW—International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers.
2 Employees represented by the BRASC and the TCE, which became a division of the BRASC following their
merger on Feb. 20, 1969, were covered by the same agreement and wage increases for all such employees were
identical.




Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters
16 cents of accumulated
cost-of-living allowance incor­
porated into basic rates.

3 cents
journeymen
and
mechanics
—

—

-

BRASC—semiannual adjustment
of cost-of-living allowance.

4 Maximums were as follow:
Maximum
cumulative
allowance
(in cents)
Jan. 1,1976...............................................................................................
12
July 1,1976 ...............................................................................................
28
Jan. 1,1977 ...............................................................................................
45*
July 1,1977 ..............................................................................................
68*
'Includes amounts incorporated into base rates as specified in footnote 5.
2 Portions of accumulated cost-of-living allowance to be incorporated into base rates were as follow: Effective
Dec. 31, 1976, 75 percent of allowance then in effect; effective June 30, 1977, remainder of allowance in effect as
of Dec. 31, 1976 and still payable; and effective Dec. 31, 1977, 50 percent of allowance then in effect.
The cost-of-living allowance was not included in wage rates for the purpose of calculating percentage basic
wage increases until incorporated into base rates.
While a cost-of-living allowance was in effect, it was to apply to straight-time, overtime, vacations, and
holidays, and to special allowances and arbitraries in the same manner as basic wage adjustments were applied
in the past.
Effective date
of adjustment

Table 3. Basic hourly wage rates1 for shop crafts,2 specified dates, 1920-62
Occupation
Blacksmiths.................................
Boilermakers ...............................
Car repairmen, passenger............
Carmen, other...............................
Electrical workers .......................
Linemen ...............................
Groundmen...........................
Coal pier elevator and hoist
operators...........................
M achinists...................................
Sheet-metal workers...................
Apprentices, regular:
First period...........................
Eighth perio d.......................
Apprentices, helper:
First period...........................
Sixth period .........................
Helpers, all crafts.........................

May 1, July 1, July 1, Feb. 1, Aug. 1 Dec. 1, Feb. 1, Dec. 27, Jan. 1, May 22, Sept. 1, Oct. 1,
1947
1948
1921
1922 19321 1937
3
2
1941 19434 1943
1946
1946
1920
$0.85 $0.77 $0.70 $0.80 $0.85 $0.95 $1.00 $1.05 $1.21 $1,235 $1.39 $1.46
1.46
1.05
1.21
1.235 1.39
.77
.80
.85
.95
1.00
.85
.70
1.46
.77
1.00
1.05
1.21
1.235 1.39
.85
.70
.80
.85
.95
.94
1.14
1.165 1.32
.72
.63
.73
.78
.88
.98
1.39
.80
1.21
1.235 1.39
1.46
.77
.80
.85
.95
1.00
1.05
.85
.70
1.42
1.17
1.195 1.35
.73
.66
.76
.81
.91
.96
1.01
.81
1.11
1.36
.67
.91
.95
1.135 1.29
.75
.60
.70
.75
.85
1.04
.78
.88
1.065 1.22
1.29
.68
.60
.53
.63
.68
.85
.77
.80
.85
.95
1.21
.85
.70
1.00
1.05
1.235 1.39
1.46
.85
.77
.70
.80
.85
.95
1.00
1.05
1.21
1.235 1.39
1.46
.42
.67
.62
.72
.62

.34
.59
.54
.64
.54

.27
.52
.47
.57
.47

.37
.62
.57
.67
.57

.42
.67
.62
.72
.62

.52
.77
.72
.82
.72

.61
.86
.79
.88
.79

.63
.88
.82
.91
.82

.79
1.04
.98
1.07
.98

.815
1.065
1.005
1.105
1.005

.97
1.22
1.16
1.26
1.16

1.04
1.29
1.23
1.33
1.23

Sept. 1, Feb. 1, Dec. 1, Dec. 3, Dec. 1, Nov. 1, Nov. 1, Nov. 1, July 1, Feb. 1, May 1,
1949
1952 1954s 1955
1957
1951
1956
1958 1960s 1962
1962
Blacksm iths...................................
Boilermakers...................................
Car repairmen, passenger..............
Carmen, other.................................
Electrical workers...........................
Linemen...................................
Groundmen.............................
Coal pier elevator and hoist
operators.............................
Machinists .....................................
Sheet-metal workers .....................
Apprentices, regular:
First period.............................
Eighth period .........................
Apprentices, helpers:
First period.............................
Sixth period.............................
Helpers, all crafts...........................

$1,738 $1,863
1.738 1.863
1.738 1.863
1.654 1.779
1.738 1.863
1.690 1.815
1.618 1.743
1.534 1.659
1.738 1.863
1.738 1.863
1.234
1.534
1.462
1.582
1.462

1.359
1.659
1.587
1.707
1.587

$1,903 $2,033 $2,178 $2,278
1.903 2.033 2.178 2.278
1.903 2.033 2.178 2.278
1.819 1.989 2.134 2.234
1.903 2.033 2.178 2.278
1.855 1.985 2.130 2.230
1.783 1.913 2.058 2.158
1.699 1.829 1.974 2.074
1.903 2.033 2.178 2.278
1.903 2.033 2.178 2.278
1.399
1.699
1.627
1.747
1.627

1.529
1.829
1.757
1.877
1.757

1.774
2.074
2.002
2.122
2.002

$2,418
2.418
2.418
2.378
2.418
2.370
2.298
2.214
2.418
2.418

$2,638
2.638
2.638
2.598
2.638
2.590
2.518
2.434
2.638
2.638

1.844
2.144
2.072
2.192
2.072

1.914
2.274
2.142
2.262
2.142

2.134
2.434
2.362
2.482
2.362

$2,678 $2.7408
2.678 2.7408
2.678 2.7408
2.634 2.6968
2.678 2.7408
2.630 2.6928
2.558 2.6208
2.474 2.5368
2.678 2.7408
2.678 2.7408
2.174
2.474
2.402
2.522
2.402

2.2368
2.5368
2.4648
2.5848
2.4648

4 Includes a 1-cent increase on some railroads to remove intraindustry
inequities.
includes 13-cent cost-of-living allowance incorporated into base
wage rates.
includes 17-cent cost-of-living allowance incorporated into base
wage rates.

1 Does not include cost-of-living adjustments for the periods such pro­
visions were in effect (Feb. 1951 to Dec. 1954; Nov. 1956 to July 1960).
2Most prevalent wage rate; on some roads the rate for a particular
occupation was slightly higher or lower.
3 From Feb. 1,1932, to Apr. 1,1935, the parties agreed to deduct speci­
fied percentages from each worker’s earnings (table 1); basic wage
rates, however, were not reduced and remained at the Feb. 1,1932, level.




1.674
1.974
1.902
2.022
1.902

$2,348
2.348
2.348
2.304
2.348
2.300
2.228
2.144
2.348
2.348

38

Table 4. Basic hourly wage rates1 for shop crafts,2 specified dates, 1964-77
Jan. 1,
1965

Jan. 1,
1966

Jan. 1,
1967

Apr. 1,
1967

Oct. 1,
1967

Apr. 1,
1968

July 1,
1968

$2.8308 $2.9208
2.8308 2.9208
2.8308 2.9208
2.7868 2.8768
2.8308 2.9450
2.7828 2.8950
2.7108 2.8008
2.8308 2.9450
2.8308 2.9450

$3.0108
3.0108
3.0108
2.9668
3.0475
2.9950
2.8908
3.0475
3.0475

$3.1914 $3.2414
3.1914 3.2414
3.1914 3.2414
3.1448 3.1948
3.2304 3.2804
3.1747 3.2247
3.0642 unchgd
3.2304 3.2804
3.2304 3.2804

$3.2914
3.2914
3.2914
3.2448
3.3304
3.2747
unchgd
3.3304
3.3304

$3.3414
3.3414
3.3414
3.2948
3.3804
3.3247
unchgd
3.3804
3.3804

$3.5085 $3.5585
3.5085 3.5585
3.5085 3.5585
3.4595 3.5095
3.5494 3.5994
3.4909 3.5409
3.2174 unchgd
3.5494 3.5994
3.5494 3.5994

2.3268
2.6148

2.4168
2.7048

2.5068
2.7948

2.6572 unchgd
2.9625 unchgd

unchgd
unchgd

unchgd
unchgd

2.7901 unchgd
3.1106 unchgd

2.2968
2.5848

2.3568
2.6448

2.4168
2.7048

2.5618 unchgd
2.8671 unchgd

unchgd
unchgd

unchgd
unchgd

2.6899 unchgd
3.0105 unchgd

2.5548
2.6748
2.5548

2.6448
2.7648
2.6448

2.7348
2.8548
2.7348

2.8989 unchgd
3.0261 unchgd
2.8989 unchgd

unchgd
unchgd
unchgd

unchgd
unchgd
unchgd

3.0438 unchgd
3.1774 unchgd
3.0438 unchgd

Jan. 1, July 1, Sept. 1,
19695 1969 1969

Jan. 1,
1970

Feb. 19,
1970

Apr. 1,
1970

Aug. 1,
1970

Jan. 1,
1971

Apr. 1,
1971

Oct. 1,
1971

Apr. 1,
1972

$3.93
3.93
3.93
3.88
3.93
3.88
3.48
3.93
3.93

$4.13
4.13
4.13
4.07
4.13
4.07
3.65
4.13
4.13

$4.20
4.20
unchgd
unchgd
4.20
4.14
unchgd
4.20
4.20

$4.24
4.24
4.247
4.187
4.24
4.18
3.69
4.24
4.24

$4.28
4.28
4.28
4.22
4.28
4.22
3.73
4.28
4.28

$4.38
4.38
4.38
4.32
4.38
4.32
3.83
4.38
4.38

$4.53
4.53
4.53
4.47
4.53
4.47
3.91
4.53
4.53

$4.76
4.76
4.76
4.70
4.76
4.69
4.11
4.76
4.76

$5.00
5.00
5.00
4.94
5.00
4.92
4.32
5.00
5.00

2.92
3.27

3.07
3.43

unchgd
unchgd

3.11
3.47

3.15
3.51

3.25
3.61

3.33
3.69

3.50
3.87

3.68
4.06

3.30
3.44
3.30

3.47
3.61
3.47

unchgd
unchgd
unchgd

3.51
3.65
3.51

3.55
3.69
3.55

3.65
3.79
3.65

3.73
3.87
3.73

3.92
4.06
3.92

4.12
4.26
4.12

Jan. 1,
1964

Occupation
Blacksmiths.....................................
Boilermakers...................................
Carmen (A and B)3...........................
Carmen (C and D)4 ...........................
Electrical workers (A) .....................
Linemen...................................
Groundmen .............................
Machinists.......................................
Sheet metal workers.......................
Regular apprentices:
BBF, BRC
First period...............................
Eighth period...........................
IAM, IBEW, SMWIA
First period...............................
Eighth period...........................
Helper apprentices:
First period...............................
Sixth period.............................
Skilled trades helpers.....................

Blacksmiths................................. $3.67® $3.83
3.676 3.83
Boilermakers ...............................
Carmen (A and B)3 ......................
3.676 3.83
3.62 3.78
Carmen (C and D)4 .......................
3.67 3.83
Electrical workers (A)...................
Linemen ...............................
3.62 3.78
Groundmen...........................
3.28 3.38
3.67 3.83
M achinists...................................
3.67 3.83
Sheet metal workers...................
Regular apprentices:
IAM, IBEW, SMWIA, BBF, BRC6
2.74 2.82
First period...........................
Eighth perio d.......................
3.08 3.17
Helper apprentices:
3.11 3.20
First period...........................
3.24 3.34
Sixth period .........................
3.11 3.20
Skilled trades helpers..................
See footnotes at end of table.




39

Oct. 1,
1968

Table 4. Basic hourly wage rates1 for shop crafts,2 specified dates, 1964-77—Continued
Occupation
Blacksmiths.......................................
Boilermakers.....................................
Carmen (A and B)3 .............................
Carmen (C and D)4 .............................
Electrical workers (A) .......................
Linemen.....................................
Groundmen ...............................
Machinists.........................................
Sheet metal workers.........................
Regular apprentices:
IAM, IBEW, SMWIA, BBF, BRC6
First period.................................
Eighth period.............................
Helper apprentices:
First period.................................
Sixth p eriod...............................
Skilled trades helpers.......................

Oct. 1,
1972

Apr. 1,
1973

Jan. 1,
1974

Jan. 1,
1975

Oct. 1,
1975

Apr. 1,
1976

$5.25
5.25
5.25
5.19
5.25
5.17
4.54
5.25
5.25

$5.50
5.50
5.50
5.44
5.50
5.42
4.79
5.50
5.50

$5.72
5.72
5.72
5.66
5.72
5.62
4.97
5.72
5.72

$6.29
6.29
6.29
6.23
6.29
6.18
5.47
6.29
6.29

$6.60
6.60
6.60
6.54
6.60
6.49
5.74
6.60
6.60

$6.80
6.80
6.80
6.74
6.80
6.68
5.91
6.80
6.80

$6.98
6.98
6.98
6.92
6.98
6.86
6.09
6.98
6.98

$7.07
7.04
7.04
6.98
7.04
6.92
6.15
7.04
7.04

3.86
4.26

4.11
4.51

4.27
4.69

4.69
5.16

4.92
5.42

5.07
5.58

5.25
5.76

5.31
5.82

5.52
6.05

5.68
6.21

4.33
4.47
4.33

4.58
4.72
4.58

4.76
4.91
4.76

5.24
5.40
5.24

5.50
5.67
5.50

5.67
5.84
5.67

5.85
6.02
5.85

5.91
6.08
5.91

6.15
6.32
6.15

6.31
6.48
6.31

July 1, Dec. 31,
1977 197710
$7.32 $7.4811
7.32 7.4811
7.32 7.4811
7.26 7.4211
7.32 7.4811
7.20 7.3611
6.40 6.56
7.32 7.48
7.32 7.48

6Sept. 9, 1969 agreement provided for equalization of BBF and BRC
skilled and regular apprentice rates with those of SMWIA, IAM, and
IBEW.
Pates include a 4-cent increase on Apr. 1, 1970 and a 7-cent in­
crease on Apr. 24, 1970 (comparable workers in other unions received
the 7 cents on Feb. 19, 1970).
8Result of incorporation of 18 cents of accumulated cost-of-living
allowance into base rates.
9Result of incorporation of 6 cents of accumulated cost-of-living
allowance into base rates.
10Result of incorporation of 16 cents of accumulated cost-of-living
allowance into base rates.
11Such rates were to be further increased by 3 cents an hour effect ve
Jan. 1, 1978.

1Rates do not include cost-of-living allowance for the period such
provisions were in effect (beginning Jan. 1, 1976) until incorporated into
base rates.
2Most prevalent wage rate; on some roads the rate for a particular
occupation was slightly higher or lower.
Previously designated as “ car repairmen, passenger” before 1964.
Previously designated as “carmen, other” before 1964. Beginning
with the Jan. 1,1969 wage increase, agreements provided that increases
for these workers would be the money amount of the increases for
“ carmen (A and B)” in order to preserve the existing differential between
the two categories of workers.
5Shopcraft agreements provided that wage rates be rounded to
nearest whole cent prior to application of the Jan. 1, 1969 adjustment
and in determining future percentage adjustments.




Dec. 31, June 30,
19768
19779

40

Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1
Effective date

Provision

Applications, exceptions, and other related matters
Overtime pay

1932.............................
Sept. 1, 1949 (agree­
ment dated Mar. 19,
1949).

No national provision.2
Time and one-half for work in excess of 40 straight-time
hours a week.

1932.............................
Sept. 1, 1949 (agree­
ment dated Mar. 19,
1949).

No national provision.2
Time and one-half for work on 6th and 7th day of workweek.

Feb. 17, 1970 (agree­
ments dated Apr. 9,
1970—BBF, SMWIA,
IAM, IBEW; Apr. 24,
1970—BRC; June 12,
1970—IBFO).

Added: Double time paid for 7th consecutive day
worked.

Existing local and system rules for payment of daily overtime
to remain unchanged.
Time and one-half not paid for hours in excess of 40 resulting
from worker moving from one assignment to another, to or
from an extra or furlough list, or when operational require­
ments made it necessary to split the 2 days of rest so em­
ployee worked more than five 8-hour days a week.
In computing weekly hours of work after which overtime was
payable, (a) the following were included: (1) hours (not in
excess of 8) paid for on holidays, (2) hours paid for chang­
ing shifts, and (3) time for which an allowance in lieu of
regular rate was paid for attending court, deadheading,
travel, etc., during assigned hours; and (b) the following
were excluded: (1) daily overtime, (2) arbitraries or special
allowances for time outside of assigned working hours or
not previously included under existing rules and computa­
tions leading to overtime.
Premium pay for work on weekends or rest day
Eliminated: Local and system provisions for payment of puni­
tive rates for work on Sunday as such.
Premiums not paid for work on 6th and 7th days resulting
from worker moving from one assignment to another, to or
from an extra or furlough list, or when operational require­
ments made it necessary to split the 2 days of rest so em­
ployee worked more than five 8-hour days a week.3

Holiday pay
1932.............................
May 1, 1954 (agree­
ment dated Aug. 21,
1954).

No national provision.
7 paid holidays, for which regularly assigned workers
received 8 hours’ pay at regular rates, provided holiday
fell on a scheduled workday.4

July 1, 1960 (agree­
ment dated Aug. 19,
1960).

Jan. 1, 1965 (agree­
ments dated Nov. 20,
1964— BRASC, BMWE,
ORT, BRS, HREU;
Nov. 21, 1964—BBF,
BRC, IBFO; Feb. 4,
1965— SMWIA, IAM,
IBEW).

Added: 1 additional paid holiday (total 8).

See footnotes at end of table.




41

Holidays were: New Year’s Day, Washington’s Birthday,
Memorial Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving,
and Christmas.
To qualify for holiday pay, employee must have been paid for
work on the day immediately preceding and following holi­
day. Days of sickness not credited as workdays.
National agreement not to reduce number of holidays or
change method of pay for holidays under existing rules or
practices.
Added: (a) For regularly assigned employees—holiday pay
provided if employee was available but not assigned to
work on days immediately preceding and following holi­
days. (b) For other than regularly assigned employees—
holiday pay provided only if holiday fell on a workday,
unless employee was relieving a regular employee under
specified conditions, in which case the same qualifying
conditions for employee being relieved were applied; to be
eligible, employee must have (1) worked 11 of the 30 calen­
dar days preceding holiday and (2) had at least 60 days’
seniority or 60 days’ continuous service preceding holiday.
To qualify, employee must, on workday preceding and follow­
ing holiday, either have (1) been paid for work, or (2) been
available for work.
Holiday was employee’s birthday. If birthday fell on
other than a workday for regularly assigned employee or
other than workday employee would have worked for nonregularly assigned employee, employee received an addi­
tional day’s pay in lieu of day off.
Established: HREU—2 days of pay added to annual compen­
sation in lieu of time off.

Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued
Effective date

Provision

Applications, exceptions, and other related matters
Holiday pay—Continued
Added: Holiday pay for holiday that fell during employee’s
vacation period.
Added: If holiday fell on employee’s regular scheduled day
off, employee received additional day’s pay.

Jan. 1, 1968 (agree­
ments dated Dec. 28,
1967—BRASC; May
17, 1968 —BMWE;
June 24, 1968—TCE;
Apr. 21, 1969—BRS;
Sept. 2, 1969—BBF,
BRC, SMWIA, IBFO,
IAM, IBEW).
1972 (agreements dated
Feb. 10, 1971 —
BMWE; Feb. 25,1971
— BRASC (TCE); Oct.
7, 1971 —BRC, BBF,
IAM, IBEW; Nov. 16,
1971 —BRS; Feb. 11,
1972—IBFO; May 12,
1972—SMWIA).
1973 (agreements dated Added: 1 additional paid holiday (total 9).
Feb. 10, 1971 —
BMWE; Feb. 25,1971
—BRASC (TCE); Oct.
7, 1971—BRC, BBF,
IAM, IBEW; Nov. 16,
1971— BRS; Feb. 11,
1972— IBFO; May 12,
1972—SMWIA).
1976 (agreements dated Added: 1 additional paid holiday (total 10).
Jan. 29, 1975 —
BMWE, BRS, SMWIA;
Mar. 12, 1975—IAM;
Mar. 18,1975—HREU;
July 23,1975—BRASC
(TCE); Dec. 4, 1975—
BBF, BRC, IBEW,
IBFO).

Changed: Good Friday substituted for employee’s birthday.

Holiday was Veterans Day.

Holiday was Christmas Eve. HREU—2 cents was added to
hourly rates of pay effective Jan. 1, 1976 to reflect an in­
crease of an additional day’s pay to the employee’s annual
rate.

Vacation pay
1932.............................
Jan. 1,1942 (agreement
dated Dec. 17, 1941).

No national provision.
6 days’ vacation with pay for employees with 160 days or
more of compensated service in preceding calendar
year.3

Jan. 1,1945 (agreement
dated Feb. 23, 1945).

Added: 12 days’ vacation with pay at regular rates for em­
ployees with 5 or more years’ continuous employment
and 160 days’ compensated service in each of 5 years,
not necessarily continuous.
Changed: Days of vacation, to 5 and 10.

Sept. 1,1949 (agreement
dated Mar. 19, 1949).

Jan. 1,1950 (agreement
dated Mar. 19, 1949).
Jan. 1,1954 (agreement
dated Aug. 21, 1954).

Additional 3 days’ vacation with pay after 2 years’ service anc
6 days after 3 years’ continuous service provided employees,
represented by the Brotherhood of Railway Clerks and the1
Order of Railroad Telegraphers.5
Pay in lieu of vacation provided when employee could not be
released for a vacation.
Benefits not provided when employment relationship was
terminated, except by statutory retirement, before employee
took vacation.
National agreement not to deprive employees of more liberal
vacations under existing rules or practices.
No change in vacation provisions for certain employees rep­
resented by the Clerks and Telegraphers.5

Changed to: 151 days’ compensated service in 1949 re­
quired for 1950 vacation; 133 days required in 1950 and
thereafter for vacation in following year.
Added: 15 days’ vacation with pay at regular rates for
employees with 15 or more years’ continuous employ­
ment and 133 days’ compensated service in each of
15 years, not necessarily continuous.6

Jan. 1,1955 (agreement
dated Aug. 21, 1954).
1

L
See footnotes at end of table.



42

Based on Emergency Board recommendations of Dec. 17,
1948, that parties agree to change in existing rules not con­
sistent with the 40-hour workweek.
71z days’ vacation with pay after 2 years’ service and 10 days
/
after 3 years’ continuous service provided certain em­
ployees represented by the Clerks and Telegraphers.5
Qualifying years accumulated prior to 1949 for extended
vacations not changed.
Days of sickness or occupational injury counted as service
up to maximum of 10 days for employees with less than
5 years’ service, 20 days for 5 but less than 15 years, and
30 days for 15 or more years.
Vacation allowance earned prior to death of employee paid to
surviving widow or dependent minor children.
No additional pay provided when holiday fell on regularly
assigned workday during vacation period.
Time and one-half plus vacation pay provided employee
required to work during vacation unless local or system
agreements contain more liberal provisions.

Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued
Effective date

Applications, exceptions, and other related matters

Provision

Vacation pay—Continued
Changed to: Service for 10 days’ vacation reduced to Employees eligible for 10 days’ paid vacation in 1960 under
3 continuous years.
changed but not old provision to receive additional 5 days’
pay.
Days of compensated service in qualifying years reduced Changed: Days of sickness and injury counted as service up
to 120 days for 5 days’ vacation, 110 days for 10 days’
to maximum of 10 days for employees with less than 3
vacation, and 100 days for 15 days’ vacation.
years’ service and 20 days for 3 but less than 15 years’ ser­
vice. Vacation allowance became vested when employee
qualified.
Jan. 1,1965 (agreements Added: 20 workdays (or 4 workweeks) of vacation with pay
dated Nov. 20,1964—
for employees with 20 years or more of continuous ser­
BRASC, BMWE, ORT,
vice who qualified for existing 15 workdays (or 3 work­
BRS, HREU; Nov. 21,
weeks) vacation.
1964 —BBF, BRC,
IBFO; Feb. 4, 1965—
SMWIA, IAM, IBEW).
Jan. 1,1967 (agreements Changed: Service requirement for 15 workdays (or 3 work­
dated Dec. 15,1966—
weeks) of vacation to 10 years of continuous service.
BRASC; Jan. 13,
1967—BMWE, HREU,
TCE, BRS; Sept. 27,
1967— BBF, BRC,
IBFO, SMWIA, IAM,
IBEW).
Jan. 1,1968 (agreements Changed: Service requirement for 10 workdays (or 2 work­ Added: Holiday pay for holiday which fell during vacation
dated Dec. 28,1967—
weeks) of vacation to 2 years of continuous service.
period.
BRASC; May 17,
1968— BMWE, HREU;
June 24, 1968—TCE;
Apr. 21, 1969—BRS;
Sept. 2, 1969—BBF,
BRC, IBFO, SMWIA,
IAM, IBEW).
Added: Full credit allowed for military service for vacation
Jan. 1,1969 (agreements
purposes.
dated Sept. 2,1969—
BBF, BRC, IBFO,
SMWIA, IAM, IBEW).
Jan. 1,1973 (agreements Added: 25 workdays (or 5 workweeks) of vacation with pay Added: BRASC (TCE), BMWE, HREU, BRS—full credit allowed
for employees with 25 years or more of continuous
for military service for vacation purposes.
dated Feb. 10,1971 —
service who qualified for existing 20 workdays (or 4
BMWE, HREU; Feb.
25, 1971—BRASC
workweeks) of vacation.
(TCE); Oct. 7, 1971 —
BBF, BRC, IAM,
IBEW; Nov. 16,1971 —
BRS; Feb. 11, 1972—
IBFO; May 12,1972—
SMWIA).
Jury-duty pay
Jan. 1,1970 (agreements
dated Apr. 9, 1970—
BBF, SMWIA, IAM,
IBEW; Apr. 24,1970—
BRC; June 12,1970— Established: National provision for jury duty with em­
ployee paid for actual time lost with maximum of a
IBFO);
basic day’s pay at straight time less jury pay, for up to
Jan. 1,1973 (agreements
dated Feb. 10,1971 —
60 days per year.
BMWE, HREU; Feb.
25, 1971—BRASC
(TCE); Nov. 16,1971 —
BRS).

Jan. 1,1961 (agreement
dated Aug. 19, 1960).

See footnotes at end of table.




43

Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued
Effective date
Oct. 15, 1967 (arbitra­
tion award of Sept.
30, 1967 —BRASC,
BMWE, BRS, TCE,
HREU).

1932.............................
June 18, 1936 (Wash­
ington Job Protection
agreement dated May
21, 1936).

Provision
Applications, exceptions, and other related matters
Travel time and expense pay
Established: Uniform travel time and expense allowances Labor organizations affected by the award represented about
for employees required to work away from home station
65 percent of all nonoperating employees.
as follows:
(1) Emloyees required to live away from home in camp Previously, travel time and allowances for workers involved
cars, highway trailers, hotels, or motels were to
had been determined locally and varied considerably. This
condition continued to exist for other nonoperating em­
receive (a) fully furnished accommodations (linen,
ployees.
wash-up facilities, etc.) if lodging provided by
carrier, otherwise up to $4 a day for actual ex­
penses, (b) meal allowance of $1, $2, or $3 a day,
depending on extent carrier made provision for
meals, (c) cost of transportation if not provided at
rate of 9 cents a mile if personal auto used, and
(d) travel time, pay between work points at straighttime rate outside of work hours;
(2) Employees (other than those above or dining car
employees) required to be away from headquarters
point, including those filling relief assignments or
performing extra or temporary service, were to re­
ceive (a) up to $7 a day for actual meal and lodging
expenses when unable to return to headquarters
point, (b) free transport or reimbursement for travel
on another carrier, or 9 cents a mile if personal auto
used for travel between work point and headquar­
ters, and (c) travel time pay between headquarters
and work point or to next work point at straighttime rate for time over 1 hour spent in travel (includ­
ing waiting time) with private auto use calculated
at rate of 2 minutes per mile traveled;
(3) Dining car employees required to lay over away
from home terminal were to receive (a) lodging fur­
nished by carrier and (b) meal allowance of $1.50
for a layover of 8 hours or more and an additional
$1.50 for a layover of 24 hours or more.
Job protection agreements7
No national provision.
Employees required to accept new position or separated Washington Job Protection Agreement benefits not available
from employment because of unification, consolida­
to displacements or separations resulting from other than
tion, merger, or pooling (coordination) of separate facil­
defined causes.
ities, operations, or services of two or more railroads to
receive the following benefits:
Displacement allowance: Employees unable in the normal Employee not required to exercise rights to a position which
exercise of seniority to obtain a position with pay at
required change of residence if another position not re­
least equal to that of former position guaranteed—for
quiring a change was available. Guarantee applied if earn­
5 years after merger, consolidation, etc.,—an allow­
ings of position not requiring change of residence were
ance equal to average monthly earnings during 12
below earnings of former job.
months immediately preceding displacement less Employees required to move residence within 3 years reim­
earnings lost because of voluntary absences. Time
bursed for (1) moving expenses, (2) travel expenses for self
worked in excess of hours worked during 12-month test
and family, (3) living expenses for self and family, and (4) wage
period not used in computing pay due, if any, under
loss during period of transfer and up to 2 days thereafter
guarantee.
while searching for living quarters.
Employees required to move residence and furloughed within
3 years of initial reassignment could elect to return to orig­
inal place of employment with carrier bearing expense of
moving household and personal belongings.
Employees required to change point of employment, and
thereafter residence, protected against loss resulting from
sale of home for less than fair value, or from loss (to extent
of fair value of equity) and further obligations under pur­
chase contract or unexpired lease.
Severance allowance: For each month employee was not Employee considered separated when (1) position with home
employed by home road or new operation—allowance
road was abolished or (2) position was lost as a result
equal to 60 percent of average monthly earnings during
of seniority by another employee whose position was
the 12 months immediately preceding separation for
abolished (or by other employees as proximate cause), and
period ranging from 6 months for employees with 1 and
(3) another position could not be obtained through the
less than 2 years’ service to 60 months for employees
exercise of seniority rights.
with 15 or more years’ service. Lump-sum payment, Employees not considered separated in cases of resignation,
equivalent to 60 days’ pay, provided employees with
death, retirement with old age or disability pension, dis­
less than 1 year’s service.8
missal for cause, or furlough for seasonal reasons.
Employees eligible to receive severance allowance given Employee receiving allowance subject to recall to position
option to resign and, in lieu of all other benefits under
reasonably comparable to job previously held (and for
agreement, receive lump-sum payment ranging from 3
which employee was physically and mentally qualified) and
to 12 months’ pay.9
and not requiring change in residence or infringement of
other employees’ rights. On return to service, severance
allowance stopped and displacement allowance provisions
became effective.

See footnotes at end of table.




44

Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued
Effective date
June 18, 1936—
Continued.
Nov. 1,1964 (agreement
dated Sept. 25,1964—
IAM, IBEW, SMWIA,
BBF, BRC, IBFO).

(agreement dated
Feb. 7,1965—BMWE,
BRS, ORT, HREU,
BRASC).

Effective 30 days after
agreement date
(agreements dated
Dec. 4, 1975—BBF,
BRC, IBFO, IBEW;
Mar. 12, 1975—IAM).

Provision
Applications, exceptions, and other related matters
Job protection agreements7—Continued
Allowance for employees hired by other railroads than home
road or merged, consolidated, etc., operation reduced by
amount earnings in new employment and allowance ex­
ceeded earnings on which allowance was based.
Shop Crafts-. Protective benefits of the Washington Job Employee not considered deprived of employment or in a
Protection Agreement extended to workers who were
worse position relative to compensation if employee
“deprived of employment” or "placed in a worse posi­
resigned, died, retired, was dismissed with cause, failed to
tion relative to compensation” due to transfer of work;
exercise seniority rights, was laid off due to decline in
abandonment, discontinuance for 6 months or more, or
carrier business, seasonal factors, or was a temporary
consolidation of facilities or services (or portions of
employee.
same); contracting out of work; use of externally ser­ Employee not to lose benefits of previous employment if laid
viced equipment; voluntary or involuntary discontinu­
off.
ance of contracts; technological change; trade-in or 60 days’ notice required of abolition of job; 90 if change of
repurchase of equipment or unit exchange. Protection
residence required.
benefits included:
A Shop Craft Special Board of Adjustment was established to
(1) Displacement allowance
expedite any dispute.
(2) Severance Allowance
(3) Lump-sum payment option
(4) Travel expense protection
(5) Home sale protection
Non-shop Crafts: Employees in the following categories Employer allowed to reduce-force, including protected em­
were to be retained in active service until removed by
ployees if average business for 30 days fell below 1963 -64
natural attrition or loss of protective status:
average by 5 percent. Employees were to be reinstated
(1) Non-seasonal employees with 2 years or more
when business recovered.
experience and 15 days of service in 1964, in active On 16 hours’ notice employers allowed to reduce force, includ­
service Oct. 1, 1964, or restored to active service
ing protected employees, in case of emergency when work
between Oct. 1, 1964 and the date of agreement.
could not be performed. Employees were to be reinstated
Any such employees on furlough on the date of
when business recovered.
agreement were to be returned to active status Reduction of work force by attrition not to exceed 6 percent
before Mar. 1, 1965 and retained from then on.
per annum.
(2) Seasonal employees with service in 1962, 1963, Protected employee could be used for temporary assign­
and 1964 were to be offered at least equivalent
ments; travel paid where applicable.
employment to what they performed in 1964.
Protection lost if employee resigned, died, retired, was dis­
missed for cause, failed to retain or obtain position in exer­
cise of seniority rights, failed to report for extra work when
furloughed, or failed to accept employment in employee’s
craft anywhere on carrier.
Employees holding regular assignment Oct. 1, Protected employee using seniority to bid in a job or who was
1964, were not to be placed in a worse position
bumped in normal way to be compensated at rate of pay
with respect to compensation at that time. Such
and conditions of job bid for (but not when forced to be­
cause of technological, operational, or organizational
base compensation was to be adjusted to in­
changes).
clude subsequent wage increases. All other
employees were not to be placed in a worse
position with respect to compensation received
in previous 12 months.
Employee required to transfer, who had 15 or more 60 day’s notice required if change to be instituted, 90 days if
years of service, given choice of:
required change of residence. 30 days’ notice required if
( 1 ) Transfer, with Travel and Home Sale Pro­
change involved not more than 5 employees across senior­
tection per Washington Job Protection
ity craft lines.
Agreement plus a transfer allowance of
$400 and 5 instead of 2 days time (also ap­
plicable to employee required to transfer,
who had less than 15 years): or
(2) Resignation in lieu of transfer, receive
lump-sum separation allowance per the
Washington Job Protection Plan lump„
sum payment option schedule.
Added: Shop Crafts—if carrier violated advance notice
requirements for subcontracting, amount paid equal to
10 percent of man-hours billed by contractor times
weighted average of straight-time hourly rates of
affected employees; divided equitably among them.
Layoff notice

1932.............................
Nov. 1,1954 (agreement
dated Aug. 21, 1954).
July 16, 1962 (agree­
ment dated June 5,
1962).

No national provision.
Rules in individual agreements requiring advance notice
of elimination of positions or reduction in forces mod­
ified to provide for not more than 16 hours’ notice if
emergency conditions required carrier to suspend all
or part of service.
Added: Not less than 5 days’ advance notice required
before abolishing regular positions by layoff or fur­
lough.10

See footnotes at end of table.



45

Emergency conditions defined as flood, snow, storm, hurri­
cane, earthquake, fire, or strike.
Applied to employees whose positions were abolished or who
were laid off because work no longer existed or could not
be performed.
Did not revise existing local rules or provisions for more than
5 days’ notice. Not applicable in emergency conditions.

Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued
Effective date

Provision

Applications, exceptions, and other related matters
Health and welfare

1932.............................
Feb. 1,1955 (agreement
dated Aug. 21, 1954).

No national provision.
Plan established to provide hospital-surgical-medical
benefits (a) for contributing employees on railroads not
having hospital associations and (b) through hospital
associations on roads where such associations were in
operation.

Mar. 1,1955 (agreement
dated Aug. 21, 1954).

Feb. 1,1956 (agreement
dated Dec. 21, 1955).

Hospital-surgical-medical benefit plan became effective.
Benefits for nonhospital-association railroads were as
follows:
Hospital benefits:
Inpatient care— all charges for semiprivate room,
board, and general nursing care for maximum of
120 days per disability, 10 days for maternity.
Outpatient care— up to $500, plus 75 percent of
charges in excess of $500, for any one accident or
sickness.
Miscellaneous hospital services— up to $500, plus
75 percent of charges in excess of $500.
Surgical benefits:
Surgical schedule— up to $300.
Anesthesia allowance—Up to $25 or one-fifth of sur­
gical allowance, whichever was less.
Medical benefits:
In-hospital doctor care— up to $4 for each day of
confinement, $480 maximum.
Out-of-hospital doctor care— up to $4 for office and
$5 for home visits after first visit for bodily injury
and third visit for sickness, limited to 1 call per day
and maximum of 120 calls in any 12-month period.
Diagnostic X-ray and laboratory examinations—Up
to $50 during any 6 consecutive months.
Poliomyelitis— up to $5,000 per case.
Major medical expense benefits—75 percent of excess of
“ covered expenses” each calendar year over the sum
of (a) $100 plus (b) benefits under other provisions of
the plan plus (c) 25 percent of excess of miscellaneous
hospital charges over $500—up to lifetime total of
$5,000.
Changed: Employer assumed full cost of hospital-surgicalmedical plan.

Nov. 1,1956 (agreement
of same date).

Increased: Employer payment, to provide benefits for
dependents.

Dec. 1,1956 (agreement
dated Nov. 1, 1956).

Added: Dependent benefits, providing:
Hospital benefits:
Inpatient care— a\\ charges for semiprivate room,
board, and general nursing care for maximum of
120 days per disability.
Outpatient care— up to $200, including maximum of
$25 for ambulance service, for any one accident or
sickness.
Miscellaneous hospital services— up to $200, includ­
ing maximum of $25 for ambulance service.
Maternity— up to $75 per prfegnancy.

See footnotes at end of table.




46

On nonhospital-association railroads—qualified employees
required to contribute $3.40 a month; employers to match
employee contribution. Employers to retain 1 percent of
total contribution for administrative costs. Difference
between insurance premium ($5.95 a month) and net contri­
bution ($6,732) to be held by insurer in special reserve
account, at interest. Funds in special account to be used
to provide part of increased premiums in subsequent years.
On railroads where hospital associations operated—employ­
ers were to assume 50 percent of dues, up to $3.40 a month
per employee. (The benefits provided by these associa­
tions, which differ from one railroad to another, are not
reported here.)

Not available for dental work or treatment, or cosmetic sur­
gery, except to repair damage caused by bodily injury.
Provisions relating to the various categories of medical bene­
fits prevented doubling up to collect the same benefit under
more than one provision.
Not payable for dental care or eye refractions.

Each employer paid $6.80 a month, less 1 percent for admin­
istrative costs, for each qualifying employee who rendered
compensated service during the month.
Hospital association railroads assumed full association
dues up to $6.80 a month per employee.
Payment increased to $11.05 a month per employee on rail­
roads not having hospital associations, and set at $4.25 a
month per employee on hospital association railroads.
Dependents of employees on hospital association roads
insured by plan protecting employees on nonassociation
roads. Both contributions less 1 percent for administrative
costs.11
Maximum employer payment for hospital association dues
unchanged.
^
Dependent defined as wife or husband and unmarried children
under 19 years of age residing in the United States or
Canada.

Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued
Effective date

Provision
Applications, exceptions, and other related matters
Health and welfare—Continued
Dec.1,1956—Continued. Surgical benefits:
Not available for dental work or treatment, or cosmetic sur­
Surgical schedule— up to $250.
gery, except to repair damage caused by bodily injury.
Anesthesia allowance— up to $25 or one-fifth of sur­
gical allowance, whichever was less.
Medical benefits:
Not payable for dental care or eye refractions.
In-hospital doctor care— up to $3 a day for each day
of confinement, $360 maximum.
Poliomyelitis—up to $5,000 per case.
Feb. 1,1961 (agreement Increased: Employer payment, to provide hospital-surgical- Employer payment for employee and dependent benefits
dated Aug. 19,1960).
medical benefits for furloughed employees, improved
increased to $21.82 a month per employee by nonhospital
benefits for dependents, and life insurance for em­
association roads and for dependent benefits to $13.11 by
ployees.
hospital association roads, both contributions less 1 per­
cent for administrative costs.
On hospital association roads, maximum payment toward
association dues increased to $7.58 a month per employee,
plus cost of 3-month extension of benefits for furloughed
employees (limited to equivalent of 32 cents a month for
each employee in active service) and cost of treating onduty injuries.12
Mar. 1,1961 (agreement Added:
dated Aug. 19, t960). For employees—Life insurance—$4,000 per qualifying Qualifying employees were those eligible to participate in the
employee.
hospital-surgical-medical benefits plan.
For furloughed employees and their dependents:
Hospital-surgical-medical benefits—up to 3 months
beyond layoff provided employment relationship
was not terminated and employer had paid a mini­
mum of 3 monthly contributions for employee prior
to furlough.13
Changed:
For dependents: Hospital-surgical-medical benefits—
same as benefits for employees, except that home and
office doctor care not included.
Mar. 1,1964 (agreements Added: $2,000 life insurance for retirees who retired sub­ Increased: Employer payment for employee and dependent
dated Nov. 20,1964—
sequent to Mar. 1, 1964.
(and retiree life insurance) to $22.32 a month per employee
BRASC, BRS, BMWE,
(included separate on-duty injury premium of 81 cents per
HREU, ORT; Nov. 21,
employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14
1964— BBF, BRC,
IFBO; Feb. 4, 1965—
SMWIA, IAM, IBEW).
Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $25.72 a month
Feb. 1, 1966 (by agree­
ments of above dates).
per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of
81 cents per employee) by nonhospital association rail­
roads.14
Added: Health and welfare plan coordinated with Medicare
July 1,1966 (agreement For employees and dependents:
dated Feb. 17, 1966).
Increased: Hospital extras—to $500 plus 80 percent
to prevent duplication of benefits, with plan to pay Medi­
of charges over $500.
care Part B premium for eligible employees.
Increased: Surgical benefits—
Surgical schedule— maximum to $420.
Anesthesia—to $84 or 20 percent of surgical fees,
whichever was less.
Changed: Diagnostic X-ray and laboratory examina­
tions—to $100 per calendar year.
Changed: Major medical—to 80 percent of charges Added: $1,000 annual restoration provision for major medical,
(50 percent for out-of-hospital psychiatric care)
plus full restoration if recovery complete.
over $100 deductible, up to $5,000 lifetime max­
imum.
Added: Radiation therapy—up to $300 per calendar
year.
Mar. 1,1968 (agreement
dated Jan. 11, 1968).

For employees and dependents:
Increased: HospitalizationHospital room and board— benefit period to 180
days.
Hospital extras—to $1,000, plus 80 percent of
charges over $1,000.
Increased: Medical benefits—
In-hospital doctor’s care—to $6 per day up to
$1,080.
Out-of-hospital doctor’s care—for employees, to
$6 for office and $7.50 for home calls after
1st visit for injury and 3rd visit for sickness,
up to 180 visits.
Increased: Major medical— maximum to $10,000.
Increased: Polio—maximum to $10,000.

See footnotes at end of table.



47

Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $30.50 a month
per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of
$1.24 per employee) by nonhospital association railroad.14
Agreement provided for consolidation of all national plans
into a single uniform plan for all employee groups.
Expanded: Definition of dependent to include child disabled
before age 19 as long as disabled and full time students
under age 25.
Expanded: Definition of hospitals which previously did not
qualify.
Increased: Time for emergency out-patient care to 72 hours
from 24.

Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued
Effective date

Provision
Applications, exceptions, and other related matters
Health and welfare—Continued

-----------------------------------r
Mar. 1. 1968—Continued For employees:
Increased: Life insurance—to $6,000.
Increased: Accidental death and dismembermentup to $4,000.
July 1,1969 (agreement Established: Off-track vehicle injury insurance to cover
dated Apr. 21,1969—
accidents while employees were riding in, boarding, or
BRS).
alighting from off-track vehicles authorized by carrier
and were deadheading under orders or being transported
at carrier expense as follows:
Accidental death and dismemberment—$50,000 for
loss of bodily member (sight of one eye, or loss of
one foot or one hand) and $100,000 for loss of life
or more than one bodily member.
Medical and hospital care—up to $3,000 for actual
expenses.
Time loss—employee injured and unable to work
beginning 30 days after accident to receive 80 per­
cent basic pay for time actually lost, up to $100 a
week, for a period of 156 continuous weeks after
accident. Reduced by any sickness benefit payable
under Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act.
Mar. 1,1970 (agreement For employees and dependents:
dated Feb. 26, 1970).
Increased: Surgical benefits—
Surgical schedule—maximum to $550.
Anesthesia—to $110 or 20 percent surgical fees,
whichever was less.
Increased: Diagnostic X-ray and laboratory examina­
tions— maximum to $150.
Increased: Radiation therapy—maximum to $400.
Increased: Major medical— lifetime maximum to
$ 20 , 000 .
May 1,1971 (agreements Established: Off-track vehicle injury insurance for
dated Feb. 10,1971 —
workers represented by BRASC, BMWE, and HREU.
BMWE, HREU; Feb.
(Same benefits provided as those shown under July 1,
25, 1971 —BRASC).
1969 entry in this section for BRS-represented workers.)
Sept. 1, 1971
Jan. 1,1972 (agreements
dated Oct. 7, 1971 —
BBF, BRC, IAM,
IBEW).
Mar. 1,1972 (agreement
dated Feb. 24, 1972).

Apr. 1,1972 (agreement
dated Feb. 11,1972—
IBFO);
Aug. 1,1972 (agreement
dated May 12,1972—
SMWIA).
Mar. 1, 1973
July 1,1973 (agreement
dated Mar. 13, 1973).
Mar. 1, 1974

Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $40.29 a month
per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of
$1.63 per employee) by nonhospital association
railroads.14
Added: Retiree life insurance continued for employees of
discontinued employers.
Dependent coverage extended to child at birth (was after 15
days).
Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $41.29 a month
per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of
$1.63 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14
Reduced: Employer payment for benefits to $41.06 a month
per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of
$1.63 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14

Established: Off-track vehicle injury insurance for workers
represented by BBF, BRC, IAM, and IBEW. (Same bene­
fits provided as those shown under July 1, 1969 entry in
this section for BRS-represented workers.)
For employees and dependents:
Increased: Hospital room and board— benefit period Added: New period of hospital confinement to begin after
to 365 days.
30 days had elapsed since release from hospital.
Added: Intensive care excess charges handled as Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $54.99 a month
hospital extras.
for employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of
$2.72 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14
Increased: Surgical benefit—
Changed: Insurance continued for 5 full months (was 1 month)
Surgical schedule—maximum to $650.
for pregnant employee following month last worked with
Anesthesia—to $162.50 or 25 percent surgical
provision for 14 days’ coverage of newborn if birth occurred
fees, whichever was less.
Increased: Major medical—lifetime maximum to
thereafter.
$50,000, automatic restoration amount to $2,000 Added: Maternity benefits under nonhospital association
road plan forfemaleemployeeof hospital association road.
annually, and out-of-hospital psychiatric payment
to 65 percent (was 50 percent).
Added: Immediate reinstatement for returning veterans with
immediate maternity benefits for their wives.
Added: Continued coverage for dismissed employees basically
the same as for furloughed employees.
Established: Off-track vehicle injury insurance for workers
represented by IBFO and SMWIA. (Same benefits pro­
vided as those shown under July 1, 1969 entry in this
section for BRS-represented workers.)
For employees and dependents:
Increased: Major medical— lifetime maximum to
$250,000.

See footnotes at end of table.



Carrier not liable for any amount over $1 million for any one
accident regardless of number of casualties.

48

Reduced: Employer payment for benefits to $54.77 a month
per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of
$2.50 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14
Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $54.98 a month
per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of
$2.71 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14

Table 5. Supplementary compensation practices1—Continued
Effective date
Oct. 1, 1975
Jan. 1, 1976
Mar. 1,1976 (agreement
dated Oct. 10, 1975).

July 1,1973 (agreement
dated May 9,1973—
IBFO, BRC, BBF,
IAM, IBEW, SMWIA,
BRS).

Jan. 1,1976 (agreements
dated Mar. 25,1976—
IBFO, BRC, BBF,
IAM, IBEW, SMWIA).

July 1,1976 (agreements
dated Mar. 25,1976—
IBFO, BRC, BBF,
IAM, IBEW, SMWIA).

Provision
Applications, exceptions, and other related matters
Health and welfare—Continued
Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $62.73 a month
per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of
$3.44 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14
Increased: Employer payment for benefits to $73.17 a month
per employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of
$3.44 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14
For employees and dependents:
Increased: Employer payment for benefits (not including the
Established: Dental plan (carrier financed) which paid
newly-established dental benefits) to $73.38 a month per
(a) 75 percent of covered expenses for preventative and
employee (included separate on-duty injury premium of
basic services and emergency visits, (b) 50 percent of
$3.65 per employee) by nonhospital association railroads.14
covered expenses for prosthetic services, including Employer contribution for dental plan was set at $8.31 a
crowns and gold restorations with both (a) and (b) sub­
month per employee.
ject to annual deductible of $50 per individual and
annual maximum of $500; and (c) 50 percent of covered
expenses for orthodontic treatment for dependents
under age 19, subject to lifetime maximum of $500 per
child.
Supplemental sickness benefit plan
Established: Supplemental Sickness Benefit Plan for Carrier financed.
accidental injury or a sickness while insured, and as a BMWE and HREU negotiated supplemental sickness plans
result employee was unable to perform any available
that differed from plan shown in this table. Other organiza­
work in craft or if no job available in craft, unable to
tions not having such a program had other sick leave
perform last job worked before disability.
arrangements or chose other benefits instead.
Eligibility: Employee had to (1) have 30 days of continuous
employment with same participating railroad during
which employee was represented by signatory labor
organization and (2) be a “qualified employee,” with
respect to “ base year” compensation, under Railroad
Unemployment Insurance Act (RUIA). See table 6 for
RUIA qualifications and also RUIA benefit rates. (1)
above was waived for insured furloughed employee
who began work for another participating railroad.
Benefits: Amounts ranging from (1) for employee eligible Benefits were not provided for first 4 days of disability; after
12 months of same disability; noncertified treatment; any
for RUIA sickness benefits—$171 to $315 a month or
day of work for remuneration; a disability that began after
$5.70 to $10.50 a day, depending on rate of pay (but
start of regular work for participating railroad on position
subject to reduction if RUIA benefits increased over
not under agreement with signatory labor organization
specified limits) or (2) for employees not eligible for
(unless last job before disability was such a position); selfRUIA sickness benefits—$371 to $515 a month or
inflicted injury; injury sustained in commission of crime;
$12.37 to $17.17 a day, depending on rate of pay. (See
injury from war, rebellion, or riot; pregnancy, childbirth,
appendix A.) Offsets were made for annuity payments
abortion, or miscarriage (unless from injury); period eligible
under Railroad Retirement Act, insurance payments
for RUIA sickness benefit but not paid for same for any
under any other unemployment, sickness or maternity
reason, including failure to apply; after age 65; or discompensation law or for benefits under private plans to
bility that began after employment terminated (except
which employer contributed, including life insurance,
where supplemental benefit period extended because
group annuity contract, pension or annuity plan, acci­
vacation period fell during disability period).
dent or sickness plan, and off-track vehicle accident
benefits.
Changed: Benefits—amounts ranging from (1) for em­ Provisions of BRS supplemental sickness benefit agreement
of July 14, 1976, differed somewhat from those shown
ployee eligible for RUIA sickness benefits—$127 to
$242 a month or $4.23 to $8.07 a day, depending on rate
here.
of pay (but subject to reduction if RUIA benefits in­
creased over specified limits) or (2) for employee who
exhausted RUIA sickness benefits—$558 to $764 a
month or $19.60 to $25.47 a day, depending on rate of
pay. (See appendix B.) Previous offsets were continued.
Changed: Benefits—amount for Class 2 and Class 3
employee eligible for RUIA sickness benefits—$135
or $66 a month, respectively, or $4.50 or $2.20 a day,
respectively (subject to reduction if RUIA benefits in­
creased). (See appendix B.)

1The only benefits shown are those included in the national agree­
ments. Local or system agreements contain provisions governing service
on rest days, call-in pay, standby pay, guarantees, travel time, waiting
time, deadheading, court attendance pay, starting time pay, pay for
work on unassigned days, sick leave, change of shift pay, transfer pay,
split shift pay, and other work rules.
2While there was no national provision for overtime pay and premium
pay for work on weekends or rest days, some local agreements provided
for premium pay for work on those days.




3Work on assigned rest days was paid for under local call or rest day
rules. Call rules, while not uniform, provided for pay at time and one-half
with certain specified minimums. Rest day rules generally provided a
full day’s pay at time and one-half for employees assigned to relief work
on a rest day.
4Rules on individual railroads required payment of time and one-half
to most classes of nonoperating employees for work on holidays.
5Provision in effect prior to 1941. Not applicable to custodians, care­
takers, and small nontelegraph agents represented by the Telegraphers.

49

Footnotes for Table 5—
Continued

6Former service requirements, 151 days in 1949 and 160 days for
each year before 1949, retained for years of prior service.
7ConRail and Amtrak employees currently are also job protected
under the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 and the Rail Passen­
ger Act of 1970, respectively.
8Monthly allowance provided as follows:
Length of service
1 but less than 2 years.................
2 but less than 3 years..................
3 but less than 5 years.................
5 but less than 10 years................
10 but less than 15 years..............
15 years and over.........................

11The insurance premium for employee benefits was adjusted down­
ward, and the cost of dependent benefits was met in part out of the
balance available and later through the special account surplus.
12Cost of treating on-duty injuries had previously been provided under
another type of arrangement.
13Under the initial policy and subsequent amendments, benefits were
available to individual employees only during the month following a
month in which a contribution was made for such employee. In effect,
this arrangement made benefits available to employees for 1 month
after furlough. The 1960 amendments to the plan extend this period by
an additional 3 months.
14Amount (less 1 percent prior to 1967 and approximately 1 percent
starting in 1967) transmitted by nonhospital association railroads to
insurers.
During certain periods the amount transmitted equaled the peremployee premium charged by the insurers to provide the benefits indi­
cated; during other periods the amount exceeded the premium, and the
excess was credited to the special accounts; during the remaining
periods the amount transmitted was supplemented by amounts with­
drawn from the special accounts which had been accumulated from the
excess transmittals, retroactive rate credits, special payments, and
interest on accumulated balances.
Hospital association railroads provided hospital, surgical, and
medical benefits for employees through the respective hospital asso­
ciations, and such benefits for dependents, plus life insurance and acci­
dental death and dismemberment benefits for employees and life
insurance for retirees, when applicable, through insurers, at a total per
employee contribution liability equivalent to the contribution by non­
hospital association railroads.

Period of payment
6 months.
12 months.
. 18 months.
. 36 months.
. 48 months.
. 60 months.

9Lump-sum payment was as follows:
Length of service
Amount of lump-sum payment
Less than 1 year......................... 5days for each month of service.
1 but less than 2 years............... 3months.
2 but less than 3 years............... 6months.
3 but less than 5 years............... 9months.
5 years and over....................... 12 months.
10Work or pay guarantees were implicit in the advance notice require­
ments.




50

Table 6. Railroad unemployment insurance provisions
Provision
Established: Unemployment benefits financed by payroll
tax on taxable compensation. Paid entirely by
employer.

Nov. 1, 1940 (P.L. 833,
Oct. 10, 1940).

July 1, 1946 (P.L. 572,
July 31, 1946).

Jan. 1, 1952 (P.L. 234,
Oct. 30, 1951).

Applications, exceptions, and other related matters

Daily unemployment benefit rate—$1.75 to $3, depending
on creditable compensation in base year (calendar year
before start of fiscal year).1
Duration of unemployment benefits—up to 80 days (21 Vi
weeks), with maximum of $24 per registration period
(15 days) and $240 per benefit year (benefit year began
with individual’s 1st compensable registration period).

Effective date
July 1, 1939 (Railroad
Unemployment In­
surance Act of 1938
as amended, P.L.
722, June 21, 1939).

Maximum creditable and taxable compensation was $300 a
month. Base year compensation required for eligibility
was $150.
Noncompensable 15-day waiting period containing at least
8 days of unemployment; thereafter, benefits paid for all
days of unemployment over 7 in subsequent 15-day
registration periods in same year.
Employee was disqualified for (a) any day of strike in viola­
tion of Railway Labor Act or labor organization, (b) 30 days
for voluntary quit without good cause, (c) 30 days for
failure to accept suitable work without good cause, (d) 75
days (also possible fine or jail sentence) for making false
or fraudulent claim for benefits, or (e) any day for which an­
nuity, unemployment benefits, or other social insurance
payments were payable under Federal or State law.

Increased: Daily unemployment benefit rate—to range of
$1.75 to $4, depending on creditable compensation in
base year (changed to calendar year before start of
benefit year).2
Increased: Duration of unemployment benefits—up to
100 days (20 weeks), with maximum of $40 per registra­
tion period (changed to 14 days) and $400 per benefit
year (changed to uniform year starting July 1).

Increased: Daily unemployment benefit rate—to range of
$1.75 to $5, depending on creditable compensation in
base year. 3
Increased: Duration of unemployment benefits—up to
130 days (26 weeks), with maximum $50 per registra­
tion period and $650 per benefit year.
Established: Sickness benefits effective July 1,1946 with
benefits payable effective July 1,1947 with same daily
benefit rate and duration of benefits as for unemploy­
ment benefits and subject to same maximum as for
unemployment benefits. Definitions for registration
period, base year, and benefit year also were the same
as for unemployment benefits.

Established: Maternity benefits effective July 1,1946 with
benefits payable effective July 1, 1947 with same daily
benefit rate as for unemployment. Benefit period was
116 days, starting 57 days before expected date of birth
and ending latter of (a) 115th day after 1st day or (b) 31st
day after birth, with a maximum benefit of $650 per
maternity benefit period. Benefits paid for each day in
benefit period; payment for the 1st 14 days and 14 days
after birth was made at one and one-half times usual
rate.

See footnotes at end of table.




51

Changed: Benefits paid for all days of unemployment over 7
in initial registration period in a benefit year and all days
of unemployment over 4 for subsequent registration
periods in same year.
Added: Employee disqualified for 30 days for failure to apply
for work or report to unemployment office without good
cause and disqualified for any Sunday or holiday not
preceded by days of unemployment unless last day of
registration period and preceded by day of unemployment.
Added: Provision under disqualifications so that if other so­
cial insurance payments under other laws were not for
unemployment, difference between Railroad Unemploy­
ment Insurance Act benefits and other benefits could be
paid.
Added: Sickness and maternity benefits under another Fed­
eral or State law were social insurance payments that
would be disqualifying.
Sickness benefits paid for all days of sickness over 7 in ini­
tial registration period in a benefit year and all days of
sickness over 4 for subsequent registration periods in
same year.
A day of sickness was any day in which claimant was unable
to work because of illness or injury, to which no remunera­
tion was paid or accrued and a statement of sickness (by a
doctor) was filed within 10 days.
Employee disqualified for sickness benefits for (a) 75 days
(also possible fine or jail sentence) for making false or
fraudulent claim for benefits, (b) indefinitely from date of
refusal to take medical examination, and (c) any day for
which social insurance payments were payable under
another Federal or State law, except that, if other
payments were not for unemployment or sickness, the dif­
ference between RUIA benefits and other benefits could be
paid.
A day of maternity sickness was any day in maternity period
for which no remuneration was paid or accrued and a
statement of maternity sickness (by a doctor) was filed.
Disqualifications for maternity benefits were the same as for
sickness benefits.

Added: No day was day of sickness or maternity sickness if
no remuneration was paid or accrued because of restric­
tions in union agreement or because of layover between
regular tours of duty.

Table 6 Railroad unemployment insurance provisions—Continued
Effective date
July 1, 1952 (P.L. 343,
May 15, 1952).

Provision
Applications, exceptions, and other related matters
Increased: Daily unemployment and sickness (and mater­ Increased: Base year creditable compensation required for
nity) benefit rate—to range of $3 to $7.50, depending
unemployment and sickness eligibility to $300.
on creditable compensation in base year. 4
Increased: Unemployment and sickness benefits—
maximum benefits to $75 per registration period and
$975 per benefit year.
Increased: Maternity maximum to $975 per maternity ben­
efit period.
July 1, 1954 (P.L. 746, Increased: Daily unemployment and sickness (and mater­ Increased: Maximum creditable and taxable compensation
Aug. 31, 1954).
nity) benefit rate—to range of $3.50 to $8.50, depending
to $350 a month.
on creditable compensation in base year.5 In addition, Increased: Base year creditable compensation required for
benefit rate guarantee established of at least 50 per­
unemployment and sickness eligibility to $400.
cent of last daily rate of pay in base year (maximum,
$8.50).
Increased: Unemployment and sickness benefits—maxi­
mum benefits to $85 per registration period and $1,105
per benefit year. In addition, wage limit established so
that total benefits could not exceed total base year
creditable compensation.
Increased: Maternity maximum to $1,105 per maternity
benefit period. In addition, wage limit established so
that total benefits could not exceed total base year
creditable compensation.
Jan. 1,1958 (P.L 86-28, Established: Extended unemployment benefits—after Applicable to those who did not voluntarily quit without good
exhaustion of normal benefit period, extended benefits
May 19, 1959).
cause or did not voluntarily retire.
started with next day of unemployment and lasted up Added: Accelerated unemployment benefits provision so that
to (a) for employee with 10-14 years of service—7 con­
employee with 10 years of service not qualified for current
secutive 14-day registration periods (65 additional days
year, but qualified for following benefit year, could start
of benefits) and (b) for employee with at least 15 years
following year early if unemployed 14 consecutive days or
of service—13 consecutive 14-day registration periods
more.
(130 additional days of benefits). Temporary extended Changing the beginning or the ending of a benefit year by
benefits also were provided less than 10-year employ­
accelerating or extending benefits for one type of benefit
ees of up to 65 additional days under certain condi­
also changed the start or end of year for benefits of the
tions.6
other type.
July 1,1958 (P.L. 86-28, Increased: Daily unemployment and sickness (and mater­ Increased: Base year creditable compensation required for
May 19, 1959).
nity) benefit rate—to range of $4.50 to $10.20, depend­
eligibility to $500.
ing on creditable compensation in base year.7 Rate Changed: Benefits paid for all days of unemployment over 4
guarantee increased to 60 percent of last daily rate of
in initial registration period in a benefit year and all days
pay in base year (maximum, $10.20).
over 4 for subsequent registration periods in same year.
Increased: Unemployment (normal) and sickness benefits Changed: Sundays and holidays defined as days of unem­
—maximum benefits to $102 per registration period
ployment on same basis as other days.
and $1,326 per benefit period.
Changed: Employee disqualified for unemployment or sick­
Increased: Maternity maximum to $1,326 per maternity
ness (and maternity) because of social insurance pay­
benefit period.
ments for unemployment, sickness, or maternity under any
law (by amendments approved Sept. 6, 1958).
June 1, 1959 (P.L 86Increased: Maximum creditable and taxable compensation
28, May 19, 1959).
after May 1959 to $400 a month.
Apr. 8, 1961 (P.L. 87-7, Added: Temporary extended unemployment benefits were
Mar. 24, 1961).
provided up to 65 additional days, but not more than 50
percent of normal benefits or more than 195 days total
for benefit year, for all employees who exhausted nor­
mal and regular extended benefits under certain condi­
tions.®
July 1, 1963 (P.L. 88Increased: Base year creditable compensation required for
133, Oct. 5, 1963).
eligibility to $750, plus if employee did not previously work
in railroad industry, railroad earnings in at least 7 months
of base year.
Changed (effective Oct. 5, 1963): Employee disqualified for
voluntary quit until return to work and employee earned
$750 or more. If voluntary quit was with good cause, dis­
qualified only if eligible for State unemployment benefits.
July 1, 1968 (P.L. 90- Increased: Daily unemployment and sickness benefit rate Increased: Base year creditable compensation required for
257, Feb. 15, 1968).
—to range of $8 to $12.70, depending on creditable
eligibility to $1,000 (previous 7-month test continued for
compensation in base year.9 Rate guarantee continued
employees new to industry).
at 60 percent of last daily rate of pay in base year but
maximum increased to $12.70.
Changed: Employee disqualified for voluntary quit without
Increased: Normal unemployment and normal sickness
good cause until return to work and at least $1,000 earned.
benefits—maximum benefits to $127 per registration Added: Employee disqualified for unemployment or sickness
period and normal maximum of $1,651 per benefit year.
for separation allowance until end of period about equal to
time required to earn amount of separation allowance (ef­
fective for days after June 30, 1968 but applie'd to separa­
tion allowances paid after Feb. 15, 1968).
Established: Extended sickness benefits—same as Applicable to employees under age 65 who did not voluntarily
extended unemployment benefits (except for temporary
retire.
extended unemployment benefits).
Added: Accelerated sickness benefits on same basis as ac­
celerated unemployment benefits, except employee had to
be under age 65.
See footnotes at end of table.



52

Table 6. Railroad unemployment insurance provisions—Continued
Effective date
Provision
Applications, exceptions, and other related matters
July 1,1968—Continued Eliminated: Maternity benefits as such. Regular sickness Added: Day of sickness to include for female employee, days
benefits made payable effective July 1, 1968 for inabil­
on which unable to work or work would be injurious to
ity to work because of pregnancy or childbirth.
health because of pregnancy, miscarriage, or childbirth.
July 1, 1975 (P.L. 93-94, Increased: Daily unemployment and sickness benefit rate Changed: Employee new to industry required to have earn­
Aug. 9, 1975).
—to amount equal to 60 percent of last daily rate of pay
ings in at least 5 months (was 7) of 1st year in industry.
in base year with a minimum of $12.70 and a maximum
of $24 ($25 effective July 1, 1976).
Increased: Normal unemployment and normal sickness Changed: Benefits paid for all days of sickness after an ini­
tial 4 consecutive sick days in first registration period in a
benefits—maximum benefit to $240 ($250 effective
benefit year and all days over 4 for subsequent registration
July 1, 1976) per registration period and $3,120 ($3,250
periods in same year.
effective July 1,1976) per benefit year. Normal benefits
could not exceed total base year compensation count­
ing earnings up to $775 a month.
Added: Extended unemployment benefits—employee
with less than 10 years of service could receive
benefits for up to 7 consecutive 14-day registration
periods (65 additional days), but (a) unemployment can­
not become compensable until a “ period of high
unemployment” has begun and (b) such extended
benefits cannot exceed one-half base year compensa­
tion counting earnings up to $775 a month. Extended
benefits to employees with less than 10 years of ser­
vice previously were provided on a temporary basis
under certain conditions.
1Benefit rate was determined as follows:
Creditable compensation
Benefitrate
$150 - $199
$1.75
200 474
2.00
475 749
2.25
750 - 1,024 .................................................. 2.50
1,025 - 1,299 .................................................. 2.75
1.300 andover ................................................. 3.00
2Benefit rate was determined as follows:
Creditable compensation
Benefit rate
$150 - $199
$1.75
200 474
2.00
475 749
2.25
750 999
2.50
1.000 - 1,299 ................................................. 3.00
1.300 - 1,599 ................................................. 3.50
1.600 andover ................................................. 4.00
3Benefit rate was determined as follows:
Creditable compensation
Benefit rate
$150 - $199
$1.75
200 474
2.00
475 749
2.25
750 999
2.50
1.000 - 1,299 ................................................. 3.00
1.300 - 1,599 ................................................. 3.50
1.600 - 1,999 ................................................. 4.00
2.000 - 2,499 ................................................. 4.50
2.500 and over ................................................. 5.00
4Benefit rate was determined as follows:
Creditable compensation
Benefit rate
$300 - $474
$3.00
475 749
3.50
750 999
4.00
1.000 - 1,299 ................................................. 4.50
1.300 - 1,599 ................................................. 5.00
1.600 - 1,999 ................................................. 5.50
2.000 - 2,499 ................................................. 6.00
2.500 - 2,999 ................................................. 6.50
3.000 - 3,499 ................................................. 7.00
3.500 and over ................................................. 7.50

1,300
1,600
2.000
2.500
3.000
3.500
4.000

.......................................................
.......................................................
.......................................................
.......................................................
.......................................................
.......................................................
.....................................................

5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50

tem porary extended unemployment benefits were applicable to
those who exhausted normal benefits after June 30, 1957 and before
Apr. 1, 1959 and were payable for registration periods begun June 19,
1958 through June 30, 1959.
7Benefit rate was determined as follows:
Creditable compensation
Benefit rate
$500
700
1.000
1,300
1,600
1,900
2,200
2.500
2,800
3,100
3.500
4.000

-

$699
$4.50
999
5.00
1,299 .....................................................
5.50
- 1,599 .....................................................
6.00
- 1,899 .....................................................
6.50
- 2,199 .....................................................
7.00
- 2,499 .....................................................
7.50
- 2,799 .....................................................
8.00
- 3,099 ................................................ .. . 8.50
- 3,499 .....................................................
9.00
- 3,999 .....................................................
9.50
andover .................................................... 10.20

tem porary extended unemployment benefits were applicable to
those who exhausted normal and regular extended benefits after June
30, 1960 and before Apr. 1, 1962 and were payable for registration
periods during such period starting Apr. 8,1961 and before July 1,1962,
but after Apr. 1, 1962 only if previously entitled.
9Benefit rate was determined as follows:
Creditable compensation
Benefit rate
$1,000
1,300
1,600
1,900
2,200
2.500
2,800
3,100
3.500
4,000

5Benefit rate was determined as follows:
Creditable compensation
Benefit rate
$400 $499
$3.50
500 749
4.00
750 999
4.50
1.000 - 1,299 ................................................ 5.00



- 1,599
- 1,999
- 2,499
- 2,999
- 3,499
- 3,999
and over

- $1,299 .....................................................
- 1,599 .....................................................
- 1,899 .....................................................
- 2,199 .....................................................
- -2,499 .....................................................
- 2,799 .....................................................
- 3,099 .....................................................
- 3,499 .....................................................
- 3,999 .....................................................
andover .................................................

$8.00*
8.50
9.00
9.50
10.00
10.50
11.00
11.50
12.00
12.70

‘ Employees with $750-$999 creditable compensation qualified
for 1968-69 benefit year, but were not entitled to increased daily
rate.

53

Table 7. Railroad retirement system
Effective date
(unless noted)
Aug. 29,1935 (1935 Act,
P.L. 400, Aug. 29,
1935).
Jan. 1, 1937 (1937 Act,
P.L. 174, June 29,
1937).

Jan. 1, 1947 (P.L. 572,
July 31, 1946).
Nov. 1, 1951 (P.L. 234,
Oct. 30, 1951).

July 1, 1956 (1956
Amendments, Aug.
7, 1956).
June 1, 1959 (P.L. 8628, May 19, 1959).
Jan. 1, 1965 (P.L. 8764, June 30, 1961).
Oct. 1, 1965 (P.L. 89212, Sept. 29, 1965).

Nov. 1, 1966 (P.L. 89699, Oct. 30, 1966).
Jan. 1, 1967 (P.L. 89699, Oct. 30, 1966).
Jan. 1, 1968 (P.L. 90257, Jan. 2, 1968).
Mar. 17, 1970 (P.L. 91215, Mar. 17, 1970).
Jan. 1, 1973 (P.L. 92336, July 1, 1972).
Oct. 1, 1973 (P.L. 9369, July 10, 1973).

Provision

Applications, exceptions, and other related matters

A. Payroll tax and other financing
7 percent of taxable compensation had been scheduled
to be paid through Feb. 28, 1937 (payable half by
employer and half by employee), but no such taxes
were paid due to court rulings.
Rate on taxable compensation: 1
Payroll tax was payable one-half by employer and one-half by
Period
Percent
employee.2
1937-39................................... ..................... 5.5
Beginning July 1, 1937, railroad retirement system took over
1940-42 ................................... ..................... 6.0
pensioners on carrier rolls on Mar. 1, 1937.
1943-45 ................................... ..................... 6.5
1946 ......................................... ..................... 7.0
Rate on taxable compensation: 1
Period
Percent
1947-48 ................................... ................... 11.5
1949-51 ................................... ................... 12.0
1952 and after......................... ................... 12.5
Railroad retirement system paid Old Age and Survivors Insur­
ance (OASI) contributions on railroad payrolls and received
the additional benefits that would be payable under the
Social Security Act (SSA) on the basis of railroad service.
This financial interchange provision was retroactive to
Jan. 1, 1937.
Financial interchange extended to Disability Trust Fund.
Rate on taxable compensation: 1
Period
Percent
6/59-61 ..................................... ................... 13.5
1962-64 ..................................... ................... 14.5
Rate on taxable compensation: 1
Period
Percent
1/65-9/65 ................................... ..................16.25
Rate on taxable compensation:1
Period
Percent
10/65-12/65 ............................... ................. 14.25
1966 ........................................... ..................15.20 (0.7)
Established: Tax on employers of 2 cents per compensated hour to finance supplemental annuities.
Rate on taxable compensation:1
Period
Percent
1967 ........................................... ................... 16.3 (J 0)
Rate on taxable compensation:1
Period
Percent
1968 ......................................... ................... 16.6 (1.2)
1969-70 ..................................... ................... 17.9 (1.2)
1971-72 ..................................... ................... 18.7 (1.2)
Changed: Tax on employers for supplemental annuities
to “ pay-as-you-go” basis.
Rate on taxable compensation:1
Percent
Period
1973 ........................................... ................... 19.2 (2.0)

Rate on taxable compensation: 1
Percent
Period
1974-77 ..................................... ................... 19.4 (1.8)
See footnotes at end of table.

Jan. 1, 1974 (P.L. 93233, Dec. 31, 1973).




54

Rates shown do not include Health Insurance tax rates for
Medicare Part A (which are shown separately in parentheses) payable one-half by employer and one-half by employee. Financial interchange provisions provided for col­
lection of Health Insurance taxes by Railroad retirement
system although such benefits were to be paid directly by
the Social Security Administration.
Tax credits were allowed for reduction in supplemental annuities due to private pensions.

Employers to pay taxes at rate determined quarterly by Railroad Retirement Board. Tax not paid for employees
covered by negotiated pension plans, but RRA supplemen­
tal account reimbursed for costs incurred by these people
(effective Apr. 1, 1970).
Effective Oct. 1,1973, employee tax rate reduced to SSA em­
ployee contribution rate; balance of combined rate paid by
employer (i.e., rate equal to employee rate plus 9.5 percen­
tage points).2

Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued
Effective date
(unless noted)

Provision

Applications, exceptions, and other related matters

A. Payroll tax and o th er fin an cin g -—C on tin ued

Jan. 1, 1975 (P.L. 93455, Oct. 16, 1974).

Jan. 1, 1978 (P.L 95216, Dec. 20, 1977).

Rate on taxable compensation:
Period
Percent
Tier 1 Tier 2
1978 ............................... ..................10.1 (2.0) 9.5
1979-80 ......................... ................. 10.16 (2.1) 9.5
1981 ............................... ................. 10.7 (2.6) 9.5
1982-84 ......................... ................. 10.8 (2.6) 9.5
1985 ............................... ................. 11.4 (2-7) 9.5
1986-89 ......................... ................. 11.4 (2.9) 9.5
1990 and a fte r............... ................. 12.4 (2-9) 9.5

Effective date
(unless noted)

Supplemental annuity employer tax collected on same basis
as before (“ pay-as-you-go”) assuming supplemental annu­
ity range of $45-$70 even though such annuity to range
from $23-$43 starting in 1975. The excess funds transferred
to the regular annuity account to offset increases in
regular annuities as a result of elimination of reduction (for
those receiving lower supplemental annuity) for sup­
plemental annuity (no net change in system funding).
General funds of Treasury to assume cost of paying the
“windfall benefit” phase-out costs.
Tier-1 rates (payable one-half by employer and one-half by
employee) applied to SSA taxable compensation and Tier-2
rates (payable by employer) applied to RRA taxable com­
pensation. (See Section B of this table).

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Provision
B. C om pu tatio n of em plo yee an nu ities

Aug. 29, 1935 (1935
Act, P.L. 399,
Aug. 29, 1935).

Employee monthly
annuity formula
Basic annuity: Years of ser­
vice times factor equal to
2 percent of 1st $50 of
AMC, plus 1.5 percent of
next $100, plus 1 percent
of remainder.

Average monthly
compensation (AMC)3
Average based on total cred­
itable compensation for
all creditable service;
1924-31 average used for
service before 1937 (see
1937 Act).

Jan. 1, 1937 (1937
Act, P.L. 162,
June 24, 1937).

If service in 1924-31 insuffi­
cient for equitable aver­
age, Board could use an­
other method.
Compensation after age 65
used if it raised average.

Jan. 1, 1947 (P.L
572, July 31,
1946).

No compensation after age
65 used.

Creditable (taxable)
compensation
Up to $300 a month.

See footnotes at end of table.




55

Military service after 1936
creditable at rate of $160
a month.

Maximum 30 years of cred­
itable service allowed
(continuity not required).
Service before enactment
date (Aug. 29, 1935)
credited only if employee
connected with industry
on or after that date.
Reduction for retirement
after age 65 unless by
agreement.
No limit on creditable years
of service except 30-year
maximum when service
before 1937 used. For
crediting service before
1937, employment status
or connection with in­
dustry on Aug. 29, 1935 re­
quired. Service after age
65 not credited.
Minimum employee benefit
generally $40 for em­
ployees in service at age
65 with 20 years’ service.
Annuity not payable for any
month of work for em­
ployer under Railroad
Retirement Act (RRA) or
last non-railroad employer.
Service before 1937 gener­
ally could be credited if
employee had 6 months of
service after Aug. 29,1935
and before 1946 (effective
July 31, 1946).
Military service performed
during war or emergency
period also creditable if
preceded by RR service in
same or preceding year.

Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued
Effective date
(unless noted)

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Provision
B. C o m p u tatio n of em plo yee a n n u itie s — C on tin ued

Employee monthly
annuity formula

Average monthly
compensation (AMC)

Jan. 1, 1947—
Continued.

July 1, 1948 (P.L.
744, June 23,
1948).
Nov. 1, 1951 (P.L.
234, Oct. 30,
1951).

Annuity factor increased 20
percent, to 2.4 percent of
1st $50 of AMC, plus 1.8
percent of next $100, plus
1.2 percent of remainder.
Annuity factor increased 15
percent, to 2.76 percent of
1st $50 of AMC, plus 2.07
percent of next $100, plus
1.38 percent of remainder.

Sept. 1, 1954 (P.L
746, Aug. 31,
1954).

July 1, 1956 (P.L
1013, Aug. 7,
1956).

Compensation after age 65
used on a par with other
compensation.

Compensation and service
after year of 65th birthday
used only if it raised bene­
fit amount (retroactive to
Nov. 1, 1951).

Annuity factor increased 10
percent, to 3.04 percent of
1st $50 of AMC, plus 2.28
percent of next $100, plus
1.52 percent of remainder.

See footnotes at end of table.



56

Creditable (taxable)
compensation
Changed: Minimum monthly
employee benefit least of
(a) $50, (b) $3 times years
of service, or (c) average
monthly compensation
applicable to employee
with 5 years of service
with current connection
(generally defined as 12
months of service in the
30 months before retire­
ment).
D is a b ility a n n u ity te r­
minated if annuitant
under age 65 earned $75
or more in 6-month period.
Increased:
M inim um
monthly employee benefit
least of (a) $60, (b) $3.60
times years of service, or
(c) average monthly com­
pensation.
Service after age 65 used as
creditable service.
Added: Reduction in em­
ployee annuity due to ser­
vice before 1937 by
amount of SSA benefit.
Increased: Minimum monthly
employee benefit least of
(a) $69, (b) $4.14 times
years of service, or ic)
average monthly compen­
sation. SSA minimum
fam ily guarantee in ­
troduced to insure that
RRA benefits would be no
less than benefits the SSA
would have paid based on
railroad service alore.
Benefits computed under
this formula therefore
would increase automati­
cally when SSA benef ts
increased.
Benefits calculated uncer
the RRA formula for
em ployee annuitants,
however, would generally
produce a higher amount.
Additional work restric­
tions applied to annui­
tants receiving benefits
under the guarantee.
Up to $350 a month for ser­ Changed: The additional re­
vice after June 1954.
striction for disability an­
nuitants to suspension for
each month with earnings
(from other than employer
covered by RRA or last
nonrailroad employer)
over specified amount
(with penalty for not report­
ing such earnings).
Increased: Minimum montnly
employee benefit least of
(a) $75.90, (b) $4.55 times
years of service, or(c) aver­
age monthly compensa­
tion.
Eliminated: Reduction in
employee annuity because
of SSA benefit.

Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued
Effective date
(unless noted)

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Provision
B. C o m p u tatio n of em plo yee a n n u itie s — C ontinued

Employee monthly
annuity formula
Sept. 6, 1958 (P.L.
85927, Sept. 6,
1958)
.
June 1, 1959 (P.L. Annuity factor increased 10
8628, May 19,
percent, to 3.35 percent of
1959)
.
1st $50 of AMC, plus 2.51
percent of next $100, plus
1.67 percent of remainder.

Average monthly
compensation (AMC)3
Average rounded to last full
dollar.

Up to $400 a month for ser­
vice after May 1959.

Nov. 1, 1963 (P.L.
88133, Oct. 5,
1963).
Jan. 1, 1965 (P.L.
89212, Sept. 29,
1965).
Nov. 1, 1966 (P.L.
89-699, Oct. 30,
1966).

Feb. 1, 1968 (P.L.
90-257, Feb. 15,
1968).

Up to $450 a month for ser­
vice after Oct. 1963.
Monthly maximum after
Sept. 1965 changed to
1/12 of SSA annual max­
imum but not less than
$450 ($550 for service
after Dec. 1965).

Annuity Factor on 1st $450
of AMC increased 7 per­
cent resulting in following
factor: 3.58 percent of 1st
$50 of AMC, plus 2.69 per­
cent of next $100, plus
1.79 percent of next $300,
plus 1.67 percent of re­
mainder. Subject to partial
reduction for receipt of
SSA benefits (but not to
amount less than would
have been payable under
previous law).
Supplemental annuity estab­
lished for longer service
employees, of $45 for 25
years of service, plus $5
for each year of service
over 25 (maximum $70),
reduced by amount of
private railroad pension
attributable to employer
contributions.
Regular annuity computed
under previous law if sup­
plemental annuity pay­
able.
Basic annuity factor to 3.58
percent of 1st $50 of AMC,
plus 2.69 percent of next
$100, plus 1.79 percent of
remainder, with no reduc­
tion for SSA benefits.
Table increase ranging from
$10 to $31.46, depending
on AMC, added to basic
annuity (see opposite
schedule), subject to re­
duction if eligible for sup­
plemental annuity and/or
SSA benefit.
The provision that regular
annuity be computed with
previous law if supple­
mental annuity was pay­
able (see 1966 listing in
this section) was elimi­
nated.

Increased: Minimum monthly
employee benefit least of
(a) $83.50, (b) $5 times
years of service, or (c) 110
percent of average
monthly compensation.
Increased: SSA minimum
guarantee for fam ily
benefits raised to 110 per­
cent.

Increased: Minimum monthly
employee benefit least of
(a) $89.35, (b) $5.35 times
years of service, (c) 118
percent of average
monthly compensation if
no supplemental annuity
payable, or (d) guaranteed
7 percent increase in com­
bination of basic and sup­
plemental annuities (sub­
ject to partial reduction
if e lig ib le for SSA
benefits).
Supplemental annuity was
available to those awarded
regular annuities after
June 30, 1966.

Up to $650 a month for ser­
vice after 1967.
Military service after 1967
creditable at rate of $260
a month.
Table increase:
AMC
Increase
Up to $100........ ........$10.00
$101-150 .......... ........ 11.22
151-200.......... ........ 12.87
201-250 .......... ........ 14.63
251-300.......... ........ 16.17
301-350.......... ........ 17.82
351-400.......... ........ 19.47
401-450.......... ........ 20.90
451-500.......... ........ 22.55
501-550.......... ........ 24.09
551-600 .......... ........ 27.83
601 and over . . ........ 31.46

See footnotes at end of table.



Creditable (taxable)
compensation

57

Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued
Effective date
(unless noted)

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Provision
B. C o m p u tatio n of em plo yee a n n u itie s — C on tin ued

Employee monthly
annuity formula

Average monthly
compensation (AMC)

Creditable (taxable)
compensation
Minimum table increase was
$10 less reduction for sup­
plemental annuity or, if
none, $10 minus 5.8 per­
cent of lesser of 1967 SSA
benefit or basic annuity.
Table increase with offsets
as in basic formula added
to basic RRA minimum.
Minimum monthly employee
benefit increased same as
for basic annuity formula.

Feb. 1, 1968—
Continued.

Jan. 1, 1970 (P.L.
91-377, Aug. 12,
1970).

Jan. 1, 1971 (P.L.
92-46, July 2,
1971).
Sept. 1, 1972 (P.L.
92-460, Oct. 4,
1972).

July 1, 1973 (P.L.
93-69, July 10,
1973).

Jan. 1, 1975 (P.L.
93-455, Oct. 16,
1974).

Basic annuity benefit under
1968 law increased by 15
percent ($50 maximum for
employee annuitant) ef­
fective for period Jan.
1970 through June 1972,
with the 15 percent in­
crease subject to reduc­
tion if employee eligible
for SSA benefit (but not
below $10 for employee
annuitant).4
Basic annuity benefit under
1968 law as increased by
1970 law increased by 10
percent effective for
period Jan. 1971 through
June 1973.
Basic annuity benefit under
1968 law as increased by
1970 and 1971 laws in­
creased by 20 percent ef­
fective for period Sept.
1972 through June 1973.
Basic annuity benefit in­
creases of 1970,1971, and
1972 extended for 18
months through Dec.
1974.
Basic annuity formula un­
changed but increases in
SSA benefits during
period July 1, 1973
through Dec. 31, 1974
were to be “ passed
through” to annuitants
(see opposite paragraph).

Annuity formula revised to
provide two-tier system of
annuities to phase out
separate entitlements to
both railroad retirement
and social security bene­
fits, and a “ windfall”
benefit was added to com­
pensate long-service
employees for loss of dual
benefits earned before
1975.

Up to $750 a month for ser­
vice after 1971.

Up to $900 a month for ser­
vice in 1973. Monthly max­
imum for years after 1974
subject to automatic ad­
justment according to
changes in national wage
levels.
Up to $1,100 a month for ser­
vice in 1974. First auto­
matic adjustment to be
applicable in 1975 as
originally scheduled.

Pre-1975 AMC based on total
creditable compensation
for all creditable service
before 1975; 1924-31 aver­
age used if available for
service before 1937.
Post-1974 AMC based on to­
tal creditable compensa­
tion for all creditable ser­
vice after 1974.

See footnotes at end of table.



58

Minimum monthly employee
benefit increased same as
for basic annuity formjla.
Minimum monthly employee
benefit increased same as
for basic annuity formula.

Up to $1,175 a month for ser­
vice in 1975, $1,275 in
1976, and $1,375 in 1977.
Military service after 1974
creditable up to SSA maxi­
mum on taxable wages.

“ Pass-through” arrange­
ment—in event SSA bene­
fit increased during July
1, 1973-Dec. 31, 1974 pe­
riod, annuitants received
increases equal to dollar
amounts received by SSA
b e n e ficia rie s
w ith
equivalent wage credits
(increases not subject to
offsets if annuitant also
entitled to SSA benefits).
SSA benefits subse­
quently were increased by
11 percent in 2 stages
which resulted in in­
creases for railroad an­
nuitants effective Mar. 1,
1974 and June 1, 1974.
Every employee who was en­
titled to a benefit under
the 1935 or 1937 Railroad
Retirement Acts as of
Dec. 31, 1974, to be en­
titled to benefit under the
1974 Act. This amount
was to be at least as large
as the benefit under the
1937 Act and was divided
into Tier 1 and Tier 2 for
purposes of computing
cost-of-living increases.

Table 7 Railroad retirement system—Continued
Effective date
(unless noted)

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Provision
B. C o m pu tation of em plo yee a n n u itie s — C on tin ued

Jan. 1, 1975—
Continued

Employee monthly
Average monthly
annuity formula
compensation (AMC)3
Compensation and ser­
Basic annuity formula was:
vice after 65th birthday
(1) Tier-1-every employee had bene­
used only if it raised
fit based on social security bene­
benefit amount.
fit formula using combined rail­
road and social security earn­
ings (up to the SSA annual
limit), reduced by any social se­
curity benefit payable (those not
eligible under SSA were given a
deemed Tier-1 benefit) and if em­
ployee was entitled to full annu­
ity under RRA the Tier-1 amount
would not be reduced for early
retirement even though it would
be under SSA; and
(2) Tier-2-a benefit, paid on top of
Tier-1 amount, based on
employee’s service and taxable
compensation in railroad in­
dustry only and calculated as
follows:
(a) Past service annuity-tor pre1975 railroad service, an
amount as calculated under
1937 Act as amended, re­
duced for imputed benefit cal­
culated under social security
formula based on railroad ser­
vice before 1975 alone; plus
(b) Past service bonus-for those
with some creditable service
after 1974, $1.50 a month for
each of 1st 10 years of service
before 1975, plus $1 a month
for each additional year of
service before 1975; plus
(c) Future service component-for
post-1974 railroad service, 0.5
percent of AMC for each year
of creditable service after
1974, plus $4 for each year of
service after 1974.
Supplemental annuity—for those
awarded such annuity after 1974,
$23 for 25 years of service plus
$4 for each year of service over
25 (maximum $43), reduced by
amount of private railroad pen­
sion attributable to employer
contributions. No longer reduc­
tion in basic annuity because of
supplemental annuity for those
receiving $23 to $43 rate. For em­
ployees retired before 1975, pre­
vious supplemental annuity
amounts paid.

Dual benefit windfall— for those
with vested rights5 to both
railroad retirement and social
security benefits as of Dec. 31,
See footnotes at end of table.




59

Creditable (taxable)
compensation
Established: Automatic cost-of-living
increases in retirement benefits
as follows—
Tier 1— benefits of railroad annui­
tants to rise automatically by same
percentage as social security bene­
fits, whenever the latter were In­
creased (previously, increases in
railroad benefits to match social
security had to be legislated, ex­
cept for cases paid under the
special SSA minimum guarantee).
Tier-2—
(A) Before retirment-A fixed in­
creases effective Jan. 1, of 1978,
1979, 1980, and 1981 for those
retiring after the last of the 4 ad­
justments as follows—
(1) Past service annuity— in­
creased by 65 percent of
change in BLS-CPI from Sept.
1976 and Sept, of the year pregeding year (but not after
1981) in which employee
retired.
(2) Past service bonus-no in­
crease.
(3) Future service annuity—
(a) Portion that gave $4 per
year of service after 1974
was fully adjusted by
same percentage increase
as in (A) (1) above.
(b) Portion that gave 0.5 per­
cent of AMC per year of
service after 1974 was
increased by same percen­
tage as in (A) (1) above, but
offset by difference be­
tween amount based on
AMC limited by 1980 rail­
road retirement maximum
and the amount based on
AMC limited by the 1976
railroad retirement max­
imum (offset intended to
eliminate effect of any
duplication between costof-living increases and rise
in monthly taxable limit
after 1976).
(B) After retirem ent—for benefi­
ciaries on the rolls on May 31 of
1977, 1978, 1979, and 1980, in­
creases effective June 1 of such
years in Tier 2 past service annu­
ity (but not past service bonus)
and future service annuity of 32.5
percent of the increase in the
CPI between the 1st quarter of
the prior year and the 1st quarter
of the current year. In addition,
an employee who retires be­
tween Jan. 1 and June 1 in the
years 1978-1980 could receive in
year of retirement separate costof-living increases both as a nonretired and retired employee.
Windfall dual benefit—was fro­
zen at the 1974 level except that
social security cost-of-living in­
creases between Dec. 31, 1974

Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued
Effective date
(unless noted)

Jan. 1, 1975—
Continued.

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Provision
B. C om pu tatio n of em plo yee a n n u itie s — C ontin ued
Employee monthly
Average monthly
Creditable (taxable)
compensation (AMC)3
annuity formula
compensation
1974 (or end of year of last
railroad employment before
1975)6, an amount by which the
sum of the benefits that would
have been payable under the
social security formula on ser­
vice before 1975 (or end of year
of last railroad employment
before 1975)°, based (a) solely on
railroad service, and (b) solely on
social security credits, exceeded
(c) the corresponding benefit
based on combined railroad
and social security earnings.

See footnotes at end of table.




60

and the annuity beginning date
were to be included in calcula­
tion. The windfall was to be
increased as it would have been
under automatic cost-of-living
adjustment and windfall benefit
would not increase as a result of
any general benefit increases
enacted by Congress.
Grandfather clause—annuity of
employee and spouse retiring
during 8 years after change-over
date (Jan. 1, 1975) could not be
less than they would have re­
ceived under the 1937 Act not
counting any SSA benefits.
Tax rebate lump-sum—employee
with at least 10 years’ service
and not e lig ib le for the
"windfall” to receive lump sum
at retirement computed by sum­
ming for each year from 1951
through 1974, the product of the
SSA tax rate times excess of
employee’s combined earnings
for the year over (approx.) the
maximum creditable for the year
under the 1937 Act. (Survivors
could receive the refund if
employee died before receiving
it).
A year of creditable service was 12
months, but remainder of 6
months or more rounded to full
year; 5 months or less counted
as value of fraction. Minimum of
120 months required to meet 10year service requirement.
Past service bonus was not pay­
able, as result of P.L. 94-93
enacted Aug. 9, 1975, to those
retired before 1975 unless
employee returned to railroad
service and com pleted 12
months post-1974 railroad ser­
vice or if disability annuitant
returned to railroad service after
recovery. (Retroactive to Jan. 1,
1975.)
Added: Tier-1 portion of annuity
based on railroad earnings after
1974 and for all SSA earnings
was subject to SSA work restric
tion if insured on basis of such
earnings as were windfall dua
benefits. Other RRA work restric­
tions were continued.

Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued
Effective date
(unless noted)

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Provision
B. C om p u tatio n of em plo yee a n n u itie s — C on tin ued

June 1,1975
June 1,1976
June 1,1977

Jan. 1, 1978
June 1,1978

Jan. 1, 1979
June 1,1979

Employee monthly
annuity formula
Increased: Tier-1 benefit as a result
of 8 percent cost-of-living adjust­
ment factor.
Increased: Tier-1 benefit as a result
of 6.4 percent cost-of-living ad­
justment factor.
Increased: Tier-1 benefit as a result
of 5.9 percent cost-of-living ad­
justment factor and Tier-2 after
retirement benefit as a result of
1.9 percent cost-of-living adjust­
ment factor.
Increased: Tier-2 before retirement
benefit as a result of 4.3 per­
cent cost-of-living adjustment
factor.
Increased: Tier-1 benefit as a result
of 6.5 percent cost-of-living ad­
justment factor and Tier-2 after
retirement benefit as a result of
2.1 percent cost-of-living adjust­
ment factor.
Increased: Tier-2 before retirement
benefit as a result of 10 per­
cent cost-o f-living a dju st­
ment factor.
Increased: Tier-1 benefit as a result
of 9.9 percent cost-of-living ad­
justment factor and Tier-2 after
retirement benefit as a result of
3.2 percent cost-of-living adjust­
ment factor.

Average monthly
compensation (AMC)3

Creditable (taxable)
compensation

Up to $1,475 for 1978 for SSA
and RRA.

Up to 1,575 for 1979 for RRA
and to $1,908.33 for 1979,
$2,158.33 for 1980, and
$2,475 for 1981 for SSA. *

C . Types of em plo yee an nu ities

Normal age
Aug. 29, 1935
(1935 Act, P.L.
399, Aug. 29,
1935).

Payable to those re­
tiring at age 65
(penalty for later
retirement).

Jan. 1, 1937 (1937
Act, P.L. 162,
June 24, 1937).

Eliminated: Penalty
for retirement after
age 65.

Jan. 1, 1947 (P.L
572, July 31,
1946).

Nov. 1, 1957 (P.L.
234, Oct. 30,
1951).

Added: 10-year over­
all service retirement.

Total and permanent
Occupational
disability
disability
Payable to those re­ Payable to those re­
tiring at ages 50tired because of
64 with 30 years
physical or mental
d isa b ility under
of service, actuarially reduced.
age 65 with 30
years of service.
Changed: Payable to Added: Benefit pay­
those retiring at
able under age 65
ages 60-64 with 30
with 30 years of
years of service,
service if totally
a c tu a ria lly reand permanently
duced.
disabled. Actuari­
a lly
reduced
benefit for those
totally and per­
manently disabled
retiring at ages
60-64 with less
than 30 years of
service.
Eliminated: Actuarial Changed: Payable to Added: Payable to
reduction for wothose totally and
those occupationmen.
permanently dis­
ally disabled retir­
abled retiring under
ing under age 60
age 60 with 10
with 20 years of
years of service or
service or ages 60at ages 60-64 re­
64 regardless of
gardless of service.
service (current
Reduction elim i­
conn ection re­
nated.
quired.)
Added: 10-year over­ Added: 10-year over­
all service requireall service requirement.
ment.
Prenormal age

See footnotes at end of table.



61

Current connection
generally defined
as 12 months of
service in the 30
m onths before
retirement.

Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued
Effective date
(unless noted)

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Provision
C . Types of e m p lo yee a n n u itie s — C ontin ued

Normal age
June 1,1959 (1959
Amendments,
May 19, 1959).
Oct. 1, 1961 (P.L.
87-285, Sept.
22, 1961).
Nov. 1, 1966 (P.L.
89-699, Oct. 30,
1966).

Mar. 17, 1970 (P.L.
91-215, Mar.
17, 1970).
July 1, 1973 (P.L.
93-69, July 10,
1973).

Jan. 1, 1975 (P.L.
93-455, Oct. 16,
1974).

Added: Supplemental
annuity for annui­
tant at age 65 or
over (awarded after
June 1966) with 25
years of service or
more with current
connection (pay­
able through Oct.
1971).
Supplemental annu­
ity made perma­
nent with forfeiture
for railroad service
beyond certa in
“ closure dates.”

Added: Supplemental
annuity for those
retiring after June
1974 at age 60 with
30 years of service
or more (current
connection re­
quired).

Occupational
disability

Prenormal age
Added: Actuarially
reduced annuity
for women retiring
at ages 62-64 with
10 but less than 30
years of service.
Added: Actuarially
reduced annuity
for men retiring at
ages 62-64 with 10
but less than 30
years of service.
See Normal age.

Total and permanent
disability_____

See Normal age.

See Normal age.

See Normal age.

See Normal age.

See Normal age.

Changed: For men
retiring after June
1974 at least age
60 with 30 years of
service or more, an
unreduced basic
annuity (previously
only female em­
ployees had been
granted this advan­
tage).
See Normal age.

See Normal age.

See Normal age.

0 . Spouse b e n e fit (wives and d epen dent husbands)

Eligibility

Amount

Nov. 1, 1951 (P.L.
234, O ct. 30,
1951).

Spouse eligible if retired employee was age 65 and (a)
spouse age 65, or (b) young
wife with minor child who
would be entitled to survivor’s benefits if employee were to die.

One-half of employee’s annuity before any offsets.
Maximum $40 a month.

Sept. 1, 1954 (P.L.
746, Aug. 31,
1954).

Added: Young wife with dis­
abled child age 18 or older,
if disabled before age 18,
who would be eligible for
survivo r’s benefit if
employee were to die.

Sept. 1, 1955 (P.L.
383, Aug. 13,
1955).

Increased: Maximum to high­
est spouse amount possible under SSA ($54.30 in
1955).

Reduction in spouse’s
benefit
Reduced by other RRA annuity or SSA benefit based
on spouse’s own earnings.
(if spouse also eligible for
SSA spouse benefit, annuity reduced only by amount
SSA-OASDI benefit exceeded SSA spouse benefit.)

_____________________ _____________________

See footnotes at end of table




62

Same work restrictions as
for annuitants and payable
only when employee annuity payable.
Special SSA minimum guarantee for family benefits
provided that RRA benefits
would be no less than
benefit SSA would have
paid based on railroad ser­
vice alone.

Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued

D. Spouse b e n efit (wives and d e pen de nt hu sb and s)— C on tin u ed

Eligibility
May 1, 1959 (P.L.
86-28, May 19,
1959).
Oct. 1, 1961 (P.L.
87-285, Sept 22,
1961).
Jan. 1, 1965 (P.L.
89-97, July 30,
1965).
Oct. 1. 1965 (P L.
89-212, Sept• 29,
1965).
Nov. 1, 1966 (P.L.
89-700 and P.L.
89-699, Oct. 30,
1966).

Amount

Added: Actuarially reduced
annuities for spouse age
62-64 if retired employee
age 65.
Changed: Period of marriage
requirement to 1 year (from
3) and eliminated if eligible
for widow’s, parent’s, or
disabled child’s benefit
before marriage.

Changed: Maximum to 110
percent of highest spouse
amount possible under
SSA ($69.90 in Feb. 1960).

Increased: Maximum to
(result of 1967 SSA amend­
ments):
2/1/68 -$104.50
1/1/69 - 112.20
1/1/70 - 115.50
Increased: Maximum to $138
on 1/1/70 (result of Dec. 30,
1969 SSA amendments).

Jan. 1, 1970 (P.L.
91-172, Dec. 30,
1969; P.L. 91- 377,
Aug. 12, 1970).
Jan. 1, 1971 (P.L.
92-5, Mar. 17,
1971)
.
Sept. 1, 1972 (P.L.
92-603, July 1,
1972)
.

Mar. 1, 1974

Jan. 1, 1975 (P.L.
93-455, Oct. 16,
1974).

Increased: Maximum to—
1/1/65 -$74.80
1/1/67 - 83.60
1/1/68 - 92.40

Changed: For young wife,
child no longer had to be
eligible for survivor’s bene­
fit if employee were to die.

Feb. 1, 1968 (P.L.
90-257, Feb. 15,
1968; P.L. 90- 248,
Jan. 2, 1968).

Jan 1, 1973 (P.L. 9358, July 6, 1975).

Reduction in spouse’s
benefit

Added: Certain wives allowed
to qualify under age 62
with grandchildren in their
care or children who
became disabled between
ages 18-22.

Added: Spouse eligible if
employee retired (1) after
June 1974 and at least age
60 with 30 years of service
or more and spouse (a) age
60, or (b) young wife with
minor or disabled child in
her care, or (2) after 1974
and age 62 and spouse (a)
age 65, or (b) young wife
within minor or disabled
child in her care. An actuarialiy reduced benefit
was payable to spouse
age 62-64 under (2) (a)
above.

Increased: Maximum to
$151.70 on 1/1/71 (result of
Mar. 17, 1971 SSA amend­
ments).
Increased: Maximum to (re­
sult of July 1, 1972 SSA
amendments):
9/1/72 -$182.10
1/1/73 - 188.50
1/1/74 - 203.30

Increased: Maximum to (re­
sult of SSA amendments):
3/1/74 -$217.50
6/1/74 - 225.70
1/1/75 - 246.95
Changed: Benefit to one-half
employee’s Tier-1 amount
(before any offsets for em­
ployee’s early retirement
or SSA benefit), plus onehalf employee’s Tier-2
amount (before any off­
sets for employee’s early
retirement), with total of
spouse’s Tier-1 (before re­
duction for any SSA bene­
fit spouse entitled to) and
Tier-2benefit limited to 110
percent of SSA maximum
($247 on 1/1/75).

See footnotes at end of table.




63

Eliminated: Reduction for
other RRA annuity or SSA
benefit based on spouse’s
own earnings.
Increases due to higher em­
ployee annuities reduced,
but not below zero, by
amount of 1965 increase in
SSA benefit received by
spouse.
Increases due to higher em-/
ployee annuities reduced,
but not below $5, by
amount of 1967 increase in
SSA benefit received by
spouse.
Increases due to higher em­
ployee annuities reduced,
but not below $5, by
amount of 1969 increase in
SSA benefit received by
spouse.

Changed: Spouse’s Tier-1
benefit reduced by amount
of SSA benefit spouse en­
titled to but not below 0
and Tier-2 benefit reduced
in case (a) spouse’s bene­
fit was over 110 percent of
SSA maximum, (b) family
maximum, or (c) spouse
received windfall benefit
based on spouse’s own
earnings.

Spouse benefit subject to
same cost-of-living per­
centage increases as em­
ployee benefits. This in­
cludes the portion of the
spouse’s Tier-2 benefit
based on the employee’s
past service bonus. Wind­
fall benefit could increase
as result of automatic
cost-of-living increases
but not after employee re­
tired.

Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued
Effective date
(unless noted)

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Provision
D. Spouse be nefit (wives and de pendent husbands)

Eligibility

Amount

Jan. 1. 1975 —
continued

Added: Spouse could re­
ceive "windfall'' benefit if
spouse or em ployee
vested for dual RRA-SSA
benefits as of Dec. 31,
19745 of (1) if vested on
spouse’s earnings, lesser
of (a) SSA benefit based
on spouse’s earnings
through Dec. 31, 1974 or
end of year employee last
worked for RR6 or (b)
one-half employee’s full
Tier-1 amount based on
employee's RR earnings
alone, or (2) if only
employee vested, spouse's
windfall one-half employ­
ee's windfall. Neither (1)
(a) nor (1) (b) could be less
than one-half employee's
windfall if employee also
vested.

June 1,1975

Increased: Maximum (Tier-1
plus Tier-2) benefit to
$266.75.
Increased: Maximum (Tier-1
plus Tier-2) benefit to
$283.36.
Increased: Maximum (Tier-1
plus Tier-2) benefit to
$301.51.
Increased: Maximum (Tier-1
plus Tier-2) benefit to
$311.85.
Increased: Maximum (Tier-1
plus Tier-2) benefit to
$330.22.
Increased: Maximum (Tier-1
plus Tier-2) benefit to
$342.32.
Increased: Maximum (Tier-1
plus Tier-2) benefit to
$364.54.
Increased: Maximum (Tier-1
plus Tier-2) benefit to
$376.64.
Increased: Maximum (Tier-1
plus Tier-2) benefit to
$413.93.

Jan. 1, 1976
June 1,1976
Jan. 1, 1977
June 1,1977
Jan. 1, 1978
June 1,1978
Jan. 1, 1979
June 1,1979
See footnotes at end of table.




64

Reduction in spouse’s
benefit
Changed: O/M (overall mini­
mum) guarantee for em­
ployees and spouses was
100 percent (instead of
110 percent) of the amount
or the additional amount
the family would receive
under the SSA if em­
ployee’s compensation
after 1936 were credited
as wages. Employees and
spouses retiring before
1983 were not to receive
less than they would have
under the 1937 Act.
Established: Ceiling on total
family annuity (before
windfall) as of the initial
award could not exceed
the greater of $1,200 or the
amount determined from
100 percent of such por­
tion of the “final AMC ’
as was less than one-half
of current maximum SS
taxable wage base in year
of retirement plus 80 per­
cent of remainder of “final
AMC.” Final AMC being
employee’s average tax­
able RR taxable limit earn­
ings from both systems in
the highest 2 years out of
the last 10. If maximum
exceeded, spouse’s Tier-2
reduced, then employee's
supplemental annuity re­
duced, and then employee’s
Tier-2 reduced.

Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued
Effective date
(unless noted)

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Provision
E. D eath be nefits

Death benefit annuity
Aug. 29, 1935 (1935
Act, Aug. 29,1935).
Jan. 1, 1937 (1937
Act, June24,1937).

One-half of retired employee’s
annuity payable to widow
for 12 months.
Discontinued: Death benefit
annuity.

Jan. 1, 1947 (P.L.
572, July 31,1946).
July 1, 1948 (P.L
744, June23,1948).

Elective survivor annuity
to spouse
Based on actuarial equivalent
joint and survivor option.
Added: Required to elect 5
years before retirement
or show proof of good
health.
New elections discontinued
(no new elections after
July 1946).

May 1, 1959 (P.L.
86-28, May 19,
1959).

Residual lump sum

Added: 4 percent of total
creditable compensation
after 1936 payable to sur­
vivor, less any annuity
benefits paid.
Discontinued.
Reinstated: 4 percent of
creditable compensation
after 1936 but before 1947
plus 7 percent of creditable
compensation after 1946,
less benefits paid.

Changed: 7.5 percent of
creditable compensation
after 1958 and 8 percent of
creditable compensation
after 1961, less benefits
paid.
Changed: One-half percent­
age point above employee
contribution rate (exclusive
of Medicare) of creditable
compensation after 1965,
less benefits paid.
Changed: Compensation after
1974 not taken into ac­
count.

Oct. 30, 1966 (P.L.
89-700, Oct. 30,
1966).
Jan. 1, 1975 (P.L.
93-455, Oct. 16,
1974).

Residual lump sum insured
that beneficiary would re­
ceive more in benefits than
employee had paid into
railroad system. The pay­
ment was not made to
designated beneficiary if
survivor of employee
would be entitled to survi­
vor benefit in future.

F. Survivor’s be n efits

Type and amount
of benefits
Jan. 1, 1947 (P.L. Aged widow’s annuity: Un­
572, July 31,1946).
married widow age 65 or
older of completely insured
employee received V* of
basic amount.
Widowed mother's annuity:
Unmarried widow of com­
pletely or partially insured
employee in care of his
child eligible for child’s
annuity received 3 of
A
basic amount.
Children's annuity: Depen­
dent unmarried child under
age 18 of completely or
partially insured employee
to receive Vi of basic
amount.
Parent’s annuity: Unremar­
ried parent age 65 or more
of completely insured em­
ployee who left no eligible
widow or child received
Vi of basic amount.
Insurance lump sum: 8 times
basic amount if completely
or partially insured em­
ployee left no survivor eli­
gible for monthly benefits
in month of employee’s
death.
See footnotes at end of table.



Basic amount calculation
40 percent of 1st $75 of AMR,
plus 10 percent of remain­
der, increased by 1 percent
for each year with earnings
of $200 or more.
Minimum basic amount $10.

65

Average monthly
remuneration (AMR)
Combined RRA and SSA
earnings divided by total
calendar months after 1936
or age 22 and up to retire­
ment (including disability)
or death. Maximum was
$250.

RRA and SSA credits were
combined both as to quar­
ters of coverage and re­
muneration. If insured
under RRA, then benefit
payable by RRB; otherwise
by SSA.
Other RRA or SSA benefits
were deducted.
Employee had completely
insured status if he had
current connection (genererally 12 months’ service
in 30 months before death
or retirement) and either
(1) Vi of quarters after
1936, or after age 21, to
retirement or death, or (2)
40 quarters. Minimum was
6 quarters. Status granted
to pensioners or annui­
tants who retired before
1948 with 10 years of ser­
vice.
Employee had partially in­
sured status if he had cur­
rent connection and 6
quarters of coverage in
approximately the last 3
years before death.

Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued
Effective date
(unless noted)

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Provision
F. Survivor’s b e n e fits — C ontinued
Type and amount
of benefits
Such amount paid to widow/or widower if living with
employee at time of death,
or to other survivors, or if
none, to persons who paid
burial expenses (limited to
such expenses).

Basic amount calculation

Nov. 1, 1951 (P.L.
234, Oct. 30,1951).

Increased: Aged widow's
annuity—to full basic
amount.
Expanded: Aged widow’s
annuity—to include depen­
dent widower age 65 or
more.
Increased: Widowed mother’s
annuity—to full basic
amount.
Increased: Children’s annu­
ity—to 2/3 of basic amount.
Increased: Parent’s annuity—
to 2 of basic amount.
/a
Increased: Insurance lump
sum—to 10 times basic
amount.

Increased: Minimum basic
amount to $14.

Sept. 1, 1954 (P.L.
746, Aug. 31,1954).

Changed: Aged widow’s and
widower's annuity— age
requirement reduced to60.
Expanded: Children's annu­
ity—to include dependent
disabled children age 18
and over if disability began
before age 18.
Changed: Parent’s annuity—
age requirement reduced
to 60.

Jan. 1, 1947—
Continued.

Sept. 1, 1955 (P.L.
383, Aug. 13,1955).
July 1, 1956 (1956
Amendments, Aug.
7, 1956).

June 1, 1959 (1959
Amendments, May
19, 1959).

Survivors other than widow
(or widower) made ineligi­
ble for lump sum by P.L.
85-927, (Sept. 6, 1958).

Increased: Maximum to $300
retroactive to 1937.

Increased: Maximum to $350.

Increased: 44 percent of 1st
$75 of AMR, plus 11 per­
cent of remainder, in­
creased by 1 percent for
each year with earnings of
$200 or more. Minimum
basic amount of $15.40.
Increased: 49 percent of 1st
$75 of AMR, plus 12 per­
cent of remainder, in­
creased by 1 percent for
each month with earnings
of $200 or more. Minimum
basic amount to $16.95.

See footnotes at end of table.



Average monthly
remuneration (AMR)

66

Maximum to family generally
least of $120,2 times basic
amount, or 80 percent of
AMR (divided on a propor­
tional basis among the
survivors if so adjusted).
Work restrictions were work
for railroad employer re­
gardless of earnings or
other earnings of $25 or
more a month.
Added: 10-year service re­
quirement for completely
or partially insured status.
Others transferred to Old
Age and Survivors Insur­
ance.
Changed: Work restriction
on nonrailroad wages to
$50 or more a month.
Increased: Regular family
maximum to least of $160
or 22/3 times basic amount.
Survivor benefit subject to
overall SSA family guaran­
tee so that benefit would
not be less than benefits
or additional benefits SSA
would pay on same railroad
service. This would result
in automatic increases in
survivors benefits calcu­
lated under the minimum
guarantee to reflect in­
creases in SSA benefits.
Added: Widow’s benefit to
be at least equal to amount
of wife’s benefit previously
paid, if any.
Eliminated: Reduction for
RRA retirement annuity
based on own earnings.
Changed: Work restriction
on nonrailroad earnings to
agree with restrictions
under SSA.

Eliminated: Reduction for
SSA benefits.
Increased: Regular family
maximum increased to
lesser of $176 or 22/3 of
basic amount.
Increased: Maximum to $400.

Added: Conditions for com­
pletely or partially insured
status under RRA not to
be less favorable than for
those under SSA (1958
technical amendment).
Increased: Regular family
maximum to lesser of
$193.60 or 22/3 times basic
amount.
Overall minimum guarantee
raised to 110 percent of
benefits or additional ben­
efits SSA would pay on
same RR service.

Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued
Effective date
(unless noted)

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Provision
F. Survivor’s b e n e fits — C on tin ued

Type and amount
of benefits
Oct. 1, 1961 (P.L.
87-285, Sept. 22,
1961).

Nov. 1, 1963 (P.L.
88-133, Oct. 5,
1963).
Jan. 1, 1966 (1965
A m e n d m e n ts,
Sept. 29, 1965).
Nov. 1, 1966 (P.L.
89-700, Oct. 30,
1966).

Feb. 1, 1968 (P.L.
90-257, Feb. 15,
1968).

Basic amount calculation

Added: Aged widow’s and
widower’s annuity and also
widowed mother’s annu­
ity— remarried widow ben­
eficiary eligible on 2nd
husband’s earnings if he
died within 1 year.

Added: Aged widow’s and
widower’s annuity and also
widowed mother’s annu­
ity — benefits provided
widow even though not liv­
ing with husband at death.
Expanded: Children’s annu­
ity—to include survivor
children ages 18-21 if full­
time students (retroactive
to Jan. 1, 1965). Student
child did not qualify wid­
owed mother.
Added: Aged widow’s and
widower’s annuity—82.5
percent of table increase
based on AMC (see far
right column) added to
basic amount.
Added: Widowed mother’s
annuity—82.5 percent of
table increase based on
AMC (see far right column)
added to basic amount.
Added: Children's annuity75 percent of table in­
crease based on AMC (see
far right column) added to
2/3 of basic amount.
Expanded: Children’s annu­
ity—to include adopted
children and stepchildren.
Added: Parent’s annuity—
82.5 percent of table in­
crease based on AMC (see
far right column) added to
z/3 of basic amount.
Established: Disabled wid­
ow’s benefit—to totally
and permanently disabled
widow of completely in­
sured employee (10 years
service and current con­
nection) age 50 or more if
disability began before
end of 7 years after widow­
hood or after widowed
mother’s benefit ended.
Benefit same as for aged
widow but reduced by 0.3
percent for each month
under age 60 when benefit
began.

Increased: 52.4 percent of
1st $75 of AMR, plus 12.8
percent of next $375, plus
12 percent of remainder,
increased by 1 percent for
each year with earnings of
$200 or more. Minimum
basic amount to $18.14.

Increased: 52.4 percent of
1st $75 of AMR, plus 12.8
percent of remainder, in­
creased by 1 percent for
each year with earnings of
$200 or more.

Increased: Maximum to $450
after Oct. 1963.
Increased: Maximum to 1/12
of SSA annual maximum
but not less than $450 after
Sept. 1965 ($550 for service
after 1965).

Increased: Maximum to $650
after 1967.
Changed: Method of using
pre-1951 earnings was
simplified.

Unreduced RRA survivors
benefit was subject to par­
tial reduction for receipt
of SSA benefits (but not tc
amount less than would
have been payable under
previous law).
Regular family maximum to
lesser of $207.15 or 22/3
times basic amount.
Eliminated: Reduction in
basic amount because of
receipt of SSA benefit.
Table increases was as fol­
lows:
AMC
Increase
Up to $100 ... . .$10.00
$101—150 . . . . . 11.22
151—200 . . . . . 12.87
201—250 . . . . . 14.63
251—300 ... . . 16.17
301—350 . . . . . 17.82
351 —400 . . . . . 19.47
401—450 . . . . . 20.90
451—500 ... . . 22.55
501 —550 . . . . . 24.09
551 —600 . . . . . 27.83
601 and over . . 31.46
Table increase reduced by
17.3 percent of 1967 SSA
benefits.
Minimum table increase was
$5 minus 5.8 percent or
lesser of SSA benefit or
part of annuity based on
basic amount.
Family maximum increased
by sum of fractions of
table increase for ail mem­
bers of family (subject to
reduction).
Changed: Duration of mar­
riage requirement to 9
months from 1 year. The
9 month requirement was
reduced to 3 months if
employee’s death was ac­
cidental or occurred while
on active duty in Armed
Forces.

See footnotes at end of table.



Average monthly
remuneration (AMR)

67

Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued
Effective date
(unless noted)

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Provision
F. Survivor’s b e n e fits — C ontinued

Type and amount
of benefits
Jan. 1, 1970 (P.L. Increased: All types of sur­
91-377, Aug. 12,
vivor annuities—15 per­
1970).
cent increase applied in
same manner as for regu­
lar employee annuities
($25 maximum increase)
subject to reduction if eli­
gible for SSA benefit (but
not below $5).
Jan. 1, 1971 (P.L. Increased: All types of sur­
92-46, July 2,
vivor annuities—10 per­
1971).
cent increase applied in
same manner as for regu­
lar employee annuities.
Sept. 1, 1972 (P.L. Increased: All types of sur­
92-460, Oct. 4,
vivor annuities—20 per­
1972).
cent increase applied in
same manner as for regu­
lar employee annuities.
(Minimum guarantee cases
were further increased by
SSA changes and RRB
changes.)
Jan. 1, 1973 (P.L. Expanded: Widowed mother's
93-58, July 6,
annuity—to include wid­
1973).
ows under age 60 with
grandchildren in their care,
or children who became
disabled between ages
18-22.
Expanded: Children’s annu­
ity— to include children
disabled before age 22,
dependent grandchildren
living with grandparent if
natural parents disabled
or dead, adopted children
and also continuation of
fulltime students through
school term in which stu­
dent attained age 22.
July 1, 1973 (P.L. Added: All types of survivor
93-69, July 10,
annuities—“pass-through”
1973).
increase applied in same
way as for regular employ­
ees annuities.
See footnotes at end of table.




Basic amount calculation

Average monthly
remuneration (AMR)

Increased: Maximum to $750
after 1971.
Increased: Maximum to $900
for 1973.

Increased: Maximum to
$1,100 for 1974.

68

Changed: Nine-month mar­
riage requirement waived
if widow and employee
previously married for 9
months but divorced and
remarried and 3-month re­
quirement waived if em­
ployee’s death was acci­
dental or occurred while
in Armed Forces.

Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued
Effective date
(unless noted)

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Provision
F. Survivor’s b e n e fits — C ontinued

Jan. 1, 1975
(P.L. 93-455,
Oct. 16,1974).

June 1, 1975

June 1, 1976

Type and amount
of benefits
Changed: Widow's and
widower's annuity—
Tier-1 and Tier-2
amounts reduced by
19/40 percent for
each month under
age 65 at start of
benefits, but widow
age 60-61 was
deemed 62 in computingTier-1 amount.
Added: Windfall bene­
fit- to r widow or
widower fully in­
sured under SSA
before 1975 if em­
ployee had 10 years
service before
1975.
Changed: Widowed
mother’s annuity and
also children’s annu­
ity— 75 percent of
Tier-1 PIA, plus 30
percent of such
amount in accor­
dance with Tier-2
calculation.
Changed: Disabled
widow's and widow­
er’s annuity—Tier-1
and Tier-2 amounts
reduced by 28.5 per­
cent, plus 43/240 per­
cent for each month
under age 60 at start
of benefits.
Changed: Parent’s an­
nuity—82.5 percent
of Tier-1 PIA, plus 30
percent of such
amount in accor­
dance with Tier-2
calculation.
Changed: Insurance
lumpsum—10 times
the basic amount
calculation under
the 1937 Act on earn­
ings through 1974
only if employee had
10 years’ service be­
fore 1975 or amount
SSA would have paid
if employee had less
than 10 years before
1975.
Increased: Tier-1 (and
Tier-2) amount by 8
percent (resulted
from cost-of-living
adjustment).
Increased: Tier-1 (and
Tier-2)amount by 6.4
percent (resulted
from cost-of-living
adjustment).

Annuity components
(effective 1974 Act)
Annuities for all survi­
vors to be recalculated
as follows effective
Jan. 1, 1975:
Tier-1—amount payable
to survivor under SSA
based on employee’s
combined earnings
after 1936, less any
SSA benefit received
(additional restrictions
for widow who received
annuity as railroad
employee); plus
Tier-2—30 percent of
Tier-1 before reduc­
tions for work or en­
titlement to SSA ben­
efit (or RRA employee
annuity); and
Windfall benefit (for eli­
gible widow’s and
w idow er’s only) —
amount equal to the
sum of (1) the SSA
benefit based on the
widow’s or widower’s
earnings through 1974
and (2) a widow’s or
w idow er’s annuity
computed under an
alternate basic amount
formula under the 1937
Act7 based on the de­
ceased employee’s
RRA and SSA earnings
through 1974, ex­
ceeded (3) 130 percent
of the SSA widow’s or
w idow er’s benefit
based on the employ­
ee’s combined earn­
ings through 1975.

Basic amount
calculation
(Under 1937 Act).

The Tier-1 benefits of survivors
were to increase automatically
for cost-of-living adjustments
by the same percentages as
SSA benefits (just as for em­
ployees and spouses). As a
result, the portion of the Tier-2
benefit which was equal to 30
percent of the Tier-1 amount
would rise by whatever per­
centage increase was made
in the Tier-1 benefit.
Annuity not payable for any
month in which survivor en­
gaged in railroad employment.
Entire benefit subject to SSA
work restrictions.
Benefits exclusive of the wind­
fall were subject to SSA in­
creases. The windfall was
frozen as of the earlier of the
employee's death or start of
employee’s annuity. The wind­
fall was to be increased as it
would have been under an
automatic cost-of-living ad­
justment but would not par­
ticipate in a general benefit
increase enacted by Congress.
For widow or widower, total ben­
efit, exclusive of windfall,
could not be less than amount
received as spouse in month
before employee’s death (con­
tinuation of spouse minimum
guarantee in 1937 Act).
Total Tier-1 amount payable to
widow (or widower) and chil­
dren was subject to a maxi­
mum of 130 percent of the SSA
family maximum based on
railroad earnings and non­
railroad earnings.

See footnotes at end of table.




Average monthly
remuneration (AMR)
(Under 1937 Act).

69

Table 7. Railroad retirement system—Continued
Effective date
(unless noted)

Applications, exceptions,
and other related matters

Provision
F. Survivor’s b e n e fits —C o n tin u e d

Nov. 1, 1976
(P.L. 94-547
Oct. 18,
1976).

June 1,1977

June 1, 1978

Type and amount
of benefits
Changed: Method of
computing windfall
benefit.

Increased: Tier-1 (and
Tier-2) amount by 5.9
percent (resulted
from cost-of-living
adjustment).
Increased: Tier-1 (and
Tier 2)amount by 6.5
percent (resulted
from cost-of-living
adjustment).

Annuity components
(effective 1974 Act)
Windfall benefit equal
to the amount the
widow would receive
under the 1937 Act
basic amount fo r­
mula7, adjusted for
automatic cost-of-liv­
ing increasesafter 1974
to the latter of the date
the widow's annuity
began to accrue or the
first month the widow
is entitled to an SSA
benefit based on own
earnings, that is in ex­
cess of the total of the
Tier-1 and Tier-2
amounts to which widow(er) is entitled as of
the latter of the date
the annuity began to
accrue or the date the
SSA benefit began to
accrue.

Basic amount
calculation

Special guarantee provided for
widow(er) who previously re­
ceived a spouse's benefit that
included a windfall amount
based on own earnings. In this
case widow(er) guaranteed to
receive as much as she(he)
did as a spouse beneficiary in
the month the employee died.

was defined as having 10 years of railroad service on change-over and,
in addition, having enough quarters of coverage under the social security
program to be entitled to a benefit at age 62 if no further social security
credits were acquired after Dec. 31,1974. Dual benefits were retained, in
effect, through provision for payment of an additional amount in "heir
annuities referred to as a dual benefit “ windfall” (so called because an
advantageous tax-benefit ratio allowed dual beneficiaries under pre­
vious law). Such windfall amounts, however, were not allowed to in­
crease because of any social security service performed after Dec. 31,
1974, nor would they be subject to future cost-of-living or other legisla­
tive increases in social security benefits subsequent to a vested em­
ployee’s retirement.
6Applied only if employee did not work for a railroad in 1974, or had
less than 25 years of service, or did not have a current connection with
the railroad as of Dec. 31, 1974, or at employee’s retirement.
7The O/M guarantee under the 1937 Act and the spouse minimum were
disregarded in computation.

1Taxable compensation amounts were the same as creditable com­
pensation amounts which are shown in Section B of this table. Effective
in 1979, SSA creditable and taxable compensation amounts differed
from RRA creditable and taxable compensation and are shown separately
in Section B.
2Payable one-half by employer and one-half by employee before Oct.
1973. Employee rate reduced to Social Security Act employee rate with
balance of combined rate paid by employer beginning Oct. 1973 (i.e.,
employee rate was one-half of combined rate less 4.75 percentage points
and employer rate was employee rate plus 9.5 percentage points). Health
Insurance tax rates (shown in parentheses) were payable one-half by
employer and one-half by employee.
3Earnings base for Tier-2 after 1974.
4The 1967 Social Security Act benefit for the 1968 formula was approx­
imated as 87 percent of the 1969 SSA benefits.
5New hires and individuals not vested as of Dec. 31,1974, under both
systems were not to receive dual benefits. For career employees, vesting




Average monthly
remuneration (AMR)

70

Appendix A. Supplemental Sickness Benefits
Effective 1973

Schedule A.

Benefits

Amount
Last position
worked before
disability
Class 1—mechanic
or comparable
or higher rated
positions
Class 2—helper
or comparable
position, rated
below mechanic
Class 3—lower
rated positions

Employee eligible
for RUIA
sickness benefits
Per day
Per month
$10.50
$315.00

Rate of pay
as of
Dec. 31, 19721
Hourly
Monthly
$895.00
$5.15
or more
or more
$4.20
but
less than
$5.15
Less than
$4.20

Employee not eligible
for RUIA
sickness benefits2
Per day
Per month
$17.17
$515.00

$222.00

1lncluded any differential regularly paid on the position. Weekly-rated
positions were classified as to rate of pay on the basis of the weekly
rate multiplied by 41 to obtain a monthly rate of pay.
A
Applicable to employee eligible for benefits under this plan who ex­
hausted benefits under RUIA. Did not apply to additional days of RUIA
waiting period (5th, 6th, and 7th days of disability) in effect before July 1,

$ 7.40

$422.00

$14.07

$171.00

$730.00
but
less than
$895.00
Less than
$730.00

$ 5.70

$371.00

$12.37

1975 when employee was eligible for benefits under the plan and under
the RUIA, but benefits were then not payable under the RUIA. (Before
July 1,1975, sickness benefits under the RUIA began with the 8th day of
sickness in the first registration period in a benefit year; effective July 1,
1975, sickness benefits under the RUIA began with the 5th day of sick­
ness in the first registration period).

Schedule B. Limits
(In the event RUIA sickness daily benefits increased)1

Class

Rate of pay as of
Dec. 31, 1972

Average straighttime monthly
earnings
$925.00




$647.50

$780.00

$546.00

$700.00

Hourly
Monthly
$5.15
$895.00
1
or more
or more
$4.20
$730.00
but
but
2
less than
less than
$5.15
$895.00
Less than
Less than
3
$4.20
$730.00
1lf RUIA was amended to increase RUIA daily sickness benefits, and
the sum of (a) 21.75 times the “ average daily benefit for the class under
the RUIA as amended” plus (b) the amount shown in schedule A above
($315, $222, or $171, as appropriate) should exceed 70 percent of average
straight-time monthly compensation ($647.50, $546, or $490, as appro­
priate), the per month and per day amounts for employees eligible for
RUIA sickness benefits as shown in schedule A were to be reduced to

70 percent of average
straight-time
monthly earnings

$490.00

the extent that the sum of (a) and (b) would not exceed 70 percent of
average straight-time monthly compensation.
The “average daily benefit for the class under the RUIA as amended”
for purposes of schedule B was the benefit that would be payable to an
employee who had worked full time in base year and whose rate of pay
at the Dec. 31, 1972 wage level was: Class 1—$5.25; Class 2—$4.50;
Class 3—$4.00.

71

Appendix B. Supplemental Sickness Benefits
Effective 1976

Schedule A.

Benefits

Amount
Last position
worked before
disability
Class 1—mechanic
or comparable
or higher rated
positions
Class 2—helper
or comparable
position, rated
below mechanic
Class 3—lower
rated positions

Rate of pay
as of
Jan. 1, 19761
Hourly
$6.61
or more

Monthly
$1150
or more

$5.46
but
less than
$6.61
Less than
$5.46

Employee eligible
for RUIA
sickness benefits
Per month
Per day
$8.07
$242

$ 950
but
less than
$1150
Less than
$ 950

Employee who exhausted
RUIA sickness
benefits
Per day
Per month
$764
$25.47

$1412

$4.702

$657

$21.9C

$ 662

$4.232

$588

$19.60

Class 2 employee
Per
Per
month
day
$135
$4.50

included any differential regularly paid on the position plus any ap­
plicable cost-of-living allowance. Weekly-rated positions were
classified as to rate of pay on the basis of the weekly rate multiplied by
AVi to obtain a monthly rate of pay.
2Amounts for Class 2 and Class 3 employees eligible for RUIA
sickness benefits were to be subsequently changed on July 1, 1976, as
follows:

Class 3 employee
Per
Per
month
day
$66

$2.20

Schedule B. Limits
(In the event RUIA sickness daily benefits increased)1

Class
1
2
3

Rate of pay as of
Jan. 1, 1976
Hourly
$6.61
or more
$5.46
but
less than
$6.61
Less than
$5.46

Monthly
$1150
or more
$ 950
but
less than
$1150
Less than
$ 950

1lf the RUIA was amended so as to increase RUIA daily sickness
benefits, and the sum of (a) 21.75 times the “average daily benefit for the
class under the RUIA as amended” plus (b) the appropriate amount
shown in schedule A above should exceed the “ combined benefit limit”
in this schedule B, the per monthand per day amounts for employees
eligible for RUIA sickness benefits as shown in schedule A were to be
reduced to the extent that the sum of (a) and (b) would not exceed the
“ combined benefit limit.”




Combined benefit
limit
$819
$709
$636

The “average daily benefit for the class under the RUIA as amended”
for purposes of schedule B was the benefit that would be payable to an
employee who had worked full time in base year and whose rate of pay
at the Dec. 31, 1975, wage level was: Class 1—$6.60; Class 2—$5.70;
Class 3—$5.10.

72

Wage Chronologies Available

The following wage chronologies are available from
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, or from the
regional offices of the Bureau of Labor Statistics listed
on the inside back cover. Some publications are out of
print and not available from the Superintendent of
Documents but may be obtained, as long as supplies are
available, from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20212, or from the Bureau’s regional of­
fices. Out-of-print items also may be available for
reference in leading public, college, or university
libraries.
Before July 1965, basic wage chronologies and their
supplements were published in the Monthly Labor
Review and released as Bureau reports. Wage
chronologies published later are available only as
bulletins (and their supplements). Summaries of general
wage changes and new or changed working practices are
added to bulletins as new contracts are negotiated.

Aluminum Company of America with United Steel­
workers of America and Aluminum Workers Interna­
tional Union—
November 1939—January 1974, BLS Bulletin
1815.
February 1974—May 1977, Supplement to BLS
Bulletin 1815.
The Anaconda Co. (Montana Mining Division) and the
Steelworkers—
1941-77, BLS Bulletin 1953.
1977-80, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1953.
Armour and Company—
1941-72, BLS Bulletin 1682.
1973-79, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1682.
A.T.&T.—Long Lines Department and Communica­
tions Workers of America (AFL-CIO)—
October 1940—July 1974, BLS Bulletin 1812.
July 1974—August 1977, Supplement to BLS
Bulletin 1812.
Atlantic Richfield and the Oil Workers (Former Sinclair
Oil Facilities)—
1941-77, BLS Bulletin 1915.
1977-79, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1915.
Berkshire Hathaway Inc. and the Textile Workers—
June 1943—April 1975, BLS Bulletin 1849.
1975—78, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1849.



Bethlehem Steel Corp. (Shipbuilding Department) and
the IUMSW—
June 1941—August 1975, BLS Bulletin 1866.
1975-78, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1866.
Bituminous Coal Mine Operators and United Mine
Workers of America—
October 1933—November 1974, BLS Bulletin
1799.
1974-77, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1799.
The Boeing Co. (Washington Plants) and the Interna­
tional Association of Machinists—
June 1936—September 1977, BLS Bulletin 1895.
1977-80, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1895.
Commonwealth Edison Co. and the Electrical Workers
(IBEW)—
October 1945—March 1974, BLS Bulletin 1808.
1974- 79, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1808.
Dan River Inc. and the Textile Workers (UTWA)—
1943-79, BLS Bulletin 2048,
FMC Corp., Chemical Group—Fiber Division and the
TWUA—
1945-77, BLS Bulletin 1924.
1977-79, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1924.
Federal Employees under the General Schedule Pay
System—
July 1924—October 1974, BLS Bulletin 1870.
197577, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1870.
Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. and B.F. Goodrich Co.
(Akron Plants)—
1937-79, BLS Bulletin 2011.
Ford Motor Co. and the Auto Workers—
Volume I, June 1941—September 1973, BLS Bulle­
tin 1787.
Volume II, 1973-79, BLS Bulletin 1994.
International Harvester Co. and the Auto Workers—
February 1946—September 1976, BLS Bulletin
1887.
197679, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1887.
International Paper Co., Multiple Mill Group, and the
Paperworkers and the Electrical Workers—
1937-79, BLS Bulletin 2023.
International Shoe Co., the Shoe Workers, and the
Boot and Shoe Workers—
1945-78, BLS Bulletin 2010.
73

Lockheed—California Company (a division of Lock­
heed Aircraft Corp.) and Machinists’ Union—
March 1937—October 1977, BLS Bulletin 1904.
1977-80, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1904.
Martin Marietta Aerospace and the Auto Workers—
March 1944—November 1975, BLS Bulletin 1884.
1975-78, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1884.
Massachusetts Shoe Manufacturers and the Shoe
Workers—
1945—79, BLS Bulletin 1993.
New York City Laundries and the Clothing Workers—
November 1945—November 1975, BLS Bulletin
1845.
1975-78, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1845.
North Atlantic Longshoremen—
1934-80, BLS Bulletin 2063.
Pacific Coast Shipbuilders and Various Unions—
1941-77, BLS Bulletin 1982.
Pacific Gas and Electric Co.—
1943-72, BLS Bulletin 1761.
1972-79, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1761.

Pacific Maritime Association and the ILWU—
1934-78, BLS Bulletin 1960.
Railroads—Nonoperating Employees-^
1920-77, BLS Bulletin 2041.
Rockwell International (Electronics, North American
Aircraft/Space Operations) and the Auto Workers—
May 1941—September 1977, BLS Bulletin 1893.
United States Steel Corporation and United Steel­
workers of America—
March 1937—April 1974, BLS Bulletin 1814.
May 1974—July 1977, Supplement to BLS Bulletin
1814.
Western Greyhound Lines—
1945-67, BLS Bulletin 1595.1
1968-77, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1595.
Western Union Telegraph Co. and the Telegraph
Workers and the Communications Workers—
1943-76, BLS Bulletin 1927.
1976-79, Supplement to BLS Bulletin 1927.

'Out o f print. See Directory o f Wage Chronologies, 1948-June 1977 for M onthly Labor Review issue in which reports and supplements pub­
lished before July 1965 appeared.




74

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

A M E RIC A N

Region I
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: (404) 881-4418

Region V
Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121

Region III
3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154




9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Region VI
Second Floor
555 G riffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 767-6971

Regions VII and VIII
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102