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SEASONALITY
AND MANPOWER
IN CONSTRUCTION
BULLETIN 1642
U S DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
..

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
1970




Dayton & Montgomery Oo.
Public Library
SEP 9

1970




SEASONALITY
AND MANPOWER
IN CONSTRUCTION
BULLETIN 1642
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
George P Shultz. Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Geoffrey H. Moore. Commissioner

For sale b y the S u p e rin te n d e n t o f D ocu m en ts, U.S. G o v e rn m e n t Printing O ffic e , W a s h in g to n , D .C. 20402 - Price $1.25







PREFACE
The Bureau of Labor Statistics has prepared this bulletin on construction manpower problems based on a
study of available data, both published and unpublished. Available data concerning employment and unemploy­
ment, wages, and annual earnings, and mobility of workers in construction are seldom collected, analyzed, and
reported in a single study. The purpose of this bulletin is to increase understanding about the problems confronting
the industry, to present a basis for developing new policies and programs, and to encourage additional research
in the field.
Statistical data were drawn from a variety of sources for this report. The Bureau of Labor Statistics estab­
lishment and household surveys provided the data on employment and unemployment— some of which have not
been presented before. To get a more intimate look at the manpower problems confronting the construction in­
dustry, data covering various construction occupations were obtained from the records of private health, welfare,
and pension funds and from the records of the Social Security Administration. To study the relation between
weather conditions and fluctuations in employment, data were obtained from the records of the U. S. Weather
Bureau. These data are presented for one city in this report to illustrate what type of information can be devel­
oped from these records. To better understand seasonality in construction studying the weather data for a greater
number of cities may prove advantageous, since construction is local in nature.
Additional data from the records of the Social Security Administration were not received in time to be in­
cluded in this report, but will be released later. These data will provide additional information about the pattern
of geographic and industrial mobility of construction workers.
Seasonality and Manpower in Construction was prepared in cooperation with the Construction Industry Joint
Conference (CIJC). Professor John T. Dunlop, of Harvard University, former Impartial Chairman of the CIJC, as­
sisted the Bureau in acquiring data from private health, welfare and pension funds for this study. The study was
prepared in the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Manpower and Employment Statistics by Joe L. Russell with
assistance from Professor Daniel Quinn Mills of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Michael J. Pilot and
David P. Lafayette of the Bureau’s Division of Manpower and Occupational Outlook.







CONTENTS

Page
Chapter:
I.
II.
III.

Introduction and summary...............................................................................................................
General characteristics of the construction industry.......................................................................
Construction employment.................................................................................................................
Total employment in construction............................................................................................
Employment by class of worker.................................................................................................
Employment by major occupation group....................................................................................
Employment by selected craft occupation..................................................................................
Employment by type of contractor............................................................................................
Contract construction employment by type of worker...............................................................
Employment by age.......................................................................................................................
Employment of w om en...............................................................................................................
Employment by size of contractor...............................................................................................
Location of employment...............................................................................................................
IV. Seasonal employment...............................................................
Seasonality of employment in construction..................................................................................
Seasonal employment by type of contractor...............................................................................
Seasonal employment by type and class of worker.....................................................................
Seasonal employment by size and location of construction firm................................................
Seasonality and the attachment of workers to contract construction........................................
Factors that influence seasonality...............................................................................................
Additional cost of winter work....................................................................................................
V.
Unemployment in construction..........................................................................................................
Duration of unemployment by spell of unemployment.............................................................
Incidences of unemployment and full extent of time lost..........................................................
Unemployment by age groups....................................................................................................
Unemployment by race..................................................................................................................
Unemployment in construction and the Nation’s labor force.....................................................
Unemployment by skill..................................................................................................................
Seasonal unemployment in construction.....................................................................................
Seasonal unemployment by
skill........................................................................................
Seasonal unemployment by
race........................................................................................
Seasonal unemployment by
age..........................................................................................
Frictional unemployment...............................................................................................................
Part-time employment..................................................................................................................
VI. Earnings...............................................................................................................................................
Wage comparisons..........................................................................................................................
Annual income...............................................................................................................................
Hourly rates and annual earnings by a re a ..................................................................................
VII. Attachment of workers to the contract construction industry and interindustry m obility...........




v

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7
14
14
14
15
15
15
15
16
16
17
17
24
24
26
27
27
28
28
29
38
38
39
39
40
41
42
43
43
43
44
44
45
54
54
55
56
62

CONTENTS— Continued

Page
Chapter— Continued
VIII.

Work experience of individual construction workers over a 12-month period...........................
Hours of work...............................................................................................................................
Age and hours reported...............................................................................................................

68
69
70

Tables:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Gross national product (GNP) and new construction put in place as a percent of GNP, by
type of ownership, 1947—
68..........................................................................................................
Private and public construction as a percent of total new construction, 1947— 8 ........................
6
Residential and nonresidential buildings construction as a percent of total private expenditures
on new construction, 1947— .....................................................................................................
68
Percent distribution of new public construction put in place, by type of ownership, 1947—
68. .
Percent of total, direct, and indirect output of selected industries attributable to new
construction and maintenance and repair construction, 1958 .....................................................
Impact of decline in private nonfarm residential new housing units and commercial
construction expenditures on selected industry output, first to third quarter, 1966...................
Distribution of man-hours per $1,000 of contract cost, by major types of construction,
industry, and occupation, 1959—
62...............................................................................................
Percent distribution of employment in construction, by class of workers, 1950—
68.....................
Percent distribution of employed persons, by major occupation group in construction,
1958-68..........................................................................................................................................
Employment by selected craft occupation in construction, 1950 and 1960 ..................................
Employment by type of contractor as a percent of total contract construction employment,
1945-68.........................................................................................................................................
Wage and salary employment in the operative builders industry, 1958— ...................................
68
Wage and salary employment in contract construction by type of contractor and worker,
1968 ...............................................................................................................................................
Construction workers as a percent of total employment, by type of contractor, 1947—
68...........
Employment of wage and salary workers in contract construction, by type of worker and
percent change, 1947— 8 .................................................................................................................
6
Percent distribution of age and median age of all employed males and males employed in
construction, 1950 and 1960 .......................................................................................................
Percent distribution of median age and proportion of employed males, 45 years of age and
over, selected building trades, 1950 and 1960 .............................................................................
Average number of employees per reporting unit, selected years..................................................
Percent distribution of firms by number of employees in contract construction, selected years. .
Percent distribution of employment in contract construction and manufacturing, by region
and State, selected years...............................................................................................................
Measures of seasonality in contract construction, 1947—
68 ..........................................................
Cyclical and seasonal employment change in contract construction, all employees and
construction workers, 1947— .....................................................................................................
68
Contract construction employment in February and August as a percent of the annual
average, by region, selected years..................................................................................................
Seasonal adjustment factors for wage and salary workers, February and August, and percent
change, by type of contractor, 1968 ...............................................................................................




VI

11
11
11
11
12
12
13
18
18
18
19
19
19
20
20
21
21
21
22
23
31
31
31
32

CONTENTS— Continued

Page
Tables— Continued
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.

39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.

Employment in contract construction as a percent of the annual average employment,
February and August, selected years..........................................................................................
Index of seasonal variation in monthly employment in construction and for carpenters,
construction craftsmen (except carpenters), and construction laborers, 1960 and 1968 ...........
Seasonal adjustment factors for wage and salary workers, by class of workers in contract
construction, February and August, 1948—
68 .............................................................................
Employment in construction by class of worker, percent change from first quarter (January,
February, March) to third quarter (July, August, September), 1962—
68 ...................................
Employment in construction by selected occupational group, percent change from first quarter
(January, February, March) to third quarter (July, August, September), 1962—
66 ..................
Seasonal adjustment factors for contract construction employment by type and size of
contractor and region, February and August, 1968 .....................................................................
Seasonal adjustment factors for employment in the contract construction industry, by State,
February and August, selected years............................................................................................
Percent distribution of employees by estimated quarters of work for selected industries, 1964 . .
Percent distribution of employees of general building contractors by quarters of work, by
region, 1964 .................................................................................................................................
Percent distribuiton of employees of general building contractors, by estimated quarters of
work, by age, 1964 .......................................................................................................................
Percent distribution of employees of general building contractors, by estimated quarters of
work, by race, 1964 ....................................................................................................................
Unemployment rates of private wage and salary workers, nonagricultural industries as a
whole and construction, February and August, 1964— and annual average, 1948— ...........
68
68
Employment and unemployment of male job changers, by industry of longest job, 1961...........
Incidence, recurrent spells, and extent of unemployment of nonagricultural wage and salary
workers as a percent of total wage and salary workers having work experience, by
industry of longest job, 1968 .......................................................................................................
Average duration of each spell of unemployment for male wage and salary workers by weeks,
selected industries, 1960— .........................................................................................................
68
Percent distribution of unemployed male wage and salary workers in construction by duration
of unemployment, by month, 1968 ............................................................................................
Work experience and extent of unemployment of nonagricultural wage and salary workers
16 years and older, by industry of longest job, 1968 ...............................................................
Percent distribution of employed and experienced unemployed male wage and salary workers
in construction, by age, annual averages, 1963— .....................................................................
68
Male teenagers as a percent of employed and experienced unemployed wage and salary
workers, all industries and construction, by selected time periods, 1963— .............................
68
Unemployment rates of male wage and salary workers all industries and construction, by
selected time periods, 1963— ....................................................................................................
68
Unemployment rates of males by race and selected occupations, annual averages, 1963— 8 . . . .
6
Distribuiton of employed and experienced unemployed males, by race and selected occupation,
1968 ...............................................................................................................................................
Number of carpenters and construction craftsmen (except carpenters) employed in construction
and in all other industries, annual averages, 1963—
66 ...............................................................
Percent distribution of Negro males as a proportion of total males in construction and selected
occupation, by employment status, 1963—
68 .............................................................................




vi I

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33
33
34
34
34
35
36
36
37
37
46
46

46
46
47
47
47
48
48
48
49
49
49

CONTENTS— Continued

Page
Tables— Continued
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.

67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.

Unemployment rates for selected occupations, February and August, 1964—
68, and annual
averages, 1957—
68
50
Work experience and extent of unemployment of persons 16 years of age and over, by
selected occupation of longest job, 1968 ..................................................................................... 50
Incidence, recurrent spells, and extent of unemployment of persons 16 years of age and
over as a percent of total with experience by selected occupation of longest job, 1968 . . . .
51
Percent distribution of weeks worked by male wage and salary workers in the experienced
civilian labor force, by selected occupation, 1959 ........................................................................ 51
Experienced unemployed private wage and salary workers in construction, monthly and
annual averages, 1948—
68 ............................................................................................................. 52
Seasonal adjustment factors for experienced unemployed private wage and salary workers
in construction, by month, 1948—
68 ........................................................................................... 52
Unemployment construction laborers as a percent of all unemployed wage and salary workers
in construction, 1958—
68 ............................................................................................................. 52
Percent distribution of males by reason for leaving jobs, by industry group, 1955 and 1961 . . . 53
Percent distribuiton of nonagricultural wage and salary workers, by full- or part-time status,
by industry, 1968 .......................................................................................................................... 53
Percent distribution of male wage and salary workers, by race, full- or part-time status, 1968 . . 53
Average weekly earnings and wage relatives of construction and production workers in contract
construction and selected industries, 1947— ............................................................................. 57
68
Average hourly earnings and wage relatives of construction and production workers in contract
construction and selected industries, 1947— ............................................................................. 57
68
Gross earnings and hours of production workers, by selected industry, 1968................................ 58
Wage relatives for selected building crafts in contract construction and basic steel (basic union
hourly wage rates), July 1 of each year, 1947— ..................................................................... 58
68
Straight-time average hourly earnings in maintenance work and union scales in building
construction, 3 trades in 50 areas, 1965— ...............................................................................
66
59
Differences between union construction scales and straight-time average hourly earnings of
maintenance workers, 3 trades in selected metropolitan areas, 1955 and 1966........................... 60
Cumulative percent distributions of total reported earnings of employees reporting most of
their income in 1964 from selected construction industries, by selected earnings intervals. . . .
60
Estimated total average (mean) annual earnings of workers with any earnings reported and
of those workers with most of their earnings reported from selected construction
industries, by region, 1964............................................................................................................
61
Average number of 2-digit industry groups in which male wage and salary workers were
employed in specific industry division, 1962 ............................................................................... 64
Percent of male wage and salary workers who had a different industry of major job in 1960
than in 1957, by industry, of major job in 1957 ....................................................................... 64
Percent distribution of male wage and salary workers in contract construction in 1960
who were employed in other industries in 1957, by industry of major job in 1957 ................ 64
Percent of male wage and salary workers who worked for more than 1 employer in 1962,
by industry of major jo b ............................................................................... ............................... 64
Percent distribution of male wage and salary workers with major job in a different industry
in 1960 and 1957, by industry.................................................................................................... 65
Percent of male wage and salary workers who were employed in the same industry in 1957
and 1960, by age in 1960, race, and industry of major jo b ........................................................ 65




viii

CONTENTS— Continued

Page
Tables— Continued
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.

Percent of male wage and salary workers employed in contract construction in 1960, by
industry of major job in 1957, age in 1960, and ra ce ...............................................................
Proportion of multiemployer male wage and salary workers who were multi-industry workers,
by industry of major job in 1962..................................................................................................
Percent distribution of all and 4-quarter workers, by number of employers, selected
industries, 1964...............................................................................................................................
Proportion of all workers reporting earnings in selected industries who reported the major
share of their earnings in the selected industries, 1957...............................................................
Average number of hours worked in 12-month period for workers whoworked in January and
for those who did not work in January, by selected constructionoccupation in 3 cities . . . .
Average number of hours worked in a 12-month period for all workers and those with 700
hours or more of work, by selected construction occupations in 4 areas..................................
Percent of employees reporting fewer than 400 and more than 1,800 hours in a 12-month
period by selected construction occupation in 4 areas...............................................................
Percentage of construction workers with hours of work reported for a 12-month period, by
selected construction occupation and hours intervals in 4 areas...................................................
Percent of employees reporting more than 1,000, 1,400, and 1,800 hours of work in a
12-month period in southern California, and Detroit, by selected occupation and
age intervals....................................................................................................................................

66
66
67
67
71
71
71
72

72

Charts:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Construction seasonality and unemployment rate, 1957— ..........................................................
68
25
Chill factor for selected wind speeds.................................................................................................. 108
Wind chill - diurnal variation..................................................................................................................108
Annual March of wind chill selected cities.......................................................................................... 108

Appendixes:
A.
B.
C.
D.

Special survey of manpower utilization............................................................................................. 73
The measurement of seasonal unemployment in 1968........................................................................197
Measuring the effect of weather on employment in contract construction........................................ 102
The effect of weather on construction operations............................................................................. 107
E.
Weather records.................................................................................................................................... 119
F.
Description of social security data and method of estimating wages................................................ 127
G..................................................................................................................................................................... 132







CHAPTER I. IN T R O D U C T IO N A N D S U M M A R Y
Construction manpower problems have perplexed national policy makers for years. Unemployment rates
for construction workers are relatively high. From 1960 to 1968, for example, the unemployment rate for private
wage and salary workers in construction averaged 11.1 percent, compared with a rate of 5.2 percent for all private
wage and salary workers. Even at its seasonal low the unemployment rate for the industry usually is much higher
than the rate for other industries. Paradoxically, each summer brings complaints of labor shortages from contrac­
tors, and the volume of complaints increases as the pace of aggregate economic activity quickens. A surplus of
contruction manpower often exists in one locality, while a shortage is apparent in another. Unlike a manufactur­
ing concern that can locate in an area with available manpower, a contractor must either bring his workers to the
building site or find new workers in the area. Shortages of construction labor often are found in an area where
there have been relatively few opportunities for these workers in the recent past. When construction activity de­
creases in a locality, construction workers move to other localities or take jobs in other local industries.
Collective agreements in construction are said to be pacesetters for wage settlements throughout the country.
Arguments for an hourly wage differential for construction workers are based on the fact that construction workers
generally experience higher rates of unemployment than workers in most other industries. These high rates of un­
employment are due to the seasonal nature of the work and other characteristics of the industry. The regional
mobility required of construction workers presents an additional hardship to the industry’s labor force. The argu­
ment is that the wage differential is necessary to insure that a construction labor force will be available with the
right skills at the right time and in the right place.
Construction plays a vital role in the American economy:
— Construction activity, including maintenance and repair activity, made up nearly 14 percent of gross na­
tional product in 1968.
— Construction represents at least two-thirds of the market for five industries and at least one-sixth of the
market for 12 additional industries.
— In the post-World War II period, construction as a portion of GNP has declined slowly.
— Public construction activity has grown faster than private construction activity.
The following information points out the size and changing composition of construction employment.
Annual average employment in construction was 4.6 million in 1968, more than 25 percent above the level of 3.6
million in 1950. After rising rapidly in the early 1950’s, employment has remained on a narrow plateau between
1964 and 1968 (4.5 and 4.6 million).
— Private wage and salary workers have remained at about 70 percent of total employment in construction
since 1950.
— Government workers as a proportion of total construction employment increased between 1950 and 1968
from 10 to 13 percent, while the proportion of self-employed and unpaid family workers fell from 20 to
15 percent.




1

— Woman, primarily office workers, make up a very small but stable proportion of employment in
construction— about 5 percent.
— Blue-collar workers (craftsmen, operatives, and laborers) account for about four-fifths of construction
employment. Operatives as a proportion of total employment have increased slightly, and laborers
have declined.
— The median age of male employees in construction was approximately the same as for all employed
male workers in 1960— 40.8 and 40.6, respectively. Seven of eleven building trades for which compar­
able data were available experienced an increase in median age between 1950 and 1960, while the median
age for all workers remained virtually unchanged.
— Of all workers employed in contract construction, almost one-half are employed by special trades contrac­
tors, about one-third by building construction general contractors, and the remainder by heavy construction
general contractors.
— The proportion of employment in contract construction accounted for by heavy and special trades contractors
grew between 1947 and 1968 from almost 62 to nearly 70 percent, while the proportion employed by general
building trades contractors fell from about 38 to 30 percent.
— The proportion of employment in contract construction in the Northeastern and North Central States has
declined steadily, while the proportion has grown in the Southern and far Western States. In 1939, about 57
percent of employment (measured by annual average) was located in States north of the Mason-Dixon line
and east of the Mountain States; by 1968, the proportion had dropped to 49 percent. During the same period,
employment in the South Atlantic States (notably Florida) increased from 15.3 percent of the national total
to 17.8 percent. Employment in the Mountain and Pacific States rose from 12.5 to 15.9 percent. These
shifts are similar to those of the population shifts during the same period.
— The majority of construction firms are small. About 55 percent of the firms in contract construction have
three or fewer employees, only about 3 percent have 50 employees or more.
The unemployment rate for the construction work force is normally the highest of any major industry division:
— Although the unemployment rate for construction dropped in the 1960’s, it averaged 6.9 percent in 1968,
nearly twice the rate for all nonagricultural industries.
— In 1968,24 percent of the workers in construction experienced some unemployment, in comparison with 13
percent of the workers in manufacturing and 12 percent in nonagricultural industries as a whole.
— Construction workers are more likely to experience repeated spells of unemployment than workers in other
industries. A 3-time higher proportion of construction workers had two spells or more of unemployment in
1968 than nonagricultural workers in general.
— The rate of work losses lasting 15 weeks or more was about 2Vi times as great in construction as in manufac­
turing in 1968.
— The male teenage (16-19 year-olds) unemployment rate is higher in construction than in all industries as a
group. In the summer of 1968, the unemployment rate for male teenagers in construction was 10.6 per­
cent, compared with 8.5 percent for such workers in all other industries.
— However, the contribution of teenagers to the construction unemployment rate is often less than in other in­
dustries, even during the summer months. In the summer of 1968,4.6 percent of the male construction work
force was unemployed; excluding teenagers, the rate was 3.9 percent. For the same period, the unemploy­
ment rate for all other industries as a group was 2.7 percent; 2.2 percent without teenagers.

2




— Workers other than white (primarily Negroes) experience significantly higher unemployment rates in con­
struction. This is mainly because Negroes that experience a high unemployment rate are concentrated in
the lowskill jobs.
— Laborers face the most serious unemployment problem in construction, as in other industries, and they make
up a higher proportion of employment in construction than in any other major industry. In 1968, for example,
the unemployment rate for construction laborers was 11.4 percent, compared with 5.6 percent for all males
in construction.
The unemployment problem in construction is aggravated by continuing shifts in the composition and the geo­
graphic location of construction activity.
— When residential construction activity declines, for example, workers in certain occupations are released in
large numbers but many of them have difficulty obtaining work in nonresidential construction. On the other
hand, for some occupations, enough workers may not be released to meet growing requirements in nonresi­
dential construction, largely because of the different occupational patterns in residential compared with non­
residential construction activity. This difference contributes, along with changing levels of construction
activity, to the coexistence of geographic pockets of unemployment and labor shortages.
An estimated one-third or more of total unemployment in construction during a year can be considered seasonal
unemployment.
— Unemployment in construction will not be eliminated by eliminating seasonal unemployment mainly because
of the work time lost by workers as one job ends and another begins.
Seasonal fluctuations of both unemployment and employment in construction are large.
— Employment increases about 30 percent from winter lows to summer highs, while unemployment typically de­
clines 50 percent or more. In 1965, a year of rising construction activity, wage and salary employment rose by
1 million (from 3.3 to 4.3 million) between February and August, while unemployment dropped from about
650,000 to 250,000.
Seasonal fluctuations are a major characteristic of contract construction employment.
— In the 1960’s, employment of workers in contract construction (private wage and salary workers only) has
averaged about 30 percent higher in August (the month of highest employment) than in February (the month
of lowest employment).
— Annual average employment in contract construction has varied relatively little compared with seasonal em­
ployment fluctuations. The year-to-year change in contract construction employment has not exceeded 5
percent since 1960.
— Seasonal employment fluctuations vary considerably by type of contractor. It is greatest for highway and
street contractors, least for special trades contractors.
— The extent of seasonal fluctuations in employment tend to be less in large construction firms than in small
firms. It also varies by type of construction and geographic location. This pattern has shown little or no
change since 1960.
— Construction laborers experience a greater degree of seasonal unemployment than craftsmen. Unemployment
rates for construction laborers are much higher than for craftsmen in winter and decline at a slower rate through
the spring and summer. To a very large degree, construction unemployment in the peak building period is a
problem of the unskilled.




3

— The unemployment rate for Negroes generally has exhibited a lesser seasonal swing than that for whites,
because they are concentrated mainly in occupations such as laborers, that have high unemployment rates
thorughout the year.
— The amplitude of the seasonal swing in employment is generally less in the South and West, presumably because
of less severe weather conditions. However, construction workers in the South and West appear to have a
weaker attachment to the industry in the course of a year— a greater tendency to work in construction less
than four quarters— than those located in other areas of the country.
— A substantial reduction in seasonal employment took place prior to World War II. In 1929, the range in con­
tract construction employment between February and August as a percent of annual average employment in the
industry was about 55 percentage points. By 1939 and 1940, this range had declined to about 34 percentage
points. Since 1947, the spread has fluctuated between 18 and 33 percentage points.
The absence of any observable significant change in seasonality of construction employment since 1947 is particularly
surprising because a number of factors have been working to reduce seasonality such as the following:
— Shift in regional distribution of employment in favor of regions with less severe seasonal fluctuations.
— Shift in the composition of construction activity in favor of less seasonal components (e.g., increasing pro­
portion of electrical and mechanical work).
— Trend towards a higher proportion of workers in contract construction, including professional and clerical
workers, who are not directly engaged in building and construction operations.
— Continuing flow of technological developments that facilitate winter building.
— Increased capacity for planning as firms have grown larger (in terms of the value of work undertaken).
— Diminishing importance of social and institutional practices that encourage seasonal fluctuations in employment.
For example, the greater geographic mobility of the population, which takes place year round, has reduced the
importance of the renting season. Also, the use of special permits to overcome code restrictions that limit work
in cold weather has increased.
Factors, however, that tend to increase seasonality are:
— The use of planning techniques to complete more work during favorable weather periods, rather than as a
tool to neutralize the effects of harsh weather.
— Increasing seasonal fluctuations in the value of contracts let.
— Changes in institutional practices that may inhibit winter work; e.g., penalty pay provisions covering em­
ployees who fail to receive a minimum number of hours of work each week may tend to induce con­
tractors to suspend work for a longer period than otherwise.
A special analysis of weather and construction activity in Chicago between 1958 and 1964 indicates that the in­
dustry’s expectation of normal seasonal weather conditions has more influence on activity and employment than
the actual weather conditions for a particular period of time.
— The industry appears to anticipate bad weather and schedules less work. Yet, when unusually severe weather
appears, the construction activity curtailed is less than would be expected.
Hourly wage rates for construction workers are high in comparison with workers in other industries. However, while
some workers in contract construction earn high annual incomes, average annual earnings in contract construction are
below those of workers in many of the high-wage manufacturing industries.

4




Average hourly wage differentials between construction and production workers in some high-wage industries have
been increasing in recent years. However, little change has occurred in the wage differentials between some craft
occupations in contract construction and the same crafts in some other high-wage industries.
— Average hourly earnings of construction workers in contract construction were 8 percent higher than those of
production workers in basic steel in 1948 and 17 percent higher in 1968. Most of this increased differential
has occurred since 1964.
— On the other hand, comparisons of union basic hourly rates in contract construction and basic steel (national
averages) for each of seven crafts 1948-68, indicate little change in the size of the differentials in hourly rates.
Although some construction workers earn high annual incomes, the average annual earnings in contract construction
are below those of workers in many of the high-wage manufacturing industries.
— In 1964, the estimated average annual earnings (total earnings of workers employed in all four quarters of the
year, by industry of major source of income) of wage and salary workers employed in contract construction
were $6,945, compared with $7,814 for wage and salary workers employed in the motor vehicles and equip­
ment industry and $8,447 for wage and salary workers employed in petroleum refining and related industries.
— High earnings tend to be associated with year-round work. Of all workers who earned most of their income
from general contractors in 1964,45 percent earned less than $3,000, and 9 percent earned $9,000 or more.
For those workers who earned most of their income in construction and were employed in all four quarters
during the year, only 19 percent earned less than $3,000 and 15 percent earned $9,000 or more.
— Construction operations, in which seasonality plays an important role, tend to have a lower proportion of
workers with high earnings. Eight percent of the workers who received most of their income from masonry
contractors in 1964 earned $9,000 or more, compared with 19 percent of those employed by plumbing, heating
and air-conditioning contractors. (The average hourly union wage scale for bricklayers and plumbers on July 1,
1964, were $4.72 and $4.70, respectively.) 1
Crafts workers in construction generally have higher average hourly earnings than the same craft workers in main­
tenance activities. Hovever, wage differentials vary greatly by area.
— The average hourly union scales of carpenters in construction were 73 percent higher than average hourly earn­
ings of maintenance carpenters in New York City, and only 11 percent higher in Richmond, Va., in 1965-66.
The basic wage differential in favor of construction workers appears to reflect in part the less favorable working con­
ditions in the industry and their effects on the supply and demand of workers. Working conditions in construction
include:
— Large amounts of seasonal and intermittent employment.
— More hazardous working conditions.
— Greater mobility requirements.
— Lower fringe benefits, especially of a noncompensation nature (for example, job security provisions).
The seasonal nature of the construction industry, together with the inherently intermittent nature of con­
struction activity, has helped produce a labor force of which a large portion shifts frequently.

1 Union Wages and Hours: Building Trades, July 1, 1964, and Trend 1907-64, BLS Bulletin 1432, February 1965, p. 9.




5

Construction workers have higher industry and employer mobility than most other workers. Construction
workers are:
— Twice as likely to work in more than one major industry in the course of a year than workers in manu­
facturing as a whole.
— About one-quarter more likely to have changed industries over a 3-year period than workers in all other
nonagricultural industries (according to data for 1957-60).
— Most of the workers who entered contract construction from other industries over the 3-year period 1957-60
came from manufacturing. Similarly, most of the workers who left contract construction over the same period
moved into manufacturing employment.
— Almost twice as likely to work for more than one employer in the course of the year.
Construction draws substantial numbers of workers from outside the labor force when construction activity increases,
and many construction workers move to other industries when construction jobs decline.
— As construction employment rises on average by 700,000 to 850,000 from winter to summer, unemployment
typically declines about by 200,000 to 300,000. The 400,000 to 650,000 net increase in the construction
labor force is made up of workers from other industries, youth who work during school vacations, and other
persons from outside the labor force.
Seasonality and intermittency have been important factors limiting the annual hours of work of construction
workers.
A special analysis of data obtained from private health, welfare, and pension funds covering workers in 13 con­
struction occupations in Omaha, Milwaukee, Detroit, and southern California provides the following information
on the work patterns of construction workers. The data reflect experience in areas of both severe and mild
winter weather. However, this is not a description of the total work experience of these construction crafts­
men since these data refer only to work done under the jurisdiction of collective bargaining agreements.
The average annual number of hours of work reported was low for all construction occupations in all areas.
— The majority of workers in all the individual construction occupations had fewer than 1,300 hours or work
reported during the 12-month period.
— The majority of workers in most of the construction occupations worked fewer than 1,200 hours in the 12month period reported; operating engineers were an exception in both California and Detroit. Laborers in
Milwaukee, on the average, had the fewest hours reported (590), while operating engineers in southern Cali­
fornia had the most hours (1,284). However, in none of the four areas did more than 15 percent of all the
laborers or 36 percent of all the operating engineers work more than 1,800 hours in the 12-month period
reported.
— “ Short-hours” workers made up at least 25 percent of all the workers in each of the occupations in the four
areas for which data were obtained, and the proportion was as high as 68 percent for some occupations in two
areas. (For discussion purposes only, short-hour workers in this analysis arbitrarily were considered to be those
who worked fewer than 700 hours in the 12-month period reported.)
— Short-hours workers were a major factor in the low average number of hours of work reported. The median
number of hours of work reported for all workers in all occupations was 998. By excluding short-hours workers
(those working fewer than 700 hours) the median number of hours reported rose to 1,535, which was still below
that of a full work year of 2,000 hours.
— Workers between the ages of 30 and 44 generally have a greater likelihood for a full year’s work than younger or
older workers. In Detroit, for example, 27 percent of the bricklayers between the ages of 30 and 44 reported
more than 1,800 hours of work during the 12-month period. Only 11 percent of the bricklayers less than 30
years old and 18 percent of those 45 years old or older reported 1,800 hours of work.

6




CHAPTER II. G E N ER A L C H A R A C TE R ISTIC S OF
TH E CO NSTRUCTIO N IN D U S TR Y

While construction is one of the most important industries in the country, it exhibits characteristics that are not
typically associated with large industry. The role of the contractor in designing his product to meet-market needs is
unlike that of most enterpreneurs in other industries, in that it is the buyer who comes to the contractor and specifies
what he wants produced.
The industry is fragmented; a large number of firms operate in local markets. Only a few large firms, primarily
in highway and heavy construction, are found operating over large geographic areas. The labor market is also local
in nature, with a variety of distinct crafts supplying workers. Small scale production units and a locally-oriented
labor force are significant elements of the manpower situation in construction.
Construction supports a wide variety of raw materials, manufacturing, transportation, and distribution indus­
tries. The industry utilizes great amounts of earthmoving machinery and equipment in road and other types of
heavy construction. Lumber and other wood products are utilized extensively, particularly in residential construc­
tion. A wide range of metal products is used in all types of construction, as well as great quantities of a variety of
natural products; such as stone, sand, and gravel.
The location of construction work is constantly changing. Because the location changes, the project has a
limited life, and employment is temporary. The relationship between employer and employee is often casual and
a general understanding exists that employment can be terminated by either party at any time. A worker’s job
security is usually competence in a recognized trade, not seniority or other preferential status.
Finding a job in construction is a relatively simple matter when construction activity is high. Some projects
usually are starting as others are finishing, and some contractors are hiring as others are laying off. Time off for the
worker between jobs may be long or short depending upon the amount of construction in the area. Seasonal un­
employment, however, is ever present in certain trades, even in years of high construction activity. As the rate of
activity declines between November and March, workers are being hired for new projects at a slower rate than other
workers are being laid off from projects approaching completion. From late fall until early spring, lost time between
layoffs and new jobs may be considerable even when activity in an area is high.
Workers ordinarily are hired by a foreman who selects applicants either at the job site or by contacting the office
of union locals who represent the needed crafts. The worker is subject to being laid off at any time either perma­
nently (as the work for which he was hired approaches completion) or temporarily, with instructions to return at a
stated time. The workman, of course, is also free to quit his job at any time for any reason— for example, to take
a job closer to home, a job likely to continue for several months, a job expected to provide more weekly hours of
work, greater overtime, or better protection from weather.
For many construction workers all work is done outdoors. For almost all trades, much work is in unfinished
buildings or other structures. Workers may be exposed to all kinds of weather, including freezing temperatures, snow,
hail, and sleet. Workers usually are paid on an hourly basis, with no pay for time off because of sickness or personal
business. Lost time because of bad weather or other reasons beyond the workers’ control also means loss of pay.
A construction worker may migrate to an area with better long-term employment prospects. For a union
member, such a move involves transfer of membership. Like other unions, building trades unions are organized




7

through chapters known as locals, each having jurisdiction over a designated geographical area. A member moving
elsewhere usually can exchange his membership card for a card in a local at his new location. Thereafter, he is a
member in the new local; should he return to his previous place of work, he must obtain another transfer.
A construction worker usually leaves an area as a matter of choice, although there are exceptions. When a
construction project is undertaken in a distant community or an isolated locality, comparatively few of the needed
workers may live within reasonable commuting distance. When general construction activity is high, employers have
difficulty in manning isolated construction projects. When general construction activity is fair or poor, men with
family responsibilities must choose between the prospect of intermittent unemployment at home or perhaps a
steady job in a distant or isolated community.
Thus, the work environment of a construction worker is unique in many ways. It is an environment of change.
Construction work is accepted as temporary. A worker’s security is based on his personal competence and the amount
of construction activity in the area. For the most part he must work in harsh weather and at sites that continually
change. He is subject to sudden layoff on a temporary or permanent basis, with all the attendant effects of loss of
income. He may face the prospects of having to dissolve community relationships and leave an area to seek oppor­
tunity elsewhere.
The construction industry is an important American industry. A measure of the industry’s contribution to the
Nation’s economic well-being can be illustrated in several different ways: Its proportion of gross national product; its
relation to a host of secondary industries; and the effect that shifts in the composition of construction have on man­
power requirements.
New construction put in place accounts for a considerable share of the market value of the goods and services
produced in this country eacy year. In 1968, it amounted to nearly $85 billion2 or 9.8 percent of the gross national
product (GNP). (See table 1 and appendix table G-l.)
The ratio of construction expenditures to GNP has shown some tendency to fluctuate in the post-war period,
with a high of 11.7 percent in 1955. Since 1955, however, the proportion of the GNP devoted to construction 3 has
declined slowly. The decline has taken place in the private construction sector, which at 6.4 percent of GNP in cur­
rent dollars in 1967 was at its lowest level in the post-war era. Public construction generally maintained its share of
the Nation’s total output of goods and services. (See table 1.)
In 1947, private construction accounted for 83 percent of total new construction activity (t»bh 2). By 1967,
the relative share of private construction had fallen to 66 percent all new construction activity.
Changes in the composition of construction also have taken place within the private construction sector. Res­
idential construction expanded through the early post-World War II period to a peak in 1955, but declined sharply
through 1957; another short period of expansion peaked in 1959, and a third, in 1963. Residential construction as
a proportion of all private construction dropped from a high of 68 percent in 1950 to less than 50 percent in 1966
and 1967, but rebounded in 1968. These movements in residential construction reflect the housing booms of the
late 1940’s and early 1950’s, and the subsequent slowdown in housing construction. Private nonresidential and
public construction expenditures have more than offset declines in private residential activity, thus providing the
underlying stability of the industry in the post-war economy. (See table 3 and appendix table G -l.)
Examination of the public sector’s share of new construction put in place also shows the shifting relative im­
portance of expenditures by the different government sectors— Federal, State, and local. Direct Federal govern­
ment outlays as a percent of new public construction increased from 25 percent in 1947 to almost 40 percent in

2 However, the value of total construction activity— new work and maintenance and repair— is estimated at $110 billion for
1968. Expenditures for maintenance and repair have increased from $10.4 billion in 1947 to $20.5 billion in 1963 and are estimated
for 1968 at about $25 billion.
3 The decline has been greater when measured in constant dollar terms, indicating a somewhat more rapid escalation of prices
in construction than in other sectors of the economy.
8




1952. (See table 4.) This rapid rise can be attributed to a tremendous surge in the construction of federally owned
industrial buildings and related facilities during the Korean War, and to a suddent increase in expenditures for new
military facilities after 1950 4 Since 1952, however, the portion of the total value of new construction put in place
that is federally owned ebbed to a low of about 13 percent in 1968. State and local governments, on the other hand,
accounted for more than 87 percent of new public construction in 1967— up from 75 percent in 1947 and 61 percent
in 1952 (table 4). New educational buildings and highway construction have been the major factors in the State and
local governments’ growth in construction expenditures. (See appendix table G -l.)
The changing composition of construction activity over the post-World War II period has been accompanied by
important shifts in the geographic location and craft requirements of construction. When residential construction
activity declines, for example, workers in certain occupations are released in large numbers, and many of these work­
ers have difficulty obtaining work in nonresidential construction. However, enough workers may not be released in
some occupations to meet the requirements in nonresidential construction if this activity is growing, largely because
of the different occupational patterns in residential compared with nonresidential construction activity.5
The changing pattern of construction demand also has produced geographic pockets of unemployment and
corresponding areas with manpower shortages. Since neither contractors nor workers are perfectly mobile6 and since
neither skills nor equipment are perfectly transferable from one activity to another, adjustment difficulties have been
persistent. When construction activity has declined, workers have experienced more frequent and longer periods of
unemployment. Under these circumstances, training authorities often are reluctant to expand apprenticeship op­
portunities, and pension and welfare funds have been plagued with financial difficulties. Conversely, rapid expan­
sions in building activity have left contractors unable to fill job crews. Furthermore, the continual shifts from boom
to bust has burdened management with the costs of repeatedly establishing and dismantling organizations.
Construction activity influences the output of many other industries because of its need for a wide variety of
products and services. In 1958, new construction and maintenance and repair construction expenditures combined
accounted for between two-thirds and four-fifths of the total output of the following industries: Stone and clay
mining and quarrying (73.4); lumber and wood products, except containers (66.0); paints and allied products (66.0);
stone and clay products (75.2); and heating, plumbing and structural metal products (79.0). Between one-sixth and
one-half of the output of 12 additional industries could be attributed to construction activity in 1958. (See table 5.)
The kinds and relative amounts of materials and services used vary widely by type of construction. For example,
in 1958, the primary iron and steel manufacturing industry— a major supplier to construction— supplied 53 cents
worth of materials for every dollar of new gas and petroleum pipe lines construction, and 7 cents worth of materials
for every dollar of construction of one- to four-family dwellings. The requirements for lumber and wood products
were 19 cents per dollar spent for one- to four-family dwellings; 9 cents for heating, plumbing, and structural metal
products; 15 cents for wholesale and retail trade; and 11 cents for stone and clay products.7
The slump in housing and commercial building in 1966 illustrates well the impact of construction activity on
other industries. From the first to the third quarter of 1966, the seasonally adjusted annual rate of expenditures for
private nonfarm residential construction declined 17 percent (in constant dollar terms); similarly, the annual rate for

4 In 1950, direct Federal outlays, in current dollar terms, for new industrial construction amounted to $225 million. Such
expenditures averaged almost $1.5 billion over the 1951-54 period, but dropped to $720 million in 1955 and to about $400 million
in 1967. Federal expenditures for new construction of military facilities jumped from more than $175 million in 1950 to nearly
$1.4 billion in 1952, remaining above $1 billion in current dollar terms until 1964. In 1967, such expenditures totaled about $720
million.
5 Hournstine, E. Jay, Compensatory Public Works Programmes and Full E m ploym ent, Geneva: International Labour Office,
1956, pp. 4-8.
6 The mobility of construction craftsmen involves not only a geographic dimension, but also craft, contractor (and branch of
the industry), intracraft and union— nonunion dimensions as well. Geographic mobility includes movement within a metropolitan
area, as well as larger geographic areas. Increasing home ownership, among other things, may have caused the interarea mobility of
construction workers to decline in recent years. The increased number of automobilies and super-highways have, on the other hand,
increased intraarea mobility.
7 The data for discussion in this paragraph and the following paragraph are taken from an article by Norman Frumkin, “Con­
struction Activity in the 1958 Input-Output Study,” Survey o f Current Business, May 1965, pp. 13-24.




9

commercial building dropped 20 percent. Commercial building activity accounted for slightly more than 40 percent
of total construction activity. Over the same period, the output of the lumber and wood products industry dropped
about 5 percent. Six other industries whose output declined by more than 1 percent were stone, clay, and glass
products (3.5), fabricated metal products (2.2), stone and earth minerals (1.9), iron and steel (1.4), metal mining
(1.4), and nonferrous metal products (1.2.) (See table 6.)
The manpower generating effects of construction activity also are substantial and differ by type of construction.
About 115 workers were employed for 1 year for every $1 million of expenditures for new construction activity in
1962. 8 The construction industry itself accounted for slightly less than half the jobs; the remainder were generated
in other industries such as manufacturing, mining, and transportation. In 1962, the value of total new construction
put in place was nearly 60 billion in current dollars, accounting for about 7 million jobs (onsite and offsite), or onetenth of total employment in the economy. Labor requirements by type of construction activity ranged from a high
of 236 man-hours of employment for each $1000 of public housing construction to a low of 204 man-hours of em­
ployment for each $1000 of private one-family housing construction? (See table 7.)
8 Claiborne M. Ball, “Employment Effects of Construction Expenditures,” M onthly Labor Review, February 1965. To pro­
vide data on the employment-generating effects of construction expenditures, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has a continuing study
program of labor and material requirements for various types of construction. Mr. Ball’s article compares the labor requirements for
the various types of construction activity studied.
9 The lower man-hour requirements for private one-family housing are for the most part attributed to the large portion of total
costs for overhead and profits. Also, because private housing data refers to construction price (which includes selling and other spec­
ulative costs) rather than construction contract cost, it may not be entirely comparable with the $1,000 of construction contract cost
used for measuring the cost of other types of construction. The slight variations that exist between the various types of construction
man-hour requirements are attributable mainly to architectural or engineering design, materials and equipment used; onsite distribu­
tion of skills; price and wage levels; and the amount of overhead and profits. Average hourly earnings of construction workers in­
creased by 13 percent from 1959, when the earliest surveys used in table 7 were made, to 1962, when the latest was made.

10




T ab le 1. G ro ss n a tio n a l p ro d u c t (G N P) and new c o n s tru c tio n p u t in p la c e
as a p e rc e n t of G N P, b y type of o w n e rsh ip , 1947—
68
New c o n s tru c tio n p u t in
p la c e a s p e rc e n t of G N P
GNP
P u b lic
Y ear
(in
Owne r s hip
b illio n s ] T o ta l P riv a te T o ta l
F e d e ra l S tate aand
lo c l
1Q47
$231. 3
1948____________________ 257. 6
1040
256. 5
1050
284. 8
1951------------------------------ 328. 4
1952------------------------------ 345. 5
1053
364. 6
1 054 __
. .... .
364. 8
1955____________________ 398. 0
1956____________________ 419. 2
1957____________________ 441. 1
1958
447. 3
1959
_ _ .... _
483. 7
1 9 6 0 ____________________
503. 7
1 9 6 1 ____________________
520. 1
1 9 6 2 ____________________
560. 3
1963____________________ 590. 5
1964____________________ 632. 4
1965____________________ 684. 9
1966____________________ 747. 6
1967____________________ 789. 7
1 9 6 8 _________________ 1 __
860. 7
to ta ls .

.7
.1
10. 4
11. 8
10. 8
10. 7
10. 7
1 1. 3
11. 7
1 l. 4
1 1. 1
11. 2
1 1. 4
10. 7
10. 7
10. 6
10. 7
10. 5
10. 6
10. 0
9 .6
9. 8
8
10

7. 2
.3
.
9. 4
8. 0
7. 5
7. 7
8. 1
8. 7
8. 3
8. 0
7. 8
8. 1
7. 6
7. 4
7. 5
7. 5
7. 2
7. 3
6. 8
6. 4

8
8 0

1

6.6

0. 4
.5
.6
.6
.9
1.2
1. 1
.9
•. 7
.7
.7
.8
.8
.7
.7
.7
.7
.6
.6
.5
.4
.4

1. 4
.
2. 4
2. 4
2. 8
3. 1
3. 1
3. 2
2. 9
3. 0
3. 2
3. 5
3. 3
3. 2
3. 3
3. 2
3. 3
3. 2
3. 2
3. 2
3. 3
3. 2
1 8

1. 1
1. 4
1. 9
1. 8
1. 9
1. 9
1.9
2. 3
2. 2
2 .4
2. 5
2. 7
2. 6
2 .4
2. 6
2. 5
2. 6
2. 6
2. 6
2. 7
2. 8
2. 8

N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t eq u al
SO U R C E: U. S. D e p a rtm e n t of C o m m e rc e .

T a b le 3. R e s id e n tia l and n o n re s id e n tia l b u ild in g s c o n ­
s tr u c tio n a s a p e rc e n t of to ta l p riv a te e x p e n d itu re s
on new c o n s tru c tio n , 1947—68

Year
1Q47
1949---------------------------------------------1050
1Q5 1
’ 057
,
,
1055
1954.............................................................
1955______________________________
1Q56
1958______________________________
1Q5Q
1961.............................................................
1962______________________________
1963________ ____________________
1964______________________________
1065
. _
1966______________________________
1967______________________________
1068
.
. _

Non­
R esidential residential
58. 9
61. 4
60. 8
67. 9
60. 7
60. 7
59. 5
61.3
62. 9
57. 9
54. 2
57. 0
61.8
57. 0
56. 6
58. 1
59. 4
57. 3
52. 3
46. 9
46. 9
50. 6

S O U R C E : U. S. D e p a rtm e n t of C o m m e rc e .




19. 4
17. 6
16. 5
14. 6
20. 2
19. 2
20. 4
21. 1
21. 9
25. 3
27. 2
25. 0
22. 6
26. 7
28. 0
27. 8
26. 4
28. 3
33. 0
36. 4
35. 8
33. 0

T a b le 2. P riv a te and p u b lic c o n s tru c tio n as a
p e rc e n t of to ta l new c o n s tru c tio n , 1947—68
Y ear

1947— ....................................
1Q48_
10 5 0 _
. ____
105 1
_____
1953____________________
1Q54
1055. .
1957____________________
1958____________________
1050 _
1 060 ...
1962___________________
1963____________________
1964____________________
1 96 5____________________
1 9 6 6 ____________________
1967____________________
1 9 6 8 ____________________

P riv a te

P u b lic

8 3 .4
82. 0
76. 5
79. 6
73. 9
70. 7
71. 3
7 1 .7
74. 8
73. 3
7 1 .4
69. 2
70. 9
7 0. 6
69. 1
70. 0
69. 5
69. 2
69. 5
68. 1
66. 4
67. 3

16 .6
18. 0
23. 5
20. 4
26. 1
29. 3
28. 7
28. 3
25. 2
26. 7
28. 6
30. 8
29. 1
29. 4
30. 9
30. 0
30. 5
30. 8
30. 5
31. 9
33. 6
32. 7

SO U R C E : U .S . D e p a rtm e n t of C o m m e rc e .

T ab le 4. P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of new p u b lic c o n s tru c tio n
pu t in p la c e , by type of o w n e rsh ip , 1947—68

Year
1047...............
.............. . .
1948______________________________
1949______________________________
1050 __
_ __
1051
1052 ________ _
.........
. _ _
105 3 ____ .......
1955—...........................................................
1056.. .....................
1958______________________________
1050 _
1960______________________________
196 1______________________________
196 2___________ __——_____________
1963______________________________
1964_______________ _____________
106 5 ._ ___
__ .
1967..........................................................
1068

F ederal

State and
local

25. 3
25. 0
23. 7
23. 7
32. 2
38. 8
36. 8
29. 3
23. 6
21.4
21. 2
21.9
23. 2
22. 8
22. 6
21.9
20. 7
19. 2
18. 2
16. 5
13. 7
12. 5

74. 7
75. 0
76. 3
76. 3
67. 8
61.2
63. 2
70. 7
76. 4
78. 6
78. 8
78. 1
76. 8
77. 2
77.4
78. 1
79. 3
80. 8
81.8
83. 5
86. 3
87. 5

SO U R C E : U. S. D e p a rtm e n t of C o m m e rc e .

11

T ab le 5. P e r c e n t of to ta l, d ir e c t, and in d ire c t o u tp u t of s e le c te d in d u s trie s a ttrib u ta b le to new c o n s tru c tio n and m a in te n a n c e and
r e p a ir c o n s tru c tio n , 1958
N um ­
ber 1
3
5
6
9
20
23
30
36
37
38
40
42
46
53
55
67
73

In d u stry
F o r e s tr y and fis h e ry p r o d u c ts ---------------Iro n and fe rro a llo y o re s m in in g _________
N o n fe rro u s m e ta l o re s m in in g ___________
Stone and c la y m in in g and q u a rry in g ----L u m b e r and w ood p ro d u c ts , e x c e p t
c o n ta in e rs ----------------------------------------------O th e r fu rn itu re and fix tu re s ------------------P a in ts and a llie d p ro d u c ts ----------------------Stone and c la y p r o d u c ts ---------------------------P r im a r y iro n and s te e l m a n u fa c tu rin g —
P r im a r y n o n fe rro u s m e ta l
m a n u fa c tu rin g _________________ _______ _
H e a tin g , p lu m b in g , and s tr u c tu r a l
m e ta l p ro d u c ts __________________________
O th e r fa b ric a te d m e ta l p r o d u c t s -----------M a te ria ls h a n d lin g m a c h in e ry and
e q u ip m e n t-----------------------------------------------E le c tric in d u s try e q u ip m e n t and
a p p a ra tu s ------------------------------------------------E le c tric lig h tin g and w irin g e q u ip m e n t —
R ad io an d te le v is io n b ro a d c a s tin g ----------B u sin e ss s e rv ic e s -----------------------------------

New c o n s tru c tio n and m a in te ­
n a n ce and r e p a ir c o n s tru c tio n
D ire c t
T o ta l
In d ire c t
36. 7
3 2 .9
26. 3
7 3 .4
66. 0
16.6
66. 0
75. 2
34. 4
31. 8

0
0
0
46. 6
43. 9
14. 8
57. 4
60. 9
12. 9
1 1 .4
75. 4
14. 1

79. 0
26. 5
28. 8

23. 6
9 .7
40. 0
0
10. 7

17. 3
47. 1
16. 9
17. 2

36. 7
32. 9
26. 3
26. 8
22. 1
1. 8
8. 6
14. 3
21. 5
20. 4
3. 6
1 2 .4
5. 2
7. 6
7. 1
16.9
6. 5

New c o n s tru c tio n
T o ta l
3 2 .4
28. 5
21. 2
61. 8
58. 4
15. 3
17. 7
66. 0
30. 0
25. 6
67. 6
24. 0
27. 4
14. 7
40. 7
15. 6
15 .9

M ain te n a n c e and r e p a ir
c o n s tru c tio n
T o ta l
D ire c t
In d ire c t

D ire c t

In d ire c t

0
0
0
38. 5
38. 9
13. 7
10. 5
53. 7
11. 5
8. 6
64. 5
13. 3
22. 8
8. 2
3 4 .6
0
10. 5

32. 4
28. 5
2 1 .2
23. 3

4. 3
4. 4
5. 1
11. 6

19. 5
1.6
7. 2
12. 3
18. 5
17. 0
3. 1
10. 7
4. 6
6. 5
6. 1
15. 6
5 .4

7. 6
1. 3
48. 3
9 .2
4 .4
6. 2
1 1 .4
2. 5
1 .4
2. 6
6. 4
1. 3
1. 3

0
0
0
8. 1
5. 0
1. 1
46. 9
7. 2
1. 4
2. 8

4. 3
4 .4
5. 1
3. 5
2. 6
.2
1 .4
2. 0
3. 0
3. 4

10. 9
.8
.8
1. 5
5 .4
0
.2

.5
1. 7
.6
1. 1
1. 0
1. 3
1. 1

1 In p u t-o u tp u t code n u m b e r.
SO U R C E : N o rm a n F ru m k in , C o n s tru c tio n A c tiv ity in the 1958 In p u t O utput Study, S u rv ey of C u rr e n t B u s in e s s , M ay 1965, pp. 1 3 -2 4.

T a b le 6. Im p a c t of d e c lin e in p riv a te n o n farm re s id e n tia l new h o u sin g u n its an d c o m m e rc ia l c o n s tru c tio n
e x p e n d itu re s on s e le c te d in d u s try o u tp u t, f ir s t to th ir d q u a r te r , 1966
In d u stry

N um ber 1

20, 21
22, 23
35, 36
37
38
39-42
4 3 -5 2
5 3 -5 8
2 4 -2 5
26
2 7 -3 0
31
32
5 ,6
7
8
9, 10

D u ra b le m a n u fa c tu rin g ----- ----------------------------------------------L u m b e r and w ood p ro d u c ts ------------------------------------------F u rn itu re an d f i x t u r e s ----------------- ----------------------------S t o n e , c la y , and g la s s p ro d u c ts — -------------------------------Iro n and s te e l— __ -_________________________________
N o n fe rro u s m e ta ls and p ro d u c ts ---------------------------------F a b r ic a te d m e ta l p r o d u c ts _____________ ___ ________
N o n e le c tric a l m a c h in e r y -------- ----- ------- ------- -----E l e c tr ic a l m a c h in e ry __________________________ ______
N o n d u ra b le m a n u f a c tu r in g -----------------------------------------------P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c ts ----------------------- --------------- P rin tin g an d p u b lis h in g -----------------------------------------------C h e m ic a ls and p ro d u c ts -----------------------------------------------P e tro le u m re fin in g and re la te d p r o d u c ts ------------------R u b b e r and m is c e lla n o u s p la s tic s p ro d u c ts ------------M in in g ___________________________________________________________
M e ta l__ ____________ __________________________________ —
Co 3,1—--C ru d e o il and n a tu ra l g a s --------------- --------------------------------Stone an d e a r th m in e r a l s ------------------------- ----- ------- —

1 In p u t-o u tp u t code n u m b e r.

P e r c e n t of 1 st q u a rte r P e rc e n t d e culin e ttinibin ­
u t
in d u s try o u tp u t a tt r ib ­ d u s tryle o totp 1st ato r 3d ­
u ta b
u ta b le to 1st q u a rte r
q u a rte r d e c lin e in
e x p e n d itu re s
e x p e n d itu re s
3 .6
5. 5
26. 3
3. 6
19. 0
7. 5
6. 2
11. 8
2. 2
2 .9
1. 5
3. 8
2 .9
2. 1
3 .4
2. 9
5. 1
7. 2
4. 3
3 .6
9.9

-0 . 6
-1 . 0
-4 . 8
-. 7
-3 . 5'
- 1 .4
-1 . 2
-2 . 2
-.4
- .6
-. 3
-. 7
-. 6
-. 5
- .6
- .6
-1 . 0
- 1 .4
-. 8
-. 7
- 1 .9

See S u rv ey of C u rr e n t B u s in e s s , S e p te m b e r 1965, fo r d e fin itio n s.

N O T E : C a lc u la tio n s a re b a s e d on s e a s o n a lly a d ju ste d d a ta .
SO U R CE: In d u s tria l Im p a c t of th e 1966 H ou sin g and C o m m e rc ia l B u ild in g D e c lin e , S u rv ey of C u rr e n t B u s i­
n e s s . N o v e m b e r 1966, p p. 1 1-12.

12




T ab le 7. D istrib u tio n of m a n -h o u rs p e r $ 1 ,0 0 0 of c o n tra c t c o s t, by m a jo r ty p e s of c o n s tru c tio n , in d u s try , and o c c u p a tio n , 1959—62
1962
In d u stry

T o t a l ----------------------------------------------------------C o n stru c tio n i n d u s tr y ----------------------------------------O n s ite __________________________________________
A d m in istra tiv e and s u p e r v is o r y -------------C o n stru c tio n t r a d e s ---------------------------------B r ic k la y e rs ____________________________
C a rp e n te rs _____________________________
E l e c tr ic i a n s -----------------------------------------I r o n w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------O p e ra tin g e n g in e e r s ----------------------------P a i n t e r s ________________________________
P l a s t e r e r s --------------------------------------------P lu m b e rs ---------------------------------------------U n sk ille d and o th e rs ------------------------------O ffsite __________________________________________
O th e r in d u s trie s -------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g _________________________________
T ra d e and tra n s p o rta tio n and s e r v ic e s -----M ining and a ll o th e r s -------------------------------------

I960

1961

P riv a te
1-fa m ily
h o usin g

C o lleg e
h o usin g

H ighw ays

1959

C iv il w o rk s
L and
o p e ra tio n s D red g in g

204. 0

227. 0

224. 0

208. 0

224. 0

84. 0
72. 0
2. 1
52. 9
3. 9
24. 9
2. 0

105. 0
94. 0
3. 2
59. 8
9 .4
15. 8
6. 2
3. 6
1. 6
3. 3
3. 2
9. 0
30. 6
11. 0
122. 0
73. 0
32. 0
17. 0

96. 0
9 1 .0
9. 3
54. 5
n
(!)
n
(M
(!)
( l )
(M
n
27. 2
5. 0

89. 0
85. 0
9. 3
42. 9
5. 4
.1
2 .6
20. 4
.1
.1
32. 5
4. 0

144. 0
134. 0
8. 6
62. 7
1. 5

-

1. 0
6 .9
1. 7
3. 8
17. 1
12. 0
120.
58.
49.
13.

0
0
0
0

128.
66.
44.
2 18.

0
0
0
0

119.
53.
47.
2 19.

0
0
0
0

-

62; 6
10. 0
80. 0
47. 0
24. 0
9. 0

S cho o ls

223. 0
96. 0
86. 0
3. 3
55. 1
7. 8
15. 7
6. 0
2. 3
1.6
2. 8
2. 3
7. 9
25. 6
10. 0
127. 0
75. 0
41. 0
1 1. 0

F e d e ra l
o ffice I H o sp ita ls
b u ild in g s

227. 0

223. 0

107. 0
97. 0
5. 8
58. 7
5. 0
12. 2
8. 8
4. 1
2. 3
2. 0
3. 8
8. 5
32. 6
10. 0
120. 0
73. 0
37. 0
10. 0

100. 0
89. 0
3. 5
6 0. 7
4. 8
11. 7
7. 8
3. 1
1. 4
2. 5
5. 6
12. 7
24. 6
11. 0
123. 0
75. 0
38. 0
10. 0

P u b lic
housin g

236. 0
126. 0
114. 0
4. 5
72. 5
8. 6
2 1 .8
4. 7
2. 3
3. 1
5. 0
7. 7
8. 9
36. 7
12. 0
110. 0
64. 0
36. 0
10. 0

_____________1
1 D ata n o t a v a ila b le .
2 M a n -h o u rs fo r m in in g a v a ila b le s e p a ra te ly fo r hig h w ay s (10), la n d o p e ra tio n s (13), and d re d g in g (6) o nly.
SO U R C E : C la ib o rn e M . B a ll, E m p lo y m en t E ffe c ts of C o n stru c tio n E x p e n d itu re s , M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , F e b r u a ry , 1965, pp. 1 5 4-158.
d a ta a re fro m s p e c ia l su rv e y s m a d e in the y e a rs c ite d in the ta b le .




T h e se

13

CHAPTER III.

CO NSTR U C TIO N EM PLO YM EN T

Total employment in construction

Employment in construction 10 rose from 3.6 million workers in 1950 to 4.6 million in 1968, an in­
crease of 29 percent. (See table 8.) Most of this gain occurred between 1950 and 1952 when employment
reached 4.2 million persons. However, employment fell to 3.8 million in 1954, dropping below 4.0 million
for the last time. By 1965, employment had reached a high of 4.6 million persons and in early 1966 all
indications were that employment would go even higher. However, in mid-1966, residential construction ac­
tivity had a serious decline and employment did not rise above the 1965 level. This depressed residential
sector resulted in a level of employment in 1967 that was lower than that of 1966 and only equal to the
1964 level. The rebound of residential construction in 1968 pushed employment to an all-time high of more
than 4.6 million.
Employment by class of worker

Between 1950 and 1968 the proportion of private wage and salary workers to total employment in con­
struction remained at about 70 percent. (See footnote 10 and table 8.) The proportion of self-employed
and unpaid family workers in construction has declined.
^ Two different conceptual definitions of construction employment are used in this report. These differences result
from the nature of systems for collecting employment information. The schema presented below illustrates the relationship
between the measures of employment in construction. All components of construction listed under a major conceptual defi­
nition (italic) are included within the major category.
Construction:

Contract construction:

Wage and salary workers
Private wage and salary workers
Private
General building contractors
Government
Heavy construction contractors
Self-employed workers
Special trade contractors
Unpaid family workers
Construction, as defined in the household survey (Current Population Survey) (CPS) conducted for the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics by the Bureau of the Census, includes wage and salary workers in private establishments and in government agencies engaged
in construction activities such as highway maintenance and land reclamation. It also includes self-employed and unpaid family
workers performing primarily construction work. Contract construction (SIC 15-17), on the other hand, is the concept used in the
establishment payroll survey conducted by BLS and cooperative State agencies and includes only wage and salary workers in private
establishments performing construction activities, including both new construction and maintenance and repair, done on a contract
basis. Employment in establishments classified as operative builders (SIC 656) are not included in either of these definitions of
construction, and neither is employment in force account construction.
Operative builders are engaged primarily in construction for sale on their own account rather than as contractors. These
include mainly residential construction builders, including condominium and cooperative apartment developers. Force account
construction is construction work performed by an establishment primarily engaged in some business other than construction,
for its own account and use, and by its own employees. A chemical plant, for example, may maintain a construction work
force for its own account and use. Although force account employees are not included in the construction employment data
on an industry basis they are included in those estimates of employment by occupation available from Census and Current Popula­
tion Survey data, which refer to all workers in an occupation.
CPS data are useful as a measure of the total number of persons engaged in construction activity; and provides data on
employment by age, sex, and color, on occupations, and on unemployment. Payroll data are useful in providing sector detail
on the types of contract construction firms, and geographic detail by States and metropolitan areas.

14



Em ploym ent by major occupation group
In 1968, blue-collar workers— craftsmen, operatives, and laborers— accounted for about four-fifths of
construction employment. (See table 9.) Construction craftsmen maintained a relatively consistent 50-percent
share of employment between 1958 and 1968. ^ During this same period of time operatives have increased
slightly as a proportion of total construction employment, and laborers have declined somewhat. In the whitecollar group, a proportional increase in professional and technical workers and clerical workers almost offset a
proportional decline in managers, officials, and proprietors during the 1958-68 period.

Em ploym ent by selected craft occupation
The changing mix of construction activity and new construction materials and techniques has been re­
flected in changes in the relative importance of craft occupations. (See table 10.) Between 1950 and 1960,
employment of carpenters in construction declined significantly— by nearly 90,000. Employment of paperhangers and plasterers also dropped. On the other hand, employment of excavating, grading, and road ma­
chinery operators was more than twice as high in 1960 as in 1950. Other significant employment increases
were experienced by cement and concrete finishers, electricians, and structural metalworkers. These trends
have, for the most part, continued into the 1960’s.

Em ploym ent by type of contractor
In 1968, almost one-half of the workers in the contract construction industry were employed by special
trades contractors, about 30 percent were employed by general building construction contractors, and the re­
mainder worked for heavy construction contractors.
Since 1947, the relative importance of employment by the different types of contractors has shifted’.
The proportion of average annual employment accounted for by general building contractors has declined rel­
ative to heavy and special trades contractors. Between 1947 and 1968 employment by general building con­
tractors as a percentage of total contract construction fell from 38.4 percent to 30.2 percent. Concurrently,
employment by heavy contractors rose from 18.3 percent to 20.8 percent, and by special trades contractors,
from 43.2 percent to 49.0 percent. (See table 11.)
The rising share of employment held by special trades contractors reflects the increasing amount of electrical,
plumbing, air conditioning, and other work performed by these contractors. Highway construction increased
over 400 percent (in constant dollar terms) between 1947 and 1968, and together with increases in construc­
tion of sewer and water systems, airports, bridges, dams, and similar projects accounted for the rising propor­
tion of employment by heavy construction contractors. 12
Employment by operative builders has fluctuated between 38,000 and 47,000 workers since 1958, mainly
in response to shifts in the volume of residential construction. 13

Contract construction em ploym ent by type of worker
The proportion of “white-collar” workers in the contract construction industry has increased in recent
years. This development is shown by the monthly reports to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, which provide
separate data on “ construction workers” and other workers in the industry.

11 The 1950 and 1960 Censuses of Population indicate that the proportion of craftsmen in construction declined some­
what between these years. However, these census data are not directly comparable with the CPS data because the Census of
Population data are for March or April only, seasonally low months for construction. The census data are also not com­
parable with data based on establishment surveys.
12 For a discussion of how employment in contract construction is determined by type of contractor see footnote 1,
table 13.
13 Employment in the operative builders industry should not be interpreted as a measure of employment in homebuilding. Much residential construction work is done on a contract basis by firms classified as special trades contractors in the
contract construction industry. Also, firms building homes on contract may be classified as general building contractors.




15

The employment of “ construction workers” 14 accounted for 84.3 percent of total employment in 1968,
and the proportion of these workers by type of contractor ranged from a low of 79.9 percent for electrical
work to a high of 90.3 for masonry, stonework, and plastering. (See table 13.)
“ Construction workers” as a proportion of total wage and salary employment in contract construction
have declined slowly since 1947, from nearly 89 percent to 84 percent. The decline in the relative position
of “ construction workers” has taken place in nearly all segments of the industry. The exception to this
general trend was in electrical work, where the proportion of “ construction workers” actually increased, and
in plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning work and masonry, stonework, and plastering where the propor­
tion remained virtually unchanged between 1958 and 1968. (See table 14.)
Employment of “ other workers” 15 in contract construction has increased more than twice as fast as
“ construction workers” over the past two decades. (See table 15.) Even during periods when employment
of “ construction workers” has declined, employment of “ other workers” has not decreased. The rapid in­
crease in employment of other workers reflects the general shifts toward larger professional and clerical staffs
in the industry. However, the increase since 1947 in the relative position of other workers in contract con­
struction is not as great as the increase in the proportion of nonproducation workers in manufacturing over
the same period, in large part because of the high onsite labor requirements in contract construction.

Em ploym ent by age
In 1960, the median age of male employees in construction (40.8 years) was approximately the same
as for all employed male workers in the United States. (See table 16.) The only major difference was a relatively
lower proportion of construction workers employed in the very young group— 14-19 years of age, which is prob­
ably due to State laws prohibiting employment of very young workers in many construction occupations.
Data are not available on the age distribution of building trades workers in construction; however, they
are available for total employment in selected building trades. (Approximately 70 percent of all building
trades workers, on the average, are employed in construction.) Table 17 presents the proportion of workers
in each occupation 45 years of age and over.
Seven of the eleven selected building trades for which comparable data are available experienced an in­
crease in median age between 1950 and 1960, while the median age for all employed males in construction
remained virtually unchanged. Only two— brickmasons and operating engineers— had a change of 2 years
or more. The data in table 17 do not necessarily imply a long-range trend toward an older work force.
The difference between the 2 years may be largely the result of the slightly more depressed construction
market of 1960. In general, the median age of employed males in construction was highest in occupations
growing slowest or declining because of the relatively slight influx of young workers. The three occupations
with the highest median age in both 1950 and 1960— paperhangers, painters, carpenters— recorded employ­
ment declines during the 10-year period.

Em ploym ent o f women
Women make up a very small but stable proportion of employment in the contract construction in­
dustry. In 1968, approximately 5 percent of the industry’s employment— 156,000 persons— were women,
most of whom worked in clerical occupations. 16

14 In contract construction employment establishment statistics, “construction workers” include the following em­
ployees of contractors: Working foremen, journeymen, mechanics, apprentices, laborers, etc., whether working at the site of
construction or in shops or yards at jobs (such as precutting and preassembling) ordinarily performed by members of the
construction trades. Other workers include all other persons on payrolls who receive pay for any part of the pay period,
such as office, professional workers, and salesmen.
15 See footnote 14 for definition.
16 According to the 1960 Census of Population, three-quarters of all women employed in construction were in clerical
occupations.
16




Em ploym ent by size of contractor
The contract construction division consisted of more than 300,000 reporting units in 1967. 17 The
great majority were small in terms of number of workers; for example, 54.4 percent of the firms had three
employees or less. Only about 3 percent of the firms had 50 employees or more.
Between 1951 and 1962, the average number of employees per reporting firm declined from 9.5 to
8.2. By 1967, the average had risen to slightly higher than the level of 1951, indicating that over the long
run there has been little or no change in the average size of construction firm in terms of employment.
However, the size of firms differs substantially by number of employees within the contract construc­
tion division. General contractors, other than building, had about twice as many employees on the average
as general building contractors in 1967. (See tables 18 and 19.)

Location of em ploym ent
Growth in contract construction has been accompanied by a change in the geographic distribution of
employment. (See table 20.) The proportion of total employment in contract construction located in the
Northeastern and North Central States has declined steadily, while the proportion has risen in the Southern
and Far Western States. In 1939, 57 percent of contract construction employment (measured by annual
average) was located in the States north of the Mason-Dixon line and east of the Mountain States. By 1968,
that percentage had declined to 49 percent. During that period employment in the South Atlantic States
(notably Florida) increased from 15.3 percent of the national total to 17.8 percent. Employment in the
Mountain and Pacific States rose from 12.5 percent to 15.9 percent. These shifts are similar to the popula­
tion shifts during the same period.

I7
The statistics in County Business Patterns are tabulated in terms of “reporting units.” However, the reporting unit
as used for manufacturing industries differs from that for nonmanufacturing industries. Each manufacturing location of a
company is counted as a separate reporting unit. In manufacturing industries, reporting units, therefore, are conceptually the
same as “establishments” in Census Bureau terminology. In nonmanufacturing industries, employers (i.e., separate legal en­
tities) are counted once in each county for each industry in which they operate, regardless of the number of establishments
operated. This results in the number of nonmanufacturing reporting unit s being fewer than the number of nonmanufacturing
establishments and larger in size, but does not affect the employment and taxable payroll figures.




17

T ab le 8 . P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of em p loym en t in c o n stru ctio n , by c la s s of w o r k e r s, 1950—68

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
I960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

Wage and salary w orkers

Total
Number
P ercent
(in thousands)

Year
..................... .................. .......................
................................................................
______ __________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
_____ ___________________________
________ _________ ______________
_______ _________________________
____ ____ ___________ ____________
________ _______________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
_____ ___________________________

P rivate

100. 0
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100. 0

3, 582
3, 910
4, 192
4 ,0 1 3
3,843
4, 045
4, 079
4, 116
4, 186
4, 321
4, 263
4, 198
4, 285
4, 312
4,470
4, 598
4,607
4, 524
4, 620

Self-em ployed
and unpaid
fam ily
Government
w orkers

70.7
72.7
72. 7
73.4
69. 1
68.9
70.0
69. 6
69.6
70. 0
69.7
69. 8
69.8
69. 1
69.4
70. 7
71. 3
71. 6
72. 2

9 .7
9. 3
10.6
9 .9
12. 2
12. 7
11.9
12. 1
12. 0
11. 6
12. 0
12. 3
12. 5
12.9
12. 8
12.7
13.0
13. 7
12. 7

19.7
18. 0
16. 7
16.6
18. 7
18.4
18. 1
18. 3
18.4
18.4
18. 3
17.9
17. 7
18. 0
17.8
16.6
15.8
14.8
15. 0

NOTE: B eca u se of rounding, su m s of in d ivid u al ite m s m ay not equal to ta ls.
SOURCE: C urrent Pop u lation S u rvey conducted for the BLS by the B ureau of the C en su s.

T able 9. P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of em p lo y ed p e r s o n s , by m ajor occup ation group in co n stru ctio n , 1958—68
O ccupation group
A ll occup ation s:
N um ber in m il lio n s _____________________________________
Percent
....................
W ork ers, ex cep t b lu e -c o lla r
P r o fe ssio n a l and te c h n ic a l ____________________________
M a n a g ers, o ffic ia ls , and p r o p r ie to r s ________________
C le r ic a l w o r k e r s _______________________________________
S a le s w o r k e r s ____________________________________________
S e r v ic e w o rk ers ________________________________________
B lu e -c o lla r w o r k e r s _______________________________________
C ra ftsm en and fo rem en ________________________________
O p erativ es ______________________________________________
L a b o rers ________________________________________________

1966

1965

1964

4. 5

4. 6
100. 0

4. 6
100.0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

22. 3
5. 2
11. 0
5 .4
.2
.5

21.6

22. 2

2 3 .0
4. 5
1 2 .9
4 .9
.2
.5

23. 6
4 .4
13. 2
5. 3
.2
.5

22. 5
4 .9
12. 3
4 .7
.2
.4

22. 3
4. 7
12. 2
4 .6
.3
.5

21.6

.5

22. 5
4. 5
1 2 .4
4 .9
.2
.5

21. 7
4. 5
12. 1
4. 3
.3
.5

7 7 .8
5 0 .4
9. 9
17. 5

7 7 .5
50. 0
9 .9
17. 6

7 7 .0
50. 8
9. 3
1 6 .9

76. 3
4 9. 7
9. 2
1 7 .4

7 7 .4
5 1 .0
8. 5
1 7 .9

77. 8
5 0 .4
8. 7
18. 7

1968

1967

4. 6
100.0

100.0

22. 7
4 .8
11. 7
5. 5
.2
.5
77. 3
51. 5
9. 7
16. 1

7 7 .8
51. 7
9. 9
16. 2

5. 1
5. 3

4 .8
10. 7
5. 4
.2
.5
78. 3
52. 1
10. 5
15. 7

11. 1
.2

4. 5

1963
4. 3

1962
4. 3

1961

4 .2

1960

NOTE: B ec a u se of rounding, su m s of in d ivid u al ite m s m ay not equal to ta ls.
SOURCE: C urrent Population S u rvey conducted for the BLS by the B ureau of the C en su s.

T able 10. E m p loym en t by se le c te d cr a ft occup ation in co n stru ctio n , 1950 and I960
(In th ousan d s)
O ccupation
1950
I9 6 0
T otal se le c te d o ccu p ation s _____________________
B r ic k la y e r s, sto n e m a so n s, and m a rb le and
tile s e t t e r s _____________________________________________
C a r p e n te r s______________________________________________
C em ent and c o n crete fin ish e r s 1 ______________________
E le c tr ic ia n s _________________ __________________________
E xca v a tin g , g rading, and road m a ch in ery
o p era to rs ______________________________________________
P a in ter s ____________ _________ __________ ______ _________
P a p erh an g ers _________ ____________ ____________________
P la s te r e r s ______________________________________________
P lu m b ers and p ip e fitter s ______________________________
R o o fers and s la te r s ____________________________________
S tr u ctu r a l-m e ta l w o rk ers _____________________________

1 ,6 9 8

1 ,7 2 3

145
737
27
98
74
298
19
57
173
41
29

162
648
40
131
151
269
9
43
191
45
34

1 In clu d es te r r a z z o w o r k e rs.
SOURCE: B ureau of the C en su s, 1950 and I960 C en su s of Pop u lation .

18




---------I T O -------P e r c e n t change
1. 5
11. 7
- 12. 1
48. 1
3 3 .7
104. 1
- 9 .7
-5 2 . 6
-2 4 . 6
1 0 .4
9 .8
17. 2

4. 3

1959
4. 3

4 .4
1 1 .9
4. 5
.4
.4
78. 4
50. 3
8. 7
19. 4

1958
4. 2

78. 1
49 . 8
8. 9
1 9 .4

T ab le 11. E m p loym en t by type of co n tra cto r a s a p ercen t of to ta l co n tra ct co n stru ction
em p lo y m en t, 1945—68

Contract
construction
100. 0
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

Year
1945 ___
1946 ___
1947 ___
1948 ___
1949 ____
1 9 5 0 ___
1 9 5 1 ___
1952
1953 ___
1954 ___
1955
1956 ____
1957 ___
1958 ___
1959 — I960
1 9 6 1 ___
1962 ___
1963
1964
1 9 6 5 ___
1966
1967 ___
1968 ___

G eneral
building
35. 1
39.9
38.4
38. 6
37.4
37. 5
38. 1
37. 3
37. 0
35.9
35. 6
35.8
33. 8
32. 2
32.4
31. 5
31. 1
30.4
30. 9
31. 1
31. 2
31. 5
30. 7
30. 2

Heavy
construction
19.7
17. 1
18. 3
17.9
18. 5
18. 0
17. 7
18. 3
18. 3
18. 0
17. 3
18. 6
19. 7
20. 3
19. 8
20. 3
20. 7
20.4
20. 2
20. 1
20.4
20. 6
20. 7
20.8

T able 12. W age and sa la ry em p loym en t in the
o p era tive b u ild ers in d u stry , 1958—68

Special
trad es
45. 3
43.0
43. 2
43. 5
44. 1
44. 5
44. 2
4 4 .4
44. 8
46. 1
47. 1
45. 6
46. 5
47. 5
47. 8
48. 2
48. 2
49. 2
48. 9
48. 8
4 8.4
48. 0
48. 6
49. 0

Year
1958
1959
I960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

(In thousands)
Employm ent
38.4
44. 7
40. 7
42. 8
46. 1
47. 2
46. 2
4 5 .8
41. 5
39.6
43. 2

_______ ______________
...........................................
_ . ... .... _____
___________ _____ ____
...........................................
_____________________
. . .... ..... __
..........................................
_____________________

SOURCE: BLS, current em ploym ent sta ­
tistic s based on establishm ent reports.

NOTE: B eca u se of rounding, su m s of in d ivid u al ite m s m ay not equal to ta ls.
SOURCE: BL S, cu rren t em p loym en t s ta tis tic s b a sed on e sta b lish m en t r e p o r ts.

T ab le 13. W age and sa la ry em p loym en t in co n tra ct co n stru ction by type of con tra cto r

and w ork er.

1968

^In^thousandis^

Industry

T otal em p loym en t 2

C on stru ction w o r k e rs

3

Num ber

P ercent

Num ber

Percent

C ontract co n stru ction d iv is io n .......... ..........

3 ,2 6 7 .0

100. 0

2 ,7 5 4 .0

100. 0

513. 0

G en eral b uilding c o n tra cto rs __________________
H eavy co n stru ction
H ighw ay and str e e t co n stru ction
O ther h eavy co n stru ction
S p ec ia l trad e c o n tra cto rs
P lu m bing, h eatin g, and a ir co n d itio n in g ___
P a in tin g, paperhanging, and d ecora tin g ___
E le c tr ic a l w ork
M ason ry, ston ew ork, and p la s te r in g ______
R oofing and sh e e t-m e ta l w ork

9 8 6 .4
680. 2
315. 9
364. 3
1 ,6 0 0 . 6
387. 9
131. 0
2 6 5 .8
227. 3
111. 5

30. 2

836. 7
5 8 4 .4
279. 7
304. 7
1 ,3 3 3 . 3
313. 0
115. 1
212. 5
205. 2
90. 9

3 0 .4
21. 2
10. 2
11. 1
4 8 .4
1 1 .4
4. 2
7. 7
7. 5
3. 3

149. 7
95. 8
36. 2
5 9 .6
267. 3
74. 9
15 .9
53. 3
22. 1
20. 6

20.8

9 .7

11.2

49. 0
11 .9
4. 0
8. 1
7. 0
3 .4

P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of em p loym en t
by typ e of w ork er
C on­
Other
P er c e n t
T otal
stru ctio n

O ther w o r k e r s 4
N um ber

100.0

2 9 .2
18. 7
7. 1
11. 6
52. 1
14. 6
3. 1
1 0 .4
4. 3
4. 0

100.0

84. 3

1 5 .7

100. 0
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

8 4 .8
85. 9
88. 5
83. 6
83. 3
80. 7
8 7 .9
7 9 .9
90. 3
81. 5

1 5 .2
14. 1
11. 5
1 6 .4
1 6 .7
19. 3
12. 1
20. 1
9 .7
18. 5

1 E sta b lish m en ts a re c la ssifie d into in d u str ie s on the b a sis of th eir p rin cip al a ctiv ity d eterm in ed from in fo rm a tio n on annual s a le s v o lu m e.
T h is in form ation is c o lle c te d each y e a r . F o r an e sta b lish m en t engaging in m o re than 1 a c tiv ity , the e n tire em p loym en t of the e sta b lish m en t is
in clu d ed under the in d u stry in d icated by the m o st im p ortant a c tiv ity . The in d u str ie s a re c la ssifie d in a ccord a n ce w ith the Standard In d u strial
C la ssific a tio n M anual, Bureau of the B u d get, 1957, a s am ended by the 1963 Su pp lem en t.
2 T otal em p loym en t data r e fe r to a ll p e r so n s on e sta b lish m en t p a y ro lls who r e c e iv e pay fo r any part of the pay p erio d w hich in clu d es the 12th
of the m onth. The data exclu de p r o p r ie to r s, the se lf-e m p lo y e d , unpaid v o lu n te e r s, or fa m ily w o r k e rs. S a la ried o ffic e r s of co rp o ra tio n s a re in ­
clu d ed. P e r so n s on e sta b lish m en t p a y ro lls who a re on paid sic k lea v e or on paid va catio n (when pay is r e c e iv e d d ir e c tly from the firm ) a re counted
a s em p lo y ed . H o w ever, m any e m p lo y ee s in the co n stru ction in d u stry do not r e c e iv e paid sick lea v e or paid v a catio n s d ir e c tly from a fir m but from
a fund to w hich a ll the fir m s have m ad e co n trib u tio n s. P aym en ts from th e se funds a re b a sed on the num ber of h ou rs w orked or am ount of the
w o rk ers' e a rn in g s.
3 C on stru ction w o rk ers include the fo llow in g em p lo y ee s in the co n tra ct co n stru ction d iv ision : W orking fo rem en , jo u rn ey m en , m e c h a n ic s, a p ­
p r e n tic e s , la b o r e r s, e tc . , w hether w orking at the site of co n stru ction or in shops or y a r d s, at jo b s (su ch a s p recu ttin g and p rea ssem b lin g ) ord in arily
p erform ed by m e m b er s of the co n stru ction tr a d es.
4 T otal em p loym en t m in u s co n stru ction w ork er em p loym en t.
NOTE: B eca u se of rounding, su m s of in d ivid u al ite m s m ay not equal to ta ls.
SOURCE: BL S, cu rren t em p loym en t s ta tis tic s b a sed on e sta b lish m en t r e p o r ts.




19

T a b le 14. C o n stru c tio n w o rk e rs a s a p e rc e n t of to ta l e m p lo y m e n t, by ty p e of c o n tra c to r, 1947—68
Y ear

T o ta l
c o n tra c t
c o n s tr u c ­
tio n

1 9 4 7 ................
1948
............................
1949 ___________________
1950 ___________________
1951
1952 ___________________
1953 ___________________
1954
1955 ___________________
1956 ___________________
1957 ________ ______ ____
1958 ___________ ______
1959 __________ _________
1960
1961
1962 ............
1963
1964 ___________________
1965
1966 _______ _
_____
1967 ___________________
1968 ___________________

88. 7
88. 7
88. 6
88. 7
88. 7
88. 2
87. 9
87. 3
87. 1
87. 1
8 6 .8
85. 8
85. 7
85. 2
84. 9
84. 8
85. 2
85. 1
85. 1
85. 0
84. 4
84. 3

G e n e ra l
b u ild in g
9 0 .4
90. 3
9 0 .4
9 0 .4
90. 4
89. 7
89. 1
88. 8
88. 3
8 8 .4
8 7 .8
86. 8
87. 0
86. 5
86. 0
85. 7
86. 1
86. 1
85. 8
86. 1
8 5 .4
84. 8

H eav y c o n s tru c tio n
c o n tra c to rs
H ighw ay
O th er
T o ta l
an d
h eav y
heavy
s tr e e t
8 8 .4
88. 2
88. 3
88. 3
88. 2
88. 0
88. 9
88. 9
88. 8
88. 6
89. 0
88. 2
88. 1
87. 3
86. 7
86. 8
87. 2
86. 3
8 6 .4
88. 7
85. 9
85. 9

I
I
i
1
i

_
_

89. 6
90. 1
89. 5
89. 6
89. 8
89. 8
89. 1
89. 1
88. 7
88. 3
88. 5

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
86. 8
85. 9
85. 2
83. 8
83. 7
8 4 .4
83. 3
83. 6
83. 8
83. 8
83. 6

S p e c ia l tr a d e s c o n tra c to rs
b
a in
M
T o ta l 1 Phlu mtinin g , P p a ptinr g , E le c tr ic a l sto a so nory , , R oofing
e ea g
n e w rk
and
s p e c ia l j and a ir h an ging ,
w o rk
and
s h e e t-m e ta l
tr a d e s c o n d itio n in g d e c o ra tin g
p la s te rin g
w o rk
i
8 7 .4 i
_
_
_
_
8 7 .4
_
_
_
_
_
87. 3 !
_
_
_
_
8 7 .4 !;
_
_
_
_
8 7 .4 |
_
_
_
_
_
87. 1
_
_
_
_
86. 5 'I
_
_
_
_
85. 6 i
_
_
_
_
85. 6 I
_
_
_
_
85. 5
_
_
_
_
_
85. 1
80. 7
80. 7
90. 9
82. 6
9 0 .9
78. 5
83. 9
80. 6
78. 0
81. 8
91. 1
91. 3
83. 6
8 0 .4
78. 1
81. 1
91. 4
91. 0
83. 3
80. 5
77. 5
90. 6
81. 3
91. 2
83. 5
8 0 .4
90. 6
78. 1
81. 5
9 0 .9
83. 8
80. 7
90. 3
7 8 .4
90. 8
81. 3
84. 1
80. 8
90. 1
80. 9
79. 6
91. 3
84. 0
81. 4
80. 3
81. 3
89. 7
91. 1
83. 7
81. 1
80. 3
80. 9
89. 0
9 0 .9
83. 2
80. 7
88. 8
80. 1
81. 0
8 9 .9
83. 3
80. 7
87. 9
90. 3
81. 5
7 9 .9

SO U R C E : BL.S, c u r r e n t em p lo y m e n t s ta tis tic s b a se d on e s ta b lis h m e n t r e p o r ts .

T a b le 15. E m p lo y m en t of w age and s a la ry w o rk e rs in
c o n tra c t c o n s tru c tio n , by ty p e of w o rk e r an d p e rc e n t
c h an g e, 1947—68
Y ear

(in th o u sa n d s!
C o n stru c tio n O th e r
w o rk e rs w o rk e rs

1947 _
1948 ____ _____ ______________
1949 _________________________________
1950 _
1 9 5 1 _________________________________
1952 _________________________________
1953 _________________________________
1954 _________________________________
1955 _________________________________
1956 _________________________________
1957 _________________________________
1958 _________________________________
1959 _________________________________
1960
1 9 6 1 _________________________________
1962 _________________________________
1963 _________________________________
1964 _________________________________
1965 _________________________________
1966 _________________________________
1967 _________________________________
1968 _________________________________
P e rc e n t ch ang e 1947—68 ______

1 ,7 5 9
1 ,9 2 4
1 ,9 1 9
2 ,0 6 9
2, 308
2, 324
2, 305
2, 281
2 ,4 4 0
2 ,6 1 3
2, 537
2, 384
2 ,5 3 8
2 ,4 5 9
2, 390
2 ,4 6 2
2, 523
2, 597
2, 710
2, 784
2, 708
2, 754
56. 6

223
245
246
264
295
310
318
331
362
386
386
394
422
426
426
440
440
453
476
491
500
513
130. 0

SO U R CE: BLiS, c u rre n t e m p lo y m e n t s ta tis tic s b a se d on
e s ta b lis h m e n t re p o r ts .

20




T a b le 16. P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of ag e an d m e d ia n a g e of a ll e m p lo y e d m a le s an d m a le s em p lo y e d in
c o n s tru c tio n , 1950 an d I960
I960

1950
E m p lo y e d
in
c o n s tru c tio n

A ll
em p lo y e d
m a le s

A ge

A ll
em p lo y e d
m a le s

E m p lo y ed
in
c o n stru c tio n

T o t a l -------------------------------------

100. 0

1 0 0.0

1 0 0.0

100. 0

to 19 ...................
_ ................._
to 24 _______ _____________________
to 29 _____________________________
to 34
to 44 ______ __________ ____________
to 54 ______ ______________________
to 64 _____________________________
and o v e r
_ .

5. 7
8 .4
1 0 .4
12. 0
24. 2
20. 7
13. 8
4. 8

4 .9
9 .7
12. 2
12. 2
23. 5
18. 8
13. 0
5. 6

M ed ian ag e ( y e a r s ) _________________

40. 6

3. 2
8 .4
10. 5
1 2 .7
26. 2
21. 7
13. 4
3. 9
40. 8

2 .9
9. 3
12. 3
12. 2
24. 6
20. 1
13. 5
5. 1
4 0 .4

14
20
25
30
35
45
55
65

39. 7

SO U R C E : B u re a u of th e C e n su s, 1950 an d I960 C e n su s of P o p u la tio n .

T a b le 17. P e rc e n t d is trib u tio n of m e d ia n ag e an d p ro p o rtio n of e m p lo y e d m a le s , 45 y e a r s of ag e and
o v e r, s e le c te d b u ild in g tr a d e s , 1950 and I960
M ed ian age

O c cu p atio n

1950

B ric k m a s o n s , sto n e m a so n s, and
title s e tte r s _____________________________________
C a rp e n te rs .... .
......... .
C e m e n t and c o n c re te f i n i s h e r s _________________
E le c tric ia n s ______________________________________
E x c a v a tin g , g ra d in g , an d ro a d
m a c h in e ry o p e r a t o r s __________________________
P a in te r s ...................
........ ... .
P a p e rh a n g e rs ____________________________________
P la s te r e r s _______________________________________
P lu m b e rs an d p ip e fitte rs _______________________
R o o fe rs an d s la te r s
S tr u c tu r a l- m e ta l w o rk e rs

1960

4 0 .4
4 3 .4
41. 7
3 9 .2

37. 7
43. 3
40. 0
40. 8

3 7 .8
43. 6
49. 2
41. 0
40. 9
36. 3
39. 2

39. 8
4 5 .4
50. 9
40. 1
42. 2
37. 0
41. 0

C hange in P ro p o r tio n 45 y e a rs
m e d ia n ag e
of ag e an d o v e r
1950-60
1950
I960

25. 6
4 6 .4
57. 6
41. 1
38. 6
28. 3
33. 9

-2 . 7
-. 1
-1 . 7
+ 1. 6
+ 2. 0
+ 1. 8
+ 1. 7
- .9
+ 1. 3
+. 7
+ 1. 8

30. 4
45. 5
34. 9
37. 9
34. 3
50. 9
6 5 .6
36. 5
41. 9
30. 2
37. 1

1959

1956

1953

1951

8. 3
8. 7
21. 1
19. 3
22. 9
6. 5
6. 6
4. 2
8. 0
7. 2
4. 4
7. 3
8. 2
3. 5
8 .4
25. 5

8. 6
9. 6
23. 5
(2 )
(2 )
6. 4
6. 6
4. 3
7 .9
7. 0
4. 3
7. 0
8. 2
(2)
(2)
(2 )

9. 0
10. 3
26. 0
(2)
(2)
6. 5
6. 6
4 .4
8 .4
6. 8
4. 2
6. 8
7. 6
(2 )
(2)
(2 )

9. 5
1 1 .9
26. 0
(2 )
(2)
6. 6

39. 8
46. 2
41. 6
34. 2

SO U R C E: B u re a u of th e C e n su s, 1950 an d I960 C e n su s of P o p u la tio n .

T a b le 18. A v e ra g e n u m b e r of e m p lo y e e s 1 p e r re p o rtin g u n it, se le c te d y e a rs
In d u stry
C o n tra c t c o n s tr u c tio n ___________________________
G e n e ra l c o n tr a c to r s , b u ild in g _
_.
G e n e ra l c o n tr a c to r s , e x c e p t b u ild in g s _____
H ighw ay an d s tr e e t c o n stru c tio n
H eavy c o n s tru c tio n , n . e . c _______________
S p e c ia l tra d e c o n t r a c t o r s __________ _ _____
P lu m b in g , h e a tin g , and a i r c o n d itio n in g
. .. . _
. ..........
P a in tin g , p a p e r h a n g in g __________________
E le c tr ic a l w o rk . .
M a so n ry , sto n e w o rk , and p la s te r i n g ___
C a rp e n te rin g and w ood f lo o r i n g _________
R oofing and s h e e t-m e ta l w o rk
C o n c re te w o rk ____________________________
W a te r w e ll d rillin g
M isc e lla n e o u s s p e c ia l tra d e
c o n tra c to rs . .
A d m in is tra tiv e and a u x ilia ry __________________

1967
9 .7
10. 3
1 9 .4
17. 6
20. 6
7. 8
8. 3
4. 8
10. 4
7. 4
4. 5
8. 7
8. 1
3. 8
11. 2
45. 3

1966

1965

1964

1962

9. 5
10. 1
18. 9
17. 3
19. 9
7. 7
8. 0
4. 7
9 .8
7. 6
4. 7
8. 5
8. 3
3. 7
11. 2
49. 4

8. 8
9. 1
18. 1
17. 7
18. 4
7. 3
7. 6
4. 5
9. 3
7. 4
4. 5
8. 0
8. 0
3. 6
10. 6
52. 6

8 .4
8. 6
17 .7
17. 8
17. 7
7. 0
7. 2
4. 3
8. 5
7. 3
4. 5
7. 5
8. 2
3. 5
10. 1
45. 2

8. 2
8 .4
1 9 .4
17. 9
20. 4
6. 6
6. 7
4. 2
8. 4
6. 8
4. 2
7. 3
8. 8
3 .4
8. 7
33. 1

1

1
1 T he n u m b e r of e m p lo y e e s fo r th e m id -M a rc h pay p e rio d d iv id e d by th e to ta l n u m b e r of re p o rtin g u n its d u rin g th e f ir s t q u a r te r .
2 N ot a v a ila b le .
SO U R C E : B u re a u of th e C e n su s, C ounty B u sin e ss P a tte r n s .




P
(2)
(2)
(2 )
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2 )
(2 )
(2 )

21

Table 19. P ercent distribution of firm s by number of em ployees in contract construction, selected years
Y ear

1 9 5 1 ______________________________
1953 ......................................................
_________ _______________
1956
1959 ................ .......................................1962 ............................................ ...............
1964 ________ _____________________
1965 ______________________________
1966 ______________________________
1967 ______________________________

1 -3 1
e m p lo y e e s

53. 1
55. 6
56. 2
5 7 .0
5 7 .9
56. 6
5 5 .9
54. 0
5 4 .4

4 -7
8 -1 9
20 -4 9
e m p lo y e e s
e m p lo y e e s
e m p lo y e e s
C o n tra c t c o n s tru c tio n
23. 6
2 2 .4
20. 9
20. 3
20. 0
20. 2
20. 3
2 0 .8
2 0 .4

1 4 .6
1 3 .6
14. 6
14. 6
14. 0
14. 6
14. 9
15. 6
15. 5

T o ta l le s s
50 e m p lo y e e s

5. 8
5. 5
5. 7
5. 6
5. 6
5 .9
6. 0
6 .4
6 .4

97. 1
97. 1
9 7 .4
97. 5
97. 5
97. 3
97. 1
9 6 .9
9 6 .7

6. 7
6 .0
6. 2
5. 6
5 .5
5. 7
5. 7
6. 2
6. 1

9 5 .9
9 6 .6
9 6 .8
97. 1
9 7 .4
97. 3
9 6 .9
96. 5
96. 3

G e n e ra l c o n tr a c to r s , build in g
1951
1953
1956
1959
1962
1964
1965
1966
1967

............................................................
______________________________
______________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
________ _____________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________

46 . 6
5 1 .7
52. 8
55. 2
5 6 .9
56. 2
55. 6
53. 3
54. 2

2 5 .8
2 4 .4
2 2 .4
2 1 .4
21. 1
21. 0
2 1 .0
2 1 .7
21. 1

1 6 .8
14. 5
1 5 .4
14. 9
1 3 .9
14. 4
14. 6
15. 2
15. 0

G e n e ra l c o n tr a c to r s , e x c e p t b u ild in g
1951
1953
1956
1959
1962
1964
1965
1966
1967

______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
____________ _______________
_____________ ________________
______________________________
______________________________

34. 1
3 6 .4
36. 5
38. 6
4 2. 6
43. 0
42. 4
42. 0
41. 7

2 0 .4
19. 0
18. 0
1 8 .4
18. 3
1 8 .4
18. 3
18. 3
18. 5

1 9 5 1 ............................................................
1953 ______________________________
1956 ______________________________
1959 - .............- .......................................
1962 ______________________________
1964 ______________________________
1965 ______________________________
1966 ______________________________
1967 ______________________________

58. 1
5 9 .7
60. 0
50. 1
60. 5
5 8 .8
58. 1
56. 2
5 6 .6

22. 8
2 1 .9
20. 5
20. 0
19. 8
20. 2
20. 2
2 0 .8
20. 3

20. 3
19. 8
20. 7
20. 6
19. 1
19. 0
1 9 .4
1 9 .6
19. 7

1 3 .4
1 3 .8
14. 2
13. 2
11. 5
1 1 .7
1 1 .4
11. 8
11. 5

88. 2
89. 0
8 9 .4
9 0 .8
9 1 .5
92. 1
91. 5
91. 7
9 1 .5

4. 5
4. 3
4. 5
4. 7
4 .8
5. 2
5. 3
5 .7
5 .8

9 8 .4
9 8 .4
98. 5
98. 5
9 8 .4
98. 3
98. 0
9 7 .9
97. 8

S p ec ia l tr a d e s c o n tra c to rs
13. 0
12. 5
13.5
13. 7
13. 3
14. 1
1 4 .4
15. 2
15. 1

1 In c lu d e s re p o rtin g u n its h av in g p a y ro ll d u rin g th e f i r s t q u a r te r b u t no e m p lo y e e s d u rin g the
m id -M a rc h pay p e rio d .
SO U R C E : B u re a u of th e C e n su s, C ounty B u s in e s s P a tte r n s .

22




Table 20. P ercent distribution of em ploym ent in contract construction and m anufacturing, by region and State, selected years
R eg io n an d S ta te

C o n tra c t c o n s tru c tio n

M a n u fac tu rin g

1968

I960

1950

1939

1968

1960

1950

1939

T o t a l _______________________________________

100. 0

10 0.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1 0 0.0

100. 0

N ew E n g la n d _____________________________________
M a in e ................................................................................
N ew H a m p sh ire
.
. .
V e rm o n t
. _ . _ .......
M a s s a c h u s e tts _______________________________
R hode Isla n d
C o n n e c tic u t 1 __________________________________
M id d le A tla n tic _____ _____________________________
N ew Y o rk
_ . .
N ew J e r s e y ___________________________________
P e n n sy lv a n ia _ _ .............
. ... .

5 .9
.4
.4
.3
2. 7
.5
1. 6
17. 2
8. 0
3 .4
5. 8

5. 8
.5
.3
.2
2. 8
.4
1. 6
18. 2
'9 . 2
3. 5
5. 5

6. 1
.4
.3
.2
3. 1
.5
1. 6
20. 1
9 .8
3. 5
6 .8

6 .9
.6
.5
.3
2 .9
.7
1 .9
22. 8
1 2 .4
3. 6
6 .8

7 .9
.6
.5
.2
3 .6
.6
2 .4

8 .7
.6
.5
.2
4. 2
.7
2 .4
24. 6
11. 2
4. 8
8. 6

9 .6
.7
.5
.2
4. 7
1. 0
2. 5
27. 2
12. 5
5. 0
9 .7

11. 5
.9
.7
.3
5. 6
1. 2
2 .8
29. 3
13. 2
5. 7
1 0 .4

E a s t N o rth C e n tra l ___________ __________________
O h io ____________________________________________
I n d ia n a ________________________________________
I ll in o is __________________________________________
M ic h ig a n _______________________________________
_
... _
W isc o n sin
_ ......... .

18. 5
5. 1
2. 6
5. 7
3. 1
2. 0

19. 3
5 .4
2. 3
5 .8
3. 7
2. 1

W est N o rth C e n t r a l _______________________________
M in n e so ta
_
... _
Iow a _____________________________ _________ _____
M is s o u ri __ .
_
....
___ .
N o rth D ak o ta _
. . .
S outh D akota __________________________________
N e b ra sk a ______________________________ ______
K a n sa s

7. 5
1 .9
1. 2
2. 2
.2
.2
.7
1. 1

18. 6
5. 1
2. 3
5. 3
3. 8
2. 1
8. 8
2. 2
1 .8
2 .4
.3
.3
.8
1. 0

2 6 .8
7. 5
3. 5
7. 2
5 .8
2. 7
6. 0
1 .4
1. 1
2. 3
(2 )
.1
.4
.7

2 9 .5
8. 0
3. 8
7 .9
7. 0
2. 8
5 .7
1. 3
1. 0
2. 3
(2 )
.1
.4
.6

2 7 .4
7. 5
3. 4
7 .9
6. 1
2. 5
5. 2
1. 1
.9
2. 3
(2)
.1
.3
.5

S outh A tla n tic __________________ __________________
D e la w are _____________ ______ __________________
M a ry la n d ______________________________________
D is tr ic t of C o lu m b ia
._ _
__
V i r g in ia __________________________ _____________
_
.
W est V irg in ia .. ___
N o rth C a r o l in a _________________________ ______
S outh C a ro lin a ________________________________
G e o rg ia __________________________ _____________
F lo rid a . . .
_ _
_ ...... _
_

17. 8
.4
2 .4
.6
2. 7
.8
2. 7
1. 5
2 .4
4. 3

18. 6
5. 1
2. 3
5 .9
3 .4
2. 0
8 .4
2. 0
1. 3
2. 3
.3
.4
.9
1. 2
16. 0
.4
2. 2
.7
2 .4
.6
2. 3
1. 2
1 .9
4. 3

E a s t S outh C e n tra l ____ _________________________
K en tu ck y
____ . ... __
T e n n e s s e e __________________ __________________
A la b a m a ________________________________________
M is s is s ip p i ....................................................... ...............

5. 2
1. 3
1. 6
1. 5
.8

5. 9
1. 2
2. 3
1. 5
.9

W est South C e n tr a l ______________________________
A rk a n s a s ______________________________________
L o u is ia n a
.
_ _
...
O k la h o m a _________ _______ _____________________
T e x a s _ . _____ . . . . . .
_____ . _

6. 0
1. 5
2. 0
1. 6
.9
11. 2
.9
2. 8
1 .0
6. 5

12. 2
.4
1. 5
. 1
1. 6
.7
3. 0
1. 5
2. 0
1. 2
5. 0
1. 0
1 .9
1 .4
.7

11. 0
.3
1. 5
. 1
1. 5
.9
2. 7
1 .4
1 .9
.7
4. 5
.9
1 .6
1 .4
.6
4. 3
.5
1. 0
.4
2 .4

11. 8
.3
1 .7
.2
1. 7
.9
3. 1
1 .4
1. 8
.7
4 .4
.8
1. 6
1 .4
.6
3. 7
.5
1. 0
.4
1 .8

M o u ntain
M o n ta n a ....................................................................... ........
I d a h o _______________________________ ______ _____
W y o m in g _______________________________________
C o lo r a d o _______________________________________
N ew M ex ico
. _ ____ _
A riz o n a _______ ________ _____________________
U t a h ___________________ ______________________
N ev ad a ______________________________________

3 .9
.4
.3
.2
1. 0
.5
. 8
. 4
. 3

4 .9
.4
.3
.4
1. 2
.7
1. 1
. 5
. 3

P a c ific ----------------------------------------------------------------------------W ashin gto n
O reg o n _________________________ _____________
C a lifo rn ia ___________________________________
A la s k a
H a w a ii ________________ ____ _____________ _____

12. 0
1. 8
. 9
9. 5
. 2
. 6

1 3 .4
1. 6
•9
10. 1
. 2
. 6

1. 1
. 1
. 1
(2 )
.4
. 1
. 2
. 2
(2)
7. 1
1. 2
. 9
5. 0

1. 0
. 1
.2
(2 )
.4
(2)
. 1
. 2
(2 )
5. 7
1. 2
. 8
3. 7

9. 5
.7
1 .9
1. 2
5 .7

8 .4
1 .9
1 .4
2. 3
.3
.4
.8
1. 3
1 4 .4
.5
2 .4
.9
2. 2
.8
2. 0
1. 0
1. 7
2 .9
5. 1
1. 2
2. 0
1. 2
.7
10. 0
.8
2. 0
1. 3
5 .9
4. 0
.4
.4
.3
1. 0
.7
. 5
. 5
. 2
1 2 .6
1. 8
1. 1
9. 7
_

2 1 .9
9. 5
4. 5
7 .9
2 6 .4
7. 3
3. 6
7. 1
5. 8
2. 6
6. 3
1. 6
1. 1
2 .4
(2 )
.1
.4
.7

15. 3
.4
2. 0
1 .6
2 .4
1 .0
2. 1
1. 2
2. 3
2. 3
5. 7
1. 6
1 .4
1. 5
1. 2
9 .4
.8
1 .7
1. 1
5 .8

13. 3
.4
1 .4
. 1
1 .8
.7
3 .4
1 .6
2. 3
1. 6

5 .9
.8
.9
.6
3 .6

4 .9
.6
.8
.5
2 .9

3. 5
.5
.3
.3
1. 1
.3
.4
.4
. 2
9 .0
1. 8
. 7
6. 6

1 .7
. 1
.2
(2 )
.6
. 1
.4
. 3
(2 )
1 0 .7
1. 4
. 9
8. 3
(2 )
. 1

1. 6
. 1
.2
. 1
.5
. 1
. 3
. 3
(2 )
10. 2
1. 3
.9
7. 9
(2 )
. 2

_

~

_

_

-

1 Mining combined with construction.
2 L ess than 0. 05 percent.
SOURCE: BLS, current em ploym ent sta tistics based on establishm ent reports.




23

CHAPTER IV . SEASONAL EM PLO YM EN T

Seasonality of employment i construction
n
Seasonal fluctuations are an outstanding feature of employment in construction. Wage and salary workers
in contract construction experience greater seasonal variations in employment than such workers in any other
nonagricultural industry division. (See appendix table G-6.) From its low to its peak, contract construc­
tion has added more than three-quarters of a million workers each year, on the average, over the past
decade. Seasonal employment fluctuations far exceed the variation in annual average employment that have
occurred. (See table 22.) In addition, the seasonal pattern in employment is more pronounced for construc­
tion workers than for other workers in the industry. (See table 26.)
Seasonality of employment in contract construction has not changed markedly since World War II as
measured by the extent to which employment in February and August varies from average annual employment.
(See table 21.) There has been a decline during the last 5 years as well as during the early 1950’s— both
periods of low unemployment.
Seasonality in construction employment 18 is clearly related to economic conditions, as measured by the
overall unemployment rate. (See chart 1.) As unemployment rises, seasonality increases, and conversely. For
the month of February, for example, for every percentage point change in the overall unemployment rate, there
is a corresponding 1 percentage point change in seasonal amplitude, on the average. For months of the year
other than February (the low point), the relationship of economic conditions to seasonality may be quantita­
tively different, but limited evidence indicates that the direction of the relationship is the same as in February.
Use of a related measure, the trend in BLS seasonal adjustment factors 19 also shows no observable sig­
nificant change in seasonality occurring since 1947. (See table 21 and appendix table G-7.)
A reduction in the amplitude of seasonal fluctuations in construction employment took place before
World War II. In 1929 and 1935, the range in contract construction employment between February and
August as a percent of the annual average was about 55 percentage points. 20 By 1939 and 1940, just prior
*8 M
easured by the ratio of the actual level of employment to the corresponding trend-cycle level of employment for
the sam month. This factor m be taken into account in a review of trends in seasonality during the postwar years. That
e
ust
portion of the seasonality associated with economic conditions must be removed in some way in order to determine whether
the rem
aining seasonality contains any observable trend related to other influences present in the construction industry.
*9 Seasonal adjustm is a statistical process for removing the effects of seasonal influences from the data for the
ent
individual months of the year. Seasonal factors express the ratio between the original level of activity for a month and the
seasonally adjusted level for the sam month. A factor of 110 m
e
eans that the level in that month is typically 10 percent
higher than it would have been in the absence of seasonal influences. A factor of 90 m
eans that the level in that month
is typically 10 percent less because of seasonality. W the actual level for a given month is divided by the factor for
hen
that month, the resulting number is called the seasonally adjusted level. After a time series has been seasonally adjusted,
the figure for any month m be compared directly with that for any other month.
ay
Month-to-month change in a seasonally adjusted series should then reflect nonseasonal factors such as changing eco­
nomic conditions or short term factors such as floods, storm or strikes. It does not reflect normal seasonal variations
s,
since it is precisely these which are removed in the adjustment process. In this report, the seasonal factors will be used
as a m
easure of seasonal influences whenever possible. However, in some instances, the sim method of taking the month
ple
as a percentage of the annual average will be utilized. In addition, the ratio of the seasonal low to the seasonal high month,
usually February to August, also will be used.
2® BLS employment data on a monthly basis is not available for years prior to 1939. See table 24 for sources and
note concerning 1929 and 1935 data.

24






to World War II, this range had declined to about 34 percentage points. (See table 25.) Since 1947, the
spread has fluctuated between 18 and 33 percent. (See tables 21 and 25.) The same pattern as above per­
sisted for the various geographic areas of the Nation. (See table 23.)
The fact that no marked change in the seasonality of employment has occurred in contract construction
over the postwar period is particularly surprising because a number of factors seem to be working to reduce
seasonality. First, the regional distribution of employment in the industry has shifted toward the South Atlan­
tic and Pacific States— areas of generally less seasonal fluctuation. Second, a shift of employment has occurred
within the industry in favor of special trades contractors and more mechanical work such as electrical, plumb­
ing, etc. Employment in the special trades is considerably less seasonal than work by general contractors.
Third, the proportion of total employment in the industry that construction workers constitute has decreased.
Since construction workers are subject to considerably greater seasonality of employment than office workers
in the industry, this circumstance would tend to mitigate seasonal employment fluctuations. Fourth, techno­
logical developments that increase the ease of winter building have continued to appear. Suppliers to the in­
dustry continue to provide innovations directed at year-round construction work. Plastic shelters for closing in
a job against unfavorable weather and improved space heaters have been marketed. Fifth, the size of contrac­
tors in terms of the value of work undertaken has continued to increase (although, in terms of employees there
has not been any increase in size). With greater size, the planning necessary to successfully undertake off­
season work is possible.
The fact that seasonality in construction has shown little long-run alteration in face of these changes in­
dicates that other factors are at work to increase seasonality that are able to balance the factors that reduce
seasonality.
The increasingly seasonal pattern of contracts let may have a positive effect upon the seasonality of em­
ployment. In the late 1940’s and early 1950’s, monthly series of the value of contract awards had a rather
random pattern. If anything, the value peaked late in the year and troughs were random. By 1954, however,
the value of contracts let began to take on a more seasonal pattern. A peak is now reached in April, May, or
June— leading employment by about 3 months— and a trough occurs in December or January— leading the
employment trough by about 1 month.21 Construction jobs often require a large amount of advance planning
and development. When the day arrives to start a job, the contractor must have assembled men, materials, and
machines. If construction is let on a seasonal basis all other aspects of work planning, organization, and com­
mencement also follow a more seasonal movement.
Another factor that may emphasize the seasonality of employment in construction is the increased amount
of formal planning by contractors. The general belief is that contractors are planning in an attempt to perform
more winter work. In anticipation of poor winter weather, however, contractors may use formal planning to
accomplish more work during spring, summer, and fall months, thereby heightening the seasonal employment
peak. Analysis of weather and employment information for Chicago has indicated a certain amount of an­
ticipatory reaction by contractors that has an effect on the amount of work performed in winter months,
regardless of the actual weather conditions in these months. (See appendix C for a discussion of this topic.)

Seasonal employment by type of contractor
Seasonal variations in employment are more pronounced in some types of construction activities than
in others. Employment by special trades contractors in 1968, for example, rose about 18 percent from sea­
sonal low to high, while employment in heavy construction rose by 56 percent. (See table 24.) In addition,
seasonal variations in employment within certain segments of heavy and special trades contractors also are
considerable. Thus, employment in heavy construction, except highways, increased by more than one-quarter
from seasonal low to high, and employment by highway contractors nearly doubled. Among the special trades

Robert E. Lipsey and Doris Preston, Source B ook
Bureau of Economic Research, 1966, p. 57.
26



o f Statistics Relating to Construction,

New York: National

contractors, the mechanical trades, such as plumbing, heating and air conditioning, and electrical work, are the
least seasonal. The seasonal rise in employment from low to high months for these mechanical trades con­
tractors was less than 10 percent, compared with 21 percent for masonry contractors, 23 percent for roofing
contractors, and 42 percent for painting contractors.
The sectors of contract construction have experienced varied changes in seasonal employment patterns
since 1929. The seasonal amplitude of the swing in employment in highway construction has shown the most
significant improvement, although it continues to be the sector of the industry with the widest seasonal fluc­
tuations in employment. (See table 25.)
Seasonal employment by type and class of worker
Just as substantial variations in the seasonal patterns of employment take place by type of construction
activity, available data indicate that considerable variation occurs by construction occupation and by class of
construction worker. The number of laborers employed in the peak month of August 1968 was 24 percent
greater than the annual average; for carpenters it was only 10 percent higher than the annual average in the
peak month of September. Conversely, the employment of construction laborers in January was about onefourth less than the annual average compared with 15 percent less for carpenters. (See table 26.)
In 1968, the seasonal fluctuation in employment of “ construction workers” in contract construction was
about one-third between February and August, in contrast to a fluctuation of about 3 percent for other work­
ers (white-collar, etc.), (See table 27.)
There are substantial variations in the seasonal employment patterns of construction workers by class of
worker. In 1968, employment of private wage and salary workers in construction increased by about 25 per­
cent between the first and third quarters, compared with a 7-percent rise for government wage and salary
workers engaged in construction activities. 22 The number of self-employed and unpaid family workers com­
bined in construction increased 12 percent during this period. (See table 28.) Construction workers employed
in construction experience greater seasonal employment swings than building trades workers employed in other
industries. (See table 29.)

Seasonal employment by size and location of construction firm
Seasonal employment patterns of large construction firms have less amplitude than those of smaller
firms. Large firms may be better able to take advantage of cold weather materials and equipment and, there­
fore, tend to maintain their work forces during off-season periods.
Data available for several sectors of contract construction in four areas in 1968 indicate that seasonal
employment swings for large firms were consistently less than for small firms, 23 but varied by type of con­
tractor and area. (See table 30.) Generally, the variation was greatest for large and small firms engaged in
highway and street construction and those classified in several “ outdoor” special trades contractor industries,
such as roofing and sheet-metal work and masonry, stonework, and plastering. Painting, paperhanging, and
decorating is the only indoor work that had substantial seasonal swings, because winter months appear to be
unpopular for such work. Within the industries shown in table 30, the seasonal fluctuations of employment
are greater in the warmer regions of the country.

22 The employees of public agencies engaged in construction and related activities, such as highway maintenance and
land reclamation.
23 The classification of firms into size categories was based on type of construction activity and location of establish­
ments. Generally, establishments in General Building Construction and Highway and Street Construction were classified as
“large” if they employed 100 employees or more. Those in the Special Trades were classified as “large” if they employed
20 employees or more.




27

Historical data indicate that little or no change in seasonal employment fluctuations results from type,
size, and location of construction firms since 1960. The employment of small general building contractors in
the South Atlantic and East South Central States is becoming less seasonal, and employment in both large and
small masonry, stonework, and plastering firms in the South Central and South Atlantic States is becoming more
seasonal. (See appendix table G-19.)
Significant variations occur in seasonal fluctuations by State. Nationally, the seasonal adjustment factor
for employment in contract construction in February 1968 was 87 and the August factor was 110. Excluding
Alaska and Hawaii, February factors range from 66 for North Dakota to 98 for Florida and those for August
range from 103 to 133, for these two States. (See table 31.)

Seasonality and the attachment of workers to contract construction 24
Workers in construction have fewer quarters of work during the year than workers in most other indus­
tries. In each of the three major construction industry groups, for example, employees with work in only one
calendar quarter made up at least 30 percent of all workers who had some earnings in the industry, compared
with less than 20 percent of the workers with some earnings in manufacturing, mining, and utilities. (See
table 32.) Similarly, when employees are reported in the industry from which they received the major portion
of their earnings, fewer quarters of work are evidenced for construction workers than most other workers.
Construction workers in the South and West (where seasonal patterns are less severe) appear to have a
weaker attachment to the industry than those in the rest of the country. Only about 28 percent of the work­
ers who reported some earnings from general building construction in the South and West were employed in
the industry at least part of four quarters in 1964, compared with about 35 percent in the northern regions.
(See table 33.) Moreover, a considerably larger proportion of the workers in the South and West were em­
ployed only one quarter in 1964. This weaker attachment in a section of the country in which construction
employment is less seasonal may reflect a shifting from farm to construction work and back.
Construction workers under 25 years of age appear to have less year-round work in the industry in the
course of a year than those in the older age groups. In 1964, more than one-half of the construction workers
in the 25 to 65 age group who had most of their earnings reported from contractors in the general building
sector had four quarters of work. This proportion contrasts markedly with the 8 percent for those under
20 years of age (many of whom are in school and seek employment during their vacations) and the 31 per­
cent for those between 20 and 24 years of age. For those workers over 65, the proportion receiving four
quarters of work was substantially less than for the prime working age groups. (See table 34.)
White workers appear to receive more quarters of work than Negro workers. (See table 35.) This may
in large part be a result of Negroes’ concentration in the trades more susceptible to seasonal layoffs.

Factors that influence seasonality
Seasonal employment movements in construction are the result of inclement weather and traditional man­
agement practices and custom. The actual amount of work that could be performed in winter with precautions
against bad weather is unknown, but indications are that it is more than is currently performed. In 1924, the
Hoover Committee reported, “ For most types of construction is now possible to build the year-round in all
parts of the United States.” 25 This statement remains true. Materials and techniques for performing con­
struction work during harsh weather have been available for some time, and have steadily improved. Careful
scheduling and protection of materials and workers can permit work to proceed even in periods of bad

24 Source: OASDI 1-percent continuous work history sample. Special tabulations made by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics’ Office of Wages and Industrial Relations. (See appendix F.)
25 The President’s Conference on Unemployment, Seasonal Operation in The Construction Industries: The Facts and
Remedies, (New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1924).
28




weather. The Canadians, for instance, have poured concrete at 40 degrees below zero, and some of this Nation s
large contractors have accomplished similar feats. Highway building has been carried directly through winter
months in Washington, D.C., and in cities farther north.
An analysis of the weather and construction activity in Chicago between 1958 and 1964 indicates that
construction activity is sensitive to temperature, but much less so to precipitation, wind, and other factors,
(See appendix C.) The industry appears to anticipate normal seasonal weather in winter months and sched­
ules less work. Thus, a situation appears to exist in which the industry’s expectation of normal seasonal
weather has more direct influence on construction activity and employment than actual weather conditions for
a particular period of time.
The Hoover Report on seasonal operations in the building industry laid heavy stress on the roles of rent­
ing seasons, building codes, and owner’s preferences for summer work, in contributing to the seasonality of
employment. “ Bad weather,” wrote the Hoover Commission in 1924, is not the principal cause of seasonal
idleness. Customs which become fixed when builders had not yet learned how to cope with adverse weather
conditions have not yet been changed to meet improvements in building materials, the development of new
equipment, and innovations in management methods.”
Institutional influences have not disappeared, but their importance has been diminished. Renting seasons
are much less important today because of the increased mobility of workers in the economy. Many of the
larger corporations move their workers about the country at all times of the year. Military personnel are
transferred at all times of the year and they make up a larger proportion of the Nation’s population than in
1924. Code restrictions against undertaking certain types of work, such as pouring concrete, are often overcome
through special permits. Reduced prices in the off-season for installing air-conditioning systems in homes is
another example of the attack on institutional factors that tend to emphasize the seasonality of construction
work. Also, the diffusion of information on technological advances has improved as the number of trade
journals and other sources of information for contractors has increased.
Contractual agreements also have attacked institutional practices. An example of such a provision is a
cents-per-hour penalty clause guaranteeing an employee a minimum number of hours of work during a week.
The purpose of this contract provision is to induce the contractor to provide a full week’s work, schedule his
work, and prepare the site that rain or snow will not halt work. The effect, as often as not, is to cause the
contractor to suspend operations when weather conditions appear unfavorable.
A showup time provision in contracts may have the same effect. Showup provisions require an employer
to pay each worker for at least so many hours’ work if he has men report to his job. Again, if the contractor
is in doubt about weather conditions, and under no particular pressure to complete the job, he is apt to be
cautious and not work that day. The amount of time lost through cancellation of work due to early morning
weather conditions can be remarkably large. A review of a number of contracts indicates that some contractual
arrangements facilitate work during periods of inclement weather— suspension of call-in pay in event of inclem­
ent weather.
However, the relative incidence of these different types of provisions is presently unknown.

Additional cost of winter work
As yet only fragmentary information has been gathered about the extra costs that might be associated
with winter work, using presently known techniques of working under cover. The costs obviously will vary
with circumstances and types of construction. One study of these costs in the construction of a large motel
and department store in a northern city puts the differential at no more than 1 percent. 26 Other judgments
obtained from cautious but knowledgeable officials put these costs in the case of building structures at not
more than 5 percent.

DC 1967COW Weather Construction




Techniques,

a report prepared by the Structural day Products Institute, Washington,
29

Additional costs in residential construction are illustrated by the following experience: A brick home
in Canton, Ohio, was started the first week of February 1966, and workers encountered all kinds of weather
such as snow, sleet, rain and subzero temperatures. 27 The price of this house was not given in the report
but was reported to be in the $35,000 range. The additional cost incurred for winterizing this job was
$276.65, which can be broken down as follows:
Polyethylene................ $33.65
Framing lumber............ 20.00
Labor............................ 198.00
Electricity 1 ................ 25.00
Total......................$276.65
* Infrared lamps were borrowed
at no cost.

The home was a pilot program and no credit was given for errors. The people responsible for the project believe that
a cost of about $200 would be more than adequate on future projects.
Canadian experience suggests that very little additional costs should be added to a job for winter build­
ing. 28 Some support for this estimate has been provided by their Winter House Building Incentive Program.
The purchaser of a house substantially completed in winter received a cash payment of $500 from the Do­
minion. The number of dwelling units approved under this bonus scheme averaged about 28,500 during the
winters of 1963, 1964, and 1965. The program had a very significant effect on the starting dates with a
marked shift from the spring to the fall, which was the effect that was desired. It can be inferred that this
bonus covered the additional cost for winter building.
A long standing dispute exists among persons knowledgeable about the industry concerning the net
addition to project costs of winter building. Allowing for the additional costs required by job protection
and materials treatment, some agree that offsetting savings occur in materials and labor in the winter season.
Better labor at possible lower cost per hour (due to the absence of summer scarcity bonuses), prompt deliv­
ery of materials from supplier, less frequency of strikes, and greater use of equipment, may generate offseason
savings to the contractor. 29 In addition, the earlier completion date of buildings on which construction con­
tinued through winter would result in savings to the contractor and additional earnings to the owner if it is
income producing property.30
27 Cold Weather Construction with Brick, a report prepared by Region 4—Structural Clay Products Institute, Canton,
Ohio, 1967.
28 C. R. Crocker and D. C. Tibbetts, Winter Construction (Better Building Bulletin 6), Division of Building Research
of the National Research Council, Canada (December 1960). Also, C. R. Crocker, “Advances in Winter Construction Methods
Extend Building Season,” The Constructor , January 1966.
29 For winter savings position, see especially the Hoover Committee Report, chap. VIII; William Haber, Industrial R e­
lations in the Building Industry, pp. 113-124; and more recently, William Roark, “Winterizing of Construction Jobs Will Confer
Big Benefits,” The Bricklayer, Mason, and Plasterer, November 1963, pp. 250,-251.
Otto L. Nelson statement. United States House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor, Select
Committee on Labor: Hearings: Seasonal Unem ploym ent in the Construction Industry. Washington, D.C., Government Print­
ing Office, 1968.

30



Table 21. M easures of season ality in contract construction, 1947—68
February and August em ploy­ Seasonal adjustm ent factors
m ent as a percent of annual
for F ebruary and August
Year
avera ee em ploy ment
iffer­
ifferFebruary August Dence February August Dence
1947 -------------------1948 -------------------1Q4Q
1950 -------------------1951 -------------------1952 -------------------1953 -------------------1954 -------------------1955 -------------------1956 -------------------1 Q^7
1958 -------------------1959 -------------------I 9 6 0 -------------------1 961 -------------------1962 -------------------1963 -------------------1 QA4 ... ______ _
1 QAH .... _
._
1 9 6 6 -------------------1967 -------------------1 96 8 --------------------

84. 8
82. 7
89. 2
80. 2
86. 2
89.7
90. 0
87. 9
83. 7
84. 3
8 8.4
82. 6
83. 0
87. 3
83. 1
83. 3
82. 3
84. 7
84. 5
86. 2
88. 0
89. 0

110. 7
110. 1
108.6
113. 5
109. 6
109. 6
107. 9
109. 2
111. 2
112. 1
109.4
110. 2
112. 3
111.8
112. 1
113. 2
113. 2
112. 1
111.3
110. 8
109. 9
109. 9

88. 9
88. 3

25.9
27. 4
19. 4
33. 3
23.4
19.9
17. 9
21. 3
27. 5
27. 8
21. 0
27. 6
29. 3
24. 5
29. 0
29. 9
30. 9
27. 4
26. 8
24. 6
21. 9
19. 9

87. 9
87. 5
87. 2
87. 1
87. 0
86. 8
86. 7
8 6.4
86. 2
85. 5
85. 1
84. 6
84. 5
84. 7
84. 8
85. 1
85. 6
86. 2
86. 7
87. 1

109. 2
109. 3
109.4
109. 5
109. 5
109. 6
109. 8
109. 8
109.9
110. 2
110. 5
110. 8
111. 2
111.4
111. 6
111.7
111. 5
111.3
111.0
no. 7
no. 5
no. 3

Table 22. C yclical and season al em ploym ent change in
contract construction, all em ployees and construction
w orkers, 1947—68
Construction
em ployees
w orkers
P ercent P ercent P ercent P ercent
change change, change change,
Y ear
in annual Feb ruary in annual February
average
average
to
to
em ploy­ August em ploy­ August
ment 1
m ent 1
1947 -------------------30. 5
33. 1
19. 3
(2)
9 .4
9 .4
33. 2
1948 -------------------36. 2
21. 8
-. 2
24. 3
-. 3
1949 -------------------41. 6
1950 -------------------44. 4
7. 8
7. 8
1951 -------------------11. 6
11. 6
27. 1
29. 7
1952 -------------------1. 2
22. 2
24. 1
.7
-. 4
1953 --------------------. 8
22. 3
19. 8
1 0^4 _
24. 2
-. 4
- 1.0
26. 3
1955 -------------------7. 3
32. 8
7. 0
37. 3
1956 -------------------7. 0
32. 9
7. 1
37. 1
-2. 5
23. 8
26. 8
1957 --------------------2 .9
1958 --------------------5 . 0
33.4
-6. 0
38. 9
1959 -------------------35. 3
6. 6
6. 5
41. 5
-2. 5
I960 -------------------28. 0
-3 . 1
33. 3
1961 -------------------4 1 .4
-2. 4
35. 0
-2. 8
1 QAp,
3. 1
35. 8
3. 0
42. 3
1 Qf\ t
37. 6
2. 1
2. 5
45. 2
1964 -------------------32. 3
2. 9
37. 9
2 .9
1965 -------------------4. 5
31. 8
4 .4
37. 1
1 QAA
_ _ .....
2. 8
28. 6
2. 7
33. 6
- 2. 0
1967 -------------------24. 9
-2. 7
29. 3
22. 3
196 8 -------------------1. 8
1. 7
26. 5

20. 3
21.5
22. 0
22. 3
22. 5
22. 8
23. 0
23. 2
23. 8
24. 3
25. 3
26. 1
29. 8
27. 1
27. 0
26. 7
26. 2
25. 4
24. 5
23. 8
23. 2

21. 0

SOURCE: BLS, current em ploym ent sta tistics based on establishm ent
reports.

R efers to the change from the previous year.
Not available.
SOURCE: BLS, current em ploym ent sta tistics based on
establishm ent reports.
1
2

Table 23. Contract constru ction 1 em ploym ent in February and August as a percent of the annual average, by region, selected years
Region
T o ta l----------------------------------New E ngland-------------------------------Middle A tlan tic----------------------------E ast North C entral---------------------W est North C en tra l--------------------South A tlantic----------------------------—
E ast South C en tra l---------------------W est South C entral----------------------M ountain-------------------------------------P a c ific ------------------------------------------

1967
Feb. Aug.
86. 5 110.6

79.4
82. 8
83. 0
78. 3
92. 3
86. 7
94. 5
81. 7
90. 9

115. 2
111.2
114. 0
117. 0
106. 2
109. 9
105. 3
114. 9
109. 1

196 6

Feb. Aug.
85. 2
80. 0
81. 9
81. 9
76. 6
8 9.8
80. 8
8 8 .4
84. 0
94. 2

no. 9
112. 8
111. 2

114. 0
117.7
107. 3
113. 0
108. 6
113. 5
107. 1

1965
Feb. Aug.
83. 5
75. 6
80.4
78. 9
73. 2
8 7.6
82. 8
88. 5
81. 6
91.8

111.4
115. 0
111. 7
113. 9
119. 6
108. 3
111. 5
108. 1
111. 7
109. 2

1964
Feb. Aug.

Feb. Aug.

1955
Feb. Aug.

84. 0
75. 5
81. 8
78. 3
75. 3
8 6.4
80. 7
90. 2
84. 5
94. 3

85. 2
78. 7
84. 2
80. 9
74. 0
92. 4
81. 6
91. 3
85. 5
90. 1

83. 0
75. 3
80. 5
80. 4
74. 0
85. 9
87. 5
89. 9
79. 6
9 0.4

112. 0
116. 1
112. 6
115. 9
118. 7
109. 1
112. 8
108. 6
114. 0
107.4

1960

112. 5
115.7
111. 4
117. 0
123. 8
107. 7
114. 3
108. 8
112. 6
108. 0

111. 3
112. 9
110.0
113. 0
118. 6
107. 8
112. 7
107. 6
114. 0
110.4

1939
Feb. Aug.

1935
Feb. Aug.

76. 3
6 9.9
77. 9
86. 1
57. 3
81. 2
79. 9
93. 7
62.6
90. 8

68. 1

116. 6
118. 5
112. 6
125. 8
128. 2
121. 9
121.4
109. 5
130. 9
107. 1

61. 0
70. 9
60. 1
57. 0
76. 9
70. 1
7 2 .4
62. 7
8 1.4

121. 9
119. 6
117. 9
128. 7
134. 6
113. 3
120. 6
125. 6
127. 9

1929
Feb. Aug.

70. 0
66. 3
72. 3
67. 4
54. 2
72. 7
75. 3
80. 0
53. 9
1 1 1 . 6 80. 5

124. 5
126. 7
120. 6
127. 0
138. 3
124. 8
122. 2
117. 1
141. 0
116. 5

1 Data for 1935 includes operative bu ild ers.
NOTE: The noncom parability of data for 1929 and 1935 with data since 1939 should not significantly affect the accuracy of the an alysis since
the data pertain to the relative fluctuations in em ploym ent season ally, rather than absolute le v els of em ploym ent.
SOURCE: U. S. Departm ent of C om m erce, Bureau of the C ensus. 1929— Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930. Construction Industry.
Summ ary for the United States. 1935— Census of B usin ess: 1935 Construction Industry.
U. S. Departm ent of Labor, Bureau of Em ploym ent Security. 1939- 67 Em ploym ent and W ages of W orkers Covered by State Unem ployment Insur­
ance Laws and Unem ploym ent Com pensation for F ederal E m ployees.




31

Table 24. Seasonal adjustm ent factors for wage and salary w orkers, February and August, and percent
change, by type of contractor, 196 8
Industry

Total contract constru ction-------------------G eneral building con tra ctors--------------------------Heavy constru ction------------------------------------------Highway and street con stru ctio n ---------------Other heavy constru ction----------------------------Special trade c o n tra cto r s-------------------------------Plum bing, heating, and airconditioning —
Painting, paperhanging, and
d eco ra tin g ------------------------------------------------E lectrical w o r k ------------------------------------------M asonry, plasterin g, stone, and
tile w o r k ---------------------------------------------------Roofing and sh eet-m etal w o r k -------------------Operative builders -------------------------------------------

Seasonal adjustm ent factors
F ebruary
August
87. 0
88. 2
76. 2
64. 5
86. 8
90.9
95. 8
82. 3
96. 0
89. 7
87. 5
93. 1

P ercen t by which
high season al factors
exceeded low season al
factors

110. 3
109.4
118. 8
128. 0
110. 5
107. 2
103. 9
116.6
105. 1
108. 8
107.4
106.. 6

26. 8

24. 0
5 5.9
98.4
27. 3
17. 9
8. 5
41. 7
9. 5
21. 3
22. 7
14. 5

SOURCE: BLS, current em ploym ent sta tistics based on establishm ent reports.

Table 25. Em ploym ent in contract construction as a percent of the annual average em ploym ent, February and August, selected years
Year

1929
1935
1940
1945
1947
1948
1950
1955
I960
1965
1966
1967
1968

Contract construction
G eneral building 1
February August
F ebruary August

124. 5
72. 3
70. 0
.9
62. 8
.
114. 1
79.7
(2 )
106. 0
71. 9
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (2 )
84. 9
84. 7
108. 8
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------84. 8
110. 6
87. 5
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------82. 6
110. 1
83. 4
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------79.7
80. 2
113. 5
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------111.2
83. 7
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------83. 7
111.8
8
87. 3
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 . 5
84. 5
111.3
85. 7
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8
86. 2
110. 8
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 . 2
90. 5
88. 0
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------109. 9
92.4
89. 0
-------------------------------------------------- 108. 9
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------121
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------68 1

1 9 3 9 _______________________________

121.4
126. 8
(2)
(2)
107. 3
109. 1
109.6
113. 8
111.8
111.3
110. 7
109.4
108.4
107. 5

Heavy construction
February August
67. 8
72. 3
(2)
(2 )
8 3 .4
72. 7
71. 0
69. 2
73. 2
74. 3
70. 2
72. 2
78. 6
75.5

123. 2
114. 2
(2)
(2 )
114. 3
121. 8
118. 5
123. 2
118. 3
121. 8
121. 6
119. 0
118. 1
117. 6

Highway construction
February August
45. 7
4 8 .4
(2 )
<»>
(2 )
(2 )
(*)
(2)
(2)
63.9
60. 1
62. 3
66.7
64. 3

151. 7
140. 5
(2 )
(2)
(2)
(2 )
(2)
(2 )
(2 )
130. 4
129. 7
126. 7
128. 2
127. 1

Special trades
February August
83. 2
78. 5
(2 )
(2 )
85. 0
87. 5
86. 8
85. 0
87.5
91. 9
89. 6
90. 8
90.4
92. 7

111.9
112. 0
(2)
(2)
107. 4
107.4
107. 1
109. 3
108. 1
107. 8
107.4
108. 1
107.4
106. 0

Data for 1935 includes operative bu ilders.
Not available.
NOTE: The noncom parability of data for 1929 and 1935 with data since 1939 should not significantly affect the accuracy of the an alysis since
the data pertain to the relative fluctuations in em ploym ent sea son ally, rather than absolute le v els of em ploym ent.
SOURCE: U .S. Departm ent of C om m erce, Bureau of the Census. 1929— Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930. Construction Industry.
Summ ary for the United States. 1935— Census of B u sin ess: 1935 Construction Industry.
1939—68 - BLS, current em ploym ent statistics based on establishm ent reports.
1
2

32




Table 26. Index of season al variation in monthly em ploym ent in construction and for carpenters, construction craftsm en (except carpenters), and
construction lab orers, I 9 6 0 and 196 8
Construction craftsm en,
Carpenters
Construction
Construction laborers
(except carpenters)
Month
I960
1 968
1960
1 968
1960
1960
196 8
1968
January-----------------------------------------F eb ruary--------------------------------------M arch-------------------------------------------A p r il--------------------------------------------M ay-----------------------------------------------J u n e ----------------------------------------------Ju ly-----------------------------------------------A u g u st------------------------------------------S ep tem b er------------------------------------O ctober-----------------------------------------N ovem ber-------------------------------------D ecem b er--------------------------------------

87. 9
90. 3
91. 1
96. 6
99. 7
105. 1
107. 6
110. 4
104. 9
102. 9
120. 0
101. 3

90. 1
87. 1
85. 8
94. 7
102. 1
108. 1
111.6
110. 2
104. 3
107. 1
102. 4
96. 5

85. 2
89. 6
88. 4
94. 5
101. 2
102. 4
105. 5
107. 8
110. 2
107. 8
105. 1
102. 2

96. 4
92. 1
93. 4
100. 0
102. 2
107. 1
104. 7
105. 4
103. 0
103. 5
98. 4
93. 4

94. 6
96. 6
95. 1
93. 1
98. 9
100. 8
106. 9
108. 8
103. 8
103. 1
99. 1
99. 1

92. 9
86. 9
87. 1
97. 0
101.2
106. 8
112. 0
114. 3
106. 4
102. 8
101. 3
91. 2

73. 9
79. 5
80. 1
99. 6
106. 2
118. 5
123. 2
124. 1
100. 5
95. 4
98. 2
100. 7

83. 8
78. 3
72. 3
90. 8
110. 0
120. 8
129. 6
121.6
99. 5
104. 4
96. 4
93. 0

SOURCE: Current population survey conducted for the BLS by the Bureau of the Census.




Table 27. Seasonal adjustm ent factors for wage and salary w orkers, by class of w orkers in contract
construction, February and August, 1948—68
Year

1948 ----------------------------------------------1949 ----------------------------------------------1950 ----------------------------------------------19 5 1 ----------------------------------------------1952 ----------------------------------------------1953 ----------------------------------------------1954 ----------------------------------- --------1955 ----------------------------------------------1956 ----------------------------------------------1957 ----------------------------------------------1958 ----------------------------------------------1959 ----------------------------------------------I960 ----------------------------------------------1961 ----------------------------------------------1962 ----------------------------------------------1963 ----------------------------------------------1964 ----------------------------------------------1965 ----------------------------------------------1966 ----------------------------------------------1967 ----------------------------------------------1968 -----------------------------------------------

Construction w orkers
August
F ebruary
85. 9
85. 9
85. 9
85. 9
85. 7
85. 6
85. 4
85. 3
85. 0
84. 6
83. 6
83. 1
82. 4
82. 1
82. 3
82. 4
82. 8
8 3.4
84. 2
84. 8
85. 3

110. 5
no. 5
no. 5
no. 5
no. 5
no. 8
no. 8
111.0
111.4
111.8
112. 3
112. 7
113. 1
113.4
113. 4
113. 2
113. 0
112. 7
112.4
112. 1
111.9

Other w orkers
February
August
96.4
96. 4
96.6
96.7
96. 8
97. 1
97. 2
97. 5
97. 8
97. 9
98. 1
98. 2
98. 3
9 8.4
98. 4
98. 5
98. 5
98. 5
98. 6
98. 6
98. 6

103.4
103. 2
103. 2
103. 1
103. 0
102. 8
102. 5
102. 3
102. 2
102. 0
101.8
101. 8
101.8
101.7
101.7
101. 6
101.5
101.4
101. 3
101. 2
101. 2

SOURCE: BLS, current em ploym ent sta tistics based on establishm ent reports.

33

Table 28. Em ploym ent in construction by class of w orker, percent change
from first quarter (January, F ebruary, M arch) to third quarter (July,
August, Septem ber), 1962—68
SelfWage and salary w orkers
em ployed
and unpaid
Total
Year
overn­ fam ily
P rivate G ment
Total
w orkers
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 9 6 8 ---------------------------

23. 6
27. 2
24. 6
22.9
16. 5
19. 4
19. 8

27. 7
30. 1
27. 3
25. 6
18. 7
20. 1
21. 3

34. 2
36. 9
32. 6
30. 1
21. 2
23. 7
24. 2

- 1.6
.2
2. 6
4. 3
6. 3
4. 1
6. 5

Table 29. Em ploym ent in construction by selected occupational
group, percent change from first quarter (January, February,
M arch) to third quarter (July, August, Septem ber), 1962—66
Construct ion craftCarpenters
men (ex:cluding
carpel iter s)
Y ear
In
In
In
In
construc­ other constru c­ other
tion industries tion industries
industry
industry

6. 6
15. 4
13. 2
9. 8
5. 6
L4. 7
12. 0

1962
1963
1964
1965
1966

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

19. 3
32. 0
35. 6
40. 6
4. 6

-5. 4
6. 3
-7 . 5
- 1. 1
3. 1

33. 5
34. 6
33. 5
19. 9
27. 2

12.4
8.4
9. 5
15. 6
11. 0

1 L ast year for which data is available.
SOURCE: Current population survey conducted for the
BLS by the Bureau of the C ensus.

SOURCE: Current population survey conducted for the BLS by the
Bureau of the Census.

Table 30. Seasonal adjustm ent factors for contract construction em ploym ent by type and siz e of contractor and region, February and August, 1968
Sm all contractor
Type of contractor and region
G eneral building:
S o u th ------------------------------------------------------------Highway and street:
North C entral-----------------------------------------------W est--------------------------------------------------------------Plum bing, heating, and air-conditioning:
N o r th e a st-----------------------------------------------------North C entral-----------------------------------------------W est--------------------------------------------------------------P rinting, paperha.nging, and decorating:
N orth ea st-----------------------------------------------------North C entral-----------------------------------------------S outh------------------------------------------------------------W est--------------------------------------------------------------E lectrical work:
N o r th e a st-----------------------------------------------------North C entral-----------------------------------------------S o u th ------------------------------------------------------------W est--------------------------------------------------------------M asonry, stonework, and plastering:
N o r th e a st------------------------------------------'----------North C entral-----------------------------------------------Sou th ------------------------------------------------------------W est--------------------------------------------------------------Roofing and sh eet-m etal work:
N o rth ea st-----------------------------------------------------North C entral-----------------------------------------------Sou th ------------------------------------------------------------W est--------------------------------------------------------------Special trad es, other:
N o rth ea st------------------------------------------------------

F ebruary
90. 6
34. 8
71. 1
96. 9
94. 2
93. 6
70. 3
79. 7
87. 5
86.6

95. 3
95.4
96.7
94. 0
84. 9
83. 7
91. 1
94. 6
76. 1
83. 6
93. 3
91. 5
82. 1

August

August as a
percent of
February

107. 9
157. 1
124. 4
103. 0
105. 7
106. 1
120. 0
117. 6
114. 8
117. 9
103.4
105. 9
106. 7
105. 3
109. 7
111.2
107. 7
107. 8
112. 6
114. 5
104. 7
107. 5
111.4

119. 1
451.4
175. 0
106. 3
112. 2
113. 4
170. 7
147. 6
131.2
136. 1
108. 5
111.0
110. 3
112. 0
129. 2
132. 9
118. 2
114. 0
148. 0
137. 0
112. 2
117. 5
135. 7

SOURCE: BLS, current em ploym ent sta tistics based on establishm ent reports.

34




Large contractor
February
9 3.9
47. 5
8 1.4
95. 3
95. 5
95.4
81. 9
84. 0
87. 4
89. 1
96. 3
97. 0
97. 2
96. 7
87. 2
91. 7
91. 3
95. 0
87. 3
90. 3
93. 3
99. 5
90. 9

August

August as a
percent of
F ebruarv

104. 2
143. 0
115. 9
103. 3
103. 7
103. 7
116. 2
116. 9
110. 9
112. 0
102. 6
102. 3
103. 8
102. 9
103. 1
110. 6
109. 7
105. 8
105. 7
106. 6
104.4
100. 0
104. 6

110. 0
301. 1
142. 4
108. 5
108. 6
108. 7
141. 9
139. 2
126. 9
125. 7
106. 5
105. 5
106. 8
106.4
118. 2
120. 6
120. 2
111.4
121. 1
118. 1
111.9
100. 5
115. 1

T a b l e 31.

S e a s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t factors for e m p l o y m e n t in the contract construction industry, b y State, F e b r u a r y a n d A ugust,

1962

1968
F ebruary

August

February

1952

1958
August

F ebruary

August

February

selected y e a r s

1934

1948

August

February

August

F ebruary

August

87. 1

110. 3

84. 7

111.7

85. 5

110. 8

87. 1

109. 6

88. 3

109. 3

92.4

i1

109. 8

A l a b a m a --------------------A r i z o n a ---------------------A l a s k a ----------------------A r k a n s a s -------------------C alifornia-------------------

88.
93.
52.
85.
93.

3
7
8
5
0

108.
104.
150.
113.
105.

1
2
8
9
8

88.
95.
46.
84.
92.

8
6
0
9
0

109.
103.
162.
113.
106.

2
6
6
8
0

89. 6
96. 7

109. 2
102. 2

90. 4
99.4

111.0
99. 9

90. 4
97. 8

111.7
102. 3

93.2
92. 0

!
*
!

106. 2
104. 5

84. 8
92. 3

113. 8
105. 8

84. 9
94.4

114. 2
105. 0

86. 6
95. 0

114. 7
104. 2

95. 8
96. 0

!

103. 1
103. 8

C o l o r a d o -------------------C o n n e c t i c u t -----------------D e l a w a r e --------------------District of C o l u m b i a -------F l o r i d a ----------------------

86. 9
81.4
81 . 3
89. 7
97. 7

113.
112.
111.
107.
102.

0
0
3
0
9

87.
80.
80.
89.
96.

0
2
3
6
8

111.
112.
110.
108.
103.

5
9
7
1
2

86. 5
81.7
82. 9
91. 3
97. 0

111. 4
111. 6
109.2
107. 1
103. 1

84.
85.
86.
93.
97.

8
3
1
4
1

112. 6
109. 5
109. 9
104.3
102.5

82. 2
85. 0
83. 5

116. 6
109. 2
110. 0

80. 3
82. 4
83. 5

95. 4

103. 6

98. 3

108. 5

G e o r g i a ---------------------H a w a i i ----------------------I d a h o -----------------------Illinois----------------------Indiana ----------------------

91.
98.
75.
83.
84.

5
3
8
0
9

107. 0
102. 3
120. 2
112. 5
111.6

90 . 9
98. 5
72. 7
82. 2
82. 7

107.
102.
121.
112.
113.

8
9
7
7
1

92.
98.
70.
83.
82.

2
3
1
5
7

107.4
103. 5
122. 6
111.7
112. 6

93. 2

108. 5

92. 3

110. 0

97. 7

101. 5

70. 7
85. 3
85. 4

121. 5
110. 5
112. 9

74. 0
85. 7
85. 6

no. i
111.4

59. 6
86. 7
78. 7

130. 8
109. 7
118. 1

I o w a ------------------------K a n s a s ----------------------K e n t u c k y -------------------L o u i s i a n a ------------------M a i n e ------------------------

78. 6
85. 1
81. 8
92. 7
77. 8

117. 1
111.2
112. 0
105. 0
119. 4

76.
83.
78.
92.
75.

4
6
4
0
3

119.
113.
116.
106.
121.

5
0
5
7
0

74.
80.
79.
91.
74.

1
6
6
5
2

121.
113.
116.
106.
120.

5
3
3
7
5

74.
82.
82.
92.
74.

119.
114.
111.
107.
119.

78.
86.
82.
94.
74.

6
2
2
0
4

116.
112.
112.
108.
119.

1
2
6
3
0

78. 9
95. 2
88. 8
93. 6
76. 3

116.
112.
119.
103.
116.

M a r y l a n d -------------------M a s s a c h u s e t t s -------------M i c h i g a n -------------------M i n n e s o t a ------------------M i s s i s s i p p i ------------------

82.
79.
82.
75.
82.

8
8
9
2
6

110.
112.
113.
120.
113.

6
4
8
7
0

82.
77.
78.
73.
83.

3
7
9
2
1

110.
113.
116.
121.
115.

3
8
7
6
5

85. 5
78. 6
79.5
72.4
83. 7

109.
112.
114.
123.
114.

1
5
8
0
8

87. 4
81. 4
84. 2
73. 6
84. 6

108. 2
110. 8
111.4
120. 5
114. 3

87. 2
83. 4
84. 2
78. 6
84. 2

107.
109.
110.
116.
115.

7
8
3
3
7

91. 9
90. 1
87. 9
76. 5
83. 4

99. 9
108. 1
108. 7
113. 0
128.4

M i s s o u r i -------------------M o n t a n a --------------------N e b r a s k a --- ---------------N e v a d a --------------- -------N e w H a m p s h i r e -------------

85. 1
66 . 4
81. 2
89.4
78 . 4

110.
127.
113.
104.
115.

9
7
0
4
5

83.
66.
78.
89.
74.

1
0
4
1
6

112. 2
127.9
114. 9
106. 8
117.4

84. 4
63.4
77. 5
86. 7
74. 6

111.
129.
115.
109.
118.

6
8
7
6
0

87. 3
64.6
75. 3
89. 9
76. 9

110.
126.
118.
110.
114.

1
1
4
1
2

87.
69.
74.
86.
77.

8
2
5
1
5

108.
122.
118.
110.
113.

7
4
8
9
0

91.
69.
65.
85.
80.

1
9
6
2
5

102.7
124. 9
125. 4
113. 0
118. 0

N e w J e r s e y -----------------N e w M e x i c o ----------------N e w Y o r k ------------------N o r t h C a r o l i n a -------------N o r t h D a k o t a ----------------

83. 5
85. 4
83. 2
92. 3
65. 5

109.
111.
111.
105.
133.

2
6
0
4
4

83. 1
88. 7
82 . 5 90. 7
59. 7

109.
108.
110.
107.
136.

6
2
8
3
3

84. 7
91.8
83. 1
90. 5
53. 9

108.
106.
110.
107.
139.

8
6
3
1
1

87.
90.
84.
93.
53.

107.
107.
109.
106.
139.

1
6
3
1
7

87. 5
89. 2
85. 5
93.6
61. 2

105.
112.
109.
106.
135.

8
7
0
3
5

91. 7
85. 8
85. 6
95. 8
61. 5

103. 7
125. 1
108. 7
102. 5
149.4

O h i o ------------------------O k l a h o m a ------------------O r e g o n ----------------------P e n n s y l v a n i a ---------------R h o d e I s l a n d ----------------

81.8
92.2
85.9
79. 3
78. 9

112.4
108. 0
114. 2
112. 9
112. 7

78. 2
90 . 9
82. 8
78. 5
75. 5

116.
108.
117.
114.
113.

0
0
2
9
7

79. 0
90. 6
80. 3
80. 3
76.9

115.4
108. 8
119. 0
113. 5
113. 2

81. 6
92. 4
80. 7
84. 7
79. 0

113.4
107. 7
120. 8
110. 8
110. 6

82. 3
92. 6
85. 0
85. 5
80.8

111.6
108. 3
117. 1
110. 0
110. 9

82 . 4
95. 6
88. 1
87. 3
91. 5

112. 1
110. 5
115. 5
109.4
116. 6

S o uth C a r o l i n a -------------S o uth D a k o t a ---------------T e n n e s s e e ------------------T e x a s -----------------------U t a h -------------------------

94.
71.
86.
95.
74.

8
8
1
1
6

104.
123.
109.
104.
119.

6
5
8
7
4

92.
68.
84.
94.
76.

9
0
7
6
2

106. 1
124. 8
111.9
105. 7
117. 5

92.
64.
86.
94.
76.

4
9
1
9
5

106. 1
127. 9
111. 1
104. 9
118.4

93.
64.
88.
95.
75.

0
8
8
3
1

108.
127.
110.
105.
118.

7
2
3
3
9

92.2
68. 5
87.4
94. 5
75.7

111.6
126. 5
109.4
105. 2
116. 0

90.
62.
94.
95.
87.

5
2
3
1
0

114.
134.
106.
108.
110.

V e r m o n t --------------------Virginia --------------------W a s h i n g t o n -----------------W e s t V i r g i n i a --------------W i s c o n s i n ------------------W y o m i n g --------------------

73. 2
87. 1
87. 2
76.9
83. 1
70. 7

119.
109.
112.
113.
114.
128.

7
3
4
9
5
1

68.
86.
85.
77.
81.
73.

1
2
1
7
8
1

125.
110.
113.
115.
114.
125.

68.
87.
82.
81.
83.
69.

4
8
5
7
0
4

123. 9
109. 2
114. 1
114. 2
114.4
127. 8

72.
90.
83.
83.
84.
67.

9
1
6
7
2
7

120.
108.
112.
113.
112.
127.

4
6
1
1
9
6

73.
89.
86.
83.
86.
66.

119. 4
108. 7
111.5
111.5
110. 8
126. 6

69.
94.
81.
84.
84.
64.

2
3
5
2
9
8

123. 9
104.4
111.2
112. 8
110. 1
126. 7

Unit e d S t a t e s ---------

•

SOURCE:

BLS,




c urrent e m p l o y m e n t

statistics b a s e d

0
1
2
1
8
3

o n e s tablishment

8
9
3
3
2

0
0
6
8
9

3
8
5
7
1

6
4
8
7
1
6

117. 5

126. 4
110. 9
112. 4

2
0
3
6
2

4
6
7
0
0

reports.

35

T a b l e 32.

P e r c e n t distribution of e m p l o y e e s b y e s t i m a t e d qu arters of w o r k 1 for selected industries,
E m p l o y e e s with s o m e earnings f r o m the industry, 2
classified b y the e s t i m a t e d n u m b e r of quarters
they w o r k e d in the industry
Any
1 quarter
2 quarters 3 quarters 4 quarters
quarter

Industry

1964

E m p l o y e e s with m a j o r proporti o n of earnings f r o m
the industry, 3 classified b y thie e s t i m a t e d n u m b e r
of quarters they w o r k e d i n the industry
i
Any
1 quarter
2 quarters 3 quarters 4 quarte r s
q uarter

C o n t r a c t construction:
G e n e r a l building contractors —
H e a v y c o n s t r u c t i o n ------------Special trad e s c o n t r a c t o r s ----

100
100
100

34
34
30

23
23
20

14
16
13

30
27
37

100
100
100

14
13
12

19
20
15

19
23
16

48
45
57

Min i n g :
B i t u m i n o u s c o a l ----------------

100

12

10

9

69

100

6

8

9

78

Manufacturing:
Textile mill p r o d u c t s ---------Printing a n d p u b l i s h i n g -------P e t r o l e u m refining------------P r i m a r y m e t a l s ---------------T r a n s p o r t a t i o n e q u i p m e n t -----

100
100
100
100
100

15
18
12
12
12

12
13
9
9
10

9
9
7
7
7

64
60
73
73
71

100
100
100
100
100

7
8
4
4
4

9
10
6
7
7

10
9
7
7
7

74
72
83
82
81

T r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d public
utilities:
W a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ---------Utilities, electric a n d g a s ----

100
100

22
9

14
8

12
5

52
77

100
100

8
3

10
6

14
5

68
85

W h o l e s a l e a n d retail trade:
G e n e r a l m e r c h a n d i s e stores —

100

35

17

10

38

100

23

15

12

51

1 Workers
2 Workers
3 Workers
their earnings.
NOTE:

Because

SOURCE:

T a b l e 33.

w e r e classified b y the n u m b e r of calendar quarters in w h i c h they w e r e est i m a t e d to h a v e h a d earnings f r o m the
e m p l o y e d in m o r e than 1 industry during the y e a r w e r e counted in e a c h industry in w h i c h they w e r e e m p l o y e d .
e m p l o y e d in m o r e than 1 industry during the y e a r w e r e reported in the industry f r o m w h i c h they rece i v e d the m a j o r

of rounding,

sums

of individual i t e m s

Social Security Administration's

may

1 - p e rcent continuous w o r k history s a m p l e .

E m p l o y e e s with s o m e earnings f r o m the industry 2
Any
q u a rter

All regions -----------------N o r t h e a s t -------------------------M i d d l e Atl a n t i c -------------------B o r d e r S t a t e s ---------------------Sout h e a s t -------------------------G r e a t L a k e s -----------------------M i d d l e W e s t -----------------------S o u t h w e s t -------------------------M o u n t a i n --------------------------P a c i f i c ------------------------------

1 Workers
2 Workers
3 Workers
their earnings.
NOTE:

1 quarter

2 q u arters

3 quarters

4 q uarters

1964

E m p l o y e e s with : a j o r p r o p o rtion of earnings
m
f roir x the indust r y 3_____________ _____
Any
1 quarter 2 q uarters 3 quarters 4 quarte r s
quarter

100. 0

33.8

22. 5

14. 3

29. 5

100. 0

14. 0

19. 3

18. 7

48. 1

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

26. 1
28. 6
34. 0
39. 0
29. 6
33. 1
40. Q
40. 8
31.9

20. 9
20. 9
25. 0
23. 7
21.9
25. 4
23. 0
20. 1
20. 8

15.9
16. 3
13. 2
13.4
14. 0
15. 0
12. 8
12.6
14. 8

37. 1
34. 2
27. 7
23. 8
34.4
26. 5
24. 2
26. 5
32. 5

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

9.5
10. 9
14. 1
18. 8
10.6
14. 1
16.9
18. 5
12. 8

16. 5
16.9
21. 1
21. 0
18. 5
23. 7
20. 6
17. 9
17. 2

19. 7
19.7
17.9
18.4
18. 0
20. 4
17. 7
16. 8
18. 2

54.
52.
46.
41.
52.
41.
44.
46.
51.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

w e r e classified b y the n u m b e r of c a l endar quarters in w h i c h they p e r f o r m e d s o m e w o r k .
e m p l o y e d in m o r e than 1 industry during the y e a r w e r e counted in e a c h industry in w h i c h they w e r e e m p l o y e d .
e m p l o y e d in m o r e than 1 industry during the y e a r w e r e reported in the industry f r o m w h i c h they rece i v e d the m a j o r

Because

SOURCE:

of rounding,

sums

of individual i t e m s

Social Security Administration's

36




of

not equal totals.

P e r c e n t distribution of e m p l o y e e s of g e n eral building contractors b y q u a r t e r s 1 of w o r k , b y region,

Region

industry.
portion

may

not equal totals.

1 - percent continuous w o r k history s a m p l e .

3
5
9
9
8
8
8
7
7

portion of

T a b l e 34.

P e r c e n t distribution of e m p l o y e e s of general building contractors, b y e s t i m a t e d q u a r t e r s 1 of w o r k , b y age,

1964

Age
All
ages

Quarters

U n d e r 20

20-24

3 0 -34

25-29

40-44

3 5 -39

50-54

45-49

6 0 -65

55-59

O v e r 65

E m p l o y e e s with s o m e earnings f r o m the industry 2 a n d e s t i m a t e d quarters w o r k e d in the industry

T o t a l -----------------1
2
3
4

q u a r t e r ____________________
q u a r t e r s -----------------q u a r t e r s -----------------quar t e r s ------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

34.
24.
20.
20.

51.
32.
10.
4.

46.
26.
12.
14.

36.
22.
14.
26.

32.
21.
14.
31.

32.
19.
13.
34.

27.
19.
15.
37.

26.
21.
14.
37.

0
9
9
0

9
9
2
7

1
9
3
5

9
0
8
2

8
0
1
9

6
5
1
7

5
9
4
0

100. 0

1
3
7
8

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

24.
20.
16.
38.

23.
21.
15.
39.

28.
24.
15.
31.

26. 6
18. 3
16.9
38. 0

9
0
7
2

3
5
8
2

6
3
6
2

E m p l o y e e s with m a j o r p roportion of earnings f r o m the i n d u s t r y 3 a n d e s t i m a t e d quarte rs w o r k e d in the industry

Total -----------------1
2
3
4

q u a r t e r -------------------quar t e r s -----------------q u a r t e r s -----------------qua r t e r s ------------------

1 Workers
2 Workers
3 Workers
their earnings.
NOTE:

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

36.
40.
15.
7.

13.9
19. 2
18. 6
48. 1

17.7
29. 5
21. 7
30. 8

11.
16.
21.
49.

11.
16.
18.
53.

10.
15.
16.
57.

10.
14.
18.
57.

9.
16.
17.
56.

11.
13.
19.
55.

10.
14.
19.
55.

11. 5
17. 5
17. 5
53.4

22. 4
23. 2
16. 8
37. 3

6
2
1
9

9
7
9
3

1
6
4
6

6
5
2
5

3
2
3
0

7
1
3
7

3
5
8
2

2
4
8
4

w e r e classified b y the n u m b e r of calendar quarters in w h i c h they w e r e e s t i m a t e d to h a v e h a d earnings f r o m the
e m p l o y e d in m o r e than 1 industry during the y e a r w e r e counted in e a c h industry in w h i c h they w e r e e m p l o y e d .
e m p l o y e d in m o r e than 1 industry during the y e a r w e r e reported in the industry f r o m w h i c h they received the m a j o r

Because

SOURCE:

100. 0

100. 0

of rounding,

sums

of individual i t e m s

Social Security Administration's




1-percent

may

industry.
portion

of

not equal totals.

continuous w o r k history sam p l e .

T a b l e 35. P e r c e n t distribution of e m p l o y e e s of general building contractors, b y e s t i m a t e d quarters of
w o r k , 1 by race, 1964

E m p l o y e e s with s o m e earnings
f r o m the industry, 2 classified
b y e sti m a t e d n u m b e r of quarters
they w o r k e d in the industry

Quarters

All
workers

T o t a l -----------------------1
2
3
4

100. 0

q u a r t e r --------------------------quarters ------------------------q u a r t e r s ------------------------q u a r t e r s -------------------------

33.7
22. 4
14. 2
29. 4

Race

E m p l o y e e s with m a j o r proportion
of earning ; f r o m the industry, 3
s
classify id b y the est i m a t e d
n u m b e r of quarters w o r k e d
in the industry
All
workers

Negro

Other

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

40.
23.
14.
21.

32.
22.
14.
30.

13.
19.
18.
48.

7
2
5
4

4
3
2
9

9
2
6
1

Race
Negro

Other

100. 0

100. 0

17. 6
21.4
20. 9
39. 9

13.4
18. 8
18. 3
49. 3

1 W o r k e r s w e r e classified b y the n u m b e r of calendar quarters in w h i c h they w e r e e s t i mated to
h a v e h a d earnings f r o m the industry.
2 W o r k e r s e m p l o y e d in m o r e than 1 industry during the y e a r w e r e counted in e a c h industry in
w h i c h they w e r e e m p l o y e d .
3 W o r k e r s e m p l o y e d in m o r e than 1 industry during the y e a r w e r e reported in the industry f r o m
w h i c h they received the m a j o r portion of their earnings.
NOTE:

Because

SOURCE:

of rounding,

sums

of individual i t e m s

Social Security Administration's

may

not equal totals.

1-percent continuous w o r k history s a m p l e .

37

CHAPTER V .

U N E M PLO YM EN T IN C O NSTR UCTIO N

The unemployment rate31 for construction is normally the highest of any major industry division. Even
at its seasonal low, the rate is significantly higher for construction than for other industries. The average un­
employment rate between 1948 and 1968 was about 11 percent for construction and about 5 percent for
workers in nonagricultural industries as a whole. (See table 36.) In 1968, the average construction unemploy­
ment rate of 6.9 percent was nearly double the rate for total nonagricultural industries, 3.6 percent.
During the Korean War, 1951 through 1953, the average construction unemployment rate was 6.2 percent
due to high levels of construction activity and the tight labor situation during this period, especially the relative
absence of young workers. Between 1958 and 1962, the unemployment rate for construction workers was par­
ticularly high; it reached a peak of over 15 percent in 1961. Since 1961, the rate has more than halved, but
remains significantly higher than for all other major industries. A substantial factor in this reduction has been
not only the relatively high levels of construction employment, but also the availability of jobs in other industries
A higher proportion of construction workers experience unemployment than workers in any other major
nonagricultural industry group. In 1968, 24 percent of all construction workers were unemployed at some
time during the year (computed on the basis of industry of longest job); this ratio reflects a decline from 43.9
percent in 1961. (See table 37 and appendix table G-22.) In comparison, only 13 percent of workers in man
ufacturing, and 12 percent of all the workers in nonagricultural industries as a whole, experienced unemploy­
ment during 1968.
There are several factors that contribute to the high unemployment rate for construction workers. Con­
struction is a seasonal industry, especially in areas where temperature, precipitation, and other factors usually
result in the curtailing of construction. In 1968, for example, the seasonal adjustment factors for unemployed
private wage and salary workers in construction ranged from 157 in February to 66 in August. (See table 54.)
Construction workers must change employers or move from project to project more frequently than workers in
other industries because each construction project has a limited life (table 37); the completion of the project
or the changing occupational requirements on a particular job may create unemployment for construction work­
ers. Finally, construction activity is more cyclical than many other types of employment, and even without
general construction cycles, changes in the level and composition of building activity in particular localties
create periods of unemployment for construction workers. In Southern California in 1966 and 1967, a dramatic
drop occurred in residential construction, which resulted in a decline of more than one-quarter in the hours of
work for carpenters. 32

Duration o f unem ploym ent by spell of unem ploym ent
Unemployment in construction is likely to be of relatively short duration, at least for any given spell.33
Between 1960 and 1968, the average duration of each incident of unemployment for workers in construction

3^ The unemployment rates cited here refer to private wage and salary workers only. Construction unemployment
mostly affects private wage and salary workers— they account for about 70 percent of employment, but about 90 percent
of the industry’s unemployment. Unemployment data in this report for 1967 and 1968 refer to persons 16 years of age
and over; data for prior years include persons 14 and 15 years old. The comparability of the rates should not be affected
since 14 and 15 year olds represented only 0.4 percent of the industry’s total employment.
32 From data supplied to the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the Administrators of Private Health, Welfare, and Pen­
sion Funds covering construction workers in Southern California.
33 In the monthly Current Population Survey, duration of unemployment represents the length of time (through the
current survey week) during which persons classified as unemployed had been continuously looking for work.

38



was slightly shorter than for unemployed workers in manufacturing and (with the exception of 1967) in nonagricultural industries as a whole. (See table 39.)
Since 1961, not only has the unemployment rate dropped throughout the country, but also the average
duration of spells of unemployment. Unemployed workers in nonagricultural industries as a whole, manufac­
turing, and construction experienced a steady reduction in the average duration of each spell of unemployment
for each person employed.
The proportion of unemployment in construction of less than 5 weeks’ duration and 5 to 14 weeks’ dur­
ation varies greatly over the course of the year. The percent of unemployment of short-term duration (less
than 5 weeks) is higher during the peak construction activity months of June through September, reflecting the
high rate of frictional unemployment associated with construction. The high rate of short-term joblessness con­
tinues into November and December as construction activity declines. By January, the inability of many con­
struction workers to find other jobs in the industry, because of the seasonal decline in activity, results in an
increase in unemployment of 5 to 14 weeks’ duration. Unemployment of 15 to 26 weeks duration, due to the
accumulation of winter layoffs, reaches a high point in spring— generally constituting one-third of total reported
unemployment by April. It remains high until construction activity picks up again in early summer. (See
table 40 and appendix table G-21.)

Incidences of unem ploym ent and full extent of tim e lost
Construction workers are more likely than those in any other industry group, except agriculture, to ex­
perience repeated spells of unemployment. Nearly half of the 1.1 million workers in construction who expe­
rienced unemployment during 1968 had two spells or more of unemployment. (See table 41.) This number
amounted to 11.8 percent of the total wage and salary workers whose longest job during the year was in the
construction industry.34 (See table 38.) In contrast, only about 30 percent of the jobless workers in manu­
facturing and in all nonagricultural industries experienced more than one incident of unemployment during the
year— only 3.5 percent and 3.6 percent, respectively, of the total number reporting work experience. (See
tables 38 and 41.) Similarly, the proportion of construction workers having three or more spells of unemploy­
ment (6.5 percent) is more than three and one-half times greater than workers in both manufacturing (1.7 per­
cent) or nonagricultural industries as a whole (1.8 percent).
These recurrent spells of joblessness add up to extended unemployment for construction workers. 35
Counting all periods of unemployment during 1968, the rate of work losses in construction totaling 15 weeks
or more was 6.6 percent or about two and one-half times as great as in manufacturing and in nonagricultural
industries as a whole. (See table 38.)

Unem ploym ent by age groups
As in other industries, teenagers in construction have a higher unemployment rate than older workers.
(See table 42.) In 1968, persons between the ages of 16 and 19 made up 12.7 percent of unemployed work­
ers in construction, but only 5.7 percent of employed workers in construction. The age group in construction
which experienced a proportionately lower share of unemployment than employment from 1963 through 1968
were workers between 25 and 44 years of age.

34 Unlike the monthly surveys that classify workers according to industry of last employment, the annual surveys of
work experience classify workers by industry of longest job.
35 By reflecting all spells of unemployment and the cumulative time lost over the course of an entire year, the work
experience data shows a much smaller proportion with unemployment of less than 5 weeks and a much larger proportion
with 15 weeks or more. Data for a single month (or an average of monthly data) discussed in the section on Duration of
Unemployment by Spell of Unemployment do not reflect the full extent of the unemployment problem in construction,
because the current duration of unemployment, as measured in the monthly Current Population Survey, is not necessarily the
final duration for any given spell of unemployment. Current duration and final duration are the same only for those work­
ers who actually find employment or withdraw from the labor force immediately after the survey week. A further limita­
tion is that the data represent only the most recent continuous or unbroken spell of unemployment.




39

Teenagers make up a smaller portion of the unemployed in construction than in the economy as a whole.
(See table 43.) In 1968, they made up about 13 percent of construction unemployment compared with about
22 percent of the unemployment in all industries combined. Even in summer months when teenagers flow
heavily into construction, their proportion of the unemployed has been consistently lower than in all industries
combined.
The suggestion often has been made that teenagers, especially during summer months, may be the cause of the
high unemployment rate in construction. The exclusion of teenagers, however, has only a small impact on the
overall unemployment rate; for example, 6.3 percent of the construction workforce was unemployed in 1968;
excluding teenagers, the rate was 5.9 percent. (See table 44.) The removal of teenagers from the computa­
tion for the summer months (June, July, and August), however, does reduce the ratio somewhat. In the sum­
mer of 1968, for example, the overall unemployment rate for construction was 4.6 percent including teenagers,
and 3.9 percent excluding teenagers. For the same period, the unemployment rate for all other industries as a
group was 2.7 percent, 2.2 percent without teenagers.
The influx of teenagers into construction in the summer months appears to be an important source of
workers. In 1968, the average number of teenagers employed in construction in the summer months (June, July,
and August) averaged 370,000 compared with only 120,000 in the winter months (January, February, and March)
of the same year. The total number of unemployed male wage and salary workers in construction averaged
195,000 workers in the summer months, indicating that if teenagers were not available the pressure on the con­
struction labor force would have been more severe.
Unemployment by race 36

The unemployment rate for Negro workers in construction was significantly higher than for white workers
between 1963 and 1968, (See table 45.) However, the Negro unemployment rate dropped considerably faster
over this period than the rate for white workers. The following tabulation demonstrates the substantial drop in
the ratio of the Negro to the white unemployment rate in construction from 1963 through 1968, with the con­
trasting stability in the rates for all white and males of all other races in the economy.
Total
Males in
males
construction
Year
1963 ........................ ................
2.26
2.08
1964 ........................ ................
2.17
1.96
2.11
1965 ........................ ................
1.96
2.28
1.74
1966 ........................ ................
2.22
1967 ........................ ................
1.46
1968 ............. ..
................
2.15
1.65
SOURCE: Current Population Survey conducted for the BLS
by the Bureau of the Census.

The differentials in unemployment rates between Negro and white carpenters and laborers have narrowed
also over the 1963—68 period. In fact, the unemployment rates for Negro carpenters and construction laborers
were lower than those of whites in 1968.
The improved work experience of the Negro worker in construction may be attributed to sustained national
economic growth as well as to greater employment opportunities in the construction industry. While high de­
mand for construction manpower has benefited Negro workers in the industry, rapid expansion throughout the
economy has siphoned off a portion of the Negro construction labor force that otherwise would be unemployed.
36
statistics for workers other than whites are used here to measure the unemployment of Negro workers. Negroes
constitute about 92 percent of all such workers in the United States.

40



The plight of the Negro in construction, as elsewhere, derives from his low position on the occupational
ladder. (See tables 46 and 48.) In 1968, for example, 4.4 percent of all males other than whites were em­
ployed as construction laborers compared with only 1.2 percent of white males. In addition, the following tab­
ulation shows that while the ratio of white craftsmen to laborers is about 4 to 1, the ratio of Negro skilled
workers to unskilled workers is about 1 to 1.
Number of construction craftsmen
per construction laborer
Year

White
All other races
4.16
.72
1963
1964
3.95
.79
3.99
.76
1965
4.73
.95
1966
1967
4.43
.99
4.42
.95
1968
SOURCE: Current Population Survey conducted for the BLS
by the Bureau of Census
Unemployment in construction and the Nation's labor force

The unemployment rate in construction is highly sensitive to changes in job opportunities elsewhere in the
country, particularly in winter months. When employment conditions in other industries are improving, the num­
ber of unemployed workers in construction falls. Similarly, when the level of activity in construction rises rap­
idly, either seasonally or secularly, the construction work force often can be augmented substantially in a very
short period. The absolute changes in employment and unemployment of male wage and salary workers in con­
struction are presented in the following tabulation. The data, shown in thousands, indicate that a large portion
of the potential construction workers is employed in other industries or is outside the labor force at any given
time during a year.
Increase in employment between
January
and
June
Year
1964 ..............................., . . .
1965 ............................... . . . .
1966 ............................... , . . .
1967 ............................... , . . .
1968 .................'............ . . . .
Average:
1964-68 ...................... . . .

Decline in unemployment between
January
and
June

February
and
July

March
and
August

865
829
724
703
846

-334
-299
-299
-175
-215

(In thousands)
-355
-339
-252
-237
-242

-220
-312
-203
-179
-223

792

-250

-285

-227

851
775
674
560
701
712

February
and
July
(In thousands)
956
991
791
822
722
856

March
and
August

As employment rises on average by 700,000 to 850,000 from winter to summer, the number of unem­
ployed declines by about 200,000 to 300,000. The 400,000 to 650,000 net increase in the construction labor
force from winter to summer results from the entrance of workers from outside construction— youths who
work during their school vacation and men who are in other industries or not in the labor force during the
winter months.
The ability of workers employed in other industries to enter construction is faciliated by the fact that
many members of skilled construction crafts are employed in maintenance, repair, and force account con-




41

struction in other industries. Of the 854,000 carpenters employed, on the average in 1966, 202,000, or about
one-fourth, worked in nonconstruction sectors. (See table 47.) Also, of the 1,980,000 construction craftsmen
(other than carpenters) employed in 1966, 661,000 or about one-third, were employed outside construction.
Many construction workers also work at other occupations during periods of low construction activity.
These workers provide a reservior of potential construction labor. In 1961, about three of every ten job
shifts by carpenters were to nonconstruction occupations. 37 Similarity, about one of every four job shifts by
other construction craftsmen was to nonconstruction occupations. With regard to workers shifting into con­
struction occupations, one of every four workers moving into the carpenter occupation was previously working
at a nonconstruction occupation. A similar situation existed for construction craft occupations, except carpenters.
The high elasticity of the construction labor force has several manpower implications: First, some workers
are willing to leave nonconstruction industries at particular times of the year or phases of the business cycle to
accept generally higher paying but less secure jobs in construction. Second, because of the movement of work­
ers from nonconstruction industries, worker shortages in particular localities at peak construction times may be
considerably less than they would otherwise be. Third, their earnings in construction are not the sole criterion
upon which the economic welfare of these workers should be judged.
Unemployment by skill

The unemployment rate for all construction workers has declined steadily in recent years. For carpenters,
the rate of decline has been the most dramatic, from an average of 12.3 percent in the recession year of 1961,
to a low of 4.7 percent in 1968. Almost comparable rates of decline have been experienced by other con­
struction craftsmen (10.7 percent to 4.4 percent), and construction laborers (21.7 percent to 11.4 percent).
Even with this rapid decline, however, the unemployment rate for construction craftsmen was still about twice
as high as for all craftsmen in 1968. (See table 49.)
The unskilled worker in construction faces the most serious unemployment problem. Unemployment rates
for construction laborers are generally about twice as high as for construction craftsmen. (See table 49.) The
annual average unemployment rate for construction laborers in 1968 was 11.4 percent; for carpenters, 4.7 per­
cent; and for other construction craftsmen, 4.4 percent.
Construction laborers experience fewer spells of unemployment each year than workers in other occupa­
tions associated with construction, but these spells usually last for longer periods. (See table 50.) In 1968,
52 percent of the unemployed construction laborers had two or more spells of unemployment, compared with
56 percent of the carpenters, and 48 percent of the construction craftsmen, except carpenters. However, a
somewhat higher proportion of the unemployed laborers was out of work 15 weeks or longer (30 percent),
compared with carpenters (28 percent) and construction craftsmen, except carpenters (25 percent). A still
higher proportion of unemployed construction laborers experienced periods of unemployment lasting 27 weeks
or more (10.3 percent), compared with unemployed carpenters (4.8 percent), and other construction craftsmen
(5.6 percent). The more favorable occupational and industry mobility of construction craftsmen makes them
better able to take advantage of opportunities for employment in other industries when construction activity declines.
The unemployment experience of construction craftsmen varies considerably by craft. Workers in crafts
whose operations are more susceptible to weather conditions experience considerably more unemployment than
journeymen in other crafts. In 1959, 38 only a third or less of all brickmasons, cement and concrete finishers,
plasterers, and roofers; and about two-fifths of all carpenters, painters, and structural metal workers, reported
50 weeks or more of employment. (See table 52.) On the other hand, for trades that are primarily performed
indoors, about 7 of every 10 electricians and glaziers and 6 of every 10 plumbers and pipefitters, reported at
least 50 weeks of employment.
37 Getrude Bancraft and Stuart Garfinkle, “Job Mobility in 1961,” M onthly Labor Review , August 1963.
The most recent year for which data are available.

42



Seasonal unemployment in construction

Although the seasonal movements of both employment and unemployment in construction are particularly
great, the seasonal pattern of unemployment is more pronounced; while employment varies about 30 percent
from winter lows to summer highs, unemployment typically varies over 100 percent. In 1964, when average un­
employment in construction was 391,000 persons, unemployment ranged from a peak of 643,000 in the winter
to a low of 262,000 in the late summer and early fall. (See table 53.) Unemployment hit its lowest levels in
15 years in 1968, ranging from 443,000 in January to 127,000 in September.
The monthly seasonal pattern of unemployment in construction has shifted since 1948. 39 (See table 54.)
Declines in seasonal adjustment factors of unemployment have been experienced in March, April, and November
and a corresponding increase in December. Several reasons could account for these shifts. Contractors may
be performing relatively more work in the early spring and fall, and less in the winter. Alternative job op­
portunities for construction workers in nonconstruction industries may be increasing also and reducing the
potential construction labor force. Some combination of these effects is likely. In addition, the shift in the
seasonality of unemployment is perhaps somewhat related to the changing mix and geographic location of con­
struction activity. Better planning by contractors to finish projects before the onslaught of winter also may
contribute to this phenomena.
An estimated one-third of total unemployment in construction during the year can be considered seasonal
unemployment. (See appendix B for a discussion of the methods used in preparing this estimate.) Further
estimates are that private wage and salary workers in construction made up 15.5 percent of the Nation’s total
seasonal employment in 1968.40
Seasonal unemployment by skill

Carpenters and other construction craftsmen experience considerably wider swings in seasonal unemploy­
ment than construction laborers.41 Unemployment rates for construction laborers are much higher in winter
and decline at a slower rate through the spring and summer. In other words, the construction laborers have
less favorable work experience throughout the year than craftsmen. Laborers rise as a percentage of total un­
employment from winter lows to a peak in mid-summer. (See table 55.) As the seasonal decline in employ­
ment for craftsmen begins in the fall, laborers decline as a percentage of all unemployment. To a large degree,
construction unemployment in the peak building season is a problem of the unskilled.
Seasonal unemployment by race

White workers generally have experienced considerably sharper seasonal swings in unemployment than Ne­
gro workers because Negroes are employed mainly in occupations, such as laborers that have high unemploy­
ment rates throughout the year. As shown in the following tabulation, unemployment of white workers in
construction dropped an average of about 60 percent from first quarter to third quarter each year between
1962 and 1968. Since 1964, there has been a great percentage decline in unemployment of Negro workers.
This decline, as shown below, reflects the high demand for construction manpower. Also, as mentioned ear­
lier, the rapid expansion of the economy has enabled other industries to absorb a portion of the Negro work
force that otherwise would be unemployed.
39 This is based on seasonal adjustment factors, derived in a manner which effectively limits the impact of year to
year changes in aggregate conditions of demand in construction and other sectors.
40 In 1968, these workers constituted 8.8 percent of the country’s total unemployment and only 4.4 percent of
total employment.
4* The following usually occurs in the unemployment levels between February and August: Carpenters and construc­
tion craftsmen, except carpenters, decline by two-thirds or more and construction laborers decline by less than one-half.




43

First to third quarter of—
Whites All other races
1962 .................................................. 64.9
34.7
1963 .................................................. 62.1
55.1
1964 .................................................. 56.1
43.5
1965 .................................................. 59.1
45.6
1966 .................................................. 56.2
47.1
1967 .................................................. 61.0
55.8
1968 .................................................. 62.2
62.3
Seasonal unemployment by age

Unemployment among teenagers rises in summer months, when many enter the labor force, and declines
during the fall and winter months, when many return to school. Between 1963 and 1968, teenagers in con­
struction made up about 5 to 6 percent of employment and between 7 and 13 percent of unemployment on
the annual average. (See table 43.) In the peak summer months of June, July, and August, however, they
made up between 8 and 10 percent of employment and 9 to 23 percent of unemployment.
Frictional unemployment

The rate of frictional unemployment in construction is probably high compared to other industries. 42
The frequency of job shifts contributes greatly to the high level of frictional unemployment in construction.
Many construction workers are skilled craftsmen whose attachment is more commonly to crafts than to par­
ticular employers. They follow the source of work, are employed by several firms during the year, and ex­
perience unemployment while shifting jobs. The seasonal nature of work in construction also contributes to
frictional unemployment. Many construction workers laid off for seasonal reasons experience unemployment
while searching for alternative construction employment before accepting jobs in nonconstruction industries.
Workers also are unemployed for brief periods while waiting for jobs of acceptable duration.
Other circumstances also contribute to the high rate of frictional unemployment in construction. Most
workers prefer to work near their homes. Shifting employment opportunities, however, may demand a high
degree of geographic mobility. Workers with strong family and community ties may accept unemployment
for a short duration in hope of finding work close to home. Worker mobility also may be somewhat retarded
by the fact that most health, welfare, and pension funds are not vested.
About two-thirds of the men who left their construction jobs in 1961 did so because of loss of job, com­
pared with about 40 percent in manufacturing and nonagricultural industries as a whole. (See table 56.) Pro­
portionally few construction workers left their job for any other reason in that year, compared with the other
two industry groups.
These data suggest that frictional unemployment, since it is strongly associated with job termination, may
not be particularly reduced in size by a high level of aggregate demand. A higher level of building activity
should be expected to increase terminations, perhaps proportionately and should not greatly affect frictional
unemployment, although some reduction would probably occur because of the increased availability of alterna­
tive construction jobs.
Programs with the greatest payoff for reducing frictional unemployment should focus on improving the
system of disseminating information on current and anticipated job vacancies both in construction and in in­
dustries that provide alternative job opportunities. The job placement and referral functions of union hiring
halls and the public employment service might be improved. Advance notice of job termination and job va42 D. Quinn MiUs, Factors Determining Patterns o f Em ploym ent and Unem ployment in the Construction Industry
has estimated that from about 15 to 24 percent of the annual unemployment in construction between
1960 and 1966 was frictional (Harvard University, unpublished thesis, 1967).

the United States ,

44




of

cancies, including information about work conditions in upcoming vacancies, may quicken the worker-job-matching
process and greatly reduce frictional unemployment. Information on individual contractors’ planning could be made
available through a central computer hookup, and provide advanced job termination and vacancy information.
This information could be updated daily or weekly as a byproduct of the updating of the management networks.

Part-time employment
Construction workers are represented as disproportionately among part-time workers 43 as among the
unemployed. In 1968, an average of 4.3 percent of the wage and salary workers in construction worked
part time for economic reasons, in comparison with only 2.2 percent in manufacturing. (See table 57.)
More than two-thirds of the construction workers on part-time for economic reasons at the time of the survey
usually worked full time, but for reasons of seasonal slack and the start or termination of jobs were working
less than 35 hours a week. The remainder worked part-time mainly because full-time work was not available.
Negro workers experience considerably more part-time employment than white workers. An average of
nearly 9 percent of all male Negro wage and salary workers in construction reported involuntary part-time
work in 1968, more than twice the rate for white workers, 3.8 percent. (See table 58.) The high propor­
tion of Negro workers working involuntary part-time largely reflected their concentration in the ranks of the
unskilled.

4^ Workers employed part-time for economic reasons, such as slack work, material shortages, repairs to plant or
equipment, start or termination of job during the week, and inability to find full-time work.




45

T a b l e 36. U n e m p l o y m e n t rates of private w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s ,
nonagricultural industries as a w h o l e a n d construction, F e b r u a r y
a n d A u g u s t , 1964— 68 a n d a n n u a l aver a g e , 1948— 68

M o n t h and year

Nonagri­
cultural
industries

Construc­
tion

T a b l e 37. E m p l o y m e n t a n d u n e m p l o y m e n t of m a l e job chan g e r s , b y
industry of longest job, 1961

E m p l o y m e n t a nd
u n e m p l o y m e nt

Ratio

Nonagric u l t u r a l w a g e a n d
salary w o r k e r s
Construc­
tion

Total

F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 8 ___________________
F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 7 -------------------F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 6 -------------------F e b r u a r y 1 965 ------------------F e b r u a r y 1964 __ ----------------A u g u s t 1968 _________________ ____
A u g u s t 1967 ----------------------A u g u s t 1966 _______________________
A u g u s t 1965 _______________________
A u g u s t 1964 _______________________

4.
4.
4.
6.
8.
3.
3.
3.
4.
4.

6
5
6
2
9
3
6
5
0
7

12.
13.
13.
19.
19.
4.
4.
4.
6.
7.

5
0
1
2
1
2
3
9
0
4

2. 72
2. 89
2. 85
3. 10
2. 15
1. 27
1. 19
1.40
1. 50
1. 57

A n n u a l a v e rage:
1968 ____________________________
1967 ____________________________
1966 _____ ______________________
1965 ______ _____________________
1964 _____ ____________________
1963 ____________________________
1962 ____________________________
1 9 6 1 ... .........................
1960 ____________________________
1959 ---------------------------1958 _______________
__________
1957 ____________________________
1 956 ____________________________
1
1954 ____________________________
1953 ____________________________
1952 ____________________________
1Q < 1
=
i
1950 ____________________________
1949 ---------------------------1948 ____________________________

3. 6
3. 9
3. 8
4. 6
5.4
6. 1
6. 1
7. 5
6. 2
6. 2
8. 0
4. 9
4. 7
5. 1
6. 7
2. 8
3. 0
3.4
5. 8
6. 7
3. 9

6.
7.
8.
10.
11.
13.
13.
15.
13.
13.
15.
10.
10.
10.
12.
6.
6.
6.
11.
12.
7.

9
3
1
1
2
3
5
7
5
4
2
9
0
9
9
2
0
5
5
9
8

1. 92
1. 87
2. 13
2. 20
2. 07
2. 18
2. 21
2. 09
2. 18
2. 16
1. 90
2. 22
2. 13
2. 14
1. 93
2. 21
2. 00
1. 91
1. 98
1. 93
2. 00

S O U R C E : C u r r e n t Population S u r v e y c o n d u c t e d for the
the B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .

BLS

W o r k e d (in thousands)

___________

J o b changers:
N u m b e r ( t h o u sands)____________
P e r c e n t of p e r s o n s w h o
w o r k e d ________________________
Total job c h a n g e r s ( p e r c e n t ) -----

38, 821

3, 893

13, 209

4, 778

972

1, 280

12. 3

25. 0

9. 7

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

W o r k e d for only 2 e m ­
ployers _______ __ ___________
Lost no time between
jobs
_____________________
Lost s o m e time between
jobs _____________ __ ____
D i d not look for w o r k ____
L o o k e d for w o r k _________
1 to 4 w e e k s __________
5 w e e k s or m o r e _____
W o r k e d for m o r e than 2
e m p l o y e r s ____________________
Lost no time between
____ ____
job s _________
Lost s o m e time b etween
jobs ------------ ------- —
D i d not look for w o r k ____
L o o k e d for w o r k ______
1 to 4 w e e k s __________
5 w e e k s or m o r e _____
M a n y employers, s a m e
o c c u p a t i o n --- ------------------

by

NOTE:
equal totals.

Because

SOURCE:

BLS,

of rounding,

Special L a b o r

Manufac­
turing

63. 5

45. 3

71. 3

31.4

19. 3

36. 7

32.
5.
26.
14.
12.

25.
2.
23.
13.
9.

34.
3.
31.
17.
13.

1
6
6
1
5

9
8
1
3
8

6
5
1
3
8

36. 5

54. 7

8. 2

12. 2

6. 2

2
6
7
9
8

28. 8
1. 0
27. 8
11.9
15.9

22. 0
1. 3
20. 6
8.4
12. 3

4. 0

13. 7

.5

24.
1.
22.
9.
12.

sums

28. 7

of individual i t e m s

Force

Report

35,

may

not

J o b Mobility in

1961.

T a b l e 38. Incidence, r e c u r r e n t spells, a n d extent of u n e m p l o y m e n t of
nonagricultural w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s as a p er c e n t of total w a g e
a n d salary w o r k e r s ha v i n g w o r k experience, b y industry of
longest job, 1968

T a b l e 39. A v e r a g e duration of e a c h spell of u n e m p l o y m e n t for m a l e
w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s b y w e e k s , selected industries, 1960— 68

Year
Nonagri­
cultural
industries

Status

W i t h u n e m p l o y m e n t ----- -------W i t h m o r e t han 1 spell of
u n e m p l o y m e n t ------ ----------W i t h 3 or m o r e spells of
u n e m p l o y m e n t ____________________
Jobless 15 w e e k s or m o r e
during y e a r ______________________

SOURCE:

BLS,

Construc­
tion

Manufac­
turing

12. 0

24. 2

13. 1

3. 6

11. 8

3. 5

1. 8

6. 5

1. 7

2. 5

6. 6

2. 7

W o r k E x p e r i e n c e of the Population in 1968.

46




1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

________________________________
............ ...................
_____ ________________ ________
______________ ________________
......... .... ................
_______________________________
-------------------------- ---____________________ ______ ___

Nonagri­
cultural
industries

14.
17.
17.
16.
15.
13.
12.
9.
9.

3
8
0
1
1
3
1
9
6

Construc­
tion

12. 3
14. 0
12. 8
12. 6
11. 4
10. 8
9. 7
10. 1
9. 1

Manufac­
turing

14. 9
19. 3
19. 1
17.4
12. 1
13. 8
12. 4
10. 2
9. 9

SOURCE:
C u r r e n t Population S u r v e y c o n d u c t e d for the B L S b y
the B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .

T a b l e 40. P e r c e n t distribution of u n e m p l o y e d m a l e w a g e an d salary w o r k e r s
in c onstruction b y duration of u n e m p l o y m e n t , by m o n t h , 1968

T a b l e 4 1. W o r k exp e r i e n c e a n d extent of u n e m p l o y m e n t of
nonagricultural w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s 16 y e a r s a n d
older, b y industry of longest job, 1968

Total
Month

Number
(in
thousands)

J a n u a r y __________
F e b r u a r y --------M a r c h ____________
A p r i l ----------May
------------J u n e -------------J u l y -------------A u g u s t ----------S e p t e m b e r ------O c t o b e r __________
N o v e m b e r -------D e c e m b e r --------

445
433
387
222
184
230
191
164
138
167
224
242

SOURCE:
Current
B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .




L e s s than
5 weeks

Percent

100.0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100.
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

Population

46.
36.
37.
36.
48.
63.
57.
64.
74.
67.
73.
54.

4
5
6
2
1
5
8
0
1
3
7
1

5- 14
weeks

15-26
w e eks

42. 8
50. 1
37. 8
32. 1
24. 9
21. 6
27. 2
20. 1
17. 3
21. 7
17.4
37. 6

7. 4
10. 9
19. 7
23. 1
21. 6
6. 9
5. 2
4. 3
3. 6
3. 6
3. 6
2. 1

Survey conducted

for

O v e r 26
weeks

P e r s o n s with w o r k experience:
N u m b e r (in t h o u s a n d s ) _______
P e r c e n t -----------------------

3.4
2. 5
4. 9
8. 6
5.4
8. 1
9. 8
11. 6
5. 0
7.4
5.4
6. 2

the B L S

Nonagri­
Construc­ M a nufac­
cultural
tion
turing
industries

Status

W o r k e d at full-time jobs:
50 to 52 w e e k s _________
27 to 50 w e e k s _________
1 to 26 w e e k s _________
W o r k e d at p a r t -time
j o b s ---------------------P e r s o n s with u n e m p l o y m e n t :
N u m b e r ( t h o u sands)_________
P e r c e n t ------- --------------

b y the

1 to 2 w e e k s ( y e a r - r o u n d
w o r k e r s ) _________________
Part-year workers:
1 to 4 w e e k s ___________
5 to 10 w e e k s _________
11 to 14 w e e k s _________
15 to 26 w e e k s
27 w e e k s or m o r e _____
P e r c e n t of u n e m p l o y e d with:
2 spells of u n e m p l o y m e n t ____
3 spells or m o r e _____________

SOURCE:

BLS,

78, 737
100. 0

4, 675
100. 0

22, 819
100. 0

58. 7
12. 8
11. 5

55. 2
23. 9
12. 4

69. 5
15. 1
11. 0

17. 1

8. 5

4. 4

9 , 437
100. 0

1, 133
100. 0

2, 998
100. 0

12. 4

10. 7

16. 0

36.
19.
10.
13.
7.

25.
22.
14.
19.
7.

33.
21.
9.
13.
6.

7
9
2
8
1

14. 5
15. 4

0
4
8
9
2

22. 0
26. 7

2
2
2
7
7

13.4
13. 0

W o r k E x p e r i e n c e of the Population in 1968.

T able 42. P e r c e n t distribution of e m p l o y e d a n d e x p e r i e n c e d u n e m p l o y e d m a l e w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s in
construction, b y age, 1 annual a v e r a g e s , 1963— 68

Number
(in
thousands)

Period

1963:
E m p l o y e d ________ ______________________
U n e m p l o y e d _______ ____________________
1964:
E m p l o y e d -------------------------------U n e m p l o y e d ----------------------------1965:
E m p l o y e d -------------------------------U n e m p l o y e d -----------------------------1966:
Employed
_____________________________
U n e m p l o y e d _____________________________
1967:
E m p l o y e d ________________________________
U n e m p l o y e d ________ ____________________
1968:
E m p l o y e d -------------------------------U n e m p l o y e d _____________________________

1 Persons
NOTE:

14 y e a r s

a n d o v e r for

B e c a u s e of rounding,

SOURCE:

Ag e
Total
16- 19

2 0-24

2 5 -44

4 5 and
over

3, 381
466

100. 0
100. 0

5. 1
7. 7

11. 2
12. 9

48. 2
41. 6

35. 6
37. 8

3, 5 08
394

100. 0
100. 0

5. 3
7. 1

11. 5
15. 7

48. 9
36. 8

34. 3
40. 1

3, 655
366

100. 0
100. 0

5. 3
8. 7

11. 6
12. 8

47. 6
39. 6

35. 5
39. 1

3, 697
289

100. 0
100. 0

6. 2
10. 4

10. 6
8. 7

46. 0
41.2

37. 1
39. 4

3, 672
264

100. 0
100. 0

5. 3
12. 9

10. 2
11. 0

46. 7
36. 7

37. 9
39. 8

3, 736
252

100. 0
100. 0

5. 7
12. 7

11. 5
13. 5

46. 6
37. 3

36. 2
36. 9

1963— 66,

16 ye a r s

a n d o v e r for

1967— 68.

s u m s of individual i t e m s m a y not equal totals.

C u r r e n t Population S u r v e y c o n d u c t e d for the B L S

by the B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .

47

T a b l e 43. M a l e t e e n a g e r s 1 as a p e r c e n t of e m p l o y e d a n d e x p e r i e n c e d u n e m p l o y e d w a g e a n d salary
w o r k e r s , all industries 2 a n d construction, b y selected t i m e periods, 1963— 68

Employed
Period

1963:
Annual average
June, July, a n d
1964:
Annual average
June, July, a n d
1965:
Annual average
June, July, a n d
1966:
Annual average
June, July, a n d
1967:
Annual average
June, July, a n d
1968:
Annual average
J une, July, a n d

1
2

All
industries

Experienced unemployed
All
industries

Construction

Construction

------August

6.9
8.9

5. 1
7. 6

13. 8
18. 4

7. 7
14. 6

------August

7. 2
9.4

5. 3
8. 2

15. 2
18. 7

7. 1
8.9

------August

7.9
10. 3

5. 3
8.9

17. 1
22. 1

8. 7
12. 8

------August

8. 7
11.5

6. 2
10. 3

20. 9
26.0

10 . 4
19.5

------August

6.9
8. 6

5. 3
8.9

22. 2
25.7

12.9
19.7

------August

6.8
8. 5

5.7
9. 1

22. 3
27.9

12.7
22. 6

P e r s o n s 14— 19 y e a r s old for 1 9 6 3 — 66, 16— 19 y e a r s old for 1 9 6 7 — 68.
E x c l u d i n g agriculture a n d private h o u s e h o l d s ervices for 1967— 68.

SOURCE:

C u r r e n t Population S u r v e y c o n d u c t e d for the B L S b y the B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .

T a b l e 44. U n e m p l o y m e n t rates of m a l e w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s 1 all industries 2 a n d construction, b y selected t i m e
periods, 1963— 68

E x c l u d i n g t e enagers

Total
Period

1963:
Annual average
J u ne, July, a n d
1964:
Annual average
J u ne, July, a n d
1965:
Annual average
J u ne, July, a n d
1966:
Annual average
June, July, a n d
1967:
Annual average
June, July, a n d
1968:
Annual average
June, July, a n d

1
2

All
industries

Construction

All
industries

C o n struction

-------------A u g u s t -----

5. 3
4. 7

12. 1
8. 2

4.9
4. 3

11.8
7. 6

10. 1
9. 3

17. 4
14.6

---------- A u g u s t ----

4. 6
4. 2

10. 1
7.0

4. 3
3. 8

9.9
7.0

9. 2
8. 1

13. 1
7. 6

------------A u g u s t ----

3.9
3. 5

9. 1
6. 5

3. 5
3. 1

8.8
6. 2

8.0
7. 3

14. 1
9. 1

------------A u g u s t ----

3. 1
3.0

7. 3
4.6

2. 7
2. 5

7.0
4. 1

7. 2
6. 5

13.0
8. 3

------------A u g u s t ----

3.0
2.9

6. 7
4. 7

2. 5
2. 4

6. 2
4. 2

9.0
8. 1

14.8
10.0

------------A u g u s t ----

2. 7
2. 7

6. 3
4.6

2. 3
2. 2

5.9
3.9

8. 5
8. 5

13. 1
10. 6

C u r r e n t P opulation S u r v e y co n d u c t e d for the B L S b y the B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .

U n e m p l o y m e n t rates of m a l e s b y

Total
males

Year

ra c e a n d selected occupations, annual a v e r a g e s ,

Con­
struction
Males
crafts­
Con­
in
Car­
men,
struction
con­
p enters
except laborers
struction
car­
penters

Total
males

SOURCE:

19 6 3 — 68

Con­
struction
Males
crafts­
Con­
Car­
in
Total
men,
struction
con­
penters
males
except laborers
struction
car­
penters
White

Total
1 9 6 3 _______________
1.964 --------------1 9 65 --------------1 9 6 6 --------------1 9 6 7 --------------1 9 6 8 --------------P e r c e n t decline—
1 9 6 3 - 6 8 ----------

Teenagers

C o n struction

P e r s o n s 14 y e a r s a n d o v e r for 196 3 — 66, 16 y e a r s a n d o v e r for 196 7 — 68.
E x c l u d i n g agriculture a n d private h o u s e h o l d services for 19 6 7 — 68.

■SOURCE:

T a b l e 45.

All
industries

5. 3
4. 7
4.0
3. 3
3. 1
2.9

10. 7
9.0
8. 2
6.6
6.0
5. 6

9.6
8 .4
7.4
6 .4
5. 1
4. 7

8. 7
7.0
6.6
5. 2
4. 6
4.4

20.5
16. 5
14. 5
11.9
11.7
11. 4

4.7
4. 2
3. 6
2.9
2. 7
2. 6

45. 3

47. 7

51. 1

49.4

44.4

44. 7




Con­
struction
crafts Con­
men,
struction
e x cept labor e r s
car­
p enters

All other r a c e s

6
1
5
1
7
2

9.2
8. 3
7. 1
6. 2
5. 1
4.8

8.5
6. 5
6. 3
5. 2
4.5
4. 2

18 . 4
15.8
13 . 4
11.3
11.7
11 . 4

10. 6
9. 1
7. 6
6.6
6.0
5. 6

20.0
15.9
14.7
10. 6
8. 3
8. 6

16. 1
10. 2
12. 5
9. 3
5.5
4 .0

11.3
12. 6
10. 3
5.8
5.4
6. 5

25. 5
18. 1
17.0
13. 5
11. 7
11. 2

45. 8

47.8

50. 6

37.5

47. 2

57.0

75. 2

42.5

56. 1

9.
8.
7.
6.
5.
5.

C u r r e n t P o p ulation S u r v e y co n d u c t e d for the B L S b y the B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .

48

Males
in
Car­
con­
p enters
struction

T a b l e 47. N u m b e r of c a r p enters a n d construction c r a f t s m e n
(except carpenters) e m p l o y e d in construction a nd in all
other industries , annual a v e r a g e s , 19 6 3 — 66

T a b l e 46. Distribution of e m p l o y e d a n d e x p e r i e n c e d u n e m p l o y e d m a l e s , b y
r a c e a n d selected occupation, 1968
Unemployed

Employed
Occupation
White

All other
races

White

(In thousands)

All other
r a ces

Year

Construction

All other
industries

Carpenters
Total:
N u m b e r (in t h o u s a n d s ) --------P e r c e n t ------- ---------------C r a f t s m e n , f o r e m e n , a nd
k i n d r e d w o r k e r s ----------------C a r p e n t e r s -----------------------C o n s t r u c t i o n c r a f t s m e n , except
c a r p e n t e r s -----------------------C o n s t r u c t i o n l a b o r e r s -------------

43, 411
100. 0

4,702
100. 0

20. 9
1.9

13. 4
1.0

4. 0
1.2

3. 3
4. 4

1 , 016
100. 0

.

243
100. 0

20. 7
4. 0

8. 6
.8

7. 4
6. 8

4. 5
10. 7

SOURCE:
C u r r e n t Population S u r v e y con d u c t e d for the B L S
r e a u of the C e n s u s .

1 9 63
1 9 64
1965
1 9 66

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

637
640
675
652

177
180
175
20 2

Construction craftsmen,
except carpenters
19 6 3
1 9 64
1 9 65
1 9 66

b y the B u ­

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1,169
1,218
1,220
1,319

623
578
619
661

SOURCE:
C u r r e n t Population S u r v e y c ond u c t e d for the B L S
b y the B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .

T a b l e 48. P e r c e n t distribution of N e g r o m a l e s as a proportion of total m a l e s in construction a n d selected
occupation, b y e m p l o y m e n t status, 1963— 68

Year

Construction

Employed:
1 9 63 ----------------------------1 9 64 ----------------------------1965 ----------------------------196 6 ----------------------------1 9 67 ----------------------------1968 ----------------------------Unemployed:
1 9 63 ----------------------------19 6 4 ----------------------------19 65 ----------------------------1 9 66 ----------------------------19 67 ----------------------------1 9 68 ----------------------------L a b o r force:
1 9 63 ----------------------------19 64 ----------------------------19 65 ----------------------------1 9 66 ----------------------------1967 -----------------------------




Carpenters

C o n struction
c r a f t s m e n , except
c a r penters

Construction
laborers

9. 8
10. 7
9 .8
10. 2
10. 1
10. 1

5. 8
6. 5
4.9
5. 7
6. 2
5. 5

7.0
8. 1
7. 6
8. 2
8. 1
8.4

20. 4
20 . 4
18. 9
17. 2
14. 4
16. 2

10. 5
8.0
8. 8
8. 6
6. 7
4. 7

9. 3
15. 6
12. 2
9. 2
9 .8
12. 5

37.
33.
33.
32.
26.
27.

2
3
8
7
8
4

10. 9
11.6
10. 5
10. 7
10. 4
10. 5

6. 2
6. 6
5. 2
5.9
6. 2
5. 5

7. 2
8. 7
7.9
8. 2
8. 2
8. 6

30.
30.
28.
28.
26.
27.

0
4
7
7
9
7

28. 1
29.9
27. 8
28. 2
26. 9
27. 8

1968
SOURCE:

C u r r e n t Population S u r v e y

cond u c t e d for the B L S

b y the B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .

49

T a b l e 49.

U n e m p l o y m e n t rates for selected occupations, F e b r u a r y an d A u g ust,

All c r a f t s m e n
and f o r e m e n

M o n t h an d y e a r

C o n s t ruction
laborers

1961 ------------------------------------------------------I 9 5 9 -------------------------------------------------------

i 9 6 0 -----------------------------------1 9 5 8 ------------------------------------

I 9 5 7 -------------------------------------------------------

10. 1
9.5
11. 1
13. 2
15. 5
4. 2
1. 7
3.0
4.0
4. 3

7.
8.
10.
12.
13.
2.
2.
3.
4.
4.

5
2
2
1
7
2
7
1
3
4

10. 1
9 .5
10. 2
14. 2
15.9
5. 7
5.9
5. 8
5. 2
8.4

18.9
20. 3
17. 6
25. 7
25. 5
6.9
7. 6
8. 0
8. 2
11.5

2.4
2. 5
2. 8*
3. 6
4. 2
4. 8
5. 1
6. 3
5. 3
5. 3
6. 8
3.8

A n n u a l a verage:
1 9 6 8 -----------------------------------1 9 6 7 -----------------------------------1 9 6 6 -----------------------------------1 9 6 5 -----------------------------------1 9 6 4 -----------------------------------1 9 6 3 -----------------------------------1 9 6 2 -----------------------------------

T a b l e 50.

All n o n f a r m
laborers

19 5 7 — 68

3. 7
3. 6
4.6
5.8
6.5
1.9
1.8
2.0
2. 6
3. 1

F e b r u a r y 1 9 68 ---------------------------F e b r u a r y 1 9 67 ---------------------------F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 6 ---------------------------F e b r u a r y 1 9 65 ---------------------------F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 4 ---------------------------A u g u s t 1 9 6 8 -----------------------------A u g u s t 196 7 ------------A u g u s t 1 9 6 6 -----------------------------A u g u s t 1 9 6 5 -----—
—
----- A u g u s t 1 9 6 4 ------------------------------

SOURCE:

Carpenters

1 9 6 4 — 68, a n d annual av e r a g e s ,

C o n struction
craftsmen,except
carpe n t e r s

4. 7
5. 1
6. 4
7. 4
8. 4
9.6
9.4
12. 3
10. 1
9.4
11.7
8. 1

4.4
4.6
5. 2
6. 6
7.0
8. 7
8.8
10. 7
8.9
8.9
9 .7
6.4

7. 2
7. 6
7. 3
8.4
10.6
12. 1
12.4
14. 5
12.5
12.4
14. 9
9.4

11.4
11.7
11.9
14. 5
16. 5
20. 5
20. 4
21. 7
19. 3
19.0
21. 3
12. 6

C u r r e n t P opulation S u r v e y c o n d u c t e d for the B L S b y the B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .

W o r k e x p e r i e n c e a n d extent of u n e m p l o y m e n t of p e r s o n s 16 y e a r s of ag e a n d over, b y selected occupation of longest job, 1968

Status

P e r s o n s with w o r k experience:
N u m b e r (in t h o u s a n d s ) -------------------P e r c e n t -------------------------------------

Craftsmen,
f o r e m e n , kin d r e d
workers

Carpenters

C o n s truction
Laborers, except
c r a f t s m e n , except
f a r m or m i n e
ca r p e n t e r s

1 0,911
100.0

989
100.0

2, 1 3 5
100.0

4,520
1 0 0.0

W o r k e d at full-time jobs:
50 to 52 w e e k s ----------------------27 to 50 w e e k s ----------------------1 to 26 w e e k s -----------------------W o r k e d at p a r t - t i m e j o b s ---------------

73. 8
15. 1
5.9
5. 2

51. 8
28. 8
9 .6
9 .8

62. 1
23.0
7. 5
7.4

39. 1
16. 4
18. 5
26. 0

P e r s o n s with u n e m p l o y m e n t :
N u m b e r (in t h o u s a n d s ) --------------------P e r c e n t -------------------------------------

1, 342
100.0

230
100.0

429
100.0

1, 0 2 8
100.0

1 to 2 w e e k s (ye a r-round) w o r k e r s ---Part-year workers:
1 to 4 w e e k s ------------------------5 to 10 w e e k s ------------------------11 to 14 w e e k s ----------------------15 to 26 w e e k s ----------------------27 w e e k s or m o r e ------------------P e r c e n t of u n e m p l o y e d with:
2 spells of u n e m p l o y m e n t -----------------3 spells o r m o r e ---------------------------

SOURCE:

BLS,

50




C o nstruction
laborers

Manufacturing
laborers

1,056
100.0

1 , 227
100. 0

34.
25.
24.
16.

2
2
4
2

50. 2
21. 5
19. 8
8. 5

349
1 00.0

285
100. 0

18 . 4

7. 4

14. 7

9. 5

9. 7

11.9

25. 5
22. 4
11.9
17. 2
4. 6

27. 0
23.0
14.8
23. 0
4. 8

21.4
24. 9
14.0
19. 3
5. 6

30. 4
20.0
12. 8
18. 4
8. 8

25. 5
22. 6
12.0
19. 8
10. 3

31. 2
18. 9
11.9
18. 9
7. 0

15.9
20. 3

20. 9
35. 2

19. 1
28. 7

17. 3
25. 5

22. 3
30. 1

13.0
19. 6

W o r k E x p e r i e n c e of the Population in 1968.

T a b l e 51. Incidence, r e c u r r e n t spells, a n d extent of u n e m p l o y m e n t of p e r s o n s 16 y e a r s of a g e a n d o v e r
as a p e r cent of total with e x p e r i e n c e b y selected occupation of longest job, 1968
Craftsmen,
Construction
foremen,
c r a f tsmen,
Carpenters
kin d r e d
excluding
workers
carpenters

Status

W i t h u n e m p l o y m e n t --------Jobless 15 w e e k s or m o r e
during y e a r -------------W i t h 3 spells or m o r e
of u n e m p l o y m e n t ---------

SOURCE:

BLS,

Work

Laborers,
excluding
f a r m or
mine

Construction M a n u f a c t u r i n g
laborers
laborers

12. 3

23. 3

20. 2

23. 8

33.4

2. 7

6. 5

5. 0

6. 5

10. 1

6. 5

2. 5

8. 2

5. 8

6. 1

10. 1

4. 9

E x p e r i e n c e of the Population in

25. 2

1968.

T a b l e 52. P e r c e n t distribution of w e e k s w o r k e d b y m a l e w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s in the e x p e r i e n c e d civilian labor force,
b y selected occupation, 1959

W eeks
O c c u p ations

Total

Skilled construction:
B o i l e r m a k e r s ________________________________
Bri c k m a s o n s , stonemasons, and
tile setters --------------------------------C a r p e n t e r s — -------------------------------C e m e n t a n d c o n c r ete finishers ------------C r a n e , d e r r i c k m e n , a n d h o i s t m e n --------E l e c t r i c i a n s __________________________________
E x cavating, grading, a n d ro a d
m a c h i n e r y op e r a tors ---------------------F o r e m e n , c o n s t r u c t i o n --------------------G l a z i e r s -------------------------------------M e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n c o n s t r u c t i o n ____
Painters, construction an d m a i n t e n a n c e ___
P l a s t e r e r s ___________________________________
P l u m b e r s a n d pipefitters___________________
R o o f e r s a n d s l a t e r s _________________________
Stone cutters a n d stone c a r v e r s -----------Structural m e t a l w o r k e r s ------------------Skilled nonconstruction:
F o r e m e n , m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------M a c h i n i s t s ___________________________________
M e c h a n i c s and repairmen:
A u t o m o b i l e _______________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------P a t t e r n a n d m o d e l m a k e r s , except
p a p e r --------------------------------------Stationary e n g i n e e r s -----------------------T o o l m a k e r s , d i e m a k e r s , a n d setters-----Unskilled:
Laborers:
C o n s t r u c t i o n _____________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________

NOTE:

B e c a u s e of rounding,

SOURCE:
port P C ( 2 ) - 7 A .

Bureau




A t least
40

50 - 5 2

40-49

27-39

14-26

1-13

None

100. 0

70. 5

51. 9

18. 6

17. 7

7. 2

3. 1

1. 6

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0

68.
72.
66.
72.
87.

1
3
4
6
9

29.
40.
27.
52.
69.

8
4
8
6
6

38.
31.
38.
20.
18.

3
9
6
0
3

20.
15.
20.
21.
7.

5
0
9
6
4

6. 9
7. 6
8.4
3. 9
2. 8

3. 0
3. 9
3. 3
1. 2
1. 3

1. 4
1. 2
1. 2
.7
.6

100.
100.
100.
100.
.100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

78.
89.
89.
83.
67.
71.
83.
65.
84.
74.

4
1
5
2
9
8
1
2
9
8

53.
70.
71.
65.
41.
32.
61.
33.
58.
45.

2
5
9
8
1
3
1
3
6
2

25.
18.
17.
17.
26.
39.
22.
31.
26.
29.

2
6
6
4
8
5
0
9
3
8

14.
6.
4.
8.
15.
15.
9.
18.
8.
15.

1
3
8
2
2
3
5
4
5
3

5. 3
2. 8
3. 6
4. 8
9. 0
8. 2
4.4
9. 5
3. 3
6. 2

1.
1.
1.
2.
6.
3.
2.
5.
2.
2.

7
2
1
7
0
3
2
0
6
7

.6
.6
1. 0
1. 1
2. 0
1. 6
.8
1. 8
.7
.9

100. 0
100. 0

96. 9
89. 7

90. 3
75. 0

6. 6
14. 7

1. 6
5. 9

.7
2. 4

.4
1. 3

.3
.7

100. 0
100. 0

87. 2
88. 6

72. 6
74. 4

14. 6
14. 2

5. 5
6. 6

3. 8
2. 7

2. 5
1 3
.

1. 2
.8

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

91. 5
92. 6
92. 9

74. 9
85. 0
76. 7

16. 6
7. 6
16. 2

4. 8
3. 6
4. 2

1 9
.
2. 3
1. 7

1. 0
1. 0
.8

.8
.6
.5

100. 0
100. 0

58. 9
68. 9

33. 2
48. 2

25. 7
20. 7

17. 7
15. 4

11. 7
8. 1

8. 5
5. 0

3. 3
2. 5

s u m s of individual i t e m s m a y not equal totals.

of the C e n s u s .

U. S.

Census

of

Population:

I960.

Subject Reports.

O c cupational

Characteristics.

Final R e ­

51

T a b l e 53.

E x p e r i e n c e d u n e m p l o y e d private w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s in construction, m o n t h l y a n d a nnual a ve r a g e s ,

1948— 6 8

(In thousands)
Year
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

January

______________
-------------______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
-------------______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
..............
______________
______________
______________

SOURCE:

T a b l e 54.

29 2
385
625
359
308
308
447
5 49
492
510
670
742
655
826
702
752
643
599
439
411
443

304
485
523
266
292
256
494
494
443
426
724
735
725
723
695
641
506
540
386
341
382

April

239
344
418
162
238
212
502
400
286
388
600
465
498
650
534
512
396
394
320
304
220

June

May
158
318
264
118
168
150
361
274
266
280
447
396
384
5 48
424
365
314
305
224
213
185

July

146
295
255
156
162
160
328
276
256
270
480
335
332
465
370
332
326
305
208
233
229

137
366
2 32
165
162
168
344
239
246
258
467
338
353
490
366
335
283
320
195
200
189

b y the B u r e a u

of the

August
164
304
207
148
140
136
275
248
210
262
4 33
296
346
365
259
376
288
237
187
161
163

September
173
267
236
140
124
161
322
190
192
239
369
327
283
353
255
257
262
237
190
122
127

October

November December

158
276
147
134
104
116
296
220
176
219
345
309
316
303
283
286
292
221
206
170
148

177
301
200
148
116
146
305
292
295
34 7
420
390
451
407
396
400
270
270
278
236
220

January

......... ...............
_______________________
------------------------___ ____________________
_________________________
-------------------------

NOTE:
SOURCE:

Dashes

0
153. 0
155. 0
154. 6
154. 3
153. 6
152. 7
151. 3
150. 2
148. 8
149. 2
149. 1
150. 1
150. 9
151. 5
152. 6
152. 3
153.4
153. 9
154. 3
154. 2

February
0
157.7
158. 0
158. 6
156. 9
156. 6
155. 6
154.4
154.4
153.4
153. 1
154. 6
155. 9
156. 9
158. 0
157.5 •
158.4
158. 1
158. 2
157. 2
156. 8

indicate that data w e r e

March
0
142. 5
142. 0
140. 7
140. 9
139. 4
138. 3
140. 0
140. 4
140. 7
140. 3
140. 1
139. 1
138. 5
137.4
135. 5
134. 5
135. 5
134. 3
134. 6
135. 4

April

June

July

August

September

October

83. 1
83. 2
83. 0
83. 7
84. 1
84. 0
84. 8
84.4
84. 8
85. 7
86. 3
87. 0
86. 6
86. 2
85. 6
84. 2
82. 7
80. 2
78. 9
78. 3
77. 2

77. 6
78. 5
79. 6
79. 6
81. 0
81. 8
81. 9
82.4
81. 9
80. 8
80. 7
79. 5
78. 4
78. 6
78. 2
78. 0
79. 7
81. 0
81. 9
83. 3
83. 4

83.4
83. 3
83. 9
82. 9
81. 6
80. 7
80. 0
79.4
78. 7
78. 0
78. 9
79. 6
79.4
79. 6
80. 0
79. 1
78. 7
77. 6
77. 2
76. 9
77. 3

74. 8
74. 8
73. 7
72. 7
72. 0
71. 3
71. 2
71. 1
70. 4
71. 5
71. 4
70. 9
70. 1
69. 1
67. 7
67. 3
65. 9
66. 3
66. 3
66.4
66. 0

72. 7
71. 9
72. 3
72. 3
71. 7
71. 1
69. 7
68.4
67. 6
65. 0
63. 8
63. 1
62. 6
62. 1
62.4
62. 9
63. 7
62. 6
63. 1
63.4
63. 3

65. 3
64. 2
62. 9
62. 7
61. 6
60. 3
60. 0
59- 4
60. 2
61. 3
61. 2
61. 6
63. 0
64. 6
65. 7
66.4
67. 5
68. 4
69. 2
69. 6

b y the B u r e a u

1958 -------------1959 -------------I960 ______________
1 9 6 1 ........... .
1962 -------------1963 ______________
1964 ______________
1965 ______________
1966 -------------1967 ______________
1968 ------------

SOURCE:

36.
38.
39.
36.
39.
37.
39.
34.
27.
33.
33.

8
3
6
2
2
5
0
2
3
2
1

February

March

38. 8
37. 1
38. 5
31. 3
34. 7
34.4
32. 8
34. 9
30. 8
31. 7
31. 0

36. 5
38. 2
38. 8
33. 1
35. 6
36. 0
37. 4
38. 0
32.9
34.4
35. 6

April

May

Jun e

July

36.
36.
35.
36.
37.
40.
35.
36.
27.
31.
30.

39.
39.
40.
37.
35.
45.
40.
34.
37.
33.
36.

38. 6
43. 6
43. 7
40. 7
45. 6
47. 9
42. 2
39.4
40. 0
43. 2
43. 9

44.
56.
46.
36.
42.
45.
43.
34.
33.
38,
47.

5
2
3
9
7
7
3
0
7
0
1

C u r r e n t Population S u r v e y c o n d u c t e d for the B L S

52




74. 3
73.4
73. 0
72. 9
73. 8
75. 5
77.4
79. 0
81. 7
83. 1
84. 8
85. 3
85. 8
86. 1
87. 8
89. 2
90. 7
91. 8
93. 1
93. 1

97. 1
99. 4
99. 0
100.4
103. 2
105. 0
107. 9
110. 6
111.2
113. 8
114. 9
116. 2
116. 3
116. 7
116. 6
117. 8
116. 9
116. 6
115. 3
114. 4

"

-

"

of the C e n s u s .

U n e m p l o y e d construction l a borers as a per c e n t of all u n e m p l o y e d w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s in construction,

January

November December

not available.

C u r r e n t Population S u r v e y c o n d u c t e d for the B L S

Year

1

207
352
329
196
194
195
387
338
313
350
524
469
464
545
467
457
391
365
287
257
247

1948— 68

May

118.4
118. 1
117. 7
118. 8
119. 0
120. 6
120. 6
119. 6
118.4
118. 0
115.4
113. 3
112. 7
110. 6
109.0
109. 5
108. 9
108. 6
108.4
108. 4
109. 6

216
456
240
196
187
244
426
386
396
498
588
462
611
549
578
503
482
317
364
268
232

Annual
average

Census.

S e a s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t factors for e x p e r i e n c e d u n e m p l o y e d private w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s in construction, b y m o n t h ,

_________________________
------------------------_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
—
_____________________
_ _______________________
____________ _____________
------------------------_________________________
_________________________

T a b l e 55.

320
425
597
361
326
282
546
590
500
508
748
827
613
861
738
828
625
638
445
419
421

March

C u r r e n t Population S u r v e y c o n d u c t e d for the B L S

Year
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
I960
1961
1PA?.
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

F ebruary

7
1
5
8
5
0
9
0
9
8
3

2
0
7
6
6
2
9
8
3
7
0

August

44. 2
52. 5
42. 6
44. 0
38. 8
39.5
40. 9
35. 6
38.4
40. 6
39. 5

b y the B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .

September

44.
36.
43.
41.
43.
45.
43.
41.
40.
43.
46.

5
2
5
4
2
6
8
0
9
7
8

1958— 68

October

39. 8
36. 0
37. 8
37.4
46. 3
42. 2
39. 3
37. 3
35. 8
39. 2
40. 2

November December

46.
43.
33.
37.
41.
42.
41.
34.
32.
35.
39.

3
5
1
0
3
7
0
2
8
4
6

41.
40.
39.
36.
43.
34.
35.
35.
29.
36.
34.

7
1
3
9
8
2
8
6
8
3
3

Annual
average
40.
40.
39.
36.
39.
39.
38.
35.
32.
35.
36.

1
9
4
7
5
5
5
9
9
8
7

T a b l e 56.

P e r c e n t distribution of m a l e s b y r e a s o n for leaving jobs, b y industry group,

1955 a n d 1961

Nonagricultural w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s
R e a s o n for leaving job

Total

C o nstruction

Manufacturing

1961

N u m b e r of jobs left (in t h o u s a n d s ) ------------P e r c e n t ----- --------------------- ---------J o b l o s s -----------------------------------------I m p r o v e m e n t in status-------------------------T e r m i n a t i o n of t e m p o r a r y job ----------------Illness or disability----------------------------H o u s e h o l d responsibilities--------------------S c h o o l responsibilities------------------------O t h e r r e a s o n s ------------------------------N o t r e p o r t e d --------------------------------- —

SOURCE:
B u r e a u of the C e n s u s ,
35, J o b Mobility in 1 9 6 1 .

T a b l e 57.

1955

1961

1955

1961

1955

7,846
100. 0

7, 9 8 0
100. 0

1,909
100.0

1 ,746
100.0

1,897
100.0

2, 382
100.0

39. 3
34. 8
7. 5
2.4
.5
4.9
9. 2
1.5

27. 9
41.0
13. 6
3. 2
.1
4. 2
7. 9
2. 1

66.0
17 . 4
4. 6
2. 2
.3
2. 3
5. 6
1.6

37. 0
23. 5
25.4
2. 5
3.0
5. 2
3.4

41 . 9
36. 8
3. 7
2. 6
.3
5. 3
8. 3
1. 1

32. 3
42. 9
5. 7
4.0
.1
4. 1
9. 5
1.4

C u r r e n t Population R e p o r t s — L a b o r F o r c e , J o b Mobility of W o r k e r s in 1955 a n d B L S Special L a b o r F o r c e R e p o r t

P e r c e n t distribution of nonagricultural w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s , b y full- or p a r t - t i m e status, b y industry,

1968

P a r t - t i m e schedules
Industry

T o t a l 1 -----------------------------Con s t r u c t i o n -----------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------D u r a b l e g o o d s -----------------------N o n d u r a b l e g o o d s --------------------T r a n s p o r t a t i on an d public utilities ----W h o l e s a l e a n d retail t r a d e -------------F i n a n c e , insurance, a n d real e s t a t e --S e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s ------------------------

1

Total
at

Fulltime
E c o n o m i c reasons
schedules
Usually w o r k
full t i m e

Other reasons
Usually w o r k
part t i m e

Usually w o r k
part t i m e

100.0

85.4

1. 3

1. 2

12. 1

100. 0
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100. 0

92.0
95. 1
97. 0
92. 2
93. 3
75. 1
90. 2
73. 7

3.0
1.8
1. 1
2. 7
1. 1
1. 1
.5
.9

1. 3
.4
.2
.7
.6
1.8
.3
2. 3

3. 8
2. 8
1.7
4. 3
5.0
22. 1
9.0
23. 1

Includes m i n i n g a n d public administration, not s h o w n separately.

SOURCE:

T a b l e 58.

C u r r e n t Population S u r v e y c ond u c t e d for the B L S b y the B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .

P e r c e n t distribution of m a l e w a g e

and

salary w o r k e r s , b y

race,

full- or p a r t - t i m e status, 1968
P a r t - t i m e schedules

Industry

Total
at
work

Fulltime
schedules

E c o n o m i c reasons

Other reasons

Usually w o r k
full t i m e

U sually w o r k
part t i m e

U s u ally w o r k
part t i m e

White
All nonagricultural industries----------C o n s truction -----------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------

100.0
100. 0
100. 0

92. 0
93. 2
97. 0

1.0
2. 8
.9

0. 6
1.0
.2

6.4
3. 0
1.9

100. 0
100. 0
100.0

90. 2
88. 9
95.5

2. 3
4.9
2. 6

2. 0
3.9
.7

5. 5
2. 3
1. 2

All other
All nonagricultural industries----------C o n s t r u c t i o n -----------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------

SOURCE:




C u r r e n t Population S u r v e y con d u c t e d for the B L S

b y the B u r e a u

of the C e n s u s .

53

CHAPTER V I.

EA R N IN G S

Wage comparisons
Hourly wage rates for construction workers are high in comparison with those of workers in other indus­
tries. The average hourly earnings of construction workers in the contract construction industry in 1968 were
38 percent higher than for production workers in manufacturing durable goods industries. (See table 60.) In
spite of the high hourly wages for construction workers, however, production workers in several industries had
higher levels of average weekly earnings, because they averaged more hours of work each week. (See table 61.)
Several factors in addition to seasonality contribute to the high average hourly wages for construction
workers. The skill level of construction workers is high compared with that of many production workers in
other industries. In 1968, about two-thirds of the blue-collar workers in construction were craftsmen, fore­
men, and kindred workers comparing with about one-fourth in manufacturing. The industry usually has rel­
atively low fringe benefits and hazardous working conditions. Also, the wage differential may be necessarily
higher to attract a sufficient supply of workers.
Construction workers increased their wage differential over production workers in durable goods manu­
facturing industries between 1947 and 1968; the differential rose from 21 percent to 38 percent. (See table
60.) In comparison with average hourly earnings in basic steel, workers in contract construction lost ground
in terms of wage differentials between 1947 and 1959, but by 1964 they had regained the 1947 relative posi­
tion and, in 1968, construction workers in contract construction had average hourly earnings 17 percent above
those for production workers in basic steel. Hourly earnings in 1968 were 13 percent higher for construction
workers than for production workers in the motor vehicles industry.
Examination of hourly union wage scales by craft in contract construction and manufacturing indicate
substantial differentials in favor of crafts in the construction industry. A comparison of basic union hourly
wage rates for seven crafts in contract construction (national average) and basic steel between 1947 and 1968
indicates that the construction union scale for carpenters was 50 percent above the average rate for carpenters
in basic steel, on July 1, 1968. (See table 62.) In general, these differentials did not widen significantly over
the 1947— period.
68
A recently published study 44 that compares union wage scales for carpenters, electricians, and painters
in construction and the straight-time average hourly earnings for these workers in maintenance jobs in manu­
facturing in late 1965 or early 1966, indicates that differentials in 50 metropolitan areas reported invariably
favored those in construction. However, the differentials varied widely by area. The differential for carpen­
ters ranged from 73 percent in New York City to 11 percent in Richmond, Va.; electricians, from 63 percent
in Little Rock—
North Little Rock to 18 percent in Houston; and painters from 54 percent in Washington, D.C.
to 3 percent in Charleston, W. Va. (See table 63.) In general, differentials were highest in the Northeast,
somewhat lower in the West, and lowest in the South. In most localities, the wage differential in favor of
construction appears to have widened in recent years. (See table 64.)
Wage differentials in favor of construction workers reflect a basic difference in working conditions be­
tween construction and other industries. Factors such as the frequency of seasonal and intermittent unem-

44 Lily Mary David and T. P. Kanninen, “Workers’ Wages in Construction and Maintenance,” M onthly Labor Review,
January 1968.

54




ployment, relatively low fringe benefits, and more hazardous working conditions in construction contribute to
the earnings differential in favor of construction workers. Although workers in the building trades are covered
by old age and survivors insurance, unemployment compensation, and workmen’s compensation, as are workers
in manufacturing, they are at a disadvantage with respect to private benefits financed wholly or in part by em­
ployers. Paid vacations and holidays for many building trades workers are uncommon; in manufacturing 8 or
9 paid holidays each year is the usual practice. Estimates are that the value of fringe benefits in the basic
steel industry was $0.71 an hour in 1965, and in the unionized sector of construction only $0.54 an hour in
1968. 45 The high injury-frequency rate in construction— more than twice as high as in manufacturing—
makes construction work a generally less desirable activity, as does the relatively high proportion of outdoor
work in unfinished buildings during inclement weather. The requirement that construction workers must move
frequently to new work sites also contributes to the relatively less desirable work conditions in the industry.
The collective bargaining relationships between contractors and unions is another factor which helps main­
tain the wage differential for construction workers. Unlike a manufacturer, contractors cannot threaten to or
actually relocate because of wage demands. The products of the construction industry do not compete with
products produced in other parts of the country or overseas, as do the product of manufacturers. Moreover,
all unionized competitors in a region are bound by the outcome of a major collective bargaining agreement so
that there is little inducement to maintain a rigid stance in wage negotiations. Contractors are generally small
companies, and even when they are represented by an association of contractors, pressure to remain firm on
wages is generally much less than in the case of manufacturing firms.

A n n u a l

i n c o m e

46

Despite the relatively high hourly earnings received by wage and salary workers in construction, they have
reported earnings over a 12-month period that are somewhat less than workers in several manufacturing indus­
tries. The following tabulation shows the annual earnings of wage and salary workers who were employed in
contract construction and selected manufacturing industries at least part of the time in each of the four quar­
ters in 1964.

Average
annual reported
earnings from
specified industry

Average
annual reported
earnings from all
covered employment

Industry
Contract construction:
$6,250
General building..................
$6,579
Heavy construction ...........
7,116
7,377
6,677
Special trades.....................
6,879
Chemical and allied products. .
7,717
7,638
8,325
Petroleum refining..................
8,447
Primary metals........................
7,272
7,352
7,167
Machinery, except electrical . .
7,253
7,725
7,814
Motor vehicles and equipment .
SOURCE: BLS Social Security Administration’s 1-percent continuous work
history sample.
The tabulation indicates that workers who were strongly attached to the contract construction industry (i.e.,
those who had some earnings in each of four quarters) derived practically all of their income from the indus­
try (about 96 percent), as did workers in manufacturing industries (about 99 percent).

^5 Bureau of Labor Statistics, Em ployees Compensation and Payroll Hours, Basic Steel, 1965,
Wages and Hours: Building Trades, July 1, 1968, Bulletin 1621.

Report 335-4; Union
46
The wage data on annual earnings, some of which are from the forthcoming bulletin, Compensation in the
struction Industry, were developed by the Office of Wages and Industrial Relations of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.




Con­
55

Average annual earnings, however, tend to obscure the relative position of the typical worker in con­
tract construction. The distribution of annual earnings of construction workers is skewed. While some work­
ers make high annual incomes, others earn much less. High earnings tend to be associated with year-round
work. Of the workers who earned most of their income from general construction contractors in 1964, 45 percent
earned less than $3,000 from all industries in which they worked, whereas about 9 percent made $9,000 or
more. Of workers who were employed in all four quarters of the year, only 19 percent earned less than
$3,000 from all industries in which they worked, while about 15 percent made $9,000 or more. (See table
65.) Generally, the skewness of the distribution of income is toward the low side for workers who were employed
by masonry, plastering, stone and tile contractors, and roofing and sheet metal contractors— work that tends
to be more seasonal. For workers employed by plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning, and electrical con­
tractors, the skewness of the distribution of total annual earnings is toward the high side. For highway con­
tractors and general contractors, the skewness tends only slightly to the low side.
The conclusion to be drawn from these data is that the relatively high hourly wage rates for construc­
tion workers generally are not translated into high annual earnings. Moreover, an assessment of the fringe
benefits available to contract construction workers indicates an even less desirable employment situation for
these workers. Unemployment benefit payments to construction workers, however, are not included in these
average annual earnings figures. An estimated 425 million dollars were paid out in benefits in 1964. This
would tend to increase slightly the amount of money received by construction workers during the year. The
annual earnings figures also may be slightly understated to the extent that workers drawing social security
benefits can readily find employment and work until they reached the maximum earnings limit permitted.

H o u r l y

rates

a n d

annual

earnings

b y

area

Wage rates for construction crafts vary considerably by area. In 1965—
1966 union hourly wage scales
in building construction for carpenters in 50 areas ranged from $5.80 in New York City to $3.45 in Rich­
mond, Va. (See table 68.) For electricians, the range was from $5.50 an hour in San Diego, Calif., to
$4.05 in Richmond, Va.; for painters, from $4.82 an hour in San Diego, to $2.50 an hour in Portland, Maine.
In general, union wage scales were highest in the Northeast and West, slightly lower in the North Central
States, and considerably lower in the South.
Construction workers in areas with the highest union hourly wage scales generally had the highest an­
nual income. In 1964, workers in the Northeast and West who had most of their annual reported earnings
from contract construction tended to have higher annual incomes than those in other areas. (See table 66.)
The range of annual income was quite broad. For example, workers in heavy construction had average an­
nual incomes ranging from $6,485 in the Pacific States to $3,313 in the Southeast States.

56



T a b l e 59. A v e r a g e w e e k l y earnings a n d w a g e relatives 1 of construction a n d production w o r k e r s in contract construction a n d selected
industries, 1947— 68
W e e k l y w a g e relatives

A v e r a g e w e e k l y earnings
C o n tract
construction

Year

1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
195 4
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
I96 0
196 1
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1QA7
1968

------------------------------------------------------------------------_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
------------------------___,_____________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
.
.
_________________________

1

The

Blast furnaces
a n d basic steel
products

M o t o r vehicle
and equipment

Manufacturing,
durable g o ods

$ 58.87
65. 27
67. 56
69. 68
76. 96
82. 86
86.41
88. 91
90. 90
96. 38
100. 27
103. 78
108. 41
113. 04
118.08
122.47
127. 19
132. 06
138.38
146.26
154.95
164.56

$56. 51
62. 84
63. 34
67. 95
77. 71
80. 00
88. 29
83. 92
96. 80
102.87
105.57
108. 00
122.71
116. 13
122.92
127.40
133.06
138. 43
140. 90
144.73
143. 51
154. 16

$58. 63
63. 15
67. 33
74. 85
77. 16
84. 87
89. 88
91. 30
99. 84
96. 82
100. 61
101. 24
11 1. 38
115.21
114.69
127.67
132. 68
138. 03
147. 63
147. 23
144.84
167.66

$51. 76
56. 36
57. 25
62. 43
68. 48
72. 63
76. 63
76. 19
82. 19
85. 28
88. 26
89. 27
96. 05
97. 44
100. 35
104. 70
108. 09
112. 19
117. 18
122.09
123. 60
132.07

rate for contract construction divided b y the

S O U R C E : BLS,

Blast furnaces
a n d basic steel
products

M o t o r vehicle
and equipment

1. 04
1. 04
1. 07
1. 03
. 99
1. 04
. 98
1. 06
. 94
. 94
.95
.96
. 88
. 97
. 96
.96
. 96
. 95
. 98
1. 01
1. 08
1. 07

Manufacturing,
durable g o ods

1. 00
1. 03
1. 00
. 93
1. 00
. 98
. 96
. 97
.91
1. 00
1. 00
1. 03
. 97
.98
1. 03
. 96
.96
. 96
. 94
. 99
1. 07
. 98

1. 14
1. 16
1. 18
1. 12
1. 12
1. 14
1. 13
1. 17
1. 11
1. 13
1. 14
1. 16
1. 13
1. 16
1. 18
1. 17
1. 18
1. 18
1. 18
1. 20
1. 25
1. 25

rate for the other industries.

c u rrent e m p l o y m e n t statistics b a s e d o n es t a b l ishment reports.

T a b l e 60. A v e r a g e h o u r ly earnings a n d w a g e relatives 1 of construction and production w o r k e r s in contract construction a n d selected
industries, 1947— 68

H o u r l y w a g e relatives

A v e r a g e hourly e arnings
Year

Contr a c t
construction

1 9 4 7 __________________________
1948 _________________________
1949 _________________________
1 950 _________________________
1951 _________________________
1952 _________________________
1953 _________________________
1954 _________________________
1955 _________________________
1956 ------------------------1957 _________________________
1958 _________________________
1959 ------------------------I960 _________________________
1961 _________________________
1962 _________________________
1963 _________________________
1964 _________________________
1965 _________________________
1966 _________________________
1967 _________________________
1968 -------------------------

1

The

$ 1. 541
1. 713
1. 792
1. 863
2. 02
2. 13
2. 28
2. 39
2.45
2. 57
2. 71
2. 82
2. 93
3. 08
3. 20
3. 31
3.41
3. 55
3. 70
3. 89
4. 11
4. 40

Blast furnaces
a n d basic steel
p r oducts
$ 1. 4 49
1. 591
1. 6 5 8
1. 703
1. 90
2. 00
2. 18
2. 22
2. 39
2. 54
2. 70
2. 88
3. 06
3. 04
3. 16
3. 25
3. 31
3. 36
3. 42
3. 53
3. 57
3. 76

rate for contract construction divided b y the

S O U R C E : BLS,

c u rrent e m p l o y m e n t




statistics,

M o t o r vehicle
and equipment

Manufacturing,
durable go o d s

$ 1. 4 73
1.611
1. 696
1. 778
1. 91
2. 05
2. 14
2. 20
2. 29
2. 35
2. 46
2. 55
2. 71
2. 81
2. 86
2. 99
3. 10
3. 21
3. 34
3. 44
3. 55
3. 89

$ 1. 278
1. 395
1.453
1. 519
1. 65
1. 75
1. 86
1. 90
1. 99
2. 08
2. 19
2. 26
2. 36
2. 43
2. 49
2. 56
2. 63
2. 71
2. 79
2. 90
3. 00
3. 19

Blast furnaces
a n d basic steel
p r o ducts
1. 06
1. 08
1. 08
1. 09
1. 06
1. 07
1. 05
1. 08
1. 03
1. 01
1. 00
. 98
. 96
1. 01
1. 01
1. 02
1. 03
1. 06
1. 08
1. 10
1. 15
1. 17

M o t o r vehicle
and equipment

1. 05
1. 06
1. 06
1. 05
1. 06
1. 04
1. 07
1. 09
1. 07
1. 09
1. 10
1. 11
1. 08
1. 10
1. 12
1. 11
1. 10
1. 11
1. 11
1. 13
1. 16
1. 13

Manufacturing,
durable go o d s

1. 21
1. 23
1. 23
1. 23
1. 22
1. 22
1. 23
1. 26
1. 23
1. 24
1. 24
1. 25
1. 24
1. 27
1.29
1.29
1. 30
1. 31
1. 33
1. 34
1. 37
1. 38

rate for the other industries.

b a s e d o n es t a b l i s h m e n t reports.

57

T a b l e 61.

G r o s s earnings a n d h o u r s of production w o r k e r s , 1 b y selected industry,

Average weekly
earnings

Industry

1968

A v e r a g e h ourly
earnings

Average weekly
hours

M a j o r industry

M i n i n g __________________________________________________
C o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n --------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------D u r a b l e g o o d s ______________________________________
N o n d u r a b l e g o o d s ------ --------------—
—
Tran s p o r t a t i o n a n d public utilities:
R a i l r o a d transportation 2 -------------------------L o c a l a n d s u b u r b a n --------------------------------Intercity a n d rural b u s lines ---------------------M o t o r freight transportation a n d s t o r a g e --- ---C o m m u n i c a t i o n ------------------------------------Electric, gas, a n d sanitary s e r v i c e s _____________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ---------------------------------------Retail trade--------------------------------------------Finance, i n s u r a n c e , a n d real es t a t e -----------------

$ 143. 05
164.56
122.51
132. 07
109.05

$3. 35
4.40
3. 01
3. 19
2. 74

42. 7
37. 4
40. 7
41.4
39. 8

151. 02
123. 77
152.21
142.96
123. 16
150. 28
122.31
74. 95
108. 54

3.44
2. 94
3. 65
3.42
3. 11
3. 63
3. 05
3. 16
2. 91

43. 9
42. 1
41. 7
41. 8
39. 6
41.4
40. 1
34. 7
37. 3

Industry wi t h highest earnings

Special dies, tools, jigs, a n d fixtures--- ---------M o t o r vehicles a n d e q u i p m e n t -----------------------M o t o r vehicles ------------------------------------P a s s e n g e r c ar bodies -----------------------------M o t o r vehicle parts a n d a c c e s s o r i e s ------------M a l t liq u o r s --------- --------------------------------P e t r o l e u m refining ----------------------------------T ires a n d inner tubes---------------------------------Pipeline t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ------------------------------C o m m u n i c a t i o n , line construction e m p l o y e e s ------Security, c o m m o d i t y b r o k e r s , a n d s e r v i c e s --------

$3. 93
3. 89
3. 99
4. 18
3. 89
4. 16
3. 94
4. 02
4. 04
3. 76
4.40

$ 178. 42
167. 66
172.77
178. 90
1 68.44
170.56
166.27
179.69
167. 26
168. 45
168. 52

45.
43.
43.
42.
43.
41.
42.
44.
41.
44.
38.

4
1
3
8
3
0
2
7
4
8
3

1 F o r m i n i n g a n d m a n u f a c t u r i n g , data refer to production a n d related w o r k e r s ; for contract c o n ­
struction, to construction w o r k e r s ; a n d for all other industries, to n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r s .
2 C l a s s I railroads.
S O U R C E : B L S , c u r rent e m p l o y m e n t

statistics b a s e d o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t reports.

T a b l e 62. W a g e relatives 1 for selected building crafts in contract c onstruction a n d basic steel (basic union h o u r l y w a g e rates), July 1
of e a c h year, 1947— 6 8

Year

1947 __________________________
1 9 4 8 . _______________________
........................
1949
1950 _________________________
1951 _______ ________________
1952 ____ ____________________
1953 ____________ _____________
1 954 .........................
1955
........................
1956 _
_
1957 .........................
1958
____________________
1959 ------------------------1960
_
1 9 6 1 _________________________
1962 __________ ______________ _
1963 _________ _______________
1964 _________________________
1965
........................
1966 .........................
1967
........................
19682
.....................

1
2

Boilermakers

1. 23
1. 38
1. 32
1. 38
1. 31
1. 27
1. 31
1. 33
1. 27
1. 33
1. 28
1.25
1. 30
1. 36
1. 37
1. 37
1.42
1.48
1. 53
1. 39
1.44
"

Bricklayers

1. 37
1. 56
1. 49
1. 54
1. 45
1. 4 4
1. 43
1. 44
1. 37
1. 43
1. 36
1. 30
1. 35
1. 39
1. 40
1.40
1. 44
1. 48
1. 52
1. 38
1.44
1. 52

Carpenters

1. 26
1. 39
1. 30
1. 36
1. 31
1. 27
1. 28
1. 30
1. 25
1. 30
1. 23
1. 20
1. 26
1. 31
1. 32
1. 33
1. 32
1.42
1.49
1. 35
1.42
1. 50

Electricians

1. 23
1. 34
1. 33
1. 37
1. 33
1. 28
1. 28
1. 29
1. 22
1. 29
1. 22
1. 20
1. 24
1. 31
1. 32
1. 34
1. 38
1. 43
1. 47
1. 33
1. 40
1.49

Painters

1. 30
1.41
1. 35
1. 39
1. 34
1. 30
1. 31
1. 32
1. 27
1. 33
1. 25
1. 22
1. 26
1. 31
1. 32
1. 32
1. 37
1. 41
1. 47
1. 32
1. 40
1.48

Pipefitters

Sheet-metal
workers

1. 34
1. 47
1.40
1.46
1. 40
1. 35
1. 36
1.40
1. 33
1. 39
1. 47
1. 30
1. 35
1. 40
1.41
1. 41
1.46
1. 52
1. 58
1. 4 4
1. 52
1. 61

1. 18
1. 33
1. 24
1. 30
1. 24
1. 22
1. 23
1. 26
1. 21
1. 26
1. 19
1. 18
1. 23
1.29
1.29
1. 30
1. 36
1. 41
1. 46
1. 33
1. 41
"

T h e construction rate divided b y the steel rate.
196 8 contract construction w a g e levels are p r e liminary.

SOURCE:
1947— 66: F a c t o r s D e t e r m i n i n g P atterns of E m p l o y m e n t an d U n e m p l o y m e n t in the Cons t r u c t i o n Industry of the United States.
thesis b y D a n i e l Q u i n n Mills of H a r v a r d University, S e p t e m b e r , 1967, pp. 175-6; 1967— 68: U p d a t e d f r o m data p r o v i d e d b y D r. Mills.

58




A

doctoral

T a b l e 63.

Straight-time a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a rnings in m a i n t e n a n c e w o r k a n d union scales in building construction,

C a r p e n t e rs
Average
h o urly
earnings
in m a i n t e ­
nance

Reg i o n , m e t r o p o l i t a n area,
a n d date of s u r v e y

Northeast:
B o s ton, Oct. 1 9 6 5 -------Buffalo, D e c . 1 9 6 5 _______
N e w H a v e n , Jan. 1 9 6 6---N e w York,
A p r . 1 9 6 6 ____
Philadelphia, N o v . 1965 —
Pittsburgh, Jan. 1 9 6 6 ____
Portland, N o v . 1 9 6 5 ____ P r o v i d e n c e — Pawtucket,
M a y 1966 ...............
Tre n t o n , D e c . 1 9 6 5 ______
Y o r k , F e b . 1 9 6 6 .........
South:
Atlanta, M a y 1 9 6 6 — - —
B a l t i m o r e , N o v . 1965 —
Birmingham,
A p r . 1 966—
Charle s t o n , A p r . 1966 ___
Cha t t a n o o g a , Sept. 1965 —
Dallas, N o v . 1 9 6 5 ________
H o u s t o n , J u n e 1966 -----Jacksonville, Jan. 1966__
Little R o c k — N. Little
R o c k , A u g . 1 9 6 5 ________
Louisville, Feb . 1 9 6 6 ____
M e m p h i s , Jan. 1 9 6 6 ----M i a m i , D e c . 1 9 6 5 -------N e w Orle a n s , F e b . 1966 —
R i c h m o n d , N o v . 1 9 6 5 ---S a v a n n a h , M a y 1966 _____
W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . — M d —
Va. , Oct. 1 9 6 5 _________
N o r t h Central:
C h i c a g o , A p r . 1 9 6 6 ______
Cincinnati, M a r .
1965 —
Cleveland, Sept. 1 9 6 5 ____
C o l u m b u s , Oct. 1 9 6 5 ____
D a v e n p o r t — R o c k Island—
Mol i n e , Oct. 1 9 6 5 ______
Dayton, Jan. 1 9 6 6 -------D e s M o i n e s , F e b . 1966___
Detroit, Jan. 196 6 ________
Indianapolis, D e c . 1 9 65 __
K a n s a s City, N o v . 1 9 65__
Milwaukee,
A p r . 1966--O m a h a , Oct. 1965-------St. Louis, Oct. 1 9 6 5 ----So u t h B e n d ,
M a r . 1 9 6 6 ______________
T oledo, F eb. 1 9 6 6 ________
Wichita, Oct. 1 9 6 5 _______
Youngstown— Warren,
N o v . 1 9 6 5 _______________
West:
D e n v e r , D e c . 1 9 6 5 ------Los Angeles— Long
Beach,
M a r . 1966 ---Phoenix,
M a r . 1 9 6 6 ---Portland, M a y 1966_______
Salt L a k e City,
D e c . 1 9 6 5 - ..............
S a n Diego, N o v . 1965 ---S p o k a n e , J u n e 1966 _____

SOURCE:

Lily M a r y




Union
scales in
building
construc­
tion

Electricians

C o n s t ruction
rate higher b y —
Dollars
Per­
per
cent
hour

Average
h o urly
earnings
in m a i n t e ­
nance

$4. 50
4. 315
4. 50
5. 80
4.45
5. 075
3. 70

$ 1. 37
1. 145
1. 71
2. 45
1. 07
1. 7 35
1. 18

44
36
61
73
32
52
47

$ 3. 24
3. 49
3. 04
3. 46
3. 33
3.45
2. 75

2.66
3. 08
2. 62

3.95
4. 80
3. 55

1. 29
1. 72
. 93

48
56
35

2.97
3. 11
3. 31
3. 58
2. 45
2. 95
3. 61
2. 82

4.
4.
3.
4.
3.
4.
4.
3.

00
09
90
475
85
15
32
75

1. 03
. 98
. 59
. 895
1. 40
1. 20
.71
. 93

2.
3.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.

3. 65
4. 125
4. 00
3. 90
3. 90
3.45
3. 80

$3. 13
3. 17
2.79
3. 35
3. 38
3. 34
2. 52

47
40
62
85
09
11
14

3. 19

4. 10

3. 66
3. 26
3. 36
3.22

4.
4.
4.
4.

3. 33
3. 53
3. 46
3. 51
3. 39
3.49
3. 4 0
3. 11
3. 34

3 trades in 50 areas,

Union
scales in
building
construc­
tion

Painte r s

C o n struction
rate higher b y —
Dollars
Per­
per
cent
hour

Average
hou r l y
earnings
in m a i n t e ­
nance

Union
scales in
building
construc­
tion

Construction
rate higher b y —
Dollars
p er
hour

Per­
cent

20
125
25
80
975
425
50

$ 1. 32
. 935
1. 37
1. 64
. 945
1. 285
. 17

46
29
48
52
31
41
7

25
11
75
20
25
25
95

$2. 01
1. 62
1.71
1. 74
1.92
1. 80
1. 20

62
46
56
50
58
52
44

2. 97
3. 30
2. 94

4. 55
5. 30
4. 40

1. 58
2. 00
1. 46

53
61
50

2. 68
3. 09
2. 59

3. 60
4. 375
3. 05

.92
1. 285
.46

34
42
18

35
32
18
25
57
41
20
33

3.46
3. 23
3. 67
3. 58
2. 91
3. 18
3. 69
3. 18

4.
4.
4.
4.
4.
4.
4.
4.

30
70
35
45
25
275
355
40

. 84
1. 47
. 68
. 87
1. 34
1. 095
. 665
1. 22

24
46
19
24
46
34
18
38

2.
2.
3.
3.
2.
2.
3.
2.

82
98
06
53
78
81
51
67

4. 25
4. 05
4. 00
3. 65
3. 75
3. 913
4. 035
3. 50

1. 43
1. 07
. 94
. 12
. 97
1. 103
. 525
. 83

51
36
31
3
35
39
15
31

1. 18
. 725
1. 38
1. 05
. 81
. 34
.66

48
21
53
37
26
11
21

2.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

4.
4.
4.
4.
4.
4.
4.

35
545
525
55
40
05
35

1. 68
.975
1. 305
1. 50
1. 10
. 75
1. 00

63
27
41
49
33
23
30

3.
2.
2.
2.
3.
3.

25
71
52
99
09
07

3.
3.
3.
3.
2.
3.

67
57
22
05
30
30
35

$5.
5.
4.
5.
5.
5.
3.

1965— 66

$2.
3.
2.
3.
3.
3.
2.

88
19
88
16
03
14
33

$4.
4.
4.
4.
3.
4.
2.

_

_

82
80
57
375
75
375

_
. 57
1. 09
1. 05
. 385
-. 34
. 305

_
18
40
45
13
- 11
10

.91

29

3. 30

4. 90

1. 60

48

2. 84

4. 37

1. 53

54

1. 19
1. 14
1. 39
.92

33
35
41
29

3.
3.
3.
3.

4. 95
4. 75
4. 89
4. 60

1. 28
1. 40
1.43
1. 23

35
42
41
36

3.
3.
3.
3.

4. 60
4. 00
4. 56
3.65

. 74
. 80
1. 34
. 52

19
25
42
17

4. 12
4. 38
4. 20
4.43
4. 40
4. 15
4. 26
4. 10
4. 675

. 79
. 85
. 74
. 92
1. 01
. 66
. 86
. 99
1. 335

24
24
21
26
30
19
25
32
40

3. 67
3. 52
3. 54
3. 73
3. 53
3. 63
3. 70
3.42
3. 63

4. 56
4.64
4. 60
5. 00
4. 6 25
4. 85
4. 60
4. 60
5. 15

. 89
1. 12
1. 06
1. 27
1. 095
1. 22
. 90
1. 18
1. 52

24
32
30
34
31
34
24
35
42

3. 21
3. 34
3. 37
3. 40
3. 34
3. 49
3.45
3. 29
3. 35

3.
4.
3.
4.
4.
4.
4.
3.
4.

77
00
90
00
10
075
01
825
34

. 56
.66
. 53
. 60
. 76
. 585
. 56
. 535
. 99

17
20
16
18
23
17
16
16
30

3. 39
3. 49
2. 95

4. 15
4.495
3. 825

. 76
1. 005
. 875

22
29
30

3. 41
3. 44
3. 14

4. 50
4. 75
4. 65

1. 09
1. 31
1. 51

32
38
48

3. 51
3. 28
2. 93

3. 80
4. 165
3. 50

. 29
. 885
. 57

8
27
19

3. 38

4. 50

1. 12

33

3. 61

4. 6 25

1. 015

28

3. 20

4. 14

. 94

29

3. 22

4. 415-

1. 195

37

3.41

4. 62

1. 21

35

3. 35

3. 85

. 50

15

3. 39
3. 35
3. 39

4. 64
4. 505
4. 68

1. 25
1. 155
1.29

37
34
38

3.68
3. 56
3. 61

5. 46
5. 00
5. 00

1. 78
1. 44
1. 39

48
40
39

3. 37
3. 05
3. 49

4. 76
4. 05
4. 05

1. 39
1. 00
. 56

41
33
16

3. 25
3. 32
3. 53

4. 10
4. 75
4. 45

. 85
1.43
. 92

26
43
26

3. 30
3. 83
3. 60

4. 60
5. 50
4. 538

1. 30
1. 67
. 938

39
44
26

3. 24
3. 24
3. 43

3. 85
4. 82
4. 38

.61
1. 58
. 95

19
49
28

David and

T.

P.

85
40
75
14

K a nninen,

67
35
46
37

' W orkers' W a g e s in C o nstruction a n d M a i n t e n a n c e ,

86
20
22
13

Monthly

Labor

Review,

January

1968.

59

T a b l e 64.
D i fferences b e t w e e n union construction scales a n d straight-time a v e r a g e h o u r l y earnings of m a i n t e n a n c e w o r k e r s ,
selected m e t r o p o l i t a n areas, 1955 a n d 1966

3 t rades in

E x c e s s of construction rates o v e r m a i n t e n a n c e straight-time a v e r a g e hourly e a rnings for—
Electricians

Carpenters

Painters

Region and metropolitan area
Percent excess

Percent excess
1955

1955

1966
1955

N o rtheast:
B o s t o n ---------------------------B u f f a l o ---------------------------N e w Y o r k C i t y ------------------P h i l a d e l p h i a ---------------------South:
A t l a n t a --------------- ---- ----B a l t i m o r e ------------------------D a l l a s ----------------------------M e m p h i s -------------------------Middle West:
C h i c a g o --------------------------_______________________
Cleveland
St. L o u i s ____ __________ ______
F a r West:
D e n v e r ---------------------------____________________
Los Angeles
P o r t l a n d - ________________________

SOURCE:

Lily M a r y

David and

62
46
50
58

. 84
1. 47
1. 095
1. 305

35
36
43
39

. 84
. 955
. 90

1. 28
1. 43
1. 52

34
41
38

. 86
. 78
. 57

1. 21
1. 78
1. 39

40
32
24

1. 03
. 98
1. 20
1. 38

35
33
39
29

35
32
41
53

. 77
. 795
. 90
. 83

.69
1. 055
. 78

1. 19
1. 39
1. 335

27
48
34

33
41
40

.69
.475
. 27

T.

1. 195
1. 25
1.29

32
21
11

37
37
38

P.

Kanni n e n ,

"Workers'

Wages

1955

24
46
34
41

44
36
73
32

.68
. 69
. 77
. 535

1966

42
38
47
56

41
36
55
40

$0. 88
. 87
1. 05
1. 25

$2. 01
1.62
1. 75
1. 92

1966

1955
1955

$ 1. 37
1. 145
2. 45
1. 07

$0. 83
. 795
1.21
.91

Percent excess

1966

1966

$0. 70
. 73
. 97
. 55

1966

$ 1. 32
. 935
1. 64
. 945

39
36
47
27

46
29
52
31

. 67
. 43
. 735
.513

1.43
1. 07
1. 103
1. 09

35
22
39
29

51
36
39
40

35
41
42

. 575
. 82
. 66

. 74
1. 34
. 99

23
38
29

19
42
30

35
48
39

. 57
.51
. 23

. 50
1. 39
. 56

28
23
10

15
41
16

in C o n s t ruction a n d M a i n t e n a n c e , " M o n t h l y

Labor

R e v i e w , Ja n u a r y ,

1968.

T a b l e 65. C u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t distributions of total re p o r t e d earnings of e m p l o y e e s reporting m o s t of their i n c o m e in 1964 f r o m selected
construction industries, b y selected earnings intervals
P e r c e n t earnings less than—
± ype ui cuniraciur
$ 1,200

$2,400

15.4
.5
.9

24. 7
2. 1
3. 6

38. 3
8. 1
12. 5

44. 5
13. 2
18. 7

64. 0
36. 3
43. 3

79. 6
62. 1
67. 5

90. 8
82. 4
85. 3

11. 3
.3
.6

19.4
1. 2
2.6

32. 3
5. 0
9. 6

38. 6
9. 4
15. 3

59. 3
30. 3
38. 9

75. 3
53. 7
61.6

87. 3
74. 6
79. 8

11. 7
.2
.6

20. 9
1. 2
3. 2

34. 9
5. 1
11. 1

41. 5
9. 6
17. 4

63. 0
31. 9
42. 3

78. 9
56. 8
65. 6

91. 0
80. 1
84. 6

10. 9
.3
.6

18. 2
1. 2
2. 1

30. 3
4. 6
8. 5

36. 3
8. 7
13. 9

56. 4
28. 2
36. 6

7 2. 5
50. 1
58. 8

84. 4
69. 6
76. 4

12. 9
.5
.7

21 . 4
2.3
3. 4

33. 4
7. 4
11. 0

38. 9
11. 4
16. 1

58. 0
32. 6
38. 7

73. 3
55. 4
60.4

86. 8
77. 3
80. 3

10. 5
.5
.6

17. 6
2. 2
3. 0

27. 4
5. 6
8. 9

31. 7
8. 5
12. 6

49. 8
27. 6
32. 9

65. 8
49. 0
53. 6

81. 5
71. 6
74. 9

8. 4
.5
.6

14. 4
1. 6
2. 1

22. 7
4. 2
6.4

26. 2
6. 3
9. 6

43. 9
23. 5
28. 2

58. 5
41. 5
46. 2

74. 6
63. 6
66. 9

14. 4
.3
.6

24. 4
1. 9
3. 8

38. 0
8. 7
13. 8

44. 2
14. 1
20. 2

63. 7
36. 5
43. 5

79. 1
61.4
67. 2

91. 8
84. 5
87. 0

16. 4
.8
1. 1

26. 2
3. 0
5. 8

39. 9
8. 6
15. 8

46. 2
14. 9
22. 7

64. 0
38. 6
46. 1

80. 1
65. 9
70. 1

91.7
84. 8
87. 5

$600

$3, 000

$5, 000

$7, 000

$9, 000

G e n e r a l _____________________________________________
A n y q u a r t e r ---------------------------------4 q u a r t e r s (this industry)------------------4 q uar t e r s (any i n d u stry)------------------Heavy:
A n y qu a rter __________________________________
4 q ua r t e r s (this industry)------------------4 q u a r t e r s (any i ndustry)--------------- —
Highway:
A n y q u a r t e r ---------------------------------4 qu a r t e r s (this i n d u s t r y ) ___________________
4 qu a r t e r s (any industry) ------------------O t h e r heavy:
A n y q u a r t e r ---------------------------------4 q u a r t e r s (this i n d u s t r y ) ------------------4 q u a r t e r s (any i ndustry)___________________
Special trades:
A n y q u a r t e r __________________________________
4 q ua r t e r s (this i n d u s t r y ) ------------------4 q u a r t e r s (any industry) ___________________
P l u m b i n g , heating, a n d air-conditioning:
A n y q u a r t e r ___________________________________
4 q u a r t e r s (this i n d u s t r y ) -----------------4 q u a r t e r s (any industry)------------------Electrical:
A n y qu a rter ---------------------------4 q u a r t e r s (this i n d u s t r y ) ------------------4 q u a r t e r s (any industry)------------------M a s o n r y , plastering, stone, a n d tile:
A n y q u a r t e r ---------------------------------4 q ua r t e r s (this i n d u s t r y ) ___________________
4 q u a r t e r s (any i ndustry)___________________
Roo f i n g a n d s h e e t -metal:
A n y qua r t e r ---------------------------------4 q ua r t e r s (this i n d u s t r y ) ___________________
4 q u a r t e r s (any industry)--------------------

SOURCE:

Social Security Administration's 1- p e rcent continuous w o r k history s a m p l e .

6 0




T a b l e 66. E s t i m a t e d 1 total a v e r a g e ( m e a n ) annual earnings of w o r k e r s with an y earnings r e p o r t e d an d of those w o r k e r s with m o s t of their
e a r n i n g s r e p o r t e d f r o m selected construction industries, b y region, 1964
E m p l o y e e s w ith m a j o r proportion of
earnings f r o m in d u s t r y 3

E m p l o y e e s with s o m e e a r nings f r o m i n d u s t r y 2
Region

General
building

H e avy

Highway

Other
he a v y

Special
trades

General
building

Heavy

Highway

Other
heavy

Special
trades

All r e g i o n s -------------------

$4,285

$4, 842

$4,425

$5, 170

$4, 790

$4, 008

$4, 366

$4, 032

$4, 718

$4, 389

N o r t h e a s t __________________________
M i d d l e Atlantic-------------------B o r d e r S t a t e s ---------------------S o u t h e a s t ----------------- ---- —
G r e a t L a k e s ------ --------------M i d d l e W e s t -----------------------S o u t h w e s t -------------------------Mountain
------------------------Pacific ____________________________

4, 985
5, 324
3 , 642
2, 895
4, 950
3, 908
3, 386
4, 273
5, 373

5, 152
6, 066
4, 180
3, 313
5, 311
4, 267
3, 786
4, 987
6,485

5, 075
5, 150
3, 921
3, 196
4, 693
4, 263
3 , 412
’4 , 7 9 7
6, 305

5, 313
6, 689
4, 397
3,411
5, 771
4, 275
4, 073
5, 149
6 , 602

4, 746
5, 520
3, 975
3, 2 84
5 , 416
4, 379
3, 537
4, 966
6, 014

4, 6 58
5, 150
3, 4 2 8
2,711
4, 766
3, 741
3, 159
3 , 939
4, 999

4, 958
5, 637
3, 688
2, 900
5, 057
3, 817
3, 358
4, 594
5, 886

4, 6 70
5, 180
3, 4 48
2, 730
4, 516
3, 776
2, 918
4, 4 5 1
5, 751

5, 322
6, 240
3, 928
3, 108
5,473
3, 918
3, 705
4, 814
5, 985

4, 547
5, 235
3, 591
2, 995
5, 147
4, 020
3, 146
4, 376
5, 4 4 9

1 E a r n i n g s of w o r k e r s a b ove the m a x i m u m taxable w a g e w e r e e s t i m a t e d b y a s s u m i n g that their earnings during the quarter in w h i c h they r e a c h
the social security tax cut off ( $ 4 , 8 0 0 in 1964) a n d in s u b s e q u e n t quarters continued at the s a m e level as during the p r e c e d i n g quarters.
2 W o r k e r s e m p l o y e d in m o r e than 1 industry during the yea r w e r e c o u nted in e a c h industry a n d their industry earnings w e r e r e p o r t e d in the
industry in w h i c h they w e r e earned.
3 W o r k e r s e m p l o y e d in m o r e than 1 industry during the yea r have all of their earnings s h o w n as total earnings in the industry f r o m w h i c h
they r e c e i v e d the m a j o r portion of their earnings.
SOURCE:

Social Security Administration's




1-percent continuous w o r k history sa m p l e .

61

CHAPTER V II.

A TT A C H M E N T OF W ORKERS TO TH E C O N TR A C T C O N STR U C TIO N
IN D U S T R Y A N D IN T E R IN D U S T R Y M O B IL IT Y 47

The seasonal nature of the construction industry, together with the inherently intermittent nature of con­
struction activity, has helped to produce a labor force a large portion of which shifts frequently between con­
struction and other industries.
Workers who are employed in the contract construction industry group tend to work in more industries
in a given period than workers in other industry groups. Males employed in contract construction at some
time during 1962 averaged employment in 1.204 industry divisions. During the same period, males in manu­
facturing averaged employment in only 1.090 industry divisions.
The attachment of male workers to the contract construction industry is considerably weaker than that
of workers in all industries combined. 48 (See table 68.) The attachment of contract construction workers
was much weaker than that of workers in manufacturing, transportation, communications, and public utilities,
but slightly stronger than that of workers in agriculture, mining, and wholesale and retail trade. Strong attach­
ment of workers to an industry could indicate relatively favorable wages and working conditions, or a lack of
alternative job opportunities. Other factors that influence the attachment of workers to an industry include
levels of unemployment among industries, as well as the age and race composition of workers in an industry.
Data on the industry origin of wage and salary workers employed in contract construction in 1960 but
not in 1957 indicate a net inflow into construction of about 3 percent, or 82,000 workers.49 More than
one-third of this inflow came from manufacturing— with about three-quarters of these workers coming from
the durable goods sector. The next largest proportion of workers came from the trade sector.
Just as most of the contract construction workers came from manufacturing, most of the “movers” from
contract construction tended to find employment in manufacturing (29.6 percent). Other industries with
strong attraction for construction workers were trade (23.7 percent) and services (13.8 percent). (See table 71.)
Contract construction workers tend to work for more employers in the course of a year than workers in
other industries. In 1962, more than half the workers in contract construction were employed by more than
one employer compared with about a quarter of workers in manufacturing. (See table 70.) Similarly, data
for 1964 indicate that a larger proportion of workers in contract construction were employed by more than
one employer in the same industry than workers in any other industry, except water transportation. (See
table 75.) Approximately one of every four contract construction workers worked for more than one em­
ployer in the same industry in 1964. 50 In most other industries, the ratio was less than 1 to 10.
Between 1957 and 1960, the attachment of young workers (under 24 years old) to contract construc­
tion was about half that for older workers. (See table 72.) Generally, young workers in construction had

47 See also appendix F.
48 These tentative conclusions are drawn from Social Security data for 1957 and 1960. The strength of worker at­
tachment to an industry was measured by comparing the percent of workers who had the major proportion of their earnings
reported in the same industry both in 1957 and 1960.
49 Further information on the flow of workers into the contract construction industry over a 1-year period is cur­
rently being developed by the BLS from the Social Security Administration’s 1-percent sample.
50 The effect on this ratio of the propensity of contractors to form a new corporation for each project is not known.
62




about the same relative attachment to the industry during this period as young workers in other industries.
In other words, young workers did not shift disproportionately out of construction to other industries. The
attachment of white workers to all industries, except agriculture, was greater than for Negroes.
The contract construction labor force is basically a floating work force in terms of employer relation­
ship. The job tenure of a contract construction worker is tenuous. The employer-employee relationship usu­
ally is terminated when a project is completed and may be terminated when the need for a particular type of
labor has ended. However, a contract construction worker who changes employers is somewhat less likely to
have made an industry change than workers in other industries. (See table 74.) More than 80 percent of all
male workers who changed employers also changed industries. For construction workers, a somewhat smaller
proportion changed industries when changing employers.
Workers with a strong attachment to the contract construction industry work for more employers during
the year than other workers. In 1964, at least 3 out of 10 four-quarter workers in each of the contract con­
struction industries were employed by more than one employer during the year, compared with about 1 out
of 4 in the all worker category. (See table 75.) About 10 percent of the general building and special trades
and 5 percent of the heavy construction four-quarter employees worked for four or more employers. In non­
construction industries, however, there were only minor differences between all and four-quarter workers.
A smaller proportion of contract construction workers work in all four-quarters of a year than workers
in most other industries.51 Equally important, only about 7 of every 10 workers reporting earnings in con­
struction in 1957 (the latest year for which these data are available) reported the major share of their earn­
ings from that industry. (See table 76.) Only the services industry had a lower proportion of such workers.

51
Based on data from the Handbook o f Old Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Statistics, Em ploym ent, Earnings
and Insurance Status o f Workers In Covered Em ploym ent, Social Security Administration, 1957.




63

T a b l e 67. A v e r a g e n u m b e r 1 of 2-digit industry g r o u p s in w h i c h
m a l e w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s w e r e e m p l o y e d in specific industry
division, 1962
N u m b e r of
industries

Industry

1.
1.
1.
1.

Industry

002
008
204
090

1.
1.
1.
1.

Agriculture, forestry, a n d f i s h e r i e s -------M i n i n g ----------------------------------------C o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n ------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------T r a n sportation, c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d
public utilities------------------------------W h o l e s a l e a n d retail t r a d e ------------------F i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d real estate--------S e r v i c e s ----------------------------------------

T a b l e 68. P e r c e n t of m a l e w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s w h o h a d a
different industry of m a j o r job in I960 than in 1957, b y industry,
of m a j o r job in 1957

027
114
029
082

T o t a l --------------------------------------

1
T h e s u m of the n u m b e r of w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d in e a c h of the
2 - digit industry g r o u p s in the industry division divided b y the n u m ­
b e r of w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d in the division during the year.

Agriculture, forestry, a n d f i s h e r i e s --------M i n i n g ------------------------------------------Cont r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n -------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------Transportation, c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d
public utilities--------------------------------W h o l e s a l e a n d retail t r a d e --------------------F i nance, insurance, a n d real estate ---------Services, except d o m e s t i c --------------------D o m e s t i c s e r v i c e ------------------------------G o v e r n m e n t -------------------------------------

Different
industry
in I960

24. 1
38.
32.
30.
16.

1
1
2
9

20.
30.
21.
31.
28.
24.

4
9
7
2
0
3

S O U R C E : M e a s u r e s of L a b o r Mobility a n d O A S D H I data, Social
Security Bulletin, Ap r i l 1966, p. 42; a n d Social Security A d m i n i s t r a ­
tion's 1 - p e r c e n t continuous w o r k history s a m p l e .

S O U R C E : M e a s u r e s of L a b o r Mobility a n d O A S D H I data, Social
Security Bulletin, April 1966, p. 40; a n d Social Security A d m i n i s t r a ­
tion's 1-percent continuous w o r k history s a m p l e .

T a b l e 69. P e r c e n t distribution of m a l e w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s in
contract c onstruction in I960 w h o w e r e e m p l o y e d in other industries
in 1957, b y industry of m a j o r job in 1957

T a b l e 70. P e r c e n t of m a l e w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s w h o w o r k e d for
m o r e than 1 e m p l o y e r in 1962, b y industry of m a j o r job

Industry

T o t a l ----------------------A g r i c u l t u r e ----------------------M i n i n g ---------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------D u r a b l e g o o d s ---------------N o n d u r a b l e g o o d s ------------Transpor t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,
a n d public utilities ------------W h o l e s a l e a n d retail t r a d e -----F i n a n c e , insurance, a n d real
estate --------------------------S e r v i c e s -------------------------G o v e r n m e n t ---------------------U n k n o w n --------------------------

Total

White

Negro

100.0

100. 0
5.
5.
33.
23.
10.

8.
1.
31.
20.
11.

0
9
6
1
5

6. 2
27. 0
3. 9
9.6
3. 5
5. 2

5
6
9
6
3

7
2
6
1
5

5. 9
26. 8

7. 9
28. 1

3.
9.
3.
5.

4. 3
11. 0
1. 8
5.4

9
3
8
2

S O U R C E : C o m p u t e d f r o m data contained in M e a s u r e s of L a b o r
M obility in the U n ited States, 1957 to I960, R e s e a r c h Report, N o. 18
Social Security Adm i n i s tration, 1967; a n d Social Security A d m i n i s ­
tration's 1- p e r c e n t continuous w o r k history s a m p l e .

64




Multiemploye r
workers

100. 0

6.
4.
33.
23.
10.

Industry

T o t a l ------------------------------------Agriculture, forestry, a n d f i s h e r i e s --------M i n i n g -----------------------------------------C o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t i o n ------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------Transportation, c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and
public utilities-------------------------------W h o l e s a l e a n d retail t r a d e -------------------F i n ance, insurance, a n d real
estate ----------------------------------------S e r v i c e s -----------------------------------------

32. 0
38.
33.
55.
26.

6
4
2
7

31. 2
34. 0
31. 2
34. 7

S O U R C E : M e a s u r e s of L a b o r Mobility a n d O A S D H I data, Social
Security Bulletin, April 1966, p. 39; a n d Social Security A d m i n i s t r a ­
tion's 1- p e rcent continuous w o r k history s a m p l e .

T ab le 71. P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of m a le w age and s a la r y w o rk e rs w ith m a jo r jo b in a d iffe re n t in d u s try in I960 and 1957, by in d u s try

In d u stry of m a jo r job in 1957

T o t a l -------------------------------------A g ric u ltu re , f o r e s tr y , and
f i s h e r i e s --------------------------------------M in in g ---------------------------------------------C o n tra c t c o n s tr u c tio n -------------------M a n u f a c tu r in g --------------------------------T r a n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n ,
and p u b lic u t i l i t i e s ---------------------W h o le sale and re ta il t r a d e -----------F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and re a l
e s ta te -------------------------------------------S e rv ic e s , e x c ep t d o m e s tic -----------D o m e stic s e rv ic e s ------------------------G o v e rn m e n t1----------------------------------U n know n-------------------------------------------

T o ta l

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

In d u stry of m a jo r jo b in I960
T ra n s p o rta tio n , W hole­ F in a n c e ,
m
rv e
c o m m u n i­ sa le in s u ra n c e , S ecluicinsg, D otice s­ G o v e rn ­ Unknown
and r e a l exo m edstic s e rv ic e s m e n t
c a tio n , re ta il
d
and p u b lic tra d e
e s ta te
u tilitie s

A g ric u l­
C o n tra c t a u fac
tu re
f o r e s tr y , M ining c o n s tru c ­ M tunrin g ­
and
tion
fis h e rie s

2. 1

11. 8

24. 0

6. 8

23. 1

4. 9

14. 3

0. 4

6 .4

2. 0

4. 0
5. 4
4. 3

1. 9
3. 7
2. 2

5. 3

10. 6

1. 2
1. 6
3. 0
2. 2

1. 1
1. 3
1. 5
1. 6
4. 2

14. 8
9 .4
8. 7
10. 7
15. 9

20. 2
28. 4
12. 8
22. 0
35. 3

0. 7
.1
.3
.3
.2
.3
.4
.6
.3
.3

6. 6
5. 7
6. 8
6. 9
6. 4
6 .4

1. 9
3. 2
5. 6
5. 1
3. 1

25. 6
18. 3
23. 7
39. 5
27. 9
~
27. 9
33. 5
20. 9
22. 3
22. 3

2. 0
2. 1
6. 3

3. 1
1. 6

29. 9
33. 6
29. 6
"
25. 1
41. 2

6. 6
7. 1
8. 0

3. 7
3. 8

16. 1
19. 1
14. 7
12. 3
12. 1

3. 8
-

7. 8
4. 3
7. 2
4. 1
6 .9
4. 1

9. 0
13. 8
17. 2
14. 9
19. 3
20. 2
29. 1
24. 2
9. 2

4. 7

3. 5
5. 5
-

6. 3

9. 7
5. 7
3. 3

7. 1
5. 1
2. 4

8. 7

2. 9
1. 8
2. 0
1. 4
2. 6
1. 2

1 R e g u la r g o v e rn m e n t fu n c tio n s— e x ecu tiv e. le g is la tiv e , and ju d ic ia l— on th e S ta te and lo c a l g o v e rn m e n t le v e l.
41; and S o cia l S e c u rity A d m in is tra tio n 's
SO U R C E: M e a s u re s of L a b o r M o b ility and OASDHI d a ta , S o cia l S e c u rity B u lle tin , A p ril 1966,
1- p e rc e n t c o n tin u o u s w o rk h is to r y sa m p le .

T a b le 72. P e r c e n t of m a le w age and s a la ry w o rk e rs who w e re em p lo y e d in th e sa m e in d u s try in 1957 and I9 6 0 , by ag e in I9 6 0 , ra c e , and in d u s try of
m a jo r job
5 0 -5 4 55 -5 9
30-34
6 0 -6 4 65 v and
In d u stry
T o ta l U n d er 2 0 -2 4 25-29
35-39 4 0 -4 4 4 5 -4 9
20
o er
T o ta l
A g r ic u ltu r e -------------------------------------------------------M in in g ---------------------------------------------------------------C o n tra c t c o n s tr u c tio n -------------------------------------M a n u f a c tu r in g --------------------------------------------------T r a n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
p u b lic u til iti e s -----------------------------------------------W h o le sale and re ta il t r a d e -----------------------------F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e s ta t e ------------S e r v ic e s ------------------------------------------------------------G o v e rn m e n t------------------------------------------------------U n know n-------------------------------------------------------------

61. 9
67. 9
69. 8
83. 1

35. 5
2 9 .4
3 8 .4
52. 2

34. 7
42. 6
43. 6
64. 7

79. 6
69. 1
78. 3
69. 2
75. 7
2. 4

23. 6
49. 8
22. 5
26. 4
28. 2
1. 1

43. 7
46. 2
4 1 .9
37. 4
33. 2
2. 3

61. 0
70. 4
83. 6

34. 0
29. 4
38. 9
53. 9
25. 0
49. 4
23. 9
25. 2
28. 0
-

32. 8
43. 7
44. 7
65. 2
45. 2
45. 6
42. 8
36. 2
32. 9
2. 8

5 1 .6
49. 9
59. 2
73. 4
67. 6
59. 2
6 1 .6
55. 9
5 2 .7
2. 2

6 1 .7
61. 1
69. 4
80. 8
78. 0
68. 5
75. 6
67. 7
68. 8
.9

63. 2
68. 8
72. 7
83. 7
81. 2
72. 7
77. 1
7 1 .4
76. 8
2. 3

51. 9
4 9 .9
59. 7
73. 8

60. 7
61. 2
69. 9
8 1 .4

63. 9
69. 1
73. 5
84. 0

68.6

78. 9
69. 4
77. 4
68. 2
69. 9
1. 0

82. 4
73. 4
78. 1
7 1 .6
77. 8
2. 4

69. 0
72. 8
75. 1
86. 5
82. 7
74. 7
80. 0
72. 3
80. 4
1 .9

72. 3
75. 6
75. 1
87. 8
85. 1
77. 5
82. 9
76. 1
83. 0
3. 1

7 6 .4
72. 3
76. 2
88. 7

67. 9
73. 3
75. 9
86. 9
83. 6
7 5 .4
81. 6
72. 4
81. 5
1. 2

71. 3
75. 8
75. 7
88. 3
86. 1
78. 2
84. 6
76. 3
83. 6
3. 2

73. 8
60. 5
70. 2
8 2 .4

77. 2
70. 0
71. 5
82. 3
75. 0
71. 6
63. 2
74. 5
75. 0

76. 2
77. 1
76. 7
89. 7
88. 1
79. 3
86. 5
82. 1
88. 3
3. 3

78, 1
79. 9
77. 3
90. 6

88. 5
80. 8
87. 2
84. 4
90. 4
4. 0

81. 1
7 5 .4
79. 3
86. 3
80. 2
83. 1
89. 2
85. 9
89. 8
4. 5

76. 5
72. 4
76. 3
89. 0
87. 6
78. 6
87. 7
79. 3
87. 1
2. 5

7 5 .4
76. 8
77. 2
90. 0

78. 0
79. 9
7 7 .4
90. 6

79. 8
75. 5
78. 7
86. 2

88. 7

79. 6
87. 2
8 1 .2
88. 5
2. 3

89. 2
81. 3
87. 4
83. 9
90. 8
4. 2

79. 6
83. 3
89. 9
39. 5
90. 0
4. 8

75. 9
71. 9
75. 3
86. 3
79. 4
69. 0
74. 0
82. 3
84. 2

79. 8
85. 7
73. 5
86. 5
80. 5
75. 9
77. 8
85. 2
84. 8
14. 3

78. 8
80. 0
76. 9
90. 6
78. 2
75. 0
84. 9
8 8 .4
8 2 .4

89. 2
7 1 .4
86. 9
88. 6
86. 3
81. 2
81. 0
86. 8
86. 1

86. 9
77. 8
86. 6
79. 7
86. 9
2. 3

W hite
A g r ic u ltu r e -------------------------------------------------------M in in g ---------------------------------------------------------------C o n tra c t c o n s tr u c tio n -------------------------------------M a n u f a c tu r in g --------------------------------------------------T r a n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
p u b lic u til iti e s -----------------------------------------------W h o le sale an d re ta il t r a d e -----------------------------F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e s ta t e ------------S e r v ic e s ------------------------------------------------------------G o v e rn m e n t------------------------------------------------------U nknow n-------------------------------------------------------------

68. 1
80. 5
69. 7
79. 3
69. 3
76. 5
2. 3

59. 4
62. 7
56. 6
53. 8
2. 2

N e g ro
A g r ic u ltu r e -------------------------------------------------------M in in g ------------------------------ --------------------------------C o n tra c t c o n s tr u c tio n -------------------------------------M a n u f a c tu r in g --------------------------------------------------T r a n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
p u b lic u t il iti e s -----------------------------------------------W h o le sale and re ta il t r a d e -----------------------------F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e s ta t e -------------S e r v ic e s ------------------------------------------------------------G o v e rn m e n t------------------------------------------------------U nknow n-------------------------------------------------------------

66. 3
63. 3
66. 2
78. 7

69. 1
63. 9
63. 8
68. 7
66. 0
2. 9

48. 0
31. 3
30. 8
12. 5
53. 6
38. 5
33. 3
16. 7

44. 9
16. 7
34. 9
59. 6
29. 7
50. 7
28. 1
43. 4
36. 3
-

50. 0
50. 0
55. 2
69. 7
55. 1
58. 1
43. 3
52. 5
43. 2
2. 6

66. 5

59. 0
65. 6
75. 2
66. 5
61. 5
42. 1
64. 4
59. 3
-

60. 0
60. 6
67. 0
80. 2
68. 7
66. 3
56. 3
69. 7
6 6 .4
1. 8

73. 6
67. 3
61. 1
71. 9
69. 3
6. 1

2.6

SO U R C E : In te rin d u s try L a b o r M o b ility in th e U n ited S ta te s 1957 to I9 6 0 . F e b r u a ry 1967, R e s e a rc h R e p o rt No. 18, S o cia l S e c u rity A d m in is­
tra tio n ; and S o cia l S e c u rity A d m in is tra tio n 's 1-p e rc e n t co n tin u o u s w o rk h is to r y sa m p le .




65

T a b le 73. P e rc e n t of m a le w age an d s a la ry w o rk e rs em p lo y e d in c o n tra c t c o n s tru c tio n in I9 6 0 , by in d u s try of m a jo r jo b in 1957, ag e in I960
and ra c e
In d u stry of m a jo r jo b in 1957

T o ta l

A g ric u ltu re ______________________________________
M in in g ____________________________________________
C o n tra c t c o n s tr u c tio n ___________________________
M a n u f a c tu r in g ____________________________________
T r a n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
p u b lic u tilitie s _________________________________
W h o le sale an d r e ta i l t r a d e ______________________
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e s ta t e ___________
S e rv ic e s __________________________________________
G o v e rn m e n t______________________________________
U nknow n __________________________________________

6. 1
6. 1
6 9 .8
2. 5
2. 5
3. 7
3. 2
2 .9
2. 6
15. 6

U n d er

20

10. 9
17. 6
3 8 .4
7. 1
1 .4
6. 6
4. 2
7. 1
7. 1
5 .4

A ge
2 0 -2 4

8. 7
9. 7
43. 6
5. 6
5. 6
6. 1
5. 5
4 .9
5. 5
13. 2

25-29
7. 8
8. 7
59. 2
3 .9
4. 2
4 .6
3. 4
4. 0
4. 3
10. 3

30-34
7. 5
7. 6
6 9 .4
2 .9
2. 7
4. 0
3. 3
2 .9
3. 5
18. 7

35-39 4 0 -4 4
T o ta l

4 5 -4 9

50-54

5 5 -59

6 0 -6 4

65 and
over
1. 7
3 .0
79. 3
1. o
1. 8
1. 4
1. 5
.9
.6
11. 6

5. 5
5. 5
75. 1
2. 2
2. 3
3. 2
3. 7
3. 5
3. 5
1 9 .4

4. 8
5. 3
75. 1
1. 9
2. 0
2. 8
3. 8
2. 6
2. 0
1 6 .9

4. 6
6. 2
76. 2
1. 5

2. 1
3. 0
76. 7
1 .4

3. 0
4. 6
77. 3
1. 0

1 .9
3. 0
3. 3
1. 8
1 .4
1 5 .9

1. 7
2. 5
2. 3
1. 8
1. 1
13. 8

.6
2. 0
3. 1
2. 1

1. 3
17. 2

7. 4
5. 8
73. 5
2 .4

4. 1
5 .4
75. 9
2. 1

4. 2
5 .4
75. 7
1. 7

1. 8
2 .9
3. 0
3. 3
3 .4
18. 0

1. 6
2. 6

2. 2
3. 1
77. 2
1. 2
1. 5
2. 4
2. 2
1 .9
1. 0
15. 1

2. 8
4. 9
7 7 .4
1. 0
.5
2. 0
3. 0
1 .9
1. 0
16. 1

1. 8
3. 1
78. 7
.9

2. 4
3. 2
3. 1
2. 7
3. 1
1 7 .4

4 .4
6 .4
76. 3
1. 3
1. 8
2. 8
2. 8

4. 5

1. 2
86. 9

7. 8
5 .9
72. 7
2. 7
2. 6
3. 6
3. 3
2. 6
3. 0
18. 1
W hite

A g ric u ltu re ______________________________________
M in in g ____________________________________________
C o n tra c t c o n stru c tio n __________________________
M a n u f a c tu r in g ____________________________________
T r a n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
p u b lic u tilitie s _________________________________
W h o le sale and r e ta i l tra d e _____________________
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , an d r e a l e s ta t e ___________
S e rv ic e s __________________________________________
G o v e rn m e n t______________________________________
U nknow n __________________________________________

5. 8
6. 1
70. 4
2. 3

2. 2
3. 5
2. 9
2. 8
2. 6

14. 9

11. 3
17. 6
38. 9
7. 0

8. 7
9. 7
44. 7
5. 4

8. 4
59. 7
3. 8

1.6

5 .4
6. 2
5. 2
4. 8
5. 8
11. 8

3. 8
4. 3
3. 2
3. 6
4. 4
9. 1

6. 7
4. 5
7. 3
7. 3
5. 8

6.6

7. 4
7. 8
69. 9
2. 7
2. 4
3. 6
2 .9
2. 6
3. 7
18. 6

3. 3
2. 3
2. 1
1 5 .9

1.8

1. 4
15. 4

1.8

1. 4
1 .4
1. o
.6
11. 7

N e g ro
A g ric u ltu re ______________________________________
M in in g ____________________________________________
C o n tra c t c o n s tr u c tio n ___________________________
M a n u f a c tu r in g ____________________________________
T r a n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
p u b lic u tilitie s _________________________________
W h o lesale and r e ta i l tra d e _____________________
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e s ta t e ___________
S e rv ic e s .......
..
__
G o v e rn m e n t
...
...............
Unknow n ........................
...................... .........

7. 8
5. 8

66. 2

3 .9
5 .6
5. 7
7 .4
3. 7
2. 6
21. 1

8. 0
31. 3
7. 7
_
5. 7
_
5. 2
_

8. 3
11. 1
34. 9
7. 1
6 .9
5. 6
9 .4
5 .6
2. 5
20. 8

13. 3
55. 2
4. 7
8. 6
6. 5
6. 7
6. 3
3. 6
1 8 .4

20. 0

8 .4
2. 6
65. 6
5. 0
5 .8
7. 1
10. 5
5. 1
2. 2
20. 0

9 .4
9. 1
67. 0
3. 9
3. 6
7. 0
7. 0
1. 7
2 .4
22. 8

11. 3
9. 3
70. 2
3. 6
7 .7
5. 6
4 .4
4. 7
28. 6

12. 6

7. 4
2. 5
71. 5
3. 2
6. 3
5. 1
9. 5
4. 0
1. 1
25. 6

5. 5
3. 1
75. 3
3. 1
3. 5
5. 3
8. 3
2. 1
1. 0
20. 7

1. 6
73. 5
2. 8
4. 7
3. 2
3. 7
1.0

1. 5

-

7 6 .9
.6
2. 6
1. 7
4. 1
2 .9
5 .9
37. 5

-

i. 2
2. 0
2. 2
2 .4
.5
_
10. 0

SO U R C E : In te rin d u s try L a b o r M o b ility in th e U n ited S ta te s 1957 to I9 6 0 , F e b r u a ry 1967, R e s e a rc h R e p o rt No, 18, S o cia l S e c u rity A d m in istra tio n ; and S o cia l S e c u rity A d m in is tra tio n 's 1-p e rc e n t co n tin u o u s w o rk h is to r y sa m p le .

T a b le 74. P ro p o r tio n of m u ltie m p lo y e r m a le w age an d s a la ry w o rk e rs
w ho w e re m u lti-in d u s try w o rk e rs , by in d u stry of m a jo r jo b in 1962
P ro p o r tio n w ho w e re
In d u stry
m u lti-in d u s try w o rk e rs
T o ta l
. _
8 1 .6
A g ric u ltu re , f o r e s tr y , an d f i s h e r i e s __________
6 9 .5
M ining . __ _ _ _
_ _.
69. 1
C o n tra c t c o n s tr u c tio n ___________________________
76. 6
M a n u fac tu rin g _ _
. ..............................
86. 6
T r a n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
p u b lic u tilitie s _________________________________
80. 3
W h o lesale an d r e ta il tra d e
. _ __ _ _
7 9 .4
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e s ta te
82. 3
S e rv ic e s .
...............
80. 9
SO U R C E : M e a s u re s of L a b o r M o b ility and OASDHI d a ta , S o ­
c ia l S e c u rity B u lle tin , A p ril 1966, p. 40; and S o cia l S e c u rity A d m in ­
is tr a tio n 's 1 -p e rc e n t co n tin u o u s w o rk h is to r y sa m p le .

66




T a b le 75. P e rc e n t d is trib u tio n of a ll and 4 - q u a r te r w o rk e rs , 1 by n u m b e r of e m p lo y e rs , s e le c te d in d u s trie s , 1964
4 - q u a r te r w o rk e rs

A ll w o rk e rs
N u m b e r of e m p lo y e rs

In d u stry

Any
Contract construction:
G eneral building c o n tra c to rs__
Heavy construction ___________
Special trad es contractors
Mining:
Bituminous coal ______________
M anufacturing:
Printing and publishing
P etroleum refining ___________
P rim a ry m etals ______________
T ransportation equipm ent_____
T ransportation and public
utilities:
W ater tra n sp o rta tio n _________
U tilities, electric and g a s ____
W holesale and re ta il trad e:
G eneral m erchandise s to r e s __

1

2

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

76
78
74
87
93
92
99
98
96

15
15
15
9

100
100
100

67
99
95

13

6
6
1
2

4

1

5

3
4
Any
1
Em ployees with some earnings from the industry 2

(3)
(3)

(?)
(3)

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

6

14
(3)
(3)

100
100
100

5
5

6
3

5
3

6
1

1
1

(3)

-

-

(3)
(3)

1

67
70
65

60
99
95

86
93
90
99
98
96

2

4

3

17
18
16
9

8
7
8

6
7
1
2

1
2
2

(3)

_
(3)

(?)
(3)

7
(3)
(3)

21

8
4
10
2

4

12
1
5

3

9
5

11
2
2
-

(3)
(3)

Em ployees with a m ajor proportion of earnings from the in d u stry 4
C ontract construction:
G eneral building c o n tra c to rs...
Heavy construction ___________
Special trad es c o n tra c to rs____
Mining:
Bituminous coal ______________
M anufacturing:
Textile m ill products
P rinting and publishing
P etroleum refining
P rim ary m etals
..... _ ...
T ransportation equipm ent_____
T ransportation and public
utilities:
Watfir transportation
U tilities, electric and gas
W holesale and re ta il trad e:
G eneral m erchandise sto re s__

1
2
3
4

q u a r te r .

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

73
74
70

100
100
100

65
99
94

86
93
91
99
98
96

(3)
(3)

<?>
(3)

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

7
(3)
(3)

15
(3)
(3)

100
100
100

16
18
16
9

6
6
6

5
3
7

3

2

6
6
1
2

1
2

4

13

1

5

-

(3)

1

-

68
71
66
86

17
18
16
9

8
7
8

93
90
99
98
96

6
7
1
2

1
2

62
99
95

3
-

(3)

2
-

4

(?)
(3)

(?)
(3)

12
1

7
(3)
(3)

19
(3)
(3)

5

A ll w o rk e rs a r e th o se w ith so m e e m p lo y m e n t in any c a le n d a r q u a rte r; 4 - q u a r te r w o rk e rs a r e th o se w ith so m e e m p lo y m e n t in e a c h c a le n d a r

W o rk e rs em p lo y e d in m o re th a n 1 in d u s try d u rin g th e y e a r w e re c o u n ted in e a c h in d u s try in w h ich th e y w e re em p lo y e d .
L e s s th an 1 p e rc e n t.
W o rk e rs em p lo y e d in m o re th a n 1 in d u s try d u rin g th e y e a r w e re re p o rte d in th e in d u s try frc m w hich th e y re c e iv e d th e m a jo r p o rtio n of
th e ir e a rn in g s .
N O T E : D ash (-) in d ic a te s th e re w e re no e m p lo y e e s re p o rte d . B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not e q u al to ta l.
SO U R C E : S o cia l S e c u rity A d m in is tra tio n 's 1- p e rc e n t c o n tin u o u s w o rk h is to r y s a m p le .




T a b le 76. P ro p o rtio n of a ll w o rk e rs re p o rtin g e a rn in g s in s e le c te d
in d u s trie s w ho re p o rte d th e m a jo r s h a re of th e ir e a rn in g s in th e
se le c te d in d u s trie s , 1957
In d u stry
M in in g _________________________________
C o n tra c t c o n s tr u c tio n ________________
G e n e ra l c o n tr a c to r s , b u ild in g ___
G e n e ra l c o n tr a c to r s , o th e r _____
S p e c ia l t r a d e s _____________________
M a n u f a c tu r in g _________________________
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s ________________________
W h o le sale an d r e ta i l tra d e __________
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e s ta te
S e rv ic e s _______________________________

P e rc e n t
80. 3
72. 3
57. 5
57. 9
60. 7
89. 0
76. 3
74. 3
73. 3
66. 5

SO U R C E : H andbook of Old A g e , S u rv iv o rs an d D isa b ility I n s u r ­
a n c e S ta tis tic s , E m p lo y m e n t, E a rn in g s an d In s u ra n c e S ta tu s of W o rk ­
e r s In C o v e re d E m p lo y m e n t, S o c ia l S e c u rity A d m in is tra tio n , 1957,
pp. 34-5 and 4 2 -3 .

67

CHAPTER V III.

W ORK EXPERIENCE OF IN D IV ID U A L CO NSTR U C TIO N
W ORKERS O V ER A 12-M ONTH PERIO D

This chapter presents the results of an analysis of manpower utilization in construction occupations
(craftsmen and laborers), based on special tabulations of hours-worked data from pension fund records. To
get new and deeper insights into work patterns of construction workers, data on hours of work of individual
workers reported over a 12-month period were obtained for 13 occupations in four areas: Omaha, Milwaukee,
Detroit, and Southern California. 52 The time periods covered for each area are as follows:

Detroit.......................................
Milwaukee..................................
Omaha.......................................
Southern California—
Carpenters, cement finishers,
and teamsters.....................
Operating engineers, and
iron workers.....................

November 1966 - October 1967
December 1965 - November 1966
July 1966 - June 1967
January - December 1966
June 1966 - May 1967

The data were obtained from the records of health and welfare funds established under provisions of
collective bargaining agreements. These provisions generally require contractors to make a cents-per-hour pay­
ment to the fund for each hour worked within the jurisdiction of the local agreement. Administrators keep
current records of reported hourly contributions by contractors to the fund.
The advantage of these data is that they relate specifically to the occupation and locality of work and
show the work experience of individual workers in terms of hours worked in each month. They are there­
fore more precise than Social Security data, which give only quarters of coverage in the industry and no in­
formation by occupation. This feature provides an insight into the intensity of utilization of a construction
worker. An additional advantage is that the data are based on records and are more precise than work exper­
ience data from the Current Population Survey, which is a survey that relies on the memory of the respondent.
Unfortunately, the pension fund data include cross-classifications of employees only by age. Excluded
are many characteristics which would be of interest in analyzing work experience, e.g., nature of training,
specific skills (within the occupation), length of experience,53 permanent residence, etc. Lacking such detailed
information, certain suppositions must go untested— for example, that journeymen trained through apprentice­
ship obtain more steady work than others. In addition, a description of the total work experience of the con­
struction craftsmen surveyed cannot be made from this information because the data refer only to work done
in the jurisdiction of the collective bargaining agreement. Thus, work within the occupation but outside the
jurisdiction is not measured; neither is work in other industries or occupations or in the same occupation but
not under the authority of the pension fund (e.g., self-employed or construction work not covered by union
contract). No attempt to link the data directly to other sources of information (such as Social Security data)

52 In no case were the data on hours worked affected by substantial work stoppages. In Omaha, however, the month
of June 1967 contained 22 days of rain—introducing a distortion into the seasonal pattern of the data. Also the data for
two occupations—laborers and teamsters—in Omaha covers only those hours of work reported in commerial building and ex­
cludes those on heavy and highway construction.
53 The data from these funds do not show length of experience. The Bureau of Labor Statistics was able to obtain
such data in a 1965 Study of Operating Engineers in New Jersey. For these workers, no significant relationship appeared to
exist between the length of experience and the amount of work received.
68




has yet been made.54 Also, the data are subject to irregularities that may exist in the system of employer
compliance with the provisions of the agreements that established these funds. An effort was made, however,
to obtain data from well-established funds with rather complete contractor compliance. In addition to the
substantive finding, this information provides an insight into the type of data available from pension fund
records and perhaps will serve to initiate additional scholarly research in this area.

Hours of work
The average number of hours worked during the 12-month period differed by occupation, but was low
for all occupations. Workers in most occupations in all areas for which data were obtained worked less than
1,200 hours in the periods covered; the exceptions were operating engineers in both Detroit and California.
(See table 77.) Generally, the less skilled occupations reported a higher proportion of workers with 1,400
hours or less. Approximately 80 percent of the laborers in Omaha, Detroit, and Milwaukee reported fewer
than 1,400 hours of work. (See table 80.) The proportion of workers in occupations reporting fewer than
700 hours (about 18 full weeks of work) also differed greatly by occupation and area. Only 26 percent of
the operating engineers but about 47 percent of the carpenters in Southern California reported fewer than 700
hours. On the other hand, in Omaha, about 43 percent of the operating engineers and only 30 percent of the
carpenters reported fewer than 700 hours of work. Wide differences in hours of work were reported for work­
ers in the same occupation in the four areas. About 37 percent of the cement masons in Omaha and 55 per­
cent in Detroit worked fewer than 700 hours during the 12-month period. (See table 80.) A large number of
factors contribute to these differences in employment experience by occupation and area. The level and com­
position of construction activity, weather conditions, customary seasonal patterns of employment, and labor
market conditions all influence the hours reported by occupation over a particular period.
In order to determine whether “ short-hours” workers and those workers not firmly attached to the in­
dustry were responsible for the low average number of hours of work reported, two techniques were used to
exclude these workers from consideration. In this section, and for discussion purposes only, short-hours work­
ers are considered to be those workers who worked fewer than 700 hours in the 12-month period. A worker
was not considered to be firmly attached to the industry if he did not have hours of work reported to the
fund in January— the assumption being that if a worker was employed in January, a seasonally low month,
his attachment to the industry was strong.
When short-hours workers were excluded from consideration, the average annual hours reported for the
remaining workers was considerably higher but was still substantially below that o f a 2,000-hour full work
year. (See table 78.) Not counting workers with fewer than 700 hours of work, the median number of hours
of work reported for all crafts in all areas covered was 1,535.55 All operating engineers in Southern Califor­
nia reported an average of 1,284 hours of work; for those operating engineers with 700 or more hours of work
reported the average was 1,633 hours. All laborers had an average of 626 hours of work in Omaha, but those
laborers with 700 or more hours reported had an average of 1,467 hours of work.

When those workers not firmly attached to the industry were excluded from consideration, the average
annual hours reported for the remaining workers was considerably higher than that for all workers, but still
substantially below a full work year. (See tables 77 and 78.) Construction teamsters in Omaha with hours
reported in January had an average of about 1,530 hours in the 12-month period, whereas, construction team­
sters without hours in January had only about 415; the average for all teamsters in Omaha was 730 hours of
work. A similar pattern existed for each of the crafts in each of the areas surveyed.

54 in the study of operating engineers in 1965, fund data and Social Security data were cross-classified. This study
revealed that those persons with between 700 and 1,299 hours reported to the fund drew less than one-fourth of their earn­
ings from industries where operating engineers would not usually be employed.
55 The median number of hours for all workers was less than 1,000 (998.5).




69

Several conclusions may be drawn from these data. A considerable number of short-hours workers are
in all the trades. Moreover, the industry’s work force appears to be underutilized in all the crafts in all areas
for which data were obtained. More importantly, these data give a quantitative measure of the degree of uti­
lization of the work force in specific areas in the construction industry by occupation. Undoubtedly, many
of the workers reporting relatively few hours of work in construction have additional income from work in
other occupations or as construction workers either outside the authority of the pension fnnd or on their own
(self-employed).
For individual construction workers, the hours of work situation can be considerably less favorable than
the averages for occupations suggest. For the four areas and 13 occupations for which data were collected,
the proportion of workers with fewer than 400 hours of work reported was on the average two and one-half
times greater than those with 1,800 hours or more. (See table 79.) Work in the industry appears to be un­
certain for the individual worker. Although the average hours worked is not high, he cannot be confident of
achieving even the average, for most workers receive far less than the average. Only a small proportion report
a fairly large number of hours of work.
A g e

a n d

hours

reported

For those workers for which age data were available from the pension funds, workers between the ages
of 30 and 44 generally received more hours of work than older or younger workers. In Detroit, 27 percent
of the bricklayers between the ages of 30 and 44 reported more than 1,800 hours of work during the 12month period reported. (See table 81.) On the other hand, only 11 percent of the bricklayers less than
30 years old and 18 percent of those over 44 years old reported 1,800 hours of work.
The tables presented in this chapter summarize the data contained in appendix A.

70



T a b l e 77. A v e r a g e n u m b e r of h o u r s w o r k e d in 1 2 - m o n t h per i o d for w o r k e r s w h o w o r k e d in J a n u a r y an d
for those w h o did not w o r k in Ja n u a r y , b y selected construction occupation in 3 cities

Detroit
Occupation

Omaha

D i d not
w o r k in
January

Worked
January

Worked
in
January

Milwaukee

D i d not
w o r k in
January

Worked
in
January

_

A sp h a l t p a v e r s ____________________
B r i c k l a y e r s a n d m a s o n s _________
C a r p e n t e r s ....... .
C e m e n t finishers a n d c e m e n t
m a s o n s ___________________________
I r o w w o r k e r s a n d / o r reinforced
steel w o r k e r s ___________________
L a b o r e r s __________________________
L a t h e r s ____________________________
O pe r a t i n g e n g i n e e r s ______________
P l a s t e r e r s ---- ------ ------------P laster laborers __________________
T e a m s t e r s _________ _______________
Terrazzo mechanics
T e r r a z z o skilled hel p e r s . _ _

1, 245
1,342

7 34
768

1, 356
1,455

567

1,291

1,316
1,255

613
527
_
1,003

1,442
1,067
1,029
1,315
1,566
1,067
1,529
_

-

1,626
-

-

_
_

_

4 82
858

889
1,346

8 34
983

1,203

D i d not
w o r k in
January

"

"

805

1,236

704

753
447
1, 158
776
851
447
416
_

_
1,015
1,461
1, 186
1,526
1,477
_

479
978
8 62
8 32
761
_

1,827
1,444

1,007
1,014

"

_

T a b l e 78. A v e r a g e n u m b e r of h o u r s w o r k e d in a 1 2 - m o n t h p eriod for all w o r k e r s a n d those with 700 h o u r s or m o r e of w o r k ,
occupation in 4 a r e a s

Detroit
Occupation

A s p h a l t p a v e r s ____________________
B r i c k l a y e r s a n d m a s o n s _________
C a r p e n t e r s ________________________
C e m e n t finishers a n d c e m e n t
m a s o n s ___________________________
I r o n w o r k e r s a n d / o r reinforced
steel w o r k e r s _
Laborers
L a t h e r s ____________________________
Operating engineers
P l a s t e r e r s .. .. _ .
.. .
Pla s t e r l a b o r e r s ___________________
Teamsters
_
.
Terrazzo mechanics
T e r r a z z o skilled h e l p e r s _________

T a b l e 79.
4 areas

All
workers

Omaha

W o r k e r s with
700 h o u r s
or m o r e

_

All
workers

_

Milwaukee

W o r k e r s with
700 h o u r s
or m o r e

_

_

All
workers

b y selected construction

S o u t h e r n California

W o r k e r s with
700 h o u r s
or m o r e

All
workers

_
-

-

-

8 64

1,430

1,450

932

1,503

_

1,044
_
_

1,572
_
_

1,284
_
_

1,633

961

1,647

1,470
1,542

1,042
1, 162

1,471
1,530

777

1,510

1,024

1,474

880

888
7 65
_
1,260

1,524
1,540
_
1,754

1,010
626
1, 130
987
1,032
_

1,590
1,467
1 , 772
1,525
1,756
_

_

1,416
1,637
1,474
1,611
1, 6 6 2

728

1,778

590
1044
932
1,055
919
_

_

_

1, 105
1 , 063

1,780
1,550

-

_
_

_
_

_

_

-

_

1,040
1,486

626
1,031

9 34
1,015

-

W o r k e r s with
700 h o u r s
or m o r e

_

_

_

"

P e r c e n t of e m p l o y e e s reporting f e w e r than 400 a n d m o r e than 1,800 h o u r s in a 1 2 - m o n t h period b y selected construction occupation in

Detroit
Occupation

A s p h a l t p a v e r s ___________________
B r i c k l a y e r s a n d m a s o n s _________
C a r p e n t e r s ________________________
C e m e n t finishers a n d c e m e n t
m a s o n s ___________________________
I r o n w o r k e r s a n d / o r r e inforced
steel w o r k e r s ___________________
L a b o r e r s __________________________
Lathers
.. .
___
_ _
O p e r a t i n g e n g i n e e r s ______________
P l a s t e r e r s _______ _________ ________
P l aster lab o r e r s ----------------Teamsters
Terrazzo mechanics
T e r r a z z o skilled h e l p e r s




Fewer
than
400

_

Milwaukee

Omaha
More
than
1,800
_

Fewer
than
400
.

More
than
1,800
.

More
than
1,800

38. 3
26. 1

0. 7
8.6

34. 2
31.9

11.7
16. 0

24. 6
19. 7

46. 7

14. 4

29. 0

17. 1

35. 1

39. 0
47. 6
24. 6

14. 3
14.4
_
35. 4

34.
54.
31.
31.

9
5
3
6

21. 0
10. 0
45.4
16. 6

-

39. 7
57. 3

30. 1
18. 2

-

_
_

-

15. 6
24. 7

-

_

_

"

"

S o u t h e r n California

Fewer
than
400

-

55. 5
31. 5
33. 0
26. 4
41. 0
_

32. 0
27. 4

15.8
_
8. 9
27.9
17.9
23. 1
22. 0
_

36. 0
19. 3

Fewer
than
400

More
than
1, 800

.
-

36. 5

-

12. 5

34. 8

16. 3

31. 1
_
_

20. 9
_
_

17. 4
_
_

31. 0
_

36. 0

23. 2

_

_

_

-

-

71

T a b l e 80. P e r c e n t a g e of construction w o r k e r s with h o u r s of w o r k re p o r t e d for a 1 2 - m o n t h period, b y selected construction occupation a n d
h o u r s intervals in 4 areas.
Occupation

Detroit

Omaha

Milwaukee

Southern
California

Detroit

A s p h a l t p a v e r s ____ _______________
B r i c k l a y e r s a n d m a s o n s _________
C a r p e n t e r s _________________________
C e m e n t finishers a n d c e m e n t
m a s o n s ___________________________
I r o n w o r k e r s a n d / o r reinforced
steel w o r k e r s __________________
L a b o r e r s __________________________
L a t h e r s ____________________________
O p e r a t i n g e n g i n n e r s ______________
P l a s t e r e r s ________________________
Pl a s t e r l a b o r e r s __________________
T e a m s t e r s ________________________
T e r r a z z o m e c h a n i c s ______________
T e r r a z z o skilled h e l p e r s _________

.

_

Southern
California

_

_

_

47. 4

54. 7

36. 7

45. 9

43. 8

57.0

40. 8

49.4

46. 7

47. 7
58. 3
_

42. 0
67. 8
42. 2
42. 9
47. 6
64.6

69. 1
41. 7
44. 3
41. 1
51. 5
44. 0
37. 1

38. 3
_
_
26. 0
49. 3

49. 6
61. 0
35. 3
-

44. 7
70. 0
46. 9
45. 5
49. 2
67. 0

70. 7
43.4
47. 5
41. 7
52. 1
44. 0
38. 7

40. 4
_
_

33. 0
-

-

"

-

-

45. 9
41. 7

-

.

_

_

57.7
52. 4

54.6
48. 6

69. 4

56.9

64.4

59.4

61. 0
70. 6
_

53. 2
78. 8
50. 0
58. 3
55. 5
_

_
80. 0
51. 8
61.8
50. 6
59. 5

50.8
42. 2
-

_
_

-

"

"

_

_

76. 9
71. 7
80. 1

72 . 2

74.8
80. 0

67. 0
86.6
54. 7
75. 8
58. 7

_

57.8
-

64. 2

71. 8

65. 8

59. 0
83. 6
53. 1
65.9
57. 1

8 3.4
56. 0
69. 3
55.9
62. 0

57. 4
-

_
_

-

T a b l e 81. P e r c e n t of e m p l o y e e s reporting m o r e than 1,000,
a n d Detroit, b y selected o ccupation an d a g e intervals

_

_

_

88. 3
84. 0

84. 6
75. 3

74. 3

85. 6

_
~

85. 7
85.6

99. 3
91.4

_

64.6

57.9
-

-

70. 7
-

-

87. 6

84. 1

79. 0
90. 1
54. 7
83. 4
69.8

_
_

_

-

82. 7

66 . 4

56.0
70. 9

_

65. 9

48. 0
54.8

"

49. 4
-

F e w e r than 1, 800 h o u r s

79.9

-

_

71.9

-

_

86 . 9
63. 7
75. 3
65.9
66. 3

74. 3

_

-

-

_

.

75. 5

-

77. 1

_

_

72. 4

_

-

“

95 . 8
57. 2
-

61. 2

99. 3
73. 1

72. 3
65. 2

-

61. 8
56. 3

66. 3
60. 5

_

44. 0
48. 3

29. 0
51.9

67.4
75. 0
56. 2
-

65. 0

-

71.9

-

50. 9

F e w e r than 1, 400 h o u r s

88. 9
48. 9
-

46.8
_

-

“

_

39. 5
33. 6

-

-

56. 3
38. 7

_

50. 7
36. 6
-

F e w e r than 1,600 h o u r s

A s p h a l t p a v e r s ____________________
B r i c k l a y e r s a n d m a s o n s __________
C a r p e n t e r s _________________________
C e m e n t finishers a n d c e m e n t
m a s o n s ___________________________
I r o n w o r k e r s a n d / o r r e inforced
steel w o r k e r s
_ _
Laborers
L a t h e r s ____________________________
O p e r a t i n g e n g i n e e r s ______________
P l a s t e r e r s _________________________
Pla s t e r l a b o r e r s __________________
T e a m s t e r s ________________________
T e r r a z z o m e c h a n i c s ______________
T e r r a z z o skilled hel p e r s

Milwaukee

35. 8
30. 0

43. 0
39. 5

F e w e r than 1,200 h o u r s

A s p h a l t p a v e r s ___________________
B r i c k l a y e r s a n d m a s o n s __________
C a r p e n t e r s _________________________
C e m e n t finishers a n d c e m e n t
m a s o n s ___________________________
I r o n w o r k e r s a n d / o r r e i nforced
steel w o r k e r s ___________________
L a b o r e r s __________________________
L a t h e r s _____________________________
O p e r a t i n g e n g i n e e r s ______________
P l a s t e r e r s ________________________
Plaster l a b o r e r s __________________
T e a m s t e r s ________________________
T e r r a z z o m e c h a n i c s ______________
T e r r a z z o skilled h e l p e r s _________

Omaha

F e w e r than 800 h o u r s

F e w e r than 7 00 h o u r s

83. 6

_

91.
72.
82.
77.
78.

-

79. 0
1
0
1
0
0

_

81. 6
-

_
_

69. 1
_

76. 8
_

64. 0
80. 6

1,400, a n d 1,800 h o u r s of w o r k in a 1 2 - m o n t h p e r i o d in s o u thern California,

Age
30-44

2 0 -29

45-64

A r e a a n d o ccupation
P e r c e n t a g e reporting m o r e than—

17000
hours
S o u t h e r n California:
Ironworkers
Cement masons
Carpenters
Operating engineers

_

.

........

.

Detroit:
B r i c k l a y e r s _________________________________
Carpenters
Cement masons
_
_
I r o n w o r k e r s ________________________________
L a b o r e r s ___________________________________
O p e r a t i n g e n g i n e e r s ________________________

72




17400
hours

J7800
hour s

71.0
60. 5
48. 6
68. 5

53. 4
44. 6
29. 4
51. 6

23. 0
19.4
11. 7
29.2

78.
67.
57.
76.

57. 1
65. 8
33. 3
55. 3
48. 9
68.4

34. 3
45. 1
22. 2
36. 2
37. 9
57. 9

11.4
18. 5
11. 1
12. 8
21. 6
31. 6

lTOOO
hours

17400
hours

17800
hours

17000
hours

1,400
hours

8
6
2
5

64. 3
52.7
39. 1
62. 5

34. 1
28. 3
18.4
39. 6

73 . 4
64. 2
58. 5
71. 3

55.9
44. 5
38. 7
54. 3

27.
21.
17.
33.

79. 1
78. 3
57. 5
77. 8
68 . 4
73. 7

63. 6
62. 9
45. 2
45. 7
56. 5
62.4

27. 0
30.4
31. 5
19.8
35. 1
48.8

78.
82.
73.
61.
72.
75.

57.9
65. 0
54.4
44.4
59. 2
64. 3

18. 2
27.9
30. 1
16. 7
36. 8
47. 0

6
1
8
1
3
3

1,800
hours

2
1
3
1

A P P E N D IX A. SPECIAL S U R V E Y OF MANPOW ER U T IL IZ A T IO N

This appendix includes the detailed tables developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from data supplied
by the various private health, welfare, and pension funds covering construction workers in four geographic areas
(See p. for a more detailed discussion of these data.)




73

A P PEN D IX A TABLES

Average number of hours of work reported for workers in construction occupations in
Omaha by month.................................................................................................................................
Average number of hours of work reported for workers in selected construction occupations
in Detroit by month..............................................................................................................................
Average number of hours of work reported for workers in selected construction occupations
in Milwaukee by month.........................................................................................................................
Average number of hours of work reported for workers in selected construction occupations
in southern California by m onth........................................................................................................
Average number of hours of work reported per worker in construction occupations in
Omaha by month as a percent of annual average monthly hours of worker per worker...........
Average number of hours of work reported per worker in selected construction occupations
in Detroit by month as a percent of annual average monthly hours of work per worker . . . .
Average number of hours of work reported per worker in selected construction occupations
in Milwaukee by month as a percent of annual average monthly hours of work per worker . .
Average number of hours of work reported per worker in selected construction occupations
in southern California by month as a percent of annual average monthly hours of work
per worker...............................................................................................................................................
Aggregate monthly hours of work reported for workers in construction occupations in Omaha
as a percent of the annual monthly average of aggregate hours of work reported. . . ...............
Aggregate monthly hours of work reported for workers in selected construction occupations
in Detroit as a percent of the annual monthly average of aggregate hours of work reported . .
Aggregate monthly hours of work reported for workers in selected construction occupations
in Milwaukee as a percent of the annual monthly average of aggregate hours of work
reported..................................................................................................................................................
Aggregate monthly hours of work reported for workers in selected construction occupations
in southern California as a percent of the annual monthly average of aggregate hour of
work reported.......................................................................................................................................
Number of workers in construction occupations in Omaha by month as a percent of annual
monthly employment...........................................................................................................................
Number of workers in selected construction occupations in Detroit by month as a percent of
annual average monthly employment..................................................................................................
Number of workers in selected construction occupations in Milwaukee by month as a percent
of annual average monthly employment.............................................................................................
Number of workers in selected construction occupations in southern California by month as a
percent of annual average monthly employment...............................................................................
Average number of hours of work for workers in selected construction occupations in Omaha
by selected hours interval for the 12-month period, July 1966— 1967 ...............................
June
Average number of hours of work for workers in selected construction occupations in Detroit
by selected hours interval for the 12-month period, November 1966—
October 1967 .................
Average number of hours of work for workers in selected construction occupations in
Milwaukee by selected hours interval for the 12-month period, December 1965—
November 1966 ....................................................................................................................................
Average number of hours of work of workers in selected construction occupations in
southern California for 12-month period.............................................................................................
Percent distribution of workers in selected construction occupations in Omaha by selected
hours interval for the 12-month period, July 1966— 1967 .....................................................
July
Percent distribution of workers in selected construction occupations in Detroit by selected
hours interval for the 12-month period, November 1966—
October 1967.......................................




76
76
77
77
77

77
78
78

78

78
79
79
79
79
80
80

81
81
82
82

APPENDIX A TABLES—

Continued

Page
A-23. Percent distribution of workers in selected construction occupations in Milwaukee by selected
hours interval for the 12-month period, December 1965—
November 1966.................................. 82
A-24. Percent distribution of workers in selected construction occupations in southern California by
selected hours interval for a 12-month period................................................................................. 83
A-25. Percent distribution of total hours of work reported by workers in selected construction
occupations in Omaha for the 12-month period, July 1966—1967 ................................................ 83
A-26. Percent distribution of total hours of work reported by workers in selected construction
occupations in Detroit for the 12-month period, November 1966—
October 1967 ....................... 83
A-27. Percent distribution of total hours of work reported by workers in selected construction
occupations in Milwaukee for the 12-month period, December 1965—
November 1966 .............. 84
A-28. Percent distribution of total hours of work reported by workers in selected construction
occupations in southern California for a 12-month period.............................................................. 84
A-29. Percent distribution of workers in selected construction occupations in Omaha by number of
hours of work reported for the 12-month period, July 1966— 1967.................................... 84
June
A-30. Percent distribution of workers in selected construction occupations in Detroit by number of
hours of work reported for the 12-month period, November 1966—
October 1967..................... 85
A-31. Percent distribution of workers in selected construction occupations in Milwaukee by number
of hours of work reported for the 12-month period, December 1965—
November 1966 ........... 85
A-32. Percent distribution of workers in selected construction occupations in southern California
by number of hours of work reported for a 12-month period..................................................... 85
A-33. Percent distribution of bricklayers in Detroit by age and hours of work for the 12-month
period, November 1966—
October 1967................................................................................................ 86
A-34. Percent distribution of carpenters in Detroit by age and hours of work for the 12-month
period, November 1966—
October 1967............................................................................................... 86
A-35. Percent distribution of laborers in Detroit by age and hours of work for the 12-month
period, November 1966—
October 1967............................................................................................... 87
A-36. Percent distribution of reinforced steel workers in Detroit by age and hours of work for the
12-month period, November 1966—
October 1967 ........................................................................... 87
A-37. Percent distribution of cement masons in Detroit by age and hours of work for the 12-month
period, November 1966—
October 1967............................................................................................... 88
A-38. Percent distribution of operating engineers in Detroit by age and hours of work for the
12-month period, November 1966—
October 1967 ........................................................................... 88
A-39. Percent distribution of carpenters in southern California by age and hours of work, calendar
year 1966 ............................................................................................................................................... 89
A-40. Percent distribution of cement masons in southern California by age and hours of work,
calendar year 1966 .............................................................................................................................. 89
A-41. Percent distribution of ironworkers in southern California by age and hours of work, for
the 12-month period, June 1966— 1967 .................................................................................... 90
May
A-42. Percent distribution of operating engineers in southern California by age and hours of
work, for the 12-month period, June 1966— 1967................................................................... 90
May
A-43. Percent distribution of workers in selected construction occupations in Omaha by month
and by hours of work reported for the 12-month period, July 1966— 1967 ....................... 91
June
A-44. Percent distribution of workers in selected construction occupations in Detroit by month
and by hours of work reported for the 12-month period, November 1966—
October 1967. . . . ^
A-45. Percent distribution of workers in selected construction occupations in Milwaukee by month
and by hours of work reported for the 12-month period, December 1965—
November 1966. . . 94
A-46. Percent distribution of workers in selected construction occupations in southern California
by month and by hours of work reported for a 12-month period................................................ 96




75

T ab le A - l . A v e ra g e n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d fo r w o rk e rs in c o n s tru c tio n
o c c u p a tio n s in O m ah a by m o n th
M onth

Y ear

A v e ra g e n u m b e r
of h o u rs

J a n u a r y — ------- ------ --------------------------F e b r u a r y ---------------------------------------------------M a rc h - ____________________________________
A p r i l ----------------------------------------------------------M ay -----------------------------------------------------------Ju n e ----------------------------------------------- ----------J u ly _________________________________________
A u g u s t-------------------------------------------------------S e p te m b e r -------------------------------------------------O c to b e r_____________________________________
N o v e m b e r--------------------------------------------------D e c e m b e r--------------------------------------------------A nnual a v e ra g e
_____
____________
W eig h ted a v e r a g e _________________________

1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1966
1966
1966
1966
1966
1966
_

105. 0
110. 2
117. 5
112. 6
127. 5
112. 0
119. 5
117. 7
125. 4
114. 8
125. 8
120. 9
117. 4
116. 9

T ab le A -2, A v e ra g e n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d fo r w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in D e tro it b y m o n th
M onth

Y ear

C a rp e n te rs

J a n u a r y _____________________________________
F e b r u a ry __________________________________
M a r c h ______________ ______________________
A p ril ------------------------------ ----------------------M ay ________________________________ ______
Ju n e ------------------------------------------------------------J u ly ------------------------------------------------------------A u g u s t----------- ---------- ----- __ _____ ____
S e p te m b e r _______________ __________________
O c to b e r_____________________________________
N o v e m b e r--------------------------------------------------D e c e m b e r--------------------------------------------------A n n u al a v e r a g e ____________________________
W eig h ted a v e r a g e --------------------------------------

1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1966
1966

117. 3
132. 1
150. 6
1 5 1.4
126. 8
124. 8
120. 9
111. 3
122. 5
114. 0
120. 1
104. 6
124. 7
123. 9

_

B r ic k la y e rs
88. 9
86. 3
103. 2
1 0 8.4
105. 5
105. 7
103. 9
1 0 3.4
103. 2
102. 4
100. 6
91. 1
100. 2
101. 1

O p e ra tin g
e n g in e e rs
137. 2
1 3 1.8
142. 3
142. 6
148. 2
151. 2
140. 1
165. 5
150. 1
143. 3
1 4 2.4
140. 9
144. 6
144. 9

L a b o re rs

C em ent
m a so n s

77. 2
87. 6
79. 2
71. 5
54. 8
59. 9
83. 1
55. 7
97. 7
68. 9
109. 2
102. 6
79. 0
78. 1

60. 5
65. 7
62. 2
65. 3
81. 9
58. 9
65. 8
6 7 .4
59. 0
63. 7
66. 3
57. 7
64. 5
64. 3

R e in fo rc e d
s te e l
w o rk e rs
85. 5
85. 1
87. 1
84. 6
80. 4
82. 0
84. 8
86. 3
83. 6
75. 3
72. 5
79. 3
82. 2
81. 9

T a b le A -3 . A v e ra g e n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d fo r w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in M ilw au kee b y m o n th
ra z z
A sp h a lt L a b o re rs tP la sr ­s ' B r ic k ­ L a th e rs C e m e n t P l a s ­ O p e ra tin g T e r ra z z o T sekrille d o
M onth
Y ear
e re
p a v e rs
fin is h e r s t e r e r s e n g in e e rs m e c h a n ic s h e lp e rs
la b o r e r s la y e rs
J a n u a r y _____________________________________
74. 7
1966
47. 8
110. 6
8 9 .8
110. 0
90. 5
83. 2
92. 1
137. 9
143. 9
F e b r u a r y ________ _________________________
1966
51. 3
82. 9
90. 2 103. 6
107. 9
85. 2
95. 6
104. 8
97. 1
99. 2
M a rc h ____________________________________ _
1966
118. 4
100. 2 1 1 6.3
91. 2
9 7 .7
121. 1
114. 3
162. 3
7 3 .9
10 9.9
A p r i l _______________________________________
1966
81. 5
95. 5
121. 9
116. 0 119. 6
98. 7
122. 0
141. 2
120. 7
130. 1
M ay -_______________________________________ _
1966
58. 5
8 5 .4
1 0 3.4
105. 7 104. 2
97. 2
80. 7
116. 3
85. 5
110. 3
114. 5
57. 6 122. 6
102. 2
Ju n e - ______________________________________
1966
81. 8
110. 2
123. 2
142. 6
89. 5
145. 7
7 6 .4
J u ly ---------------------------------- -----------------------1966
85. 7
97. 8
93. 3
101. 8
107. 0
1 35.4
1 3 4 .4
99. 7
143. 7
116. 1
A u g u st______________________________________
1966
68. 0
98. 3
101. 2 110. 6
97. 1
125. 0
96. 8
109. 4
107. 9
S e p te m b e r________________________________
122. 5
116. 0 118. 2
1966
67. 1
83. 8
100. 7
1 0 1.4
99. 5
1 5 5.6
121. 9
O c to b e r- ________ _____________ ________
137. 4
1966
94. 3
80. 2
104. 5
84. 3
141. 8
119. 8 111. 3
89. 5
133. 5
N ovem be r _________ _____________________
72. 1
64. 5
1966
82. 4
98. 1
104. 3
79. 0
99. 7
90. 2
96. 2
59. 7
D e c e m b e r------------------------ -----------------------124. 2
114. 1 117. 2
1965
54. 5
82. 3
94. 7
10 6.2
92. 3
148. 2
166. 2
_
A nnual a v e r a g e __________________ _______
68. 5
88. 7
110. 6
97. 4 111. 0
93. 2
98. 3
115. 2
133. 3
118. 9
W eig h ted a v e r a g e _________________________
72. 6
no. i
9 8 .4
111. 0
96. 0
89. 2
91. 4
115. 0
131. 9
115. 9

T a b le A -4 . A v e ra g e n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d fo r w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in so u th e rn C a lifo rn ia by m o n th

Month
January ------------- ------------- ------------ _
February _______ _______ _ ____ _
M arch ____________ ________________ ____
A p ril_______-___________ ________ _____ __
May - _ ___ ________ _________ ___
June______________________________________
Ju ly .............................................................................
A u g u st___ ____________ __ ___________
Septembe r—___________ __________________
October — — ____________________________
Novem ber __ ___ _____ ____________
D ecem b er------------------------ ------------Annual average---------------------------------------W eighted average________________________

C arpenters 1
108. 3
107. 8
103. 1
112. 3
113. 1
102. 6
112. 7
108. 0
114. 8
110. 5
113. 3
109. 3
109. 7
109. 6

1 C a le n d a r y e a r 1966.
2 F is c a l y e a r ru n n in g fro m Ju n e 1966 to M ay 1967.
76




Operating
engineers 2
131. 7
130. 7
132. 1
146. 4
121. 4
143. 3
138. 2
133. 8
147. 7
141. 7
147. 3
131. 5
137. 2
137.4

Ironworkers 2

102. 9
104. 1
100. 9
110. 5
100. 3
109. 5
106. 8
106.4
106. 3
102. 9
109. 6
103. 3
105. 3
105.4

Cement
m asons 1
77.6
78. 0
79. 0
86. 0
82. 0
72. 6
79.2
80. 3
79. 8
68. 9
80. 7
76. 3
7 8 .4
78. 3

T eam sters 1
127. 8
135.4
124. 4
149.5
145. 5
130. 0
148. 7
142. 3
151.7
141. 6
142.6
129. 2
139. 0
139. 0

T ab le A -5 . A v e ra g e n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk r e p o rte d p e r w o rk e r in c o n s tru c tio n
o c c u p a tio n s in O m ah a by m o n th as a p e rc e n t of an n u a l a v e ra g e m o n th ly
h o u rs of w o rk p e r w o rk e r
M onth

Y ear

J a n u a r y ------------------------------------------------------F e b r u a r y ---------------------------------------------------M a rc h ---------------------------------------------------------A p r i l ----------------------------------------------------------M a y ---------------------------------------------------- -----Ju n e -----------------------------------------------------------J u ly _______________________________________A u g u s t-------------------------------------------------------S e p te m b e r--------------------------------------------------O c to b e r_____________________________________
N o v e m b e r--------------------------------------------------D e c e m b e r---------------------------------------------------

A v e ra g e n u m b e r
of h o u rs

1967
1967
1967
1967
1969
1967
1966
1966
1966
1966
1966
1966

89. 4
93. 9
100. 1
95. 9
108. 6
9 5 .4
101. 8
100. 3
106. 8
97. 8
107. 2
103. 0

T a b le A -6 . A v e ra g e n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk r e p o rte d p e r w o rk e r in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in D e tro it b y m o n th a s a p e rc e n t of
an n u a l a v e ra g e m o n th ly h o u rs of w o rk p e r w o rk e r
M onth
Ta„ „ „ v
F e b r u a r y ______________________________
M a rc h --------------------------------------------------------A p r i l _______________________________________
M ay -___________________________ ___
J u n e ________ ____________ ____ ______________
J uly -________________________ ___________ _
A u g u s t-------------------------------------------------------S e p te m b e r--------------------------------------------------O c to b e r------------------------------------------------------N o v e m b e r--------------------------------------------------D e c e m b e r ---------------------------------------------------

Y ear

C a rp e n te rs

1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1966
1966

B ric k la y e rs

94. 1
105. 9
120. 8
121. 4
101. 7
100. 1
97. 0
89. 3
98. 2
91. 4
96. 3
83. 9

88. 7
86. 1
103. 0
108. 2
105. 3
105. 5
103. 7
103. 2
103. 0
102. 2
100. 4
90. 9

O p e ra tin g
e n g in e e rs
94. 9
91. 1
98. 4
98. 6
102. 5
104. 6
96. 9
114. 5
103. 8
99. 1
98. 5
97. 4

L a b o re rs
97. 7
110. 9
100. 3
90. 5
69. 4
75. 8
105. 2
70. 5
123. 7
87. 2
138. 2
129. 9

C em ent
m a so n s
93. 8
101. 9
96. 4
101. 2
127. 0
91. 3
102. 0
104. 5
91. 5
98. 8
102. 8
89. 5

R e in fo rc e d
s te e l
w o rk e rs
104. 0
103. 5
106. 0
102. 9
97. 8
99. 8
103. 2
105. 0
101. 7
9 1 .6
88. 2
9 6 .5

T ab le A -7 . A v e ra g e n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk r e p o rte d p e r w o rk e r in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in M ilw au kee by m o n th as a p e rc e n t of
a n n u a l a v e ra g e m o n th ly h o u rs of w o rk p e r w o rk e r
e ra z z
A sp h a lt L a b o re rs tP lae sr ­s ' B r ic k ­ L a th e rs C e m e n t P l a s ­ O p e ra tin g T e r ra z z o Tskrille d o
Y ear
M onth
er
fin is h e r s t e r e r s e n g in e e rs m e c h a n ic s h e lp e rs
p a v e rs
la b o re rs la y e rs
84. 2
84. 6
1966
92. 2
97. 1
116. 0
108. 0
Jan u ary
100. 0
69. 8
79. 9
99. 1
97. 3
1966
81. 2
F e b r u a r y ---------------------------------------------------74. 9
93. 5
9 7 .6
9 2 .6
93. 3
78. 6
85. 9
91. 4
121. 8
102. 8
104. 8
104. 8
9 9 .2
92. 4
107. 1
123. 2
M a rc h --------------------------------------------------------1966
107. 9
102. 9
Ap r i 1 j, ........_. , „ - i, .......... ............. i ,-r
124. 1
104. 8
118. 8
97. 6
1966
107. 7
110. 2
107. 7
105. 9
119. 0
119. 1
M ay
____
_
__
_
82. 1
82. 7
85. 4
104. 3
101. 0
1966
96. 3
93. 5
108. 5
71. 9
93. 9
112. 1
J une _________________
1966
106. 9
100. 9
103. 5
119. 4
109. 7
119. 9
109. 3
59. 1 110. 5
110. 3
117. 5
113. 0
107. 8
1966
8 4 .4
77. 4
J u ly _________________________________________
108. 9
89. 8
109. 2
125. 1
104. 2
8 1 .4
111. 3
108. 5
80. 9
A u g u s t-------------------------------------------------------1966
110. 8
105. 0
9 9 .6
99. 3
103. 9
94. 5
106. 8
102. 4
105. 8
116. 7
S e p te m b e r__________________________________
1966
98. 0
110. 8
106. 5
85. 3
119. 1
O c to b e r_____________________________________
1966
117. 1
117. 8
100. 3
96. 0
85. 8
100. 2
85. 3
123. 0
119. 3
119. 3
90. 5
72. 2
105. 3
84. 6
88. 4
60. 7
N o v e m b e r-------------------------- ----------------- -----1966
90. 1
69. 2
7 5 .9
89. 1
124. 6
124. 6
92. 8
112. 3
80. 1
D e c e m b e r-------------------------------------------------1965
105. 6
101. 6
108. 0
117. 1
79. 6

T ab le A -8 . A v e ra g e n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk r e p o rte d p e r w o rk e r in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in so u th e rn C a lifo rn ia b y m o n th as a p e rc e n t
of an n u a l a v e ra g e m o n th ly h o u rs of w o rk p e r w o rk e r

Month

Carpenters 1

Operating
engineers 2

Ironworkers 2

J anuary__________ ________________________

98. 7
98. 3
94. 0
102.4
103. 1
93. 5
102. 7
98. 5
104. 6
100. 7
103. 3
99. 6

96. 0
95. 3
96. 3
106. 7
88. 5
104.4
100. 7
97.5
107. 7
103. 3
107. 4
95. 8

97. 7
95. 8
104. 9
95. 3
104. 0
101. 4
101. 0
100. 9
97. 7
104. 1
98. 1

F eb ruary__________ ____ _____ _____
M arch_______ __________ _________________
April ____________________________________
May -------------- ------------- _ _ --------------J une _______ ____________ ______ ____ _
July ..........................................................................
August___ _______ ____ __ ___ _____
Septem ber— _— ________________________
October ___________________ _________ _____
N ovem ber---- _ _________________________
D ecem b er------------------------------------------------

98. 9

Cement
m asons 1
99. 0
99. 5
109. 7
104. 6
92. 6
101. 0
102.4
101. 8
87. 9
102. 9
97. 3

100. 8

T eam sters 1
91. 9
97. 4
89. 5
107. 3
104. 7
93. 5
107. 0
102. 4
109. 1
101. 9
102. 6
92. 9

1 C a le n d a r y e a r 1966.
2 F is c a l y e a r ru n n in g fro m Ju n e 1966 to M ay 1967.




77

T ab le A -9 . A g g re g a te m o n th ly h o u rs of w o rk r e p o rte d fo r w o rk e rs in c o n s tru c tio n
o c c u p a tio n s in O m ah a as a p e rc e n t of the an n u a l m o n th ly a v e ra g e of
a g g re g a te h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d
M onth

Y ear

P e rc e n t

J a n u a r y ------------------------------------------------------F e b r u a r y ---------------------------------------------------M a rc h __________________________________
A p r i l _______________________________________
M a y ------------------------------------- --------------------J u n e ------------------------------------------------------------J u ly ...................................................................................
A u g u st_______________________________________
S e p te m b e r -------------------------------------------------O c to b e r_____________________________________
N ovem be r _____________________ ___________ _
D e c e m b e r__________________ ______________

1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1966
1966
1966
1966
1966
1966

70. 6
73. 2
66. 7
88. 2
99. 9
112. 9
103. 2
131. 6
128. 2
105. 3
111. 3
108. 8

T a b le A - 10. A g g re g a te m o n th ly h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d fo r w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in D e tro it as a p e rc e n t of th e an n u a l m o n th ly
a v e ra g e of a g g re g a te h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d
M onth

Y ear

C a rp e n te rs

B r ic k la y e rs

O p e ra tin g
e n g in e e rs

L a b o re rs

C em ent
m a so n s

J a n u a r y _____________________________________
F e b r u a r y ___________________________________
M a rc h ____________________________________ A p ril-----------------------------------------------------------hdciy _____ _____________ __________________
J u n e ------------------------------------- --------------------J u ly ------------------------------------------------------------A u g u s t-------------------------------------------------------S e p te m b e r--------------------------------------------------O c to b e r------------------------- --------------------------N o v e m b e r-------------------------------------------------D e c e m b e r---------------------------------------------------

1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1966
1966

95. 8
104. 1
101. 8
113. 6
9 9 .6
99. 9
105. 4
99. 3
9 9 .6
107. 9
92. 1
80. 9

75. 1
61. 2
88. 8
105. 2
113. 5
114. 1
105. 5
129. 2
118. 8
120. 1
89. 1
69. 4

90. 3
82. 3
8 8 .4
96. 2
101. 2
103. 3
112. 6
119. 8
108. 2
119. 2
90. 9
87. 7

90. 0
95. 7
88. 3
88. 6
68. 7
80. 9
121. 4
84. 3
139. 6
103. 0
126. 5
113. 0

68. 9
63. 1
62. 3
86. 7
108. 7
119. 9
138. 7
119. 7
122. 8
130. 2
104. 3
74. 6

R e in fo rc e d
s te e l
w o rk e rs
83. 7
67. 8
8 5 .6
91. 8
107. 9
111. 9
112. 8
132. 2
105. 2
123. 1
91. 3
86. 7

T a b le A - 11. A g g re g a te m o n th ly h o u rs of w o rk r e p o rte d fo r w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in M ilw au kee a s a p e rc e n t of th e an n u a l m o n th ly
a v e ra g e of a g g re g a te h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d .
er
A sp h a lt L a b o re rs tP la sr ­ ' B r ic k ­ L a th e rs C e m e n t P la s ­ O p e ra tin g T e r ra z z o T s k ra z z o
ille d
Y ear
e re s
M onth
fin is h e r s te r e r s e n g in e e rs m e c h a n ic s h e lp e rs
p a v e rs
la y e rs
la b o r e r s
65. 0
80. 2
86. 3
1966
12. 2
9 7 .7
100. 7
73. 0
9 1 .6
J a n u a r y --------------- ---------------------------- — _
93. 3
59. 2
1 0 .4
93. 5
92. 5
66. 9
90. 2
63. 7
86. 3
64. 9
F e b r u a r y _______________ ______ ______—
1966
105. 9
91. 2
126. 1
M a r c h ________ ________________________________
1966
14. 9
80. 2
75. 0
106. 3
74. 0
114. 3
115. 4 100. 5
119. 8
106. 6
1966
56. 0
109.6
111. 7
110. 2
90. 8
A p ril -------------------- ------------------- ----87. 1
106. 1
99. 2
91. 8
1966
86. 0 100. 1
1 16.6
9 6 .6
97. 5
93. 7
96. 8
85. 2
100. 1
M ay _
__ _ ----- _ - _ ----- ------ 9 3 .9
9 9 .2
40 . 3
105. 8 106. 9
1966
14 2.2
105. 5
108. 2
107. 9
99. 5
J u n e ________________________________________
110. 9
86. 8 109. 3
1966
96. 3
65. 8
100. 0
130. 7
9 5 .6
95. 8
117. 9 121. 0
J u ly .....................................................
...............
1 1 6.4
112. 8 116. 0
1966
1 0 4 .4
118. 0
187. 0 129. 8
117. 8
9 1 .7
A u g u st ____________ __________________
9 5 .9
124. 5
100. 3 128. 7
96. 0
1 1 3 .4
1966
167. 4 1 1 6 .4
1 1 5 .4
S e p te m b e r-------------------- __ --------------9 8 .9
109. 5
124. 5
96. 1 141. 7
9 8 .4
134. 0
8 7 .4
1966
2 1 7 .4
95. 9 123. 5
O c to b e r _______ __ ________ ____
79. 1
90. 3 123. 7
108. 1
1966
90. 4
97. 7
85. 5 114. 3
85. 5
71. 3
83. 9
N o v e m b e r--------------------------------------------------102. 0
8 6 .4
93. 8
85. 5
1 3 5 .4
1965
38. 2
107. 2
126. 5
D e c e m b e r--------------------------------------------------109. 7 113. 7

T a b le A - 12. A g g re g a te m o n th ly h o u rs o f w o rk re p o rte d fo r w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in so u th e rn C a lifo rn ia a s a p e rc e n t of th e
a n n u a l m o n th ly a v e ra g e of a g g re g a te h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d

Month

Carpenters 1

Operating
engineers 2

Ironworkers 2

Cement
m asons 1

T eam sters 1

January __ ____ _____ _____ __ _
February __ __ ____ ____ ___ _ ___
M arch ____ ___ ___ _________ __ ____
April — _ _____________ __ ___ ____ __
May ---------------------------------------------------.Timfi
Ju ly .............................................................................
August __ _ ___ __ ____ ________ __ _
Septem ber ___ ___
_______
October __ __ __ _____ _ __
N ovem ber____ _ ____ __ _ _ ________
D ecem b er------------------------------------------------

99.6
97. 1
98. 6
120. 1
106. 2
103. 9
106. 1
102. 2
106. 5
93. 0
85. 8
80. 7

91.7
86. 7
89. 3
9 7.4
79. 0
114. 8
106. 2
111.7
116.4
108.4
106. 2
92. 2

94. 2
90. 2
85. 7
100. 6
82. 3
106. 7
106. 8
108.6
110.4
108. 7
105.7
100. 0

95. 1
96. 5
119. 2
107. 9
103. 8
107. 2
101. 5
106. 5
95.2
94. 2
84. 2

88.6

93. 3
9 9.4
97. 5
125. 4
101. 0
96.6
106. 2
96.9
103. 5
98. 6
97. 3
8 4.4

C a le n d a r y e a r 1966.
F is c a l y e a r ru n n in g fro m Ju n e 1966 to M ay 1967,

78




T a b le A - 13. N u m b e r of w o rk e rs in c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in O m ah a bym o n th as a p e rc e n t of an n u a l m o n th ly e m p lo y m e n t
M onth

Y ear

P e rc e n t

J a n u a r y ___
_
F e b r u a r y ___
___
M a rc h ---------------------------A p r i l --------------------------------------------- __ ____
M a y ------------------------------------------------------------J u n e -------------------------------- ------- ---------------J u ly ------------------------------------------------------------A u g u st __ ____
S eptem b e r _
O c to b e r______
N o v e m b e r_____
D e c e m b e r_____

1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1966
1966
1966
1966
1966
1966

78. 7
77. 7
66. 3
91. 6
100. 3
117. 9
101. 0
130. 7
119. 6
107. 3
103. 5
105. 2

T a b le A - 14. N u m b e r of w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in D e tro it by m o n th a s a p e rc e n t of an n u a l a v e ra g e m o n th ly e m p lo y m e n t
M onth

Y ear

J a n u a r y ____________________________________
F e b r u a r y ----- — ---------------------------------- M a rc h _______ _____________________________
A p ril________________________________________
M a y ------------------------- --------------------------------J u n e -----------------------------------------------------------J u ly _________________________________________
A u g u st ________ _____ ___________________
S e p te m b e r__________________________________
O c to b e r------------------------------------------------------N o v e m b e r__________________________________
D e c e m b e r- _ _ ______ ___ _________

1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1967
1966
1966

C a rp e n te rs

B ric k la y e rs

10 1.2
97. 7
83. 8
93. 0
9 7 .4
99. 2
108. 0
110. 6
100. 8
117. 4
95. 0
95. 9

85. 4
71. 7
87. 0
98. 1
108. 7
109. 1
102. 7
136. 0
116. 3
118. 5
90. 0
76. 9

O p e ra tin g
e n g in e e rs
95. 4
90. 5
89. 6
97. 7
98. 9
99. 0
116. 4
104. 9
104. 4
120. 6
92. 5
90. 2

L a b o re rs
91. 0
85. 3
87. 1
96. 8
98. 0
105. 4
114. 0
118. 0
111. 5
116. 7
90. 4
86. 0

C em ent
m a so n s

Re info re e d
s te e l
w o rk e rs

73. 2
61. 7
64. 4
85. 3
85. 3
131. 0
1 3 5 .4
114. 2
133. 7
131. 4
101. 1
83. 2

80. 1
65. 2
8 0 .4
88. 9
110. 0
111. 7
109. 0
125. 5
103. 0
133. 9
103. 1
89. 5

T a b le A - 15. N u m b e r of w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in M ilw au kee by m o n th a s a p e rc e n t of a n n u a l a v e ra g e m o n th ly e m p lo y m e n t
P
ra z z
A sp h a lt L a b o re rs te la sr ­ ' B r ic k ­ L a th e rs C e m e n t P la s ­ O p e ra tin g T e r ra z z o Tsekrille d o
M onth
Y ear
re s
p a v e rs
fin is h e r s te r e r s e n g in e e rs m e c h a n ic s h e lp e rs
la b o re rs la y e rs
1966
9 7 .2
J a n u a r y ------------------------------------------------------1 6.6
77. 6
87. 3
87. 3
5 9 .7
116. 3
77. 8
8 5 .4
91. 9
F e b r u a r y ___________________________________
1966
14. 7
72. 0
9 5 .4
100. 9
96. 8
68. 4
86. 7
114. 6
75. 9
127. 8
1966
14. 7
7 8 .4
M a rc h ______________________________________
107. 3
98. 7
120. 6
70. 2
84. 3
75. 0
127. 8
9 2 .7
Ap r i 1-____________________________ _______
1966
94. 8
87. 2
50. 0
92. 6
86. 7
85. 1
72. 2
107. 3
99. 1
99. 2
M ay _____________________ _________________
1966
104. 5
106. 9
100. 0
108. 5
103. 2
9 1 .8
1 1 1.4
96. 5
116. 7
119. 5
J u n e ________________________________________
1966
126. 5
105. 1
95. 4
96. 0
104. 3
68. 9
95. 7
86. 7
97. 6
88. 9
1966
1 51.0
110. 3
113. 8
85. 8
96. 8
J u ly _________________________________________
98. 2
83. 3
87. 8
89. 8
1 11.9
1966 200. 0
117. 7
A u g u s t______________ _____________________
113. 1
113. 1
111. 1 117. 1
99. 1
109. 3 103. 6
109. 2
S e p te m b e r--------------------------------------------------1966
1 81.4
123. 3
105. 7
94. 4
9 1 .6
118. 3
107. 8
133. 3
92. 7
89. 0
1966
197. 1
106. 3
101. 4
96. 0
O c to b e r ------------ --------------------- -----------144. 8 112. 0
111. 9
113. 0
72. 2
78. 0
1966
N o v e m b e r--------------------------------------------------9 1 .2
110. 2
94. 5
136. 4
102. 4
175. 3 134. 9
120. 0
9 7 .6
111. 1
1965
9 7 .2
D e c e m b e r- ---------------------------- ------- -----51. 0
101. 6
98. 0
96. 8
97. 0
1 0 7.4
83. 5
100. 0
107. 3

T ab le A - 16. N u m b e r of w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in so u th e rn C a lifo rn ia by m o n th a s a p e rc e n t of an n u a l a v e ra g e m o n th ly e m p lo y m e n t
M onth

C a rp e n te rs 1

O p e ra tin g
e n g in e e rs 2

F e b r u a ry ____________________ ___________
M a rc h - -----------------------------------------------------A p ril------------ --------------------------------------------M ay ------------------------------------ --------------------J une __________ _______ — ____________ Ju ly ----------------------------------------------------------A u g u st - _______ ___ _ _ _______________
S e p te m b e r__________________________________
O c to b e r ------- ------ ---------------- ------N o v e m b e r ----------- ----- --------------------------D e c e m b e r __ _____ __ __________________

100. 8
98. 7
104. 8
117. 2
102. 9
111. 0
103. 2
103. 6
10 1.6
92. 2
82. 9
81. 0

95. 7
91. 9
92. 9
9 1 .4
89. 4
110. 2
105.7
114. 7
108. 3
105. 1
99. 1
96. 3

Iro n w o rk e rs 2
96. 5
91. 4
89. 6
9 5 .9
86. 5
102. 7
1 0 5.4
107. 6
109. 5
111. 3
101. 6
102. 0

C em ent
m a so n s 1

T e a m s te rs 1

89. 4
95. 5
9 5 .7
108. 6
103. 0
112. 0
106. 0
99. 0
104. 5
108. 3
91. 4
86. 5

1 0 1.4
102. 1
108. 9
116. 9
96. 5
103. 3
99. 3
94. 6
94. 8
96. 8
94. 8
90. 8

1 C a le n d a r y e a r 1966.
2 F is c a l y e a r ru n n in g fro m Ju n e 1966 to M ay 1967.




79

T ab le A - 17. A v e ra g e n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk fo r w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in O m ah a by s e le c te d h o u rs in te r v a l fo r the 1 2 -m o n th
p e rio d , J u ly 1966— n e 1967
Ju
S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs

A ll
w o rk e rs

B r ic k ­
la y e rs

C a rp e n ­
te r s

C em ent
fin is h e r s

A ll e m p lo y e e s---------------------------------E m p lo y e e s w ho did no t have h o u rs
r e p o rte d in J a n u a r y ------------------------------E m p lo y e e s who h ad h o u rs re p o rte d
in J a n u a r y _______________________________

951

1,0 4 2

1, 162

1 ,0 2 4

743
1, 323

834

805

1, 356

983
1, 455

1, 525
1 ,4 8 0
1, 426
1, 362
1 ,2 8 8
1, 199
1, 080

1,471
1 ,432
1 ,3 9 6
1,332
1 ,288
1, 262
1, 130

251
223
193
161
127
91
48
646
546
449
349
248
145

E m p lo y e e s e x clu d ed w ith le s s th an —
700 h o u rs ______________________________
600 h o u rs ______________________________
5 0 0 h o u rs ______________________________
400 h o u rs ______________________________
300 h o u rs ______________________________
200 h o u rs ______________________________
100 h o u rs ______________________________
E m p lo y e e s w ith le s s th a n —
700 h o u rs ______________________________
600 h o u rs — -------------------------------------500 h o u rs ______________________________
400 h o u rs ______________________________
300 h o u rs
200 h o u rs ______________________________
100 h o u rs ______________________________
E m p lo y e e s w ith b e tw e e n —
6 00 and 700 h o u r s _____________________
500 an d 600 h o u r s -------------------------------400 and 500 h o u r s _____________________
300 and 400 h o u rs -----------------------------200 and 300 h o u rs -----------------------------100 and 200 h o u rs _____________________

Iro n ­
w o rk e rs

L a b o re rs

L a th e rs

1, 010

626

1, 130

447

1,291

753
1 ,442

1 ,067

1, 530
1 ,4 8 8
1 ,4 4 8
1 ,4 0 4
1 ,3 6 2
1, 308
1 ,2 4 0

1 ,4 7 4
1 ,4 4 4
1 ,4 0 3
1, 375
1, 317
1 ,2 3 0
1, 122

1 ,5 9 0
1 ,5 7 2
1 ,536
1,471
1, 379
1, 308
1, 186

275
236
208
159
126
99
53

301
257
216
172
136
96
54

248
219
186
166
138
96
46

663
538
444
355
247
140

642
551
453
353
249
146

655
551
451
332
253
147

O p e ra tin g P l a s t e r e r s T e a m s te rs
e n g in e e rs
987

1 ,0 3 2

728

1, 158

776

1, 029

1, 315

851
1 ,5 6 6

1, 529

1,467
1, 390
1 ,289
1, 193
1, 065
946
796

1 ,7 7 2
1 ,7 1 5
1 ,7 1 5
1 ,5 7 3
1 ,5 2 0
1 ,416
1, 304

1 ,525
1 ,482
1 ,4 2 0
1, 362
1, 297
1, 370
1,0 6 9

1 ,7 5 6
1,661
1,631
1, 599
1, 481
1, 370
1, 155

1 ,7 7 8
1,7 7 8
1 ,7 3 8
1 ,5 5 0
1,3 9 9
1 ,2 4 8
1, 049

209
198
181
150
111
84
46

227
205
178
152
117
84
46

249
216
216
156
133
107
67

271
244
213
179
151
106
53

237
194
181
171
143
104
50

155
155
146
117
90
64
39

633
531
443
349
247
151

646
549
446
350
250
144

663

646
541
451
341
247
147

626
534
431
361
264
141

578
422
345
243
131

_

459
357
226
18

416

-

T ab le A - 18. A v e ra g e n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk fo r w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in D e tro it b y s e le c te d h o u rs in te r v a l fo r th e 1 2 -m o n th
p e rio d , N o v e m b e r 1966—O c to b e r 1967
S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs
A ll e m p lo y e e s______________________
E m p lo y e e s w ho d id n o t h av e h o u rs
r e p o rte d in J a n u a r y -----------------------------E m p lo y e e s w ho h ad h o u rs re p o rte d
in J a n u a r y ------ ------------------------------------E m p lo y e e s ex clu d ed w ith le s s th an —
700 h o u rs ___ __________________ ____
600 h o u r s ______ ________________ ____
500 h o u rs __________________________ —
400 h o u r s _______ _________ __________
300 h o u r s ________ _ ______ ________ _
200 h o u rs ______________________________
100 h o u rs ------- ----------------------- -----E m p lo y e e s w ith le s s th a n —
700 h o u rs
_ ___ _______________ -__
600 h o u r s ______ ____________________
500 h o u rs - ________________ ______
400 h o u rs ____________________________
300 h o u r s ______ _____________ _ _
200 h o u rs ______________ _____________
100 h o u r s _________________________ ___
E m p lo y e e s
600 and
500 an d
400 an d
300 and
200 and
100 and

w ith b e tw e e n —
700 h o u r s _____________________
600 h o u rs _____________________
500 h o u rs _____________________
400 h o u r s _____________________
300 h o u rs _____________________
200 h o u r s _____________________

80




C a rp e n te rs

B r ic k la y e rs

O p e ra tin g
e n g in e e rs

L a b o re rs

1, 015

934

1 ,2 6 0

765

777

888

768
1, 342

734
1, 245

1 ,0 0 3
1,6 2 6

527
1, 255

567
1 ,2 0 3

613
1, 316

1, 542
1 ,5 1 0
1 ,4 7 2
1 ,429
1, 376
1, 309
1, 183

1 ,4 7 0
1,4 3 6
1 ,3 9 5
1, 347
1 ,2 9 2
1 ,2 1 6
1, 083

1 ,7 5 4
1, 707
1 ,6 6 7
1 ,6 2 0
1, 558
1 ,4 8 6
1 ,3 8 3

1, 540
1, 479
1 ,4 1 3
1, 335
1 ,236
1, 126
973

1 ,5 1 0
1 ,4 6 9
1 ,4 1 3
1 ,3 6 3
1 ,2 8 3
1, 205
1, 063

1 ,5 2 4
1 ,4 7 8
1 ,4 3 5
1, 385
1, 324
1 ,2 3 7
1, 144

210
184
157
131
104
78
36

223
196
169
142
116
89
43

256
218
188
158
121
86
36

210
186
162
137
108
78
41

171
150
126
107
80
60
30

190
160
135
111
85
65
36

647
550
448
348
244
144

651
552
451
342
244
150

646
549
449
351
246
151

649
547
448
348
245
147

648
550
441
351
243
144

653
545
448
346
248
146

C em ent
m a so n s

R e in fo rc e d s te e l
w o rk e rs

T ab le A - 19. A v e ra g e n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk fo r w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in M ilw au kee by s e le c te d h o u rs in te r v a l fo r th e 1 2 -m o n th
p e rio d , D e c e m b e r 1965—N o v e m b e r 1966
T e r ra z z o O p e ra tin g
P la s ­
z
C em ent
A sp h a lt
P la s ­
s k ille d
r
L a th e rs mTeecrhra n z os
S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs
a ic
e n g in e e rs L a b o re rs
p a v e rs
te r e r s lat e roeresrs M aso n s fin is h e r s
h e lp e rs
b
A ll e m p lo y e e s --------------------------------E m p lo y e e s who d id n o t h ave h o u rs
re p o rte d —________________________________
E m p lo y e e s who h ad h o u rs re p o rte d
in J a n u a r y ________________________________
E m p lo y e e s ex clu d ed w ith le s s th an —
700 h o u rs -_________________________-_____
600 h o u rs -_____________________________ 500 h o u rs -_-_________ ______________
400 h o u r s ___ _______________________ 300 h o u r s ________________ ___
200 h o u rs _________________________________
100 h o u rs _____________________________
E m p lo y e e s w ith le s s th an —
700 h o u rs __________________-_____________
600 h o u rs
________ — __-_______
500 h o u rs _______________________________
400 h o u rs _______________________________
300 h o u rs _______________________________
200 h o u rs _____________________________
100 h o u rs _______________________________
E m p lo y e e s w ith b e tw een —
600 and 700 h o u rs ______________________
500 and 600 h o u rs ______________________
400 and 500 h o u r s --------------------------------300 and 400 h o u rs ______________________
200 and 300 h o u rs ______________________
100 and 200 h o u rs ______________________

626

1 ,0 5 5

919

1, 031

880

1 ,0 4 4

1, 105

1 ,0 6 3

932

590

482
889

832
1,5 2 6

761
1 ,477

858
1,346

704
1,2 3 6

978
1,461

1 ,0 0 7
1, 827

1, 014
1 ,4 4 4

862
1, 186

479
1, 015

1, 040
1, 005
961
944
914
874
778

1,611
1, 594
1,5 6 7
1, 382
1, 353
1 ,274
1, 187

1 ,6 6 2
1 ,6 2 4
1 ,5 6 2
1 ,457
. 1,371
1,273
1, 064

1, 486
1,4 6 2
1,427
1, 346
1, 311
1,266
1, 154

1 ,4 5 0
1 ,4 1 4
1, 387
1 ,2 9 5
1 ,2 6 8
1,206
1,057

1,6 3 7
1, 599
1 ,5 7 8
1 ,469
1,431
1, 356
1 ,228

1, 780
1 ,7 8 0
1 ,7 8 0
1, 543
1 ,4 7 8
1, 350
1, 148

1 ,5 5 0
1 ,506
1 ,4 6 2
1 ,417
1, 370
1,370
1, 149

1 ,4 7 4
1 ,4 3 0
1, 377
1, 317
1 ,2 4 7
1, 175
1, 064

1 ,416
1,3 4 6
1 ,279
1, 165
1, 068
957
799

224
180
130
112
86
63
26

256
246
233
137
119
83
40

220
205
183
148
122
95
39

242
221
195
136
112
89
44

208
181
165
114
100
78
31

213
186
175
121
103
76
39

62
62
62
44
37
32
20

237
197
160
127
99
99
30

249
218
185
150
144
81
32

202
180
161
129
103
76
40

647
539
456
371
254
136

644
562
441
345
233
156

628
543
439
344
252
145

633
546
445
348
244
146

656
553
445
366
246
148

658
546
436
339
243
139

440
360
200
139

648
556
440
332
_
160

650
554
447
343
245
147

650
545
447
349
245
146

-

T a b le A -2 0 . A v e ra g e n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk of w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in s o u th e rn C a lifo rn ia fo r 1 2 -m o n th p e rio d
S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs
A ll e m p lo y e e s --------------------------------E m p lo y e e s e x clu d ed w ith le s s th an —
700 h o u rs _______________________________
600 h o u rs _______________________________
500 h o u rs _______________________________
400 h o u rs _______________________________
300 h o u rs _________________________ ____
200 h o u rs _ _____ -_____________________
100 h o u rs _______________________________
E m p lo y e e s w ith le s s th a n —
700 h o u rs ----------------------------------- --------600 h o u rs ____________ ____——_______ ___
500 h o u rs _______________________________
400 h o u rs _____________________________ —
300 h o u rs
200 h o u rs __ _________________________
100 h o u rs ---------------------------------------------E m p lo y e e s w ith b e tw e e n —
600 and 700 h o u rs -------------------------------500 and 600 h o u rs --------------------------------400 and 500 h o u rs _____________________
300 and 400 h o u r s _____ _______________
200 and 300 h o u rs _____________________
100 and 200 h o u r s ----------------------- ------

C a rp e n te rs 1

O p e ra tin g
e n g in e e rs 2

C em ent
m a so n s 1

Iro n w o rk e rs 2

T e a m s te rs 1

864

1 ,284

932

1 ,0 4 4

961

1 ,4 3 0
1, 382
1, 332
1, 278
1 ,209
1, 333
1, 021

1 ,633
1,596
1, 558
1 ,520
1 ,4 8 1
1,436
1, 367

1, 503
1 ,458
1, 416
1, 371
1, 316
1,256
1, 174

1, 572
1, 539
1,507
1 ,4 6 4
1 ,4 2 0
1, 362
1 ,262

1 ,647
1, 598
1 ,5 0 8
1 ,4 1 4
1 ,3 3 0
1 ,249
1, 103

237
204
174
145
112
81
42

291
246
203
161
125
91
44

200
166
136
109
80
56
30

194
165
141
113
90
67
37

255
233
196
155
120
92
41

649
549
450
345
247
147

650
548
451
346
246
149

648
548
450
351
246
146

650
549
447
349
244
145

648
543
452
349
244
153

1 C a le n d a r y e a r 1966.
2 F is c a l y e a r ru n n in g fro m Ju n e 1966 to M ay 1967.




81

T a b le A -2 1 . P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in O m ah a by s e le c te d h o u rs in te r v a l fo r the 1 2 -m o n th p e rio d ,
J u ly 1966—J u ly 1967
A ll
B r ic k ­
C a rp e n ­
C em ent
ra g
Iro n ­
P la s ­
S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs
L a th e rs Onpgein etinrs
T e a m s te rs
w o rk e rs
la y e rs
te r s
fin is h e r s w o rk e rs L a b o re rs
e
e
te re rs
A ll g ro u p s ----------------------------100. 0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
M o re th a n 700 h o u r s -----------------------

5 5 .0

L ess
L ess
L ess
L ess
L ess
L ess
L ess

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4 5 .0
42. 1
38. 5
34. 2
2 9 .0
2 2 .4
12. 5

64. 2
35. 8
32. 6
29. 8
24. 7
2 1 .2
17. 2
8. 1

B e tw een 600 and 700 h o u r s -----------B etw een 500 and 600 h o u r s -----------B etw een 400 and 500 h o u r s -----------B e tw een 300 and 400 h o u r s -----------B etw een 200 and 300 h o u r s -----------B etw een 100 and 200 h o u r s -----------W ith h o u rs in J a n u a r y -------------------

3 .0
3. 5
4. 3
5. 2
6. 6
9. 8
3 5 .9

3. 3
2. 8
5. 1
3. 5
4 .0
9. 1
4 0 .0

th a n
th an
th an
th a n
th an
th a n
th a n

700
600
500
400
300
200
100

h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs

7 0 .0

63. 3

5 8 .0

32. 2

57. 8

57. 1

5 2 .4

3 5 .4

3 0 .0
26. 5
23. 2
1 9 .7
16. 3
12. 1
6. 6

3 6 .7
34. 3
31. 1
2 9 .0
24. 8
18. 2
9. 1
2. 4
3. 1
2. 1
4. 2
6 .6
9. 1
45. 1

42. 0
40. 9
3 8 .9
34. 9
29. 1
2 4 .4
15. 5

6 7 .8
64. 5
5 9 .7
54. 5
46. 3
37. 2
22. 7

42. 2
39. 1
39. 1
3 1 .3
28. 1
2 1 .9
14. 1

4 2 .9
40. 0
36. 1
3 1 .7
2 7 .0
18. 4
8 .0

64. 6
64. 6
6 3 .4
57. 3
5 1 .2
43. 9
3 1 .7

1. 1
2 .0
4 .0
4 .8
4. 7
8 .9
37. 3

3. 3
4 .8
5. 2
8 .2
9. 1
1 4 .4

3. 1
7 .8
3. 1
6. 3
7. 8

2 .9
3. 8
4. 5
4 .7
8. 6
10. 4

2 8 .9

2 1 .9

39. 2

47. 6
4 2 .9
41. 3
39. 7
33. 3
2 7 .0
11. 1
4 .8
1 .6
1 .6
6. 3
6. 3
1 5 .9
2 5 .4

3 .5
3. 3
3. 6
3. 3
4. 3
5. 5
3 7 .9

-

_

1. 2
6. 1
6. 1
7. 3
12. 2
2 8 .0

N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u al to ta ls .

T a b le A -2 2 . P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of w o rk e rs in se le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in D e tr o it by s e le c te d h o u rs in te r v a l fo r th e 1 2 -m o n th p e rio d ,
N o v e m b e r 1966— c to b e r 1967
O
C a rp e n te rs

B r ic k la y e rs

A ll g ro u p s --------------------------------------------------

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

O p e ra tin g
e n g in e e rs
1 0 0 .0

M o re th a n 700 h o u r s -------------------------------------------

60. 5
3 9 .5
37. 3
34. 8
3 1 .9
2 8 .4
2 3 .9
14. 6

5 7 .0
4 3 .0
40. 5
37. 6
34. 2
30. 4
2 5 .0
14. 3

67. 0
3 3 .0
3 0 .0
27. 5
24. 6
20. 7
16. 1
9 .2

4 1 .7
58. 3
55. 3
5 1 .8
47. 6
4 1 .8
34. 5
2 2 .4

2. 2
2. 6
2. 8
3. 5
4. 5
9. 3
4 3 .0

2. 5
2 .9
3. 4
3. 8
5 .4
10. 7

2 .9
2. 5
2 .9
3 .9
4. 6
7. 0
58. 7

3 .0
3 .4
4. 2
5. 8
7. 3
12. 1

45. 3
54. 7
52. 5
49. 4
46. 7
42. 1
37. 4
27. 7
2. 2
3. 1
2. 8
4. 6
4. 7
9 .7

67. 3

67. 1

S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs

L ess
L ess
L ess
L ess
L ess
L ess
L ess

th a n
th a n
th a n
th a n
th a n
th a n
th a n

B e tw een
B e tw een
B etw een
B etw een
B etw een
B etw een

700
600
500
400
300
200
100

600
500
400
300
200
100

h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs

and
and
and
and
and
and

700
600
500
400
300
200

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------h o u r s --------------------------------h o u r s --------------------------------h o u r s --------------------------------h o u r s --------------------------------h o u r s --------------------------------h o u r s ---------------------------------

W ith h o u rs in J a n u a r y -----------------------------------------

39. 1

L a b o re rs
1 0 0 .0

C em ent
m a so n s
100. 0

R e in fo rc e d
s te e l w o rk e rs
1 0 0 .0
52. 3
47. 7
44. 8
42. 1
39. 0
35. 2
3 1 .3
23. 1
2 .9
2. 7
3 .0
3. 8
3. 8
8. 2
6 0 .9

N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l to ta ls .

T a b le A -2 3 . P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in M ilw au kee by s e le c te d h o u rs in te r v a l fo r th e 1 2 -m o n th p e rio d ,
D e c e m b e r 1965—N o v e m b e r 1966
P la s ­
P la s ­
T e ra o T e r ra z z o O p e ra tin g L a b o re rs
C em ent
A sp h a lt
M aso n s
L a th e r s m e cr h aznzic s sk ille d
te r e r s 1
S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs
te r e r s
fin is h e r s
p av ers
la b o re rs
h e lp e rs e n g in e e rs
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
A ll g ro u p s ------------------------------M o re th a n 700 h o u r s -----------------------

49. 3

6 3 .4

54. 1

58. 3

5 6 .0

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

50. 7
45. 8
40 . 3
38. 2
34. 7
30. 6
20. 1

5 8 .9
4 1 .1
4 0 .0
3 8 .4
26. 3
24. 2
1 8 .4
11. 6

48. 5

L ess
L ess
L ess
L ess
L ess
L ess
L ess

5 1 .5
49. 7
4 6 .6
4 1 .1
36. 2
30. 1
14. 1

4 4 .0
4 4 .0
4 4 .0
3 2 .0
2 8 .0
2 0 .0
4. 0

4 .9
5. 6
2. 1
3. 5
4. 2
1 0 .4
3 5 .4

1 .1
1 .6
12. 1
2. 1
5. 8
6 .8
32. 1

1 .8
3. 1
5 .5
4 .9
6 .1
1 6 .0
22. 1

4 5 .9
43. 3
4 1 .5
35. 1
33. 2
2 8 .9
17. 3
2. 6
1 .8
6 .4
1 .9
4. 3
1 1 .7
33. 1

4 1 .7
39. 3
38. 1
3 1 .5
2 9 .2
2 4 .4
15. 5

B e tw een 600 an d 700 h o u r s -----------B e tw een 500 and 600 h o u r s -----------B e tw een 400 and 500 h o u r s -----------B e tw een 300 an d 400 h o u r s -----------B e tw een 200 and 300 h o u r s -----------B e tw een 100 and 200 h o u r s -----------W ith h o u rs in J a n u a r y --------------------

3 6 .6
3 4 .8
32. 2
2 6 .0
2 3 .4
2 0 .0
1 1 .1
1 .8
2. 6
6. 1
2 .7
3 .4
8 .9
3 5 .4

th a n
th a n
th a n
th a n
th a n
th a n
th a n

700
600
500
400
300
200
100

h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs
h o u rs

N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l to ta ls .

82




2 .4
1. 2
6. 5
2. 4
4 .8
8 .9
13. 7

_
-

1 2 .0
4 .0
8 .0
1 6 .0
1 2 .0

6 2 .9
37. 1
3 3 .9
30. 6
2 7 .4
24. 2
24. 2
11. 3
3. 2
3. 2
3. 2
3. 2
-

1 2 .9
1 1 .3

5 5 .7
44. 3
41. 1
3 7 .4
33. 0
27. 8
22. 2
12. 8
3. 2
3. 7
4 .4
5. 2
5. 6
9 .4
2 1 .5

3 1 .9
68. 1
64. 8
6 1 .6
5 5 .5
49. 5
4 1 .6
27. 6
3. 2
3. 2
6. 1
6 .0
7 .9
14. 1
20. 7

T a b le A -2 4 . P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s
fo r a 1 2 -m o n th p e rio d
O p e ra tin g
C a rp e n te rs 1
S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs
e n g in e e rs 2
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
A ll g ro u p s ---------------:-----------------------52. 6

M o re th an 700 h o u r s --------------------------------L e s s th a n 700 h o u rs --------------------------------L e ss th a n 600 h o u rs --------------------------------L e s s th a n 500 h o u rs --------------------------------L e s s th an 400 h o u rs --------------------------------L e s s th a n 300 h o u rs --------------------------------L e s s th a n 200 h o u rs --------------------------------L e s s th a n 100 h o u rs --------------------------------B etw een 600 and 700 h o u r s ----------------------B etw een 500 and 600 h o u r s ----------------------B etw een 400 and 500 h o u r s ----------------------B etw een 300 and 400 h o u r s ----------------------B etw een 200 and 300 h o u r s ----------------------B etw een 100 and 200 h o u r s -----------------------

in so u th e rn C a lifo rn ia by s e le c te d h o u rs in te r v a l
C em ent
m a so n s 1
100. 0

Iro n ­
w o rk e rs 2
1 0 0 .0

56. 2
43. 8
40. 7
37. 8
34. 8
31. 1
27. 0
21. 1
3. 1
2 .9
3. 0
3. 7
4. 1
5 .9

6 1 .7
38. 3
36. 1
33. 9
31. 1
28. 3
24. 6
17. 8
2. 3
2. 2
2. 8
2. 8
3. 7
6. 8

74. 0
26. 0
23. 1
20. 2
17. 4
14. 5
11. 3
6. 3

47. 4
44. 0
40. 4
36. 5
3 1 .5
25. 5
16. 0
3 .4
3. 6
3 .9
5 .0
5 .9
9 .5

2 .9
2. 9
2 .9
2 .9
3. 2
5. 0

T e a m s te rs 1
100. 0
50. 7
49. 3
46. 7
4 1 .7
36. 0
30. 5
24. 9
13. 4
2. 6
5. 0
5. 7
5. 5
5. 6
1 1 .5

1 C a le n d a r y e a r 1966.
2 F is c a l y e a r ru n n in g fro m Ju n e 1966 to M ay 1967.
N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l to ta ls .

T a b le A -2 5 . P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of to ta l h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d by w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in O m ah a fo r th e 1 2 -m o n th p e rio d ,
J u ly 1966—1967
C o n s tr u c ­ B r ic k ­
P la s ­
ra g
C a rp e n ­
I ro n ­
C em ent
T e a m s te rs
L a th e rs Onpgein etinrs
S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs
tio n
te r e r s
te r s
w o rk e rs L a b o re rs
e
e
la y e rs
fin is h e r s
w o rk e rs
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0
A ll e m p lo y e e s ----------------------E m p lo y e e s w ith h o u rs in
J a n u a r y -----------------------------------------E m p lo y e e s w ith o u t h o u rs in
J a n u a r y -----------------------------------------E m p lo y e e s w ith —
M o re th a n 700 h o u r s ----------------L e s s th an 700 h o u rs ----------------M o re th a n 600 h o u r s ----------------L e s s th a n 600 h o u rs ----------------M o re th an 500 h o u r s ----------------L e s s th a n 500 h o u rs ----------------M o re th a n 400 h o u r s ----------------L e s s th a n 400 h o u rs ----------------M o re th a n 300 h o u r s ----------------L e s s th a n 300 h o u rs — -------------M o re th a n 200 h o u r s ----------------L e s s th a n 200 h o u rs ----------------M o re th a n 100 h o u r s ----------------L e s s th a n 100 h o u rs -----------------

4 9 .9
50. 1
88. 1
1 1 .9
90. 2
9 .8
9 2 .2
7. 8
94. 2
5. 8
96. 1
3 .9
9 7 .9
2. 1
99. 4
.6

52. 0

47. 5
52. 5
92. 2
7. 8
94. 1
5 .9
95. 7
4. 3
97. 1
2 .9
98. 1
1 .9
9 9 .0
1 .0
9 9 .7
.3

4 8 .0
90. 6
9 .4
92. 6
7. 4
94. 1
5 .9
96. 2
3. 8
97. 4
2. 6
98. 4
1. 6
99. 6
.4

57. 0
43. 0

53. 2
46. 8

91. 1
8 .9
9 2 .7
7. 3
94. 4
6. 5
95. 3
4. 7
96. 6
3. 4
98. 3
1 .7
99. 6
.4

91. 3
8. 7
9 2 .0
8 .0
93. 0
7 .0
94. 8
5. 2
96. 8
3. 2
98. 0
2 .0
99. 3
.7

49. 2
50. 8
75. 4
24. 6
78. 8
21. 2
83. 1
1 6 .9
86. 8
13. 2
9 1 .4
8. 6
95. 0
5 .0
98. 3
1 .7

1 9 .9
80. 1
90. 7
9. 3
92. 5
7. 5
92. 5
7. 5
9 5 .7
4. 3
96. 7
3. 3
9 7 .9
2. 1
99. 2
.8

52. 2
47. 8
88. 2
1 1 .8
90. 1
9 .9
92. 2
7. 8
94. 3
5. 7
9 5 .9
4. 1
9 8 .0
2 .0
9 9 .6
.4

38. 5
61. 5

58. 9
41. 1

89. 1
10. 9
9 2 .0
8 .0
92. 8
7. 2
93. 4
6. 6
9 5 .7
4. 3
97. 3
2. 7
9 9 .5
.5

86. 3
13. 7
86. 3
13. 7
87. 3
1 2 .7
90. 8
9. 2
9 3 .7
6. 3
96. 1
3 .9
98. 3
1 .7

N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u al to ta ls .

T a b le A -2 6 . P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of to ta l h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d by w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in D e tr o it fo r th e 1 2 -m o n th p e rio d ,
N o v e m b e r 1966—O c to b e r 1967
R e fo
O p e ra tin g
L a b o re rs
C e m e n t m a so n s s te e linw orc eedrs
C a rp e n te rs
B r ic k la y e rs
S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs
e n g in e e rs
rk
100. 0
1 0 0.0
1 0 0.0
A ll e m p lo y e e s --------------------------- -------------1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0
E m p lo y e e s w ith h o u rs in J a n u a r y -------------------E m p lo y e e s w ith o u t h o u rs in J a n u a r y ---------------E m p lo y e e s w ith —
M o re th a n 700 h o u r s -------------------------------------L e s s th a n 700 h o u rs -------------------------------------M o re th a n 600 h o u r s -------------------------------------L e s s th a n 600 h o u rs -------------------------------------M o re th a n 500 h o u r s -------------------------------------L e s s th a n 500 h o u r s -------------------------------------M o re th a n 400 h o u r s -------------------------------------L e s s th a n 400 h o u rs -------------------------------------M o re th a n 300 h o u r s -------------------------------------L e s s th a n 300 h o u rs -------------------------------------M o re th a n 200 h o u r s -------------------------------------L e s s th a n 200 h o u rs -------------------------------------M o re th a n 100 h o u rs - — - ------ — --------L e s s th a n 100 h o u rs ------------------------------------

56. 8
43. 2
9 1 .8
8. 2
93. 2
6. 8
94. 6
5 .4
9 5 .9
4. 1
97. 1
2 .9
98. 2
1 .8
9 9 .5
.5

52. 2
47. 8
89. 7
10. 3
9 1 .5
8. 5
93. 2
6. 8
94. 8
5. 2
96. 2
3. 8
9 7 .6
2 .4
99. 3
.7

53. 3
46. 7
93. 3
6. 7
94. 8
5. 2
9 5 .9
4. 1
9 6 .9
3. 1
98. 0
2 .0
9 8 .9
1. 1
9 9 .7
.3

53. 6
46. 4
8 4 .0
16. 0
86. 5
13. 5
8 9 .0
1 1 .0
91. 5
8. 5
94. 1
5 .9
9 6 .5
3. 5
98. 8
1. 2

4 9 .0

5 1 .0

5 8 .0
4 2 .0

8 8 .0
12. 0
89. 8
10. 2
92.0
8. 0
9 3 .6
6 .4
95. 7
4. 3
97. 1
2 .9
9 8 .9
1. 1

89. 8
10. 2
9 1 .9
8. 1
93. 6
6 .4
95. 1
4 .9
96. 6
3 .4
97. 7
2. 3
99. 1
.9

N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u al to ta ls .




83

T ab le A -2 7 . P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of to ta l h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d by w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in M ilw au kee fo r th e 1 2 -m o n th p e rio d ,
D e c e m b e r 1965— o v e m b e r 1966
N
P la s ­
r
C em ent
P la s ­
T ra o T sek ra z z o O p e ra tin g L a b o re rs
A sp h a lt
M aso n s
L a th e rs m eecr h a z zic s
te re rs '
S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs
ille d
p a v e rs
te r e r s
fin is h e r s
n
e n g in e e rs
la b o re rs
h e lp e rs
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
A ll e m p lo y e e s -----------------------100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
E m p lo y e e s w ith h o u rs in
J a n u a r y -----------------------------------------E m p lo y e e s w ith o u t h o u rs in
J a n u a r y -----------------------------------------E m p lo y e e s w ith —
M o re th an 700 h o u r s ----------------L e s s th an 700 h o u rs -----------------M o re th a n 600 h o u r s -----------------Less* th a n 600 h o u rs ----------------M o re th a n 500 h o u r s ----------------L e s s th a n 500 h o u rs ----------------M o re th a n 400 h o u r s -----------------L e s s th a n 400 h o u rs ----------------M o re th an 300 h o u r s -----------------L e s s th a n 300 h o u rs ----------------M o re th an 200 h o u r s -----------------L e s s th an 200 h o u rs -----------------M o re th a n 100 h o u r s ----------------L e s s th an 100 h o u rs -----------------

50. 3

46. 4

35. 5

46. 2

46. 5

49. 7
8 1 .8
18. 2
86. 9
13. 1
91. 6
8. 4
93. 2
6. 8
95. 2
4. 8
9 6 .9
3. 1
99. 2
.8

53. 6

64. 5

53. 8

53. 5

90. 0
10. 0
90. 7
9. 3
91. 5
8. 5
96. 6
3. 4
97. 3
2. 7
98. 5
1. 5
99. 6
.4

87. 7
12. 3
88. 9
11. 1
90. 7
9. 3
93. 4
6. 6
95. 2
4. 8
9 6 .9
3. 1
9 9 .4
.6

9 1 .4
8. 5
92. 5
7. 5
93. 9
6. 1
96. 6
3. 4
97. 5
2. 5
98. 3
1 .7
99. 5
.5

89. 1
10. 9
91. 2
8. 9
92. 2
7. 8
95. 4
4. 6
96. 2
3. 8
97. 4
2. 6
99. 4
.6

19. 2
80. 8
9 1 .5
8. 5
93. 0
7. 0
93. 6
6. 4
96. 3
3. 7
97. 1
2. 9
98. 2
1 .8
9 9 .4
.6

19. 8
80. 2
90. 2
9. 8
90. 2
9. 8
90. 2
9. 8
95. 0
5. 0
96. 3
3. 7
97. 7
2. 3
99. 7
.3

15. 3

27. 4

35. 6

84. 7
9 1 .7
8. 3
93. 7
6. 3
95. 4
4. 6
96. 7
3. 3
9 7 .7
2. 3
97. 7
2. 3
99. 7
.3

72. 6

64. 4

88. 2
1 1 .8
90. 4
9. 6
92. 6
7. 4
94. 7
5. 3
96. 6
3. 4
98. 1
1 .9
9 9 .6
.4

76. 7
23. 3
80. 2
19. 8
83. 2
16. 8
87. 8
12. 2
90. 5
8. 6
94. 6
5. 4
98. 1
1 .9

N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u al to ta ls .

T ab le A -2 8 . P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of to ta l h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d by w o rk e rs in s e le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in so u th e rn
C a lifo rn ia fo r a 12 -m o n th p e rio d
C a rp e n te rs 1

S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs

O p e ra tin g
e n g in e e rs 2

C em ent
m a so n s 1

A ll e m p lo y e e s ----------------------------------

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

87. 0
13. 0
89. 6
10. 4
9 1 .9
8. 1
93. 9
6. 1
9 5 .9
4. 2
97. 6
2. 4
99. 2
.8

94. 1
5 .9
95. 6
4. 4
96. 8
3. 2
97. 8
2. 2
98. 6
1 .4
99. 2
0. 8
99. 8
.2

90. 6.
9 .4
92. 8
7. 2
94. 5
5. 5
9 5 .9
4. 1
97. 3
2. 7
98. 4
1. 6
99. 3
.7

T e a m s te rs 1

9 2 .9
7. 1
94. 3
5. 7
95. 4
4. 6
96. 6
3. 4
97. 6
2. 4
98. 4
1. 6
9 9 .4
.6

100. 0

E m p lo y e e s w ith —
M o re th a n 700 h o u r s ---------------------------L e s s th an 700 h o u rs ---------------------------M o re th a n 600 h o u r s ---------------------------L e s s th an 600 h o u rs ---------------------------M o re th a n 500 h o u r s ---------------------------L e s s th an 500 h o u rs ---------------------------M o re th a n 400 h o u r s ---------------------------L e s s th an 400 h o u rs ---------------------------M o re th a n 300 h o u r s ---------------------------L e s s th an 300 h o u rs ---------------------------M o re th a n 200 h o u r s ---------------------------L e s s th a n 200 h o u rs ---------------------------M o re th a n 100 h o u r s ---------------------------L e s s th a n 100 h o u rs ----------------------------

I ro n ­
w o rk e rs 2
100. 0

86. 9
13. 1
88. 7
11. 3
91. 5
8. 5
94. 2
5. 8
96. 2
3. 8
97. 6
2. 4
9 9 .4
.6

100. 0

1 C a le n d a r y e a r 1966.
2 F is c a l y e a r ru n n in g fro m Ju n e 1966 to M ay 1967.
N O TE: D ue to ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u al to ta ls .

T a b le A -2 9 . P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of w o rk e rs in se le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in O m ah a by n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d fo r th e 1 2 -m o n th p e rio d ,
Ju ly 1966— n e 1967
Ju
C ons tru e - B r ic k ­
C a rp e n ­
C em ent
I ro n ­
O p e ra tin g
P la s tio n
S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs
L a th e rs
T e a m s te rs
fin is h e r s w o rk e rs L a b o re rs
la y e rs
te r s
e n g in e e rs
te re rs
w o rk e rs
100 0
T o t a l ---100 0
100 0
100 0
100.0
100 0
100 0
100.0

.

1-199 h o u r s ---------------20 0-39 9 h o u r s -----------4 0 0-59 9 h o u r s -----------60 0-79 9 h o u r s -----------8 0 0-99 9 h o u r s -----------1 .0 0 0 - 1 ,1 9 9 h o u rs —
1 ,2 0 0 -1 ,3 9 9 h o u rs —
1 ,4 0 0 -1 ,5 9 9 h o u rs —
1 ,6 0 0 -1 ,7 9 9 h o u rs —
1 ,8 0 0 -1 ,9 9 9 h o u rs —
2 .0 0 0 2 ,1 9 9 h o u rs —
2 ,2 0 0 -2 ,3 9 9 h o u rs —
2 ,4 0 0 h o u rs o r m o re

.

2 2 .3
1 1 .9
7 .8
5 .9
5 .9
6.1
6. 5
7 .4
8 .1
9 .7
6 .5
1 .3
.5

1 7 .2
7 .4
7 .9
7 .0
5 .1
7. 2
1 0 .5
1 2 .3
1 3 .0
2 .1
.5

10.0

.
12. 1
7. 6
6. 8
7. 1
8. 2
6. 8
7. 7
8 .9
10. 1
14. 4
9 .0

!2

.
18. 2
10. 8
5. 2
6. 6
6. 3
9 .8
7. 3
80
10. 5
9. 1
7. 0
.7
.3

.

N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u al to ta ls .

84




,

24. 4
10. 5

6.0

3. 8
3. 8
4. 7
5. 8

8. 0
12.0
12. 2
7. 5
1. 3

.

37. 2
17. 3
10 0
5. 5
5. 0
3. 8
4. 8
3. 0
3. 5
4. 2
5 .0
.6
.2

2 1 .9
9 .4
7. 8
7. 8
3. 1
3. 1

.

1. 6

26. 6
18. 8

18. 3
13. 3
8. 3
5. 6

6. 0
6. 8

7. 6
9 .9
7. 6
7. 1
5. 3
2. 7
1. 5

27. 0
12. 7
3. 2
6. 3
_

6. 3
1 .6
1. 6
11. 1
1 9 .0
9 .5
-

1. 6

43. 9
13. 4
7. 3
2. 4
4 .9
_
-

2. 4
7. 3
2. 6
6. 1
7. 3
2. 4

T a b le A - 30. P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of w o rk e rs in se le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in D e tr o it by n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d fo r th e 1 2 -m o n th
p e rio d , N o v e m b e r 1966—O c to b e r 1967
R e in fo rc e d
O p e ra tin g
L a b o re rs
C e m e n t m a so n s
B ric k la y e rs
S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs
C a rp e n te rs
e n g in e e rs
s te e l w o rk e rs

100. 0

100.0

23. 5

T o ta l

2 5 .0
9. 2
6. 2
5. 4
5 .9

1-199 h o u rs -------------200-399 h o u rs ---------400-599 h o u rs ---------600-799 h o u rs ---------800-999 h o u rs ---------1 .0 0 0 1 ,1 9 9 h o u rs —
1.2001,399 h o u rs —
1,400-1,599 h o u rs —
1,600-1,799 h o u rs —
1,800-1,999 h o u rs —
2 .0 0 0 2 ,1 9 9 h o u rs —
2.200- 2,399 h o u rs —
2,400 h o u rs o r m o re

8. 1

5 .4
4. 4
4. 7

6. 0
8. 6
10. 6

6. 0
8. 1
11. 2

1 1 .4
6. 7
4. 1
.7
.3

12. 4
8 .9
4. 4

1.8

.9

100. 0
16.0

100. 0

8. 5
5 .4
5. 2
5. 8
5. 8
5. 3
5. 7
6. 8
9 .4
1 2 .4
6 .9
6. 7

100. 0

100. 0

34. 5
13. 1
7. 7
5. 8
4 .9
4. 7
4. 4
5 .0
5. 6
6 .4
5. 2

31. 3
7. 7
5 .8
4. 8
4 .9
6. 5
6 .4
7. 4
10. 9
7. 8
5. 4
.9
.3

37. 4
9. 3
5. 8
4. 5
4. 6
7 .9
6. 1
4. 7
5 .4
5. 8
5. 5

1.6

1. 3

2. 2
.9

N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u al to ta ls .

T a b le A -3 1 . P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of w o rk e rs in se le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in M ilw au kee by n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d fo r th e 1 2 -m o n th
p e rio d , D e c e m b e r 1965— o v e m b e r 1966
N
er
M aso n s
P la s ­
P la s ­
O p e ra tin g T e r ra z z o T s k ra z z o
C em ent
A sp h a lt
L a th e rs
ille d
L a b o re rs
b r ic k ­
te r e r s 1
S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs
te r e r s
e n g in e e rs m a c h a n ic s
fin is h e r s
p a v e rs
h e lp e rs
la y e rs
la b o re rs
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0.0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
10 0.0
T o ta l -------------------------------------1-199 h o u r s -------------------------------------2 0 0-399 h o u r s ---------------------------------4 0 0-59 9 h o u r s ---------------------------------6 0 0-799 h o u r s ---------------------------------80 0-99 9 h o u r s ---------------------------------1 ,0 0 0 -1 ,1 9 9 h o u rs ------------------------1 ,2 0 0 -1 ,3 9 9 h o u rs ------------------------1 ,4 0 0 -1 ,5 9 9 h o u rs ------------------------1 ,6 0 0 -1 ,7 9 9 h o u rs ------------------------1 ,8 0 0 -1 ,9 9 9 h o u rs ------------------------2 ,0 0 0 -2 ,1 9 9 h o u rs ------------------------2 ,2 0 0 -2 ,3 9 9 h o u rs ------------------------2 ,4 0 0 h o u rs o r m o re ---------------------

30. 0
7. 6
7. 6
10. 4
2 1 .5
11. 1
6 .9
3. 5

40. 2
13. 9
9. 3
5 .9
4. 9
4. 4
3. 4
3. 5
4. 2
6 .9
2. 0

-

.7
-

-

"

'

-

28. 8
1 1 .0
8. 6
2. 5
3. 1
4. 3
2. 5
4. 3
1 1 .7
15. 3
6. 7

19 .0
6. 1
8. 7
3. 9
5. 0
5. 2
8. 3
15. 9
18. 3
6. 2
2. 3
.1
■

"

22. 6
7. 1
7. 7
4. 2
3. 6
4. 8
4. 2
7. 7
8. 3
2 1 .4
6. 5

28. 4
6. 2
8. 2
6. 1
7. 1
7. 9
7. 4
5. 3
7. 0
9. 2
6. 2
.4
'

-

1 7 .4
7 .9
13. 7
1 .6
4. 2
4. 7
5. 3
10. 0
1 1.1
1 8 .4
4. 7
-

"

-

20. 6
10. 7
8. 1
6. 4
6. 9
7. 4
7. 5
6. 0
6. 8
1 1 .3
6. 5

2 0 .0
12. 0
12. 0

"

“

-

4. 0
8. 0
8. 0
32. 0
4. 0
-

-

17. 7
3. 2
6. 5
4. 8
4. 8
4. 8
6. 5
16. 1
9. 7
17. 7
1 .6

N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y no t e q u al to ta ls .

T ab le A -3 2 . P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of w o rk e rs in se le c te d c o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s in so u th e rn C a lifo rn ia by n u m b e r of h o u rs of w o rk re p o rte d fo r a
1 2 -m o n th p e rio d
S e le c te d g ro u p of h o u rs

C a rp e n te rs 1

O p e ra tin g e n g in e e rs 2

C e m e n t m a so n s 1

Iro n w o rk e rs 2

T e a m s te rs 1

T o ta l --------------------------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1-199 h o u r s -------------------------------------2 0 0-399 h o u r s ---------------------------------40 0-59 9 h o u r s ---------------------------------6 0 0-799 h o u r s ---------------------------------80 0-99 9 h o u r s ---------------------------------1 ,0 0 0 -1 ,1 9 9 h o u rs ------------------------1 ,2 0 0 -1 ,3 9 9 h o u rs ------------------------1 ,4 0 0 -1 ,5 9 9 h o u rs ------------------------1 ,6 0 0 -1 ,7 9 9 h o u rs ------------------------1 ,8 0 0 -1 ,9 9 9 h o u rs ------------------------2 ,0 0 0 -2 ,1 9 9 h o u rs ------------------------2 ,2 0 0 -2 ,3 9 9 h o u rs ------------------------2 ,4 0 0 h o u rs o r m o re ---------------------

25. 5
1 1 .0
7. 5
6 .9
7. 0
7. 1
7. 4
7. 5
7. 7
7. 8
4. 2
.4
.1

11. 3
6. 1
5. 8
5. 8
5 .9
7. 3
7. 2
8. 5
11. 2
13. 3
1 1 .7
3. 7
2. 3

27. 0
7. 8
5 .9
6. 0
5. 8
6. 9
6 .4
8. 5
9. 3
9. 4
5. 7
.9
.3

24. 6
6. 5
4. 9
4. 4
4. 7
5. 7
6. 6
9 .0
12. 6
14. 0
5. 8
.9
.2

24. 9
11. 1
10. 7
5. 2
4. 6
4. 7
4. 7
4. 8
6. 1
8. 2
9 .0
4. 3
1 .7

1 C a le n d a r y e a r 1966.
2 F is c a l y e a r ru n n in g fro m Ju n e 1966 to M ay 1967.
N O TE: B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u al to ta ls .




85

Table A -33. P ercent distribution of brick layers in D etroit by age and hours of work for the 12-month period, Novem ber 1966—
October 1967
200

to
399

400
to
599

600
to
799

800
to
999

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

4. 4
8.7
13. 0
23. 2
15. 9
8. 7
1 1 .6
4. 4
10. 2
5 .8

2. 2

5. 0
5. 0
7. 5
7. 5
20. 0
25. 0
10. 0
10. 0
2. 5
7. 5
7. 5
-

2 .9
2. 9
5 .9
17. 7
20. 6
26. 5
8.8
2. 9
2. 9
8.8
8. 8
-

1.9
7. 7
5. 8
11. 5
25. 0
13. 5
9. 6
13. 5

3. 8
18. 2
8. 3
3. 6
1.7
2 .9
5. 8
4 .7
4 .9
1. 0
8. 3
8. 3

3. 3
9. 1
4. 2
2 .4
3. 5
2. 6
5. 2
3. 5
1. 2
1. 0
8. 3
8. 3

5. 0
9. 1
16. 7
3 .6
3. 5
4 .8
4. 0
5 .8
8. 5
4. 1
5. 6
5. 6

1

Age interval

Total

to
199

T o t a l __________________
L e s s than 2 0 y e a r s _________
14-17 y e a r s ______________
18-19 y e a r s ______________
20 -2 4 y e a r s __________________
25 -2 9 y e a r s _____________ ____
30-34 y e a r s __________________
35-39 y e a r s __________________
4 0 -4 4 y e a r s __________________
4 5 -4 9 y e a r s __________________
50 -5 4 y e a r s __________ _____
55-59 y e a r s __________________
60-64 y e a r s __________________
65 y e a r s and o v e r ___________
65 -6 9 y e a r s ______________
70 y e a r s and o v e r _______

100. 0
0. 1

T o t a l ___________________
L e s s than 20 y e a r s _________
14-17 y e a r s ______________
18-19 y e a r s ______________
20-24 y e a r s __________________
25-29 y e a r s __________________
3 0-34 y e a r s __________________
35-39 y e a r s __________________
4 0 -4 4 y e a r s __________________
4 5 -4 9 y e a r s ______ ___________
5 0 -5 4 y e a r s __________________
5 5-59 y e a r s __________________
6 0 -6 4 y e a r s __________________
65 y e a r s and o v e r ___________
65 -6 9 y e a r s ______________
70 y e a r s and o v e r _______

100. 0

6 .6

100. 0

12. 5
7. 1
5. 2
5. 9
6. 3
7 .0
9 .8
3. 1
61. 1
11. 1
50. 0

.1
1. 1
2. 3
8.0
16. 6
26. 0
16. 6
8.2
7. 8
9. 3
4. 0
3 .4
.6

-

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

4.4

2. 2
17. 8
28. 9
17. 8
8 .9
4. 4
2. 2
6. 7
8. 9
8. 9
2. 2

4. 3
100. 0

4. 2
9. 5
7. 5
2. 9
2. 3
2. 3
1. 2
3. 1
11. 1
11. 1

100. 0

“

“

“

7. 7

3 .9
3 .9
-

Hours in terval
1 1 ,2 0 0
1 ,400
to i to
to
1,199 ! 1, 399 1 ,599
By hours
1
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
2 .4
1.7
1. 5
2 .4
1. 5
.6
3. 0
8.4
7. 1
13. 6
15. 0
12. 4
2 6 .4
19.7
23. 6
12. 1
12. 6
18. 5
13. 6
7. 3
7. 1
13. 6
7. 1
7. 9
16. 7
15. 8
14. 6
4. 6
7. 1
2. 3
4. 6
2. 3
6. 3
.8
"
By age
6. 3
12. 1
17. 0 |
27. 3
27. 3
9. 1
12. 5
4. 2
4. 2
2 .4
10. 7
17.9
5. 2
12. 6
10. 9
4. 8
17. 3
11. 0
4 .6
9 .2
19. 0
10. 5
10. 5
15. 1
11. 0
11. 0
17. 1
20. 6
11. 3
26. 8
8. 3
11. 1
3 8 .9
22. 2
11. 1
8. 3
16. 7
■
“

1 ,0 0 0

1 ,600
to
1,799

1,8 0 0 1
I
1 2 ,0 0 0 ! 2 , 200
to : 2 , 0 0 0 + 1 to j to
[
1 ,999 i!
1 2 ,1 9 9 1 2 , 399

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

2. 0
8. 3
17. 1
28. 3
20. 0
8. 3
6. 8
7. 8
14. 7
.5
1. 0

1. 5
6. 5
19. 6
29. 0
1 9 .6
9 .4
7. 3
6. 5
.7
.7
-

19. 6
16. 7
20. 2
20. 1
21. 3
23. 6
19.8
17. 1
16. 5
36. 1
2. 8

13. 2
8. 3
10. 7
15. 5
14. 7
15. 5
15. 1
12. 2
9. 3
2. 8
2. 8

33. 3

“

1 0 0 .0

-

i
!

100. 0

_
-

;
1
;
2. 2 : i . 4
1 0 . 8 ! 12. 3
2 6 . 9 j 24. 7
34. 4
37. 0
8. 6 !
6 .9
5 .4
2. 7
5 .4 ! 6 .9
3. 2
4. 1
3 .2 |
3. 2
4. 1
i
8.

9
8. 3
11 .9
14 .4
11. 8
4.6
5. 8
6. 1
3. 1
7. 1
8. 3
7. 1

2, 400 +

100. 0

100. 0

_
7. 7
46. 2
23. 1
7. 7
1 5 .4
-

_
14. 3
14. 3
28. 6
28. 6
14. 3
_
_
_
-

1. 2

0. 7
_
1. 2
.6
.7
1. 2
1. 2

4. 1

7. 0
4. 2
10. 7
10. 3
9 .9
2 .9
2. 3
6. 1
3. 1
8. 3
8. 3

4. 2
3. 5
1. 1
.6
2 .3
_
_
-

■

-

N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y no t eq u al to ta ls .

Table A -34. P ercent distribution of carpenters in D etroit by age and hours of work for the 12-month period, Novem ber 1966—October 1967
A ge in te r v a l

T o ta l

1
to
199

200
to
399

400 | 600
to ! to
599 1 799

800
to
999

T o t a l __________________ 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0
2 .4
3. 5
6. 7
L e s s th a n 20 y e a r s __________
1. 3
1. 2 0 .9
.1
14-17 y e a r s ______________
.3
.3
2 .4
.6
3. 2
6. 7
1. 1
1. 3
18-19 y e a r s ______________
7 .0 11. 6 10. 7 13. 5
9 .4
8. 3
2 0 -2 4 y e a r s .......................... ........
9 .4 15. 4 11. 8
8. 1 7. 5 11. 3
2 5 -2 9 y e a r s __________________
8. 7
9 .0 10. 7
7. 7 11. 0
8. 3
3 0 -3 4 y e a r s __________________
9 .8 12. 0 1 1 .6
3 5 -3 9 y e a r s __________________ 12. 6 12. 5
9. 9
4 0 -4 4 y e a rs
16. 8 17. 9 16. 5 11. 5 14. 1 11. 6
4 5 -4 9 y e a r s __________________ 16. 1 13. 1 12. 5 11. 5 10. 0 11. 6
8 .4
8 .4
6 .4
5 0 -5 4 y e a r s __________________ 11. 6
6. 0 11. 3
3. 5
5. 7
7. 5
8. 1 3. 0
7. 0
5 5 -5 9 y e a r s __________________
6 .4
3. 8
7 .4
7. 8
6 0 -6 4 y e a r s __________________
6. 3
7. 0
3 .4
7. 8
7. 1
65 y e a r s an d o v e r ___________
9. 3 10. 5
9 .9
4. 4
6. 5
2. 6
7. 2
7. 0
8. 1
6 5 -6 9 y e a r s ______________
2. 3
2 .4
2. 7
2. 7
1. 3
70 y e a r s an d o v e r ________
.8
T o t a l ______________ ____
L e s s th a n 20 y e a r s _________
14-17 y e a r s ______________
18-19 y e a r s ______________
2 0 -2 4 y e a r s __________________
2 5 -2 9 y e a r s __________________
3 0 -3 4 y e a r s __________________
3 5 -3 9 y e a r s __________________
4 0 -4 4 y e a r s ____ __________
4 5 -4 9 y e a r s __________________
5 0 -5 4 y e a r s __________________
5 5 -5 9 y e a r s __________________
6 0 -6 4 y e a r s _______ •__________
65 y e a r s an d o v e r ___________
6 5 -6 9 y e a r s ______________
70 y e a r s an d o v e r _______

100. 0
_
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0.0
100. 0
100. 0
10 0.0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

4 .8
22. 7
20. 0
2. 7
8 .0
4 .4
4 .9
4 .8
5. 1
3 .9
3. 5
1 .8
4. 7
2 9 .2
1 3 .4
1 5 .8

5. 0
34. 7
20. 0
14. 7
7. 6
6 .9
6. 1
3 .9
4 .9
3. 8
3 .6
2. 1
2. 9
2 7 .4
1 3 .4
14. 0

4. 3
26. 7
26. 7
8. 3
5. 0
3. 8
3. 3

2 .9
3 .0
2 .4
3. 0
4 .9
25. 7
1 3 .4
12. 3

4. 3
5 .3
5. 3
5. 8
8. 2
5 .4
4. 1
3. 6
2 .7
2. 2
3. 5
4. 7
21. 3
7. 3
14. 0

5. 3
12. 0
12. 0
6 .4
7. 8
5. 1
4 .9
3. 7
3. 8
5. 2
5. 0
6 .4
22. 2
1 3 .4
8 .8

H o u rs in te r v a l
1 ,0 0 0 ! 1 ,2 0 0
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,6 0 0
to ! to
to
to
1,1 9 9 i 1,3 9 9
1,5 9 9
1 ,7 9 9
By h o u rs
100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0
1 .4
0 .4
0. 3
1. 1
.2
1 .4
.4
.3
.9
8 .7
6 .4
9. 1
4 .9
10. 1
6 .4
6. 9
9. 1
9 .0
6. 5
8. 6
9. 3
10. 1
13. 0
11. 6
13. 9
13. 0
15. 4
15. 8
18. 4
15. 0
1 9 .4
17. 2
12. 7
1 2 .4
13. 3
12. 5
11. 5
7. 8
9 .8
11. 3
9. 3
8. 1
8 .4
6. 3
6 .6
4. 0
2. 1
1 .4
1. 5
2 .4
1. 3
1. 7
1. 1
.4
1. 6
.2
.3

1 ,8 0 0
to
1,9 9 9

2,0 0 0 +

2, 000
to
2, 199

2, 200
to
2, 399

100. 0
0. 5
.1
.4
3. 5
5. 3
8. 7
13. 6
22. 0
19. 2
13. 8
6. 9
5. 3
1. 2
1. 1
.1

100. 0
0. 2
.2
4 .9
7. 4
10. 1
15. 1
17. 8
17. 8
12. 0
8. 2
5. 5
.9
.8
.1

100. 0
0. 2
.2
5. 6
6. 0
7. 9
15. 2
17. 5
19. 0
11. 7
9 .6
6 .4
1. 0
.8
.2

100. 0
0 .4
.4
3 .8
8 .4
13. 9
15. 1
18. 1
1 6 .4
12. 2
6. 3
4. 2
1. 2
.8

100. 0
_
4. 3
12. 0
12. 0
14. 5
18. 8
1 5 .4
12. 8
6. 0
4. 3
-

B y ag e
15. 1
9. 7
4. 0
52. 0
40 . 0
1 2 .0
4. 0
13. 8
12. 2
12. 1
1 2 .9
15. 7
9 .6
10. 0
1 3 .9
14. 2
8 .9
16. 2
7. 7
11. 2
16. 1
9 .4
21. 0
14. 7
12. 7
6 .8
17. 1
10. 1
5. 0
7. 0
1 .8

14. 0
25. 3
20. 0
5. 3
7. 0
9 .2
14. 0
15. 0
18. 3
16. 7
16. 6
11. 8
11. 6
8. 0
6. 2
1. 8

12. 6
_
2. 5
8 .9
11. 5
14. 5
15. 0
13. 3
1 3 .9
13. 0
12. 7
10. 7
3 .4
3. 3
3. 6

7. 5
1. 3
1. 3
6. 0
5. 5
6 .8
9 .0
7. 8
8 .9
7. 6
8. 8
7. 3
4. 0

3 .4
1. 3
_
1. 3
1 .9
3. 6
5 .4
4. 1
3. 7
3. 5
3. 6
2. 7

1. 7
_
_
_
1. 0
2. 5
2. 3
1. 9
1. 9
1. 6
1 .9
1. 2
1. 1
-

7. 1
9. 3
9. 3
9. 3
8. 0
7. 6
5 .7
5. 5
6. 6
7. 1
8. 1
8 .9
20. 7
6. 7
14. 0

NOTE: B ecause of rounding, sum s of individual item s m ay not equal totals.

86




17. 8
5. 3
5. 3
1 2 .4
14. 0
13. 2
1 9 .6
19. 5
21. 5
19. 1
2 1 .4
18. 0
1 4 .8
7. 8
7. 0

2. 2

1. 8

.4

2. 2

2 .9
1. 1
1. 8

2, 400 +

"

T a b le A -3 5 . P e rc e n t d is trib u tio n of la b o r e r s in D e tro it by ag e and h o u rs of w o rk fo r th e 1 2 -m o n th p e rio d , N o v e m b e r 1966—O c to b e r 1967
A ge in te r v a l

T o ta l

... . . . . . .

L e s s th a n 20 y e a r s __________
14-17 y e a r s .............. .............
18-19 y e a rs ______________
2 0 -2 4 y e a rs _________________
2 5 -2 9 y e a rs _________________
3 0 -3 4 y e a r s __________________
35 -3 9 y e a rs
4 0 -4 4 y e a r s _________________
4 5 -4 9 y e a r s ...
5 0 -5 4 y e a r s __________________
5 5 -5 9 y e a r s __________________
6 0 -6 4 y e a r s __________________
65 y e a r s and o v e r ___________
6 5 -6 9 y e a rs ______________
70 y e a rs and o v e r _______

T o ta l

200
1
to
to
199 , 399

100. 0 1 0 0.0
0. 1
.1
.1
4 .9
7. 6
8. 9
12 .9
1 5 .4
16. 1
13. 7
10. 2
7. 0
3. 2
2. 7
.5

11. 7
6. 6
13. 3
13. 8
14. 3
11. 7
10. 7
8. 2
5. 6
4. 1
3. 1
1. 0

400
to
599

600
to
799

100. 0 1 0 0.0 100. 0 100. 0
12. 0
16. 5
10. 5
9. 0
15. 0
13. 5
12. 0
3. 8
5. 3
2. 3
2. 3
-

16. 5
10. 1
7. 3
10. 1
1 1 .9
12. 8
9. 2
9. 2
7. 3
5. 5
5. 5
-

-

6. 6
8. 2
7 .4
10. 7
1 6 .4
13 .9
9 .8
11. 5
10. 7
4. 9
4. 1
.8

H o u rs in te r v a l
1 ,4 0 0 1 1 ,6 0 0 I 1 ,8 0 0 |
1 ,2 0 0
I 2 ,0 0 0
to
to
to
to j 2, 000+ 1 to
1 ,5 9 9 i 1,7 9 9
1 ,9 9 9 j
2 ,1 9 9
1 ,3 9 9
By h o u rs

800 1 1 ,000
to
to
999 : 1, 199

1 0 0.0 i 1 0 0 .0 | 1 0 0.0 ! 1 0 0 .0
_ j 0. 7
0. 3
.
.3
|
.7
- l
5. 0
3. 5
3 .2
2. 2
3. 2
7. 4
6. 3
7 .3 j1 6. 5
5. 7
5. 7
11. 1
9. 9
5 .9
9. 1
10. 7
1 0 .4
13. 0
15. 5
12. 0
14. 6
15. 5
13. 2
15. 7
17. 0
13. 2
16. 0
16. 1
18. 0
1 6 .9
15. 7
16. 0
12. 8
1 4 .4
16. 1
10. 7
6. 3
12. 2
13. 9
1 1 .9
6 .4
7. 8
11. 1
6. 9
9. 1
4. 2
3. 1
5. 0
4. 6
1. 3
3. 3
3. 5
4. 6
2. 2
1. 3
.7
1. 7
.9
-

j

!

-

1

1

io o . o !

1. 6
9 .6
12. 8
16. 0
8. 8
15. 2
1 4 .4
1 0 .4
7. 2
4. 0
3. 2
.8

| 1 0 0.0 , 1 00.0
:

0. 3
-

.8
6. 6
9 .0
15. 1
18. 2
20. 2
14. 6
9. 2
4. 6
i 1. 5
1 1. 9
.4
j

0. 4
.4
1. 1
4. 5
8. 7
13. 5
1 9 .2
18 .8
1 5 .0
10. 9
5 .6
2. 3
1 .9
.4

18. 6

12. 6

3. 3
2 .9
16. 2
18. 6
21. 7
21. 9
23. 2
19. 8
16. 8
12. 2
10. 0
8. 8
10. 0

50. 0
50. 0
2 .9
7. 5
12. 2
13. 2
15. 7
14. 7
13. 9
13. 6
1 0 .2
18. 8
8 .8
10. 0

2 ,2 0 0 I
2 ,4 0 0 +
to
2, 399
1

100. 0 . 10 0.0

j1
1

11. 0
9. 6
2 1 .9
1 1 6 .4
24. 7
9 .6
; 2- 7
4. 1
!
;

-

!
i 11. 5
: 9 .6
! 13. 5
1 5 .4
21. 2
19. 2
9 .6
-

By age
T o t a l __________________
L e s s th a n 2 0 _________________
14-17 y e a rs ______________
18- 19 y e a r s --------------------2 0 -2 4 y e a rs __________________
2 5 -2 9 y e a rs
3 0 -3 4 y e a r s _________________
35-39 y e a r s _________________
4 0 -4 4 y e a r s ............... ...
4 5 -4 9 y e a r s __________________
5 0 -5 4 y e a r s __________________
55 -5 9 y e a rs
6 0 -6 4 y e a rs
65 y e a r s and o v e r
6 5 -6 9 y e a rs
70 y e a r s an d o v e r _______

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

9. 3
_
22. 3
8. 1
13. 8
9 .9
8. 6
6. 8
7. 3
7. 5
7. 5
30. 5
10. 5
20. 0

6. 3
_
15. 5
13. 7
7. 5
4. 4
6. 2
5. 3
5. 6
2. 3
4. 8
5. 3
5. 3
-

5. 2
_
17. 5
6 .8
4. 3
4. 0
4. 0
4. 1
3. 5
4. 7
5 .4
10. 5
10. 5

5 .8 i 5 .9
7. 8
6. 2
4. 8
4. 8
6. 2
5. 0
4. 2
6. 5

!
!
:
!
I
1
!
|
t

1.9
7. 5
8. 5
7 .4
3 .4
5 .6
6. 3
j 6. 1
8. 8
6. 1
18. 8 17. 0
8. 8
7. 0
10. 0 10. 0

i

5. 7
5. 8
5. 6
6. 4
4. 8
4 .9
4. 7
6. 6
6. 1
7. 5
9 .0
7. 0
20. 0

6 .8
100. 0
4 .9
5. 6
8. 5
5. 5
6. 5
6. 8
8. 0
4. 2
10. 9
18. 8
8. 8
10. 0

10. 4
6 .8
9. 9
6. 9
12. 5
10. 5
10. 9
9 .7
12. 2
9. 5
17. 5
17. 5
-

10. 9 ! 15. 1
_
4 .9
9. 3
11. 2
11. 0
11. 1
10. 9
11. 5
13. 1
12. 2
28. 8
8. 8
2 0 .0

50. 0
50. 0
9 .7
11. 2
9. 6
14. 0
16. 7
16. 8
17. 7
20. 6
15. 0
7. 0
7. 0

•
i
!
i

I
3. 5
1
..-...........
i
!
J
ji
5. 0
1 3‘ 7
5 .9
< 3. 7
! 5 .3
2 .4
.9
2. 0
_
_

i

2. 5

!
1
‘

j
!
j
,
I
:I

3. 7
2. 7
2. 8
2. 5
3. 2
3. 5
2. 3

i —...........

N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not e q u al to ta ls .
T a b le A -3 6 . P e rc e n t d is trib u tio n of re in fo rc e d s te e l w o rk e rs in D e tro it by ag e an d h o u rs of w o rk fo r th e 1 2 -m o n th p e rio d , N o v e m b e r 1966—O c to b e r 1967
A g e in t e r v a l

T o ta l

1
to
199

200
to
399

4 00
to
599

T o ta l . ..............
L e s s th a n 20 y e a r s _________
1 4 -1 7 y e a r s . _
1 8 -1 9 y e a r s _______________
2 0 -2 4 y e a r s _
2 5 -2 9 y e a r s ___________________
3 0 -3 4 y e a r s ___________________
3 5 -3 9 y e a r s ___________________
4 0 -4 4 y e a r s
4 5 -4 9 y e a r s
5 0 -5 4 y e a r s ___________________
5 5 -5 9 y e a r s ___________________
6 0 -6 4 y e a r s _
65 y e a r s a n d o v e r __________
6 5 -6 9 y e a r s
70 y e a r s a n d o v e r ________

100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0
_
_
_
_
2 9 .9 7 6. 2 54. 6 5 0. 0
_
18. 6
6. 3
9. 5
1 4 .4
27. 3
6. 3
15. 0
4. 8
9. 1 2 5. 0
12. 4
4. 8
6. 3
4. 1
4. 8
2. 6
6. 3
9. 1
1. 0
1. 6
.5
.5
"
~
"
“

T o t a l ____________________
L e s s th a n 20 y e a r s __________
1 4 -1 7 y e a r s _______________
1 8 -1 9 y e a r s _______________
2 0 -2 4 y e a r s
. ....
2 5 -2 9 y e a r s ___ ______ _________
3 0 -3 4 y e a r s . ___
3 5 -3 9 y e a r s . _ . . ...
4 0 -4 4 y e a r s _____________ _____
4 5 -4 9 y e a r s ......................................
5 0 -5 4 y e a r s ___________________
5 5 -5 9 y e a r s ___________________
6 0 -6 4 y e a r s ___________________
65 y e a r s a n d o v e r
6 5 -6 9 y e a r s __
70 y e a r s a n d o v e r ________

100. 0
_
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

10. 8
_
2 7. 6
5. 6
3. 5
4. 2
12. 5
_
_
_
"

5. 7

_

10. 3
10. 7
3. 5
2 0. 0
_
_
_
"

8. 3
_
13. 8
2. 8
3. 6
13. 8
4. 2
20. 0
_
_
"

H o u rs i n t e r v a l
600 : 800 ! 1,000 : 1 ,2 0 0 ! 1 ,4 0 0 |
to j to
to | to j to
799 | 999 i 1 ,1 9 9 1 1 ,3 9 9 1 1 ,5 9 9
B y h o u rs
1 0 0 .0 | 1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
_
_
_
_
_
4 1 .7
4. 8
2 5. 9
2 1. 1
2 8. 6 16. 7
2 2. 2
2 6. 3
19. 1
_
14. 3
7 .4
15. 8
19. 1
14. 3
8. 3
18. 5
2 1. 1
19. 1
14. 3 16. 7
2 3. 8
2 2. 2
5. 3
_
14. 3
8. 3
3. 7
10. 5
_
_
_
_
_
9. 5
14. 3
8. 3
_
_
4. 8
4. 8
“
"
"
“
~
3. 6
_
5. 6
3. 6
3. 5
4. 2
12. 5
3 3. 3
_
_
■

6. 2

_

8. 6
5. 6
3. 5
8. 3
12. 5
_
33. 3
_
_
"

10. 8
_
1. 7
11. 1
14. 3
13. 8
2 0 .8
_
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0

N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l to ta ls .




By age
13. 9
9 .8

_

_

12. 1
16. 7
7. 1
1 7 .2
2 5. 0
12. 5
_
_
_

6 .9
13. 9
10. 7
1 3 .8
4. 2
2 5. 0
_
_
-

"

-

_

_
_

1, 600
to
1 ,7 9 9

1, 800
to
1 ,9 9 9

100. 0
_
13. 8
31. 0
2 0. 7
13. 8
10. 3
6. 9
_
_
3. 5
_
~

1 0 0 .0 ’ 1 0 0 .0
_
_
10. 5
41. 7
2 1. 1
8. 3
31. 6
16. 7
10. 5
16. 7
15. 8
8. 3
_
_
10. 5
8. 3
_
_
_
_
_
_
~
-

15. 0
_
6 .9
25. 0
2 1 .4
13. 8
12. 5
2 5. 0
_
_
33. 3
_

_

9 .8

_

3 .5
1 1 .0
2 1 .4
6 .9
12. 5
_
40. 0
_

_
_
_
“

6. 2
8. 6
2. 8
7. 1
6 .9
4. 2
_
20. 0
_
_

_
_
"

2, 000
to
2, 199

2 ,2 0 0 I
to
2, 400 +
2 , 399

100. 0

2, 000 + 1

1 0 0 .0 j 100. 0
_
- I
1
_
40. 0
_
2 0. 0
_
2 0. 0
_
2 0. 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_

1
:
i
1
|
j
!
!
1 4 .3 j
_ j
_
_
-

42. 9
14. 3
1 4 .3
1 4 .3

I

3. 6

2. 6

_

5. 2
_
3. 6
3. 5
4. 2
_
20.4)

_
3. 5
2. 8
3. 6
3. 5
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
-

_

_
_
_
_

.

_
_
_
-

87

T a b le A -3 7 . P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of c e m e n t m a s o n s in D e tro it by a g e an d h o u rs of w o rk fo r th e 1 2 -m o n th p e rio d , N o v e m b e r 1966—O c to b e r 1967
A ge in te r v a l

T o ta l

i
to
199

200
to
399

400
to
599

600
to
799

T o t a l ................................... 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0
_
_
L e s s th a n 20 y e a r s _________
14- 17 y e a r s ______________
18-19 y e a r s ______________
3. 3 12. 5
7. 1
2 0 -2 4 y e a r s __________________
1. 5
3. 3
7. 1 10. 0
2 5 -2 9 y e a r s __________________
2 .9
7. 1 10. 0
3 0 -34 y e a r s __________________
7. 4 16. 7
35-39 y e a r s __________________ 11. 3 20. 0 12. 5 14. 3 10. 0
_
4 0 -4 4 y e a r s _
.
17. 2 13. 3 37. 5 2 1 .4
_
7. 1 10. 0
4 5 -4 9 y e a r s __________________ 1 9 .6 16. 7
_
5 0 -5 4 y e a r s ....
.
...... _ 10. 8 10. 0
14. 3 10. 0
_
2 1 .4 40. 0
6. 7
5 5 -59 y e a r s __________________ 14. 2
_
_
10. 0
6 0 -6 4 y e a r s __________________
5. 9
12. 5
_
_
10. 0 25. 0
65 y e a r s and o v e r ___________
9. 3
_
_
6 .4
3. 3 12. 5
6 5 -69 y e a r s ______________
70 y e a rs and o v e r _______
6. 7 12. 5
2. 9
“
T o t a l __________________ 100. 0
L e s s th a n 20 y e a r s _________
14-17 y e a r s
_ ___
18-19 y e a r s ______________
2 0 -2 4 y e a r s __________________ 100. 0
2 5 -2 9 y e a r s __________________ 100. 0
3 0 -34 y e a r s
..... .
100. 0
35-39 y e a r s __________________ 100. 0
4 0 -4 4 y e a r s
..............
100. 0
4 5 -4 9 y e a r s __________________ 100. 0
5 0 -5 4 y e a r s __________________ 100. 0
5 5 -5 9 y e a r s __________________ 100. 0
6 0 -6 4 y e a r s __________________ 100. 0
65 y e a r s an d o v e r
100. 0
6 5 -6 9 y e a r s ______________ 100. 0
70 y e a rs an d o v e r _______ 100. 0

14. 7
_
33. 3
16. 7

33. 3

3. 9
_
33. 3
_
4 .4
8. 6
_
_

26. 1
1 1 .4
12. 5
13. 6
6 .9
41. 0

8. 3
24. 4

33. 3

16. 7

7. 7

_

7. 7

6. 9
_
33. 3
16. 7
6. 7
8. 7
8. 6
2. 5
9. 1
10. 3
_
_
_
■

4. 9
_
16. 7
6. 7
4 .4
_
2. 5
4. 6
13. 8
8. 3
_
_
"

H o u rs in te r v a l
1,2 0 0
1 ,4 0 0
800 | 1 ,0 0 0
to
to
to 1 to
1 ,599 |
999 1 1 ,199 1 1 ,399
By h o u rs
100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0
_
_
_
4. 6
6. 7
20. 0
5. 3
6. 7
10. 5
6. 7
10. 0
9. 1
10. 5
13. 3
10. 0
18. 2
31. 6
6. 7
10. 0
27. 3
_
21. 1
6. 7
9. 1
10. 0
10. 5
20. 0
22. 7
10. 0
5. 3
13. 3
4. 6
30. 0
5. 3
20. 0
4. 6
20. 0
5. 3
13. 3
4. 6
10. 0
6. 7
-

-

4. 9
_
-

13. 3

4 .4
2 .9
2. 5
_
3. 5
8. 3
32. 1
1 5 .4
16. 7

By ag e
7. 4
10. 8
_
.
16. 7
16. 7
6. 7
4. 4
8. 7
5. 7
11. 4
2. 5
15. 0
4. 6
9. 1
10. 3
17. 2
16. 7
8. 3
32. 1
7. 7
1 5 .4
7. 7
16. 7

9. 3
.

6. 7
8. 7
5. 7
15. 0

18. 2
6. 9
8. 3
7. 7
7. 7

■

1 ,6 0 0
to
1,7 9 9

1 ,8 0 0
to
1 ,999

1 2 ,0 0 0 I 2 ,2 0 0
2, 000+ I to 1 to
|
!
1 2 ,1 9 9 1 2 ,3 9 9

100. 0
5 .9
5 .9
11. 8
23. 5
17. 7
17. 7
5. 9
11. 8
11. 8

100. 0
_
3 .9
3 .9
7. 7
26. 9
1 5 .4
11. 5
11. 5
11. 5
7. 7
7. 7
"

1 0 0.0

12. 8

8. 3
_

6. 7
4. 4

5. 7
10. 0

13. 6
10. 3
8. 3
1 5 .4
1 5 .4
“

_

16. 7
6. 7
8. 7
20. 0
10. 0
_
10. 3
25. 0
1 5 .4
1 5 .4
-

2, 400 +

6. 1
12. 1
21. 2
33. 3
9. 1
9. 1
3. 0
6. 1
3. 0
3. 0

1 0 0.0
_
5. 3
5. 3
10. 5
42. 1
10. 5
10. 5
5. 3
10. 6
5. 3
5. 3

100. 0
_
30. 0
50. 0
10. 0
_
10. 0
_
_
-

100. 0
_
25. 0
_
50. 0
25. 0
_
“

16. 2
_
13. 3
1 7 .4
20. 0
27. 5
10. 3
8. 3
10. 5

9. 3
_
6. 7
4 .4
5. 7
20. 0
9. 1
6 .9
8. 3
24. 4

4. 9

16. 7

16. 7

2. 0
.
6. 7
_
_
5. 0
4. 6
_
■

7. 7

7. 7

_

13. 0
14. 3
2. 5
3. 5
_
_
“

N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u al to ta ls .

T a b le A -3 8 . P e rc e n t d is trib u tio n of o p e ra tin g e n g in e e rs in D e tro it by ag e an d h o u rs of w o rk fo r th e 1 2 -m o n th p e rio d , N o v e m b e r 1966—O c to b e r 1967
A ge in te r v a l

T o ta l

1
to
199

200
to
399

400
to
599

600
to
799

800 j 1,0 0 0
to I to
999
1, 199

T o t a l ________ __________
L e s s th a n 20 y e a r s _________
14-17 y e a r s __ _ _ _____
18-19 y e a rs
2 0 -2 4 y e a r s __________________
2 5 -2 9 y e a r s __________________
3 0 -34 y e a r s
35-39 y e a r s _ ______________
4 0 -4 4 y e a r s . . . . . .
4 5 -4 9 y e a r s __________________
5 0 -5 4 y e a r s __________________
5 5 -5 9 y e a rs
6 0 -6 4 y e a r s __________________
65 y e a r s and o v e r .............
6 5 -6 9 y e a rs
70 y e a r s and o v e r

100. 0 100. 0 1 0 0.0 |l0 0 . 0 100. 0 100. 0
_
_
_
_
_
0. 1
.1
1. 5
.9
4. 2 4 .4
3. 3
6. 1
9 .7
6. 9
10. 1 14. 5 10. 0
6. 1 20. 7 12. 9
14. 2 23. 2
6. 7 15. 2 10. 3
6. 5
22. 2 14. 5 30. 0 21. 2 13. 8 25. 8
16. 0 10. 1 16. 7 12. 1 20. 7 12. 9
12. 0 11. 6
6. 7
6. 1
6. 9 12 .9
10. 2 13. 0 20. 0 24. 2
3. 5
3. 2
5. 8
7. 0
6. 7
3. 0 10. 3 12 .9
_
3. 2
6. 1
7. 0
1. 5
3. 2
2. 7
3. 5
6. 1
1. 5
3. 2
.5
3. 5
"
"
-

T o t a l __________________
L e s s th a n 20 y e a r s
14-17 y e a r s
18-19 y e a r s ______________
2 0 -2 4 y e a r s
. _ . __
2 5 -2 9 y e a r s
. ...........
30 -3 4 y e a r s __________________
35-39 y e a r s _ ______________
4 0 -4 4 y e a r s __________________
4 5 -4 9 y e a r s __________________
5 0 -5 4 y e a r s __________________
5 5 -5 9 y e a rs __________________
6 0 -6 4 y e a r s _ _
65 y e a r s an d o v e r .................
6 5 -6 9 y e a r s
... _
70 y e a r s an d o v e r _______

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

9. 3
_
14. 3
9. 7
13. 3
15. 1
6. 1
5 .9
9 .0
11. 8
7. 7
5. 0
5. 0
"

4. 0
_
3. 2
4. 0
1. 9
5. 5
4. 2
2. 3
7 .9
3 .9
3. 9
_

4 .4
_
6. 5
2. 7
4. 7
4. 2
3 .4
2. 3
10. 5
1 .9
10. 0
10. 0
_

3 .9
_
6. 5
8. 0
2. 8
2. 4
5. 0
2. 3
1. 3
5. 8
30. 0
5. 0
25. 0

4. 2
_
9. 7
5. 3
1. 9
4 .9
3 .4
4. 5
1. 3
7. 7
5. 0
5. 0

100. 0
_
2. 1
2. 1
4. 2
16. 7
25. 0
10. 4
12. 5
1 0 .4
4. 2
12. 6
6. 3
6. 3
6 .4
_
14. 3
3. 2
2. 7
7. 6
7. 3
4. 2
6. 7
6. 6
3. 9
90. 0
15. 0
75. 0

H o u rs in te r v a l
1,2 0 0
1 ,4 0 0
to
to
1, 399
1 ,5 9 9
By h o u rs
100. 0 100. 0
_
_
2. 5
2. 5
6. 8
2. 5
5. 1
17. 5
10. 2
22. 5
18. 6
12. 5
22. 0
15. 3
12. 5
12. 5
10. 2
10. 0
10. 2
5. 0
1. 7
5. 0
1. 7
By age
5 .4
7. 9
_
_
14. 3
3. 2
12. 9
4. 0
1. 3
6. 6
5. 7
5. 5
6. 7
4. 2
10. 9
5. 6
10. 1
6. 6
7. 9
7. 7
11. 5
10. 0
5. 0
10. 0
5. 0
“

N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not e q u al to ta ls .

88




1 ,6 0 0 j 1 ,8 0 0
to j to
1 ,7 9 9 | 1 ,9 9 9

2, 000 +

2, 000
to
2, 199

2, 200
to
2, 399

2,4 0 0 +

100. 0
_
10. 3
17. 2
8. 6
20. 7
15. 5
10. 3
10. 3
5. 2
1. 7
1. 7
-

100. 0
_
1. 2
4. 7
11. 6
12. 8
19. 8
17. 4
10. 5
7. 0
11. 6
3. 5
3. 5
-

100. 0
0 .4
.4
1. 1
1. 5
9. 2
15. 6
25. 2
17. 6
13. 7
8. 8
5. 0
1. 9
1 .9
-

100. 0
_
0. 9
9. 7
15. 0
24. 8
21. 2
15. 0
6. 2
4. 4
2. 7
2. 7

100. 0
1. 3
1. 3
1. 3
2. 6
4. 0
11. 8
34. 2
13. 2
13. 2
9. 2
6. 6
2. 6
2. 6
"

100. 0
_
1. 4
2. 7
13. 7
20. 6
1 6 .4
1 6 .4
12. 3
4. 1
4. 1
_
-

7. 8
_
1 9 .4
13. 3
4. 7
7. 3
7. 6
6. 7
7. 9
5. 8
5. 0
5. 0

11. 5
_
14. 3
12. 9
13. 3
10. 4
10. 3
12. 6
10. 1
7 .9
19. 2
15. 0
15. 0
_

35. 2
_
100. 0
42. 9
1 2 .9
32. 0
38. 7
40. 0
38. 7
40. 4
30. 3
25. 0
"

15. 2
100. 0
14. 3
_
14. 7
16. 0
17. 0
20. 2
19. 1
9. 2
9 .6
15. 0
15. 0
_

10. 2
_
100. 0
14. 3
6. 5
4. 0
8. 5
15. 8
8 .4
11. 2
9. 2
9 .6
10. 0
10. 0
“

9 .8
_
14. 3
6. 5
13. 3
14. 2
7. 3
10. 1
10. 1
11. 8
5. 8
25. 0
25. 0

T a b le A -3 9 . P e rc e n t d is trib u tio n of c a r p e n te r s in so u th e rn C a lifo rn ia by age and h o u rs of w o rk , c a le n d a r y e a r 1966
A ge in te r v a l

T o ta l

1
to
199

200
to
399

400
to
599

600
to
799

T o t a l __________________ 100. 0 1 00.0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0
L e s s th a n 20 y e a rs _________
1. 0
0. 7
1. 5
1. 8
1. 5
.1
.1
.1
14-17 y e a rs ______________
H
1. 0
18-19 y e a r s ______________
.6
1. 3
1. 6
1. 4
2 0 -2 4 y e a rs _________________
8. 5
7. 7
6. 8
8. 7
9. 8
13. 1 15. 2 12. 9 14. 2 14. 7
2 5 -2 9 y e a r s __________ _____
3 0 -34 y e a r s _________________
12. 8 14. 7 1 3 .4 13. 0 12. 9
3 5 -39 y e a r s __________________ 12. 3 12. 6 11. 3 11. 1 12. 1
4 0 -4 4 y e a rs
. . .................. 1 3 .9 1 1 .4 12. 6 12. 2 11.9
4 5 -4 9 y e a r s __________________ 13. 7 10. 6 11. 5 11. 7 12. 3
5 0 -5 4 y e a rs _________________
11. 0 8. 7
8. 9 10. 0 10. 7
5 5 -59 y e a r s _____________ ___
8. 5 7. 1
7. 8
9 .4
8. 7
6 0 -6 4 y e a rs __________________
5. 7
5. 8
5. 4
6. 1
5. 9
65 y e a r s and o v e r __ _______
4. 0
2. 6
2. 2
3 .9
1. 9
3. 1
3. 3
2. 0
6 5 -6 9 y e a r s ______________
1. 7
1. 5
70 y e a rs and o v e r .
.3
.8
.5
.6
.6
T o t a l __________________
L e s s th a n 20 y e a rs _________
14-17 y e a r s ______________
18-19 y e a r s ______________
2 0 -2 4 y e a r s __________________
2 5 -29 y e a rs __________________
3 0 -3 4 y e a rs
. ......
35-39 y e a r s _________________
4 0 -4 4 y e a r s _________________
4 5 -4 9 y e a r s __________________
5 0 -5 4 y e a rs _________________
5 5 -59 y e a rs __________________
6 0 -6 4 y e a rs
65 y e a rs and o v e r ___________
65 -6 9 y e a r s _____________
70 y e a r s and o v e r _______

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

10. 0
21. 6
38. 5
20. 5
12. 7
11. 5
1 1 .4
10. 2
8. 2
7. 7
7 .9
8. 3
10. 6
20. 7
20. 0
24. 1

8 .9
22. 8
30. 8
22. 4
12. 8
8. 7
9. 3
8. 1
8. 1
7. 5
7. 3
8. 2
10. 1
18. 8
19. 2
17. 0

8. 5
19. 0
1 5 .4
1 9 .2
10. 7
9 .2
8. 7
7. 7
7. 5
7. 3
7. 8
9. 5
9 .5
11. 8
11 .2
14. 3

8. 5
12. 9
_
13. 7
9. 5
9 .5
8. 5
8. 3
7. 2
7. 6
8. 3
8. 6
9. 2
10. 0
9. 3
1 3 .4

H o u rs
1 ,2 0 0
800 j 1,0 0 0
to ! to ; to
999 I 1, 199 ! 1 ,399
By
i
100. 0 100. 0 j1---- -0.0
10
0. 4 1 0 .3
0. 7
.1
- I
.6
.4 J
.3
6. 8 | 6. 2
7. 9
14. 3
14. 9
13. 4
13. 3
12. 1
11 .9
12. 0
11. 0
12. 2
13. 0
13. 8
12. 8
14. 0
12. 2
13. 7
10. 3
11. 3 ! 11. 7
8 .8
10. 0 ! 9 .0
6. 5
5. 8
5. 3
1.8
1. 4
.9
1 .4
1. 2
.9
.2
.4
.1
9 .0
9. 1
1 5 .4
8. 7
10. 3
10. 2
8. 3
8. 8
8. 4
8. 0
8. 4
9. 3
10. 9
8. 5
8. 0
10. 7

9. 2
6. 0
_
6 .4
9. 2
9 .4
9. 5
8. 2
8. 5
9. 2
9. 5
10. 8
9 .9
7. 1
7 .4
5. 4

in te r v a l
!| 1,4 0 0 j 1 ,600
1 ,8 0 0
to
! to
! 1 ,599 I 1 ,799 I 1 ,9 9 9
I to
h o u rs
!
100. 0 100.0
100. 0
0. 1
0. 1
0. 1
.1
.1
.1
5. 8
5. 6
4. 7
1 1 .4
12. 0
11. 7
12. 5
1 2 .4
1 2 .4
12. 3
13. 6
12. 5
14. 3
15. 4
16. 0
15. 7
15. 1
16. 8
11. 8
13. 1
12. 1
8. 8
8. 0
9. 1
5. 2
4. 4
4. 0
1. 0
.7
1. 1
1. 0
.6
.9
.1
.1
.1

By ag e
r
9 .6
9. 9
4. 3
2. 2
_
_
4. 6
2. 3
8. 8
8. 5
10. 5
9. 1
9. 1
9. 6
9 .6
9. 9
10. 2
9. 6
11. 3
9 .9
10. 3
10. 7
10. 2
10. 5
9 .6
9. 6
4. 7
5. 2
5. 3
5. 7
2. 7
1. 8

10. 1
0. 9
_
.9
8 .4
9 .0
9 .8
11. 2
11. 3
11. 2
11. 2
10. 5
8. 3
3. 8
3. 8
3. 6

!{-------------- 2 ,0 0 0 j! 2 ,2 0 0
to
to
! 2 ,0 0 0 + 2 ,1 9 9 |! 2 ,3 9 9
I
|
1
I
| 1 0 0.0
1
J
i

2 .4
9. 0
12. 5
15. 1
21. 0
17. 0
11. 7
6. 3
4. 0
1. 1
.9
.1

10. 2
1. 3
_
1 .4
7. 0
8 .8
9 .9
1 0 .4
11. 8
12. 5
12. 2
9. 6
7. 7
6. 0
6 .3
4. 5

1 0 0.0 j 1 0 0.0
_
_
2. 4
2. 4
8. 8
11. 4
12. 4
12. 0
14. 7
18. 0
21. 0
21. 0
15. 0
17. 2
10. 2
11 .9
6 .4
6. 0
4. 1
3. 0
1. 2
1. 1
1. 2
.9
.2
-

2, 400 +
100.0
_
2. 1
6 .4
19. 1
19. 1
19. 1
19. 1
8. 5
2. 1
4. 3
_
-

6. 1
_
_
_
2. 2
4. 2
6. 0
7. 5
9. 3
7. 7
6. 6
4. 5
4. 6
3. 5
3. 6
2. 7

5. 5
_
_
_
1.9
3. 7
5. 3
6. 6
8. 3
6. 9
6. 0
4. 2
4. 2
3. 1
3. 2
2. 7

0. 5
_
_
_
0. 2
.4
.5
.7
.7
.5
.5
.3
.3
.3
.4

0. 1
_
_
_
(M
.i
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
(*)
.1
_
_
-

1 L e s s th a n 0. 05 p e rc e n t.
N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not eq u al to ta ls .
T a b le A -4 0 . P e rc e n t d is trib u tio n of c e m e n t m a s o n s in s o u th e rn C a lifo rn ia by ag e and h o u rs of w o rk , c a le n d a r y e a r 1966
A ge in te r v a l

1
T o ta l i to
! 199
________i

200 ! 400 | 600
to !1 to j to
399 :j 599 ! 799

T o t a l _________________ 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0
L e s s th a n 20 y e a r s __________
0. 5
1. 3
0. 5
1. 6
1. 8
.4
14-17 y e a rs ______________
(M
.4
.5
18-19 y e a rs ______________
.8
1. 6
1. 8
2 0 -2 4 y e a rs
4. 8
3. 5 4. 6
4. 2
5. 9
2 5 -29 y e a r s .......................
10. 4 13. 5
9. 1 10. 1
9. 5
3 0 -34 y e a rs
. .
13. 0 1 1 .4 16. 1 11. 8 11. 1
3 5 -39 y e a rs __________________ 16. 3 12. 2
9. 1 14. 8 20. 5
4 0 -4 4 y e a rs
16. 2 13 .9 16. 1 10. 7 14. 7
13. 2 12. 2 10. 8 11. 8 10. 0
4 5 -4 9 y e a rs ____
5 0 -5 4 y e a rs __________________
6. 3
8. 1 14. 2
8. 9
9. 9
55-59 y e a rs
8. 0 .8 .4
7. 5 11. 8
8. 9
6 0 -6 4 y e a r s __________________
5. 7
4. 7
7. 0
7. 9
9. 3
65 y e a r s and o v e r ___________
6. 8
3. 2
2. 4
3. 7
9. 7
2. 6
5. 1
7. 0
2 .4
3. 2
6 5 -6 9 y e a r s _____________
70 y e a rs and o v e r _______
2. 7
.7
1. 7
.5
"
T o t a l __________________
L e s s th a n 20 y e a r s __________
14-17 y e a r s ______________
18-19 y e a rs ______________
2 0 -2 4 y e a r s __________________
2 5 -2 9 y e a r s __________________
3 0 -34 y e a rs
35-39 y e a r s
_ ..........
4 0 -4 4 y e a r s __________________
4 5 -4 9 y e a rs
5 0 -5 4 y e a r s __________________
55-59 y e a r s __________________
6 0 -6 4 y e a r s _________________
65 y e a r s and o v e r
6 5 -6 9 y e a r s ______________
70 y e a r s and o v e r _______

100. 0
8. 8
100. 0 23. 1
100. 0 100. 0
100. 0 16. 7
100. 0 11. 7
100. 0 11. 5
100. 0
7. 8
100. 0
6. 6
100. 0
7. 6
100. 0 8. 2
100. 0
5 .7
100. 0
9. 3
100. 0 14. 4
100. 0 1 8 .4
100. 0 1 7 .4
100. 0 22. 2

6. 9
23. 1
_
25. 0
9. 6
6. 1
8. 6
3. 9
6. 9
5. 7
5. 7
6. 5
8. 5
20. 7
18. 8
27. 8

6. 3
23. 1
_
25. 0
10. 6
6. 1
5. 7
5. 7
4. 1
5 .7
9. 1
9. 3
5. 2
4. 6
5. 8
"

7. 1
7. 7
_
8. 3
8. 5
6. 5
6. 0
8 .9
6 .4
5. 4
6 .4
7. 9
9 .8
8 .0
8. 7
5. 6

H o u rs in te r v a l
800 1 1 ,0 0 0 | 1 ,2 0 0
1 ,4 0 0
to ! to | to
to
999 1 1,199 1 1 ,3 9 9
1 ,5 9 9
By h o u rs
100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0
_
0. 8
0. 3
.3
.8
4. 5
2. 5
2. 3
3. 0
10. 6
12. 8
9. 7
10. 6
11. 0
12. 8
9. 1
11 .9
17. 6
14. 0
17. 0
12. 1
14. 2
18. 2
12. 3
17. 7
13. 6
11. 0
15. 1
12. 5
8. 0
11. 0
1 1 .4
11 .8
6. 2
11 .9
1 1 .9
8 .9
4. 1
5. 6
9. 1
8 .9
4. 0
4. 7
2. 8
2. 6
3. 4
3. 8
2. 3
2. 3
.6
.5
.3
.8
6. 6
_
_
_

8. 5
6. 1
4. 6
7. 1
7 .4
6. 8
5. 3
5. 1
10. 5
8. 0
8. 7
5. 6

8. 8
15. 4
_
_
16. 7
6 .4
9 .0
8. 0
7. 5
6. 7
7. 4
10. 2
13. 0
13. 7
12. 6
13. 0
11. 1

By age
8. 1
1 1 .4
_
7. 7
_
_
8. 3
5. 3
9. 6
8. 3
14. 0
11. 2
6 .9
8 .4
8 .4
7. 1
12. 4
10. 8
9. 3
13. 6
9. 1
12. 6
12. 1
5 .9
11. 1
6 .9
9. 2
7. 2
10. 1
5. 6
5. 6

1,6 0 0
to
1,7 9 9

1,8 0 0
to
1,9 9 9

2 ,000+

2, 000
to
2, 199

2, 200
to
2, 399

2, 400 +

100. 0
_
4. 2
9 .7
16. 6
16. 9
17. 2
14. 8
9 .0
5. 7
4. 5
1. 5
1. 2
.3

100. 0
_
2. 5
11. 2
12. 5
21. 3
19. 9
12. 8
10. 4
6. 3
2. 2
1. 1
.8
.3

100. 0
_
1 .9
6. 5
16. 0
21. 3
19. 0
18. 3
9. 5
3. 8
3. 4
.4
_
.4

100. 0
_
2. 3
6. 8
1 5 .9
21. 8
16. 8
18. 6
10. 0
4. 1
3. 2
.5
_
.5

100. 0
_
6. 1
15. 2
18. 2
27. 3
18. 2
9. 1
3. 0
3. 0
_
_
-

100. 0
_
_
_
20. 0
20. 0
40. 0
10. 0
_
_
10. 0
_
_
"

12. 4

13. 7
_
_
_
9. 6
14. 7
13. 2
17. 8
1 6 .8
13. 3
14. 3
10. 7
5. 2
4. 6
4. 3
5. 6

9 .8

8. 2

1. 2

0. 4

_
_
5. 3
6. 1
12. 1
12. 8
11. 5
13. 6
9 .4
4. 7
5 .9
1. 1
_
5. 6

_
5. 3
5. 4
10. 1
11. 0
8. 5
11. 6
8. 3
4. 2
4. 6
1. 1
_
5. 6

_

_

_

14. 9
11. 5
1 5 .8
12. 8
13. 1
13 .9
11. 3
8. 8
9 .8
5. 7
5. 8
5. 6

_

_
_
_
0. 7
1 .4
1. 4
2. 1
1. 7
1. 1
.5
.7
_
_
"

_
_

_
_
0. 6
.5
.9
.3
_
_

.7
_
_
“

L e s s th a n 0 .0 5 p e rc e n t.
N O T E : B e c a u se of ro u n d in g , su m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y no t eq u al to ta ls,




89

Table A-41.

P e r c e n t distribution of i r o n w o r k e r s in so u t h e r n California by age a n d h o u r s of w o r k , for the 1 2 - m o n t h period, J u n e 1966— M a y 1967
H o u r s interval

A g e interval

Total

1
to
199

200
to
399

400
to
599

600
to
799

800
to
999

; 1,000
j
to
1 1,199
I

1,200
to
1,399

| 1,400
j
to
| 1,599
!

1,600
to
1,799

1,800
to
1,999

1
| 2, 000 +
|

2,000
to
2, 199

2, 200
to
2,399

2, 4 0 0 +

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

B y hours
T o t a l ------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

L e s s tha n 20 y e a r s _________
1 4 -17 y e a r s ______________
1 8 - 1 9 y e a r s ______________
2 0 - 2 4 y e a r s _________________
2 5 - 2 9 y e a r s _________________
3 0 - 3 4 y e a r s _________________
3 5 - 3 9 y e a r s _________________
4 0 - 4 4 y e a r s _________________
4 5 - 4 9 y e a r s _________________
5 0 - 5 4 y e a r s _________________
5 5 - 5 9 y e a r s _________________
60-64 years
65 y e a r s a n d ov e r
6 5 - 6 9 y e a r s ______________
70 y e a r s a n d o v e r _______

1. 7
.1
1. 6
9.6
13. 7
13. 3
12.9
13.5
11. 2
10. 9
7. 9
4. 2
1. 1
.9
.2

5. 1
1. 0
4. 1
10. 6
14. 0
11. 8
9.4
12. 0
10. 0
11.8
6. 3
5.9
3. 0
2. 2
.8

8. 1
1. 5
6. 6
15.4
12.4
10. 1
10. 5
11. 1
10. 9
8. 8
5. 1
5. 1
2.4
1.9
.4

4. 6
4. 6
15. 3
12.6
9.6
9.0
12. 2
9.2
11. 3
8. 8
5. 5
1.9
1.7
.2

4. 2
4. 2
10.4
14. 7
10.4
9 .6
13. 1
9.6
12.4
9. 2
4. 2
2.4
2. 2
.2

2. 3
2. 3
12. 2
12.2
9. 1
12. 1
11. 5
11.9
10. 8
9. 3
7. 0
1. 6
1. 2
.3

2. 5
2. 5
12.9
12. 2
12. 1
12. 2
9.9
10. 1
11. 1
10. 7
4.9
1. 5
1. 1
.4

100.0

100.0
0.8
.8
10. 2
13. 1
14. 6
11. 0
13. 7
11. 2
11.4
8. 5
4. 8
.8
.6
.2

1. 1
1. 1
10. 9
14. 3
13. 3
10. 3
12. 7
10. 8
11. 2
9.4
5. 3
.7
.6
.1

100. 0

100. 0

0.4
.4
8.9
16. 1
14. 9
14. 7
12. 7
10. 0
11. 3
7. 1
3. 4
.4
.4
.1

0. 2
.2
7. 2
14. 0
16. 0
15. 5
15. 8
11. 8
9. 1
7. 2
2. 5
.7
.6
.1

_

_

_

_

2. 8
11.4
13. 1
17. 6
17.9
15. 7
12. 0
6. 6
2. 5
.3
.3

3. 0
11.9
12.9
18.4
17.4
15. 5
11.8
6. 3
2.4
.4
.4

1. 7
8. 5
15.4
12. 8
22. 2
13. 7
15.4
6. 8
3.4
_
_

9.7
9.7
16. 1
12.9
29. 0
6. 5
12.9
3. 2
_
-

-

-

9. 3

7. 8

_

_

_

_

_
2. 7
7. 8
9. 2
12. 7
12.4
13. 1
10.4
7.9
5. 7

2. 5
6.8
7. 6
11. 1
10. 1
10. 8
8. 5
6. 3
4.4
2.9
3. 5

_
0.2
.8
1.4
1. 2
2. 0
1. 5
1. 7
1. 0
1. 0
_

_
0. 2
.2
.4
.3
.8
.2
.5
.2
_

-

B y a ge
T o t a l __________________
L e s s tha n 20 y e a r s _________
1 4 -17 y e a r s ______________
1 8 -19 y e a r s
20-24 years
2 5 - 2 9 y e a r s ________ _________
30-34 years
_ .
_ _ .. . _
.
3 5 - 3 9 y e a r s ____ ____________
4 0 - 4 4 y e a r s ........... ....
45-49 years
50-54 years
5 5 - 5 9 y e a r s _________________
6 0 - 6 4 y e a r s _________________
65 y e a r s a n d o v e r __________
6 5 - 6 9 y e a r s ______________
70 y e a r s a n d o v e r

NOTE:

Table A-42.

100. 0
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

B e c a u s e of rounding,

5.2

4. 8

4.9

15. 7
41. 7
13. 6
5. 8
5.4
4 .6
3.8
4. 7
4. 7
5. 7
4.2
7.4
14.4
12.8
22. 2

22.9
58. 3
20. 1
7. 7
4.4
3. 6
3.9
4. 0
4. 7
3.9
3. 1
5.9
10. 6
10. 5
11. 1

13. 3
14. 3
7. 8
4. 5
3. 6
3.4
4.4
4. 1
5. 1
5. 5
6.4
8.7
9. 3
5.6

5.2

5.9

7.5

8.8

12. 1

17. 1

19. 1

12.7
13. 6
5. 6
5. 6
4. 0
3.8
5. 0
4.4
5.9
6.0
5. 2
11. 5
12. 8
5. 6

7. 8

10.8

5.4
5.8
10. 0
9.2
8. 8
7. 0
8. 3
8. 5
9.0
10. 5
11. 1
5.8
5.8
5.6

5. 4
5. 8
12. 8
11. 5
13. 2
10. 3
12. 2
12. 1
12. 6
13. 0
13. 8
8. 7
8. 1
11. 1

4. 2
4. 5
15. 8
20. 1
19. 1
19.5
16. 1
15. 3
17. 9
15. 3
14. 1
6. 7
7. 0
5. 6

1. 8
1.9
14. 2
19.5
22.9
22. 8
22. 3
20. 1
16. 0
17.4
11. 6
11. 5
12. 8
5. 6

|

8.4
7. 5
5. 3
4. 0
5. 5
5. 0
6. 3
5.9
6.9
9.9
8. 7
8. 1
11. 1

11. 7
10. 1
6. 7
6.8
7. 1
5. 5
6. 8
7.7
10. 2
8.9
10. 6
9. 3
16. 7

2.9
3. 5

-

0.3

1. 2

"

_
-

s u m s of individual i t e m s ' m a y not equal totals.

P e r c e n t distribution of operating e n g i n e e r s in so u t h e r n California b y a g e a n d h o u r s of w o r k for the 1 2 - m o n t h period, J u n e 1966— M a y

1967

H o u r s interval
Total

1
to
199

T o t a l __________________

100. 0

100.0

L e s s than 20 y e a r s
14 - 1 7 y e a r s ______________
1 8 - 1 9 y e a r s ______________
20-24 years
2 5 - 2 9 y e a r s ________________
30-34 years
_ . .. ......
3 5 - 3 9 y e a r s _________________
4 0 - 4 4 y e a r s _________________
45-49 years
5 0 - 5 4 y e a r s _________________
5 5 - 5 9 y e a r s ...... ...... ....
6 0 - 6 4 y e a r s _________________
65 y e a r s a n d o v e r _ _ _ ..
.
6 5 - 6 9 y e a r s ______________
70 y e a r s a n d o v e r

0. 2

A g e interval

200
to
399

4 00
to
599

600
to
799

800
to
999

1,000
to
1, 199

1,200
to
1,399

100.0

100. 0

100.0

0. 1
.1
3. 1
9. 5
10. 2
14. 2
13.9
13.8
15.4
10. 6
7. 2
2.0
1.9
.2

0. 3

1,400
to
1,599

1,600
to
1,799

1,800
to
1,999

2, 0 0 0 +

2, 000
to
2, 199

2,200
to
2 , 399

2, 4 0 0 +

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

0. 1
.1
1. 0
8. 8
14. 3
15. 3
20. 9
15.9
11. 6
8.4
3.4
.3
.3

_
2. 3
8. 8
10. 9
19. 3
18. 6
18. 8
13. 2
5. 1
2. 1
.9
.9

B y hours

(M
.2
2.9
8. 7
11. 8
15. 1
16. 2
14. 6
13. 7
9. 5
5. 6
1. 7
1.4
.3

_
4. 7
9.8
10. 3
11. 2
14. 1
13.8
12.4
10. 6
8. 0
5. 0
4. 2
.8

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

0.9
.3
.6
3.9
7. 4
10. 7
12.4
13. 6
15. 6
14.4
9.9
7. 5
3. 8
3. 0
.8

0.4
.4
4. 0
10. 8
10. 1
14.4
14. 1
12. 3
11. 0
11.9
7. 7
3. 3
2. 1
1. 2

0. 4
.4
3. 8
9. 7
10. 1
13.4
14.4
12.4
14. 4
11. 0
7. 5
2. 9
2. 3
.6

_
3. 6
9. 2
8. 8
13.9
14. 4
13. 7
16.9
10. 3
7.4
1. 8
1.4
.4

-

100.0
_
-

.3
4. 0
8. 3
10. 5
12. 7
15. 6
14. 3
15. 3
11.4
5.9
1. 7
1. 5
.2

3. 2
9. 0
11. 7
15.2
15. 2
15. 4
13.6
9. 6
5. 7
1. 5
1. 3
.3

100. 0

100. 0

(M

0. 2

0. 1

(r)
2. 6
9. 0
14.4
15. 7
17. 3
14. 3
12. 6
8. 3
4. 7
1. 0
1. 0

.2
2. 0
8. 0
13. 8
17. 4
17. 0
14. 6
13. 1
8. 5
4. 4
.9
.8
.1

.1
1. 6
7. 7
12. 5
16. 9
19. 5
16.4
13. 0
7. 9
3. 7
.7
.6
.1

(M
1. 6
7. 1
12. 2
17. 0
19.2
16. 1
13.4
8. 3
4. 1
.8
.6
.1

12. 5

15. 1

20. 1

3. 7
_

14. 8
_

7.4
_

4. 0
11. 1
13. 0
15. 2
13. 0
13. 3
12. 3
11. 6
11. 0
10. 5
7. 3
8. 4
2. 0

16. 0
10. 6
13.9
17. 6
17.4
15. 8
15. 1
14. 5
13. 5
11.8
8. 0
8 .8
4. 1

(M

(M

_

-

-

13. 2

4. 2

2. 6

3. 7
_

3. 7
_

4. 0
7. 5
10.8
13. 7
14. 9
15. 6
14. 6
13. 0
11. 6
9.7
5.9
5.9
6. 1

4. 0
1. 5
4. 3
5. 1
4. 3
5. 5
4. 6
3. 6
3. 7
2. 6
.7
.8

2. 1
2. 6
2. 4
3. 3
3. 0
3. 3
2.5
1.4
1. 0
1.4
1. 7

"

-

B y a ge
T o t a l _________________
L e s s than 20 y e a r s _________
1 4 - 1 7 y e a r s ______________
1 8 - 1 9 y e a r s ______________
2 0 - 2 4 y e a r s _________________
2 5 - 2 9 y e a r s _________________
3 0 - 3 4 y e a r s .................
35-39 y e a r s
40-44 years
45-49 years
5 0 - 5 4 y e a r s ......... ........
5 5 - 5 9 y e a r s _________________
60-64 years
65 y e a r s a n d o v e r
6 5 - 6 9 y e a r s ______________
70 y e a r s a n d o v e r _______

1

Less

NOTE:

than

100. 0
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

5. 0
_
8. 1
5. 7
4.4
3. 7
4.4
4. 7
4 .6
5. 7
7. 2
14. 6
14. 6
14. 3

4. 8

5. 5

5.8

25.9
100. 0
20. 0
6. 5
4. 1
4. 3
3.9
4. 0
5. 1
5. 1
5. 0
6 .4
10.4
10. 0
12. 2

14. 8
_
16. 0
7. 5
6.8
4. 7
5. 2
4. 7
4.6
4.4
6.9
7. 5
10.4
7.9
22.4

14. 8
_
16. 0
7. 7
6. 5
4.9
5. 1
5. 2
4 .9
6. 1
6. 7
7. 7
9. 7
9. 2
12. 2

6. 1

_
_
_
7. 5
6. 5
4. 5
5. 6
5.4
5. 7
7. 5
6. 6
8. 0
6. 2
5. 9
8. 2

7. 8

7.9

3.7
_
4. 0
8.4
8. 5
6. 7
7. 3
6. 6
7. 3
8. 7
8. 7
9.9
9.0
10. 0
4. 1

14. 8
_

0 . 0 5 percent.

Because

90




of rounding,

sums

of individual i t e m s m a y

not equal totals.

16. 0
11. 1
7. 6
7. 0
6. 7
7.6
7. 8
8.9
9.6
8. 3
8.0
8.4
6. 1

9.5

_
_
_
10.4
9.8
9. 3
9 .5
8.9
9.9
9 .4
9.5
9 .5
8. 3
8.4
8. 2

8.
11.
17.
21.
22.
24.
22.
19.
16.
13.
8.
8.
6.

0
1
8
2
5
0
5
1
8
2
0
4
1

_
_

Table A -43. P ercent distribution of w orkers in selected construction occupations in Omaha by month and by hours of work reported for the 12-month
period, July 1966—
June 1967
January

Hours

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

S e p tember October

November December

Teamsters

______

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

0 h n n r H ______________________

56. 1
4 .9
2. 4
2 .4
3. 7
2.4
1. 2
1. 2
13.4
8. 5
3. 7

53. 7
_
6. 1
2 .4
1. 2
2.4
7. 3
14. 6
12. 2

50. 0
6. 1
7. 3
1. 2
1. 2
4. 9
1. 2
9. 8
18. 3

62. 2
1.2
2. 4
1. 2
2.4
1. 2
3. 7
4. 9
12. 2
8. 5

61. 0
1. 2
2. 4
4. 9
1. 2
3. 7
2. 4
12. 2
11. 0

58. 5
4 .9
6. 1
2 .4
3. 7
1. 2
1. 2
2.4
9.8
9. 8

59. 8
2 .4
2. 4
1. 2
4. 9
2. 4
4. 9
_
22. 0

67. 1
1 2
1.2
1. 2
1. 2
2 .4
18. 3
7. 3

58. 5
1. 2
_
2.4
2.4
3. 7
1. 2
11. 0
7. 3
12. 2

62. 2
1. 2
1. 2
1. 2
1. 2
2.4
3. 7
12. 2
14. 6

40. 2
9 .8
6. 1
_
3. 7
3. 7
2.4
1. 2
6. 1
9. 8
17. 1

40. 2
11. 0
4. 9
3. 7
1. 2
8. 5
2.4
4. 9
7. 3
15.9

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

28. 6
_
3. 2
1. 6
1. 6
3. 2
4. 8
7. 9
4. 8
44.4

34. 9
_
_
3. 2
11. 1
6. 3
7.9
20. 6
14. 3
1.6

42. 9
_
1.6
3. 2
1. 6
3. 2
3.2
6. 3
20. 6
4. 8
12. 7

46. 0
_
4. 8
_
_
4. 8
3. 2
11. 1
3. 2
12. 7
14. 3

42. 9
_
4. 8
1. 6
1.6
4. 8
4. 8
9. 5
19.0
6. 3
4. 8

42. 9
3. 2
1.6
1.6
1. 6
3. 2
1.6
9. 5
6. 3
28. 6

Total -

-

1-19 h o u r s ------------------2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s - __ ___________
4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s _ — ----------6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s ----------------8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s ---- ----------1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s --------------1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s ... ............
1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s ----- ------1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s -------------180 h o u r s or m o r e ---------

P lasterers
1
-_

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

_______________________

44. 4
_
-

47. 6
4. 8
4. 8
3. 2
_

42. 9
1. 6
4. 8
_
4. 8
6. 3
4. 8
4. 8
19. 0
11. 1

41. 3
1. 6
3. 2
_
_
3. 2
3. 2
3. 2
27. 0
17. 5

39. 7
_
-

33. 3
1. 6
_
3. 2
_
3. 2
4. 8
4. 8
20. 6
6. 3
22. 2

Total—
o

------------

1_ 19 h o u r s
_— — — —
2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s __________________
4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s __ __________ —
6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s _________________
8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s _________________
1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s ______________
1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s ______________
1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s ______________
1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s ______________
180 h o u r s or m o r e ---------

1. 6
3. 2
3. 2
7. 9
4. 8
23. 8
7. 9
3. 2

3. 2
1.6
3. 2
9. 5
19. 0
3. 2

1. 6
_
1. 6
4. 8
17. 5
31. 7
3. 2

Ope r a t i n g e n g i neers
i
Totals--------------

—

0 h o u r s ______________________
1-19 h o u r s ___________________
2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s __________ ____
4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s - ____ __ ____
6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s ____ ___ __ —
8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s _________________
1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s _______________
1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s - ______ ____
1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s _ ____________
1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s ______________
180 h o u r s or m o r e ---------

100. 0

100. 0

1 0 0.0
i
------:
---- 1

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1 0 0.0

|

100.0

100. 0

48. 3
2. 3
2 .4
3. 5
4 .9
5. 7
4.9
5. 3
5. 2
6. 9
10. 9

33. 4
.9
1. 5
1. 3
1. 9
2. 5
2. 8
6. 2
10. 0
13. 1
26. 3

32. 7
1. 1
1.6
2. 1
1. 5
1.9
2. 8
5. 6
6.6
13. 1
31. 0

33. 8
1. 1
1.6
1. 8
1. 8
1. 9
3. 3
5. 8
8. 8
13. 2
26. 9

34. 5
1.4
1. 5
1.9
1. 9
2. 5
2. 8
4. 5
3. 8
9.9
35. 3

!

40.4
1. 1
2. 2
2. 1
2. 6
3. 2
3. 2
5.6
8. 7
11. 3
19. 6

50. 4
1. 7
3. 5
2. 5
2.4
3. 3
3. 0
5. 8
5. 2
8. 3
14. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

46. 9
_
_
_
3. 1
1. 6
4. 7
1.6
42. 2

45. 3
3. 1
1.6
_
1.6
7. 8
10. 9
15. 6
14. 1

45. 3
_
_
_

39. 1
4. 7
4. 7
_
_

35. 9
_
_
_

1. 6
1.6
1.6
4. 7
15. 6
3. 1
26. 6

39. 1
1.6
1.6
6. 3
1. 6
_
3. 1
20. 3
9.4
17. 2

1. 6
1. 6
15. 6
25. 0
6. 3
1. 6

1. 6
_
1.6
9.4
4. 7
9.4
37. 5

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

58. 1
1. 9
1. 5
1. 9
2. 0
1. 8
2. 7
2. 7

59. 5
2. 4
2. 2
1. 9
2. 3
2. 3
2. 5
3. 7
8. 8
5. 7
8. 6

62.4
1. 6
2. 8
2. 6
1. 5
1. 7
2. 9
3. 5
6. 7
6. 9
7.4

67. 7
1. 3
1.9
1. 9
1. 8
2. 1
3. 2
4. 9
4.6
7. 8
2.9

65. 8
2. 3
1. 6
2. 7
2. 0
3. 6
3. 2
4. 2
4. 9
5. 3
4. 5

54. 4
2. 8
3. 0
4. 5
3. 1
3. 5
2. 8
3. 2
2. 8
6. 1
13.9

41. 2
1. 7
2. 4
2. 8
1. 8
3. 2
5. 7
7. 1
11. 1
9.6
13. 5

38. 7
1. 5
1. 9
2. 4
2. 4
3. 7
2. 2
3. 6
10. 4
15. 1
18. 2

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

28. 1
1.6
3. 1
3. 1
3. 1
3. 1
9.4
26. 6
21. 9

34. 4
1. 6
_
4. 7
1. 6
1.6
3. 1
20. 3
32. 8

Lathers
i
-----------

100. 0

o h o u r s ______________________

34. 4
1. 6
1. 6
4. 7
1. 6
4. 7
7. 8
40. 6
3. 1

T o t a l ----

1-19 h o u r s - ____ -__________ —
2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s __________________
_______
4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s _______
6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s _________________
8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s _____ ____ ____
1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s ______________
120-139 hours
_____________
1 4 0 - 1 5 9 ho u r s
_ ___ ____
160-179 hours
...........
180 h o u r s or m o r e __________

!
1
i
!

39. 1
_
_
3. 1
1. 6
3. 1
3. 1
20. 3
29. 7

-

"

29. 7
3. 1
_
4. 7
1. 6
3. 1
3. 1
9.4
14. 1.
31. 3

-

| 100.0
1
-----------!
|
j

37. 5
1.6
1.6
_
3. 1
4. 7
4. 7
14. 1
12. 5
20. 3

-

Laborers
l
Total-----

-_ - -----

0 h o u r s --------- ----------1-10 h o u r s __ __ ____ ___ _
2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s __________________
4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s -----------------60-79 hours
____
____
8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s __________________
1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s _______________
1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s ______________
1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s __ — -------1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s — ----- —
180 h o u r s or m o r e _ _____ _




100. 0

100.0

100. 0

67. 4
1. 7
2. 5
2. 7
1. 6
2. 3
3. 5
5. 1
8. 0
3. 2
2. 0

69. 5
1. 8
1. 8
2. 1
1. 5
2. 0
3. 5
4. 1
4.6
6. 1
3. 0

60. 5
2. 8
2. 8
2. 8
2. 4
2. 1
1. 8
2. 8
4. 5
6. 8
10. 6

!
i

!
:

100.0
60.
2.
4.
3.

7
6
3
0

1. 7

2. 8
2. 4
5. 7
8. 0
5. 9
3. 0

100. 0
55. 6
3. 9
3. 8
2. 6
1. 9
2. 6
3. 0
4.4

7. 7

7. 3
7. 2

100. 0
58.
3.
3.
3.
2.
2.
3.
3.
7.
5.
7.

8
2
7
7
2
6
0
2
3
2
0

100. 0

100. 0

52. 3
1. 5
1.9
1. 5
2. 5
3. 0
3. 1
4. 1
7. 5
4. 8
17. 7

51. 0
2. 4
2. 0
1. 9
2. 8
3. 2
3. 2
3. 9
6. 8
11. 0
11. 7

54.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
12.
6.
6.

9
3
3
0
2
0
0
7
1
1
3

7. 7

9.2
10.6

91

Table A-43.
P e r c e n t distribution of w o r k e r s in selected construction occupations in O m a h a b y m o n t h a n d b y h o u r s of w o r k repo r t e d for the 1 2 - m o n t h
period, Jul y 1966— J u n e 1967— C o n t i n u e d

January

Hours

February

March

April

May

June

|

July

August

Septe m b e r October

Novemberj D e c e m b e r

Ironworkers

Total _ --------------0 h o u r s _______________________
i - 19 h o u r s ___________________
2 9-39 h o u r s _________________
4* -59 h o u r s -__ ________ _____
6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s __________________
8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s _________________
1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s ______________
1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s ______________
1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s _______________
1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s --------------180 h o u r s or m o r e __________

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

46. 4
1. 6
2. 0
4. 5
4. 0
5.6
9. 3
10. 9
8. 7
4. 2
2. 7

49. 3
2. 4
1.8
2.9
1. 5
6. 7
6. 9
10. 0
8. 9
7. 8
1. 8

44. 7
1. 5
.9
2. 2
2. 7
3.6
3.5
4. 5
6. 7
6. 5
23. 1

43. 3
1. 6
2. 7
1.6
1. 5
5. 6
3. 1
15. 1
10. 4
8. 7
6. 4

36. 2
2. 7
3. 1
3. 6
1. 5
4. 0
4. 0
7. 6
20. 4
9. 3
7. 6

100. 0
36.
3.
3.
2.
2.
7.
5.
6.
10.
8.
12.

5
5
8
0
9
3
3
9
9
9
0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

32. 2
1. 3
1. 8
2. 7
3. 6
2.9
3. 8
5. 3
17. 6
10. 9
17. 8

32. 5
1. 1
1. 5
1. 5
2. 0
3. 5
3. 6
6.4
15. 1
16. 9
16. 0

34. 2
3. 1
.7
2. 0
1. 6
4. 0
3. 5
6. 5
17. 1
8. 2
19. 1

100. 0
37.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
14.
13.
20.

100. 0

100. 0

3
5
5
1
8
2
7
8
0
5
7

38. 5
.9
.9
1. 5
2. 4
3. 5
4. 9
8. 2
17. 8
12. 2
9. 3

41. 1
.9
2. 2
2. 7
2. 0
2. 9
7. 8
5. 6
11. 8
12. 9
10. 0

100. 0

C e m e n t finishers

T o t a l ------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

o h o u r s ______________________

63. 3
4. 2
3. 5
5. 2
2. 4
2. 8
2. 8
3. 8
5.9
3. 1
2. 8

62 . 6
4. 2
3. 8
3. 5
3. 5
3. 1
4. 5
4. 2
4.9
4. 2
1.4

53. 8
1. 7
3. 8
3. 5
2. 8
1.4
3. 1
4. 2
4. 2
5. 6
15. 7

37. 1
3. 8
2. 4
2. 1
4. 5
3. 5
7. 3
9.4
11. 9
11. 2
6.6

33. 2
3. 1
1. 0
2.4
1. 0
3. 8
5. 9
7. 3
9. 8
14. 7
17. 5

46. 2
3. 8
4. 5
3. 8
5. 9
4. 5
4. 9
4. 5
6. 3
6.6
8. 7

30. 1
2. 4
2. 1
2. 1
1. 7
2. 8
3. 8
6. 3
15. 7
13. 6
19. 2

23. 4
2. 8
3. 8
.7
1. 4
3. 1
4. 9
4. 5
11. 2
13. 6
30. 4

27. 6
1. 4
1.4
1. 0
2. 8
.7
3. 1
7. 7
9. 8
12. 6
31. 8

26. 2
.7
2. 4
.7
.3
2. 1
4. 2
3. 1
11. 5
15.4
33. 2

28. 3
2. 1
2. 1
3. 1
2. 4
3. 8
3. 8
7. 7
13. 3
11. 5
21.7

1-19 h o u r s ___________________
2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s ..................
4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s _________________
6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s -----------------8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s ----------------100- 119 ______________________
1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s ______________
1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s _______________
1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s ______________
180 h o u r s or m o r e __________

37.
6.
5.
3.
6.
4.
7.
6.
7.
5.
10.

4
3
2
1
3
9
7
6
0
2
1

Carpenters

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100, 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

5
7
3
5
3
7
0
1
0
1
7

36. 7
2. 4
3. 3
2. 1
1.4
3. 4
4.4
9. 8
13. 4
17. 7
5. 3

37. 1
1. 3
1. 8
2. 3
1. 6
2. 8
2. 9
4.6
16. 0
16. 0
13. 6

42. 3
1. 1
1. 7
2.7
2. 3
3. 8
3. 7
6. 1
9.6
13. 8
12. 9

24. 9
1. 0
1. 4
2. 0
2. 8
3. 7
4. 1
7. 3
20. 0
14. 8
18. 0

23. 0
.8
1. 3
2. 1
3. 0
3. 4
3. 4
5. 7
12. 1
23. 0
22. 2

22. 1
1. 6
2. 0
2.9
2. 3
3. 5
4. 3
7. 3
22. 4
12. 9
18. 7

25. 1
1. 6
1.4
3. 3
2. 4
1. 8
3. 5
7. 3
15. 6
22. 4
15. 6

28. 9
1. 3
1. 9
3. 3
2. 2
2. 4
3. 7
5. 3
19. 9
13. 6
17. 4

32. 0
2. 1
2. 6
2. 5
3. 4
2. 7
3. 2
6. 5
16. 5
12. 4
16. 1

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

0
8
7
0
3
4
0
9
7
3
1

44. 0
1.4
2. 1
7. 0
5. 6
8. 1
5. 8
8. 8
6. 7
6. 5
4. 0

41. 2
1. 9
1. 6
3. 0
4. 2
2. 8
4. 7
6. 7
14. 2
7. 0
12. 8

38. 4
1. 6
2. 3
3. 0
1.4
3. 0
7. 9
16. 3
10. 7
9. 5
5. 8

35. 3
1. 9
2. 8
2. 8
1. 6
2. 6
6. 0
8. 4
18. 6
11. 9
8. 1

49. 3
1. 4
1.9
1. 6
3. 5
3. 7
6. 0
4. 7
8. 8
6. 3
12. 8

22. 1
.5

21. 4
.9
2. 1
1.4
3. 7
2. 8
4. 4
7. 2
22. 8
15. 3
17. 9

25. 6
.7
2.6
2. 3
3. 5
4. 7
3. 0
9. 3
24. 7
9. 3
14. 4

28. 6
1. 2
1.4
.7
2. 1
2. 6
6. 5
6. 3
21.4
16. 0
13. 3

30. 0
1. 2
2. 1
1. 9
3. 7
4. 9
6. 0
12. 6
18. 6
9. 8
9. 3

35. 1
1. 2
2. 3
2. 6
3. 7
9. 8
10. 2
9. 5
10. 7
5. 8
9. 1

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

55. 9
1.9
2. 2
2. 8
2. 3
3. 5
4. 2
6. 2
7. 4
10. 1
3. 6

48. 8
2. 5
2. 5
3. 0
2. 7
2. 7
2. 9
3. 8
5. 7
8. 6
16.6

44. 8
2. 2
3. 1
2 .4
1. 7
3. 4
4. 3
8. 9
10. 7
11.4
7. 1

42. 1
2. 2
2. 5
2. 6
1. 8
3. 0
3. 2
5. 0
12. 8
12. 9
11. 9

40. 5
1. 7
2. 1
2. 3
2. 4
2. 9
3. 6
6. 0
13. 9
10. 4
14. 2

45. 3
2. 0
2. 9
2. 6
£. 7
3. 3
4. 2
5. 6
9. 9
9. 2
12. 4

T o t a l __________________

100. 0

0 h o u r s ---------------------1-19 h o u r s ___________________
2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s __________________
4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s -----------------6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s __________________
8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s ________________
1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s ______________
1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s --------------1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s ______________
1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s -------------180 h o u r s or m o r e __________

38. 1
1. 8
1. 9
2. 6
2. 7
4. 0
6.4
10.4
20. 1
7. 3
4. 7

100. 0

100. 0

40.
2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
4.
7.
11.
16.
5.

37.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
4.
7.
13.
22.

0
1
7
6
8
9
6
5
9
7
2

B r i c k layers

T o t a l __________________
0 h o u r s ______________________
1 -19 h o u r s ____________ >
______
2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s ----------------4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s _________________
6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s _________________
8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s _________________
1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s -------------1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s _______________
1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s _______________
1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s _______________
180 h o u r s or m o r e __________

100. 0
43.
2.
4.
4.
6.
4.
7.
11.
10.
3.
2.

1.9
2. 1
3. 7
4. 7
7. 9
10. 7
21.4
10. 9
14. 2

Total of all selected construction crafts
r
1
T o t a l ------------

_ —

0 h o u r s _______________________
1-19 h o u r s ___________________
2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s _________________
4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s __________________
6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s _________________
8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s _________________
1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s ______________
1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s ______________
1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s ______________
1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s _______________
180 h o u r s or m o r e __________

NOTE:

54.
2.
2.
3.
2.
3.
5.
7.
11.
5.
3.

B e c a u s e of rounding,

92




1
1
3
0
7
6
0
3
5
1
4

s u m s of individual i t e m s m a y not equal totals.

100. 0
48.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
5.
8.
8.
10.

0
3
7
0
1
2
2
0
0
7
8

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

35. 2
1. 2
1. 7
1. 8
2. 6
3. 1
3. 8
6. 1
13. 8
10. 8
20. 1

34. 0
1.4
1. 7
1. 8
2. 4
3. 0
3. 4
5. 4
10. 6
16. 0
20. 2

35. 6
1. 7
1. 8
2 .4
2. 5
3. 0
3. 4
6. 1
15. 6
10. 3
17. 6

37.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
3.
4.
10.
14.
19.

8
5
5
0
0
1
2
8
9
3
7

Table A-44.
P e r c e n t distribution of w o r k e r s in selected construction occupations in Detroit b y m o n t h an d b y h o u r s of w o r k r e ported for the 1 2 - m o n t h
period, N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 6 — O c t o b e r 1967
Hours

J anuary

February

March

April

July
! May
! June
i __________; __________
_
1
_
Carpenters

August

September

October

November December

Total ------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

0 h o u r s ----------------------1-19 h o u r s — ----------------2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s -----------------4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s -----------------6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s -----------------8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s -----------------1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s --------------1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s --------------1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s --------------1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s --------------180 h o u r s or m o r e ----------

37. 4
1. 3
1.7
2. 1
2. 8
4. 3
8. 1
12. 2
11.8
9. 8
8. 5

39. 3
2. 3
2. 7
2.9
3. 7
5. 7
8. 7
9. 6
13. 8
7. 4
3.9

39. 7
1-4
!-9
2. 0
2. 3
3. 5
5. 7
9.0
12, 0
9. 1
13. 4

37. 6
1.4
1.9
1.9
2. 4
4. 2
5. 8
11.7
16. 5
8. 3
8. 2

36. 4
1.0
1.7
1. 5
2. 0
3.7
5.5
9. 6
13. 7
14. 2
10. 7

34. 8
1.9
2. 1
2. 2
2. 0
4. 3
5. 6
13. 6
13. 7
11. 1
8. 7

34.2
1.5
1.9
2. 1
3. 5
6. 6
12. 2
17. 0
8. 5
6. 4
6. 0

33. 3
1. 1
1.8
1.6
2. 2
3. 5
4. 6
7. 8
12. 1
16. 5
15. 5

33. 4
1.6
2. 5
2. 4
2. 8
4. 5
7. 0
16.9
11.7
8.9
8. 5

40. 3
1.2
2.0
1.7
2. 3
3. 8
6. 5
9.0
13. 4
10. 6
9. 3

37. 3
1. 5
2. 6
3. 2
5. 3
8. 6
10. 1
8. 3
7. 5
6.9
8. 8

36. 1
1.6
2. 1
2. 1
2. 7
5. 3
9. 8
12. 8
10. 3
8. 7
8.4

Total ------------------

100. 0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

0 h o u r s - -------------------1-1 9 h o u r s ------------------2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s -----------------4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s -----------------6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s -----------------8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s -----------------1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s --------------1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s --------------1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s --------------1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s --------------180 h o u r s or m o r e ---------

37. 4
1.7
2. 1
1.9
2. 0
2. 7
4. 8
5. 8
10. 0
12. 8
18. 8

39. 0
1.6
2. 3
2. 1
2.0
3. 5
4. 2
5. 6
8. 3
17. 1
14. 4

37. 9
1.6
1.4
1.7
2.0
3.0
2. 5
3.9
6. 4
14. 5
25. 0

35. 2
1.9
1.7
2. 1
2.0
3.0
2. 3
3. 2
6. 1
14. 3
28. 2

32. 4
1. 2
1.4
1.8
1.4
3. 1
1.8
3. 6
5. 7
14. 5
33. 2

32. 8
1.2
1.4
1.7
1.5
2. 8
2. 5
3. 5
7.9
16. 8
27. 8

31. 2
1. 3
1.4
1.7
2. 0
3. 2
3. 2
4. 8
9. 8
13. 2
28. 2

31.0
1.2
1. 3
1. 1
1. 1
2.0
2. 1
2.9
5. 4
13. 1
38. 9

35. 8
1. 6
1.5
1.6
1.6
2. 3
2. 0
3.0
7. 7
13.9
29. 3

41.5
1.4
1. 3
1.5
1.6
2. 3
2.0
4. 4
7. 4
13. 6
23. 1

36. 1
1. 1
2. 0
2. 4
2.0
3. 4
5. 2
7. 4
8. 7
12. 6
19. 1

36. 8
1.6
1.9
2. 0
2.0
3.0
4. 3
5.9
9.0
13. 3
20. 4

Total ------------------

100.0

! 100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

0 h o u r s ----------------------1-1 9 h o u r s ------------------2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s -----------------4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s -----------------6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s -----------------8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s -----------------1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s --------------1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s --------------1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s --------------1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s --------------180 h o u r s or m o r e ----------

48. 1
1.8
3. 2
4. 3
5. 5
7. 6
8. 1
5.9
5. 5
6.0
4. 0

49. 0
2. 6
4.9
6. 2
6. 1
8. 1
6. 7
5. 0
3. 8
6. 2
1. 2

42. 2
2. 0
2. 5
2. 3
3. 0
5. 4
6.9
9. 2
8. 5
8. 5
9. 5

38. 2
1.6
2. 1
1.9
2. 3
4. 3
4 .8
9. 1
16. 5
13. 1
6. 2

33. 8
1.9
1.9
2. 7
2. 2
3. 2
3. 3
7. 3
12. 0
14. 8
16. 8

31.5
1.4
1.9
2. 6
3. 0
4. 4
4. 5
8. 0
18. 7
13. 7
10. 1

34. 0
1.6
1. 8
2. 2
2.9
5. 0
9. 6
16. 4
13. 7
8. 6
4. 1

33. 6
1.6
1.9
1.5
2. 2
2. 7
3. 2
4.9
9.0
11.2
28. 1

35. 2
1.8
1.5
2. 3
2. 5
4. 4
4. 5
11. 3
15. 3
11. 1
10. 0

43. 2
1. 3
1.4
2. 0
2. 6
3. 7
6. 4
11. 3
11.5
9. 2
7. 3

41.4
1.8
2. 4
2. 7
4. 2
6. 3
8. 7
11.0
6. 5
7. 1
8. 0

44. 9
3. 0
4.4
4. 2
6.0
9.4
8. 1
6. 1
5. 5
5. 1
3. 3

Total ------------------

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

J 100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

0 h o u r s ----------------------1 -19 h o u r s ------------------2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s -----------------4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s -----------------6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s -----------------8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s -----------------1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s --------------1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s --------------1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s --------------1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s --------------180 h o u r s or m o r e ----------

58. 0
2. 2
2. 3
2. 1
2. 4
3. 0
3.9
5. 1
6. 6
6. 1
8. 3

59. 7
2. 2
2. 6
2.9
2. 6
3. 6
4. 4
5. 3
5.9
7. 1
3. 7

57. 0
2. 0
2. 2
2. 1
1.7
3. 0
3. 1
4. 6
6. 8
7. 4
10. 1

53. 2
2. 3
2.5
2. 4
2. 1
2.9
2. 6
4. 5
8. 5
9. 9
9. 1

46. 6
2. 1
2.0
2. 2
1.8
2. 6
2. 3
3. 4
5. 1
9.0
23.0

49. 3
2. 3
2. 6
2. 6
2. 3
2.9
3. 2
4. 9
9.9
8.4
11.7

57. 3
1. 8
1.7
1. 8
1.8
2. 5
3. 0
5. 5
7. 3
7. 8
9 .5

54. 9
1.8
2. 3
2. 4
2. 5
3. 4
5. 3
6. 5
6. 1
6. 5
8. 4

Total ------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

0 h o u r s ----------------------1-19 h o u r s ------------------2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s -----------------4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s -----------------6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s -----------------8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s -----------------1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s --------------1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s --------------1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s --------------1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s --------------180 h o u r s or m o r e ---------

57. 7
5. 1
4. 3
2. 7
3.0
2. 2
4. 0
4. 9
4. 7
4. 6
6. 9

56. 7
5. 7
3. 9
3. 8
4. 1
3. 3
3. 4
5.0
5. 1
5. 8
3. 0

44. 3
2. 6
1.5
2. 2
2. 0
3.9
3. 4
2.9
4. 1
8. 8
24. 2

45. 1
3.9
2. 6
1.8
2. 2
3. 1
3.9
4. 8
9-9
9.4
13. 4

50. 0
2. 9
2. 6
1.6
1.5
3. 1
3. 5
6.4
7. 7
9. 2
11.6

T o t a l -------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

0 h o u r s ----------------------1 -19 h o u r s ------------------2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s -----------------4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s -----------------6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s ------- ----------80 - 9 9 h o u r s -----------------1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s --------------1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s --------------1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s --------------1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s --------------180 h o u r s or m o r e ---------

50. 1
1.7
1.5
2. 7
3. 6
4. 1
6.0
8. 7
7. 0
6. 2
8. 4

31.7
2 .4
1.4
2. 2
3. 3
3. 5
3. 7
6. 4
10. 4
10. 5
24. 6

35. 7
3. 3
2. 7
2. 7
3. 2
4. 4
5.0
8. 1
13.4
12. 6
8.9

i
1
!

I
j

O p e r a t i n g engineers

Bricklayers

1
i

Laborers

!
J

50. 5
2. 1
2. 1
2. 1
1.8
2. 5
2. 6
3. 8
6. 7
8. 8
17. 2

48. 3
2. 2
2. 2
2. 3
2. 3
3. 1
3. 2
5.0
10. 2
10. 5
10. 7

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

56. 3
4. 1
4.9
4. 0
2. 3
4. 4
2. 4
4. 4
5. 1
5. 2
6. 8

47. 2
3. 8
3. 5
3. 7
2. 8
5. 1
2.9
5. 6
6. 2
9. 7
9. 6

43. 3
4. 1
3. 4
1. 6
1.7
2. 9
3. 3
4. 4
5. 2
9.4
20. 8

38. 4
5.0
2. 6
3. 3
3. 8
2. 6
3. 8
6. 0
9. 6
13. 1
12. 0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

53. 2
2.0
1.9
2. 6
4. 8
6. 6
7. 8
6. 2
5.0
6. 6
3. 3

50. 9
2. 3
2. 3
2. 8
2. 6
3. 2
4. 4
6. 7
9. 7
8.9
6. 2

45. 9
2. 5
2.0
3. 2
1.6
3. 8
3. 6
7. 0
11.9
11. 3
7. 3

100. 0
47.
2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
5.
9.
9.
6.
8.

3
2
1
4
5
7
1
5
8
8
6

55.
2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
4.
6.
7.
5.
6.

5
4
5
7
7
7
8
4
8
4
2

Cement masons
100.0
39.
5.
3.
2.
3.
5.
5.
11.
8.
9.
6.

9
6
6
0
3
0
0
1
3
8
5

100. 0

2
6
1
5
4
7
8
4
4
5
2

53. 3
5.0
3.9
3. 3
4. 8
3. 4
5.0
4. 8
6. 8
4. 7
5. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

45. 8
2. 6
2.9
2. 3
2. 1
3. 6
3. 8
9. 1
10. 9
8. 5
8. 3

45. 4
3. 0
3. 8
2. 8
3.9
6. 2
6. 1
7. 4
7. 5
6. 1
7. 7

46. 3
2.7
2. 6
4.4
3. 8
6. 7
7.9
8. 8
7. 2
5. 3
4. 2

48.
5.
3.
3.
2.
4.
5.
4.
7.
7.
7.

R e i n f o r c e d steel w o r k e r s

NOTE:

B e c a u s e of rounding,




39.
2.
2.
3.
2.
3.
3.
6.
8.
10.
18.

3
5
5
2
3
5
4
4
4
2
2

s u m s of individual it e m s m a y not equal totals.

100.0
32. 3
3. 6
3. 2
4.4
3.4
4.0
5. 3
7.0
16. 8
12. 5
7. 5

100. 0
33.
3.
2.
2.
3.
4.
8.
12.
13.
7.
7.

7
2
5
1
6
8
5
5
6
5
8

Table A-45.
P e r c e n t distribution of w o r k e r s in selected construction occupations in M i l w a u k e e b y m o n t h a n d b y h o u r s of w o r k r epo r t e d for the 1 2 - m o n t h
period, D e c e m b e r 1 9 6 5 — N o v e m b e r 1966

Hours

J anuary

February

March

April

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

1 0 0.0

May

I
j

June

1
j

July

;
1
i
; A u g u s t ' S e p t e m b e r I O c t o b e r ’N o v e m b e r p D e c e m b e r

Asp h a l t p a v e r s
Total -------

!
i

1
100. 0

i
100.0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0
=—

0 h o u r s -----------1-1 9 h o u r s --------2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s ------4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s ------6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s ------8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s ------1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s ---1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s ----1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s ---1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s ----180 h o u r s or m o r e

82. 6
2. 1
1.4
1.4
-

88. 9
.7
1.4
7. 6
1.4

9.0
.7
1.4
1.4
"

90. 3
.7
.7
6. 2
.7
1.4
-

76.4
1.4
4.9
4. 2
4. 2
4. 2
1.4
.7
1.4
1.4

1

41 . 7
7. 6
2. 8
4. 2
6. 2
6.9
5. 6
5. 6
12. 5
6. 2
.7

39. 2
2. 1
2. 1

|
i
!
|

2. 1
2. 8
i2.6
8 .3
17.4
11.8
2. 8

!

31.9
2. 8
4. 2
2. 8
2. 8
2. 1
5. 6
8. 3
9.7
13. 2
16. 7

;
j
!
|
;
;
|
!
!

100.0
—

1
I
I

1 0 0.0

: 100.0

48. 6
3. 5
2. 8
2. 1
8. 3
9. 7
15. 3
3. 5
1.4
4.9

63. 2
9.0
7. 6
2. 1
6.9
4.9
1.4
.7
2. 8
1.4

31.2
2. 8
2. 1
2. 8
1.4
5. 6
8. 3
28. 5
12. 5
4.9

31. 2
2. 1
2. 8
2. 8
5. 6
2. 8
2. 1
9.0
31.9
3. 5
6. 2

100.0

1 0 0.0

1 0 0.0

100. 0

100.0

29.0

I

38. 7
_
8. 1
_
_

41.9
1.6
1.6
8. 1
_

46. 8
_

30. 6
_
_

3. 2
1.6
4. 8
9.7
27. 4

3. 2
1.6
6. 5
30. 6
3. 2

29.9
5. 6
.7
4. 2
1.4
3. 5
3. 5
9.7
10. 4
13.9
17. 8

-

i

T e r r a z z o skilled helpers

T o t a l -------

1 0 0.0

1 0 0.0

1 0 0.0

1 0 0.0

0 h o u r s -----------1-19 h o u r s -------2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s ------4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s ------6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s ------8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s ------1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s ----1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s ---1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s ----1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s ----180 h o u r s or m o r e

37. 1
_

41. 9
1.6
4.8
1.6
1.6
1.6
3. 2
17. 7
25. 8

33.9
1.6
3. 2
3. 2
_

37. 1

1. 6
1.6
1.6
14. 5
9.7
29. 0

1.6
1.6
8. 1
16. 1
21.0
11. 3

4. 8
1.6
6. 5
_
6. 5
19 . 4
22. 6
1.6

"

3.2
_

100.0
100. 0
|----- -----=
!
35. 5
!
40. 3
1
“
!
1.6
1.6
4. 8
_
1. 6
3. 2
1. 6
_
1.6
4. 8
1.6
24. 2
30. 6
4. 8
17. 7
24. 2
"

100. 0
37. 1
1

_

1.6
6. 5
_
3.
4.
6.
27.
11.
1.

11. 3
_
8. 1
4. 8
14. 5
14. 5
17. 7

2
8
5
4
3
6

-

3.
3.
3.
6.
37.

2
2
2
5
1

-

1. 6
6. 5
_

-

4. 8
1.6
3. 2
3. 2
.
6. 5
11.3
38. 7

Masons

Total -------

33 . 8
1. 2
3. 7
9. 6
6 .3
8.6
8.0
6. 1
9. 1
6. 8
6. 7

100.0

100. 0

0 h o u r s -----------1-1 9 h o u r s -------2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s ------4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s ------6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s ------8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s ------1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s ----1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s ----1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s ----1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s ----180 h o u r s or m o r e

100. 0

100.0

j

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

34. 5
1.0

33.0
.6
1. 1
6. 0
2.0
3. 6
4. 1
10. 6
16. 0
10. 8
12. 2

30. 3
.7
1.2
5. 3
1.6
2.6
2.8
5. 6
14. 2
14. 5
21. 1

!
|
|
i
j
!

35. 5
.8
.9
1. 2
1.0
2.9
2.7
13.3
24.9
13. 6
3. 2

37. 3
20.0
3.4
11.0
3.4
5. 2
3.7
4.0
4. 2
4. 3
3. 5

35. 3
.9
5. 8
9. 6
13. 2
8. 3
3. 8
4. 7
6. 8
5. 2
6. 2

30.4
.6

31. 2
.7
1. 1
5. 7
1.0
2.9
2. 5
5. 0
16.6
12. 3
20. 9

33. 0
.9
1. 3
5. 3
1.4

3<1
2. 7
4. 4
16. 4
20. 7
14. 3

30. 2
.2
1. 1
5. 6
1. 2
2. 7
2. 7
5 .4
28.9
7.9
14. 0

2.9
5.9
13. 5
19.7
8.9
7. 2

31.9
.4
.6
5. 1
1. 2
3.0
3. 6
6.4
17.0
14. 4
16.4

f
l
i
j
|
I
j
!
j
!
j
1
:
j
|
|
j

!• 7
6.4
4.7
7.9
10.7
12.0
12. 5
8.3
.2

1
i
|
i
|
1

j
I
1
i
i
:
i

•6
5. 7
1. 1

1

i __________
_

Lathers

T o t a l -------

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

0 h o u r s -----------1-1 9 h o u r s -------2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s ------4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s ------6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s ------8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s ------1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s ----1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s ----1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s ----1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s ----180 h o u r s or m o r e

37. 5
_

34. 5
.6
1.2
8.9
1.8
6.0
6.0
4. 8
16. 7
14. 3
5 .4

28. 0
1. 2
1.8
8. 9
1. 2
4. 2
4. 8
1.8
6. 5
11.9
29. 8

30. 4
1.2
8. 3
3.0
4. 2
4. 2
13. 1
25. 6
10. 1

39.9
.6
.6
1.8
1.8
6. 0
3. 0
3. 0
10. 1
26. 8
6. 5

31.0
.6
.6
8. 3
1.8
5. 4
3. 6
1.8
19. 6
7. 7
19. 6

32. 7
.6
2. 4
8. 9
4. 2
8. 3
6. 5
5. 4
15. 5
4. 8
10. 7

32. 1
.6
.6
8. 9
.6
6. 0
4. 2
6.0
10. 1
16. 1
14. 9

36.9
_

38. 7
_

.6
8.9
1.8
4. 8
3. 6
6. 5
17. 3
3. 0
16. 7

38. 1
.6
1.2
9. 5
1.8
8.9
1. 2
3. 6
8.9
19. 0
7. 1

1. 2
9. 5
.6
3. 6
2. 4
4. 2
25. 0
8. 3
6. 5

32. 1
1.2
1.8
10. 7
4 .8
4. 8
3.0
7. 1
8. 3
5 .4
20. 8

1.2
8. 3
4. 8
4. 8
5. 4
7. 7
13.7
13. 7
3. 0

C e m e n t finishers
Total -------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

1 0 0.0

100.0

0 h o u r s -----------1-1 9 h o u r s -------2 0 - 3 9 h o u r s ------4 0 - 5 9 h o u r s ------6 0 - 7 9 h o u r s ------8 0 - 9 9 h o u r s ------1 0 0 - 1 1 9 h o u r s ----1 2 0 - 1 3 9 h o u r s ----1 4 0 - 1 5 9 h o u r s ----1 6 0 - 1 7 9 h o u r s ----180 h o u r s or m o r e

59.4
1. 6
1.9
6. 6
2. 5
6. 1
2. 1
3.8
6. 2
5. 3
4. 5

60. 3
1.9
1. 6
5. 6
2. 2
5. 3
3.4
5. 6
8.0
6. 1

53. 6
1. 3
.6
5. 3
2. 3
3. 6
2. 7
4. 2
10. 9
10. 9
4. 5

46. 6
2. 2
3.0
5. 8
2. 6
2.9
1.6
4 .8
6. 6
9.1
14.9

43. 5
2. 1
1.0
1.4
1. 6
3. 2
6. 7
8. 6
15. 7
12. 5
3. 8

37. 7
1.9
2. 2
5. 8
1. 2
3.5
2.5
7.7
17. 3
9.9
10.4

37. 7
2. 5
1.7
5. 7
1.6
2. 5
2. 5
5. 7
8. 6
11. 5
20. 1

37. 6
1.9
1.4
4. 5
1. 3
2. 2
1.9
4. 8
11. 5
18.0
14. 7

37. 7
1.6
.8
4. 8
1. 7
1. 3
2. 7
5. 2
16. 5
13 . 4
14. 4

38. 5
1.7
1. 3
5. 4
.8
1.4
1.4
4. 2
9. 2
12. 7
23. 3

41. 2
1.9
2. 1
6. 6
2. 7
3.0
4. 4
6. 6
8.9
10. 5
11.9

52. 5
1. 3
2. 2
5. 7
2. 2
3.4
1.8
3. 8
10. 4
7.4
9. 3

94




-

Table A-45. P ercen t distribution of w orkers in selected construction occupations in M ilwaukee by month and by hours of work reported for the 12-m onth
period, D ecem ber 1965— ovem ber 1966— Continued
N
Hours
T o ta l-------------------- —
0 h o u rs-------------------------------1-19 h o u r s ---- - -----------20-39 h o u rs------------------------40-59 h o u rs------------------------60-79 h o u rs------------------------80-99 h o u rs------------------------100-119 h o u rs--------------------120-139 h o u rs--------------------140-159 h o u rs--------------------160-179 h o u rs--------------------180 hours or m o re --------------

January jFebruary

M arch

A pril

May

100.0
24. 0
4. 0
20. 0
4.0
8. 0
12. 0
28. 0
-

100.0
24. 0
20.0

100. 0
24. 0
20.0

8.0
48.0
“

4. 0
12.0
40. 0

100.0
28.0
16. 0
4.0
4. 0
16.0
24.0
8.0

100.0
—
44. 0
4. 0
4. 0
4. 0
8. 0
20. 0
16. 0
-

-

-

June
July
Augustj Septem ber j Octoberj Novem ber D ecem ber
T errazzo m echanics
i
!
100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0 i 100.0
1 100.0 1 100.0
!
h....................|
1
28.0
32.0
32.0
32. 0
28.0
28.0
24.0
4. 0
|
4. 0
20. 0
16.0
16. 0
16. 0
16.0
24.0
16. 0
4.0
i
4. 0 i
4. 0
8.0 Ii
4. 0 j 12.0 '|
4. 0
8. 0
8.0
32. 0
4. 0
4.0
8.0
28. 0 j 8.0
4. 0
12.0
16. 0
24. 0
8. 0
36.0
36. 0
8. 0
40. 0
36.0
4. 0
P la ste re rs

100. 0
31. 1
2. 1
.5
12. 1
3. 7
5. 8
5. 3
8.9
14. 7
15. 8
"

100. 0
31.6
.5
1. 1
10. 0
3. 7
3. 7
6. 3
15. 3
10. 0
17. 0

100.0
30.0
.5
1. 1
10. 5
1. 1
3. 7
1.6
1.6
12. 6
17. 4
20.0

100. 0

0 h o u rs-------------------------------1-19 hours -------------------------20-39 h o u rs------------------------40-59 h o u rs------------------------60-79 h o u rs------------------------80-99 h o u rs------------------------100-119 h o u rs--------------------120-139 h o u rs--------------------140-159 h o u rs--------------------160-179 h o u rs--------------------180 hours or m ore -------------

100.0
29.5
4. 2
1. 1
11.6
1.6
7.9
8. 4
8.4
10.0
11.6
5. 8

100. 0
37. 8
1. 1
.5
.5
1. 6
3. 2
2. 1
5. 3
18. 9
26. 3
2. 6

100.0
59. 1
.8
.9
2.9
1. 3
5. 7
1.9
4.0
8. 7
14. 4
.2

100. 0

100.0
48. 6
1.7
2. 4
2.9
1.5
4. 4
1.9
2. 8
5. 1
11.2
17. 5

100.0
42. 2
1. 2
1. 1
2. 1
1.8
2.9
4. 1
7. 7
15. 8
17. 8
3. 4

100.0
27.4
3. 7
12. 6
2. 1
3. 7
4. 2
2. 6
18.9
12. 6
12. 1

100. 0
28.9
1. 1
.5
12. 1
2. 1
4. 7
3. 2
3. 7
18. 9
6. 3
18.4

100.0
28.4
•5
.5
12. i
2.1
4.7
1.6
8.4
16.8
14. 7
io. o

:
1
1
;
|
j
|
!
|
|
;

100. 0
33. 7
.5
.5
16. 3
2.-6
7. 4
2. 1
4. 2
8.4
16. 3
7.9

100. 0

100.0
33. 9
1.6
1.2
3. 5
1. 3
1.9
2.0
4. 7
10. 1
13. 1
5.0

100. 0

100.0
48. 5
.6
6.1
1.2
.6
1.2
3.7
16.0
5. 5
16. 6

100. 0
47. 2
2. 5
1.2
7.4
.6
3. 1
.6
4. 3
9.8
17. 2
6. 1

100.0
47. 9
1.8
.6
6. 7
1. 2
4. 3
1. 2
4. 3
20. 2
9. 2
2. 5

100. 0

100.0
51.0
2. 7
3. 2
4. 6
3.0
3. 0
3. 6
4. 7
17. 1
2. 1
5.0

100.0
55. 2
2. 1
2. 2
3. 4
1.7
2. 1
2. 1
3. 4
7. 5
7. 7
12. 5

100. 0
59.7
2. 1
2. 1
3. 3
1.9
2. 6
4. 0
7. 6
10. 8
3. 1
2. 8

100.0
64.4
1.5
1.6
2.9
1.6
2. 3
1.9
3. 1
8. 2
5. 2
7. 3

100.0
31.6
.5
.5
11.6
1. 1
5. 3
1.6
7.9
19.5
7.9
12. 6

O perating engineers
0 h o u rs--------------------1-19 hours ---------------20-39 h o u rs-------------40-59 h o u rs-------------60-79 h o u rs-------------80-99 h o u rs-------------- —
100-119 h o u rs----------- —
120-139 h o u rs----------- —
140-159 h o u rs----------160-179 h o u rs----------180 hours or m ore — —

56. 2
1. 2
1.9
4. 5
1.5
5. 3
2. 8
4. 6
5. 5
9. 3
7. 1

55. 7
.7
1. 1
3. 5
1. 1
4. 7
1.9
3. 5
6.9
14. 3
6. 7

100.0
39.9
1.5
1. 1
3. 1
1. 1
2. 1
2. 4
6.1
20. 5
12.0
10. 1

100. 0
36. 3
1.7
1.0
2. 6
1.4
1.6
2. 3
3. 6
8. 3
13. 8
27.4

P la ste re r labo rers
T o ta l-----------------------0 h o u rs------------------------------1-19 hours ------------------------20-39 h o u rs-----------------------40-59 h o u rs-----------------------60-79 h o u rs-----------------------80-99 h o u rs-----------------------100-119 h o u rs-------------------120-139 h o u rs-------------------140-159 h o u rs-------------------160-179 h o u rs-------------------180 hours or m o re -------------

100. 0
39. 3
3. 1
.6
7. 4
.6
6. 7
6. 1
8. 0
11.0
12.9
4. 3

100. 0
38. 7
1. 2
2. 5
6. 7
3. 1
5. 5
5. 5
7.4
10.4
19.0
“

100. 0
36. 8
.6
.6
6. 1
.6
4. 3
9. 2
1.8
8. 0
12.9
19. 0

100. 0
42. 3
1.8
1.2
6. 1
1.2
2. 5
.6
3. 1
4.9
21.5
14. 7

100. 0
46. 0
1. 2
.6
1. 8
.6
4. 3
5. 5
3. 1
11.0
23. 9
1. 8

100.0
71.7
1. 2
1.2
2. 2
1. 3
3. 2
3. 2
4 .4
6. 6
5.0
"

100.0
68. 8
1. 1
1. 6
2. 7
1.4
2. 3
1.7
3. 2
6. 2
6. 3
4. 6

100.0
61.5
2. 1
2.4
3. 3
2. 1
2. 6
2.0
2. 3
5.8
5.9
9.9

100. 0
57. 2
2. 5
2. 4
2. 4
2. 4
2.9
3. 4
7. 0
11.8
6. 4
1.6

100.0
41.7
.6
3. 1
8. 0
1. 2
3. 1
1.8
1.8
15. 3
11.7
11.7

100. 0
41. 7
.6
1. 2
7.4
1. 2
3. 1
4.9
3. 1
14. 1
8. 6
14. 1

100.0 ; 100. 0
36. 1 j 35. 7
1.2 !
1.6
1. 1 i 1. 3
3.6 |
3.0
1. 2
.9 i
2. 5 !
2. 6
1.6 !
2. 5
4. 3 |
3. 7
24. 5
13.0
28. 4
16. 7
7. 2 | 26. 9
________ L
100.0
45.4
1.2
6. 7
1. 2
3. 7
4. 3
9.8
19. 0
8. 6

L aborers
0 h o u rs-------------------------------1-19 hours -------------------------20-39 h o u rs------------------------40-59 h o u rs------------------------60-79 h o u rs------------------------80-99 h o u rs------------------------100-119 h o u rs--------------------120-139 h o u rs--------------------140-159 h o u rs--------------------160-179 h o u rs--------------------180 hours or m o r e -------------

100.0
70. 9
1.2
1.5
3. 2
2. 2
3.9
2. 7
3. 0
4. 7
3. 6
3. 1

100. 0
53. 7
2. 8
2.9
4. 3
2. 5
2.9
3. 7
6.9
12.8
2. 7
4. 7

100. 0
52. 8
2. 3
2. 7
4. 0
3. 0
2. 7
3. 3
3. 8
8. 8
6.9
9.9

100.0
51.2
1.9
2. 2
3. 3
1.9
2.4
3. 2
5.4
12. 2
11.6
4. 7

1
|
!
I
!
!
I

1

37.9
1. 1
.5
12. 1
2. 1
3. 7
4. 7
7 .4
22. 1
7.9
.5

41.9
1. 1
1.8
3. 8
1. 6
2.9
5.0
11.8
13. 7
11. 6
5.0

100.0
30. 5
.5
2. 6
10.0
4. 2
1.6
5. 8
14. 2
12. 6
17.9
100.0
49. 4
.9
1.4
3. 6
1.7
3. 3
3. 6
5. 5
10. 5
9. 5
10. 7

42.9
1. 2
.6
4.9
1.8
1. 2
4. 3
14. 1
8. 0
20. 9

NOTE: Because of rounding, sum s of individual item s m ay not equal totals.




95

Table A-46. P ercent distribution of w orkers in selected construction occupations in southern C alifornia by month and by hours of w ork reported
for a 12-m onth period
------------- 1
1------------- 1
Hours
January F ebruary M arch
A pril 1------------- June
; May
July ; AugUSt | Septem ber October i Novembe rj Decembe r
Ironw orkers 1
---------------- 1--------------T o ta l________________
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0 ' 100.0
100. 0 !---- ..... ^ 100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
| 100.0
-------- ------o hours ____________________
38. 8
38. 0
37. 8
40. 5
48. 0
31. 3
31. 3 i 29.4
30. 4
32. 0
33. 5
36. 2
2. 0
2. 1
1-19 h o u rs_________________
1. 8
2. 2 | 2. 1
2. 6
2. 3 ; 2 .8
2. 3
2. 3
2. 4
1. 9
2. 6
2. 5
2. 3
2. 7
2. 5
2.4
2. 6 i 2.6
20-39 ho urs________________
2.6
2.4
2. 2
2.6
2. 6
2. 7
3. 1
40-59 hours ________________
3. 1
2. 6
2. 8
2. 6
2. 9 | 2. 8
2. 9
2. 9
2. 9
2. 8
60-79 hours ________________
3. 0
3. 1
3. 5 ! 2. 4
2. 8
2. 8
2. 8
2.7
2. 3
3. 1
2. 9
4. 2
4. 2
80-99 hours _______________
3. 0
5. 2 l 3. 2
3. 6
3. 8 | 3.7
3. 5
3. 5
4. 3
4.6
6 4
4. 9
3. 8
3. 1
4. 7 i 3. 9
4. 3
4. 7
5. 8
4. 1
5. 7
10. 8
8. 2
6. 0
4. 1
120-139 hours _____________
11. 5
6.* 9 | 6 ° . 4
8. 8
6. 8
11. 8
6! 9
10. 8
140-159 ho urs______________
15. 3
16. 5
10. 1
10. 0
7. 5
15. 7
17. 2 ! 9. 8
18. 8
13. 1
13. 6
13. 7
8.4
13.8
11.2
160-479 hours _____________
8. 8
8. 6 ; 17. 2
18. 5
11. 2
10. 0
9. 1
11. 9 I 11.2
180 hours or m o re_________
2.6
18.4
4. 6 : 12.5 | 16. 2
17. 0 | 18. 6
14. 1
12. 7
8. 1
6.9
9. 3
!
1
O perating engineers 1
i
Total_________________
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
21.4
0 hours____ __ __ ________
31.3
30. 8
31. 0
33.1
43. 7
22. 2
23. 0
24. 9
27. 4
19. 9
29. 3
2.3
1-19 h o u rs________________
1. 8
1. 6
1. 6
1. 5
1. 4
1. 7
1. 6
1. 5
1. 6
1. 6
1. 8
2. 2
2.4
2. 1
3.4 j; 1.6
2. 0
2. 1
20-39 h o u r s __ ___ ______
2. 3
2. 3
1. 8
1. 9
1. 9
2. 7
2. 4
4. 0 i 2. 1
2. 2
2. 6
2. 5
3. 0
2. 5
2. 8
2. 8
40-59 hours ______
2. 9
2. 5
2.4
4. 5
2. 7
3. 3
2. 3
2. 2
3. 4
60-79 hours _________ ____
1. 8
2.7
2. 9
3. 1
4. 1
3. 6
3. 2
6. 2 1 2. 1
3. 1
3. 7
3. 6
3. 2
3. 3
4. 3
4. 1
80-99 hours________________
4. 6
6.4
100-119 hours_______________
3. 4
7.4 i 2. 3
4. 0
4. 5
3. 7
3. 5
3. 4
6.6
6. 5
9.2 | 3. 1
10.4
6. 4
5. 1
5. 5
7. 0
5.4
5. 7
4. 8
10. 7
10. 1
120-139 hours_______________
8.4 | 5. 6
8. 6
13. 2
11. 1
11. 7
15. 0
13.4
11. 2
7. 1
140-159 hours_______________
8. 9
11.9
22. 3
12. 3
13. 7
10. 6 ; 15. 8
14. 7
16. 7
20. 1
16. 6
20. 5
13. 0
160-179 ho urs_______________
13.9
12. 8
26. 5
20. 5
23. 5
180 hours or m o re__________
10. 9
33. 5
25. 7
26. 2
13. 6
11. 1
15. 4
29. 9
1
T eam sters 2
Total - --- --- ------ _
0 hours ___________________
1-19 hours - _______________
20-39 hours_____ _________
40-59 hours----------- ------ —
60-79 h o u r s ----- --- ---------80-99 hours ____________ __
100-119 hours _____________
120-139 hours _____________
140-159 hours -------------------160- 179 ho urs_________ ___
180 hours or m ore _________

100.0
40. 9
1.9
2. 1
2.8
1. 8
2. 8
3. 3
5. 9
9. 0
15. 8
13. 8

100.0 i
41.6
i 2. 3
; 2. l i
| 2.7 |
! 3.2 j
i 4.5 :
5. 0 |
6.9 j
9. 9 !
15. 1 j
6.8 j
__________ 1

1
100.0 i
T o ta l________________ ----------------s 100. 0
!
40.6
41.3
0 hours ____________________
2.4 1 2. 5
1-19 h o u rs_________________
3. 2 : 3. 3
20-39 ho urs------------------------3. 7 ! 4. 0
40-59 hours________________
3. 7 | 3. 5
60-79 hours-------- -------------4. 6
4. 5
80-99 hours________________
4. 6
5. 0
100-119 ho urs______________
8. 2
7. 3
120-139 ho urs______________
11. 8
11. 2
140-159 ho urs--------------------14. 7
13. 2
160-179 hours _____________
4. 9 !1 1. 8
180 hours or m o re--------------1
T o ta l________________
0 hours ________________ —
1-19 h o u rs_________________
20-39 ho urs________________
40-59 ho urs________________
60-79 ho urs------------------------80-99 hours________________
100-119 hours _____________
120-139 hours______________
140-159 hours _____________
160-179 ho urs--------------------180 hours or m o re_________

100. 0
35. 0
5. 7
3.4
4. 1
4. 4
4. 7
6. 2
8. 5
10. 7
11. 4
5. 9

i
i!
|

100.0
100.0
37. 6 !1 47. 0
2. 1 ! l. 6
2. 1
1.5
1. 7
1.9
1.8
1. 9
1.8
2. 3
2.4
1.9
3. 7
3. 0
6. 0
5.7
13.3
11. 0
20. 8
29. 0

| 100.0 j 100. 0
100. 0
j 46.6 | 46. 9
48. 3
; 1. 7
1. 5
1. 7
| 1. 4
1. 4
1. 8
2. 0
1 1. 8
1. 6
i 2. 0
2. 0
1.6
| 2. 2
2. 4
1. 9
2. 3
3. 1
< 2. 7
4. 0
' 4. 1
3. 1
6.6
10. 2
! 7. 6
! 16.4
10. 5
9. 0
15. 0
i 13. 5
23. 2
i
C arpenters 2

!
100.0 i 100. 0
' 100. 0
I
.“ i!
j 38.4
39. 5 j 40.6
2. 2 I 2. 0
! 2. 3
3. 0 ! 2.9
2.9
3.5
3.3 | 3.4
3.4
3. 2
3. 9
3. 7
3. 7
3. 9
4. 2
3. 6
3. 9
5. 2
5. 3
6.6
11.8
7. 3
8. 2
11. 0
15. 8
15.5
11. 8 | 5.7
19. 4
i1
!

100.0 i 100.' 0 !----- '
1 100.0
34. 0
34. 1
33. 1
4 .4
4. 5
4* 7
3. 1
4. 1
3. 5
4. 8
3. 3
3. 5
4. 6
3. 1
3. 2
3. 3
3. 7
5.9
4. 3
4. 7
7. 8
8. 7
5. 3
5. 3
10. 5
7. 8
8. 5
13.4
10. 2
10. 9
21. 8
15. 9
3. 9

! 100. 0
.
35. 2
3. 7
3.4
3. 5
3.4
4. 5
5. 2
7. 8
11.4
17. 2

!
1
|
!
i
j
|
1
j
j
1
|
!
i

100. 0
39. 5
2. 2
3. 0
3. 5
3. 4
3. 8
4. 3
5.4
11. 2
11. 1
12. 7

Cement m asons 2
1 100.0 | 100.0
35. 1
36. 7
4. 1
4. 1
3. 3
3. 2
4. 0
3.6
2. 7
3. 7
4. 7
4. 5
5. 3
5. 1
6.6
7. 2
9.6
13. 8
10.4
8. 9
14. 2
9. 1

1 F iscal year running from June 1966 to May 1967.
2 Calendar year 1966.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual item s m ay not equal totals.

96




100. 0
41. 3
2. 2
2. 9
3. 6
3. 5
4. 3
4. 8
6. 3
16. 5
6. 7
7. 9

100. 0
47. 7
1. 3
1. 2
1. 8
1. 3
2. 1
2. 2
3.4
4. 9
10. 7
23. 3

100. 0
48. 2
1. 2
1. 6
1. 5
1. 5
2. 4
2. 3
4. 1
11. 0
11. 4
14. 7

100. 0
48. 6
1. 2
1. 6
1. 6
1. 6
2. 0
2. 3
4. 0
7. 3
13. 8
15. 8

100. 0
50. 9
1. 5
1. 6
2. 5
2. 7
3. 1
3. 8
7. 1
8. 1
8. 3
10. 3

100. 0
53.9
1. 7
1.9
2. 2
2. 0
3. 1
4. 3
5.9
8. 8
7. 3
9. 0

100. 0
42. 2
2. 1
2.7
3. 6
3. 2
4. 1
3. 7
5. 3
6. 1
11. 7
15. 4

100. 0
45. 8
2. 2
3. 2
3. 6
3. 0
3. 8
3. 8
5. 8
14. 3
6. 3
8. 1

100. 0
49. 5
2. 0
2. 8
3. 3
2. 9
3. 8
3. 4
4. 7
8. 8
13. 2
5. 7

100. 0
52. 7
2. 0
2. 7
3. 3
2. 9
3.4
4. 0
7. 8
7. 1
8. 2
5.9

100. 0
55.4
1. 8
2.6
3. 0
2. 6
3. 4
4. 3
7. 4
6. 9
7. 2
5. 2

100. 0
35. 5
3. 8
3.4
3. 7
3. 8
4.4
4. 6
6. 3
7. 4
11. 3
15. 8

100. 0
37. 7
4. 3
3. 3
3. 8
3. 3
4. 8
5. 7
7. 5
13. 3
7. 5
8. 7

100. 0
39. 5
4. 4
3. 0
4. 1
3. 1
4. 2
4. 6
6.4
9.6
12. 7
8. 5

100. 0
42. 7
5. 0
3. 7
4. 7
4. 4
5. 2
5. 8
8. 8
7. 3
6. 8
5. 5

100. 0
44. 7
5. 0
4. 1
4. 8
4. 2
5. 1
5. 6
8. 3
7. 5
5. 8
5. 1

A P PEN D IX B. TH E M E A SU R E M EN T OF SEASONAL
U N E M PLO YM EN T IN 1968

In this bulletin the procedure for estimating the proportion of seasonal to total unemployment in con­
tract construction was as follows: 1
1. The difference between the original and seasonally adjusted unemployment series was computed for
each month of 1968 for each of these groups:
Private wage and salary workers last employed in—
Mining
Construction
Durable goods manufacturing
Nondurable goods manufacturing
Transportation and public utilities
Wholesale and retail trade
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Service industries (including domestic services)
Agricultural wage and salary workers
All other classes of workers (workers in government and self-employed and unpaid family workers)
Persons with no previous work experience
The result gives a measure of seasonal unemployment (in absolute numbers) in relation to the annual
average unemployment.
2. The month of minimum seasonal unemployment according to the seasonal adjustment factors was
identified (August for the construction industry).
3. The deviation of the seasonal unemployment in other months from that of the lowest month (defined
equal to zero) is considered the amount of seasonal unemployment in that month. (See table B-l.)
4.
The sum of the seasonal unemployment in each month over a 12-month period as a proportion of
total unemployment over the same period provides a measure of the percentage of total employment accounted
for by seasonality.
These computations show that 36.1 percent of all construction unemployment in 1968 could be termed
seasonal. 2 Table B-2 presents these calculations for the construction industry for 1948—
68.
1 Method is that described and utilized in Unemployment: Terminology, Measurement, and Analysis (prepared for the
Joint Economic Committee by BLS, Nov. 28, 1961), pp. 81-84. An earlier description may be found in “The Extent and
Nature of Frictional Unemployment” Study Paper No. 6, prepared for the Joint Economic Committee, Study o f E m ploym ent
Growth, and Price Levels (BLS, Nov. 19, 1959).
2 The extent of seasonal unemployment in construction also was measured by using a 6-month (May to October) aver­
age difference in lieu of the single month concept as outlined in step 3. This technique resulted in a somewhat lower propor­
tion of unemployment (27.7 percent) that could be considered seasonal. (See table B-l.)




97

To obtain the estimated amount of seasonal unemployment for the entire labor force, the separate esti­
mates for each group listed in step 1 were cumulated. This figure is divided by the cumulation of the num­
ber of unemployed in each of the 12 months. Table B-4 shows that 20.4 percent of the Nation’s total un­
employment in 1968 could be considered seasonal; private wage and salary workers in construction were re­
sponsible for 15.5 percent, of this. 3 (See table B-2.)
3
Because of definitional changes, the addition of later data, and revisions in the basic seasonal adjustment procedures,
these figures are not directly comparable with those of earlier studies. Seasonal unemployment as a percent of the Nation’s
total unemployment was estimated in 1960 and 1957 at 21 and 16 percent, respectively. Of this, the portion attributed to
construction was 23 percent in 1960 and 19 percent in 1957.

96




A P PEN D IX B TABLES

Page
B-l. Measurement of seasonal unemployment in construction, 1968 ............................................................
B-2. Seasonal unemployment as a percentage of total reported experienced unemployment:
Private wage and salary workers in construction, 1948—
68...............................................................
B-3. Distribution of seasonal and nonseasonal unemployment by industry of last full-time
job, 1968 ....................................................................................................................................................
B-4. Seasonal unemployment as a percent of total unemployment, by industry of last
full-time job, 1968.....................................................................................................................................




100
100
101
101

99

Table B -l. M easurem ent of seasonal unem ploym ent in construction, 1968 1
(Thousands of w orkers)
j
!----------January F ebruary M arch A pril May June July August Septem ber October Novem ber D ecem ber
P rocedure
1.
2.
3.
4.

443
421
O riginal series ____________________
Seasonal adjusted se ries ---------------287
268
153
156
D ifference (1 -2 )----------------------------Deviations:
a. F rom month of m inim um
240
237
difference ----------------------------b. F rom 6-m onth (May to October)
216
average difference -----------------219
5. Total seasonal unemployment:
Sums of row 4 a ------------------------------- 1,069
Sums of row 4 b ------------------------------819
6. Seasonal unem ploym ent as a percent of total unemploym ent:
a. Based on single m onth:_________
1 ,069 t 2,, 959 2* 36. ]L
819f 2,, 959 -27. 7
b. Based on 6-m onth a v e ra g e :--------

382
282
100

220
201
19

185
240
-55

229
275
-46

189
245
-56

163
24 7
-84

127
201
-74

148
213
-65

220
236
-16

232
203
29

184
163

103
82

29
0

38
0

28
0

0
0

10
0

19
0

68
47

113
92

1 Experienced private wage and salary w orkers.
2 Sum of line 1.
SOURCE: C urrent Population Survey conducted for the BLS by the Bureau of C ensus.

Table B-2. Seasonal unemploym ent as a percentage of
total rep orted experienced unemployment: Private wage
and salary w orkers in construction, 1948—68

100




Table B-3. D istribution of seasonal and nonseasonal unem ploym ent byindustry of la st full-tim e job, 1968
Non­
Seasonal seasonal
Industry
All w orkers
100. 0
100. 0
T o ta l--------------------------------------------------------62. 6
75. 4
Experienced private wage and salary w o rk e rs---15. 5
7. 0
C o nstruction___________________________ ____
M anufacturing:
14. 4
7. 8
Durable g o o d s__ ________________________
12. 8
6. 2
N ondurable goods_________________________
T ransportation and public u tilitie s ----------------3. 9
2. 9
14. 8
W holesale and reta il tr a d e ----------------------------19. 1
2. 1
2. 8
Finance, insurance, and rea l e s ta te — --------12.4
16. 4
Other industries 1 -----------------------------------------5. 6
2. 4
A gricultural wage and salary w orkers — ----------10. 2
All other classes of w o rk e rs------------------------------9. 5
21. 7
12. 6
No previous w ork experience ----------------------------E xperienced private wage
and salary w orkers
Total
100. 0
100. 0
24. 7
C o nstruction------------------------------------------------------9. 3
M anufacturing:
12. 5
Durable goods -----------------------------------------------19. 1
17. 0
N ondurable goods_____________________ ______
9. 8
3. 8
6. 2
T ransportation and public u tilities ______________
23. 7
25. 3
W holesale and reta il tr a d e ____________ _________
3. 7
3.4
Finance, insurance and rea l e s ta te ------ ----------21. 8
Other industries 1 _______________________________
19. 7

Table B-4. Seasonal unemploym ent as a percent of total
unem ploym ent, by industry of la st full-tim e job, 1968
Industry

P ercent

T o ta l_
Experienced private wage and salary w o rk e rs___________
C o n stru ctio n --------------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing:
D urable____________________________________________
Nondurable ------------------------------------------------------------T ransportation and public utilities ___________________
W holesale and retail tra d e ____________________________
Finance, insurance, and rea l e sta te __________________
Other ind ustries 1 -----------------------------------------------------A gricultural wage and salary w orkers ___________________
All other c lasse s of w o rk e rs_____________________________
No previous work e x p erie n c e ____________________________

20.4
17. 6
36. 1

12. 2
11. 0

25. 6
16. 7
16. 3
16. 2
37. 3
21. 5
30. 6

1 Includes mining, service in d ustries, forestry , fish e rie s, and
dom estics.
SOURCE: C urrent Population Survey conducted for the BLS by
the Bureau of the Census.

1 Includes m ining, service in d ustries, fo restry , fish e rie s, and
dom estics.
SOURCE: C urrent Population Survey conducted for the BLS by
the Bureau of the Census.




101

APPENDIX C. MEASURING THE EFFECT OF WEATHER ON
EMPLOYMENT IN CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION
Problem
In an effort to determine the effects of weather conditions on employment, weather data for Chicago
were correlated with employment data for the same city in the same time period.
Data regarding temperature, rainfall, snowfall, snow accumulation, and peak wind gusts for the city of
Chicago, daily, 1958— were obtained from the Weather Bureau, Environmental Science Administration.
64,
Contract construction employment and unemployment data were from the Current Population Survey and
Establishment Survey of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data reflecting construction demand in Chicago were
obtained from the Bell Savings and Loan Institution, Chicago, 1 1 Various multiple regression equations using
1.
these data were then tested and evaluated. 1

Procedure
Testing began with the simple correlation of several independent variables and contract construction em­
ployment. (See table C-l.) Next, several hypotheses concerning the relationship of weather conditions and
employment in Chicago were tested using multiple regression analysis, and the coefficients were examined for
significance in terms of Student’s t-distribution. 2 Following are a few of the hypotheses that were tested:
A. Does the level of employment depend on and vary with each type of weather condition? Repeated
tests indicated that temperature was a significant variable in explaining changes in employment levels. When
dummy variables specific to the seasons were included in the regressions, no weather variable, excluding tem­
perature was significant. Thus, it did not appear that the level of employment was strongly associated with
specific weather conditions other than temperature. (See table C-2, equation 1 and 2.)
B. Do specific weather conditions help to explain that variance of employment which is not explained
by demand factors? (See table C-2, equation 3.) A linear time trend was fitted to the data and deviations
from the trend obtained. These deviations were regressed on variables representing weather conditions. (See
table C-2, equation 4.) Temperature, peak gusts, and the chill factor (the product of peak gusts and temper­
ature) showed significant coefficients. In this test, the variation of employment around the trend was affected
by specific weather conditions.
C. If specific weather conditions explicitly are accounted for, as well as changes in secular demand, and
national employment conditions, are there indications that employment in construction is related to institu1 The ideal weather t st would have been to correlate hours of work recorded each day with daily weather data. Pay­
e
r l data, however, relate only to the week including the 12th of each month. For purposes of comparability, t i necessitated
ol
hs
constructing weekly weather s r e that measured conditions in the week of the employment survey. Additional insight might
eis
have been gained using the same technique for several c t e to determine the variations among them.
iis
2 Some interest also i attached to the general explanatory value of the equations estimated, a represented in the
s
s
multiple correlation coefficient. The employment data are strongly autocorrelated, as may be expected in monthly s r e ,
eis
and the problem of s r a correlation i pervasive in these studies. (See the Durbin-Watson s a i t c , table C-2.) B i fly,
eil
s
ttsis
re
equations in which the error terms are s r a l correlated may be expected to contain unbiased estimates of regression co­
eily
e f c e t , but to overestimate the precision of the standard errors of the coefficients. Hence, significant t s s are open to
fiins
et
some error. In essence, there i danger of accepting the significance of a coefficient that i actually ins g i i a t Essentially
s
s
infcn.
the study has made no attempt to u i i e estimation procedures designed to improve the efficiency of the t-test in the s r a
tlz
eil
correlation situation.

102




tional practices regarding winter building as well as weather conditions? The deviation of contractors’ em­
ployment from a linear time trend was fitted to an equation involving the following variables: Precipitation,
snow accumulation, temperature, chill factor, value of building permits issued in Chicago, the national unem­
ployment rate for experienced construction wage and salary workers, and seasonal dummies representing
December—
January—
February, March—
April—
May, and June—
July—
August. In this equation temperature, the
unemployment rate, and the winter and spring dummy variables showed significant coefficients. (See table
C-2, equation 5.) Thus, quite independently of actual weather and demand conditions a seasonal pattern
emerged. The expectations of contractors and owners regarding winter construction seem to result in a re­
duction in employment in winter below that which would have been anticipated as a result of actual weather
and demand conditions.
D.
Is there a threshold range in the response of employment to temperature? Apparently employment
responds to temperature increases within a favorable range but is nonresponsive below that range. Deviations
in employment from a time trend were fitted to an equation including truncated temperature variables. One
variable included all temperatures above 40 degrees. The other variables represented temperatures below 40
degrees, with zeros in observations for which the temperature exceeds 40 degrees. In a multiple regression
framework involving other weather conditions and demand variables, and seasonal dummy variables, four
variables were significant: Temperature above 40 degrees, the construction unemployment rate nationally, and
seasonal dummy variables for the winter and spring. Thus, the hypothesis of a threshold in temperature that
affects contractors’ reactions to weather conditions was not rejected. (See table C-2, equation 6.)




103

APPENDIX C TABLES
Page
C-l. Simple correlation coefficients— dependent (employment) and independent (weather and
other) variables................................................................................................................................... 105
C-2. Equations used in correlation analysis for Chicago, 1958— 4 ............................................................ 106
6

104



T a b l e C-l.
S i m p l e correlation coefficients— d e p e n d e n t ( e m p l o y m e n t ) and
i n d e p endent ( weather a n d other) variables

S i m p l e correlation
coefficient with
E m p l o y m e n t in
contract c o n ­
struction Chicago,
mont h l y , 1 9 5 8 - 6 4

V a riables

Deviation of e m ­
ployment f r o m a
linear t i m e trend,
m o n thly, 1958— 64

T e m p e r a t u r e __________________________________

0. 7 9 3 5 8

T e m p e r a t u r e a b o v e 4 0 ° _____________________

.80604

.89293

T e m p e r a t u r e b e l o w 40 0 ---------------------

6 9 200

-. 7 8 503

0. 8 6 6 2 6

Pr e c i pitation__________________________________

. 15476

. 19436

S n o w a c c u m u l a t i o n ---------------------------

52150

-. 6 0 9 3 2

P e a k g u s t s ____________________________________

-.29598

-. 3 2 1 7 8

P e a k gusts X t e m p e r a t u r e ___________________

.66 4 9 1

T i m e __________________________________________

3 7 251

. 72611
0

C h i c a g o ---------

.52380

.55364

Con s t ruction u n e m p l o y m e n t rate, U . S . A ---

72838

- 88407

D u m m y : D e c e m b e r - J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y -----

65142

-. 71 6 2 7

Dummy:

M a r c h - A p r i l - M a y __________________

16865

-. 2 0563

Dummy:

J u n e - J u l y - A u g u s t ___________________

.50475

.54868

V a l u e of building perm i t s ,




SOURCE:

Bureau

of L a b o r

Statistics.

105

T a b le C -2 . E q u a tio n s u se d in c o rre la tio n a n a ly s is fo r C h icag o , 1958—64
E q u a tio n
E q u a tio n 1 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------D e p e n d e n t v a ria b le
E m p lo y m en t in c o n tra c t c o n s tru c tio n
In d e p e n d e n t v a ria b le s
M ean te m p e ra tu re 2 - -------- ----------------- ----------------P re c ip ita tio n 2 ---------------------------------------------------------------S n o w fall 2 -----------------------------------------------------------------------T im e (lin e a r tre n d ) ---------------------------------- __ ________
C o n sta n t ( in te r c e p t) ------------------------------------------------------E q u a tio n 2 --------------------------------------------------------------------------D e p en d en t v a r ia b le -------------------E m p lo y m e n t in c o n tra c t c o n stru c tio n
In d e p e n d e n t v a ria b le s
M ean te m p e r a tu r e ------------------------------------------ -----------P r e c ip ita t io n -----------------------------------------------------------------Snow a c c u m u la tio n ---------------------------------------------- ------C h ill fa c to r (p eak g u s ts X te m p e ra tu re ) _____________
V alu e o f p e rm its is s u e d in C h ic a g o __________________
U n e m p lo y m e n t r a te in c o n s tru c tio n , USA ____________
D u m m y : D e c e m b e r - J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y ___;___________
D u m m y : M a rc h -A p ril-M a y ___________________________
D u m m y : J u n e - J u ly - A u g u s t___________________________
C o n sta n t (in te rc e p t) ___ _________________ ________ —
E q u a tio n 3 ------------------------------------------------------------ -------

R2 ’

D u rb in W atso n

0. 7824




0 . 7891
- . 0748
- . 1312
- .6 5 1 8

32. 7790
-1 . 1191
. 0513
. 2822
1. 5029
1. 0916
3-2 . 8783
3-3 . 7994
- . 9038

. 3074
- . 1290
. 0060
. 0328
. 1721
. 1259
- .3 1 7 3
- .4 0 4 0
- . 1045

35. 2792
. 5109
4 -1 . 4491
2. 6122
3-2 . 9073
3-7 . 9869

. 9341
5 .4 9 5 2
8960
1. 0058.
-. 0217
-. 0133
-. 0913
4 4. 9621

35. 2775
. 5099
-1 .4 4 8 8
4 2. 6105
3-2 . 9056
-.5 6 5 9
-.5 7 7 6

.5 1 7 9
. 0584
- . 1639
. 2869
- .3 1 6 2
- .0 6 4 8
- .0 6 6 1

. 2642
9153
5429

.8 4 5 0

-. 6663
-1 . 1764
3-7 .6 3 9 0

. 9344
5. 5056
8962
1. 0065
0217
-• 1877
0915
69. 0573

. 8012

311. 4184

. 2980
-2 . 7853
. 0400
. 0011
. 0001
1. 0007
-9 . 1737
-9 . 0462
-2 . 2559
85. 2388

. 6742

E q u a tio n 5 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

106

t-v a lu e

0. 4504
-1 . 3134
- 1. 3958
-.1 8 5 0
92. 2978

. 7692

1
2
3
4

P a r tia l
c o rre la tio n
c o e ffic ie n t

0. 9704

D e p en d en t v a ria b le
E m p lo y m e n t in c o n tra c t c o n s tru c tio n
In d e p e n d e n t v a ria b le s
T e m p e ra tu r e ------------------------------------------- — ______
P re c ip ita tio n __ _________________ __________ __ ------Snow a c c u m u la tio n ------------ ------------------------------------P e a k g u s t s ------------------------------------------------------- — ------C h ill fa c to r --------------------------------------------- --------------- —
T im e ____________________________________ ________ — —
P r e c ip ita tio n X t e m p e r a t u r e -------- --------------------------C o n sta n t (in te rc e p t) ------- — — _______________ __ __
E q u a tio n 4 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------D e p e n d e n t v a ria b le
D e v ia tio n of e m p lo y m e n t fro m a
L in e a r tim e tre n d
In d e p e n d e n t v a ria b le s
T e m p e ra tu r e — -------------------- ---------- ---- ------- ------P re c ip ita tio n -------------------- ---------------------Snow a c c u m u la tio n -------------------- -------------- —
P e a k g u s t s ----- --------------------------- ---------------------------- —
C h ill f a c t o r ______________________________________________
T i m e _____ —
---------- ------------------------------------------ _
P re c ip ita tio n X t e m p e r a t u r e ------ ------- „ __________
C o n s ta n t______ __________ — ________ __ —
------D e p e n d e n t v a ria b le
D e v ia tio n of e m p lo y m e n t fro m a
L in e a r tim e tre n d
In d e p e n d e n t v a ria b le s
T e m p e ra tu r e ___ ___ ___ __ _________________ __
P re c ip ita tio n __
— ---- ------- __ —
— _
Snow a c c u m u la tio n ______ __
__ „
__ __ __
C h ill f a c t o r ----------------- ------- ----- ---- —
______
P e r m it v alu e _ _____ __ __ __ __ ______ ___ __ __
C o n stru c tio n u n e m p lo y m en t r a te , USA
_
D u m m y : D e c e m b e r-J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y --------------------D u m m y : M a r c h - A p r il- M a y _____________ —
D u m m y : J u n e -J u ly -A u g u s t-----------------------------------------C o n s ta n t__________________ —
___ ________
E q u a tio n 6 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------D ep en d en t v a ria b le
D e v ia tio n o f e m p lo y m e n t fro m a
L in e a r tim e tre n d
In d e p e n d e n t v a ria b le s
T e m p e ra tu r e g r e a te r th a n 4 0 ° ------ __ ------------ __
T e m p e ra tu r e le s s th a n 40° _
__ ___
P r e c ip ita tio n --------------------__ __ ------- _ __ __
Snow a c c u m u la tio n ______________________________________
P e r m it v alu e --------------------- „ __ _ ------- __ __
U n e m p lo y m e n t r a te in c o n s tru c tio n , U S A ____________
D u m m y : D e c e m b e r - J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y --------------------D u m m y : M a r c h - A p r il- M a y ----------------------------------------D u m m y : J u n e -J u ly -A u g u s t------------------------------------------

R e g re s s io n
c o e ffic ie n t

33. 8497
-• 5746
-1 . 0879
0395
1. 6598
4 -2 . 3616
3-3 . 8550
4 -4 .9 7 0 1
. 1453

.4 0 8 5
- .0 6 6 6
- . 1255
- . 0046
. 1895
- .2 6 4 7
- .4 0 9 0
- .5 0 0 3
.0 1 6 9

. 6985

. 9647

.5 1 8 0
. 0585
. 1640
. 2870
.3 1 6 4
.6 7 5 5
.0 6 6 2

. 9648

1. 082

0

0001

-1 . 3855
-7 . 8640
-7 . 5741
. 2321
4 3. 2822
. 8657

-.5 7 8 6

-

. 9841

. 1884
.0 1 8 3
-. 4555
-. 9230
.0 3 0 0
-1 . 2830
-5 . 8213
-6 .0 7 5 7
1. 1161

33. 6215

. 2110
-. 3098
-1 . 9545
1 .4 1 5 3
4 -2 . 2844
3-2 . 9184
3- 4 . 4131
. 7463

-

. 3880
. 0245
.0 3 6 0
.2 2 1 6
. 1623
. 25-67
.3 2 1 3
.4 5 6 5
. 0864

C o rr e c te d fo r d e g re e s of fre e d o m .
A ll w e a th e r v a ria b le s a r e m e a s u re d fo r the w eek of the m o n th in w h ich th e e m p lo y m e n t s u rv e y w e re c o n d u c te d .
S ig n ific a n t a t 1 p e rc e n t le v e l.
S ig n ific a n t a t 5 p e rc e n t le v e l.

SO U R CE: B L S , w e a th e r e m p lo y m e n t te s t s .

A P P E N D IX D. TH E EFFECT OF W EATHER ON
CO N STR U C TIO N O PER A TIO N S 1
In order to get a greater understanding of the relationship of the seasons and the weather to construc­
tion activity, examination of the specific effects of weather on each of the various types of construction work
is necessary. This appendix describes what construction operations are technologically feasible given specific
types of bad weather.
Workers perform the work or cause the work to be performed. A construction operation that may
be technologically feasible given certain weather conditions may not be performed because workers are unable
or unwilling to work under the required circumstances.
Additionally, combinations of weather factors can affect construction workers much more seriously than
any single factor. Wind and temperature together can have a much greater effect on building activities than
wind or temperature alone. If the temperature were zero with no wind, a worker may not be as uncomfort­
able as if the temperature were 40 degrees and the wind 10 miles an hour. Called the wind-chill factor, com­
binations of temperature and wind influence the rate at which the body will lose heat under given conditions.
(See chart 2.)
Chart 4 indicates how the factor varies through the year at selected places in the United
States. Wind chill usually is greatest in January, although in Washington, D.C., it is greatest in February. In
most places it is least in July, but in San Francisco it is least in October. Washington, D.C., has a moderate
wind-chill factor throughout the year, comparable to the factor at Salt Lake City. Caribou, Maine has the
most severe shown— it has a higher wind-chill in midsummer than Miami in midwinter. Chart 3 shows that
the wind-chill factor through the course of a usual summer and winter day. The rhythmic warming during
the daylight hours and cooling at night is apparent.
The discussion that follows refers mostly to the relationship between weather and the technological fea­
sibility of various construction operations. Some general comments about the various weather conditions are
in order:

Rain

The effect of rain is a function of the amount and is not equally significant for all operations. Rain so
light that it is only a mist will stop structural steel work while a moderate rain will not stop forming (outside
carpentry) in some cases.

S n o w

a n d

sleet

Snow usually is accompanied by other elements that are adverse to construction operations. With snow
the worker efficiency usually is not affected unless snowfall is moderate to heavy. However, in some cases,
such as concrete work, all the forms have to be cleaned before work can commence.

Freezing

rain

Where the intensity of freezing rain is great, outdoor construction is nearly impossible and even indoor
work may be difficult to schedule because of delivery problems.




107

Chart 2.

Chill Factor for Selected Wind Speeds
Chill factor
Chart 3,

Wind Chill-Diurnal Variation
Chill factor
1400 •
1200 •

0° at 5 mph

1000 •
800 •

32° at 5 mph

Chart 4.

Annual March of Wind Chili
Chill factor




Selected Cities

Chill factor

L o w

temperature

Where protection is not provided, extreme cold may adversely affect almost every element of construc­
tion. This extreme “ cold” varies from below freezing (32 degrees F.) to 50 degrees F. Exterior painting re­
quires temperature no lower than 45 degrees F. Concrete cannot be poured without protection (such as
shelter) or some other protection measure (such as additives) if the temperature during setting and initial
curing will drop below freezing (32 degrees F.).

Hig h

temperature

High temperatures adversely affect only a few operations such as surveying, in which the equipment is
sensitive to heat and concrete work where the cure will be too fast.

Wind
All outdoor construction is affected by strong winds; the most sensitive is structural steel and roofing.
In addition, wind accentuates the action of the cold.

F o g

Fog has an impact on delivery of materials and on excavation work as well as work on dredging and
cofferdams.

G r o u n d

freeze

Ground freeze is a major factor of concern in concrete work in most areas of the United States. In
some sections of Alaska frozen ground is a requirement for some projects in order to get equipment into place.

Effects

of

climate

o n

construction

operations

1. Surveying. Although sometimes performed in light rain or drizzle, normally such a situation is avoided.
The efficiency of the surveyor is reduced and damage to the equipment is possible even in light rain. The
same situation would occur with any other form of precipitation and even fog would hinder this operation.
2. Demolition and clearing (also see 6 and 7). Depending on the site involved and on the construction
to be undertaken, demolition and clearing may range from a minor operation such as the removal of fencing
and bushes to the complicated and dangerous demolition of a tall building in a congested urban area.
While the minor activities would be almost independent of weather, building demolition involving the
use of cranes and special equipment and the presence of hazardous conditions of work would be highly sensi­
tive to any form of precipitation, particularly freezing rain, high winds, low temperatures, and fog.
3. Temporary work on site. Temporary work on site may range from the erection of a workers’ shack
to the construction of a whole prototype building section. Usually it will involve the construction of shacks,
offices, drafting accommodations, material stores, security facilities, and the erection of fencing. Some im­
portant temporary work may be required to ensure adequate facility for the delivery of material. Most of
these operations will be affected by precipitation in all forms and low temperatures.
4. Delivery
transport.




o f materials.

Most materials delivered at a construction site arrive by some form of road

109

Any form of road transport is subject to limitation by weather elements, particularly frozen or freezing
precipitation, fog, and drying conditions. If drying is such that muddy conditions develop at a construction
site, delivery may be seriously hampered, even though these conditions may exist over a relatively small area.
In some areas of Alaska the roads are useable only when they are frozen.
Many materials must arrive on site at a fairly closely scheduled time, either to avoid difficult or hazard­
ous storage or to fit in with some critical condition for progress. Thus, trafficability of the area and its ap­
proaches are most important.
5. Material stockpiling. While to some extent material is stockpiled in each of the four major categories
of construction, it is only considered a major operation in industrial building construction. In residential build­
ing, for example, most of the materials are delivered on the day they are to be used and are not left exposed
to the weather for long durations. In the building of industrial establishments, on the other hand, material is
stockpiled for long periods, often requiring temporary protection.
The major considerations in the stockpiling operation are whether or not the product is perishable and
worker efficiency during the actual operation.
6. and 7. Site grading and excavation— including earth clearing (part o f 2), and backfilling (19). Earth­
work within the construction industry is extremely weather sensitive. Precipitation and low temperature are
the elements most likely to interfere with earthwork.
8. Piledriving. Piledriving may be required in any category of construction but it is unlikely in the build­
ing of residential homes.
Piledriving requires the use of heavy crane-like equipment which is likely to be affected by high winds,
freezing precipitation and wet ground. Ground conditions are important both for positioning equipment and
for the quality of the work produced. Any severe storm will make this operation hazardous.
9. Dredging. Although an important operation, dredging is likely to be required only in the category of
heavy and specialized construction. The main influence of weather on this operation is likely to be the effect
on worker efficiency. In addition to the chill factor, workers are subject to very wet conditions as the dredger
carries out excavation under water. Severe storms, flooding, and abnormal tides will interfere with this opera­
tion. Fog is most likely in this environment and may prevent work.
10. Erection o f cofferdams. Usually associated with heavy and specialized construction or with highways
and bridging, the erection of cofferdams is necessary to retain water away from an area in which construction
is taking place. The construction and utility of a cofferdam will depend on a knowledge of local tides, which
may overflow the dam if unusually high. Severe storms and heavy precipitation may damage the dam and the
work it is protecting. The predictable low water levels that occur in the winter months in the northern re­
gions of the United States may facilitate these operations.
11. Forming. Forming is relatively rough carpentry which frequently is performed outdoors and is not
affected seriously by light rain. Weather effects on this operation are limited mostly to direct influence on
worker efficiency. Where possible, and when construction is somewhat standardized, forms may be prefabri­
cated so that exposed outdoor work may be kept to a minimum.
12. Emplacing reinforcing steel. Before pouring of concrete the steel must be completely free of any fro­
zen precipitation so that protection is necessary and drainage must be assured. Weather effects are likely to
be confined mostly to worker efficiency.
13. Quarrying. Quarrying consists of extraction of stone from the soil, either by excavation, hand dig­
ging, or blasting.

110




Heavy machinery is used to crush the stone, after which it is washed and machine-grated into the desired
size ranges.
Heavy precipitation or freezing rain will affect the quarrying operation. Temperatures below freezing may
cause trouble in the washing processes. If blasting is carried out under conditions of inversion at low level,
serious damange may be caused to surrounding property. Weather influence on worker efficiency and the ef­
fects of low temperatures are likely to be the most significant factors in quarrying.
14. Delivery o f premixed concrete. Delivery of concrete is extremely weather-sensitive in that the sched­
uling of drivers is a highly complex decision process which must be related both to future weather and to the
requirement for concrete.
Fog may so delay a delivery as to create problems on the amount of mixing which is normally timed to
completion on arrival at site. In addition, drying conditions and precipitation may cause considerable difficulty
at sites which have difficult access even under dry conditions.
15. Pouring concrete foundation and walls. Concrete pouring is among the most sensitive construction op­
erations. Low temperature is the major factor of concern as pouring cannot take place on frozen ground or
at temperatures below freezing without protection and the application of heat.
Protection also is needed against any precipitation, particularly snow or freezing rain. Since most con­
crete pouring can be satisfactorily performed during periods of light rain or drizzle, scheduling is not throught to
be significantly affected until rainfall reaches the moderate to heavy ranges. However, in some instances con­
tractors cancel their orders when any rain is falling to avoid the consequences of a possible heavier fall. Sched­
uling is highly dependent on the current weather conditions.
Concrete is most susceptible to rain damage in the first 4 hours after pouring. One heavy shower has
more damaging power than a full day of continuous light rain. Walls and thin sections of concrete are least
vulnerable and usually are readily protected, but it is possible, at increased cost, to protect slabs and decks
from moderate to heavy rain by covering them with portable panels.
16. Stripping and curing concrete. When concrete has set and hardened somewhat, the wooden forms
which serve to confine and shape the structure may be removed. This process may involve partial destruc­
tion of the forms; however, arrangements usually are made so that whole sections will be removeable as
required.
Two weather factors which may interfere with stripping are a chill factor which seriously reduces worker
efficiency or freezing conditions which make it extremely difficult to detach the wood from the concrete.
During the curing process concrete must be maintained in a relatively moist atmosphere while hydra­
tion is completed within the structure. Too rapid drying will lead to an inferior product but may be avoided
by covering the structure to restrict evaporation. Under freezing conditions concrete also must be protected
and possibly heated during curing.
17. and 29. Installing underground plumbing and trenching and installing pipe. Outdoor plumbing ac­
tivities involve work which is weather sensitive from the point of view of worker efficiency. In addition the
movement of equipment and materials may be hindered by wet ground conditions.
18. Waterproofing. Waterproofing involves the positioning of an impervious layer so as to prevent the
ingress of moisture into a structure. It may take the form of a plastic sheet or of bitumen mastic which is
painted, spread, or troweled into position.
Low temperatures will adversely affect both worker efficiency and the working characteristics of the
material which hardens and tends to lose its adhesive properties while becoming difficult to apply.




111

19.

Backfilling (see 6 and 7).

20. Erecting structural steel Worker safety is the primary factor for consideration in the erection of
steelwork so that high winds, low temperatures, or any precipitation causing slippery conditions will affect the
operation.
Protection is usually difficult or impossible to provide.
Although the low temperature limit is related entirely to worker efficiency it must be higher than that
associated with operations of a less hazardous nature.
21. Exterior carpentry; exterior cladding (23); installing metal siding; (24), and installing windows and
doors and glazing (31). In each of these operations worker efficiency is the important factor and any condi­
tion which affects this is significant.
Any rain can have an effect on finished outdoor carpentry. During even light precipitation, tools and
lumber become wet, work becomes difficult and efficiency is low. Thus, although carpenters will work dur­
ing light rain, it is concluded that there is an effect during all rain intensities.
The temperature limitations which can interfere are those indicated by a chill factor of more than 1000
or a temperature/humidity index of more than 77.
22. Exterior masonry. The operation of exterior masonry work is very sensitive to weather, both from
the standpoint of worker efficiency and the quality of product.
Precipitation and low temperatures are the weather elements most significant. In general, masonry work
cannot be continued if it is exposed to any precipitation. Either shelter must be provided or work must cease.
Brick must be covered to avoid the danger of freezing after being wetted by freezing or frozen precipitation.
The construction of masonry structures is even more sensitive to low temperatures than is the construction of
concrete structures, largely because it is laid in thinner structures.
23. and 24.

Exterior cladding and installing metal siding (see 21).

25. Fireproofing. Fireproofing consists of the application to building structures of material which both
is noninflammable and will not support burning. Fireproofing may be applied in the form of sheet material
in interior partitioning, asbestos/cement or asbestos/gypsum plasterboard, or as a plastic cement applied directly
onto structural steel or lumber, in which case the material may be troweled or sprayed on. Both precipitation
and low temperature will interfere if the work is exposed, but only worker efficiency considerations will apply
when the work is carried out under protection (building at least partially closed in).
26. Flooring and other indoor work including interior carpentry (32), interior masonry (33), plastering
(34), tile work (35), interior plumbing, electrical work, etc., (36), and interior painting and decorating (37).
Generally, indoor construction operations are not significantly affected by weather. However, the gen­
eral reduction in outdoor work due to winter weather does have an indirect effect on ail indoor work. In
general, insufficient indoor work is maintained to last the entire winter season, especially when cold condi­
tions persist for 3 months or more.
Indoor masonry, painting, and decorating require temperatures above freezing, but the overall require­
ment is that conditions shall not reduce worker efficiency. Only temperature and humidity are of signifi­
cance and it is possible to maintain these at satisfactory conditions by heating or cooling the building.
27. Roofing. Roofing is very sensitive to weather conditions because of the use of perishable asphalt
material and constant exposure of the workers. The operation is highly sensitive to precipitation of any type
or intensity. For builtup roofing, dry weather for 2 to 3 days is necessary. Freezing or frozen precipitation

112




necessitates additional operations and increased cost in order to complete the operation satisfactorily. Strong
winds and icy conditions are also major deterimental factors.
28. Cutting concrete pavement. The operation of cutting concrete pavement is usually outdoor work
and involves not only the cutting but the removal of the concrete, so it is similar to demolition (2), site grad­
ing (6), and excavation (7). Precipitation and extreme cold are the weather factors that will interfere with
this operation.
29.

Trenching and installing pipe (see 17).

30.

Bituminous concrete pouring (see 42).

31.

Installing windows and doors, glazing (see 21).

32. 33, 34, 35, 36, and 37. Interior carpentry, masonry, plastering, tile work, plumbing, heating, elec­
trical and painting (see 26).
38. Exterior painting. The main factors affected by weather in exterior painting are the perishable
product, the quality of the work, and worker efficiency. Any precipitation or dense fog will halt an exterior
painting operation. Shelter or protection must be provided during both the painting and drying periods.
Painting is generally not attempted at temperatures below 45 degrees to 50 degrees F. because the quality of
the work is significantly reduced below this temperature. Generally, outdoor painting is not attempted dur­
ing questionable weather conditions. The painter usually has enough indoor work to keep him busy some of
the time when inclement weather occurs.
39. Installation o f culverts and incidental drainage. The installation of culverts and drainage is in most
instances performed out of doors and is seriously hindered by rain, cold, and flooding.
40. Landscaping. Landscaping includes site grading and shaping, as well as seeding and planting trees
and bushes. This operation generally can be performed during periods of light rain or drizzle as long as accu­
mulations do not create muddy conditions. However, moderate to heavy rain is considered the limit for prac­
tical landscaping performance; workers become inefficient and seeds are washed away under these conditions.
Any snow creates a hindrance to the landscaping operation. Ground visibility is restricted by any snow
cover and the usually accompanying frozen ground makes landscaping operations inefficient.
Excessive drying may give rise to dusty conditions which will interfere with work.
42. Paving including bituminous concrete pouring (30). Paving may consist of concrete or asphalt as
is usual with residential homes, or of bituminous concrete which is usual in the construction industry.
Bituminous concrete is sensitive to precipitation in any form or intensity. Any precipitation can cause
cracking and permanent damage to the pavement. The material usually sets faster than portland cement con­
crete but is still sensitive to precipitation for generally 1 to 3 hours after pouring, according to drying condi­
tions.
The quality of the pavement is reduced greatly by pouring at temperatures below about 45 degrees F.
Work usually is not carried out when the temperature is likely to approach this limit.
43. Fencing, installing lights signs, etc., and traffic protection (41). The operations of fencing, install­
ing light signs, and traffic protection are very similar and are common to all categories of construction, but
they are relatively unimportant to home building.
Moderate precipitation of either rain or snow will interfere and even light freezing rain may halt work.
Dense fog becomes a factor of concern when the operation is taking place in connection with highway con­
struction.
Effects of temperature and humidity are limited to the maintenance of worker efficiency.




113

A PPEN D IX D TABLES
Page
D-l. Composite list of operations which are important in the industry.....................................................
D-2. Critical limits of weather elements having significant influence on construction operations...............
D-3. Critical limits of weather elements having significant influence on construction of residential
h om es...............................................................................................................................................
D-4. Critical limits of weather elements having significant influence on construction of highways . . . .
D-5. Critical limits of weather elements having significant influence on heavy and specialized
construction.......................................................................................................................................
D-6. Critical limits of weather elements having significant influence on construction of general
buildings............................................................................................................................................

114




115
116
117
117
118
118

Table D-l.

C o m p o s i t e list of operations w h i c h are i m p o r t a n t in the i n d u s t r y 1

C o nstruction c a t e g o r y
Operation

Item

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

Heavy
and
specialized

X
X

S u r v e y i n g ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------D e m o l i t i o n a n d clearing ---------------------------- ------------------------T e m p o r a r y w o r k o n site______________________________
D e l i v e r y of m a t e r i a ls _________________________________
M a t e r i a l stockp i l i ng___________________________________
Site g r a d i n g ____________________________________________
E x c a v a t i o n ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Pile d r i ving___ _______________ -_______________________
D r e d g i n g --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------E r e c t i o n of coffer d a m s --------------------------------------------------------F o r m i n g --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------E m p l a c i n g reinforcing steel -----------------------------------------------Q u a r r y i n g -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------D e l i v e r y of p r e m i x e d concrete
--------------------------------------P q u r i n g c on c r e t e foundations a n d walls.. -------------------Stripping a n d curing c oncrete ------------------------------------------Installing u n d e r g r o u n d p l u m b i n g , etc --------------W a t e r p r o o f i n g ---- ------------------- -------------Backfilling_________________ _______ - --------E r e c t i n g structural steel-----------------------------E x t e r i o r c a r p e n t r y _____________________________ ____
E x t e r i o r m a s o n r y _____________________________________
E x t e r i o r c l a d d i n g ___________ _________________________
Installing m e t a l s i d i n g ________________________________
F i r e p r o o f i n g --------------- —
— -------------F l o o r i n g ________________________________________________
R o o f i n g _________________________________________________
Cutting c o n c r e t e p a v e m e n t --------------------------T r e n c h i n g a n d installing p i p e ----- ----------------B i t u m i n o u s c o n c r e te p o u r i n g --------- - ----------Installing w i n d o w s a n d d o o r s a n d glazing ---- --- Interior c a r p e n t r y _____________________________________
Interior m a s o n r y ___________________ _________________
Interior plastering ____________________________________
Interior tile w o r k (ceramic, vinyl, asbestos,
a n d acoustic) ________________________________________
Interior p l u m b i n g , ventilating, heating, a n d
electrical w o r k _____________ __ -------------- ------------------Interior painting a n d decorating _____________________
E x t e r i o r p a i n t i n g _________________________ __________
Installing culverts a n d incidental d r a i n a g e __________
L a n d s c a p i n g ------------- ---------- -------- — ------------------------------Traffic protection _ ________ _ __ — — ______ __
P a v i n g ________________________________________________
Fen c i n g , installing lights, signs, e t c _______________

1
T h e operations are given in the a p p r o x i m a t e
b y the n u m b e r s the y h a v e here.

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Highways

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-

X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
-

X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

X
X
X

X
-

X
X
X
X
-

X
X
-

-

X
X
X
X
-

X
X
X
X

X

X
X

-

X
X

X
X

-

-

X
-

X
X

-

-

X
X
X

-

X

X
X

-

-

-

-

X

X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

in w h i c h they w o u l d be c a r r i e d out.

X
X
X
X
X

In all s u b s e q u e n t tables, the operations a re identified

SOURCE:
T h e Ope rational a n d E c o n o m i c I m p a c t of W e a t h e r o n the Cons t r u c t i o n Industry of the United States, U. S.
C W b - 1 0 9 4 8 , the T r a v e l e r s R e s e a r c h Center, Inc., 250 Constitutional Plaza, Hartford, Connecticut, M a r c h 1965.




X
X
-

X
X

-

order

Residential
homes

General
buildings

Weather

Bureau

Cont r a c t

115

Table D-2.

Critical limits of w e a t h e r e l e m e n t s having significant influence o n construction operations

Operation

Item

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

S u r v e y i n g ------------------------------------D e m o l i t i o n a n d c l e a r i n g ____________________
T e m p o r a r y w o r k o n site____________________
D e l i v e r y of m a t e r i a l s ________________________
M a t e r i a l stockpiling_________________________
Site g r a d i n g ---------------------------------E x c a v a t i o n ___________________________________
Pile driving___________________________________
D r e d g i n g _____________________________________
E r e c t i o n of coffer d a m s -------------------F o r m i n g -------------------------------------E m p l a c i n g reinforcing steel---------------Q u a r r y i n g ----------------------------------D e l i v e r y of p r e m i x e d concrete _____________
P o u r i n g c o n c r e t e foundation a n d w a l l s ____
Stripping a n d c uring c o n c r e t e ______________
Installing u n d e r g r o u n d plu m b i n g , e t c ______
W a t e r p r o o f i n g ------------------------------Backfilling----------------------------------E r e c t i n g structural steel___________________
E x t e r i o r c a r p e n t r y __________________________
E x t e r i o r m a s o n r y ___________________________
E x t e r n a l c l a d d i n g ____________________________
Installing m e t a l s i d i n g ______________________
F i r e p r o o f i n g _________________________ _______
F l o o r i n g ______________________________________
R o o f i n g ____________ _______________
_______
Cutting c o n c r e t e p a v e m e n t -----------------T r e n c h i n g , installing pipe___________________
B i t u m i n o u s c o n c r e te p o u r i n g --------------Installing w i n d o w s a n d doors, g l a z i n g _____
Interior c a r p e n t r y ___________________________
Interior m a s o n r y _____________________________
P l a s t e r i n g -----------------------------------Interior tile w o r k (ceramic, vinyl,
asbestos, a n d a c o u stics)___________________
Interior p l u m b i n g , ventilating, heating,
a n d electrical w o r k _________________________
Interior painting a n d d e c o r a t i n g _________
_
E x t e r i o r painting_____________________________
Installing culverts a n d incidental
d r a i n a g e -----------------------------------L a n d s c a p i n g ------------------------- ---- _
Traffic protections ------------------------P a v i n g ---------------------------------------Fen c i n g , installing lights, signs, etc______

Low tem­
High wind
perat u r e s
(m. p. h. )
(F.°)

Floodi n g
Te m ­
Drying
and
p e rature
conditions
abnormal
inversion
tides

S n o w and
sleet

Freezing
rain

!L
M
M
M
L
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
L
L
L
L
L
L

L
M
M
M
L
M
M
M
M
L
M
M
M
L
L
M
M
M
M
L
L
L
L
L
L

L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L

0—
-10
0—
-10
0—
-10
0—
-10
0---- 10
20— 32
20— 32
0—
-10
0—
-10
32
0---- 10
0---- 10
32
32
32
32
32
32
20— 32
10
0---- 10
32
0---- 10
0---- 10
0---- 10

25
15-35
20
25
15
15-25
35
20
20
25
25
20
25-35
35
35
25
25
25
35
10-15
15
20
15
15
35

2x

L
M
M
L
L

L
M
M
L
L

L
L
L
L
L

45
0---- 10
20— 32
45
0—
- 10

10-20
35
25
35
20-20

-

X
X

X

X
-

X
-

X
-

L

L

L

45—

X

_

X

_

_

M
M
M
L
M

L
L
M
L
M

L
L
L
L
L

32
20— 32
0—
-10
32- 45
0---- 10

-

X

X
X

X
X
X

X
-

_
_
_

X
_
_

X

X

X

_

_

X

X

Rain

50

15
25
15
15-20
35
20

Dense
fog

Ground
freeze

X

X

_
_
_

x

X

X
X

-

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
-

3x

_
_

X

X

X
X
-

X
X
X
X

X
X

-

_
_
_
_
X

_

_
_
-

X
X
X
-

-

-

X

X

_

_
_

-

X
X

X

-

-

X
X

X

X
X

X

X

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

-

X

-

_
-

-

X
-

X
_

-

_

_

-

_

-

X
-

_
_
_

_
_
_

_

_

1 L indicates light; M indicates m o d e r a t e .
2 Indicates o peration is affected b y this condition.
3 W a t e r freeze, x x x x T h e s e operations are car r i e d out in the interior of the building a n d are not directly e x p o s e d to external w e a t h e r
S O U R C E : T h e Operational a n d E c o n o m i c I m p a c t of W e a t h e r o n the Const r u c t i o n Industry of the U nited States, U. S.
C W b - 1 0 9 4 8 , the T r a v e l e r s R e s e a r c h Center, Inc., 2 5 0 Constitutional Plaza, Hartford, Connecticut, M a r c h 1965.

1 1 6




_
_
_
_
_

X

Weather

_

conditions.

Bureau

Contract

Table D-3.

Critical limits of w e a t h e r e l e m e n t s having significant influence o n construction of residential h o m e s

Operation

Rain

S n o w and
sleet

S u r v e y i n g _____________________ ______________
D e m o l i t i o n a n d c l e a r i n g ----------- ------D e l i v e r y of m a t e r i a l s -----------------------Site g r a d i n g __________________________________
-------------E x c a v a t i o n ------------------F o r m i n g ---------------------------- -------D e l i v e r y of p r e m i x e d co n c r e t e ______________
P o u r i n g c on c r e t e foundation an d w a l l s ----Stripping a n d curing c o n c r e t e -------------------------W a t e r p r o o f i n g ---------------------------------------- ------------Backfilling --------------------------------------------------------------E x t e r i o r c a r p e n t r y ---------------------------------------------E x t e r i o r m a s o n r y ------------------------------------------------E x t e r n a l c l a d d i n g --------------------------------------------------Installing m e t a l si ding ---------------------------------------R o o f i n g -----------------------------------------------------------------------Installing w i n d o w s a n d doors, gla z i n g _____
E x t e r i o r painting ---------------------------------------------------L a n d s c a p i n g ___ _________________ ___ ________ _

1L
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
M
L

L
M
M
M
M
M
L
L
M
M
M
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L

Item

1
2
4
6
7
11
14
15
16
18
19
21
22
23
24
27
31
38
40
42

Paving

-

....................

Low tem­
High wind
F reezing
per a t u r e s
(m. p. h. )
rain
(F.°)

L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L

0---- 10
0---- 10
0---- 10
20— 32
20— 32
0---- 10
32
32
32
32
20— 32
0--------10
32
0— -10
0--------10
45
0--------10
45 — 50
20 — 32
32 ----- 45

25
15-35
25
15-25
35
25
35
35
25
25
35
15
20
15
15
10-20
10-20
15
15
35

Dense
fog

Ground
freeze

Floodi n g
T e m ­
and
Drying
perature
conditions
abnormal
inversion
tides

2x
X
-

X
-

-

X
X

X

-

-

X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

-

X
-

X
X
X

-

X
X
X
X

X
-

-

-

-

-

X
X

-

-

-

X
X
-

-

X
X
X
X

X
X

-

-

-

-

1 L indicates light; M indicates m o d e r a t e .
2 Indicates o peration is affected b y this condition.
SOURCE:
T h e Ope rational a n d E c o n o m i c I m p a c t of W e a t h e r o n the Constr u c t i o n Industry of the United States,
C W b - 1 0 9 4 8 , the T r a v e l e r s R e s e a r c h Center, Inc., 250 Constitutional Plaza, Hartford, Connecticut, M a r c h 1965.

T a b l e D-4.

40
41
42
43

Operation

S u r v e y i n g ------------------------------------D e m o l i t i o n a n d c l e a r i n g -------------------T e m p o r a r y w o r k o n site---- -------------D e l i v e r y of m a t e r i a l s ----------------------M a t e r i a l stockpiling_________________________
Site g r a d i n g __________________________________
E x c a v a t i o n ----------------------------------Pile driving _ _______________________________
F o r m i n g ------------------------------------------------------------------E m p l a c i n g reinforcing steel________________
Q u a r r y i n g -----------------------------------------------------------------D e l i v e r y of p r e m i x e d concrete ____________
P o u r i n g c o n c r e t e foundation a n d w a l l s _ _
_
Stripping a n d c u ring c o n c r e t e ______________
Installing u n d e r g r o u n d p l u m b i n g , e t c ______
Backf i l l i n g --------------------------------------------------------------B i t u m i n o u s c o n c r e t e p o u r i n g _________ __ _
Installing culverts a n d incidental
d r a i n a g e -----------------------------------------------------------------L a n d s c a p i n g ________________________________
Traffic protection ---------------------------------------------- _
P a v i n g _________________________________ ___
F e n cing, installing lights, signs, e t c _____

1
2

Weather

Bureau

C o n tr a c t

Critical limits of w e a t h e r e l e m e n t s having significant influence o n construction of h i g h w a y s

Item

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
19
30
39

U. S.

Rain

S n o w and
sleet

Low tem­
Freezing
High wind
pera t u r e s
rain
(m. p. h. )
(F.°)

Dense
fog

1L
M
M
M
L
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
L

L
M
M
M
L
M
M
M
M
M
M
L
L
M
M
M
L

L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L

0---- 10
0---- 10
0---- 10
0---- 10
0---- 10
20— 32
20— 32
0--------10
0--------10
0-------- 10
32
32
32
32
32
20 — 32
45

25
15-35
20
25
15
15-25
35
20
25
20
25-35
35
35
25
25
35
35

L
L
M
L
M

L
L
L
L
L

32
20 — 32
0— 10
32 ----- 45
0— 10

25
15
15-20
35
20

X
X

Floodi n g
T e m ­
and
Drying
perature
conditions
abnormal
inversion
tides

2x

M
M
M
L
M

Ground
freeze

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X
-

_

X
X
X

X

X
X
X
X

_
X
-

X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
-

X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
_
_
X
X
-

_
_
X
X
-

L indicates light; M indicates m o d e r a t e .
Indicates oper a tion is affected b y this condition.

SOURCE:
T h e O p erational a n d E c o n o m i c I m p a c t of W e a t h e r o n the Constr u c t i o n Industry of the United States,
C W b - 1 0 9 4 8 , the T r a v e l e r s R e s e a r c h Center, Inc., 2 5 0 Constitutional Plaza, Hartford, Connecticut, M a r c h 1965.




U. S.

Weather

Bureau

Cont r a c t

117

T a b l e D -5.

Critical limits of w e a t h e r e l e m e n t s having significant influence o n h e a v y a n d specialized construction

Operation

Item

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
14
15
16
19
28
29
30
39
40
41
42
43

S u r v e y i n g -----------------------------------D e m o l i t i o n a n d clearning ------------------T e m p o r a r y w o r k o n site___________ _______
D e l i v e r y of m a t e r i a l s ________________________
M a t e r i a l s stockpiling--------------------- _
Site g r a d i n g __________________________________
E x c a v a t i o n ______________________________ ____
Pile driving-__________________________________
D r e d g i n g _____________________ ______________
E r e c t i o n of coffer d a m s -------------------F o r m ing — _-____________ __ ________ _____ ____
E m p l a c i n g reinforcing steel_______ _____ _
D e l i v e r y of p r e m i x e d concrete __________ _
P o u r i n g c o n c r e t e foundation a n d w a l l s ---Stripping a n d curi ng c o n c r e t e -------------Backfilling -------------------------- ---- _
Cutting c o n c r e t e p a v e m e n t ----------------T r e n c h i n g , installing pipe —
---- ---- B i t u m i n o u s c o n c r e t e p o u r i n g _______________
Installing culverts a n d incidental drainage—
L a n d s c a p i n g _________________ ________ ____
Traffic p r o t e c t i o n ___________________________
P a v i n g ----------------------------- ------ _
Fenci n g , installing lights, signs, etc------

Rain

1L
M
M
M
L
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
L
M
M
M
L
M

S n o w and
sleet

L
M
M
M
L
M
M
M
M
L
M
M
L
L
M
M
M
M
L
L
L
M
L
M

Low tem­
Freezing
High wind
p e r a tures
rain
(m.p. h. )
(F.°)

L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L

0—
-10
0—
-10
0---- 10
0---- 10
0—
-10
20— 32
20— 32
0—
-10
0---- 10
32
0—
-10
0—
-10
32
32
32
20— 32
0—
-10
20— 32
45
32
20— 32
0—
- 10
32- 45
0---- 10

25
15— 35
20
25
15
15-35
35
20
20
25
25
20
35
35
25
35
35
25
35
25
15
15-20
35
20

Dense
fog

2x
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
_
X
-

Ground
freeze

F l o od i n g
T e m ­
Drying
and
pera t u r e
conditions
abnormal
inversion
tides

X
X

-

-

_
X
X
X
3x
X
X
X
X

_
X
X
-

X
X
X

-

X
X
X
X
X

X

X

X

-

X

-

_
-

X

X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X
X

X

X

X
_
_
x
_
_
-

_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_

X

-

1 L indicates light; M indicates m o d e r a t e .
2 Indicates oper a tion is affected b y this condition.
3 W a t e r freeze.
S O U R C E : T h e O p er a t i o n a l a n d E c o n o m i c I m p a c t of W e a t h e r o n the Constr u c t i o n Industry of the U n i t e d Stat e s , U. S.
C W b _ 1 0 9 4 8 , the T r a v e l e r s R e s e a r c h Center, Inc. , 2 5 0 Constitutional Plaza, Hartford, Connecticut, M a r c h 1965.

Table D-6.

3
4
5
6
7

11
12

8

14
15
16
17
18

19

20
22

24
25
27
31
38
40
41
42
43

Low te
Snow and F re e z in g p e r a tu rm s­ H igh w ind
e (m .p . h. )
s le e t
ra in
( F .° )

O p e ra tio n

R a in

S u rv e y in g ____________________ ______ _______
D e m o litio n an d c l e a r i n g ________________ ___
T e m p o ra ry w o rk on s i t e ----------------------- -----D e liv e ry of m a te r i a ls — ___________________ _
M a te ria l s to c k p ilin g __________________________
S ite g ra d in g ----------------------------- ------- -_ -----E x c a v a tio n ------ ----------------------------- — -----P ile d riv in g __________________________ _____ F o rm in g ______________ __________ __ __ _ _
E m p la c in g re in fo rc in g s t e e l ------------------------D e liv e ry of p re m ix e d c o n c re te __________ _
P o u rin g c o n c re te fo u n d atio n and w a ll s -----S trip p in g and c u rin g c o n c r e te ______ __ ____
In sta llin g u n d e rg ro u n d p lu m b in g , e tc - _____
W ate r p r o o f in g __ ______________ ___ _ ____
B a c k fillin g _____________________________________
E re c tin g s tr u c tu r a l s te e l
E x te rio r m a s o n r y ____________________________
In sta llin g m e ta l s id i n g _______________________
F ir e p r o o f in g __________________________________
R o o fin g ________________________________________
In sta llin g w indow s an d d o o rs , g la z in g
E x te rio r p a in tin g _____________________________
L a n d sc a p in g ___________________________________
T ra ffic p r o te c ti o n ____________________________
P a v in g _________________________________________
F e n c in g , in s ta llin g lig h ts , s ig n s , e tc

JL
M
M
M
L
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M

L
M
M
M
L
M
M
M
M
M
L
L
M
M
M
M

L
L
L
L
L
L

L
L
L
L
L
L

1
2

Bureau

Contract

Critical limits of w e a t h e r e l e m e n t s h aving significant influence o n construction of g e n eral buildings

Ite m

1
2

Weather

L
M
M
L
M

L
L
M
L
M

L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L

L
L
L
L
L

0— -1 0
0— -1 0
0-------10
0------ 10
0------ 10

20— 32
20— 32
0------ 10
0------ 10
0------ 10
32
32
32
32
32
20— 32
10
32
0-------10
0------ 10
45
0-------10
45— 50
20— 32
0------ 10
32— 45
0------ 10

25
15-35
20
15
15
15—25
35
20
25
20
35
35
25
25
25
35
10-15
20
15
35

10-20
10-20

15
15
15-20
35

20

D en se
fog

G ro u n d
fre e z e

F lo o d in g
D ry ing p T e m ­re
and
tu
c o n d itio n s in e rars io n a b n o rm a l
ve
tid e s

2x
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
-

X
X

_

_
_
_

X
X

_

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

_
-

X

X

X

-

X
X

X
X

_
-

X
X
X
-

_
X
-

X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X

-

X

X

_
_
_
X
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
X
_
_
_
_
-

L indicates light, M indicates m o d e r a t e .
Indicates op e r a tion is affected b y this condition.

S O U R C E : T h e O p e rational a n d E c o n o m i c I m p a c t of W e a t h e r o n the C o n s t ruction Industry of the Unit e d States,
C W b - 10948, the T r a v e l e r s R e s e a r c h Center, Inc., 2 5 0 Constitutional Plaza, Hartford, Connecticut, M a r c h 1965.

1 1 8




U. S.

Weather

B u r e a u Contract

A P P E N D IX E.

W EA THER RECORDS

How much does weather affect construction? The answer varies according to climate, whether the sea­
son is extreme or not, and the type of construction being undertaken, as well as the particular operation. Ad­
ditional insight into the problem of seasonality in the construction industry can be gained through a study of his­
torical weather data. The records maintained by the United States Weather Bureau are well adapted for comparisons
between cities and between different years. The tables in this appendix were developed for one city (Chicago,
111.) for 1 year (1960) to present what could be done with these records.
An attempt was made to determine the number of days over a 12-month period that construction oper­
ations could, under current practice, be carried out in a particular area (Chicago). First, a number of contrac­
tors were asked what types of weather conditions would terminate construction operations. The weather data
was then used to compute the actual number of days, by month, that construction operations could have taken
place, given the opinions of the contractors. The following tabulation summarizes the actual number of days
available for work in Chicago in 1960, based on the parameters given in table E-7.

Total................

Number of working days available and unavailable for
construction work in Chicago, 1960
Total days, Available days, Unavailable days, Percent
number
number
number
distribution
255
222
33
100.0

January ........................
20
14
6
18.1
February.....................
21
14
7
21.2
23
March..........................
21
2
6.1
April..........................
21
19
2
6.1
May.............................
4
21
17
12.1
June ..........................
22
20
2
6.1
July.............................
20
20
August........................
23
22
1
3.0
September..................
21
21
October........................
21
20
1
3.0
November..................
21
18
3
9.1
December..................
21
16
5
15.2
NOTE: For a description of the parameters see the footnotes on table E-7, p.
SOURCE: Tabulations made by the BLS from the Weather Records of the U.S. Weather
Bureau.
-

-

These data indicate that almost two-thirds of all the days that fall into the unavailable category are in 4
months. Even though March has fewer unavailable days than May, the conditions are probably not so favorable
due to the effects of frost leaving the ground.
Interestingly, weather records for Chicago for 1968 provided a similar pattern of unavailable days even when
different parameters were used. The following tabulation shows that there were 38.5 days in 1968 unavailable
for construction work compared with 33 days in 1960.




119

Months
TotaL..................

Number of working days available and unavailable for
_______ construction work in Chicago, 1968_______
Nonworking days
Available
- Net working
days
Temperature Precipitation
days
221.5
12.5
260
26

1
22
11
10
January ..........................
February........................
21
0
12
9
0
21
21
March.............................
0
2
April.............................
22
0
20
1
22
21
0
May................................
June .............................
2.5
19.5
22
0
1.5
22
0
July...............................
20.5
.5
22.5
23
August..........................
0
1
September.....................
21
20
0
23
0
23
0
October..........................
2
November.....................
18
20
0
14
1
December.....................
21
6
SOURCE: Robert G. Beebe, Special Assistant, Industrial Meteorology, Environmental Sci­
ence Services Administration, Weather Bureau U.S. Department of Commerce.

The parameters used in the above tabulation are:
1. Temperature below 32 degrees F. all day
2. 3 inches of snow the previous day
3. 1 inch of rain the previous day
4. 1 inch of snow during working hours, beginning by 7:00 a.m.
5. 0.50 inch of rain during working hours, beginning by 7:00 a.m.
These guides used above in defining a nonworking day were developed by Mr. Beebe in his work with
general contractors over a number of years.
As has been stated previously in this report, it is possible to carry out most construction operations un­
der the most adverse conditions. However, the usual practice of the industry today is to reduce the amount of
work done in the winter months. This may be the practice because of the tremendous amount of detail that
must go into planning, scheduling, and protection of the existing work. Whatever the reason, employment is
most seasonal in those months that have the greatest number of days unavailable for outdoor construction work.
Measures of seasonality for contract
construction for Chicago, 1960
Deviation of
Seasonal
monthly employ­
ment from
adjustment
Month
factors
annual average
87.5
January .....................
-13.0
February..................
-15.8
85.6
March........................
88.4
-17.0
April........................
97.5
-4.6
103.4
3.1
May..........................
June ........................
106.8
6.3
July ........................
11.9
109.0
110.4
August.....................
13.7
September................
108.5
10.7
October.....................
106.4
8.8
November................
102.5
3.3
December................
7.4
94.0
SOURCE: BLS, Current Employment Statistics based on estab­
lishment reports.
120




The preceeding tabulation indicates that in only 1 month—May— do we find a situation that is difficult to explain
by the distribution of unavailable days.
However, a combination of factors result in seasonality. The days lost in May were all a result of rainfall
and the other climatic conditions were more favorable for construction activities. The contractors had time in
the month of April to get substantial amounts of work started and establish their organization by May for the
construction year. Thus, if the contractor, knows that the climatic conditions very shortly will be more con­
ducive to construction operations, he will find keeping these men on the payroll less expensive than releasing
them.
Included on the following pages are a number of tables taken from the historical data maintained by the
U.S. Weather Bureau. These tables were prepared to show the prevalence of days by month on which certain
weather conditions occurred. Precipitation occurred on 94 working days in Chicago; however, 51 of these had
less than a .10 of an inch and only 2 days has an inch or more. Not all the precipitation occurred during work­
ing time; on only 53 working days precipitation occurred during working hours, and 35 of these days had less
than a .10 of an inch. (See tables E-2 and E-3.)
Temperature is another important factor that influenced construction in Chicago. The temperature fell be­
low 18 degrees F. 34 days. On 14 of these days the temperature did not rise above 24 degrees F. (See table
E-6.) As has been shown previously in the report, low temperatures alone are not too uncomfortable, but if
this variable is combined with wind, the discomfort increases substantially. It is not necessary to discuss windchill measure for Chicago since it has received the nickname “Windy City” honestly.
Other climatic conditions such as snow accumulation influence the number of days that would be available
for construction. In Chicago, in 1960, 1 inch of snow or more fell on 46 working days— 16 of these had less
than 3 inches and 11 had 6 inches or more. (See table E-5.)
On the basis of the weather data obtained for Chicago, it would appear that if weather records were devel­
oped for several different cities, 1 dispersed throughout the United States with respect to both their geographic
location and importance as a construction center, the contractor, the union, and the researcher would be better
able to anticipate the pattern of weather conditions in a given area.
* Weather records are available from the Weather Bureau for most major cities.




121

A P PEN D IX E TABLES

Page
E-l. Number of working days, holidays, Saturdays, and Sundays in contract construction by month,
Chicago, 1960.............................................................................................................................................
E-2. Number of days on which various amounts of precipitation occurred in Chicago, by month
and category of day, 1960.....................................................................................................................
E-3. Number of days on which various amounts of precipitation occurred during working hours
in Chicago, by month and category of day, 1960...............................................................................
E-4. Number of afternoons on which various amount of precipitation occurred in Chicago, by month
and category of day, 1960.....................................................................................................................
E-5. Number of days on which the snow depth was 1 inch or more in Chicago, by selected
depths, 1960 .............................................................................................................................................
E-6. Number of working days in Chicago, by selected temperature ranges, 1960 .....................................
E-7. Number of available and unavailable working days in Chicago, by type of climatic
conditions, 1960 .......................................................................................................................................

122




123
123
123
124
124
124
125

Table E - l. Number of working days, holidays, Saturdays, and Sundays in contract construction by month, Chicago, I960
J anuary February M arch

C lass of day

A pril

29

T o ta l---------------------------------H olidays (H O L)--------------------------Saturdays (SA T )-------------------------Sundays (S U N )------------ ---Working days (W D)---------------------

1
5
5
20

31

30

.

31

.

_

4
4
23

4
4
21

June

31

31
!
4
5
21

5
4
21

August Septem ber October Novem ber D ecem ber Total

July

30

May

31

1
5
5
20

_

4
4
22

31

30
1
4
4
21

_

4
4
23

30
!
4
4
21

_

5
5
21

31

366

1
5
4
21

6
53
52
255

NOTE: Included in th ese tabulations are 6 holidays and they are: (1) New Y ear’s Day; (2) M em orial Day; (3) Independence Day; (4) Labor Day;
(5) Thanksgiving Day; and (6) C hristm as Day. If the holiday fe ll on Saturday, F riday was a holiday and if on Sunday;- then Monday was a holiday.

Table E -2. * Number of days on which various amounts of precipitation occurred in Chicago, by month and category of day, I960

1
T hese are the total number of days on which there was a m easurable amount of precipitation, defined as being any amount equal to 0.01 of
an inch or m ore.
SOURCE: Computation m ade by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from weather records of the U. S. Weather Bureau, Environm ental S cien ces
S ervices Adm inistration.

Table E -3. Number of days on which various amounts of precipitation occurred during working hours 1 in Chicago, by month and category of day, I960
Amount in inches
T otal2

- -

0 0 1 0 00
......
0 10
0 25- 49 ___ ________
o ! 50- !99 ------------------1* 00 or m ore — — —

February
M arch
A pril
May
June
July
J anuary
SAT SUN HOL WD SAT SUN HOL WD SAT SUN HOL WD SAT SUN HOL WD SAT SUN HOL WD SAT SUN HOL WD SAT SUN HOL WD
.

.

.

_

_

_

5

.

2

.

4

-

1
1

_

6

_

.

.

6

3

-

_

_

5
1

l

August
T otal2 ------------------------------------------0 .0 1 -0 .0 9 -----------------------------------------------0 10- 24 - ___
- 0. 25- .4 9 -----------------------------------------------(-) 50- QQ - 1.00 or m o r e ------------------------------------------

1
1

!

_

1

-

-

-

2
2

Septem ber
3
2
-

_

!

_

-

1

-

-

!

_

4

1

1

-

2
2

1

-

_
-

1
1
-

_
-

_

7

2

1

_

6

_

1

-

3
2

2

1

_

4
2

_

1November

Octolber
3
3

1

3
3
-

_
-

D ecem ber

1

_ 7

_

_

_

-

-

4
2
i

-

-

-

-

2

_

!

2

-

1

Total
2
1
1

6
3
1
2

ll

-

-

-

9
1

_ 53
- 35
11
5
- 1

1 Working hours are between 7:01 a. m . and 4:59 p .m .
2 T hese are the total number of days on which there was a m easurable amount of precipitation, during working hours, defined as being any
amount equal to 0 .0 1 of an inch or m ore.
SOURCE: •Com putation made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from w eather records of the U .S. W eather Bureau, Environm ental Scien ces
Services A dm inistration.




123

Table E -4. Number of aftern oon s1 on which various amounts of precipitation occurred in Chicago, by month and category of day, I960
Amount in inches

February
M arch
A pril
May
June
J anuary
July
SAT SUN HOL WD SAT SUN HOL WD SAT SUN HOL WD SAT SUN HOL WD SAT SUN HOL WD SAT SUN HOL WD SAT SUN HOL WD
.

Total ----------------0 .0 1 -0 .0 9 ------------------i 10
°4 ■ "
l .25 or m o re --------------

-

.

3

_

_

_

-

-

3

-

-

-

4

1

2 1
2

August
1
A A1 A AO
U. Ul-U, U7
2*
0# faO or ^ o re -----------m __

........
—
—
- — — —
—— ——

_

1 -

_

_

_

_

1

_

1

_

-

-

1

-

1

-

_

1

_

-

1 _

Septem ber
i

_

i

-

_

_

1
1

!

_

1

_

1

_

1 _

1

1

October
_
_

_

3

1

_

_

4

_

_

_

_

-

3

1

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

_

6

_

_

_

1
1

6 -

-

Novem ber

l

D ecem ber

Total
i

_

4

3

_

26

i

_

3

3

-

23
3

1 The number of afternoons on which there was a m easurable amount of precipitation, defined as being any amount equal to 0.01 of an inch or m ore,
between the hours of 12:01 p. m . and 4:59 p .m .
NOTE: T hese are days which would not be included in the working day concept used in other tab les.
SOURCE: Computation made by the Bureau of Labor S tatistics from weather records of the U .S. W eather Bureau, Environm ental Scien ces
Services A dm inistration.

Table E -5 . Number of days on which the snow depth was 1 inch or m ore in Chicago, by selected depths, I960
February

J anuary

March

April

Amount in inches
HOL

1
1

1

_

2 . 9 -----------------------

1.0-

3. 0-

6. 0

SUN

SAT

SUN

HOL

3

3

_

7

:

5. 9 ----------------------or m o r e -------------------------

WD

7

SAT

3

-

3

October
_

Total ---------------------------

3. 0-5.9------------------------------

:

6.0 or m o r e --------------------------

:

SAT

-

3

_

1

8

HOL

4

14

SUN

2

3

6

1

November
_

_

WD

_

_

_

2

_

-

1

1
1

:
-

SAT

3

-

HOL

WD

_

16
4
9

SUN
.

.

.

:

-

-

-

December

_

-

:

WD

1

Total

1
1

-

9

8

10

5

3

2
2

1
1

4
4

7

46
16
19

11

SOURCE: Computation made by the Bureau of Labor S tatistics from w eather records of the U .S. W eather Bureau, Environm ental S cien ces
S ervices A dm inistration.

Table E -6. Num ber of working days in Chicago, by selected tem perature ranges, I960
February

J anuary
Class of day
Total --------Class
Class
Class
Class
Class

1
2
3
4
5

I -----------II ___________
III ---------I V __________
V -----------

March

April

May

June

5

5

1
1

1
1
1
2

3

0
1 2
5
3

2

j

g
4

-

4
3
j

4

_

4

Total ----------

4

_

_

23

5

g

2

-

l

3

4

September
23

4

4

_

4

2
1

4

5

1
1 2

4

4

_

4
17

4

5

1
1 2

4

4

-

1
3

-

October

1 2
1

5

5

_

November

2
1

4

4

1
1 2

1

Class I ------------- ____
m a c e I 2 ____________
T
-aoo TT 3 ___________
T
______
Pin'’ XV 4
V X L a TV
^eS
Class V
------------

_
_
4

“

23

4

4

5

5

1 2
0

2
2

5

5

0
1 2

December
5

4

!

1
4

2
2

1

l

-

4

4

1
2 1
g 1
2
7
1 - 1

4

1
2
1

-

2
1

Aug[USt

5

July

SAT SUN H O L W D SAT SUN H O L W D SAT S UN H O L W D SAT SUN H O L W D SAT S U N H O L W D SAT SU N H O L W D SAT SUN H O L W D

1

2
1

5

5

■

17

3

4

2
1 9
_ 10

2 53
1
4

1
"

Total

1

3

52

2

~

1
1 33

6 255
14

2
0

28
5 5

36

3 160

1 Days on which the tem perature fe ll below 18° F and did not r ise above 24° F.
2 D ays on which the tem perature fe ll below 18° F and reached or exceeded 25° F .
3 D ays on which the m inim um tem perature was not below 18°F , nor above 24° F , and the m axim um tem perature was 19°F or above.
4 D ays on which the m inim um tem perature was between 25° F and 32° F.
5 D ays on which the m inim um tem perature was not below 33° F .
SOURCE: Computation m ade by the Bureau of Labor S tatistics from weather records of the U'.'S. W eather Bureau, Environm ental Scien ces
Services A dm inistration.

124




Table E -7. Number of available and unavailable working days in Chicago, by type of clim atic conditions, I960
Days
Total number of d a y s -----------------------------Total available d a ys--------------------------Total unavailable d a ys-----------------------C lass I: 1
Total number of d a y s ------------------------Number of days with p re­
cipitation2 —
Number of days without p r e ­
cipitation -------------------■-----------------C lass II: i
Total number of d a y s ------------------------Number of days with p r e ­
cipitation2 —
Number of days without p r e ­
cipitation —
C lass III: 4
Total number of d a y s ------------------------Number of days with p r e ­
cipitation5 —
Number of days without p r e ­
cipitation —
C lass IV: 6
Total number of d a y s ------------------------Number of days with p re­
cipitation5 —
Number of days without p r e ­
cipitation —
C lass V: i
Total number of d a y s ------------------------Number of days with p r e ­
cipitation8 —
Number of days without p r e ­
cipitation —

F ebruary
M arch
A pril
J anuary
Un­
Un­
Un­
Un­
Total A vailable available Total Available available Total A vailable available Total A vailable available
20
14
6
21
14
7
23
21
2
21
2
19
_
14
14
14
14
21
21
19
19
6
6
7
2
2
2
7
2
"
5
5
3

-

5

4

-

5

3

-

4
1

1

1
8
1
7
7

1
7
7
6

6
1
1
-

6
-

3
2
2
6

3
2
2
6

6
4
1
3

6
3
3

-

-

1
1
-

May
Total number of days ----------------------------Total available d a ys--------------------------Total unavailable days ----------------------C lass 1:1
Total number of d a y s ------------------------Number of days with p re­
cipitation 2 ----------------------------------Number of days without p r e ­
cipitation —
C lass II: 5
Total number of d a y s------------------------Number of days with p re­
cipitation 2 ----------------------------------Number of days without p r e ­
cipitation —
C lass III: 4
Total number of d a y s ------------------------Number of days with p r e ­
cipitation5 —
Number of days without p r e ­
cipitation —
C lass IV: 6
Total number of days -----------------------Number of days with p r e ­
cipitation5 —
Number of days without p r e ­
cipitation —
C lass V: i
Total number of d a y s ------------------------Number of days with p re­
cipitation8 —
Number of days without p r e ­
cipitation —

21
17
4

17
17

-

4

-

4

-

1
1
1
-

1
1
-

1

1
9
9
8
1

22
20
2

20
20

1

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

4

4

-

4
17
2
15

4
15
15

2

9
7
7
2

2
3
3

2
3
3

r

June
4
4

-

-

-

July
2
2

20
20

20
20

_

2
2
-

August
_

23
22
1

22
22

1
_
1

"
-

-

-

-

21
4
17

17
17

4
4
-

22
2
20

20
20

2
2
-

20
20

20
20

-

23
1
22

22
22

1
1
-

See footnotes at end of table.




125

Table E -7. Number of available and unavailable working days in Chicago, by type of clim atic conditions, I960— Continued

Septem ber
O ctober
Novem ber
D ecem ber
Total
vail­ Un­
vail­ Un­
vail­ Un­
vail­ Un­
vail­ Un­
Total Aable available Total Aable available Total Aable available Total Aable available Total Aable available
.
3
21
20
21
5
21
18
21
16
1
255
222
T otal num ber of d a y s ----------------- 21
33
21
20
20
18
18
16
16
222
222
Total available d ay s-------------- 21
5
3
3
5
Total unavailable d ay s----------1
33
33
"
1
C lass 1:1
4
4
14
14
Total num ber of d a y s -----------Num ber of days with p re cipitation 2 --------------------Num ber of days without
4
4
14
14
precipitation -----------------C lass II: 3
6
7
1
20
1
Total num ber of d a y s -----------19
Number of days with p re ­
1
1
1
1
cipitation 2 --------------------Num ber of days without
6
6
precipitation -----------------19
19
C lass III: 4
2
2
8
8
28
26
2
Total num ber of d a y s -----------Num ber of days with p r e ­
2
2
cipitation3 —
Num ber of days without
2
2
8
26
26
8
precipitation -----------------Class IV: 6
1
1
4
4
8
31
33
2
1
Total num ber of d a y s -----------9
N um ber of days with p re 2
1
1
2
cipitation5 --------------------Num ber of days without
4
4
8
8
31
precipitation -----------------1
1
31
C lass V :7
1
16
2
21
17
1
10
8
1
146
14
Total num ber of d a y s ------------ 21
160
Num ber of days with p r e ­
2
2
1
1
14
14
cipitation8 —
N um ber of days without
16
21
16
8
8
1
146
146
p re c ip ita tio n ------------------ 21
"
■
"
"
■
1
Days

1 Days on which the tem perature fe ll below 18°F and did not r ise above 24° F.
2 These are class I and c la ss II days on which any amount of precipitation occurred during norm al working hours.
3 Days on which the tem perature fe ll below 18° F and reached or exceeded 25° F.
4 Days on which the m inim um tem perature was not below 18°F , nor above 24° F , and the m axim um tem perature was 19°F or above.
5 T hese are c la ss III and class IV days on which precipitation of one-tenth of an inch or m ore occurred during working hours.
6 Days on which the m inim um tem perature was between 25° F and 32° F .
7 Days on which the m inim um tem perature was not below 35°F.
8 These are cla ss V days on which precipitation occurred between 5 a. m . and 7 a. m . and continued throughout the day (4 hours out of the norm al
working day which is from 7:01 a. m . to 4:59 p .m .) and accum ulates to one-tenth of an inch or m ore.
NOTE: All cla ss I days are c la ssified as being unavailable. C lass II through cla ss V are cla ssifie d as being unavailable if they m eet the criteria
assigned for the precipitation test.
SOURCE: Computation made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from w eather records of the U. S. W eather Bureau, Environm ental Scien ces
Services Adm inistration.

126




APPENDIX F. DESCRIPTION OF SOCIAL SECURITY DATA
AND METHOD OF ESTIMATING WAGES
Data used in chapter VI and parts of VII and VIII of this report were developed from information con­
tained in the Social Security Administrations’ 1-percent continuous work history sample. The sample, which
includes 1-percent of all social security account numbers, was selected by the Social Security Administration
on the basis of a multistaged systematic cluster sampling procedure. Once an individual is selected for the
sample he remains in it permanently. 1
Information about each individual included in the continuous work history sample is provided by the
individual and by each covered employer from whom he receives wages and salaries: The individual provides
demographic information (race, sex, and year of birth) when he applies for a social security account number.
Each covered employer from whom the individual received any wages or salaries during a calendar quarter
reports the amount of the wage payment in the quarter and the industry and geographic area in which the
wages or salaries were earned. 2 The employer, however, ceases to report wage and salary earnings for an
individual after the workers’ annual taxable earnings limit ($4,800 in 1964) is reached in that employment
situation.
Method of estimation

The following section of this appendix presents a discussion on the methods of estimation for annual
earnings, quarters of work, major earner, any earnings, and four quarter workers.
Annual earnings

Each covered employer is required to provide information about the earnings of each employee up to the
maximum amount ($4,800 in 1964) subject to the social security tax. Hence, reported earnings may be sub­
stantially below the workers’ total earnings. The Social Security Administration, however, has devised a pro­
cedure to estimate total wages of individuals. In this estimation procedure, the quarter in which the taxable
limit is reached (“limit quarter”) is first determined. Then the wages in the prior quarter that are equal to or
greater than the limit quarter wages are substituted for the limit quarter and all subsequent quarters. Limit
quarter earnings, however, are used in estimating earnings in the limit and subsequent quarters if limit quarter
earnings were higher than earnings in previous quarters. The summation of the quarterly wages after substitu­
tion then becomes the estimated annual total. An exception to this is made when the taxable limit is reached
in the first quarter; then $32,000 for men and $25,000 for women was used as the estimated total for 1964.
Tables F-l, 2, and 3 show the exact reported earnings of 27 individuals as well as the estimate of their
annual earnings which were made by using the social security estimating technique.
* For a detailed explanation of the sampling procedure, reporting criteria, and social security coverage, see U.S. Social
Security Administration, Workers Under Social Security I960 (Washington, D.C., 1968 and their Social Security Handbook
(3rd edition) Washington, D.C., 1966).
7 If the worker is employed by a contractor in New York State but is working at a job in New Jersey he will be
counted as employed in New York State unless the contractor creates a new “firm” and files the social security reports from
New Jersey.




127

Examples 1, 6, 10, and 11 in table F-l, illustrate records where earnings probably would be overestimated.
In table F-2, attention is called to examples 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Table F-3, contains the records of individuals
who worked for more than one employer in 1964 and earned more than $4,800 from at least one of them.
There are several examples here where the income would be overestimated.
The estimates of annual earnings, developed using the social security technique are believed to be entirely
acceptable for the purposes of this report. They may be slightly overstated, one reason being that fourth quar­
ter earnings may be less than third quarter earnings due to seasonal problems. However, since a much larger
proportion of workers are employed by more than one employer in construction than in other industries, con­
struction is perhaps one of the best industries to work with when using these data. Comparing the estimates
developed for this report with other sources of data on annual income indicates that the estimates are rea­
sonable.
Quarters o f work. A quarter of work, for purposes of this study, is defined as any quarter in which the
worker received any wages in covered employment. Workers whose maximum taxable earnings limits in a single
employment situation are reached before the fourth quarter of the year (and thus, the employer does not fur­
ther report information about their earnings) are considered to have worked in each quarter.
Workers with a major proportion o f earnings in an industry. Workers who earned more of their annual
wages or salaries in the specified industry than from any other industry. For example, an individual who
earned 40 percent of his total wages and salaries in industry A and 30 percent of his annual wages and sal­
aries in each of the other industries is considered to be a major earner in industry A.
Workers with some earnings in an industry. This classification counts each individual who had any earn­
ings in an industry during the course of the year as having had some attachment to the industry. A worker
who earned 40 percent of his annual earnings in industry A, 30 percent in industry B, and 30 percent in in­
dustry C is counted in each of the industries. (Because a worker is counted in each industry in which he had
any earnings, the aggregate count of workers with some earnings in each industry is greater than the total
number in covered employment.)
Earnings in the industry o f greatest earnings. A worker’s earnings in the industry of greatest earnings
are limited to the amount of wage and salary remuneration received from employers in the specified indus­
try. Earnings in all employment are the sum of the worker earnings in the industry of greatest earnings and
earnings in all other industries. Thus, a worker who received 40 percent of his annual earnings from employ­
ment in industry A, 30 percent from industry B, 30 percent from industry C, would have 40 percent of his
total annual earnings counted as earnings in the industry of greatest earnings and 100 percent of the earnings
(from industries A, B, and C) in the earnings statistics for all wage and salary employment.
These concepts, including the quarters of major industry employment concept used in this study, are
presented in the following illustration of a single worker’s employment and earnings experience.

Industry
Total........................
A .......................................
B .......................................
C .......................................

__________________ Earnings by quarter__________________
Total
January
April
July
October
(any
quarter)
March
June
September December
$425
$110
$110
$120
$85
150
60
90
130
10
50
70
145
100
30
15

This worker had greater earnings in industry A than in any other industry. Therefore, industry A is his
industry of greatest earnings.
He worked in industry A during each of two quarters*. Therefore, even though he was also employed in
other industries in each of the other two quarters, he is categorized in this report as a worker with two quar­
ters of major industry employment.
128




APPENDIX F TABLES
Page
F-l. Examples of 1964 estimated annual income of construction workers made by the Social
Security Administration for persons who achieved maximum earnings before the
fourth quarter.......................................................................................................................................... 130
F-2. Examples of 1964 estimated annual income of construction workers made by the Social
Security Administration for persons who achieved maximum earnings in the fourth
quarter....................................................................................................................................................... 130
F-3. Example of 1964 estimated annual income of construciton workers made by the Social
Security Administration for persons who achieved maximum earnings and had more
than one employer................................................................................................................................. 131




129

Table F-l.
E x a m p l e s of 1964 e s t i m a t e d ann u a l i n c o m e of construction w o r k e r s m a d e b y the Social Security
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n for p e r s o n s w h o a c h i e v e d m a x i m u m earnings b efore the fourth q u a rter

(1)
Reported
wages

(3)

(2)
Estimated
wages

Estimated
wage s

Reported
wages

Reported
wages

Estimated
wages

T o t a l ___________________________

$4, 800. 00

$9, 587. 30

$4, 800. 00

$8, 429. 00

$4, 800. 00

F i r s t ..................................
S e c o n d ---------------------------T h i r d __________________________________

$2, 273. 00
2,438. 10
88. 80

$2, 273.
2.438.
2.438.
2, 438.

00
10
10
10

$2, 515. 4 0
1, 971. 20
313. 30

$2,
1,
1,
1,

515.40
971. 20
971. 20
971. 20

$3,499. 90
1, 300. 00

T o t a l ___________________________

$4, 800. 00

$9, 015. 6 0

$4, 800. 00

$6, 777. 00

$4. 800. 00

$9. 143. 50

F i r s t ----------------------------------

$2, 215. 20
2, 266. 80
318. 00

$2,
2,
2,
2,

20
80
80
80

$1, 724. 10
1, 684. 30
1, 391. 50

$1,
1,
1,
1,

10
30
30
30

$1, 823. 50
2,440. 00
536. 50

$1, 823.
2.440.
2, 550.
2.440.

$4, 800. 00

$9. 100. 00.

$4, 800. 00

$8, 828. 70

$14, 800. 00

$2, 275. 00
2, 275. 00
250. 00

$2,
2,
2,
2,

$2, 675. 70
2, 051. 00
73. 20

$2,
2,
2,
2,

(5)

(4)

F o u r t h ---------------------

----

-

215.
266.
266.
266.

___

_____

F i r s t -------- ---- ----------------S e c o n d -------------------------- — F o u r t h --------------

--------

—

275.
275.
275.
275.

00
00
00
00

724.
684.
684.
684.

675.
051.
051.
051.

Fourth

._
.
.

50
00
00
00

$32, 000. 00

70
00
00
00

$ 4, 800. 00

$7, 044. 30

$4, 800. 00

$1, 551. 6 0
1, 830. 90
1, 723. 4 0

$ 1,
1,
1,
1,

(10)

.........
.
_
_____ , r
,
. . . . . . . .

90
90
90
90

(9)

$5. 106. 00

-

T o t a l ..... — ..................... First
SprrmH
TV.4 rrf

$3,499.
3.499.
3.499.
3.499.

(6)

(8)

(7)
T o t a l ______________

$ 13, 999. 60

-

-

(11)

551.
830.
830.
830.

60
90
90
90

$8. 070. 10
$691.
2,459.
2, 459.
2,459.

$691. 60
2,459. 50
1, 648. 80

60
50
50
50

Table F-2.
E x a m p l e s of 1964 e s t i m a t e d a n n u a l i n c o m e of construction w o r k e r s m a d e b y the Social Security
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n for p e r s o n s w h o a c h i e v e d m a x i m u m earnings in the fourth q u a rter

(2)

(1)
Quarter

Reported
wages

T o t a l ____________________________
F i r s t __________________________ ______
S e c o n d ---- ---------- ---T h i r d ..................................

Estimated
wages

$4, 800. 00
$964.
1, 561.
952.
1, 320.

70
70
70
70

$5, 040. 80
$964.70
1, 561. 70
95 2. 70
1, 561. 70

F i r s t ________
S e c o n d ______

—

F o u r t h -----------

________________
~ __
---------------------

—

---

$5. 694. 30

$1, 329.
1, 751.
1, 306.
412.

$1,
1,
1,
1,

30
70
50
20

329.
751.
306.
306.

30
70
50
50

$5. 003. 30

$4. 800. 00

$5. 261. 00

$1,
1,
1,
1,

$1, 209.
1, 338.
1, 357.
896.

$1,
1,
1,
1,

90
60
90
60

First ..................................
S e c o n d - ---- —
----------- —

130




$ 4 , 800. 00
$743.
1, 660.
1, 599.
796.

30
10
90
50

311.
175.
257.
257.

90
60
90
90

$860.
1,481.
1, 717.
1,467.

$743.
1, 660.
1, 599.
1, 599.

30
10
90
90

$845.
1, 989.
1,584.
381.

00
30
30
20

00
00
00
00

(6)
$7. 624. 9 0

$860. 20
1,481. 20
1, 717.40
1, 717. 40

20
20
40
20

$ 4 , 800. 00

209.
338.
357.
357.

$4. 800. 00

1, 583. 70
3, 020. 60
195. 60

1, 583. 7 0
3, 020. 60
3, 020. 60

$6, 003. 00

$4, 800. 00

$7, 050. 20

$59. 20
2, 229. 80
2, 380. 50
130.30

$59. 20
2, 229. 80
2, 380. 50
2, 380. 50

(9)

(8)
$5, 603. 30

00
00
00
00

$5. 776. 20

$5. 526. 00

(7)
T o t a l ___________________________

Estimated
wages

$1, 311.
1, 175.
1, 257.
1, 054,

(5)

$4,800.00

Reported
wages

$4. 800. 00

(4)
T o t a l ............................

0)
Estimated
wages

Reported
wages

$84 5.
1, 989.
1, 584,
1, 584.

00
30
30
30

Table F-3.
E x a m p l e s of 1964 e s t i m a t e d annu a l i n c o m e of construction w o r k e r s m a d e b y the Social Security A d m i n i s t r a t i o n for
p e r s o n s w h o a c h i e v e d m a x i m u m earnings a n d h a d m o r e than one e m p l o y e r

(1)
uuarrer

Reported wages,
employer numb e r
2

3

$4, 823. 40

$ 2 2 2 . 00

$ 1, 836. 50

$6, 772.40

$23. 40
1, 500. 40
2, 6 2 4.20
675. 20

$184.20
37. 80

$1, 067. 30
769. 20

$23. 40
1, 500. 40
2, 624. 20
2, 624. 20

1
T o t a l __________________

$609. 90

First -----------------------S e c o n d _______________________
T h i r d ________________________
F o u r t h -----------------------

Estimated wages,
employer nu m b e r

_

4

2

_

_

-

(3)

(2)
Estimated wages,
employer n u m b e r

Reported wages,
employer n u m b e r
1

1

2

$4, 800. 00
First _____
S e c o n d --T h i r d _____

$4, 800. 00

$3, 900. 00
900.00

$4, 800. 00

2

$ 15, 600. 00
$3,
3,
3,
3,

Reported wages,
employer n u m b e r

900.
900.
900.
900.

1

$ 14, 400. 00

00
00
00
00

Estimated wages,
employer n u m b e r
1

2

$4, 900. 00

$ 3 76.00'

$300.
1, 816.
1, 861.
922.

$312. 00

$4,800.00
4, 800. 00
4, 800. 00

10
40
20
10

$5, 839. 10
$300.
1, 816.
1, 861.
1, 861.

64. 00

10
60
20
20

___ i
(4)
Reported wages,
employer num b e r
1

T o t a l _________

S e c o n d ----T h i r d _______
F o u r t h _____

(5)
Estimated wages,
employer num b e r

2

$2,534.40

$593. 60
1, 940. 80

1

2

F i r s t ________
S e c o n d -----T h i r d ________
F o u r t h ------




$1, 001. 30
1, 841. 30

2

$8, 783. 20

$4, 800. 00

$4, 878. 00

$ 7, 000. 00

$9, 100. 00

$2, 193. 30
2, 196. 60
409. 90

$2,
2,
2,
2,

$1,000. 00
3, 000. 00

$2, 350. 00
2, 250. 00
278. 00

$1,000. 00
3, 000. 00

$2,
2,
2,
2,

193.
196.
196.
196.

30
60
60
60

3, 000. 00

800. 00

(6)

1

1

2

$4, 800. 00

Reported wages,
employer n u m b e r

$2, 842. 00

Estimated wages,
employer n u m b e r

Reportec 1 w a g e s ,
employe]* n u m b e r

2

350. 00
250.00
250. 00
250. 00

(7)
Estimated wages,
employer n u m b e r
2

Reported wages,
employer n u m b e r
1

$4, 800. 00

$9, 129. 80

$1, 730. 60
2,466. 40
602. 90

$1, 730.
2.466.
2.466.
2.466.

60
60
60
60

Estimated wages,
employer n u m b e r
2

2

$ 121.40

$4, 800. 00

$5, 285. 10

$121.40

$1,041.40
1, 230. 90
1, 506. 40
1, 021. 10

$1,
1,
1,
1,

041. 4 0
230. 90
506 . 4 0
506. 40

131

A P PEN D IX G.

Tables showing greater detail than those covering comparable data in the text of this study.

132



A P PEN D IX G TABLES

Page
Value of construction put in place in the United States, by type, 1947— ............................
68
Value of construction put in place in the United States in constant 1957—59 dollars
by type, 1947— ...........................................................................................................................
68
Employment in contract construction, by major divisions, 1939— ..........................................
68
Employment in contract construction by type of heavy and special trades contractors,
1958-68............................................................................................................................................
Percent distribution of employment in contract construction by type of heavy and
special trades contractor, 1958— ...............................................................................................
68
Seasonal adjustment factors for employees in nonagricultural payrolls by industry division
and groups.........................................................................................................................................
Seasonal adjustment factors of wage and salary workers in contract construction (SIC 15-17)
by month, 1940—
68........................................................................................................................
Seasonal adjustment factors of wage and salary workers in general building construction
(SIC 15) by month, 1945-68 ........................................................................................................
Seasonal adjustment factors of wage and salary workers in heavy construction (SIC 16)
by month, 1945—68........................................................................................................................
Seasonal adjustment factors of wage and salary workers in highway and street construction
(SIC 161) by month, 1958-68 .....................................................................................................
Seasonal adjustment factors of wage and salary workers in heavy construction, except
highway (SIC 162) by month, 1958—68.......................................................................................
Seasonal adjustment factors of wage and salary workers in special trades construction
(SIC 17) by month, 1945-68 ........................................................................................................
Seasonal adjustment factors of wage and salary workers in plumbing, heating, and
air conditioning work (SIC 171), by month, 1958— .............................................................
68
Seasonal adjustment factors of wage and salary workers in painting, paperhanging, and
decorating (SIC 172), by month, 1958— .................................................................................
68
Seasonal adjustment factors of wage and salary workers in electrical work (SIC 173),
by month, 1958—
68........................................................................................................................
Seasonal adjustment factors of wage and salary workers in masonry, plastering, stonework,
and tile work (SIC 174), by month, 1958— ...........................................................................
68
Seasonal adjustment factors of wage and salary workers in roofing and sheetmetal work
(SIC 176), by month, 1958-68.....................................................................................................
Seasonal adjustment factors of wage and salary workers employed by operative builders
(SIC 656), by month, 1958-68.....................................................................................................
Seasonal adjustment factors for contract construction employment by type and size of
contractor, and by region, selected months, 1960— ..............................................................
68
Unemployed male wage and salary workers by duration of unemployment and selected
industry group, annual averages, 1960— .................................................................................
68
Unemploymed male wage and salary workers in construction and manufacturing, by
duration of unemployment, annual average and by months, 1960—
68....................................
Proportion of wage and salary workers experiencing unemployment during the year by
industry group of longest job, 1959—
68.......................................................................................




134
135
136
136
137
137
138
138
139
139
139
140
140
140
141
141
141
141
142
146
147
148

133

Table G -l. Value of construction put in place in the United States, 1 by type, 1947—68
(M illions of dollars)
Type of construction
j
1947
1948
1949

1-950

1951

1952

1953

Total construction activity _ -------Total new con stru ction ________________________
P rivate con stru ction _______________________
R esidential buildings ----------------------------N onresidential bu ild in gs-----------------------F arm c o n stru ctio n ____________ _______
Public u tilities _________________________
A ll other p riv a te-------- ------------------------Public c o n stru ctio n ________________________
By type of ownership:
F ed erally owned_____________________
State and locally ow n ed _____________
R esidential buildings ----------------------------N onresidential bu ild in gs________________
Educational bu ild in gs-----------------------Highways and s tr e e ts ___________________
M ilitary fa c ilitie s ______________________
C onservation and developm ent_________
Sewer system s ________ ___ __________
W ater supply fa c ilitie s _________________
A ll other public _________ _____________
M aintenance and r e p a ir ________________ _____

$30,415
$20, 041
16, 722
9, 850
3, 243
1,434
2, 126
69
3, 319

$37, 879
$26, 078
21,374
13, 128
3, 765
1, 640
2, 776
65
4, 704

$38, 688
$26, 722
20,453
12,428
3, 383
1, 570
2,994
78
6, 269

$45, 630
$33, 575
26, 709
18, 126
3, 904
1, 522
3,045
112
6, 866

$48, 751
$35,435
26, 180
15,881
5, 279
1,599
3, 357
64
9, 255

$50, 968
$36, 828
26, 049
15,803
5, 014
1, 614
3,533
85
10,779

$53,549
$39, 136
27, 894
16, 594
5, 680
1, 527
3, 973
120
11, 242

840
2,479
200
591
287
1, 344
204
424
188
163
205
10,374

1, 177
3, 527
156
1, 291
618
1, 661
158
670
300
235
233
11, 801

1,488
4, 781
359
2, 049
934
2,015
137
852
354
265
238
11, 966

1, 624
5, 242
345
2, 387
1, 133
2, 134
177
94 2
383
276
222
12, 055

2, 981
6, 274
595
3,496
1, 513
2, 355
887
912
425
350
235
13, 316

4, 185
6, 594
654
4, 158
1, 619
2, 677
1, 387
900
435
355
213
14, 140

4, 139
7, 103
556
4, 350
1, 714
3,021
1, 290
892
520
363
250
14,413

1954

T otal construction activity
Total new con stru ction -----------------------------------P rivate con stru ction ____
_________ __
R esidential b u ild in g s___________________
N onresidential bu ild in gs________________
F arm construction — ------------------------Public u t ilit ie s __ _____________________
A ll other p r iv a te------------- — __________
Public co n stru ctio n ________________________
By type of ownership:
F ed erally ow n ed ------------------------------State and locally o w n ed _____________
R esidential buildings _ ______ ____ — _
N onresidential b u ild in gs_____________ _
Educational bu ild in gs________________
Highways and s tr e e ts ___________________
M ilitary fa c ilitie s ________ ____________
C onservation and developm ent- ____ Sewer system s ________ _______________
W ater supply fa c ilitie s -------------------------A ll other public _______________ _______
M aintenance and r e p a ir ____ ________ ____ _

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

I960

$56. 088
$41, 380
29, 668
18, 187
6, 250
1, 425
3, 685
121
11, 712

$62. 377
$46, 519
34,804
21, 877
7, 611
1, 385
3, 770
161
11, 715

$64, 579
$47, 601
34,869
20, 178
8, 818
1, 392
4, 361
120
12, 732

$67, 059
$49, 139
35,080
19, 006
9, 556
1,411
4, 908
199
14, 059

$67, 738
$50, 153
34,696
19, 789
8, 675
1, 355
4, 688
189
15,457

$74, 289
$55, 305
39,235
24,251
8, 859
1, 397
4, 521
207
16, 070

$73, 178
$53, 941
38, 078
21, 706
10, 149
1, 321
4, 621
281
15, 863

3, 428
8, 284
336
4, 609
1, 506
3, 714
1, 003
773
568
414
295
14, 708

2, 769
8, 946
266
4, 196
2,442
3, 852
1, 287
701
615
470
328
15,858

2, 726
10, 006
292
4,076
2,556
4,415
1, 360
826
701
574
488
16, 978

2, 974
11, 085
506
4, 507
2, 825
4, 934
1, 287
971
781
563
510
17, 920

3, 387
12, 070
846
4, 653
2, 875
5, 545
1,402
1,019
836
551
605
17,585

3, 724
12, 346
962
4, 514
2, 656
5, 761
1,465
1, 121
906
561
780
18,984

3, 622
12,241
716
4, 795
2, 818
5,437
1, 366
1, 175
882
605
887
19, 237

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

$75, 224

$79, 9 72

$83, 963

------------------

$55,447

$59, 667

$63,423

P r i v a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n -----------------------Residential buildings ______________ ____
N o n r e s i d e ntial build i n g s --- -------- __
F a r m c o n s t r u c t i o n _______________________
Public utilities --------------------------All other p r i v a t e _________________________

38, 299
21, 680
10, 734
1,300
4,335
250

41, 798
24,292
11, 617
1, 282
4, 330
277

44,
26,
11,
1,
4,

057
187
646
247
667
310

45, 810
26, 258
12,955
1, 228
5, 031
3 38

50,
26,
16,
1,
5,

Pub l i c c o n s t r u c t i o n _________________________

17, 148

17, 869

19, 3 66

20, 390

3, 879
13, 2 69
842
5, 169
3, 0 5 2
5, 854
1, 371
1, 384
914
667
947

3, 913
13, 956
9 38
5, 154
2, 984
6, 3 65
1, 266
1, 524
1, 072
682
868

4, 010
15, 356
531
6, 003
3 , 477
7, 084
1, 189
1, 690
947
882
1, 040

3, 905
1 6,485
567
6, 609
3, 790
7, 133
938
1, 729
1,325
9 56
1, 133

19, 777

20, 305

20, 540

Total construction activity_____________
Total n e w c o n s t r u c t i o n -----

B y type of o w n e rship:
F e d e r a l l y o w n e d _________
_________
State a n d locally o w n e d ______________
Residential b u i l d i n g s __ _____________
N o n r e s i d e ntial buildings_________________
E d u c a t i o n a l buildings_________________
H i g h w a y s a n d s t r eets -------- ------Military facilities ________________________
C o n s e r v a t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t __________
S e w e r s y s t e m s ___________ -__ __ _________
W a t e r s u pply facilities------------------All other public -------------------------M a i n t e n a n c e a n d r e p a i r ---

----------------

__

1 Beginning with data for 1959, estim ates include A laska and Hawaii.

2 Not available.
SOURCE: Bureau of the C ensus, U .S . Departm ent of C om m erce.

134




(2)
$66, 200

(2)

1966

(2)
$72, 319

(2)

(2)

1968

(2)

$76,160

$84,692

120
971
595
245
825
4 84

50, 587
23,736
18, 106
1, 324
6, 967
454

56, 996
28, 823
18, 800

22, 066

24,000

25, 573

27, 696

4, 0 1 8
18,048
601
7, 274
4, 284
7, 550
852
2, 0 19
1, 195
1, 266
1, 309

3, 9 5 7
20, 043
655
8, 265
5, 333
8, 355
769
2, 195
1, 300
1,066
1, 395

3, 512
22, 061
706
9, 268
5, 987
8, 538
721
2, 196
1, 058
1, 270
1, 816

3,458
24,238
706
9, 701
6, 061
9, 295
824
2, 0 46
1, 551
1, 514
2, 0 19

253
268
592
189
788
416

(2)

$75,120

1967

51,
23,
18,
1,
6,

(2 )

(2)

(2)
(2)
5 73

(2)

Table G -2. Value of construction put in place in the United States 1 in constant 1957— dollars by type, 1947—68
59
Type of construction

1947

1948

1949

1950

1951

1952

1953

Total construction a ctiv ity -------------------Total new con stru ction-------------- -----------------P rivate con stru ction---------------------------------R esidential buildings ---------------------------N onresidential buildings------- ------------F arm construction -------------------------------Public u tilities _________________________
All other p riv a te ----------------------------------Public c o n stru ctio n ----------------------------------R esidential buildings --------------------- !---N onresidential buildings-----------------------Educational buildings_______________
Highways and s tr e e ts ---------------------------M ilitary facilities ______________________
Conservation and developm ent_________
Sewer system s _________________________
W ater supply fa c ilitie s----- -----------------All other public ________________________
M aintenance and r e p a ir ----------------------------------

$44, 881
$29,573
24,682
14,044
4, 994
1,939
3, 584
121
4, 891
300
923
449
1, 652
293
737
329
284
373
15,308

$50, 375
$34,681
28, 385
16, 758
5, 210
2, 046
4, 267
104
6, 296
199
1, 787
859
1, 831
207
1, 048
470
368
386
15, 694

$52, 996
$36,605
27,779
16,382
4, 718
2, 003
4, 556
120
8, 826
474
2, 861
1, 302
2, 684
182
1, 298
54 2
403
382
15, 391

$59, 222
$43, 576
34,309
22,447
5, 321
1, 909
4,470
162
9, 267
4 30
3, 252
1, 543
2, 722
234
1, 351
550
397
331
15, 646

$58, 603
$42, 596
31, 387
18, 346
6, 64 1
1, 808
4, 505
87
11, 209
687
4,421
1, 943
2, 430
1, 060
1, 238
578
476
139
16, 007

$59, 347
$42, 882
30,334
17, 776
6, 071
1, 799
4, 577
111
12, 548
737
5, 034
1,997
2, 681
1,612
1, 175
567
463
279
16,465

$61, 227
$44,747
31, 818
18,350
6, 694
1, 679
4, 948
14 7
12,929
614
5, 107
2, 029
3, 209
1,483
1, 109
645
450
312
16,480

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960

Total construction a ctiv ity _____________
Total new con stru ction----------------------------------P rivate c o n stru ction------------- -----------------R esidential buildings ---------------------------N onresidential buildings-----------------------F arm c o n stru ctio n -------------------------------Public utilities _________________________
All other p riv a te ----------------------------------Public construction — -------------------- -----Residential b u ild in g s------- -----------------N onresidential buildings_______________
Educational buildings-----------------------Highways and s tr e e ts ---------------------------M ilitary facilities ______________________
Conservation and developm ent_________
Sewer system s _________________________
W ater supply fa c ilitie s----- -----------------All other public ________________________
M aintenance and r e p a ir ---------------------- ---------

$63, 928
$4 7, 164
33,721
20, 256
7, 287
1, 587
4,449
142
13,443
3 74
5, 366
2,466
4, 109
1, 158
917
673
491
355
16, 764

$69, 346
$51, 717
38, 394
23,649
8,668
1,511
4, 384
182
13,323
288
4, 751
2, 742
4, 396
1,467
799
702
436
384
17, 629

$67, 880
$50, 034
36, 651
20, 888
9, 501
1, 457
4, 673
132
13,383
304
4, 381
2, 748
4, 443
1,44 2
896
762
625
530
17, 846

$68, 067
$49, 878
35, 753
19, 319
9, 774
1,434
5, 020
206
14,125
515
4, 631
2, 908
4, 753
1, 297
1, 007
813
586
523
18, 189

$67, 895
$50, 270
34,868
19,930
8, 679
1, 384
4, 686
189
15,402
852
4, 656
2, 879
5, 489
1, 398
1, 017
835
550
605
17, 625

$72, 834
$54,222
38, 218
23, 641
8, 614
1, 359
4,407
197
16,004
941
4, 387
2, 579
5, 993
1,449
1,073
867
536
758
18, 612

$70, 777
$52, 171
36, 518
20,824
9, 690
1, 270
4, 474
260
15,653
686
4, 551
2, 664
5, 758
1, 336
1, 089
817
563
853
18, 606

1961
Total construction a ctiv ity -------------------Total new con stru ction-------------- -----------------P rivate construction -------------------------------R esidential con stru ction-----------------------N onresidential c o n stru ctio n -----------------F arm c o n stru ctio n -------------------------------Public u tilitie s ------------------------------------All other p riv a te _______________________
Public c o n stru ctio n ----------------------------------R esidential con stru ction-----------------------N onresidential bu ildings------------ --------Educational buildings-----------------------Highways and s tr e e ts ___________________
M ilitary facilities ___________ ______ __
C onservation and developm ent---------- __
Sewer system s _________________________
W ater supply fa c ilitie s- ----------------------All other public ________________________
M aintenance and r e p a ir __________ _________

1962

$ 72, 021
$53, 087
36,428
20,725
10,004
1, 248
4, 226
225
16, 659
803
4, 790
2, 813
6, 152
1, 320
1, 255
827
604
908
18, 934

$ 74,988
$55, 948
39, 056
22, 823
10, 558
1, 239
4, 190
246
16, 892
882
4, 670
2, 688
6,447
1, 182
1, 345
948
601
817
19, 040

1963

1964

1965

$76, 917 L....... (_2),
(2)
$58, 102 $59, 172 $62, 896
40, 861
43, 780
40, 309
23, 082
23,510
24, 099
10, 292
11, 185
13,959
1, 116
1, 194
1, 169
5, 294
4, 719
4,459
265
278
329
17, 793
18, 311
19, 116
527
486
507
5, 267
6, 054
5, 648
3, 554
3, 224
3, 035
7, 108
6, 998
7, 003
733
1, 084
835
1,445
1, 605
1,429
810
951
1, 092
1, 005
755
786
1,011
1, 133
94 8
18, 815
(2)
(2)

1966

1967

1968

(2)
$62, 941
43, 208
20, 561
15, 131
1, 121
6, 024
371
19, 733
560
6, 54 2
4, 199
7, 365
636
1, 676
993
814
1, 147
(2)

(2)
$61, 144
40, 967
19,413
14,197
1, 144
5, 882
331
20, 177
581
7, 007
4, 504
7, 269
573
1, 611
778
931
1,427
(2)

(2)_
$64,432
43, 775
22, 369
13,837
(2)
(2)
393
20,657
581
6, 881
4, 272
7, 565
623
1,406
1, 065
1, 043
1,493
(2)

1 Beginning with data for 1959, estim ates include A laska and Hawaii.
2 Not available.
SOURCE: U. S. D epartm ent of Com m erce.




135

Table G-3. Em ploym ent in contract construction, by m ajor divisions, 1939—68
(In thousands)
G e n e r a l building
contractors

Co n t r a c t construction
Year
All
employees
1939 ------------------1940 ___________________
1941 ___________________
1942 ___________________
1943 ___________________
1944 ___________________
1945 ___________________
1946 ___________________
194 7 ...................
1948 ___________________
1949 ------------------1950 .............. .....
1951 ___________________
1952 ___________________
1953 ___________________
1 9 5 4 ___________________
1955 ___________________
1956 ___________________
1957 ___________________
1958 _________________
1959 ...................
I960 ___________________
1 9 6 1 ___________________
1962 ___________________
1963 ___________________
1964 ...................
1965 ...................
1966 ___________________
1967 ___________________
1968 ...................

1, 150
1, 294
1, 790
2, 170
1, 567
1, 094
1, 132
1, 661
1, 982
2, 169
2, 165
2, 333
2, 603
2, 634
2, 623
2, 612
2, 802
2, 999
2, 923
2, 778
2, 960
2, 885
2, 8 16
2,902
2, 963
3, 050
3, 186
3, 275
3, 208
3, 267

Construction
workers

1, 759
1, 924
1, 919
2, 0 6 9
2, 3 0 8
2, 324
2, 305
2, 281
2,440
2, 613
2, 5 3 7
2, 384
2, 5 3 8
2,459
2, 390
2,462
2, 523
2, 5 97
2, 710
2, 784
2, 708
2, 754

All
employees

-

Construction
workers

-

397.0
663.0
762. 0
837. 0
809- 0
875. 0
991.4
983. 2
969. 2
937. 1
997. 2
1, 0 7 4 . 6
986. 8
893. 6
959. 0
908. 4
874. 9
882. 1
914. 1
949. 1
994. 0
1,031. 5
984. 5
986. 4

H e a v y construction

-

All
employees

Construction
workers

_
-

-

689. 0
756. 0
731. 0
791. 0
895. 8
882. 3
863. 3
832. 0
880. 1
950. 4
866. 2
775. 2
834. 4
785.4
752. 6
755. 8
787. 0
817. 3
852. 7
888. 0
840. 5
836. 7

223. 0
284. 0
363. 0
389. 0
401. 0
419. 0
461. 6
481. 4
480. 1
471. 0
483. 8
556. 7
576. 0
564. 6
586. 5
585. 7
583. 3
593. 1
599. 2
613. 9
64 8. 5
673. 5
663. 7
680. 2

_
321. 0
34 3. 0
354. 0
370. 0
407. 0
423. 6
426. 7
418. 7
429. 7
493. 4
512. 9
498. 1
516. 8
511. 5
505. 7
514. 8
522. 5
529. 6
560. 1
580. 4
570. 0
584. 4

Special trades
contractors
All
employees

_
_
_
_
513. 0
714. 0
857. 0
944. 0
955. 0
1,039. 0
1, 149. 6
1, 168. 8
1, 174.0
1,203. 5
1,320. 8
1,367. 6
1,360. 6
1,320. 2
1,414. 1
1, 390. 7
1, 357. 9
1,426. 6
1,449. 3
1,487. 0
1,543. 4
1,570. 6
1, 560. 3
1,600. 6

Construction
w o rke r s

_
_
_
_
_
_
749. 0
825. 0
834. 0
908. 0
1, 005. 2
1,018. 2
1,015. 2
1,030.5
1, 130. 1
1, 168. 8
1, 158. 2
1, 110. 3
1, 186. 9
1, 162. 3
• 1, 131. 3
1, 191. 8
1, 213. 9
1, 250. 2
1, 297. 2
1, 315. 2
1, 297. 6
1, 333. 3

SOURCE: BLS, current employm ent sta tistic s based on establishm ent rep o rts.

Table G -4. Employm ent in contract construction by type of heavy and special trad es con tractor, 1958—
68
Y ear
1958 ________________
1959 ------------------------1960 ______________
1961 ________________
1962 ________________
1963 ________________
1964 ________________
1965 - ______________
1966 ..................................
1967 ________________
1968 -------------------------

1958 ......................................
1959 ---------------------------1960 _________ ________
1961_____________ _____
1962 ......................................
1963 __________________
1964 __________________
1965 __________________
1966 ......................................
1967 __________________
1968 __________________

Highway and stre et
construction
Construction
All
employees
w orkers
253. 2
282. 5
310. 4
279. 7
262. 7
293. 6
261. 2
291. 5
269. 0
299. 5
282. 0
314. 1
313. 7
279. 5
324. 4
289. 2
322.4
286. 1
271. 4
307. 2
315. 9
279. 7

Heavy construction
All
Construction
w orkers
em ployees
282. 1
245. 0
276. 1
237. 1
292. 1
248. 8
244. 5
291. 8
293. 6
245. 7
240. 5
285. 1
300. 3
250. 1
324. 1
270. 9
351. 1
294. 3
356.4
298. 6
364. 3
304. 7

Plum bing, heating, and
a ir conditioning
All
Construction
em ployees
wo rke r s
312. 1
251. 9
264. 3
327. 9
323. 2
259. 8
321. 5
258. 7
333. 0
267. 8
277. 0
343. 1
354. 3
286. 1
366. 2
298. 0
302. 5
373. 0
303. 0
375. 3
313. 0
387. 9

Painting, paper hanging
and decorating
Construction
All
w orkers
em ployees
138. 1
125. 5
152. 9
139. 3
133. 7
146. 3
124. 5
136. 5
140. 7
127. 5
140. 6
127. 0
140.4
126. 5
143. 1
128.4
141. 8
126. 2
134. 6
119. 5
131. 0
115. 1

All
em ployees
188. 9
194. 7
200. 1
195. 9
205. 8
211. 6
218. 7
233. 7
248. 8
258. 0
265. 8

M asonry, stonework,
and plastering
All
Construction
em ployees
w orkers
226. 6
205. 9
225. 8
247. 4
212. 8
233. 9
200. 3
221. 1
213. 5
234. 8
241. 8
219. 6
220. 2
241. 1
217. 6
238. 8
213. 1
234. 4
220. 2
198. 0
227. 3
205. 2

Roofing and sheet
m etal work
All
C onstruction
em ployees
w orkers
98. 5
81. 4
108. 2
88. 5
107. 7
87. 3
102. 0
82. 9
102. 6
83. 6
106. 2
86. 3
107. 5
87. 0
110. 2
89. 6
112. 0
90. 8
112. 7
91. 3
111. 5
90. 9

Construction
w orkers
148. 3
151. 9
156. 2
151. 8
160. 7
166. 0
174. 0
187. 6
199. 9
206. 7
212. 5

SOURCE: BLS, cu rren t em ploym ent sta tistic s based on establishm ent rep o rts.

136




Table G -5. P ercent distribution of em ploym ent in contract construction by type of heavy and special trad es contractor, 1958—
68
Heavy construction contractors
Highway and Heavy con stru c­
Total
con
(SIC 16) stre e t (SIC stru c­ tion, n. e. c.
(SIC 162)
tion
16 1)

Year

1958.......... ..........................
1959 _________________
I960 _________________
1961__________________
1962....................................
1963__________________
1964 _________________
1965 _________________
1966 _________________
1967 _________________
1968

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

50. 0
52.9
50. 1
50. 0
50. 5
52.4
51. 1
50. 0
47. 9
46. 3
46.4

Special
Plumbing, P aperhe ating, hanging,
Total
and air
(SIC 17) conditioning decorating
(SIC 171) (SIC 172)

50. 0
47. 1
49. 9
50. 0
49. 5
47. 6
48. 9
50. 0
52. 1
53. 7
53. 6

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

23. 6
23. 6
23. 2
23. 7
23. 3
23. 7
23. 8
23. 7
23. 8
24. 1
24. 2

trade contractors
M asonry,
and Other
E lectrical stonew ork, Roofing etal special
sheet m
and
trades
work
work
(SIC 173) plastering (SIC 176) (SIC 175
(SIC 174)
8, 9)
14. 3
13. 8
14.4
14. 4
14. 4
14. 6
14. 7
15. 1
15. 8
16. 5
16.6

10. 5
10. 8
10. 5
10. 1
9. 9
9. 7
9.4
9. 3
9. 0
8. 6
8. 2

17. 2
17. 5
16. 8
16. 3
16. 5
16. 7
16. 2
15. 5
14. 9
14. 1
14. 2

7. 5
7. 7
7. 7
7. 5
7. 2
7. 3
7. 2
7. 1
7. 1
7. 2
7. 0

26. 9
27. 0
27.4
28. 0
28. 7
28. 0
28. 7
29. 3
29. 4
29. 5
20. 8

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual item s m ay not equal totals.
SOURCE: 3 L S , current employm ent statistics based on establishm ent rep orts.

Table G -6. Seasonal adjustm ent factors for em ployees in nonagricultural payrolls by industry division and groups
Industry
Mining
C ontract co n stru ctio n _____________
M anufacturing: 1
Durable goods: 1
Ordnance and a c c e s s o rie s ---Lum ber and wood products__
Furniture and fix tu re s ______
Stone, clay, and glass
products ________-_________
P rim a ry m etal in d u strie s----F abricated m etal p ro d u c ts---M achinery, except
E lec trica l equipm ent and
supplies__________________ T ransportation equipm ent___
Instrum ents and related
M iscellaneous m anufacturing
industries — _______ ___ N ondurable goods: 1
Food and kindred products _____
Tobacco m anufactures__________
Textile m ill products _ _________
A pparel, and other textile
p ro d u c ts______________________
P aper and allied pro d u cts___ __
P rinting and pu blish ing------------Chem icals and allied products —
P etroleum and coal p ro d u cts___
Rubber and plastics products,
n e c ____________________________
L eather and leath er products___
T ransportation and public u tilities__
W holesale and re ta il trad e: 1
W holesale trade _ ---- ---- ----R etail tr a d e ____ ____ ____ __
Finance, insurance, and real
estate_____________________________
Se rvice-______ _____________ _______
Hotels and other lodging places..
P ersonal services -------------------M edical and other health
s e r vice s ______________________
Educational services ___________
G overm ent: 1
F ederal 3________________________
State and lo c a l__________________

January F ebruary M arch

A pril

August Septem ber October November D ecem ber

May

June

July

102. 6
103. 9

102. 6
107. 2

102. 6
108. 7

101. 2
107. 1

100. 2
106. 0

99. 9
102. 0

99. 6
102. 9

99. 8
102. 8
98. 7
102. 7
101.4
99. 0
100. 1
98. 9
98. 0
100. 0
97. 9
102. 3
89. 0
99. 3
96.7
100. 6
100. 1
101. 0
102. 9
98. 4
99. 6
101. 0
101. 2
99. 5
101. 7
101. 8
117. 4
100. 6
101. 0
88. 0
102. 3
95. 0

99. 4
103.3
100. 9
103. 1
100. 5
99. 8
99. 7
99. 9
92. 7
100. 5
103. 0
107. 5
108. 0
100. 9
101. 4
101. 2
100. 2
101. 2
103. 0
100. 1
101. 6
101. 1
101. 2
99. 2
101. 7
101. 2
117. 3
99. 7
100. 6
86. 9
101. 9
94. 1

100. 4
101. 7
100. 8
102. 2
99. 1
100. 3
99. 5
100.4
100. 5
100. 1
104. 3
107. 2
117. 3
100. 6
101. 1
100. 6
99. 9
100. 1
102. 0
100. 5
100. 0
101. 1
100. 5
99. 7
100. 3
100. 3
103. 1
99.6
99. 9
96. 5
99.4
98. 8

100. 4
100. 9
101. 1
101. 1
98. 2
100. 8
99. 1
100. 9
101. 2
100. 1
105. 8
104. 7
117.4
100. 5
101. 3
100. 1
100. 1
99. 6
100. 7
100. 8
99. 9
100. 5
100. 7
100. 1
99. 9
100. 1
97. 1
100. 3
99. 9
103. 8
99. 5
101. 1

100. 8
99. 8
101. 3
100. 5
98. 5
101. 0
99.6
101. 2
101. 6
100. 3
105. 1
101.4
108. 5
100. 6
101. 0
100.4
100. 3
99. 5
99. 7
101. 2
100. 9
100.5
100. 9
102. 0
09. 6
99. 7
93. 8
100.4
100. 0
105. 1
99.4
101. 8

97.6
90. 6

97. 1
89. 1

97. 4
91. 2

99.2
96. 8

100. 3
99. 9

100. 5
97. 0
99. 7
96. 3
99. 3
99.7
100. 1
100. 3
100. 8
99.8
94. 3
96. 0
98. 8
98. 8
98. 1
99.2
99. 5
99. 1
97. 5
99. 9
99. 6
98. 5
99. 2
98. 2
98. 8
98. 1
91. 4
99. 0
99. 5
103.4
99. 1
100. 9

100. 3
97. 2
99.4
96. 0
99.7
99.4
100. 3
100. 0
100. 9
99. 8
95. 8
95. 0
96. 5
99.2
100.4
99. 0
99.7
99. 3
97. 7
99. 7
100. 5
98. 4
98. 7
97. 0
99. 0
98. 4
92. 9
98. 6
99. 8
104. 1
99. 0
101.6

99. 8
97. 8
99.4
97.4
100. 1
99. 3
100. 6
99. 5
100. 8
99. 8
96. 8
95.2
91. 6
99.7
100. 7
99. 1
99.9
99. 8
98. 2
99.4
99. 7
98. 8
98. 7
2 98. 2
99. 3
98. 9
92. 9
99. 1
99. 8
104. 3
99. 2
101. 8

99.4
98. 3
98. 9
99. 5
100. 8
99.4
100. 4
99. 1
100.4
99. 5
97. 9
95. 3
88.4
99.7
99. 0
99. 1
99. 9
100. 3
98. 7
99.4
98. 3
99.2
98. 7
2 98. 6
99. 6
100. 0
96. 4
100. 1
99. 7
103. 6
99.6
101. 5

99. 1
99. 1
98. 8
100. 2
101. 0
99. 5
100. 1
98.9
100. 5
99. 3
99. 0
96. 2
87. 3
99. 8
99. 5
99. 1
99.6
99. 9
99.4
100. 3
98. 8
99. 7
98. 7
99. 6
99. 8
100. 6
99. 6
100. 6
99. 5
103.4
99. 5
101. 2

100. 1
102. 2
102. 1
100. 9
100. 8
99. 8
100. 9
100. 3
100. 6
99. 8
88. 5
101. 1
100. 8
101. 1
100. 2
100. 6
101. 6
100. 3
100. 6
101. 0
100. 5
100. 3
100. 8
101. 6
105. 4
101. 6
100. 6
96.4
101. 5
100. 5

99.4
97. 5
100. 4
99. 2

101. 1
98. 8
99. 2
100. 8
99. 7
101. 2
101. 9
100. 5
99. 3
99. 3
108. 8
100. 0
99. 9
100. 4
100. 6
99. 5
98. 6
101. 0
100. 6
100. 2
101. 0
107. 6
99. 6
99.4
92. 6
100. 5
99.7
104.4
99. 5
101. 6

1 Seasonally adjusted data derived by sum m ation of com ponents.
2 F actors shown are for 1970. The factors used for M arch and A pril 1969 w ere 97.6 and 99.2 respectively.
3 Based on data which exclude tem p orary C hristm as em ployees of the P ost Office during D ecem ber.
SOURCE: BLS, current employm ent sta tistic s based on establishm ent rep o rts.




137

Table G-7. Seasonal adjustm ent factors of wage and sa la ry w orkers in contract construction (SIC 15-17) by m onth, 1940—
68
Year
1940 1
1941 .............................................
1942 _______________________
1943 ... — ...............................
1944 ................................................
1945 ................................................
1946.................................................
1947 .............................................
1948.................................................
1949 ----------------------------------1950 ................................................
1951 .............................................
1952 _______________________
1953 ________ _____________
19R4
1955 _______________________
1956 ___________________________
1957 _______________________
1958 _______________________
1ono
I960 _______________________
1961_______________________
1962 _______________________
1963 _______________________
1964 _______________________
1965 .............................................
1966 ................................................
1967 ................................................
1968

J anuary F ebruary M arch
88. 5
88. 5
88. 9
89. 5
89. 7
90. 0
90. 5
90. 7
90. 6
90. 7
90.4
90.4
90. 1
89. 8
89. 6
89. 3
89. 0
88. 6
88. 4
88. 3
88. 2
88. 1
88. 1
88. 3
88. 8
89. 1
89. 2
89.6
89. 6

92. 4
92. 4
91.7
91.2
90. 7
89.9
89. 5
88. 9
88. 3
87. 9
87. 5
87. 2
87. 1
87. 0
86.8
86. 7
86.4
86. 2
85. 5
85. 1
84. 6
84. 5
84. 7
84. 8
85. 1
85.6
86. 2
86. 7
87. 1

.
92. 0
92.2
92.4
92. 1
91. 8
91. 5
90. 7
90. 1
89. 7
89. 6
89. 6
89. 7
89. 7
89. 7
89. 3
89. 0
88. 7
88.4
88. 0
87. 7
87. 5
87. 8
88. 3
88. 6
89. 1
89.6
89. 8
90. 1
92 0

A pril
96.9
96. 7
96. 8
96. 8
96. 5
96.2
95. 8
95. 1
95. 0
94. 7
94. 8
94. 9
95. 0
95. 2
95.2
95. 1
95. 1
94. 8
94. 7
94. 7
94. 8
94. 8
94. 8
94. 9
95. 1
95. 4
95.4
95. 5
95. 8

May

June

July

101. 3
101. 2
101. 1
101. 0
100.6
100.6
100. 3
100. 1
100. 0
99. 8
99.6
99.7
99. 8
100. 0
100.2
100.4
100. 6
100. 8
100. 9
101. 0
101. 1
101. 2
101. 1
101. 0
100.7
100. 7
100.4
100. 2
100. 0

104. 8
105. 1
105. 1
105. 0
105. 1
105.4
105. 0
104. 8
104.6
104. 5
104. 5
104.4
104.4
104. 5
104. 8
105. 0
105. 3
105. 7
106. 2
106. 3
106.4
106.5
106. 6
106. 6
106. 5
106. 2
106. 2
106. 0
105. 8

107. 5
107. 7
107.6
107.4
107. 5
107. 3
106. 9
107. 0
107. 0
107. 0
107. 1
102.2
107. 3
107. 5
107.6
107. 8
108. 0
108.4
108. 7
109. 1
109.4
109. 7
109. 7
109. 8
109.6
109.4
109. 2
109. 0
108. 8

August Septem ber October Novem ber D ecem ber
109. 8
109. 7
109. 5
109. 3
109. 3
109. 1
108. 9
109. 2
109. 3
109.4
109. 5
109. 5
109. 6
109. 8
109. 8
109. 9
110. 2
110. 5
110. 8
111. 2
111.4
111. 6
111.7
111. 5
111. 3
111. 0
110. 7
110. 5
110. 3

108. 2
108. 1
107. 9
107. 8
108. 1
107. 8
107. 8
108. 0
108. 2
108. 5
108. 6
108. 6
108. 8
108. 8
108. 9
109. 2
109. 3
109.4
109. 6
109. 7
109. 8
109. 6
109.4
1 0 9 .0
108. 7
108. 3
108. 0
107. 6
107. 6

105. 1
105. 0
104. 9
104. 9
104. 9
105. 0
105. 5
105. 0
106. 5
106. 8
107. 2
107. 2
107. 3
107. 2
107. 2
107. 2
107. 3
107. 5
107. 8
108. 0
108. 3
108. 2
107. 9
107. 6
107. 1
106. 7
106.4
106. 1
105. 9

101. 5
101. 4
101. 5
101.6
101.4
101. 9
102. 3
102. 7
103. 0
103. 1
103. 3
103. 5
103.4
103. 3
103. 2
103.2
103. 2
103. 2
103. 2
103. 3
103.4
103.4
103. 3
103. 1
102. 9
102. 7
102.4
102.4
102. 2

91. 1
91. 2
92.7
93.2
94. 0
95. 0
96. 1
96. 8
97. 5
98. 0
97. 9
97.7
97. 4
97.2
97. 1
96. 7
96. 6
96. 1
95.7
95. 4
94.9
94. 8
95. 1
95.2
95.6
96. 0
96. 3
96.6
96. 8

Seasnoal factors for first 3 months are 1941 factors.
SOURCE: BLS, c u rren t employm ent sta tistic s based on establishm ent rep orts.

Table G-8. Seasonal adjustm ent factors of wage and sa la ry w orkers in general building construction (SIC 15) by m onth, 1945—
68
Year
1945 1 ...........................................
1946 _______________________
1 9 4 7 _______________________
1948 _______________________
1949 ----------------------------------1950 _______ ______________
1951................................................
1952 ___ __________________
1953 _______________________
1954 _______________________
1955 ................................................
1956 .............................................
1957 .............................................
1958 ................................................
1959 __________________i____
I960 _______________________
196 1 _______________________
1962 ___ ________________
1963 _____ ________________
1964 _______________________
1965 ______ _______________
1966 _____ ____________________
1967 _______________________
1968 _______________________

January F ebruary M arch
92.4
92. 4
92 . 0
91. 8
91. 5
91. 0
90. 8
90. 5
90. 0
89. 7
89. 4
89. 3
89 . 0
89 . 0
89. 1
89. 2
89. 3
89. 4
89. 8
90. 6
91. 1
91. 4
91. 8
91. 9

.7
.7
.3
.
87.
87. 5
87. 1
87. 0
86 . 9
86 . 8
86 . 8
86 . 3
86 . 0
85.6
85.4
85. 0
85. 1
85. 3
85. 7
86. 1
86.6
87. 3
87. 8
88. 3

88
88
88
88 0
8

89.
.
89.
89. 9
90. 1
9 0 .2
90 . 2
90. 3
90. 3
90. 1
89. 8
89.4
89. 1
88 . 9
88. 4
88. 1
88. 0
88. 1
88. 8
89. 2
89. 6
90.4
90. 8
91. 2
8
89 8
8

A pril
94. 5
94. 3
94. 1
94. 2
94. 2
94. 4
94. 7
94. 8
95. 1
95.4
95. 3
95.4
95. 3
95. 1
95. 1
95.2
95. 2
95.2
95. 3
95. 4
95. 8
95. 7
95. 7
96. 0

May

June

104. 5
99. 8
99.6
104. 3
99.4
104. 3
104. 3
99.4
104. 3
99. 1
104. 4
99. 0
104. 4
99. 2
104. 4
99. 3
99. 5 , 104.6
104. 7
99. 7
104. 8
99. 9
100 . 2
105. 1
100. 5
105. 5
105. 8
100. 5
100. 6
105. 9
100. 7
106. 0
100. 5
106. 1
100. 3
106. 2
106. 0
99. 8
99.4
105. 7
105. 2
99. 1
98. 8
105. 2
98. 5
104. 9
104. 5
98. 3

1 Seasonal factors for first 3 m onths are 1946 factors.
SOURCE: BLS, c u rre n t em ploym ent sta tistic s based on establishm ent rep o rts.

138




July
.
106. 3
106. 6
106. 6
106. 8
107. 1
107. 3
107. 6
107. 8
108. 2
108.4
108. 5
108. 9
1 0 9 .0
109. 2
109. 5
109.4
109.4
109. 3
108. 9
108. 5
108. 1
107. 7
107.4
1 06 2

August Septem ber October •November D ecem ber
108. 1
108. 3
108. 6
108. 8
109. 1
109. 3
109. 5
109. 7
110. 0
110. 1
110. 2
110. 4
110. 6
no. 8
111. 0
111. 1
111. 3
111.4
111. 1
no. 8
no. 4
no. 0
109. 6
109.4

107, 6
107. 7
107. 9
107.9
108. 1
108. 2
108. 2
108.4
108. 5
108. 5
108. 6
108. 6
108. 6
108. 7
108. 7
108. 8
108. 6
108. 3
107. 9
107. 5
107. 1
106. 7
106.4
106.4

105. 5
105. 8
106. 1
106. 3
106. 5
106. 7
106. 8
106. 8
106. 6
106. 5
106. 5
106. 6
106. 7
106. 9
107. 1
107. 2
107. 2
106. 8
106. 5
106. 0
105. 7
105.4
105. 2
105. 1

.
103. 1
103.4
103. 3
103. 5
103. 5
103. 5
103. 4
103. 2
103. 0
103. 1
103. 0
103. 1
103. 1
103. 2
103.4
103. 6
103.4
103. 3
103. 1
103. 0
102. 8
102. 8
102. 5
102 9

99. 9
99. 8
99. 6
99.4
99. 0
98.7
98. 2
97. 7
97. 5
97. 4
97. 2
97.2
96.7
96. 5
96. 2
95. 8
95. 9
96. 3
96. 5
97. 3
97. 9
98. 3
98. 8
99.0

Table G -9. Seasonal adjustm ent factors of wage and salary w orkers in heavy construction (SIC 16) by month, 1945—68
Y ear

January

1945 1 .......................
1946 ____________
1947 ____________
1948 .............
1949 ..........................
1950 ____________
1951 . ..
1952 ..........................
1953 ____________
1 9 5 4 ____________
1955 ..........................
1956 ____________
1957 ..........................
1958 ..........................
1959 ------------------1960 ____________
1961____________
1962 .......................
1963 ..........................
1964 ..........................
1965 ____________
1966 | ,,,, , , . ,
1967 ____________
1 9 6 8 ____________

78. 9
78. 9
79 . 0
78. 9
79.0
79. 1
79. 1
79. 1
78. 9
78. 7
78. 6
77. 9
77. 2
76. 9
76.4
76. 1
75. 7
75. 8
76. 0
76. 5
76. 7
77. 2
77. 7
77. 8

F ebruary
75. 9
75. 9
75. 8
75. 7
75. 7
75. 5
75. 6
76. 0
76. 3
76. 5
76. 7
76. 7
76. 2
75. 3
74. 5
73. 8
73. 2
73. 1
73. 1
73. 5
74. 2
75. 2
75. 7
76. 2

M arch
79.4
79.4
79. 2
79. 3
79. 6
79. 8
80. 2
80. 5
80. 7
80. 7
80.4
79. 8
79. 5
79. 0
78.4
78. 0
77. 6
77. 7
78. 0
78.4
78. 9
79.5
79. 7
80. 1

A pril

May

June

July

91. 9
91. 8
91. 6
91. 8
91. 8
9 2 .0
92.4
92. 5
92. 5
92. 4
92 . 0
91. 9
91.4
91. 1
91.0
91. 1
91. 1
91.0
91. 1
91.4
91. 9
91. 9
92. 0
92. 3

101. 6
101. 9
101. 9
102. 1
102. 3
102. 5
102. 9
103. 0
103. 3
103. 7
103. 9
104. 2
104. 5
104. 5
104. 8
104. 8
104. 9
105. 1
104. 9
104. 7
104. 8
104. 5
104. 3
104. 2

110. 5
110.4
110. 5
110. 6
110. 7
110. 6
110. 5
110.4
110. 5
110. 6
110. 9
111.4
112. 2
112. 9
113.4
113. 7
114. 1
114.4
114. 6
114. 3
113. 8
113. 6
113.4
113. 0

114. 7
114. 7
114. 8
114. 8
114. 7
114. 5
114. 3
114. 3
114. 5
114. 6
114. 7
115. 3
115. 9
116. 5
117. 0
117. 5
117. 9
118. 0
118. 1
118. 0
117. 8
117. 5
117. 3
117. 1

August
.0
.
.
118. 9
118. 8
118. 6
118. 3
118. 2
118. 0
117. 8
117. 8
118. 1
118. 5
118. 9
119. 5
120. 0
120. 3
120. 5
120. 2
120. 0
119. 7
119. 3
119. 1
118. 8

119
119 0
119 0

Septem ber

O ctober

117. 4
117. 5
117. 3
117. 1
116. 9
116. 7
116.4
116.4
116. 2
116. 3
116. 7
116. 7
117. 0
117.4
117. 7
118. 0
118. 0
117. 6
117. 3
116. 9
116. 4
115. 9
115. 5
115. 4

112. 8
113. 0
113. 1
113. 1
113. 2
113. 5
113.4
113.4
113. 2
113. 2
113.4
113. 3
113. 6
114. 1
114. 5
115. 1
115. 2
114. 9
114. 9
114. 2
113. 6
113. 1
112. 7
112. 4

Novem ber D ecem ber
104. 9
105. 0
105. 1
105. 0
104. 7
104. 8
105. 0
104. 9
104. 6
104. 2
104.4
104. 3
104. 4
104. 3
104. 3
104.4
104. 5
104. 3
104. 2
104. 1
103. 8
103. 6
103. 6
103. 4

92. 9
92. 7
92. 7
92. 7
92.5
92.3
9 2 .0
91. 5
91.4
91. 2
90. 5
90. 2
89. 7
89. 0
88.4
87. 8
87.4
87. 5
87.4
87. 8
88.4
88. 7
89. 1
89. 3

1 Seasonal factors for firs t 3 m onths a re 1946 factors.
SOURCE: BLS, cu rren t em ploym ent sta tistic s based on establishm ent rep orts.

Table G-10. Seasonal adjustm ent factors of wage and salary w orkers in highway and stre e t construction (SIC 161) by month, 1958—68
Y ear

January

1958 1 ----------------1959 ------------------I960 ____________
1961______
1962 ____________
1963 ____________
1964 ____________
1965 ____________
1966 ____________
1967 ____________
1968 ..........................

65. 0
65. 0
65. 0
64. 9
65. 0
65. 1
65.4
65. 5
65. 8
66. 1
66. 1

F ebruary
61. 2
61. 2
61. 3
61. 7
61. 8
62. 2
62. 8
63.4
64. 0
64. 1
64. 5

M arch

A pril

May

June

July

68. 7
68. 7
68.4
68.4
68. 5
68. 5
68. 7
68. 8
69. 3
69. 5
69. 7

87. 2
87.4
87. 5
87.4
87.4
87. 6
88. 0
88. 5
88. 6
88. 8
89. 1

108. 7
108. 7
108. 8
108. 6
108. 6
108. 3
107. 8
107. 8
107. 7
107.4
107. 3

121. 2
121. 1
121. 2
121. 2
121. 3
121. 6
121. 1
120. 6
120. 5
120. 3
120. 0

125. 8
125. 9
125. 8
126. 0
126. 0
126. 1
126. 1
125. 8
125. 7
125. 8
125. 5

August
129. 5
129. 6
129. 5
129.4
129. 4
1 29 . 0
128. 9
128. 6
128. 3
128. 2
128. 0

Septem ber

Octobe r

126.4
126. 4
126.4
126. 1
125. 6
125. 2
125. 0
124. 6
124. 2
123. 9
123. 8

121. 2
121. 4
121. 6
121. 5
121. 4
121.4
120. 7
120. 1
119. 7
119. 2
119. 0

N ovem ber D ecem ber
105. 9
105. 7
105. 4
105. 3
105. 1
105. 1
104. 9
104. 8
104. 6
104. 8
104. 7

79. 1
78. 9
79. 1
79.4
79. 7
80. 0
80.5
81. 2
81. 6
82. 0
82. 2

1 Seasonal factors for firs t 3 months a re 1959 factors.
SOURCE: BLS, cu rren t employm ent sta tistic s based on establishm ent rep orts.

Table G- 11. Seasonal adjustm ent factors of wage and salary w orkers in heavy construction, except highway (SIC 162) by month, 1958—
68
Year

January

1958 1 .......................
1959 ..........................
1960 ___ _______
1961 ____________
1962 .........................
1963 ____________
1964 ..........................
1965 ____________
1966 ____________
1967 ____________
1968 .........................

86. 7
86. 7
86. 8
86. 7
86. 8
87. 0
86. 9
87. 0
87. 2
87.4
87. 7

F ebruary

M arch

A pril

May

June

82. 9
82. 9
83. 0
83. 3
83. 4
83. 7
84. 2
84. 8
85. 8
86. 5
86. 8

86.4
86.4
86. 3
86.4
86. 6
86. 9
87. 5
88. 1
88. 6
89. 1
89. 5

95. 1
95. 0
95. 0
94. 9
94. 8
94. 9
95. 0
95. 3
95. 3
95. 3
95. 4

101.4
101. 6
101. 6
101. 6
101. 8
101. 7
101. 6
101. 6
101. 4
101. 3
101. 2

106. 9
106. 9
107. 1
107. 2
107. 6
107. 7
107. 6
107. 2
107. 1
106. 9
106. 6

July
109. 9
110. 1
no. 3
no. 3
no. 3
110. 4
110. 2
110. 1
109 . 8
109 . 6
109 . 6

August
111. 6
111. 6
111. 8
111. 7
111.8
111. 7
111. 5
111. 3
111.0
110. 6
no. 5

Septem ber

O ctober

110. 7
no. 6
no. 5
no. 3
109 . 9
109 . 7
109. 3
108. 8
108. 4
108. 1
107. 9

109. 5
109. 4
109. 2
109. 1
108. 5
108. 3
107. 9
107. 5
107. 1
106. 9
106. 6

N ovem ber D ecem ber
104. 5
104. 3
104. 0
104. 0
103. 7
103. 5
103. 3
103. 0
102. 7
102. 7
102. 4

94. 7
94. 5
94. 5
94. 5
94. 6
94. 6
95. 0
95. 3
9S. 5
95. 6
95. 7

1 Seasonal factors for firs t 3 months are 1959 factors.
SOURCE: BLS, cu rren t em ploym ent sta tistic s based on establishm ent rep orts.




1 39

T a b l e G - 12.

S e a s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t factors of w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s in special trades construction (SIC 17) b y m o n t h ,

January

Year

94. 8
94. 8
94. 8
94. 7
94. 6
94. 4
94. 4
94. 0
93. 7
93. 5
93. 1
92. 8
92. 6
92. 5
92. 4
92. 3
92. 3
92. 3
92. 4
92. 7
92. 9
92. 9
93. 1
93. 1

1945 1 ____________
1946 ______________
1947 .... .........
1948 ______________
1949 -------------1950 ______________
1 9 5 1 ..... ........
1952 ______________
1953 ______________
1954 ______________
1955 ______________
1 9 5 6 . ___________
1957 ______________
1958 ______________
1959 -------------1960 ______________
1 9 6 1 ______________
1962 ______________
1963 ______________
1964 ______________
1965 ______________
1966 ______________
1967 ______________
1968 ______________

February

March

92.
92.
92.
92.
92.
92.
92.
92.

92. 8
92. 8
92. 7
92. 8
92. 8
92. 8
92. 8
92. 8
92. 8
92. 8
92. 5
92. 3
92. 0
91. 8
91. 6
91.4
91.4
91. 8
92. D
92. 2
92. 7
93. 0
93. 2
93. 5

4
4
3
3
3
2
2
0

9L 9
91. 6
91. 4
90. 9
90. 3
89. 7
89. 3
89. 0
89. 0
89. 2
89.4
89. 7
90. 0
90.4
90. 7
90. 9

April
96.
96.
96.
96.
95.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
95.
95.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
97.

4
2
1
1
9
0
0
1
2
2
1
1
0
9
9
1
1
1
2
4
6
7
8
0

May

99.4
99. 3
99. 2
99. 1
98. 9
98. 7
98. 7
98. 8
98. 9
99. 0
99. 1
99. 3
99. 5
99. 6
99. 7
99. 8
99. 9
100. 0
99. 9
99. 8
99. 8
99. 7
99. 5
99. 5

June

July

102. 4
102. 3
102. 3
102. 1
102. 1
102. 1
102. 0
102. 0
102. 3
102. 5
102. 8
103. 0
103. 3
103. 6
103. 6
103. 6
103. 6
103. 7
103. 8
103. 8
103. 6
103. 6
103. 5
103.4

104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
105.
105.
105.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.

September

August
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
6
8
0
4
6
0
3
3
5
5
4
4
3
2

105. 5
105. 6
105. 7
105. 8
105. 8
105. 9
106. 0
106. 1
106.-2
106. 3
106. 5
106. 9
107. 2
107. 5
107. 8
108. 0
108. 2
108. 1
108. 0
107. 9
107. 7
107. 5
107. 3
107. 2

105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
107.
107.
107.
106.
106.
106.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.

1
3
4
4
6
7
8
0
1
3
6
7
9
0
0
0
8
6
3
9
6
4
1
0

1945— 68

October

November

104. 1
104. 4
104. 6
104. 7
104. 8
105. 0
105. 0
105. 1
105. 1
105. 2
105. 3
105. 4
105. 6
105. 9
106. 0
106. 0
105. 9
105. 6
105.4
104. 9
104. 5
104. 2
104. 0
103. 8

102.
102.
102.
102.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
101.
101.
101.

6
8
8
9
0
0
1
I
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
9
7
5
3
1
9
8
7

December
100. 3
100. 1
100. 1
100. 1
100. 0
99. 9
99. 8
99. 6
99. 4
99. 3
99. 0
98. 8
98. 5
98. 2
98. 0
97. 7
97. 6
97. 7
97. 7
98. 0
98. 2
98. 3
98. 6
98. 7

1 S e a s o n a l factors for first 3 m o n t h s a r e 1946 factors.
SOURCE:

T a b l e G - 13.

BLS,

c u r rent e m p l o y m e n t statistics b a s e d on e stabli s h m e n t reports.

S e a s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t factors of w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s in plu m b i n g , heating, a n d air conditioning w o r k (SIC 171), b y m o n t h ,

Year

January

97. 3
97. 3
97.4
97. 3
97. 5
97. 5
97. 7
97. 7
97. 7
97. 7
97. 6

1958 1 ____________
1959 -------------I960 ______________
1 9 6 1 ..............
1962 ...... . .....
1963 -------------1964 -------------1965 ____ ________
1966 ______________
1967 ______________
1968 --------------

February

March

94.
94.
94.
94.
94.
94.
94.
95.
95.
95.
95.

93. 3
93. 3
93.4
93. 9
94. 2
95. 0
95.4
95. 7
96. 0
96. 0
96. 2

2
2
3
3
5
6
7
0
3
5
8

April

95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
96.
96.
96.
96.
97.

6
7
7
7
8
9
2
4
6
9
0

May

June

July

97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.

100. 2
100. 2
100. 3
100. 3
100. 5
100. 6
100. 6
100. 6
100. 6
100. 5
100.4

102.
102.
102.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.

4
5
6
6
7
7
6
7
6
6
6

August

9
9
9
0
0
1
2
2
3
3
2

104.
104.
104.
105.
104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
103.

September

8
9
9
0
9
7
7
5
3
1
9

105.
105.
105.
105.
104.
104.
103.
103.
104.
103.
103.

3
3
2
0
6
1
7
5
3
1
1

October

105.
104.
104.
104.
104.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
102.

1958— 68

November

0
9
7
5
2
9
5
5
1
1
9

102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
101.

8
8
7
6
5
4
3
1
0
0
9

December

101.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

1
9
9
8
6
5
5
3
3
3
3

1 S e a s o n a l factors for first 3 m o n t h s a r e 1959 factors.
,'SOURCE:

T a b l e G - 14.

BLS,

S e a s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t factors of w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s in painting, p a p e r h anging, a n d decorating (SIC 172), b y m o n t h ,

Year

1958
1959
I960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

c u r rent e m p l o y m e n t statistics b a s e d on e stabli s h m e n t reports.

January

1 ------------------------______________
-------------..........
__
______________
..............
______________
______________
______________
..............

79. 5
79. 5
79. 6
79. 6
79. 8
80. 1
80.4
80. 9
81.4
81. 8
81. 9

February
78. 5
78. 5
78. 6
78. 8
79. 2
79. 7
80. 1
80. 8
81.4
81. 8
82. 3

March
83. 7
83. 7
83. 7
84. 1
84.4
84. 8
85. 2
85. 6
86. 0
86.4
85. 6

April
94.
94.
94.
94.
94.
93.
94.
94.
93.
93.
94.

0
2
3
2
1
9
1
1
9
7
0

May

June

July

102. 7
102. 9
103. 1
103. 3
103.4
103. 4
103.4
103. 4
103. 2
102. 9
102. 6

108. 7
108. 7
108. 6
108. 7
108. 7
108.4
108. 3
107. 9
107. 7
107. 7
107.4

115. 4
115. 3
115. 0
115.0
114. 9
114. 6
114. 5
114. 2
114. 1
114. 2
114. 0

1 S e a s o n | l factors for first 3 m o n t h s a r e 1959 factors.
SOURCE:

BLS,

140




cu r r e n t e m p l o y m e n t statistics b a s e d on establi s h m e n t reports.

August
118. 1
117. 9
117. 7
117. 4
117. 0
116. 8
116. 5
116. 5
116.4
116. 4
116. 6

September
114.
114.
114.
114.
114.
114.
113.
112.
112.
111.
111.

1
4
5
4
3
1
5
8
3
8
8

October
110. 1
no. 2
no. 3
no. 4
no. 2
no. l
109 . 8
109. 5
109. 2
108. 9
108. 6

1958— 68

November
103.4
103. 3
103. 1
103. 0
102. 7
102. 5
102. 2
101. 9
101. 7
101. 6
101. 5

December

91. 9
91. 6
91.4
91.4
91. 5
91. 6
92. 0
92.4
92. 7
92. 9
93. 0

T a b l e G - 15.

S e a s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t factors of w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s in electrical w o r k (SIC 173), b y m o n t h ,

January

Year

February

March

97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.

95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
96.

93.3
93.3
93.4
93. 7
94. 0
94. 5
94. 9
95. 3
95. 7
96. 0
96. 2

1958 1 ____________
1959 ..............
1960 ... .........
1 9 6 1 ..............
1962 ______________
1963 ______________
1964 ______________
1965 ______________
1966 ______________
1967 ______________
1968 ______________

1
1
1
1
1
0
2
3
5
7
7

1
1
1
1
2
2
4
6
8
9
0

1 S e a s o n a l factors for first 3 m o n t h s are
SOURCE:

Table G-16.

BLS,

0
2
2
3
5
9
2
6
8
0
2

June

July

97.4
97. 5
97. 5
97. 6
97. 6
97. 5
97. 6
97. 6
97. 5
97. 5
97. 5

100. 3
100. 3
100.4
100. 5
100. 6
100. 6
100. 8
100. 8
100. 8
100. 8
100. 8

103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.

January

89. 2
89. 2
89.4
89. 5
89.4
89. 5
89. 6
89. 5
89. 6
89. 6
89. 7

February

7
6
7
7
7
7
7
6
5
4
4

105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.

September

2
4
5
5
7
7
5
5
3
2
1

105.
105.
105.
105.
104.
104.
103.
103.
103.
102.
102.

October

104.
104.
104.
104.
103.
103.
103.
102.
102.
102.
101.

3
3
2
0
7
4
9
5
1
8
7

BLS,

87. 0
87. 0
87. 1
87.4
87. 7
88. 0
88. 2
88. 7
89. 3
89. 5
89. 7

92. 7
92. 7
92.4
92. 7
93. 0
93. 1
93. 3
93. 8
94. 1
94.4
94. 6

April

98.
98.
98.
98.
98.
98.
98.
98.
98.
98.
98.

5
6
5
4
1
0
2
4
2
3
5

May

102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
101.
101.

plastering,

June

6
7
9
9
9
7
7
4
0
7
3

July

106. 6
106. 5
106.4
106. 3
106. 2
106. 0
105. 7
105. 3
105. 2
105. 0
105. 0

107.
108.
108.
108.
108.
108.
108.
108.
108.
108.
107.

s tonework,

102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
101.
101.
101.
101.
101.
101.

5
3
2
1
0
8
6
5
4
4
3

December

100. 8
100. 7
100. 5
100. 5
100. 4
100. 3
100. 2
100. 2
100/ 2
100. 3
100. 3

August

9
1
3
5
4
7
6
4
2
0
6

109.
109.
109.
109.
109.
109.
109.
109.
109.
109.
108.

a n d tile w o r k (SIC 174), b y m o n t h , 1958— 68

September

5
3
4
4
3
5
4
1
2
1
8

106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.

October

9
7
7
4
3
0
8
7
5
4
5

104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.

9
8
6
3
1
7
4
4
3
3
5

November
101.
101.
101.
101.
100.
100.
100.
100.
99.
99.
99.

7
7
4
2
8
5
2
0
7
7
6

December

92. 6
92. 7
92. 8
93. 2
93. 9
94. 3
94. 9
95.4
95. 5
96. 0
96. 3

1959 factors.

c urrent e m p l o y m e n t statistics b a s e d on e s tablishment reports.

S e a s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t factors of w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s in roofing a n d s h e e t m e t a l w o r k (SIC 176), b y m o n t h ,

January

Y ear

33
2
0
6
4
0
6
2
0
7

November

1959 factors.

March

1 S e a s o n a l factors for first 3 m o n t h s a r e
SOURCE:

August

c urrent e m p l o y m e n t statistics b a s e d o n e s t a blishment reports.

1 ____________
-------------______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________

Table G -17.

95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
96.
96.
96.
97.
97.

May

S e a s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t factors of w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s in m a s o n r y ,

Y ear

1958
1959
I960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

April

1958— 68

February

March

92.
92.
92.
92.
92.
92.
92.
92.
92.
93.
92.

87.
87.
87.
87.
87.
87.
87.
87.
87.
87.
87.

89- 1
89. 1
89- 3
89. 3
89. 6
90. 0
90. 2
90. 8
91. 3
91. 7
92.4

1958 1 ____________
1959 -------------1960 ______________
1 9 6 1 ..............
1962 ______________
1963 ______________
1964 ______________
1965 ______________
1966 _______ ______
1967 ______________
1968 ______________

5
5
3
2
3
3
6
8
7
0
9

7
7
4
3
4
1
0
1
2
5
5

A p ril

94.
94.
95.
95.
95.
95.
96.
96.
96.
97.
97.

7
8
0
2
3
7
1
5
9
0
2

May

June

97. 2
97. 2
97. 5
97. 8
98. 1
98. 3
98.4
98.4
98. 5
98.4
98. 2

101.
101.
101.
102.
102.
102.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.

July

5
6
9
1
5
9
0
0
1
1
1

August

105. 2
105. 3
105. 6
105. 6
105. 7
105. 8
105. 9
105. 7
105. 6
105. 4
105.4

107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.

September

9
9
9
8
7
5
6
6
4
4
4

108.
107.
107.
107.
106.
106.
106.
105.
105.
105.
105.

1958— 68

October

110.
109.
109.
109.
108.
108.
107.
106.
106.
105.
105.

0
6
3
2
8
4
2
8
6
5
2

1
9
7
4
8
3
5
8
3
9
6

November
107.
107.
107.
107.
106.
106.
105.
105.
104.
104.
104.

3
3
3
0
5
2
6
2
9
4
2

December

98. 7
98. 9
98. 9
98. 9
99.4
99. 5
99. 9
100. 3
100.4
100. 8
101. 2

1 S e a s o n a l factors for first 3 m o n t h s a r e 1959 factors.
SOURCE:

Table G-18.

BLS,

c ur r e n t e m p l o y m e n t

statistics b a s e d on establi s h m e n t reports.

S e a s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t factors of w a g e a n d salary w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d b y operative builders (SIC 656), by m o n t h ,

Y ear

January

1958 1 ____________
1959 ---------I960 _______ „
1 9 6 1 ..............
1962 ..... ........
1963 ______________
1964 ...........
1965 _ ___________
1966 ..............
1967 ______________
1968 --------------

89. 6
89. 6
90. 0
90.4
90. 5
91. 0
91.5
91. 7
9L 8
9L 9
92. 0

February
88. 3
88. 3
88. 6
89. 1
89. 7
90.4
91. 2
92. 1
92. 4
93. 0
93. 1

March

A p ril

May

93. 0
93. 0
93. 3
93. 9
94. 3
95. 0
95.4
95. 9
96. 3
96. 6
96. 7

99. 3
99. 5
99. 5
99.4
99.4
99. 4
99. 5
99. 7
99. 7
99. 7
99. 9

102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
101.
102.

June
1
3
4
3
3
5
3
2
0
8
0

106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.

July

2
2
2
1
2
1
8
7
7
5
5

107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
106.
106.
106.
106.

August

7
7
6
7
6
3
2
9
8
7
3

107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.

September

8
6
6
3
1
9
7
6
6
5
6

106.
106.
105.
105.
104.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.

5
1
6
2
6
9
5
1
0
1
0

1958— 68

October

104.
104.
104.
103.
103.
103.
102.
102.
101.
101.
101.

1
2
0
9
6
1
8
4
9
6
1

November

December

99.
99.
99.
99.
99.
98.
98.
98.
98.
98.
98.

96.
96.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.

2
3
2
2
1
9
8
5
3
2
0

2
1
9
7
5
5
3
2
3
5
7

1 S e a s o n a l factors for first 3 m o n t h s a r e 1959 factors.
SOURCE:

BLS,




c urrent e m p l o y m e n t statistics b a s e d on e s t a b lishment reports.

141

Table G-19.
S e a s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t factors for contract construction e m p l o y m e n t b y type a n d size of c o n t r actor,1 a n d b y region,
selected m o n t h s , 196 0 — 68

Small

Large

Year
January

February

March

July

So uth—

(0-99)

I960 ......................
1 9 6 1 _________________________
1962 __________________________
196 3
________________________
1964 _________________________
1965 _______________________ __
1966 _________________________
1967 _________________________
1968 -------------------------

91. 1
91.2

92. 0
92.4
93 . 2
93. 8
93. 9
94. 1
94. 1

90. 1
90. 2
90. 2
90. 1
90. 1
90.4
90. 3
90. 5
90. 6

92. 4
92. 4
92.4
92. 7
93. 1
93. 3
93. 8
94. 1
94. 6

1961
1962
1963
1964
196 5
1966
1967
1968

-------------------------__________________________
________________________
__________________________
__________________________
________________________
__________________________

35. 9
35. 8
35. 9
36. 0
36. 3
36. 1
36.4
36. 6
36. 6

33.
33.
34.
33.
34.
34.
34.
34.
34.

8
7
0
9
1
3
2
5
8

38. 0
38. 1
38. 3
38. 6
38. 9
39. 5
39. 9
40.4
40. 9

1963 __________________________
1 964 __________________________
1965 __________________________
1 9 6 6 __________________________
1967 __________________________
1968 -------------------------

76. 5
76. 0
75. 0
74. 2
73. 8
72. 5
71. 8
71. 0
70.4

I 960 _________________________
1 9 6 1 __________________________
1962 __________________________
1963 __________________________
1 964 __________________________
1965 __________
_____________
1966 __________________________
1967 __________________________
1968 __________________________

98.9
99. 0
99. 1
99. 3
99.4
99. 5
99. 7
99.6
99.6

1Q k 1

1 q 6 2 __________________________

68.
69.
69.
70.
70.
71.
71.
71.
71.

1
1
8
1
9
1
1
6
1

77.
77.
77.
77.
77.
77.
77.
76.
76.

1
1
3
1
0
3
0
7
8

92. 8
93. 0
93. 3
93. 7
94. 3
94. 7
95. 2
95.7
96. 1

_________________________
_________________________
__________________________
_________________________
__________________________
_________________________
------------------------_________________________
_________________________

96. 7
96.7
96. 7
96. 8
97. 1
97. 5
97. 8
98. 1
98. 2

93.
93.
93.
93.
93.
93.
93.
93.
94.

3
2
3
3
4
6
7
9
2

91. 2
91.6
91. 9
92. 4
93. 0
93. 6
94. 1
94. 2
94. 5

_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
1 9 6 6 __________________________
1QA7
1968 -------------------------

S e e footnote at e n d of table.

142




96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
95.
95.

7
5
6
5
1
1
0
7
7

94.
94.
94.
94.
94.
93.
93.
93.
93.

6
4
5
3
2
7
7
6
6

March

July

August

109. 8
109. 6
109. 5
109. 3
109 . 0
108. 5
108. 2
108. 0
107. 9

160.
159.
159.
159.
159.
157.
156.
156.
157.

106.
105.
105.
105.
104.
104.
103.
103.
103.

1
9
5
1
6
1
9
5
4

94. 0
93. 8
105. 5
94. 3
94. 6
94. 7
94. 7
95.2
95.6

93.
93.
94.
93.
93.
94.
93.
94.
93.

3
5
1
8
9
0
9
0
9

94.4
94. 8
95. 3
95. 9
95. 9
96. 5
97. 1
97. 5
97. 8

105.4
105. 5
105. 2
105. 0
104. 3
104. 2
103. 8
103. 2
102. 5

106. 9
106.6
106. 6
106. 2
105. 8
105. 1
104. 9
104.4
104. 2

142.
142.
141.
141.
141.
140.
139.
139.
139.

145. 6
145.4
145. 1
144. 9
144. 6
143. 6
143.4
143. 1
143. 0

H i g h w a y a n d street construction (SIC 16 1)
7
8
8
3
8
4
9
9
1

151.
151.
150.
151.
151.
151.
151.
150.
150.

6
7
9
2
3
1
0
6
6

49.
49.
49.
49.
49.
49.
49.
49.
49.

6
6
6
8
6
5
6
7
7

47.
47.
47.
46.
46.
46.
46.
47.
47.

5
2
0
7
8
9
9
1
5

4
9
0
4
5
5
4
3
7

102. 8
103. 0
103. 1
103.2
103. 3
103.0
102. 9
102. 9
102. 6

104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
103.
103.
103.

1
2
1
2
1
0
8
9
7

124.
124.
124.
124.
124.
124.
124.
124.
124.

4
7
6
2
7
9
8
6
4

120.
120.
120.
121.
121.
122.
122.
122.
123.

2
2
5
1
5
0
7
7
2

87.
86.
85.
84.
84.
83.
82.
82.
81.

3
2
2
5
4
4
7
0
8

75. 2
76. 9
78. 2
79*. 0
80. 7
80. 9
81. 0
81. 6
81. 4

49.
50.
51.
51.
52.
52.
52.
53.
53.

7
6
1
6
1
3
9
2
6

2
0
8
5
3
1
1
0
0

105.
104.
104.
103.
103.
102.
102.
101.
101.

Plumbing,

106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
105.
105.
105.

0
0
1
1
1
0
8
9
7

1
7
3
9
2
6
2
8
7

98.
98.
98.
98.
99.
99.
99.
99.
99.

6
7
8
9
2
3
5
8
8

95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.

5
6
6
5
5
6
5
5
3

9
5
2
8
5
9
6
2
2

95.9
96. 0
96. 2
96. 4
96. 7
97. 0
97. 2
97. 3
97. 1

93.
93.
93.
94.
94.
95.
95.
95.
95.

1
5
8
0
6
0
1
5
5

94. 1
93. 9
94. 0
94. 1
94. 1
94. 3
94.4
94.2
94. 5

104.
104.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.

0
1
9
7
8
7
7
6
5

106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.
106.

2
4
2
4
2
2
2
2
1

105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
106.
105.
106.
106.

5
6
5
6
6
0
9
0
0

96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.

4
4
3
2
5
5
5
8
9

95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.
95.

4
8
9
8
9
7
8
7
4

140.
139.
139.
138.
138.
137.
137.
137.
137.

3
8
0
9
3
7
1
0
0

( 100+)

86. 0
86.4
87. 3
87. 9
88. 2
88. 3
88. 4
87. 8
87. 7

109. 7
110. 1
110. 2
no. 9
111.6
112. 2
112. 5
112. 9
113. 3

114. 8
114. 7
1 1 5.4
115. 3
115. 5
115. 9
115. 6
115. 7
115. 9

94. 1
94.4
94. 7
94. 9
95.4
95. 5
95. 8
96. 0
96. 1

102.
102.
101.
101.
101.
100.
100.
100.
100.

102. 8
102. 9
103. 1
103. 0
103. 2
103. 4
103. 4
103.4
103. 3

93. 2
93.7
94. 1
94. 7
95. 1
95. 9
96. 3
96. 9
97. 3

96.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
96.
96.

9
0
2
3
1
0
1
9
6

114. 0
113. 8
113.4
113. 3
113. 1
113. 6
113. 6
113. 5
113. 9

(10+)

4
1
8
4
2
8
7
6
5

104.
104.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.

3
1
9
7
6
5
2
0
0

4
3
0
8
3
7
4
2
7

106.
106.
105.
105.
104.
104.
104.
103.
103.

1
0
6
1
7
4
2
8
5

6
6
5
5
5
2
2
8
7

103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
104.

8
7
7
8
6
7
7
8
0

(20+)

heatin]g, a n d air conditioning (SIC 171)

106.
106.
106.
105.
105.
104.
104.
104.
104.

102. 9
102. 7
102. 7
102. 5
102. 4
102. 2
102. 1
102. 0
101. 9

(50+)
4
]
9
8
2
2
8
7
5

P l u m b i n g , heating , a n d air 1 onditioning (SIC 171 )
c
104.
104.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.

September

(100+)

103.
103.
103.
102.
102.
102.
101.
101.
102.

8
3
0
7
3
0
8
9
1

106.
106.
106.
105.
105.
104.
i04.
104.
103.
(20+)

W e s t — - P l u m b i n g , heating, a n d air conditioning (SIC 171)

(0-19)
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965

120.
120.
121.
121.
121.
121.
121.
121.
120.

N o r t h Central—

(0-19)

I960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

9
5
3
6
4
2
4
6
6

Northeast—

(0-9)
95. 7
95.7
95. 9
96. 0
96. 2
96. 5
96 . 7
96 . 9
96. 9

154.
152.
155.
154.
154.
153.
153.
153.
152.

February

W e s t — H i g h w a y a n d street construction (SIC 161)

(0-99)
l p A n _________________________

0
9
8
6
5
5
2
1
1

J anuary

G e n e r a l building c ontractors (SIC 15)

N o r t h C e n tral—

(0-49)
lpft0__________________________

108.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.

September

August

101. 5
101. 6
101. 6
102. 0
102. 1
102.4
102. 5
102. 3
102. 5

103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.

Table G-19.
S e a s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t factors for contract construction e m p l o y m e n t b y type a n d size of c o n tractor,1 a n d b y region,
selected m o n t h s , 1 9 6 0 — 68— Continued
Small

Large

Year
January

February

March

July

Northeast—

(0-9)
1 960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

......................
_ __________________ ....
........................
.........................
.........................
.........................
_________________________
........................
____________ _____________

68.
68.
68.
68.
68.
68.
69.
70.
70.

2
1
2
3
6
9
7
4
5

67. 8
67.4
67. 5
68. 0
68. 0
68. 8
69 . 6
69. 8
70. 3

76.
76.
76.
76.
76.
76.
76.
77.
77.

2
0
0
2
3
6
9
3
7

(0-19)

I960 .........................
1 9 6 1 _________________________
1962 _________________________
1963 _____________ ____________
196 4 _________________________
___________ __________
1965
1966
........................
1967
........................
1968 _________________________

76.
76.
76.
76.
77.
77.
77.
77.
77.

6
5
5
9
0
2
5
5
7

77.
77.
77.
77.
78.
78.
79.
79.
79.

3
5
8
8
0
6
1
5
7

85. 9
86. 4
86. 8
87.4
87. 3
87. 3
87. 5
87 . 4
87. 2

83. 5
83. 8
84. 6
85. 2
85.6
86. 5
86. 7
87. 2
87. 5

82.
83.
83.
83.
84.
85.
86.
86.
86.

8
3
3
9
6
2
0
5
6

1968

_____________________

78.
79.
78.
79.
79.
79.
79.
80.
80.

9
2
9
2
3
6
6
1
0

80. 8
80.4
80. 8
81. 7
82. 2
83. 6
84. 8
85. 5
86. 6

116. 0
116. 1
116. 2
116. 6
116. 7
116. 7
117. 1
117. 3
117. 1

88. 1
88. 5
89. 0
89. 4
89. 8
89. 9
89. 9
89. 9
89. 9

111. 5
110. 8
110. 7
110. 2
no. 1
109 . 9
109.9
no. 3
no. 9

.........................
........................
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
„ ......................
_______ _______________
.........................
.........................

98. 1
98. 1
98. 2
98. 1
98. 5
98. 8
99. 0
99.2
99. 5

94. 1
94. 2
94. 3
94.4
94. 3
94. 5
94. 8
95. 1
95. 3

83.
83.
83.
84.
84.
85.
85.
86.
87.

4
1
9
2
3
5
9
5
2

118. 9
117. 8
116. 5
114. 6
113. 7
111.9
110. 8
109. 3
109. 4

97.6
97. 6
97. 3
97. 0
96. 8
96. 9
96. 7
96. 7
96. 8

93. 1
93. 3
93. 5
93.7
94. 0
94. 4
94. 9
95. 2
95.4

July

August

122. 0
122. 0
121. 6
121.4
121. 5
120. 6
120. 5
120. 5
120. 0

118.
118.
118.
118.
118.
118.
117.
117.
118.

5
2
6
3
8
5
8
7
1

82. 8
82.6
82. 4
82. 2
82. 3
81. 8
82. 3
82. 4
82. 6

80.
80.
80.
80.
80.
81.
81.
81.
81.

2
1
3
7
6
2
6
6
9

83.
84.
85.
85.
86.
86.
86.
87.
86.

5
3
0
6
5
8
8
0
8

115. 0
114.4
113. 8
112. 9
112. 1
111. 8
111. 3
111.1
111.0

116.
1 16.
115.
114.
113.
113.
112.
112.
112.

8
0
2
4
7
0
6
2
6

82.
82.
82.
82.
82.
82.
82.
82.
83.

2
0
2
2
5
8
9
8
1

78.4
79. 3
79. 8
80. 4
81. 2
82. 2
83. 2
83. 8
84. 0

112.
112.
112.
113.
112.
113.
113.
114.
114.

8
2
6
2
6
2
8
0
8

108.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
108.
108.
108.

3
9
8
5
7
9
1
1
6

85. 6
85. 6
86.6
87. 8
89. 4
90. 4
92 . 0
92. 9
93. 1

83. 1
84. 0
84. 1
84. 6
85 . 4
86. 0
86. 5
87. 1
87. 4

79.2
80. 3
81. 4
82. 5
84. 4
85. 3
86. 7
87. 8
88. 6

115.
115.
115.
115.
115.
114.
114.
113.
113.

3
5
5
4
2
7
0
6
0

124. 7
124. 3
123. 1
122. 0
120. 9
119.7
119. 5
118. 5
117. 9

119.
119.
119.
120.
119.
118.
117.
118.
117.

3
7
5
1
7
6
9
1
5

91. 5
90. 8
90. 4
90. 3
90. 2
90. 0
90. 0
90. 1
90 . 4

87.
88.
88.
88.
88.
88.
88.
89.
89.

9
1
2
3
5
7
9
0
1

93. 4
93. 7
94. 0
94. 4
94. 9
95. 5
95. 8
96. 0
96. 1

103. 0
103. 2
103. 3
103.4
103. 8
104. 1
104. 4
104.4
104. 4

105. 7
105. 5
105.4
105. 1
104. 6
104. 1
103. 9
103. 6
103. 4

104.4
103. 9
103. 5
103. 0
102. 5
102. 0
101. 8
101. 6
101. 6

96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
97.

4
4
4
5
5
8
9
9
0

96.
95.
95.
95.
96.
95.
95.
96.
96.

7
3
0
5
7
2
9
3
6

112. 3
111. 8
111. 1
111. 1
109. 9
109. 0
108. 0
107. 5
107.4

105. 0
105. 2
105.4
105. 6
105. 9
105. 9
105. 9
106. 0
105. 9

108.
108.
108.
108.
107.
107.
106.
106.
105.

3
3
2
1
8
3
8
4
9

106. 7
106.4
106. 1
105. 7
105. 2
104. 8
104. 5
104. 1
104. 1

97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.
97.

5
3
4
3
3
5
4
4
7

95.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
97.
97.

120.
120.
119.
119.
118.
117.
117.
117.
116.

8
2
9
3
5
5
1
1
9

116.
116.
115.
114.
113.
112.
111.
111.
110.

9
1
2
3
5
4
7
1
9

118. 5
117. 7
117. 0
116. 1
114.4
112. 9
111. 9
111.3
no. 9

106.
106.
107.
108.
108.
109.
109.
110.
109.

1
9
5
0
6
5
5
0
6

(10+)

92 . 0
92. 1
91.9
91.8
91.2
91. 2
91. 1
90. 7
90. 5

107. 5
107. 9
108. 1
108. 7
109 . 0
108. 9
108. 9
108. 3
107.9 '

109. 1
109. 4
109. 7
109. 9
110. 8
111.2
111. 5
111. 9
1 12. 0

108. 3
108.4
108. 7
109. 2
109. 4
109. 2
109. 3
109. 6
109. 5

(20+)

0
8
8
9
0
9
9
1
3

94. 8
95 . 2
95. 6
95. 8
96. 3
96. 7
97. 1
97. 4
97. 6

103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
102.
102.
102.

9
7
6
6
3
1
9
8
8

7
0
1
1
3
5
8
0
0

103.
103.
103.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
102.

2
2
1
9
8
7
7
8
6

102.
102.
102.
102.
102.
101.
101.
101.
101.

1
1
1
0
0
8
7
5
3

(50+)

N o r t h Ceiatral— Electrical w o r k (SIC 173)
90. 9
91. 3
91. 9
92. 4
93. 3
93. 9
94. 7
95. 1
95.4

114. 3
114. 4
114.4
114. 5
114. 1
114. 2
113. 9
113. 6
113.4

(20+)

172)

84.
85.
86.
86.
87.
88.
88.
89.
89.

117. 7
117.6
117. 5
117.4
117. 1
116. 9
116. 8
116. 5
116. 2
(20+)

Painti ng, p a p e r hanging a n d decorating (SIC 172)

120. 7
120. 1
119. 5
119. 1
118.4
117. 9
117. 6
117. 2
117. 6

September

(10 +)

Northeast-— Electrical w o r k (SIC 173)

(0 -49)

I 9 6 0 .........................
1 9 6 1 .........................
1962 .........................
1963 .........................
1964
........................
1965 ______ _________________
1966 ........................
1 9 6 7 -------------------------1968 -------------------------

March

W e s t — -Painting, p a p e r h a n g i n g a n d decorating (SIC 172)

(10-19)
196 0
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

February

South— Painting, p a p e r h a n g i n g a n d decorating (SIlC

(0-9)
I960 .........................
1961
_ _____________________
.......... .............
1962
1963
________________________
1964 .........................
1965 .........................
I 966
, -,„
,■
■
1QA7

121.4
121. 6
121. 6
121. 6
121. 6
121. 4
121. 2
121. 6
121.4

S e p tember J anuary

Painting, p a p e r h a n g i n g a n d decorating (SIC 172)

N o r t h Central—

(0-19)

I960 .........................
1961
___________ ____________
1962 ___________ ____________
1963 _________ _______________
1 964 .........................
1965 .........................
1966 _________________________
1967' ........................
1968 -------------------------

August

95.
95.
95.
96.
96.
97.
98.
98.
98.

1
5
9
3
9
5
1
4
4

103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
102.
102.
102.
102.

0
2
2
3
2
9
7
4
0

104.
104.
104.
103.
103.
103.
102.
102.
102.

3
2
0
9
4
3
9
5
3

103. 6
103.4
103. 2
102. 8
102. 3
102. 0
101. 7
101. 5
101. 3

S e e footnote at e n d of table.




143

Table G-19.
S e a s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t factors for contract construction e m p l o y m e n t b y type a n d size of contra c t o r , 1 a n d b y region,
selected m o n t h s , 1 9 6 0 — 68— C o n t inued

Small

Large

Year
January

February

March

July

August

1QA 3
196 4 __________________________
1Q6 5
. _ ___
1966 __________________________
1967 __________________________
1Q6 8
..... .

95. 9
95. 9
96. 2
96. 2
96. 8
96. 8
97. 2
97. 2
97. 6

94.
94.
95.
95.
95.
95.
96.
96.
96.

6
8
0
3
4
7
2
5
7

94.
95.
95.
95.
95.
96.
96.
96.
95.

6
0
0
4
7
0
0
1
9

104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
104.
105.
105.

0
2
3
3
5
8
9
2
0

106.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.
106.

(0 -49)
1 9 6 o __________________________
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

__________________________
__________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
________________________
__________________________
__________________________

97. 7
95. 7
97. 3
97. 2
97. 2
97. 3
97.4
97. 5
97. 7

94.
94.
94.
94.

0
1
0
0

9 4. 1
9 4. 1
9 4. 1
94.1
94 . 0

1961
1962
1Q 6 3
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

_________________________
------------------------_________________________
____ __________
________
___________ _________ ___ _
_________________________
_________________________

83.4
83. 2
83. 7
83. 8
84. 2
84. 6
85. 1
85. 0
85. 6

80.
81.
82.
83.
83.
84.
84.
84.
84.

6
6
2
0
7
0
5
9
9

93. 7
93. 5
93. 6
93.6
93. 7
93. 8
93. 9
94. 0
94. 3

,QA0

89. 7
89. 5
88. 0
86. 9
85. 9
84 . 4
84. 2
83. 6
83. 5

85.
85.
85.
84.
84.
84.
83.
83.
83.

6
2
0
7
3
0
7
8
7

84. 4
85. 7
86. 9
88. 0
88. 5
89. 7
90. 3
91. 0
91. 1

________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
...
_
_________________________
_________________________
__________________________

90. 7
90. 6
90. 9
91. 2
91. 7
92 . 0
92. 6
93.2
93.4

89. 9
90. 0
90. 2
90. 3
90. 5
90. 7
91.0
91. 0
91. 1

6
6
2
6
2
4
2
6
1

no.
110.
110.
no.
no.
no.
no.
109.
109.

____________ ______________

91. 8

92 . 0
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
_________________________

S e e footnote at e n d of table.

144




91. 7
91.4
91. 1
91. 3
91. 6
91. 7
91. 7

94. 4
94. 9
95. 2
95. 3
95. 5
95. 2
95. 2
95. 0
94. 6

105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.

9

1
0
1
2
2
2
3
3
3

106.
105.
105.
104.
104.
103.
103.
103.
103.

4
4
0
7
5

105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
106.
106.
106.
106.

Masonry,

113. 7
113. 6
113. 5
113. 0
112. 6
111. 5
111. 1
110. 7
109.7

9
5
6

88. 9
90. 1
91. 1
92.4
93.6
95. 1
96. 5
96. 7
97.4

111.
111.
111.
112.
111.
111.
111.
111.
110.

4
7
8
0
9
6
9
5
9

'

113. 1
112. 6
112. 1
112. 0
111.4
111. 0
111. 0
111. 1
111. 2

South— M a s o n r y ,
95. 1
95. 1
95.2
95. 4
95. 3
95. 3
95. 4
95.5
95. 5

109.
109.
108.
108.
107.
107.
107.
106.
106.

3
1
7
4
8
3
1
8
6

106.
106.
106.
107.
107.
108.
108.
108.
107.
West—

(0-19)
I960
1 96 1
1962
1963
1 964
1965
1966
1967
1 968

7
0
0
2
2
2
1
1
7

4
9
5
9
4
9
3
0
0

96. 9
96. 5
96.6
96. 8
96. 9
96. 9
,96. 7
96. 5
96. 7

105.
106.
106.
107.
108.
108.
108.
107.
107.

6
3
9
7
3
3
1
8
3

2
6
8
4
7
0
2
0
7

March

July

August

99.
99.
98.
98.
98.
98.
98.
98.
98.

0
0
8
9
6
5
2
0
0

96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
97.
97.
97.
97.

0
0
0
6
2
2
4
5
8

92. 0
93. 0
93.6
94. 4
95. 7
96. 4
97. 2
97. 8
98. 1

90. 5
89. 7
89. 3
88. 7
87. 7
87 . 4
87. 5
87. 1
87. 6

1
2
5
6
8
0
1
1
2

95.
95.
95.
95.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.

1
4
7
8
1
3
5
7
7

101.
101.
101.
101.
101.
101.
101.
101.
101.

104.
104.
104.
105.
104.
104.
104.
103.
103.

4
5
4
4
2
3
3
4
1

94. 1
94. 6
94. 6
94. 9
95. 3
95. 7
96. 2
96. 7
96 . 7

91. 5
91. 4
91. 2
90. 8
90. 3
90.4
89. 2
88. 4
87. 2

89.
89.
89.
89.
89.
90.
90.
91.
91.

92. 8
93. 3
93.4
93. 9
94.4
94. 6
95. 0
95. 0
94. 9

102.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
102.
102.

7
1
2
5
2
4
2
8
5

106.
106.
105.
105.
104.
104.
103.
103.
102.

93.
93.
92.
91.
91.
90.
90.
89.
90.

8
1
3
9
1
4
4
9
3

89.
89.
89.
89.
89.
89.
90.
90.
91.

95.
95.
96.
96.
96.
96.
96.
95.
94.

1
9
3
5
7
3
1
7
8

106.
107.
107.
106.
107.
107.
108.
108.
108.

104.
104.
104.
104.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.

9
0
2
8
0
9
0
2
5

7
2
9
3
1
2
8
6
2

93. 5
94. 0
93. 8
93. 7
93. 9
93. 8
94. 5
94.4
94. 3

2
2
0
9
8
3
0
5
1

3
4
4
7
6
1
8
3
7

90.
90.
91.
91.
92.
92.
93.
94.
94.

4
9
1
7
0
8
5
1
5

6
5
7
5
3
7
2
9
3

94. 1
94. 1
94.4
94. 6
95. 0
95. 0
94. 7
94. 9
95. 0

108.
107.
106.
106.
105.
104.
104.
103.
104.

4
4
7
0
2
7
1
4
5

4
5
2
3
6
8
5
2
1

101.
101.
102.
103.
103.
104.
105.
106.
106.

2
8
3
4
4
0
2
2
6

107.
107.
107.
107.
106.
106.
105.
106.
105.

3
2
1
2
8
3
9
0
2

111. 2
111. 3
111. 5
111.2
111. 0
111. 0
111.1
111.2
no. 6

108.
108.
108.
108.
108.
108.
108.
108.
108.

9
7
5
3
1
1
2
1
1

106.
106.
107.
106.
106.
105.
105.
104.
103.

5
8
1
9
8
6
0
7
7

104.
103.
103.
103.
103.
103.
104.
104.
104.

1
6
8
3
5
7
0
1
8

(50+)

93. 4
93. 6
94. 0
94. 6
95. 1
95. 8
96. 0
96. 5
96. 5

97.
97.
97.
97.
96.
96.
95.
95.
94.

8
3
8
3
7
0
6
1
9

(20+)

104.
104.
104.
105.
105.
105.
106.
105.
105.

3
7
7
3
6
6
0
5
3

0
1
0
1
8
4
8
0
5

;

111.8
111.4
no. 6
111.0
no. 5
109 . 7
109. 7
109 . 6
109. 7
(20+)

s t o n e w o r k a n d plastering (SIC 174)

105.
105.
104.
104.
104.
104.
103.
103.
104.

104.
104.
104.
103.
103.
103.
103.
102.
102.

(50+)

s t o n e w o r k a n d plastering (SIC 174)
103.4
103. 2
103. 5
103. 6
103. 8
103. 7
103. 8
103. 4
103. 7

8
6
7
0
7
2
0
8
8

(50+)

s t o n e w o r k a n d plastering (SIC 174)

90 . 4
90. 5
90. 7
90.6
91 . 0
90.6
90. 5
90. 2
90. 2

[September

(20+)

s t o n e w o r k a n d plastering (SIC 174)

109. 4
109. 1
109. 0
108. 5
108.4
108.4
108. 1
108. 2
108. 3

Masonry,

106.
106.
106.
106.
107.
107.
107.
107.
107.

1
0
1
5
7
1
1
0
4

110. 3
109. 7
109. 0
108. 2
107. 7
107. 1
106. 7
106.4
106. 7

N o r t h C e n tral— M a s o n r y ,

(0-49)

I96 0
196 1
1962
1963
1964
19b 5
1966
1967
1968

105.
105.
105.
104.
104.
103.
103.
102.
102.

Northeast—

(0-19)

1 9 6 1 ........... ..............
1962 _________________________
1963 _________________________
196 4 _________________________
1965
1966 ____ ______ _____ __ ___ ___
1967 _________________________
1968 ........... ..............

jFebruary

W e s t — Electrical w o r k (SIC 173)

(0-49)
1 9 6 o _________________________

J anuary

South— Electrical w o r k (SIC 173)

(0-19)
I960 _________________________

September

104.
104.
104.
106.
107.
107.
108.
108.
109.

0
6
9
0
0
9
3
9
2

104.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
105.
106.
105.

9
1
5
8
9
8
9
1
8

T a b le G -1 9 . S e a s o n a l a d ju s tm e n t f a c to r s fo r c o n t r a c t c o n s tr u c tio n e m p lo y m e n t by type and s iz e of c o n t r a c t o r , 1 and by reg io n ,
s e le c te d m o n th s , 1960—68— Continued
January F ebruary

—
M arch

(0-9)
I960___________________________
1961 __________________________
1962 __________________________
1963 __________________________
1964 __________________________
1965 --------------------------------------1966
1967 __________________________
1968 __________________________

7 3 .2
73. 7
74. 4
75. 0
75. 2
75. 6
76. 1
76. 0
76. 1

83. 9
83. 9
83. 1
82. 9
82. 4
82. 1
81. 6
8 1 .4
8 1 .4

|
;
|
!
I
j

August S e p t e m b e r J a n u a r y F e b r u a r y M a r c h I
N o r t h e a s t— Roofing and s h e e t m e t a l w o r k (SIC 176)
J
94. 8
1 10. 5
111. 5
88. 1
88. 1
109. 7
112. 0
88. 5 ,
110. 7
87. 9
1 09.9 ; 94. 5
111. 1
112. 2
1 10. 1 ! 94. 2 | 8 7 .8
89. 2
11 1. 4
112. 2
109.7
! 94. 4 : 87. 3
89. 9 j
1 12. 2
112.5 ! 109.9 1 94. 5 ! 8 6 .6 i 9 0 .6 1
112. 7
112.8 j 1 10.3 | 94. 6 1 8 6 .6 ! 9 1 .3
112. 9
112. 8 ! 1 10.6 j 94. 9
86. 8 ! 9 1 .7 ,
94. 9
87. 2 | 9 2 . 0 1
113. 3
113. 1
no. 6
113. 7
112. 6
1 10. 5
95. 4
87. 3 1 92. 2 1
i__________ 1
N o rth C e n tr a l—-Roofing and s h e e t m e t a l w o r k (SIC 176)

” ""
81. 5
81. 1
8 1 .2
81. 1
80. 9
80. 9
80. 8
80. 8
81. 1

(0-19)
1960
19 fa ]
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________

87. 7
87. 0
86. 6
86. 1
85. 6
85. 3
84. 9
84. 9
84. 7

79. 1
79. 2
79. 9
80. 1
81. 1
82. 4
82. 9
83. 5
83. 6

:
:
1
I
!
;

82. 3
82. 7
83. 1
83. 9
84. 6
85. 4
86. 6
87. 5
88. 2

(0-19)
I960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

__________________________
_________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
_______________ _ ._____ ,___
__________________________
__________________________

94. 3 !
94. 3
94. 7
94. 8
95. 2
95. 3
95. 9
96. 0
96. 0

90. 5 :
90. 7
91.0
!
90. 9 i
91. 2 1
9 1 .7 j
92. 1
92. 7 ;
93. 3 '

94. 3
94. 0
94. 2
94. 3
10. 2
94. 3
94. 1
93. 9
94. 0

0-19)
I960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

__________________________
__________________________
_______ __ _ _ _ ______ _
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
...........
__________________________

9 1 .4
91. 4
91. 9
92. 1
92. 4
93. 3
93. 7
94. 3
95. 1

92. 1 |
9 2 .7 1
92. 1
92. 1
92. 5
92. 0
91. 9
92. 1
91. 5
(0-19)

196 o __________________________
1961___________________________
1962 .....................................................
1963 __________________________
1Q64
1965 __________________________
1966
1967 _____________________
1968 __________________________

9 1 .2
9 0 .4
90. 6
90. 9
90. 5
90. 8
90. 9
91. 0
91. 7

Ju ly

112. 6
112. 5
1 12. 5
1 12. 7
112. 3
111. 7
111.6
111. 5
111. 3

106.0 ;
106. 1
106. 0
105. 7
105. 5
105. 0
104. 7
104. 2
103. 8

J u ly

1
1
i
!
!
i
!
!
!
,
1

1
1
*
,
1

1 04. 3
104.6
104.6
1 04.8
105.2
104.7
104.3
1 03.8
103.5

88. 2
88. 9
89. 6
90. 4
91. 3
92. 5
93. 8
94. 3
! 95. 0
__________
South— Roofing and s h e e t m e t a l w o r k (SIC 176)
115. 5
115. 0
114. 6
114. 1
114. 1
114. 0
113.8
114.1
114.5

; 110.7
! 110.6
110. 0
j 109.6
1 108.9 '
108.5
108, 1 1
• 107.9
107. 7

92. 4
92. 2
92. 5
92. 7
93. 0
93. 3
92. 8
92. 6
92. 8

88. 6
68. 7
88. 9
88. 7
88. 9
89. 1
89. 6
90. 1
90. 3

95. 2
108. 1
1 104.9
95. 1
107. 4
i 104.9
! 105.4
106.6 ! 95. 4 1
105.2 ! 95. 5 j
1 105.3
96. 0 !
i 105.5
104.3
96. 2 i
| 105.6 ! 103.3
i 105. 1 ; 1 0 3.0 ! 96. 7 !
102. 5 i 96. 9 !
! 104.7
1 04. 7 ; 102. 1 1 97. 3 i
j
_l____
W e st— Roofing and s h e e t m e t a l w o r k

1 01.4
100. 6
99. 9
99. 6
9 9 .6
98. 8
99. 1
9 8 .4
99. 0
.......

106.8
107. 0
106.9
106.9
107.5
107.5
107. 4
107.8
107.5

97. 0
111.2
111.6 1 97. 0
1 11.4
97. 7
111.2
98. 5
110. 4
99. 6
110.2
100. 6
110.5
100. 8
1 11.0
100. 8
110.3 1 100.7

92. 3
92. 4
92. 3
92. 1
92. 3

i 9 3 .8
1 94. 4
94. 7
95. 3
95. 6
92.4
96. 0
i 96. 2
92.7
93. 3 ! 96. 3
93. 3 j 96. 2
1 _______
_
(SIC 176)

95. 1
95. 4
96. 0
96. 0
: 97. 1
1 98. 2
! 9 8 .4
99. 0
i 99. 5

;
!
1
1
!
|
!
1
1
1
N o r t h e a s t— S p ec ia l t r a d e s c o n t r a c t o r s , o th e r
|
1
J
1
1
i
;

I
;
|
|
!
j

1

A u g u st 1 S e p te m b e r
(10+)

104. 3
104. 4
104. 1
104. 2
104. 6
104. 6
104. 8
105. 1
105. 2

105. 1
1 05.4
10 5.4
105. 3
10 5.8
105. 7
105. 8
105. 9
105.7

1

j
j
j
!
1
:
j

106. 3
105. 9
105. 9
105.-4
105. 0
104. 7
104. 2
104. 2
104. 0

(20+)
108. 6
108. 1
107.6
107. 0
106.9
106. 8
106. 5
10 6.4
106. 6

\

j
!
j
|
j

107.
107.
106.
106.
105.
105.
104.
104.
104.

3
0
5
3
9
3
9
8
7

(20+)
1

1

104.3 j
104. 0 :
103. 8
103. 6
103. 2
103. 3
103. 1
102. 7
102. 8

» . * 1! 9 8 .6
95. 3 j 98. 6
95. 3 | 99. 0
9 5 .4
99. 1
9 9 .4
95. 5
9 5 .3
99. 8
9 5 .3
100. 4 !
95. 3
100. 8 ;
95. 3
100. 8 |

105.7
105. 6
105.6
105. 2
105. 1
104. 8
104.8
10 4.4
104.4

;
!
i
j
j
;
j
i

103. 9
103. 4
103. 1
102. 8
102. 4
102. 0
101. 9
101. 8
101. 9

102. 8
103. 0
102. 7
102. 5
102. 1
101. 4
100.9
100. 7
100. 0 [

105. 4
105. 2
104. 8
104. 0
103. 8
102. 9
102. 8
103.0
102.6

(20+)

(20+)

109.2 ! 91. 9 i 90. 6
94. 1
83. 5
10 9.8 1 111. 0
104. 4
103. 3
103. 3
83. 3 l 1 10.0
1 11. 0
1 08.8 j 9 1 .8 | 90. 0
94. 5
104. 0
104. 0
104. 1
108.8
94. 5
104. 6
104. 5
103. 7
83. 3 ! 109. 8 ; 111. 2
9 1 .6 | 89. 8
j 83. 6
108.7 i 91. 6 | 89. 9
94. 7
105. 4
104. 9
104. 0
1 09.9 ! 1 11. 4
1 08.4 1 9 1 .6 1 89. 9
110.1 : 111.5
94. 3
106. 4
105. 4
103. 3
; 83. 9
84. 2
1
1 10.3 1 111.4 1 108.6 j 91. 5 1 89. 9
94. 8
106. 5 f 105.3
103. 4
84. 5
110.2 i 1 11. 4
108.7 1 91. 9
95. 1
107. 2
105. 3
103. 0
89. 8
84. 8
110.2 j 111. 2 ! 108.5 ! 92. 5 ! 90. 3
94. 9
108.0
105. 3
102. 5
i 85. 2 | 110.1 ! 111.4 I 108.8
92. 6 i 90. 9 i 94. 6
107.6
104. 6
102. 9
i
i
1
1 ___ - ____ L
_
1 The defin itio n of " s m a l l " and " l a r g e " is in c lu d e d in the p a r e n t h e s e s fo r e a c h in d u s tr y and a r e a and v a r i e s by in d u s tr y and a r e a . The siz e
of e m p lo y e r is b a s e d on the n u m b e r of e m p lo y e e s on the e m p lo y e r s ' p a y ro l l fo r the p a y r o l l p e r io d n e a r e s t M a r c h 15 of e a c h y e a r .
SO U R CE : BLS, c u r r e n t e m p lo y m e n t s t a t i s t i c s b a s e d on e s t a b li s h m e n t r e p o r t s .




97. 1
87. 0
87. 1
87. 1
87. 0
8 6 .6
86. 5
86. 7
8 6 .7

,
|
|
1
!
1
!

79. 7
80. 0
80. 4
8 0 .4
80. 7
81. 3
81. 6
82. 0
82. 1

1

145

Table G-20. Unemployed m ale wage and sa la ry w orkers by duration of unemploym ent and selected industry group, annual averages, 1960-68
Unemployed by duration of unem ploym ent
Total
A verage duration
(percent distrubution)
unemployed
Total
Year
of unem ploym ent
1-4 weeks
(thousands)
15-26 weeks
5- 14 weeks
Over 26 weeks
(weeks)
All nonagricultural industries
1960 ..........................................
1961_______________________
1962 ................................................
1963 ...........................................
1964 .............................................
1965 ................................................
1966 ............................................
1967
........................................
1968 -----------------------------------

2, 061
2,486
2, 010
1,992
1,752
1, 506
1,239
1, 222
1, 160

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

42. 5
34. 8
38. 9
40. 9
42. 0
46. 5
52. 2
52. 3
52.4

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

44. 6
40. 2
42. 3
43. 9
45. 9
45. 5
53. 6
50. 6
51. 2

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

40. 8
32. 1
37.4
39.0
39. 3
46.4
53. 1
51. 7
51. 9

30. 4
28. 6
29. 5
29. 6
29. 9
29. 5
26.4
30.4
31. 0

13. 7
16. 7
14. 3
13. 6
13. 7
12. 2
10. 8
10. 0
9.6

13.4
19. 9
17. 4
15. 9
14. 4
11. 8
10. 6
7. 3
7. 0

14. 3
17. 8
17. 0
16. 1
15. 1
13. 3
12. 1
9. 9
9.6

14. 1
17. 1
15.2
13.9
12. 9
14. 4
11.4
10. 6
9.9

10. 3
13. 4
10.4
10. 7
9. 1
6. 5
6.6
7. 2
6. 0

12. 3
14. 0
12. 8
12. 6
11.4
10. 8
9.7
10. 1
9. 1

15. 0
17. 6
14. 3
15.4
13. 7
11. 1
10. 0
9. 9
10. 5

14. 0
23. 2
19. 8
17. 2
17. 0
13. 8
11. 1
7. 7
7. 7

14. 9
19. 3
19. 1
17. 4
17. 1
13. 8
12.4
10. 2
9.9

Construction
1960 _______________________
1961_______________________
1962
_
1963 .............................................
1964 ..........................................
1965 ..................... ......................
1966 ................................................
1967 .....................
...
1968 ................................................

475
555
473
466
394
366
289
263
252

1960 . ________________
1961................................................
1962 ................................................
1963 .............................................
1964 _______________________
1965 _______________________
1966 ...........................................
1967 _______________________
1968

694
888
645
623
542
414
360
404
363

1

!

30. 9
29. 2
32. 1
31. 5
32. 0
33. 5
28.4
31. 6
32.9
M anfacturing
30. 3
27. 1
28. 5
28.4
30. 1
28. 7
25. 8
30. 7
30. 1

SOURCE: C urrent Population Survey conducted for the BLS, by the B ureau of the C ensus.

146




Table G-21. Unemployed m ale wage and sa la ry w orkers in construction and m anufacturing, by duration of unemploym ent, annual average and by m onths,
1960-68
_____________________________ _______________________ (P ercent distribution)________________________________________________________ _
M anufacturing
Construction
1Average
Month
Total
1-4
5-14
15-26 Over 26 Average Total P ercent
1 5-14 | 15-26
duration
(thou­ P ercen t weeks weeks weeks
weeks weeks weeks Over 26 1duration
sand)
(w eeks)
1 (weeks)
I960
I960
1
|
January ___________________
100. 0
44. 9
43. 7
6.6
4. 7
717
100. 0 ! 40. 4
34. 8
10. 8
14. 0
8. 9
15. 3
679
632
34. 1 41. 5
F e b ru a ry __________________
100. 0
16. 8
7. 6
596
11. 8
100.0 1 37. 7
34. 7
16. 5
11. 0
14. 3
M arch ---- _ — ----------733
100. 0
40. 2
12. 8
7. 0
100. 0
32. 1
18.4
12. 6
29. 0
36. 9
15. 9
23.9
729
A pril __ _ ___ __ _____
501
100. 0
32. 9
24. 7
31. 5
696
11. 0
15. 3
100. 0
37. 5
27. 3
17. 7
17. 5
17. 1
M ay________ _____________ __
392
100. 0
38. 2
20. 5
24. 9
16. 4
16. 1
42. 1 32. 4
12.4
14. 0
100. 0
13. 0
599
J u n e ______ _____ __________
340
100. 0
55. 7
14. 6
17. 5
12. 2
13. 1 655
100. 0
48. 5
24. 9
13. 0
14. 1
13. 6
362
Ju ly .................................................
100. 0
50. 8
28. 2
8. 0
12. 6
702
13. 0
100. 0
41. 0
30. 5
15.4
13. 1
14. 8
A ug ust___________________ _
365
100. 0
22. 5
11. 8
11. 8
710
100. 0
42. 4
30. 5
14. 1
14. 8
13. 0
55.9
9. 9
Septembe r ________________ _
292
100. 0
25. 3
5. 5
15. 7
672
100. 0
46. 3
26. 7
15. 2
14. 8
49. 3
11. 4
19. 9
O ctober__ _ ___ _____
318
100. 0
10. 1
14. 8
17. 0
667
100. 0
37. 0
16. 0
17. 1
15. 7
49. 8
23. 0
29. 9
Novem ber „ _______________
24. 5
457
100. 0
57. 2
11.4
32.4
14. 5
7. 2
723
100. 0
38. 5
15. 8
13. 3
11. 1
D ecem ber___________ __ __
100. 0
56. 3
4. 5
13.4
627
865
7. 3
100. 0
41. 8
27. 7
17. 6
13. 0
31.9
9. 0
1961
Ja n u a ry ____________________
F e b ru a ry — -------------------M a r c h ----- -----------------------A pril_______________________
May -______ —_____________
J u n e ______________________ _
Ju ly ..............................................
August— __ _ ____________
Septem ber__________________
O ctober__ _ _____________
Novem ber _________________
D ecem ber---------------------------

834
869
742
677
569
485
493
363
360
302
410
555

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

43. 1
34. 3
24. 8
26. 0
29. 5
46. 0
44. 1
45. 0
49.4
53. 5
58. 5
54. 9

January ___________________
F e b ru a ry ------------------ -------M arch ______________________
A p ril______________________
M ay______ _________________
J u n e __ _
J u ly ________________________
A ug ust-------------------------------Septem ber------ -----------------O ctober____________________
N ovem ber--------------------------D ecem ber---------------------------

712
739
710
527
433
384
373
268
258
288
405
585

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

39. 5
29. 4
25. 8
28. 3
33. 0
48.6
52. 1
54. 3
61. 9
59.2
61. 0
54. 5

Ja n u a ry ____________________
F ebruary __________________
M arch _____________________
A p ril______________________
May --------- -----------------------June -______________________
July _______________________
A ug ust_____________________
Septem ber__________________
O ctober__________ ________
N ovem ber________ ________
D ecem ber---------------------------

752
828
653
522
370
352
356
290
268
292
405
509

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

43. 2
33. 1
26. 7
29. 3
39. 7
52. 8
54. 5
53. 3
52. 8
54. 5
65. 7
52. 8 1

39. 7
44. 9
37. 8
20.4
19. 9
19. 8
24. 2
25. 4
22. 5
19. 1
24. 4
26. 8

1961
7. 9
13. 7
30. 9
39. 8
31. 8
9. 9
10. 4
11. 9
8. 3
9.6
5. 1
10. 4

9.2
7. 1
6. 5
13. 8
18. 8
24. 3
21. 3
17. 7
19. 7
17. 8
12. 0
7. 9

7. 2
16. 4
27. 5
33. 5
27. 5
11. 7
7. 2
6. 7
7.4
6.9
5. 4
9.2

6.6
8. 8
9.4
13. 1
15. 7
15. 6
15. 2
9. 7
8. 2
11. 4
6. 9
8. 4

11. 4 1,045
11. 4 1,213
13. 3 1, 153
962
17. 2
18. 1 905
16. 7
866
14. 8
881
14. 6
889
16.4
694
14. 5
672
12. 0
656
10. 2
706

100. 0
33.6
100. 0
35. 5
100. 0
28. 0
100. 0
22.6
100. 0
26. 1
100.0
29. 9
100.0
31. 2
100.0
36. 3
100.0
37. 0
100.0 ! 37. 1
100. 0
35. 4
100.0
37.4
i
1962
|
I
100. 0 i 36.4 1
100. 0 j 25. 5
100.0 ! 28. 6
100.0
33. 1
100.0
37. 4
100. 0
40. 1
100. 0
38. 3
100. 0
50. 1
100. 0
40. 1
100. 0
40. 7
100. 0
44. 6
100. 0
34. 3

1962
46. 8
45.4
37. 2
25. 1
23. 8
24. 2
25. 4
29.2
22. 6
22. 5
26. 7
27. 9
1963

J anuary --------------------------F ebruary ____ _________
M a r c h __— ———— _______
Ap r il_______ —_____________
M ay----------------- — -----------J u n e ___ ___ ________ ___
J uly.—— ————— —_______
A ug ust--------------------- -------Septembe r__________________
O ctober------------------------------N ovem ber--------------------------D ecem ber------------------------- !
!




I
655
100.0 1 43. 7
!
100,. 0
24. 9
639
100. 0
25. 9
509
100. 0
30. 0
405
314
100. 0
46. 7
100. 0
321
55. 8
284
100. 0
57. 7
61.2
100. 0
289
260 ! ioo. o
55. 8
100. 0
62. 6
289
274
100. 0
56. 6
100. 0
66. 1
489

1
I

40. 3
46.6
37. 9
24. 1
19.7
18. 2
21. 9
26. 5
24. 7
19.5
22. 0
38. 2

10. 0
13. 2
14. 5
17. 0
16. 9
13. 9
12. 3
10. 5
9.2
12. 2
9.7
11.2
1 ________
_

795
746
653
580
620
651
584
747
568
553
628
624

1963

10. 8 ! 5. 7
14. 5 i 5.9
21. 6
13. 8
31. 0
15. 5
23. 5
17. 0
11. 1
17. 9
17. 7
5.9
7.6
12. 7
11. 2
11.2
12. 3
8. 6
4. 0
8.4
5. 7
3. 3

9.7
11. 2
15. 3
18. 5
16. 9
14. 5
13. 0
14. 1
12. 5
10. 8
9.4
8.4

684
762
718
612
546
639
594
614
516
581
603
610

5. 6
6. 7
14. 1
4. 9
28. 5
6. 5
32.4
11.6
19.4 ji 12. 7
10. 0
14. 0
5.6
16. 2
17. 0
5. 9
5.4
15. 8
7.6
5,9
6. 6
8. 8
5. 1
3. 7

10. 1
11. 8
13. 4
15. 5
13. 6
12. 1
11.8
12. 7
11. 6
8. 4
10. 8
6. 7

733
659
647
566
478
512
516
529
473
446
488
467

1 100.0
100.0
100.0
j 100.0
I 100.0
100.0
| 100.0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

1964
44. 0
56. 1
39. 1
26. 0
21. 3
20. 2
20.4
15. 9
23. 1
23. 9
28. 1
25. 2

;
|
l
I
1
\
!
i
!
!
'

1
!I
12.5 | 16. 1 1 i4 . 7
:
18.1 ! 15.4 i 15. 3
21.4 1 17.7
16. 9
22. 6
27. 5
25. 3
25. 1 27. 7
21. 7
18. 4
27. 4
20. 8
16. 0
21. 7
28. 9
21. 5
13. 2
29. 5
13.4
26. 9
20. 7
14. 3
24. 9
20. 6
11. 6
23. 6
19.6
14. 2
21. 0
18. 7

37. 8
31. 0
33. 0
24. 6
21. 1
24.4
23. 8
21. 1
22. 7
23. 8
29.4
27. 5

33. 0
9. 7 1 21. 0 i
17. 3
37. 8
19. 4
24. 8
17. 3
29. 2
26. 0
25. 0
15. 9
24. 5
16. 0
22. 1
26.4
12. 6
20. 9
26. 3
13. 2
22. 2
24. 6
8. 4
16. 8
14. 1
18. 8
26. 9
25. 7 j 15. 9
17. 7
25. 8
16. 2 1 13.4
31.9 1 16.9 i 16. 9
_
1 _______

18. 2
20. 1
22. 4
21. 8
20. 7
19.6
20. 4
16. 0
18.4
18. 9
15. 3
17. 5

1
14. 9
18. 4
15. 9 ; 17. 2 |
13. 8
19. o I
22. 2 1 17. 2
22. 2
18. 9
21. 1
13. 6
11.4
17. 3
13. 2
17. 3
12. 2 ! 17. 8
12. 0
18. 9
15. 1
11. 9
16. 0
13. 7

17. 5
17. 1
19. 1
18. 3
19.9
16. 1
16.4
18. 1
17. 8
17. 3
15. 0
16. 5

r
14. 5 ;
12. 1 !
15. 3 |
18.4 ;
18.8 1
21.7 |
21.6 |
20. 0 I
: 18.2 t
; 17.7 !
17. 0 j
| 11.3
------------ L

16. 3
15. 9
17. 1
17. 6
20. 1
18. 1
18. 4
17. 4
16. 5
17. 1
*17.4
13. 8

36. 3
30. 4
34.4 1 32.5
29. 3
37.9
31. 7
28. 9
25. 1
33.9
44. 9
20. 5
41.4
29. 8
43. 5
26. 1
47. 1 22. 9
44. 6
24.4
46. 3
26. 7
38. 5
31.8
1964

■

!
i
:
!

ioo . o

ioo. o
100. 0
100.0
ioo. o
ioo. o
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

40. 0 :
33.7 !
33. 4 ;
30. 9 !
i 31. 8 i
i 39.3 j
41. 7 i
44. 3 !
46. 5 i
45. 3 !
44. 9
44. 5
________ L

32. 2
37. 5
36.4
32.9
27. 0
27. 0
26. 8
25. 1
25. 6
24. 2
26.6
32. 3

,
I
!
1

13. 3
16. 7
14. 9
17. 8
22.4
12. 1
9.9
10. 6
9.7
12. 8
11. 5
11.8

!
|
i
j

147

T ab le G -2 1 . U n e m p lo y e d m a l e w a g e and s a l a r y w o r k e r s in c o n s tr u c tio n and m a n u f a c tu r in g , by d u ra tio n of u n e m p lo y m e n t, an n u a l a v e r a g e and b y m o n th ,
196 0—6 8— Continued
______________________________________________________________________________( P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n )
_________________________________________________________________ _____
C o n s tr u c t io n
M a n u fa c tu rin g
1--------------- [Average
1
T
M onth
T o ta l i
[A verage
15-26
(thou­ 1 P e r c e n t w 1-4k s w5-14s w15-26 O v e r 26 [d u ratio n T o ta l ! P e r c e n t j w 1-4k s 1 w5e-14s |■ w e e k s , O v e r 26 d u ra tio n
ee
eek
eeks
ee
! ek
. (w e e k s )
sand)
! (weeks)
1965
1965
1
100. 0
43. 2
45. 8
J a n u a r y _______________________
608
7. 2
3. 8
8. 5
1 0 0.0 ! 45. 9 ! 32. 0
1 1.4
10. 6
11. 8
519
100. 0
34. 3
46. 2
4. 0 j1 10. 2
F e b r u a r y _____________________
645
15. 5
548 1 100. 0
34. 2 i 13. 5 ; 13. 3
39. 0 !
13. 9
100. 0
30. 4
42. 0
20. 9
6. 7 1 12. 6
M a r c h _________________________
540
437
100.0
; 38. 7 1 30. 0 ! 16. 7 i 14.6
15. 0
A p r i l __________________________
405
100. 0
32. 6
25. 7
32. 3
9 .4
502
100.0
; 46. 7 ! 23. 7 j 16 .4 ' 13. 2 i 13.1
15. 5
27. 7
22. 3
4. 1 i 10. 4
M a y ___________________________
315 ; 1 0 0.0
45. 9
408
1 0 0 .0 ; 41. 7 j 3 0 .4 | 10. 8 j 17. 2
14. 8
14. 6
57. 0
21. 7
6. 8 j 10. 0
J u n e ----------------------------------------405
1 0 0.0
43. 2 j 3 0 .6
8. 4 1 17. 8
309 | 1 0 0.0
15. 5
306
100. 0
26. 1
8. 5
J u l y ___________________________
370
1 0 0.0
50. 0 i 28. 1
8. 4 | 13.5 ! 1 2 . 6
9. 5 j 10. 9
5 5 .9
100. 0
27. 5
8. 7
A u g u st_________________________
228
12. 7
12. 3
1 0 0 .0 , 56. 8 ! 26. 7 ! 7 . 2 j 9. 3 i 1 1 . 1
419
51. 1
S e p t e m b e r ____________________
100. 0
11. 0
300
245
100.0
: 53. 0 ! 20. 0 1 5 . 7 ■ 2 1 .3 ' 16.6
53. 9
25. 3
1 1. 4
9. 8
O c t o b e r _______________________
100. 0
59. 4
26. 3
5. 8
8. 5
314 i! 100. 0 , 45. 4 j 27. 6
223
10. 9
18. 1 ; 17. 2
8.9 ;
100. 0
56. 2
5 .4 , 9. 3
N o v e m b e r ____________________
258
358
100. 0
9. 3
29. 1
5 2 .9 j 26. 1 ! 9. 2 ! 11 .8 ' 13.9
D e c e m b e r ____________________
316
100. 0
23. 1
383 ' 100. 0
50. 0 ! 30. 7 ! 12. 0
63. 9
7. 8
8. 9 1 4. 1
11 .8
i 7' 3
L
.. _
1966
1966
l--------------1
|
4. 4
8 .6
416
100. 0
43. 3
J a n u a r y _______________________
435
100. 0
53. 3 i 3 7 .2
5. 1
31. 0 1 13. 0
12. 7
14. 1
100. 0
12. 0
41. 5
F e b r u a r y ______________________ ! 448
3 9 .6 - 4 3 .4
432
100. 0
32. 3
14. 2
12. 1 1 14. 9
4. 9
9. 0
100. 0
36. 1 1 38. 6 ! 2 1 .0
4. 3
405
M a r c h ------------------------------------ : 3 9 2
10. 6
10 0.0
44. 9
25. 2
14. 3
15.6
15. 6
100. 0
6. 3
A p r i l -------------------------------------- j 319
43. 8
12. 4
100. 0
45. 7
2 3 .2 : 17. 6
13. 5
15. 5
16 .9 ' 33. 1
289
100. 0
5 4 .6 j 19 .2 ; 17. 9
8. 3
11. 1
293
100. 0
51. 2 , 28. 0
M a y ----------------------------------------- 1 228
7. 2
13. 7
14. 9
J une __________________________ i 206
100. 0
6 6 .3 j 1 9 . 0 : 4 .9
10. 0
408
100. 0
6 .6
8. 2
9. 8
69. 9 ! 16 .4 ' 7. 1
10 0.0
6 8 .4 j 13. 3
7. 1
394
196
1 1. 2
10. 1
100. 0
Ju ly __________________________
8. 1
9 .4
59. 0 i
2 3 .9 J 8 .9
405 I 100. 0 j 5 9 .4 j 22. 0 ! 5 . 7 i 12.9 1 12. 5
A u g u st------------------------------------- 1 189 i 1 0 0.0 1 64. 0 1 2 0 .6 I 6. 3 j 9. 0 ! 9 .4
10 0.0
60. 8 | 25. 1 ! 3. 0
100. 0
60. 8 ! 18.2 I 9 . 7
S e p t e m b e r ____________________
1 1. 1
11. 4
1 1. 2
12. 0
329
199
1 0 0 .0 1 57. 1
O c t o b e r _______________________ 1 203
28. 1
278
100. 0
43. 0 ■ 35. 0 | 7. 6
6. 9
14. 4
7. 9
9. 5
13. 2
6. 8
1 0 0.0 ' 66. 3
5. 8
8. 2
100. 0
56. 3
N o v e m b e r ____________________ 1 279
32. 2 1 5. 9
21. 5
5. 6 ! 8. 8
319
100. 0
60. 5
30. 4
4 .6
D e c e m b e r ____________________ 1 370
4 .6
7. 4
353 i 100. 0
60. 5
!
23. 0 1 7. 7
8. 8 1 9 .7
1
i_____
J
1967
1967
.j
r
100. 0
50. 1
7. 1
3 .6
3 9 .2
8. 5
422
1 0 0.0
51. 8
J a n u a r y ---------------------------------- ; 412
8. 6 ; 10. 0
29. 7
11. 3
100.0
, 41. 3 ! 44. 8
9 .6
4. 2
F e b r u a r y -------------------------------- ! 426
422
100. 0
47. 2
35. 1
9. 5
9. 7 i 8. 1 . 11. 5
100. 0
4. 5
424
100. 0
35. 5 : 41. 8 j 18. 2
11. 3
43. 2
37. 3
11. 3 i 8. 3 1 1 2 .0
M a r c h ---------------------------------- ; 351
12. 1
375 , 100. 0
43. 2
34. 1 ! 15. 7 I 6 .9 ' 1 1. 3
A p r i l ------------------------------------- | 307 i 1 0 0 . 0 1 4 1 .6 ; 28. 9 ! 21. 1 1 8. 4
16 .4 | 14. 2
227 ; 1 0 0 . 0 : 44. 7 ! 24. 8
13. 5
363 ! 100. 0
53. 0
30. 5 1 11. 8 ! 4. 7 i 9 . 2
M a y ----------------------------------------415
237 ! 100. 0 : 64. 0 | 14. 8 ; 12. 3
1 00. 0
8. 9
57. 9
25. 7 I 11.1 i 5. 3 ; 8 .5
9 .4
100. 0
468 ; 1 0 0 .0 , 63. 0
57. 3 ! 23. 8 i 4. 8 1 14. 3
10. 0
24. 6
J u l y ___________________________
7. 7 ; 4 . 8
7. 8
189
1 11. 2
1 0 0.0
61. 8 j 27. 1
A u g u s t -----------------------------------172
8. 5
455
100. 0
57. 3 1 2 7 .5 : 8. 1
7.0
9. 0
26. 5
5. 3
7. 6
374
S e p t e m b e r ____________________
131 ; 1 0 0 .0 ! 6 0 .6
100. 0
55. 2 • 28. 0 , 10. 4 j 6 . 4
9. 3
9. 1
10 0.0 ! 58. 9
O c t o b e r _______________________
185
23. 2
12. 1
368
100. 0
4 7 .4
34. 3
5. 9
10. 4 ■ 7 . 9
10. 6
11. 9
100. 0
6. 3
364
N o v e m b e r ____________________ ]! 239
5. 0
100. 0
59. 8 ! 28. 9
49. 6 ; 3 0 .6
7. 7 ; 12. 1
12. 4
9. 1
4. 4
100. 0
5 9 .4 ! 28. 4
7. 7
50. 1
100. 0
D e c e m b e r ------------------------------ ! 270
7. 9
3 2 .6 , 7. 2 | 10. 0
10. 8
389

1968

1968
100. 0
46. 4
J a n u a r y ______________________
445
36. 5 ,
F e b r u a r y -----------------------------433 ■ 1 0 0.0
37 .6
M a r c h ________________________
387 ! 10 0.0
A p r i l __________________________
222 : 1 0 0.0
3 6 .2 ;
184 i 1 0 0.0
48. 1 ;
M a y __________________________
1 0 0.0
63. 5 ,
230
J une -------------------------------------57. 8 1
J u l y ___________________________
191 | 10 0.0
64. 0 :
A u g u s t ________________________ | 164 - 10 0.0
74. 1
S e p t e m b e r ____________________
138 i 10 0.0
O c t o b e r _______________________
67. 3
167 ! 1 0 0.0
N o v e m b e r ____________________ i 224
100. 0
73. 7
100. 0
54. 1
D e c e m b e r -----------------------------242
i
S O U R CE : C u r r e n t P o p u la tio n S u rv e y co n d u c te d for

42. 8
50. 1
37. 8
32. 1
24. 9
2 1 .6
27. 2
20. 1
17. 3
21. 7
17. 4
37. 6

7 .4
10. 9
19. 7
23. 1
21. 6
6. 9
5. 2
4. 3 j
3. 6
3. 6
3. 6
2. 1

3 .4
2. 5
4 .9
8. 6
5 .4
8. 1
9. 8
11. 6
5. 0
7. 4
5. 4
6. 2

7. 9
8. 6
11.2
14. 1
9 .9
7. 8
9. 6
8. 3
6. 5
9- 1
7. 2
8 .5

j
!
1
|

391
465
429
338
324
367
381
382
312
336
344
285

100. 0
42. 5
1 0 0 .0 « 52. 3
1 0 0 .0 ! 44. 4
41. 1
1 0 0.0
100.0
; 50. 0
100.0
! 59. 8
1 0 0.0 j 54. 6
1 0 0 .0 ] 5 9 .9
1 0 0.0
58. 8
: 100. 0
5 2 .4
100. 0
55. 5
100. 0
5 2 .6

,
'
,
!
j

38. 9
30. 8
34. 7
3 3 .4
2 4 .4
16.9
26. 5
25. 1
24. 0
37. 2
34. 0
35.1

9 .5
8. 2
13. 3
16. 3
1 6 .0
13. 1
9. 3
! 7. 1
; 11 .8
i 6. 3
i 6. 7
8. 1

1

:
,
i

!
:
i
\

;
:
j
!
1
j

9. 1
8. 8
7. 7
9 .2
9 .6
10. 1
9. 3
7. 9
5. 4
4. 3
3. 8
4. 2

the BLS, by the B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .

T ab le G -2 2 . P r o p o r t i o n of w ag e and s a l a r y w o r k e r s e x p e r ie n c in g u n e m p lo y m e n t d u rin g the y e a r by
in d u s tr y g ro u p of lo n g e st jo b , 1959—68
N o n a g r ic u ltu r a l
Year
C o n s tr u c t io n
M a n u f a c tu r in g
in d u s tr i e s
1959__________________________________
15. 8
38. 0
19. 5
43. 4
I960 _________________________________
17. 7
2 1 .7
18. 7
1961 _________________________________
43. 9
22. 0
1962 _________________________________
17. 9
43. 0
20. 5
16. 5
38. 1
1963 _________________________________
19. 4
16. 1
1964 _________________________________
36. 1
18.4
1965 _________________________________
31. 8
15. 6
13.9
12. 5
27. 3
1966
13. 9
12. 4
26. 4
14. 6
1967 ...................................................................
12. 0
24. 2
1968 -------------------------------------------------13. 1
SOUR CE : C u r r e n t P o p u la tio n S u rv e y c o n du c te d fo r the BLS, by the B u r e a u of the C e n s u s .

148




☆ U. S. G O V E R N M E N T PRIN TIN G O F F I C E : 1970 O - 397-346

1 1. 3
10. 6
1 1. 1
12. 6
1 1.4
10. 6
9 .6
9. 0
8. 0
7. 9
7. 8
8. 1

/




U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
W A S H IN G T O N ,

D .C .

20212

OFFICIAL BUSINESS




THIRD CLASS MAIL


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102