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L

3

Occupational
Projections and
Training Data
A Statistical and Research Supplement
to the 1984-85 Occupational Outlook Handbook

1984
Edition

A Guide to Using This Book
To find out:
how the Nation’s work force and economy
are likely to shape up through the mid1990’s;
which occupations will grow the fastest,
which will decline, and which will provide
the greatest number of new jobs; and
how significant are replacement needs
and which occupations have the highest
and lowest turnover rates ..................

read Tomorrow’s Jobs, starting on page I.

To locate:
statistics for detailed occupations on—
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

1982 and projected 1995 employ­
ment
growth
industry concentration
demographic characteristics
part-time employment
unemployment rate
replacement rate
training completions

and descriptions of—
•
•

usual entry level requirements
characteristics of entrants .........

To locate the profile for a specific occupa­
tion

If you want to learn more about how the
projections of occupational employment
are d e ve lo p ed .......................................
If you need career information for specific
S ta te s .....................................................

read the Employment and Supply Profiles,
starting on page II.
see Contents, page V —
VIII. The occupa­
tions are grouped the same way as in
the 1984-85 Occupational Outlook
Handbook—that is, according to the
Standard Occupational Classification
Manual, 1980 Edition.

read the brief description of the assumptions
and methods used, starting on page 75.
refer to the list of State employment se­
curity agencies beginning on page 113.

To learn about sources of BLS occupa­
tional earnings d a t a ..............................

see ad on page 116.

To learn about companion publications . .

see inside back cover.

Occupational
Projections and
Training Data

1984
Edition

A Statistical and Research Supplement
to the 1984-85 Occupational Outlook Handbook
U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
May 1984
Bulletin 2206

For sale by tbe Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402

Preface

This statistical and research supplement to the 1 9 8 4 -8 5
Occupational Outlook Handbook presents detailed, compre­
hensive statistics on current and projected occupational
employment; replacement needs, education, and training
program completions; and a variety of other data that should
be valuable to training officials, education planners, voca­
tional and employment counselors, jobseekers, and others
interested in occupational information. It is the seventh in a
series dating to 1971 that presents the statistics and techni­
cal data underlying the information developed in the Bureau’s
occupational outlook program; since 1974, Occupational
Projections and Training Data has been published bienni­
ally as a companion to the Handbook.
Chapter 1 gives a broad overview of expected trends
through the mid-1990’s in the population and labor force,
and for major industry groups and occupational clusters.
Chapter 2 provides a variety of employment and training
data for virtually all occupations covered in the Handbook.
It also presents descriptive information on usual entry require­

ments and the characteristics o f entrants. Appendixes include
an explanation o f the assumptions and methods used in
preparing employment projections, statistics on projected
employment for about 700 occupations with employment of
5,000 or more, detailed information on education and train­
ing program completions, and a list of State employment
security agencies.
This bulletin was prepared in the Division o f Occupa­
tional Outlook under the direction o f Michael Pilot and Neal
Rosenthal. Patrick Wash supervised its preparation. Alan
Eck prepared the material on occupational movements and
replacement needs. Thomas Nardone prepared the informa­
tion on broad occupational trends. Douglas Braddock, Conley
Hall Dillon, Jr., Lawrence C. Drake, Jr., and Jon Q. Sar­
gent prepared the employm ent and training profiles and
assembled the detailed training data. Paul Evans helped
compile the employment data. Word processing was han­
dled by Vidella H. Hubbard, Brenda A. Marshall, Marilyn
Queen, and Beverly A. Williams.

Comments about the contents of this publication and suggestions for improving it are welcome.
Please address them to Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20212.

Contents

Page

Page
NATURAL SCIENTISTS AND
M A T H E M A T IC IA N S ...........................
Mathematical scientists and
systems analysts ...........................
A c tu a rie s ......................................
Computer systems analysts . .
Mathematicians ........................
S ta tis tic ia n s ................................

A Guide to Using This B o o k ..................inside cover
Chapters:
1. Tom orrow’s jobs ........................................
P o p u la tio n ...................................
Labor force ................................
Employment .............................
Industrial p r o f ile ........................
Occupational profile ................
Replacement n e e d s ...................
2.

Employment and supply profiles

1
1
2
3
4
6
10

...........

20
20

Life s c ie n tis ts ......................................
Agricultural scientists ..............
Biological scientists ................
Foresters and
conservationists ...................

ADMINISTRATIVE AND
MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS
. . 12
Accountants and auditors . . . .
12
Bank officers and managers
. . 12
Buyers, retail and wholesale
trade ........................................
12
Construction inspectors, public
a d m in istra tio n ...................
13
Health and regulatory
inspectors .............................
13
Health services administrators . . 13
Hotel managers and assistants . . 14
Personnel and labor relations
specialists ..............................
14
Purchasing a g e n t s ......................
15
School administrators .............
15
Underwriters ..............................
15

E n g in e e rs .........................................
Aerospace engineers ................
Chemical e n g in e e rs ..............
Civil e n g in e e r s ......................
Electrical e n g in e e rs ...................
Industrial e n g in e e rs ...................
Mechanical engineers ..............
Metallurgical engineers ...........
Mining engineers .....................
Nuclear e n g in e e r s .................
Petroleum engineers ................

19
19
19
19
20

Physical scientists ..............................
C h e m is ts ......................................
Geologists and
geophysicists ........................
Physicists ...................................

11

ENGINEERS, SURVEYORS, AND
A R C H IT E C T S ..................................... .
Architects ...................................
Surveyors ...................................

19

21
21
22

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, SOCIAL
W ORKERS, RELIGIOUS
W ORKERS, AND LAWYERS ____
Lawyers .............................
Social scientists and urban
planners ...........................................
Economists ................................
P sy c h o lo g ists..............................
S o c io lo g is ts ................................
Urban and regional
p la n n e r s ...................................

16
16
16

R ecreation and social w orkers . . .
Recreation w o r k e r s ...................
Social w o r k e r s ...........................

16
17
17
17

Clergy
17
18
18
18
18

........................................

TEACHERS, LIBRARIANS, AND
COUNSELORS ......................................
College and university
f a c u lty ......................................
Counselors ................................

18
19
v

21
21

22

22
22

23
23
23
24
24
24
24
25
25

25
25
26

Contents—Continued
Page

Page
Kindergarten and elementary
school teachers ..................... 26
Librarians ...................................27
Secondary school teachers . . . 27

Reporters and
correspondents ......................
Writers and editors ...................
Design occupations ...........................
Commercial and graphic
artists and designers ...........
Designers ...................................
Photographers ...........................

HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND
TECHNICIANS .............................
Clinical laboratory
technologists and
te c h n ic ia n s .............................
Dental hygienists .....................
Electrocardiograph
te c h n ic ia n s .............................
Electroencephalographic
technologists ........................
Health record technicians . . . .
Licensed practical nurses
Radiologic technologists
Surgical technicians ................

36
36
36

Performing artists ..............................
Actors and actresses ................
Dancers ......................................
Musicians ...................................
Singers ........................................

HEALTH DIAGNOSING AND
TREATING PRACTITIONERS _____ 27
C h iro p ra c to rs................................ 27
Dentists ........................................ 28
Optometrists ................................ 28
P h y s ic ia n s ......................................28
Podiatrists ......................................29
Veterinarians ................................ 29

REGISTERED NURSES,
PHARMACISTS, DIETITIANS,
THERAPISTS, AND PHYSICIAN
ASSISTANTS ................................
Dietitians ...........................
Occupational therapists . .
P h a rm a c is ts ........................
Physical therapists ...........
Physician a s s is ta n ts ...........
Registered nurses .............
Respiratory therapists . . .
Speech pathologists and
audiologists ...................

35
35

37
37
37
38
38

TECHNOLOGISTS AND
TECHNICIANS, EXCEPT
HEALTH ................................................
Air traffic controllers ..............
Broadcast technicians .............
Computer p ro g ra m m e rs...........
Drafters ......................................
Electrical and electronics
te c h n ic ia n s ..............................
Legal assistants ........................
Library technicians ...................
Tool programmers, numerical
c o n tr o l......................................

29
29
30
30
30
30
31
31
31

MARKETING AND SALES
OCCUPATIONS ...................................
Cashiers ......................................
Insurance agents and
brokers ...................................
M anufacturers’ sales
w o r k e r s ...................................
Real estate agents and
brokers ...................................
Retail trade sales
workers ...................................
Securities sales w o r k e r s ...........
Travel a g e n t s ..............................
Wholesale trade sales
workers ...................................

32
32
32
33
33
33
34
34

WRITERS, ARTISTS, AND
ENTERTAINERS ................................ 34
Communications occupations . . . . 34
Public relations specialists . . . 34
Radio and television
announcers and
newscasters ...........................35

ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT
OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING
C L E R IC A L ..............................................
Bank t e l l e r s ................................
Bookkeepers and accounting
clerks ......................................

vi

36

38
38
38
39
39
39
40
40
40

41
41
41
41
42
42
43
43
43

44
44
44

Contents—Continued
Page
Computer and peripheral
equipment
operators ................................
Keypunch operators ................
Mail carriers and postal
clerks ......................................
Receptionists ..............................
Reservation agents and
transportation
ticket clerks ...........................
S e c re ta rie s...................................
Shipping and receiving clerks . .
Stenographers ...........................
Teacher a i d e s ..............................
Telephone operators ................
Typists ........................................
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS ...................
Protective service occupations . . . .
Correction officers ...................
Firefighters ................................
Guards ........................................
Police and detectives, public
s e r v ic e ......................................
Food and beverage preparation and
service occupations ......................
B a rte n d e rs ...................................
Cooks and c h e f s ........................
Waiters and waitresses ...........

Page
Diesel mechanics ......................
Farm equipment
mechanics ..............................

44
45

Electrical and electronic equipment
r e p a ir e r s ...........................................
Appliance installers and
repairers ................................
Communications equipment
mechanics ..............................
Computer service
te c h n ic ia n s ..............................
Line installers and cable
splicers ...................................
Radio and television service
te c h n ic ia n s ..............................
Telephone and PBX installers
and r e p a ir e r s .............
57

45
45

46
46
47
47
47
48
48
48
48
48
49
49

Other mechanics and repairers . . .
Air-conditioning,
refrigeration,
and heating mechanics . . . .
Coin machine servicers and
repairers ................................
Industrial machinery
repairers ................................
Millwrights ................................
Musical instrument
repairers ................................
Office machine repairers . . . .

49

50
50
50
51
51
51
51

Health service occupations ..............
Dental a s s is ta n ts ........................
Medical a s s is ta n ts .....................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and
attendants .............................

52

Cleaning service occupations . . . .
Building custodians ................

52
52

Personal service o c c u p a tio n s...........
B a r b e r s ........................................
C o sm e to lo g ists...........................
Flight a tte n d a n ts ........................

52
52
53
53

MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS ____
Vehicle and mobile equipment
mechanics and repairers .............
Aircraft mechanics ...................
Automotive body repairers . . .
Automotive mechanics ...........

54

CONSTRUCTION AND EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS ...................................
Construction occupations ................
Bricklayers and
sto n e m a so n s..................
60
C a rp e n te rs ..........................
60
Cement masons and terrazzo
workers ...................................
Dry wall applicators and
tapers ......................................
Electricians ................................
Floor covering installers
....
Glaziers ......................................
Insulation workers ...................
Iro n w o rk e rs ........................
62
Painters and paperhangers . . .
Plasterers ...................................
Plumbers and pipefitters
....
R o o f e r s ................................
64

54
54
54
54

vu

55
55

55
55
56
56
56
57

57

57
58
58
59
59
59

60
60

60
61
61
61
62
62
63
63
63

Contents—Continued
Page
Sheet-metal workers ................
Tilesetters ...................................

Machine operators, tenders, and
setup workers ................................
Machine tool operators ...........
Printing press o p e r a to r s ...........

65

Precision production
o c c u p a tio n s ......................................
Boilermakers ..............................
Bookbinders .............................
Butchers and meatcutters . . . .
Compositors and
typesetters .............................
Dental laboratory
te c h n ic ia n s ..............................
Dispensing opticians and
ophthalmic
laboratory technicians . . . .
Furniture upholsterers ..............
Hand molders ...........................
Jewelers ......................................
Job and die setters ...................
Lithographers and photo­
engravers ................................
Machinists and layout
markers ...................................
Patternmakers ...........................
Photographic process
workers ...................................
Shoe repair o c c u p a tio n s...........
Toolmakers and diemakers . . .
Plant and system operators ..............
Stationary engineers ................
W ater and sewage treatment
plant operators .....................

65

65
65
65
66

70
70
71

Fabricators, assemblers, and
handworking occupations ...........
Assembler occupations ...........
Automotive painters ................
Welders and flamecutters . . . .

64
64

PRODUCTION O C C U P A T IO N S ...........
Blue-collar worker
s u p e rv is o rs .............................

Page

71
71
71
72

TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL
MOVING OCCUPATIONS ................
Airplane p i l o t s ...........................
B u s d riv e rs ...................................
Construction machinery
operators (operating
engineers) ..............................
Industrial truck operators . . . .
Truckdrivers ..............................

66
66

67
67
67
68
68

HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT
CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND
LABORERS ...........................................
Construction laborers and
h e l p e r s ......................................

68

72
72
73

73
73
73

74
74

68
69
69
69
69

APPENDIXES:
A.
B.
C.
D.

70
70
70

viii

Assumptions and methods used in
preparing employment projections . .
Detailed occupational projections . . . .
Detailed training s ta tis tic s ......................
State employment security agencies . . .

75
80
92
113

Chapter 1

Tomorrow’s Jobs

The number and kinds of jobs needed in tomorrow’s econ­
omy will depend on the interplay of demographic, economic,
social, and technological factors. Some occupations will
grow much faster than the average rate o f growth in
employment; others will decline in importance. Some jobs
will emerge as a result o f new technologies; others will
disappear. And the nature of the work in most occupations
will surely undergo change.
This chapter presents information developed by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics on the expected changes in the population,
the labor force, and employment in major industrial sectors
and occupational clusters. It also discusses the importance
of replacement needs in the employment outlook.

The age structure of the population will continue to shift
through the m id-1990’s. The number of children under 13
will increase as the large number of people born during the
1950’s continue to have children of their own. As the babyboom group ages, the number of people age 35 to 54 will
increase. The number of people 65 and older will rise sharply
because of the relatively high population growth before the
1930’s and increases in life expectancy. Low rates of popu­
lation growth during the 1930’s and 1970’s will result in a
decline by 1995 in the number of 55- to 64-year-olds and
14- to 25-year-olds.
The growing number of children will cause greater demand
for elementary school education during the 1980’s and sec­
ondary school education during the early 1990’s. The grow­
ing number of older people will add to the demand for
health services.

Population
Changes in population are among the basic factors that
will alter employment opportunities. Changes in the size
and characteristics of the population affect the amount and
types of goods and services demanded. They also affect the
size and characteristics of the labor force— the people who
are working or are looking for work— which in turn can
influence the competition for jobs in an occupation. Three
important population factors are population growth, shifts
in the age structure of the population, and movement of the
population within the country.

Movement o f population. Population growth varies among
the regions of the Nation. For example, between 1970 and
1980, the population of the Northeast and North Central
regions increased by only 0.2 percent and 4.0 percent,
respectively, compared with 20.0 percent in the South and
23.9 percent in the West. These patterns reflect the move­
ment of people to find new jobs, to retire, or for other
reasons. Chart 2 shows the expected changes in State popu­
lations between 1980 and 2000 if these trends continue.
The West will continue to be the fastest growing region,
increasing about 45 percent between 1980 and 2000. The
South, with the largest absolute increase, will grow about
31 percent.
The North Central region is expected to increase only
about 2 percent between 1980 and 1990, and to decline
about 1 percent from 1990 to 2000. The population of the

Growth. The population of the United States has increased
throughout this century. However, the rate of growth was
declining until the “ baby boom ” of the 1950’s. During the
late 1960’s, the rate of population growth began to drop
sharply and has remained at a low level since (chart 1).
In 1982, the population was about 232 million. It is
expected to increase to about 260 million by 1995. The rate
of growth will be faster during the 1980’s (0.9 percent a
year) than during the early 1990’s (0.8 percent a year).
Continued population growth will mean more consumers to
provide with goods and services, and thus a greater demand
for workers in many industries and occupations.

Chart 1.
The population w ill grow more slow ly through the mid-1990’s.

Average annual percent increase

Age structure. Over time, the age structure o f the popula­
tion changes, which affects the job market in many ways.
The low population growth o f the 1960’s and 1970’s, for
example, resulted in fewer school-age children in the 1970’s,
which lowered the demand for educational services and the
employment opportunities in teaching. Also during the
1970’s, the entrance into the labor force of the large number
of people born during the 1950’s increased competition for
entry level jobs.

Source: Bureau of the Cenaus

l

Through the m id-1990’s, the chief cause of labor force
growth will be the continued though slower rise in the num­
ber and proportion of women who seek jobs. Women will
account for nearly two-thirds of the labor force growth dur­
ing 1982—95 (chart 4). Growth will be slower than in the
1960’s and 1970’s because the low birth rates during those
years will result in fewer young people entering the labor
force.

Chart 2.
Changes In population w ill vary among the States.

Projected percent change in S tate populations, 1980 to 2000

SOURCE: Bureau of the Census

Age structure. Through the mid-1990’s, the number of peo­
ple age 16 to 24 in the work force is projected to decline
(chart 5). Fewer young entrants into the labor force may
ease competition for entry level jobs. In fact, employers
may have increasing difficulty in finding young workers.
The decline in the number of young workers could be particu­
larly important to the Armed Forces— the single largest
employer of men in this age group.
The number of people age 25 to 54 in the labor force is
expected to increase from less than two-thirds of the labor
force in 1982 to nearly three-fourths by 1995. The growing
proportion of workers age 25 to 54 could result in higher
productivity growth during this period than in the 1970’s,
since workers in this age group generally have work experi­
ence and tend to be more productive.
The number of people age 55 and over in the labor force
is projected to decline slightly, reflecting the trend to early
retirement and the drop in the number of people age 55 to
65.

■ Increase of more than
36%

Northeast region will decline about 6 percent. By the year
2000, the West and the South will have about 60 percent of
the Nation’s population compared to about 52 percent in
1980.
Geographic shifts in the population alter the demand for
and supply of workers in local job markets. In areas with a
growing population, demand for public services and con­
struction is likely to increase. At the same time, more peo­
ple looking for work in an area could increase competition
for jobs. Therefore, local employment opportunities in an
occupation could differ greatly from national projections.

Labor force
The size and characteristics o f the labor force determine
the number and type o f people competing for jobs. In
addition, the size of the labor force affects the amount of
goods and services that can be produced. Growth, alter­
ations in the age structure, and rising educational levels are
among the labor force changes that will affect employment
opportunities through the m id-1990’s.

Education. Employers seek to hire the best qualified per­
sons available. This does not mean that they always choose
those applicants who have the most education. However,
individuals planning for a career should be aware of the
continuing rise in the educational attainment of the work
force. Between 1970 and 1982, for example, the proportion
of the labor force age 18 to 64 with at least 1 year of college
increased from 26 to 39 percent (chart 6). The increase in
educational attainment reflects both the retirement of older
workers, many of whom had little formal education, and the
influx into the work force of young people who generally
have a high level of formal education.
The disadvantage that less educated workers suffer when

Growth. In 1982, the civilian labor force— people with jobs
and people looking for jobs— totaled about 110 million. The
labor force will grow through the mid-1990’s, but at a slower
rate than in the 1960’s and 1970’s (chart 3). By 1995, the
labor force is projected to be about 131 million— an increase
of about 19 percent from the 1982 level.

Chart 3.

Chart 4.

Labor force growth w ill slow through the mld-1990’s.

Through the mid-1990’s, women w ill continue to account for more
than half of the growth In the labor force.

Average annual percent increase

Wom en as a percent of labor force growth

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics

2

led automobile manufacturers to improve the fuel efficiency
of cars. To do this, auto manufacturers lightened the weight
of cars by using plastic, aluminum, and specialty steel instead
of standard iron and steel. This shift lowered the demand for
goods from the iron and steel manufacturing industry, for
the products of the iron and coal mining industries, and for
products o f other industries that supply iron and steel
manufacturers. Employment in those industries was adversely
affected. At the same time, demand increased for plastic,
aluminum, and specialty steel and for products of the indus­
tries that supply those manufacturers. Employment in those
industries benefited from the change.
Expansion or decline in industries has varying effects on
individual occupations because industries employ different
mixes of workers (chart 7). Growth of the construction
industry, for example, would increase employment of craft
workers, operatives, and laborers. In contrast, growth in the
finance, insurance, and real estate industries would increase
employment of professional, managerial, sales, and clerical
workers.
Changes in the manner in which goods are produced and
services are provided also affect occupational and industrial
employment. For example, as an industry automates pro­
duction, the mix of workers is likely to change which, in
turn, will have different effects on occupational employ­
ment growth.
Technological change is expected to affect employment
in many industries and occupations through the m id-1990’s.
The increasing use of automated machinery, for example, is
one of the factors expected to limit employment growth in
automobile manufacturing. The increasing use of word pro­
cessing equipment will limit the employment of typists.
Even as technology advances, however, employment should
continue to increase in most industries and occupations dur­
ing the 1980’s and early 1990’s— in fact, some of the
increases are a direct result of technological change.
Other factors affecting employment are the fiscal policies
of the Federal Government, the monetary policies of the
Federal Reserve Board, the level of imports, and the avail­
ability of energy. Using information on these and other
factors, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has prepared three

seeking jobs is clearly shown in their unemployment rate. In
1982, the unemployment rate among 20- to 24-year-olds
with less than 4 years o f high school was 32.2 percent
compared with 15.5 percent for those with 4 years of high
school. The rates for those with 1 to 3 years of college and 4
or more years of college were only 9.6 and 5.6 percent,
respectively. The association o f higher unemployment rates
with low levels of education shows the importance of educa­
tion in a job market that increasingly requires more training.
It is also important to note that a college degree no longer
guarantees success in the job market. Between 1970 and
1982, employment of college graduates more than doubled.
The proportion employed in professional, technical, and
managerial occupations, however, declined because these
occupations did not expand rapidly enough to absorb the
growing supply of graduates. As a result, 1 out of 5 college
graduates who entered the labor market between 1970 and
1982 took jobs not usually requiring a degree. This oversup­
ply of graduates is likely to continue through the mid-1990’s.
Not all occupations requiring a college degree will be
overcrowded, however. Good opportunities will exist for
systems analysts and engineers, for example.
Despite widespread publicity about the poor job market
for college graduates, a college degree is still needed for
most high-paying and high-status jobs. Persons interested in
occupations that require a college degree should not be dis­
couraged from pursuing a career that they believe matches
their interests and abilities, but they should be aware of job
market conditions.

Employment
The number of jobs in particular industries and occupa­
tions depends in large part on the consumer, government,
and business demand for goods and services produced by
those industries and workers. In a simple example, there
would be fewer jobs for barbers and cosmetologists if peo­
ple chose to have their hair cut less often. However, because
of the complexity of the economy, the connection between
demand and employment generally is not simple, and a
single change in demand can have far-reaching consequences.
Consumer desire and government regulation, for example,
3

The assumptions and methods used to develop these
alternative projections are discussed in appendix A. The
occupational employment projections from the three alterna­
tives are presented in appendix B.
For ease of presentation, the discussions of projections
and outlook information in this chapter focus on the moderategrowth alternative, which assumes a period of recovery from
the 198 1 -8 2 recession followed by stable economic growth
through the mid-1990’s.

Industrial profile
To discuss employment trends and projections in industries,
it is useful to divide the economy into nine industrial sectors
under two broad groups— service-producing industries and
goods-producing industries. In 1982, about 7 of every 10
jobs were in industries that provide services such as health
care, trade, education, repair and maintenance, government,
transportation, banking, and insurance. Industries that pro­
duce goods through farming, construction, mining, and
manufacturing accounted for fewer than 3 out of every 10
jobs in the Nation.

sets of projections o f employment in industries and occupa­
tions. Referred to as the low-, moderate-, and high-trend
alternatives, the projections are based on different assump­
tions concerning growth of the labor force, unemployment,
monetary and fiscal policy, and other factors. Each alterna­
tive provides a different set of employment estimates in
1995.
None o f the three projections should be favored as the
most likely. The intent in preparing them was not to forecast
future economic performance but, rather, to examine the
implications of a reasonable range of demand growth over
the projection period. The projections represent only three
of many possible responses of the economy to differing
fiscal and monetary stimuli. A different perspective on the
inner workings of the U.S. aggregate economy could easily
lead to completely different results. For this reason, the
high- and low-growth alternatives should not be viewed as
the “ good” and “ bad” forecasts but rather as vehicles for
presenting a range of growth in gross national product (GNP)
and employment to 1995.
Differences in occupational projections among the three
alternatives should not be considered as the potential range
within which the projections are likely to fall because the
range for most occupations is much wider than that shown.
The majority o f occupations are sensitive to a wide variety
of assumptions and economic factors and all o f these could
not be considered in the three scenarios.
The development o f projections is not a precise statistical
process. Despite the use o f sophisticated economic models
and data carefully developed by statistical techniques, the
future cannot be precisely predicted. Too many factors can
alter economic activity over the 1982—95 period to assure
that the projections provide an exact picture of the future.
Some aspects of the development of these projections are
more subjective than others. For example, in projecting
occupational staffing patterns for automobile manufacturing,
judgments had to be made about the use of robots during
1982—95. At this early stage in the development and use of
robots in automobile manufacturing, such judgm ents will
vary considerably among analysts.

Service-producing industries. Em ploym ent in serviceproducing industries has been increasing at a faster rate than
employment in goods-producing industries (chart 8). Among
the factors that have contributed to this rapid growth are
rising incomes and living standards that result in greater
demand for health care, entertainment, and business and
financial services. In addition, the growth of cities and sub­
urbs has brought a need for more local government services.
Further, because many services involve personal contact,
relatively fewer people have been replaced by machines in
service-producing industries.
Through the m id-1990’s, employment is expected to con­
tinue to increase faster in service-producing industries than
in goods-producing industries. In fact, service-producing
industries are projected to account for about 75 percent of
all new jobs between 1982 and 1995. Employment in these
industries is expected to increase from 66.5 million in 1982
to 86.2 million in 1995, or 30 percent. Growth will vary

4

among industries within the group (chart 9).

laborsaving innovations such as self-service merchandising
and computerized inventory systems.
The largest number of new jobs in the trade sector is
projected to be in eating and drinking places. Other retail
firms expected to have large increases are department stores,
grocery stores, and new car dealerships. In wholesale trade,
the largest increases will be in machinery, motor vehicles,
and electrical goods.

Transportation, communications, and public utilities was
the slowest growing sector o f the service-producing indus­
tries during the 1970’s and early 1980’s. Rising employ­
ment in trucking and warehousing, and in air transportation,
was offset by declining employment in railroads and slow
growth in other industries in the sector. Even in the commu­
nications industries, where demand increased greatly, tech­
nological innovations limited employment growth.
Between 1982 and 1995, employment in transportation,
communications, and public utilities is expected to rise from
5.7 to 6.9 million, or 21 percent. Rising demand for new
telecommunications services resulting from the increased
use of computer systems and the divestiture of the telephone
company will make communications the most rapidly grow­
ing industry in the sector. Employment in communications
industries is projected to grow 40 percent, from 1.4 to 1.9
million. More efficient communications equipment, how­
ever, will keep employment from rising as rapidly as output.
Although employment in railroads and water transporta­
tion is expected to decline, other transportation industries
such as air, local transit, and trucking are expected to
increase. Employment in transportation as a whole should
rise 12 percent, from 3.5 million to 3.9 million.
Demand for electric power, gas utilities, and water and
sanitary services will increase through the mid-1990’s as
population and industry grow. Employment in industries
that deliver these services is expected to increase from
868,000 to 1.1 million, or 25 percent.

Finance, insurance, and real estate grew faster than any
other service-producing sector during the 1970’s and early
1980’s as these industries expanded to meet the financial
and banking needs of the population.
Between 1982 and 1995, employment in this sector is
expected to rise from 5.4 to 7.2 million, or 34 percent.
Demand for credit and other financial services is expected
to grow rapidly, but automatic teller machines and compu­
terized banking and stock transactions will prevent employ­
ment from growing as fast as output. H ow ever, large
increases in employment are expected in banks, savings and
loan associations, security brokerages, and real estate firms.
Services includes a variety of industries, such as hotels,
barber shops, automobile repair shops, hospitals, engineer­
ing firms, schools, and nonprofit organizations. During the
1970’s and early 1980’s, employment in this sector increased
faster than in service-producing industries as a whole.
Sharply rising demands for health care, data processing,
and engineering and legal services were among the forces
behind this growth.
From 1982 to 1995, employment in service industries is
expected to increase from 27.5 to 37.2 million, or 36 percent.
These industries will provide more new jobs than any other
industry sector. Business services, including data processing,
personnel supply, and commercial cleaning, are expected to
grow more rapidly than other industries in the sector.
Employment in health services also is expected to increase
substantially. Efforts to control rising health costs, however,
could sharply lower the projected employment growth in
health services. Large increases in employment also are
expected in engineering, legal, social, and accounting
services.

Wholesale and retail trade employment has increased as
the population has grown and as rising incomes have ena­
bled people to buy a greater number and variety of goods.
During the 1970’s and early 1980’s, employment in trade
increased at about the same rate as in service-producing
industries as a whole. Between 1982 and 1995, wholesale
and retail trade employment is expected to grow from 20.6
to 26.8 million, or 31 percent. Employment will increase
faster in retail than in wholesale trade, 33 percent compared
with 22 percent. Employment will rise despite the use of
Chart 9.
Through the mid-1960’s, changes In em ployment w ill vary widely
am ong Industries.

Government services were in increasing demand during
the 1970’s and early 1980’s. Growth in services such as
health and welfare services and police and fire protection
caused employment in the government sector to rise, although
at a slower rate than for service-producing industries as a
whole. Employment increased more in State and local gov­
ernments than in the Federal Government. Between 1982
and 1995, as a result of public desire to limit government
growth, employment in government is expected to rise by
only 8 percent, from 7.5 to 8 million.

Projected range of em ploym ent change, 1982-95 (millions)1
-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 11

Agriculture.
Mining.

1

Construction.

1

mu

Service producing:
Transportation, communications,

mm
Finance, Insurance, and

Government.
Source : Bureau of Labor Statistics

1

i

59

_l
' Wage and salary workers except for agriculture,
which Includes self-employed and unpaid family workers.

Goods-producing industries. Employment in these indus­

5

facturing employment is expected to increase. By 1995,
employment is projected to reach 23.1 million, about 23
percent higher than the 1982 level of 18.8 million. Much of
the growth will occur in the m id-1980’s as employment
rebounds to prerecession levels. However, several key man­
ufacturing industries, such as automobile and steel man­
ufacturing, are not expected to reach previous peak employ­
ment levels. A turnaround in demand is expected to boost
production in these industries, but foreign competition, pro­
ductivity improvements, and technological change will limit
employment requirements.
M anufacturing is divided into two broad categories—
durable and nondurable goods manufacturing. Employment
in durable goods manufacturing is expected to increase 29
percent as rising business.investment and consumer demand
lead to higher demand for computers, machinery, and elec­
tronic components. Employment in nondurable goods manu­
facturing is projected to increase more slowly, by 14 percent,
since consumers tend to spend relatively less of their budget
on staples such as food and clothing as their income rises.

tries increased during the 1970’s, but the 1980 and 1981—82
recessions caused a drop in construction and manufacturing
employment that offset most o f the earlier growth. Between
1982 and 1995, employment in goods-producing industries
is expected to increase from 27.1 to 33 million— about 22
percent. Some of the increase reflects the rebounding of
employment in manufacturing and construction to prereces­
sion levels. Employment growth is expected to vary signifi­
cantly among goods-producing industries (chart 9).
Employment in agriculture has declined while farm out­
put has increased through the use of more and better
machinery, fertilizers, feeds, pesticides, and hybrid plants.
Domestic demand for food will increase slowly through the
m id-1990’s. W orldwide demand for food will increase
because of population growth, and U.S. food exports will
increase through the next decade. Farm productivity,
however, will continue to improve— although more slowly
than in the past— and employment is expected to decline
even as production rises. Between 1982 and 1995, agricul­
ture employment is projected to drop from 3.2 to 3 million
jobs, or 7 percent.

Occupational profile
This section gives an overview of the changes expected in
employment for 16 broad groups of occupations. These
groups are based on the Standard Occupational Classification,
which has been adopted as the classification system for all
Government agencies that collect occupational employment
data.
The economy is expected to generate 25.6 million addi­
tional jobs between 1982 and 1995. Forty occupations are
expected to account for about one-half of this projected job
growth (table 1). In general, these occupations are numeri­
cally large— all had more than 250,000 workers in 1982.
Occupations that require extensive training are not found to
any greater extent in table 1 than are those requiring little
formal training. Only one-fourth of the occupations gener­
ally require a college degree. Several occupations— for
example, trades helpers, blue-collar worker supervisors, and
carpenters— are on the list only because the 1980 and
1981—82 recessions caused employment to drop sharply
from 1979 to 1982. Thus, growth in these occupations
reflects recovery to prerecession levels.
The occupations with the highest growth rates between
1982 and 1995 are shown in table 2. The list is dominated
by occupations that are tied to expanding industries and
which have been among the fastest growing in the economy
for the past decade. Almost half of the 20 occupations in the
list are either in the computer or health fields. For some
occupations, the high growth rates reflect recovery from the
recession. Note also that the fastest growing occupations
generally are not found on the list of occupations that will
add the most jobs over the period.
Occupations expected to decline over the period gener­
ally are concentrated in industries that are contracting or
severely affected by technological change (table 3). For
example, railroad conductors are employed exclusively in a
declining industry, while data entry operators are affected

Employment in mining increased faster than any other
sector during the 1970’s and early 1980’s. Nearly all of this
growth occurred in coal mining and oil and gas drilling.
Through the mid-1990’s, employment growth in the min­
ing sector will slow dramatically. Between 1982 and 1995,
employment is expected to grow from 1.1 to 1.2 million, or
7 percent. The continued importance of coal as an energy
source will lead to higher employment in that industry.
Employment in oil and gas extraction, however, is expected
to decline as domestic production levels off. Other mining
industries are expected to attain their prerecession levels but
have little long-run growth because of lower demand and
improved mining technology.
Employment in construction dropped by 550,000 between
1979 and 1982 as high interest rates and low economic
activity limited new construction, especially housing. Despite
several economic slumps, employment had increased dur­
ing the 1970’s.
As the economic recovery continues, employment in
construction is expected to rise to prerecession levels and
continue to grow. Between 1982 and 1995, employment in
the construction sector is expected to increase from 3.9 to
5.8 million, or 48 percent. Through the late 1980’s, the
demand for housing is expected to be strong as the number
of households continues to increase. During the early 1990’s,
the growth in households will slow and possibly limit the
demand for new housing. Business expansion and mainte­
nance of existing buildings will lead to higher construction
activity through 1995.
Manufacturing employment dropped between 1979 and
1982 as a result o f the recession, following a slight increase
during the 1970’s. As the economy recovers, overall manu­
6

Table 1.
1 9 8 2 -9 5

employment in government and educational services is likely
to grow more slowly than the average due to the anticipated
modest growth of these industries.
Because of the increasing number of people seeking man­
agerial and administrative jobs and the increasing technical
requirements in many of these occupations, experience, spe­
cialized training, or postbaccalaureate study will be needed
for many managerial jobs. Familiarity with computers also
will be helpful as managers and administrators increasingly
rely on computerized information systems to direct their
organizations.

Forty occupations with largest job growth,

Occupation
B u ild in g c u s to d ia n s .......................................
C a s h ie rs .................................................................
S e c r e t a r i e s .............................................................
G e n e ra l c le rk s , o ffic e ....................................
S a le s c le r k s .............................................................
N u rs e s , r e g i s t e r e d ...........................................
W a ite rs an d w a i t r e s s e s ................................
T e a c h e rs , k in d e rg a rte n and
e le m e n ta ry ......................................................
T r u c k d r i v e r s .........................................................
N u rs in g a id e s an d o r d e r l i e s ......................
S a le s re p re s e n ta tiv e s , te c h n ic a l . . . .

Change in
total employment
(in thousands)

Percent of
total
job growth

Percent
change

779
744
719
696
685
642
562

3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.5
2.2

27.5
47.4
29.5
29.6
23.5
48.9
33.8

511
425
423
386

2.0
1.7
1.7
1.5

37.4
26.5
34.8
29.3

A c c o u n ta n ts an d a u d ito rs .........................
A u to m o tiv e m e c h a n ic s ................................
S u p e rv is o rs o f b lu e -c o lla r w o rk e rs . .
K itch e n h e l p e r s ..................................................
G u a rd s an d d o o r k e e p e r s .............................
Food p re p a ra tio n an d s e rv ic e w o rk e rs ,
fa s t fo o d r e s t a u r a n t s ................................
M a n a g e rs , s to re ...............................................
C a r p e n t e r s .........................................................
E lec trical an d e le c tro n ic te c h n ic ia n s
L ic e n s e d p ra c tic a l n u rs e s .........................

344
324
319
305
300

1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2

40.2
38.3
26.6
35.9
47.3

297
292
247
222
220

1.2
1.1
1.0
.9
.9

36.7
30.1
28.6
60.7
37.1

C o m p u te r s y s te m s a n a l y s t s .....................
E lec trical e n g in e e rs .......................................
C o m p u te r p ro g ra m m e rs .............................
M a in te n a n c e re p a ire rs , g e n e ra l u tility
H e lp e rs , t r a d e s ..................................................
R e c e p tio n is ts ......................................................
E le c t r ic ia n s .............................................................
P h y s ic ia n s .............................................................
C le ric a l s u p e rv is o rs .......................................
C o m p u te r o p e r a t o r s .......................................
S a le s re p re s e n ta tiv e s , n o n te c h n ic a l . .

217
209
205
193
190
189
173
163
162
160
160

.8
.8
.8
.8

.6
.6
.6

85.3
65.3
76.9
27.8
31.2
48.8
31.8
34 0
34.6
75.8
27.4

L a w y e r s ....................................................................
S to c k c le rk s , s to c k ro o m and
w a re h o u s e ......................................................
T y p is ts ....................................................................
D e liv e ry an d ro u te w o rk e rs ......................
B o o k k e e p e rs , han d
.......................................
C o o k s , r e s t a u r a n t s ...........................................
B ank te lle rs .........................................................
C o o k s , s h o rt o rd e r , s p e c ia lty an d fast
fo o d ....................................................................

159

.6

34.3

156
155
153
152
149
142

.6
.6
.6
.6
.6
.6

18.8
15.7
19.2
15.9
42.3
30.0

141

.6

N o te:
In c lu d e s o n ly d e ta ile d o c c u p a tio n s w ith 1982 e m p lo y m e n t o f
D a ta fo r 1995 a re b ase d on m o d e ra te -tre n d p ro je c tio n s .

.7
.7
.7
.7

25,000

Engineers, scientists, and related occupations. Workers in
these occupations design buildings, machinery, products,
and systems; conduct research; and perform related activities.
Employment in many occupations in this group is expected
to increase faster than the average; in several— electronics
engineers, mechanical engineers, and systems analysts— it
will increase much faster than the average.
Increased military expenditures, growing demand for com­
puters and other electronics equipment, expansion and auto­
mation of industrial production, and development o f energy
sources are some of the factors expected to lead to higher
em ploym ent in engineering occupations. The grow ing
application of computers in business and research will con­
tribute to increased employment o f systems analysts. Re­
search to expand basic knowledge, develop new technolo­
gies and products, and protect the environment is expected
to lead to higher employment in many scientific and engi­
neering occupations. However, if the rate of economic
growth and the research and development levels differ from
those assumed, the job outlook in many of these occupa­
tions would be altered. Competition in some smaller occupa­
tions that depend on Government funding, such as astrono­
mers, will continue to be keen.

32.2
o r m o re .

by technological change.
In the following discussion, the employment growth rates
of individual occupations usually are compared to the national
average for all occupations. The six phrases which describe
employment growth are explained in the box on page 11.

Social science, social service, and related occupations. In
these occupations, workers provide direct social services
T a b le 2 .

T w e n ty fa s te s t g r o w in g

o c c u p a tio n s , 1 9 8 2 - 9 5

O c c u p a tio n
C o m p u te r s e rv ic e te c h n ic ia n s
L ega l a s s i s t a n t s ..................................................................................................
C o m p u te r s y s te m s a n a ly s ts .....................................................................
C o m p u te r p r o g r a m m e r s ...............................................................................
C o m p u te r o p e ra to rs .......................................................................................
O ffic e m a c h in e r e p a i r e r s ...............................................................................
P h y s ic a l th e ra p y a s s i s t a n t s ........................................................................
E le c tric a l e n g i n e e r s ..........................................................................................
C ivil e n g in e e rin g t e c h n i c i a n s ....................................................................
P e rip h e ra l E D P e q u ip m e n t o p e r a t o r s ..................................................

9 6 .8
9 4 .3
8 5 .3
7 6 .9
7 5 .8
7 1 .7
6 7 .8
6 5 .3
6 3 .9
6 3 .5

In s u r a n c e c le rk s , m e d i c a l ............................................................................
E le c tric a l a n d e le c tro n ic te c h n ic ia n s ..................................................
O c c u p a tio n a l th e ra p is ts ...............................................................................
S u rv e y o r h e lp e rs ..............................................................................................
C re d it c le rk s , b a n k in g a n d in s u r a n c e ...................................................
P h y s ic a l th e ra p is ts ..........................................................................................
E m p lo y m e n t in te rv ie w e rs ...........................................................................
M e c h a n ic a l e n g in e e rs ....................................... ...........................................
M e c h a n ic a l e n g in e e rin g te c h n ic ia n s ...................................................
C o m p re s s io n a n d in je c tio n m o ld m a c h in e o p e ra to rs ,
p l a s t i c s ................................................................................................................

Administrative and m anagerial occupations. Workers in
these occupations direct and control the activities of busi­
nesses, government agencies, and other organizations, or
provide technical support to workers who do. In most of
these occupations, employment is expected to increase about
as fast as the average for all occupations. Although manag­
ers and administrators are employed throughout the economy,
differences in industry growth will result in differences in
the rates of employment growth for managers and adminis­
trators. For example, employment of managers in the health
industry is expected to increase much faster than the average.
Employment of managers also should grow as fast or faster
than the average in electronic components manufacturing,
data processing services, credit and securities firms, automo­
tive repairs, and social services. In contrast, managerial

P e r c e n t g ro w th In
e m p lo y m e n t

6 2 .2
6 0 .7
5 9 .8
5 8 .6
5 4 .1
5 3 .6
5 2 .5
5 2 .1
5 1 .6
5 0 .3

N o te :
In c lu d e s o n ly d e ta ile d o c c u p a tio n s w ith 1 9 8 2 e m p lo y m e n t o f 2 5 , 0 0 0 o r m o re .
D a ta fo r 1 9 9 5 a re b ase d o n m o d e ra te -tre n d p ro je c tio n s .

7

among the occupations providing the most new jobs through
the mid-1990’s. Despite the anticipated growth in the health
industry, physicians, dentists, chiropractors, and veterinari­
ans seeking to establish practices can expect unprecedented
competition due to the large number of newly trained practi­
tioners entering those fields each year.
These projections are based on the assumption that health
care expenditures will continue to increase rapidly. However,
current efforts to control health costs could substantially
change reimbursement procedures and, thereby, directly
affect the economic incentives of suppliers of health care.
Such changes could cause employment to be lower than the
level projected in many health occupations. In some, such
as health record technicians, new procedures could lead to
more growth than currently projected.

and conduct applied research into the behavior of individuals,
groups, and society at large. Employment in many of these
occupations is expected to grow about as fast as the average.
However, due to the number of people interested in these
fields, competition for jobs is expected in many social sci­
ence occupations— especially for academic positions. Gen­
erally, prospects will be better for social scientists with
advanced degrees who seek work in applied fields.
Competition also is likely for jobs as social and recreation
workers in public and voluntary agencies as well as for
salaried positions for lawyers.
Teachers, librarians, and counselors. These workers help
people learn, acquire inform ation, or gain insight into
themselves. Because of anticipated enrollment declines and
an abundance of qualified jobseekers, keen competition is
expected for jobs in college and university teaching, as
librarians, in counseling, and, through 1990, in secondary
school teaching. Staff cutbacks in school systems and social
service agencies will intensify competition for these jobs.
As school enrollments increase after 1985, job prospects
for elementary school teachers are expected to be more
favorable than in recent years. Prospects in secondary schools
may improve in the early 1990’s, as enrollments begin to
increase. Teachers and librarians generally will face better
job prospects in scientific and technical fields.

W riters, artists, and entertainers. This group includes
reporters, writers, designers, public relations specialists, and
performing artists. In most of these occupations, employ­
ment is expected to increase as fast as the average for all
occupations. The continued importance of advertising, pub­
lic relations, print and broadcast communications, and enter­
tainment will spur employment growth.
Stiff competition for these jobs is likely, due to the large
numbers of people they attract. Talent and personal drive
will continue to play an extremely important role in suc­
ceeding. Within individual occupations, some areas will
offer better job prospects. The best prospects for writers and
editors, for example, will be in technical writing and in
preparing business and trade publications.

Health-related occupations. This group includes health
practitioners, nurses, health technicians and technologists,
health service workers, dietitians, pharmacists, and ther­
apists. These workers care for the sick, help the disabled^
and advise individuals and communities on ways of main­
taining and improving their health.
Employment in most health occupations is expected to
grow faster than average as population growth— especially
in the number o f older people— increases the demand for
health care. Registered nurses, nursing aides, and orderlies,
because of their number and anticipated growth, will be
Table 3.
1 9 8 2 -9 5

Technologists and technicians. Workers in this group assist
engineers, scientists, and other professionals as well as oper­
ate and program technical equipment independently. The
continued growth in the importance o f technology to national
defense, office work, manufacturing, and other activities is
expected to cause much faster than average employment
growth for several occupations in this group, such as legal
assistants, program m ers, and electrical and electronics
technicians.
Growth in some occupations will be limited by changes
in technology. Little or no change is expected for drafters
because of the increasing use of computer-aided design
equipment. Similarly, little or no change is expected for air
traffic controllers because of the automation of air traffic
control equipment.

Tw enty m ost rapidly declining occupations,
Occupation

Percent decline
in employment

R a ilro a d c o n d u c to rs .......................................................................................
S h o e m a k in g m a c h in e o p e ra tiv e s ..........................................................
A irc ra ft s tru c tu re a s s e m b le r s .....................................................................
C e n tra l te le p h o n e o ffic e o p e ra to rs ......................................................
T a x i d r i v e r s .........................................................................................................
P o s ta l c le rk s .........................................................................................................
P riv a te h o u s e h o ld w o rk e rs ........................................................................
F a rm la b o re rs ..............................................................................................
C o lle g e a n d u n iv e rs ity fa c u lty .................................................................

-3 2 0
-3 0 2
-2 1 .0
-2 0 0
-1 8 9
-1 7 9
-1 6 .9
-1 5 .9
-1 5 0

R o u s ta b o u ts .........................................................................................................
P o s tm a s te rs a n d m a il s u p e rin te n d e n ts ...........................................
R o ta ry d rill o p e ra to r h e lp e rs .....................................................................
G ra d u a te a s s i s t a n t s ................................................................................
O a ta e n try o p e ra to rs ..............................................................
R a ilro a d b ra k e o p e ra to rs .....................................................................
F a lle rs a n d b u c k e r s ................................................................................
S t e n o g r a p h e r s .........................................................................
F a rm o w n e rs a n d t e n a n t s ............................................
T y p e s e tte rs a n d c o m p o s it o r s ...............................................
B u tc h e rs a n d m e a t c u t t e r s ...............................................

-1 4 4
-1 3 .8
-1 1 .6
-1 1 .2
-1 0 6
-9 8
-8 .7
-7 4
-7 .3
-7 .3
-6 .3

Marketing and sales occupations. Workers in this group
sell goods and services. Employment of travel agents, secu­
rity sales workers, real estate agents, and wholesale trade
sales workers is expected to grow faster than the average
due to the anticipated growth of the industries in which
these workers are employed.
A large number of part-time and full-time job openings
are expected for cashiers and retail trade sales workers due
to their number, high turnover, and anticipated employment

N o te:
In c lu d e s o n ly d e ta ile d o c c u p a tio n s w ith 1 9 8 2 e m p lo y m e n t o f 2 5 . 0 0 0 o r m o re .
D a ta fo r 1 9 9 5 a re b a s e d o n m o d e ra te -tre n d p ro je c tio n s .

8

average. In some, employment will increase faster than the
average. The increased use o f computers and advanced office
machinery, for example, will make employment o f com­
puter service technicians and office machine repairers grow
much faster than the average. For some mechanic and
repairer occupations, such as communications equipment
mechanics, improvements to machinery will lower mainte­
nance requirements and limit employment growth.

growth. Higher paying sales occupations, such as insurance
agent and real estate agent, tend to be more competitive
than retail sales occupations. Well-trained and ambitious
people who enjoy selling will have the best chance for eco­
nomic success.
A dm inistrative support occupations, including clerical.
Workers in this group prepare and record letters and other
documents; collect accounts; gather and distribute informa­
tion; operate office machines; and handle other tasks that
help run businesses, government agencies, and other organi­
zations. Some administrative support occupations, such as
computer and peripheral equipment operators, are expected
to grow much faster than the average due to the increased
use of computer systems.
The increase in office automation systems, on the other
hand, will limit employment opportunities in some adminis­
trative support occupations. Changes in organizational prac­
tices also will affect some o f these occupations. Despite a
growing volume of mail, little change is expected for mail
carriers because o f improved routing programs and more
centralized mail delivery. Several occupations in this group
will provide many full- and part-time job openings due to
their large size and high turnover. These include bank tellers,
bookkeepers and accounting clerks, secretaries, shipping
and receiving clerks, and typists.

Construction occupations. W orkers in this group construct,
alter, and maintain buildings and other structures. Employ­
ment in most of these occupations is expected to grow faster
than the average. Some of this growth, however, reflects
the return of employment to levels that existed before the
1980 and 1981—82 recessions. Increases in the population
and the number of households and a rise in spending for
new industrial plants are factors expected to lead to more
new construction. Alteration and modernization of existing
structures, as well as the need for maintenance and repair on
highway systems, dam s, and bridges also will increase
construction.
Continued technological developments in construction
methods, tools and equipm ent, and materials will limit
employment growth by raising the productivity of workers.
One important development, for example, is the continued
growth in the use of prefabricated materials. These materi­
als limit the number of workers needed at the construction
site.
Since the construction industry is sensitive to changes in
the Nation’s economy, employment in construction occupa­
tions may fluctuate from year to year. Construction workers
can expect periods of unemployment during downturns in
the economy.

Service occupations. This group includes a wide range of
workers in protective, food and beverage preparation,
cleaning, and personal services. Among the protective ser­
vice occupations, guards are expected to have faster than
average growth because of increased concern over crime
and vandalism. However, the anticipated slow growth of
local government spending is expected to result in slower
than average employment growth for police officers and
firefighters.
Rising incomes, increased leisure, and the growing num­
ber o f men and women who combine family responsibilities
and a job are expected to contribute to faster than average
employment growth among food and beverage preparation
and service occupations. Due to the large size, high turnover,
and growth o f many food service occupations, such as bar­
tenders and waiters/waitresses, full- and part-time job open­
ings will be plentiful.

Production occupations. Workers in these occupations per­
form tasks involved in the production of goods. They set
up, adjust, operate, and tend machinery and equipment, and
use handtools and hand-held power tools to fabricate and
assemble products.
The recovery o f the manufacturing industry from the
1981—82 recession and the growth projected for this sector
through the mid-1990’s will result in average employment
growth in many production occupations. For some, such as
patternmakers and job and die setters, most employment
growth reflects a rebounding of employment to prerecession
levels. Changes in production techniques and the increased
use of automated machinery, such as robots, will prevent
employment in some production occupations from rising as
rapidly as the output of goods.
Many production occupations are sensitive to fluctations
in the business cycle. Just as employment opportunities
increase when the economy is healthy, workers may experi­
ence shortened workweeks, layoffs, and plant closings when
factory orders decline during economic downturns.

Agricultural and fo restry occupations. W orkers in these
occupations produce the raw materials for food, clothing,
and shelter. Demand for food, fiber, and wood is expected
to increase as the world population grows. The development
and use of more productive farming and forestry methods,
however, is expected to result in declining employment in
most agricultural and forestry occupations.
Mechanics and repairers. These workers adjust, maintain,
and repair automobiles, industrial equipment, computers,
and many other types o f machinery. Employment in most of
these occupations is expected to grow about as fast as the

Transportation occupations. Workers in this group operate
the equipment used to move people and materials. Increas9

ing economic activity will increase the need for transport
services. This increase in demand is expected to result in
average employment growth for truckdrivers and airplane
pilots. Increased use of automated material handling systems,
however, is expected to cause slower than average growth
of employment o f industrial truck operators.

size, the earnings and status associated with the occupation,
the length of training required, the average age of workers,
and the proportion of part-time workers. Occupations with
the highest separation rates generally are large, with low
pay and status, low training requirements, and a high propor­
tion of young and part-time workers. The following 10 occu­
pations had the highest separation rates in 1981.

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers. Work­
ers in this group assist skilled workers and perform the
routine, unskilled tasks required to complete a project. Jobs
in these occupations generally are expected to be plentiful
due to the high turnover rate. However, economic down­
turns can lower substantially the number of openings, particu­
larly for construction laborers and other workers in indus­
tries sensitive to changes in the econom y. During the
projection period, as routine tasks are mechanized, employ­
ment in these occupations is expected to grow more slowly
than the average.
Since the employment prospects in individual occupa­
tions will differ within each of the 16 groups, it is important
to check the outlook for each occupation that interests you.
Current and projected employment estimates for nearly 700
occupations are presented in appendix B.

Occupation

Child care workers, private household ..........................58.8
Dining room attendants ....................................................57.8
Dishwashers ....................................................................... 51.8
Hucksters and peddlers ....................................................49.8
Food counter, fountain workers . . ' ................................ 47.2
Newspaper carriers and v e n d o rs .......................................47.1
Garage workers, gas station attendants ..........................44.5
Attendants, recreation and amusement ..........................43.0
Child care workers, except private household . . . . 41.7
Waiters and w a itre ss e s....................................................... 40.2

Workers in these occupations who lose their job or leave
voluntarily often find a similar job. They also have not
spent much money or time in training for their jobs, so the
incentive to stay is limited. Occupations with low training
requirements often attract workers with limited attachment
to the labor force, such as young people working part time.
Occupations with relatively low separation rates, on the
other hand, have high pay and status, lengthy training
requirements, and a high proportion of prime-working-age,
full-time workers. The following 10 occupations had the
lowest separation rates in 1981.

Replacement needs
Most discussions of future job opportunities focus on the
employment growth in industries and occupations. Because
faster growing industries and occupations generally offer
better opportunities for em ploym ent and advancem ent,
employment growth is a good gauge of job outlook. Another
element in the employment outlook, however, is replace­
ment needs. Replacement openings occur as people leave
occupations. Some transfer to other occupations as a step up
the career ladder or to change careers. Some temporarily
stop working, perhaps to return to school or care for a
family. And some leave the labor force perm anently—
retirees, for exam ple.
Through the m id-1990’s, most jobs will become avail­
able as the result of replacement needs. However, the pro­
portion o f workers who leave annually— the replacement
rate— varies significantly among occupations. Factors that
determine the separation rate in an occupation include its

Occupation

Workers in these occupations generally have spent sev­
eral years acquiring training that often is not applicable to
other occupations. These workers enjoy good pay and high
status, but would have difficulty changing to other highpaying occupations without extensive retraining.
When considering replacement needs, it is important to
note, first, that occupations with little or no employment
growth or slower than average growth can still offer many
job openings (chart 10). Second, in many occupations with
a large number of replacement openings, the pay and status
are low. Many available jobs are only part time. These
occupations, therefore, may not be suitable for a person
planning a long-term career, despite the large number of
openings. For more information about replacement needs,
see the March, 1984 issue of Monthly Labor Review.

Chart 10.-

Projected replacem ent
openings, 1982-95 (thousands)
1,500

Drafters

Secondary
school teachers

Drafters

Percent of workers leaving
their occupation over the
period o f 12 months.
1980—81

Dentists ..................................................................................1.2
Physicians .............................................................................. 1.4
F irefighters..............................................................................4.1
Electrical engineers ............................................................. 4.1
C h e m is ts .................................................................................4.2
Computer systems analysts ................................................ 5.3
Lawyers .................................................................................5.5
Mechanical engineers .......................................................... 6.2
Mail carriers/post o f f i c e ....................................................... 6.4
B a rb e rs .................................................................................... 6.8

Bacausa of replacem ent needs, even occupations that are growing
slow ly can have many Job openings.

Projected growth In
em ploym ent, 1982-95 (percent)

Percent o f workers leaving
their occupation over the
period o f 12 months.
1980-81

Secondary
school teachers

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics

10

Chapter 2.

Employment and Supply Profiles

occupations are sufficiently comparable so that CPS data
can provide a reasonable proxy to describe the characteris­
tics of workers in those occupations. Such data, given in the
employment profiles for occupations with 1982 CPS employ­
ment of 50,000 or more, include the percentage of women,
blacks, and part-time workers (usually 34 hours or fewer
per week). Also, for occupations with 100,000 or more
workers, the unemployment rate is compared with the aver­
age for all workers over the 1978—82 period according to
the following definitions:

Chapter 1 presented an overview of broad changes in
employment that are projected for the 1982—95 period. For
education programs and career planning, information also is
needed about detailed occupations. Statistics on 1982
employment and alternative 1995 employment projections
are presented for 673 detailed occupations in appendix table
B —1. For many purposes, however, additional information
about the characteristics of workers, the industries in which
they are employed, and general training requirements may
also be helpful. Such information is presented in employ­
ment profiles in this chapter for most occupations covered
in the 1984—85 edition o f the O ccupational Outlook
Handbook. Additional information about each occupation
can be found in the Handbook.

Up to 1st decile ................................................. much lower than
Between 1st and 3rd d e c i l e s ....................................... lower than
Between 3rd and 7th deciles
..............................................about
Between 7th and 9th deciles .................................... higher than
9th decile and above ....................................... much higher than

average
average
average
average
average

Employment profile
Each employment profile presents 1982 total employ­
ment and lists all industries that account for a significant
proportion of wage and salary worker employment. Each
profile also presents the 1995 low-, moderate-, and hightrend projections o f employment and corresponding rates of
change. The source of these data is the 1982—95 National
Industry-Occupation Employment M atrix, which is based
on the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey.
The same adjectives used in the 1984 —85 Occupational
Outlook Handbook are used here to describe how employ­
ment change projected for each occupation compares with
the average for all occupations. Figure 1 shows the range of

The employment profile also includes an annual replace­
ment rate— the proportion of workers who are likely to leave
the occupation each year— for occupations of 100,000 or
more: (This subject is discussed in chapter 1.)

Supply profile
Each supply profile includes a brief description of usual
entry level requirements. These requirements are stated in
general terms and therefore may differ from those of spe­
cific employers. For most occupations having comparable
OES and CPS definitions, the profile discusses briefly the
c h a ra c te ris tic s o f e n tra n ts a n d lis ts a p p ro p ria te fo rm a l educa­
tion and training programs.
Statistics on graduates or completions of various educa­
tion and training programs generally represent only a frac­
tion of the total number of entrants to most occupations.
Further, not all persons who complete training programs
enter the labor force; some take courses for personal, cultural,
or other reasons. In addition, many individuals enroll in
general education and training programs to learn skills needed
in many different occupations rather than to get a job in a
particular occupation. For these reasons, the data on comple­
tions of education or training programs in the supply pro­
files and appendix C should be used analytically to examine
the relationship of new graduates to total job openings rather
than to estimate shortages or surpluses.
The statements that follow are grouped the same way as
in the 1984—85 Occupational Outlook Handbook, accord­
ing to the Standard Occupational Classification Manual,
1980 edition.

d a ta th e d e s c rip tiv e te r m s c o v e r.

As indicated, employment data are collected through the
Occupational Employment Statistics Survey. W orker char­
acteristics, however, are available only from the Current
Population Survey (CPS). Although the occupational clas­
sifications used in the two surveys are not identical, many

Figure I: Changing Employment Between 1982 and 1995
If the statement reads—
Much faster than average . .
Faster than average growth . .
Growth about as fast as
a v e r a g e .................................
Growing more slowly than
a v e r a g e .................................
Little change ..........................
Decline

....................................

Employment is projected to—
Increase 50 percent or more
Increase 30 to 49 percent
Increase 20 to 29 percent
Increase 6 to 9 percent
Increase or decrease 5
percent
Decrease 6 percent or more

11

Bank officers and managers

Administrative and Managerial Occupations

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Accountants and auditors

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 424,000

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .............................................................
37.1
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................3.0
Percent employed part time ..............................................................2.2

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 856,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................38.6
Percent black ................................................................................. 5.0
Percent employedpart time ......................................................... 6.4
Unemployment rate

Unemployment rate

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent
Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping
services ..............................................................................
19.7
Manufacturing ........................................................................
17.4
Government ...........................................................................
12.7
Wholesale trade ..........................................................................
8.2
Retail t r a d e ...................................................................................
5.3

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

Annual replacement rate

Low

Moderate
1,200,000
40.2

1,229,000
43.6

617,000
45.4

High
627,000
47.7

...........................................................9.6 percent

Usual entry level requirements. Experience as a management trainee
or as a bank clerk or teller is required for bank officer and manage­
ment positions. Management trainees usually must have a bachelor’s
degree in business administration with a major in finance, or in a
liberal arts curriculum such as accounting, economics, commercial
law, political science, or statistics. Some banks prefer trainees
who have a master’s degree in business administration (MBA). Some
banks promote outstanding clerks and tellers to management posi­
tions.

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

Moderate

SU PP LY PR O FILE

High

1,181,000
38.0

611,000
44.0

Employment c h a n g e .....................................................Faster than average

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

Percent

Commercial and stock savings b a n k s .................................
92.2
Mutual savings banks ...........................................................
3.6
All other banking .......................................................................
4.2

...........................................................8.2 percent

SU PP LY PR O FILE
Usual entry level requirements. Many small employers accept com­
pletion of a 1- or 2-year program in accounting for entry level
positions. Large firms, however, usually require a bachelor’s degree
in accounting for entry jobs and many prefer a master’s degree.

Characteristics of entrants. Most entrants transfer from other pro­
fessional and clerical occupations; some have been working part
time while in school. The remaining entrants—mostly full-time
students and homemakers reentering the labor force—have not
been working. The majority of entrants have some college training,
and many are college graduates.

Training completions:
Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 19821 . . . . 113,418
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981 ....................................19,880
Associate and others below baccalaureate, 1982 ..............................15,734

Buyers, retail and wholesale trade

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Accounting:
B a c h e lo r's ........................................................................... 45,542
Master’s ................................................................................. 3,246
Ph.D.................................................................................................. 61

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 256,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................43.1
Percent black .................................................................................. 2.6
Percent employed part time ........................................................ 8.4

1 Accounting and computing occupations.

Characteristics o f entrants. The majority of all entrants are college
graduates. More than one-half of all job openings are filled by
persons who have not been working; many were students or
homemakers. The remainder transfer from other occupations—
mostly students who have been working part time; some are trained
accountants working in other occupations as well as bookkeepers
and accounting clerks advancing to professional positions.

Unemployment rate

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry
Department stores ......................................................................
Grocery stores .........................................................................

12

Percent
15.9
15.1

Industry

Percent

Miscellaneous retail stores ...................................................
(includes drug, proprietary, liquor, used
merchandise, and related stores)
Apparel and accessory stores ..................................................

and practices in eith er a general area like heavy construction, o r in
a specialized area such as electrical o r plum bing system s, rein­
forced concrete, o r structural steel. M any em ployers prefer inspec­
tors who have com pleted an apprenticeship program , studied en g i­
neering o r architecture fo r at least 2 y ears, o r earned a related
associate degree from a com m unity o r ju n io r college.

12.2

10.6

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

321,000
25.6

Moderate
331,000
29.5

High

Characteristics o f entrants. M ost entrants transfer from other

336,000
31.4

occupations— prim arily craft w orker, supervisor, o r construction
contractor. A lthough m any have com pleted som e postsecondary
education o r training, few are college graduates.

.......................................................................... Average

Annual replacement rate

....................................................... 13.9 percent

Health and regulatory inspectors

SU PP LY PR O FILE

EM P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

Usual entry level requirements. Fam iliarity with m erchandise and
w ith w holesaling and retailing generally is required. E xperience is
m ost often gained as an assistant buyer o r buyer trainee. High
school and postsecondary m arketing and distributive education
program s can lead to one o f these entry positions. An increasing
num ber o f em ployers prefer applicants w ho have a college degree,
with a m ajor in m arketing o r purchasing.

Total employment, 1982 .....................................................................101,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ..................................................................................15.0
Percent black .................................................................................. 7.5
Percent employed part time ....................................................... 2.8
Unemployment rate

Training completions:

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Marketing and purchasing:
Bachelor’s .......................................................................... 26,945
Master’s ................................................................................ 2,022
Ph.D................................................................................................. 24

Industry

Percent

Federal Government .................................................................
State g o v e rn m e n t........................................................................
Local g overnm ent........................................................................

Characteristics o f entrants. T his is not an entry level jo b . M ost

35.7
34.0
26.0

Projected employment, 1982-95:

entrants transfer from other occupations— prim arily assistant buyer
and buyer trainee. T he rem aining entrants have not been w orking—
m ost have been tending to fam ily responsibilities, betw een jo b s, or
in school. B ecause o f the im portance o f w ork experience, entrants
tend to be considerably older than entrants to o ther occupations.
M any entrants have had som e college training.

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

111,000
9.4

Moderate
108,000
6.5

High
113,000
11.0

................................................. Slower than average

Annual replacement rate

...........................................................6.8 percent

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Construction inspectors, public administration
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Usual entry level requirements. B ecause these w orkers specialize

Total employment, 1982

in the inspection o f item s ranging from m eat to m ines to com m er­
cial airline o p e ratio n s, a g reat div ersity o f d e ta ile d technical
know ledge, background, and experience exists. M any jo b s require
a college degree in an engineering o r a scientific specialty, w hile
others require experience in a related occupation.

39,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Local government .....................................................................
Federal G o v e rn m e n t..................................................................
State government .....................................................................

74.1
13.4
12.5

Characteristics o f entrants. O v er h a lf o f all entrants have not been
w orking— m ost have been in school and others have been betw een
jobs. The rem aining entrants transfer from other occupations where
they have gained the required know ledge and experience. E ntrants
tend to be considerably o ld er than entrants to o th er occu pations,
reflecting the im portance o f w ork experience. A bout h a lf o f all

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

.................................................... Lower than average

46,000
17.2

Moderate
46,000
17.4

High
47,000
21.0

entrants have a college degree.
Employment change

.................................................Slower than average

SU PPLY PRO FILE

Health services administrators

Usual entry level requirements. A high school diplom a and several
years o f experience are generally required for construction inspec­
tors. Inspectors need a thorough know ledge o f construction m aterials

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

13

303,000

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................50.9
Percent black ................................................................................. 3.5
Percent employed part time ....................................................... 3.2
Unemployment rate

Usual entry level requirements. Although most employers will
accept applicants without formal training who have previous work
experience in this field, a growing number of employers are empha­
sizing college or specialized postsecondary education.

....................................................Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers),
1982:

Industry
H o s p ita ls .................................................................................
Offices of physicians ..........................................................
Nursing and personal care fa c ilitie s ....................................

Training completions:

Percent
46.3
18.6
14.7

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary,
1982' .................................................................................................... 2,224
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 19811 ......................................
261
Associate and other degrees belowbaccalaureate, 19822 ............... 2,535
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, I9822:
Bachelor’s ....................................................................................... 2,169
Master’s ........................................................................................
97
P h D ..................................................................................................
2

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

472,000
55.9

Moderate
478,000
57.8

High
494,000
63.2

1 Hotel and lodging.
2 Hotel and restaurant management.

Employment c h a n g e .......................................... Much faster than average
Annual replacement rate

Personnel and labor relations specialists

....................................................... I l l percent

SU PPLY PR O FILE

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Usual entry level requirements. Due to very strong competition
for top administrative positions, those who aspire to these jobs
generally must have the master’s degree in hospital administration,
health administration, or public health. This field is quite diverse,
however, and offers opportunities for those with degrees or work
experience in areas such as finance, public relations, marketing,
and management information systems.

Total employment, 1982 .................................................................. 203,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................49.6
Percent black ................................................................................. 9.2
Percent employed part time ....................................................... 4.6
Unemployment rate

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Training completions:

Industry

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Hospital and health care administration
and public health:
Bachelor's .......................................................................................2,683
Master's .......................................................................................... 3,952
Ph.D..........................................................
227

Percent

Durable goods m anufacturing..................................................
Business associations ...............................................................
Federal G o v e rn m e n t..................................................................
Labor u n i o n s ...............................................................................

18.7
12.3
M.7
10.5

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

Characteristics o f entrants. Most entrants transfer from other
occupations—primarily other health occupations. Some have
worked in these while attending graduate school. Many of the
remaining entrants have been tending to family responsibilities.
Because of the emphasis placed on work experience and advanced
education, entrants tend to be much older than entrants to other
occupations.

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

249,000
22.5

Moderate
250,000
23.2

High
257,000
26.6

.......................................................................... Average

Annual replacement rate

...........................................................9.7 percent

SU PP LY PRO FILE

Hotel managers and assistants

Usual entry level requirements. Educational requirements vary
considerably. In filling entry level jobs, firms generally seek
college graduates. Some employers prefer applicants who have
majored in personnel administration or industrial and labor rela­
tions, while others look for college graduates with a technical or
business background. Still others feel that a well-rounded liberal
arts education is best. Regardless of academic background, many
employers stress the importance of prior work experience.

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

67,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Hotels and other lodging p l a c e s ..........................................

100.0

Training completions:

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

82,000
22.2

Moderate
82,000
23.1

High

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Personnel management and labor and industrial relations:
Bachelor's . . . ..............................................................................4,059
Master’s ........................................................................................1,482
P h D ..................................................................................................
21

84,000
25.0

.......................................................................... Average

14

School administrators

Characteristics o f entrants. Most entrants transfer from a variety
of other occupations; consequently, they tend to be much older
than entrants to other occupations. Others enter directly from school
or return to the occupation after tending to family responsibilities.

EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 ..................................................................133,000

E M P L O Y M E N T P R O F IL E

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982
Percent female ................................................................................. 36.2
Percent black ..................................................................................... 12.4
Percent employed part time ........................................................ 5.1

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 191,000

Unemployment rate

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................35.7
Percent black ................................................................................. 5.3
Percent employed part time ......................................................... 1.7

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Purchasing agents

Unemployment rate

..................................................... Lower than average

Industry
Educational s e r v i c e s ..............................................................

.................................................... Lower than average

Low

Percent

Federal G o v e rn m e n t..............................................................
Nondurable goods m an u factu rin g .......................................
Machinery manufacturing, except electrical ....................
Business services .................................................................
Transportation equipment m an u factu rin g ..........................
Electrical and electronic machinery and
equipment m anufacturing.................................................

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

13.6
13.1
8.8
7.3
7.3

Annual replacement rate

7.1

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

242,000
26.9

Moderate
242,000
2 7 .1

153,000
15.1

High
156,000
17.6

................................................. Slower than average
........................................................... 7.1 percent

Usual entry level requirements. All 50 States and the District of
Columbia require certification; certification requirements vary but
may include good health and character, U.S. citizenship or State
residency, graduate training in education administration, teaching
experience, and passing an examination.

H igh
250,000
30.9

.......................................................................... Average

Annual replacement rate

150,000
12.7

Moderate

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Employment change

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

100.0

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Training completions:

...........................................................9.4 percent

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Educational administration:
Bachelor's .....................................................................................
34
Master’s ........................................................................................... 9,019
P h D ...................................................................................................... 1,423

SU P P LY PR O FILE
Usual entry level requirements. There are no universal educational
requirements for entry level jobs. Many smaller companies promote
clerks or technicians in the purchasing department or hire graduates
of associate degree programs in purchasing. Some small companies
and most large organizations require a college degree and prefer
applicants with a master’s degree in business administration or
management.

Characteristics o f entrants. A very high proportion of job open­
ings are filled by persons who transfer from teaching positions.
Many of the remaining entrants are former school administrators
who have been tending to family responsibilities. The majority of
entrants are 35 or older.

Training completions:

Underwriters
Associate and other degrees below
baccalaureate, 1982'
31,688
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Marketing and purchasing:
Bachelor’s .................................................................................. 26,945
Master’s ..................................................................................... 2,022
P h D ...........................................................................................
24

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

76,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Characteristics of entrants. Over half of all entrants transfer from
other occupations—many of these are clerical and technical workers
in the purchasing department who move up the career ladder and
others who have specialized knowledge of particular products or
services. The remaining entrants have not been working—most have
been unemployed. Entrants tend to be older than entrants to other
occupations.

Percent

Fire, marine, and casualty insurance .................................
Insurance agents, brokers, and services ..........................
Life insurance ........................................................................

1 Marketing, distribution, purchasing, business, and industrial manage­
ment technologies.

42.5
39.2
13.8

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

15

90,000
19.0

Moderate
92,000
21.1

High
93,000
23.2

...........................................................................Average

Surveyors

SU PP LY PR O FILE

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. For beginning underwriting jobs,
most large insurance companies prefer college graduates who have
a degree in liberal arts or business administration, but a major in
almost any field provides a good general background. Some small
companies hire persons without a college degree for trainee posi­
tions. In addition, some experienced underwriting clerks are pro­
moted to underwriter positions.

Total employment, 1982

................................................................. 44,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .......................................................
1.5
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................ 1.5
Percent employed part time ............................................................. 4.3
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:
Industry

Percent

Engineering, architectural, and
surveying s e rv ic e s ..............................................................
Local government .................................................................
Federal G o v e rn m e n t..............................................................

Engineers, Surveyors, and
Architects

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Architects

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

4 6 .1
10.9
8.7

Low

M oderate

High

62,000
43.1

64,000
47.3

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

SU P P LY PR O FILE

84,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ..............................................................................
Percent black .................................................................................
Percent employed part time .......................................................

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. All States and the District of
Columbia require that surveyors be licensed. Requirements vary,
but all jurisdictions require applicants to have some combination
of formal education and work experience on a surveying crew and
pass a written examination. Surveying programs are available in
postsecondary vocational schools and community or junior
colleges. A few colleges and universities offer the bachelor’s de­
gree in surveying; others offer courses in surveying as part of a
civil engineering or forestry curriculum.

8.5
3.2
4.5

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:
Industry

Percent

Engineering, architectural, and
surveying s e rv ic e s ..................................................................
Federal G o v e rn m e n t...................................................................

70.6
6,3

Projected employment, 1982-95:
Low

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

61,000
40.5

116,000
37.7

M oderate

118,000
39.7

Engineers

High

121,000
43.3

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 .............................................................. 1,204,000

Employment c h a n g e ....................................................Faster than average

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................... 5.7
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................2.3
Percent employed part time .. . .......................................................1.9

SU P P LY PR O FILE
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. All States and the District of
Columbia require individuals to be registered before they may call
themselves architects or contract for architectural services. To
qualify for the registration examination, applicants generally need
at least a Bachelor of Architecture degree from an accredited
program and 3 years of experience working for an architect. Addi­
tional experience may be substituted for formal education.

Unemployment rate

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:
Industry

Percent

Electrical and electronic machinery
and equipment manufacturing ........................................
Transportation equipment m an u fa ctu rin g ..........................
Machinery manufacturing, except electrical
equipment ...........................................................................
Engineering, architectural, and
surveying s e rv ic e s ..............................................................
Federal Government ..............................................................

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Architecture:
Bachelor's ....................................................................................... 5,796
Master's ........................................................................................... 1,610
P h D ..................................................................................................
22

13.1
11. 1
10.5
10.4
7.5

Projected employment, 1982-95:
Low

C h a r a c te r is tic s o f e n tra n ts.

Almost all entrants are recent college

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

graduates.

16

M oderate

High

1,787,000
48.4

1,788,000
48.5

1,831,000
52.0

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

Industry

Percent

Chemical and allied product m an u factu rin g .......................
Durable goods manufacturing ..............................................
Engineering, architectural, and surveying
s e r v ic e s ..................................................................................
Business s e r v i c e s .....................................................................

32.8
13.4

Annual Replacement r a t e .......................................................... 7.3 percent

SU PP LY PR O FILE
A bachelor’s degree in engineer­
ing is generally required for beginning engineering jobs. College
graduates with a degree in science or mathematics and experienced
technicians may also qualify for some jobs. Many engineers obtain
a master’s degree, which is desirable for promotion or for learning
new technologies.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

8.8
7.4

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Moderate

79,000
40.9

High

80,000
43.5

82,000
47.0

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Bachelor’s ................................................................................. 80,005
Master's ........................................................................................17,939
Ph.D................................................................................................ 2,636

Civil engineers
E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

About half of all entrants are recent
engineering graduates. Most of the remainder transfer from other
occupations—generally persons with previous training or experience
in engineering or a closely related occupation. Other entrants are
recent science and mathematics graduates, immigrant engineers,
and persons over 55 who have not worked the previous year.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Total employment, 1982 .....................................................................155,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................... 2.5
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................2.5
Percent employed part time .............................................................. 1.6
Unemployment rate

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Aerospace engineers
E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

44,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982
Percent female ....................... .............................................................4.2
Unemployment rate

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

226,000
45.1

Moderate
228,000
46.8

High
236.000
51.7

Percent
Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

Aircraft and parts manufacturing .......................................
49.8
Federal G o v e rn m e n t..................................................................
18.3
Business services ......................................................................
5.8

Annual replacement rate

Projected employment, 1982-95:

...........................................................6.9 percent

Electrical engineers
Low

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

32.5
15.4
13.1
12.6
10.8

Projected employment, 1982-95:

.......................................... Much lower than average

Industry

Percent

Engineering, architectural, and
surveying services ..................................................................
State g o v e rn m e n t........................................................................
Local g overnm ent........................................................................
Federal Government ..................................................................
Construction
...............................................................................

65,000
48.8

Moderate
62,000
40.6

High

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

62,000
42.4

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 320,000

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................... 4.0
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................2.2
Percent employed part time .............................................................. 1.8

Chemical engineers

Unemployment r a t e ...........................................Much lower than average

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

56,000

Percent

Electrical and electronic machinery
and equipment m an u fa ctu rin g ...........................................
26.4
Communications and utilities ..............................................
14.5
Machinery manufacturing, except e le c tric a l.......................
11.6
Business s e r v i c e s .........................................................................
7.3

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................... 7.3
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................1.3
Percent employed part time .................................................................9

17

Industry

Percent

Engineering, architectural, and surveying
s e r v ic e s .................................................................................

Employment c h a n g e .......................................... Much faster than average
Annual replacement rate

Metallurgical engineers

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

...........................................................4.3 percent

7.0

531,000
66.0

Moderate
528,000
65.3

High

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

540,000
69.1

Total employment, 1982

14,000

Employment c h a n g e .......................................... Much faster than average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:
Annual replacement rate

.......................................................... 4.1 percent

Industry

Industrial engineers
EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

24.4
10.6
10.0

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

Total employment, 1982 .................................................................... 160,000
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 14.2
Percent black ................................................................................. 4.2
Percent employedpart time ......................................................... 2.8
Unemployment rate

Percent

Primary metal industries ...........................................................
Transportation equipment ........................................................
Business s e r v i c e s ........................................................................

Moderate

20,000
46.1

High

21,000
47.5

21,000
50.2

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

....................................................Lower than average

Mining engineers

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Machinery manufacturing, except e le c tric a l..........................
Electrical and electronic machinery
and equipment m an u factu rin g ..............................................
Transportation equipment manufacturing ..............................

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

20.2
Total employment, 1982

18.1
13.7

5,700

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Bituminous coal and lignite mining ....................................
Metal m in in g ...........................................................................
Federal Government ..............................................................

29.6
15.3
10.8

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

226.000
41.0

Moderate
227,000
41.6

H igh
232,000
45.0

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Employment c h a n g e ....................................................Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

Low

....................................................... 14.6 percent

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Moderate

6,900
21.2

7,000
22.4

High
7,100
24.7

Mechanical engineers
Employment change

.......................................................................... Average

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Nuclear engineers

Total employment. 1982 ................................................................. 209,000
Selected characteristics of workers. 1982:
Percent female ....................................................................................2.9
Percent b l a c k .......................................................................................2.1
Percent employed part time ..............................................................1.2

Total employment, 1982

Unemployment rate

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

....................................................Lower than average

.................................................................... 6,300

Industry

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Federal Government .................................................................
Engineering, architectural, and
surveying services .................................................................
Electric services ........................................................................

Percent

Durable goods manufacturing .............................................
Engineering, architectural, and
surveying services ..............................................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing .......................................

46.6
14.7
11.6

Low

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

314,000
50.1

Moderate
318,000
52.1

40.2
24.5
16.4

Projected employment. 1982-95:

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

Percent

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

High
327,000
56.5

Employment change

18

9,400
50.5

Moderate
9.300
47.9

High
9,700
53.9

Faster than average

Computer systems analysts

Petroleum engineers
E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

EM P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

Total employment, 1982

26,000

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 254,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry
Crude petroleum and natural g a s ..........................................
Oil and gas field services ....................................................

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:

Percent
62.4
19.4

Percent female ................................................................................. 26.4
Percent black .................................................................................. 5.8
Percent employed part time ........................................................ 2.5
Unemployment r a t e ...........................................Much lower than average

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

31,000
19.4

Moderate
32,000
21.7

High

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

30,000
15.7

Industry

.......................................................................... Average

Percent

Manufacturing ........................................................................
Computer and data processing services ..............................
Durable goods manufacturing ..............................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................................
Federal Government ..............................................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing .......................................

20.4
16.9
14.4
12.5
11.4
6.0

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Mathematical Scientists and Systems Analysts

469,000
84.6

Moderate
471,000
85.3

High
480,000
88.8

Employment c h a n g e ...........................................Much faster than average

Actuaries

Annual replacement rate

...........................................................5.3 percent

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
SU PP LY PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

.................................................................... 8.200
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Almost all jobs require at least a
bachelor’s degree. Prior work experience is important; employers’
preferences for field of study depend on the work being done. For
work in a business environment, employers usually want analysts
with a background in accounting, business management, or eco­
nomics. For work in scientifically oriented organizations, a back­
ground in the physical sciences, mathematics, or engineering is
preferred. Many employers seek applicants with a degree in com­
puter science, information science, information systems, or data
processing. Regardless of college major, employers look for peo­
ple who are familiar with programming languages.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Life in su ra n ce ...........................................................................
Miscellaneous services
(includes consulting actuaries; engineering,
architectural, and surveying services; and
accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping
services) ..............................................................................
Insurance agents, brokers, and s e r v i c e s ..............................
Fire, marine, and casualty insurance .................................

39.8

23.5
13.9
12.9

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

10,800
31.5

Moderate
10,900
33.0

High

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

11,100
34.8

Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981
.9 9
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982
Computer and information sciences:
Bachelor’s ........................................................................... 20,267
Master’s .............................................................................. 4,935
P h D ........................................................................................
251

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

SU PPLY PR O FILE
U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. A strong background in math­
ematics, including statistics, is required. Some employers require
a bachelor’s degree with a major in mathematics or statistics;
others accept a major in engineering, economics, or business ad­
ministration. Employers generally prefer applicants with a degree
in actuarial science, and those who have passed several examina­
tions offered by professional actuarial societies.

Almost all entrants are college grad­
uates. Most entrants transfer from other occupations, such as com­
puter programmer, engineer, and manager. Consequently, entrants
are somewhat older than average. Many of the remaining entrants
are recent graduates who have been attending school full time.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Mathematicians

Almost all job openings are filled by
recent college graduates. A relatively small number of entrants
transfer from other occupations that require strong mathematical
and statistical skills.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts .

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

19

11,000

major in statistics, or a major in an applied field, such as econom­
ics, and a minor in statistics.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Federal Government .................................................................
Durable goods manufacturing .................................................
Miscellaneous business services
(includes research and development
laboratories and management, consulting, and
public relations services) ....................................................

36.5
20.3

T rain in g co m p le tio n s:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Statistics:1
Bachelor’s ................................................................................. 615
M a s te r's ..........................................................
575
Ph.D.................................................................................................136

15.1

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

1 Includes business statistics and mathematical and theoretical statistics.

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

14,000
33.1

Moderate
14,000
28.1

High
Characteristics of entrants. Most entrants are recent college graduates.

14,000
32.3

Some transfer from other occupations but most of these have been working
part time while in school.

.......................................................................... Average

SU PP LY PR O FILE
A bachelor’s degree in mathe­
matics is required for beginning jobs. However, an advanced de­
gree is preferred by most employers and required for more respon­
sible positions. A master’s degree in mathematics is generally
required for teaching jobs in 2-year colleges and technical insti­
tutes, but a doctorate is needed for full faculty status in most
4-year colleges and universities.
U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

Physical Scientists
Chemists
E M P L O Y M E N T P R O F IL E
Total employment, 1982

89,000

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 20.3
Percent b l a c k ....................................................................................... 5.3
Percent employed part time ............................................................. 5.8

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Mathematics: 1
B a c h e lo r's ..............................................................................11,341
Master’s .............................................................................. 2,248
P h D .......................................................................................
556

Unemployment rate

1 Excludes mathematical and theoretical statistics.

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Most entrants are recent college grad­
uates; some have worked part time while in school. Others transfer
from related occupations that require mathematics training.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Industry

Percent

Chemicals and allied products ...............................................
Miscellaneous business services
(includes research and development and commercial
testing laboratories.) ............................................................
Durable goods m an u factu rin g ..................................................
Federal G o v e rn m e n t..................................................................

Statisticians

36.6

11.3
10.2
10.1

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Projected employment, 1982-95:
Total employment, 1982

Low

20,000
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

20.6
13.6
13.1
11.2
6.8

Moderate
108,000
22.0

High
111,000
24.9

Percent

Federal Government ..............................................................
Durable goods manufacturing ..............................................
State g o v e rn m e n t....................................................................
Business s e r v i c e s ....................................................................
Insurance c a r r i e r s ....................................................................

107,000
20.5

Employment change

Annual replacement rate

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

26.000
29.5

Moderate

U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. A bachelor’s degree in chemistry
or biochemistry is the generally accepted minimum requirement
for entry, although graduate training is required for many jobs and
is helpful for advancement in all types of work. Most jobs as bio­
chemists require a Ph.D.

High

26,000
28.3

...........................................................4.2 percent

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

...........................................................................Average

27,000
32.0

.......................................................................... Average
T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

SU PP LY PRO FILE
The minimum educational require­
ment for beginning jobs in statistics is a bachelor’s degree with a
U su al en try le v e l req u irem en ts.

20

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Chemistry and biochemistry:
Bachelor’s ...............................................................................12,890
Master’s ..................................................................................1,891
P h D .............................................................................................2,057

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority of entrants arc recent
college graduates, including many who transfer from other occu­
pations that provide full- or part-time work while attending gradu­
ate school.

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

26,000
40.2

Moderate
26,000
36.6

Employment c h a n g e ....................

High
27,000
41.0
average

Geologists and geophysicists
SU PP LY PR O FILE
EM P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Graduate training in physics or a
closely related field generally is required for most entry level jobs.
A doctorate is usually required for full faculty status in 4-year
colleges and universities, and for jobs in astronomy.

................................................................. 49.000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ....................................................................................6.9
Percent employed part time ............................................................. 4.6

T rain in g co m p le tio n s:

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Physics, molecular physics, nuclear physics,
astronomy, and astrophysics:
Bachelor’s ..............................................................................3,585
Master’s .............................................................................. 1,364
P h D ................................................................................................949

Percent

Crude petroleum and natural gas .......................................
Federal G o v e rn m e n t..............................................................
Oil and gas field services ....................................................

43.6
16.2
14.1

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

60,000
23.6

Moderate
60,000
23.6

Most entrants are recent college grad­
uates—including some who have worked part or full time in an­
other occupation while attending graduate school. A relatively
small number of entrants with training or experience in physics
transfer from other occupations.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

High
59,000
20.9

.......................................................................... Average

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Life Scientists
A bachelor’s degree in geology or
geophysics is adequate for entry into some lower level geology
jobs, but betterjobs with good advancement potential usually require
at least a master’s degree in geology or geophysics.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

Agricultural scientists
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

Total employment, 1982

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Geology, geophysics, seismology, and general earth
sciences:
Bachelor’s ............................................................................. 6,416
Master’s ..............................................................................1,663
Ph.D..................................
337

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Most entrants have a degree in geolo­
gy or geophysics and enter after graduation; many have worked in
other occupations while in graduate school. Many persons with ap­
propriate training and experience transfer from related occupa­
tions.

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

26,000
18.8

Moderate
26,000
18.6

High
26,000
21.5

................................................. Slower than average

SU PPLY PR O FILE

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

U sual entry lev el requ irem en ts. A doctorate in an agricultural science
specialty usually is required for college teaching and independent
research positions. A master’s degree is sufficient for some jobs in
applied research. The bachelor’s degree is adequate preparation for
some jobs in sales, inspection, and other nonresearch areas.

19,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

21.3
16.0
14.0
10.6

Projected employment, 1982—95:

Physicists

Federal G o v e rn m e n t..................................................................
Miscellaneous business services
(includes research and development and
commercial testing laboratories) ........................................
Miscellaneous services
(includes consulting physicists and engineering,
architectural, and surveying services) ..............................
Electrical and electronic machinery
and equipment manufacturing ...........................................

Percent

Educational s e r v ic e s ..................................................................
Local government .....................................................................
Federal G o v e rn m e n t..................................................................
Agricultural s e rv ic e s .................................................... x . . .

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Total employment, 1982

22,000

Percent
29.9

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

21.3

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Agriculture and natural resources:
Bachelor’s .............................
21,029
Master’s .............................................................................. 4.163
Ph.D.......................................................................................
1,079

14.5
11.9

21

Most entrants are recent graduates with
a degree in agricultural science or a related field; some have worked
part or full time in another occupation while attending college or
graduate school. Some persons with previous training or experience
in agriculture transfer from other occupations.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Industry

Percent

Federal Government .................................................................
State g o v e rn m e n t........................................................................
F o r e s tr y ........................................................................................

46.3
20.7
15.3

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Biological scientists

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment. 1982

.......................................................... 52,000

Employment change

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................ 46.0
Percent black ................................................................................. 4.8
Percent employed part time ...........................................................10.4

Industry

26.4
13.8
12.0

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

71.000
38.1

70,000
36.3

High
36,000
15.3

................................................. Slower than average

T raining c o m p le tio n s:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:'
Bachelor’s ....................................................................................... 7,816
Master’s ........................................................................................1,824
Ph.D........................................................................................................ 449

10.5

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Moderate

34,000
9.4

U su al en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. A bachelor’s degree in forestry,
range management, range science, or soil conservation is the mini­
mum educational requirement. Many employers prefer applicants
with advanced degrees, and for certain jobs, such as teaching and
research, employers require advanced degrees.

Percent

Low

Moderate

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Federal G o v e rn m e n t..................................................................
State government .....................................................................
Chemicals and allied productm anufacturing........................
Miscellaneous business services
(includes research and development and
commercial testinglaboratories) ..........................................

35,000
14.1

1 Includes Agriculture, General; Agronomy; Soils Science; Forestry;
Natural Resources Management; Agriculture and Forestry Technologies;
and Range Management.

High
73.000
40.9

Employment c h a n g e ....................................................Faster than average

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Social Scientists, Social Workers,
Religious Workers, and Lawyers

The doctorate generally is required
for college teaching or research positions. A master’s degree is
sufficient for some jobs in applied research, and a bachelor’s degree
may be adequate preparation for some beginning jobs.
U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

Lawyers

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
Biological sciences:
Bachelor’s ............................................................................. 41.639
Master’s .................................................................................5.874
Ph.D ....................................................................................... 3.743

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 465,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ..................................................................................15.5
Percent black .................................................................................. 2.9
Percent employed part time ........................................................ 7.1

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Most entrants are recent graduates with
a degree in biology or a closely related field; some have worked
part or full time while attending college or graduate school. A rela­
tively small number with training or experience in biology transfer
from other occupations.

Unemployment r a t e ...........................................Much lower than average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Foresters and conservationists

Projected employment, 1982-95:

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

Percent

Legal s e rv ic e s ...........................................................................
60.7
Local governm ent.....................................................................
12.5
Federal Government ...................................................................
7.3

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

31.000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................... 6.6
Percent b l a c k ....................................................................................... 3.2
Percent employed part time ............................................................. 2.0

618,000
32.9

Moderate
624,000
34.3

High
638,000
37.3

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

22

...........................................................4.8 percent

SU PP LY PR O FILE

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Economics:
Bachelor’s ...............................................................................19,876
Master’s .............................................................................. 1,964
Ph.D................................................................................................ 677

U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. To practice law in any State, a per­
son must be admitted to its bar. Usually, applicants for admission
to the bar must pass a written examination. To qualify for the exami­
nation in most States, an applicant must complete at least 3 years
of college and graduate from an accredited law school. Lawyers
who have been admitted to the bar in one State sometimes may be
admitted in another State without taking the bar examination, al­
though requirements vary.

Almost all entrants are college gradu­
ates. Many entrants transfer from other occupations. Some have
worked in these part time while in graduate school. The remainder
have not been working—most are full-time students and persons
who have been tending to family responsibilities. Because of the
importance placed on graduate training, entrants tend to be older
than entrants to other occupations.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Juris Doctor (J.D.) and
Bachelor of Law ( L L .B ) ........................................................... 35,991

Most entrants are recent law school
graduates age 25 to 34 who have been full-time students. Others
transfer into the occupation; many of these are recent law school
graduates who have attended law school on a part-time basis while
working in other occupations. Some transfer into law after using
their law degrees to pursue careers in business, politics, or other
fields in which a thorough knowledge of law is valuable.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Psychologists
E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

83,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 55.0
Percent black .................................................................................. 8.0
Percent employed part time ...........................................................18.0

Social Scientists and Urban Planners
Unemployment rate

Economists

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

EM P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

30,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................28.0
Percent black ................................................................................. 4.5
Percent employed part time ....................................................... 6.5
Unemployment rate

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Employment change

39,000
28.9

Annual replacement rate

29.2
15.7
9.1

110,000
33.2

High
112,000
36.2

Moderate
38,000
26.6

...........................................................7.9 percent

SU PPLY PR O FILE
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. A doctorate in psychology gen­
erally is required for most jobs. All States and the District of
Columbia require psychologists who want to enter independent
practice to be licensed. Licensure requirements vary but generally
include a doctorate in psychology, 2 years of professional experi­
ence, and passing written and oral examinations.

High
39,000
30.4

.......................................................................... Average

Annual replacement rate

Moderate

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

109,000
32.5

Percent

Federal Government .................................................................
State g o v e rn m e n t........................................................................
Business s e r v i c e s .........................................................................

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

41.1
14.4
6.5
6.1

Projected employment, 1982-95:

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry

Percent

Educational services .................................................................
Hospitals .....................................................................................
State g o v e rn m e n t.........................................................................
Federal Government ..................................................................

....................................................... 11.7 percent

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Psychology:
Bachelor’s ................................................................ 41,031
Master’s .................................................................................7,791
P h D .............................................................................................2,780

SU PPLY PR O FILE
U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. A graduate degree is required for
most jobs. A master’s degree generally is the minimum require­
ment for a job as an instructor in many junior colleges and small
4-year colleges. The Ph.D degree is necessary for faculty positions
at most colleges and universities.
In the Federal Government, candidates for entry positions gen­
erally need a college degree with a minimum of 21 semester hours
of economics and 3 hours of statistics, accounting, or calculus.

Almostall entrants arerecent college
graduates; many have been employed part time or full time in other
occupations while in graduate school. Because of the lengthy training
involved, entrants tend to be somewhat older than entrants to other
occupations.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

23

Sociologists

SU PP LY PR O FILE
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Most entry jobs in Federal, State,
and local government agencies require 2 years of graduate study in
urban or regional planning or the equivalent in work experience.
Persons who have a bachelor’s degree in city planning, architecture,
or engineering may qualify for some beginning positions.

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

.................................................................... 5,700

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Percent

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
City, community, and regional planning:
Bachelor's ................................................................................. 505
Master’s ...............................................................................1,095
P h D ...................................................................................................38

State government .............................................................................. 19.6
Hospitals ........................................................................................... 19.3
Local g o v ern m en t.............................................................................. 14.4
Miscellaneous business services (includes manage­
ment, consulting, and publicrelations services) ......................14.3
Education services ...........................................................................11.5
Noncommercial, educational, and residential
organizations ................................................................................. 11.4

Almost all entrants are recent college
graduates; some have held part time jobs in other occupations while
in school. Some transfer into the field from jobs taken on a tem­
porary basis until a job as an urban planner becomes available.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

7,000
24.3

Moderate

High

7,100
25.5

7,300
28.8

Recreation and Social Workers

.......................................................................... Average

Recreation workers

SU PPLY PRO FILE

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. A master’s degree in sociology is
sufficient for most administrative and research positions in public
agencies and private industry, provided applicants have adequate
training in research, statistical, and computer methods. A doctorate
is required for most teaching and research positions in colleges and
universities and for some positions in private industry.

Total employment, 1982 .....................................................................124,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 61.9
Percent black ..................................................................................... 13.3
Percent employed part time ...........................................................26.8

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Unemployment r a t e ...........................................Much higher than average

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
Sociology:
B a c h e lo r's .............................................................................. 16,042
Master’s ................................................................................. 1,145
P h D ................................................................................................558

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Industry

Almost all entrants are recent college

graduates.

Percent

Local g o vernm ent.....................................................................
Civic, social, and fraternal organizations ..........................
Social services ........................................................................
Nursing and personal care facilities ....................................

37.7
21.4
13.4
10.1

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Urban and regional planners

Employment change

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Industry

High
157,000
26.4

........................................................26.3 percent

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Percent

Local g overnm ent........................................................................
State g o v e rn m e n t........................................................................

Academic requirements vary wide­
ly. Many jobs require a college degree with a major in recreation,
leisure studies, or physical education. A liberal arts degree is ac­
ceptable for some positions. Some employers accept graduates of
associates degree programs in parks and recreation, social work,
and other human service technologies. High school graduates are
accepted for some jobs. Some jobs require specialized training or
experience in a particular field, such as art, music, drama, or
athletics.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts .

73.3
12.8

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

Employment change

152,000
22.9

21,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Moderate

...........................................................................Average

Annual replacement rate
Total employment, 1982

150,000
20.9

24,000
13.1

Moderate
25,000
14.6

High
25,000
17.7

.................................................Slower than average

24

ing—mainly they have been full time students or between jobs. The
remaining entrants transfer from other occupations. Many have
worked part time while in school; others transfer from jobs taken
on a temporary basis until a desirable position could be found.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Parks and recreation management:
Bachelor’s ............................................................................. 5,335
Master’s ....................................................................................... 526
Ph.D..................................................................................................33

Clergy

Most recreation workers are women;
consequently, the field is characterized by considerable movement
from work to home and back again. Most entrants have not been
working—many have been tending to family responsibilities and
others have been students. A large proportion of all entrants have
worked part time while in school. The majority of entrants have
attended college and many have a degree.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 317,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................... 5.3
Percent b l a c k ....................................................................................... 5.6
Percent employed part time ..............................................................8.5

Social workers

Unemployment r a t e ...........................................Much lower than average
industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

EM P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

Industry
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 345,000

Religious organizations

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................ 66.4
Percent black .................................................................................... 16.9
Percent employed part time ....................................................... 9.0
Unemployment rate

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

327,000
3.3

Moderate
332.000
4.9

High
344,000
8.4

Employment c h a n g e ...........................................Little change is expected

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

97.8

Projected employment, 1982-95:

..............................................................About average

Percent

Local governm ent........................................................................
State g o v e rn m e n t.......................................................................
Social services ...........................................................................

Percent

Annual replacement rate

24.6
23.7
21.8

...........................................................8.4 percent

SU PPLY PR O FILE
Entry requirements vary widely.
Both rabbis and Roman Catholic priests must complete a course of
study in a seminary. Some Protestant denominations require no for­
mal training while many others only ordain those who have been
trained in Bible colleges, Bible institutes, or liberal arts colleges.
Most important, religious workers must have a deep religious faith
and a desire to serve the spiritual needs of others.
U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts .

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

409.000
18.7

Moderate
416,000
20.6

High
428,000
24.3

.......................................................................... Average

Annual replacement rate

..................................................... 16.3 percent
T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Earned degrees, first professional, 1982:
Theology (B.D., M. Div., or R a b b i) ....................................... 6.901

U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. A bachelor’s degree is the mini­
mum requirement for most professional positions. In addition to
the bachelor’s degree in social work (BSW), a major in psychology,
sociology, and related fields satisfies hiring requirements in many
social service agencies. A master’s degree in social work (Msw)
is generally required for positions in the mental health field and is
almost always necessary for supervisory, administrative, or re­
search positions. A doctorate in social work usually is required
for teaching and is desirable for some research and administrative
jobs.

Teachers, Librarians,
and Counselors
College and university faculty
E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 744,000

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................35.4
Percent black ................................................................................. 4.9
Percent employed part time .......................................................... 39.5

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Social work and helping services:
Bachelor’s .............................................................................. 11,813
Master’s ................................................................................ 9,959
Ph.D................................................................................................ 198

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Most entrants to this competitive field
are college graduates. The majority of entrants have not been work­

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Educational services

25

..............................................................

Percent
99.9

Most entrants are college graduates
who transfer from related fields such as social work, teaching,
interviewing, job placement, psychology, or personnel work.
Others are recent college graduates, some of whom have held part
time jobs while in school. Some have been tending to family
responsibilities. Because prior work experience is usual for
counselors, entrants tend to be somewhat older than entrants to
other occupations.

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

619,000
-16.8

Moderate

High

632,000
-15.0

646,000
-13.1

.......................................

SU PP LY PRO FILE
U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Four-Year colleges and universities
generally require faculty members to hold a doctoral degree; 2year institutions often regard a master’s degree as adequate prepara­
tion.

Kindergarten and elementary school teachers
E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

Almost all job openings are Filled by re­
cent graduates of degree programs. Most have held some part time
job while in school.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 1,366,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 82.4
Percent black .....................................................................................10.5
Percent employed part time ......................................................... 11.2

Counselors
E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

Unemployment rate

Total employment, 1982 .................................................................... 148,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................51.8
Percent black .................................................................................... 12.8
Percent employed part time .......................................................... 13.6

Educational s e r v ic e s ..............................................................

..............................................................About average

1995 employment . . . 1,839,000
Percent c h a n g e ................
34.6

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

61.7
17.9
12.5

Annual replacement rate

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Employment change

159.000
7.4

Moderate

1,877,000
37.4

1,918,000
40.4

....................................................... 10.6 percent

163,000
9.8

High
U su al en try lev el req u irem en ts. All States require teachers in public
elementary schools to be certified; some require teachers in private
and parochial elementary schools to be certified as well. To be­
come certified, an individual must have a bachelor’s degree from
an institution with a State-approved teacher education program,
student teaching experience, and basic education courses. Almost
half the States require teachers to obtain a master’s degree within
a certain period after beginning work.

167.000
12.4

.................................................Slower than average

Annual replacement rate

High

SU PPLY PR O FILE
Low

1995 employment . , .
Percent c h a n g e .............

Moderate

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

Percent

Educational s e r v ic e s ..................................................................
Social s e r v ic e s ............................................................................
State government .....................................................................

98.9

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
Unemployment rate

Percent

..................................................... 13.5 percent

SU PP LY PR O FILE
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. A master's degree in some area
of counseling or psychology generally is required. In some cases,
individuals with a bachelor’s degree in psychology, sociology,
counseling, and rehabilitation services are qualified, particularly
if they have appropriate work experience. Many States require
public school counselors to have both counseling and teaching
certificates. Counselors in most State vocational rehabilitation
agencies must pass a written exam and be evaluated by a board
of examiners.

T raining c o m p le tio n s:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Number of persons granted bachelor’s degrees who are prepared
to teach in kindergarten and elementary schools ................ 69,188

Most kindergarten and elementary
school teachers are women. Consequently, the occupation is
characterized by a pattern of movement from teaching to family
responsibilities and back to teaching again. Most job openings
are filled by persons who have not been working—many have
been tending to household responsibilities and others have been
full-time students. Many entrants transfer into the occupation—
primarily students who have been working part time while in
school.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:1
Bachelor’s .................................................................................
568
Master's ........................................................................................16,263
Ph.D................................................................................................ 1.468
1 Includes educational psychology, student personnel, and psychology for
counseling.

26

Librarians

Industry

Percent

Educational s e r v ic e s ..............................................................

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

99.9

Projected employment, 1982-95:
Total employment, 1982 .................................................................... 151,000

Low

Employment change

Unemployment rate

Annual replacement rate

....................................................Lower than average

Employment change

167,000
10.7

...........................................................9.3 percent

U su al en try le v e l req u irem en ts. All States require public secondary
school teachers to be certified, many States require teachers in
private and parochial schools to be certified as well. To become
certified, individuals must have a bachelor’s degree from an ap­
proved teacher training program with a prescribed number of
credits in the subject in which they plan to teach. They also must
complete student teaching and other professional education
courses. Almost half the States require teachers to obtain a graduate
degree within a certain time after being hired.

Moderate
170,000
12.6

High
174,000
15.3

.................................................Slower than average

Annual replacement rate

................................................. Slower than average

SU PPLY PR O FILE

71.5
10.7

Projected employment, 1982-95:

1995 employment . . ,
Percent c h a n g e .............

1,177,000
14.9

Percent

Educational s e r v ic e s ..................................................................
Local government .....................................................................

Low

High

1,152,000
12.5

1 Employment is projected to decline through the 1980’s, then increase in
the early I990’s.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Moderate

1,128,000
10.2

1995 employment . . .
Percent change1 . . . .

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................83.4
Percent black ................................................................................. 7.3
Percent employed part time .......................................................... 22.7

....................................................... 13.9 percent

SU PP LY PR O FILE
T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Entry requirements vary by em­
ployment setting. Most States require that school librarians be
certified as teachers; for these jobs, a bachelor’s or master’s de­
gree in library science or a master’s degree in media resources,
educational technology, or audiovisual communications may be
acceptable, depending on the State. A master’s degree in library
science (MLS) usually is required for jobs in public libraries and
most college and university libraries.
U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Number of persons granted bachelor’s degrees who are
prepared to teach in secondary schools .................................74,143

The majority of secondary school teach­
ers are women. Consequently, there is substantial movement
from teaching to family responsibilities and back again. Most job
openings are filled by people who have not been working, primarily
full-time homemakers and students. Some entrants transfer from
other occupations, either because they have been working while
in school or because they could not immediately find a job as
a teacher.
C h a ra cte ristic s o f en tra n ts.

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Library science:
Bachelor’s ....................................................................................
307
Master’s .......................................................................................... 4,506
Ph.D..................................................................................................
84

Health Diagnosing and Treating
Practitioners

Most librarians are women, and the
occupation is characterized by movement from employment to
family responsibilities and back again. Most job openings are filled
by homemakers returning to the labor force. The remainder are
filled by recent college graduates—a large proportion of whom
have a Master of Library Science degree.

C h a r a c te r is tic s o f e n tra n ts.

Chiropractors
E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

Secondary school teachers

Total employment, 1982

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 1,024,000
Offices of chiropractors
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................51.9
Percent black ..........................................................
7.3
Percent employed part time ...........................................................10.3
Unemployment rate

25,000

Percent

........................................................

99.2

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Employment change

27

33,000
28.1

Moderate
32,000
27.2

High
32,000
27.2

...........................................................................Average

Industry

SU PP LY PRO FILE

Percent

Offices of optometrists
............................................
Miscellaneous retail stores
(includes optical goods stores) ............................................

All 50 States and the District of
Columbia regulate the practice of chiropractic and grant licenses
to individuals who meet the educational requirements and pass a
State board examination.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

70.0
11.6

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
Chiropractic (D.C. or D .C .M .) .................................................2.626

Employment change

C h a ra cte ristic s o f en tra n ts. The overwhelming majority of entrants
come directly from school and arc under 35 years of age.

35,000
25.5

Moderate

High

34,000
25.1

35,000
25.7

...........................................................................Average

SU P P LY PR O FILE
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. All States and the District of
Columbia require that optometrists be licensed. Applicants for
licensure must have a Doctor of Optometry degree from an ac­
credited optometric school or college and pass a State board exam­
ination.

Dentists
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment. 1982 ................................................................. 173,000

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .............................................................................. 3.3
Percent black ................................................................................. 2.5
Percent employed part time ...........................................................14.3

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Doctor of Optometry (O.D.) .................................................... 1,110
C h a r a c te ristic s o f en tran ts. The overwhelming majority of entrants
come directly from school and are under 35 years of age.

Unemployment r a t e .......................................... Much lower than average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Offices of d e n t i s t s .................................................................

Physicians

88.2

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

213.000
23.5

Moderate
213,000
23.7

High

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 479,000

218,000
26,6

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ..................................................................................14.8
Percent black .................................................................................. 2.3
Percent employedpart time ......................................................... 5.9

.......................................................................... Average

Annual replacement rate

.......................................................... 1.2 percent
Unemployment rate

.......................................... Much lower than average

SU PPLY PR O FILE
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

All States and the District of
Columbia require dentists to be licensed. To qualify for licensure
in most States, a candidate must be a graduate of a dental school
approved by the American Dental Association and pass written
and practical examinations.
U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

Offices of physicians ...............................................................
H o s p ita ls ......................................................................................
Federal G o v e rn m e n t...................................................................

48.0
30.6
8.1

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
D.D.S. and D.M.D. degrees ................................................... 5,282

640,000
33.6

Moderate
642,000
34.0

High
663,000
38.3

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

Almost all entrants are recent dental
school graduates between the ages of 25 and 34. A small number
are licensed dentists who have been serving in the Armed Forces
or tending to family responsibilities.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Annual replacement rate

...........................................................1.4 percent

SU PPLY PR O FILE
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts . All States and the District of
Columbia require physicians to be licensed. Licensure require­
ments include a minimum of 8 years of postsecondary educa­
tion—graduation from an accredited professional school, success­
ful completion of a licensing examination, and, in most States, I
or 2 years of supervised practice in an accredited graduate medi­
cal education program (internship/residency).

Optometrists
EM P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

Percent

................................................................. 28,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

28

Training completions:

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
D.O. and M.D. degrees .......................................................... 16,861

Almost all entrants arc recent medical
school graduates between the ages of 25 and 34. A small number
are licensed physicians who have been serving in the Armed Forces
or tending to family responsibilities.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. All States and the District of
Columbia require veterinarians to be licensed. Licensure require­
ments include graduation from an accredited college of veterinary
medicine and passing both written and oral State board proficiency
examinations.
T rain in g co m p le tio n s:

Podiatrists

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
D.V.M .............................................................................................. 2.038

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Characteristics o f entrants. Most entrants arc recent college graduates;

Total employment. 1982

13.000

some arc transferring from part-time jobs in other occupations that they
have held while in school.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

Percent

Offices of podiatrists ..............................................................
H o s p ita ls .....................................................................................
Nursing and personal carefa c ilitie s ..........................................

55.2
15.8
10.2

Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians,
Therapists, and Physician Assistants

Projected employment. 1982-95:

Dietitians
Low

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

20,000
52.6

Moderate
20,000
51.9

High
20.000
52.9

Employment c h a n g e .......................................... Much faster than average

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment. 1982

44.000

Selected characteristics of workers. 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 90.1
Percent employed part time ........................................................... 19.8

SU P P LY PR O FILE
All States and District of Colum­
bia require podiatrists to be licensed. Applicants for licensure
must be a graduate of an accredited college of podiatric medicine
and pass both written and oral examinations. Eight States require
applicants to serve a I-year residency in a hospital or clinic fol­
lowing graduation.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

Percent

H o s p ita ls .................................................................................
Nursing and personal care fa c ilitie s ....................................
Social s e r v ic e s ........................................................................
Local government .................................................................

38.0
16.4
13.5
6.6

Projected employment. 1982-95:

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate, and above. 1982:
Pod. D., D.P.. and D.P.M. degrees .......................................... 598

Characteristics o f entrants. The overwhelming majority of en­

trants come directly from school and are under 35 years of age.

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

61.000
38.3

Moderate
62.000
39.9

High
64.000
44.3

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Veterinarians
EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:
Industry

Percent

Agricultural s e rv ic e s ..................................................................
Federal G o v e rn m e n t..................................................................

66,3
14.8

Projected employment. 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

48.000
31.2

Moderate
48,000
30.4

High
48.000
31.8

Faster than average

U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Most employers require a bache­
lor’s degree with a major in foods and nutrition or institution
management for entry level positions. Almost all employers pre­
fer dietitians who have been registered by the American Dietetic
36,000
Association; for higher level jobs, many employers require regis­
tration.
T rain in g co m p le tio n s:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
Foods and nutrition and institutional and
cafeteria management:
Bachelor's ..............................................................................3.689
Master’s ..............................................................................
779
P h D .........................................................................................
41

Most entrants arc recent college grad­
uates, including some who have worked part time in other occupa­
tions while attending school. Persons who have been tending to
C h a r a c te r is tic s o f e n tra n ts.

family responsibilities fill most of the remaining jobs. Practically
all entrants have attended college; most have a degree.

Employment change

Annual replacement rate

U su al en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. All States and the District of
Columbia require pharmacists to be licensed. Requirements in­
clude graduation from an accredited pharmacy program, passing
a State board examination, and completing a specified amount of
practical experience or serving an internship under the supervision
of a licensed pharmacist.

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
................................................................. 25.000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

Percent

H o s p ita ls .................................................................................
Educational s e r v ic e s ..............................................................
State government .................................................................
Local government .................................................................

42.9
16.6
6.0
5.4

Training completions:
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
Pharmacy:
Bachelor’s ....................... . ................................................ 6.367
625
D. Pharm.................................................................................

Projected employment. 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

40.000
58.5

Moderate
40.000
59.8

...........................................................5.9 percent

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Occupational therapists

Total employment. 1982

........................................................................Average

High

Most entrants arc recent graduates of
pharmacy school who are under the age of 25.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

41.000
64.4

Employment c h a n g e .......................................... Much faster than average

Physical therapists

SU PPLY PR O FILE

EM P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
A bachelor's degree in occupa­
tional therapy is the minimum requirement for work in this field,
in addition. 21 States and the District of Columbia require occu­
pational therapists to be licensed. Applicants for licensure must
have a degree from an accredited institution, successfully com­
plete 6 months of supervised field work, and pass the State
licensure examination. A graduate degree often is required for
teaching, research, or administrative positions.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

Total employment. 1982

43.000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
Bachelor's .................................................................................... 1.663
Master's .......................................................................................
255

68.000
57.2

Moderate
69.000
58.2

High
70.000
61.9

Employment c h a n g e .......................................... Much faster than average

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Pharmacists

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. A license is required to practice
physical therapy. To obtain a license, applicants must have a de­
gree or certificate from an accredited physical therapy educational
program and pass a State licensure examination. Physical therapists
should have manual dexterity and stamina.

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment. 1982 .................................................................... 151.000
Selected characteristics of workers. 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................23.8
Percent black ................................................................................. 3.6
Percent employed part time ....................................................... 11. 1

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate. 1982:1 . . . . 1.060
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
Bachelor's .................................................................................... 1.663
Master's ........................................................................................
225

....................................................Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

Percent

Drug stores and
proprietary stores ..................................................................
H o s p ita ls .....................................................................................

1 Physical therapy technology.

65.1
24.9

Physician assistants

Projected employment. 1982-95:

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Low

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

44.5
16.3

Projected employment. 1982-95:

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Unemployment rate

Percent

H o s p ita ls .....................................................................................
Offices of physical therapists ..................................................

188.000
24.3

Moderate
192.000
27.2

High

Total employment, 1982

196.000
30.0

22.000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

30

Industry

Percent

Offices of physicians ...............................................................
H o s p ita ls ......................................................................................
Local government .................................................................
Federal G o v e rn m e n t..............................................................

Job openings are filled cither by recent
nursing school graduates or from the reserve pool of licensed
but inactive nurses who have been tending to family responsibilities.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

49.9
19.2
8.2
5.1

Respiratory therapists

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . , .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

Moderate

28 .(KM
)
24.8

28.000
26.8

High

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

30.000
31.8

Total employment,

1982

46,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

.......................................................................... Average

Industry

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Percent

H o s p ita ls ......................................................................................

U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Nearly all States require appli­
cants to complete an approved formal training program offered by
hospitals, schools of allied health, community and 4-ycar colleges
and universities, and medical schools.

91.0

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

67,000
44.1

Moderate
67,000
44.9

High
70,000
49.9

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

Registered nurses
EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Total employment. 1982 ................................................................. 1,312.000

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts . Although many respiratory thera­
pists are trained on the job, a growing number of employers are re­
quiring completion of a formal training program. These programs
are offered by postsecondary vocational schools, hospitals, medical
schools, colleges and universities, and the Armed Forces. Appli­
cants should have mechanical ability and manual dexterity.

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................95.6
Percent black ................................................................................. 8.2
Percent employed part time .......................................................... 28.2
Unemployment rate

....................................................Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Percent

H o s p ita ls .................................................................................

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary,
1982* .....................................................................................* . . . 3,272
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 19812 .................................... 3,219
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate,
1982' ..................................................................................................3,494

66.6

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

Moderate

1.943,000
48.0

1.954.000
48.9

High

1 Inhalation therapy.
2 Respiratory therapy technology.

2,022,000
54.1

Employment c h a n g e ....................................................Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

Speech pathologists and audiologists

....................................................... 10.2 percent

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Total employment, 1982

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. To obtain the license to practice
that is required by all States and the District of Columbia, nurses
must graduate from an approved school of nursing—courses of
study range from 2 to 5 years—and pass a national examination
administered by each State. Nurses may be licensed in more than
one State, cither by examination or endorsement of a license issued
by another State.

42,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Educational s e r v ic e s ..............................................................
H o s p ita ls ..................................................................................

71.6
9.4

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary. 1982' ...........................................................................30,911
Private noncollegiatc postsecondary. 19 8 11 ................................. 5,061
Asstx'iatc and other degrees below baccalaureate. 1982 ............. 37,468
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
Nursing:
Bachelor’s ........................................................................... 37.468
M a s t e r 's .............................................................................. 5,312
P h D .......................................................................................
134

Employment change

53,000
26.9

Moderate
54,000
28.8

High
55,000
31.7

...........................................................................Average

SU PPLY PR O FILE
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Most employers require a master’s
degree in speech-language pathology or audiology. Thirty-four
States require licenses for those offering speech pathology and

1 Nursing (associate degree).

31

audiology services in private practices, clinics, or other settings
outside of schools.

Most clinical laboratory technologists
and technicians are women. Consequently, the occupation is char­
acterized by considerable movement from employment to the home
and back again. Most entrants—mainly homemakers and students—
have not been working. The remaining entrants transfer from other
occupations; some have been working part time while in school.
Most entrants are between the ages of 20 and 34.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts .

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Speech pathology and audiology:
Bachelor’s ............................................................................. 3,414
Master’s .................................................................................3,104
P h D ................................................................................................ 114

Dental hygienists

Health Technologists and Technicians

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment. 1982

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

69,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .............................................................................. 97.3
Percent employed part time ....................................................... 49.9

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 209.000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:
Selected characteristics of workers. 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................76.7
Percent black ................................................................................. 9.8
Percent employed part time ...........................................................16.9
Unemployment rate

Industry
Offices of dentists

95.9

Projected employment. 1982-95:

..............................................................About average

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

291,000
39.2

104,000
50.0

SU P P LY PR O FILE

Moderate
292.000
40.0

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Dental hygienists must be licensed.
To get a license, a candidate must graduate from an accredited den­
tal hygiene school and pass both a written and a clinical examina­
tion.

High
303.000
43 -1

Employment c h a n g e ....................................................Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

99,000
42.8

High

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

69.3
11.7
10.9

Projected employment. 1982-95:

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

97,000
39.9

Moderate

Percent

H o s p ita ls .....................................................................................
Offices of physicians ...............................................................
Medical and dental lab o ra to rie s...............................................

Low

Percent

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

....................................................... 10.3 percent

Public vocational secondary and post-secondary,
1982 .................................................................................................. 2,621
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981 ...........................................46
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 1982 ............. 3,790

SU PPLY PR O FILE
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. The usual requirement for a begin­
ning job as a clinical laboratory technologist is a bachelor's degree
with a major in medical technology or in one of the life sciences.
Clinical laboratory technicians generally are required to have an
associate degree or to have completed the training program in a
postsecondary vocational school. Some States require technologists
and technicians to be licensed.

Almost all dental hygienists are women
and the occupation is characterized by considerable movement
from employment to the home and back again. The majority of
entrants have not been working—most have been tending to family
responsibilities. Most of the remaining entrants transfer from other
occupations—many have been working while in school. Virtually
all entrants have had some college training, and many have a
degree. Most entrants are between the ages of 20 and 34 and work
part time.
C h a ra cte ristic s o f en tra n ts.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary,
19821 ................................................................................................. 4,715
Private noncollegiate postsecondary,
1981' .................................................................................................... 4,346
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate,
19822 ................................................................................................. 3,568
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Medical laboratory technologies:
Bachelor’s ............................................................................. 4,5%
Master’s ....................................................................................... 207
P h D ....................................................................................................4

Electrocardiograph technicians
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment. 1982
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

1 Includes medical laboratory assisting and other medical laboratory
technology.
2 Medical or biological laboratory assistant.

H o s p ita ls ......................................................................................
Federal G o v e rn m e n t..................................................................

32

Percent
78.4
16.2

Projected employment. 1982-95:

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

29.000
37.9

High

Moderate
29 .(XX)
36.7

30.000
42.5

Industry

Percent

H o s p ita ls .....................................................................................
Nursing and personal carefa c ilitie s .......................................
Federal G o v e rn m e n t..................................................................

62.9
12.5
10.7

....
Projected employment, 1982-95:

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Low

Most electrocardiograph (EKG)
technicians are trained on the job. although a few graduate from
formal training programs offered by hospitals, postsccondary vo­
cational schools, and community colleges. Employers generally
look for high school graduates with mechanical aptitude who can
follow detailed instructions and have presence of mind in emergen­
cies.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

31.000
43.6

Moderate

High

31,000
43.5

32.000
48.8

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

SU PPLY PRO FILE

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

U su al en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Most employers prefer to hire
graduates of accredited 2-year associate degree programs. Due to
a shortage of these graduates, however, many experienced record
clerks are promoted to technician status.

Private noncollegiatc postsecondary. 1 9 8 1 .......................................... 508
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate. 19821 ................ 203

T rain in g co m p le tio n s:

1 Elcctrodiagnostic technology.

Private noncollegiatc postsecondary. 1982 ....................................
495
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate. 1982 ............. 1.080

Electroencephalographic technologists
E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

.................................................................... 5.500

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Most entrants transfer from other
occupations—primarily health record clerks who are promoted
following completion of additional on-the-job training. Most
entrants have some college training, but few have a degree.

Licensed practical nurses

Percent

H o s p ita ls .....................................................................................
Offices of physicians ...............................................................

88.0
10.5

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment. 1982 ................................................................. 594.000

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

7.700
40.2

Moderate
7.700
41.2

High
8,000
46.7

Selected characteristics of workers. 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................97.0
Percent black .....................................................................................16.3
Percent employed part time .......................................................... 27.0

Employment c h a n g e ....................................................Faster than average

Unemployment rate

..............................................................About average

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

Electroencephalographic < E E G »
technicians generally learn their skills on the job. Employers nor­
mally require a high school diploma. Many EEG technologists
also learn their skills on the job, but some graduate from formal
training programs offered by hospitals and medical centers, postsecondary vocational schools, community colleges, and colleges
and universities. Applicants for both specialties should have manual
dexterity, good vision, an aptitude for working with electronic
equipment, and the ability to work with patients as well as other
health professionals.

Annual replacement rate

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Percent

SU PPLY PRO FILE

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

H o s p ita ls ......................................................................................
Nursing and personal care fa c ilitie s .......................................

57.4
16.1

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

809,000
36.0

Moderate
815,000
37.1

High
841.000
41.4

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average
....................................................... 13.9 percent

Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 19821 ................ 203
U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. All States and the District of
Columbia require practical nurses to be licensed. Applicants for
licensure must complete a State-approved program in practical
nursing and pass a written examination.

1 Electrodiagnostic technology.

Health record technicians

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

EM PLO YM EN T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

22.000

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary. 1982

33.502

Private noncollcgiate postsecondary. 1981 ....................................16.973
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate. 1982 ............. 13.043

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

Almost all practical nurses arc
women. Consequently, the occupation is characterized by con­
siderable movement from employment to the home and back again.
Most entrants arc recent nursing school graduates or licensed but
inactive nurses who have been tending to family responsibilities
or not working for other reasons. An unusually large proportion
of entrants are 35 and older.
C h a r a c te ristic s

98.0

Projected employment. 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

48.000
39.0

Moderate

High

49.000
39.8

51.000
45.1

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Radiologic technologists

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Most employers require gradua­
tion from a formal training program in surgical technology. These
programs last from 9 months to 2 years and are offered by com­
munity and junior colleges, posfsccondary vocational schools, and
hospitals.

EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment. 1982 .................................................................I K).(XK)
Selected characteristics of workers. 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................72.2
Percent black ................................................................................. 9.3
Percent employed part time .........................................................21.6
Unemployment rate

Percent

H o s p ita ls .................................................................................

o f e n tra n ts.

T rain in g

<o m p le tio n s:

Private noncollcgiate post secondary. 1981
....................................
901
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate.
1982 ................................................................................................. 1.132

....................................................Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

Percent

H o s p ita ls .....................................................................................
Offices of physicians ..............................................................

Writers, Artists, and Entertainers

70.5
21.3

Projected employment. 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

156.000
42.1

Moderate
157.000
43.0

Communications Occupations

Hialt
164.000
48.7

Public relations specialists

Employment c h a n g e ....................................................Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

....................................................... 10.0 pereent
Total employment. 1982

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Selected characteristics of workers. 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................50.0
Percent black ................................................................................. 3.0
Percent employed part time ...........................................................12.7

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Completion of a formal training
program in radiography, nuclear medicine technology, radiation
therapy technology, or diagnostic medical sonography is required
for entry level jobs in hospitals, which employ most radiologic
technologists. Technologists employed in physicians' offices may
be trained on the job. however. Many jobs require registration
or certification with the appropriate professional organization and.
in addition, some states require radiologic technologists to be
licensed.

Unemployment rate

..............................................................About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

Percent

Business services .................................................................
Educational services . ...........................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................................
Membership o rganizations....................................................
Government ...........................................................................

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate. 1982

90.000

12.5
12.0
11.7
11.6
11.3

............. 3.755
Projected employment. 1982-95:

Most job openings are filled by people
who have not been working—primarily full-time students or
homemakers attracted by the opportunity to work part time. The
remaining entrants have transferred from other occupations,
especially other health occupations. Many entrants have attended
college, but few have received a degree.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

Moderate
115.000
28.7

High
118.000
31.1

...........................................................................Average

Annual replacement rate

........................................................19.4 percent

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Surgical technicians

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Employers generally require a
college degree or relevant work experience. Some employers seek
persons who have majored in journalism, public relations, or another

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment. 1982

114.000
27.5

35 .(XX)

34

Reporters and correspondents

of the communications specialties; others look for a technical
major related to the firm’s business, such as engineering, finance,
or computer science. Experience in journalism, sales, or a tech­
nical field can provide valuable experience writing copy, dealing
with people, and learning about the organization's products or
services.

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

................................................................. 5 1,O )
CX

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

N e w sp a p e rs..............................................................................
Radio and television b ro a d c a stin g .......................................

75.8
13.8

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:1
Bachelor's ................................................................................. 34.222
Master's ..................................................................................... 3,327
P h D ................................................................................................
2(X)

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

1 Degrees in communications, including public relations, journalism,
and advertising

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

The majority of entrants transfer from
other occupations—most have been working in jobs that prepare
them for public relations work; some probably have been working
part time while in school. The remaining entrants have not been
working—primarily students and persons tending to family
responsibilities. Most entrants have had some college training and
about half have a degree. Because so many have work experience,
they tend to be older than entrants in other occupations.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Employment change

Moderate

64,000
25.8

High

66,000
29.3

67,000
31.1

........................................................................... Average

SU PP LY PR O FILE
U su al en try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts . Most employers prefer college
graduates who have at least a bachelor’s degree in journalism,
including training in the liberal arts. Typing skill is necessary,
and the ability to take shorthand and to use computerized word
processing equipment is an asset. Applicants should be able to
present facts and opinions clearly and succinctly.

Radio and television announcers and newscasters

Training c• mpletions:
a

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate. 1982 1 . . . . 2,429
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982
Journalism:
Bachelor's .............................................................................. 8.841
Master’s ...............................................................................
901
P h D ..........................................................................................
27

55.000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry
Radio and television broadcasting

Percent
....................................

1 Communications and broadcasting.

97.0

Projected employment. 1982—95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

70.000
27.3

Moderate
70.000
28.2

Writers and editors

High
70.000
28.8

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 .....................................................................120.000

.......................................................................... Average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Industry

Percent

N e w sp a p e rs..................................................................................
Business s e r v i c e s ........................................................................
Membership organizations .........................................................
Federal Government ...................................................................

Although not always required,
formal training usually is necessary to develop one's talents. The
video taped audition that presents samples of an applicant's de­
livery, style, and appearance often is the most important factor in
hiring. Announcers must have a pleasant and well-controlled voice,
good timing, excellent pronunciation, and good grammar.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

21.5
15.7
7.7
6.3

Projected employment. 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

T rain in g co m p le tio n s:

Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 1982
2.515
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
Radio-television:
Bachelor's ..............................................................................5.366
Master’s ..............................................................................
256
P h D .........................................................................................
II

160,000
33.9

Moderate
162,000
35.3

High
165,000
38.1

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

SU PPLY PRO FILE
U su a l e n try le v e l r e q u ire m en ts. Many employers require applicants
to have a college degree; some prefer a major in the liberal arts
or social sciences while others prefer a communications or jour­
nalism major. Some jobs—technical writing, for example—re­
quire a degree in or detailed knowledge about a specialized field

Most entrants are recent college grad­
uates. Many have been working part time in related jobs while in
school.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

35

Percent female ................................................................................. 32.6
Percent black .................................................................................. 1.8
Percent employed part time ...........................................................10.2

such as engineering. Aspiring writers and editors should be able
to express ideas clearly and logically, and should be familiar with
research techniques.

Unemployment rate

. . . .................................................... About average

T rain in g co m p le tio n s:

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 1982 1 . . . . 2.429
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982
Journalism:
Bachelor’s ..............................................................................8.841
Master's ..............................................................................
901
P h D .........................................................................................
27

Industry

Percent

Miscellaneous retail stores
(includes florists and artists’ supply and
material s t o r e s ) .....................................................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing .......................................
Business s e r v i c e s .....................................................................
Engineering, architectural, and surveying
s e r v ic e s ..................................................................................
Machinery manufacturing,except e le c tric a l.........................

1 Communications and broadcasting.

Design Occupations

29.4
8.7
7.6
6.7
6.2

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Commercial and graphic artists and designers

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Moderate

247,000
37.6

253,000
40.8

High
258,000
43.5

Total employment, 1982 .................................................................... 133.000

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Annual replacement r a t e ........................................................................14.7

Industry

Percent

Advertising ..................................................................................
Mailing, reproduction, commercial art,
and stenographic services ....................................................
Printing, publishing, and allied in d u strie s.............................

SU PP LY PR O FILE

19.3

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Employers look for persons with
artistic talent to fill entry level jobs. More and more people are
developing their talents through formal degree and nondegree
training programs in design.

16.3
16.2

Projected employment, 1982—95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

166.000
25.1

Moderate
167.000
25.7

High
169,000
27.4

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982
Bachelor’s ........................................................................................8,581
Master’s ........................................................................................
904
P h D ..................................................................................................
41

.......................................................................... Average

SU PP LY PR O FILE

1 Includes applied design and general fine arts.

Employers arc more interested in
demonstrated ability, as represented by an applicant’s portfolio,
than in evidence of appropriate training or other qualifications.
Nevertheless, most aspiring commercial and graphic artists and
designers take postsecondary art programs, which arc offered by
4-year colleges and universities, community and junior colleges,
and postsecondary vocational schools.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

The majority of entrants transfer from
other occupations—some have worked part time while in school
and others have transferred from jobs they had taken temporarily
until a more suitable position could be found. The remaining en­
trants have not been working—persons tending to family responsi­
bilities, students, and persons between jobs. Most entrants have
had some postsecondary training and many are college graduates.
Entrants tend to be somewhat older than entrants to other occupa­
tions, reflecting the increasing importance of postsecondary train­
ing and the difficulty many people have in locating their first de­
sign job.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Training completions:
Public vocational secondary and postsecondary. 1982 1 ............... 32.422
Private noncollegiatc postsecondary. 1981 1 ....................................16.354
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate.1982 2
. . . . 8.265
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982: 3
Bachelor's .................................................................................... 16.262
Master's
.................................................................................... 2.220
Ph.D..................................................................................................
13

Photographers

1 Commercial art occupations and graphic arts occupations.
2 Applied, graphic, and fine arts.
3 Art and applied design.

EM P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

86,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:

Designers

Percent female ................................................................................. 22.9
Percent black .................................................................................. 5.0
Percent employedpart time ............................................................ 20.1

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment. 1982 ................................................................. 180.000
Selected characteristics of workers. 1982:

Unemployment rate

36

.............................................................. About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 19X2:

Industry

Employment change

Percent

Photographic studios, portrait .................................................
G o v e rn m en t.................................................................................
Mailing, reproduction, commercial art. and
stenographic services ..............................................................
Printing, publishing, and allied in d u strie s..............................
Educational services ..................................................................

26.3
11.4
11.3
11.2
8.5

Low

Employment change

SUPPLY PROFILE
Usual entry level requirements. T alent is w hat counts m ost in
getting an acting jo b . T alent generally is developed through form al
training and acting experience.

Training i ompletions:

Projected employment. 1982-95:

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Faster than average

.

Moderate

101.(KX)
17.8

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
Dramatic arts:
Bachelor’s ..............................................................................5,286
Master's ................................................................................. 1.258
P h D .........................................................................................
93

High

102.000
18.1

I04.(XX)
20.9

.................................................Slower than average

Characteristics o f entrants. For m ost actors and actresses, em ploy­
Annual replacement rate

....................................................... 12.3 percent

m ent is unsteady. C onsequently, m ost enter and reenter the occupa­
tion after periods o f unem ploym ent o r w ork in tem porary jo b s such
as w aiter, w aitress, o r sales w orker.

SUPPLY PROFILE
Usual entry level requirements. T here arc no form al education
requirem ents for entry level jo b s. E m ployers usually seek appli­
cants w ho can dem onstrate a broad technical understanding o f
p h o to g rap h y as w ell as o th e r p h o to g ra p h ic ta le n ts , such as
im agination, creativity, and a good sense o f tim ing. T hese skills
often are developed through form al training available in colleges
and universities, ju n io r and com m unity colleges, postsccondary
vocational schools, and the A rm ed Forces. For a jo b in scientific
or industrial photography, som e know ledge o f the field m ay be
requited.

Dancers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment. 1982

.................................................................... 7,700

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

Percent

Theatrical producers, bands, and e n te rta in e rs.......................
Miscellaneous amusement and
recreation services ..................................................................
Eating and drinking p l a c e s ........................................................
Motion picture production and services .................................

Training completions:
Armed Forces enlistedstrength, 1981
6.201
Associate and other degreesbelow baccalaureate, 1982
1.476
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
Bachelor’s .................................................................................... 1.068
Master’s ................................
84

35.8
18.8
15.6
14.6

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Characteristics o f entrants. T he m ajority o f all entrants transfer
from other occupations— som e have been photographer's assistants;
others have transferred from occupations they had entered on a
tem porary basis until a suitable jo b could be found. T he rem ainder
have not been w orking— m ostly persons betw een jo b s, students,
and those w ho have been tending to fam ily responsibilities. The
m ajority o f entrants arc betw een the ages o f 25 and 34; m ost have
had som e college training and m any have a degree.

II.(XX)
40.2

Moderate
II.(XX)
42.7

High
11.000
48.7

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

SUPPLY PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Usual entry level requirements. Serious training for a career in
dancing traditionally begins by about age 12. Early ballet training
begins at age 7 o r 8 and is usually given by private teachers and
independent ballet schools. T alented students w ho dem onstrate
potential in their early teens receive m ore intensive and advanced
professional training at regional ballet schools o r schools con­
ducted under the auspices o f the m ajor ballet com panies. Early and
intensive training also is im portant for the m odern dancer, but
m odern dance does not require as m any years o f training as ballet.

Total employment. 1982

Training completions:

Performing Artists
Actors and actresses

................................................................. 34.000

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
Dance
Bachelor’s .................................................................................795
Master’s ....................................................................................... 269
P h D .............................................................................................
4

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

Percent

Motion picture production and services .................................
Theatrical producers, bands, and e n te rta in e rs.......................

66.3
27.2

Characteristics o f entrants. For m ost d a n ce rs, e m p lo y m en t is
Projected employment. 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

48.000
39.6

Moderate
49,000
43.2

unsteady. C onsequently, m any enter and reenter the occupation
after periods o f unem ploym ent o r w ork in tem porary jo b s. A lm ost
all entrants are under age 25 and few have any form al education
beyond high school.

High
52.000
51.0

37

Musicians

through private voice lessons and degree programs in music conser­
vatories or departments of music in colleges and universities. In
addition to musical talent, aspiring singers should have an attrac­
tive appearance, poise and stage presence, and perseverance.

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment. 1982 .................................................................... 124.000

T raining co m p le tio n s:

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry
Theatrical producers, bands, and e n te rta in e rs..................
Religious o rganizations..........................................................
Eating and drinking p l a c e s ....................................................

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
Music:1
Bachelor’s ..............................................................................8,418
Master's .................................................................................3.361
P h D ..........................................................................................
406

Percent
36.4
30.4
21.4

1 Includes music performing, composition, and theory; music-liberal
arts program; and music history and appreciation.

Projected employment. 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

153.000
23.1

Moderate

High

155.000
24.5

160.000
28.4

Technologists and Technicians,
Except Health

.......................................................................... Average

Air traffic controllers

SU PPLY PR O FILE

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

People who become professional
musicians generally begin studying an instrument at an early age.
Intensive training is needed to acquire the necessary skill, knowl­
edge of music, and the ability to interpret music. This training may
be obtained through private study with an accomplished musician,
in a college or university music program, in a music conservatory,
or through practice with a group. For study in an institution, an
audition frequently is necessary.
U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

Total employment, 1982

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
Music:
Bachelor's ............................................................................. 8.275
Master's .................................................................................3.256
P h D .........................................................................................
377

24.000
15.1

Moderate
22.000
4.3

High
23.000
11.6

Employment c h a n g e .......................................... Little change is expected

SU PPLY PR O FILE
U su al e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Air traffic controllers must suc­
cessfully complete the Civil Service exam and training program at
the Federal Aviation Administration (faa) academy in Oklahoma
City. Applicants generally must have either 3 years of general
work experience or 4 years of college education or a combination
of both. Applicants also must pass physical and psychological
examinations and have vision correctable to 20/20.

Singers
E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
........................................................... 21.000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

100.0

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

Percent

Theatrical producers, bands,and e n te rta in e rs...................
Eating and drinking p l a c e s ....................................................

Percent

Federal G o v e rn m e n t..................................................................

T rain in g co m p le tio n s:

Total employment. 1982

21.000

52.5
14.8

Virtually all entrants are recent
academy graduates or former military air traffic controllers.

C h a r a c te r is tic s o f e n tra n ts .

Projected employment. 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

26.000
21.0

Moderate
26.000
20.8

f a a

Broadcast technicians

High
26.000
22.6

EM P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment. 1982

.......................................................................... Average

17.000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

Percent

Radio and television broadcasting
........................................
Federal G o v e rn m e n t..................................................................

SU PP LY PR O FILE

81.9
18.1

Projected employment. 1982-95:

U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. While there are no formal educa­
tional requirements for most singing jobs, applicants need a broad
background in music, including its theory and history, as well as
the ability to dance and play the piano. Music training is offered

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

38

22.000
28.2

Moderate
22.000
26.5

High
22.000
28.6

Average

Employment change

Master’s
P hD .

SU PP LY PR O FILE

4,935
251

Most entrants are recent graduates of
various training programs. Many of the remainder transfer from re­
lated occupations, such as mathematics teacher, physics teacher,
and engineer. Some of those who transfer are experienced computer
operators who are advancing after acquiring appropriate training.
C h a r a c te r is tic s o f e n tra n ts.

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Federal law requires persons who
operate broadcast transmitters in radio and television stations to
have a restricted radiotelephone operator permit, for which no
examination is required. Those who work with microwave or
other internal radio communications equipment, however, must
have a general radiotelephone operator license, issued after pass­
ing a series of written examinations. Vocational school, commu­
nity college, or college training in engineering or electronics is the
best preparation.

Drafters
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 302,000

Training completions:

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ..................................................................................18.1
Percent black .................................................................................. 5.9
Percent employed part time ........................................................ 5.4

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1982' ............. 15,947
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 19811 .................................18,189
Registered apprenticeship, 1979' ....................................................
310
1 Electronic technologies.

Unemployment rate

.............................................................. About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Computer programmers

Industry

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Engineering, architectural, and
surveying s e rv ic e s ..............................................................
32.6
Machinery manufacturing, except electrical ....................
10.8
Electrical and electronic machinery and
equipment m an u factu rin g ......................................................
6.5
Fabricated metal product manufacturing ................................
5.8

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 266,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................32.0
Percent black ................................................................................. 5.7
Percent employed part time ....................................................... 5.4
Unemployment rate

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low

.................................................... Lower than average
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Computer and data processing s e r v ic e s .............................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................................
Office, computing, and accounting, machine
m anufacturing ....................................................................

Employment change

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

465,000
74.6

Moderate
471,000
76.9

Annual replacement rate

9.3

Moderate
318,000
5.0

High
327,000
8.2

SU PP LY PR O FILE

.......................................................12.6 percent

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts . Employers prefer applicants who
have acquired drafting skills in technical institutes, junior and com­
munity colleges, extension divisions of universities, and vocational
and technical high schools. Training in the use of computer-aided
design equipment is becoming increasingly important.

High
480,000
80.0

Employment c h a n g e .......................................... Much faster than average
Annual replacement rate

309,000
2.3

....................................... Little change is expected.

18.0
15.1

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

Percent

...........................................................8.7 percent

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary,
1982 .................................................................................................. 31,315
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981 .................................... 7,962
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 1982' . . . .
9,971

SU P P LY PR O FILE
U su a l en try le v e l req u irem en ts. Training requirements vary widely,
reflecting employers’ needs. Many employers require a bachelor’s
degree in computer science or a related field; some require a gradu­
ate degree. Other employers accept applicants with fewer than 4
years of college.

1 Includes engineering graphics and architectural drafting technologies.

Most jobs are filled by young people
who enter directly from school or who have completed training pro­
grams while working at other jobs. Most other entrants transfer
from other occupations.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts .

T ra in in g co m p le tio n s:

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary,
1982 .................................................................................................. 20,521
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981 ...................................... 22,329
Associate and other degreesbelow baccalaureate, 1982 .................. 10,026
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above. 1982:
Computer and information sciences:
Bachelor’s ........................................................................... 20,267

Electrical and electronics technicians
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 366,000

39

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................
12.4
Percent black ................................................................................. 6.5
Percent employed part time ....................................................... 3.2
Unemployment rate

SU PPLY PR O FILE
A few employers require only a
high school diploma and train legal assistants on the job. Some em­
ployers train other experienced legal personnel, such as legal secre­
taries, for legal assistant positions. An increasing number of em­
ployers, however, require formal training, which is available from
law schools, community and junior colleges, postsecondary voca­
tional schools, legal assistant associations, and a few law firms.
Many employers prefer applicants with training in a specialized
area of the law, such as real estate or criminal law.

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts .

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Machinery, equipment, and supplies wholesalers . . . .
Electric and electronic machinery
and equipment manufacturing .......................................
Transportation, communications, and
u tilitie s .................................................................................
Business services ......................................................................

17.2
17.0
10.6
7.4

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

Moderate

585,000
59.8

589,000
60.7

High

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Law:
Bachelor’s ...........................................................................
846
Master’s .............................................................................. 1,893
P h D ..........................................................................................
22

602.000
64.3

Employment c h a n g e .......................................... Much faster than average
Annual replacement rate

Much faster than average

Employment change

....................................................... 10.8 percent

Library technicians

SU PP LY PR O FILE

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts . Although persons can qualify
through many combinations of work experience and education,
most employers prefer applicants who have had some specialized
postsecondary training offered by junior and community colleges,
colleges and universities, vocational schools, and the Armed Forces.

Total employment, 1982

29,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Educational s e r v ic e s ..................................................................
Federal G o v e rn m e n t...................................................................

79.4
9.3

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary,
1982' .................................................... . ......................................... 20,185
Private noncollegiate postsecondary. 1981'
19,505
Registered apprenticeships, I9792
310
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 1982’ . . . . 28,446

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

1 Electrical and electronic technologies.
2 Electronics technicians.
1 Includes electronics and machine and electromechanical technologies.

Employment change

32,000
9.2

Moderate
32,000
10.2

High
33,000
13.2

................................................. Slower than average

SU P P LY PR O FILE

The majority of all entrants have not
been working—most have been in school full time; some have been
serving in the Armed Forces. The remaining entrants transfer from
other occupations where they have acquired needed skills or worked
part time while completing formal training programs. Many entrants
have some postsecondary training, but few have a college degree.
About half of all entrants are between the ages of 25 and 34.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f en tra n ts.

Most employers prefer applicants
with postsecondary training in library technology, offered by com­
munity and junior colleges and postsecondary vocational schools.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981' .................................... 2,886
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, I9822 .............
410
' Library assistant.
2 Library assistant technologies.

Legal assistants
EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Tool programmers, numerical control
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 45.000
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Percent

Legal services ........................................................................
State government .................................................................
Local government .................................................................

Total employment, 1982

71.3
11. 1
8.5

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

12,000

85,000
88.4

Moderate
88,000
94.3

Machinery, manufacturing,
except e le c tric a l......................................................................
Aircraft and parts
manufacturing .........................................................................

High
91,000
101.7

40

Percent
31.4
12.3

Industry

Characteristics of entrants. Most entrants have not been working;
they have been students, full-time homemakers, or persons who
have been laid off from other jobs. Many have no prior work ex­
perience. The remaining entrants transfer from other clerical and
blue-collar occupations. An unusually large proportion of entrants
are under 20 years of age.

Percent

Electrical and electronic machinery
and equipment manufacturing .......................................
Government ...........................................................................

10.3
10.1

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

22,000
76.2

Moderate
22,000
78.4

High
23,000
83.6

Employment c h a n g e .......................................... Much faster than average

Insurance agents and brokers

SU PPLY PR O FILE

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

Usual entry level requirements. Tool programmers learn their jobs
through a combination of work experience and vocational study and
training. Employers prefer to promote or hire skilled machinists
for programmer jobs. Some employers will hire people without
machining experience if they have completed vocational school
or junior college courses in tool programming and have demon­
strated the ability to learn machine operations.

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 361,000
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Life insurance ........................................................................
Insurance agents, brokers, and services ..........................

60.1
26.7

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Characteristics of entrants. Most entrants transfer from other
occupations, primarily machinist and other skilled machining
occupations. The rest are recent graduates of training programs
in tool programming.

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

Moderate
452.000
25.0

High
458,000
26.6

...........................................................................Average

SU PP LY PRO FILE

Marketing and Sales Occupations

Usual entry level requirements. Most employers will hire high
school graduates with proven sales ability or who have been
successful in other types of work. Some employers require a college
degree. All agents and brokers must be licensed in the State where
they plan to sell insurance. In most States, applicants for licensure
must pass written examinations covering insurance fundamentals
and State insurance laws.

Cashiers
EM P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 1,570,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................86.8
Percent black .....................................................................................10.0
Percent employed part time
........................................................52.5

Training completions:
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Insurance:

Unemployment r a t e .................................................... Higher than average

Bachelor’s

.................................................................. 613

Master’s .....................................................................................
P h D .............................................................................................

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

447.000
23.8

46
4

Percent

Characteristics of entrants. Most entrants transfer from other oc­
cupations. The remainder were recent graduates or have been
tending to family responsibilities. Entrants tend to be older than
entrants to other occupations. More than half of all entrants have
some college and many have a degree.

Grocery stores ........................................................................
41.9
Services .................................................................................
10.2
Miscellaneous retail s t o r e s ....................................................
10.0
Eating and drinking places .................................................
9.8
Drug stores and proprietary stores .........................................
5.5
Projected employment. 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

Moderate

High

2,235.000
42.3

2,314,000
47.4

2.362,000
50.4

Manufacturers’ sales workers

Employment c h a n g e ....................................................Faster than average

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Annual replacement rate

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 4I4,(KX)

....................................................... 33.1 percent

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 21.4
Percent black .................................................................................. 2.6
Percent employedpart time ......................................................... 7.9

SU PPLY PRO FILE
Usual entry level requirements. Although there are no formal
academic or experience requirements, many employers prefer high
school graduates.

Unemployment rate

41

..............................................................About average

be at least 18 years old, and pass a written test. Most states require
candidates for the general sales license to complete at least 30
hours of classroom instruction. Brokers must complete 90 hours of
formal training and have 1 to 3 years of experience in selling real
estate.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

F(x>d and related product
m an u factu rin g ....................................................................
Newspapers ...........................................................................
Machinery manufacturing, except
e le c tric a l.................................. .........................................
Chemical and allied product
m anu factu rin g ....................................................................
Fabricated metal product
m anu factu rin g ....................................................................

15.3
12.1
9.5

Training completions:

8.2

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982 .............................................................................. 22,228
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1982 .................................... 78,681

6.7

Characteristics of entrants. This occupation is characterized by a
pattern of movement into and out of the labor force, depending on
the strength of the housing market, family responsibilities, and
other factors. Most entrants have not been working—for the most
part they have been homemakers or retired persons who are attracted
by the opportunity to set their own work schedule. Others transfer
from a wide variety of occupations. About half of all entrants are
age 35 or older.

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

Moderate

461,000
11.4

478,000
15.5

High
491,000
18.8

.................................................Slower than average

Annual replacement rate

....................................................... 13.7 percent

SU PP LY PR O FILE
Usual entry level requirements. Although a college degree is
increasingly desirable, many employers hire individuals without a
degree who have sales experience or special knowledge of the
product line being sold. Manufacturers of technical products usually
require a college degree in science or engineering.

Retail trade sales workers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1982 .............................................................. 3,367,000

Characteristics of entrants. Over half of all entrants transfer from
other occupations. The remainder have not been working—some
were recent graduates; others were on temporary layoff. Because
of the emphasis on work experience, entrants tend to be older than
entrants to other occupations. More than half of all entrants have
some college and many have a degree.

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 70.0
Percent black ................................................................................. 5.1
Percent employed part time
..................................................... 48.8
Unemployment rate

..............................................................About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Real estate agents and brokers

Industry

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment. 1982 ................................................................. 337.000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................50.2
Percent black ..........................................................................................8
Percent employed part time .......................................................... 20.0
Unemployment rate

Employment change

Percent
.......................................

High

4,265,000
26.7

4,354,000
29.3

...........................................................................Average

Annual replacement rate

......................................................31.0 percent

SU PPLY PRO FILE
Low
449,000
33.1

Moderate
450.000
33.3

High

Usual entry level requirements. Although there are no formal train­
ing requirements, employers generally prefer high school gradu­
ates. Persons under 18 may need a work permit.

453.000
34.4

Employment c h a n g e ....................................................Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

Moderate

4.086,000
21.4

69.2

Projected employment, 1982-95:

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

21.9
16.8

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

25.5

Projected employment. 1982-95:

....................................................Lower than average

Real estate agents and managers

Percent

Department s t o r e s .....................................................................
Miscellaneous retail stores (includes
drug, proprietary, liquor, used merchandise,
pet. and related s to r e s ) ........................................................
Apparel and accessories s t o r e s ..............................................

Characteristics of entrants. Most job openings are filled by persons
who have not been working, primarily students and full-time home­
makers. Most entrants are under 25 years of age, have little or no
work experience, and are attracted by the opportunity to work
part time. Those who transfer into the occupation tend to be older
and to take full time jobs.

....................................................... 12.4 percent

SU PP LY PR O FILE
Usual entry level requirements. All real estate agents and brokers
must be licensed. Prospective agents must be high school graduates.
42

Securities sales workers

Training completions:
Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 19821 ................. 4,174
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981' .................................... 1,069
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 19822 ............. 2,065
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 19822:
Bachelor’s ...............................................................................1,816
Master’s .........................................................................................129
P h D ..................................................................................................... 2

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

78,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ..................................................................................19.8
Percent black .................................................................................. 4.1
Percent employed part time ........................................................ 6.4
Unemployment rate

1 Transportation services.
2 Transportation and public utilities.

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry
Securities brokers and dealers

Percent

..............................................

94.7

Wholesale trade sales workers
Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

106,000
35.7

Moderate
107,000
36.4

High

EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

109,000
38.8

Total employment, 1982 .............................................................. 1,093,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................. 13.9
Percent black .................................................................................. 1.6
Percent employed part time
........................................................ 6.1

.................................................... Faster than average

Annual replacement rate

.......................... ................................ 7.8 percent

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Unemployment rate

Usual entry level requirements. A college education has increas­
ingly become a requirement for employment. Many employers pre­
fer to hire people who have been successful in other fields, parti­
cularly sales. Employers seek applicants who are self-confident,
have good communication skills, and are well groomed.

.....................................................Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Characteristics o f entrants. Almost all entrants transfer from other
occupations—primarily from professional or sales occupations that
usually require a college degree. Some entrants are retirees re­
entering the labor force. Most entrants are college graduates.

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Travel agents

Annual replacement rate
Total employment, 1982

1,421,000
29.9

High
1,425,000
30.3

........................................................13.8 percent

62,000

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry
Arrangement of transportation

Percent

.................................................

Usual entry level requirements. Requirements vary by product line
and market. Sales of complex products, such as drugs or computer
equipment, require people with a technical background; many em­
ployers in these fields require a college degree with a major close­
ly related to the product line being sold. Employers specializing in
nontechnical products—food, for example—often consider sales
ability and familiarity with manufacturers and brands more impor­
tant than knowledge of the product itself.

98.8

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

Employment change

1,395,000
27.6

Moderate

Employment c h a n g e .....................................................Faster than average

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Percent

Machinery, equipment, and supplies .................................
25.2
Electrical g o o d s ........................................................................
10.4
Groceries and related p r o d u c ts ...................................................
9.0
Motor vehicles and auto parts and s u p p l i e s ............................
8.6
Hardware, plumbing, and heating equipment
and supplies .............................................................................
5.5

86,000
39.6

Moderate
88,000
42.7

High
89,000
43.0

.................................................... Faster than average

Characteristics of entrants. Most entrants transfer from other occu­
pations—usually from lower level jobs in the same company or from
other sales positions. The remainder have not been working—per­
sons who have been laid off, students, or tending to family re­
sponsibilities. Entrants tend to be older than entrants to other oc­
cupations, reflecting the importance of prior work experience. The
majority of entrants have had some college training and many have
a degree.

SU PP LY PR O FILE
Usual entry level requirements. Employers prefer applicants who
have taken travel courses; some also prefer college graduates. Travel
courses are offered in postsecondary vocational schools, adult edu­
cation programs in public high schools, community colleges, and
4-year colleges and universities. A few States require travel agents
to be licensed.

43

Industry

Administrative Support Occupations,
Including Clerical

Percent

Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................................
Wholesale trade, durable goods ...........................................

10.6
7.3

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Bank tellers

Low

EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Moderate

High

1.943,000
13.4

1,985,000
15.9

2,027,000
18.3

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 539,000
Employment change
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 92.0
Percent black .................................................................................. 5.7
Percent employed part time ........................................................... 18.4
Unemployment rate

Annual replacement rate

Usual entry level requirements. High school graduates who have
taken business arithmetic, bookkeeping, and principles of account­
ing meet the minimum requirements for most bookkeeping jobs.
Some employers prefer applicants who have completed accounting
programs at the community or junior college level or those who
have attended business school.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

........................................................18.8 percent

SU PP LY PR O FILE

..............................................................About average

Percent

Commercial and stock saving b a n k s ....................................
Savings and loan associations ..............................................

................................................. Slower than average

71.3
18.2

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

686,000
27.4

Moderate
693,000
28.6

Characteristics of entrants. More than half of all job openings are
Filled by persons who have not been working, primarily full-time
homemakers returning to the labor force. Many are attracted by the
opportunity to work part time. The remaining entrants transfer from
other occupations, mostly other clerical occupations such as secre­
tary and cashier. Although a considerable number of entrants have
completed some training beyond high school, few are college gradu­
ates.

High
703,000
30.4

...........................................................................Average

Annual replacement rate

....................................................... 20.9 percent

SU PPLY PR O FILE
Usual entry level requirements. Employers generally prefer high
school graduates, although few employers have formal educational
requirements. Preferred personal qualities include neatness, tact,
courtesy, maturity, and attention to detail. Clerical skills are use­
ful but typing proficiency is not needed.

Computer and peripheral equipment operators
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 .................................................................. 260,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 63.3
Percent black ..................................................................................... 11.7
Percent employed part time ........................................................ 8.4

Characteristics o f entrants. Many job openings are filled by per­
sons who transfer from other occupations—primarily clerical. Be­
cause nearly all bank tellers are women, the occupation is charac­
terized by much movement from work to family responsibilities and
back again. Most entrants who have not been working have been
full time homemakers. Many of the others enter directly from
school. Although many entrants have education or training beyond
high school, few are college graduates. The majority of entrants
are under the age of 25.

Unemployment rate

.............................................................. About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Bookkeepers and accounting clerks
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Percent

Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................................
Business s e r v i c e s .....................................................................
Durable goods manufacturing ..............................................
G o v e rn m en t...............................................................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing ........................................

20.0
18.4
13.4
8.0
7.6

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

Total employment, 1982 ..............................................................1.713,000
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 91.8
Percent black .................................................................................. 4.3
Percent employed part time .......................................................... 26.4

451,000
73.5

High
460,000
77.0

Employment c h a n g e ...........................................Much faster than average
Annual replacement rate

Unemployment rate

445,000
71.3

Moderate

........................................................16.6 percent

.............................................................. About average

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

S e r v ic e s .....................................................................................
Retail trade ..............................................................................

23.3
21.6

Usual entry level requirements. Most employers require computer
and peripheral equipment operators to have a high school educa­
tion, specialized training, or experience. Many employers prefer
44

persons who have some postsecondary training, especially in data
processing.

Mail carriers and postal clerks
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Training completions:
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 541,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 26.4
Percent black ..................................................................................... 17.0
Percent employed part t i m e ................................................................. 70

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1982 ................. 9,994
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981
.................................... 3,276
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 1982 ............. 1,103

Characteristics of entrants. Most entrants transfer from other oc­
cupations, such as secretary, typist, bookkeeper, and keypunch
operator. The remaining job openings are filled by persons who
have been tending to family responsibilities or in school.

Unemployment rate

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry
U.S. Postal Service

Keypunch operators

Percent

..............................................................

100.0

Projected employment 1982-95:

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

Low

Total employment, 1982 .................................................................. 320,000

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................94.5
Percent black .....................................................................................16.8
Percent employed part time ...........................................................13.2

Annual replacement rate

Unemployment rate

439,000
-18.8

Moderate
474,000
-12.2

High
485,000
-10.3

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Employment change

..............................................................About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

Employment change

282,000
-11.9

Moderate
286,000
-10.6

........................................................... 7.4 percent

Usual entry level requirements. Civil service regulations govern
the appointment of mail carriers and postal clerks. Applicants must
be U.S. citizens or have been granted permanent resident alien
status and be at least 18 years old (16, if they have a high school
diploma). They must qualify on a written examination that measures
speed and accuracy at checking names and numbers and ability to
memorize mail distribution procedures; and pass a physical exam­
ination. Applicants for mail carrier positions must have a driver’s
license, a good driving record, and pass a road test. Applicants
for postal clerk jobs operating an electronic sorting machine must
pass a special examination that includes a machine aptitude test.
Vacancies are filled on the basis of how applicants score on these
tests.

Percent

Business s e r v i c e s ........................................................................
22.1
Finance, insurance, and real estate ........................................
14.3
G o v e rn m en t..................................................................................
12.4
Wholesale t r a d e ...........................................................................
11.3
Durable goods manufacturing ..............................................
9.1

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change..................

...........................................................................Decline

High
292,000
-8.7

.......................................................................... Decline

Annual replacement rate

Characteristics of entrants. The majority of entrants transfer from
other occupations held while waiting to be selected from the list of
eligible candidates. The remaining entrants have not been working;
they are mainly persons who have been laid off o r betw een jo b s
and persons who have been tending to family responsibilities.
Although some entrants have attended college, the majority have a
high school diploma or less. Most entrants are between the ages of
20 and 34.

....................................................... 19.7 percent

SU PP LY PR O FILE
Usual entry level requirements. Employers prefer high school
graduates who have some training in keypunching. Many employers
test applicants’ ability to enter data quickly and accurately.

Receptionists

Training completions:
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981 .................................... 7,899
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate,
1982 ..................................................................................................
917

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment. 1982 ................................................................... 594,000

Characteristics of entrants. Most keypunch operators are women.
The occupation is characterized by considerable movement be­
tween employment and the home. About half of all entrants have
not been working—mostly persons who have been tending to family
responsibilities or in school. The rest transfer from other occupations.
Most entrants are young and have a high school diploma or less
education.

Selected characteristics of workers. 1982:
Percent female ..................................................................................97.5
Percent black
............................................................................... 6.7
Percent employedpart time ............................................................ 31.0
Unemployment rate

..............................................................About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

45

Industry

experience in dealing with the public and prior employment in the
transportation industry are viewed favorably by employers. A good
appearance, a pleasant personality, and a good speaking voice are
assets.

Percent

Offices of physicians ...........................................................
H o s p ita ls .................................................................................
Offices of dentists .................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................................
Wholesale and retail t r a d e ....................................................

17.9
10.1
9.1
8.1
7.9

Characteristics of entrants. The majority of entrants transfer from
other occupations. The remaining entrants have not been working—
mainly they have been tending to family responsibilities, on
temporary layoff, or in school. An unusually large proportion of
entrants have attended college.

Projected employment. 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

844.000
42.1

Moderate
861.000
45.0

High
886.000
49.2

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

Secretaries

....................................................... 27.6 percent

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
SU PP LY PR O FILE

Total employment, 1982 .............................................................. 2,441,000

Usual entry level requirements. Employers normally require a high
school diploma, and courses in English, typing, shorthand,
business arithmetic, basic accounting and bookkeeping, and office
procedures are recommended. Employers seek people who are out­
going and have a neat appearance, a pleasant voice, and an even
disposition. Many entry level receptionist jobs do not require
office or business experience.

Selected characteristics of workers. 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 99.2
Percent black .................................................................................. 5.9
Percent employed part time ........................................................... 16.8
Unemployment rate

..............................................................About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Characteristics o f entrants. About half of all entrants transfer from
other occupations—mostly other clerical occupations such as cashier,
clerk, secretary, and typist. The others have not been working,
primarily women who have been engaged in family responsibilities.
About 1 entrant in 3 has some college training. Nearly half of all
entrants take part time jobs.

Percent

Educational services ..............................................................
12.7
Finance, insurance, and real estate ....................................
11.8
Wholesale and retail trade .........................................................
9.8
Health services ............................................................................
8.6
G o v e rn m en t...................................................................................
8.6
Legal s e rv ic e s ...............................................................................
8.4
Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

Reservation agents and transportation
ticket clerks

1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Employment change

Total employment, 1982 .................................................................108.000

Annual replacement rate

Selected characteristics of workers. 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................47.4
Percent black .....................................................................................10.4
Percent employed part time ....................................................... 9.8

3.108.000
27.3

Moderate
3,161.000
29.5

High
3.243,000
32.8

SU PPLY PRO FILE

Unemployment rate

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

Percent

.................................................

Training completions:
Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 19821 ......................................................127,883
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 19811 ................ 62,486
1 Stenographic-secretarial.

76.4

Projected employment. 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............

108.000
0.1

Moderate
110,000
1.9

High
112.000
3.8

Characteristics of entrants. Most secretaries are women. The occu­
pation is characterized by a pattern of movement from family
responsibilities into the labor force and back to the home again.
Most job openings are filled by people who have not been working.
Some have been unemployed, others have been in school, but most
have been full-time homemakers. The remaining entrants transfer
from other occupations, especially clerical jobs such as typist,
receptionist, stenographer, bank teller, bookkeeper, cashier, or
statistical clerk.

Employment c h a n g e ...........................................Little change is expected
Annual replacement rate

........................................................17.6 percent

Usual entry level requirements. Most employers seek high school
graduates who have mastered basic office skills such as typing.
Shorthand is needed for some jobs, and employers increasingly
require word processing experience. Formal training usually is not
required, but often it is an asset.

.................................................... Lower than average

Certified air transportation

...........................................................................Average

...........................................................9.3 percent

SU P P LY PR O FILE
Usual entry level requirements. Employers generally require a
high school diploma; some prefer postsecondary training. Previous

46

Most entrants are between the ages of 25 and 54. Two out of
five secretarial positions are filled by people who have had some
college education, although only a minority are college graduates.

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
247,000
- 8 .5

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Shipping and receiving clerks

Employment change

Moderate

High

250.000
- 7 .4

256,000
-5 .1

...................

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 365,000

Usual entry level requirements. Employers require applicants to be
able to take dictation in shorthand at a certain speed and with a
certain degree of accuracy. Applicants for court reporter jobs should
know how to use a stenotype machine. Some States require court
reporters to be certified.

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 24.8
Percent black .....................................................................................11.8
Percent employed part time
....................................................... 8.1
Unemployment rate

.............................................................. About average

Training completions:

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982' ........................................................................... 127,883
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 19 8 11 ................................. 62,486

Percent

Wholesale trade, durable g o o d s ...............................................
Retail t r a d e ...................................................................................
Non-durable goods manufacturing ........................................
Durable goods m an u factu rin g ..................................................
Wholesale trade, non-durable goods .....................................

19.9
19.6
17.9
17.7
11.8

1
Stenographic-secretarial.

Characteristics o f entrants. Entrants are about evenly divided be­
tween those who have not been working and those who transfer
from other occupations. Most new entrants are young people who
have been in school. Some have been full-time homemakers. Many
who transfer have held other clerical jobs, primarily secretary
and typist. About 1 out of 2 entrants has some college training
but few have a degree.

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
Percent c h a n g e .............
Employment change

420,000
15.1

Moderate
431,000
18.2

High
439,000
20.4

.................................................Slower than average

Annual replacement rate

...................................................... 19.1 percent

Teacher aides

SU PPLY PR O FILE

EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Usual entry level requirements. High school graduation is usually
required for beginning jobs in shipping and receiving departments.
Employers prefer applicants who have taken business arithmetic,
typing, and other high school business subjects, and who can write
legibly and keep orderly records.

Total employment, 1982 .................................................................. 463,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 92.5
Percent black ..................................................................................... 16.7
Percent employed part time ...........................................................57.8

Characteristics of entrants. Over half of all entrants transfer from
a variety of unskilled and semiskilled occupations. The remainder
have not been working—primarily students or workers laid off
from other jobs.

Unemployment rate

.............................................................. About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Stenographers
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Selected characteristics of workers. 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 84.8
Percent black .....................................................................................10.6
Percent employed part time ............................................................. 7.7

Employment change

579,000
25.1

Moderate
593,000
28.1

High
606,000
30.9

...........................................................................Average

Annual replacement rate

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

State g o v e rn m e n t....................................................................
Educational services ..............................................................
Hospitals .................................................................................
Local governm ent.....................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ........................................

81.3
11.0

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 270,000

Industry

Percent

Educational services ..................................................................
Child day care s e rv ic e s ...........................................................

.......................................................25.6 percent

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Percent
14.4
13.2
10.4
10.3
9.9

Usual entry level requirements. Educational requirements vary
widely. Some school districts require a high school diploma; others
do not. Still others require some college training. Districts that
delegate a significant amount of classroom responsibility to aides
47

usually require more training than those that use aides for primarily
clerical or monitoring duties.

Unemployment rate

..............................................................About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Characteristics of entrants. Most job openings arc filled by per­
sons who have not been working—primarily homemakers attracted
by the opportunity to work part time.

Percent

Finance, insurance, and real estate ........................................
Local g overnm ent........................................................................
State government ...............................................................
Federal Government ...................................................................
Business s e r v i c e s .........................................................................
Health services ............................................................................
Educational services ...................................................................

Telephone operators

12.2
11.2
9.6
8.6
8.4
8.3
8.1

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Projected employment, 1982—
95:
Total employment. 1982 ................................................................. 323.000

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................91.9
Percent black .....................................................................................16.3
Percent employed part time ...........................................................14.7

Employment change

Unemployment rate

Annual replacement rate

..............................................................About average

1,175,000
18.7

................................................. Slower than average
....................................................... 24.2 percent

Percent

Telephone communication
Miscellaneous business services
(includes research and development
laboratories; management, consulting, and
public relations services; detective
agencies; and related services) .......................................

High

1,145,000
15.7

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Moderate

1,136,000
14.7

47.0

Usual entry level requirements. Employers usually require high
school graduation and a certain typing speed. An increasing number
also require word processing training or experience. Spelling,
punctuation, and grammar skills are important, and familiarity
with standard office equipment and procedures is an asset.

10.9

Training completions:

Projected employment, 1982—95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

342,000
5.7

Moderate
348,000
7.8

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 19821 ........................................................................ 80,513
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 19811 .................................... 7,278

High
354.000
9.5

1 Typing and related occupations.
Employment change

.................................................Slower than average

Annual replacement rate

Characteristics of entrants. Most openings are filled by people
who have not been working. The majority have been attending to
family responsibilities; the rest are recent graduates of training
programs. The remaining entrants transfer from other clerical oc­
cupations, such as bookkeeper, cashier, clerk, and secretary. One
entrant in four is a teenager. About 1 entrant in 3 has had some
college training, although few have received a degree.

....................................................... 20.1 percent

SU PPLY PRO FILE
Usual entry level requirements. Some employers require a high
school diploma. Many telephone companies and business firms
require applicants to pass a physical examination. Employers prefer
applicants who are pleasant, courteous, and good listeners and
who have good reading, spelling, and arithmetic skills.
Characteristics of entrants. Almost all telephone operators are
women. Consequently, there is considerable movement between
employment and family responsibilities and back again. About
half of all entrants have not been working; most have been students
or full-time homemakers. Others transfer form other occupations—
many from other clerical occupations such as cashier and keypunch
operator.

Service Occupations
Protective Service Occupations
Correction officers

Typists

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Total employment, 1982 .....................................................................111,000

Total employment. 1982 ................................................................. 990,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................96.6
Percent black .....................................................................................13.9
Percent employed part time
.......................................................... 25.4

State g o v e rn m e n t........................................................................
Local g overnm ent........................................................................

48

Percent
57.1
39.2

in the Armed Forces. Some entrants have completed education or
training beyond high school, but few are college graduates. An
unusually large proportion of entrants are between the ages of 25
and 34.

Projected employment. 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

145,000
30.8

Moderate
147.0(H)
32.6

High
150,000
36.1

Guards

Employment c h a n g e ....................................................Faster than average

SU PPLY PRO FILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Usual entry level requirements. Most institutions require that cor­
rection officers be at least 18 years old and have a high school
diploma or its equivalent, or qualifying work experience. They
must be in good health; many States require candidates to meet
formal standards of physical fitness, eyesight, and hearing. Strength,
good judgment, and the ability to think and act quickly are assets.
A few States require candidates to pass a written examination.

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 637,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ..................................................................................12.7
Percent black .....................................................................................19.6
Percent employed part time ...........................................................16.3
Unemployment r a t e .................................................... Higher than average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Firefighters

Industry

EM P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 252,000

48.3
10.0

Projected employment. 1982—
95:

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ........................................................................................5
Percent b l a c k ....................................................................................... 8.3
Percent employed part time .................................................................6
Unemployment rate

Percent

Miscellaneous business services
(includes detective agencies and
protective and related services) ...........................................
Manufacturing ...........................................................................

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

927.000
45.5

Moderate
937,000
47.1

High
952,000
49.5

.......................................... Much lower than average
Employment c h a n g e .....................................................Faster than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry
Local governm ent....................................................................

Annual replacement rate

Percent
95.3

SU PP LY PRO FILE
Usual entry level requirements. Although there are no formal
educational requirements, applicants may be tested for reading
and writing ability. Some jobs require a driver's permit. Employers
prefer high school graduates with military. State, or local police
experience.

Projected employment, 1982 —
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

271,000
7.5

Moderate
274,000
8.8

....................................................... 25.2 percent

High
282,000
11.7

.................................................Slower than average

A n n u a l r e p la c e m e n t r a te

.............................................................................................................4 . 1

Characteristics of entrants. The majority of entrants transfer from
other occupations—a few are former police officers or other pro­
tective service workers. The remaining entrants have not been
working—they have been unemployed students, or in the Armed
Forces. Most entrants have a high school diploma or less education.

p e rc e n t

SU PPLY PRO FILE
Usual entry level requirements. Applicants must be at least 18
years of age and have a high school diploma. They also may have
to pass a written test, a medical examination, and tests of strength,
physical stamina, and agility. Experience as a volunteer firefighter
or in the Armed Forces and completion of community or junior
college courses in fire science may improve applicants' chances
for appointment.

Police and detectives, public service
EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 549,000
Selected characteristics of workers. 1982
Percent female .................................................................................... 6.7
Percent b l a c k ....................................................................................... 9.3
Percent employed part time .............................................................. 1.4

Training completions:
Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 19821 ........................................................................... 9.227
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 19 8 11 ....................................1,870
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, I9822 ............. 2,727

Unemployment rate

1 Includes fire and fire safety technology and firefighter training.
2 Fire control technologies.

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

Characteristics of entrants. The overwhelming majority of entrants
transfer from other occupations. Some have worked as firefighters

Local government
State government

49

Percent
8 4 .1
10.3

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

I n d u s tr y
Low

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

586,000
6.8

M o d e r a te

592,000
7.9

608,000
10.9

P ercen t

Eating and drinking p l a c e s ....................................................

H ig h

70.5

Projected employment, 1982—
95:
Low

Employment change ................
Annual replacement rate
....

average
. . 7.1

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

M o d e r a te

500,000
30.1

505,000
31.5

H ig h

511.000
33.1

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

SU PP LY PR O FILE
Annual replacement rate

Usual entry level requirements. Civil service regulations govern
the appointment of police officers and detectives in most juris­
dictions. Appointment depends on performance in competitive
written examinations, as well as experience and education. Ap­
plicants must be U.S. citizens, usually at least 21 years old, and
meet rigorous physical and personal qualifications. In most police
departments, a high school education is required. Prospects for
appointment are improved by related work experience or by com­
pletion of an associate or bachelor's degree program in police
science or administration of justice.

....................................................... 31.0 percent

SU PPLY PRO FILE
Usual entry level requirements. Bartenders must be at least 21
years of age, although some employers prefer to hire persons at
least 25 years old. Employers seek persons who have a pleasant
personality and a neat and clean appearance. There are no formal
educational requirements, and most people learn their trade on
the job. A few prepare for this occupation by attending a bartending school or taking vocational and technical school courses
on bartending.

Training < ompletions:
Characteristics of entrants. Many entrants transfer from other
occupations, mainly related occupations such as cook, bartender’s
helper, waiter or waitress, or waiter's assistant. Others have not
been working—mostly persons who had been laid off from other
jobs, full-time students, and persons who have been tending to
family responsibilities.

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary. 19821
28,091
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 19811
1,042
Armed Forces enlisted strength,
law enforcement, 1981 ................................................................. 41,882
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate. I9822 . . . . 13,251
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1982:
Law enforcement, corrections, and
criminology:
B a c h e lo r's ..............................................................................14.489
Master's ..............................................................................1.625
P h D ..................................................................................................35

Cooks and chefs
E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

1 Includes police science technology and law enforcement training.
2 Includes police, law enforcement, and corrections technologies.

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 1.211,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................49.9
Percent black .....................................................................................15.3
Percent employed part time .......................................................... 38.9

Characteristics of entrants. The majority of entrants transfer from
other occupations—some have worked in a field related to law
enforcement; many others transfer from jobs held temporarily while
waiting to be selected from the list of eligible candidates. The
remaining entrants have been between jobs, in military service,
or in school. About half of all entrants have had some post­
secondary training and many have a college degree. Entrants tend
to be somewhat older than entrants to other occupations.

Unemployment r a t e .................................................... Higher than average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:
I n d u s tr y

P ercen t

Eating and drinking p l a c e s ........................................................
Educational services ..................................................................

Food and Beverage Preparation and
Service Occupations

54.5
20.7

Projected employment, 1982-95:
Low

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Bartenders

1,591.000
31.4

M o d e r a te

H ig h

1.613.000
33.2

1.636.000
35.1

EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 384.000

Annual replacement rate

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................50.0
Percent b l a c k ....................................................................................... 2.6
Percent employed part time .......................................................... 34.7

SU PPLY PR O FILE

....................................................... 30.2 percent

Usual entry level requirements. Many cooks acquire their skills
on the job as fry cooks in fast-food restaurants or as kitchen
helpers, but years of training and experience are required for
highly skilled cook or chef positions. Because competition is keen
for jobs in large restaurants and hotels, applicants for these jobs

Unemployment r a t e .................................................... Higher than average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

50

generally need formal training in commercial food preparation
available from colleges and universities, vocational schools, train­
ing programs operated by large restaurant and hotels, or through
apprenticeship programs. High school graduation is recommended
for these training positions, although it is not required for entry
level jobs.

worker. About 7 of every 10 entrants are under the age of 25. Many
entrants have no more than a high school education, and, although
some have completed postsecondary education, few are college
graduates.

Health Service Occupations
Training completions:
Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary 19821
11,839
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 19811 ................................... 3,401
Registered apprenticeships, 19792
194

Dental assistants
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

1 Quantity food occupations.
Total employment, 1982 .....................................................................153,000

2 Cooks, bakers.

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female
................................................................................ 98.0
Percent black
......................................................................................3
Percent employed part time
.......................................................... 31.5

Characteristics o f entrants. Most entrants have not been working—
mainly students, homemakers, and those who have been laid off
from other jobs. Many take jobs as a source of income rather
than as the beginning of a career. The majority are 25 or younger,
have a high school education or less, and work part time. Other
entrants transfer from other occupations—primarily dishwashers,
waiters and waitresses, and other food service workers.

Unemployment rate

.............................................................. About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Waiters and waitresses

Offices of dentists

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Percent

..................................................................

94.8

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 1,665,000
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 88.6
Percent black .....................................................................................13.0
Percent employed part time
........................................................58.1

Moderate

213,000
39.2

218,000
42.0

High
229,000
49.3

Employment c h a n g e .....................................................Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

........................................................23.6 percent

Unemployment r a t e .................................................... Higher than average

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Eating and drinking p l a c e s ....................................................
Hotels and other lodging places ..........................................

80.3
8.9

Usual entry level requirements. This is an entry level job with
no formal academic requirements. An ability to learn the job
and a congenial personality are really all that is needed. Some
persons are trained in dental assisting programs offered by com­
munity and junior colleges and postsecondary vocational schools.

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . . 2,199,000
Percent change .............
32.1

Moderate

High

2,227,000
33.8

2,249,000
35.1

Training completions:
Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982 ............................................................................... 7,792
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981
.................................... 7,354
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 1982 ............. 3,372

Employment c h a n g e .....................................................Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

....................................................... 39.8 percent

Characteristics o f entrants. Most dental assistants are young
women. Thus, the occupation is characterized by considerable
movement from work to family responsibilities and back again.
Most entrants have not been working—primarily they have been
tending to family responsibilities, are recent high school graduates,
or are jobseekers with no previous work experience. The remaining
entrants transfer from other occupations—many have held parttime jobs while in school.

SU PP LY PR O FILE
Usual entry level requirements. There are no formal education
requirements for waiter and waitress jobs. Employers seek persons
who have a pleasant personality, an even disposition, and a neat
and clean appearance. Most waiters and waitresses learn their
skills on the job.
Characteristics o f entrants. Most job openings are filled by persons
who have not been working, including students, homemakers,
and those who have been laid off from other jobs. Many take jobs
as a source of income rather than as the beginning of a career. The
remaining entrants transfer from other occupations; some advance
from a related job as a waiter’s assistant, carhop, or food counter

Medical assistants
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 ..................................................................100,000

51

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry
Offices of p h y s ic ia n s ..............................................................

entrants transfer from other occupations. Most entrants have a
high school diploma or less education.

Percent
72.3

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

146,000
45.1

Moderate
148,000
47.5

High

Cleaning Service Occupations

154,000
53.1

Building custodians

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

SU PPLY PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 .............................................................. 2,828,000

Usual entry level requirements. Most medical assistants are trained
on the job. Many employers prefer applicants who have completed
training programs offered by high schools, postsecondary vocational
schools, and community and junior colleges. A high school diploma
normally is required, and applicants should have good communi­
cation skills and manual dexterity.

Selected characteristics o f workers, 1982:
Percent female ..................................................................................38.3
Percent black .....................................................................................24.7
Percent employed part time
........................................................31.7
Unemployment r a t e .....................................................Higher than average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Training completions:

Industry

Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants

Percent

Educational services ...............................................................
Services to dwellings and other b u ild in g s ...........................
Wholesale and retail trade .....................................................
Hotels and other lodging places ...........................................
Hospitals ..................................................................................

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1982 ................. 7,192
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981 ....................................15,035
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 1982 ............. 5,302

19.2
14.9
11.1
9.9
7.8

Projected employment, 1982-95:

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Low

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 1,218,000

1995 employment . . . . 3,554,000
Percent change .............
25.7

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 87.1
Percent black .................................................................................... 29.0
Percent employed part time
.........................................................25.1

Employment change

40.5
38.7

Characteristics o f entrants. Most job openings are filled by per­
sons who have not been working, including students, homemakers,
retired persons, and those who have been laid off from other jobs.
The remaining entrants transfer from other occupations. Entrants
generally are very young although, compared to other occupations,
an unusually large number are 55 or older. Most have a high
school diploma or less education.

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . .
.1.628,000
Percent change .............
33.6

Moderate

High

1,642,000
34.8

1.690,000
38.7

Employment c h a n g e ....................................................Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

........................................................24.6 percent

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts . No special education is required
for most jobs, but beginners should know basic arithmetic and be
able to follow instructions.

Percent

Hospitals .................................................................................
Nursing and personal care facilities ....................................

3,682,000
30.2

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

High

3,606,000
27.5

...........................................................................Average

Annual replacement rate

Unemployment r a t e .................................................... Higher than average

M oderate

....................................................... 25.5 percent

SU P P LY PR O FILE

Personal Service Occupations
Usual entry level requirements. Employers prefer to hire high
school graduates, but a diploma is not always required. Previous
work experience ordinarily is not needed. Many States require
nursing aides to be certified. To become certified, candidates must
pass a State-approved course of instruction.

Barbers
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 .................................................................. 115,000

Characteristics of entrants. Most workers in this occupation are
women; consequently, there is considerable movement between
work and family responsibilities. The majority of entrants have
not been working—they have been full-time homemakers, students,
or jobseekers with no previous work experience. The remaining

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................. 12.0
Percent black ..................................................................................... 14.0
Percent employed part time ........................................................... 17.6

52

Unemployment rate

SU PP LY PR O FILE

.....................................................Lower than average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry
Barber shops
Beauty shops

U su a l en try le v e l req u irem en ts. All States and the District of Colum­
bia require cosmetologists to be licensed. Candidates for a license
must graduate from a State-licensed cosmetology school, pass a
physical examination, and be at least 16 years old. Some States
will accept completion of apprenticeship training in lieu of gradua­
tion from cosmetology school.

Percent

..............................................................................
..............................................................................

46.7
42.7

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

126,000
9.2

Moderate
127,000
10.4

High
T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

129,000
12.4

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982 ........................................................................ 31,669
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981
113,179
Registered apprenticeships, 1 9 7 9 '.................................................
491

.................................................Slower than average

Annual replacement rate

...........................................................2.6 percent

1 Includes barbers and beauticians.

SU PPLY PR O FILE
Almost all cosmetologists are women.
Consequently, the occupation is characterized by considerable
movement from work to family responsibilities and back again.
All job openings are filled either by recently licensed cosmetolo­
gists or from the reserve pool of licensed but inactive cosmetolo­
gists who have been tending to family responsibilities or not work­
ing for other reasons. An unusually large proportion of entrants
take part-time positions.
C h a r a c te r is tic s o f e n tra n ts.

All States and the District of Colum­
bia require barbers to be licensed. In general, applicants must
graduate from a State-approved barber school or apprenticeship
program and be at least 16 years old. Some States also require a
high school diploma. Good health and physical stamina are also
necessary.
U su al en try le v e l req u irem en ts.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981
.................................... 9,927
Registered apprenticeships, 1979' ....................................................
491

Flight attendants

1 Includes barbers and beauticians.

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Most entrants are recent graduates of
barber schools or apprenticeship programs; many have been work­
ing while in training. An unusually large proportion are persons
over the age of 55 who are beginning a second career.
C h a r a c te r is tic s o f e n tra n ts.

Total employment, 1982

54,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ........................................................................................... 83.7
Percent b l a c k ...............................................................................................11.4
Percent employed part time .................................................................... 46.4

Cosmetologists

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Industry

Percent

Certified air tra n sp o rta tio n ....................................................

96.9

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 519,000
Projected employment, 1982—
95:
Selected characteristics o f workers, 1982:

Low

Percent female .................................................................................89.5
Percent black ................................................................................. 6.8
Percent employed part time .......................................................... 39.0

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Unemployment r a t e ..............................................................About average

Employment change

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

68,000
27.2

Moderate
69,000
28.8

High
70,000
30.1

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Industry
Beauty shops

Percent

...........................................................................

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Flight attendants must have a high
school diploma and complete a 4- to 6-week company training
program. They must be in good physical condition. They should
have an attractive appearance, be poised, and be able to deal
comfortably with strangers.

90.8

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

609,000
17.4

Moderate
622,000
20.0

High
639,000
23.2

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Most entrants are young people who
have had some college education. Some enter directly from school
while others transfer from a wide variety of occupations.

.......................................................................... Average

Annual replacement rate

...........................................................................Average

...................................................... 12.8 percent

53

Mechanics and Repairers

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ..................................................................................... 1.5
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................5.0
Percent employed part time ..............................................................7.1

Vehicle and Mobile Equipment
Mechanics and Repairers

Unemployment rate

.............................................................. About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Aircraft mechanics

Industry

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Percent

Automobile repair shops ........................................................
Motor vehicle dealers (new and u s e d ) .................................

49.8
37.7

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Total employment, 1982 .....................................................................108,000

Low
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................... 3.8
Percent b l a c k ....................................................................................... 6.2
Percent employed part time .............................................................. 1.5
Unemployment rate

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

.................................................... Lower than average

Industry

36.8
21.0
10.0

Low

Employment change

132,000
22.2

Moderate
128,000
18.6

29.6

........................................................12.3 percent

U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. A utom otive body rep airers learn
their trade on the jo b inform ally as helpers to experien ced repairers
or through form al apprenticeship program s. A lthough there are no
form al education requirem ents, m any em ployers prefer high school
graduates. A grow ing num ber o f autom otive body repairers learn
their basic skills in form al training program s offered by post­
secondary vocational schools and com m unity and ju n io r colleges.

Projected employment, 1982-95:

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

201,000

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Percent

Certified air transportation ........................................................
Aircraft and p a r t s ........................................................................
Air transportation facilities and s e rv ic e s .................................

196,000
26.3

High

.................; ....................................................Average

Annual replacement rate

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

191,000
23.1

Moderate

High
131,000
21.1

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

.................................................Slower than average

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982 .............................................................................. 21,610
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981 ................................... 5,330
Registered apprenticeships, 1979 .....................................................
346

U s u a l e n tr y l e v e l r e q u ir e m e n ts . A irc ra ft m e c h a n ic s m u st be

C h a r a c te r is tic s o f e n tra n ts. M ost jo b openings are filled by form er

licensed. R equirem ents fo r licensure include high school gradua­
tion o r the equivalent and com pletion o f a vocational program
certified by the Federal A viation A dm inistration o r training in the
A rm ed Forces. M echanics also m ust have m echanical aptitude,
strength, and agility.

helpers. T he rem aining entrants have not been w orking— m any
have been on layoff; som e have been in a training program . A bout
h a lf o f all entrants are under the age o f 25 and m ost have a high
school diplom a o r less education.

Annual replacement rate

...........................................................8.0 percent

Automotive mechanics
T ra in in g co m p le tio n s:

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1 9 8 2 '................................................................................. 5,650
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981
1,992
Registered apprenticeships, 1979
26
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 19822 ............. 6,355

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 844,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ........................................................................................9
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................7.5
Percent employed part time ..............................................................6.7

1 Includes all aviation occupations
2 Includes aeronautical and aviation
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. A lm ost all entrants are recent gradu­
ates o f form al training program s o r trained m echanics w ho have

Unemployment rate

left the A rm ed Forces. R elatively few jo b openings are filled by
persons transferring from o th er occupations.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

.............................................................. About average

Industry

Automotive body repairers

Percent

Motor vehicle dealers (new and u s e d ) .................................
Automobile repair shops ........................................................
Gasoline service stations

22.9
14.4
10.5

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Low
1995 employment
Percent change .

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 155,000

54

Moderate

High

1,134,000
34.3

1,168,000
38.3

1,195,000
41.6

Farm equipment mechanics

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

....................................................... 15.1 percent

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

S U P P LY PR O FILE

Total employment, 1982

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts . There are no formal education
requirements, but employers look for people with mechanical apti­
tude and a knowledge of automobiles. Most employers prefer to
hire persons with experience in working on cars gained in related
occupations, in formal training programs, in the Armed Forces, or
as a hobby. Many persons learn the trade on the job.

26,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent b l a c k ..................................................................................... 7.1
Percent employed part time ........................................................... 4.8
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Machinery, equipment, and supplies w h o le sa le rs.................

76.6

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982 .............................................................................. 78,739
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981 ................................... 13,862
Registered apprenticeships, 1979 .................................................... 1,466

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. About half of all entrants transfer from
other occupations such as garage worker, gas station attendant, or
a related mechanic and repairer occupation. The rest are recent
graduates of high school and other training programs or persons
who have been vehicle mechanics in the Armed Forces.

27,000
3.8

Moderate
27,000
5.3

High
28,000
6.0

Employment c h a n g e ...........................................Little change is expected

SU PP LY PR O FILE
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ir e m e n ts . Employers seek people with
mechanical aptitude and knowledge of farm equipment for entry
jobs. Employers prefer persons with training or related experience
in diesel or gasoline engines, welding, and hydraulic and electrical
systems. There are no formal education requirements, but training
in agricultural mechanics at a vocational or technical school or
community or junior college is desirable.

Diesel mechanics
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Total employment, 1982 .................................................................... 173,000

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982 ............................................................................... 24,470

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Trucking, local and long distance ...........................................
Machinery, equipment, and supplies w h o le sa le rs.................
Automobile repair, services, and g a r a g e s ..............................

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority of entrants transfer from
other occupations where they have developed related skills. Many
others are recent graduates from training programs in agricultural
mechanics.

22.6
20.9
12.2

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

216,000
24.8

Moderate
222,000
28.0

High

Electrical and Electronic
Equipment Repairers

226,000
30.7

.......................................................................... Average

Appliance installers and repairers

SU P P LY PR O FILE

EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Diesel mechanics usually develop
their skills on the job, through formal apprenticeship programs or
informally by working as helpers to experienced mechanics. Most
employers prefer graduates of formal training programs offered by
postsecondary vocational schools and community and junior
colleges. Applicants must have mechanical aptitude, be in good
physical condition, and have a State chauffeur’s license in order to
be able to test-drive trucks or buses on public roads.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

Total employment, 1982

80,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .....................................................................................3.3
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................6.0
Percent employed part time ..............................................................7.5
Unemployment r a t e .............................................................. About average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Industry

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1982 ................. 8,222
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981
.................................... 9,700
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 1 9 8 2 '............. 3,546

Department s t o r e s ........................................................................
Household appliance stores
.....................................................
Fuel and ice dealers ..................................................................

1 Diesel technology.

55

Percent
20.4
17.7
10.9

Computer service technicians

Projected employment growth, 1982—
95:

Low
91,000
14.2

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

Moderate

High

93,000
16.8

95,000
19.5

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

.............

Annual replacement rate

Total employment, 1982
. 9.9 percent

. . .

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .....................................................................................7.1
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................6.0
Percent employed part time ..............................................................2.1

SU PPLY PR O FILE
Usual entry level requirements. Appliance repairers learn their
trade on the job. Employers prefer to hire high school graduates
with mechanical aptitude and knowledge of or work experience in
basic electricity and electronics. Some persons prepare for this
occupation by taking postsecondary training courses in appliance
repair.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Machinery, equipment, and supplies
w h o le sa le rs...........................................................................
Durable goods manufacturing ..............................................
Computer and data processing services ..............................

Training completions:

71.0
8.9
5.9

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982 .............................................................................. 3,232
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981 ....................................... 905

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Characteristics of entrants. Most entrants transfer from other
occupations—many are related repairer occupations that require
knowledge of basic electricity and electronics. The remainder have
not been working—most have been between jobs, in school, or
serving in the Armed Forces. Most entrants are under the age of 25
and have a high school diploma or less education.

Training completions:
Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1982:
Electronic technology ..................................................................15,947
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Electronic technology

Percent

.......................................................

97.4

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
.............

Moderate

92,000
0.0

95,000
3.3

........................................................................ 7,533

Armed Services enlisted strength, 1981:
Computer r e p a i r .............................................................................. 8,728
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 1982:
Data processing equipment maintenance
tec h n o lo g ie s..................................................................................1,819

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Telephone communication

108,000
98.3

Usual entry level requirements. Most employers require applicants
to have completed 1 to 2 years of postsecondary training in basic
electronics or electrical engineering or to have comparable experi­
ence. Basic electronics training offered by the Armed Forces is
also considered to be excellent training.

92,000

Industry

108,000
96.8

High

SU PPLY PR O FILE

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

106,000
93.4

Moderate

Employment c h a n g e ...........................................Much faster than average

Communications equipment mechanics

Percent change

.................................................................. 55,000

Characteristics of entrants. Most entrants transfer from related
occupations such as office machine repair, television service
technician, and electrical or electronic technician. Others have
been trained in the Armed Forces. Many of the remainder are
recent graduates of postsecondary programs in electronics.

High
95,000
3.9

Employment c h a n g e .......................................... Little change is expected

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Line installers and cable splicers

Usual entry level requirements. Requirements vary, but few
employers have formal education requirements. While some train­
ees are hired from outside the company, preference usually is
given to company employees in other jobs. Physical and written
examinations often are mandatory. Work involving 2-way radio or
microwave transmission requires a Federal Communications Com­
mission general radiotelephone license. A valid State driver’s license
and a good driving record also may be required.
56

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 .....................................................................195,000
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry
Telephone communication ........................................................
Electric services
........................................................................

Percent
35.3
26.9

Characteristics o f entrants. The majority of entrants transfer from
other occupations—many are related technician and repairer occu­
pations that require knowledge of electricity and electronics. Most
of the remainder have not been working—many have been in
school, between jobs, or serving in the Armed Forces. Most entrants
have a high school diploma or less education.

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

243,000
24.7

Moderate
248.000
27.3

High
251,000
28.8

....................................................................... Average

SU PPLY PRO FILE

Telephone and PBX installers and repairers
Usual entry level requirements. Although few employers require
high school graduation, many test applicants for basic verbal,
arithmetic, and abstract reasoning skills. Applicants also may be
tested for physical ability and mechanical aptitude. Applicants
should have stamina, the ability to distinguish colors, and not be
afraid of heights.

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 134,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ..................................................................................10.9
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................8.2
Percent employed part t i m e .................................................................. 7

Radio and television service technicians
Unemployment rate

EM P LO Y M E N T PRO FILE

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Total employment, 1982

Industry

80,000

Telephone communications

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................... 5.4
Percent b l a c k ....................................................................................... 6.3
Percent employed part time ...........................................................10.0
Unemployment rate

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

..............................................................About average

Industry

Employment change

101,000
25.1

Moderate
171,000
27.5

High
172,000
28.4

Moderate
102,000
27.0

...........................................................8.2 percent

SU PPLY PRO FILE
Usual entry level requirements. Trainees usually are selected from
the ranks of other telephone company workers. For trainee positions,
employers require good eyesight and the ability to distinguish
colors, good health, and mechanical aptitude. A basic knowledge
of electricity and electronics is preferred; this can be developed on
the job in another occupation, through a formal training program,
or in the Armed Forces. A high school diploma is preferred but not
required.

High
105,000
30.2

.......................................................................... Average

Annual replacement rate

166,000
23.6

...........................................................................Average

Annual replacement rate

31.4
23.8
11.8

Projected employment, 1982-95:

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

95.2

Percent

Radio, television, and music stores .......................................
Electrical repair shops ..............................................................
Communications ........................................................................

Low

Percent

.................................................

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Employment change

.................................................... Lower than average

....................................................... 15.6 percent

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Characteristics of entrants. Job openings generally are filled by
persons who transfer from other occupations—mainly operators,
line installers, service representatives, and other telephone com­
pany personnel. Most are in their twenties or early thirties. The
majority of entrants have a high school diploma or less education.

Usual entry level requirements. Training in electronics is required
for entry level jobs. Formal training is available from postsecondary
vocational schools, community colleges, the Armed Forces, or
through on-the-job training in a related occupation. A few radio
and television service technicians enter through formal apprentice­
ship programs.

Other Mechanics and Repairers
Training completions:
Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982' ..............................................................................32,210
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 19 8 12 ....................................... 1,707
Registered apprenticeships, I9792
130
Armed Services enlisted strength, 1981:
Radio/radar repair .................................................................... 76,302
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 1982’ . . . . 25,181

Air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heating
mechanics
EM P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 .....................................................................168,000

1 Electronic occupations.
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................5.1
Percent employed part time ..............................................................5.6

2 Radio and TV repair.
1 Electronics and machine technologies.

57

Unemployment rate

Employment change

..............................................................About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Percent

Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning
contractors ...........................................................................
Fuel and ice dealers ..............................................................
G o v e rn m en t..............................................................................
Electrical repair shops ..........................................................

........................................................................Average

47.1
9.3
7.4
6.4

Usual entry level requirements. Coin machine servicers who repair
electronic games generally are required to have an associate degree
in electronics, including training or relevant work experience with
computer microprocessors; equivalent military training also is
acceptable. Some employers require high school graduation for
positions as vending machine repairers. Employers require appli­
cants for mechanic jobs to demonstrate mechanical ability, either
through their work experience or by scoring well on mechanical
aptitude tests. A commercial driver’s license and a good driving
record are essential for most coin machine repairer jobs.

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

220,000
30.6

Moderate
223,000
32.6

High
228.000
35.7

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

Training completions:

....................................................... 10.9 percent

Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 1982'

SU PPLY PR O FILE

. ...

25,181

1 Electronics and machine technologies.

Usual entry level requirements. Most persons learn this trade as
helpers, working with experienced air-conditioning, heating, and
refrigeration mechanics. A few develop their skills in formal appren­
ticeship programs. Employers generally seek high school gradu­
ates with mechanical aptitude who have had courses in shop math,
mechanical drawing, electricity, and blueprint reading. Some
employers prefer graduates of programs in air-conditioning, heating,
and refrigeration offered by postsecondary vocational schools and
community and junior colleges.

Industrial machinery repairers
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................... 330,000
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Training completions:

Percent

G o v e rn m en t..............................................................................
10.2
Food and related product manufacturing ...............................
8.3
Chemicals and allied product manufacturing ........................
7.7
Primary metal manufacturing ..................................................
7.0
Fabricated metal product m anufacturing..................................
7.0
Transportation equipment manufacturing ...............................
5.5
Electrical and electronic machinery and
equipment manufacturing ......................................................
5.1

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982 ................................................................................. 14,342
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981 ......................................11,680
Registered apprenticeships, 1979 ........................................................... 294

Characteristics of entrants. The majority of entrants transfer from
other occupations—some are experienced mechanics who are enter­
ing another occupation because activity in their trade is down. The
remaining entrants have not been working—many are experienced
mechanics who have been laid off, while some have been in high
school or other training program. Most entrants have a high school
diploma or less education.

Projected employment, 1982 —
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

416,000
26.1

Moderate
425,000
28.7

High
438,000
32.6

...........................................................................Average

Coin machine servicers and repairers
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Total employment, 1982

31,000

Usual entry level requirements. Most industrial machinery repair­
ers learn the trade informally by working as helpers to experienced
repairers. Some leam through formal apprenticeships. Most employ­
ers prefer high school graduates. Mechanical aptitude and manual
dexterity are important, as are good physical condition and agility.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Nonstore retailers (includes automatic merchandising
machine operators and related e stab lish m en ts).................
Miscellaneous amusement and recreation
services (includes amusement parks, coin-operated
amusement devices, and related services) ........................
Beverage manufacturing ...........................................................

44.3

Training completions:
27.8
16.6

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1 9 8 2 '.................3,107
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 19811 ....................................... 447
Registered apprenticeships, 19792 ........................................................178
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, I9821 ............. 3,270

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

38,000
24.2

Moderate
39,000
28.4

High

1 Industrial technology.
2 Industrial technicians.
2 Industrial technologies.

40,000
32.0

58

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Millwrights

Low

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

16,000
21.1

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Moderate
17,000
23.1

High
17,000
24.9

........................................................... 91,000
Employment change

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................2.2
Percent employed part time .............................................................. 2.0

....................

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Industry

Percent

Nondurable goods manufacturing .......................................
Primary metal manufacturing ..............................................
Miscellaneous fabricated metal product
manufacturing .....................................................................
Transportation equipment manufacturing ..........................
Miscellaneous special trade contractors
(Includes water well drilling, structural
steel, glazing, excavating, demolition and
wrecking, and related contractors) .................................

21.4
18.5

Usual entry level requirements. Most musical instrument repairers
learn their trade on the job, working under the supervision of
experienced repairers for 2 to 5 years. Most employers prefer high
school graduates. A relatively small number of repairers develop
their skills by taking courses offered by postsecondary vocational
schools.

11.1
10.6

Office machine repairers

Unemployment r a t e .................................................... Higher than average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
8.0
Total employment, 1982

.................................................................. 56,000

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

118,000
29.8

Moderate
121,000
32.9

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .....................................................................................6.4
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................ 5.1
Percent employed part time ..............................................................4.1

High
124,000
36.0

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

Industry

Percent

Machinery, equipment, and supplies
w h o le sa le rs............................................................................

76.2

...........................................................9.5 percent

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Usual entry level requirements. Millwrights learn their trade on
the job, either by working as a helper to an experienced millwright
or through a formal apprenticeship program. Most employers seek
high school graduates in good health who are agile and able to
perform heavy work.

Employment c h a n g e ...........................................Much faster than average

Training completions:

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Registered apprenticeships, 1979

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

95,000
71.7

High
96,000
72.9

.................................................... 1,038

Usual entry level requirements. For entry jobs, employers seek
persons with a basic knowledge of electricity and electronics,
mechanical aptitude, and good eyesight and ability to distinguish
colors. Many employers require at least a year of postsecondary
training in basic electricity or electronics. A well-groomed appear­
ance and a pleasant, cooperative manner are important, as well as
an ability to communicate effectively. A few persons develop their
skills through a formal apprenticeship program and others learn
their trade in the Armed Forces.

Characteristics of entrants. The majority of all entrants transfer
from other occupations—primarily blue-collar jobs. The remain­
ing entrants have not been working. Many are being recalled to a
job from which they had been laid off; others have been serving in
the Armed Forces. Most have a high school diploma or less
education.

Musical instrument repairers

Training completions:

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

94,000
68.5

Moderate

Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1 9 8 1 ........................................... 335
Registered apprenticeships, 1979 ........................................................... 146

................................................................. 14,000

Characteristics o f entrants. Most entrants transfer from other
occupations—many have worked in related occupations where they
serviced mechanical and electronic equipment such as home
appliances, automotive electrical systems, and radio and television
equipment. The remaining job openings are filled by persons who
have not been working—some have been students, others between
jobs, and others in the Armed Forces.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry
Radio, television, and music stores .......................................
Miscellaneous repair services
(includes musical instrument repair
shops, piano and organ tuners and repairers,
and related s e r v ic e s ) ...............................................................

Percent
71.4

10.6

59

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ..................................................................................... 1.7
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................4.2
Percent employed part time ........................................................... 10.4

Construction and Extractive Occupations
Construction Occupations

Unemployment r a t e .................................................... Higher than average

Bricklayers and stonemasons

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Residential building construction ........................................
Nonresidential building co n stru ctio n ....................................
Special trade contractors ........................................................

28.3
18.0
14.7

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 124,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .......................................................................................7
Percent black .....................................................................................14.5
Percent employed part time ....................................................... 9.8

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low

Unemployment r a t e .......................................... Much higher than average

Employment change

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Moderate

High

1,095,000
26.9

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

1,110,000
28.6

1,128,000
30.6

........................................................................... Average

Industry

Percent

Annual replacement rate

Masonry, stonework, tile setting, and
plastering contractors ........................................................

55.5

S U P P LY PR O FILE

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

163,000
31.5

Moderate
166,000
33.4

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Carpenters learn their trade on the
job. Many learn informally by working under the supervision of
experienced workers. Some participate in employer-run training
programs or formal apprenticeship programs. Although there are
no formal entry requirements, employers prefer high school or
vocational school graduates who have manual dexterity, good
balance, and are in good physical condition.

High
168,000
35.4

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

........................................................20.0 percent

........................................................13.3 percent

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982 ............................................................................... 34,763
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981 ................................... 4,542
Registered apprenticeships, 1979 ..................................................... 4,637

Bricklayers and stonemasons learn
their craft on the job, either informally by helping experienced
workers or through formal apprenticeship programs. Employers
and apprenticeship committees prefer high school or vocational
school graduates. Applicants for all jobs must be in good physical
condition, and applicants for apprenticeship must be at least 17
years of age.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

Many carpenters face periodic layoffs
because of the short-term nature of many construction projects and
the cyclical nature of the industry. Carpentry is characterized by
large movements of workers into and out of the occupation. Many
entrants are experienced carpenters who have been laid off or
between jobs. Others are transferring from temporary jobs or are
reentering the labor force.

C h a r a c te r is tic s o f e n tra n ts.

T ra in in g co m p le tio n s:

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1 9 8 2 '.................................................................................7,844
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 19811
1,248
Registered apprenticeships, 1979
1,068
1 Includes all masonry occupations.

Cement masons and terrazzo workers

Many workers experience periodic
layoffs when construction projects end and when construction activ­
ity declines in an economic downturn. Consequently, many entrants
are experienced workers being recalled from layoff, between jobs,
or persons who transfer from other jobs they have taken on a
temporary basis. Others are recent graduates of apprenticeship and
other training programs.

C h a r a c te r is tic s o f e n tra n ts.

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent black ..................................................................................29.0
Percent employed part time ........................................................15.2
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Carpenters

Industry
Concrete contractors ..................................................................
Non-residential building construction .....................................
Residential building construction ............................................
Heavy construction ...................................................................

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 863,000

60

Percent
27.8
16.3
10.6
10.4

they have entered on a temporary basis. Most entrants have a high
school diploma or less education.

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
133,000
40.6

1995 employment . . .
Percent change . . . .
Employment change

Moderate
135,000
43.5

High
138,000
46.0

Electricians

average

....

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 542,000

Usual entry level requirements. Cement masons and terrazzo work­
ers learn their trade on the job, either informally by helping experi­
enced workers or in formal apprenticeship programs. Employers
and apprenticeship committees prefer high school graduates who
are at least 18 years old and in good physical condition.

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .....................................................................................1.6
Percent b l a c k ....................................................................................... 5.7
Percent employed part time ............................................................. 2.7
Unemployment rate

Training completions:

.............................................................. About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Registered apprenticeships, 1979 .......................................................... 466

Industry

Percent

Electrical c o n tra c to rs ..................................................................
Durable goods manufacturing .................................................

Characteristics of entrants. Workers may experience periodic
layoffs when construction projects end and when the level of nonresidential building falls in an economic downturn. Consequently,
many entrants are experienced workers being recalled from layoff,
between jobs, or persons who transfer from other jobs they have
taken on a temporary basis. Others are recent graduates of appren­
ticeship and other training programs.

44.3
17.8

Projected employment 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

704,000
29.8

Moderate
715,000
31.8

High
730,000
34.6

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

Drywall applicators and tapers

SU PPLY PR O FILE

EM P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

Usual entry level requirements. Electricians learn their craft on the
job, either informally by working as an electrician’s helper or
through a formal apprenticeship program. Employers and appren­
ticeship committees prefer graduates of vocational programs. Appli­
cants for apprentice positions generally need to be 18 years old or
older; applicants for all jobs must be in good physical condition,
have manual dexterity and good color vision. Most local govern­
ments require a license that is obtained by passing an exam that
tests knowledge of the craft and local electrical codes.

................................................................. 76,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .............................................................................. 1.1
Percent black ................................................................................. 3.5
Percent employed part time ...........................................................15.0
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Masonry, stonework, tile setting, and
plastering contractors .......................................................

83.1

Training completions:
Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1982
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981
Registered apprenticeships, 1979

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

104,000
38.1

Moderate
106,000
40.8

...........................................................8.4 percent

High
108,000
43.1

8,170
2,229
4,961

Characteristics of entrants. Many construction electricians face
periodic layoffs because of the cyclical nature of the construction
industry and the short-term nature of most construction projects.
Maintenance electricians working in automobile, steel, and other
industries that are sensitive to the business cycle also may be laid
off from time to time. Consequently, a significant proportion of all
entrants are experienced electricians who have been unemployed,
between jobs, or working temporarily in another occupation. Other
entrants had been trained in the Armed Forces or enter directly
from school or after completing their apprenticeship.

Employment c h a n g e ....................................................Faster than average

SU PPLY PR O FILE
Usual entry level requirements. Most drywall applicators and tapers
start as helpers and learn their craft on the job. Some develop their
skills through formal apprenticeship programs. Employers prefer
high school graduates. Manual dexterity and the ability to do sim­
ple arithmetic are required.
Characteristics of entrants. Workers may experience periodic
layoffs when projects end and when construction activity declines
in an economic downturn. Consequently, many entrants are experi­
enced workers who are being recalled from layoff or who have
been between jobs. Others are transferring from other occupations

Floor covering installers
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

61

................................................................. 79,000

Insulation w orkers

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Carpentering and flooringc o n tra c to rs .....................................
Furniture and home furnishings stores, except
appliances ..............................................................................
Masonry, stonework, tile setting, and
plastering contractors
.....................................................

38.2

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

36.6

Total employment, 1982

17.0

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

47,000

Industry

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

100,000
26.2

Moderate
101,000
28.5

Percent

Masonry, stonework, tile setting, and
plastering contractors ...........................................................
Miscellaneous special trade contractors
(includes insulation, waterproofing, and
related co n tra cto rs)..................................................................
Durable goods manufacturing ..................................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing ............................................

Higfi
103,000
30.4

.......................................................................... Average

52.5

14.9
5.9
5.1

SU PP LY PR O FILE
Projected employment, 1982-95:

Usual entry level requirements. Almost all floor covering install­
ers learn the trade by working as helpers to experienced installers.
A few learn through formal apprenticeships. Employees prefer
high school graduates who have manual dexterity and are mechani­
cally inclined.

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

Training completions:

SU PPLY PRO FILE

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Registered apprenticeships, 1979 .......................................................... 228

E M P LO YM E N T PRO FILE
................................................................. 41,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Miscellaneous special trade contractors
(includes glass, glazing, and related
c o n tra cto rs)..........................................................................
Paint, glass, and wallpaper stores .......................................
Durable goods m anufacturing .............................................

Low
53,000
30.7

Moderate
55,000
34.6

67,000
43.6

High
68,000
46.3

Training completions:
Registered apprenticeships, 1979 ........................................................... 235

42.4
28.6
8.4

Characteristics of entrants. Workers may experience periodic
layoffs when construction projects end and when construction activ­
ity declines in an economic downturn. Consequently, many entrants
are experienced workers—some are being recalled from layoff,
some have been between jobs, or some are transferring from other
occupations they have entered on a temporary basis. Some entrants
have been full-time students. Most entrants have a high school
diploma or less education.

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Moderate

Usual entry level requirements. Insulation workers leam their craft
on the job, either informally by working as helpers to experienced
workers or through formal apprenticeship programs. Insulation
contractors prefer high school graduates who are in good physical
condition and licensed to drive. High school courses in blueprint
reading, shop math, sheet-metal layout, and general construction
are important. Applicants for apprenticeship positions must have a
high school diploma or its equivalent and be at least 18 years old.

Glaziers

Total employment, 1982

66,000
40.8

High
56,000
37.2

Employment c h a n g e ....................................................Faster than average

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Ironworkers

Usual entry level requirements. Glaziers leam their trade on the
job, some formally through apprenticeship programs, but most
informally by helping experienced workers. Applicants must be in
good physical condition; those seeking apprenticeships must be at
least 17 years of age.

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

................................................................. 93,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Training completions:

Industry

Registered apprenticeships, 1979 .......................................................... 189

Miscellaneous special trade contractors
(includes structural steel, fire escape
installation, shoring and underpinning,
ornamental metal, and related contractors) ....................
Nonresidential building co n stru ctio n ....................................
Heavy construction, except highway
and s t r e e t ..............................................................................

Characteristics of entrants. Glaziers experience periods of unem­
ployment between construction projects and during downturns in
construction activity. Consequently, many entrants are experienced
workers who have been on temporary layoff or who transfer from
other occupations taken on a temporary basis.

62

Percent

41.7
17.6
16.2

cupation. Others enter directly from school or apprenticeship
programs.

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

126,000
35.2

Moderate
130,000
38.7

High
133,000
41.8

Plasterers

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
SU PPLY PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

Usual entry level requirements. Ironworkers learn the trade infor­
mally by working as helpers to experienced ironworkers or through
formal apprenticeships. Applicants generally must be at least 18
years old and in good physical condition. Agility and balance also
are needed. Graduation from high school usually is preferred.

20,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Masonary, stonework, tile setting, and
plastering contractors ............................................................

88.4

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low

Painters and paperhangers
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

Employment change

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 381,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Employment change

................................................. Slower than average

Registered apprenticeships, 1979 ...........................................................121

Characteristics of entrants. Workers may experience periodic
layoffs when construction projects end and when construction
activity declines in an economic downturn. Consequently, many
entrants are experienced workers being recalled from layoff or
transferring from other occupations they have entered on a tem­
porary basis.

Moderate
468,000
22.8

High
474,000
24.2

...........................................................................Average

Annual replacement rate

22,000
8.9

Training completions:
43.2
9.7
6.1
5.2

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

467,000
22.4

High

Percent

Painting, paperhanging, and decorating
contractors ..............................................................................
G o v e rn m en t..............................................................................
Real estate ..............................................................................
Durable goods manufacturing ..............................................

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

22,000
7.4

Usual entry level requirements. Plasterers learn their craft on the
job, either informally by working as helpers to experienced workers
or through formal apprenticeship programs. Applicants must be
at least 17 years old, be in good physical condition, and have
manual dexterity.

Unemployment r a t e ...........................................Much higher than average

Low

Moderate

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female
.......................................................................... 6.1
Percent black ................................................................................. 9.3
Percent employedpart time ............................................................ 19.2

Industry

22,000
6.0

Plumbers and pipefitters

....................................................... 22.7 percent

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 388,000

Usual entry level requirements. Most people learn the trade infor­
mally by helping experienced workers. A few develop their skills
in formal apprenticeship programs. Applicants should be in good
physical condition and have manual dexterity and a good color
sense.

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent f e m a le ......................................................................................... 8
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................6.4
Percent employed part time ............................................................. 4.8
Unemployment r a t e .............................................................. About average

Training completions:

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981' ....................................... 476
Registered apprenticeships, I9792 ....................................................... 956

Industry
Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning
contractors ...........................................................................
Durable goods manufacturing ..............................................
Federal Government ..............................................................

1 Painting and decorating.
2 Painters.

Characteristics of entrants. Many painters and paperhangers expe­
riences periods of unemployment because many construction pro­
jects are short term construction activity is cyclical. Consequently,
many entrants are experienced painters and paperhangers who have
been on temporary layoff or working temporarily in another oc­

Percent
47.0
11.6
5.6

Projected employment growth, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

63

512,000
32.1

Moderate
518,000
33.7

High
528,000
36.2

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Because of the cyclical nature of the
construction industry and the short duration of most roofing jobs,
many entrants are experienced roofers who have been on temporary
layoff, between jobs, or in temporary jobs in other occupations.
Other entrants come directly from school.

Employment c h a n g e ....................................................Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

.......................................................... 9.8 percent

SU P P LY PR O FILE
U su a l en try le v e l req u irem en ts. Plumbers and pipefitters learn their
craft on the job, either informally by working for several years
as helpers to experienced plumbers and pipefitters or through formal
apprenticeship programs. Applicants for apprentice or helper jobs
generally must be at least 18 years of age and in good physical
condition. Employers and apprenticeship committees prefer high
school or vocational education graduates.

Sheet-metal workers
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

................................................................. 87,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .....................................................................................3.4
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................6.2
Percent employed part time .............................................................. 1.7

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982 .............................................................................. 5,266
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981
2,213
Registered apprenticeships, 1979
P lu m b e rs .......................................................................................... 2,322
Pipefitters ....................................................................................... 3,089

Unemployment rate

.............................................................. About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Plumbers and pipefitters may exper­
ience periodic layoffs when construction projects end and when
construction activity declines. Consequently, many entrants are
experienced workers—some have been on temporary layoff, some
have been between jobs, and some are transferring from other
occupations entered on a temporary basis. Other entrants are recent
graduates of apprenticeship and other training programs.

C h a r a c te r is tic s o f e n tra n ts.

Industry

Percent

Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors . . .
Roofing and sheet-rrietal c o n tra c to rs....................................

62.1
23.3

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Roofers

124,000
42.7

Moderate
127,000
46.2

High
130,000
48.9

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Annual replacement rate

Total employment, 1982 .................................................................102,000

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent f e m a le .........................................................................................8
Percent b l a c k ....................................................................................... 7.5
Percent employed part time .......................................................... 18.0

their trade through form al apprenticeship.

Most sheet-metal workers learn
A few learn inform ally
by working as helpers to experienced workers. Local apprentice­
ship committees and employers may require a high school or
vocational school education. Applicants need to be in good physical
condition and have mechanical aptitude.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts .

Unemployment r a t e .......................................... Much higher than average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Roofing and sheet-metal c o n tra c to rs....................................

88.6

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982 ............................................................................... 2,731
Registered apprenticeships, 1979 .................................................... 1,591

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

128,000
25.2

Moderate
129,000
26.7

High

Workers may experience periodic lay­
offs when construction projects end and when economic conditions
result in a decline in construction activity. Consequently, many
entrants are experienced sheet-metal workers who have been on
temporary layoff or between jobs, or who are transferring from
temporary jobs in other occupations. Others are recent graduates
of apprenticeship and other training programs.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

131,000
28.3

.......................................................................... Average

Annual replacement rate

......................................................11.1 percent

....................................................... 20.3 percent

SU P P LY PR O FILE
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Most roofers acquire their skills
informally by working as helpers to experienced roofers. A few
learn through apprenticeship programs. Roofers need to be in good
physical condition and should have good balance and agility.

Tilesetters
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

Registered apprenticeships, 1979 .......................................................... 539

Total employment, 1982

64

20,000

Leadership qualities, knowledge of the work being done, and the
ability to get along well with others are key attributes valued by
employers. High school graduation often is required and college
or technical school training can be an asset.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers). 1982:

Industry

Percent

Masonry, stonework, tile setting, and
plastering contractors ...........................................................
Carpentering and flooring c o n tra c to rs ....................................

68.6
13.1

Characteristics of entrants. The majority of all entrants transfer
from other occupations. Others have served in the Armed Forces.
Few entrants come directly from school. Most entrants are in
their prime working years, between the ages of 25 and 54.

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . , . ,
Percent change .............

26,000
32.4

Moderate

High

27,000
34.8

27,000
36.9

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

Precision Production Occupations

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Boilermakers

Usual entry level requirements. Tilesetters learn the trade infor­
mally by working as helpers to experienced workers or through
formal apprenticeships. Employers usually prefer high school or
vocational school graduates who have had courses in general math­
ematics, mechanical drawing, and shop. Good physical condition,
manual dexterity, and a good sense of color harmony are important
assets.

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

.................................................... 1,068

1 Bricklayers, stone and tile setters.

Production Occupations

Percent

Durable goods manufacturing ..............................................
General contractors, except b u ild in g ....................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing .......................................
Miscellaneous special trade contractors
(includes structural steel, boiler
construction and related contractors) ..............................
Plumbing c o n tra c to rs ..............................................................
Federal Government ..............................................................

Training completions:
Registered apprenticeships, 1979'

.................................................................. 40,000

20.1
12.1
9.7

9.7
9.4
8.4

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low

Blue-collar worker supervisors

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Employment change

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 1,200,000

42,000
5.8

Moderate
43,000
7.6

High
44,000
10.8

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 12.1
Percent b l a c k ....................................................................................... 6.7
Percent employed part time ..............................................................1.7

................................................. Slower than average

Usual entry level requirements. Boilermakers learn their trade on
the job, either informally by working for several years as helpers
to experienced workers or through formal apprenticeship programs.
Most employers prefer high school graduates with mechanical
aptitude who are in good physical condition.

Unemployment r a t e ..............................................................About average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry
Durable goods manufacturing ..............................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing .......................................
Transportation, communications, and
utilities .................................................................................

Training completions:

Percent
31.7
20.7

Registered apprenticeships, 1979 ........................................................... 769

Bookbinders

12.6

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

Moderate

High

1,483,000
23.6

1,520,000
26.6

1,554,000
29.5

Total employment, 1982

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Commercial printing ..............................................................
Blankbooks and bookbinding ..............................................

45.3
22.7

.......................................................................... Average

Annual replacement rate

30,000

....................................................... 11.4 percent

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Low

Usual entry level requirements. Most blue-collar worker super­
visors are promoted from among the workers they supervise.

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

65

34,000
14.2

Moderate
36,000
20.3

High
37,000
22.9

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Average

Employment change

Industry

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Percent

N e w sp a p e rs..................................................................................
Commercial printing ..................................................................

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. A 4- or 5-year apprenticeship
generally is required to qualify as a skilled bookbinder. Apprentice­
ship applicants usually must have a high school education, mech­
anical aptitude, and be at least 18 years of age.

39.9
17.8

Projected employment, 1982—95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

94,000
-1 0 .2

Moderate

High

97,000
- 7 .3

99,000
- 5 .5

T ra in in g co m p le tio n s:

Employment change

Registered apprenticeships, I9791 ........................................................... 90
1 Bookbinders, bindery workers.

........................................................................ Decline

Annual replacement rate

........................................................17.5 percent

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Butchers and meatcutters

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts . Compositors and typesetters learn
their trade on the job, either informally by working as helpers
to experience typesetters and compositors or through formal ap­
prenticeship programs. Applicants for training positions or entry
jobs must be high school graduates and in good physical condition.

EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 .....................................................................191,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................... 6.6
Percent b l a c k ....................................................................................... 7.6
Percent employed part time ............................................................. 9.9

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

Registered apprenticeships, 1979
Unemployment rate

........................................................... 70

..............................................................About average

Most entrants transfer from other oc­
cupations—some are secretaries, typists, and other clerical workers
with typing skills. The remainder have not been working—most
have been tending to family responsibilities or have been on tem­
porary layoff. Entrants are younger than average and most have
a high school diploma or less education.
C h a r a c te r is tic s o f e n tra n ts.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Grocery stores ...........................................................................
Groceries and related product wholesalers ..........................

73.7
13.0

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

173,000
- 9 .3

Moderate
179,000
- 6 .3

High
182,000
—
4.6

Dental laboratory technicians
Employment change

...........................................................................Decline

Annual replacement rate

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

....................................................... 12.0 percent

Total employment, 1982

SU PPLY PR O FILE

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Most butchers and meatcutters
acquire their skills informally on the job or through formal ap­
prenticeship programs. Employers prefer applicants who have a
high school diploma.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

Industry

Percent

Medical and dental laboratories ..............................................
Offices of dentists .....................................................................

74.6
17.6

Projected employment, 1982-95:

About half of all entrants transfer
from other occupations. The rest have not been working because
of school or family responsibilites.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

Compositors and typesetters

63,000
24.6

Moderate
64,000
25.7

High
65,000
28.4

...........................................................................Average

SU PPLY PRO FILE

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Dental laboratory technicians gen­
erally learn their craft on the job, either by helping experienced
technicians or through formal apprenticeship programs. Many
employers hire only high school graduates, and high school courses
in art, metal shop, and science are important. Applicants who have
taken formal training in community and junior colleges, post­
secondary vocational schools, or the Armed Forces are preferred.

Total employment, 1982 .................................................................... 104.000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female
................................................................................38.0
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................5.2
Percent employed part time ...........................................................13.4
Unemployment rate

51,000

.............................................................. About average

66

Furniture upholsterers

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982
1,249
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1 9 8 1 ......................................... 740
Registered apprenticeships, 1979 1 ....................................................... 226
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 1982 ................. 678

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

1 Medical and dental technicians.

37,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Most entrants have not been working,
are under 35 years of age, and have some postsecondary training.
Others transfer from other occupations generally entered on a parttime basis while in school.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Reupholstery and furniture repair

Percent
...........................................

71.2

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Dispensing opticians and ophthalmic
laboratory technicians

Employment change

40,000
7.4

Moderate
40,000
8.3

High
42,000
11.9

................................................. Slower than average

SU P P LY PR O FILE
EM P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982
Percent female .................................................................................45.5
Percent black .................................................................................. 2.0
Percent employed part time ....................................................... 9.9

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts . Employers generally prefer to hire
persons who have studied upholstery in a high school or post­
secondary vocational school program. Applicants should have man­
ual dexterity, good coordination, and be able to do occasional
heavy lifting. An eye for detail and flair for creative use of fabrics
are helpful.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

Total employment, 1982

................................................................. 39,000

Industry

Percent

All other professional and scientific
instruments manufacturing
(includes optical instruments and lenses.
ophthalmic goods, and related
m anufacturing)........................................................................
Miscellaneous retail stores
(includes optical goods and related
stores) .....................................................................................
Offices of other health p ra c titio n e rs.......................................

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1982
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981

Hand molders
30.4

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
27.4
24.8

Total employment, 1982

Low

Employment change

..................................................................... 9,100

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Projected employment, 1982-95:

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

................. 2,246
1,104

47,000
21.0

Moderate
48,000
24.2

Industry

Percent

Iron and steel foundries ........................................................
Nonferrous fo u n d rie s ..............................................................
Electrical and electronic machinery
and equipment m an u fa ctu rin g ...........................................

39.8
20.5

High
50,000
28.2

...........................................................................Average

10.3

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Low

Employers generally prefer appli­
cants who are familiar with the trade and who have had formal
training in optical dispensing and fabricating. High school gradua­
tion with courses in science and mathematics as well as previous
experience in a related job are assets. Some States require dispens­
ing opticians to be licensed. For ophthalmic laboratory technician
jobs, employers prefer high school graduates who have had courses
in science and mathematics.
U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

10,000
15.2

Moderate
11,000
17.9

High
11,000
21.6

................................................. Slower than average

SU PP LY PR O FILE
U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Hand molders generally learn the
trade by helping experienced workers. Many employers prefer to
hire high school graduates. Applicants need to be in good physical
condition and should have good eye-hand coordination and a high
degree of manual dexterity.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981 1 ....................................... 383
Registered apprenticeships, 1979 2 ....................................................... 49
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 1982 1 ............. 740

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

1 Optical technology.
2 Optical workers.
3 Optical technologies.

Registered apprenticeships, 1979 1
1 Molders, coremakers.

67

........................................................ 97

Lithographers and photoengravers

Jewelers
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Total employment, 1982

Total employment, 1982

................................................................. 30,000

Industry

Percent

.

20.0

Projected employment, 1982-95:

.

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

10.3

83,000
23.2

Moderate
87,000
29.4

Employment c h a n g e ....................

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low

Employment change

53.0
16.1

56.3

.

.................................................................. ......

Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware
manufacturing ....................
Miscellaneous repair services
(includes watch, clock, and jewelry
repair shops) .......................

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Percent

Commercial printing . . . .
Printing trade services . . .

Miscellaneous shopping goods stores
(includes jewelry, camera, and related
s t o r e s '*

67,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

. . . .

Moderate

89,000
32.2
average

High

34,000
13.3

33,000
11.3

High

SU PP LY PR O FILE

35,000
16.8

U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Most lithographers and photoen­
gravers learn their trade informally on the job by helping experi­
enced workers; some leam through formal apprenticeship programs.
Applicants usually must be high school graduates, at least 18 years
old, and in good physical condition.

....................

SU PP LY PR O FILE
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Employers prefer to hire graduates
of formal training programs offered in technical schools. Most
employers require high school graduation. Applicants need finger
and hand dexterity, good eye-hand coordination, patience, and
concentration. Artistic ability is an important asset.

T rain in g co m p le tio n s:

Registered apprenticeships, 1979 ........................................................... 369

Most entrants have not been working—
many have been attending school or training programs; some have
been tending to family responsibilities. Relatively few entrants trans­
fer from other occupations. Most entrants have a high school
diploma or less education.

C h a ra cte ristic s o f en tra n ts.

Job and die setters
EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

95,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................... 2.7
Percent b l a c k ....................................................................................... 9.5
Percent employed part time ............................................................. 2.1

Machinists and layout markers
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 236,000

Percent

Machinery manufacturing except electrical ...........................
Fabricated metal product m anufacturing.................................
Motor vehicle equipment manufacturing ..............................

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ..................................................................................3.1
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................7.8
Percent employed part time ..............................................................2.2

24.0
23.6
13.2

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

117,000
23.9

Moderate
121,000
27.4

Unemployment rate

High
125,000
31.7

.............................................................. About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Percent

Machinery manufacturing, except e le c tric a l.......................
Nondurable goods manufacturing .......................................
S e r v ic e s .....................................................................................

........................................................................Average

23.4
17.2
10.1

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Job and die setters learn their trade
on the job. Employers prefer high school graduates who have
experience working with machine tools.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

Many job openings are filled by pro­
moting experienced machine tool operators.

290,000
23.0

Moderate
298,000
26.2

High
308,000
30.5

...........................................................................Average

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Annual replacement rate

68

........................................................11.6 percent

SU PPLY PR O FILE

15.9

Percent employed part time

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Machinists and layout markers
develop their skills on the job through formal apprenticeship pro­
grams and informally by working as helpers to experienced
machinists. Many employers prefer secondary or postsecondary
vocational school graduates. Applicants should have mechanical
aptitude and be in good physical condition. Experience working
with machine tools is very important.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

Industry

Percent

Miscellaneous business services
(includes photofinishing, commercial
testing, and research and development
laboratories and related services) .......................................
Manufacturing ............................................................................

42.7
14.6

Projected employment, 1982-95:
T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

Low

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982 1 .......................................................................... 26,334
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981 1 ................................. 1,337
Registered apprenticeships, 1979 .................................................... 2,450

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

77,000
14.8

Moderate
78,000
16.5

High
80,000
19.6

................................................. Slower than average

1 Machine shop occupations.

SU PPLY PR O FILE
The majority of entrants transfer from
other occupations, primarily machine tool operator and job and die
setter. Many of the remaining entrants are experienced machinists
being recalled from layoffs caused by economic conditions. Others
have recently completed postsecondary training.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts . Most photographic process work­
ers learn their skills on the job. Employers prefer high school
graduates.

More than half of all job openings are
filled by persons who have not been working—recent high school
graduates and persons who have been tending to family responsibili­
ties or unemployed. The rest transfer from other occupations. Most
entrants have a high school diploma or less education.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Patternmakers
E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

13,000

Shoe repair occupations

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Machinery manufacturing, except e le c tric a l..........................

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

49.4
Total employment, 1982

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

15,000
15.1

Moderate
16,000
16.9

High

16,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

16,000
19.6

Percent

All other personal services
(includes shoe repair shops, shoe shine
parlors, and hat cleaning s h o p s ) ...........................................
Footwear manufacturing, except r u b b e r .................................

.................................................Slower than average

81.3
13.2

SU PP LY PR O FILE
Projected employment, 1982 —
95:

Patternmakers learn the trade
through formal apprenticeships or by working in other skilled
occupations—machinist, for example—followed by additional
training. A high school diploma is almost always required for
entry into a formal apprenticeship program. Manual dexterity,
attention to detail, and the ability to visualize objects in three
dimensions also are necessary.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts .

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

19,000
13.3

Moderate
19,000
14.7

High
20,000
19.6

................................................. Slower than average

SU PPLY PR O FILE
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts . There are no formal education
requirements; shoe repairers generally learn their trade on the job.
They must have manual dexterity and mechanical aptitude to work
with various machines and handtools. In addition, they need selfdiscipline because they often work alone with little or no super­
vision.

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

Registered apprenticeships, 1979 .......................................................... 143

Photographic process workers
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

Toolmakers and diemakers

67,000

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................48.3
Percent black ................................................................................. 4.5

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 154,000

69

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................... 2.5
Percent b l a c k ........................................................................................2.5
Percent employed part time .............................................................. 1.9
Unemployment rate

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Moderate

High

61,000
3.7

60,000
2.7

62,000
6.5

..............................................................About average
Employment change

.......................................

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Percent

Metalworking machinery equipment manufacturing . . .
23.1
Fabricated metal product m anufacturing.................................
17.7
Transportation equipment manufacturing ..............................
16.0
Electrical and electronic machinery
and equipment m an u factu rin g ..............................................
10.8

U su al en try le v e l req u irem en ts. Stationary engineers leam the trade
by working as helpers to experienced engineers or through formal
apprenticeships. Employers generally prefer high school or
vocational school graduates. Applicants should have mechanical
aptitude and manual dexterity and be in good physical condition.
Many States and cities require stationary engineers to be licensed.

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

181,000
17.8

Moderate
186,000
21.2

High
192,000
25.0

T rain in g co m p le tio n s:

Registered apprenticeships, 1979 ........................................................... 448

.......................................................................... Average

Annual replacement rate

Water and sewage treatment plant operators

...........................................................6.0 percent

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Total employment, 1982

Toolmakers and diemakers develop
their skills on the job through formal apprenticeship programs or
informally by working as helpers to experienced toolmakers and
diemakers. Many employers prefer persons with a high school
or postsecondary school education. Applicants should have a work­
ing knowledge of mathematics and physics, as well as mechanical
ability, finger dexterity, and an aptitude for precise work.
U su a l en try le v e l req u irem en ts.

72,000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Local g o vernm ent........................................................................
Utilities and sanitary services ..................................................

89.6
4.9

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Public vocational secondary and post­
secondary, 1982
1,191
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1 9 8 1 .......................................... 443
Registered apprenticeships, 1979
1,807

Employment change

Moderate

78,000
8.6

79,000
10.2

High
82,000
13.3

................................................. Slower than average

SU P P LY PR O FILE
Most openings are filled by persons
who transfer from other occupations—primarily other machining
occupations. Because of the emphasis placed on work experience,
entrants tend to be considerably older than entrants to other oc­
cupations.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Water and wastewater treatment
plant operators usually leam on the job under the direction of an
experienced operator. Employers generally prefer high school
graduates; in some States, this is required. Graduation from a
postsecondary training program in wastewater technology is an
advantage. Written examinations are required for jobs covered
by civil service regulations. Applicants should have mechanical
aptitude, basic mathematical ability, and physical agility.

Plant and System Operators

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Stationary engineers

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1982' ....................909
Registered apprenticeships. 19792 . . . ' . ...........................................448

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1982

1 Water and wastewater treatment technology.
2 Stationary engineers.

................................................................. 58.000

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry
Nondurable goods manufacturing .......................................
Hospitals ..................................................................................
Durable goods manufacturing ..............................................
Local g overnm ent.....................................................................
Educational services ..............................................................
Communications and utilities ..............................................
Federal Government ..............................................................

Machine Operators, Tenders, and Setup workers

Percent
18.1
15.9
13.3
8.0
7.9
7.7
6.3

Machine tool operators
E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment. 1982 ................................................................. 914,000

70

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 19.1
Percent black ................................................................................. 8.9
Percent employed part time ........................................................ 4.3
Unemployment r a t e .................................................... Higher than average

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts . Most printing press operators learn
their trade through apprenticeships or on the job. Mechanical apt­
itude is required.

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts .

Industry
Machinery manufacturing, except e le c tric a l.......................
Fabricated metal product m anufacturing.............................

Most entrants transfer from other oc­
cupations. The remainder are people who have not been working—
mostly persons who have been on temporary layoff.

Percent
39.1
23.8

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

Moderate

1,088,000
19.0

1,114,000
21.8

Fabricators, Assemblers, and
Handworking Occupations

High
1,153,000
26.1

Assembler occupations

.......................................................................... Average

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Total employment, 1982 .............................................................. 1,313,000

There are no formal education
requirements for this semiskilled occupation. Most machine tool
operators learn their skills on the job. Applicants should have
mechanical aptitude and be in good physical condition.

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 53.8
Percent black ..................................................................................... 12.8
Percent employed part time ........................................................ 4.7

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

Unemployment r a t e ...........................................Much higher than average

Public vocational secondary, and postsecondary, 1982 ................ 2,720
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981
.................................... 4,878

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

Industry

Percent

Electrical and electronic machinery and
equipment m anufacturing........................................................
Machinery manufacturing, except e le c tric a l.......................
Transportation equipment manufacturing ...........................

Machine tool operators face temporary
layoffs when economic conditions cause demand to slacken for
products that use machined metal parts. Consequently, most entrants
are experienced operators who have been unemployed or tempo­
rarily employed in other occupations.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts .

33.9
18.9
13.3

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

Moderate

High

1,625,000
23.7

1,646,000
25.3

1,702,000
29.6

Printing press operators
Employment change

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

Annual replacement rate

Total employment, 1982 .....................................................................174,000

........................................................ 23.4

percent

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ................................................................................. 12.6
Percent black ................................................................................. 6.0
Percent employed part time ....................................................... 5.0
Unemployment rate

...........................................................................Average

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts . Employers seek workers who can
do routine work at a fast pace. A high school diploma is helpful
but is seldom required. For some types of assembly jobs, appli­
cants may have to meet special requirements such as mechanical
aptitude, good eyesight, or absence of color blindness.

..............................................................About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Most job openings are filled by persons
who have not been working. Because entry requirements are mini­
mal, many entrants are young people taking their first job, home­
makers reentering the labor force, or workers who have been un­
employed. Few entrants have any training beyond high school.

Percent

Commercial printing .................................................................
N e w sp a p e rs..................................................................................

46.2
14.4

Projected employment, 1982—
95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

197,000
13.2

Moderate
205,000
18.2

High
211,000
21.2

Automotive painters
EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

................................................. Slower than average

Annual replacement rate

....................................................... 12.9 percent

Total employment, 1982

71

36,000

SU P P LY PR O FILE

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ..................................................................................15.8
Percent black .....................................................................................14.4
Percent employed part time ....................................................... 7.5

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Few employers have formal educa­
tional requirements. Many welders learn their craft through in­
formal on-the-job instruction while they work as a welder’s helper.
Physical requirements include manual dexterity, good eyesight, eyehand coordination, and the ability to bend, stoop, and work in awk­
ward positions.

Unemployment r a t e .................................................... Higher than average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Automobile repair shops .................................................... ...
Motor vehicle dealers (new and u s e d ) ................................

66.4
27.8

About half of all entrants transfer from
other occupations, mainly laborer and operative positions. The others
are people who have not been working—many are welders and flamecutters who have been on layoff.
C h a r a c te r is tic s o f e n tra n ts.

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

51,000
41.2

Moderate
53,000
45.7

High
55,000
50.6

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average
Annual replacement rate

Transportation and Material
Moving Occupations

....................................................... 24.4 percent

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Airplane pilots

Most automotive painters learn on
the job by working with experienced painters. A few automotive
painters learn through apprenticeships. Completion of a formal
training program in automotive painting in a community or junior
college or in a postsecondary vocational education program is an
asset. Graduation from high school generally is not required but
usually is an advantage.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982

80,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .............................................................................. 3.6
Percent black .................................................................................. 1.2
Percent employed part time .......................................................... 22.1

T ra in in g co m p le tio n s:

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 19811 ....................................... 303
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 19822 ............. 9,888

Industry

1 Other automotive services.
2 Automotive technologies.

Percent

Certified air transportation ........................................................
Noncertified air transportation ..................................................

46.7
13.2

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Welders and flamecutters

Low

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

102,000
28.3

Moderate
103,000
29.2

High
104,000
31.0

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 490,000
Employment change
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ..............................................................................
Percent black .................................................................................
Percent employed part time ........................................................

4.8
9.5
2.4

SU PP LY PR O FILE
Pilots must be licensed by the
Federal Aviation Administration ( f a a ). Applicants for licensure
must be at least 18 years old, have 250 hours of flying time, have
vision correctable to 20/20, pass a physical exam, and demonstrate
their flying ability to an f a a examiner.
U su a l en try le v e l re q u ire m e n ts .

Unemployment r a t e ....................................................Higher than average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Machinery manufacturing, except e le c tric a l.......................
Transportation equipment manufacturing ..........................
Fabricated structural metal product manufacturing . . . .

20.4
17.3
11.8

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1 9 8 2 '.................5,650
Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate, 19822 ............. 6,355

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

579,000
18.1

Moderate
595,000
21.4

1 Includes all aviation occupations.
2 Includes aeronautical and aviation.

High
615,000
25.6

Many job openings are filled by pilots
who have acquired their training in the Armed Forces. Other en­
trants are recent graduates of civilian flying schools. Most pilots
are college graduates.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

.......................................................................... Average

Annual replacement rate

...........................................................................Average

....................................................... 14.8 percent

72

Employment c h a n g e .................................................... Faster than average

Busdrivers

Annual replacement rate

E M P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 473,000

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Constructing machinery operators
learn the trade by working as helpers to experienced operators or
through formal apprenticeships. Most employers prefer high school
graduates who are at least 18 years old. Completion of a postsec­
ondary program in the operation of construction equipment can help
an applicant get a helper job or an apprentice position. Applicants
should be alert and have a good sense of balance as well as good
eye-hand-foot coordination and physical strength.

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .................................................................................46.6
Percent black .....................................................................................19.5
Percent employed part time ..........................................................45.3
Unemployment rate

..............................................................About average

Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Educational services .................................................................
Local and interurban transit ....................................................
Local governm ent........................................................................

....................................................... 15.9 percent

50.2
31.0
12.6

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s:

Registered apprenticeships, 1979 ........................................................... 857

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

537,000
13.5

Moderate
551,000
16.5

High

Industrial truck operators

572,000
20.8

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Employment change

.................................................Slower than average
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 385,000

Annual replacement rate

....................................................... 16.3 percent
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .............................................................................. 8.0
Percent black .....................................................................................19.3
Percent employed part time ........................................................ 2.6

SUPPLY PRO FILE
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. In most states, school busdrivers
must be at least 18 years old. Local transit busdrivers must be at
least 21, and most intercity buslines prefer drivers to be at least
24 years old. Good health and good vision, with or without glasses,
are needed. A chauffeur’s or school bus license is required but
generally can be obtained after the driver begins working.

Unemployment r a t e .................................................... Higher than average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Durable goods manufacturing .................................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing ...........................................
Wholesale t r a d e ...........................................................................

C h a ra cte ristic s o f en tra n ts. Most entrants are put into part time jobs;
drivers may increase their work hours and get regularly scheduled
routes as they advance in seniority. Most jobs for school busdrivers
are filled by students or homemakers attracted by the opportunity
to work part time while engaged in other activities.

40.0
26.3
14.2

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

Construction machinery operators
(operating engineers)

443,000
15.1

Moderate
455,000
18.2

High
468,000
21.6

................................................. Slower than average

Annual replacement rate

....................................................... 19.5 percent

EM P LO YM E N T PR O FILE

SU PP LY PR O FILE

Total employment, 1982 ................................................................. 202,000

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. Few employers have educational
requirements. Strength, stamina, and general physical fitness are
necessary. Good eyesight, especially depth perception, is essential.

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .....................................................................................1.2
Percent b l a c k ....................................................................................... 9.6
Percent employed part time ............................................................. 3.7

Most entrants transfer from other occu­
pations. The remainder generally are young people who have been
in school or workers who have been unemployed. Many entrants
have a high school diploma or less education.
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts.

Unemployment r a t e .................................................... Higher than average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry
Construction

Percent

...........................................................................

100.0

Truckdrivers

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............

287,000
40.6

Moderate
292,000
44.2

High

E M P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE

300,000
47.1

Total employment, 1982

73

2,402,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female .............................................................................. 2.1
Percent black .................................................................................... 12.2
Percent employed part time
.................................................... 5.7

Handlers, Equipment Cleaners,
Helpers, and Laborers
Construction laborers and helpers

Unemployment r a t e ....................................................Higher than average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

Percent

Trucking, local and long distance .......................................
Wholesale t r a d e .......................................................................
Retail trade ..............................................................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing .......................................
Durable goods manufacturing .............................

37.5
21.6
13.9
10.1
6.2

EM P LO Y M E N T PR O FILE
Total employment, 1982 ................................................................... 576,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1982:
Percent female ............................................................................... 3.2
Percent black ..................................................................................... 17.6
Percent employed part time ........................................................... 12.0

Projected employment, 1982-95:

Low
1995 employment
. . . . 2,909,000
Percent change .............
21.1
Employment change

Moderate

High

2,980,000
24.1

3,035,000
26.4

Unemployment r a t e ....................,.....................Much higher than average
Industry concentration of employment (wage and salary workers), 1982:

Industry

.......................................................................... Average

Annual replacement rate

Percent

Special trade contractors ...........................................................
Heavy construction, except highway and s t r e e t ....................
Residential building construction .......................................
Nonresidential building c o n stru ctio n ....................................

....................................................... 15.2 percent

SU P P LY PR O FILE

37.7
10.2
9.2
7.4

Projected employment, 1982-95:

There are no formal education re­
quirements. By Federal law, however, truckdrivers engaged in inter­
state commerce must be at least 21 years old and pass a physical
examination. Most States require a chauffeur’s license. Most States
permit truckdrivers under 21 to carry goods within the State. Pre­
vious experience, especially in truckdriving, is important.
U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts.

Low
1995 employment . . . .
Percent change .............
Employment change

725,000
25.8

Moderate
741,000
28.7

High
757,000
31.3

...........................................................................Average

Annual replacement rate

........................................................31.6 percent

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s:

Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981

................... 34,885
SU PPLY PR O FILE

Characteristics of entrants. More than half of all entrants have not
been working—many have been laid off or between jobs. Most of
the rest transfer from other occupations. Relatively few entrants
have more than a high school education or enter directly from
school.

U su a l e n try le v e l re q u ire m en ts. There are usually no formal edu­
cation requirements for this job. Applicants generally must be at
least 18 years old, in good physical condition, and be willing to
work hard.

74

Appendix A. Assumptions
and Methods Used in
Preparing Employment
Projections

The Bureau o f Labor Statistics prepares projections on a
2-year cycle, using the Economic Growth Model System.
This system is composed of a group of separate but related
processes. Projections are produced in the following areas:
(1) Labor force; (2) aggregate economic performance (3)
industry final demand and total industry production; (4)
industry employment levels; and (5) occupational employ­
ment by industry. Each block o f the projections depends
upon inputs from an earlier stage and feeds logically into the
next.
To develop the projections, assumptions are made con­
cerning the population, fiscal and monetary policy, foreign
economic conditions, energy, and other factors. Those vari­
ables having the largest impact on the projections are dis­
cussed below, first for a moderate-growth scenario and then
for alternatives to moderate growth.

Moderate-growth assumptions
Population. The middle-growth projections o f the U.S.
population, developed by the Bureau of the Census, were
chosen for the moderate-growth scenario. Between 1982
and 1995, the population age 16 and over is projected to
increase 21.6 million, an average annual rate o f growth of
0.9 percent. As in prior projections, the rate o f population
growth slows over the projection period, dropping from 1.1
percent annually between 1982 and 1988 to 0.8 percent a
year between 1988 and 1995.
The civilian labor force grows somewhat more rapidly,
reflecting generally increasing participation rates and the
shift of persons into age categories with traditionally higher
labor force participation. The civilian labor force is pro­
jected to attain a level of 131.4 million by 1995, an increase
of just under 20 million from 1982. This represents an aver­
age annual growth of 1.6 percent for 1982—88, and 1 per­
cent for 1 9 8 8 -9 5 .
Federal receipts and expenditures. General fiscal restraint
throughout the remainder of this decade is the basic assump­
tion of the moderate-growth projection for government
expenditure and tax policies. Federal defense purchases of
goods and services are assumed to increase at a real rate of
75

4.1 percent a year between 1982 and 1986. Thereafter,
growth is assumed to drop to the 0.5-to 1-percent range to
1995.
Nondefense purchases of goods and services in real terms
are expected to decline in the 1983—87 period, reaching
$35.8 billion in 1987, $1.8 billion below the 1982 level.
This reflects some decline in employment as well as general
cutbacks in operating funds for many programs. After 1987,
nondefense purchases are assumed to grow, in real terms,
about 0.5 to 1 percent a year to 1990, and to accelerate
somewhat to the 2.5- to 3-percent range during the first half
of the next decade.
Social security payments are expected to grow, in nomi­
nal terms, at an annual rate of 7.2 percent in the 1 9 8 2 -8 8
period, and 7.1 percent between 1988 and 1995. No real
benefit increases are assumed through 1988; the growth in
social security payments is generated only by inflation and
an expanding client population. After 1988, some resump­
tion of real benefit growth is assumed, on the order of 0.5
percent to 1 percent annually.
Medicare payments, on the other hand, are expected to
grow at a 10.1-percent nominal rate over the 1982—88
period, to reflect client population growth, a higher-thanaverage rise in medical care costs, and a real increase in
benefits of about 1 percent annually. After 1988, the rate of
growth in Medicare payments is assumed to drop to 8 per­
cent annually as inflation continues to moderate.
Unemployment insurance benefits are assumed to decline
sharply through 1990 as the economy recovers from the
1982 recession and the number of unemployed drops. Some
slight growth is expected after 1990 as the unemployment
rate stabilizes. Other transfer payments, including Federal
retirement programs and veterans’ benefits, are expected to
increase at a nominal rate of 8.5 percent annually between
1982 and 1988, and at 7.9 percent during the 1988—95
period. Finally, grants to State and local governments are
assumed to grow only in line with the general rise in prices
during the entire period.
Projected Federal revenues reflect currently mandated cuts
in personal income tax rates and the indexation of personal
taxes for the remainder of the period. Corporate taxes are
assumed to stabilize at about 26 percent of profits for the

entire projection period. Indirect business taxes are expected
to increase annually about 5.8 percent. No change is assumed
in the tax rate or income base for social insurance contribu­
tions.
The net effect of these assumptions is a Federal budget
deficit (National Income Product Account basis) that declines
steadily from $180 billion in 1983 to about $70 billion by
1990, and then remains at about that level for the remainder
of the projection period

and ending years of the time spans are cyclical peaks in this
country. The world economy tends to lag behind the U.S.
business cycle and, as a result, these historical growth rates
do not truly represent long-term trend growth patterns.
Generally, world industrial production has tended to increase
at a 2 .5 — to 3 .5 —percent annual rate.
Energy. Domestic oil production, currently about 10 mil­
lion barrels per day ( m b p d ) , is assumed to decline to 9.5 m b p d
by 1987 and to remain at that level thereafter. Petroleum imports,
on the other hand are expected to increase steadily from 5 . 1 m b p d
in 1982 to 7.8 m b p d in 1990 and 8 m b p d in 1995. The price o f
imported oil is assumed to rise from the 1983 price of $28 per
barrel to $41 in 1990 and $52 by 1995. This rise reflects only an
assumption as to the general pace of inflation and does not reflect
any real increase in the barrel price of imported crude-oil.
Demand for petroleum was projected based on average miles
per gallon of new domestically produced autos and the ratio of
imports to domestic autos. Mileage figures are assumed to improve
from the 1982 level of 26.7 miles per gallon to 37.8 by 1990 and
41.7 by 1995. After declining to a 24-percent share of the market
in 1983, imported autos are expected to capture more of the U.S.
auto market and to account for 30 percent of domestic sales by
1990. The share is assumed to stabilize at that level.

Monetary policy. In the financial sector, 10 interest rates are
derived, based on an assumption as to the Federal funds
rate. It is assumed that the Federal funds rate, governed by
the rate of growth of the nonborrowed monetary base, exclud­
ing currency, will grow at a rate close to 10 percent during
1983, drop to about 7 percent during the 1984—87 period,
and then drop to the 5.5- to 6-percent range for the remain­
der of the projection period. This assumes that the Federal
Reserve Board will loosen up somewhat on monetary con­
trols as the economy recovers from the 1982 recession.
Also affecting the financial sector is the assumption con­
cerning the rate o f growth o f money-market-ralated mutual
funds. This variable affects the distribution o f the money
stock between the aggregate money supply measures M l
and M2. During the m id—1980’s, money-market funds are
expected to increase at a rate o f about 12 to 15 percent
annually, but this strong pace is expected to taper off in the
late 1980’s and early 1990’s to about 10 percent a year.

Alternatives to moderate growth
The high- and low-growth versions of the projections are
derived from different assumptions regarding fiscal and
monetary policy. By 1995, real GNP is expected to range
between $2,127 and $2,265 billion, accompanied by unem­
ployment rates of 6.8 and 5.2 percent for the low and high
projections, respectively. Each o f the alternatives is summa­
rized below.

Foreign economic conditions. U.S. exports of goods and
services are influenced primarily by international financial
markets and by the economic condition o f our major trading
partners. The following tabulation summarizes the assumed
annual percentage rates of growth of the variables in the
macro model that reflect these considerations:
World
industrial
production

Wholesale
price index,
rest of the
world

High growth. The major assumption in the high-growth
scenario is that the Federal Reserve Board will pursue a less
restrictive monetary policy than in the moderate-growth
projections; that is, it will allow more rapid monetary growth
to bolster recovery from the 1981—82 recession and to sus­
tain a higher rate of economic growth over the long run.
The assumption of a less restrictive monetary policy, cou­
pled with stronger growth in demand, results in an expected
inflation rate different from that of the moderate-growth
scenario. The rate o f inflation (measured by the implicit
GNP deflator) is assumed to be 6.5 percent a year between
1982 and 1990, 1.1 percent a year higher than in the
moderate-growth version. However, instead of decelerating
after 1990, the inflation rate will rise to 7.2 percent annually
until 1995. This was about the rate of inflation during the
1973-77 period.
No differences were assumed for fiscal policy in the highgrowth projection. The higher inflation rates do, however,
result in a more rapid increase in Federal government
expenditures throughout the period, at a rate of 7.8 percent
a year between 1982 and 1995 compared to 6.7 percent in
the moderate-growth scenario.

Average
value of the
U.S. dollar

Historical:
1968-73
1973-77
1977-82

. . . . . .
. . . .
. . . .

—
0.9
0.7

—
11.8
10.0

- 3 .0
2.4
3.3

Low-growth
projection:
1982-90
1990-95

. . . .
. . . .

3. 0
2. 9

8. 8
7. 9

1.6
0.0

Moderate-growth
projection:
1982-90 . . . .
1990-95 . . . .

3.2
3.1

8.3
6.9

2.1
1.3

High-growth
projection:
1982-90
1990-95

3.3
3.4

8.5
7.3

2.2
1.5

. . . .
. . . .

The assumed growth rates for industrial production appear
high from a historical perspective. The historical data in the
tabulation are deceptive, however, because the beginning
76

ing in the double-digit range over the entire projection period.
High interest rates and severe competition for funds in the
credit markets will limit the growth o f demand, especially
for durable items. Real GNP will be $40 billion lower in
1995 than in the moderate-growth case. Personal consump­
tion expenditures will be lower by $63 billion and gross
private investment by $52 billion than in the 1995 moderategrowth levels. As in the high-growth version, the slower
growth in income will lower imports by $55 billion, which
masks, to some extent, the full impact on the domestic
economy. Reduced income growth only adds to the Federal
deficit, despite assumed increases in personal taxes during
the 1980’s. Dampened capital goods spending will lower
productivity and job growth over the entire period.
Different assumptions in the low-growth case cause minor
variations in the level of GNP but significant differences in
its distribution compared to the base case. Tight monetary
policy leads to higher interest rates that will have a retarding
effect on expenditures for consumers’ and producers’ dura­
ble goods and on construction— sectors that purchase heav­
ily from manufacturing industries. However, because imports
are assumed to grow at a much slower rate and defense
spending at a faster rate than GNP, the adverse impact of low
demand on manufacturing is alleviated. Lower consumer
expenditures and business investment will cause trade to
account for a larger share of GNP.

Real GNP is expected to grow at an average annual rate of
3.9 percent during 1982—85, compared with 3.3 percent in
the moderate-growth version. Between 1990 and 1995, GNP
is expected to rise at the same rate in both the moderate- and
high-growth alternative— 2.5 percent annually. This is due
primarily to the much higher rate of import growth in the
high-growth version, which tends to mask greater increases
in the other categories o f GNP. The GNP in 1995 is about $98
billion higher than in the moderate-growth version.
Major differences in demand projections compared to the
moderate-growth version, are in purchases of consumer dura­
bles ($37 billion higher), producers’ durable equipment ($25
billion higher), and in residential investment ($35 billion
higher). As noted earlier, greater income growth in this
version leads to higher levels o f imports, while exports are
virtually unchanged. Net exports are therefore lower by $63
billion than in the moderate-growth projection. Finally,
higher rates of income growth mean greater government
revenues, which lead to a balanced Federal budget in 1990.
The distribution o f demand shows no change in the share
going to government in the high-trend alternative compared
to the moderate version. Total personal consumption expen­
ditures show little difference, masking the fact that durable
goods expenditures increase at the expense of nondurables
and services. This follows from the assumptions of easier
money and lower interest rates, which are major induce­
ments for the purchase o f durables. Lower interest rates also
lead to a larger share o f GNP for equipment investment and
construction. But increased purchases o f goods o f manufac­
turing industries resulting from higher expenditures of
government, consumers, and business are more than offset
by the large increase assumed for imports. The drop in the
export share of GNP is partially reflected in a slight decline
in the share of agricultural industries.

Projection methods
The l a b o r f o r c e p r o j e c t i o n s are developed from Bureau
of the Census population projections by age, sex, and race,
based on trends in birth rates, death rates, and net migration.
BLS projects labor force participation rates— the percent of
each group in the population who will be working or seek­
ing work— for 64 age, sex, and race groups. The labor force
participation rate for each group is developed by: (a) Analyz­
ing past rates of growth over the 1962—81 period or for
selected subperiods; (b) selecting the rate for a period deemed
most appropriate for each group; and (c) modifying that rate
if past trends are judged not likely to continue throughout
the entire projection period. The levels of the anticipated
labor force are then calculated by applying the projected
participation rates to the Bureau of the Census population
projections.
The a g g r e g a t e e c o n o m i c p r o j e c t i o n s o r g r o s s n a t i o n a l
p r o d u c t , in total and by major demand and income category,
start with the BLS labor force and Census population projec­
tions as inputs. Consistent economic scenarios are devel­
oped to provide aggregate controls for the various catego­
ries of demand and employment. These scenarios are selected
to encompass a likely range of economic growth in the
future. Later stages o f the projection process develop
industry-level projections consistent with these aggregate
data.
In the past, the Bureau’s aggregate economic projections
have been prepared with a modified version of the Thurow

This alternative assumes higher levels of gov­
ernment spending, especially in defense, but also in trans­
fers and grants. Federal expenditures are assumed to grow
at a rate o f 9.4 percent a year between 1982 and 1990 and at
7 percent during the 1990—95 period. This compares to
7 .5 —percent and 6 .1 —percent growth over the same peri­
ods in the moderate-growth scenario. Defense growth is
about 1.5 percent higher each year between 1982 and 1988,
reflecting somewhat higher staff levels and greater expendi­
tures on goods. Transfer payments are higher in every
category, with the major increases in social security and
M edicare. As a result o f the more aggressive (or less
controlled) fiscal policy, the Federal Government in this
version will run deficits of about $200 billion for the remain­
der of the decade, with only modest tapering off after 1990
to about $160 billion by 1995.
In addition, the monetary authorities are assumed to be
generally more restrictive to hold down inflation. Both M l
and M2 will grow at about 0.6-percent lower rates than in
the moderate-growth projections. As a result, both shortand long-term interest rates will be pushed higher, remain­

L o w g r o w th .

77

each of the 156 industries in the BLS input-output model.
The projection of the input-output table accounts for the
changes in the input pattern for each industry. In general,
two types of changes are made: (a) Those made to the inputs
of a specific industry after an industry study (as for the
changes in inputs in the aluminum industry); and, (b) those
made to the inputs of all industries for a specific commodity
(as for increased use of business services across a wide
spectrum of industries.) Output requirements by industry
are the result of multiplying the projected input-output table
by projected changes in level and distribution o f final
demand.
The projected changes in industry output are important
factors determining the p r o j e c t i o n s o f i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t .
However, converting output projections into employment
estimates requires projections o f changes in productivity
and average hours for each industry. This is accomplished
using a regression model with an equation for each industry
that estimates worker hours as a function of the following
variables: (1) The industry’s output, (2) capacity utilization,
(3) the relative price o f labor, and (4) a technology variable
as approximated by the output/capital ratio. W orker hours
are then converted into jobs by dividing by average annual
hours, which are projected from past trends. The sum of
employment by industry is controlled to total employment
as estimated in the macro model. Several iterations are usu­
ally necessary to achieve a reasonable balance.
Projections of employment for the 156 sectors in'the Eco­
nomic Growth Model are disaggregated to 372 industries
corresponding to the 3-digit Standard Industrial Classifica­
tion (SIC). This is done to match the industry mix of the
industry-occupation matrix described later. The disaggre­
gated 3-digit SIC industry em ploym ent projections are
reviewed in light of a broad range of economic information.
When the industry projections are considered final, they are
used as inputs to the process of projecting occupational
employment.
One of the main resources in making o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y ­
m e n t p r o j e c t i o n s is the industry-occupation matrix. This
matrix is produced from data collected by State employment
agencies and brought together by the Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics to produce national estimates. The data are collected
from employers on a 3-year cycle— manufacturing one year,
some nonmanufacturing industries the next year, and the
rest of nonmanufacturing the final year. The data from the
3-year cycle are used to compute annual average estimates
for occupational employment in each of the 3-digit SIC
industries. The matrix contains over 1,500 detailed occupa­
tions, although most industries do not have employment in
many of these occupations.
The major occupational cells of the industry-occupation
matrix for the base year are reviewed and adjustments are
made to the cells in the projected matrix to account for
expected changes resulting from technological change, shifts
in the product mix, and other factors. The changes intro­
duced into the input-output model for expected technologi­

econometric model of the U.S. economy. After the last
round of projections, the BLS macro model was determined
to be inadequate for further projections studies without major
respecification and expansion. The Bureau decided to look
to the private sector for a macro model that would satisfy
the needs o f bureau economists and that, at the same time,
would remove the burden of periodic data base maintenance
and model reestimation from the Bureau staff. A competi­
tive procurement process was initiated in January 1982 and
a contract was awarded to Chase Econometrics Associates,
Inc., in October 1982. Under this agreement, the Bureau
now uses the Chase macro model to develop its projections.
The Chase model, which is a quarterly model o f the U.S.
economy, is composed o f 312 behavioral equations and 275
identities, thus determining 587 endogenous variables. In
addition, it contains 110 exogenous variables. The model
can be conveniently decomposed into 13 sectors: (1) Con­
sumption, (2) business fixed investment, (3) residential
investment, (4) change in business inventories, (5) foreign
trade, (6) Federal Government, (7) State and local govern­
ment, (8) employment and hours, (9) financial, (10) income,
(11) wage and prices, (12) industrial production, and (13)
energy.
Assumptions are specified for the 110 exogenous vari­
ables. The model is simulated and the results are analyzed
for consistency and reasonableness. The exogenous vari­
ables and the behavioral relationships are modified until a
reasonable set o f results has been obtained.
For the i n d u s t r y o u t p u t p r o j e c t i o n s , the U.S. economy is
disaggregated to 156 producing sectors, an exhaustive group­
ing which combines both the public and private sectors. The
framework is an input-output model prepared for a base
period by the Bureau o f Economic Analysis o f the U.S.
Department of Commerce. The first step at the industry
level is to disaggregate the GNP estimate to a set of demands
by industry. This projected industry demand, in conjunction
with a projected input-output table, is used to calculate total
industrial production. The projected change in input-output
coefficients in the input-output model capture— among other
factors— expected changes in technology. F inally, the
employment necessary to produce those levels of output is
estimated through use o f projected industry productivity
measures.
Aggregate demand projections are available from the
macro model for 15 categories of consumption, 8 types of
investment, 15 end-use categories of foreign trade, and 3
categories o f government spending. Where possible, a fur­
ther disaggregation o f the control values is undertaken: Pur­
chases o f producers’ durable equipment is divided into 23
types of capital equipment. Government spending is grouped
into 12 categories.
To allow for shifts in the composition of aggregate demand
and in the industrial makeup of a given demand category,
“ bridge tables’’ are projected. The bridge table is a set of
percent distributions for each given demand category, such
as one o f the consumption groups or investment, among
78

industry employment data are applied to the projected indus­
try occupational employment patterns and the results are
aggregated to yield total occupational employment for the
projected year.

cal change may also affect the staffing patterns in industries
using the new technology. (For example, one would expect
greater general employment o f computer specialists as com­
puter technology spreads across industries.) The projected

79

Appendix B. Detailed
Occupational Projections

This appendix presents estimates of 1982 total occupa­
tional employment, three alternative 1995 projections (see
discussion o f projections in appendix A), and the 1982—95

percent change for 763 detailed occupations with 1982 em ­
ployment of 5,000 or more.

Table B - 1. Civilian em ploym ent In occupations w ith 5,000 w orkers or more, actual 1982 and projected 1995
Total employment (In thousands)
Occupation

Percent change

1995
1982

Low
trend

1 9 8 2 -1 9 9 5

Moderate
trend

High
trend

Low
trend

M oderate
trend

High
trend

Total, all o c c u p a tio n s ...............................................

101,510.1

124,846.0

127,109.8

129,902.1

23.0

25.2

28.0

Professional, technical, and related workers
. . . .
E n g in e e rs ..........................................................................
Aero-astronautic e n g in e e r s ...............................
Chemical engineers ...........................................
Civil e n g in e e r s ......................................................
Electrical engineers ...........................................
Industrial engineers ...........................................
Mechanical engineers .......................................
Metallurgical e n g in e e r s .......................................
Mining e n g in e e r s ...................................................
Nuclear engineers ...............................................
Petroleum e n g in e e r s ...........................................
All other e n g in e e r s ...............................................
Life and physical s c ie n tis ts .......................................
Agricultural s c ie n tis ts ...........................................
Biological scientists
...........................................
C h e m is ts ..................................................................
Geologists ..............................................................
Medical scientists ...............................................
Physicists ..............................................................
All other life and physical scientists . . . .
Mathematical specialists ...........................................
A c tu a r ie s ..................................................................
Mathematicians ...................................................
Statisticians ...........................................................
All other mathematical specialists ................
Engineering and science te c h n ic ia n s ...................
Broadcast technicians .......................................
Civil engineering te c h n ic ia n s ...........................
Drafters
..................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians . . . .
Estimators and drafters, utilities ...................
Industrial engineering technicians ................
Mechanical engineering technicians . . . .
Surveyors ..............................................................
All other engineering and science
te c h n ic ia n s ..........................................................

16,583.9
1,204.3
43.8
56.0
155.4
319.5
160.2
209.1
14.0
5.7
6.3
26.1
208.1
271.0
21.7
51.6
88.8
48.6
7.2
18.8
34.2
47.9
8.2
10.6
20.1
9.1
1,243.3
17.1
35.2
302.4
366.2
6.0
27.4
47.8
43.6

21,544.7
1,787.0
65.2
78.9
225.5
530.5
225.9
313.9
20.5
6.9
9.4
31.2
279.1
343.0
25.7
71.3
107.0
60 1
9.4
26.4
43.0
62.6
10.8
14.1
26.1
11.7
1,648.6
21.9
56.0
309.3
585.0
7.2
35.9
72.0
61.3

21,775.0
1,788.4
61.6
80.3
228.1
528.2
226.7
318.0
20.7
7.0
9.3
31.8
2 76.8
3 41.7
25.7
70.4
108.3
60.1
9.5
25.7
41.9
61.6
10.9
13.5
25.8
11.4
1,660.8
21.6
57.7
317.6
588.5
7.3
35.4
72.4
62.4

22,325.4
1,830.6
62.4
82.3
2 35.8
5 40.3
232.3
327.2
21.0
7.1
9.7
30.2
282.3
348.4
26.3
72.7
110.9
58.8
9.8
26.6
43.3
63.3
11.1
14.0
26.6
11.7
1,704.6
22.0
59.5
3 27.3
6 01.7
7.3
36.6
74.0
64.3

29.9
48.4
48.8
40.9
45.1
66.0
41.0
50.1
46.1
21.2
50.5
19.4
34.1
26.6
18.8
38.1
20.5
23.6
30.1
40.2
25.8
30.5
31.5
33.1
29.5
28.8
32.6
28.2
59.1
2.3
59.8
19.6
30.9
50.8
40.5

31.3
48.5
40.6
43.5
46.8
65.3
4 1 .6
52.1
47.5
22.4
47.9
21.7
33.0
26.1
18.6
36.3
22.0
23.6
31.8
36.6
22.6
28.6
33.0
28.1
28.3
25.6
33.6
26.5
63.9
5.0
60.7
21.2
28.9
51.6
43.1

34.6
52.0
4 2 .4
47.0
51.7
69.1
45.0
56.5
50.2
24.7
53.9
15.7
35.6
28.6
21.5
40.9
24.9
20.9
35.6
41.0
26.5
32.1
34.8
32.3
32.0
29.7
37.1
28.6
69.0
8.2
64.3
22.3
33.4
54.8
4 7 .3

397.6

500.0

497.8

511.9

25.7

25.2

28.7

Medical workers, except technicians ...................
C h iro p ra c to rs ..........................................................
Dentists ..................................................................
D ie titia n s ..................................................................
Nurses, r e g is t e r e d ...............................................
O p to m e tr is ts ..........................................................
Pharmacists ..........................................................
Physicians ..............................................................
Podiatrists ..............................................................

2,463.5
25.5
172.5
44.3
1,312.4
27.5
151.0
479.1
12.9

3,470.7
32.6
213.0
61.3
1,942.8
34.6
187.7
640.0
19.6

3,491.1
32.4
213.5
62.0
1,954.2
34.4
192.1
641.8
19.6

3,599.6
32.4
218.3
64.0
2,021.9
34.6
196.3
662.5
19.7

40.9
28.1
23.5
38.3
48.0
25.5
24.3
33.6
52.6

4 1 .7
27.2
23.7
39.9
48.9
25.1
27.2
34.0
51.9

46.1
27.2
26.6
4 4 .3
54.1
25.7
30.0
38.3
52.9

80

Table B -1 . Continued—Civilian employment in occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1982 and projected 1995
Total employment (In thousands)
Occupation

Percent change

1995
1982

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

1 9 8 2 -1 9 9 5
High
trend

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

201.8
46.5

291.2
67.0

293.6
67.3

3 01.8
69.7

44.3
44.1

45.5
44.9

49.5
49.9

18.3
25.1
43.4

25.8
39.7
68.3

26.0
40.1
68.7

26.8
41.2
70.3

41.3
58.5
57.2

42.3
59.8
58.2

46.6
64.4
61.9

41.8
26.7
36.4
627.4

53.1
37.3
47.8
891.3

53.9
37.7
47.5
897.9

55.1
38.7
48.0
9 31.9

26.9
39.5
31.2
42.1

28.8
40.8
30.4
43.1

31.7
44.8
31.8
48.5

208.7
11.6
17.0
4.7
6.6
57.4
102.8
8.8
69.4
13.4
5.5
20.9
5.5
21.6
32.7
22.4
110.0

290.6
16.3
25.1
7.1
9.5
69.9
150.2
12.6
97.1
20.3
7.7
28.8
7.0
31.0
54.5
28.0
156.3

292.2
16.4
25.3
7.1
9.5
70.7
150.4
12.6
99.2
20.5
7.7
28.5
7.3
30.9
54.9
28.4
157.3

302.9
17.0
26.2
7.3
9.9
73.3
156.1
13.1
104.2
21.1
8.0
29.7
7.8
32.1
56.2
29.6
163.5

39.2
40.8
47.9
50.8
43.8
21.9
46.2
42.8
39.9
50.8
40.2
37.9
26.4
43.6
66.7
24.8
42.1

40.0
41.6
49.1
52.3
44.8
23.3
46.4
43.7
42.8
52.5
41.2
36.7
31.8
43.5
67.8
26.8
43.0

45.1
46.9
54.1
57.1
49.9
27.8
51.9
48.9
50.0
56.9
46.7
42.5
41.2
48.8
71.8
31.8
48.7

36.2
73.8
34.8

50.5
105.8
48.4

50.4
106.9
48.7

52.4
111.1
50.5

39.7
43.3
39.0

39.4
44.8
39.8

44.9
50.6
45.1

82.4

121.7

122.4

126.3

47.7

48.5

53.3

364.3
79.7
20.9
11.1
5.6
29.1
6.7
12.3

450.9
102.2
24.1
9.3
1.5
31.8
8.1
21.7

453.1
103.0
21.8
9.7
1.5
32.1
8.3
22.0

465.4
104.4
23.3
10.7
1.5
32.9
8.4
22.7

23.8
28.3
15.1
- 1 5 .8
- 7 3 .0
9.2
21.2
76.2

24.4
29.2
4.3
- 1 2 .2
- 7 2 .7
10.2
23.9
78.4

27.8
31.0
11.6
-3 .2
- 7 2 .4
13.2
26.1
83.6

198.8

252.1

254.6

261.3

26.8

28.1

31.4

Computer sp ecialists...............................................................
Computer programmers ...................................
Computer systems analysts ...........................
Social s c ie n tis ts ......................................................................
E c o n o m is ts ..............................................................
Financial analysts ...............................................
Psychologists
......................................................
Sociologists ..........................................................
Urban and regional p la n n e r s ...........................
All other social s c ie n tis ts ...................................

520.8
266.4
254.4
205.6
30.0
19.3
82.5
5.7
21.4
46.7

934.8
465.3
469.5
266.8
38.7
26.0
109.3
7.0
24.2
61.6

942.8
471.3
471.4
266.7
38.0
26,0
109.9
7.1
24.5
61.1

960.0
479.6
480.3
273.2
39.1
26.5
112.4
7.3
25.2
62.6

79.5
74.6
84.6
29.8
28.9
34.2
32.5
24.3
13.1
32.0

81.0
76.9
85.3
29.7
26.6
34.6
33.2
25.5
14.6
30.9

84.3
80.0
88.8
32.9
30.4
37.2
36.2
28.8
17.7
34.2

Teachers ..................................................................................
Adult education te a c h e r s ...................................
Athletic coaches ...................................................
College and university faculty .......................
Dance instructors
...............................................
Extension service s p e c ia lis ts ...........................
Graduate assistants ...........................................
Preschool, kindergarten, elem. sch.
t e a c h e r s ..............................................................
Preschool teachers ...................................
Kindergarten and elementary
school t e a c h e r s .......................................
Secondary school teachers ...........................
Vocational education t e a c h e r s .......................
All other teachers
...............................................

3,980.0
124.7
15.8
744.0
26.6
13.5
139.8

4,612.2
163.9
17.8
619.4
34.9
15.3
121.6

4,706.1
165.0
18.2
632.5
35.2
15.6
124.2

4,8 06 .5
169.7
18.6
646.2
36.3
15.9
126.9

15.9
31.4
13.0
- 1 6 .7
31.0
13.0
-1 3 .1

18.2
32.3
15.4
-1 5 .0
32.0
15.4
- 1 1 .2

20.8
36.1
17.9
-1 3 .1
36.1
17.9
-9 .3

1,647.0
280.9

2,226.0
387.3

2,274.3
397.0

2,322.3
404.1

35.2
37.9

38.1
41.3

41.0
43.9

1,366.1
1,024.1
97.9
146.6

1,838.6
1,128.3
139.4
145.7

1,877.3
1,152.2
142.7
146.3

1,918.2
1,177.1
145.7
147.9

34.6
10.2
42.4
-.7

37.4
12.5
45.7
-.2

40.4
14.9
48.8
.8

Therapists ..............................................................
Respiratory th e r a p is ts ...............................
Manual arts, music, recreational
therapists ...................................................
Occupational t h e r a p is t s ...........................
Physical therapists
...................................
Speech pathologists and
a u d io lo g is ts ...............................................
All other therapists
...................................
V e te rin a ria n s ..........................................................
Health technologists and technicians ............................
Clinical laboratory technologists
and technicians ...............................................
Biochemistry technologists ....................
Blood bank technology specialists . . .
Cytotechnologists .......................................
Histologic te c h n o lo g is ts ...........................
Medical laboratory technicians . . . .
Medical laboratory technologists
. . .
Microbiology technologists
....................
Dental h y g ie n is ts ...................................................
Dietetic technicians
...........................................
EEG te c h n o lo g is ts ...............................................
EKG te c h n ic ia n s ...................................................
Emergency medical technicians ....................
Health record technicians ...............................
Physical therapy assistants ...........................
Physician a s s is t a n ts ...........................................
Radiologic te c h n o lo g is ts ...................................
Radiologic technologists and nuclear
medical technicians ...............................
X-ray te c h n ic ia n s ...........................................
Surgical technicians ...........................................
All other health technologists and
technicians ...............................................
Technicians, exc. health, science, and
e n g in e e r in g ............................... ..........................................
Airplane pilots ......................................................
Air traffic controllers ...........................................
E m b a lm e r s ..............................................................
Flight engineers ..................................................
Library te c h n ic ia n s ...............................................
Radio operators ...................................................
Tool programmers, numerical control . . .
All other tech., exc. health, science,
and e n g in e e r in g ...............................................

81

Table B -1 . Continued—Civilian employment In occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1982 and projected 1995
Total employment (In thousands)
Occupation

Percent change

1995
1982

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

1 9 8 2 -1 9 9 5
High
trend

Low
trend

M oderate
trend

High
trend

1,299.4
48.0
24.1

1,315.1
49.2
24.3

1,343.5
51.9
24.8

27.4
39.6
5.0

28.9
43.2
5.8

31.7
51.0
7.8

132.8
7.7
179.7
124.5v
25.2
86.1
89.6

166.1
10.8
247.3
153.2
29.5
101.4
114.2

166.9
11.0
252.9
155.0
29.2
101.7
115.3

169.1
11.5
257.9
159.8
29.3
104.1
118.1

25.1
40.2
37.6
23.1
17.2
17.8
27.5

25.7
42.7
40.8
24.5
16.1
18.1
28.7

27.4
48.7
43.5
28.4
16.3
20.9
31.8

54.7
45.9
8.8
51.1
21.2
52.7
119.7
17.8

69.6
57.6
12.0
64.3
25.6
63.1
160.3
21.9

70.1
58.0
12.1
66.1
25.6
63.7
161.9
22.1

70.4
58.3
12.1
67.0
26.0
65.8
165.3
22.6

27.3
25.4
36.8
25.8
21.0
19.6
33.9
23.3

28.2
26.3
37.8
29.3
20.8
20.8
35.3
24.3

28.8
27.0
38.3
31.1
22.6
24.7
38.1
27.2

Other professional and technical workers ....................
Accountants and auditors ...............................
Architects ..............................................................
Assessors ..............................................................
Audiovisual specialists, education ................
Brokers’ floor reps and security traders . .
Buyers, retail and wholesale t r a d e ................
Claim examiners, property/casualty
insurance ..........................................................
Claims takers, unemployment benefits . . .
Clergy ......................................................................
Cost estimators ...................................................
C o u n s e lo rs ..............................................................
County agricultural s p e c ia lis ts ........................
Credit analysts, c h i e f ...........................................
Credit a n a ly s t s .......................................................
Curriculum specialists .......................................
Directors, religious education
and a c tiv itie s .......................................................
Employment interviewers
...............................
Foresters and c o n servatio n ists.......................
Insurance in v e s tig a to rs .......................................
Judges ......................................................................
Law c l e r k s ..............................................................
Lawyers ..................................................................
Lease b u y e r s ..........................................................
Legal assistants ...................................................
Librarians
..............................................................
M a g is tra te s ..............................................................
Personnel and labor relations
s p e c ia lis ts ..........................................................
Purchasing agents and b u y e r s ........................
M edia buyers ...............................................
Purchasing agents and/or buyers . . .
Recreation workers
...........................................
Safety in s p e c to rs ...................................................
Social w o r k e r s ......................................................
Caseworkers ...............................................
Community organization workers . . .
Special agents, insurance ...............................
Tax examiners, collectors, and
revenue agents ...............................................
Tax preparers .......................................................
Title examiners and abstractors ....................
U n d e r w r ite rs ...........................................................
All other professional workers ........................

4,635.9
855.8
84.2
27.7
6.3
12.5
255.7

5,777.5
1,180.5
116.0
30.2
6.7
14.9
3 21.2

5,849.8
1,199.8
117.7
30.8
6.9
15.0
331.2

5,998.5
1,229.1
120.7
31.5
7.0
15.3
3 35.8

24.6
38.0
37.7
9.1
7.5
18.8
25.6

26.2
40.2
39.7
11.0
9.8
19.5
29.5

29.4
43.6
43.3
13.8
12.2
21.8
31.4

22.4
14.7
316.9
92.4
148.4
10.9
8.7
21.6
23.7

28.2
13.8
327.4
130.5
159.4
12.3
12.2
30.3
26.7

28.6*
14.0
332.3
133.8
162.9
12.6
12.3
30.5
27.3

29.1
14.4
3 43.7
136.9
166.7
12.9
12.5
31.1
27.9

26.1
-6 .3
3.3
41.3
7.4
12.9
40.4
40.0
12.6

28.0
-4 .6
4.9
44.9
9.8
15.3
41.7
41.2
14.9

30.1
-2 .2
8.4
48.2
12.4
17.8
44.1
43.6
17.4

42.7
56.5
30.9
11.4
19.7
40.5
464.5
9.9
45.3
150.6
11.4

44.2
85.2
35.2
14.6
24.1
55.4
617.5
10.1
85.4
166.7
12.0

44.8
86.1
33.8
14.8
24.1
56.4
623.7
10.3
88.0
169.6
12.2

46.3
87.3
35.6
15.0
24.9
58.7
6 37.6
9.5
91.4
173.7
12.5

3.4
50.8
14.1
27.9
22.2
36.9
32.9
2.1
88.4
10.7
4.9

5.0
52.5
9.4
29.6
22.6
39.2
34.3
4.4
94.3
12.6
6.8

8.5
54.6
15.3
31.5
26.3
44.9
37.3
-3 .6
101.7
15.3
9.5

202.9
190.8
14.1
176.7
124.0
7.7
344.7
292.4
52.3
30.5

248.7
242.2
17.0
225.1
149.9
11.3
409.2
347.9
61.3
43.8

249.9
242.4
17.1
225.3
152.4
11.5
4 15.8
353.2
62.6
44.4

257.0
2 49.6
17.3
232.3
156.7
11.6
4 28.3
363.6
64.7
45.1

22.5
26.9
21.3
27.4
20.9
46.2
18.7
19.0
17.2
43.4

23.2
27.1
21.9
27.5
22.9
48.5
20.6
20.8
19.7
45.5

26.6
30.9
23.1
31.5
26.4
50.9
24.3
24.4
23.8
47.7

46.9
32.4
11.0
75.8
784.0

54.3
44.8
15.9
90.2
906.8

51.8
46.4
16.4
91.8
907.7

54.3
49.2
16.8
93.4
929.7

15.7
38.2
45.3
19.0
15.7

10.3
43.1
49.2
21.1
15.8

15.8
51.6
53.4
23.2
18.6

Managers, officials, and p r o p r ie to rs ...............................
Auto parts department m anagers ................
Auto service department m anagers . . . .
Captains, w ater v e s s e l .......................................
Chief executives, legislative ............................
Construction inspectors, public
administration ...................................................

9,532.2
44.2
54.3
13.9
10.3

12,008.3
60.7
75.6
14.4
9.6

12,212.4
62.9
78.4
14.9
9.8

12,466.8
64.0
79.8
15.1
10.1

26.0
37.2
39.3
3.2
-6 .3

28.1
42.2
44.4
6.6
-4 .6

30.8
44.7
47.1
8.1
-2 .2

39.1

45.8

45.9

47.3

17.2

17.4

21.0

Selected writers, artists, and e n te r ta in e r s ....................
Actors ......................................................................
Athletes ..................................................................
Commercial and graphic artists
and designers ...................................................
Dancers ..................................................................
Designers ..............................................................
Musicians ..............................................................
Painters, artistic ...................................................
P h o to g ra p h e rs .......................................................
Public relations s p e c ia lis ts ...............................
Radio and T V announcers and
n e w s c a s te rs .......................................................
Announcers ...................................................
Broadcast news analysts .......................
Reporters and c o rre s p o n d e n ts .......................
S in g e r s ......................................................................
Sports instructors ...............................................
Writers and e d it o r s ...............................................
Writers, artists, entertainers, n e c ....................

1,020.0
34.4
23.0

82

Table B -1 . Continued—Civilian employment In occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1982 and projected 1995
Percent change

Total employment (In thousands)

1 9 8 2 -1 9 9 5

1995

Occupation
1982

Health and regulatory in s p e c to rs ....................
Postmasters and mail superintendents . . .
Railroad conductors ...........................................
Restaurant, cafe, and bar managers . . . .
Sales managers, retail t r a d e ...........................
School administrators .......................................
Assistant principals ...................................
Principals ......................................................
S u p e rin te n d e n ts ...........................................
Store managers ..................................................
Wholesalers ..........................................................
All other m a n a g e r s ...............................................

101.4
28.3
26.9
573.5
271.5
132.8
38.0
81.8
13.0
970.5
247.4
7,018.1

Low
trend
111.0
22.6
17.1
706.3
352.2
149.7
43.8
93.1
12.8
1,218.4
298.0
8,926.8

Sales w o r k e r s ..........................................................................
Broker and m arket operators,
c o m m o d itie s ......................................................
Contribution solicitors .......................................
Crating and moving e s tim a to rs .......................
Real estate agents and brokers ....................
Real estate b r o k e r s ...................................
Sales agents, sales reps., real
e s t a t e ............................... ..........................
Real estate a p p r a is e r s .......................................
Sales agents and brokers, insurance . . .
Sales agents and reps., financial
services ..............................................................
Sales representatives, nontechnical . . . .
Sales representatives, t e c h n ic a l....................
Sales clerks ..........................................................
Security salesworkers .......................................
Travel agents
.......................................................
Vendors ..................................................................
All other sales w o r k e r s .......................................

6,966.7

8,535.5

8,771.5

8,911.0

5.8
7.7
7.2
337.3
41.5

7.6
9.6
9.4
448.8
53.1

7.7
9.9
9.5
449.6
53.1

295.7
31.5
361.4

395.7
46.8
447.4

22.5
583.4
1,320.3
2,915.9
78.3
61.9
7.7
1,225.7

Clerical w o r k e r s ......................................................................
Adjustment clerks ...............................................
Admissions e v a lu a t o r s .......................................
Bank tellers
..........................................................
New accounts tellers ...............................
T e l l e r s ..............................................................
Bookkeepers and accounting clerks . . . .
Accounting clerks .......................................
Bookkeepers, hand ...................................
Brokerage c l e r k s ...................................................
Car rental c l e r k s ...................................................
Cashiers ..................................................................
Checking clerks ...................................................
Circulation c le r k s ...................................................
Claims a d ju s t e r s ...................................................
Claims c l e r k s ...........................................................
Claims examiner, insurance ...........................
Clerical supervisors ...........................................
Coin machine operators and
currency sorters ...............................................
Collectors, bill and account
...........................
Court clerks ...........................................................
Credit authorizers ...............................................
Credit clerks, banking and insurance
. . .
Credit reporters
...................................................
Customer service representatives ................
Customer service reps., print, and
publish......................................................................
Desk clerks, bowling floor ...............................
Desk clerks, except bowling floor ................
Dispatchers, police, fire, and ambulance . .
Dispatchers, vehicle service or work . . . .
Eligibility workers, welfare ...............................
File clerks ..............................................................
General clerks, office
.......................................
In-file operators
...................................................
Insurance checkers
...........................................
Insurance clerks, except medical
................
Insurance clerks, medical ...............................
Library assistants
...............................................
License clerks ......................................................
Loan c l o s e r s ..........................................................

Moderate
trend
108.0
24.4
18.3
710.6
361.8
152.8
44.7
95.1
13.0
1,262.4
302.4
9,059.8

High
trend
112.6
25.0
19.7
714.8
365.5
156.1
45.7
97.1
13.3
1,285.4
303.3
9,268.8

Low
trend
9.4
-2 0 .2
- 3 6 .4
23.1
29.8
12.7
15.4
13.8
-2 .0
25.5
20.5
27.2

Moderate

High

trend

trend

6.5
-1 3 .8
-3 2 .0
23.9
33.3
15.1
17.9
16.2
.1
30.1
22.2
29.1

11.0
- 1 1 .8
-2 6 .9
24.6
34.6
17.6
20.4
18.7
2.2
32.4
22.6
32.1

22.5

25.9

27.9

7.8
10.3
9.7
4 53.4
53.5

30.8
25.2
29.2
33.1
27.9

31.4
28.3
31.5
33.3
27.9

33.7
33.6
33.5
34.4
28.8

396.5
46.9
451.8

3 99.9
47.7
457.6

33.8
48.5
23.8

34.1
48.8
25.0

35.2
51.2
26.6

33.2
724.3
1,651.9
3,472.0
106.3
86.4
8.9
1,483.0

33.5
743.1
1,706.7
3,601.1
106.8
88.3
8.9
1,507.7

34.1
749.4
1,729.7
3,670.1
108.7
88.5
9.1
1,535.0

47.2
24.1
25.1
19.1
35.7
39.6
15.8
21.0

4 8 .6
27.4
29.3
23.5
36.4
42.7
15.9
23.0

51.2
28.5
31.0
25.9
38.8
43.0
18.1
25.2

19,048.9
35.7
10.5
538.8
67.3
471.5
1,713.0
756.4
956.7
16.5
16.2
1,570.2
18.6
9.5
66.0
66.4
47.3
4 66.7

23,533.2
47.7
11.8
686.1
79.1
607.0
1,942.8
861.5
1,081.3
20.2
20.7
2,235.1
23.1
11.4
98.7
93.7
61.1
6 17.5

2 3,998.3
49.1
12.1
693.0
79.9
613.1
1,984.6
875.9
1,108.7
20.3
21.6
2 ,314.1
23.3
11.8
98.3
92.9
62.2
628.2

24,538.1
50.1
12.3
702.8
81.1
621.7
2,027.1
895.5
1,131.6
20.8
22.9
2,361.9
23.6
12.0
100.9
95.5
63.3
640.7

23.5
33.5
13.0
27.4
17.6
28.7
13.4
13.9
13.0
21.9
27.6
42.3
23.9
19.9
49.5
41.0
29.1
32.3

26.0
37.7
15.4
28.6
18.8
30.0
15.9
15.8
15.9
23.0
33.3
47.4
25.1
23.9
48.8
39.9
31.4
34.6

28.8
40.2
17.9
30.4
20.5
31.9
18.3
18.4
18.3
25.6
41.2
50.4
26.7
25.9
52.8
43.8
33.7
37.3

5.1
94.0
27.3
21.3
49.6
16.2
88.9

5.9
133.2
28.9
30.4
75.7
21.2
120.4

6.0
134.9
29.5
31.6
76.4
21.4
123.8

6.1
137.1
30.2
32.2
77.8
21.7
124.8

17.3
41.7
6.0
42.5
52.7
31.3
35.4

18.5
43.6
7.9
48.3
54.1
32.6
39.2

20.0
45.9
10.6
51.2
56.9
34.4
40.3

8.4
15.4
87.5
47.8
90.3
31.5
294.7
2,348.4
5.0
15.0
10.6
85.7
81.1
5.7
45.3

9.9
17.4
106.7
52.5
110.7
31.6
316.2
2,989.9
6.9
22.1
14.4
137.5
94.2
5.4
63.4

10.3
17.8
107.4
53.4
113.4
32.1
321.4
3,044.3
7.0
22.5
14.6
139.1
95.8
5.5
64.1

10.5
18.6
109.1
54.7
116.1
33.0
329.1
3,1 13 .0
7.1
22.8
14.8
144.7
98.0
5.6
65.2

16.9
13.2
21.8
9.7
22.5
.2
7.3
27.3
37.7
47.1
35.8
60.3
16.1
-5 .7
40.0

22.2
15.4
22.7
11.6
25.6
2.0
9.1
29.6
39.0
49.8
37.6
62.2
18.1
-4 .0
41.5

24.7
21.0
24.6
14.4
28.5
4.6
11.7
32.6
40.9
52.4
40.0
68.7
20.8
-1 .6
44.0

83

Table B -1 . Continued— Civilian employment in occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1982 and projected 1995
Total employment (In thousands)
Occupation

Percent change

1995
1982

1 9 8 2 -1 9 9 5

540.6
234.1
306.5
99.8
51.1
30.5
15.3
935.5
227.0

Low
trend
439.0
206.0
233.0
132.4
65.6
37.3
22.4
1,178.7
285.5

Moderate
trend
474.4
222.7
251.8
130.9
66.8
37.9
22.6
1,196.1
291.0

High
trend
485.2
227.7
257.5
134.8
68.4
38.5
23.0
1,219.7
296.1

Low
trend
- 1 8 .8
- 1 2 .0
- 2 4 .0
32.6
28.2
22.4
45.9
26.0
25.7

M oderate
trend
-1 2 .2
-4 .9
-1 7 .9
31.2
30.7
24.0
47.2
27.8
28.2

High
trend
- 1 0 .3
-2 .7
- 1 6 .0
35.0
33.8
26.1
49.9
30.4
30.4

172.4
47.4
7.3
579.9
210.9
320.0

217.9
58.7
8.8
727.1
366.2
281.9

222.8
59.4
8.9
736.8
370.7
285.9

226.9
60.1
9.0
752.1
378.3
292.2

26.4
23.9
21.4
25.4
73.7
-1 1 .9

29.2
25.2
22.6
27.1
75.8
- 1 0 .6

31.7
26.7
24.2
29.7
79.4
-8 .7

Mail carriers and postal c l e r k s ........................
Postal mail carriers ...................................
Postal service clerks
...............................
Mail clerks ..............................................................
Messengers ..........................................................
M eter readers, u t i l i t i e s .......................................
Mortgage closing clerks ...................................
Office machine operators
...............................
Bookkeeping and billing operators
. .
Bookkeeping, billing machine
o p e r a to r s ...........................................
Proof machine o p e r a t o r s ................
Transit c l e r k s .......................................
Computer operating personnel . . . .
Computer operators
........................
Data entry operators ........................
Peripheral E DP equipment
o p e r a to r s ...........................................
Duplicating machine operators . . . .
All other office machine operators . . .
Order clerks ..........................................................
Payroll and timekeeping c le r k s .......................
Personnel c l e r k s ...................................................
Policy change c l e r k s ...........................................
Procurement clerks
...........................................
Production c le r k s ..................................................
P ro o fre a d e rs ..........................................................
Protective signal operators .................................
Purchase and sales clerks, security . . . .
Rate clerks, f r e i g h t ...............................................
Raters ......................................................................
Real estate clerks ...............................................
R e c ep tio n is ts ..........................................................
Reservation agents and transportation
ticket clerks .......................................................
Reservation agents ...................................
Ticket agents ...............................................
Travel counselors, auto club
................
Safe deposit c le r k s ...............................................
Secretaries and stenographers
....................
Secretaries ...................................................
S te n o g ra p h e rs ...............................................
T y p i s t s ......................................................................
Service clerks ......................................................
Shipping and receiving clerks ........................
Shipping p a c k e r s ..................................................
Sorting clerks, b a n k in g .......................................
Statem ent c l e r k s ...................................................
Statistical clerks ...................................................
Stock clerks, stockroom and warehouse . .
Survey workers
...................................................
Switchboard operators/receptionists . . . .
Teachers’ aides ...................................................
Telephone ad takers, n e w s p a p e r s ................
Telegraph operators ...........................................
Telephone o p e r a to r s ...........................................
Switchboard o p e ra to rs ...............................
Central office o p e r a t o r s ...........................
Directory assistance operators . . . .
Title s e a r c h e r s ......................................................
Town clerks ..........................................................
Traffic agents
......................................................
Traffic c l e r k s ..........................................................
Transportation agents .......................................
W e ig h e r s ..................................................................
W elfare in v e s tig a to rs ...........................................
Worksheet c le r k s ...................................................
All other clerical w o r k e r s ...................................

49.0
38.2
90.4
265.2
201.6
102.6
27.6
47.3
201.1
16.5
7.0
5. 2
10.2
52.7
16.6
386.7

79.0
44.2
121.9
329.2
264.7
132.0
30.0
59.9
259.5
19.8
11.8
4. 9
12.1
67.8
23.6
564.6

80.2
44.8
123.4
337.0
269.3
131.3
30.5
59.6
261.8
20.7
11.9
4. 9
12.5
69.0
23.5
575.5

81.6
45.7
125.9
342.2
276.5
135.4
31.0
61.7
268.3
21.1
12.0
5. 0
12.8
70.2
24.1
594.2

61.0
15.6
34.9
24.1
31.3
28.7
8.5
26.6
29.1
20.3
68.4
-6 .3
19.4
28.7
42.2
46.0

63.5
17.2
36.5
27.1
33.5
28.1
10.5
26.1
30.2
25.8
69.7
-5 .4
22.6
31.1
41.8
48.8

66.5
19.5
39.3
29.0
37.1
32.0
12.4
30.5
33.4
28.4
71.4
-3 .4
25.6
33.3
45.2
53.7

107.5
52.9
49.3
5.4
13.9
2,711.1
2,441.5
269.6
990.0
23.6
364.8
339.7
7.4
33.6
98.1
830.9
53.5
207.0
462.9
10.4
13.4
3 17.9
171.7
108.7
37.5
5.1
26.0
17.8
7.1
20.6
24.9
11.8
10.6
1,275.5

107.7
54.0
47.9
5.8
17.9
3,354.8
3,108.0
246.8
1,135.7
33.6
419.7
393.6
9.2
43.8
112.4
961.4
77.9
279.2
579.1
14.1
12.8
336.7
210.8
84.2
41.8
7.4
28.6
21.7
10.4
27.7
28.7
12.0
15.1
1,572.5

109.6
54.9
48.9
5.9
18.1
3,410.4
3,160.8
249.5
1,145.3
35.0
431.0
403.1
9.3
44.2
113.6
987.1
78.2
285.1
593.2
14.6
13.5
343.4
213.3
86.9
43.1
7.6
29.1
22.3
10.5
28.1
29.4
12.3
15.3
1,588.9

111.6
55.6
49.9
6.1
18.3
3,498.4
3,242.6
255.9
1,174.8
35.7
439.4
4 10.2
9.4
44.8
116.1
1,005.4
79.2
291.7
605.8
14.9
14.0
3 48.9
218.0
87.5
43.4
7.8
29.8
22.7
10.5
28.4
29.9
12.6
15.6
1,631.6

.1
2.1
-2 .7
6.8
29.2
23.7
27.3
-8 .5
14.7
42.0
15.1
15.9
24.2
30.4
14.6
15.7
45.7
34.9
25.1
35.5
-4 .3
5.9
22.8
- 2 2 .6
11.3
43.7
9.8
21.9
45.9
34.6
15.3
2.1
41.6
23.3

1.9
3.7
-.7
9.1
30.5
25.8
29.5
-7 .4
15.7
48.1
18.2
18.7
25.5
31.7
15.8
18.8
46.1
37.7
28.1
40.3
.8
8.0
24.3
- 2 0 .0
15.0
47.9
11.7
25.1
47.0
36.3
18.1
4.0
44.1
24.6

3.8
5.1
1.2
13.5
32.2
29.0
32.8
-5 .1
18.7
51.0
20.4
20.8
27.1
33.5
18.4
21.0
48.2
40.9
30.9
42.7
5.0
9.8
27.0
-1 9 .5
15.7
52.4
14.5
27.6
47.5
37.6
20.2
6.6
46.7
27.9

Craft and related w o r k e r s ...................................................
Construction craft workers
...........................................
Insulation workers ...............................................
Bricklayers and stonemasons ........................
B ric k la y e rs .......................................................
Refractory materials r e p a ir e r s ................
Stone m a s o n s ...............................................

11,591.0
2,894.9
46.7
124.3
110.9
6.8
6.6

14,476.1
3,725.1
65.7
163.4
148.4
8.0
7.0

14,769.0
3,777.0
67.0
165.7
150.4
8.3
7.1

15.099.3
3,841.1
68.3
168.2
152.7
8.4
7.2

24.9
28.7
40.8
31.5
33.9
17.1
6.1

27.4
30.5
43.6
33.4
35.7
20.9
7.6

30.3
32.7
46.3
35.4
37.7
22.5
9.1

84

Table B -1 . Continued—Civilian employment in occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1982 and projected 1995
Percent change

Total employment (In thousands)
1982

C a r p e n te r s ..............................................................
Cem ent masons and terrazzo workers . . .
Drywall applicators and t a p e r s .......................
Drywall applicators ...................................
T a p e r s ..............................................................
E le c tric ia n s ..............................................................
Fitters, pipelaying ...............................................
Floor covering installers ...................................
Carpet cutters, carpet layers ................
Floor layers ..................................................
Glaziers ..................................................................
..........................................................
Ironworkers
Reinforcing-iron w o r k e r s ...........................
Structural steel w o r k e r s ...........................
L a th e r s ......................................................................
Painters and paperhangers
...........................
Painters, construction and
m aintenance ...........................................
P a p e r h a n g e r s ...............................................
Plasterers ..............................................................
Plumbers and p ip e fitte r s ...................................
Roofers
..................................................................
S h ip w rig h ts ..............................................................
Tile s e t t e r s ..............................................................
Mechanics, repairers, and in s ta lle rs ...........................
Air conditioning, refrig., and heating
m ech.........................................................................
Aircraft m e c h a n ic s ...............................................
Appliance installers and repairers ................
G as and electric appliance
repairers
...................................................
Household appliance installers . . . .
Automotive body r e p a ir e r s ...............................
Auto seat cover and top in s t a lle r s ................
Automotive m e c h a n ic s .......................................
Auto repair service e s tim a to r s .......................
Bicycle r e p a ir e r s ..................................................
Coin machine servicers and repairers . . .
Communications equipment
m e c h a n ic s ..........................................................
Central office repairers ...........................
Fram e wirers ...............................................
Trouble locators, test desk ....................
All other communications
equipment m e c h a n ic s ...........................
Computer service technicians .......................
Diesel mechanics ...............................................
Electrical instrument and tool repairers . .
Electric motor repairers ...................................
Line installers and cable s p lic e rs ....................
Cable installers ...........................................
Cable repairers ...........................................
Cable s p lic e r s ...............................................
Line installers, r e p a ir e r s ...........................
Troubleshooters, power line ...........................
Engineering equipment m e c h a n ic s ................
Farm equipment mechanics ...........................
Hydroelectric machine m e c h a n ic s ................
Instrument repairers ...........................................
Knitting machine f i x e r s .......................................
L o c k s m ith s ..............................................................
Loom fixers
..........................................................
Industrial machinery repairers ........................
Maintenance repairers general utility . . . .
Marine mechanics and r e p a ir e r s ....................
Millwrights ..............................................................
Mine machinery mechanics ...........................
Musical instrument r e p a ir e r s ...........................
Office machine r e p a ir e r s ...................................
Pinsetter mechanics, automatic ....................
Protective signal installers and
r e p a ir e r s ..............................................................
Radio and television service
technicians ...................................................

1 9 8 2 -1 9 9 5

1995

Occupation
Low
trend

M oderate
trend

High
trend

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

863.1
94.7
75.6
53.4
22.2
542.3
9.1
78.9
52.7
26.1
40.8
93.5
32.9
60.5
9.2
381.3

1,095.1
132.5
104.4
72.8
31.5
703.7
11.7
99.5
66.2
33.4
53.3
126.4
43.8
82.6
8.4
4 66.7

1,109.8
135.5
106.5
74.2
32.2
715.0
12.0
101.4
67.3
34.1
54.9
129.6
44.8
84.8
8.6
468.3

1,127.7
138.0
108.2
75.4
32.8
730.0
12.2
102.9
68.2
34.6
55.9
132.6
45.7
86.9
8.7
473.5

26.9
39.9
38.1
36.5
41.9
29.8
29.1
26.2
25.4
27.7
30.7
35.2
32.8
36.5
-8 .6
22.4

28.6
43.0
40.8
39.0
45.2
31.8
32.3
28.5
27.6
30.4
34.6
38.7
35.9
40.2
-6 .6
22.8

30.6
45.6
43.1
41.2
47.7
34.6
34.8
30.4
29.4
32.5
37.2
41.8
38.6
43.6
-4 .9
24.2

362.0
19.3
20.3
387.9
102.1
5.5
19.7

4 42.7
24.0
21.5
512.3
127.9
6.8
26.0

444.3
24.0
21.8
518.4
129.4
6.6
26.5

449.4
24.1
22.1
528.3
131.0
6.6
26.9

22.3
24.1
6.0
32.1
25.2
23.5
32.4

22.7
24.1
7.4
33.7
26.7
20.4
34.8

24.1
24.6
8.9
36.2
28.3
20.3
36.9

3,936.0

5,003.9

5,107.5

5,223.0

27.1

29.8

32.7

168.2
108.0
79.9

219.6
131.9
91.3

223.0
128.1
93.4

228.3
130.8
95.5

30.6
22.2
14.2

32.6
18.6
16.8

35.7
21.1
19.5

61.9
18.0
155.0
5.9
844.3
10.6
14.1
30.5

70.6
20.6
190.9
7.8
1,134.1
15.2
16.8
37.9

72.4
21.0
195.8
8.0
1,167.9
15.7
17.1
39.2

74.3
21.2
200.8
8.4
1,195.3
16.0
17.3
40.3

14.2
14.5
23.1
33.1
34.3
43.2
19.0
24.2

16.9
16.5
26.3
36.8
38.3
48.5
21.1
28.4

20.0
17.8
29.6
42.3
41.6
51.3
22.7
32.1

91.8
50.2
13.1
19.2

91.8
47.4
16.1
16.3

94.8
48.9
16.6
16.9

95.4
49.2
16.8
17.0

.0
-5 .6
23.3
-1 5 .1

3.3
-2 .5
27.3
- 1 2 .3

3.9
-1 .9
28.1
- 1 1 .7

9.3
54.6
173.1
9.1
19.3
194.6
8.9
10.3
48.0
127.4
8.0
83.4
26.0
13.7
41.4
7.9
13.0
13.2
330.3
694.4
26.5
91.0
12.8
13.6
55.6
7.1

12.0
105.7
216.1
12.4
27.6
242.7
15.9
13.5
59.3
154.0
9.6
93.4
26.9
16.2
50.3
8.8
17.2
10.9
416.5
870.2
35.9
118.2
16.8
16.5
93.7
8.0

12.3
107.6
221.6
12.1
28.6
247.8
16.4
14.0
60.2
157.2
9.7
94.1
27.3
16.3
51.1
9.2
17.5
10.9
425.3
887.2
35.8
121.0
17.2
16.8
95.4
8.2

12.4
108.4
226.4
12.6
31.2
250.7
16.5
14.1
61.0
159.1
9.8
95.8
27.5
16.6
52.5
9.4
18.6
11.2
437.9
908.4
35.9
123.8
17.3
17.0
96.1
8.6

28.9
93.4
24.8
36.0
43.0
24.7
79.7
31.1
23.6
20.8
19.4
12.0
3.8
18.3
21.7
11.9
31.8
- 1 7 .9
26.1
25.3
35.4
29.8
31.7
21.1
68.5
12.3

33.1
96.8
28.0
33.1
48.1
27.3
85.5
35.4
25.5
23.4
21.0
12.8
5.3
19.0
23.6
17.1
34.3
-1 7 .1
28.7
27.8
35.2
32.9
35.0
23.1
71.7
14.5

33.9
98.3
30.7
38.0
61.2
28.8
86.7
36.3
27.2
24.8
22.1
14.9
6.0
20.9
26.9
19.6
42.2
-1 5 .4
32.6
30.8
35.7
36.0
35.6
24.9
72.9
20.1

6.9

11.0

11.1

11.2

58.8

59.8

61.2

80.4

100.6

102.2

104.7

25.1

27.0

30.2

85

Table B -1 . Continued—Civilian employment In occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1982 and projected 1995
Total employment (In thousands)
Occupation

1995
1982

Railroad car repairers ...................................
Section repairers and setters
...................
Sewing machine m e c h a n ic s ........................
Shoe repair o c c u p a tio n s ...............................
Telephone and PBX installers and
r e p a ir e r s ..........................................................
Installers, repairers, section
maintainors ...........................................
Station in s ta lle rs .......................................
Treatm ent plant mechanics .......................
W ater meter installers ...................................
All other mechanics, repairers, and
in s ta lle rs ..........................................................
Metalworking craft workers, except
m e c h a n ic s .........................................................................
Blacksmiths ......................................................
B o ile rm a k e rs ......................................................
Corem akers, hand, bench, f l o o r ................
Forging press operators ...............................
Heat treaters, annealers, and temperers .
Machinists and layout m a r k e r s ...................
Layout markers, m e t a l ...........................
M a c h in is ts ...................................................
Job and die s e tte r s ...........................................
Machine tool setters, metalworking .
Punch press setters, metal ................
Setters, plastic molding machine , .
Shear and slitter setters
All other job and die s e t t e r s ................
Molders, m e t a l ...................................................
P a tte rn m a k e r s ..................................................
Patternmakers, metal ...........................
Patternmakers, wood ...........................
Rolling mill operators and helpers . . . .
Sheet-m etal workers and tinsmiths
. . .
Toolmakers and diemakers .......................
All other metalworking craft workers . . .
Printing trades craft w o r k e r s .......................
B o o k b in d e rs ...............................................
Bookbinders, hand
...............................
Bookbinders, m a c h in e ...........................
Bindery machine s e t t e r s ...............................
Typesetters and compositors
....................
Etchers and e n g r a v e r s ...................................
Lithographers and photoengravers . . . .
C am era operators, printing ................
Photoengravers .......................................
P la te m a k e r s ...............................................
Strippers, p r i n t i n g ...................................
Printing press operators ...............................
Letter press o p e r a to r s ...........................
Offset lithographic press operators .
Press operators and plate printers .
All other press and plate printers . .
Other craft and related w o r k e r s ...................................
Auxiliary equipment o p e r a t o r s ....................
B a k e r s ..................................................................
Blue collar workers supervisors ................
C a b in e tm a k e rs ..................................................
Control room operators, s t e a m ....................
Crane, derrick, and hoist operators . . .
Dental lab technicians ...................................
Dispensing opticians & opthalmic lab
te c h n ic ia n s ......................................................
Lens grinders ...........................................
Opticians, dispensing and optical
mechanics
...........................................
Furniture finishers ...........................................
Furniture upholsters .......................................
Glass in s ta lle rs ...................................................
Heavy equipment operators ........................
Inspectors ..........................................................
J e w e l e r s ..............................................................

Percent change

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

1 9 8 2 -1 9 9 5
High
trend

Low
trend

M oderate
trend

High
trend

24.2
11.0
10.6
16.4

18.5
11.3
15.4
18.6

19.8
11.4
15.6
18.8

21.3
11.6
15.3
19.6

-2 3 .7
2.7
45.9
13.3

- 1 8 .3
3.7
47.6
14.7

- 1 2 .2
5.9
45.0
19.6

134.2

165.9

171.1

172.3

23.6

27.5

28.4

75.4
58.9
7.5
5.6

96.7
69.3
8.7
6.2

99.6
71.5
8.8
6.3

100.4
72.0
9.1
6.4

28.3
17.7
15.6
9.8

32.2
21.5
17.7
11.7

33.1
22.3
20.8
14.5

242.1

297.0

298.6

307.9

22.7

23.4

27.2

817.5
6.9
40.0
7.3
7.0
22.6
236.0
16.0
220.0
94.6
54.8
20.2
7.8
6.2
5.6
25.5
13.5
7.0
6.5
11.0
187.8
153.9
11.5
393.2
29.8
6.1
23.7
5.5
104.4
12.4
67.3
21.9
9.3
12.6
23.6
173.8
33.7
88.2
41.9
10.0

994.7
4.9
42.3
8.3
8.6
23.0
290.3
19.4
271.0
117.1
67.1
24.8
10.5
7.7
7.0
28.8
15.5
8.0
7.5
12.5
248.0
181.2
14.1
428.8
34.0
7.1
26.9
6.0
93.8
15.4
82.9
28.1
8.4
15.0
31.4
196.7
34.2
107.2
44.0
11.2

1,018.8
4.9
43.0
8.5
8.9
23.5
297.9
20.2
277.7
120.5
68.3
25.6
11.5
7.9
7.2
29.5
15.7
8.1
7.6
12.9
252.3
186.5
14.7
447.2
35.8
7.4
28.4
6.4
96.8
15.6
87.1
29.5
8.6
15.8
33.2
205.5
35.8
112.6
45.2
11.8

1,050.7
5.0
44.3
8.8
9.1
24.1
308.0
21.2
286.9
124.6
70.3
26.7
11.9
8.2
7.5
30.5
16.1
8.3
7.8
13.1
259.9
192.4
14.9
457.4
36.6
7.6
29.0
6.5
98.7
16.1
89.0
30.1
8.8
16.1
34.0
210.5
36.6
115.1
46.8
12.1

21.7
- 2 9 .7
5.8
14.7
22.5
1.7
23.0
21.5
23.2
23.9
22.5
23.2
35.1
22.5
25.6
12.9
15.1
14.5
15.6
13.6
32.0
17.8
22.6
9.1
14.2
15.4
13.8
8.6
-1 0 .2
24.3
23.2
28.6
-9 .4
19.5
33.0
13.2
1.4
21.6
5.1
12.4

24.6
-2 8 .9
7.6
17.7
26.7
3.8
26.2
26.6
26.2
27.4
24.6
27.1
47.2
26.8
29.2
15.7
16.9
16.6
17.1
17.5
34.4
21.2
27.3
13.7
20.3
21.1
20.2
14.8
-7 .3
26.2
29.4
34.9
-6 .9
25.5
40.6
18.2
6.4
27.6
7.9
18.5

28.5
- 2 7 .6
10.8
21.1
29.9
6.3
30.5
32.6
30.4
31.7
28.4
32.2
52.7
31.6
33.5
19.6
19.6
19.5
19.6
18.9
38.4
25.0
29.3
16.3
22.9
23.6
22.8
17.3
-5 .5
30.0
32.2
37.9
-5 .2
28.3
43.7
21.2
8.5
30.6
11.6
21.1

3,549.5
8.7
65.2
1,200.1
77.5
7.9
110.6
50.6

4,323.6
7.9
73.2
1,483.2
94.6
6.9
133.1
63.0

4,418.6
8.0
76.1
1,519.7
96.2
7.0
136.8
63.6

4,527.1
8.2
77.6
1,554.2
98.5
7.0
139.6
65.0

21.8
-8 .2
12.3
23.6
22.1
- 1 3 .4
20.4
24.6

24.5
-7 .1
16.8
26.6
24.1
- 1 2 .2
23.7
25.7

27.5
-5 .9
19.0
29.5
27.1
-1 1 .3
26.3
28.4

38.9
7.5

47.0
8.7

48.3
8.9

49.8
9.3

21.0
16.3

24.2
19.5

28.2
25.3

31.4
19.1
37.2
6.1
384.0
410.1
29.7

38.3
23.5
39.9
8.3
480.1
520.3
33.1

39.4
24.2
40.3
8.6
489.8
528.8
33.7

40.5
25.4
41.6
9.0
499.9
542.8
34.7

22.1
23.1
7.4
36.5
25.0
26.9
11.3

25.3
26.6
8.3
40.9
27.5
28.9
13.3

28.9
32.9
11.9
47.3
30.2
32.3
16.8

86

Table B -1 . Continued—Civilian employment In occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1982 and projected 1995
Total employment (In thousands)
Occupation

O p e ra tiv e s ..............................................................................
Assembler o c c u p a tio n s ...........................................
Aircraft structure a s s e m b le r s ............................
A s s e m b le rs ..............................................................
Clock, watch a s s e m b le r s ...................................
Coil finishers ..........................................................
Electrical machinery equipment
a s s e m b le rs ..........................................................
Electrical and electronic assemblers . . . .
Instalment m a k e rs /a s s e m b le rs ........................
Machine a s s e m b le r s ...........................................
Mobile home set-up operators ........................
Power screwdriver o p e r a to r s ...........................
Wirers, e le c tro n ic ...................................................
All other assemblers ...........................................
Bindery operatives .......................................................
Bindery workers, a s s e m b ly ...............................
Bindery workers, stitching ...............................
All other bindery operatives ...........................
Laundering, drycleaning, and press, mach.
o p e r a to r s ......................................................................
Drycleaners, hand and m a c h i n e ....................
Folders, laundry ...................................................
Laundry operators, small establishment . .
Markers, classifiers, and assemblers . . . .
Pressers, h a n d .......................................................
Pressers, m a c h in e ...............................................
Pressers, machine la u n d r y ...............................
Rug cleaners, hand and machine ................
Spotters, drycleaning and washable
m a te r ia ls ..............................................................
Washers, machine and starchers ................
All other laundering, drycleaning, and
press machine operators
...........................
M eat cutters and butchers .......................................
Metalworking operatives ...........................................
Dip platers, n o n e le c tro ly tic ...............................
Electroplators
.......................................................
Furnace operators, cupola te n d e r s ................
Heaters, m e t a l .......................................................
Machine tool o p e r a to r s .......................................
Drill press and boring machine operators
Grinding and abrading machine
operator, metal .......................................
Lathe machine operators, metal . . . .
Milling/planning machine operators . .
Machine tool operators, combination
Machine tool operators, numerical control

1 9 8 2 -1 9 9 5

1995
1982

Locomotive engineers .......................................
Yard engineers ...........................................
H o s t le r s ...........................................................
Locomotive e n g in e e r s ...............................
Locomotive engineer helpers
................\ .
Logging tractor operators
...............................
Lumber graders ...................................................
Machine setters, paper goods .......................
Machine setters, w o o d w o rk in g ........................
Merchandise displayers and window
tr im m e r s ..............................................................
Millers ......................................................................
Motion picture p ro je c tio n is ts ...........................
Oil pumpers ...........................................................
Power station operators ...................................
Pumpers, h e a d .......................................................
Shipfitters ..............................................................
Ship e n g in e e r s .......................................................
Stationary e n g in e e r s ...........................................
Tailors ......................................................................
T e s t e r s ......................................................................
U p h o ls te r e rs ...........................................................
Upholstery cutters ...............................................
Upholstery workers, n e c ...................................
Watchmakers
.......................................................
W ater and sewage treatment plant operators
All other craft and related w o r k e r s ................

Percent change

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

Low
trend

M oderate
trend

High
trend

38.0
14.6
6.9
16.5
8.9
15.7
5.7
9.8
5.5

36.6
14.9
6.0
15.6
.0
17.3
6.5
9.8
6.9

39.0
15.9
6.5
16.7
.0
17.7
6.6
10.1
7.1

41.6
16.9
6.9
17.9
.0
18.2
6.8
10.5
7.5

-3 .7
1.8
- 1 2 .7
-4 .9
-1 0 0 .0
10.1
14.7
.6
24.8

2.7
8.3
-6 .4
1.4
- 1 0 0 .0
12.9
16.3
3.2
27.8

9.6
15.1
.6
8.5
- 1 0 0 .0
16.2
19.8
7.7
34.6

26.7
5.0
17.1
17.8
16.3
10.2
17.9
9.7
58.5
63.3
116.1
15.5
5.9
12.9
13.7
72.0
541.5

37.0
5.0
13.5
17.8
19.2
10.0
23.9
10.2
60.1
82.2
151.2
19.1
7.3
15.8
12.6
78.2
669.0

38.2
5.1
13.9
18.2
19.3
10.2
23.0
10.4
60.6
85.1
152.1
19.7
7.6
16.3
12.8
79.4
685.2

38.9
5.2
14.6
16.7
19.6
9.6
22.8
10.6
62.3
87.0
156.5
21.3
8.2
17.8
13.0
81.6
703.3

38.7
-.4
-2 0 .9
-.1
17.9
-1 .9
33.3
5.2
2.7
29.8
30.2
23.1
23.9
22.5
-8 .1
8.6
23.6

43.2
1.8
-1 8 .8
2.1
18.7
.3
28.4
7.7
3.7
34.3
31.0
26.8
27.8
26.3
-6 .3
10.2
26.5

45.7
3.8
- 1 4 .3
-6 .3
20.5
-5 .7
27.2
9.4
6.5
37.4
34.8
37.1
38.4
37.8
-4 .5
13.3
29.9

12,995.3
1,313.4
33.4
307.2
5.9
12.3

15,044.0
1,625.2
28.3
363.1
7.4
17.7

15,419.5
1,645.7
26.4
379.2
7.0
17.8

15,809.3
1,702.4
26.2
3 97.9
7.3
18.3

15.8
23.7
-1 5 .4
18.2
25.6
43.8

18.7
25.3
- 2 1 .0
23.5
18.5
44.3

21.7
29.6
- 2 1 .4
29.5
23.5
48.4

99.0
285.5
29.5
170.5
5.4
10.9
37.1
316.7
82.1
37.6
8.5
36.1

131.5
365.3
42.9
2 09.5
4.8
13.9
50.5
390.4
82.0
39.5
8.2
34.3

132.8
362.2
43.0
213.7
5.0
14.3
49.9
394.5
85.7
41.2
8.7
35.8

136.9
3 71.5
43.9
2 21.8
5.1
15.0
51.6
4 07.0
87.6
42.0
8.9
36.7

32.8
28.0
45.5
22.9
-1 2 .0
27.4
36.0
23.3
-.2
5.1
-3 .5
-5 .0

34.2
26.9
45.9
25.3
-7 .9
30.6
34.3
24.6
4.3
9.7
1.9
-.7

38.3
30.1
49.2
30.1
-5 .8
37.5
38.9
28.5
6.6
11.8
4.1
1.8

307.3
13.9
13.7
38.0
17.7
27.0
50.0
64.4
7.2

331.8
13.2
10.4
44.3
14.7
30.5
50.8
67.9
5.5

337.8
13.7
10.8
44.4
14.8
30.9
52.0
69.2
5.8

352.3
15.1
12.0
45.0
16.0
30.7
53.9
73.5
6.4

8.0
-5 .3
-2 4 .4
16.5
-1 7 .1
12.8
1.5
5.3
-2 3 .1

9.9
-1 .4
- 2 1 .0
16.6
-1 6 .5
14.4
4.0
7.5
-1 9 .7

14.6
8.5
-1 2 .8
18.3
-9 .4
13.5
7.8
14.2
- 1 1 .2

7.0
57.8

5.2
78.1

5.5
79.2

6.0
82.0

- 2 4 .8
35.2

-2 1 .5
37.1

- 1 3 .2
41.9

10.6
57.0
1,492.2
10.4
31.9
13.1
6.1
914.4
115.2

11.3
61.9
1,767.4
12.4
34.2
15.2
7.1
1,088.0
136.6

11.5
62.7
1,812.5
12.7
35.3
15.6
7.3
1,114.2
139.4

11.7
63.9
1,874.0
13.0
36.1
16.0
7.5
1,152.9
143.9

6.9
8.6
18.4
20.1
7.3
15.6
16.5
19.0
18.6

8.9
9.9
21.5
22.4
10.7
19.1
19.7
21.8
21.0

10.5
12.0
25.6
25.5
13.3
22.3
22.1
26.1
24.9

117.7
136.6
60.7
168.6
66.1

125.8
155.4
67.7
217.3
93.6

129.1
159.1
68.7
220.4
95.5

133.4
164.0
70.8
228.8
98.7

6.8
13.7
11.6
28.9
41.6

9.6
16.5
13.3
30.8
44.5

13.3
20.0
16.7
35.8
49.4

87

Table B -1 . Continued—Civilian employment in occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1982 and projected 1995
Total employment (In thousands)
Occupation

1995
1982

Machine tool operators, tool room . . .
Punch press operators, m e t a l ................
Power brake, bending machine
operators, m e t a l .......................................
Shear and slitter operators, metal . . .
Pourers, m e t a l .......................................................
Welders and flamecutters ...............................
All other metalworking operatives ................
Mine operatives, not elsew here classified . . .
Continuous mining machine operators . . .
Derrick operators, petroleum and gas . . .
G a g e r s ......................................................................
Loading machine operators ...........................
Mill and grinder operators, minerals . . . .
Roof bolters ..........................................................
Roustabouts ..........................................................
Service unit operators, oil well ...............................
Shuttle car o p e r a to r s ...........................................
W ell pullers
..........................................................
All other mine operatives nec .......................
Packing and inspecting operatives .......................
Baggers ..................................................................
B u n d le r s ..................................................................
Cloth g r a d e r s ..........................................................
Graders, food and skins ...................................
Production packagers .......................................
Selectors, g la s s w a r e ...........................................
All other packing and inspecting
operatives ..........................................................
Painters, automotive ...................................................
Painters, production
...................................................
Sawyers
..........................................................................
Cut-off saw operators, l u m b e r .......................
Edgers, automatic and p o n y ...........................
Head sawyers .......................................................
Ripsaw operators
...............................................
Sawyers, m e t a l ......................................................
Trim saw operators
...........................................
All other s a w y e r s ..................................................
Sewers and s t it c h e r s ...................................................
Menders ..................................................................
Sewing machine oprs., regular equip.,
garment ..............................................................
Sewing machine oprs., special equip.,
garment ..............................................................
Sewing machine oprs., regular equip.,
nongarm..................................................................
Sewing machine oprs., special equip.,
nongarm..................................................................
All other sewers and stitchers .......................
Textile o p e r a tiv e s ..........................................................
Battery loaders ..............................................................
Beam warper tenders and beam ers
...................
Card tenders and comber tenders .......................
Creelers, y a m ..................................................................
Doffers .............................................................................
Drawing fram e and gill box t e n d e r s .......................
Folders, h a n d ..................................................................
Knitting machine o p e r a t o r s .......................................
Spinners, f r a m e ..............................................................
Spooler operators, a u to m a tic ...................................
T u r n e r s ..............................................................................
Twister t e n d e r s ..............................................................
W eavers ..........................................................................
Winder operators, automatic ...................................
Yarn winders ..................................................................
All other textile operatives
.......................................
Transport equipment o p e r a tiv e s .......................................
Ambulance drivers and ambulance
attendants ..................................................................
Busdrivers
......................................................................
Busdrivers, local and intercity ........................
Busdrivers, s c h o o l ...............................................
Chauffeurs ......................................................................
Industrial truck o p e r a t o r s ...........................................

Percent change

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

1 9 8 2 -1 9 9 5
High
trend

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

34.5
146.7

43.1
166.6

43.8
172.7

45.0
179.6

25.0
13.6

27.0
17.7

30.6
22.4

41.5
26.8
11.7
4 89.9
14.7
2 14.8
7.8
16.9
6.5
7.1
9. 8
11.0
93.8
12.4
11.2
6.6
31.7
843.6
242.3
13.9
5.8
7.1
547.9
19.0

50.5
31.6
15.4
578.7
16.3
206.0
10.2
14.6
6.2
8.3
10.0
14.4
78.4
10.8
12.4
6.0
34.6
902.3
219.4
19.6
6.3
8.2
615.9
25.7

52.5
32.9
15.8
594.8
16.8
211.4
10.5
15.0
6.3
8.6
10.5
14.8
80.3
11.0
12.7
6.2
35.6
933.9
229.0
19.8
6.4
8.3
637.1
25.9

54.7
34.1
16.2
615.1
17.1
2 13.3
10.6
15.2
6.5
8.8
11.0
15.0
79.9
11.1
12.8
6.1
36.3
9 56.0
233.7
19.3
6.5
8.6
653.8
26.1

21.8
17.6
31.7
18.1
10.7
-4 .1
31.9
- 1 3 .8
-4 .5
16.2
2.4
31.5
-1 6 .4
-1 3 .1
11.1
-8 .8
9.0
7.0
-9 .4
41.2
9.3
15.2
12.4
35.0

26.6
22.6
35.3
21.4
14.3
-1 .6
34.9
- 1 1 .6
-3 .0
20.0
7.3
34.6
-1 4 .4
-1 1 .0
13.5
-6 .6
12.1
10.7
-5 .5
42.4
10.9
17.3
16.3
3 5 .7

31.7
27.2
38.6
25.6
16.6
-0 .7
36.7
-1 0 .6
-.8
23.5
12.3
36.4
-1 4 .8
-1 0 .3
15.0
-8 .5
14.5
13.3
-3 .5
38.7
12.9
20.9
19.3
36.9

7.6
36.5
101.2
75.3
15.5
5.9
6.8
12.2
15.8
6.7
12.4
8 03.7
7.3

7.1
51.5
115.8
91.1
19.7
6.6
7.8
15.3
19.5
7.9
14.2
869.5
7.0

7.5
53.1
118.8
93.0
20.0
6.7
7.8
15.7
20.1
8.0
14.7
882.1
7.3

8.0
54.9
123.0
96.5
20.8
6.9
8.1
16.4
20.7
8.3
15.3
872.7
8.0

-6 .3
41.2
14.5
21.0
27.0
12.3
13.8
26.1
23.5
18.1
14.7
8.2
-3 .5

-1 .5
45.7
17.4
23.5
29.5
13.5
15.1
28.7
27.0
19.7
18.0
9.8
.2

5.6
50.6
21.5
28.1
34.6
16.8
18.4
34.8
31.3
23.1
23.0
8.6
9.5

532.6

561.4

567.4

555.6

5.4

6.5

4.3

77.8

83.8

84.8

83.3

7.7

9.0

7.1

127.6

151.7

155.4

157.7

18.9

21.8

23.6

41.8
16.7
312.3
5.4
7.4
8.3
13.5
18.4
6.0
23.4
19.5
25.7
5.7
9.0
13.6
29.7
14.8
15.8
96.1

48.5
17.2
345.4
4.1
7.9
10.0
16.6
19.8
6.7
26.9
21.2
24.5
5.1
10.4
17.4
30.6
15.5
19.0
109.6

49.8
17.5
351.5
4.2
8.1
10.1
16.9
20.1
6.7
27.5
22.2
24.8
5.2
10.5
17.6
30.9
15.7
19.2
112.0

50.6
17.6
359.1
4.3
8.4
10.4
17.5
20.7
6.9
27.5
22.6
25.3
5.3
10.2
18.2
31.5
16.1
19.7
114.7

16.0
2.8
10.6
-2 3 .4
7.6
19.5
23.1
7.2
10.2
14.9
9.0
-4 .6
-1 0 .2
15.4
27.7
3.3
4.9
20.5
14.1

19.2
4.9
12.6
- 2 2 .9
9.6
21.1
25.1
8.9
11.3
17.5
13.8
-3 .7
-9 .3
16.4
29.4
4.1
6.2
21.8
16.6

21.2
5.4
15.0
- 2 1 .5
14.2
24.5
29.9
12.4
13.9
17.4
16.2
-1 .8
-7 .1
13.5
33.6
6.1
8.7
24.9
19.4

3,551.2

4,180.7

4,2 86 .9

4,3 87 .4

17.7

20.7

23.5

27.6
4 73.0
228.8
244.2
48.2
385.1

34.1
536.7
248.6
288.2
61.0
443.1

34.8
551.2
256.7
2 94.5
62.6
455.1

36.4
571.6
270.7
300.9
64.5
468.2

23.5
13.5
8.6
18.0
26.6
15.1

26.1
16.5
12.2
20.6
29.9
18.2

31.7
20.8
18.3
23.2
34.0
21.6

88

Table B -1 . Continued—Civilian employment in occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1982 and projected 1995
Percent change

Total employment (In thousands)
Occupation

1 9 8 2 -1 9 9 5

1995
1982

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

Parking attendants ......................................................
Railroad brake o p e r a t o r s ...........................................
Rental car delivery w o r k e r s .......................................
Sailors and deckhands ...............................................
Streetcar o p e r a to r s ......................................................
Taxi d r i v e r s ......................................................................
Truckdriving o c c u p a tio n s ...........................................
Delivery and route w o r k e rs ...............................
Truck d r iv e r s ..........................................................
Transport equipment operatives, n e c ...................

36.7
59.8
7.9
32.2
8.7
64.2
2,401.5
797.3
1,604.2
6.2

37.2
50.5
9.4
33.2
9.3
51.6
2,908.8
923.6
1,985.2
5.6

38.2
53.9
9.9
34.3
9.5
52.0
2,979.5
950.5
2,029.0
5.9

39.7
57.7
10.5
34.8
9.7
53.5
3,034.7
967.0
2,067.7
6.1

1.2
-1 5 .6
20.1
3.3
7.6
- 1 9 .6
21.1
15.8
23.7
-9 .9

3.9
-9 .8
25.5
6.6
9.5
- 1 8 .9
24.1
19.2
26.5
-5 .9

7.9
-3 .6
32.9
8.2
12.2
- 1 6 .7
26.4
21.3
28.9
-1 .7

All other operatives ..............................................................
Batch plant o p e r a to r s ..................................................
B la s te r s .............................................................................
Cutters, machine ..........................................................
Cutters, portable machine
.......................................
Cutting machine operators, food ...........................
Die cutters and clicking machine
o p e r a to r s ......................................................................
Dressmakers, except factory ...................................
Drillers, hand and m a c h in e .......................................
D y e r s .................................................................................
E x te rm in a to rs ..................................................................
Filers, grinders, buffers, and
chippers ......................................................................
Fuel pump attendants and lubricators
................
Furnace operators and tenders,
except metal ..............................................................
Furniture assemblers and in s ta lle rs .......................
Miscellaneous machine operatives,
m eat and dairy products .......................................
Miscellaneous machine operatives,
all other food products ...........................................
Miscellaneous machine operatives,
to b a c c o ..........................................................................
Miscellaneous machine operatives,
lumber and furniture ...............................................
Miscellaneous machine operatives,
paper and allied products
...................................
Miscellaneous machine operatives,
chemicals and allied products ...........................
Miscellaneous machine operatives,
rubber and miscellaneous p l a s t i c s ....................
Miscellaneous machine operatives,
leather and leather goods ...................................
Miscellaneous machine operatives,
stone, clay, and glass ...........................................
Miscellaneous machine operatives,
primary metals ..........................................................
Miscellaneous machine operatives,
manufacturing, nec......................................................
Miscellaneous machine operatives,
nonmanufacturing
..................................................
Miscellaneous operatives, nec.,
durable goods ..........................................................
Miscellaneous operatives, nec.,
nondurable goods ..................................................
Mixing o p e r a tiv e s ..........................................................
Nailing machine operators .......................................
O i l e r s .................................................................................
Photographic process workers ...............................
Punch and stamping press operators,
except metal ..............................................................
R iv e te r s .............................................................................
Rotary drill o p e r a t o r s ..................................................
Rotary drill operator helpers ...................................
Sandblasters and shotblasters ...............................
Sanders, wood ..............................................................
Shoemaking machine operators ...........................
Surveyor helpers ..........................................................
Termite treaters and helpers ...................................
Tire changers and repairers
...................................

3,804.7
6.3
8.0
24.1
14.0
8.9

4,413.5
7.6
9.1
27.9
15.8
8.7

4,544.3
8.3
9.3
28.9
16.1
8.9

4,666.1
8.8
9.5
29.5
16.0
9.1

16.0
21.5
12.7
15.7
13.0
-2 .9

19.4
32.6
16.2
19.6
14.8
-0 .3

22.6
40.3
18.5
22.2
14.0
2.0

18.8
61.1
16.1
11.1
21.6

18.0
66.0
20.4
14.3
31.2

18.8
65.9
20.8
14.6
31.3

18.8
66.4
21.2
15.0
31.7

-4 .4
8.0
26.4
28.8
44.4

-.2
7.7
28.9
31.3
45.1

-.2
8.6
31.2
34.4
46.8

106.6
388.3

133.9
429.8

137.0
451.0

141.5
462.2

25.6
10.7

28.5
16.1

32.7
19.0

57.6
8.4

58.7
10.6

59.7
11.1

61.9
11.3

1.8
25.8

3.6
31.1

7.3
33.6

42.5

38.7

39.9

41.1

-8 .9

-6 .0

-3 .3

70.8

74.8

77.7

79.7

5.7

9.7

12.5

6.8

5.2

5.4

6.0

- 2 3 .4

- 2 0 .3

- 1 1 .0

39.0

48.8

49.8

51.7

25.1

27.6

32.4

92.1

97.1

100.2

105.0

5.5

8.8

14.0

146.1

172.4

177.6

183.2

18.0

21.5

25.4

190.1

250.8

266.6

276.6

31.9

40.3

45.5

6.3

5.5

5.9

5.9

-1 2 .3

-7 .3

-6 .0

40.6

48.5

50.9

52.9

19.6

25.5

30.5

69.5

82.1

84.9

87.8

18.2

22.3

26.4

82.9

99.1

101.7

104.0

19.6

22.7

25.5

39.4

42.3

43.7

44.7

7.3

10.8

13.4

86.5

103.2

107.7

112.1

19.3

24.5

29.7

218.2
41.3
8.4
36.5
67.2

231.4
43.5
11.5
44.1
77.1

238.2
45.0
11.7
45.2
78.3

241.7
46.2
12.2
46.4
80.3

6.1
5.2
36.0
21.1
14.8

9.2
8.8
39.0
24.1
16.5

10.8
11.6
44.6
27.3
19.6

5.2
13.9
28.0
33.3
10.0
20.2
51.5
39.9
7.2
60.5

6.8
17.2
27.5
28.7
12.5
25.3
34.3
61.3
10.3
83.8

7.2
17.3
27.8
29.4
12.8
25.9
36.0
63.3
10.4
87.3

7.5
17.6
28.0
29.8
13.3
27.6
34.1
65.4
10.5
89.1

31.5
24.2
-2 .0
-1 3 .8
25.0
25.0
- 3 3 .4
53.6
44.0
38.6

39.9
25.1
-.8
-1 1 .6
28.1
28.4
-3 0 .2
58.6
45.2
44.4

45.9
27.3
-.2
-1 0 .6
33.0
36.5
-3 3 .8
63.7
46.6
47.4

89

Table B -1 . Continued—Civilian employment In occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1982 and projected 1995
Percent change

Total employment (In thousands)
Occupation

Winding operatives, not elsewhere
c la s s ifie d ......................................................................
Coil winders ..........................................................
Paper reel and rewinder o p e r a to r s ................
All other winding operators,
nec............................................................................
W ood m a c h in is ts ..........................................................
Operatives, not elsewhere classified ...................
Service w o r k e r s ..............................................................
Building custodians ...................................
Food service workers .......................................
Bakers/bread and pastry .......................
B a rte n d e rs ......................................................
Butchers and m eat cutters
....................
Cooks and chefs
.......................................
Cooks, institutional ...........................
Cooks, r e s ta u ra n t...............................
Cooks, short order and
specialty fast f o o d s .......................
Food preparation and service workers,
fast food r e s t a u r a n t...............................
Hosts/hostesses, restaurant, lounge,
coffee s h o p ...............................................
Kitchen helpers ...........................................
Pantry, sandwich, and coffee
makers ......................................................
Waiters and waitresses ...........................
Waiters a s s is ta n ts .......................................
All other food service w o r k e r s ................
Selected health service w o r k e r s ...................
Dental assistants .......................................
Health aides, except nursing . . . . .
Licensed practical n u r s e s ........................
Medical a s s is ta n ts .......................................
Nursing aides, orderlies and
a tte n d a n ts ...................................................
Pharmacy h e lp e r s .......................................
Psychiatric aides
.......................................
Selected personal service w o r k e r s ................
Barbers ..........................................................
Baggage handlers and porters . . . .
Bellhops, bag porters, and doorkeepers
Checkroom and locker room attendants
Child care attendants ...............................
Child care workers
...................................
Cosmetologists ...........................................
Cosmetologists/women’s hairstylists
M a n ic u r is ts ...........................................
Shampooers and scalp treatment
o p e r a to r s ...........................................
Right a tte n d a n ts ...........................................
Funeral attendants
...................................
G am e and ride operators and
concession w o r k e r s ...............................
Guides, sightseeing and establishment
Housekeepers, hotel and motel . . . .
Masseurs and m a s s e u s e s .......................
Pin chasers ..................................................
Recreation facility attendants ................
Reducing in s tru c to rs ...................................
Ushers, lobby attendants, andtickettakers
W elfare service a i d e s ........................... ...
Personal service workers,
nec...................................................................
Protective service w o r k e r s ...............................
B a ilif f s ..............................................................
Checkers, fitting r o o m ...............................
Correction officials and j a i l e r s ................
Crossing or bridge tenders ...................
Crossing guards, s c h o o l...........................
Rrefighting o c c u p a tio n s ...........................
R re fig h t e r s ...........................................
Fire inspectors ...................................
R re o ff ic e r s ...........................................

1 9 8 2 -1 9 9 5

1995
1982

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

Low
trend

M oderate
trend

High
trend

42.8
26.7
6.7

49.2
31.8
7.3

49.8
31.8
7.4

51.7
33.1
7.7

14.8
19.1
8.4

16.2
19.3
10.1

2 0 .8
24.2
14.2

9.4
20.6
1,436.3

10.1
26.9
1,701.4

10.5
27.8
1,737.1

10.9
28.6
1,782.5

7.2
30.8
18.5

11.9
34.9
20.9

15.8
39.0
24.1

16,240.7
2,827.7
6,203.7
36.2
384.1
190.9
1,211.0
423.0
351.2

20,416.3
3,553.6
8,112.9
46.1
499.7
173.2
1,591.3
527.1
494.0

20,705.8
3,606.4
8,220.6
46.5
505.1
178.9
1,613.2
535.8
499.8

21,113.3
3,682.3
8,322.2
46.9
511.2
182.1
1,635.7
548.8
504.5

25.7
25.7
30.8
27.4
30.1
-9 .3
31.4
24.6
40.7

27.5
27.5
32.5
28.5
31.5
-6 .3
33.2
26.7
42.3

30.0
30.2
34.1
29.7
33.1
-4 .6
35.1
29.7
43.7

436.7

570.2

577.6

582.4

30.5

32.2

33.4

808.9

1,092.0

1,105.8

1,112.9

35.0

36.7

37.6

113.3
850.3

152.3
1,139.1

154.1
1,155.3

155.3
1,173.9

34.4
34.0

36.0
35.9

37.1
38.1

83.5
1,665.0
301.7
559.0
2,240.1
153.3
9. 3
594.3
100.5

110.6
2,198.7
383.7
726.1
3,038.0
213.4
13.3
808.6
145.8

112.1
2,227.1
388.2
734.3
3,065.9
217.7
13.3
814.5
148.2

113.6
2,248.9
393.7
747.8
3,165.7
228.8
13.7
840.5
153.8

32.5
32.1
27.2
29.9
35.6
39.2
43.5
36.1
45.1

34.3
33.8
28.7
31.4
36.9
42.0
43.7
37.1
47.5

36.0
35.1
30.5
33.8
41.3
49.3
48.4
41.4
53.1

1,218.3
33.0
131.5
1,632.1
115.0
5.1
26.1
11.6
47.1
4 14.3
518.7
491.1
16.0

1,627.6
45.3
184.0
1,929.9
125.6
5. 0
28.3
15.3
56.4
494.6
608.9
576.5
18.3

1,641.7
45.5
185.0
1,960.6
126.9
5. 2
28.7
15.7
57.1
498.9
622.2
588.6
18.7

1,689.8
47.2
191.9
2,010.0
129.3
5. 4
29.3
16.5
58.3
504.2
638.9
603.9
19.3

33.6
37.5
39.9
18.2
9.2
-1 .6
8.6
32.0
19.7
19.4
17.4
17.4
14.0

34.8
38.1
40.6
20.1
10.4
1.9
10.0
34.8
21.3
20.4
20.0
19.9
16.8

38.7
43.2
45.9
23.2
12.4
5.6
12.6
41.8
23.8
21.7
23.2
23.0
20.4

11.6
53.7
12.7

14.1
68.3
10.7

14.9
69.1
11.1

15.7
69.8
12.3

21.3
27.2
-1 6 .2

28.2
28.8
- 1 2 .5

35.3
30.1
-3 .4

53.1
9.1
100.8
5.5
9.6
71.9
34.6
39.9
92.7

62.0
11.3
129.7
6.7
9.5
86.9
44.4
38.3
116.4

63.1
11.5
130.2
6.8
9.7
88.4
46.2
39.3
118.6

65.9
11.9
132.7
7.2
10.2
91.6
50.6
41.4
122.1

16.8
25.4
28.6
22.8
-.7
20.8
28.5
-4 .0
25.5

18.9
27.3
29.2
25.3
1.2
23.0
33.6
-1 .5
27.9

24.2
31.9
31.7
32.8
6.2
27.4
46.4
3.7
31.7

10.8
1,706.7
7.9
9.2
110.5
27.3
37.9
252.2
200.6
5.4
46.3

11.6
2,121.0
8.6
12.8
144.6
28.9
41.6
271.1
214.4
5.9
50.8

11.9
2,146.4
8.8
13.4
146.5
29.5
42.4
274.4
216.7
6.0
51.7

12.3
2,194.4
9.0
13.7
150.4
30.2
43.4
2 81.7
222.6
6.2
53.0

7.2
24.3
8.5
39.0
30.8
5.9
9.8
7.5
6.9
9.8
9.8

9.5
25.8
10.4
45.2
32.6
8.1
11.7
8.8
8.0
11.7
11.7

13.4
28.6
13.1
48.2
36.1
10.8
14.5
11.7
11.0
14.5
14.5

90

Table B -1 . Continued—Civilian employment In occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1982 and projected 1995
Percent change

Total employment (In thousands)
Occupation

1995
1982

Fish and gam e w a r d e n s ...........................
Guards ..........................................................
L ife g u a r d s .......................................................
Police and detectives, public service
Parking enforcement officers . . .
Police detectives ........................... '.
Police o ffic e r s .......................................
Police p a tro lm e n /w o m e n ................
Sheriffs and U .S. Marshalls . . . .
Private d e te c t iv e s .......................................
Store d e te c tiv e s ...........................................
Private household workers ....................
Child care workers, private
household .......................................
Cooks, private h o u s e h o ld ................
Housekeepers, private household
Laundresses, private household
Maids and servants, private
household .......................................
Supervisors, nonworking, service . . .
All other service workers .......................

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

1 9 8 2 -1 9 9 5
High
trend

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

6.8
637.0
33.5
548.8
6.8
59.5
96.8
363.3
22.4
16.5
18.9
1,022.8

6.5
9 26.9
43.3
5 86.0
8.1
69.4
106.2
383.4
18.8
24.3
26.4
818.2

6.6
936.9
44.0
592.1
8.3
67.9
106.8
390.2
18.9
24.4
27.6
850.3

6.8
952.3
45.7
6 08.4
8.5
70.6
109.9
3 99.9
19.4
24.6
28.2
864.1

-3 .7
45.5
28.9
6.8
20.2
16.8
9.7
5.5
-1 5 .9
47.1
39.4
-2 0 .0

-2 .6
47.1
31.1
7.9
22.4
14.2
10.3
7.4
-1 5 .7
47.7
45.6
- 1 6 .9

.1
49.5
36.3
10.9
25.4
18.7
13.5
10.1
-1 3 .2
49.0
48.6
- 1 5 .5

4 07.5
24.0
89.8
6.0

325.9
19.2
71.7
4.0

3 38.6
19.9
74.6
4.2

344.1
20.3
75.8
4.2

-2 0 .0
- 2 0 .0
-2 0 .1
-3 2 .1

-1 6 .9
- 1 6 .8
- 1 6 .9
-3 0 .0

-1 5 .6
- 1 5 .5
-1 5 .6
-2 9 .0

495.5
209.6
398.1

3 97.4
275.4
567.4

413.0
279.4
576.3

4 19.7
2 84.9
589.9

-1 9 .8
31.4
42.5

-1 6 .7
33.3
44.8

- 1 5 .3
35.9
48.2

5,860.5
104.5

6,8 83 .5
118.8

7,051.6
120.3

7,2 15 .5
122.8

17.5
13.6

20.3
15.1

23.1
17.5

255.1
10.1
14.9
13.9
5.2
165.0
42.3
3.7
55.9
21.0
100.2
46.1
11.5
7.1
110.2

292.8
14.1
20.9
17.9
6.9
172.0
55.7
5.3
67.4
23.7
132.7
52.7
11.0
8.1
127.0

298.7
14.5
21.4
18.4
7.1
175.0
56.9
5.4
68.7
24.0
138.1
54.2
10.9
8.3
129.1

30 5 .4
14.7
21.7
18.7
7.2
179.4
58.1
5.5
70.9
24.7
142.9
55.5
11.3
8.5
132.8

14.8
39.7
40.2
29.3
33.7
4.2
31.5
42.5
20.5
12.8
32.5
14.3
-4 .2
13.8
15.2

17.1
43.1
43.4
32.5
37.0
6.1
3 4 .5
45.6
22.8
14.3
37.8
17.6
-4 .9
17.5
17.2

19.7
45.7
45.6
35.0
39.5
8.7
37.3
48.0
26.8
17.9
42.6
20.5
-1 .9
20.2
20.5

Laborers, except f a r m .......................................
Animal c a re ta k e r s .......................................
Construction laborers, except
trade h e l p e r s ...........................................
Air ham m er operators ....................
Asphalt rakers ...................................
Fence e r e c t o r s ...................................
Form setters, metal road forms .
Highway m aintenance workers . .
Pipelayers ...........................................
All other construction laborers . .
Cannery workers .......................................
Chain offbearers, l u m b e r ........................
Cleaners, v e h i c l e .......................................
Conveyor operators and tenders . . .
Forest conservation workers ................
Furnace operators and heater helpers
Garbage collectors ...................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers,
except f a r m ...............................................
Helpers, t r a d e s ...........................................
Line service a tte n d a n ts ............................
Loaders, cars and t r u c k s ........................
Loaders, tank cars and trucks . . . .
Off-bearers ...................................................
R ig g e r s ...........................................................
Septic tank servicers ...............................
Shakeout workers, f o u n d r y ....................
Stock handlers ...........................................
Order fillers
.......................................
Stock clerk, sales f l o o r ....................
Timbercutting and logging workers . .
Choker setters, lu m b e r ....................
Falters and buckers ........................
All other timbercutting and logging
workers ...........................................
Work distributors .......................................
All other laborers, except farm . . . .

661.3
608.2
30.1
6.0
8. 9
18.4
26.9
5.1
7.0
962.5
3 54.7
607.8
61.3
9.7
38.5

732.2
776.5
40.9
7.3
10.0
23.1
33.0
7.2
10.0
1,110.8
4 19.7
691.1
55.0
8.6
34.6

744.1
798.1
41.4
7.5
10.2
23.6
33.4
7.5
10.2
1,150.4
429.8
7 20.6
55.8
8.7
35.2

758.6
818.5
41.8
7.7
10.4
24.8
34.1
8.2
10.5
1,171.0
43 5 .4
735.6
57.0
8.9
35.9

10.7
27.7
36.1
22.9
12.1
25.5
22.8
39.0
42.6
15.4
18.3
13.7
-1 0 .3
-1 2 .2
-1 0 .1

12.5
31.2
37.9
25.0
15.0
28.3
24.1
44.9
46.3
19.5
21.2
18.6
-8 .9
-1 0 .6
-8 .7

14.7
34.6
39.2
28.9
17.5
34.7
27.0
58.9
50.4
21.7
22.8
21.0
-7 .0
-8 .7
-6 .8

13.0
14.5
2,738.9

11.8
18.5
3,2 25 .0

12.0
18.7
3,298.5

12.2
18.3
3,3 79 .6

-9 .4
2 7 .7
17.7

-8 .2
29.0
20.4

-6 .3
26.2
23.4

Farmers and farm workers
...........................
Farmers and farm managers ....................
Farmers (owners and tenants) . . . .
Farm m a n a g e r s ...........................................
Farm supervisors and laborers ................
Farm s u p e rv is o rs .......................................
Farm la b o r e rs ...............................................

2,690.9
1,447.7
1,407.3
40.3
1,243.2
32.6
1,210.6

2,404.3
1,370.3
1,319.0
51.3
1,034.0
30.8
1,003.2

2,406.7
1,356.7
1,304.5
52.2
1,050.0
31.4
1,018.6

2,423.5
1,358.6
1,305.4
53.2
1,065.0
31.9
1,033.0

- 1 0 .6
-5 .3
-6 .3
27.1
- 1 6 .8
-5 .6
-1 7 .1

-1 0 .6
-6 .3
-7 .3
29.5
- 1 5 .5
-3 .7
- 1 5 .9

-9 .9
-6 .2
-7 .2
31.8
- 1 4 .3
-2 .0
- 1 4 .7

91

Appendix C. Detailed
Training Statistics

expected to continue in the form of block grants to the
States (for discretionary use) to administer many of these
programs. States in the past have strongly supported voca­
tional education programs and are likely to continue this
policy.

This appendix presents information on one component of
supply— structured training programs. It discusses the sta­
tus of education and training programs and provides the
latest available data on enrollments and completions. The
type o f data presented and the time period covered vary.
Training programs discussed and available data presented
include:

Types o f training available. Vocational education includes
program s in agriculture, distribution, health, home eco­
nomics, and office, technical, and trade and industrial
education. Other programs, such as consumer and home­
making training and industrial arts, do not generally lead
directly to an occupational skill. Special vocational pro­
grams for the disadvantaged and handicapped also are
provided.
Curriculums generally prepare trainees for specific occu­
pations. Table C —1 provides data on enrollments and com­
pletions in occupationally specific public vocational educa­
tion programs during 1 9 8 1 -8 2 . These programs, which are
offered at or above grade 11, are designed to impart entry
level job skills.

Public vocational education (table C —1)
Noncollegiate postsecondary vocational education (table
C -2 )
Employer training
Apprenticeship programs (table C —3)
Federal employment and training programs
Armed Forces training (table C —4)
Home study schools
Community and junior colleges (table C —5)
Colleges and universities (tables C —6 and C —7).
Users who wish to relate training statistics to data on jo b
openings should consult Vocational Preparation and Occu­
pations ( V P O ) , developed by the National Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee ( N O IC C ) . Education pro­
grams in the V P O are coded according to the Classification
o f Instructional Programs ( C I P S ) , 1 developed by the National
Center for Education Statistics ( n c e s ) . C IP S replaces the
two N C E S classification systems that previously were used—
the Standard Terminology fo r Curriculum and Instruction
in Local and State School Systems, commonly referred to as
Handbook VI, and A Taxonomy o f Instructional Programs
in H igher Education, commonly known as the HEGIS
Taxonomy.

Enrollments. Total enrollments in public vocational educa­
tion programs grew from 4 .2 million in 1963 to 16.9 million
in 1981—82, including over 2.5 million disadvantaged and
550,000 handicapped persons. The following tabulation,
based on data from the NCES, shows the level and percent
distribution of total enrollments by major program area.
T otal
en rollm en ts
(in th ou san ds)

P ercen t
distribu tion

T o t a l ...............................................

1 6 ,862

100

O f f i c e .......................................................
Trade and industrial ........................
Consum er and hom em aking . . .
Industrial a r t s .......................................
H ealth
...................................................
D is tr ib u tio n ...........................................
A g r i c u lt u r e ...........................................
O ccupational home economics
T e c h n i c a l ...............................................
O ther ......................................................

3 ,6 1 5
3 ,2 2 2
3 ,1 8 9
1,900
950
930
843
574
506
1,134

21
19
19
II
6
6
5
3
3
7

P rogram area

Public vocational education
Vocational education programs are conducted on three
levels: Secondary; postsecondary; and adult, in which
persons— many already in the labor force— retrain or update
and improve their job skills. During the 1970’s, the Federal
Government provided categorical grants (targeted for spe­
cific purposes) to elementary and secondary schools to con­
duct vocational, technical, and continuing education pro­
grams. During the 1980’s, Federal Government funding is

1 The V P O includes only C IP S codes related to secondary and post­
secondary vocational education. Baccalaureate and higher level programs
are not included.

92

Occupationally specific enrollments, which totaled nearly
6 million in 1 9 8 1 -8 2 , acdtmnted for 34 percent of all pub­
lic vocational education enrollments. About 34 percent of
the occupationally specific enrollm ents were in office
programs, and 30 percent were in trade and industrial pro­
grams (table C —1).

Completions. Over 1.6 million persons, including 252,000
disadvantaged and 45,000 handicapped, completed occupa­
tionally specific public vocational education programs dur­
ing 1981—82. The distribution of completions by major
program area is similar to that of enrollments. About 30
percent o f completions were in office programs; another 30
percent were in trade and industrial programs (table C —1).

trial programs; 22 percent were in marketing/distribution;
and 20 percent were in business/office programs. Almost
100,000 students did not complete their training but left
with a marketable job skill. Table C —2 provides complete
information on enrollments, completions, and persons leav­
ing with or without a marketable job skill, by detailed occu­
pational program.

Noncollegiate postsecondary vocational education

Employer training

During the year ended June 30, 1981, over 1.5 million
persons were enrolled in nearly 6,500 noncollegiate post­
secondary schools with occupational programs. The follow­
ing tabulation shows the distribution o f these schools by
type of school:

Many companies in private industry have developed their
own educational training programs. Generally, these pro­
grams serve three purposes: (1) to train new employees,
(2) to improve the performance of employees in their pres­
ent jobs, and (3) to prepare employees for new jobs and
responsibilities.
Training varies among occupations. Skilled and semi­
skilled occupations have three on-the-job training paths—
apprenticeship, learning by doing, and structured on-the-job
instruction. Formal apprenticeship programs are discussed
in the following section. Unstructured training or learning
by doing often involves simple directions for performing a
routine task on a machine; further skills then are acquired
through work experience or developed at the employee’s
initiative. Structured instruction may range from scheduled
training conducted by designated instructors to periodic train­
ing from supervisors and fellow employees.
In many companies, structured training usually consists
of “ in-house” programs that offer courses during or after
working hours. These courses normally are designed to meet
specific company needs and often are offered by profes­
sional associations. In the banking industry, for example,
the American Institute of Banking offers programs in 19
areas of banking, such as trusts, commercial lending, and
bank marketing.
In addition, companies may allow employees to enroll in
college or university courses. For example, under the tuitionaid program, employees may be partially or fully reim­
bursed for job-related courses taken after working hours.
O ccasionally, em ployees are perm itted to take outside
courses on company time or even to arrange for extended
educational leaves of absence.
Studies indicate that companies use education and train­
ing programs extensively. For example, a recent study con­
ducted by the American Society for Training and Develop­
ment estim ates that 11 m illion workers are receiving
job-related training. About two-thirds of these training pro­
grams are provided in house and the remainder are offered
by colleges and universities, vocational schools, labor unions,
government agencies, and community-based organizations.2

P ercen t

Cosmetology/barber .................................................................
Business/com m ercial.................................................................
Trade ..................................................................................................
H o sp ita l...............................................................................................
Allied health ..............................................................................
A rts/d e sig n .................................................................................
T e c h n ic a l....................................................................................
Vocational/technical ........................................................................

34
20
12
12
6
4
2
10

O f the more than 6,000 noncollegiate postsecondary
schools included here, 75 percent were proprietary schools,
12 percent were independent nonprofit schools, and 13 per­
cent were public schools. Over 70 percent of the proprietary
schools were either cosmetology/ barber schools or business/
commercial schools. Hospital schools made up 75 percent
of the independent nonprofit schools, and vocational/techni­
cal institutes, make up over 70 percent of the public schools.
Large schools typically offer a variety of programs in
several vocational areas. Some business schools, for ex­
ample, offer shorthand, typing, stenography, and fundamen­
tals o f accounting and computer operations, while many
trade schools offer courses ranging from air-conditioning
installation and repair to welding and cutting operations. On
the other hand, small schools generally specialize in a single
type o f program, such as cosmetology or radiologic tech­
nology. Some program s— flight training, for instance—
require considerable individual attention and generally have
low pupil/teacher ratios; less technically complex programs—
real estate, for example— can accommodate large numbers
of students.
Enrollments. Enrollments in noncollegiate postsecondary
schools vary considerably by program. The seven major
program areas are: Agribusiness, marketing and distribution,
health, home economics, technical, business and office,
and trade and industrial. In 1981,40 percent of total enroll­
ments were in trade and industrial programs, 24 percent
were in business/office programs, and 16 percent were in
marketing and distribution programs (table C - 2 ) .

2

Anthony Carnevale and Harold Goldstein, E m p lo yee T rain in g: Its

C hanging R ole an d An A n a lysis o f N ew D a ta (The American Society for

Training and Development, 1983). See also: Seymour Lusterman, E ducation
In Industry, Report 719 (New York, The Conference Board, Inc., 1977);
and O ccu pation al Training in S e le c te d M etalw orkin g In du stries: A R eport
on a S u rvey o f S e le c te d O ccu pation s, 1974, BLS Bulletin 1976/ETA R&D
Monograph 53 (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics and
Employment and Training Administration, 1977).

Completions. Almost 900,000 persons completed occupa­
tional programs in noncollegiate postsecondary schools in
1981. Approximately 40 percent were in trade and indus­
93

Apprenticeship progams

Federal employment and training programs

Training authorities generally recommend apprenticeship
as the best way to acquire all-round proficiency in a craft.
Most apprenticeships range from 3 to 5 years, depending
upon the particular trade involved. These programs involve
planned on-the-job training in conjunction with related class­
room instruction— generally 144 hours each year. Mastery
of a particular trade requires: (1) Learning the skills of the
trade, (2) perfecting the use o f each specific skill, and
(3) bringing each skill up to the required speed and accuracy.
Most apprenticeship programs have committees of employ­
ers and local trade unions that interview applicants, review
the trainee’s progress, and determine when an apprentice­
ship has been completed satisfactorily. It has been estimated
that only about one-half o f all programs are registered with
Federal and State apprenticeship agencies. Many companies
unilaterally plan, control, and tailor apprenticeship programs
to their particular needs and, therefore, prefer not to register
their programs with apprenticeship agencies. Unfortunately,
no estimate is available o f the number of apprentices in
programs that are not registered.
The Department of Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training (BAT) registers, but does not finance appren­
ticeship programs. BAT provides technical assistance and
support to State apprenticeship agencies and to employers
and unions in establishing and maintaining apprenticeship
programs. Data on new registrations, completions, and can­
cellations of apprenticeships for each apprenticeable trade
by State are available for 1941—79.3
O f the 43,000 registered apprenticeship completions in
1979, about 55 percent were in construction occupations,
nearly 15 percent each in production occupations and
mechanic and repairer occupations, and the remaining 16
percent in service, technologist and technician, transporta­
tion and material moving, and other miscellaneous occupa­
tions.
Although apprenticeship cancellations represent a poten­
tial loss of highly trained workers, many dropouts eventu­
ally become skilled craft workers through less structured
means. In some instances, particularly when jobs are
abundant, apprentices drop their training program to earn a
skilled worker’s wage immediately. When the job market is
depressed, however, they are more likely to complete their
apprenticeships. In other instances, trainees who cancel may
have acquired enough experience to reenter the occupation
at another time. Trainees sometimes are dropped involuntar­
ily during prolonged periods of construction inactivity or
high unemployment.

The Federal Government has conducted structured employ­
ment and training programs since the enactment of the Man­
power Development and Training Act (MDTA) of 1962. With
the passage of the Comprehensive Employment and Train­
ing Act (CETA) of 1973 and CETA amendments of 1978,
programs were decentralized. Although the Federal Govern­
ment retained a few programs, such as the Work Incentive
(WIN) Program, most Federal employment and training funds
were distributed to State and local governments, along with
the responsibility for planning and managing these programs.
Further changes were mandated by the Job Training Part­
nership Act (JTPA) of 1982. Its major feature is a greater
reliance on the private sector through local Private Industry
Councils (PIC’S), which plan, organize, dispense funds, and
evaluate the success of employment and training programs
within their jurisdiction. JTPA focuses on training the eco­
nomically disadvantaged as well as displaced workers— those
long attached to the labor force who have been laid off
permanently from their jobs and who need assistance to
regain employment through training, job search, and job
relocation. JTPA is expected to serve 1 million unemployed
and underemployed persons in fiscal year 1984.
JTPA also provides for two specific youth programs: (1) The
Job Corps, with over 100 centers throughout the United
States that annually assist nearly 88,000 young men and
women ages 16 to 21 to learn a job skill or obtain the
educational base needed to advance in society; and (2) the
Summer Youth Employment Program, that annually pro­
vides approximately 800,000 temporary summer jobs in city,
county, and State government agencies.
Other Federal programs administered by the Employment
and Training Administration include the following: The
Trade Adjustment Act program, which assists workers who
have lost their jobs due to foreign competition; the Work
Incentive ( w i n ) program, which helps employable recipi­
ents of Aid to Families with Dependent Children to get and
keep jobs; occupational, social, and educational assistance
provided to migrant and seasonal farm workers; help for
workers 55 and older to get part-time jobs and social services;
and a variety of training and aid programs that are designed
to benefit Native Americans.

Armed Forces training

3 A p p re n tic e sh ip R e g istra tio n A c tio n s, b y R egion a n d S ta te (annual)
through 1979 may be obtained from the Division of Reporting Operations,
Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor,
Washington, D.C. 20210. In addition, the 1981 E m ploym ent a n d Training
R e port o f the P resid en t contains a tabulation of the training status of
registered apprentices through 1979-—the last year for which data were
collected. There are no plans at this time to resume collection of these data.

94

The Armed Forces provide training in hundreds o f special­
ized occupational skills. Each year, thousands of military
recruits complete extensive training in computer repair, medi­
cal care, food service, metalworking, and many other fields.
When these persons leave military service, they often pos­
sess skills that qualify them for civilian occupations.
Some military occupations are not directly comparable to
civilian ones or are specific only to the needs of the Armed
Forces. Individuals in these fields may need additional train­
ing after they leave the service to qualify for civilian jobs
that are sim ilar to their m ilitary jobs. For exam ple, a
navigation/bombing training and flight simulator specialist

Correspondence schools generally require students to com­
plete a certain number of lessons within a specified length
of time to obtain a certificate of completion.

has many, but not all, of the skills needed to become an
electronic technician. A few military skills, such as those
learned by infantry specialists, are unique to the Armed
Forces and have limited or no application to civilian jobs.
To assist military personnel in utilizing their training to
qualify for civilian jobs, the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps,
in concert with the Bureau o f Apprenticeship and Training,
have established registered apprenticeship programs for uni­
formed personnel. Only occupations that are comparable or
identical to civilian occupations are registered. Individuals
participating in a program record their hours of training and
work assignments in a logbook that documents their service
experience and which can be presented to an employer,
labor union, or joint apprenticeship committee when they
apply for a job.
The largest proportion o f Armed Forces enlistees train in
the mechanical and technical areas. The following tabula­
tion shows the number o f enlisted personnel in each of the
nine major occupational groups as of September 30, 1982:

Community and junior colleges
Community and junior colleges play an integral part in
the American educational system. By offering a wide vari­
ety of courses and programs, these schools enable many
students from diverse backgrounds to obtain occupational
and educational training beyond high school. For students
interested in transferring to a 4 —year college, many pro­
grams are designed to provide a general educational back­
ground in arts and sciences. Students who wish to specialize
in a particular field may enroll in vocational or occupational
curriculums, such as dental hygiene or data processing.
Typically, programs in junior and community colleges last
2 years and lead to an associate degree. Some programs last
less than 2 years and students are granted certificates or
other formal awards upon completion.
According to the NCES, enrollments in 2 —year institu­
tions of higher education grew rapidly over the 1 9 8 1 -8 2
period— from 2.8 million to 4.8 million. NCES projects that
enrollments in 2-year institutions will increase steadily
through the 1980’s— to 5 million by 1990.
During the 1978—82 period, awards of associate degrees
increased 49 percent, according to recent surveys.4 A shift
in student attitudes, placing more value on job training, was
apparently a factor in the upsurge in associate degrees
awarded. Associate degrees in occupational curriculums grew
107 percent over the 1972—82 period, while degrees in the
arts and sciences remained virtually unchanged. In academic
year 1981—82, 64 percent of all associate degrees were
awarded in occupational curriculums, while 36 percent were
awarded in arts and sciences and general programs. Table
C —5 provides detailed data for the academic year 1981—82
on associate degrees and other formal awards below the
baccalaureate.
Because community and junior colleges can quickly adjust
their programs to local employer needs as well as student
interests, radical changes in enrollments in particular curric­
ulums can and do take place in a short time. For this reason,
NCES does not project the number of enrollments in specific
curriculums. Information on future enrollments may be
obtained from State and local community and junior college
administrators.

In thousands

Infantry, guncrews, and seamanship s p e c ia lis ts ................
Electronic equipment repairers ..............................................
Communications and intelligence sp e c ia lists.......................
Medical and dental specialists ..............................................
Other technical and allied sp e c ia lists....................................
Functional support and a d m in istratio n .................................
Electrical and mechanical equipment repairers .................
Craft workers ...........................................................................
Service and supply handlers .................................................

250
165
161
83
41
288
368
73
168

Table C —4 provides more detail on these occupational
groups.
To aid in “ translating” military job titles, the Depart­
ment of Defense has compiled a job comparability manual.
The Military-Civilian Occupational Source Book relates mili­
tary jobs by service branch to their civilian counterparts as
identified in the Department o f Labor’s Dictionary o f Occu­
pational Titles. Although intended for use by high school
guidance counselors, the manual can also serve as a useful
tool for employers and vocational counselors involved in
job placement for veterans.

Home study schools
Home study (correspondence) schools provide an alterna­
tive means of education and training for many individuals
who are unable to attend school for one reason or another.
Courses offered through home study programs vary in length,
skill level, and degree of specialization, and emphasize voca­
tional training, academic study, or simply personal enrich­
ment.
In 1982, about 2.5 million persons were enrolled in home
study courses, according to the National Home Study Coun­
cil (NHSC). Enrollment in Federal Government and military
programs totaled 1.5 million; 1.1 million students took
courses offered by the 77 schools accredited by the NHSC;
most o f the remaining home study students were enrolled in
programs offered by religious organizations and colleges
and universities.

College and universities
Colleges and universities serve many purposes, including
providing individuals with specific occupational training. A
college education provides the necessary background to

4
The Higher Education General Information Survey ( hegis ) of nces
provides annual data on associate degrees and other awards below the
baccalaureate, including those granted by 4 -y e a r colleges. In 1979-80,
2 -y e a r institutions awarded 86 percent of these degrees.

95

enter fields such as engineering, law, business, the human­
ities, and the natural sciences.
The length o f a college education depends on the student’s
interests and career goals. Most students seek employment
after obtaining a bachelor’s degree, which usually requires
4 years. Those who wish to qualify for positions requiring
more specialized knowledge often continue their study.
Master’s, doctoral, and first professional degree programs
require several additional years o f study after the bachelor’s
degree. Occasionally, these programs accept exceptional
students after 2 or 3 years o f undergraduate work.
College and university enrollments increased steadily dur­
ing the 1960’s and early 1970’s— from 4.8 million in 1965
to 7.2 million in 1975. The rate of increase slowed during
the late I970’s— to 7.7 million by 1982. The NCES projects
that enrollments will level off in the early 1980’s— to 7.8
million in 1982— then decline slowly during the late 1980’s
to 7.1 million by 1990.
The number of degrees conferred by colleges and univer­
sities is closely related to enrollments. During academic
year 1981—82, nearly 1.4 million persons earned degrees—
953.000 bachelor’s degrees, 295,000 m aster’s degrees,
33.000 doctoral degrees, and 72,000 first professional
degrees. NCES projects that the total number of degrees will
increase to 1.4 million in academic year 1984—85, then
taper off to 1.3 million by 1 9 8 9 -9 0 .5
Tables C —6 and C —7 show the number o f degrees con-

ferred by major field of study. Although many graduates do
not pursue careers in their field of study, the proportion of
graduates of occupational curriculums who directly enter
related occupations tends to be very high, particularly if
training takes a number of years. For example, nearly all
medical school graduates enter medicine and most engineer­
ing school graduates enter engineering. However, for many
liberal arts graduates, whose training is less occupationally
oriented, entry rates into occupations related to a college
major are substantially lower. This is especially true at the
bachelor’s degree level since many graduates enter profes­
sional school, teaching, or occupations for which a college
degree in any one of a number of fields may be adequate
preparation.
A recent survey by NCES collected data on the labor force
status in May 1981 of people who received bachelor’s
degrees between July 1979 and June 1980.6 The Bureau of
Labor Statistics also has analyzed these data for all gradu­
ates and for each of 19 major fields of study. Information on
the labor force, occupational, and graduate school status of
each of these groups is presented in an article, “ College
M ajors and Jo b s,” in the Sum m er 1984 issue o f the
Occupational Outlook Quarterly. Additional followup stud­
ies of college students and graduates are available from
surveys conducted by college placement offices, profes­
sional societies, and other organizations. Most of these data
are limited to graduates from a single institution or field.

' Projections, along with a discussion of the projection methodology, are
published by nces in P ro jectio n s o f E ducation S ta tistics to 1 9 9 0 —91.

the Job M arket, 1981 u pdate and O ccu pation s o f R ecent C olleg e G raduates.

6 The results o f the survey are published by

96

nces

in N e w T each ers in

Table C -1 . Enrollments and completions in occupationally specific public vocational education programs, 1981-82
DOE
Instructional

Enrollments

Completions

...............................................................................................................................................

5,984,238

1,816,075

01.
01.0100
01.0200
01.0300
01.0400
01.0500
01.0600
01.0700
01.9900

Agriculture, t o t a l ....................................................................................................................................
Agricultural production ............................................................................................................
Agricultural s u p p lie s /s erv ic e s .................................................................................................
Agricultural m e c h a n ic s .............................................................................................................
Agricultural products ................................................................................................................
H o rtic u ltu re ....................................................................................................................................
Renewable natural resources
.............................................................................................
Forestry
.......................................................................................................................................
Other agriculture ........................................................................................................................

393 ,4 3 9
187,977
2 0,650
6 2,554
4,0 48
6 9,745
10,010
19,520
18,935

139,975
70,488
8,393
24,470
1,778
21,503
3,234
3,790
6,319

04.
04.0100
04.0200
04.0300
04.0400
04.0500
04.0600
04.0700
04.0800
04.0900
04.1000
04.1100
04.1200
04.1300
04.1500
04.1700
04.1800
04.1900
04.2000
04.9900

Distribution, total ................................................................................................................................
Advertising services ................................................................................................................
Apparel and a c c e s s o r ie s .........................................................................................................
A u to m o tiv e ....................................................................................................................................
Finance and c r e d i t ....................................................................................................................
F lo ris try ...........................................................................................................................................
Food distribution ........................................................................................................................
Food services
............................................................................................................................
General m e rc h a n d is e ................................................................................................................
Hardware, building m a te r ia ls .................................................................................................
Hom e fu rn is h in g s ........................................................................................................................
Hotel and lo d g in g ........................................................................................................................
Industrial m a rk e tin g ....................................................................................................................
In s u r a n c e .......................................................................................................................................
Personal services
....................................................................................................................
Real e s t a t e ...................................................................................................................................
Recreation and to u r is m .............................................................................................................
Transportation ............................................................................................................................
Retail trade, other ....................................................................................................................
Other distributive education
.................................................................................................

5 40,528
20,250
29,030
5,816
31,907
6,443
27,889
3 1 ,363
175,781
2,890
2,486
10,655
17,719
5,188
6,091
53,474
17,936
14,036
15,570
6 6 ,004

189,356
2,921
11,936
2,665
5,645
2,419
15,249
15,179
67,734
1,651
986
2,224
3,155
1,327
3,005
16,355
5,423
4,899
6,028
20,555

07.
07.0101
07.0102
07.0103
07.0203
07.0299
07.0301
07.0302
07.0303
07.0399
07.0400
07.0501
07.0800
07.0903
07.0904
07.0906
07.0907
07.9900

Health, t o t a l ...........................................................................................................................................
Dental assisting
........................................................................................................................
Dental hygiene (a s s o c ia te ).....................................................................................................
Dental laboratory te c h n o lo g y .................................................................................................
Medical laboratory assisting .................................................................................................
Other medical laboratory te c h n o lo g y .................................................................................
Nursing, associate degree .....................................................................................................
Practical (vocational) n u r s in g .......................................................... ... ..................................
Nursing assistance (aide)
.....................................................................................................
Other n u r s in g ................................................................................................................................
R e h a b ilita tio n ................................................................................................................................
Radiologic technology (X-ray) .............................................................................................
Mental health te c h n o lo g y .........................................................................................................
Inhalation therapy technology .............................................................................................
Medical a s s is t in g ........................................................................................................................
Community health a i d e ................................... .........................................................................
Medical emergency te c h n ic ia n .............................................................................................
Other health e d u c a tio n ............................................................................................................

489 ,6 1 5
18,640
7,118
4,051
6,963
10,086
115,492
8 1 ,856
57,779
24,358
7,430
11,120
8,017
10,947
22,072
8,343
24,528
70,815

167,881
7,792
2,621
1,249
2,103
2,612
30,911
33,502
29,685
6,644
2,151
3,136
1,498
3,272
7,192
3,817
8,301
21,395

09.02
09.0201
09.0202
09.0203
09.0204
09.0205
09.0299

Occupational preparation, total .....................................................................................................
C are and guidance of c h ild r e n .............................................................................................
Clothing management, production, and s e r v ic e s ..........................................................
Food m anagem ent, production, and services ..............................................................
Hom e furnishing, equipment, and s e r v ic e s ......................................................................
Institutional and home m anagem ent and s e r v i c e s ......................................................
Other occupational preparation for h o m e m a k in g ..........................................................

252,597
104,082
28,294
83,666
8,404
8,448
19,703

88,862
30,766
9,644
35,581
2,284
4,004
6,583

14.
14.0100
14.0201
14.0203
14.0299
14.0300
14.0400
14.0500
14.0600
14.0700
14.0800
14.0900
14.9900

Office occupations, t o t a l ....................................................................................................................
Accounting and computing occupations ..........................................................................
Computer and console o p e r a to r s .........................................................................................
P ro g ra m m e rs ...............................................................................................................................
Other business data processing .........................................................................................
Filing, office machines, clercial occupations ..................................................................
Information, communication o c c u p a tio n s ..........................................................................
Materials support, transportation, etc.....................................................................................
Personnel, training, and related o c c u p a tio n s ..................................................................
Stenography, secretarial, and related o c c u p a tio n s ......................................................
Supervisory and administrative m anagem ent o c c u p a tio n s .......................................
Typing and related occupations .........................................................................................
Other office occupations ........................................................................................................

2,089 ,6 8 5
4 2 0,837
57,441
144,804
146,334
372,045
18,134
4,863
12,969
3 9 7,700
174,843
2 42,015
97,700

576,846
113,418
14,267
20,521
30,775
139,348
5,656
1,536
1,609
127,883
22,633
80,513
18,687

Title

code

Total

See footnotes at end of table.

97

Table C -1 . Enrollments and completions in occupationally specific public vocational education programs, 1981-82—Continued
DOE
Instructional
code

Enrollments

Title

Completions

16.
16.0103
16.0104
16.0106
16.0107
16.0108
16.0110
16.0111
16.0113
16.0117
16.0601
16.0602
16.0605
16.9902
16.9900

Technical, total ....................................................................................................................................
Architectural technology .........................................................................................................
Automotive te c h n o lo g y ............................................................................................................
Civil te c h n o lo g y ............................................................................................................................
Electrical te c h n o lo g y ................................................................................................................
Electronic te c h n o lo g y ................................................................................................................
Environmental control technology .....................................................................................
Industrial te c h n o lo g y ................................................................................................................
Mechanical te c h n o lo g y .............................................................................................................
Scientific data technology .....................................................................................................
Commercial pilot t r a in in g .........................................................................................................
Fire and safety te c h n o lo g y .....................................................................................................
Police science ............................................................................................................................
W ater and wastewater te c h n o lo g y .....................................................................................
Other technical education .....................................................................................................

4 5 9,968
25,929
15,680
18,486
23,748
101,546
6,718
18,867
26,680
2 1 ,163
7,594
16,072
58,826
3,883
114,776

77,798
3,881
1,728
3,534
4,238
15,947
1,437
3,107
4,472
3,809
1,018
3,934
12,327
909
17,457

17.
17.0100
17.0200
17.0301
17.0302
17.0399
17.0400
17.0700
17.0900
17.1001
17.1002
17.1004
17.1007
17.1099
17.1100
17.1200
17.1300
17.1400
17.1500
17.1700
17.1900
17.2100
17.2200
17.2302
17.2303
17.2305
17.2306
17.2307
17.2399
17.2400
17.2602
17.2699
17.2700
17.2801
17.2802
17.2899
17.2900
17.3000
17.3100
17.3200
17.3300
17.3500
17.3600
17.9900

Trade and industrial, t o t a l ................................................................................................................
A ir-co n d itio n in g ............................................................................................................................
Appliance repair ........................................................................................................................
Body and fender r e p a i r .............................................................................................................
Auto m e c h a n ic ............................................................................................................................
Automotive s p e c ia liz a tio n .........................................................................................................
Aviation o c c u p a tio n s ................................................................................................................
Commercial art occupations .................................................................................................
Commercial photographic o c c u p a tio n s ..............................................................................
Carpentry, c o n s tru c tio n ............................................................................................................
Electricity, c o n s tru c tio n .............................................................................................................
Masonry .......................................................................................................................................
Plumbing and pipefitting .........................................................................................................
Other construction and maintenance trades ..................................................................
Custodial services ....................................................................................................................
Diesel mechanic ........................................................................................................................
Drafting occupations ................................................................................................................
Electrical occupations
............................................................................................................
Electronic occupations ............................................................................................................
Supervisor and m anagem ent d e v e lo p m e n t......................................................................
Graphic arts o c c u p a tio n s .........................................................................................................
Instrument maintenance and repair o c c u p a tio n s ..........................................................
Maritime o c c u p a tio n s ................................................................................................................
M achine shop o c c u p a tio n s .....................................................................................................
Machine tool operations ........................................................................................................
Sheet metal
................................................................................................................................
Welding and cutting ................................................................................................................
Tool and die making ................................................................................................................
Other metalworking o c c u p a tio n s .........................................................................................
Metallurgy o c c u p a tio n s ............................................................................................................
C o s m e to lo g y ................................................................................................................................
Other personal services .........................................................................................................
Plastics occupations ................................................................................................................
Firefighter training ....................................................................................................................
Law enforcement tr a in in g .........................................................................................................
Other public s e r v ic e s ................................................................................................................
Quantity food occupations .....................................................................................................
Refrigeration ................................................................................................................................
Small engine r e p a ir ....................................................................................................................
Stationary energy sources occupations
..........................................................................
Textile production and fabrication .....................................................................................
Upholstering ................................................................................................................................
Woodworking occupations .....................................................................................................
Other trade and industrial o c c u p a tio n s .............................................................................
Other programs, greater than 1 percent of total2 ........................................................
Other programs, less than 1 percent of total3 ................................................................

1,713,176
50,758
9,675
67,611
230,726
13,676
22,530
4 1,227
19,606
8 9,527
2 4,959
23,454
17,602
69,844
7,048
26,434
106,219
40,823
100,466
12,162
65,899
2,717
3,247
78,220
9,082
8,722
131,715
4,380
20,155
533
83,528
11,342
2,313
16,255
57,043
16,559
36,182
3,395
22,752
2,319
11,193
8,402
2 5,889
116,967
4 3,328
1,902

5 63,490
14,342
3,232
2 1 ,610
7 8 ,739
5,506
5,650
9,446
4,325
3 4 ,763
8,170
7,844
5,266
2 4 ,400
2,902
8,222
31,315
12,592
32,210
1,796
22,976
798
1,169
26,334
2,720
2,731
39,338
1,191
8,374
135
31,669
1,332
564
5,293
15,764
3,109
11,839
1,192
8,617
1,130
3,921
2,246
9,231
4 9 ,487
11,005
559

1 O cc u p atio n a lly specific e n ro llm en ts include stu d en ts a b o v e g ra d e 10
enrolled in program s w hich a re d esign ed to train individuals fo r specific occu­
pations. E xclud ed a re all program s in industrial arts an d co n su m er a n d h om e­
m aking training, as w ell as prevocational, counseling an d g u idance, a n d clus­
ter program s (those p rogram s th at include 4 or m ore subjects th at cannot b e
se p ara ted an d identified a s a co m p lete program ).

98

2 Includes th ose program s th at a re m o re th an 1 percen t of a program a re a
(e .g ., Agriculture) th at a re not listed separately.
3 Includes those p rogram s th at a re less than 1 percen t of a program a re a
that are not listed separately.
S O U R C E : U .S . D e p a rtm e n t of E ducation, N ation al C e n te r for E ducation
Statistics, prelim inary data.

Table C-2. Total enrollments, total completions, total who left with or without a marketable skill, and total still enrolled, by Individual
programs for non-collegiate postsecondary schools with occupational programs: 1980 - 81
Total enrollments

Completions

Left with
m arketable skill

..........................................................................................

1,555,526

8 89,969

9 2 ,188

2 4 9,614

3 23,755

01. Agribusiness, t o t a l .............................................................................................

8,426

3,516

643

1,706

2,563

01.0100 Agricultural production ..........................................................................
01.0200 Agricultural s u p p lie s /s e rv ic e s ..............................................................

1,546
1,679

510
1,034

171
102

192
265

674
278

01.0300
01.0400
01.0500
01.0600
01.0700

725
1,285
2,773
171
247

275
504
977
121
95

38
116
186
8
22

149
247
783
5
65

263
419
827
37
65

..................................................................

246,967

191,778

8,462

28,383

18,348

04.0100
04.0200
04.0400
04.0500
04.0600
04.0700
04.0800
04.0900
04.1000

Advertising services ..............................................................................
Apparel and a c c e s s o r ie s ......................................................................
Finance and credit ..................................................................................
F lo r is try .........................................................................................................
Food distribution ......................................................................................
Food service technology ......................................................................
General m e rc h a n d is e ..............................................................................
Hardware, building m a t e r ia ls ..............................................................
Home furnishings m a n a g e m e n t..........................................................

145
12,369
19,053
4,264
99
782
6,011
27
69

59
6,388
17,111
3,453
73
291
3,635
19
16

4
2,030
182
231
9
88
243
5
10

28
1,485
1,379
310
18
162
998
3
43

55
2,466
381
270
0
240
1,135
0
0

04.1100
04.1300
04.1600
04.1700
04.1800
04.1900
04.2000
04.3100
04.9900

Hotel and lo d g in g ......................................................................................
In s u r a n c e .....................................................................................................
Petroleum sales
......................................................................................
Real e s t a t e .................................................................................................
Recreation and to u r is m ..........................................................................
Transportation s e r v ic e s ..........................................................................
Retail trade, other ..................................................................................
Wholesale trade, o t h e r ..........................................................................
O t h e r .............................................................................................................

1,108
7,517
52
97,399
4 4 ,717
2,385
1,479
723
48,768

261
6,048
14
78,681
34,012
1,069
842
708
39,098

153
373
4
2,484
840
427
86
0
1,293

218
819
15
11,637
5,146
128
362
16
5,616

476
276
19
4,597
4,7 20
762
190
0
2,761

07. Health occupations, t o t a l ..................................................................................

164,057

91,603

7,667

2 1,589

43,209

D O E instructional code and title
Total, all programs

Agricultural mechanics ..........................................................................
Agricultural products ..............................................................................
Ornam ental h o rtic u ltu re ..........................................................................
Agricultural resources
..........................................................................
F o r e s try .........................................................................................................

04. Marketing and distribution, total

Left without
marketable skill

Still enrolled

07.0101
07.0102
07.0103
07.0199
07.0201
07.0202
07.0203
07.0204
07.0299
07.0301

Dental assistant
......................................................................................
Dental hygiene (a s s o c ia te )..................................................................
Dental laboratory te c h n o lo g y ..............................................................
Other dental .............................................................................................
Cytology .....................................................................................................
Histology .....................................................................................................
Medical laboratory assisting ..............................................................
H e m a to lo g y .................................................................................................
Medical laboratory technology, o t h e r ...............................................
Nursing (associate d e g r e e ) ..................................................................

11,140
97
1,897
3,708
131
54
3,356
253
3,608
12,738

7,354
46
740
2,448
92
53
2,069
129
2,277
5,061

432
10
77
341
0
0
124
16
83
247

1,518
18
305
490
39
0
422
33
608
1,242

1,836
23
775
429
0
1
742
75
640
6,188

07.0302
07.0303
07.0304
07.0305
07.0399
07.0401
07,0499
07.0501
07.0502

Practical (vocational) n u r s in g ..............................................................
Nursing assistant (aide)
......................................................................
Psychiatric a i d e ..........................................................................................
Surgical technician ..................................................................................
Nursing, other
.........................................................................................
Occupational t h e r a p y ..............................................................................
Rehabilitation services, o t h e r ..............................................................
X-ray technician
......................................................................................
Radiation t h e r a p y ......................................................................................

30,921
24,792
370
1,401
19,604
155
28
7,353
21

16,973
18,532
62
901
6,367
55
10
3,383
21

2,127
1,203
64
44
538
8
4
94
0

4,808
3,169
33
203
1,956
36
6
817
0

7,013
1,888
212
254
10,743
57
8
3,060
0

07.0503
07.0599
07.0600
07.0800
07.0900
07.0901
07.0902
07.0903
07.0904
07.0906
07.0907
07.0909
07.0915
07.9900

Nuclear medical technology ..............................................................
Radiologic, other .....................................................................................
Optical technology ..................................................................................
Mental health te c h n o lo g y ......................................................................
Veterinary a s s is ta n t..................................................................................
Electroencephalograph te c h n o lo g y ...................................................
Electrocardiograph technology ..........................................................
Respiratory therapy te c h n o lo g y ..........................................................
Medical assisting ( o f f i c e ) ......................................................................
Community health a i d e ..........................................................................
Medical em ergency technician ..........................................................
Mortuary s c i e n c e ......................................................................................
Medical records te c h n ic ia n ..................................................................
Health occupations, other
..................................................................

331
222
675
111
1,146
70
791
6,163
24,160
75
1,885
560
958
5,283

214
114
383
55
849
0
508
3,219
15,035
69
1,260
296
495
2,533

0
0
50
0
31
0
53
297
1,544
1
36
0
82
161

48
0
114
35
225
0
124
973
3,196
3
230
165
163
610

69
108
128
22
41
70
106
1,675
4,385
3
360
100
218
1,980

See footnotes at end of table.

99

Table C-2. Continued—Total enrollments, total completions, total who left with or without a marketable skill, and total still enrolled,
by individual programs for non-collegiate postsecondary schools with occupational programs: 1980-81
D O E instructional code and title

Total enrollments

Completions

Left with
marketable skill

Left without
marketable skill

Still enrolled

..................................................................................

9,005

4,702

753

1,539

2,011

C h ild c a r e ........................................................ .............................. ...
Clothing management, production, and s e r v ic e s ........................
Food management, production, and s e rv ic e s ...............................
Hom e fu rn is h in g s ......................................................................................
Institutional/home m a n a g e m e n t..........................................................
Hom e economics, other ......................................................................

3,136
2,337
1,305
593
783
851

1,202
1,379
582
300
522
717

235
251
97
40
109
21

574
403
265
148
102
47

1,125
303
361
105
50
67

..............................................................................

366,759

180,455

35,166

7 3 ,046

7 8 ,096

14.0100
14.0201
14.0202
14.0203
14.0204
14.0299
14.0300
14.0400
14.0500
14.0600

Accounting .................................................................................................
Computer o p e r a t o r ..................................................................................
Keypunch o p e r a t o r ..................................................................................
Computer p r o g r a m m e r ..........................................................................
Systems analyst ......................................................................................
Business data processing
..................................................................
General o f f ic e .............................................................................................
Information, communication o c c u p a tio n s .......................................
Materials support occupations ..........................................................
Personnel o c c u p a tio n s ..........................................................................

45,630
8,949
13,670
40,246
206
45,880
26,469
3,843
136
59

19,880
3,276
7,899
22,329
99
21,580
11,497
1,559
100
23

4,130
2,867
882
2,539
10
3,147
2,533
345
0
0

9,888
2,340
2,851
7,370
36
8,658
7,172
1,063
36
12

11,732
466
2 ,0 39
8,009
61
12,496
5,268
876
0
23

14.0700
14.0800
14.0900
14.9900

Stenographic, secretarial, and related o c c u p a tio n s ....................
Supervisory and administrative management occupations . .
Typing and related occupations
.......................................................
Office occupations, o t h e r ......................................................................

117,507
21,850
11,247
31,067

62,486
10,134
7,278
12,315

11,879
1,751
669
4,416

20,535
4,988
1,644
6,453

2 2 ,608
4,9 77
1,659
7,882

16. Technical occupations, t o t a l ..........................................................................

132,997

65,534

8,597

21,650

3 7 ,218

09. Hom e economics, total
09.0201
09.0202
09.0203
09.0204
0 9.0205
09.0299

14. Business and office, total

16.0101
16.0102
16.0103
16.0104
16.0105
16.0106
16.0107
16.0108
16.0109
16.0110

Aeronautical technology ......................................................................
Agriculture technology . ' ......................................................................
Architectural technology ......................................................................
Automotive te c h n o lo g y ..........................................................................
Chemical te c h n o lo g y ..............................................................................
Civil te c h n o lo g y .........................................................................................
Electrical technology ..............................................................................
Electronic te c h n o lo g y ..............................................................................
Electromechanical technology ..........................................................
Environmental control technology
...................................................

1,036
1,510
2,238
10,384
386
9,502
3,328
45,919
2,997
2,524

510
53
748
5,085
213
3,478
1,316
18,189
1,090
1,525

8
42
135
391
27
695
395
2,687
166
39

180
99
558
2,107
72
2,067
753
7,623
812
465

338
1,316
797
2,800
75
3,261
863
17,421
929
495

16.0111
16.0112
16.0113
16.0114
16.0115
16.0116
16.0117
16.0203
16.0601
16.0602

Industrial technology ..............................................................................
Instrumentation te c h n o lo g y ..................................................................
Mechanical te c h n o lo g y ..........................................................................
Metallurgical technology ......................................................................
Nuclear te c h n o lo g y ..................................................................................
Petroleum technology
..........................................................................
Scientific data processing
..................................................................
Food processing technology ..............................................................
Commercial pilot t r a in in g ......................................................................
Fire and fire safety te c h n o lo g y ..........................................................

1,298
727
1,408
435
79
241
64
87
291
1,265

447
231
473
135
28
173
64
87
184
1,225

160
99
136
25
0
5
0
0
4
6

321
120
268
84
13
31
0
0
8
0

370
278
531
191
38
33
0
0
95
34

16.0603
16.0605
16.0606
16.0607
16.0608
16.0695
16.0699

Forestry te c h n o lo g y ..................................................................................
Police science technology ..................................................................
Teacher’s a s s is ta n t..................................................................................
Library assistant .....................................................................................
Broadcast t e c h n ic ia n ..............................................................................
Performing a r t is t s .....................................................................................
Technology, other ..................................................................................

147
889
700
4,235
17,632
18,655
5,020

35
763
238
2,886
10,057
13,960
2,341

8
0
50
388
1,253
1,310
568

80
6
195
439
2,780
1,646
923

24
120
217
522
3,543
1,739
1,188

..............................................................................

627,318

352,389

30,951

101,711

142,497

17.0100
17.0200
17.0301
17.0302
17.0303
17.0399
17.0401
17.0500

Air conditioning installation and repair ...........................................
Appliance repair .....................................................................................
Body and fender r e p a i r ..........................................................................
Auto mechanic .........................................................................................
Auto specialization, repair ..................................................................
Automotive services, o t h e r ..................................................................
Aircraft m aintenance ..............................................................................
Blueprint r e a d i n g .....................................................................................

22,240
2,309
13,535
40,457
8,770
871
7,667
1,043

8,999
905
5,330
13,862
5,824
303
1,992
613

1,685
264
1,218
4,140
335
57
373
14

4,546
482
2,930
8,238
1,335
327
1,966
322

7,009
658
4,058
14,217
1,276
183
3,335
94

17.0600
17.0700
17.0800
17.0900

Business m achine maintenance .......................................................
Commercial art occupations ..............................................................
Commercial fishery occupations ......................................................
Commercial photography occupations ...........................................

976
25,650
136
7,109

335
12,910
37
3,999

52
799
0
191

272
3,502
5
790

317
8,439
94
2,130

17. Trade and industrial, total

See footnotes at end of table.

100

Table C-2. Continued—Total enrollments, total completions, total who left with or without a marketable skill, and total still enrolled,
by individual programs for non-collegiate postsecondary schools with occupational programs: 1980 -8 1
D O E instructional code and title

Total enrollments

Completions

Left with
marketable skill

Left without
marketable skill

Still enrolled

17.1001
17.1002
17.1003
17.1004
17.1005

Carpentry, c o n s tru c tio n ..........................................................................
Electricity, c o n s tru c tio n ..........................................................................
Heavy equipment maintenance o p e r a tio n s ...................................
Masonry .....................................................................................................
Painting and decorating
......................................................................

9,619
5,449
5,297
3,522
970

4,542
2,229
2,845
1,248
476

830
562
327
363
43

2,002
1,050
898
937
236

2,246
1,607
1,226
975
216

17.1007
17.1010
17.1099
17.1100
17.1200
17.1300
17.1400
17.1503

Plumbing and pipefitting ......................................................................
R o o f in g .........................................................................................................
Construction and maintenance trades, o t h e r ...............................
Custodial services .................................................................................
Diesel mechanic .....................................................................................
Drafting occupations .............................................................................
Electrical occupations, other ..............................................................
Radio and T V repair ....................... .....................................................

4,261
111
5,983
3,180
19,975
21,363
6,340
4,388

2,213
67
3,027
1,234
9,700
7,962
2,641
1,707

363
22
326
153
1,348
1,647
481
406

767
18
1,035
555
2,957
4,696
1,401
1,074

918
5
1,595
1,237
5,971
7,058
1,817
1,201

17.1599
17.1600
17.1900
17.2000
17.2100
17.2200
17.2302
17.2303
17.2306

Electronics occupations, other ..........................................................
Fabric m aintenance s e r v ic e s ..............................................................
Graphic arts o c c u p a tio n s ......................................................................
Industrial atomic energy o c c u p a tio n s ...............................................
Instrument m aintenance and repair o c c u p a tio n s .......................
Maritime o c c u p a tio n s ..............................................................................
Machine shop o c c u p a tio n s ..................................................................
Machine tool operations ......................................................................
Welding and cutting
..............................................................................

12,155
380
7,876
506
2,256
11,293
2,565
14,208
64,525

5,503
250
3,444
159
1,419
8,453
1,337
4,878
35,030

657
58
564
29
120
288
115
1,252
4,563

2,624
64
1,794
153
324
1,513
393
3,369
12,288

3,372
8
2,073
165
392
1,038
721
4,710
12,645

17.2307
17.2399
17.2400
17.2601
17.2602
17.2699
17.270Q
17.2801
17.2802
17.2899

Tool and d ie m a k in g .................................................................................
Metalworking, o t h e r ..................................................................................
Metallurgy o c c u p a tio n s ..........................................................................
B a rb e r in g .....................................................................................................
Cosmetology .............................................................................................
Personal services, other ......................................................................
Plastics occupations .............................................................................
Firefighter training .................................................................................
Law enforcement tr a in in g ......................................................................
Public service occupations, o t h e r ......................................................

920
3,274
744
13,400
167,388
8,930
622
1,046
762
160

443
1,566
369
9,927
113,179
6,336
273
645
279
86

62
332
39
477
2,743
137
33
31
145
5

84
506
145
1,352
21,894
916
138
83
154
38

331
869
192
1,645
29,572
1,542
178
288
184
31

17.2900
17.3000
17.3100
17.3200
17.3300
17.3400
17.3500
17.3600
17.4000
17.5000
17.9900

Quantity food occupations ..................................................................
Refrigeration e n g in e e rin g ......................................................................
Small engine repair, internal c o m b u s tio n .......................................
Stationary energy sources ..................................................................
Textile production and fabrication
..................................................
L e a th e rw o rk in g .........................................................................................
Upholstering .............................................................................................
Woodworking occupations ..................................................................
Truckdriving
.............................................................................................
Dog grooming
.........................................................................................
Trade and industrial occupations, other .......................................

8,283
7,363
2,285
6,021
613
74
2,088
3,513
43,393
2,420
17,034

3,401
2,681
896
4,968
512
20
1,104
1,321
34,885
1,768
12,257

749
285
230
206
2
6
120
240
834
107
478

1,666
1,487
594
484
51
19
338
963
3,418
530
1,988

2,466
2,909
565
363
49
28
527
989
4,256
16
2,310

1 Table does not include collegiate, flight, and other schools.
Details m ay not add to totals because of rounding.

SO U R C E : U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education
Statistics.

101

Table C -3. A p p ren ticesh ip reg istratio n actio n s, calen d ar year 1979
Beginning
of period
1-1-79

Added

C ancelled1

Completed

End of
period
12-31-79

U.S. t o t a l s ............................................................................................................

289,168

136,786

58,634

4 3 ,454

3 23,866

Technologists and technicians, except health:
Drafters, designers .........................................................................................

841

317

230

124

804

2,259
2,352

1,007
1,168

499
625

694
194

2,073
2,701

1,403

1,066

604

491

1,374

2,041
660
3,207
9,909
3,149
1,610
1,310
4,853
5,636
1,084
718
4,344

855
134
1,260
4,786
1,259
622
488
1,946
2,241
233
176
2,056

399
32
739
2,524
708
146
222
744
679
241
190
771

294
26
346
1,466
680
310
178
913
1,038
146
130
757

2,203
736
3 ,3 8 2
10,705
3,020
1,776
1,398
5,142
6,160
930
574
4,874

Tapers, dry-wall a p p lic a to r s ..........................................................................
Not classified a b o v e .........................................................................................

8,488
4 3 ,212
3,092
920
35,118
1,697
1,143
1,683
1,357
4,651
166
6,732
15,859
1,229
17,607
5,670
11,265
8,066
1,910
1,394

3,884
23,672
1,792
424
13,833
955
688
504
804
2,173
48
3,941
5,755
827
5,965
4,335
4,773
5,145
1,136
639

1,992
13,397
824
228
4,843
523
323
194
400
754
14
1,991
1,662
347
2,482
2,410
1,771
1,370
803
477

1,068
4,637
466
170
4,961
228
189
235
155
816
15
956
3,089
121
2,322
539
1,591
1,568
412
283

9,312
4 8 ,850
3,594
946
39,147
1,901
1,319
1,758
1,606
5,254
185
7,726
16,863
1,588
18,768
7,056
12,676
10,273
1,831
1,273

Production occupations:
Precision production occupations:
Boilermakers
.....................................................................................................
Bookbinders, bindery w o r k e r s ......................................................................
Cabinetmakers, wood machinists ..............................................................
C o m p o s ito rs .........................................................................................................
Lithographers, photoengravers ..................................................................
M a c h in is ts ............................................................................................................
Medical and dental technicians ..................................................................
Molders, corem akers .....................................................................................
Optical workers .................................................................................................
P a tte rn m a k e rs .....................................................................................................
Printing and publishing w o r k e r s ..................................................................
Toolmakers, diemakers .................................................................................

3,931
631
1,968
385
2,173
15,528
3,457
646
389
852
875
12,730

1,381
273
1,039
100
724
6,397
2,882
257
109
383
396
5,379

417
108
629
94
653
2,748
529
139
119
74
111
2,044

769
90
242
70
369
2,450
226
97
49
143
80
1,807

4,126
706
2,136
321
1,875
16,727
5,584
667
330
1,018
1,080
14,258

Plant and system operators:
Stationary engineers
.....................................................................................

1,899

713

212

448

1,952

Machine operators, tenders, and setup workers:
Machine set-up and o p e ra to rs ......................................................................
Press o p e r a to r s .................................................................................................

1,437
1,134

699
258

353
189

205
187

1,578
1,016

................

5,496

2,775

875

857

6,539

Miscellaneous trades, not classified a b o v e ..........................................................

19,002

12,112

3,182

3,757

24,175

1 Includes voluntary quits, layoffs, discharges, out-of-State transfers, upgrades
within certain trades, and suspensions or interruptions for m ilitary service.

S O U R C E : U .S . D ep a rtm e n t o f Labor, B u reau of A pprenticeship an d T rain ing.

Trade

Service occupations:
Food and beverage preparation and service occupations:
Butchers, m e a tc u tte r s .....................................................................................
Cooks, b a k e r s .....................................................................................................
Personal service occupations:
Barbers, b e a u tic ia n s .........................................................................................
Mechanics and repairers:
Air-conditioning and refrigeration mechanics .......................................
Aircraft m e c h a n ic s .............................................................................................
Auto and related body r e p a ir e r s ..................................................................
Auto and related m e c h a n ic s ..........................................................................
Car repairers .....................................................................................................
Electronic te c h n ic ia n s .....................................................................................
Industrial technicians .....................................................................................
Maintenance m e c h a n ic s .................................................................................
M illw rig h ts ............................................................................................................
Office machine servicers ..............................................................................
Radio, TV repairers .........................................................................................
Not classified a b o v e .........................................................................................
Construction occupations:
Bricklayers, stone and tile s e t t e r s ..............................................................
Carpenters
.........................................................................................................
Cem ent m a s o n s .................................................................................................
Electrical workers .............................................................................................
Electricians .........................................................................................................
Floor c o v e r e r s .....................................................................................................
G l a z ie r s ................................................................................................................
Insulation w o r k e r s .............................................................................................
Lathers ......................................................................... ......................................
Line erectors, light and p o w e r ......................................................................
Ornamental iro n w o rk e rs .................................................................................
P a i n t e r s ................................................................................................................
Pipefitters, sprinkler fitters, s te a m fitte r s ..................................................
P la s t e r e r s ............................................................................................................
Plumbers ............................................................................................................
Roofers ................................................................................................................
Sheet-m etal workers
.....................................................................................
Structural steel w o r k e r s ......................................................................

Transportation and material moving occupations:
Operating engineers (construction machinery operators)

102

During period

Table C-4. Enlisted strength in Department of Defense (POD) occupational groups, September 30,1982
DOD
code
0
01
02
03
04
05
06
07

0

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
19

2

20
21
22
23
24

25
26

3
30
31
32
33
4
40
41
42
43
45
49

5
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57

Group title and description of coverage
IN FA N TR Y, G U N C R E W S , A N D S EA M A N S H IP S P E C IA LIS TS

......................................................................................................

Infantry - includes weapon specialists, ground reconnaissance specialists and crew-served artillery specialists,
armor and amphibious crews, and specialists in combat engineering and seamanship ...............................................
Armor and A m p h ib io u s ........................................................................................................................................
Combat Engineering - includes specialists in hasty and temporary construction of airfields, roads, and bridges
and in demolition, field illumination, and chemical warfare .........................................................................................................
Artillery/Gunnery, Rockets, and Missiles - includes conventional field, anti-air and shipboard guns and artillery,
and rocket and missile specialists ........................................................................................................................................................
Air Crew - includes pilots and navigators, flight engineers, and other air crew ...............................................................
Seamanship - includes boatswains, navigators, and other seamanship s p e c ia lis ts .......................................................
Installation Security - includes specialists who guard weapon systems, defend installations, and protect
personnel, equipment, and facilities
............................... ....................................................................................................................

Enlisted
strength

250,415
108,860
23,242
22,700
51,698
6,877
14,187
22,851

E LE C TR O N IC E Q U IP M E N T R EP A IR ER S ....................................................................................................................................................
RadiolRadar - includes fixed and mobile radio, air traffic and tracking radar, communication, navigation, and
electronic countermeasure gear ...............................................................................................................................................................
Fire Control Electronic System (Non-M issile) .........................................................................................................
Missile Guidance, Control and Checkout - includes specialists in guidance, control, and checkout equipm ent for
guided and ballistic missiles .......................................................................................................................................................................
Sonar Equipment - includes specialists in underwater detection and fire control systems, oceanographic
equipment, and related antisubmarine gear ........................................................................................................................................
Nuclear Weapons Equipment ..............................................................................................................................
ADP Computers ...................................................................................................................................................
Teletype and Cryptographic Equipment ...............................................................................................................
Other Electronic Equipment - includes training devices, inertial navigation systems, and electronics instruments
s p e c ia lis ts ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................

165,025

C O M M U N IC A T IO N S A ND IN TELLIG E NC E S P E C IA L IS T S .................................................................................................................
Radio and Radio Code - includes operators of radio, radio teletype, and visual communications equipment . .
Sonar ..................................................................................................................................................................
Radar and Air Traffic C o n tro l ...............................................................................................................................
Signal Intelligence/Electronic Warfare - includes the intercept, translation, and analysis of foreign
communications, and the operation of electronic countermeasures e q u ip m e n t...................................................................
Intelligence - includes the gathering, receipt, and analysis of nonsignal intelligence data, the interrogation of
prisoners, other language translators and interpreters, image interpretation, and specialists in counterintelligence
and investigational activities ................... ...............................................................................................................................................
Combat Operations Control - includes specialists in forward area tactical operations and intelligence and in
command post control activities
...........................................................................................................................................................
Communications Center Operations - includes the receipt and distribution of messages, the operation of
communications center equipment, and the operation of major field communications systems
................................

160,887
4 7 ,702
4,919
2 7 ,835

76,302

8,212
23,184
7,700
1,524
8,728
14,053
25,322

25,121
10,114
2 3 ,33 7
2 1 ,859

M ED IC A L A ND D EN TA L SPE C IA LIS TS ................................................................................................................................................
Medical C a r e ...................................................................................................................................................
Technical Medical Services - includes laboratory, pharmaceutical, and X-ray s e r v ic e s ...........................................
Related Medical Services - includes specialists in sanitation, health preservation, and veterinary services and
preventive medical services
............................................................................................................................ ..................................
Dental Care - Includes specialists in dental care and treatment and in related technical and laboratory
s e r v ic e s ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................

8 3 ,302
57,167
11,434

OTHER TECHNICAL AND ALLIED SPECIALISTS

4 1 ,430

........................................................................................................................

Photography - includes still, motion, and television cam era operators, precision photographic processing, editing,
and b ro a d c a s tin g ......................................................................................................................................................................................................
Mapping, Surveying, Drafting, and Illu s tra tin g ............................................................................................................
Weather - includes specialists in the collection of weather and sea condition data and in weather forecasting . . . .
Ordnance Disposal and Diving - includes the excavation and rendering safe of explosive ordnance and of
chemical and nuclear agents, and underwater demolition and other types of d i v i n g ...................................................................
M us ic ia n s ................................................ .....................................................................................................................
Technical Specialists, N.E.C. - includes physical science laboratory analysts, specialists in memorial activities,
safety, NBC warfare, and firefighting and dam age control, and other technical specialists and aids such as
scientific engineering assistants .......................................................................................................................................................................
FU N C TIO N A L S U P P O R T AND A D M IN IS T R A T IO N ............................................................................................................................
Personnel - includes specialists in personnel administration, personnel and manpower m anagem ent, and
recruiting and c o u n s e lin g .......................................................................................................................................................................
Administration - includes clerks, typists, and stenographers and legal and medical administrative
s p e c ia lis ts ......................................................................................................................................................................................................
Clerical/Personnel - includes combined personnel and administrative specialists and senior enlisted personnel
whose primary responsibilities are n o n -te c h n ic a l.........................................................................................................................
Data Processing - includes computer operators, analysts, and programmers and electric accounting machine
operators ......................................................................................................................................................................................................
Accounting, Finance, D isb u rsin g .....................................................................................................................
Other Functional Support - includes specialists who provide support in the functional areas of supply
accounting and procurement, transportation, flight operations, and related areas .......................................................
Religious, Morale, and Welfare - includes chaplains' assistants and specialists in theater, arts, sports, and
related activities
.......................................................................................................................................................................................
Information and Education - includes specialists in public affairs, radio/TV, and other types of information
and e d u c a tio n .......................................................................................................................................................................... ...................

See footnotes at end of table.

103

5,316
9,385

6,201
7,997
5,406
1,667
4,931
15,218
2 8 7,756
4 5 ,452
77,941
7,078
16,906
15,430
113,406
5,795
5,748

Table C -4. E nlisted stren gth in D epartm ent o f D efense (P O D ) occu p ation al groups, S eptem ber 3 0 ,1 9 8 2
DOD
code
6
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
69
7
70
71
72
74
75
76
79
8

Group title and description of coverage
E LE C TR IC A L/M E C H A N IC A L E Q U IP M E N T R E P A IR E R S .................................................................................................................
Aircraft and Related - includes aircraft engines, electrical systems, structural components and surfaces, and
launch e q u ip m e n t......................................................................................................................................................................................
Automotive - includes construction equipment and other wheel and track v e h ic le s ...................................................
Wire Communications - includes specialists in the installation and maintenance of telephones, switchboards,
and central office and related interior communications e q u ip m e n t .....................................................................................
Missile, Mechanical and Electrical - includes missiles and missile systems and related components . . . ,
Armament and Munitions - includes small arms, artillery, mines, bombs and associated mountings, nuclear
weapons, and ammunition renovation ............................................................................................................................................
Shipboard Propulsion - includes marine main engines, boilers, and auxiliary e q u ip m e n t........................ . . . ,
Power Generating Equipment - includes nuclear power reactors and primary electric generating plants . . .
Precision Equipment - includes optical and other precision instruments and office m a c h in e s ...............................
Other Mechanical and Electrical Equipment - includes specialists in the m aintenance and repair of
mechanical and electrical equipment which is not readily classifiable in another group ...........................................
C R A FT W O R K E R S .......................................................................................................................................................................................
Metalworking - includes specialists in the machining, shaping, and forming of metal and in the fabrication
of metal p a r t s ..........................................................................................................................................................................................
Construction -in c lu d e s specialists in construction trades and construction equipment operation ....................
Utilities - includes plumbers, heating and cooling specialists, and electricians .......................................................
Lith o gra p h y ................................................................................................................................................ ...
Industrial Gas and Fuel Production - includes specialists in the production of liquid oxygen, hydrogen,
nitrogen, and carbon dioxide ...........................................................................................................................................................
Fabric, Leather, and R u b b e r ........................................................................................................................
Other Craft Workers, N.E.C. - includes specialists in trades such as molding, camouflage, and plastic work,
which are not readily classifiable elsewhere in this s e c tio n .................................................................................................

80
81

S E R V IC E A N D S U P P LY H A N D L E R S ........................................................................................................................................................
Food S e n ric e ...................................................................................................................................................
Motor Transport - includes th e operatio n of w h ee l an d track vehicles (e xce p t construction eq u ip m en t) and

82

Enlisted
strength
3 6 7 ,6 3 2
161,127
6 2 ,182
27,342
4,678
3 8 ,214
4 0 ,88 0
2 8 ,90 2
2,815
1,492
7 3 ,48 6
13,188
2 7 ,07 9
18,969
2,038
593
2,597
9,022

Material Receipt, Storage, and Issue - includes specialists in th e receipt, storage, issue, and shipm ent of

railw ay eq u ip m en t

83

84
86

...............................................................................................................................................................................................

g en era l and sp e cialized classes of supplies, excluding am m unition ........................................................................................
Law Enforcement - includes m ilitary police, protective and corrections specialists, a n d crim inal and
noncrim inal inspectors and i n v e s t ig a t o r s ............................................................................... ..................................................................
Personal Service - includes laundry, dry cleaning, and related services .............................................................................
Forward Area Equipment - includes specialists in parach u te packing and repair, in ae rial delivery operatio ns,
and in flight eq u ip m en t fitting and m ain te n an ce
.................................................................................................................................

NOTE: Definitions are provided for most occupational groups. The lack of
explanatory material for a few occupational groups indicates that the title of
the grouping is considered a sufficient definition

167,764
49,182
35,102
33,722
41,882
2,148
5,728

SO U R CE : U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Manpower D ata Center—
Enlisted Master File.

104

Table C-5. Associate degrees and other formal awards below the baccalaureate granted In an occupational curriculum of at least 1
year, 1981-8 2 1
Curriculums of at least 2 but
less than 4 years
Associate
degrees

Other formal
recognition

Curriculums
of at
least 1
but less
than 2 years

—

434,526

29,061

97,118

............................................................................................................

—

158,039

1,400

1,555

Occupational curriculums, t o t a l ............................................................................................................................

—

276,493

27,661

Business and com m erce technologies ....................................................................................................................
Business and com m erce technologies, general ..................................................................
................
Accounting technologies .......................................................................................................................................
Banking and finance technologies ....................................................................................................................
Marketing distribution, purchasing, business and industrial
m a n a g e m e n t...........................................................................................................................................................
Secretarial technologies (includes office machine tr a in in g )......................................................................
Personal service technologies (flight attendant, cosmetologist, e t c . ) ..................................................
Photography technologies ....................................................................................................................................
Communications and broadcasting technologies (radio/television,
n e w s p a p e r s )...........................................................................................................................................................
Printing and lithography technologies
............................................................................................................

5000
5001
5002
5003

96,854
21,585
12,811
996

7,783
1,033
477
40

25,244
1,970
2,446
455

5004
5005
5006
5007

25,874
19,399
762
1,113

3,483
1,155
532
83

2,331
11,473
2,986
280

5008
5009

2,169
863

37
141

223
625

Curriculum

All curriculums, total

H EG IS
code2

...........................................................................................................................................

Arts and science of general programs

•

95,563

Hotel and restaurant m anagem ent te c h n o lo g ie s .........................................................................................
Transportation and public utilities te c h n o lo g ie s .............................................................................................
Applied arts, graphic arts, and fine arts technologies (includes
advertising d e s ig n ) ...............................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

5010
5011

2,253
1,111

63
104

219
850

5012
5099

6,696
1,222

536
99

1,033
353

Data processing te c h n o lo g ie s .......................................................................................................................................
Data processing technologies, g e n e r a l ............................................................................................................
Keypunch operator and other input preparation technologies ..............................................................
Computer programmer te c h n o lo g ie s ................................................................................................................
Computer operator and peripheral equipment operation te c h n o lo g ie s ...............................................
Data processing equipment maintenance technologies
..........................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

5100
5101
5102
5103
5104
5105
5199

21,101
11,086
65
8,167
374
1,365
44

1,054
465
20
355
114
88
12

4,930
1,476
855
1,504
726
366
3

Health services and param edical technologies .....................................................................................................
Health services a s s is t a n t.......................................................................................................................................
Dental assistant technologies
............................................................................................................................
Dental hygiene technologies ................................................................................................................................
Dental laboratory technologies ; ........................................................................................................
Medical or biological laboratory assistant te c h n o lo g ie s .............................................................................
Animal laboratory assistant te c h n o lo g ie s ........................................................................................................
Radiologic technologies (X-ray, e t c . ) ................................................................................................................
Nursing, R.N. (less than 4-year program) .....................................................................................................
Nursing, practical (L.P.N . or L.V.N.-less than 4-year p r o g r a m )..............................................................

5200
5201
5202
5203
5204
5205
5206
5207
5208
5209

61,435
1,713
842
3,319
596
3,078
929
3,494
36,231
1,144

4,281
458
400
389
67
110
42
130
366
1,043

24,716
2,384
2,130
82
15
380
71
131
871
12,856

Occupational therapy te c h n o lo g ie s ....................................................................................................................
Surgical te c h n o lo g ie s ...............................................................................................................................................
Optical technologies (includes ocular care, ophthalmic, optometric
te c h n o lo g ie s )...........................................................................................................................................................
Medical record technologies ................................................................................................................................
Medical assistant and medical office assistant te c h n o lo g ie s ..................................................................
Inhalation therapy te c h n o lo g ie s ....................................................................................................................................
Psychiatric technologies (includes mental health aide programs) ......................................................
Electrodiagnostic technologies (includes EKG .EEG , etc.) ......................................................................
Institutional m anagem ent technologies (rest home, e t c . ) .........................................................................
Physical therapy technologies ............................................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

5210
5211

724
182

173
69

25
881

5212
5213
5214
5215
5216
5217
5218
5219
5299

610
830
2,052
2,231
1,459
152
140
995
714

16
70
182
221
252
17
9
39
228

114
180

Mechanical and engineering technologies
............................................................................................................
Mechanical and engineering technologies, g e n e r a l.....................................................................................
Aeronautical and aviation te c h n o lo g ie s ............................................................................................................
Engineering graphics (tool and machine drafting and design) ..............................................................
Architectural drafting technologies ....................................................................................................................
Chemical technologies (includes plastics) ....................................................................................................
Automotive technologies .......................................................................................................................................
Diesel te c h n o lo g ie s ...................................................................................................................................................
Welding te c h n o lo g ie s ...............................................................................................................................................
Civil technologies (surveying, photogrammetry, e t c . ) .................................................................................

5300
5301
5302
5303
5304
5305
5306
5307
5308
5309

57,913
6,875
4,127
4,207
2,862
733
3,797
1,019
939
1,990

10,714
352
980
379
297
33
1,480
839
436
41

See footnotes at end of table.

105

3,068
1,042
120
34
4
26
394
30,126
1,214
1,248
1,600
626
15
4,611
1,688
3,712
181

Table C-5. Continued—Associate degrees and other formal awards below the baccalaureate granted in an occupational curriculum
pf at least 1 year, 1981-8 2 1
Curriculums of at least 2 but
less than 4 years
Curriculum

H EG IS
code2

Electronics and machine technologies (television, appliance, office
machine repair, e t c . ) ...........................................................................................................................................
Electromechanical technologies ........................................................................................................................
Industrial technologies ...........................................................................................................................................
Textile technologies ...............................................................................................................................................
Instrumentation te c h n o lo g ie s ................................................................................................................................
Mechanical te c h n o lo g ie s .......................................................................................................................................
Nuclear te c h n o lo g ie s ...............................................................................................................................................
Construction and building technologies (carpentry, electric work,
plumbing, sheet-metal, air conditioning, heating, e t c . ) ..........................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

Associate
degrees

Other formal
recognition

Curriculums
of at
least 1
but less
than 2 years

5310
5311
5312
5313
5314
5315
5316

16,563
2,760
2,288
147
722
2,739
162

3,323
170
202
95
26
703
0

5,295
335
780
52
270
2,028
39

5317
5399

4,461
1,522

1,288
70

5,827
605

Natural science technologies ........................................................................................................................................
Natural science technologies, general ............................................................................................................
Agriculture technologies (includes h o rtic u ltu re ).............................................................................................
Forestry and wildlife technologies (includes fisheries) ..............................................................................
Food services technologies
................................................................................................................................
Home economics te c h n o lo g ie s ............................................................................................................................
Marine and oceanographic te c h n o lo g ie s .........................................................................................................
Laboratory technologies, g e n e r a l........................................................................................................................
Sanitation and public health inspection technologies (environmental
health technologies) ................................... ... ....................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

5400
5401
5402
5403
5404
5405
5406
5407

13,719
1,207
5,109
1,333
3,401
1,627
239
153

898
17
477
38
165
123
25
0

5,399
642
2,787
164
954
653
41
13

5408
5499

432
218

17
36

114
31

Public-service-related te c h n o lo g ie s ............................................................................................................................
Public service technologies, g e n e r a l ................................................................................................................
Bible study or religion-related o c c u p a tio n s .....................................................................................................
Education technologies (teacher aide and 2-year teacher training
programs) ...............................................................................................................................................................
Library assistant technologies ............................................................................................................................
Police, law enforcement, correction technologies
.....................................................................................
Recreation and social work and related technologies ..............................................................................
Fire control te c h n o lo g y ...........................................................................................................................................
Public administration and m anagem ent technologies
..............................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

5500
5501
5502

25,471
1,883
621

2,931
47
731

5,056
253
120

5503
5504
5505
5506
5507
5508
5599

5,085
282
10,268
3,416
1,820
703
1,393

499
47
928
128
320
62
169

931
81
2,055
516
587
98
415

m ent of E ducation, 1 9 70).
S O U R C E : U .S . D e p a rtm e n t of Education, N ation al C e n te r fo r Education
Statistics.

1 T h e s e d a ta d o not include as so ciate d eg ree s a n d o ther form al aw a rd s
below th e b ac calau reate gran te d in specific arts a n d sc ie n ces curriculum s.
2 H E G IS cod es a re from th e H ig h er Education G e n e ra l Inform ation Survey.
S e e a A Taxonomy of Instmctional Programs in Higher Education (U .S . D ep art­

106

Table C-6. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred In institutions of higher education by field of study, 1981-82
H EG IS
code

Bachelor’s
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

M ajor field of study

M aster's
degrees
2 95,546

Doctor's
degrees
(Ph.D ., Ed.D.,
etc.)
32,707

All f i e l d s ...........................................................................................................................................................

9 5 2,998

0100
0101
0102
0103
0104
0105
0106
0107
0108
0109

A G R IC U LTU R E A N D N A TU R A L R E S O U R C E S .................................................................................................
Agriculture, general
................................................................................................................................................
Agronomy ...................................................................................................................................................................
Soils s c ie n c e ...............................................................................................................................................................
Animal s c ie n c e ...........................................................................................................................................................
Dairy s c ie n c e ...............................................................................................................................................................
Poultry s c ie n c e ...........................................................................................................................................................
Fish, gam e, and wildlife m a n a g e m e n t.............................................................................................................
H o rtic u ltu re ...................................................................................................................................................................
Ornam ental horticulture ........................................................................................................................................

2 1 ,02 9
2,195
1,332
457
3,551
275
141
1,140
1,417
569

4,163
412
461
165
453
69
39
326 ,
254
15

0110
0111
0112
0113
0114
0115
0116
0117
0199

Agriculture and farm m a n a g e m e n t.....................................................................................................................
Agricultural e c o n o m ic s ............................................................................................................................................
Agricultural b u s in e s s ................................................................................................................................................
Food science and technology ............................................................................................................................
Forestry .......................................................................................................................................................................
Natural resources m anagem ent ........................................................................................................................
Agriculture and forestry technologies
.............................................................................................................
Range m a n a g e m e n t................................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ...............................................................................................................................................................................

303
1,909
1,685
724
1,665
1,788
144
235
1,499

12
535
74
347
426
264
16
80
215

1
160
12
99
88
30
11
21
19

0200
0201
0202
0203
0204
0205
0206
0299

A G R IC U LTU R E A N D E N V IR O N M E N TA L D E S IG N
.........................................................................................
Environmental design, g e n e r a l ............................................................................................................................
Architecture ...............................................................................................................................................................
Interior design ...........................................................................................................................................................
Landscape architecture ........................................................................................................................................
Urban a r c h ite c tu r e ...................................................................................................................................................
City, community, and regional planning .........................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

9,728
962
5,796
1,076
1,014
6
505
369

3,327
111
1,610
27
264
118
1,095
102

80
3
22
0
0
4
38
13

0300
0301
0302
0303
0304
0305
0307
0308
0309

AREA S T U D IE S ...............................................................................................................................................................
Asian studies, general ...........................................................................................................................................
East Asian s t u d i e s ...................................................................................................................................................
South Asian (India, etc.) s t u d i e s ........................................................................................................................
Southeast Asian s t u d i e s ........................................................................................................................................
African s t u d i e s ...........................................................................................................................................................
Russian and Slavic studies
................................................................................................................................
Latin American s t u d ie s ...........................................................................................................................................
Middle Eastern s t u d ie s ...........................................................................................................................................

2,509
177
211
11
5
17
77
243
35

750
82
68
7
12
16
27
130
61

98
3
11
2
0
2
1
2
10

0310
0311
0312
0313
0314
0399

European studies, g e n e r a l ....................................................................................................................................
Eastern European studies ....................................................................................................................................
W est European studies ........................................................................................................................................
American s tu d ie s .......................................................................................................................................................
Pacific area studies ...............................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

54
22
58
1,251
2
346

3
29
14
208
9
84

0
0
0
56
0
11

0400
0401
0402
0403
0404
0406
0407
0408
0409

BIO LO G ICAL S C IE N C E S ...............................................................................................................................................
Biology, general .......................................................................................................................................................
Botany, general .......................................................................................................................................................
Bacteriology ...............................................................................................................................................................
Plant pathology
.......................................................................................................................................................
Plant physiology .......................................................................................................................................................
Zoology, g e n e r a l .......................................................................................................................................................
Pathology, human and animal ............................................................................................................................
Pharmacology, human and a n i m a l ....................................................................................................................

4 1 ,63 9
29,651
563
162
58
97
3,089
23
26

5,874
2,579
252
40
131
17
413
90
70

3,743
678
183
12
97
23
223
103
208

0410
0411
0412
0413
0414
0415
0416
1417
0418
0419

Physiology, human and a n im a l............................................................................................................................
Microbiology ........................* ....................................................................................................................................
A n a t o m y .......................................................................................................................................................................
H is to lo g y .......................................................................................................................................................................
B io c h e m is try ...............................................................................................................................................................
Biophysics ...................................................................................................................................................................
Molecular biology
...................................................................................................................................................
Cell biology
...............................................................................................................................................................
Marine b i o l o g y ...........................................................................................................................................................
Biometrics and biostatistics ................................................................................................................................

340
2,215
61
0
1,865
48
272
40
488
31

199
430
63
1
273
26
26
20
70
103

244
338
147
1
462
73
95
49
13
52

0420
0421
0422
0423
0424

Ecology
......................................................................................................................................................................
E n to m o o g y ..................................................................................................................................................................
Genetics ......................................................................................................................................................................
R a d io b io lo g y ...............................................................................................................................................................
Nutrition, scientific ............................... ......................................................................... ..........................................

792
186
106
0
138

236
256
107
20
195

76
158
123
8
81

See footnotes at end of table.

107

1,079
14
202
83
146
17
15
64
88
9

Table C-6. Continued— Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred in institutions of higher education by field of study,
1981-82
HEG IS
code

Bachelor’s
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Master's
degrees

Doctor’s
degrees
(Ph.D., Ed.D.,
etc.)

0425
0426
0499

N e u ro s c ie n c e s ...........................................................................................................................................................
Toxicology ...................................................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ...............................................................................................................................................................................

76
49
1,263

12
57
188

51
2
221

0500
0501
0502
0503
0504
0505
0506
0507
0508
0509

B U SIN E SS A N D M A N A G E M E N T
............................................................................................................................
Business and commerce, general ....................................................................................................................
A c c o u n tin g ...................................................................................................................................................................
Business statistics ...................................................................................................................................................
Banking and f i n a n c e ...............................................................................................................................................
Investments and s e c u ritie s ....................................................................................................................................
Business m anagem ent and a d m in is tra tio n .....................................................................................................
Operations r e s e a r c h ...............................................................................................................................................
Hotel and restaurant m a n a g e m e n t.....................................................................................................................
Marketing and purchasing ....................................................................................................................................

2 15,817
3 7 ,326
4 5 ,542
357
14,383
236
74,496
627
2,169
26,945

6 1 ,428
9,144
3,246
96
4,631
111
36,925
536
97
2,022

847
155
61
11
35
0
424
40
2
24

0510
0511
0512
0513
0514
0515
0516
0517
0599

Transportation and public utilities ....................................................................................................................
Real e s t a t e ...................................................................................................................................................................
International business ...........................................................................................................................................
Secretarial s t u d i e s ...................................................................................................................................................
Personnel m anagem ent ........................................................................................................................................
Labor and industrial relations
............................................................................................................................
Business e c o n o m ic s ...............................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

1,816
774
613
571
1,527
2,4 30
1,629
2,712
1,664

129
103
46
1,429
4
473
1,009
341
1,086

2
2
4
5
0
4
17
55
16

0600
0601
0602
0603
0604
0605
0699

C O M M U N IC A T IO N S .......................................................................................................................................................
Communications, general ....................................................................................................................................
J o u r n a lis m ...................................................................................................................................................................
R a d io -te le v is io n .......................................................................................................................................................
A d v e rtis in g ...................................................................................................................................................................
Communication m e d i a ...........................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

3 4,222
15,567
8,841
5,366
2,228
1,794
426

3,327
1,727
901
256
145
223
75

200
139
27
11
0
18
5

0700
0701
0702
0703
0704
0705
0799

C O M P U TE R A N D IN FO R M A TIO N S C IE N C E S .....................................................................................................
Computer and information sciences, general
.............................................................................................
Information sciences and s y s t e m s ....................................................................................................................
Data processing ................................................................................. •....................................................................
Computer programming .......................................................................................................................................
Systems a n a ly s is .......................................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

2 0 ,267
16,368
2,433
960
231
217
58

4,935
4,268
541
28
40
52
6

251
241
10
0
0
0
0

0800
0801
0802
0803
0804
0805
0806
0807
0808
0809

E D U C A TIO N .......................................................................................................................................................................
Education, g e n e r a l ...................................................................................................................................................
Elementary education, g e n e r a l............................................................................................................................
Secondary education, g e n e r a l ............................................................................................................................
Junior high school e d u c a tio n ................................................................................................................................
Higher education, general ....................................................................................................................................
Junion and community college education .....................................................................................................
Adult and continuing education
........................................................................................................................
Special education, g e n e r a l ....................................................................................................................................
Administration of special education ................................................................................................................

101,063
3,157
37,261
2,419
301
38
0
70
8,2 17
0

93,104
11,667
12,788
4,498
249
400
181
956
9,157
44

7,676
1,360
201
175
12
429
66
143
253
19

0810
0811
0812
0813
0814
0815
0816
0817
0818
0819

Education of the mentally r e ta r d e d ....................................................................................................................
Education of the g i f t e d ...........................................................................................................................................
Education of the deaf ...........................................................................................................................................
Education of the culturally disadvantaged .....................................................................................................
Education of thle visually handicapped
.........................................................................................................
Speech correction ...................................................................................................................................................
Education of the emotionally d is tu rb e d ............................................................................................................
Remedial education ...............................................................................................................................................
Special learning disabilities
................................................................................................................................
Education of the physically h a n d ic a p p e d ........................................................................................................

1,394
25
344
9
64
1,120
425
52
792
122

403
166
398
60
146
443
353
82
1,573
78

9
4
3
0
1
1
6
0
22
4

0820
0821
0822
0823
0824
0825
0826
0827
0828
0829

Education of the multiple h a n d ic a p p e d ............................................................................................................
Social foundations ...................................................................................................................................................
Educational psychology ........................................................................................................................................
Pre-elementary education ....................................................................................................................................
Educational statistics and research .................................................................................................................
Educational testing, evaluation, and measurement
.......................................................... ... ...................
Student personnel ...................................................................................................................................................
Educational a d m in is tra tio n ....................................................................................................................................
Educational supervision .......................................................................................................................................
Curriculum and in s tr u c tio n ....................................................................................................................................

54
42
181
4,183
0
4
169
34
57
247

142
336
2,156
1,383
57
160
12,246
9,019
1,674
3,701

0
187
681
54
44
15
624
1,423
51
742

See footnotes at end of table.

108

Table C-6. Continued— Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred in Institutions of higher education by field of study,
1981-82
HEG IS
code

Bachelor’s
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Master's
degrees

Doctor’s
degrees
(Ph.D., Ed.D.
etc.)

0830
0831
0832
0833
0834
0835
0836
0837
0838
0839

Reading e d u c a tio n ...................................................................................................................................................
Art e d u c a tio n ...............................................................................................................................................................
Music education .......................................................................................................................................................
Mathematics e d u c a tio n ...........................................................................................................................................
Science education ...................................................................................................................................................
Physical e d u c a tio n ...................................................................................................................................................
Driver and safety education ................................................................................................................................
Health e d u c a tio n .......................................................................................................................................................
Business, commerce, and distributive e d u c a tio n .................................................. ......................................
Industrial arts, vocational and technical e d u c a tio n .....................................................................................

227
1,897
4,915
629
558
17,391
125
2,175
3,167
5,525

5,470
673
1,084
347
406
4,077
220
845
1,067
2,133

123
43
89
32
59
226
6
72
57
252

0899-1
0899-2
0899-3
0899-4
0899

Agricultural education ...........................................................................................................................................
Education of exceptional children, not classified above ..........................................................................
Hom e economics education ...............................................................................................................................
Nursing education ...................................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

835
186
1,442
108
1,102

257
152
356
9
1,492

28
3
14
0
138

0900
0901
0902
0903
0904
0905
0906
0907
0908
0909

E N G IN E E R IN G ...................................................................................................................................................................
Engineering, g e n e r a l ...............................................................................................................................................
Aerospace, aeronautical, astronautical engineering .................................................................................
Agricultural engineering .......................................................................................................................................
Architectural e n g in e e rin g .......................................................................................................................................
Bioengineering and biomedical engineering .................................................................................................
Chemical engineering ...........................................................................................................................................
Petroleum e n g in e e r in g ...........................................................................................................................................
Civil, construction, and transportation e n g in e e rin g .....................................................................................
Electrical, electronics, communications e n g in e e r in g .................................................................................

80,005
4,318
2,120
838
438
508
6,740
1,245
10,524
16,455

17,939
1,497
521
129
46
236
1,285
122
2,995
4,462

2,636
316
96
38
0
50
311
21
329
526

0910
0911
0912
0913
0914
0915
0916
0917
0918
0919

Mechanical engineering .......................................................................................................................................
Geological e n g in e e rin g ...........................................................................................................................................
Geophysical e n g in e e rin g .......................................................................................................................................
Industrial and m anagem ent e n g in e e r in g ........................................................................................................
Metallurgical e n g in e e rin g .......................................................................................................................................
Materials engineering ...........................................................................................................................................
Ceram ic e n g in e e r in g ...............................................................................................................................................
Textile e n g in e e rin g ...................................................................................................................................................
Mining and mineral engineering ........................................................................................................................
Engineering physics ...............................................................................................................................................

13,922
269
73
3,992
592
798
258
44
662
302

2,399
31
4
1,656
262
282
65
0
88
46

333
2
0
116
59
129
12
1
10
14

0920
0921
0922
0923
0924
0925
0999

Nuclear engineering ...............................................................................................................................................
Engineering mechanics
.......................................................................................................................................
Environmental and sanitary e n g in e e r in g ........................................................................................................
Naval architecture and marine engineering .................................................................................................
O cean e n g in e e rin g ...................................................................................................................................................
Engineering technologies ...................................................................................................................................
Other ..............................................................................................................................................................................

394
327
272
606
202
12,984
1,122

325
140
412
81
116
413
326

124
62
39
1
11
15
21

1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1099

FIN E AND APP LIE D A R T S ............................................................................. .............................................................
Fine arts, general ...................................................................................................................................................
Art ..................................................................................................................................................................................
Art history and appreciation ...............................................................................................................................
Music (performing, composition, t h e o r y ) ........................................................................................................
Music (liberal arts program) ...............................................................................................................................
Music history and a p p re c ia tio n ............................................................................................................................
Dramatic a r t s ...............................................................................................................................................................
Dance ..........................................................................................................................................................................
Applied d e s i g n ...........................................................................................................................................................
Cinematography .......................................................................................................................................................
P h o to g r a p h y ..............................................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

40,422
3,834
11 515
1 ’975
5,138
3,137
143
5,286
795
4,747
692
1,068
2,092

8,746
557
1 873
410
2,596
660
105
1,258
269
347
159
84
428

670
40
12
95
298
79
29
93
4
1
8
0
11

1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109

FO R E IG N LAN G U A G E S ...............................................................................................................................................
Foreign languages, general ...............................................................................................................................
F r e n c h ..........................................................................................................................................................................
Germ an
......................................................................................................................................................................
Italian
..........................................................................................................................................................................
Spanish ......................................................................................................................................................................
Russian ......................................................................................................................................................................
Chinese ......................................................................................................................................................................
Japanese ......................................................................................................................................................................
Latin ..............................................................................................................................................................................

9,841
720
3,054
1 327
208
3,633
324
68
100
86

2,008
324
485
324
55
568
49
14
16
10

536
121
92
76
14
140
7
10
3
2

See footnotes at end of table.

109

Table C-6. Continued—Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred in institutions of higher education by field of study,
1981-82
H EG IS
code

Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

M asters
degrees

Doctors
degrees
(Ph D., Ed.D.,
etc.)

Greek, classical .......................................................................................................................................................
H e b r e w ..........................................................................................................................................................................
Arabic ..........................................................................................................................................................................
Indian ( A s ia t ic ) ...........................................................................................................................................................
Scandinavian la n g u a g e s .......................................................................................................................................
Slavic languages (other than R u s s ia n )............................................................................................................
African languages (n o n -S e m itic )........................................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

82
44
15
4
31
48
1
96

7
30
4
6
8
30
4
74

3
1
4
7
2
18
7
29

1200
1201
1202
1203
1205
1207
1208
1209-2
1211-2
1212

HEALTH P R O F E S S IO N S ...............................................................................................................................................
Health professions, general ...............................................................................................................................
Hospital and health care administration ........................................................................................................
N u r s in g ..........................................................................................................................................................................
Dental specialties ...................................................................................................................................................
Medical s p e c ia ltie s ...................................................................................................................................................
Occupational th e r a p y ...............................................................................................................................................
Opometry
..................................................................................................................................................................
Pharmacy ..................................................................................................................................................................
Physical t h e r a p y .......................................................................................................................................................

63,653
4,862
1,978
33,177
0
5
1,663
396
6,367
2,736

16,503
868
1,640
5,312
359
147
255
9
368
317

925
75
20
134
9
49
0
2
127
0

1213
1214
1215
1216-2
1217
1219
1220
1221-2
1222
1223

Dental h y g ie n e ...........................................................................................................................................................
Public h e a l t h ..............................................................................................................................................................
Medical record librarianship ...............................................................................................................................
Podiatry or podiatric m e d ic in e ............................................................................................................................
Biomedical c o m m u n ic a tio n ...................................................................................................................................
Veterinary medicine specialties ........................................................................................................................
Speech pathology and audiology
....................................................................................................................
Chiropractic ..............................................................................................................................................................
Clinical social w o r k ...................................................................................................................................................
Medical laboratory technologies ........................................................................................................................

1,167
705
612
0
32
0
3,414
64
268
4,596

21
2,312
5
2
14
184
3,104
0
561
207

0
207
0
0
0
65
114
0
15
4

1224
1225
1299

Dental technologies ...............................................................................................................................................
Radiologic technologies ........................... ............................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

5
453
1,153

13
34
771

0
4
100

1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1399

H O M E E C O N O M IC S .......................................................................................................................................................
Hom e economics, g e n e r a l ...................................................................................................................................
Hom e decoration and home equipment ........................................................................................................
Clothing and t e x t i l e s ...............................................................................................................................................
Consumer economics and home m anagem ent .........................................................................................
Family relations and child development ........................................................................................................
Foods and nutrition
...............................................................................................................................................
Institutional m anagem ent and cafeteria m anagem ent ..............................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

17,872
5,535
838
3,270
647
3,005
3,082
607
888

2,355
753
18
98
73
515
749
30
119

247
83
0
18
6
86
41
0
13

1400
1401-2
1499

LAW ......................................................................................................................................................................................
Law, g e n e r a l ..............................................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

846
592
254

1,893
1,468
425

22
22
0

1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1599

LE TTE R S ..............................................................................................................................................................................
English, general .......................................................................................................................................................
Literature, English ...................................................................................................................................................
Com parative literature ...........................................................................................................................................
Classics ......................................................................................................................................................................
Linguistics ..................................................................................................................................................................
Speech, debate, and forensic s c i e n c e ............................................................................................................
Creative writing
.......................................................................................................................................................
Teaching of English as a foreign language
..................................................................................... ...
P h ilo s o p h y ..................................................................................................................................................................
Religious s t u d ie s .......................................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

4 0,693
22,988
1,975
341
381
534
6,646
467
50
3,391
2,918
1,002

8,2 26
3,787
415
179
133
516
992
295
653
445
707
104

1,681
730
81
115
48
164
144
0
4
247
117
31

1600
1601
1699

LIB R A RY S C IE N C E
.......................................................................................................................................................
Library science, general .......................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

307
282
25

4,506
4,385
121

84
82
2

1700
1700
1702
1703
1799

M A T H E M A TIC S
...............................................................................................................................................................
Mathematics, general ...........................................................................................................................................
Statistics, mathematical and theoretical .........................................................................................................
Applied m a th e m a tic s ...............................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

11,599
10,450
258
560
331

2,727
1,927
479
236
85

681
512
125
34
10

1800
1801

M ILITA RY S C IE N C E S ...................................................................................................................................................
Military science ( A r m y ) ...........................................................................................................................................

283
6

49
49

0
0

1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1199

II O

Table C-6. Continued—Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred in institutions of higher education by field of study,
1981-82
HEG IS
code

Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

M aster’s
degrees

Doctor’s
degrees
(Ph.D ., Ed.D.,
etc.)

Naval science (Navy, M a r in e s )............................................................................................................................
Aerospace science (Air F o r c e ) ............................................................................................................................
Merchant m a r i n e .......................................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ...............................................................................................................................................................................

3
19
228
27

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909

P H YSIC A L S C I E N C E S ...................................................................................................................................................
Physical sciences, general
Physics, general .......................................................................................................................................................
Molecular physics ....................................................................................................................................................
Nuclear physics .......................................................................................................................................................
Chemistry, g e n e r a l ....................................................................................................................................................
Inorganic chemistry
................................................................................................................................................
Organic chemistry ....................................................................................................................................................
Physical c h e m is tr y ....................................................................................................................................................
Analytical chemistry ................................................................................................................................................

2 4,052
765
3,472
0
0
11,025
0
4
10
16

5,514
131
1,282
0
2
1,618
5
19
23
18

3,286
24
863
1
9
1,595
14
35
23
15

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919

Pharmaceutical chemistry ....................................................................................................................................
Astronomy ...................................................................................................................................................................
Astrophysics ...............................................................................................................................................................
Atmospheric sciences and meteorology .........................................................................................................
Geology .......................................................................................................................................................................
Geochemistry
...........................................................................................................................................................
Geophysics and s e is m o lo g y ................................................................................................................................
Earth sciences, general ........................................................................................................................................
P a le o n to lo g y ...............................................................................................................................................................
O c e a n o g r a p h y ...........................................................................................................................................................

7
81
32
412
5,337
8
193
886
1
220

68
61
19
164
1,411
13
116
136
6
166

40
66
10
45
241
4
37
59
5
98

1920
1999-1
1999-2

Metallurgy ...................................................................................................................................................................
Other earth s c ie n c e s ................................................................................................................................................
Other physical sciences ........................................................................................................................................

48
263
1,272

23
100
133

24
29
49

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2099

P S Y C H O LO G Y ...................................................................................................................................................................
Psychology, general ................................................................................................................................................
Experimental p s y c h o lo g y ........................................................................................................................................
Clinical p s y c h o lo g y ...................................................................................................................................................
Psychology for c o u n s e lin g ....................................................................................................................................
Social psychology ...................................................................................................................................................
P s y c h o m e tric s ...........................................................................................................................................................
Statistics in psychology ........................................................................................................................................
Industrial p s y c h o lo g y ................................................................................................................................................
Developmental p s y c h o lo g y ....................................................................................................................................
Physiological p s y c h o lo g y ........................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ...............................................................................................................................................................................

41,031
39,251
237
81
218
441
0
5
57
231
83
427

7,791
4,448
98
663
1,861
203
29
16
141
160
5
167

2,780
1,845
69
555
163
39
5
3
13
63
19
6

2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2199

PUBLIC A FFA IR S A N D S E R V IC E S ........................................................................................................................
Community services, general ............................................................................................................................
Public a d m in is tra tio n ................................................................................................................................................
Parks and recreation m a n a g e m e n t.....................................................................................................................
Social work and helping services .....................................................................................................................
Law enforcement and corrections ....................................................................................................................
International public s e r v ic e ....................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ...............................................................................................................................................................................

34,428
1,469
2,122
5,335
11,813
12,438
160
1,091

19,388
473
6,503
526
9,959
1,336
110
481

429
36
134
33
198
24
0
4

2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209

SO CIAL S C IE N C E S
.......................................................................................................................................................
Social sciences, g e n e r a l ........................................................................................................................................
A n th ro p o lo g y ...............................................................................................................................................................
Archaeology ...............................................................................................................................................................
E c o n o m ic s ...................................................................................................................................................................
H i s t o r y ...........................................................................................................................................................................
G e o g r a p h y ...................................................................................................................................................................
Political science and government .....................................................................................................................
S o c io lo g y .......................................................................................................................................................................
Criminology
...............................................................................................................................................................

99,898
7,954
3,0 69
72
19,876
17,146
3,445
2 5 ,658
16,042
2,051

11,951
1,107
826
23
1,964
2,210
553
1,954
1,145
289

3,065
66
334
11
677
636
123
513
558
11

2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2299

International relations ............................................................................................................................................
Afro-American (black culture) studies .............................................................................................................
American Indian cultural s t u d i e s ........................................................................................................................
M exican-American cultural s t u d ie s ....................................................................................................................
Urban studies ...........................................................................................................................................................
D e m o g r a p h y ...............................................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ..............................................................................................................................................................................

2,336
219
24
110
1,122

1,075
46
0
13
589
24
133

56
3
1
0
30
10
36

1802
1803
1899-2
1899

See footnotes at end of table.

Ill

9
765

Table C-6. Continued— Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred in institutions of higher education by field of study,
1981-82
HEG IS
code

Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

M aster’s
degrees

Doctor’s
degrees
(Ph D., Ed.D.,
etc.)

2300
2301-2
2302
2303
2304
2399

T H E O LO G Y
.......................................................................................................................................................................
Theological professions, g e n e r a l.........................................................................................................................
Religious music .......................................................................................................................................................
Biblical languages ...................................................................................................................................................
Religious education ...............................................................................................................................................
O t h e r ...............................................................................................................................................................................

5,998
3 ’464
317
78
1,561
578

4,064
2^266
183
56
1,284
275

1,288
lil6 0
10
6
44
68

4900
4901
4902
4903
4904
4999

IN TE R D IS C IP LIN A R Y S T U D I E S ................................................................................................................................
1 General liberal arts and sciences .....................................................................................................................
Biological and physical s c ie n c e s ........................................................................................................................
Humanities and social sciences ........................................................................................................................
Engineering and other disciplines ....................................................................................................................
O t h e r ...............................................................................................................................................................................

35,796
18,145
3,1 25
2,944
379
11,203

4,9 78
1,094
253
1,331
1,060
1,240

393
35
31
120
31
176

N OTE: Dash indicates data are not available.

SO U R CE : U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education
Statistics.

Table C-7. First professional degrees’ conferred by institutions
of higher education, 1981 -82_________________________
First professional
degrees

Field of study
Total, all in s titu tio n s ...............................

72,032

Chiropractic (D .C . or D . C . M . ) ............................
Dentistry (D .D .S. or D .M .D .) ............................
Medicine (M .D .)
...................................................
Optometry ( O . D . ) ...................................................
Osteopathic Medicine (D O . ) ............................
Pharmacy (D. Phar.) ...........................................
Podiatry (Pod. D. or D .P.) or
Podiatric Medicine (D .P .M .) ....................
Veterinary Medicine ( D . V .M . ) ............................
Law (LL.B. or J . D . ) ...............................................
Theology (B.D., M. Div., or R a b b i ) ................

2,626
5,282
15,814
1,110
1,047
625
598
2,038
35,991
6,901

1 1ncludes degrees that require at least 6 years of college work for comple­
tion (including at least 2 years of preprofessional training).
SO U R CE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education
Statistics.

112

Appendix D.
State Employment Security Agencies

State employment security agencies develop occupational
projections and related employment statistics in cooperation

with the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The following list
shows where to write or call for this information.

Alabama

District of Columbia

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Industrial Relations,
Industrial Relations Bldg., Room 427, 649 Monroe St., Montgomery,
Ala. 36130. Phone: (205) 832-5263.

Chief, Division of Labor Market Information, Department of
Employment Services, 500 C St. NW., Room 411, Washington,
D.C. 20001. Phone: (202) 724-2414.

Alaska

Florida

Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment Security Division,
Department of Labor, P.O. Box 1149, Juneau, Alaska 99811.
Phone: (907) 465-4502.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Division of Labor and Employment
Security, Caldwell Building, Tallahassee, Fla. 32301. Phone: (904)
488-1048.

Arizona

Georgia

Chief, Labor Market Information, Research and Analysis, Depart­
ment of Economic Security, 733— P.O. Box 6123, Phoenix,
A,
Ariz. 85035. Phone: (602) 255-3616.

Director, Labor Information Systems, Department of Labor, 254
Washington St., S.W., Atlanta, Ga. 30334. Phone: (404) 656—
3177.
Hawaii

Arkansas

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Labor and Industrial
Relations, 830 Punchbowl St., Honolulu, Hawaii 96813. Phone:
(808) 548-7639.

Assistant Director, Research and Analysis, Employment Security
Division, P.O. Box 2981, Little Rock, Ark. 72203. Phone: (501)
371-1541.

Idaho
California

Chief, Research and Analysis, Department of Employment, P.O.
Box 35, Boise, Idaho 83735. Phone: (208) 384-2755.

Chief, Employment Data and Research Division, Employment
Development Department, P.O. Box 1679, Sacramento, Calif.
95808. Phone: (916) 445-4434.

Illinois

Colorado

Director, Research and Analysis, Bureau of Employment Security,
Department of Labor, 910 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 1 60605.
11.
Phone:(312) 793-2317.

Chief, Research and Development, Division of Employment and
Training, Department of Labor and Employment, 1278 Lincoln
Street, Denver, Colo. 80203. Phone: (303) 839—
5833, Ext. 43.

Indiana
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Security Division, 10
N. Senate Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46204. Phone: (317) 232-7701.

Connecticut
Director, Research and Information, Employment Security Divi­
sion, Department of Labor, 200 Folly Brook Blvd., Withersfield,
Conn. 06109. Phone: (203) 641-4280.

Iowa
Chief, Audit and Analysis, Department of Job Service, 1000 E.
Grand Ave., Des Moines, Iowa 50319. Phone: (515) 281-5802.

Delaware

Kansas

Chief, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Department
of Labor, University Plaza Office Complex, Chapman Rd. - Route
273, Newark, Del. 19713. Phone: (302) 368-6921.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Department of Human Resources,
Department of Labor, 401 Topeka Ave., Topeka, Kans. 66603.
Phone: (913) 296-5058.
113

Kentucky

Nevada

Manager, Labor Market Research and Analysis, Department for
Manpower Services, Cabinet for Human Resources, 275 E. Main
St., Frankfort, Ky. 40621. Phone: (502) 564—
7976.

Chief, Employment Security Research, Employment Security
Department, 500 E. Third St., Carson City, Nev. 89713. Phone:
(702) 885-4550.

Louisiana

New Hampshire

Director, Research and Statistics, Department of Labor, P.O. Box
44094, Capital Station, Baton Rouge, La. 70804. Phone: (504)
342-3141.

Director, Economic Analysis and Reports, Department of Employ­
ment Security, 32 S. Main St., Concord, N.H. 03301. Phone:
(603) 224-3311, Ext. 251.

Maine

New Jersey

Director, Research and Analysis, Bureau of Employment Security,
20 Union St., Augusta, Maine 04330. Phone: (207) 289—
2271.

Director, Division of Planning and Research, Department of Labor,
P.O. Box 2765, Trenton, N.J. 08625. Phone: (609) 292-2643.

Maryland

New Mexico

Director, Research and Analysis, Department of Human Resources,
Employment Security Administration, 1100 N. Eutaw St., Balti­
more, Md. 21201. Phone: (301) 383-5000.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Services Division,
Department of Human Services, P.O. Box 1928, Albuquerque, N.
Mex. 87103. Phone: (505) 841-8645.

Massachusetts

New York

Director, Job Market Research, Division of Employment Security,
Hurley Bldg., Government Center, Boston, Mass. 02114. Phone:
(617) 727-6556.

Director, Research and Statistics, Department of Labor, State
Campus, Bldg. 12, Albany, N.Y. 12240. Phone: (518)457-6181.
North Carolina

Michigan

Director, Labor Market Information, Employment Security Com­
mission, P.O. Box 25903, Raleigh, N.C. 27611. Phone: (919)
733-2936.

Director, Research and Statistics, Employment Security Commis­
sion, 7310 Woodward Ave., Room 516, Detroit, Mich. 48202.
Phone: (313) 876-5445.

North Dakota
Minnesota

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Security Bureau, P.O.
Box 1537, Bismarck, N. Dak. 58505. Phone: (701) 224-2868.

Director, Research and Statistical Services, Department of Eco­
nomic Security, 390 N. Robert St., St. Paul, Minn. 55101. Phone:
(612) 2 9 6 -6 5 4 5 .

Ohio
Mississippi
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Security Commission,
P.O. Box 1699, Jackson, Miss. 39205. Phone: (601) 961—
7424.

Director, Research and Statistics, Bureau of Employment Services,
145 South Front St., Columbus, Ohio 43216. Phone: (614)
466 - 3240.

Missouri

Oklahoma

Chief, Research and Analysis, Division of Employment Security,
P.O. Box 59, Jefferson City, Mo. 65104. Phone: (314) 751-3215.

Chief, Research and Planning, Employment Security Commission,
310 Will Rogers Memorial Office Bldg., Oklahoma City, Okla.
73105. Phone: (405) 521-3735.

Montana
Oregon

Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment Security Division,
Department of Labor and Industry, P.O. Box 1728, Helena, Mont.
59601. Phone: (406) 449 - 2430.

Assistant Administrator, Research and Statistics, Employment Divi­
sion, Department of Human Resources, 875 Union St., N.E., Salem,
Oreg. 97311. Phone: (503) 378-3220.

Nebraska
Pennsylvania

Chief, Research and Statistics, Division of Employment, Depart­
ment of Labor, P.O. Box 94600, State House Station, Lincoln,
Nebr. 68509. Phone: (402) 475-8451.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Labor and Industry, 7th
and Foster Sts., Harrisburg, Pa. 17121. Phone: (717) 787—
3265.

114

Puerto Rico

Vermont

Chief, Department of Labor and Human Resources, Bureau of
Employment Security, 505 Munoz Rivera Avenue-15th Floor, Hato
Rey, P.R. 00918. Phone: (809) 751-3737.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Employment and
Training, P.O. Box 488, Montpelier, Vt. 05602. Phone: (802)
229-0311.

Rhode Island

Virginia

Supervisor, Employment Security Research, Department of Em­
ployment Security, 24 Mason St., Providence R.I. 02903. Phone:
(401) 277-3704.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Virginia Employment Commission,
P.O. Box 1358, Richmond, Va. 23211. Phone: (804) 786-7496.

South Carolina

Virgin Islands

Director, Manpower Research and Analysis, Employment Secu­
rity Commission, P.O. Box 995, Columbia, S.C. 29202. Phone
(803) 758-8983.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 35 Norre
Gade, P.O. Box 818, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands 00801.

South Dakota

Washington

Chief, Research and Statistics, Office of Administrative Services,
Department of Labor, P.O. Box 1730, Aberdeen, S. Dak. 57401.
Phone: (605) 622-2314.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Security Department,
212 Maple Park, Olympia, Wash. 98504. Phone: (206) 753-5224.

West Virginia
Tennessee
Chief, Labor and Economic Security, Department of Employment
Security, 112 California Ave., Charleston, W. Va. 25305. Phone:
(304) 348-2660.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Employment
Security, 519 Cordell Hull Office Bldg., 436 Sixth Avenue, North,
Nashville, Tenn. 37219. Phone: (615) 741-2284.

Texas

Wisconsin

Chief, Economic Research and Analysis, Texas Employment
Commission, 15th and Congress Ave., Austin, Texas 78778.
Phone: (512) 397-4540.

Chief, Labor Market Information, Department of Industry, Labor,
and Human Relations, P.O. Box 7944, Madison, Wis. 53707.
Phone: (608) 266-5843.

Utah

Wyoming

Chief, Research and Analysis, Department of Employment Security,
P.O. Box 11249, Salt Lake City, Utah 84147. Phone: (801)
533-2014.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment Security Commission,
P.O. Box 2760, Casper, Wyo. 82602. Phone: (307) 237-3701.

115

BLS Occupational Earnings Data
Area Wage Surveys
These publications provide earnings d ata annually for a
variety of w hite-collar, skilled m aintenance, and other
nonproduction occupations in about 70 m etropolitan
areas throughout th e N ation. In addition to these annual
publications, sum m aries for approxim ately 90 other areas
are released periodically.

Industry Wage Surveys
These pub lications provide national, regional, and local
earnings d a ta for m any o f the m ost com m on occu pations
in 25 m anu facturing and 15 nonm anufacturing industries.
Inform ation also is included on w eekly w ork schedules;
sh ift operations and d ifferentials; paid holiday and vacation
practices; and health, insurance, and pension plans, as w ell
as other item s ap p licab le to a p articular industry.

National Survey off Professional,
Administrative, Technical, and
Clerical Pay
This annual publication contains average salaries for about
25 professional, adm inistrative, techn ical, and clerical jobs
in th e private sector of th e econom y.

Current Population Survey
D ata on usual w eekly earnings of full-tim e w age and salary
workers are available from the Current Population Survey
for several hundred occupations. D ata for m ajor occupational
groups are published quarterly in the periodical Em ploym ent
and Earnings. More detail is available from the Division
of Em ploym ent and Unem ploym ent Analysis.

Inform ation on how to order publications m ay be obtained from the BLS Regional O ffices listed below.

BLS Regional Offices
S u ite 1603
John F. Kenrtedy Federal Building
G overnm ent C enter
Boston, M ass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761
S u ite 3400
1515 B roadw ay
N ew York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121
3535 M arket S treet
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154

1371 Peachtree St., N.E.
A tlan ta, G a. 30367
Phone: (404) 881-4418
9th Floor
Federal O ffice Bldg.
230 S. Dearborn St.
C hicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

2nd Floor
555 G riffin Square Bldg.
D allas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 767-6971
911 W aln u t St.
K ansas C ity, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481
450 G olden G ate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, C alif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE:

1984-437-669:19059

If you are
. . .in v o lv e d in c o u n s e lin g o th e rs
a b o u t jo b o p p o r tu n itie s ,
. . .th in k in g a b o u t a c a r e e r,
. . .c o n t e m p la tin g a c a r e e r c h a n g e ,
. . .in v o lv e d in e d u c a tio n p la n n in g ,
. . .in v o lv e d in w o rk e r tr a in in g
o r d is p la c e d -w o r k e r r e tr a in in g ,
. . .o r s im p ly in te r e s te d in k n o w in g a b o u t th e w o rld
o f w o rk a n d h o w it is lik e ly to c h a n g e , y o u
re a lly s h o u ld e x a m in e th e B u r e a u ’s o th e r tw o
jo b o u tlo o k p u b lic a tio n s :

Occupational Outlook Handbook
P ro b a b ly th e m o s t w id e ly u s e d c a r e e r re s o u rc e ;
fo u n d in 9 o u t o f 10 s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls . U p d a te d
e v e ry 2 y e a rs , it d e s c r ib e s w h a t w o rk e rs d o o n th e
jo b , w h e r e th e y w o rk , h o w m u c h th e y e a r n , th e
tr a in in g a n d e d u c a tio n th e y n e e d , a n d jo b o u tlo o k
fo r a b o u t 2 0 0 o c c u p a tio n s .

Occupational Outlook Quarterly
It h e lp s to k e e p y o u in fo rm e d a b o u t c h a n g in g
c a r e e r o p p o r tu n itie s , a n d p r o v id e s p r a c tic a l, “ h o w to -d o -it” in fo r m a tio n o n c h o o s in g a n d g e ttin g
t o d a y ’s a n d to m o r r o w ’s jo b s .
If th e s e p u b lic a tio n s a r e n ’t a v a ila b le in y o u r lo c a l
p u b lic lib ra ry o r h ig h s c h o o l m e d ia c e n te r, y o u m a y
w a n t to p u r c h a s e th e m fo r y o u r o w n u s e . H e r e ’s
h o w to d o it:

E nter m y ord er for O c c u p a tio n a l O u tlo o k H a n d b o o k .
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P ap er cover $ 8.50 , n o . __________ A m o u n t e n c lo s e d $___________

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□

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S en d o rd e r to B LS re g io n a l o ffic e s lis te d on p a g e 116 o r to S u p e rin te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n ts , G o v e rn m e n t P rin tin g O ffic e ,
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□

E n te r m y s u b s c rip tio n to O c c u p a tio n a l O u tlo o k Q u a rte rly , $11.
$______ e n c lo s e d .

C h a rg e to G P O D e p o s it A c c o u n t N o ------------------------------------------------------------ -----------

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E xp iratio n D a te _ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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p a y a b le to S u p e rin te n d e n t o f D o cu m e n ts .
N a m e ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102