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U.S. Workers
and Their Jobs:
The Changing Picture
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1976

v\
S

Bulletin 1919




Material in this publication is in
the public domain and may be
reproduced without permission of
the Federal Government.
P lease credit the Bureau of Labor
Statistics and cite BLS Bulletin 1919.




r

U.S. Workers
and Their Jobs:
The Changing Picture
U.S. Department of Labor
W. J. Usery, Jr., Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1976
Bulletin 1919




F o r s a le b y t h e S u p e r in te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n ts , U .S . G o v e r n m e n t P r in t in g O ffic e
W a s h in g t o n , D .C . 20402 - P ric e 60 c e n ts
S to c k N o . 0 2 9 - 0 0 1 - 0 1 9 1 7 - 3 / C a t a lo jr N o . L 2 .3 :1 9 1 9
T h e r e is a m in im u m c h a r g e o f $1.00 f o r e a c h m a il o r d e r

☆ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1976 0 - 2 1 7 - 7 5 1




Preface

For more than 90 years, since its begin n in g s as the Bureau of Labor in
1884, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has been collecting and analyzing
information on American workers and the factors affecting their
welfare. Although the B u rea u ’s task has grown as the Nation has
grown, its aim has rem ained the sa m e —to provide a c cu ra te and impar­
tial data to serve the n ee d s of many users. Today, as one of the major
factfinding and statistical a g e n c ie s of the Federal Government, the
Bureau publishes a wide array of detailed data on the labor force,
em ploym ent and unemployment, ea rn in g s and hours of work, prices
and living conditions, industrial relations, productivity and econom ic
growth, occupational injuries and illnesses, and related subjects.
To mark the Nation’s bicentennial year, the Bureau has prepared this
brief chartbook b ase d on data from som e of its major statistical series
to illustrate patterns of c h a n g e in the American econom y and labor
force. The B u rea u ’s regular publications, listed under S o u rce s of Data
at the back of the book, provide greater statistical detail as well as infor­
mation on how the d ata are obtained.
The chartbook was prepared in the Office of Publications by Rosalie
Epstein and Judith Goldstein, with the cooperation of the various pro­
gram offices of the Bureau. G raphics w ere d esig n ed by the Division of
Graphic Services, U.S. Department of Labor.




The Nation’s total labor force—
that is, the proportion of the
population at work, actively s e e k ­
ing work, or in the Armed
F orces— rose from only 2 million
in 1800 to 95 million as 1976
opened. This rapid growth m ade
possible the dramatic transform a­
tion of the United States from a
largely agricultural country—as it
w as in the early 1800’s—to its p r e s ­
ent status as an advanced
industrial nation.
Labor force growth in the past
century can be divided into three
broad stages. From 1870 to 1910,
great waves of immigrants from
Europe swelled the work force.
From 1910 to 1940, internal
population growth a c co u n ted for
most of the increase. From 1940 to
the present, the increasing pro­
portion of women taking jobs out­
side the hom e has been an impor­
tant factor in labor force growth.

I

1800

1810




1820

1830

1840

1850

I860

1870

1880

M illio n s
r— 100

The Nation’s swift
industrial advance
would not have been
possible without the
rapid growth of its
labor force.

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
1900

Chart 1.

1910

1920

1930

U.S. total labor force




1940

1950

1960

1970

1975

Whether workers make nuts and
bolts or type letters, their produc­
tivity can be measured by the
amount they produce in an hour of
work. Average output per hour of
all persons has been rising over
the years, although not always at a
steady rate. From 1909 to 1950,
productivity increased by 2 per­
cent a year. For the next 20 years,
growth in productivity averaged a
little under 3 percent a year. Since
1970, the annual increase has
been under 2 percent. As a result
of all these small yearly improve­
ments, workers today produce
more than four times the hourly
output of workers in the early
1900’s.
Advances in technology, greater
capital investment, and the in­
creasing skill and education of
American workers are among the
many causes of the long-term rise
in productivity.




1909

1930

Today’s workers
produce more than
four times as much in
one hour as workers
did early in the
century.

Index, 1967= 100
120

100

—

60

20

0
1950

Chart 2.

1970

1975

Index of output per hour of all persons,
total private economy




io n s
12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0
1900




1910

1920

1930

1940

During the Nation’s first century,
most workers were employed in
farming. By 1900, however,
although farm employment was
still increasing, more workers
were employed in nonfarm indus­
tries such as manufacturing and
trade. By 1920, farm employment
had started its long-term decline.
In 1975, fewer than 4 million per­
sons, 4 percent of those
employed, worked on farms.

But farm output increased greatly
even though the farm work force
was declining—yield per acre
rose with the use of improved fer­
tilizer and feeds, pesticides, and
mechanized equipment.
The transfer of labor from
agriculture to other industries has
been an important source of
growth for the economy as a
whole.

The number of workers in farm
employment has been declining
since the early 1 9 0 0 ’s.

1950

Chart 3.

1960

1970

Persons employed in agriculture




1975

Since 1925, service-producing in­
dustries have contributed almost
80 percent of the total growth in
nonfarm employment. Among the
industries creating the greatest
number of jobs since 1950 have
been State and local government,
trade, and services such as health
care.

T r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d u tilitie s

In 1975, of the 77 million
employees in nonfarm jobs, 54
million or 7 out of 10 worked in
service-producing industries.

D istrib u tio n of n o n a g ric u ltu ra l
e m p lo y m e n t by in d u stry d iv isio n , 1975

Most of the employment
growth in the past 5 0 years
has been in industries
which produce services
rather than goods.

19 25




1950

Chart 4.

Employees on nonagricultural payrolls
by industry sector




Since the first computer was built
30 years ago, computer-related
occupations have mushroomed
and now provide employment for
hundreds of thousands of workers
in professional, technical, clerical,
and repair occupations.
While technology has created
some new occupations, it has also
lessened the need for others. For
example, the use of dictating
machines has resulted in a sharp
decline in the employment of
stenographers. Elevator opera­
tors, too, find jobs much more
scarce as automatic elevators
replace the old manual models.

Advances
in technology
have created new
occupations. . .

Opportunities for training, retrain­
ing, and continuing education
become increasingly important for
workers in a fast-changing world.




. . . and caused
others to decline.

Thousands

Thousands
---------------3 0 0
C om puter program m ers

--------------- 1 0 0
Data processing
m ach in e repairers

—

75

—

50

—

25

200

100
• •••
••
• •••
• ••

X.

A...M
1970

C h a r t

5.

1975

E m p lo y m e n t




1985

in

s e le c te d

1970

o c c u p a t i o n s

1975

1985

T h e

p ro p o rtio n

in t h e

o v e r th e
fro m

of w o m e n

la b o r fo rc e

h a s

w h o

a re

in c r e a s e d

p a s t q u a rte r- c e n tu r y —

3 3 .9 p e r c e n t o f all w o m e n

1 9 5 0 to 46.4 p e r c e n t
T h e

i n c r e a s e

e v e n ly

h a s

a m o n g

1950, y o u n g

n o t o c c u r r e d

all a g e

w o m e n

g r o u p s .

In

ju st o u t of

s c h o o l w e r e th e m o s t
w o r k in g .

in

in 1 9 7 5 .

likely to b e

B y 1960, a relatively

g r e a te r n u m b e r of o ld e r w o m e n
w e r e

at w o rk , h a v in g

jo b s
a n d

th eir h o m e

h a d
th e

o b ta in e d

after th eir c h ild re n

le s s e n e d .

B e tw e e n

p re s e n t, th e r e

s u b s ta n tia l
fo rc e

h a s

in c r e a s e

p a rtic ip a tio n

th eir tw e n tie s a n d
e v e n

a m o n g

h a d

g r o w n

re s p o n s ib ilitie s
1 9 6 0 a n d

b e e n
in t h e

a

The changing role of
women in society
is mirrored in the
rising proportion of
women who are in
the labor force . . .

la b o r

of w o m e n

in

e a rly thirties,

t h o s e w ith

y o u n g

c h ild re n .
R isin g

d iv o rc e

ra te s a n d
birth

a n d

s e p a r a tio n

th e s te e p

ra te h a v e

d e c lin e

a ls o

in t h e

i n c r e a s e d

rate of e n try of w o m e n

th e

into th e

la b o r fo rce.
In c o n t r a s t , e a r l i e r r e t i r e m e n t s
h a v e

lo w e re d

m e n 's

p a rtic ip a tio n

rate s. O th e r a lte rn a tiv e s to w o rk
s u c h

a s e d u c a tio n

p la y e d

a ls o

a role.




h a v e

. . . At the same time,
men’s participation
has been declining.

P r o p o r t i o n in l a b o r f o r c e

C h a r t

6.

L a b o r

fo rc e




p a rtic ip a tio n

r a te s

b y

s e x

S i n c e th e e n d
th e r e

h a v e

of W o rld

b e e n

d o w n tu r n s , e a c h

m a r k e d

u n e m p lo y m e n t. T h e
d o w n tu r n

W a r

II,

six b u s i n e s s

in 1 9 7 3 - 7 5

by h ig h

m o s t r e c e n t
ra is e d

u n e m p l o y m e n t to its h i g h e s t le v e l
in 3 5 y e a r s . T h e
u n e m p l o y e d

n u m b e r of

a v e r a g e d

7.8 m illio n

in 1 9 7 5 , o r 8 .5 p e r c e n t o f t h e

la b o r

fo rc e .
Y o u n g
o u ts,
b la c k

p e o p le , h ig h

w o r k e r s

u n e m p l o y m e n t
in t h e

s c h o o l

d r o p ­

b lu e -c o lla r w o rk e rs , a n d
h a v e

h a d

h ig h e r

ra te s th e n

o th e r s

la b o r force.




Sharp increases
in unemployment
have been a
recurring problem
in our economy.

Percent

—

C h a r t

7.

U n e m p lo y e d




a s

p e r c e n t

of

civilian

la b o r

fo rc e

9

B la c k
c e n t
a b o u t
th e

w o r k e r s
of

th e

th e

m a d e

la b o r
s a m e

p o p u la tio n .

w e r e

19

p e r c e n t

u p

fo rc e
a s

11
in

th eir

H o w e v e r,
of

p e r ­

1975,

s h a r e
th e y

th e

u n e m p lo y e d .

H ig h e r
b la c k

of

h a v e

r a te s

re fle c te d ,

fa c to rs,
sk ille d
a

of

u n e m p l o y m e n t

c o m p a r e d

lo w e r

th e

s e c u r e

o fte n

level

of

a n d

w h ite

a m o n g

le s s

jo b s

a tta in m e n t,

to

h e ld

for

w o r k e r s

o th e r
a n d
by

lo w e r

b la c k s ,

e d u c a tio n a l
racial

d isc rim in a tio n .

Civilian
labor force

U nem ploym ent

1950




1955

1960

The unemployment
rate of black workers
has averaged about
tw ice the rate of
white workers.

—

1

l

1

l l I r

1970

1965

C h a r t

8.

U n e m p lo y e d




a s

p e r c e n t

of

civilian

1975
la b o r

fo rc e

b y

r a c e

9

C o n s u m e r

p r ic e s r o s e

p e r c e n t a y e a r o n th e
fro m
a n

1 9 6 5 to

1975. c o m p a r e d

i n c r e a s e

a y e a r fro m

of le s s th a n

a lr e a d y

for th e V ie t­

so c ia l p r o g r a m s

p riv a te s p e n d i n g

h ig h .

p ric e a n d

in t h e

g o v e r n m e n t

u p s p e n d i n g

W a r a n d

tim e w h e n

w ith

2 p e r c e n t

to rise rap id ly

m i d - 1 9 6 0 ’s a s t h e

n a m

7

1 9 5 5 to 1965.

P r ic e s s ta rte d

s t e p p e d

m o r e th a n
a v e r a g e

In t h e e a r l y

w a g e

at a

w a s

1 9 7 0 ’s ,

c o n t r o l s — t h e first

p u t i n t o e f f e c t in p e a c e t i m e —
s lo w e d

inflation te m p o ra rily , b u t

p r ic e s c lim b e d
a n d
th e

s h a rp ly

1974. A m o n g
rise w e r e

d e m a n d

th e

in 1 9 7 3

r e a s o n s

in c r e a s e d

for

w o rld

for U .S. p r o d u c ts , g r a in

in

p a r tic u la r , t h e s h u to f f o f oil s u p ­
p lie s
e n d

by A r a b c o u n trie s , a n d
of p ric e c o n tro ls.

e ffe c ts of th e w o r ld w id e
d o w n tu r n
p ric e

h e lp e d

s lo w

th e

B y 1975, th e
b u s in e s s

th e

in c r e a s e s .




p a c e

of

Consumer prices have
risen almost four
times as fast since
1965 as in the
previous 10 years.
I n d e x , 1 96 7 = 1 0 0
■170

■150

■130

■ 110

90

70

50
197 5

Chart 9.

Consumer price index for urban wage earners
and clerical workers




Workers’ hourly earnings have in­
creased by 73 percent since 1967.
However, in “ real” terms—
measured in dollars of constant
purchasing power—earnings
have advanced only 7 percent.
Since 1973, prices have risen
more rapidly than money earnings
so that real earnings have actually
declined.




Years of high rates of inflation
have spurred union efforts to
obtain cost-of-living escalator
clauses in collective bargaining
agreements. Escalator clauses
provide for periodic automatic
adjustment of wage rates based
on changes in prices. More than 6
million workers were covered by
such provisions in 1975.

Although workers’
hourly earnings have
risen steadily, much of
the gain in recent
years has been eroded
by rapidly rising prices.

j j

1967

1969

I n d e x , 1 96 7 = 100
—

180

160

140

120

100

Chart 10.

Hourly earnings index, production and nonsupervisory
workers in the private nonfarm economy, in current
and 1967 dollars




At the turn of the century, most
workers were paid only for the
time they worked. Today, in addi­
tion to pay for working time,
workers receive a variety of sup­
plements that contribute to their
well-being and financial protec­
tion.
The supplements are in the form
of 1) retirement programs fi­
nanced by employers through
Federal social security contribu­
tions or private pension plans; 2)
paid time off for vacation and holi­
days; and 3) life insurance and
health benefits. Other supple­
ments include unemployment in­
surance, matching payments into
savings funds, and year-end
bonuses.
Supplements to pay have grown
as a share of total compensation.
For production workers in
manufacturing, supplements were
about 15 percent of compensation
in 1959 and 21 percent in 1974.

Retirement benefits,
paid vacations, and
other supplements to
pay have become
a larger share
of workers’ total
compensation.




P e rc e n t
--------1 0 0

R e tire m e n t
p ro g ra m s
—

90

—

80

—

70

—

60

—

50

—

40

—

30

—

20

—

V a c a tio n a n d
h o lid a y pay

10

L ife in s u ra n c e
a n d h e a lth b e n e fits
O th e r

P a y fo r
w o rk in g tim e

0

197 4

Chart 11.

Employee compensation, manufacturing production
workers, percent distribution




Young people have been staying
in school longer. For example, in
1952 only 43 percent of the labor
force were high school graduates;
by 1975, this proportion had in­
creased to 71 percent. The propor­
tion of workers having some col­
lege education almost doubled
between 1952 and 1975.
In contrast, 38 percent of the work
force in 1952 had not progressed
beyond an elementary school
education; in 1975 only 12 percent
had so little education.

Over the past two decades, the
rise in the educational level of
American workers has gone hand
in hand with the increasing de­
mand for more highly trained and
educated workers. In future years,
however, the continuing increase
in the proportion of young people
going to college may result in
more graduates than the number
of jobs requiring a college educa­
tion. As graduates settle for jobs
for which they may be “ overqualified,” dissatisfaction and in­
creased job-hopping may be the
result.

1 o r m o re y e a rs
o f c o lle g e

4

y e a rs

o f h ig h s c h o o l

1 - 3 y e a rs
o f h ig h s c h o o l

8 y e a rs
o f e le m e n ta r y
s c h o o l or less




1952

The level of education
of American workers
has risen substantially
in the last
quarter-century.

P e rc e n t
100

—

90

—

80

—

70

—

60

—

50

—

40

—

30

—

20

—

10

-------0

1975

Chart 12.

Educational attainment of the civilian
labor force, percent distribution




The unemployment insurance
system provides weekly payments
to unemployed workers while they
are looking for jobs. Established
in the 1930’s, unemployment com­
pensation was at first available to
fewer than half of all workers.
Over the years, both Federal and
State laws extended insurance
protection—by 1974, 82 percent of
all workers were covered.
Eligibility requirements and the
amount and duration of benefits
vary from State to State.




Still outside the regular program
are most household workers, farm
workers, and local government
employees, and some State
government employees. Tempor­
ary legislation passed in 1974
authorized payments to these
workers during periods of high
unemployment.
Some private employers have set
up supplemental unemployment
benefit plans which provide addi­
tional income for workers when
they are laid off.

1938

Government unemployment
insurance now gives 4 out of 5
workers some income protection
during periods of joblessness.

1974

Chart 13.

Proportion of workers covered by Federal
and State unemployment insurance programs




Passage of the Wagner Act in
1935—which guaranteed the right
of workers to organize and
bargain collectively—marked the
beginning of the rapid growth of
unions in the United States. By the
end of World War II, U.S. union
membership had quadrupled.
Over the following decades, mem­
bership grew at a much slower
rate—to 20 million in 1974.
Despite this expansion in num­
bers, union membership has failed
to keep up with the growth of the
labor force. Union representation
in the labor force in 1974, at 21.7
percent, was at its lowest level
since 1944.
Union membership alone is no
longer an accurate measure of the
number of workers represented by
labor organizations. Since the
early 1960’s, professional and
government employee associ­
ations increasingly have shifted to
bargaining activities. Together,
unions and employee associ­
ations count 22.8 million U.S.
workers as members, about onefourth of the labor force.




Although union
membership
has continued
to grow . . .

. . . growth has
not kept pace
with the increase
in the labor force.

M illio n s

Chart 14.

U.S. membership in labor unions and membership
as a proportion of labor force




Most labor-management disputes
in the United States are settled
without a strike. In 28 of the 30
years since the end of World War
II, idleness due to work stoppages
has amounted to less than onehalf of 1 percent of working time.
Most strikes are settled in 2 weeks
or less.
Wages and other economic
benefits have been the primary
issues in most strikes, but working
conditions, union security, and
disputes among unions also have
caused work stoppages.
Average idleness due to strikes in
the United States compared with
other industrialized countries in
the first five years of the 1970’s is
shown below.

D a y s id le p e r th o u s a n d e m p lo y e e s .
1 9 7 0 -7 4 a n n u a l a v e r a g e




Particular strikes
often receive
wide publicity,
but the actual
amount of time
away from work
because of
labor-management
disputes is
relatively small.

ja

H

F

'

.

iig i: **;
-

V

w
S trik e
id le n e s s
197 5
0 .1 8
p e rc e n t

Chart 15.

Work stoppages: Idleness as a
percent of total estimated
working time




The labor force grew at a particu­
larly rapid pace during the last
decade. This rate will not continue
into the 1980’s because the num­
ber of young people reaching
working age will decline substan­
tially, reflecting the steep drop in
the birth rate during the 1960’s.
Nevertheless, the total labor force
is expected to approach the 117million mark by 1990.
Women are expected to account
for much of the labor force expan­
sion in the 1980's as an increasing
proportion take jobs outside the
home and as men’s labor force
participation continues to decline.

During the next 15
years, more than 2 0
million workers are
expected to join the
labor force.




Im
tttt
mtm
mmi
ttttttt

1 97 0

1

_ ^ r-rn T fT T
100

tttttttttittttm
ttftttttttttttttt
ttttmmtmm

80

60

40

20

0

198 0

Chart 16.

1 98 5

U.S. total labor force by sex: Projections to 1990




1990

Sources of Data
C h a rt

1.

1 8 0 0 -1 9 2 0 — S ta n le y L e b e r g o tt, M a n p o w e r in E c o n o m ic
G r o w th : T h e A m e r ic a n R e c o r d S in c e 1 8 00, M c G r a w H ill.
1964. pp . 510 . 512; 1 9 3 0 -7 5 — E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a r n in g s ,
M a y 197 6 . ta b le A -1. D a ta fo r 1 8 0 0 -1 8 9 0 a re fo r p e rs o n s 10
y e a rs o f a g e a n d o ld e r; 1 9 0 0 -1 9 4 0 . p e rs o n s 14 y e a rs o f a g e
a n d o ld e r; 1 9 5 0 -7 5 . p e rs o n s 16 y e a rs o f a g e a n d o ld e r.

C h a rt

2.

1 9 0 9 -1 9 3 0 — u n p u b lis h e d d a ta . D iv is io n o f P ro d u c tiv ity
R e s e a rc h . B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s : 1 9 5 0 -7 5 — M o n t h ly
L a b o r R e v ie w . M a y 1976. p. 103. ta b le 31.

C h a rt

3.

1 9 0 0 -1 9 4 0 — L e b e r g o tt, M a n p o w e r in E c o n o m ic G r o w th , p.
5 12; 1 9 5 0 -7 5 — E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a r n in g s , M a y 1 9 7 6 , ta b le
A - 1 . D a ta fo r 1 9 0 0 -1 9 4 0 a re fo r p e rs o n s 14 y e a r s o f a g e a n d
o ld e r; 1 9 5 0 -7 5 . p e rs o n s 16 y e a rs o f a g e a n d o ld e r.

C h a rt

4.

E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a r n in g s , M a y 197 6 , ta b le B - 1 .

C h a rt

5.

1 96 0 — 1 96 0 D e c e n n ia l C e n s u s , B u re a u o f th e C e n s u s ;
1 9 7 0 -8 5 . B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s . D a ta fo r 1 9 7 0 a n d 198 5
a re u n p u b lis h e d ; d a ta fo r 1 97 5 a re in E m p lo y m e n t a n d
E a r n in g s , J a n u a r y 197 6 , p. 11.

C h a rt

6.

E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a r n in g s , M a y 197 6 . t a b le A -2 .

C h a rt

7.

E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a r n in g s , M a y 197 6 , t a b le A - 1 .

C h a rt

8.

1 9 5 0 -7 4 — H a n d b o o k o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s 1 9 7 5 , ta b le 6 0 ;




197 5 — E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a r n in g s , J a n u a r y 197 6 , p. 138,
ta b le 3.

C h a rt

9.

C h a rt 10.

C h a rt 11.

1 95 5 a n d 1 9 6 5 — H a n d b o o k o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s 1 9 75, ta b le
122: 1 97 5 — M o n t h ly L a b o r R e v ie w , M a y 1 97 6 . p. 89. t a b le 23.

C u r r e n t W a g e D e v e lo p m e n ts , M a y 1976, p. 43. t a b le 1.

1 9 5 9 — H a n d b o o k o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s 1 9 7 5 , t a b le 119; 1974—
u n p u b lis h e d d a ta . D iv is io n o f G e n e r a l C o m p e n s a tio n
S tr u c tu r e s , B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

C h a rt 12.

1 9 5 2 — H a n d b o o k o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s 1 9 75, ta b le 12; 1 97 5 —
M o n t h ly L a b o r R e v ie w , F e b ru a ry 197 6 , p. 48, ta b le 2.
D a ta fo r 1 95 2 a re fo r p e rs o n s 18 y e a rs o f a g e a n d o ld e r;
1975. p e rs o n s 16 y e a rs o f a g e a n d o ld e r.

C h a rt 13.

E m p lo y m e n t a n d W a g e s , F o u rth Q u a r te r 1 9 7 4 , t a b le 1.

C h a rt 14.

1 9 3 0 -7 2 — H a n d b o o k o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s 1 9 7 5 , t a b le 158;
1974— u n p u b lis h e d d a ta , D iv is io n o f In d u s tria l R e la tio n s ,
B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

C h a rt 15.

M o n t h ly L a b o r R e v ie w , M a y 197 6 , p. 107, t a b le 37; c o m ­
p a ris o n w ith fo r e ig n c o u n trie s c a lc u la t e d fro m d a ta in
H a n d b o o k o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s 1975, ta b le 177.

C h a rt 16.




1 9 7 0 a n d 1 9 7 5 — E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a r n in g s , M a y 1 9 7 6 , ta b le
A -2; p r o je c tio n s — u n p u b lis h e d d a ta , D iv is io n o f L a b o r
F o rc e S tu d ie s , B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

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