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Occupational
Projections and
Training Data




1986

Edition

Occupational
Projections and
Training Data

1986
Edition

A Statistical and Research Supplement
to the 1986-87 Occupational Outlook Handbook
U.S. Department of Labor
W illiam E. Brock, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
April 1986
Bulletin 2251

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402







Preface

This statistical and research supplement to the 1986-87

O ccupational O u tlo o k H a n db o o k is the seventh in a series
dating to 1971 that presents the data underlying the in­
formation developed in the Bureau’s occupational
outlook program; since 1974, O ccupational P roje ctio n s
and T raining D ata has been published biennially as a
companion to the H a n d b o o k.
This bulletin was prepared in the Division of Oc­
cupational Outlook under the direction of Neal
Rosenthal and Michael Pilot. Patrick Wash supervis­
ed its preparation. Alan Eck prepared the chapter
on occupational separations and the material on oc­
cupational movements and replacement needs. Max
L. Carey prepared the chapter on how workers get




their training. Douglas Braddock prepared the infor­
mation on broad occupational trends. Martha C.
White prepared the employment and training pro­
files and assembled the detailed training data. Under
the direction of Beverly A. Williams, word process­
ing was handled by Brenda A. Marshall, Marilyn
Queen, and Idena B. Sanders.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without
permission. Comments about the contents and sugges­
tions for improvement are welcome. Please address them
to Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of
Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20212.




Contents

Page
Chapters:
1. Using occupational data for planning
education and training programs.......

Page
ENGINEERS, SURVEYORS, AND
ARCHITECTS ...............................
Architects..................................
Engineers..................................
Aerospace engineers..................
Chemical engineers ..................
Civil engineers .........................
Electrical and electronics
engineers...............................
Industrial engineers..................
Mechanical engineers................
Metallurgical, ceramic, and
materials engineers...............
Mining engineers......................
Nuclear engineers......................
Petroleum engineers..................
Surveyors..................................

1

2. Tomorrow’s jobs.................................
Population.................................
Labor force...............................
Employment.............................
Employment change ................
Industrial profile......................
Occupational profile................

3
3
4
7
8
8
11

3. Occupational separations....................
Gross separations......................
Demographic factors affecting
separation rates....................
Permanent labor force
separations...........................

17
17

20

4. How workers get their training...........
Sources of qualifying training ..
Occupational patterns...............

25
26
28

5. Occupational profiles...........................
Employment profile..................
Supply profile...........................

31
31
32

37
37
37
38
38
38

EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE,
AND MANAGERIAL
OCCUPATIONS.............................
Accountants and auditors.........
Bank officers and managers... .
Construction and building
inspectors.............................
Health services managers.........
Hotel managers and assistants..
Inspectors and compliance
officers, except construction .
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists...............
Purchasing agents ....................
School principals and assistant
principals .............................
Underwriters.............................
Wholesale and retail buyers . . . .




19

NATURAL SCIENTISTS AND
MATHEMATICIANS...........................
Actuaries..................................
Agricultural scientists...............
Biological scientists..................
Chemists ...................................
Computer systems analysts.......
Foresters and conservation
scientists...............................
Geologists and geophysicists .. .
Mathematicians.........................
Meteorologists...........................
Physicists and astronomers ___
Statisticians...............................

33
33
33
33
34
34

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, SOCIAL
WORKERS, RELIGIOUS WORKERS,
AND LAWYERS...................................
Clergy........................................
Economists...............................
Lawyers....................................
Psychologists.............................
Recreation w orkers..................
Social workers .........................
Sociologists...............................
Urban and regional planners ...

34
35
35
36
36
36
v

38
39
39
39
39
40
40
40

40
40
41
41
41
42
42
43
43
43
44
44

44
44
45
45
45
46
46
47
47

Contents— Continued
Page

TEACHERS, COUNSELORS,
LIBRARIANS, AND ARCHIVISTS .. .
Adult and vocational education
teachers....................................
Archivists and curators................
College and university faculty . . . .
Counselors....................................
Kindergarten and elementary
school teachers..........................
Librarians......................................
Secondary school teachers.............
HEALTH DIAGNOSING AND
TREATING PRACTITIONERS...........
Chiropractors.................................
Dentists..........................................
Optometrists .................................
Physicians......................................
Podiatrists.....................................
Veterinarians.................................
REGISTERED NURSES,
PHARMACISTS, DIETITIANS,
THERAPISTS, AND PHYSICIAN
ASSISTANTS........................................
Dietitians and nutritionists...........
Occupational therapists................
Pharmacists...................................
Physical therapists ........................
Physician assistants........................
Recreational therapists..................
Registered nurses...........................
Respiratory therapists....................
Speech pathologists and
audiologists...............................
HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND
TECHNICIANS....................................
Clinical laboratory technologists
and technicians..........................
Dental hygienists...........................
Dispensing opticians......................
Electrocardiograph technicians_
_
Electroencephalographic
technologists and technicians . . .
Emergency medical technicians . . .
Licensed practical nurses...............
Medical record technicians...........
Radiologic technologists ...............
Surgical technicians ......................




Page

WRITERS, ARTISTS, AND
ENTERTAINERS .................................
Actors, directors, and producers ..
Dancers and choreographers.........
Designers ......................................
Graphic and fine artists.................
Musicians.......................................
Photographers and camera
operators...................................
Public relations specialists.............
Radio and television announcers
and newscasters........................
Reporters and correspondents_
_
Writers and editors........................

47
47
48
48
48
49
49
50
50
50
50
51
51
51
52

TECHNOLOGISTS AND
TECHNICIANS, EXCEPT HEALTH..
Air traffic controllers....................
Broadcast technicians....................
Computer programmers.................
Drafters ........................................
Electrical and electronics
technicians.................................
Engineering technicians.................
Legal assistants.............................
Library technicians........................
Science technicians........................
Tool programmers, numerical
control......................................

52
52
52
52
53
53
54
54
54

55
56
56
56

MARKETING AND SALES
OCCUPATIONS...................................
Cashiers........................................
Insurance sales workers.................
Manufacturers’ sales workers.......
Real estate agents and
brokers.......................................
Retail sales workers......................
Securities and financial
services sales workers...............
Travel agents.................................
Wholesale trade sales workers . . . .

57
57
57
58
58
58

ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT
OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING
CLERICAL............................................
Bank tellers...................................
Bookkeepers and accounting
clerks........................................

55
55

vi

59
59
59
59
60
60
61
61
62
62
62
63
63
63
63
64
64
65
65
66
66
66
66
66
67
67
68
68
68
69
69

69
69
70

Contents— Continued
Page

Computer and peripheral
equipmentoperators..................
Data entry keyers.........................
Mail carriers and postal
clerks........................................
Receptionists and information
clerks........................................
Reservation and transportation
ticket agents and travel clerks ..
Secretaries ....................................
Statistical clerks.............................
Stenographers ...............................
Teacher aides.................................
Telephone operators......................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving
clerks........................................
Typists ..........................................
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS......................
Barbers..........................................
Bartenders....................................
Chefs and cooks, except short
order..........................................
Childcare workers.........................
Correction officers........................
Cosmetologists and related
workers ....................................
Dental assistants...........................
Firefighting occupations ...............
Flight attendants...........................
G uards..........................................
Janitors and cleaners....................
Medical assistants.........................
Nursing aides and psychiatric
aides..........................................
Police and detectives....................
Waiters and waitresses..................
AGRICULTURAL, FORESTRY,
AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS .......
Farm operators and managers . . . .
MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS...........
Aircraft mechanics and engine
specialists...................................
Automotive and motorcycle
mechanics .................................
Automotive body repairers...........
Commercial and industrial
electronic equipment repairers ..
Communications equipment
mechanics .................................



Page

Computer service technicians.. .
Diesel mechanics ......................
Electronic home entertainment
equipment repairers .............
Farm equipment mechanics_
_
General maintenance mechanics
Heating, air-conditioning, and
refrigeration mechanics.......
Home appliance and power tool
repairers...............................
Industrial machinery repairers ..
Line installers and cable
splicers..................................
Millwrights....... .......................
Mobile heavy equipment
mechanics.............................
Musical instrument repairers
and tuners.............................
Office machine and
cash register servicers...........
Telephone installers and
repairers...............................
Vending machine servicers and
repairers...............................

70
71
71
72
72
72
73
73
74
74
74
75
75
75
76
76
76
77

83
84
84
85
85
85
86
86
87
87
87
88
88
88
89

CONSTRUCTION AND EXTRACTIVE
OCCUPATIONS..................................
Bricklayers and stonemasons .. .
Carpenters.................................
Carpet installers........................
Concrete masons and terrazzo
workers.................................
Drywall workers and lathers .. .
Electricians...............................
Glaziers....................................
Insulation workers....................
Painters and paperhangers.......
Plasterers..................................
Plumbers and pipefitters...........
Roofers ....................................
Roustabouts .............................
Sheet-metal workers..................
Structural and reinforcing
metal workers ......................
Tilesetters..................................

80
80
81
81
81
81
81
82
82
83
83
vii

95
95

PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS.............
Blue-collar worker supervisors..
Boilermakers.............................
Bookbinding workers ...............
Butchers and meatcutters.........

77
78
78
78
79
79
79

95
95
96
96
96

89
89
90
90
90
91
91
92
92
92
93
93
94
94
94

Contents— Continued
Page

Page

Compositors and typesetters .. .
97
Dental laboratory technicians .. 97
97
Jewelers................................
Lithographic and photoengraving
workers............................
97
98
Machinists............................
Metalworking and plastic­
working machine operators .. 98
Numerical-control machine-tool
operators..........................
98
Photographic process workers .. 99
Precision assemblers............
99
Printing press operators...........
99
Shoe and leather workers and
100
repairers..........................
Stationary engineers.............. 100
Tool-and-die makers............ 100
Transportation equipment
painters............................
101
Upholsterers......................... 101
Water and sewage treatment
plant operators ....................... 101
Welders and cutters.............. 101
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL
MOVING OCCUPATIONS.............. 102
Aircraft pilots....................... 102
Busdrivers............................
102




Construction machinery
operators...............................
Industrial truck and tractor
operators...............................
Truckdrivers.............................
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT
CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND
LABORERS..........................................
Construction trades helpers

103
103

104
104

Appendixes:
A. Assumptions and methods used in
preparing employment
projections ..........................
B. Detailed occupational
projections...................................
C. Detailed data on gross separations
and age distributions....................
D. Statistics on how workers get their
training, by occupation...............
E. Detailed training statistics...............
F. Sources of State and local job outlook
information....... ........................
Index to occupational profiles..................

vm

103

105
109
122
135
166
195
200

Chapter 1. Using Occupational Data
for Planning Education and Training
Programs

computer manufacturing industry. Clearly, in this
dynamic industry, output growth cannot be predicted
with precision, even though most analysts agree that the
industry will grow significantly.
Job openings resulting from the need to replace in­
dividuals who leave their jobs, which is another compo­
nent of demand, are perhaps even more difficult to pro­
ject than occupational growth. However, job openings
resulting from replacement needs are a more significant
source of demand than occupational growth in virtually
all occupations. Individuals leave their jobs for a wide
variety of reasons. Some leave to work in another occupa­
tion that may have higher earnings, better working con­
ditions, or more stable employment. Some workers lose
their jobs and transfer to another occupation, sometimes
after a period of unemployment. Others leave their jobs
to retire, to attend school full time, or to take care of
family responsibilities. The ability to develop a model that
projects each of these situations accurately is severely
hampered by a lack of data. However, even if data were
available, they would be affected by so many constantly
changing economic and social factors that perfectly ac­
curate projections could not be developed.
If we turn to projections of supply, we are confronted
by factors at least as complex as those involved in de­
mand projections. First, for most occupations, there are
a variety of ways to qualify for a job. In addition, in most
occupations, one type of training is not predominant. Oc­
cupations such as physician, dentist, and veterinarian that
require specific educational qualifications really are ex­
ceptions. Further, many individuals who complete a
specific occupational training program do not enter that
occupation. Also, employers are a major source of train­
ing for many occupations, but data are lacking on
whether and to what extent employers provide training
because trained workers are not available or because they
feel they must do so to obtain the quality of workers they
need. With the additional variable of the supply of
workers arising from movement from one occupaton to
another, projecting supply in most occupations is
difficult.

The use of occupational information in planning
education and training programs—especially information
on future job prospects—has become increasingly impor­
tant in the past decade. Not only has most Federal legisla­
tion dealing with career-oriented education and training
during this period mandated its use in planning, but more
occupational information has become available for use
at the local level, where most planning is conducted.
Much of the focus of the statutes governing education
planning is on the use of occupational demand and supply
information, where demand is specified as future growth
and replacement needs, and supply is specified as the
availability of trained workers. Comparisons of supply
and demand are encouraged so that occupational train­
ing programs will be dropped or contracted in cases where
supply is greater than demand and initiated or expanded
when supply is less than demand. In practice, however,
supply and demand analyses cannot be developed and
presented in this simple straightforward manner. The
complexities involved in projecting both demand and
supply for most occupations result in data that leave
much to be desired in reliability and comprehensiveness.
The complexities include, first, the difficulty of prepar­
ing projections of industry employment, which is one
determinant of occupational demand. Industry employ­
ment projections in turn are dependent on the demand
for goods and services produced in each industry, which
is a function of consumer preferences, the world economy
(which affects exports and imports), and Federal, State,
and local government budgets. All of these factors are
subject to great uncertainty. In addition, technological
change continually affects the types of goods and services
in demand as well as how they are produced. This in turn
affects the growth of specific occupations. For example,
the development of robots and the rate of dispersion of
robots throughout industry will alter the occupational
structure of industries, increasing the need for some
occupations and reducing the need for others.
All of these factors are very difficult to project, and
impossible to predict with perfect accuracy. Within the
constraints of the economic models used to develop proj­
ections, however, exact statistical measures for such
variables must be specified.1 For example, estimates
must be developed of the dollar value of output of the




1 For details on BLS methods and assumptions used in developing
projections, see appendix A and Employment Projections for 1995: Data
and Methods, BLS Bulletin 2253.

1

3 also discusses a method of estimating permanent
separations.
Chapter 4 presents the results of a 1983 survey on the
number of workers who needed training to qualify for
their jobs and how they acquired that training. Data are
presented for about 250 occupations. Appendix D shows,
for each type of training, the significance of the training
for major occupational groups and detailed occupations.
For example, 28 percent of all those who reported that
they acquired job skills in high school vocational pro­
grams were secretaries. The secretaries who received train­
ing in this manner accounted for 35 percent of all
secretaries who were employed.
Chapter 5 presents employment profiles and supply
profiles for detailed occupations. Information from a
variety of sources is brought together to provide a picture
of the types of workers employed in each occupation, the
industries in which the occupation is concentrated, the
unemployment rate relative to all occupations, the pro ­
jected growth rate, and how that rate compares to the
average for all occupations. It also presents the separa­
tion rate; the proportion of young, midcareer, and older
workers; usual entry and training requirements; and
education and training program completions. Where data,
are available, information also is presented on the
characteristics of new entrants—their level of education
and whether they are recent graduates, transfers from
another occupation, or individuals returning to the work
force.
The appendixes present a variety of statistics about oc­
cupations, including 1984 and projected 1995 employ­
ment by detailed occupation, the most current data
available on enrollments and completions of public voca­
tional education programs, noncollegiate postsecondary
schools with occupational programs, apprenticeship pro­
grams, and Armed Forces training, as well as degrees con­
ferred by 2-year colleges and other institutions of higher
education. Sources of State and local occupational infor­
mation are given in appendix F.

Despite the difficulties, these data have been used in
planning and providing education and training programs.
In effect, proper planning can be done with less than
perfect data. For example, although the exact rate of
growth of an occupation such as computer programmer
may be impossible to determine with accuracy, a relative
growth rate can be developed with some confidence.
Evaluations of projections developed by the Bureau
in the past illustrate this. Each time the target year of
a set of projections is reached, BLS compares the pro­
jections with actual employment levels. These evaluations
have shown that some occupational projections were far
off the mark, but the vast majority were projected in the
correct direction, and the amount of error was generally
not so great as to have resulted in different decisions on
the part of users who were aware of the nature of
projections.
With all these considerations in mind, education
officials and others who must make decisions on educa­
tion and training programs will find valuable informa­
tion in the chapters that follow.
Chapter 2 provides an overview of projected national
employment trends over the 1984-95 period. It discusses
projections of the population and labor force; projections
of employment by broad industry group; and major
trends in occupational employment. The information in
chapter 2 can be used to place the data about detailed
occupations in chapter 5 into a broad perspective.
Chapter 3 discusses occupational separations from the
point of view of identifying replacement needs. Data on
separations are available that measure the number of
individuals who leave an occupation—except for deaths.
These estimates, together with estimates of employment
growth, are usedUo measure the total number of job
openings in an occupation. However, since many jobs are
filled by workers, who transfer from other occupations,
such estimates do not provide a good measure of
training needs. Data that measure permanent separations
from the labor force are more appropriate. Thus chapter




2

Chapter 2. Tomorrow’s Jobs

G row th. The population of the United States has in­
creased throughout this century. However, the rate of
growth was declining until the “baby boom’’ of the
1950’s. During the late 1960’s, the rate of population
growth began to drop sharply and has remained at a low
level since (chart 1).
In 1984, the population was about 237 million. It is
expected to increase to about 260 million by 1995. The
rate of growth will be faster during the 1980’s (1.2 per­
cent a year) than during the early 1990’s (0.8 percent a
year). Continued population growth will mean more con­
sumers to provide with goods and services, and thus a
greater demand for workers in many industries and
occupations.

The number and kinds of jobs needed in tomorrow’s
economy will depend on the interplay of demographic,
economic, social, and technological factors. Some oc­
cupations will grow much faster than the average rate of
growth in employment; others will decline in importance.
Some jobs will emerge as a result of new technologies;
others will disappear. And the nature of the work in most
occupations will surely undergo change.
This chapter presents an overview of projected changes
in the population, the labor force, and employment in
major industrial sectors and broad occupational groups
that should help put into perspective the information
about detailed occupations presented in chapter 5. It also
discusses the importance of replacement needs in the
employment outlook.

A ge structure. Over time, the age structure of the
population changes, which affects the job market in many
ways. The low population growth of the 1960’s and
1970’s, for example, resulted in fewer school-age children
in the 1970’s, which lowered the demand for educational
services and the employment opportunities in teaching.
Also during the 1970’s, the entrance into the labor force
of the large number of people born during the 1950’s in­
creased competition for entry level jobs.
The age structure of the population will continue to
shift through the mid-1990’s. The number of children
under 13 will increase as the large number of people born
during the 1950’s continue to have children of their own.

Population
Changes in population are among the basic factors that
will alter employment opportunities. Changes in the size
and characteristics of the population affect the amount
and types of goods and services demanded. They also
affect the size and characteristics of the labor force—the
people who are working or are looking for work—which
in turn can influence the competition for jobs in an
occupation. Three important population factors are
population growth, shifts in the age structure of the
population, and movement of the population within the
country.

Chart 1.

Average annual percent increase

The population
will grow more slowly
through the mid-1990’s.

2

-

i®
Ski*

.

s *

W

'
Source: Bureau of the Census




1945-50 50-55 55-60 60-65 65-70 70-75 75-80

3

[ 1j-----1
i
! |1 !
i
i
_L_LJ___ L
80-85 85-90 90-95

The age distribution of the population will be oldest
in the Northeast; almost 15 percent of its population will
be age 65 or older. The West will have the youngest age
distribution; over 22 percent of the population will be
under age 15, and about 45 percent will be between the
ages of 15 and 44. The age distribution of the South and
Midwest regions will be similar to the national average.
Geographic shifts in the population alter the demand
for and supply of workers in local job markets. In areas
with a growing population, demand for public services
and construction is likely to increase. At the same time,
more people looking for work in an area could increase
competition for jobs. Therefore, the areas with the fastest
population .growth may not necesarily offer the best job
opportunities in every occupation; local employment
opportunities in an occupation can differ greatly from
national projections. Sources of information about local
job market conditions can be found in appendix F.

As the baby-boom group ages, the number of people age
35 to 54 will increase. The number of people 65 and older
will rise sharply because of the relatively high population
growth before the 1930’s and increases in life expectancy.
Low rates of population growth during the 1930’s and
1970’s will result in a decline by 1995 in the number of
55- to 64-year-olds and 14- to 25-year-olds.
The growing number of children will cause greater de­
mand for elementary school education through 1995. The
growing number of older people will add to the demand
for health services. Shifts in the age structure of the
population also will affect the labor force, discussed in
a later section.

M ovem ent o f p o p u la tio n . Population growth varies
among the regions of the Nation. For example, between
1970 and 1980 the population of the Northeast and
Midwest (formerly called North Central) regions in­
creased by only 0.2 percent and 4.0 percent, respectively,
compared with 20.0 percent in the South and 23.9 per­
cent in the West. These patterns reflect the movement of
people seeking new jobs or retiring and higher birth rates
in some areas than others. Chart 2 shows the expected
changes in State populations between 1980 and 2000 if
these trends continue.
The overall movement of the U.S. populaton will be
to the South and West. The West will continue to be the
fastest growing region, increasing about 45 percent
between 1980 and 2000. The South, with the largest
absolute increase, will grow about 31 percent. The
Midwest region is expected to increase only about 2
percent between 1980 and 1990, and to decline about 1
percent from 1990 to 2000. The population of the
Northeast region will decline about 6 percent. By the year
2000, the West and the South will have about 60 percent
of the Nation’s population compared to about 52 per­
cent in 1980.

Chart 2.

Labor force
The size and characteristics of the labor force deter­
mine the number and type of people competing for jobs.
In addition, the size of the labor force affects the amount
of goods and services that can be produced. Growth,
alterations in the age structure, and rising educational
levels are among the labor force changes that will affect
employment opportunities through the mid-1990’s.

G row th. In 1984, the civilian labor force—people with
jobs and people looking for jobs—totaled about 114
million. The labor force will grow through the mid1990’s,but at a slower rate than in the 1970’s and first
half of the 1980’s (chart 3). Growth will be slower because
the low birth rates during the 1960’s and 1970’s will result
in fewer young people entering the labor force. By 1995,
the labor force is projected to be about 129 million—an
increase of about 14 percent from the 1984 level.

Projected percent change in State populations, 1980 to 2000

Changes in population
will vary
among the States.

□
■
■
■

Decline
Increase of up to 18%
Increase of 19 to 36%
Increase of more than 36%

National average = 18%
Source: Bureau of the Census




4

Chart 3.

Average annual percent increase

Labor force growth
will slow
through the mid-1990’s.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Chart 4.

■ ■ ■ i ...............—■ .1 «
■ __ -

1970-75

1975-80

1980-84

- —I
------------ 1 i-----------—

1984-90

1990-95

Women as a percent of labor force growth

Through the mid-1990’s,
women will account
for over three-fifths
of the growth
in the labor force.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

1970-75

1975-80

1984-90

1990-95

fourths by 1995. The growing proportion of workers age
25 to 54 could result in higher productivity growth dur­
ing this period than in the 1970’s, because workers in this
age group generally have work experience and tend to be
more productive.
The number of people age 55 and over in the labor
force is projected to decline slightly, reflecting the trend
to early retirement and the drop in the number of people
age 55 to 65.

Through the mid-1990’s, the chief cause of labor force
growth will be the continued though slower rise in the
number and proportion of women who seek jobs.
Women will account for more than three-fifths of the
labor force growth during 1984-95 (chart 4).

A ge structure. Through the mid-1990’s, the number of
people age 16 to 24 in the work force is projected to
decline (chart 5). Fewer young entrants into the labor
force may ease competition for entry level jobs. In fact,
employers may have increasing difficulty in finding young
workers. The decline in the number of young workers
could be particularly important to the Armed Forces—
the single largest employer of men in this age group.
The number of people age 25 to 54 in the labor force
is expected to increase considerably, from less than
two-thirds of the labor force in 1984 to nearly three-




1980-84

Education. Employers seek to hire the best qualified per­
sons available. This does not mean that they always
choose those applicants who have the most education.
However, individuals planning for a career should be
aware of the rising educational level of the work force.
Between 1970 and 1984, for example, the proportion of
the labor force age 18 to 64 with at least 1 year of college
5

Chart 5.

Labor force (millions)

The number of workers
in the prime working ages
will grow dramatically
through the mid-1990’s.

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics

increased from 26 to 41 percent, while the proportion with
4 or more years of college increased from 13 to 22 per­
cent (chart 6). The increase in educational attainment
reflects both the retirement of older workers, many of
whom had little formal education, and the influx into the
work force of young people, who generally have a high
level of formal education. Among workers age 25 to 34,
for example, nearly half have completed at least 1 year
of college.
The disadvantage that less educated workers suffer
when seeking jobs is clearly shown in their unemployment
rate. In 1984, the unemployment rate among 20- to
24-year-olds with less than 4 years of high school was 26.7
percent compared with 13.0 percent for those with 4 years
of high school. The rates for those with 1 to 3 years of

Chart 6.

college and 4 or more years of college were only 7.8 and
4.9 percent, respectively. The association of higher
unemployment rates with low levels of education shows
the importance of education in a job market that increas­
ingly requires more training.
It is also important to note that a college degree no
longer guarantees success in the job market. Between 1970
and 1982, employment of college graduates grew 127 per­
cent. The proportion employed in professional, technical,
and managerial occupations, however, declined because
these occupations did not expand rapidly enough to ab­
sorb the growing supply of graduates. As a result, roughly
1 out of 5 college graduates who entered the labor market
between 1970 and 1984 took a job not usually requiring
a degree. This oversupply of graduates is likely to

Percent distribution of labor force age 18 to 64

During the 1970’s
and early 1980’s,
the proportion of workers
with a college background
increased substantially.

4 or more
years of college
1 to 3
years of college
4 years of
high school
or less

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics




6

aluminum, and specialty steel industries and the industries
that supply those manufacturers. Employment in those
industries has benefited from the change.
As is clear from the first example, expansion or decline
in industries affects growth in individual occupations dif­
ferently because industries employ different mixes of
workers (chart 7). Growth in manufacturing industries,
for example, increases employment of production and
material moving occupations, helpers, and laborers. In
contrast, growth in the finance, insurance, and real estate
industries increases employment of administrative,
managerial, sales, and clerical workers.
Changes in the manner in which goods are produced
and services are provided also affect occupational and
industrial employment. Increasing automation in
automobile manufacturing, for example, is one of the fac­
tors expected to limit growth of assemblers, welders, and
other production workers in that industry. The increas­
ing use of word processing equipment will mean little or
no growth of typists in most industries. However, the in­
troduction of new technologies will probably increase
employment of engineers, technicians, computer
specialists, and repairers. The overall impact of
technology will be to increase the amount of goods and
services each worker can produce. Output of goods and
services is expected to increase rapidly, however, so that
employment should continue to increase in most in­
dustries and occupations.
Other factors affecting employment are the fiscal
policies of the Federal Government, the monetary policies
of the Federal Reserve Board, the level of imports, and
the availability of energy. Using information on these and
other factors, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has prepared
three sets of projections of employment in industries and
occupations. Referred to as the low-, moderate-, and

continue through the mid-1990’s. Not all occupations re­
quiring a college degree will be overcrowded, however.
Good opportunities will exist for systems analysts and
engineers, for example.
Despite the generally competitive job market for col­
lege graduates, a college degree is still needed for most
high-paying and high-status jobs. Persons interested in
occupations that require a college degree should not be
discouraged from pursuing a career that they believe
matches their interests and abilities, but they should be
aware of job market conditions.
Employment
The number of jobs in particular industries and
occupations depends in large part on consumer, govern­
ment, and business demand for goods and services pro­
duced by those industries and workers. Using a simple
example, if people ate out more often, employment of
cooks, waiters, and other restaurant workers would in­
crease; employment of clerks and other grocery store
workers would decline. In addition, employment in in­
dustries that produce restaurant equipment would grow;
in industries that make grocery store equipment, employ­
ment would decline.
Consumer desire and government regulation, for
example, led automobile manufacturers to improve the
fuel efficiency of cars. To do this, auto manufacturers
lightened the weight of cars by using plastic, aluminum,
and specialty steel instead of standard iron and steel. This
shift lowered the demand for goods from the iron and
steel manufacturing industry, the iron and metallurgical
coal mining industries, and of other industries that supply
iron and steel manufacturers, so that employment in these
industries has been adversely affected. At the same time,
demand has increased for the products of the plastic,

j

Chart 7.

|

Percent distribution of wage and salary workers, 1984

Industries
differ substantially
in the kinds of workers
they employ.

Professional,
managerial, sales, and
administrative support occupations

Manufacturing
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics




7

Production,
construction, service, and
material moving occupations

Finance, insurance,
and real estate

high-growth alternatives, the projections are based on dif­
fering assumptions concerning growth of the labor force,
unemployment, monetary and fiscal policy, and other
factors. Each alternative provides a different set of
employment estimates for 1995.
It should be noted that none of the three projections
should be favored as the most likely. The intent in prepar­
ing them was not to forecast future economic perfor­
mance but, rather, to examine the implications of a
reasonable range of demand growth over the projection
period. The projections represent only three of many
possible responses of the economy to differing fiscal and
monetary stimuli. A different perspective on the inner
workings of the U.S. aggregate economy could easily lead
to completely different results. For this reason, the highand low-growth alternatives should not be viewed as the
“good” and “bad” forecasts but rather as vehicles for
presenting a range of growth in gross national product
(GNP) and employment to 1995.
Differences in occupational projections among the
three alternatives should not be considered as the poten­
tial range within which the projections are likely to fall
because the range for most occupations is much wider
than that shown. The majority of occupations are sen­
sitive to a wide variety of assumptions and economic
factors and all of these could not be considered in the
three scenarios.
The development of projections is not a precise
statistical process. Despite the use of sophisticated
economic models and data carefully developed by
statistical techniques, the future cannot be precisely
predicted. Too many factors can alter economic activity
over the 1984-95 period to assure that the projections pro­
vide an exact picture of the future.
Some aspects of the development of these projections
are more subjective than others. For example, in projec­
ting occupational staffing patterns for many industries,
judgments had to be made about the extent of office
automation during 1984-95, and judgments about the use
of this technology vary among analysts.
The assumptions and methods used to develop these
alternative projections are discussed in appendix A. The
occupational employment projections from the three
alternatives are presented in appendix B. The Bureau’s
projections of labor force, gross national product, in­
dustrial output and employment, and occupational
employment were described in articles in the November
1985 issue of the M o n th ly L a b o r Review.

by occupation. The following two sections look at pro­
jected 1984-95 employment from both perspectives.
Industrial profile
To discuss employment trends and projections in in ­
dustries, it is useful to divide the economy into nine in ­
dustrial sectors under two broad groups—service-pro­
ducing industries and goods-producing industries. In
1984, over 7 of every 10 jobs were in industries that pro­
vide services such as health care, trade, education, repair
and maintenance, government, transportation, banking,
and insurance. Industries that produce goods through
farming, construction, mining, and manufacturing ac­
counted for fewer than 3 out of every 10 jobs in the
Nation.

Service-producing industries. Employment in serviceproducing industries has been increasing at a faster rate
than employment in goods-producing industries (chart 8).
Among the factors that have contributed to this rapid
growth are rising incomes and living standards that result
in greater demand for health care, entertainment, and
business and financial services. In addition, the growth
of cities and suburbs has brought a need for more local
government services. Further, because many services in­
volve personal contact, relatively fewer people have been
replaced by machines in service-producing industries.
Through the mid-1990’s, employment is expected to
continue to increase faster in service-producing industries
than in goods-producing industries. In fact, serviceproducing industries are projected to account for about
9 out of 10 new jobs between 1984 and 1995. Employ­
ment in these industries is expected to increase from 77.2
million in 1984 to 91.3 million in 1995, or 18 percent.
Growth will vary among industries within the group
(chart 9). The following paragraphs summarize recent
trends and employment projections in the five industrial
sectors that make up the service-producing industries.
Transportation, com m unications, and p u b lic utilities.
Employment has increased in air transportation and
transportaton services, but has declined in railroads and
water transportation since 1979. Even in the communica­
tions industries, where demand has increased greatly,
technological innovations have limited employment
growth.
Between 1984 and 1995, employment in transporta­
tion, communications, and public utilities is expected to
rise 14 percent, from 5.6 million to 6.4 million. Rising
demand for new telecommunications services, resulting
from the increased use of computer systems and the
divestiture of the telephone company, will make com­
munications the most rapidly growing industry in the
sector. Employment in communications industries is pro­
jected to grow 17 percent, from 1.4 to 1.6 million. More
efficient communications equipment, however, will keep
employment from rising as rapidly as output.

Employment change
Employment is expected to increase from 106.8 million
in 1984 to 122.8 million in 1995, or about 15 percent. This
growth, while substantial, is much slower than growth
during the previous 11-year period, for reasons discuss­
ed in the section on labor force growth. Employment
change can be looked at in two ways: by industry and




8

Chart 8.
Industries
providing services
will continue to employ
many more people
than those
providing goods.

Workers (millions)1

80
60
40
20
0

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

1959

1979

1969

1995

Projected change in employment, 1984-95 (millions)1

Service producing:
Transportation, communications,

-

1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

and publ,c utlllties
Trade

Finance, insurance, and
real estate
Services
Government
Goods producing:
Agriculture
Mining
Construction
Manufacturing

1Wage and salary employment except for agriculture,
which includes self-employed and unpaid family workers.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Trade. Both wholesale and retail trade employment
have increased as the population has grown and as rising
incomes have enabled people to buy a greater number and
variety of goods. During the 1970’s and early 1980’s,
employment in trade increased at about the same rate as
in service-producing industries as a whole. Between 1984
and 1995, wholesale and retail trade employment is ex­
pected to grow from 24.3 to 28.3 million, or 16 percent.
Employment will rise despite the use of laborsaving in­
novations such as computerized inventory systems and
automated warehouses.
The largest number of new jobs in the trade sector
is projected to be in eating and drinking places.
Other retail firms expected to have large increases
are department stores, grocery stores, and new car
dealerships. In wholesale trade, the largest increases

Although employment in railroads is expected to
decline, other transportation industries such as air, local
transit, and trucking are expected to increase. However,
deregulation will continue to have an impact in trucking,
where a shift to self-employed truckers is expected, and
in airlines, where a much slower rate of growth than in
the past is projected. On the other hand, the trans­
portation services industry (mostly travel agencies)
will grow rapidly. Employment in transportation as a
whole should rise 14 percent, from 3.2 million to 3.7
million.
Demand for electric power, gas utilities, and water and
sanitary services will increase through the mid-1990’s as
population and industry grow. Employment in industries
that deliver these services is expected to increase 13 per­
cent, from 1.0 million to 1.2 million.




1990

11ncludes wage and salary workers, the self-employed, and unpaid family workers.

Chart 9.
Through the mid-1990’s,
Some industries
will grow much faster
than others.

1984

9

1995, employment in goods-producing industries is ex­
pected to increase only 6 percent, from 29.6 to 31.4
million, which is only slightly higher than employment
in 1979. Significant variations in employment growth is
expected among goods-producing industries (chart 9).

will be in firms handling machinery, electric goods, and
motor vehicles.

Finance, insurance, and real estate. This was the
second fastest growing service-producing sector during
the 1970’s and early 1980’s as financial and banking needs
mushroomed.
Between 1984 and 1995, employment in this sector is
expected to rise from 6.3 to 7.4 million, or 17 percent.
Demand for credit and other financial services is expected
to grow rapidly, but automatic teller machines and com­
puterized banking and stock transactions will prevent
employment from growing as fast as output.

A g ric u ltu re . The use of machinery, fertilizers, feeds,
pesticides, and hybrid plants has made possible increas­
ed farm output with a smaller work force. Domestic de­
mand for food will increase slowly through the
mid-1990’s. Worldwide demand for food will increase
because of population growth, and U.S. food exports will
increase through the next decade. Farm productivity,
however, will continue to improve—although more slowly
than in the past—and employment is expected to continue:
to decline even as production rises. Between 1984 and
1995, agricultural employment is projected to drop 7 per­
cent, from 3.3 to 3.0 million jobs.

Services. This sector includes a variety of industries,
such as hotels, barber shops, automobile repair shops,
hospitals, engineering firms, and nonprofit organizations.
During the 1970’s and early 1980’s, employment in this
sector increased faster than in any other sector. Sharply
rising demands for health care, data processing, and
engineering and legal services were among the forces
behind this growth.
From 1984 to 1995, employment in service industries
is expected to increase from 23.4 million to 31.2 million,
or 30 percent. These industries will provide more new jobs
than any other industry sector. Business services, in­
cluding data processing, personnel supply, and commer­
cial cleaning, are expected to grow more rapidly than
other industries in the sector. Employment in health serv­
ices also is expected to increase substantially, but cost con­
tainment measures are expected to restrict the rate of
growth of health care industries despite increased demand
generated by an aging population and by advances in
health technology. Large increases in employment also
are expected in engineering, legal, social, and accounting
services.

M in in g . Employment in the mining sector increased
rapidly from 1973 to 1981, primarily due to increased
mining of coal in response to oil shortages. It then de­
clined substantially due to recession, foreign competition
for metals, and a drop in the price of oil which brought
the oil and gas boom of the early 1980’s to a halt.
Between 1984 and 1995, employment is expected to
decline from 651,000 to 631,000, or 3 percent. Employ­
ment in oil and gas extraction is expected to increase only
1 percent as domestic production levels off; employment
in coal mining is expected to decline due to productivity
improvements and expected slow growth in demand.
Most other mining industries are expected to have
decreases in employment because of import competition
and improvements in mining technology.
C onstruction. Employment in construction dropped
considerably between 1979 and 1982, as high interest rates
and low economic activity limited new construction, but
has since rebounded and now is higher than in 1979
because of lower interest rates and increased economic
activity.
The construction industry is expected to benefit from
an anticipated growth in investment, particularly after
1990. Between 1984 and 1995, employment in the con­
struction sector is expected to increase 12 percent, from
5.9 to 6.6 million. Through the late 1980’s, the demand
for housing is expected to be strong as interest rates are
projected to drop slowly and as the industry continues
to recover from the low level of new residential construc­
tion during the 1980-82 recession years. During the early
1990’s, the growth in households will slow and possibly
limit the demand for new housing. Nonresidential con­
struction is projected to recover from the recent over­
supply of commercial office buildings and also to grow
as factory modernization accelerates.

G overnm ent. During the 1970’s and early 1980’s,
government employment rose, although most of this
growth was in State and local government prior to 1980.
Between 1984 and 1995, employment is expected to rise
only 7 percent, from 16.0 million to 17.1 million. State
and local government growth is projected to be 9.0 per­
cent, but Federal employment is expected to remain level.
About 3 out of every 7 new jobs projected to be added
in State and local government will be in education, which
is projected to rise from 6.7 million in 1984 to 7.2 million
in 1995. Employment in elementary schools is expected
to rise faster than in high schools.

G oods-producing industries. Employment in these in­
dustries increased during the 1970’s, but the 1980 and
1981-82 recessions caused a drop in employment.
Although employment in these industries increased by
1984, it was still under their 1979 peak. Between 1984 and



10

M a n u fa ctu rin g . Improved productivity and import
competition caused a 1.6 million drop in manufacturing
employment between 1979 and 1984, following a slight
increase during the 1970’s. Employment is expected to
increase 7 percent, from 19.8 million in 1984 to 21.1
million in 1995 due to strong demand resulting from an
expected capital spending boom and continued strong
growth in defense expenditures. Only modest employment
gains in manufacturing are expected because of the an­
ticipated productivity increase from investment in hightechnology capital equipment. Despite this growth,
employment in 1995 will still be slightly below the 1979
level. Several key manufacturing industries, such as
automobile and steel manufacturing, are not expected to
reach previous peak employment levels. On the other
hand, the computer, materials handling equipment, and
scientific and controlling instrument industries will be
among the fastest growing industries.
Manufacturing is divided into two broad categories—
durable and nondurable goods manufacturing. Employ­
ment in durable goods manufacturing is expected to in­
crease by 12 percent due to rising business, military, and
consumer demand for computers, machinery, and elec­
tronic components. However, employment in nondurable
goods manufacturing is projected to decline by 2 percent,
reflecting the tendency of consumers to spend less of their
budget on staples such as food and clothing as their
income rises.

of occupations that will add the most jobs over the
period.
Occupations expected to decline over the period
generally are concentrated in industries that are contrac­
ting or being severely affected by technological change
(table 3). For example, railroad brake, signal, and switch
operators are concentrated in a declining industry, while
stenographers are being affected by technological change.
In the following discussion, the employment growth
rates of individual occupations usually are compared to
the national average for all occupations. The six phrases
that describe employment growth are explained in figure
3 on page 32.

Executive, adm inistrative, and m anagerial occupa­
tions. In most of these occupations, employment is
expected to increase about as fast as the average for all
occupations. However, faster growth is expected for
occupations in fast-growing industries. For example,
employment of managers in the health industry is ex­
pected to increase much faster than the average. Employ­
ment of administrators and managers should grow faster
than the average in data processing services, credit and
securities firms, automotive repairs, and social services.
In contrast, managerial employment in government and
educational services is likely to grow more slowly than
the average due to the anticipated modest growth of these
industries.
Employment of accountants and auditors will grow
much faster than the average as managers rely more on
accounting information to make business decisions.
Employment of buyers, purchasing agents, and person­
nel specialists will increase about as the fast as average,
while employment of construction inspectors and com­
pliance and enforcement officers will increase more slowly
than the average.
Because of the increasing number of people seeking
managerial and administrative jobs and the increasing
technical requirements in many of these occupations, ex­
perience, specialized training, or postbaccalaureate study
will be needed for more of them. Familiarity with com­
puters will be needed in more jobs as managers and ad­
ministrators increasingly rely on computerized informa­
tion systems to direct their organizations.

Occupational profile
This section gives an overview of the changes expected
in employment for 16 broad groups of occupations. These
groups are based on the Standard Occupational
Classification, which has been adopted as the classifica­
tion system for all government agencies that collect
occupational employment data.
The economy is expected to generate 15.9 million ad­
ditional jobs between 1984 and 1995. Thirty-seven oc­
cupations are expected to account for about one-half of
this projected job growth (table 1). These occupations are
numerically large—all had 237,000 or more workers in
1984. Occupations that require extensive training are not
found to any greater extent in table 1 than are those re­
quiring little formal training. Only one-fourth of the
occupations generally require a college degree.
The occupations with the highest growth rates between
1984 and 1995 are shown in table 2. The list is dominated
by occupations that are tied to expanding industries and
which have been among the fastest growing in the
economy for the past decade. Almost half of the 20 oc­
cupations in the list are either in the computer or health
fields. For some occupations, the high growth rates reflect
recovery from the recession. Note also that the fastest
growing occupations generally are not found on the list




Engineers, scientists, and related occupations. Employ­
ment in most of the occupations in this group is expected
to increase as fast as or faster than the average; employ­
ment of engineers and systems analysts is expected to
grow much faster than the average.
Increased military expenditures, growing demand for
computers and other electronic equipment, expansion and
automation of industrial production, and development
of energy sources are some of the factors expected to lead

11

Table 1. Occupations with the largest job growth, 1984-95

(Numbers in thousands)

Change in employment
1984-95

Occupation

Percent of total
job growth
1984-95

Number

Percent

Cashiers ..............................................................................................................................
Registered nurses................................................................................................................
Janitors and cleaners, including maids and housekeeping cleaners...........................
Truck drivers ......................................................................................................................
Waiters and waitresses ......................................................................................................
Wholesale trade sales w orkers.........................................................................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants .........................................................................
Salespersons, retail ............................................................................................................
Accountants and auditors...................................................................................................

556
452
443
428
424
369
348
343
307

29.8
32.8
15.1
17.2
26.1
29.6
28.9
12.6
34.8

3.6
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.3
2.2
2.2
1.9

Teachers, kindergarten and elementary...........................................................................
Secretaries ..........................................................................................................................
Computer programmers......................................................................................................
General office clerks............................................................................................................
Food preparation workers, excluding fast food ..............................................................
Food preparation and service workers, fast food............................................................
Computer systems analysts, electronic data processing................................................
Electrical and electronics engineers.................................................................................
Electrical and electronics technicians and technologists................................................

281
268
245
231
219
215
212
206
202

20.3
9.6
71.7
9.6
22.1
17.9
68.7
52.8
50.0

1.9
1.7
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.3

Guards...................................................................................................................................
Automotive and motorcycle mechanics.............................................................................
Lawyers................................................................................................................................
Cosmetologists and related workers.................................................................................
Cooks, restaurant................................................................................................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility...............................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks................................................................
Bartenders............................................................................................................................
Computer operators, excluding peripheral equipment....................................................
Physicians and surgeons...................................................................................................

188
185
174
150
138
137
118
112
111
109

25.6
20.1
35.5
28.7
29.7
15.6
6.0
27.9
46.1
23.0

1.2
1.2
1.1
.9
.9
.9
.7
.7
.7
.7

Licensed practical nurses...................................................................................................
Carpenters............................................................................................................................
Switchboard operators.......................................................................................................
Food service and lodging managers.................................................................................
Electricians..........................................................................................................................
Teacher aides and educational assistants......................................................................
Blue-collar worker supervisors...........................................................................................
Receptionists and information clerks.................................................................................
Mechanical engineers..........................................................................................................

106
101
100
89
88
88
85
83
81

17.6
10.7
28.7
13.6
16.2
18.3
5.8
18.2
34.0

.7
.6
.6
.6
.6
.6
.5
.5
.5

N ote : Includes only detailed occupations with 1984 employment
of 25,000 or more. Data for 1995 are based on moderate-growth
projections.

Generally, prospects will be better for those with ad­
vanced degrees who seek work in applied fields. Com­
petition also is likely for jobs as social and recreation
workers in public and voluntary agencies as well as for
salaried positions for lawyers.

to higher employment in engineering occupations. The
growing application of computers in business and
research will contribute to increased employment of
systems analysts. Research to expand basic knowledge,
develop new technologies and products, and protect the
environment is expected to lead to higher employment
in scientific occupations, although employment will grow
more slowly for scientists than for engineers.

Teachers, libra rian s, an d counselors. Because of an­
ticipated enrollment declines and an abundance of
qualified jobseekers, competition is expected for college
and university faculty.
Because elementary school enrollments are increasing,
employment of elementary school teachers is expected to
grow rapidly. Prospects in secondary schools should im­
prove in the early 1990’s, as enrollments there begin to
increase. Also, college faculty and librarians in scientific

S ocial science, social service, and related occupa­
tions. Employment in many of the occupations in this
group is expected to grow about as fast as the average.
However, due to the number of people interested in these
fields, competition for jobs is expected in many social
science occupations—especially for academic positions.



12

physician assistants, medical record technicians, and
medical assistants will grow much faster than the average,
but automation of laboratory procedures will make for
slower than average growth for medical and clinical
laboratory technologists.

Table 2. Fastest growing occupations, 1984-95

Occupation
Paralegal personnel.......................................
Computer programmers.................................
Computer systems analysts, electronic data
processing (EDP).........................................
Medical assistants .........................................
Data processing equipment repairers..........
Electrical and electronics engineers............
Electrical and electronics technicians and
technologists ...............................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment......................................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operators..........
Travel agents .................................................

Percent growth
in
employment
97.5
71.7
68.7
62.0
56.2
52.8

W riters, artists, and entertainers. This group includes
reporters, writers, designers, public relations specialists,
and performing artists. In most of these occupations,
employment is expected to increase as fast as the average
for all occupations. The continued importance of adver­
tising, public relations, print and broadcast communica­
tions, and entertainment will spur employment growth.
Stiff competition for these jobs is likely, due to the
large numbers of people they attract. Talent and personal
drive will continue to play an extremely important role
in success in these occupations. Within individual occupa­
tions, some areas will offer better job prospects. The best
prospects for writers and editors, for example, will be in
technical writing and in preparing business and trade
publications.

50.7
46.1
45.0
43.9

42.2
Physical therapists.........................................
40.3
Physician assistants.......................................
Securities and financial services sales
39.1
workers..........................................................
Mechanical engineering technicians
36.6
and technologists.........................................
35.5
Lawyers............................................................
34.9
Correction officers and ja ile rs.......................
34.8
Accountants and auditors .............................
34.0
Mechanical engineers.....................................
32.8
Registered nurses...........................................
Employment interviewers, private or public
31.7
employment service.....................................
N ote : Includes only detailed occupations with 1984 employ­
ment of 25,000 or more. Data for 1995 are based on moderategrowth projections.

Technologists and technicians. Workers in this group
provide technical assistance to engineers, scientists, and
other professional workers as well as operate and
Table 3. Fastest declining occupations, 1984-95

Occupation

and technical fields generally will face better job
prospects.
Employment of vocational and educational counselors
will grow as fast as the average, although growth will be
faster in areas other than in schools, especially in mental
health counseling.

Stenographers.................................................
-40.3
Shoe sewing machine operators and tenders.
-31.5
Railroad brake, signal, and switch
-26.4
operators.......................................................
Railcar repairers.............................................
-22.3
Furnace, kiln, or kettle operators and
tenders..........................................................
-20.9
Shoe and leather workers and repairers
precision.......................................................
-18.6
Private household workers.............................
-18.3
-17.4
Station installers and repairers, telephone ..
-16.7
Sewing machine operators, garment............
Textile machine operators, tenders, setters,
and set-up operators, w inding..................
-15.7
Machinery maintenance mechanics,
textile machines...........................................
-14.8
-12.7
Statistical clerks.............................................
Industrial truck and tractor operators..........
-11.9
Central office operators.................................
-11.5
Farm w orkers.................................................
-11.2
College and university faculty......................
-10.6
Farm and home management advisers........
-9.6
Extruding and drawing machine setters
and set-up operators, metal and plastic . .
-9.1
Pressing machine operators and
tenders, textile, garment and related........
-8.8
Postal service clerks.......................................
-8 .5
Note : Includes only detailed occupations with 1984 employment
of 25,000 or more. Data for 1995 are based on moderate- growth
projections.

H e a lth-related occupations. This group includes health
practitioners, nurses, health technicians and technol­
ogists, health service workers, dietitians, pharmacists, and
therapists.
Employment in most health occupations is expected
to grow faster than the average as population growth—
especially in the number of older people—increases the
demand for health care. Registered nurses and nursing
aides and orderlies, because of the large size and an­
ticipated growth of these occupations, will be among the
occupations providing the most new jobs through the
mid-1990’s. Despite the anticipated growth in the health
industry, physicians, dentists, chiropractors, and
veterinarians seeking to establish a practice can expect
unprecedented competition due to the large number of
newly trained practitioners entering those fields each year.
Pressure to contain costs, especially in hospitals, and
technological advances will affect the projected rates of
growth in many health-related occupations. For example,




Percent change
in
employment

13

outside of telephone companies is expected to grow faster
than the average due to business expansion.

program technical equipment independently. The con­
tinued growth in the importance of technology to national
defense, office work, manufacturing, and other activities
is expected to cause much faster than average employ­
ment growth for several occupations in this group, such
as programmers and electrical and electronics technicians.
Legal assistants are projected to grow faster than any
other occupation as more of them are employed to aid
lawyers and because of the expected growth in the
demand for legal services.
Growth in some occupations will be limited by changes
in technology. Employment of drafters is expected to in­
crease much more slowly than the demand for drafting
services because of the increasing use of computer-aided
design equipment. Similarly, little or no change is ex­
pected in the employment of air traffic controllers because
of the automation of air traffic control equipment.

Service occupations. This group includes a wide range
of workers in protective, food and beverage preparation,
cleaning, and personal services and is expected to account
for more job growth than any other broad group. Among
the protective service occupations, correction officers are
expected to have much faster than average growth
because of the increasing number of inmates, and guards
are expected to have faster than average growth because
of increased concern over crime and vandalism. Employ­
ment of police officers and firefighters is expected to in­
crease about as fast as the average.
Rising incomes and the growing number of men and
women who combine family responsibilities and a job are
expected to contribute to faster than average employment
growth among food and beverage preparation and service
occupations, such as bartender, cook, waiter, or waitress.
Due to the large size, high turnover, and growth of these
occupations, full- and part-time job openings will be
plentiful.

M a rketing and sales occupations. Employment of travel
agents, securities sales workers, and real estate agents is
expected to grow faster or much faster than the average
due to the anticipated growth of the industries in which
these workers are employed.
Many part-time and full-time job openings are ex­
pected for cashiers and retail trade sales workers due to
the large size, high turnover, and expected employment
growth in these occupations. Higher paying sales occupa­
tions, such as insurance agent and real estate agent, tend
to be more competitive than retail sales occupations.
Well-trained, ambitious people who enjoy selling will
have the best chance for economic success.

A g ric u ltu ra l and fo re s try occupations. Demand for
food, fiber, and wood is expected to increase as the world
population grows. The development and use of more pro­
ductive farming and forestry methods, however, is ex­
pected to result in declining employment in most
agricultural and forestry occupations.

M echanics an d repairers. These workers adjust, main­
tain, and repair automobiles, industrial equipment, com­
puters, and many other types of machinery. Employment
in most of these occupations is expected to grow about
as fast as the average due to the greater use of machines
throughout the economy. In some, employment will in­
crease faster than the average. The increased use of com­
puters and advanced office machinery, for example, will
make employment of computer service technicians and
office machine repairers grow much faster than the
average. However, more reliable, easy-to-service
machinery will limit employment growth for some
mechanic and repairer occupations, such as communica­
tions equipment mechanics.

A d m in is tra tiv e su p po rt occupations, in clud in g cleri­
cal. Workers in this group prepare and record letters and
other documents; collect accounts; gather and distribute
information; operate office machines; and handle other
tasks that help run businesses, government agencies, and
other organizations. The increase in office automation
systems will limit employment opportunities in some ad­
ministrative support occupations. Changes in organiza­
tional practices also will affect some of these occupations.
Despite a growing volume of mail, little change is ex­
pected in the employment of mail carriers because of im­
proved routing programs and more centralized mail
delivery. However, despite the projected slow growth,
several occupations in this group will provide many fulland part-time job openings due to their large size and high
turnover. These include bank tellers, bookkeepers and
accounting clerks, secretaries, shipping and receiving
clerks, and typists.
Some administrative support occupations will enjoy
faster or much faster than average employment growth.
Employment of computer operators and peripheral equip­
ment operators, for example, is expected to grow much
faster than the average due to the increased use of com­
puter systems, and employment of telephone operators



C onstruction occupations. Workers in this group are ex­
pected to experience average employment growth between
1984 and 1995. A rapid rise in spending for new industrial
plants and an increase in the number of households are
factors expected to lead to more new construction. Altera­
tion and modernization of existing structures, as well as
the need for maintenance and repair on highway systems,
dams, and bridges, also will contribute to increased con­
struction activity. However, the construction industry is
very sensitive to changes in the Nation’s economy, and
employment in construction occupations drops sharply
during recessions.
14

P ro d u ctio n occupations. Workers in these occupations

airplane pilots. Increased use of automated material
handling systems, however, is expected to cause a decrease
in employment of industrial truck operators.

perform tasks involved in the production of goods. They
set up, adjust, operate, and tend machinery and equip­
ment, and use handtools and hand-held power tools to
fabricate and assemble products. More efficient produc­
tion techniques such as computer-aided manufacturing
and the increased use of lasers and industrial robots will
prevent employment in many production occupations
from rising as rapidly as the output of goods. However,
there will still be many openings in this group because
of its large size.
Many production occupations are sensitive to changes
in the economy. When factory orders decline during an
economic downturn, workers may experience shortened
workweeks, layoffs, and plant closings.

H andlers, equipm ent cleaners, helpers, and laborers.
Workers in this group assist skilled workers and perform
the routine, unskilled tasks required to complete a
project. Employment in these occupations is expected to
grow more slowly than the average as routine tasks are
mechanized, but jobs in these occupations are expected
to be plentiful due to the high turnover. However,
economic downturns can lower the number of openings
substantially. This is particularly true for construction
laborers and other workers in industries that are sensitive
to changes in the Nation’s economy.
Because the employment prospects in individual
occupations will differ within each of the 16 groups, it
is important to check the outlook for each occupation
that interests you. Current and projected employment
estimates for about 500 occupations are presented in
appendix B.

T ra nspo rta tio n and m a te ria l m oving occupations.
Workers in this group operate the equipment used to
move people and materials. An increase in demand for
transport services is expected to result in average growth
for truckdrivers and faster than average growth for




15




Chapter 3. Occupational Separations

Gross separations
Employment opportunities arise from the creation of
new jobs and from the need to replace workers. “Gross
separation” data identify those workers who leave an
occupation and who must be replaced if the employment
level is to be maintained. The significance of replacement
needs as a source of employment opportunities is shown
in table 4. In 1983-84, replacements accounted for 81 per­
cent of all job openings—18.1 million compared with 4.2
million due to growth. In farming, forestry, and fishing
occupations, replacement needs were the only source of
jobs, since employment declined. The importance of
replacement needs is generally greatest in occupations
with high separation rates, such as administrative sup­
port and service occupations. In those groups, over 90
percent of all opportunities resulted from the need to
replace workers.
As shown in table 5, about 18 percent of all employed
persons left their occupation between 1983 and 1984 to
transfer to another or to stop working. Slightly less than
half, 8 percent, transferred to another occupation; 3 per­
cent became unemployed; and 7 percent dropped out of
the labor force.
Professional specialty occupations; executive, ad­
ministrative, and managerial occupations; and technicians
and related support occupations had the lowest separa­
tion rates (between 11 and 13 percent), while private
household workers had by far the highest (40 percent).
At 28 percent, the rate for handlers, equipment cleaners,
helpers, and laborers also was significantly above the rest
of the groups.
Separation rates differ significantly among detailed oc­
cupations (see appendix table C-l). Occupations with high
separation rates typically require little education and
training and have a large proportion of young workers.
Such occupations include childcare workers, news
vendors, and food counter workers. Many of the jobs
in these occupations are for part-time workers and are
filled by youth between the ages of 16 and 19 who are
still in school.

Chapter 2 provided an overview of the Bureau’s
1984-95 projections and discussed factors affecting
employment trends in industries and occupations.
Changes in the level of employment provide one measure
of job openings. Another and generally much more
significant source of openings arises from the need to
replace individuals who leave an occupation. To provide
information about replacement needs, this chapter ex­
amines 1983-84 data on separations for all reasons—
“gross separations.” These data measure the proportion
of workers who leave an occupation to transfer to another
Occupation, become unemployed, or leave the labor
force.1
2
Information about gross separations is useful not only
to identify employment opportunities, but also to indicate
the relative attachment of individuals to an occupation.
However, many individuals who leave an occupation may
return to work in the occupation at a later date. Thus,
for purposes such as planning training programs, a
measure of the number of persons who leave the occupa­
tion permanently is needed to supplement the measure
of gross separations. This chapter discusses a way to
estimate permanent labor force separations.
Readers are cautioned that the data presented in this
chapter are derived from the Current Population Survey
(CPS) rather than the Occupational Employment
Statistics (OES) survey, which provides the data given
elsewhere in this bulletin. Readers also are cautioned that
the 1983 and 1984 CPS data are based on the 1980 Census
of Population occupational classification system and are
not comparable with data published in the previous edi­
tion of this bulletin. Finally, the 1983-84 data reflect a
period of improving economic conditions and may not
be representative of other time periods. Detailed infor­
mation about the methodology for developing gross
separation data for 1980-81 appears in the March 1984
M o n th ly L a b o r R eview } That methodology is virtually
dentical to the one used to develop the 1983-84 data
presented here.3
1 Workers who change jobs but remain in the same occupation and
those who die are not counted. Occupational data on deaths are not
available. This exclusion biases the estimates of separations downward
0.4 to 0.7 percent. For additional information, see O ccu pation al P ro ­
jectio n s a n d Training D ata, 1982 edition, Bulletin 2202 (Bureau of Labor
Statistics, 1982), p. 74.
2 Alan Eck, “ New Occupational Data Improve Replacement
Estimates,” M o n th ly L a b o r R eview , March 1984, pp. 3-10.




3
Briefly, the methodology consists of creating a matched sample,
for each of 12 months, of 505,000 persons age 15 and older in the in­
itial year. Matched data about changes in labor force status then were
merged with data on occupational transfers from a special study con­
ducted as part of the January 1983 Current Population Survey. The
results, termed merged data, provide a composite description of
movements into, out of, and between occupations over a 1-year period.

17

Table 4. Job openings, 1983-84

Waiters and waitresses
Bartenders
Miscellaneous food preparation occupations
Personal service occupations, n.e.c.
Kitchen workers, food preparation

(Thousands)

Occupational group

Total, all occupations..........
Executive, administrative, and
m anagerial..................................
Professional specialty...................
Technicians and related support
Sales occupations..........................
Administrative support, including
cle ric a l..........................................
Private household occupations ...
Service workers, except private
household...................................
Farming, forestry, and fishing......
Precision production, craft, and
re p a ir............................................
Machine operators, assemblers,
and inspectors............................
Transportation and material
moving occupations..................
Handlers, equipment cleaners,
helpers, and laborers...............

Replacement
needs2
EmployTotal
ment
Percent
openings change1
Number of total
openings
22,250

4,171

18,079

799
466
119
764

1,238
1,372
385
2,340

61.4
74.6
76.4
75.4

3,491
402

327
13

3,164
389

90.6
96.8

3,476
696

282
(-100)

3,194
696

91.9
100.0

2,566

729

1,837

71.6

1,750

240

1,510

86.3

1,052

266

786

74.7

1,436

266

1,170

Physicians
Pharmacists
Dentists
Firefighting occupations
Lawyers
Operations and systems researchers and analysts
Civil engineers
Electrical and electronics engineers
Police and detectives, public service
Teachers, special education
Architects
Clergy
Chemists, except biochemists
Tool-and-die makers
Telephone installers and repairers
Securities and financial services sales occupations
Personnel and labor relations managers
Postal clerks, except mail carriers
Electrical and electronics technicians

81.3

2,017
1,838
504
3,104

O ccupations w ith lo w separation rates

81.5

1 Calculated by subtracting 1983 annual average employment from
1984 annual average employment. Where the change is negative,
replacement needs are the sole source of openings.
2 Calculated by applying 1983-84 separation rates from table 5 to 1983
Current Population Survey annual average employment.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Transfers to o th e r occupations. Occupational transfers
accounted for almost one-half of all separations during
the 1983-84 period. This pattern was observed for a very
large proportion of occupations (see appendix table C-l).
A low transfer rate is characteristic of an occupation such
as physician but also is typical of occupations in which
workers have little attachment to the labor force or few
transferable skills, for example, private household
worker. These workers are six times more likely to stop
working than to transfer to another job.
A high transfer rate sometimes identifies an entry level
or career ladder occupation. For example, computer
operators had a higher than average transfer rate (13 per­
cent) but a lower than average proportion of persons who
were not working a year later (6 percent). This pattern—
transfers twice as high as total separations—indicates that
most computer operators who leave move to another
occupation.

In contrast, occupations with very low separation
rates, such as physician, dentist, and lawyer, typically
have extensive educational requirements or a large pro­
portion of older male workers. However, tool-and-die
makers also have a low separation rate. This occupation
does not require extensive education but does require
specialized training, has a relatively large proportion of
workers over 45 years of age, and a very high propor­
tion of men.
Occupations with high and low separation rates, as
measured by the percent of workers leaving their occupa­
tion over a 12-month period during 1983-84, are shown
in the following tabulations:

O ccupations w ith high separation rates

N o t w orking. Movement into the “not working” group

Childcare workers, private household
News vendors
Food counter, fountain, and related occupations
Waiters’/waitresses’ assistants
Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities
Street and door-to-door sales workers
Garage and service station related occupations
Helpers, construction trades
Childcare workers, except private household
Information clerks, n.e.c.
Graders and sorters, except agricultural
Messengers
Stock handlers and baggers
Interviewers
Sales workers, apparel




was responsible for slightly over half of all separations.
This group includes workers who become unemployed
and those who separate from the labor force.4 Exe­
cutive, administrative, managerial, and professional
specialty occupations—those generally requiring the most
training and commanding the higest earnings—had the
lowest rates of movement into “not working” (6 percent).
4
Even though a job is not created when a person becomes
unemployed, openings due to movements into unemployment are a com­
ponent of employment growth not captured by changes in employment
levels. For more information, see O ccu pation al P rojectio n s, 1982
edition, p. 70.

18

Table 5. Separation rates for major occupational groups, 1983-84

(Percent)
Separation rates, 1983-84'
Occupational group

Transfers to
other
occupations

Total

Not working
Total

Unemployed

Not in the labor
force

Total employed, age 16 and o v e r........................................

17.8

8.0

9.8

2.8

7.0

Executive, administrative, and m anagerial........................................
Professional specialty............................................................................
Technicians and related support.........................................................
Sales occupations..................................................................................
Administrative support occupations, including cle rica l..................
Private household occupations............................................................
Service workers, except private household.....................................
Farming, forestry, and fish in g ..............................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair ..............................................
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ............................
Transportation and material moving occupations...........................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers...................

11.7
10.7
12.6
19.8
19.3
39.7
24.8
21.5
14.9
19.5
18.7
28.2

6.0
4.9
6.1
9.5
9.2
5.1
9.6
5.2
7.0
9.6
10.4
13.3

5.6
5.8
6.5
10.3
10.1
34.6
15.3
16.3
7.9
10.0
8.3
14.9

1.4
1.1
2.8
2.5
2.4
6.1
3.7
3.0
3.4
4.2
3.6
6.6

4.2
4.7
4.3
7.8
7.7
28.5
11.6
13.3
4.5
5.8
4.7
8.3

1 The occupational separation rate is the percentage of individuals
previously employed in an occupation who are not employed in that same
occupation a year later. Occupational transfers occur if individuals remain
employed, but in a different occupation. Separations exclude deaths.

NOTE: Due to rounding, individual items may not add to totals.
SOURCE: Merged Current Population Survey data. The methodology
used to develop the data is presented in “ New Occupational Data
Improve Replacement Estimates," Monthly Labor Review, March 1984.

At the other extreme, private household workers had the
highest rate (29 percent). Private household workers are
primarily childcare workers or cleaners and servants. The
former are predominantly younger workers; the latter,
older workers. However, both groups primarily work part
time, receive low wages, and have few transferable skills.
Labor force separations accounted for about twothirds o f all movement into the not working group. This
pattern was found for most occupations (see appendix
table C -l). Workers in construction occupations, who are
equally likely to become unemployed or to leave the labor
force, were an exception; construction workers frequently
encounter delays in obtaining new jobs when work at a
given site is com pleted. To a lesser extent, this pattern
was exhibited by machine operators, assemblers, and in­
spectors as well as by handlers, equipment cleaners,
helpers, and laborers. Workers in these occupations are
subject to layoffs when production is curtailed.

percent in 1983-84), lowest for persons age 45-54 (10 per­
cent), and then increases as older persons stop working.
A much different pattern is evident in the separation rates
o f persons who transfer to other occupations or become
unemployed. In both cases, the rates are highest in the
youngest age group and decline to their lowest point in
the oldest group.
Sex. Total separation rates for men and women differed

primarily as a result o f significantly higher labor force
separation rates for women between the ages o f 20 and
54 (table 6). The occupational transfer rates for men and
women were almost equal and declined consistently with
age, as was the case for those who became unemployed.
E d u ca tio n . Although education does not alter the

patterns o f separation by age, it does affect their
magnitude. The total separation rate declined from 23
percent for those without a high school diploma to 12
percent for college graduates. This difference results from
the impact o f education on the likelihood o f becoming
unemployed or leaving the labor force. For persons with
less than a high school education, the rates for movement
to unemployment and out o f the labor force were 5 and
12 percent, respectively. Comparable rates for college
graduates were 1 and 4 percent. Transfer rates were about
the same for those having the least and the most educa­
tion, while those in between were slightly higher.
However, the patterns within all education groups were
similar: Rates o f transfer to other occupations or o f
becoming unemployed declined with age; labor force
separation rates declined, then increased with age; and
the labor force separation rate for prime-age women was
higher than that for men.

Demographic factors affecting separation rates
While som e o f the variation in separation rates is
attributable to unique aspects o f occupations, much o f
the variation is associated with the age, sex, and educa­
tion o f workers (table 6). O f course, often there is a rela­
tionship between the unique characteristic o f an
occupation and the type o f workers employed in it. For
example, occupations such as news vendor are generally
filled by young workers who work part time while in
school.
A g e. Age is the dominant factor affecting occupational

separations. The total separation rate has a U-shaped
pattern: The rate is highest for persons age 16 to 19 (44




19

Table 6. Occupational separation rates by education, age, and sex, 1983*84

(Percent)
Separation rates, 1983-84’
Level of education and age

Transfers to other
occupations

Total

Total, all levels of education........................

17.8

15.7

20.6

8.0

7.9

8.2

2.8

2.9

2.6

7.0

4.9

9.8

Age
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age

16 - 19 .....................................................
20 - 24 .....................................................
25 - 34 .....................................................
35 - 44 ....................................................
45 - 54 .....................................................
55 - 64 ....................................................
65 - 74 .....................................................
75 and o v e r............................................

43.9
31.4
17.8
12.4
10.2
15.9
28.6
34.6

42.6
31.8
14.8
9.6
8.3
15.0
28.1
32.6

45.3
31.2
21.5
15.8
12.7
17.2
29.4
38.2

20.5
18.9
10.4
6.3
4.0
2.8
1.5
.3

20.0
20.6
10.5
5.9
4.1
2.6
1.4
.5

20.9
17.2
10.3
6.8
3.9
3.0
1.6
.0

6.5
4.7
2.8
2.4
2.1
1.9
.8
.2

7.2
5.4
2.9
2.5
2.2
2.1
.7
.3

5.7
3.9
2.8
2.2
1.9
1.6
.9
.0

17.0
7.8
4.5
3.7
4.1
11.2
26.4
34.1

15.4
5.8
1.5
1.3
2.1
10.3
26.1
31.8

18.7
10.1
8.4
6.8
6.9
12.6
26.9
38.2

Not a high school graduate..................................

23.2

21.3

26.1

6.6

6.7

6.5

4.5

4.8

3.9

12.1

9.8

15.6

16 - 1 9 ........................................................
20 - 24 ........................................................
25 - 34 ........................................................
35 - 44 ........................................................
45 - 54 ........................................................
55 - 64 ........................................................
65 - 74 ........................................................
75 and o v e r...............................................

44.7
37.0
21.2
17.1
12.9
18.9
33.2
36.5

42.6
36.0
18.0
14.4
11.1
18.6
33.2
35.0

47.2
39.2
26.6
20.7
16.0
19.5
33.2
39.1

15.8
18.1
9.4
6.9
4.2
2.7
1.4
.7

15.5
19.1
9.1
7.1
4.4
2.8
.7
1.0

16.2
16.0
9.9
6.6
4.0
2.6
2.4
.0

7.2
8.8
5.8
4.3
3.2
3.0
.8
.2

7.9
10.1
6.2
4.7
3.4
3.3
.4
.3

6.4
5.8
5.1
3.8
2.9
2.5
1.3
.0

21.7
10.2
6.0
5.8
5.5
13.2
31.0
35.7

19.3
6.8
2.7
2.6
3.3
12.6
32.1
33.8

24.6
17.4
11.6
10.3
9.1
14.4
29.5
39.1

High school graduate..............................................

18.0

16.3

19.8

8.6

9.2

8.0

3.0

3.2

2.8

6.4

3.9

9.0

- 1 9 ........................................................
- 24 ........................................................
- 34 ........................................................
- 44 ........................................................
- 54 ........................................................
- 64 ........................................................
- 74 ........................................................
and o v e r...............................................

44.2
30.2
19.1
12.6
10.2
15.7
28.5
37.6

45.1
31.2
15.8
10.0
8.7
15.2
29.4
36.4

43.6
29.7
22.9
15.2
11.9
16.1
27.5
39.4

28.3
19.4
10.8
6.1
3.9
2.7
1.7
.0

30.0
23.1
11.1
5.9
4.2
2.5
1.9
.0

26.9
15.8
10.3
6.2
3.5
2.9
1.5
.0

6.2
4.8
3.4
2.5
2.1
1.7
.8
.5

7.0
5.2
3.3
2.7
2.4
1.8
.6
.8

5.5
4.4
3.5
2.3
1.7
1.5
.9
.0

9.7
6.0
4.9
4.1
4.3
11.3
26.0
37.0

8.2
2.9
1.4
1.4
2.1
10.9
26.9
35.6

11.3
9.5
9.1
6.7
6.7
11.7
25.1
39.4

Some college education.........................................

18.5

15.8

21.8

9.1

8.8

9.4

2.5

2.5

2.4

7.0

4.5

9.9

16 - 1 9 ........................................................ 48.0
20 - 24 ........................................................ 30.9
25 - 34 ........................................................ 18.0
35 - 44 ........................................................ 13.0
45 - 54 ........................................................ 10.2
55 - 64 ........................................................ 15.6
65 - 74 ........................................................ 26.3
75 and o ve r............................................... 27.3

39.6
30.9
15.2
9.7
7.0
13.4
26.2
25.3

51.8
31.0
21.6
17.1
14.4
19.0
26.5
30.5

26.0
16.9
10.6
7.2
4.1
3.0
1.3
.0

15.7
16.9
11.3
6.3
3.4
3.0
2.4
.0

31.3
16.9
9.8
8.2
5.0
2.9
.0
.0

3.8
3.6
2.4
2.4
1.9
1.3
1.3
.0

4.1
4.2
2.4
2.4
1.8
1.4
1.6
.0

3.6
3.1
2.5
2.4
2.2
1.0
1.0
.0

18.2
10.4
5.0
3.5
4.2
11.4
23.6
27.3

19.8
9.7
1.5
1.1
1.9
9.0
22.2
25.3

16.9
11.0
9.3
6.5
7.2
15.1
25.5
30.5

12.4

10.1

16.3

7.3

6.3

8.8

1.3

1.3

1.2

3.9

2.4

6.2

16 - 1 9 ........................................................ 40.6
20 - 24 ........................................................ 35.5
25 - 34 ........................................................ 14.6
35 - 44 ........................................................ 9.3
45 - 54 ........................................................ 7.1
55 - 64 ........................................................ 11.5
65 - 74 ........................................................ 21.1
75 and o v e r............................................... 32.1

40.6
32.3
12.1
7.1
6.0
10.4
19.0
27.9

.0
38.0
17.9
13.2
9.7
14.2
27.2
41.2

.0
25.6
10.2
5.8
4.1
2.8
1.3
.0

.0
21.7
9.6
5.2
4.0
2.4
1.4
.0

.0
28.8
10.9
6.9
4.3
3.7
1.1
.0

.0
3.6
1.3
1.2
1.0
1.0
.4
.0

.0
4.1
1.4
1.3
1.0
1.2
.5
.0

.0
3.2
1.2
1.1
1.1
.6
.0
.0

40.6
6.3
3.1
2.2
2.1
7.6
19.4
32.1

40.6
6.5
1.1
.6
1.0
6.8
17.1
27.9

.0
6.1
5.8
5.2
4.3
9.8
26.1
41.2

Age
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age

16
20
25
35
45
55
65
75

College graduate......................................................
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age

Women Total

NOTE: Due to rounding, individual items may not add to totals.
SOURCE: Merged Current Population Survey data. The
methodology used to develop the data is presented in "New
Occupational Data Improve Replacement Estimates," Monthly Labor
Review, March 1984.

1 The occupational separation rate is the percentage of individuals
previously employed in an occupation who are not employed in that
same occupation a year later. Occupational transfers occur if
individuals remain employed, but in a different occupation. Separations
exclude deaths.

data also provide relative measures of the occupational
attachment of workers. However, this information is not
sufficient to establish training requirements. First, many
of the workers who leave may later return to the occupa­
tion. Some will return after having been employed in

Permanent labor force separations
The gross separation data presented above can be used
to identify occupations that will have large numbers of
job openings due to replacement needs. By permitting
comparisons of separation rates among occupations, the



Men

Men Women

Men

Age
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age

Men Women Total

Labor force separations

Total

Age
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age
Age

Women Total

Movement to
unemployment

20

another occupation and some after not working for a
period of time. In addition, many jobs are filled by
workers who obtain their job skills through experience
in other occupations rather than through institutional
training. It is difficult to determine, therefore, the number
of workers who will have to acquire their skills in a train­
ing program. However, for planning education and train­
ing programs, some estimate of minimum training re­
quirements based on replacement needs arising from per­
manent labor force separations can be valuable.
There have been several efforts to develop estimates
of permanent labor force separations, but all have had
weaknesses. Most estimates have been based on tables of
working life. Developed from labor force participation
rates, these tables estimate the proportion of workers in
any demographic group who can be expected to remain
in the labor force over some future period. However, this
methodology has signficant limitations.5
Estimates of permanent labor force separations could
conceivably be developed from CPS gross separation data
by occupation. For example, the difference between the
number of workers age 55 and older leaving an occupa­
tion and those entering, the “net labor force separations
of persons age 55 and older,” could provide an
occupation-specific annual measure of permanent separa­
tions. However, inconsistencies in the data attributable
to sample size constraints preclude the use of this
methodology.6 Moreover, data developed from such
flows are especially sensitive to economic conditions and
may not be suitable for general application.
Another alternative, illustrated below, is to use cur­
rently available information about the age distribution
of workers in detailed occupations. For example, most
workers in an occupation who are age 55 and older, and
some below the age of 55, will not be working 10 years
from now. These data can be used to estimate perma­
nent separations by occupation.
As shown in table 7, in 1984, 14.9 million persons in
the labor force were 55 years of age or older. In 1994,
12.4 million of that group, 83 percent, are expected to
have left the labor force, and it is likely that, soon after
1994, many of the remainder will leave the labor force.
In addition, many of those remaining are likely to be
working part time. The number of workers who are over

Table 7. Civilian labor force, 1984, and projected declines by
age group, 1984-94

Number

Percent of
1984 civilian
labor force

Total, age 16 and o v e r.

113,544

0

0

Age 16 - 24 .............................

23,987

0

0

Age 25 - 54 .............................

74,662

7,156

25 - 34 ................................
35 - 44 ................................
45 - 54 ................................
45 - 49 ..........................
50 - 54 ..........................

32,722
24,933
17,007
8,975
8,032

(’)

887
6,269
2,136
4,133

Age 55 and o v e r....................

14,889

12,363

83.0

55 - 64 ................................
65 - 74 ................................
75 and o ve r.......................

11,961
2,489
438

9,866
2,059
438

82.5
82.7
100.0

Age in 1984

9.6
O

3.6
36.9
23.8
51.5

1 No decline.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

55, therefore, is a reasonable approximation of the
minimum number of workers who will not be in the labor
force in 1995.
In addition, we know that some younger workers also
will leave the labor force permanently. Some will retire
as soon as they are eligible, while others will leave because
of illness or other reasons. Table 7 shows that about 4
million or 52 percent of the workers between 50 and 54
years of age in 1984, and about 2 million or 24 percent
of those age 45-49, will also have left the labor force by
1994. Further, relatively small numbers of workers of
other ages will die or leave the labor force permanently
because of serious illness or because they have another
means of support and do not desire to work.
As shown in table 8, 14 percent of all workers were
age 55 and older in 1984, but the proportion varied
significantly by occupational group. Private household
workers (28 percent) and farming, forestry, and fishing
occupations (22 percent) had the highest proportions,
while technicians and related support occupations (8 per­
cent) and handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and
laborers (8 percent) had the lowest. All other groups were
relatively close to the average. It is not unexpected that
technicians and laborers have a low proportion of
workers 55 and over, since many young people enter the
labor market in these occupations and then, after acquir­
ing work experience and training, advance to occupations
that require greater skills.
Highly educated workers generally have a stronger at­
tachment to the labor force than other workers. While
occupations requiring highly trained workers might be
expected to have larger proportions of workers age 55
and over, education or training is not the only factor

5 Differences in separation rates among occupations were deter­
mined solely by occupational differences in age and sex distributions.
In addition, significant distortions occurred when the sex and age
distribution of employees in an occupation differed significantly from
the population. For example, the proportion of physicians age 65 and
older is much higher than that for the population. When the high separa­
tion rate for that age group was weighted by the number of older physi­
cians, an overstatement of labor force separations resulted. See O ccupa­
tion al P ro jectio n s, 1982 edition, pp. 72-73.
6 For example, the net separation rate for elementary school
teachers age 55 and older was 1.8 percent in 1977-78, 1.5 percent in
1980-81, and 0.9 percent in 1983-84. Although the absolute differences
are relatively small, the percentage differences are significant.




Decline in labor force,
1984-94

Civilian
labor force,
1984

21

Table 8. Age distribution for occupational groups, 1984

(Percent)
Percent of employees
Occupational group

Age 16-24

Total

Age 25 - 54

Age 55 and older

Total

16-19

20-24

Total

25-34

35-44

45-49

50-54

Total

55-64 65 and
older

19.7

6.2

13.5

66.7

28.8

22.4

8.1

7.3

13.6

10.9

2.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

7.5
8.1
16.7
24.9
21.4
31.5
31.5
24.3
15.8

.6
.8
1.4
9.9
5.0
20.6
13.9
11.3
3.1

6.9
7.3
15.4
14.9
16.3
10.9
17.6
13.1
12.7

76.6
79.0
75.6
60.5
65.9
40.9
54.7
53.6
71.5

28.2
34.0
40.9
25.4
28.9
14.1
24.1
22.5
32.4

28.7
28.7
22.6
20.5
21.8
13.0
17.8
16.6
22.8

10.4
8.7
7.2
7.5
7.9
6.3
6.5
7.5
8.7

9.3
7.6
4.9
7.0
7.3
7.6
6.3
7.0
7.7

15.9
13.0
7.6
14.6
12.7
27.5
13.8
22.1
12.7

13.0
10.2
6.6
11.1
10.5
17.9
10.3
14.1
10.9

2.9
2.7
1.0
3.5
2.2
9.6
3.5
8.0
1.8

100.0

18.7

4.1

14.6

68.6

30.1

22.6

8.4

7.4

12.7

11.2

1.5

100.0

15.8

3.4

12.5

70.9

30.0

23.2

9.5

8.1

13.3

11.6

1.7

100.0

43.5

19.3

24.2

48.6

24.8

13.8

5.1

4.8

7.9

6.6

1.3

Total employed, age 16 and o v e r............. 100.0
Executive, administrative, and m anagerial.........
Professional specialty.............................................
Technicians and related support..........................
Sales occupations....................................................
Administrative support, including c le ric a l...........
Private household occupations.............................
Service workers, except private household......
Farming, forestry, and fish in g ...............................
Precision production, craft, and repair................
Machine operators, assemblers, and
inspectors.............................................................
Transportation and material moving
occupations..........................................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and
laborers ................................................................

SOURCE: Current Population Survey.

NOTE: Due to rounding, individual items may not add to totals.

keeping older workers in the labor market. Many workers
may not have qualified for a retirement program and may
not be able to afford to retire and maintain an adequate
standard of living. In many other cases, social contacts
and pleasure derived from continued work undoubtedly
dominate economic considerations.
The 25 occupations with the highest proportions of
workers age 55 and older are listed below. (Appendix
table C-2 presents age distribution data for detailed
occupations.7) The proportions range from 40 percent
for dressmakers to 20 percent for sales workers in hard­
ware and building supplies. The list includes physicians,
dentists, and other highly trained workers but also
janitors and taxicab drivers, occupations that do not
require formal training.

Janitors and cleaners
Grader, dozer, and scraper operators
Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs
Stationary engineers
Geologists and geodesists
Aerospace engineers
Adminstrators and officials, public administration
Sales workers, hardware and building supplies

Com parisons w ith other separation data. Estimates of
permanent labor force separations based on the propor­
tion of workers age 55 and older are lower than the esti­
mates based on labor force separation rates shown iin
table 5. The latter include individuals leaving to transfer
to other occupations and those leaving the labor force
temporarily to return to school or to care for families and
thus reflect a much larger number of separations.
Until 1982, BLS used worklife tables to estimate
occupational labor force separations. These data
estimated the “annual rates at which people withdraw
from the labor force to retire or because of family respon­
sibility or death.8 Women leaving the labor force due to
childbirth were included in the rates as a separate
category. Since many young women return to the labor
force when their children become older, their separation
rate was not consistent with the concept of permanent
separations; as a result, separations for women and

O ccupations w ith the highest p ro p o rtio n s o f
w orkers age 55 and over
Dressmakers
Private household cleaners and servants
Farmers, except horticultural
Construction inspectors
Barbers
Managers, properties and real estate
Dentists
Welfare service aides
Clergy
Librarians
Real estate sales occupations
Guards and police, except public service
Authors
Management analysts
Personal service occupations, n.e.c.
Physicians
Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers



7 Data for occupations with fewer than 100,000 employees are
available from the Division of Occupational Outlook.
8 Dixie Sommers and Carin Cohen, “New Occupational Rates of
Labor Force Separation,” M o n th ly L a b o r R eview , March 1980, p. 36;
and Dixie Sommers, “ 1984 National Separation Rates for Census-based
Occupations” (unpublished memorandum, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
November 1, 1978).

22

presented in table 5. If labor force separation and acces­
sion data from the new worklife table are combined to
identify sex and age groups in which labor force separa­
tion rates exceed accession rates, “ net labor force separa­
tion rates” result. These rates are lower than previously
published rates because female separations due to
childbirth are no longer treated as a separate category.

overall separations were overstated. Over a 10-year
period, the estimate o f total separations based on these
worklife tables would be about twice that derived from
the number o f persons age 55 and older.
New worklife tables developed by BLS use matched
CPS data, rather than the labor force participation rates
used previously, to measure actual labor force separations
and accessions.9 Estimates o f labor force separations by
sex and age developed for the new worklife tables are
much higher than estimates based on the earlier tables
but are quite close to the labor force separation data




9
Shirley J. Smith, “ Revised Worklife Tables Reflect 1979-80 Ex­
perience,” Monthly Labor Review, August 1985, pp 23-30.

23




Chapter 4. How Workers
Get Their Training

average of 55 percent for all occupations. In the remain­
ing seven occupational groups, the proportion of workers
who required training was lower than the average, rang­
ing from 43 percent of the sales workers to 8 percent of
the private household workers. Within occupational
groups, there were large differences in training re­
quirements for detailed occupations. In the administrative
support group, for example, 88 percent of the
stenographers indicated they needed training to qualify
for their jobs compared to only 13 percent of the
messengers. In the service worker group, training was
reported as being required by 97 percent of the
hairdressers, but by only 12 percent of the short-order
cooks.
Professional specialty occupations, the second largest
group in terms of total employment, accounted for almost
22 percent of all workers who required training to qualify
for their job, and administrative support occupations, the
largest group, accounted for 17 percent (table 9). Some
of the detailed occupations in these groups accounted for
significant proportions of the total by themselves
(secretaries, 5.1 percent; elementary school teachers, 2.9
percent). (See appendix D, table D -l.) More than 14 per­
cent of all workers who required training were in ex­
ecutive, administrative, and managerial occupations, and
about the same proportion were in precision production,
craft, and repair jobs. Sales occupations accounted for
9 percent of the training total; service occupations for
about 8 percent; and machine operators, assemblers, and
inspectors for about 5 percent. Although a very high pro­
portion of the workers in technician and related support
occupations required training, this occupational group
was so small that it accounted for less than 5 percent of
the total who required training.
Statistics from the survey should be regarded as in­
dicators of general magnitude rather than precise
measures for several reasons. In some cases, for exam­
ple, people may have reported their occupation or the
training required incorrectly. Indeed, small percentages
of workers in occupations that obviously have strict
educational requirements, such as dentist and physician,
reported no need for training to get their jobs. Further­
more, because the information was obtained from the
workers, it represents what they believe is the training re­
quired rather than what employers state is the training
required for the job. Finally, since individuals were not

Knowledge of how workers in different occupations
obtain training to qualify for their jobs and improve their
skills is useful to counselors who assist clients in making
decisions on careers. Such information also is helpful to
educational institutions, government agencies, and
employers in planning education and training programs.
To learn more about occupational training, the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, under a contract with the Employ­
ment and Training Administration of the U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor, analyzed data collected by the Census
Bureau in a supplement to the January 1983 Current
Population Survey. Persons in the survey sample were
asked, “Did you need specific skills or training to ob­
tain your current job?” Those who responded “yes” were
asked to identify the source or sources of the training
from the following six categories: (1) A program in a high
school or a postsecondary school, (2) a formal company
program, (3) informal on-the-job training or experience
in a previously held job or jobs, (4) the Armed Forces,
(5) correspondence courses, and (6) informal training
from a friend or relative or other experience unrelated
to work.
The survey data indicated that almost 53.9 million or
55 percent of the 97.3 million persons employed in
January 1983 needed specific training to qualify for their
current jobs. School and informal on-the-job training
(OJT) were by far the most common training sources.
About 28 million workers obtained training to qualify for
their job in school, and almost as many gained their skills
on the job. Formal company programs were a source of
training for more than 9 million workers. Relatively few
workers acquired skills for their jobs from other sources,
such as correspondence courses, the Armed Forces, or
friends and relatives.
Among the 12 major occupational groups used to
classify workers, training was most important for obtain­
ing jobs in the professional and technical fields. About
93 percent of the workers in professional specialty oc­
cupations and 85 percent of those in technician and
related support occupations indicated that they needed
training to qualify for their jobs. Requirements also were
relatively high for workers in the executive, ad­
ministrative, and managerial group, and those in preci­
sion production, craft, and repair jobs. Training was
necessary for 57 percent of the workers in administrative
support occupations, which was slightly higher than the




25

Table 9. Occupational distribution of workers who needed specific training to qualify for their jobs, 1983

Percent of—
Number who
needed training
(thousands)

Occupational group

Total, all occupational groups..................................................................
Professional specialty occupations................................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical...............................
Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations.............................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations...................................
Sales occupations...........................................................................................
Service workers, except private household
Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors.........................................
Technicians and related support occupations.............................................
Transportation and material moving occupations.......................................
Farming, forestry, and fishing occupations..................................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers.................................
Private household occupations

53,890
11,797
9,157
7,738
7,603
4,867
4,397
2,742
2,579
1,462
862
605
81

Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
needed training

55.4

100.0

92.6
56.8
71.4
65.1
43.4
35.5
37.0
84.6
36.3
27.9
16.2
8.3

21.9
17.0
14.4
14.1
9.0
8.2
5.1
4.8
2.7
1.6
1.1
.2

Note: Percentages are based on unrounded numbers. Because
of rounding, individual items may not add to totals.
asked the type of training m ost needed to obtain their
jobs, the relative importance can only be inferred by the
frequency with which the type of training was identified.
The prevalence of a particular kind of training in an
occupation means it is a customary way of qualifying for
the job, but does not necessarily mean it is the best way.

almost 17 percent of all workers qualified for their jobs
through these programs. Workers in the professional
specialty occupations represented 56 percent of the total!,
and two large occupations in this group—elementary and
secondary school teachers—together accounted for
almost 17 percent (table D-2). Executive, administrative,
and managerial occupations represented 23 percent of
those who needed college training, while administrative
support and sales occupations each accounted for about
6 percent, and technician and related support jobs, almost
5 percent.
College programs were the most important source of
training for workers in professional specialty occupations.
About 70 percent of them qualified for their jobs through
these programs, and the proportion was much higher for
some detailed occupations in this group. Academic
preparation usually was most important in professional
fields that require a high degree of specialized and
theoretical knowledge. College was a source of training
for almost all workers in many of these fields, including
physicians, lawyers, psychologists, elementary and secon­
dary school teachers, and biological and life scientists.
College generally was less important for workers in pro­
fessional fields that require artistic talent and creative
ability, such as photographers, designers, actors, and
musicians. College programs were a source of qualify­
ing training for 34 percent of the workers in the executiv e,
administrative, and managerial group. Although an even
larger percentage of the workers in the group had com­
pleted 4 or more years of college, those with degrees who
did not say that college was necessary may have attributed
their jobs to experience instead of education because
advancement to many managerial positions requires yeairs
of work experience. About 25 percent of the workers in
technician and related support groups obtained their jobs

Sources of qualifying training

S chool tra inin g . Almost 29 percent of all persons
employed in January 1983 qualified for their current jobs
with training obtained from school programs. The pro­
portion was higher than average in the following four oc­
cupational groups: Professional specialty workers, 82 per­
cent; technicians and related support workers, 58 percent;
executives, administrators, and managers, 43 percent; and
administrative support workers, 33 percent. These four
occupational groups represented almost four-fifths of all
workers who used school training to get their jobs, but
accounted for little more than two-fifths of total employ­
ment. Professional specialty occupations alone accounted
for 37 percent of all workers who trained in school pro­
grams; administrative support occupations, 19 percent.
Workers who qualified for their jobs with training
acquired in schools also were asked to identify one or
more of the following five program categories from which
the training was received: (1) High school vocational pro­
gram, (2) private post-high school vocational program,
(3) public post-high school vocational school program,
(4) junior or community college or technical institute pro­
gram, and (5) 4-year or longer college program.
College program s that lasted 4 years o r longer provided
qualifying training to more workers than all other types
of schooling combined. About 16.1 million people or




26

Workers in the administrative support group were
more likely than those in other groups to get their jobs
through training in high school vocational programs.
More than 16 percent of the administrative workers
acquired qualifying skills in these programs, which was
about three times the proportion for all workers. High
school programs were the principal source of training for
two of the largest occupations in the group—secretary
and typist. Over one-third of the secretaries and typists
prepared for their jobs in high school vocational pro­
grams, as well as relatively large numbers of
stenographers, personnel clerks, billing clerks, and book­
keepers and accounting and auditing clerks. These pro­
grams were significant sources of training for some
occupations in the precision production, craft, and repair
group, such as automobile mechanics and tool-and-die
makers. In addition, about one-fourth of the drafters
from the technician group reported this training.
Almost 2.1 million persons or 2.2 percent of all
workers obtained the training required for their jobs in
p riv a te post-high school vocational program s. About 24
percent of the total were in administrative support oc­
cupations; 21 percent were in service jobs, except private
household; and 18 percent were in professional specialties
(table D-5).
Although relatively few workers qualified for their jobs
with private post-high school vocational training, it was
important for some occupations. Almost one-half of the
hairdressers, one-third of the barbers, and one-fifth of
the radiologic technicians used training from these schools
to get their jobs. It also was a significant source of train­
ing for workers in several other occupations, including
registered nurses, personnel clerks, licensed practical
nurses, stenographers, and real estate sales workers.
The number of workers who acquired the training to
obtain their jobs in p u b lic post-high school vocational
program s was even smaller than the number who acquired
training through private vocational education. Fewer than
1.6 million persons or only 1.6 percent of all workers
obtained their job skills in these programs. About 23 per­
cent of those who used the training to qualify for their
jobs were in administrative support occupations, and 18
percent were in precision production, craft, and repair
jobs (table D-6).
Public post-high school vocational programs were one
of the most important sources of job preparation for
licensed practical nurses—about one-fourth of them used
this training. It also was reported by many barbers, data
processing equipment repairers, hairdressers, and heating,
air-conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics.

through college training, and the proportion was much
greater among dental hygienists, computer programmers,
biological technicians, and clinical laboratory tech­
nologists and technicians.

Ju n io r colleges and technical institutes were the source
of qualifying training for almost 5 million persons or
about 5 percent of all workers. Administrative support
occupations led all other groups in the number of workers
reporting this training, with 26 percent of the total, and
secretaries alone accounted for almost 11 percent (table
D-3). Another 18 percent were in professional specialties,
a large proportion of whom were registered nurses. About
11 to 12 percent each were in technician and related sup­
port jobs; executive, administrative, and managerial
occupations; and precision production, craft, and repair
jobs.
The proportion of workers who used training from
junior colleges and technical institutes to get their jobs
was much higher than average irt most technician and
related support occupations. These schools provided
qualifying training for almost two-fifths of the radiologic
technicians and dental hygienists, one-third of the licensed
practical nurses, and about one-fourth of the electrical
and electronics technicians and clinical laboratory
technologists and technicians. Junior colleges and
technical institute programs also were major providers
of training for some professional specialty occupations—
almost one-half of the inhalation therapists and almost
one-third of the registered nurses obtained qualifying
training through these programs. Although these schools
were not the most significant source of training for preci­
sion production, craft, and repair workers as a group,
they were important for data processing equipment
repairers and office machine repairers. Relatively large
proportions of real estate sales workers and sales
engineers also reported this training.
H ig h school vo cational program s were a source of
qualifying training for 4.7 million persons or almost 5
percent of all workers. About 57 percent of the workers
who used this training to obtain their jobs were in ad­
ministrative support occupations (table D-4). Secretaries
alone accounted for 28 percent of those who reported the
training—a very large proportion considering that the
occupation accounted for less than 4 percent of total
employment. Typists represented over 6 percent of the
workers who used this method of training, and book­
keepers and accounting and auditing clerks, about 7
percent. Workers in the precision production, craft, and
repair occupational group accounted for almost 13 per­
cent of those who qualified for their jobs through high
school vocational programs. Many of them were
automobile mechanics, carpenters, electricians, and
machinists.



In fo rm a l o n-the-job tra in in g (O JT). About 27 million
persons or 28 percent of all workers attributed the skills
they needed to obtain their jobs to training acquired in­
formally through previous employment, which was
almost as many as the number who learned job skills in
27

school. Unlike other forms of training, OJT did not tend
to be concentrated in particular occupations. The occupa­
tional distribution of workers who used it to qualify for
their jobs was more like that of total employment than
of workers who used any other type of training. Ad­
ministrative support occupations accounted for about 18
percent of the workers who reported OJT. Another 17
percent were in precision production, craft, and repair
jobs, while 16 percent were in executive, administrative,
and managerial occupations, and 12 percent were in sales
jobs (table D-7).
OJT was the most important source of training for
such diverse occupations as legal assistants, upholsterers,
editors and reporters, and plumbers—about 50 to 60 per­
cent of the workers in these occupations learned their
skills through OJT. Occupations in which relatively few
workers used OJT to get jobs also were a very mixed
group. Occupations with less than 10 percent of workers
reporting this method included, for example, dentists,
news vendors, elementary school teachers, and garbage
collectors, which reflects the fact that in some cases school
is about the only training necessary, while in others, little,
if any, training is required.

almost one-half of these workers acquired their skills in
the service. The Armed Forces also were a source of skills
for many data processing equipment repairers, electronics
repairers of commercial and industrial equipment, elec­
trical and electronics technicians, and aerospace
engineers.

Correspondence schools. Correspondence courses were
the least significant method of job training. Approxi­
mately three-quarter of a million persons obtained the
skills they needed to qualify for their jobs through cor­
respondence school training, which was less than 1 per­
cent of all workers. About 24 percent were in precision
production, craft, and repair jobs (table D-10). Another
18 percent were executive, administrative, and managerial
workers, and about 15 percent each were sales workers
and professional specialists.
More than one-tenth of the electronics repairers of
communications and industrial equipment used cor­
respondence school training to qualify for their jobs. In
most other occupations, however, the proportion who
reported this training was very small.
O th er tra inin g . About 3.2 million persons or 3 percent
of all workers got their training informally from a friend
or relative or other experience unrelated to work. About
29 percent of all workers who reported this category of
training were in precision production, craft, and repair
jobs (table D-ll). Workers in the following occupation
groups each accounted for about 10 percent of the total:
Executive, administrative, and managerial; farming,
forestry, and fishing; professional specialty; and sales.
Almost one-third of the dressmakers qualified for their
jobs by means of informal instruction from a friend or
relative or other experience unrelated to work. This kind
of training also was a source of skills for many musicians,
photographers, carpenters, automobile mechanics,
automobile body repairers, and farmers.

F o rm a l com pany training. About 9.4 million persons or
almost 10 percent of all workers obtained their jobs with
skills they learned in formal company (employer) train­
ing programs, such as apprenticeship. Precision produc­
tion, craft, and repair occupations were ahead of all other
groups in the number of workers reporting formal com­
pany training, with almost 21 percent of the total (table
D-8). About 14 percent each were in sales occupations
and executive, administrative, and managerial jobs, and
about 13 percent each were in administrative support jobs
and professional specialties.
The proportion of workers who qualified for their jobs
through employer training programs was particularly high
in some protective service occupations. Almost one-half
of the public service police and detectives and two-fifths
of the firefighters and correctional institution officers
reported this training. Formal company programs also
were reported frequently by workers in a variety of other
occupations—office machine repairers, tool-and-die
makers, insurance sales workers, and busdrivers—to
name a few.

Occupational patterns
In analyzing the survey results it can be helpful to look
at how frequently workers in an occupational category
reported each source of training. Patterns of training
differ greatly by occupational group. Workers in profes­
sional specialty occupations and technician and related
support occupations identified school more frequently
than all other sources of qualifying training combined.
School also was more important than any other single
source for administrative support workers and for
executives, administrators, and managers. Workers in the:
following occupational groups reported OJT more
frequently than all other training sources combined:
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers;
transportation and material moving workers; and
machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors. OJT also
was the single most important source of qualifying

T ra in in g in the A rm e d Forces. Only 1.9 million persons
or 2 percent of all workers received training in military
service that provided them with the skills needed to get
their jobs. Almost 32 percent of the workers who used
this training were in the precision production, craft, and
repair group (table D-9). Executive, administrative, and
managerial occupations accounted for about 17 percent
of the workers who used this training, and professional
specialty jobs, 15 percent. Training in the military services
was most important for aircraft engine mechanics—



28

training for workers in the remaining occupational
groups, except private household workers, who were
more likely to learn from friends or relatives or other
experience unrelated to work. Frequently, if school was
the primary method of training for an occupational
group, OJT was second, and vice versa.
The training patterns for some detailed occupations
are common knowledge. It is not surprising, for exam­
ple, that few physicians and dentists reported sources of
qualifying training other than school. For many occupa­
tions, however, the relative importance of the different




sources is less obvious. It would have been difficult to
predict, for example, that secretaries were more likely to
report high school vocational programs than informal onthe-job training or that computer programmers were
more likely to report informal on-the-job training than
formal company instruction.
Descriptions of patterns of qualifying training for
more than 250 occupations are presented in H o w W orkers
Get Their Training, Bulletin 2226 (Bureau of Labor
Statistics, 1985). This publication also contains data on
skill improvement training.

29




Chapter 5. Occupational Profiles

average proportion of part-time jobs. (Part time is de­
fined as fewer than 35 hours per week.) The number of
workers who are 55 and older can be used as an approx­
imation of the minimum number of workers who will die
or permanently retire from the labor force in the next 10
years.

Chapter 2 provided an overview of the broad changes
in employment projected for the 1984-95 period. This
chapter presents detailed employment and supply profiles
for the 200 or so occupations covered in the 1986-87 Oc­
cup ation a l O u tlo o k H a n db o o k. The occupations are
listed alphabetically within the major occupational group­
ings that conform to the clustering arrangement of the
H andbook, which is structured according to the Standard

O ccupational C lassification M a nu a l, 1980 E d itio n .

Figure 1. Characteristics of the employed, 1984

Each occupational description in this chapter presents,
when available, the following information:

Percent fem ale............................................................
Percent b la ck ..............................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years..............................................................
25-54 years..............................................................
55 and o ld e r ..........................................................
Percent employed part time,to t a l..........................
Percent employed part time,voluntary..................

Employment profile

T o ta l em ploym ent, 1984. Total employment includes
wage and salary workers, the self-employed, and unpaid
family workers. Occupational distribution patterns from
the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) surveys
were used to develop the estimates of 1984 employment
of wage and salary workers. Estimates for self-employed
and unpaid family workers are based on data from the
Current Population Survey (CPS).
Employment represents the number of jobs rather than
a count of individuals. Because of economic necessity or
personal desire, some people hold more than one job.
About 5 percent of all workers are dual jobholders.
Workers in some occupations, such as dental hygienist,
may work for more than one employer because jobs are
available only on a part-time basis.
For a detailed explanation of how the estimates were
derived, see the section on occupational employment pro­
jections in E m p lo ym e n t P ro je ctio n s f o r 1995: D a ta an d
M ethods, BLS Bulletin 2253.

19.7
66.7
13.6
17.8
12.8

U nem ploym ent rate. For occupations with 100,000 or
more workers, the unemployment rate, derived from CPS
data, is compared with the average for all workers over
the 1983-85 period, according to the definitions presented
in figure 2.
Figure 2. Unemployment rate
If the average rate over
the 1983-85 period was in
the following range:
Up to 1st d ecile ................
Between 1st and 3rd
deciles............................
Between 3rd and
7th deciles ....................
Between 7th and 9th
deciles............................
9th decile and ab o v e........

Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984. Characteristics
of workers are available only from the CPS. Although
the CPS occupational classifications are not identical to
those of the OES, many occupations are sufficiently com­
parable so that CPS data can provide a reasonable proxy.
Such data, presented in this section for occupations with
1984 CPS employment of 50,000 or more, include the
percentage of women, blacks, and part-time workers, in­
cluding those working part time voluntarily, and the age
distribution of workers.
Figure 1 presents data for these characteristics for
employed workers as a whole. This information can be
used, for example, to identify occupations with an above­




43.7
9.6

Unemployment was
characterized as:

Much lower than average
Lower than average
About average
Higher than average
Much higher than average

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984.
This section lists all industries that accounted for 5 per­
cent or more of the wage and salary jobs in the occupa­
tion in 1984. The source of these data is the 1984-95
National Industry-Occupation Employment Matrix. The
matrix for 1984 presents, in percentage terms, the
31

distribution of over 500 occupations in 378 industries
based on recent OES surveys.

tify occupations that will have large numbers of job open­
ings due to replacement needs. Occupations with rela­
tively low separation rates tend to have high pay and
status, lengthy training requirements, and a high propor­
tion of prime-working-age, full-time workers. Occupa­
tions with high separation rates, on the other hand,,
generally are large, with low pay and status, low train­
ing requirements, and a high proportion of young and
part-time workers. For more detailed information, see
chapter 3.

P ro je cte d 1995 em ploym ent. This section presents the
1995 low-, moderate-, and high-growth projections of
employment. The basic procedure used to develop the
1995 occupational projections for wage and salary
workers was to project the staffing patterns in the matrix
from 1984 to 1995 and then apply the projected patterns
to projections of industry employment developed through
the Bureau’s economic growth system. The occupational
structure for each industry was projected to 1995 through
analyses of the factors that are expected to change the
structure. The projected staffing patterns of industries
used to translate industry employment into occupational
employment were identical in all three alternatives. The
different growth rates for occupations among the alter­
natives, therefore, reflect the assumptions and analyses
that underlie the alternative industry employment pro­
jections. Self-employed and unpaid family workers were
projected separately and added to the sum of wage and
salary workers for all industries to derive the projections
of total employment. For a description of how the pro­
jections were developed, see E m ploym ent P rojections f o r
1995, Bulletin 2253.

Supply profile

Usual entry and training requirements. The requirements
are stated in general terms and therefore may differ from
those of specific employers. This section reflects infor­
mation developed for the 1986-87 O ccupational O u tlo o k
H andbook, including data on how workers get their train­
ing, which was collected in a supplement to the January
1983 CPS. For additional information about this survey
of occupational training, see chapter 4.
T ra in in g com pletions. This section, included for most
occupations, presents available data on completions of
appropriate formal education and training programs ,
Only programs with 100 or more completions are shown,,
except for Ph.D. programs, for which the minimum for
presentation is 20. See appendix E for additional educa­
tion and training statistics.
The data on completions of various programs can be
useful in providing a measure of the significance of these
sources of supply in relation to openings. However, com­
paring completions with openings to estimate shortages
or surpluses is not recommended because, for most oc­
cupations, not all avenues of entry into an occupation
are discernible. Those who complete education or train­
ing programs represent only a fraction of the total
number of entrants to most occupations, as shown in
chapter 3. Many openings arising from replacement
needs, for example, are filled by individuals reentering
occupations they left temporarily. Furthermore, not all
persons who complete programs represent an addition to
supply. Some never enter the labor force; some take train­
ing and education solely for personal enrichment, to
upgrade skills in a present job, or for some other
consideration.

P ercent change, 1984-95. This identifies fast- and slowgrowing occupations. For comparison purposes, the pro­
jected change in total employment between 1984 and 1995
is 14.9 percent.

E m p lo ym e nt g ro w th . The same adjectives used in the
1986-87 O ccupational O u tlo o k H a n d b o o k are used here
to describe how employment change projected for each
occupation compares with the average for all occupations.
Figure 3 shows the range of data the descriptive terms
cover.
Figure 3. Change in employment between 1984 and 1995
If employment is projected to:

The statement about
employment change reads:

Increase 31 percent or more
Increase 20 to 30 percent
Increase 11 to 19 percent
Increase 4 to 10 percent
Increase or decrease 3 percent
Decrease 4 percent or more

Much faster than average
Faster than average
About as fast as average
Slower than average
Little change
Decline

Characteristics o f entrants. This section briefly discusses
the characteristics of entrants to occupations having com­
parable OES and CPS definitions, 1984 CPS employment
of 50,000 or more, and consistent patterns of entry in
periods for which CPS occupational mobility data are:
available. For some occupations, the description of entry
characteristics reflects BLS analysts’ knowledge of the:
occupations.

A n n u a l separation rate (percent). This rate, derived from
CPS data, is the proportion of workers—for occupations
of 100,000 jobs or more—who left the occupation in
1983-84. This gross separation rate can be used to iden­




32

Executive, Administrative, and
Managerial Occupations

Bank officers and managers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 453,000

Accountants and auditors

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

In du stry

Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 882,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years.......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

40.9
5.5

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

13.3
75.1
11.6
5.1
4.3

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

1,135,000
28.7

1,189,000
34.8

572,000
26.3

H igh

5%,000
31.8

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Experience as a manage­
ment trainee or outstanding work as a bank clerk or teller is re­
quired for most starting bank officer and management positions.
Management trainees usually must have a bachelor’s degree in
business administration with a major in finance, or in a liberal arts
curriculum such as accounting, economics, commercial law,
political science, or statistics. Some banks prefer trainees who have
a master’s degree in business administration (MBA). Bank officers
often participate in company-sponsored training programs, take
courses at local colleges and universities, and attend seminars and
conferences to broaden their knowledge and skills.

P ercen t

M o d e ra te

M o d era te

SUPPLY PROFILE

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

544,000
20.2

62.4
13.9
9.9

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services----Manufacturing.................................................................
Government.....................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real e sta te ............................
Wholesale trade..............................................................

P ercent

Commercial and stock savings b a n k s........................
Savings and loan associations......................................
Personal credit institutions..........................................

20.9
15.1
12.3
10.4
9.1
H igh

1,235,000
40.1

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Most entrants transfer from another
professional or clerical occupation. The majority o f entrants have
had some college training and many are college graduates. Entrants
are typically older than entrants to other occupations—reflecting
the importance o f work experience.

Employment growth.................................. Much faster than average
Annual separation rate (percent)..................................................... 9.9

SUPPLY PROFILE
Construction and building inspectors

U su al e n try a n d tra in in g req u irem en ts. Most public accounting and

business Arms require a bachelor’s degree. For a few entry level
positions, however, completion o f a 1- or 2-year accounting pro­
gram is adequate. A growing number o f employers seek persons
with a master’s degree in accounting or a master’s degree in business
administration with a concentration in accounting.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 55,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................ 3.5
Percent b la c k .......................................................................... 2.6
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 6.3
25-54 years...................................................................... 62.5
55 and older.................................................................... 31.2
Percent employed part time, total........................................ 5.6
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 4.6

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Accounting, bookkeeping, and related programs ..
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Accounting....................................................................
Associate degrees and awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Accounting; and accounting, bookkeeping, and
related programs ....................................................
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Accounting:
Bachelor’s .............................................................
Master’s ................................................................
Ph.D......................................................................

105,047
19,880

17,149

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

45,732
3,046
66

Local government..........................................................
Special trade contractors..............................................
State government............................................................
Federal Government......................................................
General contractors and operative builders..............

In du stry

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Most entrants have completed at least
some college training, and the majority are college graduates. About
half o f all entrants have not been working. The remainder transfer
from another occupation; some are bookkeepers and accounting
clerks advancing to accountant or auditor jobs.




P ercent

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-85 .........

58,000
4.4

M o d era te

59,000
7.4

45.8
16.7
11.0
9.5
7.7
H igh

61,000
10.0

Employment grow th............................................... Slower than average

33

SUPPLY PROFILE

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Many entrants transfer from another
occupation—primarily another health occupation. Some have
worked in these while in graduate school. Other entrants are ex­
perienced workers who have been tending to family responsibilities
or in school full time. Because o f the emphasis placed on work ex­
perience and advanced education, entrants tend to be much older
than entrants to other occupations.

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. A high school diploma and

several years o f experience are generally required for construction
inspectors. Inspectors need a thorough knowledge o f construction
materials and practices in either a general area like heavy construe*
tion or a specialized area such as electrical or plumbing systems,
reinforced concrete, or structural steel. Many employers prefer in­
spectors who have completed an apprenticeship program, studied
engineering or architecture for at least 2 years, or earned a related
associate degree from a community or junior college. To keep
abreast o f new building code developments, many inspectors par­
ticipate in company- or State-sponsored training programs.

Hotel managers and assistants
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

C h a r a c te ristic s o f en tra n ts . Most entrants transfer from another
occupation—primarily craft worker, supervisor, or construction
contractor—where they obtained the required experience. Thus, en­
trants tend to be older than entrants to other occupations.

Total employment, 1984 ..............................

. •................. 83,000
;
.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

In du stry

Health services managers

Low

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ......................................

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 . . . . .

336,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale................................................................
Percent black ..................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years..............................................................
25-54 years..............................................................
55 and o ld e r ................................................
Percent employed part time, to ta l..............................
Percent employed part time, voluntary......................

In du stry

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

460,000
36.9

M o d era te

483,000
43.6

M o d e ra te

104,000
25.7

98.4
H igh

109,000
32.3

Faster than average

61.2
6.4

SUPPLY PROFILE

3.0
80.7
16.3
4.7
4.2

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Although most employers
will accept applicants without formal training who have previous
work experience in this field, a growing number emphasize college
or specialized postsecondary education.
T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Institutional management.................................................
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Hotel and lodging .............................................................
Associate degrees and awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Institutional management.................................................
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Institutional management:
Bachelor’s ..........................
Master’s .....................................................

Percent

Hospitals..........................................................................
Offices of physicians......................................................
Nursing and personal care facilities............................
Offices of dentists.........................

97,000
17.8

Employment growth .................... .............. .

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Low

P ercen t

Hotels, motels, and tourist courts ................ ..............

45.1
18.6

14.4

6.2
H igh

505,000
50.1

2,290
261
2,692
3,486
268

Employment grow th.................................. Much faster than average

Inspectors and compliance officers, except con­
struction
SUPPLY PROFILE
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . A master’s degree—in
hospital administration, health administration, public health, or
business administration—is the standard credential for hospital jobs
and some other positions. All States require nursing home ad­
ministrators to be licensed. Licensure requirements typically include
2 to 4 years o f college and successful completion o f a written ex­
amination that tests the applicants’ knowledge o f management prin­
ciples and practices. Work experience is very important.

Total employment, 1984 ..........................................................
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent female ..............................................
Percent b la c k .....................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.................................................................
25-54 years ......................
55 and older.......... ..................................................
Percent employed part time, to ta l............. ....................
Percent employed part time, voluntary .........................

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Health sciences administration and public health:
Bachelor’s ........ .........
Master’s . . . ......................................................
Ph.D...................................................................



3,102
2,014
34

122,000

22.0
12.2
5.6
77.2
17.2
3.1
2.3

Unemployment rate.......................... .......... . . . . . . Lower than average

34

SUPPLY PROFILE

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

H igh

U su al e n try a n d train in g req u irem en ts. Firms seek college graduates
for entry level jobs but have varying preferences as to field o f study.
Some employers prefer applicants who have majored in personnel
administration, human resource development, or labor relations;
others require a technical or business background; and some hire
liberal arts graduates. Regardless o f academic background,
employers stress the importance o f prior work experience and con­
tinuing education and training.

134,000
9.9

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

P ercent

State government............................................................
Federal Government......................................................
Local government..........................................................
Finance, insurance, and reale sta te ..............................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-85 .........

129,000
5.9

M od era te

131,000
8.0

31.4
27.8
24.9
6.1

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Personnel management and labor and industrial relations:
Bachelor’s ...................................................................... 3,316
Master’s ........................................................................ 1,145

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Because these workers
specialize in the inspection o f items ranging from meat to mines
to aircraft, they encompass a great diversity o f detailed technical
knowledge, background, and experience. Many jobs require a col­
lege degree in an engineering or scientific specialty, while others
require experience in a related occupation. All inspectors must be
trained in applicable laws and inspection procedures through a com­
bination o f classroom and on-the-job training.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. People who take jobs in this field fre­
quently transfer from another occupation. Entrants tend to be older
than entrants to other occupations, and many openings are filled
by individuals over the age o f 35. Entrants who have not been work­
ing fill the remainder o f the openings. For the most part, they have
been in school or between jobs. Many entrants are college graduates.

Purchasing agents

C h ara cteristics o f en tran ts. Entrants typically transfer from another
occupation where they have obtained the required experience or
enter directly from school. Consequently, these workers tend to
be older than other entrants. Many entrants have completed some
form o f postsecondary training.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 189,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale......................................................................
Percent black ........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years....................................................................
25-54 years....................................................................
55 and o ld e r ................................................................
Percent employed part time, to ta l....................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary............................

Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 198,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent female ......................................................................
Percent b lack ........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years....................................................................
25-54 years....................................................................
55 and o ld e r ................................................................
Percent employed part time,to ta l....................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary............................

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

6.6
82.2
11.2
5.7
4.7

In du stry

Low

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

223,000
12.6

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

P ercent

M o d era te

232,000
17.3

M od era te

225,000
19.1

H igh

232,000
22.9

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 12.3

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. There are no universal
educational requirements for entry level jobs. Many smaller com­
panies promote clerks or technicians in the purchasing department
or hire graduates o f associate degree programs in purchasing. Some
small companies and most large organizations require a college
degree and prefer applicants with a master’s degree in business ad­
ministration or management. Certification—the sign o f professional
competence—requires several years o f experience and extensive
continuing education.

H igh

240,000
21.2

Employment growth ................................................................ Average




216,000
14.7

33.8
15.1
8.5
8.3

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

14.8
12.9
12.4
8.4
6.4
5.8
5.5

Annual separation rate (percen t)......................................................

P ercent

Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Federal Government......................................................
Business services ............................................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Federal Government......................................................
Membership organizations............................................
Finance, insurance and real estate..............................
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................
Comunications and utilities..........................................
State government............................................................

8.2
75.5
16.3
2.3
1.9

Unemployment rate........................................................About average

55.5
11.7

Unemployment rate ...................................................... About average

In du stry

22.6
1.8

14.8

35

Underwriters

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

1983:
Business and management, general; contract
management and procurement/purchasing;
and purchasing........................................................
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Business and management, general; contract
management and procurement/purchasing;
and purchasing:
Bachelor’s .................................................................
Master’s .....................................................................
P h.D ............................................................................

Total employment, 1984......................................
14,262

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercen t

Insurance agents, brokers, and services......................
Fire, marine, and casualty insurance..........................
Life insurance .................................................................

42,543
11,944
164

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Most entrants transfer from another
occupation—many o f these are administrative and technical workers
in the purchasing department who move up the career ladder and
others who have specialized knowledge o f particular products or
services. The remaining entrants have not been working—many
have been in school. Entrants tend to be considerably older than
entrants to other occupations.

90,000
15.4

M o d e ra te

95,000
22.1

41.5
40.9
13.2
H igh

100,00(3
27.4

Employment g row th ............................................ Faster than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . Most large insurance com ­
panies prefer college graduates who have a degree in liberal arts
or business administration, but a major in almost any field pro­
vides a good general background. Some small companies hire per­
sons without a college degree for trainee positions. Some experi­
enced underwriting clerks are promoted to underwriter positions.
Entrants need the ability to work with detail and to communicate
effectively. Continuing education is very important for those
wishing to advance.

School principals and assistant principals
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ..........................................................

78,000

125,000

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercent

Educational services......................................................

Wholesale and retail buyers

100.0

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

133,000
6.9

M o d era te

137,000
10.0

H igh

Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 229,000

142,000
13.6

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le...................................................................
Percent black .....................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.................................................................
25-54 years.................................................................
55 and older...............................................................
Percent employed part time, total..................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary........................

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . All States and the District
o f Columbia require certification for those in public schools; cer­
tification requirements usually include graduate training in educa­
tion administration, teaching experience, and passing an examina­
tion. Applicants should have leadership and communications skills
as well as managerial ability.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

P ercent

Wholesale trade, durable g o o d s..................................
General merchandise stores (includes department
and variety stores).....................................................
Miscellaneous retail stores (includes drug,
proprietary, liquor, used merchandise, and
related stores).............................................................
Wholesale trade, nondurable good s............................
Food stores.......................................................................
Apparel and accessories sto res....................................

9,475
1,511

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The typical entrant transfers from a
teaching position or an administrative job such as curriculum
specialist or financial officer. Many o f the remaining entrants are
former school administrators who have been tending to family
responsibilities. Because o f the extensive education and experience
required, entrants tend to be older than entrants to other occu­
pations.




12.4
73.5
14.1
8.5
7.2

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Education administration, general; administration of
special education; adult and continuing education
administration; educational supervision; elementary
and secondary education administration; and edu­
cation administration, other:
Master’s ......................................................................
Ph.D............................................................................

42.2
3.1

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

244,000
6.4

M o d era te

258,000
12.4

22.9
15.2

14.2
13.7
11.3
10.9
H igh

269,000
17.2

Employment growth ................................................................. Average
Annual separation rate (p ercen t)....................................................... 13.9

36

SUPPLY PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. All States and the District
o f Columbia require individuals to be registered before they may
call themselves architects or contract for architectural services. To
qualify for the registration examination, applicants generally need
at least a Bachelor o f Architecture degree from an accredited pro­
gram and 3 years o f experience working for an architect.

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . Familiarity with merchan­
dise and with wholesaling and retailing generally is required. Ex­
perience is most often gained as an assistant buyer or buyer trainee.
Trainees acquire skills through formal classroom instruction and
on-the-job training. High school and postsecondary marketing and
distributive education programs can lead to one o f these entry posi­
tions. However, most employers prefer either to hire college
graduates with a major in marketing or purchasing or to promote
employees from within the organization.

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Architecture:
Bachelor’s .................................................................. 4,587
Master’s ....................................................................... 1,630
P h .D ..............................................................................
26

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Contract management and procurement/purchasing
and marketing management:
Bachelor’s ................................................................. 23,832
Master’s ..................................................................... 2,000
P h .D .............................................................................
22

C h a ra cteristics o f en tran ts. Most entrants have not been w ork in g-

most have been in school and some are architects who were be­
tween jobs. A few are experienced workers transferring from
another occupation. Because o f extensive educational and train­
ing requirements, entrants tend to be older than those o f most other
occupations.

C h a ra cteristics o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f entrants transfer from
another occupation. The remaining entrants have not been
working—most have been in school, retired, or tending to family
responsibilities. Because o f the importance o f work experience, en­
trants tend to be older than entrants to other occupations. The ma­
jority o f entrants have had some college training.

Engineers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984........................................................ 1,331,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent female................................................................
Percent black..................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 y ea rs............................................................
25-54 y ea rs............................................................
55 and o ld er..........................................................
Percent employed part time, to tal..............................
Percent employed part time, voluntary......................

Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects
Architects
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

10.8
2.4

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

6.2
81.6
12.2
5.0
3.9

Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment
manufacturing..........................................................
Transportation equipment manufacturing..................
Engineering, architectural, and surveying services...
Machinery manufacturing, except electrical..............
Federal Government......................................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................

In du stry

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

7.9
77.3
14.8
1.5
1.3

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 93,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.....................................................................
Percent black .......................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years..................................................................
25-54 years..................................................................
55 and older.................................................................
Percent employed part time, total.....................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary............................

6.2
2.6

1,734,000
30.3

P ercent

M od era te

1,811,000
36.1

14.1
13.0
10.4
10.2
7.2
6.8
H igh

1,877,000
41.0

P ercent

Employment grow th.................................. Much faster than average
Engineering, architectural, andsurveying services...
Agricultural services.......................................................
Federal Government......................................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

113,000
21.3

M o d e ra te

118,000
27.0

67.5
12.1
5.7

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................... 8.6

SUPPLY PROFILE

H igh

122,000
31.2

Employment grow th ..................

Faster than average

Annual separation rate (percent)

...................

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. A bachelor’s degree in
engineering is generally required for beginning engineering jobs.
College graduates with a degree in science or mathematics and ex­
perienced technicians may also qualify for some jobs. Many
engineers obtain a master’s degree, which is desirable for promotion




6.0
37

or for learning new technologies. To keep up with rapid advances
in technology, engineers must continue their education and train­
ing throughout their career.

In d u stry

P ercen t

Miscellaneous services (includes engineering,
architectural, and surveying services).....................
Business services............................................................
Petroleum refiningand relatedindustries . . . . . . . . . .

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:

10.2
9.2
7.7

Engineering; engineering and engineering-related
Low

technologies:
Projected 1995 employment..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Bachelor’s ................................................................. 89,199
Master’s ....................................................................... 19,350
P h .D ...............................................................................

2,831

C h a ra cteristics o f e n tra n ts. About half o f all entrants have not been
working; they are either experienced engineers who were between
jobs or recent college graduates. The remaining entrants transfer;
many are from a closely related occupation. Most entrants have
a college degree and are 20 to 34 years o f age.

66,000
18.0

M o d e ra te

69,000
23.9

H igh

72,000
29.0

Employment g row th ............................................ Faster than average

Civil engineers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Aerospace engineers

Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 175,000
Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le...................................................................
Percent b la c k .....................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.................................................................
25-54 years.................................................................
55 and older...............................................................
Percent employed part time, total...................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary........................

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 48,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.....................................................................
Percent black .......................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................
25-54 years...................................................................
55 and older.................................................................
Percent employed part time, total....................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..........................

3.3
4.2
11.7
67.5
20.8
1.0
1.0

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

Low

Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

60,000
24.6

M o d e ra te

62,000
29.5

P ercen t

Engineering, architectural, and surveying services...
State government.............................................................
Local government...........................................................
Federal Government.......................................................
Construction.....................................................................

P ercen t

Aircraft and parts manufacturing ...............................
Federal Government.......................................................
Business services.............................................................

9.0
76.6
14.4
1.8
1.6

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

6.1
1.0

57.7
17.6
6.9

Low

H igh

Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

64,000
32.9

214,000
22.1

M o d e ra te

222,000
26.5

31.8
18.1
12.8
11.2
9.1
H igh

229,000
30.5

Employment g row th ............................................ Faster than average

Employment grow th............................................. Faster than average

Annual separation rate (percent)..................................................... 5.0

Chemical engineers
Electrical and electronics engineers

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 56,000
Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.....................................................................
Percent b la c k .......................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................
25-54 years...................................................................
55 and older.................................................................
Percent employed part time, total....................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..........................

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

8.9
2.2

Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 390,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le...................................................................
Percent b la c k .....................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.................................................................
25-54 years............................................................
55 and older...............................................................
Percent employed part time, total..................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary........................

8.9
74.7
16.4
.9
.7

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

Chemical and allied products manufacturing............
Durable goods manufacturing......................................



P ercen t

31.0
17.6

7.1
4.0
7.9
79.3
12.3
1.5
1.3

Unemployment rate.................................................. Lower than average

38

Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years..............................................................
25-54 years..............................................................
55 and older............................................................
Percent employed part time, total................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary......................

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

P ercen t

Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment
manufacturing......
Machinery manufacturing, except electrical..............
Communications and u tilities......................................
Government............ .....................................................
Business services............................................................
Miscellaneous services (includes engineering,
architectural and surveying services)....................

30.2
12.3
10.7
8.2
7.7

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

7.2

In d u stry
Low

Projected 1993 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-93 .........

371,000
46.3

M o d e ra te

397,000
32.8

7.6
75.2
17.2
1.6
1.5

P ercen t

Machinery manufacturing, except electrical..............
Engineering, architectural, and surveying services...
Transportation equipment manufacturing..................
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................
Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment
manufacturing..........................................................
Fabricated metal products manufacturing................

H igh

617,000
38.1

Employment growth.................................. Much faster than average
Annual separation rate (percent).................. .................................. 3.2

Low

Industrial engineers

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

303,000
28.0

M o d era te

317,000
34.0

17.6
13.7
11.2
9.6
9.1
6.9
H igh

329,000
39.2

Employment growth.................... .......... Much faster than average

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 125,000
Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale..................................................................
Percent b la c k ....................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years................................................................
25-54 years................................................................
55 and older...............................................................
Percent employed part time, total..................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary........................

Annual separation rate (percent)

9.3
2.4

.................................................. 8.5

Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers

5.6
80.4
14.0
.6
.4

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 19,000
Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

In du stry

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

P ercen t

Machinery manufacturing, except electrical..............
Transportation equipment manufacturing..................
Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment
manufacturing ...........................................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................
Services............................................................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment. .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

154,000
23.4

M o d e ra te

162,000
29.4

P ercent

Primary metal manufacturing......................................
Transportation equipment manufacturing..................
Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment
manufacturing..........................................................
Business services............................................................
Machinery manufacturing, except electrical ............

18.3
16.9
16.5
11.8
6.8

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

H igh

22,000
16.7

M o d era te

23,000
22.8

22.6
17.8
9.3
9.0
8.4
H igh

25,000
29.2

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average

168,000
34.7

Employment grow th............................................ Faster than average

Mining engineers

Annual separation rate (percent) ................................................ 115.4

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

1 The number of separations may be artificially high. Employment in the occupa­
tion declined between 1983 and 1984; some workers who left were not replaced.

Total employment, 1984 .............................................................. 7,200
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Mechanical engineers

In du stry

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Bituminous coal and lignite mining............................
Metal m in in g..................................................................
Oil and gas extraction ..................................................
Federal Government......................................................
Nonmetallic mining and quarrying..............................
Engineering, architectural, and surveying services.. .
State government............................................................

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 237,000
Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale...................................................................
Percent b la c k .....................................................................




4.9
2.2

39

P ercen t

30.5
12.7
11.3
8.5
7.7
7.0
6.8

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

7,300
1.6

Employment growth..................

M o d e ra te

7,600
5.5

H igh

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:

7,800
8.9

In d u stry

P ercen t

Engineering, architectural, andsurveying services...
Local government...........................................................
Federal Government......................................................
General contractors, except building..........................

.. Slower than average

52.2
8.5
8.3
5.9

Nuclear engineers
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

48,000
9.9

M o d e ra te

50,000
13.9

Employment growth.................................................................

H igh

52,000
17.5
Average

Total employment, 1984 .............................................................. 9,700

SUPPLY PROFILE

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercent

Federal Government......................................................
Utilities and sanitary services......................................
Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Engineering, architectural, and surveying services...
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

10,000
5.1

M o d e ra te

11,000
8.7

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . All States and the District
o f Columbia require that surveyors be licensed. Requirements for
licensure vary, but most jurisdictions require applicants to have
some combination o f formal education and work experience on
a surveying crew and to pass a licensing examination. A few col­
leges and universities offer the bachelor’s degree in surveying; others
offer courses in surveying as part o f a civil engineering or forestry
curriculum. Surveying programs also are available in postsecond­
ary vocational schools and community or junior colleges. Applicants
should be in good physical condition and have strong mathematics
skills.

27.6
23.9
21.4
17.0
H igh

11,000
11.5

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average
T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Surveying and mapping technology......................................

Petroleum engineers

179

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 22,000

Actuaries

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Crude petroleum and naturalgas extraction..............
Oil and gas field services..............................................
Services............................................................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

P ercent

25,000
11.3

M o d era te

26,000
16.9

62.2
17.9
9.2

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................... 7,700
Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

H igh

P ercen t

Life insurance .................................................................
Miscellaneous services (includes consulting actuaries;
engineering, architectural, and surveying
services; and accounting, auditing, and book­
keeping services).......................................................
Insurance agents, brokers, and services.......................
Fire, marine, and casualty insurance..........................

27,000
21.9

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

Surveyors

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 44,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le....................................................................
Percent black ......................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years..................................................................
25-54 years..................................................................
55 and older................................................................
Percent employed part time, total...................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary............................



11,000
43.6

M o d e ra te

12,000
51.5

38.1

24.2
14.8
12.4
H igh

12,000
58.0

Employment grow th.................................. Much faster than average

12.1
3.1

SUPPLY PROFILE

24.3
68.6
7.1
4.3
2.9

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . A strong background in
mathematics, including statistics, is required. Some employers re­
quire a bachelor’s degree with a major in mathematics or statistics;
others accept a major in engineering, economics, or business ad­
ministration. Employers generally prefer well-rounded individuals

40

Biological scientists

with a liberal arts background, including social science and com­
munication, and who have passed several examinations offered by
professional actuarial societies.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 54,000

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le....................................................................
Percent black ......................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years..................................................................
25-54 years..................................................................
55 and older................................................................
Percent employed part time, total.....................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary............................

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Mathematics:
Bachelor’s .................................................................... 12,453
Master’s ....................................................................... 2,837
Ph.D..............................................................................
698

Agricultural scientists

31.0
3.4
9.7
83.5
6.8
6.1
5.0

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 20,000
Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercent

Educational services.......................................................
Federal Government.......................................................
Agricultural services......................................................
State government.............................................................
Miscellaneous business services (including commer­
cial testing laboratories; research and develop­
ment laboratories; and management, consulting,
and public relationsservices)....................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................
Local government..........................................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

22,000
11.1

M o d era te

23,000
14.0

P ercent

Federal Government......................................................
State government............................................................
Miscellaneous business services (includes commercial
testing laboratories; research and development
laboratories; and management, consulting, and
public relations services)..........................................
Drug manufacturing......................................................
Educational services......................................................
Health services................................................................

23.2
14.5
14.1
10.1

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

62,000
14.3

25.7
12.9

12.5
11.7
10.0
9.1

M o d era te

H igh

64,000
17.4

Employment growth................................................................

65,000
20.4
Average

SUPPLY PROFILE

9.7
9.4
8.8

U su al e n try a n d training requ irem en ts. Although a bachelor’s degree
may be adequate preparation for some beginning jobs, promotions
may be limited for those who hold no higher degree. A master’s
degree is sufficient for some jobs in research, but the doctorate
generally is required for college teaching or independent research.

H igh

24,000
16.6

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Employment grow th ................................................................. Average

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Life sciences:
Bachelor’s .................................................................... 39,982
Master’s ........................................................................ 5,696
Ph.D................................................................................ 3,341

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . The bachelor’s degree is
adequate preparation for some jobs in sales, inspection, and other
nonresearch areas, and a master’s degree is sufficient for some jobs
in applied research. A doctorate in an agricultural science specialty
usually is required for college teaching and for independent research.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Most entrants are recent college
graduates with a degree in biology or a closely related Held; some
have worked part or full time in another occupation while attend­
ing college or graduate school. A relatively small number with train­
ing or experience in biology transfer from another occupation.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Chemists

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Agribusiness and agricultural production, agricultural
sciences, and renewable natural resources:
Bachelor’s ..................................................................... 20,909
Master’s ...................................................................... 4,254
Ph.D.............................................................................. 1,149

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 85,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale....................................................................
Percent b la c k ......................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years..................................................................
25-54 years..................................................................
55 and older................................................................
Percent employed part time, total....................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..........................

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Most entrants are recent college

graduates with a degree in agricultural science or a related field;
some have worked part or full-time in another occupation while
attending college or graduate school. Some persons with previous
training or experience in agriculture transfer from another
occupation.




41

23.4
6.3
7.3
79.5
13.2
2.3
2.1

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

Chemical and allied products manufacturing............
Miscellaneous business services (includes commercial
testing laboratories; and management, consult­
ing, and public relations services)..........................
Federal Government.......................................................
Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

SUPPLY PROFILE
P ercen t

90,000
5.4

M o d e ra te

94,000
10.0

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . The majority o f jobs re­
quire at least a bachelor’s degree. Previous work experience also
is important. Employers’ preferences also depend upon the work
being done. Analysts with a background in accounting or business
management are preferred for work in a business environment,
while those with a background in the physical sciences, applied
mathematics, or engineering are preferred for work in scientifical­
ly oriented organizations. Because computer technology changes
so rapidly, continuous study—either through company-sponsored
programs or courses at colleges and universities—is needed to keep
skills up to date.

35.8

14.5
10.2
9.6
H igh

97,000
13.9

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

SUPPLY PROFILE

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Computer and information sciences.................................. 7,202
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Computer and information sciences:
Bachelor’s .................................................................... 24,506
Master’s ...................................................................... 5,321
Ph.D ..............................................................................
262

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . A bachelor’s degree in
chemistry is the generally accepted requirement for entry, although
graduate training is required for many jobs.
T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Chemistry:
Bachelor’s ..................................................................... 10,796
Master’s ....................................................................... 1,622
Ph.D................................................................................. 1,746
C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. The majority o f entrants are recent col­
lege graduates with a degree in chemistry or a related field; some
have worked part or full time in another occupation while attend­
ing college or graduate school.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Most entrants are college graduates.
The majority o f entrants transfer from another occupation, such
as computer programmer, engineer, or manager, and are somewhat
older than entrants to other occupations. Most o f the remaining
entrants are recent graduates who have been attending school full
time or persons who have been between jobs.

Foresters and conservation scientists

Computer systems analysts

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 25,000

Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 308,000

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale...................................................................
Percent b la c k .....................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.................................................................
25-54 years.................................................................
55 and older...............................................................
Percent employed part time, total...................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary........................

In d u stry

30.0
5.3

P ercen t

Federal Government......................................................
State government............................................................
Agriculture, forestry, andfishing.................................

8.1
87.5
4.4
3.7
3.0

Low

Projected 1995 employment..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

27,000
6.0

M o d e ra te

27,000
7.0

54.9
19.7
7.5
H igh

27,000
8.1
.y

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

SUPPLY PROFILE

In d u stry

P ercen t

Computer and data processing services......................
Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Federal Government..............
Finance, insurance, and real e sta te ............................
Wholesale trade, durable g o o d s..................................

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . A bachelor’s degree in
forestry, range management, range science, or soil conservation
is the minimum educational requirement. Advanced degrees are
preferred for certain jobs, such as teaching and research.

19.1
15.4
11.4
11.2
7.3

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

498,000
61.5

M o d e ra te

520,000
68.7

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Agricultural sciences, general; agronomy; soil sciences;
renewable natural resources, general; forestry
production and processing; forestry and
related sciences; and range management:
Bachelor’s ...................................................................... 6,468
Master’s ........................................................................ 1,770
Ph.D................................................................................
443

H igh

539,000
74.8

Employment growth.................................. Much faster than average
Annual separation rate (percen t)......................................................... 9.1




42

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:

Characteristics o f entrants. Typical entrants are college graduates
who previously have been in school full time or working in another
occupation. Entrants sometimes start in a related technician oc­
cupation and transfer into a job as a forester or conservation scien­
tist when an opening occurs.

Industry

Percent

Federal Government......................................................
Miscellaneous business services (includes manage­
ment, consulting, and public relations services
and research and development laboratories)........
Educational services......................................................
Miscellaneous services (includes engineering,
architectural, and surveying services and
accounting, auditing, and bookkeepingservices).
Durable goods manufacturing......................................

Geologists and geophysicists

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

36.9

16.6
8.1

6.8
6.3

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 46,000
Low

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................ 14.0
Percent b la c k .................................................................................. 6
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 4.2
25-54 years...................................................................... 74.6
55 and older.................................................................... 21.2
Percent employed part time, total...................................... 8.9
Percent employed part time,voluntary................................ 7.1

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Industry

51,000
11.1

Moderate
53,000
14.8

25,000
19.2

High
25,000
21.6

SUPPLY PROFILE
Usual entry and training requirements. A bachelor’s degree in
mathematics is required for beginning jobs. However, an advanced
degree—preferably the doctorate—is required for research and other
more responsible positions. A master’s degree in mathematics is
generally required for teaching jobs in 2-year colleges and technical
institutes, but a doctorate is needed for full faculty status in most
4-year colleges and universities.

Percent

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Moderate

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Crude petroleum and natural gas................................
Federal Government......................................................
Oil and gas field services..............................................
Miscellaneous business services (includes research
and development laboratories; commercial
testing laboratories; and management, consult­
ing, and public relations services)..........................

24,000
16.3

41.6
18.2
12.5

Training completions:
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Mathematics:
Bachelor’s .................................................................... 12,453
Master’s ...................................................................... 2,837
Ph.D..............................................................................
698

6.2
High
55,000
18.0

Meteorologists

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 .............................................................. 5,500

Usual entry and training requirements. A bachelor’s degree in
geology or geophysics is adequate for entry into some lower level
geology jobs, but jobs with advancement potential usually require
at least a master’s degree in geology or geophysics. A doctorate
in geology or geophysics usually is required for college teaching
or independent research.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry
Federal Government......................................................
Miscellaneous services (includes engineering,
architectural, and surveying services; noncom­
mercial educational, scientific, and research
organizations; and weather forecasting services) .
Durable goods manufacturing......................................

Training completions:
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Geological sciences and miscellaneous physical sciences:
Bachelor’s ...................................................................... 6,977
Master’s ........................................................................ 1,861
Ph.D................................................................................
421

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Characteristics o f entrants. Most entrants are recent college
graduates with a degree in geology or geophysics; some have worked
part or full time in another occupation while attending graduate
school. Some with appropriate training and experience transfer from
a related occupation.

Moderate
6,400
15.6

24.8
13.7
High
6,400
17.4

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

SUPPLY PROFILE
Usual entry and training requirements. A bachelor’s degree with
a major in meteorology is the usual minimum requirement for begin­
ning jobs in weather forecasting, although employers prefer to hire
those with an advanced degree. An advanced degree, preferably
in meteorology, is needed for research, college teaching, and for
many top level positions in other meteorological activities.

Mathematicians

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ................................................................. 21,000




6,200
13.5

Percent
49.5

43

SUPPLY PROFILE

Training completions:
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Atmospheric sciences and meteorology:
Bachelor’s ........................................................................ 396
Master’s ............................................................................ 183
Ph.D................................................................................... 80

Usual entry and training requirements. The minimum educational
requirement for beginning jobs in statistics is a bachelor’s degree
with a major in statistics, or a major in an applied field, such as
economics, and a minor in statistics. An advanced degree is required
for teaching jobs at colleges and universities and research positions
in private industry.

Physicists and astronomers
Training completions:

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Statistics; business statistics:
Bachelor’s ......................................................................... 374
Master’s ............................................................................. 476
Ph.D.................................................................................... 134

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 20,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

Percent

Federal Government......................................................
Miscellaneous business services (includes research
and development laboratories and commercial
testing laboratories)..................................................
Miscellaneous services (includes engineering,
architectural, and surveying services; non­
commercial educational, scientific, and research
organizations; and consulting physicists) ............
Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment .
Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

21,000
5.8

Moderate
21,000
8.7

Social Scientists, Social Workers,
Religious Workers, and Lawyers

29.1

25.8

Clergy
14.4
10.6

EMPLOYM ENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 296,000

High
22,000
11.1

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le......................................................................... 6.3
Percent black ........................................................................... 5.3
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years....................................................................... 2.3
25-54 years....................................................................... 70.9
55 and older..................................................................... 26.8
Percent employed part time, total..............
7.5
Percent employed part time, voluntary............................... 6.1

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
Usual entry and training requirements. Graduate training in physics
or a closely related field generally is required for most entry level
jobs. A doctorate is usually required for independent research, for
full faculty status in 4-year colleges and universities, and for jobs
in astronomy.

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Training completions:
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Physics:
Bachelor’s ..............................................................
3,793
Master’s ........................................................................ 1,369
Ph.D................................................................................
873

Industry

Percent

Religious organizations...................................................
Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

303,000
2.4

Moderate
315,000
6.3

97.6
High
328,000
10.8

Statisticians
Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Annual separation rate (percent)..................................................... 6.3

Total employment, 1984 ........

23,000

SUPPLY PROFILE

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

Percent

Federal Government......................................................
Transportation equipment manufacturing..................
Business services ......................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ............................
State government........ ....................................................
Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

26,000
12.5

Moderate
26,000
16.6

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Entry requirements vary
widely. Both rabbis and Roman Catholic priests must complete a
course o f study in a seminary. Some Protestant denominations re­
quire no formal training, while many others only ordain those who
have been trained in Bible colleges, Bible institutes, or liberal arts
colleges. Most important, members o f the clergy must have a deep
religious faith and a desire to serve the spiritual needs o f
others.

16.7
12.5
12.4
12.0
11.2
High
27,000
20.2

Training completions:
Earned degrees, first professional, 1983:
Theology (B.D., M. Div., or R abbi)................................ 6,494

Employment growth ...................................................................... Average




44

Lawyers

Characteristics o f entrants. The majority o f entrants have some
college training; about half o f all entrants are college graduates.
Because o f lengthy training requirements, entrants are generally
somewhat older than entrants to other occupations.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 490,000

Economists

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le........................................................................ 16.1
Percent black .......................................................................... 2.3
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 2.7
25-54 years...................................................................... 83.4
55 and older.................................................................... 13.9
Percent employed part time, total......................................... 5.9
Percent employed part time,voluntary................................ 4.9

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 38,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................ 39.6
Percent black .......................................................................... 4.8
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 9.9
25-54 years...................................................................... 82.6
55 and older.................................................................... 7.5
Percent employed part time, total........................................ 4.6
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 3.7

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

Percent

Miscellaneous business services (includes manage­
ment, consulting, and public relations services)..
Federal Government......................................................
State government............................................................
Communications and utilities......................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ............................
Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

44,000
15.8

Moderate
45,000
19.2

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

25.1
22.1
11.5
8.2
7.8

635,000
29.5

Moderate
665,000
35.5

62.8
12.1
6.7
6.4
High
691,000
40.8

Employment grow th.................................. Much faster than average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................... 4.9

High

SUPPLY PROFILE

47,000
22.2

Usual entry and training requirements. To practice law in any State
or the District o f Columbia, a person must be admitted to its bar.
Usually, applicants for admission to the bar must pass a written
examination. To qualify for the examination in most jurisdictions,
an applicant must complete at least 3 years o f college and graduate
from an accredited law school. Lawyers who have been admitted
to the bar in one jurisdiction sometimes may be admitted in another
without taking the bar examination, although requirements vary.
Many participate in programs offered by law schools and State and
local bar associations to stay abreast o f recent developments.

Employment growth ................................................................ Average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................... 8.1

SUPPLY PROFILE
Usual entry and training requirements. Although a bachelor’s degree
is sufficient for many entry level positions, many employers prefer
a graduate degree. A master’s degree generally is the minimum re­
quirement for a job as an instructor in many junior colleges and
small 4-year colleges. The Ph.D degree is necessary for faculty posi­
tions at most colleges and universities.
In the Federal Government, candidates for entry positions
generally need a college degree with a minimum of 21 semester hours
o f economics and 3 hours o f statistics, accounting, or calculus.

Training completions:
Earned degrees, first professional, 1983:
Juris Doctor (J.D.) and Bachelor of Law (L L .B .)___ 36,540
Characteristics o f entrants. Most entrants are recent law school
graduates age 25 to 34 who have not been working, largely because
they were full-time students. Other entrants transfer into the oc­
cupation; many o f these are recent law school graduates who have
attended law school while working as law clerks or in another oc­
cupation. Some transfer into law after using their law degree to
pursue a career in business, politics, or another field in which a
thorough knowledge o f law is valuable.

Training completions:
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Economics:
Bachelor’s .................................................................... 20,517
Master’s ...................................................................... 1,972
Ph.D..............................................................................
734
Characteristics o f entrants. Entrants are typically college graduates
who transfer from another occupation. Some have worked in that
occupation while in graduate school. The remaining entrants have
not been working—most were in school or between jobs. Because
o f the importance o f graduate training, entrants tend to be older
than entrants to other occupations.




Percent

Legal services..................................................................
Local government..........................................................
Federal Government......................................................
State government............................................................

Psychologists

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ................................................................. 97,000

45

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time,total........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary..............................

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:

54.8
9.4

In du stry

3.6
87.0
9.4
20.7
16.8

Low

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-85 .........

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Low

113,000
16.7

144,000
17.1

M o d e ra te

149,000
21.3

35.5
21.4
14.2
10.7
H igh

155,000
26.1

Employment grow th ............................................. Faster than average
P ercen t

Educational services......................................................
Health services................................................................
Social services ................................................
State government............................................................
Federal Government......................................................

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

P ercen t

Local government...........................................................
Civic, social, and fraternal organizations..................
Social services .................................................................
Nursing and personal care facilities............................

M o d e ra te

118,000
21.8

SUPPLY PROFILE

40.6
26.2
10.0
7.8
6.0

U su al e n try a n d train in g requ irem en ts. Academic requirements vaiy
widely. Many jobs require a college degree with a major in recrea­
tion, leisure studies, or physical education. A liberal arts degree
is acceptable for some positions. High school graduates and
graduates o f associate degree programs in parks and recreation,
social work, and other human service technologies are accepted for
some jobs. N o matter what their background, employees may be
expected to participate in employer-sponsored training programs
or informal on-the-job training. Some recreation jobs require
specialized training, certification, or experience in a particular field,
such as art, music, drama, swimming, or other athletics.

H igh

122,000
26.0

Employment grow th............................................ Faster than average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................... 8.5

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

SUPPLY PROFILE

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Parks and recreation:
Bachelor’s ....................................................................... 5,198
Master’s .........................................................................
565
Ph.D.................................................................................
33

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . A doctorate in psychology
generally is required for most jobs. All States and the District o f
Columbia require psychologists who want to enter independent
practice to be licensed. Licensure requirements vary but generally
include a doctorate in psychology, 2 years o f professional ex­
perience, and passing written and oral examinations.

Social workers

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

EMPLOYM ENT PROFILE

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Psychology:
Bachelor’s .................................................................... 40,364
Master’s ...................................................................... 8,378
Ph.D.............................................................................. 3,108

Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 335,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le.........................................................................
Percent black ...........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.......................................................................
25-54 years.......................................................................
55 and older.....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total..........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary................................

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Almost all entrants are recent college

graduates; many have been employed in another occupation while
in graduate school. Because o f the lengthy training involved, en­
trants to this occupation tend to be somewhat older than other
entrants.

64.1
18.3
6.7
83.0
10.3
10.9
7.9

Unemployment r a te ................................................... . About average

Recreation workers

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 123,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time,total........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary..............................



P ercen t

Social services .................................................................
State government.............................................................
Health services.................................................................
Local government...........................................................

72.1
10.2

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

38.4
53.1
8.5
25.9
19.1

396,000
18.1

M o d e ra te

410,000
22.2

24.5
23.3
20.4
19.6
H igh

425,000
26.8

Employment g row th ............................................ Faster than average
Annual separation rate (p ercen t)....................................................... 10.6

46

SUPPLY PROFILE

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . A bachelor’s degree is the
minimum requirement for most positions. Besides the bachelor’s
degree in social work (BSW), a major in psychology, sociology,
and related fields satisfies hiring requirements in many social serv­
ice agencies. A master’s degree in social work (MSW) is generally
required for positions in the mental health field and is almost always
necessary for supervisory, administrative, or research positions.
Social workers in private practice need an MSW, and many have
additional education. A doctorate in social work usually is required
for teaching and is desirable for some research and administrative
jobs. Thirty-three States have licensing or registration laws regard­
ing social work practice.

Sociology:
Bachelor’s ................................................................

1,112

P h .D .............................................................

522

Urban and regional planners

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 17,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Social work:
Bachelor’s .................................................................... 10,263
Master’s ...................................................................... 9,244
Ph.D..............................................................................
201

Industry

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

field are college graduates. They tend to be older than entrants to
other occupations. The majority o f entrants have not been
working—many have been in school; others are experienced workers
who have been tending to family responsibilities or have been laid
o ff or are between jobs. The remaining entrants transfer from
another occupation. Many o f these have worked part time while
enrolled in a social work program; others transfer from a job taken
on a temporary basis until a more desirable position could be found.

18,000
6.1

Moderate
19,000
9.1

61.7
19.3
6.2
High
19,000
12.1

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n try a n d tra in in g req u irem en ts. Most entry jobs in Federal,
State, and local government agencies require 2 years o f graduate
study in urban or regional planning or the equivalent in work ex­
perience. Persons who have a bachelor’s degree in city planning,
architecture, or engineering may qualify for some beginning
positions.

Sociologists

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
City, community, and regional planning:
Bachelor’s ......................................................................
450
Master’s ........................................................................ 1,043
Ph.D................................................................................
67

Total employment, 1984 .............................................................. 5,600
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

Percent

State government............................................................
Business services ............................................................
Educational services......................................................
Noncommercial educational and residential care
organizations............................................................
Local government..........................................................
Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

Percent

Local government..........................................................
State government............................................................
Business services ............................................................

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f people who enter this

5,800
2.8

Moderate
5,900
5.8

31.0
21.2
14.3

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Virtually all entrants are college
graduates; some have held part-time jobs in another occupation
while in school. Some transfer into the field from a job taken on
a temporary basis until a job as an urban planner becomes available.

12.8
7.9

Teachers, Counselors, Librarians,
and Archivists

High
6,100
8.8

Adult and vocational education teachers

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 256,000

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. A master’s degree in

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

sociology is sufficient for most administrative and research posi­
tions in public agencies and private industry, provided applicants
have adequate training in research, statistics, and computer
methods. A doctorate is required for most teaching and research
positions in colleges and universities and for some positions in
private industry. Those who hold a bachelor’s degree often find
jobs in a related field, such as social work or welfare counseling.




14,105

Master’s .....................................................................

Industry
Educational services......................................................
Social services ................................................................
Membership organizations............................................
State government............................................................
Federal Government......................................................

47

Percent
58.5
9.6
6.1
6.0
6.0

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

295,000
15.5

M o d e ra te

304,000
18.7

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:

H igh

314,000
23.0

In d u stry

P ercen t

Educational services............

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

100.0
Low

SUPPLY PROFILE

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Training requirements vary
widely by State and by subject. Adult and vocational education
teachers usually are required to have a college degree in the field
in which they are teaching. Those who are teaching courses in the
blue-collar trades or noncredit courses may only need experience
in the field.

M o d e ra te

H igh

Employment grow th....................

675,000
- 7 .6

. . . . 16.9

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Four-year colleges and
universities generally require a doctoral degree; 2-year institutions
often regard a master’s degree as adequate preparation.
C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Entrants are almost equally divided be­
tween those who have not been working and those who transfer
from another occupation. Although some entrants are recent
graduates, many are older, experienced workers. Because o f the
extensive education required, the majority o f entrants are over 25.
Many work part time.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
11,000

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

654,000
-1 0 .6

Annual separation rate (percent)

Archivists and curators

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................

636,000
-1 3 .1

P ercen t

Museums and art galleries............................................
Educational services......................................................
Local government..........................................................
Federal Government......................................................

28.4
25.3
16.5
15.5

Counselors

EM PLOYM ENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 152,000

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

12,000
4.6

M o d e ra te

12,000
6.9

H igh

Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le.........................................................................
Percent black ...........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.......................................................................
25-54 years.......................................................................
55 and older.....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total..........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary................................

12,000
9.7

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n try a n d tra in in g req u irem en ts. Employment as an archivist
or curator generally requires substantial college training and ex­
perience. Archivists ordinarily have an undergraduate or graduate
degree in history or a related field, or in archival or library science.
Curators ordinarily have an undergraduate degree in museum
studies or a discipline reflecting a museum specialty—art, for
example—and experience in museum activities, such as art restora­
tion and exhibit design.

54.2
12.2
7.2
77.9
14.9
13.8
11.3

Unemployment rate.......... ................................ Lower than average ,
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

P ercen t

Educational services......................................................
Social services .................................................................
State government.............................................................

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Virtually all entrants are college
graduates. Most entrants either have not been working because they
have been in school full time or have transferred from a related
occupation.

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

176,000
15.4

M o d e ra te

182,000
19.3

64.1
18.3
9.1
H igh

188,000
23.5

College and university faculty

Employment growth ................................................................. Average

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Annual separation rate (percent)..........................

SUPPLY PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 731,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time,total........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary..............................



12.1

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . A master’s degree in some
area o f counseling, psychology, or a related field generally is re­
quired; mental health counselors may need a doctoral degree. Many
employers require counselors to have additional training while on
the job. Such training usually is obtained in graduate school,
employer-sponsored training programs, and various workshops and
classes. In some cases, individuals qualify with a bachelor’s degree
in psychology, sociology, counseling, or rehabilitation services, par­
ticularly if they have appropriate work experience. Many States

36.6
4.7
6.9
76.0
17.1
26.0
20.1

48

Bachelor’s .................................................................... 39,197
Master’s ...................................................................... 21,986
Ph.D.............................................................................. 1,661

require public school counselors to have both counseling and
teaching certificates. Counselors in most State vocational rehabilita­
tion agencies must pass a written exam and be evaluated by a board
o f examiners.

Characteristics o f entrants. The majority o f entrants have not been
working. Younger entrants tend to be recent college graduates,
whereas many older entrants are returning to work after tending
to household responsibilities. The remaining entrants transfer from
another occupation, either held while in school or taken on a tem­
porary basis until a job as a teacher could be found.

Training completions:
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
School psychology, student counseling and personnel
services, and counseling psychology:
Bachelor’s .....................................................................
343
Master’s ....................................................................... 13,333
Ph.D.............................................................................. 1,189

Librarians

Characteristics o f entrants. The majority o f entrants are college
graduates who transer from a related Held such as social work,
teaching, interviewing, job placement, psychology, or personnel.
Other entrants have not been working—some are recent college
graduates, some have been between jobs, and others are returning
to work after tending to family responsibilities or after a period
o f retirement. Because prior work experience is common for
counselors, entrants tend to be somewhat older than entrants to
other occupations.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 155,000

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le...................
Percent b la c k ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total.........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary................................

Total employment, 1984......................................................... 1,381,000

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.........................................................................
Percent b la c k ...........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.......................................................................
25-54 years.......................................................................
55 and older.....................................................................
Percent employed part time, to ta l........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Kindergarten and elementary school teachers

84.6
9.9

In du stry

4.5
85.1
10.4
10.5
7.0

Projected 1995 employment. .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

1,615,000
16.9

M o d e ra te

1,662,000
20.3

177,000
14.0

99.2

SUPPLY PROFILE

H igh

Usual entry and training requirements. A master’s degree in library
science usually is required for a job in public, college and univer­
sity, and special libraries. Most jurisdictions require that school
librarians be certified as teachers; for these jobs, a bachelor’s degree
in library science or a master’s degree in media resources, educa­
tional technology, or audiovisual communications may be
acceptable.

1,716,000
24.3

Employment grow th ............................................. Faster than average
Annual separation rate (percent)..................................................... 9.2

SUPPLY PROFILE

Training completions:

Usual entry and training requirements. All States and the District
o f Columbia require teachers in public elementary schools to be
certified; some require teachers in private elementary schools to
be certified as well. T o become certified, an individual must have
a bachelor’s degree from an approved teacher education program,
with student teaching experience, and professional education
courses. In addition, many jurisdictions require teachers to obtain
a master’s degree within a certain period after being hired.

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Library science:
Bachelor’s ......................................................................
234
Master’s ........................................................................ 2,994
Ph.D...............................................................................
48

Characteristics o f entrants. The typical entrant is a college graduate
who previously was not working—a large proportion have a Master
o f Library Science degree. Those in the younger age group tend
to be recent college graduates; older entrants generally are women
returning to work after tending to household responsibilities.

Training completions:
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Education, general; elementary education; and education, other:




171,000
10.4

H igh

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................... 9.3

P ercen t

Educational services.......................................................

M od era te

72.1
13.9

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

166,000
7.1

7.1
66.2
26.7
21.5
18.0

P ercen t

Educational services......................................................
Local government..........................................................
Low

85.9
7.6

49

Secondary school teachers

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

In du stry

Total employment, 1984......................................................... 1,045,000
Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.........................................................................
Percent b la c k ..............................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years . .....................................................................
25-54 years.......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total.........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

Low

51.2
7.7

Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

4.6
84.7
10.7
10.5
7.6

Low

Projected 1995 employment .. 1,062,000
Percent change, 1984-95 ........
1.6

1,093,000
4.6

40,000
28.9

H igh

42,000
34.4

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . All States and the District
o f Columbia regulate the practice o f chiropractic and grant licenses
to individuals who meet the educational requirements and pass a
State board examination. Most jurisdictions require completion o f
a 4-year chiropractic course following 2 years o f college.To main­
tain licensure, jurisdictions generally require that chiropractors com­
plete a specific number o f hours o f continuing education.

P ercen t

100.0

M o d e ra te

M o d e ra te

SUPPLY PROFILE

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

39,000
23.9

72.3
27.4

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Educational services.......................................................

P ercen t

Offices o f other health practitioners (includes of­
fices of chiropractors)...............................................
Hospitals...........................................................................

H igh

1,129,000
8.0

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, first professional, 1983:
Chiropractic (D.C. or D .C .M .)............................................ 2,889

Employment growth............................................. Slower than average
Annual separation rate (percent)................................................... *9.1

1 The number of separations may be artificially high. Employment in the occupa­
tion declined between 1983 and 1984; some workers who left were not replaced.

Dentists
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 ........................................................ ’. 156,003

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . All States and the District

Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le.........................................................................
Percent black . . . . ................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................
25-54 years.......................................................................
55 and older.....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total.......................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary..................

o f Columbia require public secondary school teachers to be cer­
tified; m§ny jurisdictions require teachers in private schools to be
certified as well. To become certified, individuals must have a
bachelor’s degree from an approved teacher education program,
with a prescribed number o f credits in the subject they plan to teach,
student teaching experience, and professional education courses.
A few States certify college graduates who have not had teacher
preparation courses. Many jurisdictions require teachers to obtain
a master’s degree within a certain time after being hired.

6.2
.9
1.1
71.7
27.2
18.5
16.4

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Education, general; teacher education, specific subject
areas; junior high education; secondary education;
and education, other:
Bachelor's..................................................................... 45,120
Master’s ................................................................ ..
31,258
Ph.D............................................................................... 2,650

In d u stry

Low

Projected 1995 employment..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f entrants have not been
working. The majority are either recent college graduates or
homemakers returning to teaching. The remaining entrants transfer
from another occupation, either a job held while in school or one
taken on a temporary basis until a job as a teacher could be
obtained.

185,000
18.2

M o d e ra te

195,000
25.1

90.1.
H igh

203,000
30.0

Employment grow th............................................ Faster than average
Annual separation rate (percent)..................................................... 3.8

SUPPLY PROFILE

Health Diagnosing and Treating
Practitioners

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . All States and the District
o f Columbia require dentists to be licensed. To qualify for licen­
sure in most jurisdictions, a candidate must be a graduate o f a dental
school approved by the American Dental Association and pass writ­
ten and practical examinations. In order to specialize, dentists must
complete additional education requirements and meet either addi­
tional licensing or professional standards.

Chiropractors
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .................................................................. 31,000




P ercen t

Offices o f dentists...........................................................

50

Low

Training com p letio n s:

M o d era te

H igh

Earned degrees, first professional, 1983:
D.D.S. and D.M.D. degrees............................................... 5,385

Projected 1995 employment..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Almost all entrants are recent dental

Employment grow th ....................

. . . Faster than average

Annual separation rate (percent)

........ 2.7

school graduates between the ages o f 25 and 34. A small number
are licensed dentists who have been serving in the Armed Forces
or tending to family responsibilities.

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 29,000
Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

35,000
20.3

P ercen t

M o d e ra te

607,000
27.6

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. All States and the District
o f Columbia require physicians to be licensed. Licensure re­
quirements include usually 8 years o f postsecondary education,
graduation from an accredited professional school, successful com­
pletion o f a licensing examination, and, in most jurisdictions, 1
or 2 years o f supervised practice in an accredited graduate medical
education program (intemship/residency). Throughout their career,
the majority o f physicians continue to study and train to keep up
with the latest advances in medical science.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

In d u stry

585,000
23.0

SUPPLY PROFILE

Optometrists

Offices o f other health practitioners (includes
offices of optom etrists)...........................................
Miscellaneous retail stores (includes optical goods
and related stores).....................................................

556,000
17.0

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

71.1

Earned degrees, first professional, 1983:
D.O. and M.D. degrees1.................................................... 16,803

10.1
H igh

36,000
26.7

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Almost all entrants are recent medical
school graduates between the ages o f 25 and 34. A small number
are licensed physicians who have been serving in the Armed Forces
or tending to family responsibilities.

38,000
33.9

Employment grow th............................................ Faster than average

1
Excludes foreign medical school graduates (many o f whom are U.S.
citizens) who augment the supply o f U.S.-trained physicians. In 1984, foreign
medical school graduates accounted for about 3,000 o f the 20,000 M.D. graduates
in their first year o f required postgraduate residency. About 21 percent of all
active physicians were foreign trained in 1983.

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . All States and the District
o f Columbia require that optometrists be licensed. Applicants for
licensure must have a Doctor o f Optometry degree from an ac­
credited optometric school or college and pass a board examina­
tion. Most jurisdictions require optometrists to earn continuing
education credits in optometry to renew their licenses.

Podiatrists
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 11,000

Training com p letio n s:

Earned degrees, first professional, 1983:
Doctor of optometry (O .D .)..............................................

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
1,116

In du stry

Offices o f other health practitioners (includes
offices o f podiatrists)..............................................
Offices o f physicians......................................................
Nursing and personal care facilities............................
Hospitals..........................................................................

Physicians
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Low

Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 476,000
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale......................................................................... 16.0
Percent b la c k ........................................................................... 5.0
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years....................................................................... 1.4
25-54 years....................................................................... 75.8
55 and older..................................................................... 22.8
Percent employed part time,total.......................................... 6.1
Percent employed part time,voluntary................................ 5.1




M o d era te

15,000
38.9

H igh

16,000
43.1

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. All States and the District
o f Columbia require podiatrists to be licensed. Applicants for licen­
sure must be graduates o f an accredited college o f podiatric medicine
and must pass both written and oral examinations. Eight States
require applicants to serve a 1-year residency in a hospital or clinic
following graduation. To practice a specialty, additional educa­
tion and experience are necessary.

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

15,000
35.6

65.9
9.1
9.1
6.6

Employment growth.................................. Much faster than average

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Offices of physicians......................................................
Hospitals...........................................................................
Federal Government.......................................................

P ercent

P ercen t
T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

51.0
26.6
8.2

Earned degrees, first professional, 1983:
Pod. D., D .P., and D.P.M. degrees.................................... 631

51

Veterinarians

Training completions:
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Food sciences and human nutrition:

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Bachelor’s ................................................................... 3,354
Master’s .......................................................................

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

47,000
18.0

Moderate
48,000
22.3

63

Characteristics o f entrants. Some entrants are recent college
graduates; others with the appropriate qualifications have been
employed in another occupation. Persons who have been
unemployed, tending to family responsibilities, or not working for
other reasons fill most o f the remaining jobs.

Percent

Agricultural services......................................................
Federal Government......................................................
Agricultural production,livestock................................

783

P h .D ..............................................................................

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 40,000

67.9
9.8
9.5
High
50,000
26.2

Occupational therapists

Employment growth ............................................ Faster than average

EMPLOYM ENT PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 25,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Usual entry and training requirements. All States and the District
o f Columbia require veterinarians to be licensed. Licensure re­
quirements include graduation from an accredited college o f
veterinary medicine and passing both written and oral State board
proficiency examinations.

Industry

Training completions:
Earned degrees, first professional, 1983:
D .V .M .................................................................................... 2,060

Low

Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians,
Therapists, and Physician Assistants

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........
Employment growth

Dietitians and nutritionists

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

Percent

Hospitals..........................................................................
Nursing and personal carefacilities............................
Social services ................................................................
Government....................................................................
Educational services......................................................

Employment growth

58,000
21.5

Moderate
60,000
25.8

33.0
17.2
14.0
12.7
8.9

33,000
31.3

High
35,000
36.7

Much faster than average

Training completions:
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Occupational therapy:
Bachelor’s .................................................. .................... 1,807
Master’s .........................................................................
234

High
62,000
30.7

Characteristics o f entrants. The majority of entrants are experienced
therapists returning to work after tending to family responsibilities
or are recent graduates o f formal training programs. The remainder
transfer from another occupation—individuals with appropriate
qualifications who have been employed in another occupation or
persons who worked while in school.

Faster than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
Usual entry and training requirements. Most employers require a
bachelor’s degree with a major in foods and nutrition or institu­
tion management for entry level positions. Almost all employers
prefer dietitians who have been registered by the American Dietetic
Association; for some jobs, registration is required. Registration
requirements usually include a combination o f education, an ap­
proved dietetic internship, and work experience.



Moderate

5.9
5.4

Usual entry and training requirements. A bachelor’s degree in oc­
cupational therapy is the minimum requirement for work in this
field. In addition, 29 States and the District o f Columbia require
occupational therapists to be licensed. Applicants for licensure must
have a degree or certificate from an accredited educational pro­
gram and pass the American Occupational Therapy Association’s
certification examination. A graduate degree often is required for
teaching, research, or administrative positions.

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 48,000

Low

32,000
26.5

40.0
17.0
13.7
7.7
7.5

SUPPLY PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

Percent

Hospitals...........................................................................
Educational services.......................................................
Government.....................................................................
Social services .................................................................
Nursing and personal care facilities............................
Offices of other health practitioners (includes
offices of occupational therapists)........................
Outpatient care facilities ...............................................

Pharmacists

EMPLOYM ENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................... 151,003

52

Industry

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................ 28.5
Percent black .......................................................................... 2.9
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 9.2
25-54 years...................................................................... 76.3
55 and older.................................................................... 14.5
Percent employed part time, total....................................... 14.7
Percent employed part time,voluntary................................ 12.1
Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Percent
8.7
7.8
5.4
5.0

Nursing and personal care facilities ..
Government......................
Educational services........
Offices of physicians........
Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

79,000
35.5

Moderate
83,000
42.2

High
86,000
48.1

Employment grow th................ ................ Much faster than average
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

158,000
4.6

SUPPLY PROFILE

Percent

Drug stores and propietary stores ..............................
Hospitals..........................................................................
Moderate
166,000
9.7

62.8
26.3

Usual entry and training requirements. A bachelor’s degree in
physical therapy is the minimum requirement for most jobs. In ad­
dition, all States and the District o f Columbia require physical
therapists to be licensed. Applicants for licensure must have a degree
or certificate from an accredited physical therapy educational pro­
gram and pass a licensure examination. A graduate degree is
generally required for teaching, research, and administrative posi­
tions. Continuing education and training are necessary to keep up
with medical developments.

High
173,000
14.4

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................... 2.9

SUPPLY PROFILE

Training completions:
Usual entry and training requirements. All States and the District
o f Columbia require pharmacists to be licensed. Requirements in­
clude graduating from an accredited pharmacy program, passing
a board examination, and completing a specified amount o f prac­
tical experience or serving an internship under the supervision of
a licensed pharmacist. Many jurisdictions require continuing educa­
tion for license renewal.

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Physical therapy:
Bachelor’s ...................................................................... 2,581
Master’s ........................................................................
303
Characteristics o f entrants. Some job entrants are recent graduates
o f formal training programs; others are experienced therapists re­
turning to work after tending to family responsibilities or individuals
with appropriate qualifications who have been employed in another
occupation. Many entrants work on a contract basis for one or
more employers, which permits many to work part time or on a
flexible schedule.

Training completions:
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Pharmacy:
Bachelor’s ...................................................................... 5,708
Master’s ........................................................................
331
Ph.D................................................................................
I ll
D. Pharm.......................................................................
705

Physician assistants
Characteristics o f entrants. Most entrants are recent graduates o f
pharmacy school who are between 20 and 34 years o f age. A few
are experienced pharmacists who reenter the occupation after tend­
ing to family responsibilities.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... . 25,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Physical therapists

Industry

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 58,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time,total........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary..............................

Low

76.7
3.9

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

14.2
82.6
3.2
20.1
16.6

Industry




33,000
33.2

Moderate
35,000
40.3

High
37,000
46.0

Employment growth.................................. Much faster than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
Usual entry and training requirements. Nearly all States require
applicants to complete an approved formal training program o f­
fered by schools o f allied health, community and 4-year colleges
and universities, medical schools, and hospitals. “ Hands on” health
care experience, in a job such as medical technologist or physical
therapist, is an important qualification for entry to training pro­
grams. To remain current with advances in medicine, physician
assistants must continue to train and study throughout their career.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Hospitals..........................................................................
Offices of other health practitioners (includes
offices of physical therapists)................................

Percent
49.4
21.5
11.9
6.7

Offices of physicians..........
Hospitals..............................
Government........................
Outpatient care facilities ..

Percent
40.3
19.8

53

Percent employed part time, total........................................ 26.9
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 22.7

Training completions:
Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Physician assisting-primary care, and physician assisting-specialty....................................................................... 1,584
Associate degrees and other awards below the baccalaureate,
1983:
Physician assisting-primary care, and physician assisting-specialty.......................................................................
221

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

P ercen t

Hospitals...........................................................................
Government.....................................................................
Offices of physicians.......................................................
Nursing and personal care facilities............................

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Almost all physician assistants enter

directly upon completing a formal program in physician assisting.
Some o f these have been working in a health-related occupation
while in school. Because previous experience in the health care field
is important in gaining entry to training, graduates tend to be
somewhat older than entrants to other occupations.

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

1,753,000
27.3

M o d e ra te

1,829,000
32.8

66.8
6.8
6.8
5.6
H igh

1,908,000
38.6

Employment grow th.................................. Much faster than average

Recreational therapists

Annual separation rate (percent)..................................................... 9.0

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 ................................

17,000

U su al e n try a n d train in g requ irem en ts. To obtain the license to prac­
tice that is required by all States and the District o f Columbia, muses
must graduate from an approved school o f nursing—courses o f
study range from 2 to 5 years—and pass a national examination
administered by each jurisdiction. Nurses may be licensed in more
than one jurisdiction either by examination or by endorsement.
Because some jurisdictions require continuing education for license
renewal and to keep abreast o f changes in the medical Held, many
registered nurses continue to study and train throughout their career.

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

P ercen t

Hospitals...........................................................................
Nursing and personal carefacilities..............................
State government.............................................................
Social services .................................................................
Outpatient care facilities ...............................................
Federal Government.......................................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

20,000
18.7

M o d e ra te

21,000
22.7

40.3
22.6
9.2
8.3
8.0
6.2

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

H igh

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Nursing ................................................................................. 29,031
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Nursing ................................................................................. 5,061
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Nursing ................................................................................. 38,847
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Nursing:
Bachelor’s ..................................................................... 32,161
Master’s ....................................................................... 5,946
Ph.D..............................................................................
166

22,000
27.4

Employment grow th ............................................. Faster than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U sual e n try a n d train in g requ irem en ts. Education requirements vary
by employment setting. A degree in therapeutic recreation or in
recreation with an emphasis on therapeutic recreation is the usual
requirement for a professional position in this Held. An associate
degree satisfies hiring requirements in many nursing homes, while
a bachelor’s degree is ordinarily necessary in community and clinical
settings.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Job openings are filled either by re­
cent nursing school graduates or from the reserve pool o f licensed
but inactive nurses—those tending to family responsibilities, work­
ing in another occupation, or pursuing additional education. The
majority o f all entrants are 25 to 54 years o f age and almost all
have had some postsecondary education.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Recreational therapy:
Bachelor’s ......................................................................... 169

Respiratory therapists

Registered nurses

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 55,000

Total employment, 1984......................................................... 1,377,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le.........................................................................
Percent b la c k ...........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.......................................................................
25-54 years.......................................................................
55 and older.....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total.........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale......................................................................... 96.0
Percent b la c k ........................................................................... 7.6
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years....................................................................... 8.5
25-54 years....................................................................... 81.4
55 and older..................................................................... 10.1



54

68.7
7.4
23.5
73.4
3.1
16.6
13.7

SUPPLY PROFILE

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercen t

U su al e n try a n d train in g req u irem en ts. A master’s degree in speechlanguage pathology or audiology is the standard credential in most
settings. In most public school systems, a bachelor’s degree in
speech-language pathology or audiology and appropriate certifica­
tion satisfy hiring requirements. Thirty-six States require licenses
for those offering speech pathology and audiology services in private
practice, clinics, or other settings outside schools. Although licen­
sure laws vary, all States require graduation from an accredited
educational program, 300 hours o f supervised clinical experience,
and an examination.

89.9

Hospitals............................
Low

63,000
15.6

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

M od era te

66,000
20.8

H igh

69,000
26.5

. . . Faster than average

Employment grow th ................

SUPPLY PROFILE

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Although some respiratory

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Audiology and speech pathology:
Bachelor’s ...................................................................... 3,041
Master’s ........................................................................ 2,859
Ph.D...............................................................................
93

therapists are trained on the job, employers generally hire graduates
o f formal training programs in respiratory care. These programs
are offered at the postsecondary level by vocational schools,
hospitals, medical schools, colleges and universities, and the Armed
Forces. Applicants need a working knowledge o f science and
mathematics, mechanical ability, and manual dexterity.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Entrants tend to be recent graduates
o f formal training programs, or individuals with appropriate
qualifications who have been tending to family responsibilities, be­
tween jobs, or employed in another occupation. Many speech
pathologists and audiologists work on a contract or consultant basis,
and the proportion on voluntary part-time schedules is higher than
the average for all professional specialty workers.

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Respiratory therapy and respiratory therapy technology. 3,017
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Respiratory therapy technology.......................................... 3,219
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Respiratory therapy and respiratory therapy technology. 3,370

Health Technologists and Technicians

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Most entrants to this occupation have

some college education. Among those who enter the field o f
respiratory care, the majority are recent graduates o f formal training
programs, experienced therapists returning to work after tending
to family responsibilities, or others with appropriate qualifications
who have not been employed. Some individuals transfer from
another occupation.

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 236,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le..........................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

Speech pathologists and audiologists

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 47,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time,total........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary..............................

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

10.2
87.6
2.2
23.0
18.5

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-85 ........

54,000
13.8

M o d era te

55,000
17.3

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

67.4
9.9
7.4
6.2

243,000
2.6

M od era te

254,000
7.5

63.5
11.5
10.3
8.6
H igh

265,000
12.0

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................... 8.5

H igh

SUPPLY PROFILE

57,000
21.1

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. The usual requirement for
a beginning job as a clinical laboratory technologist is a bachelor’s

Employment growth ..................................................................... Average




P ercent

Hospitals..........................................................................
Offices of physicians......................................................
Medical and dental laboratories..................................
Government....................................................................

P ercen t

Educational services......................................................
Hospitals..........................................................................
Government....................................................................
Outpatient care facilities ..............................................

17.2
77.6
5.2
17.4
14.8

90.0
2.9

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

75.6
12.8

55

Associate and other degrees below baccalaureate,
1983:
Dental h ygiene....................................................................... 3,64(3

degree with a major in medical technology or in one o f the life
sciences. Clinical laboratory technicians generally are required to
have an associate degree or to have completed the training pro­
gram in a postsecondary vocational school. Some States require
technologists and technicians to be licensed. In order to keep abreast
o f medical developments, technologists and technicians often take
skill improvement training offered at hospitals, colleges and univer­
sities, and vocational schools.

C h aracteristics o f en tran ts. Most entrants are either recent graduates
o f a dental hygiene training program or experienced hygienists re­
turning to work after tending to family responsibilities. Most have
attended college, and many have a degree. Compared to other job
entrants, people who start working as dental hygienists are much
more likely to be in their twenties or early thirties, and to work
part time.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Medical laboratory technologies........................................
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Medical laboratory assisting and other medical
laboratory technology......................................................
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Medical laboratory technologies........................................
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Medical laboratory technologies:
Bachelor’s ......................................................................

6,360

Dispensing opticians
4,346

EMPLOYM ENT PROFILE

3,263

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 42,000

2,632

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

C h a ra cteristics o f en tran ts. Individuals who take clinical laboratory
jobs are equally divided between transfers from another occupa­
tion and those who have not been working—mainly recent graduates
o f medical technology programs and homemakers. Two out o f three
entrants are between the ages o f 20 and 34. Most entrants have
attended college, although not all have a degree.

Miscellaneous retail stores (includes optical
goods and related stores)........................................
Offices of other health practitioners (includes
offices of optometrists) ..........................................
Wholesale trade...............................................................

In du stry

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Dental hygienists

49,000
17.7

M o d e ra te

51,000
23.2

40.!)
34.8
9.1
H igh

54,000
29.0

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 76,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................... ................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time,total..........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary................................

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Although dispensing opti­
cians learn their skills on the job, employers generally prefer ap­
plicants who are familiar with the trade and who have had some
formal training in optical dispensing and fabricating. Training is
offered by community colleges, vocational schools, and manufac­
turers. A high school diploma with courses in science and
mathematics and experience in a related job are assets. Some
jurisdictions require dispensing opticians to be licensed, and con­
tinuing education is necessary for relicensure.

99.0
2.6
17.7
80.3
2.0
49.0
44.2

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In dustry

Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1983:
Ophthalmic dispensing............................................................ 247
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Ophthalmic dispensing............................................................ 151

P ercent

Offices of dentists.....................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

P ercen t

92,000
20.8

96.3
M o d era te

98,000
28.7

H igh

102,000
34.0

Electrocardiograph technicians
Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average

EMPLOYM ENT PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

............................ 21,000

Total employment, 1984 ..........

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Dental hygienists must be
licensed. To get a license, a candidate must graduate from an ac­
credited dental hygiene school and pass both a written and a clinical
examination.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
P ercen t

In du stry

......................
......................

Hospitals............................
Federal Government........

76.7
17.2

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :
Low

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Dental hygiene...................................................................... 2,545




Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

56

24,000
11.8

M o d e ra te

24,000
15.8

H igh

25,000
20.0

Slower than average

Employment growth. . . .

Average

Employment growth

SUPPLY PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

Usual entry and training requirements. Training usually lasts 4 to
6 weeks for the basic “ resting” electrocardiogram (EKG). Ap­
plicants must be high school graduates, be able to follow detailed
instructions, exhibit presence o f mind in emergencies, be reliable,
and have mechanical aptitude. Beyond the entry level, a small
number o f formal programs offer preparation for specialized EKG
testing. These 12- to 24-month programs, located chiefly in hospitals
and community colleges, offer in-depth study of cardiovascular
anatomy and physiology.

Usual entry and training requirements. Completion o f a formal
110-hour training program designed by the U.S. Department of
Transportation is required for an entry level job as an emergency
medical technician (EMT). Training is offered by police, fire, and
health departments; by hospitals; and as a nondegree course in col­
leges and universities. Applicants to an EMT training course
generally must be at least 18 years old, have a high school diploma
or the equivalent, and have a valid driver’s license. All States and
the District o f Columbia certify graduates of approved training pro­
grams who meet experience requirements and pass an examination.
With additional formal training, EMT’s can qualify for the title
o f EMT-Intermediate or EMT-Paramedic. EMT’s should be
physically fit, emotionally stable, and able to adapt to difficult
situations.

Electroencephalographic technologists and
technicians

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Training completions:
Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Emergency medical technology-ambulance, and
emergency medical technology-paramedic.................... 7,624
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Emergency medical technology-ambulance, and
emergency medical technology-paramedic.................... 3,316

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 5,900
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

Percent

Hospitals..........................................................................
Offices of physicians......................................................
Low
Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

6,700
14.1

Moderate
7,000
19.6

87.7
10.8
High

Licensed practical nurses

7,300
25.1

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Employment growth ............................................ Faster than average

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 602,000

SUPPLY PROFILE

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

Usual entry and training requirements. Electroencephalographic
(EEG) technicians generally learn their skills on the job. Employers
normally require a high school diploma. Many EEG technologists
also learn their skills on the job, but some graduate from formal
postsecondary training programs offered by hospitals and medical
centers, vocational schools, community colleges, and colleges and
universities. Applicants for both specialties should have manual
dexterity, good vision, an aptitude for working with electronic
equipment, and the ability to work with patients and with other
health professionals.

96.3
17.1
7.7
79.2
13.1
26.0
20.5

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Training completions:
American Medical Association’s Committee on Allied Health
Education and Accreditation accredited programs, 1984:
Electroencephalographic technologist .................................. 131

Industry

Percent

Hospitals..........................................................................
Nursing and personal care facilities............................
Offices of physicians......................................................
Government....................................................................

Emergency medical technicians

Low

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

680,000
13.0

Moderate
708,000
17.6

55.3
16.9
6.4
5.7
High
739,000
22.7

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 47,000
Employment growth ................................................................ Average
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry
Local government..........................................................
Hospitals..........................................................................
Local and suburban transportation............................
Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........




Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 12.3

Percent

49,000
3.9

Moderate
50,000
7.1

37.4
30.9
30.6

SUPPLY PROFILE
Usual entry and training requirements. All States and the District
o f Columbia require practical nurses to be licensed. Applicants for
licensure must complete an approved program in practical nurs­
ing and pass the national written examination.

High
52,000
10.6

57

Training completions:

Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Nursing ................................................................................. 29,031
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Practical (vocational) nursing .......................................... 16,973
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Nursing ................................................................................. 38,847

20.1
75.5
4.4
13.7
10.2

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Characteristics o f entrants. The majority of entrants are recent nurs­
ing school graduates or licensed but inactive nurses who have been tend­
ing to family responsibilities or have been unemployed. The remainder
transfer from another occupation. Because the occupation o f L.P.N.
is characterized by movement from employment to home and back
again, entrants tend to be older than average.

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

P ercen t

Hospitals..........................................................................

68.7

Offices of physicians......................................................

22.6

Medical record technicians

Low

H igh

141,000
23.5

148,000
28.9

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 33,000

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Annual separation rate(percent).................................................... 8.5

In d u stry

P ercent

H ospitals.................................................................
Nursing and personal care facilities..................
Federal Government..............................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

135,000
17.6

M o d e ra te

Projected 1995 employment ,.
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

42,000
26.4

SUPPLY PROFILE

73.3
8.7
7.7

M o d e ra te

H igh

44,000
31.4

Usual en try a n d training requirem en ts. Completion o f a formal train­
ing program in radiography, nuclear medicine technology, radiation
therapy technology, or diagnostic medical sonography is required for
entry level jobs in hospitals, which employ most radiologic technologists.
Technologists in physicians’ or dentists’ offices may be trained on the
job. Many jobs require registration or certification with the appropriate
organization. Some jurisdictions require radiologic technologists to be
licensed.

46,000
37.0

Employment grow th.................................. Much faster than average
Training co m pletion s:

SUPPLY PROFILE

American Medical Association’s Committee on Allied Health
Education and Accreditation accredited programs, 1984:
Diagnostic medical sonographer, nuclear medicine
technologist, radiation therapy technologist, and
radiographer........................................................................ 8,810

Usual en try a n d training requirem en ts. Most employers prefer to hire
graduates of accredited 2-year associate degree programs. However,
many experienced record clerks may be promoted to technician status
after completing a hospital’s training program or correspondence courses
offered by the American Medical Record Association.

C haracteristics o f entrants. The majority of job openings are filled
by people who have not been working—recent graduates, in­
dividuals with appropriate qualifications who are returning to work
after tending to family responsibilities, and others. The remainder
transfer from another occupation, such as medical technologist or
respiratory therapist. The majority o f entrants have attended col­
lege.

Training com p letio n s:

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Medical records technology.................................................
834
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Medical records technology................................................
495
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Medical records technology................................................ 1,069

Surgical technicians

Characteristics o f entrants. Entrants fall into two categories—those who

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

transfer from another occupation, primarily medical record clerk, and
those who enter the field after graduating from an accredited 2-year
associate degree program.

. 36,000

Total employment, 1984 ................................
Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:

Radiologic technologists

P ercen t

In du stry

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Low

Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 115,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale...................................................................
Percent black .....................................................................




97.9

Hospitals..................................................

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ____
66.9
7.4

40,000
9.4

Employment growth ......................................

58

Moderate

High

41,000
14.3

43,000
19.7
Average

SUPPLY PROFILE

C h a ra cte ristic s o f en tra n ts. For most actors and actresses, employ­
ment is unsteady. Typically, they enter and reenter the occupation
after periods o f unemployment or work in a temporary job such
as waiter, waitress, or sales worker.

U su a l e n try a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Most employers require
graduation from a formal training program in surgical technology.
Programs last from 9 months to 2 years and are offered by com­
munity and junior colleges, postsecondary vocational schools, and
hospitals. The shorter programs are designed for licensed practical
nurses, who already have some background in anatomy, physiology,
and clinical practice. The longer programs are for individuals with
no background in health care. Additional training is required before
technicians can assist in complex procedures, such as open-heart
surgery, or work with new equipment, such as lasers.

Dancers and choreographers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 10,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Surgical technology.............................................................. 1,532
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Surgical technician................................................................
901
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Surgical technology.............................................................. 1,152

In du stry

P ercent

Theatrical producers, bands, and entertainers..........
Motion picture production and services....................
Eating and drinking p la ces..........................................
Dance halls, studios, and schools................................
Hotels, motels, and tourist courts..............................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Writers, Artists, and Entertainers

M o derate

12,000
17.2

12,000
21.1

35.1
17.4
17.0
6.6
6.0
H igh

13,000
25.1

Employment grow th............................................ Faster than average

Actors, directors, and producers
SUPPLY PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

U su al e n try a n d training requ irem en ts. Serious training for a career
in dancing traditionally begins by about age 12. Early ballet train­
ing begins at age 7 or 8 and is usually given by private teachers
and independent ballet schools. Talented students who demonstrate
potential in their early teens receive more intensive and advanced
professional training at regional ballet schools or schools conducted
under the auspices o f the major ballet companies. Early and in­
tensive training also is important for the modem dancer, but modem
dance does not require as many years o f training as ballet. Because
o f the strenuous and time-consuming training required, general
education may be minimal, and few employers require formal
education beyond high school.

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 50,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

31.5
4.2
10.4
78.9
10.7
15.2
7.4

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Motion picture production and services....................
Theatrical producers, bands, and entertainers..........
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

P ercent

58,000
17.3

M o d era te

61,000
22.9

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Dance:

70.5
23.3

Bachelor’s ........................................................................... 748
Master’s ........................................................................... 202

H igh

63,000
27.4

C h a ra c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. For most dancers, employment is
unsteady. Typically, they enter and reenter the occupation after
periods o f unemployment or work in a temporary job such as
waiter, waitress, or sales worker. Almost all entrants are under the
age o f 25 and few have any formal education beyond high
school.

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U sual e n try a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Talent is what counts most
in getting an acting job. This talent generally is developed through
acting experience and formal training at dramatic arts schools or
colleges and universities. There are no specific training requirements
for directors and producers, but talent, experience, and business
acumen are very important. Some colleges and universities offer
formal training in directing and producing which can be useful in
obtaining a job.

Designers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 205,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Dramatic arts:
Bachelor’s ...................................................................... 5,208
Master’s ........................................................................ 1,157
Ph.D................................................................................
97




59

52.0
3.2
12.8
76.0
11.2

Percent employed part time, total........................................ 25.4
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 18.1

Percent employed part time, total........................................ 17.8
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 13.4
About average

Unemployment rate

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

In d u stry

P ercen t

Miscellaneous retail stores (includes florists and
artists' supply and material stores)........................
Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Business services.............................................................
Furniture and home furnishings sto res......................
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................
Engineering, architectural and surveying services . . .
Low

M o d e ra te

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

H igh

239,000
16.6

Employment grow th..............

.................... Faster than average

261,000
27.2

Employment growth

252,000
23.5

M o d e ra te

264,000
29.4

21.2
19.5
15.7
8.2
7.6
H igh

274,000
34.3

Faster than average
15.2

Annual separation rate (percent)

15.4

Annual separation rate (percent)

P ercen t

Advertising......................................................................
Mailing, reproduction, commercial art, and
stenographic serv ices..............................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries................
Retail trade......................................................................
Government....................................................................

31.7
14.9
9.4
9.2
8.9
7.3

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

251,000
22.4

About average

Unemployment rate

SUPPLY PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Employers are more in­
terested in demonstrated ability, as represented by an applicant’s
portfolio, than in evidence o f appropriate training or other
qualifications. However, considerable training as well as artistic
talent is needed to create an impressive portfolio. Therefore, the
majority o f aspiring graphic and fine artists participate in postsecon­
dary art programs, which are offered by 4-year colleges and univer­
sities, community and junior colleges, and postsecondary vocational
schools.

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Employers look for per­
sons with artistic talent to nil entry level jobs. Artistic skills may
be developed through work experience in a related job or by tak­
ing classes in design. Although an increasing number are acquir­
ing the necessary skills from formal degree and nondegree train­
ing programs in design, many people learn the profession infor­
mally by working with experienced designers. Some designers
upgrade their skills by taking classes in design or by participating
in in-house skill improvement programs.

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Crafts, design, fine arts, and graphic arts technology . 1,256
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981 .............................. 16,354
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Crafts, design, fine arts, and graphic arts technology . 4,975
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Crafts, design, fine arts, and graphic arts technology:
Bachelor’s .................................................................... 20,800
Master’s ...................................................................... 3,182
Ph.D..............................................................................
154

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Design:
Bachelor's...................................................................... 4,049
Master’s ........................................................................
248
C h a ra cteristics o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f entrants have not been
working—persons tending to family responsibilities, full-time
students, and persons between jobs. The remaining entrants transfer
from another occupation—some have worked part time while in
school and others transfer from a job they had taken temporarily
until a more suitable position could be found. Most entrants have
had some postsecondary training, and many are college graduates.
Entrants tend to be somewhat older than entrants to other occupa­
tions, reflecting the increasing importance o f postsecondary train­
ing and the fact that many people return to this occupation after
tending to household responsibilities. Many o f the entrants are
employed in part-time positions.

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f entrants have not been
working—most are recent graduates o f a training program or ex­
perienced workers who have been tending to household respon­
sibilities. The remainder transfer from another occupation; in many
cases, entrants have been working in another occupation while at­
tending a training program.

Musicians
Graphic and fine artists

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Total employment, 1984

Total employment, 1984 ......................................................




Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le........................................................................
Percent b la c k ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years........................................................................
25-54 years........................................................................
55 and older......................................................................
Percent employed part time,total..........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary................................

204,000

Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years.......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................

192,000

47.4
2.4
11.0
75.5
13.5

60

27.6
6.4
15.3
70.2
14.5
55.4
35.7

Low

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

208,000
8.5

M o d e ra te

217,000
13.4

M od era te

129,000
28.6

H igh

134,000
33.3

Employment grow th....................

48.3
30.6
9.7

. . . Faster than average

Annual separation rate (percent)

P ercent

Religious organizations..................................................
Theatrical producers, bands, and entertainers..........
Eating and drinking p la c e s..........................................

123,000
22.6

. . . . 14.9

SUPPLY PROFILE

H igh

U su a l e n try a n d train in g req u irem en ts. There are no formal educa­
tion requirements for entry level jobs. Employers usually seek ap­
plicants who can demonstrate a broad technical understanding o f
photography as well as other photographic talents, such as imagina­
tion, creativity, and a good sense o f timing. These skills often can
be obtained by working with experienced photographers and camera
operators or are acquired through formal training available in col­
leges and universities, junior and community colleges, postsecond­
ary vocational schools, and the Armed Forces. For a job in scien­
tific or industrial photography, some knowledge o f the field may
be required.

226,000
18.1

Employment growth ................................................................ Average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 22.0

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. People who become pro­
fessional musicians generally begin studying an instrument at an
early age. Intensive training is needed to acquire the necessary skill,
knowledge o f music, and ability to interpret music. This training
may be obtained through private study with an accomplished musi­
cian, in a college or university music program, in a music conserv­
atory, or through practice with a group. For study in an institu­
tion, an audition frequently is necessary.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Armed Forces enlisted strength, 1985:
Photography......................................................................... 5,429
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
301
Photography.........................................................................
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Photography:
Bachelor’s .....................................................................
772

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Music general; music performance; and music
theory and composition:
Bachelor’s ...................................................................... 7,262
Master’s ........................................................................ 3,222
Ph.D................................................................................
380

C h a ra c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f all entrants transfer

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts. For most musicians, employment is
unsteady. Typically, they enter and reenter the occupation after
periods o f unemployment or work in a temporary job such as
waiter, waitress, or sales worker. Most entrants are less than 35
years o f age and have had some college education.

from another occupation, such as photographic process worker,
that they had entered on a temporary basis until a suitable job could
be found. The remainder have not been working—mostly
unemployed persons, full-time students, and those who have been
tending to family responsibilities. Almost all entrants are high school
graduates, and many have had some postsecondary training in
photography. Entrants typically are younger than entrants to other
occupations, and most start their careers in a part-time job.

Photographers and camera operators

Public relations specialists

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 101,000

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 95,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black .........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

20.2
8.5
17.7
71.5
10.8
16.2
9.9

48.6
6.1
9.8
75.2
15.0
11.3
9.9

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

In du stry

Photographic and portrait studios..............................
Business services............................................................
Radio and television broadcasting..............................
Government....................................................................
Newspapers......................................................................
Educational services......................................................




In du stry

P ercent

Business...........................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real e sta te ............................
Educational services......................................................
Membership organizations............................................
Government....................................................................
Communications and utilities......................................

24.4
19.3
14.0
8.6
8.6
7.7

61

P ercent

15.1
12.3
12.2
11.4
8.6
7.3

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

119,000
25.7

M o d e ra te

125,000
31.6

in hiring. Announcers must have a pleasant and well-controlled
voice, good timing, excellent pronunciation, and good grammar.

H igh

130,000
36.4

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Employment growth.................................. Much faster than average

Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Radio-television news broadcast and radio-television,
general................................................................................
352
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Radio-television news broadcast and radio-television,
general:
Bachelor’s ...................................................................... 6,115
Master’s ........................................................................
334
Ph.D ................................................................................
21

Annual separation rate (percent)................................ ................. 18.2

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su al e n try a n d train in g req u irem en ts. Employers generally require
a college degree or relevant work experience. Some employers seek
persons who have majored in journalism, public relations, or
another communications specialty; others look for a technical major
related to the Arm’s business, such as engineering, finance, or com­
puter science. Experience in journalism, sales, or a technical Held
can provide valuable experience in writing copy, dealing with peo­
ple, and learning about the organization’s products or services.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f entrants are college
graduates. Many have been working part time while in school, while
others transfer from a job that helped them develop the required
skills.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Communications:
Bachelor’s ..................................................................... 36,954
Master’s ..............................................................
3,502
Ph.D..............................................................................
205

Reporters and correspondents
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 69,000

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Most entrants transfer from another

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

occupation—most o f these have been working in a job that prepares
them for public relations work; some probably have been working
part time while in school. The remaining entrants have not been
working—primarily students and persons tending to family respon­
sibilities. Most entrants have had some college training, and almost
half have a degree. Because so many have work experience, they
tend to be older than entrants to other occupations.

In du stry

P ercen t

Newspapers......................................................................
Radio and television broadcasting..............................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

79,000
13.9

M o d e ra te

82,000
19.3

72.0
17.7
H igh

86,000
24.2

Radio and television announcers and newscasters

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 56,000

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Most employers prefer col­
lege graduates who have at least a bachelor’s degree in journalism,
including training in the liberal arts. Typing skill is necessary, and
the ability to take shorthand and to use computerized word proc­
essing equipment is an asset. Applicants should be able to present
facts and opinions clearly and succinctly.

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.........................................................................
Percent black ...........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years.......................................................................
55 and older.....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

22.0
11.7
47.5
46.2
6.3
41.6
27.5

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Journalism............................................................................
522
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Journalism:
Bachelor’s .................................................................... 10,074
Master’s ...................................................................... 1,102
Ph.D ..............................................................................
40

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

P ercen t

Radio and television broadcasting..............................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

60,000
6.7

M o d e ra te

62,000
11.3

97.1
H igh

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f entrants are college
graduates. Many transfer into the occupation—some from an in ­
ternship program where they have worked part time on a newspaper
or magazine staff or at a radio or TV station. Others have been
in school or between jobs.

65,000
16.2

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

SUPPLY PROFILE

Writers and editors

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . Although not always re­

quired, formal training usually is necessary to develop one’s talents.
The videotaped audition that presents samples o f an applicant’s
delivery, style, and appearance often is the most important factor



EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................... 191,000

62

Broadcast technicians

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercen t

Newspapers......................................................................
Business services ............................................................
Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Periodicals ......................................................................
Membership organizations............................................
Books................................................................................
Federal Government......................................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

234,000
22.2

M o d e ra te

245,000
28.0

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

22.0
15.8
14.0
9.9
6.4
5.7
5.2

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 25,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercent

Radio and television broadcasting..............................
Federal Government......................................................

H igh

254,000
32.8

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average

29,000
16.3

M o d era te

30,000
20.5

80.2
13.1
H igh

31,000
24.9

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average

SUPPLY PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Many employers require

applicants to have a college degree; some prefer a major in liberal
arts or social science; others prefer a communications or journalism
major. Some jobs—technical writing, for example—require a degree
in or detailed knowledge about a specialized field such as engineer­
ing. Aspiring writers and editors should be familiar with research
techniques and be able to work under the pressure o f deadlines.

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Federal law requires per­
sons who operate broadcast transmitters in radio and television sta­
tions to have a restricted radiotelephone operator permit, for which
no examination is required. Those who work with microwave or
other internal radio communications equipment, however, must
have a general radiotelephone operator license, issued after pass­
ing a series o f written examinations. Vocational school, community
college, or college training in engineering or electronics is the best
preparation. Manual dexterity—the ability to perform tasks re­
quired precise, coordinated hand movements—is necessary for suc­
cess in this occupation.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Journalism............................................................................
522
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Journalism:
Bachelor’s ..................................................................... 10,074
Master’s ......................................................................
1,102
Ph.D..............................................................................
40

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Communication technologies............................................ 3,099
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Electrical technology.......................................................... 18,189

Technologists and Technicians, Except
Health

Computer programmers
Air traffic controllers

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 341,000
. 22,000

Total employment, 1984 ................................

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................ 35.4
Percent black .......................................................................... 5.3
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 19.7
25-54 years...................................................................... 77.6
55 and older.................................................................... 2.7
Percent employed part time,total....................................... 6.0
Percent employed part time,voluntary............................. 5.2

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
P ercent

In du stry

Federal Government......................................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

22,000
2.3

M o d era te

22,000
0.5

100.0
H igh

22,000
-1 .5

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Employment grow th......................................
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

SUPPLY PROFILE

In du stry

Computer and data processing services......................
Finance, insurance, and real e sta te ............................
Government....................................................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................
Office, computing, and accounting machine
manufacturing..........................................................
Wholesale trade..............................................................
Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment
manufacturing..........................................................

U su al e n try a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Air traffic controllers must

successfully complete the Civil Service examination and training
program at the Federal Aviation Administration academy in
Oklahoma City. Applicants generally must have 3 years o f general
work experience or a college degree or a combination o f experience
and education. Applicants also must pass physical and psychological
examinations, have vision correctable to 20/20, and be under 35
years o f age.




63

P ercent

19.1
12.7
7.7
7.1
6.5
6.1
5.5

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

559,000
63.8

M o d e ra te

586,000
71.7

H igh

In du stry

609,000
78.5

P ercen t

Business services............................................................
Communications and utilities......................................
Transportation equipment manufacturing..................

7.3
5.8
5.7

Employment growth.................... ............ Much faster than average
Low

Annual separation rate (percent)

........ 8.9

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

SUPPLY PROFILE

366,000
6.2

M o d e ra te

384,000
11.3

H igh

400,000
15.8

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

U su a l e n try a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts. Training requirements vary

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 16.0

widely, reflecting employers’ needs. Many employers require a
bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related Held; some re­
quire a graduate degree. Other employers accept applicants with
fewer than 4 years o f college who have related work experience.
Because o f rapidly changing technology, programmers usually con­
tinue their training through programs sponsored by their company
or courses offered at colleges or vocational schools.

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su al e n try a n d train in g req u irem en ts. Employers prefer applicants
who have 2 years o f postsecondary training in technical institutes,
junior and community colleges, or extension divisions o f univer­
sities. An exposure to computer-aided design techniques is helpful,
but employers mainly look for applicants with a thorough
knowledge o f drafting fundamentals, knowledge o f design theory,
and neatness.

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Computer and information sciences................................ 7,202
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Computer programmer....................................................... 22,329
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Computer and information sciences................................ 12,132
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Computer and information sciences:
Bachelor’s ..................................................................... 24,506
Master’s ....................................................................... 5,321
Ph.D..............................................................................
262

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Drafting................................................................................ 28,500
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Drafting occupations............ .............................................. 7,962
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Drafting................................................................................. 5,540

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Entrants are about equally divided be­
tween those who transfer from another occupation and those who
have not been working. Many who transfer do so from a related
occupation, such as mathematics teacher, physics teacher, or
engineer. Others probably are experienced computer operators who
are advancing after acquiring appropriate training or persons who
have been working part time while in school. Entrants who have
not been working typically have been in school or between jobs.
Most entrants have at least some college education and are be­
tween 20 and 34 years o f age.

C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. About half o f all entrants have not been
working; they are primarily recent graduates o f a training program
or experienced drafters who were between jobs. The remainder
transfer from another occupation; in many cases, entrants have
been working in another occupation while attending a training
program.

Electrical and electronics technicians

Drafters

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 404,000

Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 345,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................ 13.8
Percent black .......................................................................... 5.9
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 15.7
25-54 years...................................................................... 78.5
55 and older.................................................................... 5.8
Percent employed part time, total........................................ 2.9
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 2.3

Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale......................................................................... 15.4
Percent black ........................................................................... 3.7
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years....................................................................... 20.4
25-54 years....................................................................... 69.8
55 and older..........................
9.8
Percent employed part time, total........................................ 4.8
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 3.8

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Engineering, architectural, and surveying services...
Machinery manufacturing, except electrical..............
Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment
manufacturing...........................................................




Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment
manufacturing..........................................................
Machinery, equipment, and supplies wholesalers . . .
Communications and utilities......................................
Business services............................................................
Federal Government......................................................

P ercen t

31.9
9.8
7.5

64

P ercen t

16.6
15.3
10.7
8.8
5.5

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

579,000
43.2

M o d era te

607,000
50.0

H igh

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average

629,000
55.7

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 17.9

Employment growth.................................. Much faster than average

SUPPLY PROFILE

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................... 7.9

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Most employers prefer ap­
plicants who have had specialized technical training in postsecond­
ary vocational schools, junior and community colleges, or colleges
and universities. Persons also can qualify through on-the-job train­
ing, apprenticeship programs, correspondence schools, or
Armed Forces experience. Because o f rapidly changing technologies,
engineering technicians usually continue their training throughout
their career.

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Although persons can
qualify through many combinations o f work experience and educa­
tion, most employers prefer applicants who have specialized
technical training offered by junior and community colleges,
postsecondary vocational schools, and the Armed Forces. Ap­
plicants should have an aptitude for mathematics and science and
enjoy technical work.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Engineering and engineering-related technologies........ 55,866
Associate degrees and other awards below the baccalaureate,
1983:
Engineering and engineering-related technologies ........ 61,075

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Electrical and electronic technologies............................. 24,671
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Electrical and electronic technologies............................. 19,505
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Electrical and electronic technologies............................. 30,434

C h a ra cte ristic s o f en tra n ts. The majority o f entrants transfer from
another occupation—many were working part or full time while
completing a formal training program. Most o f the remainder were
full-time students or experienced technicians who have been tend­
ing to family responsibilities or were between jobs. The majority
o f entrants have had some postsecondary education.

C h a ra cteristics o f en tran ts. About half o f all entrants have not been
working—most have been in school full time; others have been
between jobs. The remaining entrants transfer from an occupation
where they have acquired needed skills or worked part time while
completing formal training programs. Many entrants have some
postsecondary training, but few have a college degree. About 8 out
o f 10 entrants are between 25 and 34 years o f age.

Legal assistants
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 53,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Engineering technicians

In du stry

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 326,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................ 29.5
Percent black .......................................................................... 6.2
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 15.8
25-54 years...................................................................... 74.4
55 and older.................................................................... 9.8
Percent employed part time, total........................................ 6.9
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 5.6

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........



398,000
22.6

416,000
27.7

104,000
97.5

H igh

108,000
104.9

U sual e n try a n d training requ irem en ts. Legal assistants, often called
paralegals, must understand legal terminology and have good com­
munication and research skills. Familiarity with the operation and
applications o f computers in legal research is an important asset.
Knowledge o f a specialized area o f law practice, such as real estate
or taxation, is preferred by many employers. Skills are acquired
through previous work experience—for example, as a legal
secretary—or postsecondary education. Increasingly, employers are
requiring completion o f a formal legal assistant training program.

P ercent

M o d e ra te

M od era te

SUPPLY PROFILE

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Transportation equipment manufacturing..................
Engineering, architectural, and surveying services. . .
Federal Government......................................................
State government............................................................
Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment
manufacturing..........................................................
Machinery manufacturing, except electrical..............
Miscellaneous business services (includes research
and development laboratories and commercial
testing laboratories)..................................................
Communications and utilities......................................

100,000
89.5

75.9
7.5
7.3
5.7

Employment growth.................................. Much faster than average

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

In du stry

Percent

Legal services..................................................................
Local government..........................................................
State government............................................................
Federal Government......................................................

11.5
11.3
10.3
8.8
8.4
7.8

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

6.8
6.0

Associate degrees and other awards below the baccalaureate,
1983:
Legal assisting.........................................................
2,015

H igh

Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Legal assisting:
Bachelor’s ........................................................................... 300

430,000
32.2

65

Library technicians

SUPPLY PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFiLE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 42,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

P ercen t

Educational services.......................................................
Local government...........................................................
Federal Government.......................................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

45,000
6.2

M o d e ra te

46,000
9.0

57.0
27.1
6.6
H igh

47,000
12.2

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . Most employers prefer ap­
plicants with postsecondary training in library technology, offered
by community and junior colleges and postsecondary vocational
schools. However, some technicians are trained on the job. In ad­
dition, some libraries encourage staff members to take courses in
library technology to improve their job skills.

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Most employers prefer ap­
plicants who have at least 2 years o f specialized training or ex­
perience in postsecondary vocational schools, junior or community
colleges, or colleges and universities. Some technicians qualify for
their job with training obtained informally on the job, in the Armed
Forces, or in company training programs. Many science technicians
have a bachelor’s degree in a scientific Held.
T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Science technologies.............................................................. 1,432
Associate degrees and other awards below the baccalaureate,
1983:
Science technologies.............................................................. 1,514
C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. About half o f all entrants transfer from

another occupation. Most o f the remainder are recent graduates
o f a formal training program or were between jobs. Most entrants
have completed some training beyond high school, and over half
have a college degree.

Tool programmers, numerical control
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 11,000

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Library assisting.....................................................................
105
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Library assistant..................................................................... 2,886
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Library assisting.....................................................................
196

Science technicians

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Low

Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 239,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.........................................................................
Percent b la c k ............ ..............................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.......................................................................
25-54 years............ ..........................................................
55 and older.....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

35.4
9.4
21.0
71.1
7.9
13.6
11.4

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

P ercen t

Chemical and allied products manufacturing............
Federal Government......................................................
Educational services......................................................
Durable goods manufacturing............................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........
Employment growth




P ercent

Electrical and electronic machinery manufacturing..
Aircraft and parts manufacturing ..............................
Engineering, architectural, and surveying services...
Metalworking machinery and equipment
manufacturing..........................................................
Office, computing, and accounting machine
manufacturing..........................................................
Fabricated metal products manufacturing ................
Construction machinery manufacturing ....................

270,000
13.1

M o d e ra te

279,000
16.9

19.0
18.2
16.3
8.2
H igh

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

13,000
26.0

M o d e ra te

14,000
32.2

16.4
11.5
9.3
7.6
6.1
5.6
5.0
H igh

15,000
37.4

Employment growth.................................. Much faster than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Tool programmers learn
their jobs through a combination o f work experience and voca­
tional study and training. Employers prefer to promote or hire
skilled machinists for programmer jobs. Some employers will hire
people without machining experience if they have completed voca­
tional school or junior college courses in tool programming and
have demonstrated the ability to learn machine operations.

Marketing and Sales Occupations
Cashiers

288,000
20.4

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Average

Total employment, 1984

1,902,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

In du stry

83.8
10.7
51.7
40.2
8.1
52.8
36.7

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

M od era te

405,000
9.1

H igh

422,000
13.7

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 10.4

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

SUPPLY PROFILE
P ercent

Grocery stores................................................................
Services............................................................................
Eating and drinking places ..........................................
General merchandise stores..........................................
Drug and proprietary sto r e s........................................
Gasoline service stations................................................

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Most employers will hire
high school graduates with proven sales ability or who have been
successful in other types o f work. Some employers require a col­
lege degree. All States and the District o f Columbia require agents
and brokers to be licensed. In most jurisdictions, applicants for
licensure must pass written examinations covering insurance fun­
damentals and laws. Because a growing number o f jurisdictions
have mandatory continuing education requirements, many sales
workers take courses at colleges and universities and attend in­
stitutes, conferences, and seminars sponsored by insurance
organizations.

44.0
8.7
8.5
8.3
6.3
5.1

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

384,000
3.4

29.0
7.8

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

Unemployment r a te ............................................ Higher than average

In d u stry

P ercent

Insurance agents, brokers, and services.......................
Fire, marine, and casualty insurance..........................

M o d era te

H igh

2,343,000
23.2

2,469,000
29.8

2,579,000
35.6

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average

C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. The majority o f entrants transfer from
another occupation. The remainder have not been working—most
have been between jobs or have been tending to family respon­
sibilities. Entrants tend to be older than entrants to other occupa­
tions, reflecting the importance o f previous work experience. The
majority o f entrants have some college training, and many have
a degree.

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 30.4

SUPPLY PROFILE
U sual e n try a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Although previous sales ex­
perience and familiarity with cash registers are helpful in getting
a job, there are no formal academic or experience requirements.
Most cashiers acquire their skills on the job. Many employers prefer
high school graduates.

Manufacturers’ sales workers
C h ara cteristics o f en tran ts. This is primarily an entry level job. The

majority o f entrants have not been working; they have been in
school, full-time homemakers, or experienced cashiers who have
been laid o ff or are between jobs. Many have no prior work ex­
perience. The remaining entrants transfer from another clerical or
blue-collar occupation. An unusually large proportion o f entrants
are under 20 years o f age. Most entrants hold a part-time job, work­
ing during peak sales periods.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 547,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In dustry

Percent

Machinery manufacturing, except electrical..............

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

12.1

Food and allied products manufacturing..................
Fabricated metal products manufacturing ................
Chemical and allied products manufacturing............
Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment
manufacturing..........................................................

Insurance sales workers

12.4

Newspapers...........................................................................

9.1
7.0
7.0
6.9

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 371,000
Low

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................ 25.5
Percent black .......................................................................... 5.4
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 7.2
25-54 years...................................................................... 75.0
55 and older.................................................................... 17.8
Percent employed part time, total...................................... 7.6
Percent employed parttime, voluntary................................ 5.9

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........




598,000
9.3

H igh

623,000
13.8

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Although a college degree
is increasingly desirable, many employers hire individuals without
a degree who have sales experience or special knowledge o f the prod­
uct line being sold. Manufacturers o f technical products usually
require a college degree in science or engineering. Most manufac­
turers have formal training programs lasting up to 2 years. As with
most sales occupations, a pleasant personality and the ability to
get along with other people are important assets.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

M od era te

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Life insurance

569,000
4.0

P ercent

57.8

67

Retail sales workers

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Over half o f all entrants transfer from
other occupations. The remainder have not been working—some
were recent graduates; others were on temporary layoff. Because
o f the emphasis on work experience, entrants tend to be older than
entrants to other occupations. More than half o f all entrants have
some college education, and many have a degree.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ........................................................ 4,001,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent b la c k ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

Real estate agents and brokers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 363,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.........................................................................
Percent black ...........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older.....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

4.8
70.0
25.2
17.5
12.8

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

396,000
9.1

415,000
14.4

22.6
7.4
5.4

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........
P ercent

M o d e ra te

P ercen t

Department stores..........................................................
Grocery sto res................................................................
Women’s ready-to-wear sto r e s....................................

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

41.0
46.5
12.5
48.0
35.4

48.2
1.5

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Real estate agents and m anagers................................
Residential building construction................................
Real estate operators and lessors................................
Subdividers and developers..........................................

69.0
7.3

M o d era te

H igh

4,345,000
8.6

4,584,000
14.6

4,790,000
19.7

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

80.8
6.0
5.4
5.1

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 28.9

SUPPLY PROFILE

H igh

432,000
19.0

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Although there are no for­
mal training requirements, employers generally prefer high school
graduates. Although most workers acquire their skills informally
on the job, previous sales experience is helpful in finding a job.

Employment growth ................................................................. Average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 18.1

C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. This is primarily an entry level job. The
majority o f job openings are filled by persons who have not been
working, primarily students, full-tim e homemakers, and
unemployed persons. The majority o f entrants are under 25 years
o f age, have little or no work experience, and are attracted by the
opportunity to work part time. Those who transfer into the oc­
cupation are more likely to be older and to take a full-time job
than entrants who have not been working.

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . All States and the District
o f Columbia require real estate agents and brokers to be licensed.
Prospective agents must be high school graduates, at least 18 years
old, and pass a written test. Most jurisdictions require candidates
for the general sales license to complete at least 30 hours o f
classroom instruction. Brokers must complete 90 hours o f formal
training and have 1 to 3 years o f experience selling real estate.

Securities and financial services sales workers
T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Real estate............................................................................. 10,010
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Real estate............................................................................
1,586

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 81,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le........................................................................
Percent b la c k ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time,total........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary..............................

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts . This occupation is characterized by a

pattern o f movement into and out o f work, depending on the
strength o f the housing market, family responsibilities, and other
factors. Most entrants have not been working—primarily
homemakers and other persons who are attracted by the oppor­
tunity to set their own work schedule. Others transfer from a wide
variety o f occupations. The majority o f entrants are age 35 or older
and have some postsecondary education; many are college
graduates.




23.9
2.6
12.5
74.5
13.0
7.4
5.8

Unemployment rate.................................................. Lower than average

68

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercent

Security brokers and dealers........................................
Commercial and stock savings banks ........................
Mortgage bankers and brokers....................................
Personal credit institutions ..........................................
Commodity contracts brokers and dealers................
Savings and loan associations......................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

107,000
31.7

M o d e ra te

113,000
39.1

32.7
22.3
14.6
8.5
6.2
5.3
H igh

Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Transportation services........................................................ 1,069
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Transportation and travel marketing................................ 2,138
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Transportation and travel marketing:
Bachelor’s ....................................................................
242

Wholesale trade sales workers

118,000
44.7

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Employment growth.................................. Much faster than average
Total employment, 1984........................................................ 1,248,000
7.5

Annual separation rate (percent)

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

SUPPLY PROFILE

In du stry

U su a l e n try a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . A college education is
becoming a requirement for employment. Many employers prefer
people who have been successful in other fields, particularly in sales.
Self-confidence, good communication skills, and good grooming
are required. Securities sales workers must meet licensing re­
quirements, which generally include passing an examination. In ad­
dition, they must be registered with the securities exchanges where
they do business or with the National Association o f Securities
Dealers, Inc. Like licensure, registration requires passing the ap­
propriate examination. To keep abreast o f new financial products,
securities sales workers periodically take training offered by their
firms or outside institutions.
C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. The majority o f entrants transfer from
another occupation—primarily a professional sales occupation that
usually requires a college degree. The others have not been
working—many have been in school or between jobs; some are
retirees reentering the labor force. The majority are college
graduates.

Travel agents
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 72,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

1,536,000
23.1

Employment growth

M o derate

1,617,00
29.6

24.8
10.4
9.6
7.6

6.7
5.3
H igh

1,688,000
35.3

Faster than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su al e n try a n d train in g requ irem en ts. Requirements vary by prod­
uct line and market. Sales o f complex products, such as drugs or
computer equipment, require people with a technical background;
many employers in these Helds require a college degree with a ma­
jor closely related to the product line being sold. Employers
specializing in nontechnical products—food, for example—often
consider sales ability and familiarity with manufacturers and brands
more important than knowledge o f the product itself. Although
large wholesale firms often have formal training programs, most
trainees learn by assisting experienced workers.

P ercent

Arrangement of transportation....................................
Low
Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

P ercent

Machinery, equipment, and supplies..........................
Groceries and related products....................................
Electrical g o o d s..............................................................
Motor vehicles and auto parts and supplies..............
Miscellaneous nondurable goods (includes farm
supplies, tobacco and tobacco products, and
paints, varnishes, and supplies)................................
Hardware, plumbing, and heating equipment and
supplies.........................................................................

98,000
36.6

M o d era te

103,000
43.9

98.9
H igh

108,000
50.0

Employment grow th.................................. Much faster than average

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Most entrants transfer from other
occupations—usually from lower level jobs in the same company
or from other sales positions. The remainder have not been
working—persons who have been laid off, in school, or tending
to family responsibilities. Entrants tend to be older than entrants
to other occupations, reflecting the importance o f prior work ex­
perience. The majority o f entrants have had some college train­
ing, and many have a degree.

SUPPLY PROFILE

Administrative Support Occupations,
Including Clerical

U sual e n try a n d train in g req u irem en ts. Employers prefer applicants
who have taken travel courses; some also prefer college graduates.
Travel courses are offered in postsecondary vocational schools,
adult education programs in public high schools, community col­
leges, and 4-year colleges and universities. In some jurisdictions,
travel agents must be licensed.

Bank tellers

Training co m p letio n s:

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Transportation and travel marketing................................ 7,305

Total employment, 1984




493,000

Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale......................................................................
Percent b la c k ........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years....................................................................
25-54 years....................................................................
55 and older..................................................................
Percent employed part time, total......................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary............................

Low

91.4
7.9

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

40.0
54.3
5.7
20.3
16.4

2,091,000
6.0

H igh

2,178,000
10.4

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 18.9

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n try a n d train in g re q u ire m en ts. High school graduates who
have taken business arithmetic, bookkeeping, and principles o f ac­
counting meet the minimum requirements for most bookkeeping
jobs. Increasingly, employers prefer applicants who have completed
accounting programs at the community or junior college level or
those who have attended business school.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

M o d era te

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

P ercen t

Commercial and stock savings banks ........................
Savings and loan associations......................................
Mutual savings banks....................................................
Personal credit institutions ..........................................

1,990,000
0.9

70.3
19.2
5.6
4.2

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

492,000
-.2

M o d era te

517,000
4.9

H igh

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Accounting, bookkeeping, and related programs........ 105,047
Associate degrees and other awards below the
baccalaureate, 1983:
Accounting, bookkeeping, and related programs........ 10,287

539,000
9.4

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 22.3

C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. About half o f all job openings are filled
by persons who have not been working—many are full-time
homemakers attracted by the opportunity to work part time. The
remaining entrants transfer from another occupation. Although
many entrants have completed some training beyond high schoool,
few are college graduates.

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su al e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Employers generally prefer
high school graduates, although few employers have formal educa­
tional requirements. Preferred personal qualities include neatness,
tact, courtesy, maturity, and attention to detail. Tellers usually ac­
quire their skills through a combination o f on-the-job and formal
company training.

Computer and peripheral equipment operators
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. The majority o f job openings are filled

by persons who transfer from another occupation—mostly another
clerical job. The remainder have not been working—most have been
full-time homemakers, between jobs, or students; almost all en­
trants are high school graduates.

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 311,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total.......................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary................................

Bookkeepers and accounting clerks
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984........................................................

1,973,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

91.2
4.3
14.4
68.2
17.4
26.9
23.1

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry




P ercen t

Computer and data processing services......................
Government......................................................................
Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Commercial and stock savings banks..........................
Wholesale tra d e..............................................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing................................
Miscellaneous services (includes engineering, ar­
chitectural, and surveying services; noncommercial
educational, scientific, and research organizations; and
accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services)...........

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

27.8
66.9
5.3
9.4
7.6

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

Services............................................................................
Retail trade.......................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ............................
Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Government....................................................................
Wholesale trade, durable g o o d s..................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................

64.7
12.8

P ercent

23.7
20.8
11.6
7.5
6.9
6.7
6.6

Low

Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

70

434,000
39.3

M o d era te

454,000
45.9

13.2
10.5
10.2
6.8
6.2
5.3

5.1
H igh

472,000
51.6

graduates who are familiar with data entry equipment. Many
employers test applicants’ ability to enter data quickly and
accurately.

Employment growth.......................... M faster than average
uch
Annual separation rate (percent)....................................... 19.3
SUPPLY PROFILE

Training completions:

Usual entry and training requirements. Most employers require
computer and peripheral equipment operators to have a high school
education, specialized training, or experience. Many employers
prefer persons who are familiar with the brand and type of equip­
ment they use. Operators may need additional training to adapt
their skills to changes in computer technology.

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Business data entry equipment operation.................. 5,066
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Keypunch operator ............................................... 7,899
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Business data entry equipment operation .................. 1,145

Training completions:

Characteristics o f entrants. The majority of entrants transfer from
another occupation, such as tabulating and bookkeeping machine
operator. The rest have not been working; most have been tending
to family responsibilities, in school, or between jobs. Most entrants
are young and have a high school diploma or less education.

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Business computer and console operation and business
data peripheral equipment operation.................... 11,973
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Computer operator.............................................. 3,276
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Business computer and console operation and
business data peripheral equipment operation........ 1,491

Mail carriers and postal clerks
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

The majority of entrants transfer from
another occupation, such as secretary, typist, bookkeeper, or
keypunch operator. The remaining job openings are filled by per­
sons who have been in school, tending to household responsibilities,
or between jobs.

Characteristics o f entrants.

Total employment, 1984 ............................................ 598,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent female.......................................................
Percent black ........................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.....................................................
25-54 years.....................................................
55 and older....................................................
Percent employed part time,total..............................
Percent employed part time,voluntary.......................

Data entry keyers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................. 324,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent female........................................................
Percent black.........................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................
25-54 years......................................................
55 and older....................................................
Percent employed part time, total...............................
Percent employed part time, voluntary.......................
Unemployment

rate..........................................

About

In d u stry

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .......

319,000
-1.6

91.3
20.7

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

23.5
69.1
7.4
11.9
9.0

U.S. Postal Service...........................................

In du stry

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ......

average

334,000
3.1

M o d era te

579,000
—
3.2

100.0
H igh

617,000
3.2

Annual separation rate (percent) ..................................... *8.9
’The number of separations may be artificially high. Employment in the oc­
cupation declined between 1983 and 1984; some workers who left were not
replaced.

21.3
11.5
9.4
9.2
6.1
5.4

SUPPLY PROFILE
Usual entry and training requirements. Civil service regulations
govern the appointment of mail carriers and postal clerks. Ap­
plicants must be U.S. citizens or have been granted permanent resi­
dent alien status and be at least 18 years old (16 if they have a high
school diploma). They must qualify on a written examination that
measures speed and accuracy at checking names and numbers and
ability to memorize mail distribution procedures; and pass a physical
examination. Applicants for mail carrier positions must have a
driver’s license, a good driving record, and pass a road test. Ap­
plicants for postal clerkjobs operating an electronic sorting machine
must pass a special examination that includes a machine aptitude
test. Vacancies are filled on the basis of how applicants score on
these tests.

H igh

347,000
7.1

Employment growth........................................... Little change
Annual separation rate (percent)....................................... 18.4
SUPPLY PROFILE
Usual entry and training requirements. Although many data entry
keyers are trained on the job, some employers prefer high school




547,000
—
8.4

P ercent

Employment growth.................................................. Decline

P ercen t

M o d e ra te

4.3
80.5
15.2
6.4
3.7

Unemployment rate................................... Lower than average

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Computer and data processing services.................
Government....................................................
Wholesale and retail trade..................................
Durable goods manufacturing.............................
Insurance carriers.............................................
Health services.................................................

26.7
19.6

71

C h a ra cteristics o f en tran ts. About half o f all entrants transfer from
another occupation in which they worked while waiting to be
selected from the list o f eligible candidates. The other half have
not been working; they are mainly persons who have been laid o ff
or are between jobs, students, or homemakers. Almost half o f all
entrants have some postsecondary education, but few are college
graduates. Most entrants are between the ages o f 20 and 34.

Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent b la c k ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

59.9
9.5
21.9
67.9
10.2
12.9
8.9

Receptionists and information clerks
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

In du stry

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 458,000
Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.........................................................................
Percent b la c k ...........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.......................................................................
25-54 years.......................................................................
55 and older.....................................................................
Percent employed part time,total..........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary................................

Low

94.0
7.7

Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

32.0
54.2
13.8
33.8
27.3

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

512,000
11.8

542,000
18.2

116,000
6.3

H igh

121,000
11.2

U su al e n try a n d train in g req u irem en ts. Employers generally require
a high school diploma; some prefer postsecondary training.
Previous experience in dealing with the public and prior employ­
ment in the transportation industry are viewed favorably by
employers. A good appearance, a pleasant personality, and a good
speaking voice are assets. Reservation agents and ticket clerks usu­
ally acquire their skills on the job or through formal company
programs.

P ercent

M o d e ra te

M o d e ra te

SUPPLY PROFILE

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

111,000
2.3

82.8

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

Unemployment r a te ....................................................... About average

Offices of physicians......................................................
Offices of dentists...........................................................
Business services.............................................................
Hospitals...........................................................................
Finance, insurance, and reale sta te ..............................
Personal services.............................................................
Manufacturing.................................................................

P ercen t

Certified air transportation..........................................

18.5
9.4
8.8
8.6
8.2
6.7
5.0

C h a ra cteristics o f en tran ts. The majority o f entrants are individuals
in their twenties who transfer from another occupation. The re­
maining entrants have not been working—mainly they have been
tending to family responsibilities, in school, or on temporary layoff.
Over half o f all job openings are filled by individuals who have
attended college, including many college graduates. Relatively few
entrants take a part-time job.

H igh

566,000
23.6

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

Secretaries

Annual separation rate (percent)................................................... 28.5

SUPPLY PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

U su al e n try a n d tra in in g req u irem en ts. Employers normally require
a high school diploma, and courses in English, typing, shorthand,
business arithmetic, basic accounting and bookkeeping, and office
procedures are recommended. Employers seek people who are
outgoing and have a neat appearance, a pleasant voice, and an even
disposition. Many entry level receptionist jobs do not require o f­
fice or business experience.

Total employment, 1984 ........................................................ 2,797,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Receptionist and communication systems operation___ 1,576

19.5
68.2
12.3
17.1
13.9

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts. About half o f all enrants transfer from
another occupation. The remainder have not been working—most
were tending to family responsibilities or in school. Although most
entrants are high school graduates, few have a college degree.

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Educational services......................................................
Finance, insurance, and real e sta te ............................
Health services................................................................
Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Government..........................
Wholesale trade..............................................................
Business services............................................................

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and
travel clerks
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................... 109,000




98.3
6.1

72

P ercen t

11.5
11.1
9.2
9.1
8.6
6.6
6.0

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

Moderate
3,064,000
9.6

SUPPLY PROFILE

High

2,928,000
4.7

3,186,000
13.9

U su a l e n try a n d train in g req u irem en ts. High school graduates with
an aptitude for working with numbers and the ability to do detailed
work meet the minimum requirements for most jobs. Courses in
general mathematics, algebra, geometry, data processing, office
procedures, bookkeeping, and typing are useful.

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 15.5

C h aracteristics o f entrants. Most entrants to this occupation transfer
from another occupation. For the most part, the remaining entrants
are homemakers or students. The majority o f entrants are in their
twenties or early thirties, and many have attended college.

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . Most employers seek high
school graduates who have mastered basic office skills such as typ­
ing. Although formal postsecondary training usually is not required,
it often is an asset, particularly familiarity with word processing
equipment. Shorthand also is needed for some jobs. Formal train­
ing is available through secretarial courses offered by postsecond­
ary vocational schools and community colleges. Some workers
develop these higher level skills informally on the job.

Stenographers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 239,000

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Secretarial and related programs.................................... 139,013
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Stenographic-secretarial.................................................... 62,486

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older...................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f openings are filled by

people who have not been working. Although some o f these en­
trants have been in school or between jobs, most have been full­
time homemakers. The remaining openings are filled by individuals
who transfer from another occupation. The majority o f entrants
are between the ages o f 25 and 54. Many positions are filled by
people who have attended college.

Industry

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 93,000

Low
75.4
10.6

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

14.0
72.6
13.4
13.9
11.5

78,000
-1 6 .4

Moderate
81,000
-1 2 .7

143,000
-4 0 .3

High
148,000
—38.3

U sual en try a n d training requ irem en ts. Employers require applicants
to be able to take dictation in shorthand at a certain speed and
with a certain degree o f accuracy. Applicants for court reporter
jobs should know how to use a stenotype machine. Some States
require court reporters to be certified. Many acquire their skills
through courses taught in high school, postsecondary vocational
schools, and community colleges; others, through on-the-job
training.

21.5

18.2
16.8
8.1
6.3
6.1
5.8
5.7

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Secretarial and related programs...................................... 82,972
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Stenographic-secretarial...................................................... 62,486

High
84,000
- 9.3

C h a ra cte ristic s o f en tra n ts. The majority o f entrants transfer from
other occupations. The remainder have not been working be­
cause they were tending to family responsibilities, in school, or

Employment g r o w th ........................................................................ Decline




Moderate

SUPPLY PROFILE

Percent

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

138,000
-4 2 .5

15.9
15.4
12.0
8.1
7.5
6.2
5.6

Employment grow th.................................................................. Decline

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Business services ............................................................
Miscellaneous business services (includes research
and development laboratories; management,
consulting, and public relations services; and
commercial testing laboratories)............................
Telephone communications..........................................
Hospitals..........................................................................
Insurance carriers ..........................................................
State government............................................................
Educational services......................................................
Local government..........................................................

Percent

Educational services......................................................
State government............................................................
Finance, insurance, and real e sta te ............................
Transportation, communications, and utilities..........
Local government..........................................................
Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Personnel supply services..............................................

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Industry

10.2
75.4
14.4
13.0
11.2

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Statistical clerks

Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

86.6
7.9

73

unemployed. Over half have attended college, but relatively few
are college graduates. Most entrants are in their twenties or early
thirties.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

Teacher aides
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 479,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le.........................................................................
Percent black ...........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.......................................................................
25-54 years.......................................................................
55 and older.....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

Low

93.0
18.7

Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

13.7
73.6
12.7
51.7
36.7

Low

Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

548,000
14.6

566,000
18.3

545,000
19.5

H igh

568,000
24.5

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su al e n tr y a n d train in g req u irem en ts. Employers prefer applicants
who are pleasant, courteous, good listeners, and who have good
reading, spelling, and arithmetic skills. Although hiring practices
vary from company to company, almost all require a high school
diploma. Businesses prefer to hire telephone operators with previous
office experience. However, work experience is not as important
in telephone companies, because these companies conduct exten­
sive training programs for their operators.

P ercen t

M o d e ra te

M o d e ra te

11.4
10.8
7.3
5.7
5.2

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 20.4

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

519,000
13.8

24.0

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

Unemployment r a te ....................................................... About average

Educational services......................................................
Child day care services..................................................

P ercen t

Telephone communication............................................
Miscellaneous business services (includes manage­
ment, consulting, and public relations services;
research and development laboratories; tele­
phone message services; and related services) . . .
Finance, insurance, and real e sta te ............................
Hospitals..........................................................................
Manufacturing................................................................
Retail trade......................................................................

81.8
10.9
H igh

586,000
22.4

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Entrants are about equally divided be­
tween those who have not been working and those who transfer
from another occupation. O f those who have not been working,
most have been students or full-time homemakers. Almost all en­
trants have a high school diploma.

Employment grow th ................................................................. Average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 22.3

SUPPLY PROFILE
Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . Educational requirements

vary widely. Some school districts do not require a high school
diploma; others require some college training or work experience.
Jobs with classroom responsibilities usually require more educa­
tion than those that are primarily clerical or monitoring in nature.
A few States have certification procedures for general teacher aides.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 651,000
Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent b la c k ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

C h a ra cteristics o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f job openings are filled

by persons who have not been working—primarily homemakers
attracted by the opportunity to work part time. Others have been
in school or working in another occupation. An unusually large
proportion are over 35 years o f age.

Telephone operators

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 456,000

In d u stry

P ercen t

Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................
Services............................................................................
Wholesale trade, groceries and related products___
Wholesale trade; machinery, equipment, and
supplies......................................................................
Transportation................................................................
General merchandise stores..........................................

92.8
17.6
22.5
60.4
17.1
17.3
13.0

Low

Unemployment r a t e ........................................................... About average




25.3
64.2
10.5
9.1
6.0

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le.........................................................................
Percent b la c k ...........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.......................................................................
25-54 years.......................................................................
55 and older.....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

25.2
13.7

Projected 1995 employment . .

74

676,000

M o d e ra te

711,000

17.2
17.1
6.3
6.2
5.8
5.2
5.2
H igh

742,000

Low

M o d e ra te

and familiarity with standard office equipment and procedures is
an asset.

H igh

3.9
9.3
14.0
Percent change, 1984-95 ........
Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Typing, general office, and related programs,
general; and clerk-typist.............................................. 146,421
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Typing and related occupations......................................
7,278
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Typing, general office, and related programs; and
clerk-typist ....................................................................
3,349

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ir e m e n ts . High school graduation is
usually required for beginning jobs. Employers prefer applicants
who have taken business arithmetic, typing, and other high school
business subjects, and who can write legibly and keep orderly
records. New employees usually are trained on the job by an ex­
perienced worker.

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f openings are filled by
people who have not been working, primarily homemakers, full­
time students, and persons between jobs. The remaining entrants
transfer from another occupation. Because this occupation offers
very good opportunities for young, inexperienced workers, a
substantial proportion o f entrants are teenagers.

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Many traffic, shipping, and receiving

clerks face periodic layoff during economic downturns. Conse­
quently, most job entrants have been on temporary layoff, be­
tween jobs, or working in another occupation. Others have been
in school. Few entrants have more than a high school diploma.
In contrast to other clerical workers, many o f whom work part
time, traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks generally have full-time
jobs.

Service Occupations

Typists

Barbers

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 991,000

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 94,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le........................................................................
Percent black .........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.....................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older...................................................................
Percent employed part time,total.........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary...........................

95.7
16.1
29.8
59.2
11.0
23.6
19.4

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

In du stry

P ercent

Beauty s h o p s..................................................................
Barber shops ..................................................................

P ercent

Local government..........................................................
State government............................................................
Educational services......................................................
Federal Government......................................................
Personnel supply services..............................................
Hospitals..........................................................................
Insurance carriers..........................................................

4.5
65.6
29.9
15.0
12.4

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

19.2
10.1

9.9
9.1
8.4
7.5
6.5
6.0
5.3

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

94,000
- .1

M o derate

98,000
4.5

47.7
44.3

H igh

104,000
10.0

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

962,000
- 2 .9

M o d e ra te

H igh

1,002,000
1.1

1,038,000
4.7

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. All States and the District
o f Columbia require barbers to be licensed. In general, applicants
must graduate from an approved barber school or apprenticeship
program and be at least 16 years old. Some jurisdictions also re­
quire a high school diploma. Patience, good health, and physical
stamina are necessary.

Employment grow th........................................................ Little change
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 23.2

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Employers usually require
high school graduation and a certain typing speed. An increasing
number also require word processing training or experience. Skills
may be obtained through classes taught in high schools, postsecond­
ary vocational schools, community colleges, and home study
schools. Spelling, punctuation, and grammar skills are important,




T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Barberin g ................................................................................
751
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Barbering................................................................................ 9,927

75

C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. Most entrants have not been w o rk in g most are recent graduates o f barber schools, or licensed but inac­
tive barbers who have been between jobs or tending to family
responsibilities. The remainder transfer from another occupation.
Almost half o f all entrants are 35 to 54 years o f age.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercen t

Eating and drinking p la ces..........................................
Educational services......................................................
Health services................................................................
Hotels, motels, and tourist cou rts..............................

Bartenders

Low

M o d e ra te

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 400,000

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.........................................................................
Percent black ...........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older.....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

SUPPLY PROFILE

25.3
65.1
9.6
30.4
18.1

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

489,000
22.2

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
C h ef/cook........................................................................
2,656
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Quantity food occupations............................................
3,401
Associated degrees and other awards below the baccalaureate,
1983:
C hef/cook........................................................................
1,222

P ercen t

M o d e ra te

512,000
27.9

1,140,000
28.9

U su al e n try a n d train in g req u irem en ts. Skills are acquired primarily
through work experience, either as an assistant cook or fry cook
or in a related occupation, such as short-order cook or food prepar a­
tion worker. Formal training in commercial food preparation,
available from colleges and universities and vocational schools, is
an acceptable substitute for experience and is an advantage in com­
peting for jobs in large restaurants and hotels. High school gradua­
tion usually is a prerequisite for postsecondary training, although
it is not required for entry level jobs.

Unemployment r a te ............................................ Higher than average

Eating and drinking p la ces...........................................
Hotels, motels, and tourist cou rts..............................
Civic, social, and fraternal associations....................

1,095,000
23.8

H igh

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

48.9
2.5

1,050,000
18.7

41.1
29.7
9.0
5.9

72.2
9.8
9.4
H igh

535,000
33.6

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The typical entrant is 25 years o f age
or younger and starts as a part-time employee, seeking a source
o f immediate income rather than a career. Although some transfer
from another occupation, many entrants have not been working—
they have been in school, unemployed, or tending to household
responsibilities.

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average
Annual separation rate (percent).............. »................................. 32.2

SUPPLY PROFILE

Childcare workers

U su al e n try a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Bartenders must be at least
21 years o f age, although some employers prefer to hire persons
at least 25 years old. A lso, employers prefer those with a pleasant
personality and a neat and clean appearance. Most bartenders learn
the trade on the job. However, skills also may be acquired through
courses at vocational schools, working with a bartender in a related
occupation such as waiter or waitress, or by preparing drinks at
home.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 572,030
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le..................................................................
Percent black ....................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years................................................................
25-54 years.......................
55 and older..............................................................
Percent employed part time, total..................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary........................

C h a ra cteristics o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f entrants have not been

working, mostly persons who have been unemployed or tending
to family responsibilities. The remainder transfer from another oc­
cupation, mainly a related occupation such as cook, bartender’s
helper, waiter or waitress, or bartender’s assistant. Most entrants
are under 35 years o f age.

97.4
9.5
21.3
63.6
15.1
40.2
29.8

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Chefs and cooks, except short order

Child day care services..................................................
Residential c a r e ..............................................................
Religious organizations..................................................
Government..........................
Individual and family social services..........................

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................... 884,000




76

P ercent

40.5
16.6
10.6
7.2
5.5

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

596,000
4.2

M o d era te

626,000
9.5

hearing. Strength, good judgment, and the ability to think and act
quickly are assets. A few jurisdictions require canidates to pass a
written examination. Most correction officers receive their train­
ing at government-operated academies and informally on the job
by working with an experienced officer.

H igh

651,000
13.9

.. Slower than average

Employment growth......................
Annual separation rate (percent)

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Entrants are about equally divided be­
tween those who transfer from another occupation and those who
have not been working while awaiting appointment. Almost all en­
trants are high school graduates, and many have postsecondary
training. Most entrants are between 20 and 34 years of age.

. . . . 35.9

SUPPLY PROFILE
U sual e n try a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Although no special educa­
tion or experience is required for most jobs, employers may prefer
individuals with a high school diploma and previous experience car­
ing for children. Most acquire skills on the job.

Cosmetologists and related workers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

C h a ra cteristics o f en tran ts. Most entrants have not been working—

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 524,000

primarily persons tending to household responsibilities. Many en­
trants seek flexible work schedules, and the majority take part-time
jobs. Relatively few entrants have any formal training beyond high
school.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total.........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary................................

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 130,000

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

Correction officers

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................ 17.6
Percent black .......................................................................... 26.3
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 19.1
25-54 years...................................................................... 71.0
55 and older.................................................................... 9.9
Percent employed part time, total............................................... 9
Percent employed part time,voluntary........................................ 7

89.8
7.5
21.0
66.6
12.4
38.9
28.4

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In dustry

P ercent

Beauty sh o p s.................................................................
Department stores..........................................................

Low

639,000
22.1

M o derate

674,000
28.7

89.8
5.5

H igh

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

704,000
34.4

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Employment grow th............................................ Faster than average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 10.3

In du stry

P ercent

State government............................................................
Local government..........................................................

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

171,000
31.4

M o d era te

175,000
34.9

61.1
35.6

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n try a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. All States and the District
o f Columbia require cosmetologists to be licensed. Candidates for
licensure must graduate from an approved cosmetology school, pass
a physical examination, and be at least 16 years old. Some jurisdic­
tions will accept completion o f apprenticeship training in lieu of
graduation from cosmetology school, but very few cosmetologists
learn their skills that way.

H igh

180,000
38.3

Employment grow th.................................. Much faster than average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 15.7

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

SUPPLY PROFILE
Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Cosmetology...................................................................... 35,662
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Cosmetology..................................................................... 113,179

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Most institutions require

that correction officers be at least 18 years old and have a high
school diploma or its equivalent or qualifying work experience.
Employers increasingly prefer applicants who have had postsecond­
ary training in psychology, criminology, and related fields. Entrants
must be in good health; many jurisdictions require candidates to
meet formal standards o f physical fitness, eyesight, and




C haracteristics o f entrants. The majority of job openings are filled by
persons who have not been working—either recently licensed
cosmetologists or persons from the reserve pool of licensed but

77

inactive cosmetologists who have been tending to family responsibilities
or not working for other reasons. The remainder transfer from another
occupation. Individuals with no formal education beyond high school
fill most cosmetology jobs. An unusually large proportion of entrants
take a part-time position.

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le........................................................................ 0.7
Percent b la c k .......................................................................... 5.3
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 7.8
25-54 years...................................................................... 84.8
55 and older.................................................................... 7.4
Percent employed part time,total........................................ 1.6
Percent employed part time,voluntary...................................... 7

Dental assistants

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 169,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.........................................................................
Percent black ...........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years . . ...................................................................
25-54 years.......................................................................
55 and older.....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total..........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary................................

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

98.2
4.4

Low

39.1
56.8
4.1
42.8
35.6

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Annual separation rate (percent)

Low

P ercent

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

204,000
20.5

M o d e ra te

217,000
28.4

M o d e ra te

356,000
15.6

H igh

365,000
18.6

................................................ *3.8

'The number of separations may be artificially high. Employment in the oc­
cupation declined between 1983 and 1984; some workers who left were not
replaced.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Offices of dentists...........................................................

347,000
12.7

94.1

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

In d u stry

P ercent

Local government..........................................................

SUPPLY PROFILE

95.3

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Applicants must be at least

18 years old and have a high school diploma. They also may have
to pass a written test, a medical examination, and tests o f strength,
physical stamina, and agility. Experience as a volunteer firefighter
or in the Armed Forces and completion o f community or junior
college courses in fire science may improve applicants’ chances for
appointment.

H igh

226,000
33.6

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 16.4

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Fire protection.................................................................... 16,637
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Fire and fire safety technology and firefighter training. 1,870
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Fire protection.................................................................... 2,559

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . This is an entry level job
with no formal academic requirements. An ability to learn the job
and a congenial personality are sufficient for most jobs, because
employers generally provide informal, on-the-job training. Some
persons are trained in dental assisting programs offered by com­
munity and junior colleges, postsecondary vocational schools, or
the Armed Forces.

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f entrants transfer from
a job in another occupation held while waiting for an appointment.
The remainder have not been working—most have been between
jobs, in school, or in military service. Almost all entrants are high
school graduates, and the majority have some postsecondary educa­
tion. Virtually all entrants are between the ages o f 20 and 34.

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Dental assisting....................................................................... 8,073
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Dental assistant ..................................................................... 7,354
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Dental assisting....................................................................... 3,274

Flight attendants
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
. 65,000

Total employment, 1984 ................................

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Entrants are about equally divided be­
tween those who have not been working and those who transfer
from another occupation. O f those who have not been working,
most have been tending to family responsibilities or were in school.
Almost half o f all entrants take part-time positions.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
P ercent

In du stry

95.9

Certified air transportation..................

Firefighting occupations

Low

H igh

77,000
20.0

81,000'
25.8

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Total employment, 1984 ..............................................*............... 308,000

Employment grow th .......... ........................... . . . Faster than average




78

74,000
15.5

M o d e ra te

SUPPLY PROFILE

Janitors and cleaners

U sual e n try a n d tra in in g req u irem en ts. Flight attendants must have
a high school diploma and complete a 4- to 6-week company training
program. They must be in good physical condition. They should
have an attractive appearance, be poised, and be able to deal com­
fortably with strangers. Some employers prefer those with college
training or experience in dealing with the public. In addition, at­
tendants must take 12 hours o f training each year in emergency
procedures and passenger relations.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ........................................................ 2,940,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

Guards

39.7
24.7
23.5
55.1
21.4
32.6
20.0

Unemployment r a te ............................................ Higher than average

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 733,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time,total........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary..............................

Industry

Percent

Educational services......................................................
Services to dwellings and other buildings..................
Hotels, motels, and tourist cou rts..............................
Retail trade......................................................................
Hospitals..........................................................................
Real estate ......................................................................

13.9
19.2
20.7
54.3
25.0
20.1
13.6

19.5
16.6
11.1
7.2
6.9
5.8

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Unemployment r a te ............................................ Higher than average

Moderate

High

3,233,000
10.0

3,383,000
15.1

3,522,000
19.8

Employment growth ................................................................ Average
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercent

Miscellaneous business services (includes detective
agencies and protective and related services)___
Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Real estate ......................................................................
Educational services.......................................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

879,000
19.9

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 23.3

M o d era te

921,000
25.6

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. No special education is re­
quired for most jobs, but beginners should know basic arithmetic
and be able to follow instructions. Most acquire skills informally
on the job.

52.3
6.2
6.1
5.7
H igh

C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. The majority o f entrants have not been
working; they have been unemployed, full-time students,
homemakers, or retired. The remaining entrants transfer from
another occupation. A relatively large proportion are 19 or younger
and 55 or older. More than half take a part-time position^ Fewer
than half are high school graduates.

958,000
30.6

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 22.0

Medical assistants
SUPPLY PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

U sual e n try a n d tra in in g req u irem en ts. Most employers prefer high

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 128,000

school graduates with military, State, or local police experience.
Although there are no formal educational requirements, applicants
may be tested for reading and writing ability. Some jobs require
a driver’s permit. Applicants are expected to be physically fit, have
good character references, and not have a police record.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Many entrants have not been
working—most have been unemployed, retired, in school, or in
military service. Others have transferred from another
occupation—some are former police officers or other protective
service workers. Because o f limited formal training requirements
and flexible hours, this occupation attracts many persons seeking
a second job. The majority o f entrants have a high school diploma
or less education.




P ercent

Offices of physicians......................................................
Hospitals..........................................................................
Offices of other health practitioners (includes
offices of chiropractors, podiatrists, and
optometrists).......................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

195,000
52.7

M od era te

207,000
62.0

63.0
14.4

8.8
H igh

216,000
69.1

Employment grow th ................................ .... Much faster than average

79

Police and detectives

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Many medical assistants
are trained on the job. Increasingly, employers prefer applicants
who have completed training programs offered by high schools,
postsecondary vocational schools, community and junior colleges,
and universities. A high school diploma normally is required, and
applicants should have good communication skills and manual
dexterity.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ..................................

520,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le........................................................................ 7.5
Percent black ........................................................................ 11.4
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 7.6
25-54 years...................................................................... 87.4
55 and older.................................................................... 5.0
Percent employed part time, total.........................................
1.1
Percent employed part time,voluntary........................................ 7

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Medical assisting ................................................................ 6,099
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Medical assisting (office) ................................................. 15,035
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Medical assisting ................................................................. 3,786

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Nursing aides and psychiatric aides

In du stry

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984........................................................

1,268,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.........................................................................
Percent black ...........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.......................................................................
25-54 years.......................................................................
55 and older.....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

P ercen t

Local government..........................................................
State government............................................................
Federal Government......................................................
Low

M o d e ra te

83.11
11.5
5.5
H igh

90.4
29.0

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

19.6
65.3
15.1
26.1
17.9

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

572,000
9.9

586,000
12.6

600,000
15.4

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................... 5.6

SUPPLY PROFILE

Unemployment r a te ............................................. Higher than average
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Civil service regulations
govern the appointment o f police officers and detectives in most
jurisdictions. Appointment depends on performance in competitive
written examinations, as well as experience and education. A p­
plicants must be U .S. citizens, usually at least 21 years old, and
meet rigorous physical and personal qualifications. In most police
departments, a high school education is required. Prospects for ap­
pointment are improved by related work experience or by comple­
tion o f an associate or bachelor’s degree program in police science
or administration o f justice.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

P ercen t

Nursing and personal care facilities............................
Hospitals...........................................................................
Government.....................................................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

1,567,000
23.6

M o d e ra te

1,621,000
27.8

40.3
34.0
8.8
H igh

1,693,000
33.5

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Employment grow th............................................ Faster than average

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Criminal ju stic e ..................................................................
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Police science technology and law enforcement training
Armed Forces enlisted strength, 1985:
Law enforcement................................................................
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Criminal ju stic e ..................................................................
Earned degrees, baccalaureate and above, 1983:
Criminal justice:
Bachelor’s ....................................................................
Master’s ......................................................................
Ph.D..............................................................................

Annual separation rate (percent) ................................................. *21.7
*The number of separations may be artificially high. Employment in the oc­
cupation declined between 1983 and 1984; some workers who left were not
replaced.

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . Employers prefer to hire
high school graduates, but a diploma is not always required.
Previous work experience ordinarily is not needed. Many aides ac­
quire their skills informally on the job or through formal in-service
training programs. Many jurisdictions require nursing aides to be
certified. To become certified, candidates must pass an approved
course o f instruction from an approved school.

1,042
45,145

12,947

12,327
1,117
38

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f entrants transfer from
another occupation—some have worked in a field related to lav/
enforcement; many others transfer from a job held temporarily
while waiting to be selected from the list o f eligible candidates. The
remaining entrants were between jobs, in military service, or in
school. Almost all entrants are high school graduates, and many
have some postsecondary training. The vast majority o f all entrants
are between the ages o f 20 and 34.

C h a ra cteristics o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f entrants have not been
working—most have been tending to family responsibilities,
unemployed, or in school. The remainder transfer from another
occupation. The majority o f all entrants have a high school educa­
tion or less.




19,832

80

Waiters and waitresses

Percent employed part time, volun tary................................

12.3

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984........................................................

1,625,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent b la c k ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

86.3
4.9

Percent

Agricultural production, crop s....................................
Agricultural production, livestock..............................
Agricultural services......................................................

48.2
46.2
5.6
55.5
38.8

58.1
35.3
6.3

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Moderate

High

1,315,000
- 8 .8

1,380,000
-4 .3

1,432,000
- .8

Employment grow th.................................................................. Decline

Unemployment r a te ............................................ Higher than average

Annual separation rate (percent) ................................................ 113.4
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry
Eating and drinking p la c e s..........................................
Hotels and other lodging places..................................

78.9
10.4

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

'The number of separations may be artificially high. Employment in the oc­
cupation declined between 1983 and 1984; some workers who left were not
replaced.

Percent

Moderate

1,953,000
20.2

2,049,000
26.1

SUPPLY PROFILE

High
2,142,000
31.8

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Although working on a
family farm and participating in programs sponsored by agricultural
associations have in the past been sufficient training, it is increas­
ingly necessary to have formal training in agricultural science. An
undergraduate degree in agriculture is needed for those without farm
experience. In addition, farm managers and operators must con­
tinue to study and train to keep abreast o f advances in farming
methods.

Employment grow th............................................ Faster than average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 32.5

SUPPLY PROFILE
U sual e n try a n d training requ irem en ts. Many waiters and waitresses
acquire their skills informally on the job, but experience is needed
for jobs at restaurants and hotels that emphasize formal dining.
Important personal qualities include a pleasant personality, an even
disposition, a neat and clean appearance, a good memory, and
physical stamina.

C h a ra cte ristic s o f en tra n ts. Entrants tend to be older than entrants
to other occupations—the majority are 35 years o f age or older—
reflecting the need for farm or other business experience. The ma­
jority o f all entrants have not been working, primarily persons who
have been tending to family responsibilities, retired, or in school.
Most o f the remainder transfer from a farm-related occupa­
tion.

C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. The majority o f job openings are filled
by persons who have not been working—students, those laid o ff
from another job, and homemakers. Other entrants transfer from
another occupation—some advance from a related job as a waiter’s
assistant, carhop, or food counter worker. Many entrants are less
than 25 years o f age, and few have more than a high school educa­
tion. Many entrants to these jobs seek a source o f immediate in­
come rather than a career; the majority take a part-time job.

Mechanics and Repairers
Aircraft mechanics and engine specialists
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Agricultural, Forestry, and Fishing
Occupations

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 106,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................ 2.4
Percent black .......................................................................... 4.3
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 7.5
25-54 years...................................................................... 81.0
55 and older.................................................................... 11.5
Percent employed part time,total................................................ 8
Percent employed part time,voluntary...................................... 4

Farm operators and managers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984........................................................ 1,442,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................




12.5
1.0

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

6.8
57.6
35.8
14.4

Certified air transportation..........................................
Federal Government......................................................
Aircraft and parts..........................................................
Air transportation facilities and services....................

Industry

81

Percent
39.8
26.6
12.3
10.0

Low

Projected 1995 employment. ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

122,000
14.3

M o d e ra te

125,000
17.3

SUPPLY PROFILE

H igh

128,000
20.7

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Employers prefer entrants
with mechanical aptitude and knowledge o f automotive or motor­
cycle technology. Skills may be acquired through work experience
as a helper or lubrication worker, but completion o f a formal train­
ing program in automotive or motorcycle mechanics is increasingly
preferred to experience alone. Such programs are offered by high
school and postsecondary vocational schools and community and
junior colleges. For those without experience, training acquired
while helping friends or through working on automobiles or motor­
cycles as a hobby also can be helpful in getting a job.

Employment growth ................................................................. Average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Aircraft mechanics must
be licensed. Requirements for licensure include high school gradua­
tion or the equivalent and the completion o f a vocational program
certified by the Federal Aviation Administration, training in the
Armed Forces, or appropriate work experience. Mechanical ap­
titude, strength, and agility are also necessary. Regardless o f
background, mechanics must continue to participate in employeror manufacturer-sponsored training programs in order to stay
abreast o f changes in technology.

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Automotive mechanics, automotive technology, and
small engine rep air........................................................ 84,113
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Auto mechanic.................................................................... 13,862
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Automotive technology, automotive mechanics, and
small engine repair ........................................................ 8,776

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Aircraft mechanics.............................................. ; ................ 3,607
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Aircraft maintenance............................................................. 1,992
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Aircraft mechanics................................................................. 2,224

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f entrants have not been
working—most have been in a formal training program, or were
experienced mechanics who had been laid o ff or between jobs. The
remainder have been working in another occupation, mostly as a
helper or garage attendant or in a related mechanic occupation.
Most entrants are high school graduates.

C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. Almost all entrants are recent graduates
o f a formal training program or trained mechanics who have left
the Armed Forces. Relatively few job openings are filled by per­
sons transferring from another occupation.

Automotive body repairers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Automotive and motorcycle mechanics

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 183,000

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ........

Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):

922,000

Selected characteristics o f workers, 1984:

16-24 y e a rs............................................................................ 28.0

Percent fem ale.......... ..............................................
0.8
Percent black ........................................................................... 8.1
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years....................................................................... 24.5
25-54 years................................
67.1
55 and older..................................................................... 8.4
Percent employed part time, total........................................ 7.5
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 3.3
Unemployment rate .................................................

25-54 years..........................................
63.9
55 and older....................................
8.1
Percent employed part time, total........................................ 8.5
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 4.2
Unemployment r a te ............................................ Higher than average
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

About average

In d u stry

In d u stry

Low

P ercen t

Motor vehicle dealers (new and u sed )........................
Automobile repair sh o p s.......... ............................, . . .
Gasoline service stations....................... .........................
Auto and home supply stores.............. ....................
Machinery, equipment, and supplies wholesalers . . .

Projected 1995 employment .. 1,052,000
Percent change, 1984-95 ........
14.2

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

27.0
15.3
10.1
k 6.0
5.9

M o d e ra te

1,107,000
20.1

204,000
11.4

M o d e ra te

215,000
17.5

54.9
34.3
H igh

224,000
22.3

Employment growth ................................................................ Average
Annual separation rate (percent)............ .....................................

13.5

H igh

SUPPLY PROFILE

1,154,000
25.2

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Work experience as an
automotive body repairer helper generally is required. Completion
o f a formal apprenticeship or a training program offered by high
schools, postsecondary vocational schools, and community or

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average
Annual separation rate (percent) ...........................................




P ercent

Automobile repair sh o p s..............................................
Motor vehicle dealers (new and u sed )........................

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Low

2.1
4.4

13.8

82

Communications equipment mechanics

junior colleges can shorten the time spent as a helper. Training ob­
tained while helping friends or relatives repair automotive bodies
also may be helpful. Manual dexterity and good physical condi­
tion are required.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 73,000

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale....................................................................
Percent b la c k ......................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years..................................................................
25-54 years..................................................................
55 and older................................................................
Percent employed part time, total....................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..........................

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Automotive body repair.................................................... 22,324
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Body and fender repair...................................................... 5,330
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Automotive body repair.................................................... 1,933
C h a ra cteristics o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f job openings are filled
by former helpers. The remaining entrants have recently completed
a training program or have been between jobs. Most entrants have
a high school diploma or less education, and more than half are
between 20 and 34 years o f age.

3.1
9.4
21.2
64.6
14.2
8.2
5.2

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average
Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercent

Telephone communication............................................
Railroad transportation................................................

Commercial and industrial electronic equipment
repairers

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

72,000
-1 .5

M o d era te

76,000
3.7

79.7
9.4
H igh

79,000
8.3

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 56,000

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 15.7

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

SUPPLY PROFILE

In du stry

Federal Government......................................................
Telephone communication............................................
Air transportation..........................................................
Communication equipment manufacturing................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Skills acquired through
previous work experience or vocational education are generally re­
quired. Although some mechanics are hired from outside the com­
pany, preference usually is given to company employees in other
jobs. Physical and written examinations often are mandatory, and
applicants should possess manual dexterity, physical stamina, and
the ability to distinguish colors. A valid driver’s license and a good
driving record also may be required. Continuous training may be
needed to learn about new types o f equipment.

P ercent

62,000
11.1

M o d e ra te

64,000
14.4

49.5
13.8
7.0
6.7
H igh

66,000
17.6

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Communications electronics................................................ 4,755

SUPPLY PROFILE

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f all entrants transfer
from another occupation, such as telephone installer-repairer or
line installer-repairer. The remainder have not been working—most
have been in school or between jobs. Almost half o f all entrants
are between 25 and 34 years o f age.

U su a l e n try a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Workers generally develop

their skills informally on the job or through a formal apprenticeship
program. Most employers require applicants to have completed 1
to 2 years o f postsecondary training in basic electronics. Basic elec­
tronics training offered by the Armed Forces also is considered ex­
cellent training. Repairers need good color vision, manual dexterity,
and good eye-hand coordination.

Computer service technicians

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Electrical and electronics equipment repair and
industrial equipment maintenance and repair............ 35,571

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 50,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale....................................................................
Percent b la c k ......................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years..................................................................
25-54 years..................................................................
55 and older................................................................
Percent employed part time, total....................................

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Typical entrants are recent graduates

o f postsecondary programs in electronics or persons who have been
trained in the Armed Forces. Others transfer from a related oc­
cupation such as electronic home entertainment equipment repairer,
home appliance and power tool repairer, or precision instrument
repairer.




83

9.4
4.7
15.2
80.6
4.2
1.8

Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................................. 1.5

Industry

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Trucking, local and long distance..............................
Machinery, equipment, and supplies wholesalers . . .
Automobile repair sh o p s..............................................
Automobile rentals and leasing, without drivers__
Motor vehicles and auto parts and supplies
wholesalers................................................................
Government....................................................................

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

P ercen t

Machinery, equipment, and supplies wholesalers . . .
Office, computing, and accounting machine
manufacturing.............................................................
Computer and data processing services......................

60.9

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Low

17.1
8.6

Low

M o d e ra te

78,000
56.2

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

H igh

74,000
48.8

Percent

81,000
62.6

246,000
16.9

M o d e ra te

259,000
22.8

23.3
18.5
7.1
5.4
5.2
5.1
H igh

270,000
28.1

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 14.4

Employment growth.................................. Much faster than average
Annual separation rate (percent)..................................................

SUPPLY PROFILE

11.5

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Most employers seek peo­
ple with mechanical aptitude and knowledge o f basic diesel
technology. Although skills are generally acquired through work
experience, many employers prefer applicants who have completed
a vocational training program or formal apprenticeship. Skills may
also be obtained in the Armed Forces or by helping friends or
relatives. In addition, a driver’s license is required.

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m en ts. Most employers require ap­
plicants to have completed 1 to 2 years o f postsecondary training
in basic electronics or electrical engineering or to have comparable
experience. Basic electronics training offered by the Armed Forces
also is considered to be excellent training. Regardless o f back­
ground, technicians continue to participate in employer-sponsored
training programs in order to stay abreast o f new developments
in equipment and maintenance procedures.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Diesel engine mechanics...................................................... 7,556
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Diesel m echanic.................................................................... 9,700
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate, 1983:
Diesel engine mechanics...................................................... 2,819

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Computer electronics and electrical and electronic
technologies .................................................................... 24,925
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Electronic technology........................................................ 7,533
Armed Forces enlisted strength, 1985:
ADP computers.................................................................. 9,888
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Computer electronics and electrical and electronic
technologies .................................................................... 31,833

C h aracteristics o f en tran ts. Most entrants are high school graduates.
Although many have completed some postsecondary education, few
are college graduates. The majority o f entrants have not been work­
ing. The remainder transfer from another occupation or enter from
the Armed Forces where they developed the required skills. Most
entrants are 25 years o f age or older, reflecting the importance o f
work experience.

C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. About half o f all entrants transfer from
a related occupation such as office machine repairer, television ser­
vice technician, or electrical or electronics technician. The remainder
have not been working—most have been in a training program,
the Armed Forces, or between jobs.

Electronic home entertainment equipment
repairers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Diesel mechanics

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 52,000

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 211,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale..................................................................
Percent b la c k ....................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.................................................................
25-54 years.................................................................
55 and older...............................................................
Percent employed part time, total..................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary........................

In d u stry

0.6
5.7

P ercen t

Radio, television, and music stores............................
Electrical repair shops ..................................................
Household appliance stores..........................................

15.4
74.9
9.7
3.5
2.4

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:

Employment growth ...................................................................... Average

84

59,000
13.2

H igh

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average




56,000
6.9

M o d era te

47.9
30.5
6.!)

62,00(3
18.9

SUPPLY PROFILE

General maintenance mechanics

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Training in electronics is
required for entry level jobs. Formal training is available from
postsecondary vocational schools, community colleges, the Armed
Forces, or through on-the-job training in a related occupation. A
few electronic home entertainment equipment repairers enter
through formal apprenticeship programs. Because repairers must
keep abreast o f changes in technology, they often participate in
training seminars and study manufacturers’ and technical publica­
tions throughout their career.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 878,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

Percent

Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................
Wholesale and retail trade............................................
Educational services......................................................
Real estate operators and lessors................................
Local government..........................................................
Health services................................................................

T raining c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Electrical and electronic technologies and electrical
and electronic equipment repair.................................. 55,606
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Radio and TV repair.......................................................... 1,707
Armed Forces enlisted strength, 1985:
Radio/radar repair.............................................................. 81,806
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Electrical and electronic technologies and electrical
and electronic equipment repair.................................. 36,165

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

970,000
10.5

16.0
14.3
14.9
9.3
7.6
6.0
5.1

Moderate

High

1,015,000
15.6

1,057,000
20.4

Employment growth .................................................................. Average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. General maintenance
mechanics usually learn their skills on the job by working as a helper
to skilled maintenance workers. Many employers prefer high school
graduates. Mechanical aptitude and manual dexterity are impor­
tant.

Farm equipment mechanics

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 18,000

Heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration
mechanics

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

Percent

Machinery, equipment, and supplies wholesalers . . .
Agricultural production, cro p s....................................
Agricultural production, livestock..............................
Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

19,000
5.3

Moderate
20,000
9.4

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

49.4
24.8
6.3

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 173,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.................................................................
Percent black ...................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...............................................................
25-54 years................................................................
55 and older..............................................................
Percent employed part time, total..................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary........................

High
20,000
12.7

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

SUPPLY PROFILE

1.3
6.7
17.8
72.1
10.1
4.8
2.5

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

U su al en try a n d train in g req u irem en ts. Employers seek people with

mechanical aptitude and experience in basic farm equipment repair.
In addition, related work experience in diesel or gasoline engine
repair, welding, and hydraulic and electrical systems is preferred.
Formal training in agricultural mechanics from a vocational school
or community or junior college is a good substitute for experience.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry
Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors
Fuel and ice retailers......................................................
Government....................................................................
Electrical repair shops ..................................................

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Agricultural mechanics...................................................... 23,413
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Agricultural mechanics......................................................
718

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

194,000
11.6

Moderate
203,000
16.7

Employment growth ..............................................................

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Many entrants transfer from another

occupation where they have developed the necessary skills. Others
are recent graduates o f a training program in agricultural mechanics.




Percent
51.2
8.0
7.3
6.7
High
210,000
21.1
Average

Annual separation rate (percent)..................................................

85

8.8

SUPPLY PROFILE

mechanical aptitude and knowledge of, or work experience in, basic
electricity and electronics. Some persons prepare for this occupa­
tion by taking postsecondary training courses in appliance repair
and electronics, and a few complete a formal apprenticeship
program.

U sual e n try a n d training requ irem en ts. Most persons learn this trade
as a helper, working with experienced air-conditioning, heating,
and refrigeration mechanics. Some develop their skills in a formal
apprenticeship program. Employers generally seek high school
graduates with mechanical aptitude who have had courses in shop
math, mechanical drawing, electricity, and blueprint reading. Some
employers prefer graduates o f programs in air-conditioning,
heating, and refrigeration offered by postsecondary vocational
schools and community and junior colleges. Because o f the
increased use o f microelectronic technology, a basic understanding
o f electronics is becoming very important. To keep up with changes
in technology, mechanics may be required to participate in
company-sponsored training programs throughout their career.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Major appliance repair and small appliance repair........ 2,928
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Appliance repair....................................................................
905
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Many entrants transfer from another
occupation—many have worked in a related repairer occupation
that requires knowledge o f basic electricity and electronics. The
remainder have not been working—most have been between jobs
or in school. Most entrants have a high school diploma, and have
some postsecondary training.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration
mechanics........................................................................ 15,235
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Air-conditioning installation and repair and
refrigeration engineering................................................ 11,680

Industrial machinery repairers

EMPLOYM ENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 430,000

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f job entrants transfer
from another occupation—primarily persons who have been work­
ing as a helper. The remaining entrants have not been w o r k in g many are experienced mechanics who have been laid o ff or between
jobs, while others are recent graduates o f an apprenticeship
program.

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale..................................................................
Percent black ....................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years................................................................
25-54 years................................................................
55 and older..............................................................
Percent employed part time, total..................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary........................

Home appliance and power tool repairers

Total employment, 1984

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

83,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le....................................................................
Percent b la c k .......................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................
25-54 years..................................................................
55 and older................................................................
Percent employed part time,total....................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary..........................

In du stry

11.0
73.9
15.1
15.1
7.6

M o d era te

464,000
7.9

11.2
7.9
7.7
7.0
6.7
5.1
5.0
H igh

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

443,000
3.0

Employment growth................

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercen t

Government........................................................
Food and kindred products manufacturing ..
Transportation, communications, and utilities
Textile product manufacturing........................
Services................................................................
Chemical and allied product manufacturing..
Primary metal manufacturing..........................

2.4
1.3

Low

483,000
12.5

.................... Slower than average

P ercent

Department stores..........................................................
Household apppliance stores........................................
Gas production and distribution..................................
Fuel and ice dealers ......................................................
Electrical repair shops ...................................................
Radio, television, and music sto res............................
Low

87,000
5.0

M o d e ra te

92,000
11.0

30.0
15.1
10.0
9.7
8.4
6.5

Annual separation rate (percent)

13.3

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Skills acquired through
previous work experience generally are required. Most industrial
machinery repairers learn the trade informally by working as helpers
to experienced repairers. Some learn through formal apprenticeship
or high school and postsecondary vocational programs. Graduation
from high school is preferred, but not always required. Mechanical
aptitude and manual dexterity are important. In order to keep up
with changing technology, industrial machinery repairers must con­
tinually upgrade their skills by participating in employer-sponsored
training programs.

H igh

97,000
16.3

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n try a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . These workers learn their
trade on the job. Employers prefer high school graduates with




10.3
74.9
14.8
2.3
1.4

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

2.7
8.0

86

)

C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. The majority o f entrants have not been
working—most were unemployed. The remainder have been work­
ing in another occupation. Most entrants have a high school educa­
tion, and some have attended college.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Industrial equipment maintenance and repair.................. 4,636
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Industrial technology............................................................
447
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Industrial equipment maintenance and repair.................. 1,223

Millwrights
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 84,000

C h a ra cteristics o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f entrants have not been
working—primarily persons on temporary layoff or between jobs.
The remaining entrants transfer from a helper or other blue-collar
job where they developed the required skills. Relatively few entrants
have completed training beyond high school. Entrants tend to be
older than entrants to other occupations, reflecting the emphasis
on work experience.

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale....................................................................
Percent b la c k ......................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years..................................................................
25-54 years..................................................................
55 and older................................................................
Percent employed part time, total....................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..........................

Line installers and cable splicers

2.1
6.9
5.8
80.8
13.4
1.9
1.2

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Industry

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 204,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale..................................................................
Percent b la c k ....................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years................................................................
25-54 years................................................................
55 and older..............................................................
Percent employed part time, total..................................

2.9
5.9
7.0
90.9
2.1
7

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

217,000
6.2

Moderate
228,000
11.6

Moderate
89,000
6.6

8.7
7.9
7.1
6.9
5.4
High
95,000
13.3

SUPPLY PROFILE

30.5
26.9

U su al e n try a n d train in g requ irem en ts. Millwrights learn their trade
on the job, either by working as a helper to an experienced
millwright or through a formal apprenticeship program. Most
employers seek high school graduates who are agile and able to
perform heavy work.

11.7
8.1
7.1
6.9
5.6

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Most entrants transfer from another
occupation—primarily millwright helper or another blue-collar
job—or are experienced millwrights returning to a job from which
they have been temporarily laid off. Others were full-time students.
Few have completed any training beyond high school.

High
237,000
16.3

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

Mobile heavy equipment mechanics

SUPPLY PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . Line installers and cable
splicers learn the craft by assisting experienced workers or through
formal company training programs. Most employers prefer to hire
high school graduates, and many test applicants for basic verbal,
arithmetic, and abstract reasoning skills. In addition, applicants
may be tested for physical ability and mechanical aptitude. Ap­
plicants should have physical stamina, the ability to distinguish col­
ors, and not be afraid o f heights. Because o f changing technology
and the opportunity for advancement, many workers continue their
training throughout their career.




85,000
1.0

15.1
11.5

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

Percent

Telephone communication............................................
Electric services..............................................................
Miscellaneous communication services (includes
cable television services, missile tracking
stations, and stock ticker services)....................
Combination electric and gas, and otherutilities . . .
Heavy construction, except highway and street.......
Local government..........................................................
Electrical contractors ....................................................

Percent

Blast furnaces and basic steel products............
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing ..
Miscellaneous special trade contractors (includes
structural steel erection and installation or
erection of building equipment)....................
Paper and allied products manufacturing........
Nonresidential building construction ................
Fabricated metal product manufacturing..........
Chemical and allied product manufacturing . . .

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 77,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry
Machinery, equipment, and supplies wholesalers . . .
Federal Government......................................................
Mining..............................................................................
Highway and street construction................................
Heavy construction, except highway and street.......

87

Percent
29.5
15.8
8.1
5.6
5.2

Low

86,000
11.6

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

M o d e ra te

89,000
15.4

Office machine and cash register servicers

H igh

92,000
18.9

EMPLOYM ENT PROFILE

. Average

Employment grow th ................

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 53,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le.......... .............................................................. 3.(5
Percent b la c k ............ .............................................................. 13.4
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years........ .............................................................. 19.(5
25-54 years........ .............................................................. 76.2
55 and older.................................................................... 4.2
Percent employed part time, total...................................... 5.0
Percent employed parttime, voluntary................................ 4.7

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su al e n try a n d tra in in g req u irem en ts. Employers prefer graduates
o f formal training programs in diesel or heavy equipment mechanics
that are offered at vocational schools and junior and community
colleges. Skills acquired through home study coupled with work
experience in related, lesser skilled occupations may be an accep­
table substitute for formal training. In either case, knowledge o f
the repair o f diesel engines, drive trains, hydraulics, and electrical
systems is required. To learn a specific type o f equipment or a par­
ticular component or to update their knowledge o f new tech­
nologies, mobile heavy equipment mechanics may participate in
manufacturer-sponsored training programs. Mechanical aptitude
is important.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

P ercen t

Machinery, equipment,and supplies wholesalers . . .
Retail trade......................................................................
Low

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate, 1983:
Heavy equipment maintenance and repair and diesel
engine mechanics........................................................ .
3,188

M o d e ra te

65,000
23.9

68,000
30.0

83.8
5.4
H igh

71,00(3
35.4

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
Musical instrument repairers and tuners

U su al e n try a n d training requ irem en ts. Employers seek persons with
a basic knowledge o f electricity and electronics, mechanical ap­
titude, good eyesight, and the ability to distinguish colors. Many
employers require at least a year o f postsecondary training in basic
electricity or electronics. A well-groomed appearance and a plea­
sant, cooperative manner are important, as well as an ability to
communicate effectively. A few persons develop their skills through
a formal apprenticeship program, and others learn their trade in
the Armed Forces. On the job, repairers continue to develop their
skills by assisting more experienced workers and by participating
in manufacturer-sponsored training programs.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................... 9,200
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercent

Radio, television, and music sto res............................
Miscellaneous repair services (includes piano, organ,
and other musical instrument repair)....................
Musical instrument manufacturing..............................

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

9,800
6.3

M o d e ra te

10,000
9.7

80.2
11.9
3.2

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Business machine repair.......................................................... 477
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Business machine maintenance.............................................. 335

H igh

10,000
12.7

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Many entrants transfer from another
occupation—many have worked in a related occupation where they
serviced mechanical and electronic equipment such as home ap­
pliances, automotive electrical systems, and radio and television
equipment. The remaining job openings are filled by persons who
have not been working—some were between jobs, some were full­
time students, and others were in the Armed Forces.

Employment growth.............................................. Slower than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Most musical instrument
repairers learn their trade on the job, working under the supervi­
sion of experienced repairers for 2 to 5 years. Most employers prefer
high school graduates. Persons who have some familiarity with the
trade may find it easier to get an entry level job. A relatively small
number o f repairers develop their skills by taking courses offered
by postsecondary vocational schools. People interested in a career
as a musical instrument repairer should have good hearing,
mechanical aptitude, stamina, and manual dexterity.




Telephone installers and repairers

EMPLOYM ENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 111,000

88

Low

Moderate

14.9

20.2
. Average

U su a l e n tr y a n d train in g req u irem en ts. Vending machine repairers
generally are hired as shop helpers or route drivers, where they learn
informally on the job, working under the supervision o f experienced
repairers. Some employers require a high school diploma. Train­
ing in basic electronics also is becoming increasingly important.
Employers may require applicants to demonstrate mechanical abil­
ity, either through their work experience or by scoring well on
mechanical aptifude tests. A commercial driver’s license and a good
driving record are essential for most vending machine repairer jobs.
To learn about new machines and technology, repairers continue
to attend manufacturer-sponsored training programs or take courses
at technical schools.

Percent

Low

40,000

SUPPLY PROFILE

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Telephone communication............................................
Miscellaneous communication services (includes
cablevision services; telecommunications
except telephone, telegraph, radio, videophone,
and TV; and related services)................................

High

38,000

Employment growth ................

Unemployment rate.............................................. Lower than average

Industry

Moderate

Projected 1995 employment. . . . . . 36,000
8.9
Percent change, 1984-95 ..........

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................ 8.2
Percent b la c k .......................................................................... 6.8
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 5.7
25-54 years...................................................................... 87.0
55 and older.................................................................... 7.3
Percent employed part time, total........................................ 1.2
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 0.8

92.2

6.1
High

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

87,000
-2 1 .6

92,000
-1 7 .4

96,000
-1 3 .8

Employment grow th....................

.. Decline

Annual separation rate (percent)

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Vending and recreational machine repair............................ 499

........ ‘7.4

Construction and Extractive
Occupations

*Thc number of separations may be artificially high. Employment in the oc­
cupation declined between 1983 and 1984; some workers who left were not
replaced.

Bricklayers and stonemasons
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 140,000

U su a l e n try a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Applicants usually are
selected from the ranks o f other telephone company workers—
such as line installer or cable splicer. Employers require good
eyesight, the ability to distinguish colors, good health, and
mechanical aptitude. Many prefer applicants with a high school
diploma and a basic knowledge o f electricity and electronics. This
can be developed by on-the-job training, through a formal train­
ing program, or in the Armed Forces. Telephone craft workers con­
tinue to update their skills to qualify for more responsible posi­
tions and keep up with technological advances.

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale..................................................................
Percent black ....................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years................................................................
25-54 years................................................................
55 and older..............................................................
Percent employed part time, total..................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary........................

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 33,000

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:




Percent

Masonry, stonework, tile setting, and plastering
contractors................................................................
Nonresidential building construction..........................
Residential building construction................................

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Nonstore retailers..........................................................
Miscellaneous amusement and recreation services
(includes amusement parks, coin-operated
amusement devices, and related services)............
Beverage manufacturing................................................
Miscellaneous business services (includes equipment
rental and leasing services, photofinishing
laboratories, and related services) ........................

17.0
68.5
14.5
10.8
3.8

Unemployment ra te.................................. Much higher than average

Vending machine servicers and repairers

Industry

0.3
15.0

Percent

148,000
5.4

Moderate
155,000
10.6

65.5
10.6
9.2
High
161,000
14.5

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

49.4

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 13.9

SUPPLY PROFILE

23.9
15.8

U su al e n try a n d training requ irem en ts. Bricklayers and stonemasons
learn their craft on the job, either informally by helping experienced
workers or through a formal apprenticeship program. Employers

6.2

89

and apprenticeship committees prefer high school graduates who
are in good physical condition. Applicants for apprenticeship must
be at least 17 years old.

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Carpentry............................................................ .................. 27,377
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Carpentry, construction.......................... ......................... 4,542

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Many carpenters face periodic layoffs
because o f the short-term nature o f many construction projects and
the cyclical nature o f the industry. Consequently, the majority o f
entrants are experienced carpenters returning to the occupation after
a period o f unemployment. The remainder transfer from another
occupation, frequently another construction occupation. Few en ­
trants have any training beyond high school.

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Brick masonry, stonemasonry, and tile setting,
general and brick, block, and stone m asonry............ 8,183
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Masonry.................................................................................. 1,248
C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Many workers experience periodic
layoffs when construction projects end and during declines in con­
struction activity. Consequently, most entrants are experienced
workers being recalled from layoff, between jobs& persons who
or
transfer from a job in another occupation they have taken on a
temporary basis. Others are recent graduates o f an apprenticeship
or other training program.

Carpet installers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 71,003
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale....................................................................
Percent black ................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years..................................................................
25-54 years..................................................................
55 and older................................................................
Percent employed part time, total....................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..........................

Carpenters
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 944,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale...................................................................
Percent black .....................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years.................................................................
25-54 years................................................................
55 and older...............................................................
Percent employed part time,total..................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary........................

1.3
5.5
20.9
67.9
11.2
9.0
4.1

In du stry

Low

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:

78,000
10.6

M o d e ra te

82,000
15.9

Employment growth ....................................

51.9
38.6
H igh

86,000
20.8
Average

P ercent

Residential building construction................................
Nonresidential building construction..........................
Carpentering and flooring contractors......................
Durable goods manufacturing......................................

32.1
18.8
7.9
7.8

Low

M o d e ra te

1,046,000
10.7

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Almost all carpet installers
learn the trade by working as a helper to experienced installers.
A few learn through a formal apprenticeship. Employers prefer
high school graduates who have manual dexterity and are
mechanically inclined. Because installers often are required to drive
company vehicles, employers prefer individuals who are licensed
to drive and who have a good driving record.

H igh

998,000
5.7

SUPPLY PROFILE

1,085,000
14.9

Employment growth ................................................................. Average

C h a racteristics o f en tran ts. Many entrants transfer from another oc­
cupation—primarily a job as an installer’s helper. Others have been
between jobs or are recent graduates o f an apprenticeship program.
Although virtually all entrants have a high school diploma, few
have any postsecondary training.

Annual separation rate (percent)................................................... 18.8

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n try a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Most carpenters learn their
trade informally by working under the supervision o f experienced
workers. Some acquire their skills by participating in a formal ap­
prenticeship program or by assisting friends and relatives. Although
there are no formal entry requirements, employers prefer high
school graduates who are in good physical condition and who have
manual dexterity, good eye-hand coordination, and good balance.




P ercen t

Carpentering and flooring contractors ......................
Furniture and home furnishings, except appliances .

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

23.1
72.4
4.5
13.1
5.5

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Unemployment r a te ............................................ Higher than average

In d u stry

1.4
7.3

Concrete masons and terrazzo workers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................... 106,000

90

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time,total........................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary..............................

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
0.8
29.3

Industry

19.2
69.7
11.1
7.6
1.5

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Moderate

118,000
11.5

123,000
16.2 t

112,000
6.0

Moderate
117,000
10.6

83.8
6.3
High
121,000
14.3

Employment growth ................................................................ Average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 12.1

Percent

Concrete contractors......................................................
Nonresidential building construction..........................
Residential building construction................................
Masonry, stonework, tile setting, andplastering-----Highway and street construction................................
Miscellaneous special trade contractors (includes
excavating and foundation contractors, and
related contracting services)....................................
Heavy construction, except highway and street.........

Percent

Masonry, stonework, tile setting, and
plastering contractors............................................
Painting, paperhanging, and decorating contractors.

31.4
15.6
11.0
9.2
7.5

SUPPLY PROFILE
Usual entry and training requirements. Most drywall workers and
lathers start as helpers and learn their craft on the job. Some learn
through a formal apprenticeship program or by assisting friends
or relatives. Employer prefer high school graduates who are in good
physical condition, but frequently hire applicants with less
education.

7.5
7.0
High

Characteristics o f entrants. Workers may experience periodic layoffs
when projects end and during declines in construction activity. Con­
sequently, many entrants are experienced workers who are being
recalled from layoff or who have been between jobs. Others are
entering their first job or transfer from another occupation they
have entered on a temporary basis. Most entrants have a high school
diploma or less education.

127,000
19.7

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

SUPPLY PROFILE

Electricians

Usual entry and training requirements. Concrete masons and terrazzo
workers learn their trade on the job, either informally by helping ex­
perienced workers or in a formal apprenticeship program. Employers
and apprenticeship committees prefer high school graduates who are
at least 18 years old and in good physical condition.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 545,000

C h aracteristics o f en tran ts. Workers may experience periodic layoffs

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale..................................................................
Percent black ....................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years................................................................
25-54 years................................................................
55 and older..............................................................
Percent employed part time, total..................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary........................

when construction projects end and when the level o f nonresiden­
tial building falls. Consequently, the majority o f entrants are older,
experienced workers being recalled from layoff or who have been
between jobs. Some are recent graduates o f an apprenticeship pro­
gram. The remainder transfer from another occupation—in many
cases, a job taken on a temporary basis.

1.2
6.1
13.9
74.8
11.3
3.5
1.5

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

Drywall workers and lathers

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Industry

Total employment, 1984 ..........................................................
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale..................................................................
Percent black ....................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years................................................................
25-54 years................................................................
55 and older..............................................................
Percent employed part time,total..................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary........................
Unemployment rate




Percent

Electrical contractors ....................................................
Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Services............................................................................
Government....................................................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................
Transportation, communications, and utilities..........

106,000

1.8
9.4
31.5
64.7
3.8
9.4
3.9

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

606,000
11.2

Moderate
633,000
16.2

47.1
16.1
7.6
7.4
7.1
5.3
High
657,000
20.5

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

Much higher than average

Annual separation rate (percent)...................................................... 12.6

91

SUPPLY PROFILE

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Glaziers may experience periods o f
unemployment between construction projects and during downturns
in construction activity. Consequently, many entrants are experi­
enced workers who have been laid o ff or between jobs, or who
transfer from another occupation entered on a temporary basis.
Others have been working as a glazier’s helper or are recent
graduates o f an apprenticeship program.

U su al e n try a n d tra in in g req u irem en ts. Electricians learn their craft
on the job, either informally by working as an electrician’s helper
or through a formal apprenticeship program. Employers and ap­
prenticeship committees prefer graduates o f vocational programs.
Applicants for apprentice positions generally need to be at least
18 years old and have a high school diploma; applicants for all
jobs must be in good physical condition and have manual dexter­
ity and good color vision. Most local governments require a license
that is obtained by passing an exam that tests knowledge o f the
craft and local electrical codes.

Insulation workers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Electrician............................................................................. 12,616
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Electricity, construction .................................................... 2,229

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 52,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

C h a ra c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Many construction electricians face

Percent

Masonry, stonework, tile setting, and plastering
contractors................................................................
Miscellaneous special tradecontractors........................

periodic layoffs because o f the cyclical nature o f the construction
industry and the short-term nature o f most construction projects.
Maintenance electricians working in automobile, steel, and other
industries that are sensitive to the business cycle also may be laid
o ff from time to time. Consequently, most entrants are experienced
electricians who have been unemployed, between jobs, or working
temporarily in another occupation. Other entrants have been work­
ing as an electrician’s helper or are recent graduates o f an appren­
ticeship program.

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

57,000
9.0

Moderate
59,000
13.6

57.5
13.7
High
61,000
17.2

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

SUPPLY PROFILE
Glaziers

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Insulation workers learn
their craft on the job, either informally by working as helpers to
experienced workers or through a formal apprenticeship program.
Insulation contractors prefer high school graduates who are in good
physical condition. High school courses in blueprint reading, shop
math, sheet-metal layout, and general construction are helpful. Ap­
plicants for an apprenticeship position must have a high school
diploma or its equivalent, and be at least 18 years old.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 37,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Industry

Percent

Miscellaneous special trade contractors (includes
glass and glazing contractors and glazing of
concrete surfaces contractors)...............................
Paint, glass, and wallpaper sto r e s..............................
Lumber and other construction materials
wholesalers.................................................................
Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

43,000
15.2

Moderate
45,000
20.8

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Insulation workers may experience
periodic layoffs when construction projects end and during declines
in construction activity. Consequently, the majority o f entrants are
experienced workers returning to the occupation after a period o f
unemployment or work in another occupation, usually taken on
a temporary basis. The remaining entrants have been working as
a helper or are recent graduates o f a formal apprenticeship pro­
gram. Very few entrants have any formal education beyond high
school.

45.4
31.5
10.4
High
46,000
25.3

Employment grow th ............................................. Faster than average

Painters and paperhangers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 378,000
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . Glaziers learn their trade

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le........................................................................
Percent b la c k ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part: time,total........................................
Percent employed part: time,voluntary..............................

on the job, a few formally through an apprenticeship program but
most informally by helping experienced workers. Applicants must
be in good physical condition; those seeking an apprenticeship posi­
tion must be at least 17 years o f age.
T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
G lazing....................................................................................... 153




92

6.8
8.3
24.5
63.8
11.7
19.4
9.1

Unemployment r a t e ................................................ Higher than average

SUPPLY PROFILE

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Plasterers learn their craft
on the job, either informally by working as helpers to expeienced
workers or through a formal apprenticeship program. Applicants
for an apprenticeship or helper job generally must be at least 17
years old, be in good physical condition, and have manual dex­
terity. Employers prefer but do not require that applicants have
a high school diploma.

In du stry

P ercent

Painting, paperhanging, and decorating contractors.
Services............................................................................
Government....................................................................
General contractors and operative builders..............
Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Real estate ......................................................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

378,000
0.0

M o d e ra te

395,000
4.5

46.1
14.4
8.6
7.1
6.6
5.8

C h aracteristics o f en tran ts. Workers may experience periodic layoffs
when construction projects end and during declines in construc­
tion activity. Consequently, about half o f all entrants are experi­
enced workers returning to the occupation after a period o f
unemployment. The remainder transfer from another occupation
they have entered on a temporary basis. Very few entrants have
any formal education beyond high school.

H igh

409,000
8.3

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 22.8

Plumbers and pipefitters

SUPPLY PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

U su a l e n try a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Most people learn the trade
informally by helping experienced workers. Some develop their skills
in a formal apprenticeship program. Applicants for an appren­
ticeship or helper job should be in good physical condition, have
manual dexterity, be at least 16 years old, and have a good color
sense.

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 395,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................ 1.1
Percent black .......................................................................... 6.4
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 16.1
25-54 years...................................................................... 71.5
55 and older.................................................................... 12.4
Percent employed part time, total........................................ 5.6
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 2.5

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Painting and decorating......................................................
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Painting and decorating......................................................

767
476

Unemployment r a te ............................................ Higher than average
C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Many painters and paperhangers ex­
perience periods o f unemployment because construction projects
often are short term and construction activity is cyclical. Conse­
quently, the majority o f entrants are experienced painters and
paperhangers who have been unemployed, between jobs, or work­
ing temporarily in another occupation. Others have been working
as a helper or are recent graduates o f an apprenticeship program.
Many entrants work part time.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Low

Plasterers

Total employment, 1984 ................................

High

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 12.8

. 21,000

SUPPLY PROFILE

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Plumbers and pipefitters
learn their craft on the job, either informally by working for several
years as a helper to experienced plumbers and pipefitters or through
a formal apprenticeship program. Applicants for an apprentice or
helper job generally must be at least 18 years o f age and in good
physical condition. Employers and apprenticeship committees prefer
high school or vocational education graduates. Most local govern­
ments require a license that is obtained by passing an examination
that tests knowledge o f the craft and local plumbing codes.

P ercent

Masonry, stonework, tile setting, and plastering
contractors................................................................
Low

21,000
0.3

M o d era te

22,000
3.9

88.0
H igh

22,000
6.6

Employment growth........................................ .. Slower than average




Moderate

51.7
11.1
6.2
6.1
5.5

Projected 1995 employment ..
436,000
455,000
472,000
Percent change, 1984-95 .........
10.6
15.4
19.5
Employment growth ................................................................ Average

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

P ercent

Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors
Durable goods manufacturing......................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................
Heavy construction, except highway and street........
Federal Government......................................................

93

Roustabouts

Training completions:
Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Plumbing, pipefitting, and steamfitting............ ................ 6,236
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Plumbing and pipefitting..................................................... 2,213

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 81,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

C h aracteristics o f en tran ts. Plumbers and pipefitters may experience
In d u stry

periodic layoffs when construction projects end and when construc­
tion activity declines. Consequently, most entrants are experienc­
ed workers who have been unemployed, between jobs, or working
temporarily in another occupation. Other entrants have been work­
ing as a helper or are recent graduates o f an apprenticeship program.

P ercen t

Oil and gas field services..............................................
Crude petroleum and natural g a s................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

77,000
- 4 .8

M o d e ra te

81,000
- 0 .3

75.2
24.3
H igh

84,000
3.3

Roofers

Employment grow th........................................................ Little change

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 122,000

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Little or no formal train­
ing or work experience is required. However, with more competi­
tion for jobs in recent years, an increasing proportion o f entrants
to this occupation have relevant work experience. Mechanical abili­
ty, good physical condition, and good eyesight are required. In ad­
dition, many employers prefer those with a high school diploma.

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale......................................................................... 0.7
Percent black ................................................
9.1
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years....................................................................... 32.0
25-54 years....................................................................... 63.0
55 and older..................................................................... 5.0
Percent employed part time, total......................................... 15.3
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 5.0

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Roustabouts may experience periodic
layoffs due to the cyclical nature o f oil and gas exploration and
production. Consequently, many entrants are experienced workers
who have been unemployed or temporarily working in another
occupation.

Unemployment rate.................................. Much higher than average
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Sheet-metal workers
In du stry

P ercent

Roofing and sheet-metal contractors..........................

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

89.3

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 100,000
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

132,000
8.4

M o d e ra te

138,000
13.4

H igh

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le........................................................................ 4.3
Percent b la c k .......................................................................... 2.8
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 15.7
25-54 years...................................................................... 71.1
55 and older.................................................................... 13.2
Percent employed part time, tottfl........................................ 2.4
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 1.6

143,000
17.5

Employment growth ................................................................ Average
Annual separation rate (percent)................................................... 25.6

SUPPLY PROFILE

Unemployment r a te ............................................ Higher than average:

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Most roofers acquire their

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

skills informally by working as a helper to experienced roofers. A
few learn through an apprenticeship program. Roofers need to be
in good physical condition and should have good balance and agil­
ity. Applicants for apprenticeship must be at least 18 years old,
and a high school diploma is helpful.

In du stry

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........
C h a ra c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Because o f the seasonal nature o f the
construction industry and the short duration o f most roofing jobs,
the majority o f entrants have been unemployed, between jobs, or
in a temporary job in another occupation. The remaining entrants
have been working as a roofer’s helper or are recent graduates o f
an apprenticeship program.




P ercen t

Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors
Roofing and sheet-metal contractors..........................

111,000
11.1

Employment growth .......................................

M o d era te

116,000
16.1

61.3
24.4
H igh

120,000
19.9
Average

Annual separation rate (percent) ................................................ *18.3
’Separations may be artificially high. Employment in the occupation declined
between 1983 and 1984; some workers who left were not replaced.

94

Tilesetters

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Most sheet-metal workers
learn their trade through formal apprenticeship. A few learn in­
formally by working as a helper to experienced workers. Local ap­
prenticeship committees and employers may require a high school
or vocational school education. Applicants need to be in good
physical condition and have mechanical aptitude.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 25,000
Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

In du stry

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Sheet m etal............................................................................ 2,443

P ercent

Masonry, stonework, tile setting, and plastering
contractors................................................................
Carpentering and flooring contractors ......................

72.6
14.2

C h aracteristics o f en tran ts. Workers may experience periodic layoffs
when construction projects end and when economic conditions
result in a decline in construction activity. Consequently, the ma­
jority o f entrants are experienced sheet-metal workers who have
been unemployed or between jobs, or who are transferring from
a temporary job in another occupation. Others are recent graduates
o f apprenticeship or other training programs.

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

Structural and reinforcing metal workers

SUPPLY PROFILE

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Tilesetters learn the trade
informally by working as a helper to experienced workers or through
a formal apprenticeship. Employers and apprenticeship commit­
tees usually prefer high school graduates. Good physical condition,
manual dexterity, and a good sense o f color harmony are impor­
tant assets.

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 86,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................ 0.4
Percent b la c k .......................................................................... 5.6
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 15.0
25-54 years...................................................................... 71.1
55 and older.................................................................... 13.9
Percent employed part time, total........................................ 5.2
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 2.1

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

27,000
8.7

M od era te

28,000
11.8

H igh

29,000
14.2

C h a ra c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Tilesetters may experience periodic
layoffs when construction projects end and during declines in con­
struction activity. Consequently, many entrants are experienced
workers returning to the occupation after working temporarily in
another occupation or after a period o f unemployment. Very few
have any formal education beyond high school.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercent

Miscellaneous special trade contractors (includes
structural steel erection contractors)....................
Nonresidential building construction..........................
Heavy construction, except highway and street........

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

Low
98,000
13.5

Moderate
102,000
18.5

45.7
20.4
13.3
High
106,000
22.3

Production Occupations
Blue-collar worker supervisors
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984........................................................ 1,470,000

Employment growth ................................................................ Average
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n try a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Ironworkers learn the trade
informally by working as a helper to experienced ironworkers or
through formal apprenticeship. Applicants generally must be at least
18 years old and in good physical condition. Agility and balance
also are needed. Graduation from high school usually is preferred
by employers, and is required by most apprenticeship committees.
C h aracteristics o f en tran ts. Workers may experience periodic layoffs
when construction projects end and during declines in construc­
tion activity. Consequently, many entrants are experienced workers
returning to the occupation after a period o f unemployment. Others
transfer from an occupation taken on a temporary basis. Few en­
trants have any formal education beyond high school.




In du stry

P ercent

Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................
Transportation, communications, and utilities..........
Machinery manufacturing, except electrical..............
Wholesale trade..............................................................
Construction....................................................................
Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment
manufacturing..........................................................
Fabricated metal product manufacturing..................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........
Employment growth

1,481,000
0.7

M od era te

1,555,000
5.8

24.8
9.4
6.5
6.1
5.8
5.6
5.4
H igh

1,622,000
10.4

Slower than average

SUPPLY PROFILE

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . Most blue-collar worker
supervisors are promoted from among the workers they supervise.
Leadership qualities, knowledge o f the work being done, and the
ability to get along well with others are key attributes valued by
employers. High school graduation often is required, and college
or technical school training can be an asset. Once promoted, com­
panies often train employees in recordkeeping and other supervisory
tasks.

P ercen t

Commercial printing......................................................
Blankbooks and bookbinding......................................
Books................................................................................
Mailing, reproduction and commercial a r t................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

91,000
13.2

M o d e ra te

95,000
17.4

45.9
22.6
5.8
5.6
H igh

99,000
22.0

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts . This is not usually an entry level job.
Most entrants transfer from another occupation—often they are
promoted from a job where they operated a machine, worked on
an assembly line, or at a construction craft. The remainder have
not been working; many have been laid o ff during a slowdown in
construction or production activity. Supervisors in construction are
more likely to experience periodic layoffs than other supervisors.
Few entrants come directly from school. Most are in their prime
working years, between the ages o f 25 and 54.

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Bookbinding workers learn
their trade on the job. Although informal training is sufficient for
production line jobs, an apprenticeship is required to become a
skilled bookbinder. Apprenticeship applicants should have a high
school education and be at least 18 years old. Accuracy, patience,
good eyesight, and manual dexterity are needed by all bookbind­
ing workers. Artistic ability and imagination are necessary for
bookbinders who repair or assemble valuable books by hand.

Boilermakers

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . Typical entrants are high school
graduates who have not been working. Some are recent graduates
o f an apprenticeship program. Relatively few transfer from another
occupation.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 38,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Butchers and meatcutters
In d u stry

P ercent

Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors
Miscellaneous special trade contractors (includes
installation of machinery and other industrial
equipment contractors).............................................
Heavy construction, except highway and street........
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................
Miscellaneous repair shops and related services
(includes boiler repair services)..............................
Federal Government.......................................................
Nonresidential building construction..........................
Low

M o d e ra te

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

11.2

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 222,000
10.6
10.3
9.8

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le........................................................................
Percent b la c k ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

7.8
7.5
7.3
H igh

16.8
14.4
23.6
62.0
14.4
10.4
6.8

Unemployment r a te ............................................ Higher than average
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

40,000
5.6

41,000
10.4

43,000
14.8

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

In du stry

P ercen t

Grocery sto res................................................................
Meat products manufacturing......................................
Meat and fish markets..................................................
Groceries and related product wholesalers................

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . Boilermakers learn their
trade on the job, either informally by working for several years
as a helper to experienced workers or through a formal appren­
ticeship program. Most employers and apprenticeship committees
prefer high school graduates with mechanical aptitude who are in
good physical condition.

Employment grow th..................

Bookbinding workers

51.2
27.4
8.8
6.8

SUPPLY PROFILE

Low

Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

M o d e ra te

213,000
- 4.0

H igh

220,000
- 0.5
Decline

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Most butchers and meatcutters acquire their skills informally on the job or through a for­
mal apprenticeship program. A few acquire their skills in high
school and postsecondary vocational programs.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ................................................................. 81,000




203,000
- 8 .3

96

Training completions:
Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Dental laboratory technology.............................................. 1,182
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Dental laboratory technology..............................................
740
Associate degrees and other awards below baccalaureate,
1983:
Dental laboratory technology..............................................
847

Training com pletion s:

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Precision food production...................................................... 952

Compositors and typesetters
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 94,000

Jewelers

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Newspapers......................................................................
Commercial printing......................................................
Printing trade services ............................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

P ercent

104,000
11.0

M o d era te

108,000
14.7

39.5
24.2
12.0

Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 32,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

H igh

In du stry

112,000
19.3

P ercent

Miscellaneous shopping goods stores (includes
jewelry, camera, and related stores)......................
Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware manufacturing
Watch, clock, and jewelry repair................................

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

SUPPLY PROFILE

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . Compositors and typeset­

ters learn their trade on the job, either through a formal appren­
ticeship program, informally by working as a helper to experienced
compositors and typesetters, or through high school vocational pro­
grams that provide an introduction to the printing industry and
familiarity with the computer-assisted equipment coming into
widespread use. Applicants must be high school graduates, in good
physical condition, and know how to type.

35,000
8.3

H igh

37,000
14.5

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Although there are no for­
mal educational requirements, employers prefer high school
graduates. Vocational school programs are the major source of
training for those who want jobs in jewelry stores or repair shops.
Informal on-the-job training is necessary for all jewelers regardless
o f educational background. Applicants need finger and hand dex­
terity, good eye-hand coordination, patience, and concentration.
Artistic ability is an important asset.

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Composition, make-up, and typesetting.............................. 182

Dental laboratory technicians

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Jewelry design, fabrication, and repair................................ 589

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 51,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

Lithographic and photoengraving workers
P ercent

Medical and dental laboratories..................................
Offices of dentists..........................................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

33,000
1.6

M o d era te

49.6
28.7
9.8

57,000
11.4

M o d era te

61,000
19.4

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

77.0
19.0

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 75,000

H igh

64,000
25.3

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

Commercial printing......................................................
Printing trade services ..................................................
Newspapers......................................................................

In du stry

SUPPLY PROFILE

Low

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Dental laboratory techni­
cians generally learn their craft on the job, either by helping ex­
perienced technicians or through a formal apprenticeship program.
Many employers hire only high school graduates, and high school
courses in art, metal shop, and science are important. Applicants
who have taken formal training in community and junior colleges,
postsecondary vocational schools, or the Armed Forces are pre­
ferred. Many employers encourage technicians to take courses
throughout their career in order to keep up with advances in
technology.




P ercent

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

85,000
13.7

M o d era te

88,000
17.9

52.1
13.1
12.0
H igh

91,000
22.3

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d train in g req u irem en ts. Most lithographic and pho­
toengraving workers learn their trade informally on the job by

97

helping experienced workers. Some learn through a formal appren­
ticeship, although few opportunities have been available in recent
years. Applicants usually must be high school graduates, at least
18 years old, in good physical condition, and possess good eyesight
and artistic ability.

machinists being recalled from layoffs caused by economic condi­
tions. Others are recent graduates o f an apprenticeship program .

Metalworking and plastic-working machine operators

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Lithography, photography, and platemaking...................... 180

Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 953,003
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le........................................................................
Percent black ..................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

Machinists
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ........................................................... 354,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale......................................................................... 4.9
Percent black ........................................................................... 6.5
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years....................................................................... 13.8
25-54 years....................................................................... 72.3
55 and older..................................................................... 13.9
Percent employed part time, total........................................ 2.1
Percent employed part time, voluntary.............................. 1.6

17.4
11.0
16.0
71.3
12.7
2.5
1.6

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

P ercen t

Machinery manufacturing, except electrical..............
Fabricated metal product manufacturing..................
Transportation equipment manufacturing..................
Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment
manufacturing..........................................................

26.3
26.2
15.9
8.4

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average
Low

Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

Low

1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

372,000
5.0

M o d e ra te

956,000
0.3

H igh

998,000
4.7

P ercen t

Machinery manufacturing, except electrical..............
Fabricated metal product manufacturing..................
Transportation equipment manufacturing..................
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................
Services.............................................................................
Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment
manufacturing...........................................................

Projected

910,000
- 4 .5

M o d e ra te

391,000
10.5

Employment grow th........................................................ Little change

37.5
10.0
9.5
9.0
7.1

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Although there are no for ­
mal education requirements for this semiskilled occupation, com ­
pletion o f a postsecondary vocational program can be helpful in
finding a job. Most machine-tool operators learn their skills on
the job. Applicants should have mechanical aptitude and be in good
physical condition.

6.8
H igh

407,000
14.9

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Employment growth............................................. Slower than average

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Machine tool operation/machine shop............................ 27,303
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Machine tool operations.................................................... 4,878

Annual separation rate (percent)................................................... 14.6

SUPPLY PROFILE

C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. Machine tool operators face temporary
layoffs when economic conditions cause demand to slacken for
products that use machined metal parts. Consequently, most en­
trants are experienced operators who have been on temporary
layoff, between jobs, or temporarily employed in another occupation.

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . Machinists develop their

skills informally on the job by working as a helper to experienced
machinists and through a formal apprenticeship program. Many
employers prefer secondary or postsecondary vocational school
graduates. Applicants for both apprenticeship and helper positions
should have mechanical aptitude, the ability to work independently,
and be in good physical condition. Experience working with
machine tools is very important.

Numerical*control machine-tool operators
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 57,000'

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Machine tool operation/machine shop............................ 27,303
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Machine shop occupations................................................
1,337

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

Machinery manufacturing, except electrical..............
Aircraft and parts manufacturing ..............................
Fabricated metal product manufacturing..................
Electronic component and accessories manufacturing ..

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts. The majority o f entrants transfer from

another occupation, primarily machine tool operator, job and die
setter, or helper. Most o f the remaining entrants are experienced



98

Percent

56.2
13.1
7.3
5.2

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

70,000
23.9

M o d era te

74,000
30.5

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

H igh

77,000
35.4

In du stry

P ercent

Electronic component and accessories
manufacturing ........................................................
Office, computing, and accounting machine
manufacturing..........................................................
Communication equipment manufacturing................
Aircraft and parts manufacturing ..............................
Measuring and controlling instrument
manufacturing..........................................................
Fabricated metal product manufacturing..................

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Most numerical-control
machine-tool operators are promoted from shop helper or machinetool operator. Employers prefer those who have had courses in shop
math and blueprint reading. Most entrants learn their skills on the
job by helping experienced workers and in courses offered by
machine-tool manufacturers.

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

399,000
13.0

M o d era te

419,000
18.6

15.8
13.4
12.1
10.1
5.2
5.2
H igh

434,000
23.1

Photographic process workers
Employment growth ................................................................ Average

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
SUPPLY PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 52,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........ ................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total........................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary..............................

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Employers seek workers
who can do routine work at a fast pace. A high school diploma
is helpful but is seldom required. For some types o f assembly jobs,
applicants may have to meet special requirements such as
mechanical aptitude, good eyesight, or absence o f color blindness.
For still others, such as electronic assembly jobs, technical school
or equivalent military training is required.

51.3
9.6
32.2
60.3
7.5
13.9
9.8

Printing press operators

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercent

Miscellaneous business services (includes
photofinishing, commercial testing, and
research and development laboratories and
related services)........................................................
Mailing, reproduction, commercial art, and
stenographic services................................................
Photographic and portrait studios..............................
Motion pictures..............................................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

62,000
21.2

M o d era te

65,000
26.8

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 222,000

53.6

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................
Percent black ..........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years......................................................................
25-54 years......................................................................
55 and older....................................................................
Percent employed part time, total.......................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary................................

14.4
12.1
7.2
H igh

68,000
31.8

Employment grow th ............................................ Faster than average

16.9
7.6
24.0
63.4
12.6
5.0
3.5

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

SUPPLY PROFILE
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Most photographic process

workers learn their skills on the job by assisting experienced
workers. Employers prefer high school graduates. In addition,
graduates o f postsecondary programs in photographic technology
have an advantage when looking for a job.

In du stry

P ercent

Commercial printing......................................................
Newspapers......................................................................
Paper and allied product manufacturing....................
Business services............................................................

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts. This is usually an entry level position.
About half o f all job openings are filled by persons who have not
been working—recent high school graduates and persons who have
been tending to family responsibilities or unemployed. The rest
transfer from another occupation. A sizable proportion o f entrants
take a part-time job while still in school.

Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

239,000
7.4

M o derate

248,000
11.7

46.2
13.1
10.9
5.4
H igh

257,000
15.7

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

Precision assemblers
Annual separation rate (percent) ................................................ 113.4

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
'The number of separations may be artificially high. Employment in the occupa­
tion declined between 1983 and 1984; some workers who left were not replaced.

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................... 353,000




99

SUPPLY PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g r e q u ire m e n ts . Printing press operators
generally learn their trade through informal on-the-job training or,
less commonly, through apprenticeship training. Mechanical ap­
titude is required.

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Skills are acquired through
previous work experience as a helper to experienced engineers or
through a formal apprenticeship. Employers and apprenticeship
committees generally prefer high school or vocational school
graduates. Many States and cities require stationary engineers to
be licensed. To be licensed, applicants must be at least 18 years
old, meet local residency and experience requirements, and pass
a written examination. Mechanical aptitude, manual dexterity, and
good physical condition are required.

C h aracteristics o f en tran ts. Most entrants are high school graduates.
Entrants are about equally divided between those who have not
been working—most have been on temporary layoff or are recent
graduates o f an apprenticeship program—and those who have
transferred from another occupation.

Tool-and-die makers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

Total employment, 1984 ..........................................................

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 43,000
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

P ercen t

Footwear manufacturing, except rubber....................
Shoe repair, shoe shine, and hat cleaning shops___
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

34,000
-2 2 .8

M o d e ra te

35,000
-1 8 .6

S9.S
15.7

165,000

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le......................................................................
Percent black ........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years....................................................................
25-54 years....................................................................
55 and older..................................................................
Percent employed part time,total......................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary............................

1.8
3.8
11.3
70.8
17.9
1.5
0.8

H igh

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average

37,000
-1 5 .1

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

Employment grow th................................................................... Decline

In d u stry

P ercen t

Metalworking machinery and equipment
manufacturing........................................................
Metal forgings and stampings......................................
Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment
manufacturing........................................................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing............
Aircraft and parts manufacturing ..............................

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. There are no formal educa­
tion requirements; these workers generally learn their trade on the
job, either through company training programs or working as a
helper to experienced workers. They must have manual dexterity
and mechanical aptitude to work with various machines and handtools. In addition, they need self-discipline because they often work
alone with little or no supervision.

Low

Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

172,000
4.6

M o d era te

181,000
9.8

23.1
11.6
11.6
9.3
6.2
H igh

188,000
14.2

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average

Stationary engineers

Annual separation rate (percent).................................................... 6.4

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
SUPPLY PROFILE

Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 54,000

U su al e n try a n d training requ irem en ts. Tool-and-die makers develop
their skills informally on the job by working as a helper to experi­
enced toolmakers and diemakers or through a formal appprenticeship program. Many employers and apprenticeship committees
prefer persons with a high school or postsecondary school educa­
tion. Applicants should have a working knowledge o f mathematics
and physics, as well as mechanical ability, finger dexterity, and an
aptitude for precise work.

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

P ercent

Local government...... ....................................................
Nondurable goods manufacturing..............................
Hospitals............................
Durable goods manufacturing.......................................
Educational services.......................................................
Federal Government.......................................................
Communications and utilities......................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

56,000
2.9

M o d e ra te

58,000
7.0

16.0
13.4
12.5
10.9
8.8
7.0
6.1

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Tool and die making..........................................................
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Tool and die making..........................................................

H igh

61,000
11.1

443

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts . The majority o f all openings are filled
by persons who transfer from another occupation—primarily

Employment grow th................................................ Slower than average




1,044

100

SUPPLY PROFILE

another machining occupation or a helper position. Most of the re­
mainder have been on temporary layoff, between jobs, or are recent
graduates of an apprenticeship program . Because of the emphasis placed
on work experience, entrants tend to be considerably older than en­
trants to other occupations.

Usual entry and training requirements. There are no formal train­
ing requirements for this occupation. Upholsterers generally ac­
quire their skills informally on the job. Nevertheless, employers
prefer those who have completed technical training, in a high school,
postsecondary vocational school, or community college. Manual
dexterity, coordination, and an eye for detail are necessary.

Transportation equipment painters

Training completions:

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Leatherworking and upholstering, general;
and upholstering ............................................................. 2,192
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Upholstering......................................................................... 1,104

60,000

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984
Industry

Percent

Automobile repair shops
Motor vehicle dealers (new and used) . .
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing

Low
Projected 1995 employment
Percent change. 1984-95

66,000
9 7

Moderate
69,000
15,0

Employment growth

Characteristics o f entrants. Most entrants have not been working—
many are experienced workers returning to a job from which they
had been laid off, and others have been in school. The remainder
transfer from another occupation. Although most are high school
graduates, few have any postsecondary training

47.1
27.0
9.6

High
72,000
19.6

Water and sewage treatment plant operators

Average

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

SUPPLY PROFILE

Total employment, 1984

Usual entry and training requirements. Skills generally are acquired
informally on the job by helping experienced workers. However,
some transportation equipment painters obtain skills through
employer-sponsored training programs or at community and junior
colleges and postsecondary vocational schools. Good eyesight and
color perception are required. Although graduation from high
school is not required, it usually is an asset.

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:

............

.......... ................ 82,000

Industry

Percent

Local government.........................................................
Utilities and sanitary services ..........
Low
Projected 1995 employment
Percent change, 1984-95

88,000
8.3

Moderate
91,000
11.5

86.1
5.1
High
94,000
14.7

Upholsterers
Employment growth

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

..............................................Average

SUPPLY PROFILE

Total employment, 1984

63,000

Selected characteristics of workers, )984.
Percent female
Percent black
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years
25-54 years
55 and older
Percent employed part time, total
Percent employed pan time, voluntary

,

Usual entry and training requirements. Water and sewage treat­
ment plant operators usually learn on the job under the direction
o f an experienced operator. Employers generally prefer high school
graduates; in some jurisdictions, this is required. Graduation from
a postsecondary training program in wastewater technology is an
advantage. In addition, most water pollution control agencies o f­
fer training courses to improve operators’ skills and knowledge.
Written examinations are required for jobs covered by civil serv­
ice regulations. Applicants should have mechanical aptitude, basic
mathematical ability, and physical agility.

23.6
8.2

21.1
. 64.3
, 14.6
. 20.0
12.8

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984
Industry
Household furniture manufacturing
Reupholstery and furniture repair
Furniture and home furnishings stores

Low
Projected 1995 employment
Percent change, 1984-9*
Employment growth




Training completions:

Percent

66,000
48

52.9
22.2
5,2

Moderate
69,000
10.0

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Water and wastewater technology
.. ........................... 842

Welders and cutters

High
72,000
14.3

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE

Slower than average

Total employment, 1984
101

................................................. 308,000

SUPPLY PROFILE

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Pilots must be licensed by
the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Applicants for licen­
sure must be at least 18 years old, have 250 hours o f flying time,
have vision correctable to 20/20, pass a physical exam, and
demonstrate their flying ability to an FAA examiner. Flying skills
are usually obtained in military or civilian flying schools. The ability
to make quick decisions and accurate judgments under pressure
is essential.

P ercen t

Machinery manufacturing, except
electrical....................................................................
Miscellaneous repair shops and related services
(includes welding repair services)...........................
Motor vehicle and equipment manufacturing............
Mining...............................................................................
Special trade contractors..............................................
Transportation, communications, and utilities..........
Heavy construction, except highway and street........

333,000
8.0

Moderate
349,000
13.1

9.9
8.8
6.7
6.6
6.3
S.S
5.3

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Air transportation, general; and airplane piloting
and navigation................................................................
Associate degrees and other awards below
baccalaureate, 1983:
Air transportation, general; and airplane piloting
and navigation................................................................

High
364,000
18.1

Employment growth ................................................................ Average

2,146

866

SUPPLY PROFILE
Busdrivers

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Few employers have for­
mal educational requirements. Many welders learn their craft
through informal on-the-job instruction while they work as a
welder’s helper. Some new employees participate in companysponsored training programs. In addition, training is available in
high schools, postsecondary vocational schools, community col­
leges, and the Armed Forces. Physical requirements include manual
dexterity, good eyesight and eye-hand coordination, and the abili­
ty to bend, stoop, and work in awkward positions.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................. 459,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem a le....................................................................
Percent black ......................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years..................................................................
25-54 years..................................................................
55 and older................................................................
Percent employed part time, total....................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary................

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Welding, brazing, and soldering...................................... 35,249

Transportation and Material
Moving Occupations

44.3
23.5
8.9
73.3
17.8
43.1
27.2

Unemployment r a te ...................................................... About average
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Aircraft pilots
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ............................................................ 79,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale.......................................................................
Percent b la c k .........................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years....................................................................
25-54 years....................................................................
55 and older..................................................................
Percent employed part time, total......................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary............................

P ercen t

Educational services......................................................
School buses....................................................................
Local government..........................................................
Local and suburban transportation............................
Low

2.1
0.2

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

4.2
84.9
10.9
15.7
11.5

522,000
13.8

M o d e ra te

536,000
16.9

53.7
15.7
12.8
5.0
H igh

552,000
20.4

Employment growth ................................................................ Average:
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 17.6

SUPPLY PROFILE
Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

Certified air transportation..........................................
Noncertified air transportation....................................
Government.....................................................................
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

U su al e n try a n d training requ irem en ts. In most jurisdictions, school!
busdrivers must be at least 18 years old. Local transit busdrivers
must be at least 21, and most intercity buslines prefer drivers to
be at least 24 years old. Good health and good vision, with or
without glasses, are needed. Most jurisdictions require a chauffeur's
or school bus license. Busdrivers acquire their skills through:
employer-sponsored training programs or informally on the job.

P ercen t

94,000
18.9

M o d e ra te

97,000
23.2

60.9
9.5
7.7
H igh

101,000
28.3

T rain in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Truck and bus driving.................. : ...................................... 3,144

Employment g r o w th ................................................ Faster than average




102

C h a ra cte ristic s o f e n tra n ts . The majority o f entrants are at least
25 years old, have no more than a high school education, and begin
in a part-time job; drivers may increase their work hours and get
regularly scheduled routes as they advance in senority. Most jobs
for school busdrivers are filled by students or homemakers attracted
by the opportunity to work part time while engaged in other ac­
tivities. Others transfer from another job or were between jobs.

Industrial truck and tractor operators
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 389,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale..................................................................
Percent black ....................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years................................................................
25-54 years................................................................
55 and older..............................................................
Percent employed part time, total..................................
Percent employed part time, voluntary........................

Construction machinery operators
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ..............................................................198,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale....................................................................
Percent black ......................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years..................................................................
25-54 years..................................................................
55 and older................................................................
Percent employed part time,total....................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary..........................

5.3
18.1
20.9
69.5
9.6
2.8
1.3

Unemployment r a te ............................................ Higher than average
1.7
9.1

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

11.3
75.1
13.6
2.6
1.2

P ercent

Wholesale trade..............................................................
Food product manufacturing......................................
Fabricated metal product manufacturing..................
Lumber and wood product manufacturing................
Trucking and warehousing............................................
Paper and allied product manufacturing....................
Primary metal manufacturing......................................

Unemployment r a te ............................................ Higher than average

13.8
9.6
6.5
5.9
5.6
5.6
5.3

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
Low

Industry

Percent

Heavy construction, except highway and street........
Highway and street construction ................................
Miscellaneous special trade contractors (includes
structural steel, excavating and founda­
tion, and wrecking and demolition con­
tractors)..............................................................
Nonresidential building construction..........................
Residential building construction................................
Low
Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

220,000
11.1

Moderate
230,000
16.2

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 .........

30.2
25.8

326,000
-1 6 .2

M od era te

342,000
-1 1 .9

H igh

357,000
- 8.0

Employment grow th.................................................................. Decline

SUPPLY PROFILE

21.1
7.0
6.2

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m en ts. Most industrial truck and
tractor operators learn their skills on the job. Many companies have
training programs that include instruction, demonstration, and
practice with the industrial truck or tractor. Good eyesight, espe­
cially depth perception, is essential. Strength, stamina, and general
physical fitness are also necessary.

High
237,000
19.9

C h a r a c te ristic s o f e n tra n ts. Few entrants have more than a high
school education. Most entrants enter from another occupation or
have been unemployed. The remainder primarily are young peo­
ple who have been in school.

Employment growth ................................................................ Average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 20.3

SUPPLY PROFILE
Truckdrivers

U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . Most construction ma­
chinery operators learn the trade by working as helpers to experi­
enced operators. Some learn through a formal apprenticeship. Most
employers prefer high school graduates who are at least 18 years
old. Courses in automobile mechanics, experience in operating trac­
tors and other farm machinery, and Armed Forces training in heavy
equipment operation can be helpful. Applicants should have a good
sehse o f balance as well as good eye-hand-foot coordination and
physical strength.

EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 ........................................................ 2,484,000
Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale................................................................
Percent black ..................................................................
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years..............................................................
25-54 years..............................................................
55 and older............................................................
Percent employed part time,total................................
Percent employed part time,voluntary......................

C h a ra cteristics o f en tran ts. Construction machinery operators may

experience periodic layoffs when projects end and during declines
in construction activity. Consequently, many entrants are experi­
enced workers returning to the occupation after being unemployed
or working temporarily in another occupation. Relatively few have
more than a high school education.




4.2
12.9
17.2
71.2
11.6
8.7
4.9

Unemployment r a t e ............................................... Higher than average

103

Industry concentration o f wage and salary workers, 1984:
In d u stry

Selected characteristics of workers, 1984:
Percent fem ale........................................................................... 2.7
Percent b la c k .......................................................................... 13.9
Age distribution (percent):
16-24 years...................................................................... 57.9
25-54 years...................................................................... 39.2
55 and older....................................................................... 2.9
Percent employed part time,total........................................ 16.2
Percent employed part time,voluntary................................ 7.0

P ercent

Trucking, local and long distance......................
Services....................................................................
Wholesale trade, durable goods..........................
Durable goods manufacturing............................
Food product manufacturing..............................
Groceries and related product wholesalers........
Construction..........................................................

27.7
7.6
6.9
6.6
6.3
6.2
5.0

Unemployment ra te............................ .
Low

Projected 1995 employment ..
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

M o d e ra te

2,768,000 2,911,000
11.4
17.2

3,033,000
22.1

Industry concentration of wage and salary workers, 1984:
In du stry

Employment growth ................................................................ Average
Annual separation rate (percent)..................................................

P ercen t

Masonry, stonework, tilesetting, and
plastering contractors..............................................
Residential building construction................................
Nonresidential building construction..........................
Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors
Electrical contractors....................................................
Roofing and sheet-metal contractors..........................

18.1

SUPPLY PROFILE
U sual e n try a n d train in g req u irem en ts. By Federal law, truckdrivers
engaged in interstate commerce must be at least 21 years old and
pass written and physical examinations. In addition, a chauffeur’s
license may be required. Employers prefer applicants with a good
driving record and previous experience driving a truck.

Low

Projected 1995 employment . .
Percent change, 1984-95 ........

T ra in in g c o m p le tio n s :

Public vocational secondary and postsecondary, 1983:
Truck and bus driving.......................................................... 3,144
Private noncollegiate postsecondary, 1981:
Truckdriving......................................................................... 34,995

449,000
1.4

M o d e ra te

470,000
6.1

16.1
16.0
10.8
9.4
9.3
5.3
H igh

486,000
9.8

Employment growth............................................ Slower than average
Annual separation rate (percent).................................................. 37.4

C h a ra cteristics o f en tra n ts. About half o f all entrants have not been
working—many have been laid o ff or between jobs. Most o f the
remainder transfer from another occupation. Relatively few en­
trants have more than a high school education or enter directly from
school.

SUPPLY PROFILE
U su a l e n tr y a n d tra in in g re q u ire m e n ts . There are usually no for­
mal education requirements for this job. Applicants generally must
be at least 18 years old, in good physical condition, and be willing
to work hard.

Handlers, Equipment Cleaners,
Helpers, and Laborers

C h aracteristics o f en tran ts. Workers may experience periodic layoffs
when construction projects end and during declines in construc­
tion activity. Consequently, the majority o f entrants have not been
working—most have been on temporary layoff, between jobs, or
in school. The remaining entrants transfer from another occupa­
tion. Few entrants have any formal education beyond high
school.

Construction trades helpers
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
Total employment, 1984 .......................................................... 443,000




Much higher than average

H igh

104

Appendix A. Assumptions
and Methods Used in
Preparing Employment
Projections

cent a year between 1984 and 1990. Thereafter, growth
is assumed to drop to the 1.0- to 1.5-percent range to
1995.
Nondefense purchases of goods and services in real
terms are expected to increase in the 1984-90 period,
reaching $35.4 billion in 1990, $4.3 billion above the 1984
level. This reflects some increase in employment as well
as adjustments for inflation. After 1990, nondefense pur­
chases are assumed to grow, in real terms, at a rate of
0.9 percent a year.
A modest growth path for other Federal expenditure
categories has generally been assumed. No real growth
is assumed for food stamp benefits, military retirement
and veterans’ benefits, Medicare payments, and Social
Security payments during the 1984-90 period. Growth
in these categories is a combination of inflation adjust­
ment and client population shifts. After 1990, some
resumption of growth in all of the expenditure categories
mentioned above is assumed—on the order of 1-2
percent annually. Finally, Federal subsidy programs
and grants to State and local governments are as­
sumed to decline in real terms over the entire projection
period.
Projected Federal revenues reflect current personal in­
come tax rates and the indexation of personal taxes for
the remainder of the period. The recent trend toward
lower effective corporate profits tax rates is assumed to
continue through 1995.
The net effect of these assumptions is a Federal budget
deficit (National Income Product Account basis) that
declines from $118 billion in 1984 to about $91 billion
by 1995. Although the deficit remains high throughout
the period, this represents a drop as a percent of GNP
from 5 percent in 1984 to 3 percent by 1995.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics prepares projections
on a 2-year cycle, using the Economic Growth Model
System. This system is composed of a group of separate
but related processes. Projections are produced in the
following areas: (1) Labor force, (2) aggregate economic
performance, (3) industry final demand and total industry
production, (4) industry employment levels, and (5) oc­
cupational employment by industry. Each block of the
projections depends upon inputs from an earlier stage and
feeds logically into the next.
To develop the projections, assumptions are made con­
cerning the population, fiscal and monetary policy,
foreign economic conditions, energy, and other factors.
Those variables having the largest impact on the projec­
tions are discussed below, first for a moderate-growth
scenario and then for alternatives to moderate growth.
Moderate-growth assumptions

Population. The middle-growth projections of the U.S.
population, developed by the Bureau of the Census in
1983, were chosen for the moderate-growth scenario. Be­
tween 1984 and 1995, the population age 16 and over is
projected to increase 19.8 million, an average annual rate
of growth of 1.0 percent. As in prior projections, the rate
of population growth slows over the projection pe­
riod, dropping from 1.2 percent annually between
1984 and 1990 to 0.8 percent a year between 1990 and
1995.
The civilian labor force is expected to grow slightly
faster, reflecting generally increasing participation rates
and the shift of persons into age categories With tradi­
tionally higher labor force participation. The civilian
labor force is projected to attain a level of 129.2 million
by 1995, an increase of about 15 million from 1984. This
represents average annual growth of 1.3 percent for
1984-90, and 1 percent for 1990-95.

Monetary policy. Monetary policy is best described as
accommodative. Money supply growth (M2) has been set
to parallel projected growth in nominal GNP. Thus,
monetary policy does not interrupt growth by being too
restrictive nor does it re-initiate the inflationary spiral of
the 1970’s by being too loose.
The money supply, which largely determines the level
of interest rates, coupled with the decline in the Federal
deficit as percent of GNP, brings both short-and-long-

Fiscal policy. General fiscal restraint throughout the re­
mainder of this decade is the basic assumption of the
moderate-growth projection for government expenditure
and tax policies. Federal defense purchases of goods and
services are assumed to increase at a real rate of 5.3 per­



105

term interest rates down, dropping about 3-4 percentage
points over the 10-year horizon of the projections.

During the 1984-90 period, the high-growth alternative
is characterized by a rate of real GNP growth of 4.0 per­
cent annually, compared to 3.0 percent in the moderategrowth version. Between 1990 and 1995, real GNP growth
is projected to be at rates of 3.5 and 2.8 percent,
respectively.
Within GNP, the component most sensitive to the
alternative assumptions is business investment, especially
investment in equipment. This is largely because of a
higher overall GNP, lower interest rates, and a decline
in the user cost of capital relative to labor.
Higher income growth in this set of projections affects
several significant areas. Purchases of consumer durables
are expected to be $43.1 billion higher than in the
moderate-growth version. Greater income growth also
leads to increased demand for imports. However,
favorable world economic conditions and a stable rate
of inflation will spark demand for U.S. exports, thus
creating a trade surplus of $25.2 billion. Finally, higher
rates of income growth mean greater government
revenues, which lead to a balanced Federal budget by
1995.
Although Federal expenditures are the same in all three
versions, State and local government spending is pro­
jected to vary. Expenditures by States and localities are
expected to be $357.9 billion in the high-growth alter­
native, compared to $345.9 billion in the moderategrowth version.

Foreign a ctivity. Estimates of imports and exports are
affected in the projections by both domestic and foreign
economic activity. It is assumed that real economic
growth for the major trading partners of the United States
will more or less parallel real U.S. GNP growth. World
gross domestic product (less that of the United States and
centrally planned economies) is assumed to increase at
an average annual rate of 3.5 percent between 1984 and
1990, and at a rate of 2.7 percent annually, 1990-95. The
average gross domestic product deflator for the same
economic grouping is assumed to increase at 5.6 percent
annually and 5.1 percent annually for the 1984-90 and
1990-95 periods, respectively. Additionally, the weighted
average exchange rate for the U.S. dollar is expected to
drop vis-a-vis other currencies to approximately its 1980
level by 1995.

Energy. The price (in 1984 dollars) of imported crude
oil (f.o.b) is assumed to decline from $28 per barrel in
1984 to $23 in 1995.

U nem ploym ent. A target path for civilian unemploy­
ment was also selected. A smooth decline is assumed,
from 7.5 percent in 1984 to 6.3 percent in 1990 and 6.0
percent in 1995.

L o w -g ro w th . In this alternative, a relatively more
consumer-oriented growth path is assumed, with less
relative investment growth and much lower productivity.
It also assumes the labor force will expand less rapidly
and the unemployment rate will not improve over cur­
rent levels.
Real GNP is projected to be $234 billion lower than
in the moderate-growth scenario. Slower economic
growth has a significant effect upon purchases of con­
sumer durables and business investment. Consumption
of consumer durables is 6.5 percent below the moderategrowth scenario. By 1995, total investment is 7.6 percent
below the moderate-growth version. Dampened capital
goods spending leads to lower productivity over the en­
tire period.
Although a lower level of economic activity will reduce
the demand for imports, export growth will be hampered
even more. The result will be a trade deficit of $47 billion
for the low-growth alternative, which is significantly
greater than the $12 billion deficit projected by the
moderate-growth case.
With lower receipts forthcoming from a sluggish
economy, the Federal deficit in nominal terms is projected
to reach nearly $500 billion by 1995, versus $267.9 billion
in the moderate-growth case. Like Federal receipts, those
of States and localities are projected to decline. Because
State and local government spending is closely tied to

G eneral assum ptions. Further assumptions include
smooth growth with no business cycle fluctuations or
major economic upheavals—such as major wars or price
shocks.
Alternatives to moderate growth
The high- and low-growth versions of the projections
have been prepared with variations in those responses to
economic policy that have the greatest impact on in­
dustrial employment and occupational projections.
Except for Federal spending programs that are respon­
sive to economic stimuli, fiscal and monetary policies are
the same for all three scenarios. By 1995, real GNP is
expected to range between $2.2 and $3.5 trillion, accom­
panied by unemployment rates of 7.0 and 5.0 percent for
the low and high projections, respectively. Each of the
alternatives is summarized below.

H igh-grow th. This alternative differs from the moderategrowth version primarily in the 1984-90 period. The
assumptions underlying the high-growth scenario are that
the civilian labor force will increase more rapidly than
in the moderate-growth alternative, reaching 133 million
by 1995, and the unemployment rate will drop to 5 per­
cent. Also, productivity gains will be higher than those
in the moderate-growth projections.



106

revenues, spending in the low-growth scenario is projected
to be $28 billion below the moderate-growth alternative.
Projection methods
The labor fo rc e projections are developed from Bureau
of the Census population projections by age, sex, and
race, based on trends in birth rates, death rates, and net
migration. BLS projects labor force participation rates—
the percent of each group in the population who will be
working or seeking work—for 82 age, sex, and race
groups. The labor force participation rate for each group
is developed by: (a) Analyzing past rates of change over
the 1962-84 period or for selected subperiods; (b) select­
ing the rate for a period deemed most appropriate for
each group; and (c) modifying that rate if past trends are
judged not likely to continue throughout the entire pro­
jection period. The levels of the anticipated labor force
are then calculated by applying the projected participa­
tion rates to the Bureau of the Census population
projections.
The aggregate econom ic projections, or gross national
p ro d u ct, in total and by major demand and income
category, start with the BLS labor force and Census
population projections as inputs. Consistent economic
scenarios are developed to provide aggregate controls for
the various categories of demand and employment. These
scenarios are selected to encompass a likely range of
economic growth in the future. Later stages of the pro­
jection process develop industry-level projections consis­
tent with these aggregate data.
The model used by the Bureau to develop aggregate
economic projections is selected through a competitive
procurement process. The most recent award was to
Wharton Econometrics. The Wharton long-term model
is a system of behavioral relationships and identities based
on annual data and designed to allow an analyst to ex­
plore the determinants of medium- to long-term growth
in the U.S. economy. Made up of approximately 2,400
equations, the model is driven by a set of 900 exogenous
variables. Under the terms of the agreement, the Bureau
uses the Wharton long-term macroeconomic model to
develop the BLS projections. However, assumptions and
values for exogenous variables and equation adjustments
are determined by BLS analysts in the process of
delineating the alternative projections to be developed.
The exogenous variables include true policy variables,
such as various Federal transfer programs, the response
of the monetary authority to growth in the economy, and
the level of the Armed Forces. They also include variables
for which other reliable and generally accepted projec­
tions are available, such as the population projections
developed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Finally, the
exogenous variables incude those items that the model
was not designed to project or that are simply too volatile
for statistical methods to yield reliable results. The former
group includes such items, as economic growth and in­




107

flation rates in the economies of the major trading part­
ners of the United States and the long-term behavior of
the U.S. dollar’s exchange value. The latter group in­
cludes items such as energy prices.
For the industry o u tp ut projections, the U.S. economy
is disaggregated to 156 producing sectors, an exhaustive
grouping which combines both the public and private sec­
tors. The framework is an input-output model prepared
for a base period by the Bureau of Economic Analysis
of the U.S. Department of Commerce. The first step at
the industry level is to disaggregate the GNP estimate to
a set of demands by industry which matches the industry
detail in the input-output model. This projected industry
demand, in conjunction with a projected input-output
table, is used to calculate total industrial production. The
projected changes in input-output coefficients in the
input-output model capture—among other factors—
expected changes in technology. Finally, the employment
necessary to produce those levels of output is estimated
through the use of projected industry productivity
measures.
Aggregate demand projections are available from the
macro model for 14 categories of consumption, 4 types
of investment, 15 end-use categories of foreign trade, and
6 categories of government spending. Where possible, a
further disaggregation of the control values is undertaken:
Purchases of producers’ durable equipment, for exam­
ple, are estimated for 107 consuming industries. Govern­
ment spending in each of the six functional areas is
separated among new construction, employee compen­
sation, and all other expenditures.
To allow for shifts in the composition of aggregate
demand and in the industrial makeup of a given demand
category, “bridge tables” are projected. The bridge table
is a percent distribution for each given demand category,
such as for a consumption category or for investment,
among each of the 156 industries in the BLS input-output
model. In projecting changes in these bridge tables, ex­
pected changes in consumer tastes or buying patterns, in
the industrial pattern of exports and imports, or in the
future composition of each industry’s business investment
are considered. The bridge table distributions also reflect
the effects of technological and other structural changes
on the economy.
The projection of the input-output table accounts for
the changes in the input pattern for each industry. In
general, two types of changes are made: (a) Those made
to the inputs of a specific industry (as the changes in
inputs in the aluminum industry); and, (b) those made
to the inputs of all or most industries for a specific
commodity or service (as for increased use of business
services across a wide spectrum of industries). These
changes are based on studies of specific industries con­
ducted internally or by other organizations both within
and outside of government. Changing the projected in­
put patterns in the input-output table is the procedure

used to accommodate the impact of expected relative
price changes or changes in technology. Output re­
quirements by industry are the result of multiplying the
projected input-output table by projected changes in the
level and distribution of final demand.
The projected changes in industry output are impor­
tant factors determining the p ro je ctio n s o f in du stry
em ploym ent. However, converting output projections
into employment estimates requires projections of
changes in productivity and average hours for each
industry. This is accomplished using a regression model
with an equation for each industry that estimates worker
hours as a function of the following variables: (1) The
industry’s output, (2) aggregate capacity utilization, (3)
the relative price of labor, and (4) a technology variable
as approximated by the output/capital ratio. Worker
hours are then converted into jobs by dividing by average
annual hours, which are projected from past trends. The
sum of employment by industry is controlled to total
employment as estimated in the macro model. Several
iterations are usually necessary to achieve a reasonable
balance.
Projections of employment for the 156 sectors in the
Economic Growth Model are disaggregated to 378 in­
dustries corresponding to the 3-digit Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC). This is done to match the industry
mix of the industry-occupation matrix described later.
The disaggregated 3-digit SIC industry employment pro­
jections are reviewed in light of a broad range of
economic information. When the industry projections are
considered final, they are used as inputs to the process
of projecting occupational employment.
One of the main resources in making occupational




em ploym ent p ro je ctio n s is the industry-occupation
matrix. This matrix is produced from data collected by
State employment security agencies and brought together
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to produce national,
estimates. The data are collected from employers on a
3-year cycle—manufacturing one year, some nonmanufacturing industries the next year, and the rest of
nonmanufacturing the final year. The staffing patterns
for each industry are benchmarked to industry
employment levels for the base year of the projections.
Industry data for each occupation are summed to develop
national employment estimates. The matrix contains over
550 detailed occupations, although most industries do not
have employment in many of these occupations.
The major occupational cells of the industryoccupation matrix for the base year are reviewed and ad­
justments are made to the cells in the projected matrix
to account for expected changes resulting from
technological change, shifts in the product mix, and other
factors. The changes introduced into the input-output
model for expected technological change may also change
the future staffing patterns in industries using the new
technology. (For example, one would expect greater
employment of computer specialists as computer
technology spreads across industries.) The projected
industry employment data are applied to the projected
industry occupational-employment patterns and the
results are aggregated to yield total occupational employ­
ment for the projected year.
For a more detailed discussion of the projections pro­
cess, see E m p lo ym e nt P ro je ctio n s f o r 1995: D a ta and
M ethods, Bulletin 2253 (Bureau of Labor Statistics,
1986).

108

Appendix B. Detailed
Occupational Projections

alternative 1995 projections (see discussion of projections
in appendix A), and the 1984-95 percent change.

This appendix presents 1984 employment for 500
detailed occupations with 5,000 workers or more, three

Table B-1. Civilian employment in occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1984 and projected 1995

Occupation

Total employment (in thousands)
1995
1984
Low
Moderate
High
trend
trend
trend

Percent change, 1984-95
Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

Total, all occupations...................................
Managerial and management-related
occupations..........................................................
Managerial and administrative occupations ..
Elementary and secondary school
principals and assistant principals........
Food service and lodging managers........
Public adminstrators, chief executives,
legislators, and general administrators..
All other managers and administrators . . .

106,842.9

117,268.3

122,760.5

127,718.2

9.8

14.9

19.5

11,274.3
8,832.8

13,139.3
10,247.0

13,761.5
10,739.1

14,309.5
11,176.3

16.5
16.0

22.1
21.6

26.9
26.5

124.6
656.7

133.2
711.4

137.0
745.9

141.5
777.7

6.9
8.3

10.0
13.6

13.6
18.4

141.0
7,910.5

153.6
9,248.8

157.8
9,698.3

162.1
10,095.0

9.0
16.9

12.0
22.6

15.0
27.6

Management support occupations.................
Accountants and auditors .........................
Assessors ...................................................
Claims examiners, property and
casualty insurance...................................
Compliance and enforcement inspectors,
except construction.................................
Construction and building inspectors . . . .
Cost estimators...........................................
Personnel specialists and related workers .
Claims takers, unemployment benefits .
Employment interviewers, private or
public employment service ..............
Personnel, training, and labor
relations specialists ...........................
Special agents, insurance ...................
Purchasing agents and buyers.................
Purchasing agents, except wholesale,
retail, and farm products...................
Wholesale and retail buyers, except
farm products.....................................
Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue
agents........................................................
Underwriters...............................................
All other management support workers ..
Engineers, architects, and surveyors...................
Engineers..........................................................
Aeronautical and astronautical engineers .
Chemical engineers.............................
Civil engineers, including traffic engineers .
Electrical and electronics engineers........
Industrial engineers, except safety
engineers..................................................
Mechanical engineers ...............................

2,441.5
881.9
19.9

2,892.4
1,134.6
21.6

3,022.5
1,188.5
22.2

3,133.2
1,235.3
22.8

22.7

27.7

29.2

30.3

18.5
28.7
8.6
22.1

23.8
34.8
11.5
28.4

28.3
40.1
14.5
33.4

121.5
55.1
114.4
319.2
23.3
71.9
198.2
25.8
417.9
188.6

128.7
57.6
129.6
365.4
22.7
90.5
223.2
28.9
460.4
216.4

131.2
59.2
135.7
381.0
23.4
94.6
232.4
30.5
482.2
224.5

133.6
60.7
140.4
394.1
24.0
98.1
240.1
31.8
500.4
231.7

5.9
4.4
13.3
14.5
-2 .5
25.9
12.6
11.9
10.2
14.7

229.3

244.0
50.5
90.1
426.2
1,895.7
1,734.4
59.9
66.1
214.0
571.4
154.1
303.1

257.6
50.7
95.3
447.3
1,979.7
1,811.4
62.3
69.4
221.8
596.6
161.7
317:3

268.7

6.4

8.0
7.4
18.6
19.3
.1
31.7
17.3
18.3
15.4
19.1
12.4

9.9
10.0
22.7
23.5
2.8
36.6
21.2
23.3
19.8
22.9
17.2

50.9
99.5
465.2
2,050.5
1,876.7
63.9
72.3
228.7
617.2
168.2
329.5

-3 .3
15.4
18.9
29.1
30.3
24.6
18.0
22.1
46.3
23.4
28.0

-2 .8
22.1
24.8
34.8
36.1
29.5
23.9
26.5
52.8
29.4
34.0

-2 .5
27.4
29.8
39.7
41.0
32.9
29.0
30.5
58.1
34.7
39.2

52.2
78.1
358.5
1,468.3
1,331.2
48.1
56.0
175.3
390.5
124.9
236.7

See footnote at end of table.



109

Table B-1. Continued— Civilian employment in occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1984 and projected 1995

Occupation
Metallurgists and metallurgical, ceramic,
and materials engineers.........................
Mining engineers, including mine safety
engineers..................................................
Nuclear engineers .....................................
Petroleum engineers .................................
Other engineers.........................................
Architects, including landscape architects ...
Surveyors..........................................................
Natural, computer, and mathematical
scientists..............................................................
Computer systems analysts, electronic
data processing..............................................
Life scientists....................................................
Agricultural and food scientists.................
Biological scientists...................................
Foresters and conservation scientists . . . .
All other life scientists...............................
Mathematical scientists...................................
Actuaries......................................................
Statisticians..................................................
Mathematicians and all other
mathematical scientists...........................
Physical scientists............................................
Chemists......................................................
Geologists, geophysicists, and
oceanographers.......................................
Meteorologists..............................................
Physicists and astronomers.......................
All other physical scientists.......................
Social scientists......................................................
Economists........................................................
Psychologists....................................................
Sociologists ......................................................
Urban and regional planners...........................
All other social scientists.................................
Social, recreational, and religious w orkers........
Clergy................................................................
Directors, religious activities and education..
Recreation workers .........................................
Social workers..................................................
Lawyers and judges ..............................................
Judges, magistrates, and other judicial
workers............................................................
Lawyers..............................................................
Teachers, librarians, and counselors...................
Teachers, preschool, kindergarten, and
elementary......................................................
Teachers, preschool...................................
Teachers, kindergarten and
elementary................................................
Teachers, secondary school...........................
College and university faculty.........................
Other teachers and instructors.......................
Farm and home management advisors ..
Graduate assistants, teaching...................
Instructors, adult (nonvocational)
education..................................................
Teachers and instructors, vocational
education and training.............................
All other teachers and instructors............
Librarians, archivists, curators, and related
workers............................................................

Total employment (in thousands)
1995
1984
Low
Moderate
High
trend
trend
trend

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

19.1

22.3

23.4

24.6

16.7

22.8

29.2

7.2
9.7
22.3
241.4
93.0
44.1

7.3
10.2
24.8
301.2
112.8
48.5

7.6
10.5
26.1
314.7
118.1
50.2

7.8
10.8
27.2
326.4
122.0
51.8

1.6
5.1
11.3
24.8
21.3
9.9

5.5
8.7
16.9
30.4
27.0
13.9

8.9
11.5
21.9
35.2
31.2
17.5

657.7

886.3

920.9

950.9

34.8

40.0

44.6

308.1
112.8
20.2
54.2
25.3
13.1
51.0
7.7
22.7

497.8
126.0
22.4
61.9
26.8
14.8
60.6
11.0
25.5

519.8
129.1
23.0
63.6
27.0
15.4
62.7
11.6
26.5

538.7
132.1
23.5
65.2
27.3
16.0
64.5
12.1
27.3

61.5
11.7
11.1
14.3
6.0
12.9
18.7
43.6
12.5

68.7
14.5
14.0
17.4
7.0
17.4
22.9
51.5
16.6

74.8
17.1
16.6
20.4
8.1
22.1
26.5
58.0
20.2

20.6
185.7
85.5
46.2
5.5
19.5
29.0
185.9
38.2
96.9
5.6
17.1
28.1
788.9
296.4
34.2
122.9
335.5
523.5
33.1
490.4
4,509.7

24.0
202.0
90.1
51.4
6.2
20.7
33.7
211.6
44.2
113.1
5.8
18.1
30.4
878.4
303.4
35.0
143.8
396.1
674.3
39.2
635.1
4,815.0

24.6
209.3
94.0

25.1
215.6
97.3

16.3
8.8
5.4

19.2
12.7
10.0

21.6
16.1
13.9

53.1
6.4
21.2
34.6
219.2
45.5
118.0
5.9
18.7
31.1
910.4
315.0
36.3
149.1
410.1
704.7
40.2
664.5
4,965.5

54.6
6.4
21.7
35.5
225.6
46.6
122.1
6.1
19.2
31.7
946.4
328.4
37.9
154.9
425.2
731.7
41.2
690.5
5,131.2

11.1
13.5
5.8
16.1
13.8
15.8
16.7
2.8
6.1
8.1
11.3
2.4
2.4
17.1
18.1
28.8
18.5
29.5
6.8

14.8
15.6
8.7
19.4
17.9
19.2
21.8
5.8
9.1
10.5
15.4
6.3
6.1
21.3
22.2
34.6
21.4
35.5
10.1

18.0
17.4
11.1
22.5
21.4
22.2
26.0
8.8
12.1
12.5
20.0
10.8
10.8
26.1
26.8
39.8
24.3
40.8
13.8

1,659.7
278.3

1,921.9
306.8

1,981.1
319.1

2,046.7
330.2

15.8
10.3

19.4
14.7

23.3
18.7

1,381.4
1,045.3
731.3
747.1
26.7
145.4

1,615.1
1,062.2
635.7
833.2
23.4
133.5

1,662.0
1,093.0
654.1
863.7
24.1
137.4

1,716.5
1,128.7
675.5
894.5
24.9
141.9

16.9
1.6
-13.1
11.5
-12.3
-8 .2

20.3
4.6
-10.6
15.6
-9 .6
-5 .5

24.3
8.0
-7 .6
19.7
-6 .7
-2 .4

131.7
124.4
318.8

160.8
133.7
381.7

165.7
138.2
398.3

170.9
143.0
413.7

22.1

29.7

7.5
19.7

25.8
11.1
24.9

15.0
29.8

174.1

186.2

191.8

197.9

7.0

10.2

13.7

See footnote at end of table.



Percent change, 1984-95

110

Table B-1. Continued— Civilian employment In occupationa with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1984 and projected 1995

Occupation

Total employment (in thousands)
1995
1984
Low
High
Moderate
trend
trend
trend

Percent change, 1984-95
Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

Audio-visual specialists .............................
Curators, archivists, museum
technicians, and restorers.......................
Librarians ....................................................
Counselors ........................................................

7.8

8.3

8.6

8.9

7.4

10.5

13.9

11.4
154.9
152.3

12.0
165.9
175.7

12.2
171.0
181.7

12.5
176.5
188.0

4.6
7.1
15.4

6.9
10.4
19.3

Health diagnosing and treating occupations___
Chiropractors....................................................
Dentists..............................................................
Dietitians and nutritionists...............................
Opticians, dispensing and measuring ..........
Optometrists......................................................
Pharmacists......................................................
Podiatrists..........................................................
Physician assistants.........................................
Physicians and surgeons.................................
Registered nurses...........................................
Therapists..........................................................
Occupational therapists.............................
Physical therapists.....................................
Recreational therapists...............................
Respiratory therapists.................................
Speech pathologists and audiologists___
All other therapists.....................................
Veterinarians and veterinary inspectors........

2,609.8
31.4
156.1
47.7
41.5
28.7
151.5
10.9
25.1
475.7
1,376.8
224.9
25.5
58.3
17.2
54.9
47.1
21.9
39.6

3,203.5
38.9
184.6
57.9
48.9
34.5
158.5
14.8
33.4
556.4
1,753.1
275.8
32.2
79.1
20.4
63.5
53.5
27.1
46.7

3,348.7
40.4
195.2
60.0
51.1
36.3
166.1
15.2
35.2
584.9
1,828.8
287.1
33.4
83.0
21.1
66.3
55.2
28.1
48.4

3.489.2
42.2
203.0
62.3
53.5
38.4
173.3
15.6
36.6
607.2
1,908.4
298.7
34.8
86.4
21.9
69.5
57.0
29.2
49.9

22.8
23.9
18.2
21.5
17.7
20.3
4.6
35.6
33.2
17.0
27.3
22.6
26.5
35.5
18.7
15.6
13.8
23.4
18.0

28.3
28.9
25.1
25.8
23.2
26.7
9.7
38.9
40.3
23.0
32.8
27.7
31.3
42.2
22.7
20.8
17.3
28.1
22.3

9.7
14.0
23.5
33.7
34.4
30.0
30.7
29.0
33.9
14.4
43.1
46.0
27.6
38.6
32.8
W
#1
27.4
26.5
21.1
33.0
26.2

Writers, artists, entertainers, and athletes..........
Artists and commercial artists.........................
Dancers and choreographers.........................
Designers, except interior designers ............
Merchandise displayers and window
trimmers..........................................................
Musicians..........................................................
Photographers and camera operators..........
Producers, directors, actors, and
entertainers....................................................
Public relations specialists and publicity
writers..............................................................
Radio and TV announcers and newscasters .
Reporters and correspondents.......................
Writers and editors, including technical
writers..............................................................
Technician occupations.........................................
Health technicians and technologists............
Dental hygienists.......................................
Dietetic technicians ...................................
Electrocardiograph technicians/
technologists ...........................................
Electroencephalograph technicians/
technologists ............................................
Emergency medical technicians...............
Licensed practical nu rse s.......................
Medical and clinical laboratory
technologists and technicians................
Medical records technicians and
technologists ...........................................
Radiologic technologists and
technicians...............................................
Surgical technicians...................................

1,192.3
203.9
10.1
205.0

1,405.8
251.8
11.9
239.0

1,472.9
263.9
12.3
251.0

1,529.8
273.8
12.7
260.8

17.9
23.5
17.2
16.6

23.5
29.4
21.1
22.4

28.3
34.3
25.1
27.2

20.0
191.5
100.7

22.3
207.7
123.4

23.4
217.2
129.4

11.3
8.5
22.6

49.6

58.1

60.9

24.3
226.3
134.2
63.1

16.5
13.4
28.6
22.9

21.1
18.1
33.3
27.4

95.0
56.1
69.0

119.4
59.9
78.6

125.1
62.4
82.4

129.6
65.2
85.8

31.6
11.3
19.3

36.4
16.2
24.2

191.3
3,049.1
1,188.5
76.2
15.8
21.1
5.9
47.1
601.9

233.7
3,769.6
1,328.9
92.0
18.4
23.5
6.7
49.0
680.1

244.8
3,935.4
1,387.8
98.1
19.1
24.4
7.0
50.5
708.0

254.0
4,087.7
1,447.0
102.1
20.0
25.3
7.3
52.1
738.8

22.2
23.6
11.8
20.8
16.4

28.0
29.1
16.8
28.7
20.5

11.8
14.1
3.9
13.0

15.8
19.6
7.1
17.6

32.8
34.1
21.8
34.0
26.2
20.0
25.1
10.6
22.7

236.4

254.1

264.8

12.0

43.8

45.6

2.6
26.4

7.5

33.3

242.6
42.1

31.4

37.0

114.5
36.3

134.7
39.7

141.4
41.5

147.6
43.4

17.6
9.4

23.5
14.3

28.9
19.7

1,314.2
730.1

1,614.8
978.1

1,685.7
1,022.1

1,746.9
1,059.5

22.9
34.0

28.3
40.0

32.9
45.1

58.3

71.5

74.4

77.1

22.5

27.6

32.2

Engineering and science technicians and
technologists..................................................
Engineering technicians..............................
Civil engineering technicians and
technologists.......................................
See footnote at end of table.



Ill

17.3
25.7
6.7
13.9

Table B-1. Continued— Civilian employment in occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1984 and projected 1995

Occupation
Electrical and electronics technicians
and technologists...............................
Industrial engineering technicians
and technologists...............................
Mechanical engineering technicians
and technologists...............................
All other engineering technicians and
technologists.......................................
Drafters........................................................
Physical and life science technicians and
technologists ............................................
Technicians, except health, engineering,
and science....................................................
Air traffic controllers...................................
Broadcast technicians...............................
Computer programmers.............................
Paralegal personnel...................................
Programmers, numerical, tool, and
process control..........................................
Radio operators ..........................................
Technical assistants, library.......................
Title examiners, searchers, and clerks . ..
All other professional, paraprofessional, and
technical w orkers................................................
Marketing and sales occupations.........................
Cashiers ......................................................
Counter and rental clerks .........................
Insurance sales workers.............................
Manufacturing sales workers.....................
Real estate agents and brokers.................
Brokers, real estate...............................
Sales agents, real e state.....................
Real estate appraisers...............................
Salespersons, re ta il...................................
Securities and financial services sales
workers......................................................
Stock clerks, sales floor.............................
Travel agents..............................................
Wholesale trade sales w orkers.................
All other sales and related workers..........
Administrative support occupations, including
clerical..................................................................
Adjusters and investigators............................. ‘
Adjustment clerks.......................................
Bill and account collectors.........................
Insurance adjusters, examiners, and
investigators..............................................
Insurance appraisers, auto dam age........
Insurance claims and policy
processing clerks.....................................
License clerks..............................................
Welfare eligibility workers and
interviewers ..............................................
Communications equipment operators..........
Telephone operators...................................
Central office operators .......................
Directory assistance operators............
Switchboard operators.........................
Telegraph and teletype operators............
All other communications equipment
operators....................................................

Total employment (in thousands)
1995
1984
Low
Moderate
High
trend
trend
trend

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

404.4

579.1

606.5

629.4

43.2

50.0

55.7

26.9

33.9

26.1

31.4

75.0

35.3
78.1

20.0

54.9

32.2
71.4

30.0

36.6

42.2

185.6
345.2

223.9
366.5

232.3
384.2

239.5
399.7

20.6
6.2

25.1
11.3

238.9

270.2

279.4

287.7

13.1

16.9

29.0
15.8
20.4

546.4
21.9
24.9
341.1
52.7

825.9
22.4
29.0
558.9
99.9

861.9
22.0
30.0
585.8
104.1

893.8
21.5
31.1
609.1
108.0

51.1
2.3
16.3
63.8
89.5

57.7
.5
20.5
71.7
97.5

63.6
-1 .5
24.9
78.5
104.9

10.6
7.1
42.2
20.5

13.4
7.6
44.8
24.1

14.0
7.8
46.0
25.3

14.6
8.1
47.3
26.6

26.0
7.3
6.2
17.7

32.2
10.7
9.0
23.6

37.4
14.2
12.2
29.6

1,050.9

1,221.0

1,308.5

16.2

20.5

24.5

11,172.7
1,902.0
96.0
371.1
1 547.0
362.5
42.7
319.8
37.5
2,732.2

12,697.5
2,343.0
93.1
383.9
569.0
395.5
47.8
347.8
42.3
2,916.1

1,266.5
13,393.0
2,468.5
97.6
405.0
598.0
414.8
49.7
365.1
44.5
3,075.2

13,989.8
2,578.7
101.3
422.0
623.0
431.6
51.6
379.9
45.7
3,212.6

81.3
574.1
71.8
1 1,248.0
4,944.0

107.0
607.2
98.1
1,536.0
5,711.2

113.1
640.8
103.3
1,617.0
6,030.2

117.6
669.9
107.7
1,688.0
6,302.8

13.6
23.2
-3 .0
3.4
4.0
9.1
11.8
8.7
12.6
6.7
31.7
5.8
36.6
23.1
15.5

19.9
29.8
1.7
9.1
9.3
14.4
16.3
14.2
18.7
12.6
39.1
11.6
43.9
29.6
22.0

25.2
35.6
5.6
13.7
13.8
19.0
20.8
18.8
21.8
17.6
44.7
16.7
50.0
35.3
27.5

18,716.4
529.8
64.5
115.2

19,572.0
603.4
73.8
136.8

20,499.3
631.6
77.8
143.7

21,332.3
655.0
81.3
149.6

4.6
13.9
14.3
18.7

9.5
19.2
20.5
24.7

14.0
23.6
26.0
29.9

133.9
7.0

158.1
7.4

165.6
7.8

171.5
8.2

18.1
6.0

23.7
11.9

28.1
16.9

124.6
13.3

131.7
15.0

138.1
15.4

143.0
15.8

5.7
12.9

10.8
16.0

14.7
19.1

59.5
472.5
456.3
76.7
32.2
347.5
7.5
8.7

67.6
534.6
519.2
64.3
28.4
426.4
6.0
9.4

69.5
561.3
545.1
67.8
30.0
447.2
6.3
9.8

71.3
585.0
568.2
70.9
31.3
465.9
6.6
10.2

13.6
13.2
13.8
-16.1
-11.6
22.7
-19.1
7.3

16.8
18.8
19.5
-11.5
-6 .8
28.7
-15.2
12.7

19.9
23.8
24.5
-7 .5
-2 .5
34.1
-11.1
17.2

See footnote at end of table.



Percent change, 1984-95

112

Table B-1. Continued— Civilian employment in occupatione with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1984 and projected 1995

Occupation
Computer operators and peripheral
equipment operators.....................................
Computer operators, except peripheral
equipment................ .................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operators . . . .
Duplicating, mail, and other office machine
operators........................................................
Financial records processing occupations ...
Billing, cost, and rate c le rk s .....................
Billing, posting, and calculating machine
operators....................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing
clerks ........................................................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks.................
Information clerks..............................................
Hotel desk clerks .......................................
New accounts clerks, banking...................
Receptionists and information clerks . . . .
Reservation and transportation ticket
agents and travel c le rk s .........................
Mail and message distribution w orkers........
Mail clerks, except mailing machine
operators and postal service...................
Messengers..................................................
Postal mail carriers.....................................
Postal service clerks...................................
Material recording, scheduling, dispatching,
and distributing occupations.........................
Dispatchers..................................................
Dispatchers, except police, fire, and
ambulance...........................................
Dispatchers, police, fire, and
ambulance...........................................
Meter readers, utilities...............................
Order fillers, wholesale and retail sales ..
Procurement clerks...............................
Production, planning, and expediting
clerks ........................................................
Stock clerks, stockroom, warehouse, or
yard............................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks ...
Weighers, measurers, checkers, and
samplers, recordkeeping.........................
All other material recording, scheduling,
and distributing w orkers.........................
Records processing occupations, except
financial..........................................................
Advertising clerks.......................................
Brokerage clerks.........................................
File clerks....................................................
Library assistants and bookmobile drivers .
Order clerks; material, merchandise,
and service................................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and
timekeeping..................................... ..
Statement clerks.........................................
Secretaries, stenographers, and typists........
Secretaries ..................................................
Stenographers..............................................
Typists..........................................................
Other clerical and administrative support
workers............................................................
Court clerks..................................................
See footnote at end of table.



Total employment (in thousands)
1995
1984
Low
Moderate
High
trend
trend
trend

Percent change, 1984-95
Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

311.5

433.9

454.3

472.1

39.3

45.9

51.6

241.5
70.0

337.1
96.8

352.8
101.5

366.5
105.6

39.6
38.3

46.1
45.0

51.8
50.8

153.0
2,629.3
215.6

170.3
2,675.9
240.4

178.3
2,812.3
253.7

185.3
2,929.4
264.8

11.3
1.8
11.5

16.5
7.0
17.6

21.1
11.4
22.8

233.6

258.3

271.7

283.4

10.6

16.3

21.3

1,972.8
207.3
737.4
98.7
71.6
458.2

2,090.8
196.1
854.9
115.9
81.7
541.6

2,177.5
203.7
894.5
121.9
85.2
566.3

.9
-9.5
9.8
10.0
8.5
11.8

6.0
-5 .4
15.9
17.4
14.1
18.2

10.4
-1.7
21.3
23.5
19.0
23.6

108.9
801.5

1,989.7
187.5
809.9
108.6
77.7
512.3
111.4
756.6

115.7
796.3

121.0
841.8

2.3
-5 .6

6.3
-.7

11.2
5.0

136.4
67.2
281.0
317.0

134.8
74.1
273.4
274.2

139.8
77.6
289.0
289.9

144.1
80.8
308.0
308.9

-1.1
10.3
-2 .7
-13.5 0

2.5
15.6
2.8
-8 .5

5.7
20.3
9.6
-2 .5

2,416.8
203.0

2,426.4
224.7

2,545.2
234.6

2,650.4
243.4

.4
10.7

5.3
15.6

9.7
19.9

144.2

161.2

169.3

176.4

11.8

17.4

22.3

58.8
50.1
226.0
52.7

63.5
50.6
208.1
56.1

65.2
52.9
219.2
58.2

67.0
54.9
228.8
60.0

8.0
1.1
-7.9
6.5

11.0
5.6
-3.0
10.3

14.0
9.7
1.2
13.8

213.6

222.4

232.9

242.4

4.1

787.8
650.8
37.1
195.8

734.1
676.3

771.7
711.3

804.6
742.1

13.5
2.1
14.0

37.1
216.9

38.9
225.6

40.9
233.4

-6.8
3.9
.1
10.7

9.0
-2 .0
9.3
5.1
15.2

10.3
19.2

893.4
11.0
29.3
288.8
122.0

956.9
12.8
33.3
281.7
130.5

1,039.9
13.7
36.5
307.8
138.6

16.4
25.4
24.6
6.6
13.6

337.2

370.1

7.1
16.5
13.5
-2 .4
7.0
13.4

12.0
21.4
19.6
2.4
10.1

297.3
108.4
36.6
4,027.2
2,796.7
239.4
991.1

1,000.8
13.3
35.1
295.8
134.4
354.7

19.3

24.5

122.6
38.8
4,027.4
2,927.7
137.6
962.0

126.9
40.7
4,209.2
3,064.4
142.9
1,001.9

130.8
42.4
4,371.8
3,186.1
147.8
1,037.8

13.1
5.9
.0
4.7
-42.5
-2.9

17.1
11.0
4.5
9.6
-40.3
1.1

20.6
15.6
8.6
13.9
-38.3
4.7

5,743.9
33.1

6,176.7
39.5

6,455.2
40.6

6,707.1
41.7

7.5
19.3

12.4
22.5

16.8
25.8

113

Table B-1. Continued— Civilian employment In occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1984 and projected 1995

Occupation
Credit checkers............................................
Customer service representatives,
utilities ......................................................
Data entry keyers, except composing___
Data keyers, composing.............................
General office clerks .................................
Loan and credit clerks...............................
Municipal clerks..........................................
Proofreaders and copy markers ...............
Real estate clerks.......................................
Statistical clerks.........................................
Teacher aides and educational
assistants..................................................
Tellers..........................................................
All other clerical and administrative
support workers.......................................
Service occupations..............................................
Building service occupations...........................
Janitors and cleaners, including maids
and housekeeping cleaners ...................
Pest controllers and assistants.................
Food and beverage preparers and service
occupations....................................................
Bakers, bread and pastry...........................
Bartenders....................................................
Cooks, except short orde r.........................
Cooks, institutional or cafeteria..........
Cooks, restaurant...................................
Cooks, short order and specialty fast food .
Dining room and cafeteria attendants
and barroom helpers...............................
Food preparation and service workers,
fast fo o d ....................................................
Food preparation workers, except fast
food............................................................
Hosts and hostesses; restaurant, lounge,
and coffee shop.......................................
Waiters and waitresses .............................
All other food service workers...................
Health service and related occupations........
Ambulance drivers and attendants,
except E M T s............................................
Dental assistants .......................................
Medical assistants .....................................
Nursing aides and psychiatric aides........
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants....................................................
Psychiatric aides.........................................
Occupational therapy assistants and
aides..........................................................
Pharmacy assistants...................................
Physical and correctional therapy
assistants and a id e s ...............................
Personal service occupations.........................
Amusement and recreation attendants . ..
Baggage porters and bellhops...................
Barbers........................................................
Childcare workers.......................................
Cosmetologists and related workers........
Flight attendants.........................................
Social welfare service aides.......................
Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket
takers........................................................
Private household w orkers.............................
See footnote at end of table.



Total employment (in thousands)
1995
1984
Low
Moderate
High
trend
trend
trend
33.8
40.7
42.6
44.2
92.0
102.6
108.2
113.2
324.3
319.2
334.2
347.2
21.5
26.9
28.0
29.0
2,397.9
2,510.6
2,628.5
2,733.6
122.7
136.7
143.8
150.0
19.0
20.4
21.0
21.6
21.5
24.6
25.7
26.7
17.2
19.4
20.1
20.7
93.1
77.8
81.3
84.4
478.6
492.6

548.2
491.7

1,608.3

Percent change, 1984-95
Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

20.5

26.0

30.7

11.5
-1 .6
25.1
4.7
11.4
7.4
14.3
12.2
-16.4

17.7
3.1
30.4
9.6
17.2
10.4
19.4
16.4
-12.7

23.1
7.1
35.1
14.0
22.2
13.3
23.9
20.2
-9 .3

586.0
539.1
1,984.1

14.6
-.2
13.9

18.3
4.9

1,831.3

566.4
516.8
1,911.6

18.9

22.4
9.4
23.4

16,581.5
2,981.1

18,890.8
3,273.8

19,728.1
3,425.1

13.9
9.8

2,940.2
40.9

3,233.3
40.5

3,382.8
42.3

20,547.3
3,565.5
3,521.9
43.7

10.0
-.8

19.0
14.9
15.1
3.4

23.9
19.6
19.8
6.9

6,636.7
67.6
400.4
884.3
421.2
463.1
425.2

7,771.7
76.3
489.2
1,049.6
477.9
571.6
476.4

8,130.0
80.5
512.1
1,094.7
493.9
600.8
498.9

8,489.8
84.4
535.1
1,139.9
512.4
627.5
521.4

17.1
12.9
22.2
18.7
13.5
23.4
12.0

22.5
19.1
27.9
23.8
17.3
29.7
17.3

27.9
25.0
33.6
28.9
21.7
35.5
22.6

307.4

363.8

381.4

398.9

18.3

24.1

29.8

1,201.5
986.7

1,353.6

1,416.8

1,480.9

12.7

17.9

23.3

1,155.3

1,205.2

1,258.1

17.1

22.1

27.5

131.5
1,624.6
607.5
1,665.9

160.2
1,953.1
694.4
2,080.5

168.0
2,048.7
723.6
2,163.6

21.8
20.2
14.3
24.9

27.7
26.1
19.1
29.9

33.5
31.8
24.0
35.6

23.0
169.2
127.7
1,268.0

24.0
203.8
195.0
1,567.2

24.7
217.2
206.8
1,620.6

175.7
2,142.0
753.4
2,258.6
25.4
226.0
216.0
1,692.5

7.5
28.4
62.0
27.8

10.6
33.6
69.1
33.5

1,204.4
63.6

1,501.4
65.7

1,552.0
68.6

1,620.6
71.9

4.6
20.5
52.7
23.6
24.7
3.4

28.9
8.0

34.6
13.1

8.0
37.3

9.0
43.4
41.9
1,869.8
188.6
33.2
98.4
626.2
673.8
77.4
126.5

42.0
993.0

44.1
777.8

45.7
811.2

9.3
45.3
44.1
1,949.7
195.7
34.8
103.7
651.3
703.9
81.1
131.5
47.5
839.9

7.7
11.8

32.8
1,574.5
149.3
31.0
94.3
571.6
523.6
64.5
98.2

8.7
41.7
40.2
1,782.2
181.2
31.3
94.2
595.9
639.2
74.4
121.8

11.5
16.5
27.9
18.8
26.3
7.0
4.5
9.5
28.7
20.0
28.8
8.7
-18.3

16.1
21.5
34.6
23.8
31.1
12.3
10.0
13.9
34.4
25.8
34.0
13.1
-15.4

114

22.6
13.2
21.4
.9
-.1
4.2
22.1
15.5
24.1
5.0
-21.7

Table B-1. Continued— Civilian employment in occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1984 and projected 1995

Occupation
Protective service occupations.......................
Correction officers and ja ile rs ...................
Firefighting occupations.............................
Firefighters..............................................
Firefighting and prevention supervisors .
Fire inspectors.......................................
Police and detectives.................................
Police and detective supervisors........
Police detectives and investigators ...
Police patrol officers.............................
Crossing guards.........................................
Guards..........................................................
All other protective service workers ........
All other service occupations .........................

Percent change, 1984-95

Total employment (in thousands)
1995
1984
Low
Moderate
trend
trend
1,923.8
2,226.9
2,306.3
129.8
170.6
175.1
307.7
346.8
355.8
242.6
273.4
280.3
64.1
56.6
65.9
8.5
9.3
9.6
520.3
571.7
585.9
103.9
113.1
115.8
63.6
68.8
69.8
352.8
389.7
400.4
82.1
75.5
79.9
733.0
878.8
920.9
157.5
179.1
186.5
806.5
977.9
1,022.2

High
trend
2,379.2
179.5
364.8
287.3
67.6
9.9
600.2
118.4
70.7
411.1
84.4
957.6
192.6
1,065.1

3,554.4

3,290.6

3,446.7

82.1
740.1
68.8

75.5
798.3
77.5

650.3
21.0
1,079.0
1,442.4
46.1
135.0

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

15.8
31.4
12.7
12.7
13.4
9.7
9.9
8.8
8.2
10.5
5.9
19.9
13.7
21.2

19.9
34.9
156
15.5
16.4
12.9
12.6
11.4
9.6
13.5
8.8
25.6
18.5
26.7

23.7
38.3
18.6
18.4
19.6
16.5
15.4
14.0
11.0
16.5
11.9
30.6
22.3
32.1

3,566.6

-7.4

-3.0

.3

78.4
830.1
80.6

80.8
857.2
82.5

-8.1
7.9
12.7

-4 .5
12.2
17.2

-1 .6
15.8
19.9

699.3
21.5
911.1
1,315.4
41.9
119.4

727.1
22.3
958.1
1,380.4
44.2
125.4

751.8
22.9
988.2
1,431.5
47.0
131.0

7.5
2.0
-15.6
-8.8
-9.1
-11.5

11.8
5.9
-11.2
-4 .3
-4 .2
-7.1

15.6
8.7
-8 .4
-.8
2.1
-3.0

29.6

29.0

30.1

30.9

-2.2

1.7

4.4

Blue-collar worker supervisors.............................

1,469.9

1,481.0

1,555.2

1,622.4

.7

5.8

10.4

Construction trades................................................
Air hammer operators.....................................
Bricklayers and stone m asons.......................
Carpenters........................................................
Carpet installers................................................
Ceiling tile installers and acoustical
carpenters......................................................
Concrete and terrazzo finishers.....................
Drywall installers and finishers.......................
Drywall installers.........................................
Tapers..........................................................
Lathers ........................................................
Electricians........................................................
Glaziers..............................................................
Hard tile setters...............................................
Highway maintenance workers.......................
Insulation workers ...........................................
Painters and paperhangers.............................
Pipelayers and pipelaying fitters.....................
Plasterers..........................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters..........
Roofers..............................................................
Structural and reinforcing metal workers . . . .
Reinforcing metal workers.........................
Structural metal workers ...........................
All other construction trades workers............

3,346.8
9.8
140.3
944.2
70.8

3,583.1
10.2
147.9
997.9
78.3

3,743.1
10.6
155.2
1,045.6
82.1

3,877.2
11.0
160.7
1,084.7
85.5

7.1
3.6
5.4
5.7
10.6

11.8
8.3
10.6
10.7
15.9

15.8
11.8
14.5
14.9
20.8

24.9
105.7
105.9
61.6
30.8
13.5
544.9
37.1
25.0
142.5
52.3
378.0
48.4
20.8
394.6
121.8
86.5
34.7
51.8
93.1

27.6
117.9
112.2
65.5
33.1
13.6
606.1
42.8
27.2
146.8
57.0
378.0
53.6
20.9
436.3
132.0
98.2
39.4
58.7
92.2

28.7
122.9
117.1
68.7
34.3
14.1
633.1
44.8
28.0
150.8
59.4
395.0
55.8
21.6
455.3
138.1
102.4
41.2
61.3
96.7

29.5
126.6
121.0
71.4
35.1
14.4
656.6
46.5
28.6
154.8
61.3
409.2
57.6
22.2
471.5
143.2
105.8
42.5
63.3
101.0

10.9
11.5
6.0
6.2
7.7
.8
11.2
15.2
8.7
3.0
9.0
.0
10.7
.3
10.6
8.4
13.5
13.8
13.3
-1 .0

15.1
16.2
10.6
11.6
11.4
4.3
16.2
20.8
11.8
5.8
13.6
4.5
15.3
3.9
15.4
13.4
18.5
18.8
18.3
3.8

18.4
19.7
14.3
15.9
14.1
7.0
20.5
25.3
14.2
8.6
17.2
8.3
18.9
6.6
19.5
17.5
22.3
22.5
22.2
8.4

175.5
9.6
6.5
15.4

170.0
9.0
6.7
15.8
9.7

177.6
9.5
6.8
16.5

183.6
9.9
7.0
17.0

1.2
-.7
5.1
7.0

10.1

10.5

-3.1
-5.7
2.5
2.6
-14.4

4.6
3.5
7.4
10.3
-7 .4

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related
occupations..........................................................
Supervisors; farming, forestry, and
agriculture related occupations ...................
Agriculture-related occupations.......................
Animal caretakers, except farm ................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except
farm............................................................
Graders and sorters, agricultural products .
Farm workers....................................................
Farmers and farm managers...........................
Fishers, hunters, and trappers.......................
Forestry and logging occupations...................
All other agriculture, forestry, fishery, and
related w orkers.............................................

Extractive and related workers, including
blasters................................................................
Blasters and explosives workers.....................
Continuous mining machine operators..........
Derrick operators, oil and gas extraction . . . .
Mine cutting and channeling machine
operators........................................................
See footnote at end of table.



11.3
115

-10.5

Table B-1. Continued— Civilian employment in occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1984 and projected 1995

Occupation
Rotary drill operators, oil and gas
extraction........................................................
Roustabouts......................................................
All other extractive workers, except
helpers............................................................
Mechanics, installers, and repairers ...................
Communications equipment mechanics,
installation and repair...................................
Central office and PBX installers and
repairers....................................................
Frame wirers, central office.......................
Radio m echanics.......................................
Signal or track switch m aintainors..........
All other communication equipment
mechanics, installation and re p a ir........
Electrical and electronic equipment
mechanics, installers, and repairers___
Data processing equipment repairers___
Electrical installers and repairers,
transportation equipment,
manufacturing ..........................................
Electrical powerline installers and
repairers....................................................
Electric motor, transformer, and related
repairers....................................................
Electronic home entertainment
equipment repairers.................................
Electronics repairers, commercial
and industrial equipment.........................
Station installers and repairers, telephone .
Telephone and cable TV line installers
and repairers............................................
Machinery and related mechanics, installers,
and repairers..................................................
Industrial machinery mechanics..............
Machinery maintenance mechanics,
marine equipment...............................
Machinery maintenance mechanics,
sewing m achine.................................
Machinery maintenance mechanics,
textile machine...................................
Machinery maintenance mechanics,
water and power pla nt.......................
Mine machinery mechanics.................
All other machinery maintenance
mechanics............................................
Machinery maintenance workers...............
Maintenance repairers, general utility .
M illwrights..............................................
Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics
and repairers..................................................
Aircraft mechanics and engine specialists .
Automotive body and related repairers ...
Automotive and motorcycle mechanics...
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel
engine specialists.....................................
Farm equipment mechanics.......................
Mobile heavy equipment mechanics,
except engines..........................................
Rail car repairers.......................................
Small engine specialists.............................
Other mechanics, installers, and repairers ..
Bicycle repairers..........................................

Total employment (in thousands)
1995
1984
Low
Moderate
High
trend
trend
trend

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

24.4
80.9

25.0
77.0

26.1
80.7

27.0
83.6

2.5
-4 .8

7.1
-.3

10.6
3.3

27.3

26.7

27.7

28.5

-2.1

1.6

4.6

4,391.1

4,805.5

5,037.7

5,246.6

9.4

14.7

19.5

72.9
39.4
14.4
8.7
6.8

71.8
42.1
11.7
9.3
5.0

75.6
44.4
12.4
9.7
5.2

79.0
48.4
12.9
10.1
5.4

-1 .5
6.7
-18.6
6.7
-26.8

3.7
12.5
-14.1
11.6
-23.7

8.3
17.6
-10.3
16.1
-19.8

3.6

3.8

4.0

4.2

4.8

10.6

15.6

503.4
49.9

530.3
74.3

556.7
77.9

579.5
81.1

5.4
48.8

10.6
56.2

15.1
62.6

5.6

6.1

6.4

6.6

8.8

14.3

18.9

21.4

24.2

25.5

26.6

12.9

19.0

24.3

24.7

28.5

29.8

30.9

15.2

20.6

25.1

52.4

56.0

59.3

62.3

6.9

13.2

18.9

55.6
110.9

61.8
86.9

63.7
91.6

65.5
95.7

11.1
-21.6

14.4
-17.4

17.6
-13.8

182.8

192.6

202.4

210.8

5.4

10.8

15.4

1,452.5
429.9

1,558.6
442.9

1,631.9
463.7

1,702.3
483.5

7.3
3.0

12.4
7.9

26.9
13.2
26.0
32.5
10.6

28.6
10.4
21.0
34.2
9.9

29.9
11.0
22.1
35.9
10.3

31.1
11.5
23.3
37.2
10.7

6.2
-21.0
-19.1
5.4
-6 .3

10.9
-16.7
-14.8
10.4
-2 .6

17.2
12.5
15.4
-12.9
-10.2

320.8
60.6
878.1
83.9

338.8
60.9
970.1
84.7

354.6
63.9
1,014.9
89.4

369.7
66.7
1,057.0
95.1

5.6
.5
10.5
1.0

10.5
5.5
15.6
6.6

15.2
10.1
20.4
13.3

1,576.8
106.4
183.1
921.8

1,785.9
121.6
204.0
1,052.5

1,874.2
124.8
215.2
1,107.3

1,950.6
128.4
224.0
1,154.0

13.3
14.3
11.4
14.2

18.9
17.3
17.5
20.1

23.7
20.7
22.3
25.2

210.7
17.9
77.2
26.9
32.7

246.3
18.8
86.1
20.1
36.5
859.0
11.5

258.9
19.5
89.1
20.9
38.4
899.3
11.9

270.0
20.1

16.9
5.3

28.1
12.7

91.8
22.0
40.3
935.2
12.3

11.6
-25.4
11.6
9.3
6.7

22.8
9.4
15.4
-22.3
17.5
14.5
10.5

785.6
10.8

See footnote at end of table.



Percent change, 1984-95

116

14.5
1.7

18.9
-18.3
23.1
19.0
13.8

Table B-1. Continued— Civilian employment In occupationa with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1984 and projected 1995

Occupation
Coin and vending machine servicers and
repairers....................................................
Electric meter installers and repairers ...
Electromedical and biomedical
equipment repairers.................................
Heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration
mechanics and installers............ ............
Home appliance and power tool repairers .
Mobile home repairers...............................
Musical instrument repairers and tuners .
Office machine and cash register
servicers....................................................
Precision instrument repairers...................
R iggers........................................................
Tire repairers and changers .....................
Watchmakers ..............................................
All other mechanics, installers, and
repairers....................................................
Precision production occupations.........................
Precision food workers ...................................
Bakers, manufacturing...............................
Butchers and meatcutters.........................
Food batchmakers.....................................
All other precision food and related
workers......................................................
Precision metal workers .................................
Boilermakers................................................
Etchers and engravers, hand or machine,
precision....................................................
Hand workers, jewelry and related
products, precision...................................
Jewelers and silversmiths.........................
Layout workers, metal, precision..............
Machinists....................................................
Pattern and model makers, m etal............
Sheet-metal workers...................................
Shipfitters....................................................
Tool-and-die makers...................................
All other precision metal workers ............
Precision printing workers...............................
Bookbinders ................................................
Compositors, typesetters, and arrangers,
precision....................................................
Lithography and photoengraving
workers, precision...................................
All other precision printing workers..........
Precision textile, apparel, and furnishings
workers............................................................
Custom tailors and sewers.........................
Patternmakers and layout workers,
fabrics and apparel.................................
Shoe and leather workers and repairers,
precision....................................................
Upholsterers...............................................
All other precision textile, apparel, and
furnishings workers.................................
Precision woodworkers...................................
Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters ...
Furniture finishers.......................................
Pattern and model makers, w ood............
Wood machinists .......................................
All other precision woodworkers..............
Inspectors and related occupations..............
Inspectors, testers, and graders, precision .
Other production inspectors, testers,
graders, and sorters ...............................
See footnote at end of table.



Total employment (in thousands)
1995
1984
Low
High
Moderate
trend
trend
trend

Percent change, 1984-95
Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

32.9
9.1

35.8
10.4

37.8
10.9

39.5
11.4

8.9
13.5

14.9
19.3

20.2
24.4

6.9

7.6

7.9

8.2

10.1

19.2

173.5
83.0
9.6
9.2

193.6
87.1
9.7
9.8

202.5
92.1
10.5
10.1

210.1
96.5
11.3
10.4

11.6
5.0
1.0
6.3

14.6
16.7
11.0
9.2
9.7

21.1
16.3
17.9
12.7

52.5
57.2
22.0
84.9
14.3

65.1
62.5
23.6
91.0
15.3

68.3
65.4
24.6
96.1
15.6

71.1
68.1
25.7
100.4
16.0

23.9
9.4
7.5
7.1
6.5

30.0
14.4
12.0
13.1
9.0

35.4
19.2
17.1
18.2
11.7

219.7
2,853.6
302.4
48.1
221.5
21.0

236.0
2,991.8
280.1
47.5
203.1
18.0

245.6
3,140.4
293.1
49.6
212.6
18.8

254.1
3,265.8
304.2
51.6
220.4
19.6

7.4
4.8
-7 .4
-1 .3
-8 .3
-14.5

11.8
10.1
-3.1
3.1
-4 .0
-10.4

15.6
14.4
.6
7.3
-.5
-6 .5

11.7
943.7
37.5

11.5
995.5
39.6

12.1
1,044.1
41.4

12.5
1,084.4
43.1

3.0
10.6
10.4

6.9
14.9
14.8

8.9

9.5

9.8

10.1

-1.9
5.5
5.6
7.3

11.0

14.0

8.8
32.4
21.0
354.2
12.7
232.4
13.9
164.8
57.2
113.0
11.3

7.4
33.0
22.4
371.7
12.4
254.4
14.6
172.3
58.0
124.7
12.1
39.4
50.8
22.4

8.3
37.1
24.4
407.1
13.6
273.6
15.6
188.2
63.2
133.9
13.0

-15.8
1.6
6.8
5.0
-1.9
9.5
5.4
4.6
1.5
10.4
7.4

42.0
54.7
24.2

6.6
12.2
14.8

-10.0
8.3
12.1
10.5
3.1
14.1
8.9
9.8
6.3
14.5
11.4
10.4
16.5
19.4

-6.1
14.5
16.5
14.9
7.4
17.8
12.5
14.2
10.5
18.5
15.3
13.8
20.8
23.9

283.8
146.0
12.5
36.8
71.6

-2.5
4.8
-19.2

2.6
10.3
-14.7

-22.8
4.8

-18.6
10.0

6.7
14.6
-11.0
-15.1
14.3

16.9
240.5
123.0
39.1
13.6
53.8
11.0
801.8
314.6
487.1

-17.2
10.1
13.4
4.0
7.8
8.9
4.6
6.3
13.6

-12.8
16.0
19.4
10.4
12.8
15.0
9.6
11.6
19.2

-9 .2
20.7
24.0
15.9
16.9
19.5
13.5
16.4
24.1

2.0

7.2

11.9

266.0
127.4
14.0
43.4
62.6

259.3
133.5
11.3

7.9
35.1
23.5
391.2
13.1
265.1
15.1
181.0
60.8
129.4
12.6
40.7
52.8
23.3
273.0
140.5
11.9

33.5
65.6

35.3
68.9

18.6
199.3
99.2
33.7
11.6
45.0
9.7
688.8
253.5

15.4
219.4
112.5
35.1
12.6
49.0
10.1
731.9
287.9
444.0

16.3
231.2
118.5
37.3
13.1
51.8
10.6
769.0
302.2

36.9
45.3
19.5

435.3

117

466.8

Table B-1. Continued— Civilian employment in occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1984 and projected 1995

Occupation
Other precision workers...................................
Dental laboratory technicians, precision ..
Foundry mold and core makers, precision .
Molders and shapers, except jewelry
and foundry, precision.............................
Patternmakers, model makers, and
related workers, precision.......................
Photographic process workers, precision .
All other precision workers .......................
Machine setters, set-up operators, operators,
and tenders..........................................................
Numerical-control machine-tool operators
and tenders, metal and plastic.....................
Combination machine tool setters, set-up
operators, operators, and tenders..............
Machine tool cutters and formers setters,
operators, and tenders, metal and plastic..
Drilling machine tool setters and set-up
operators, metal and plastic...................
Extruding and drawing machine setters
and set-up operators, metal and
plastic........................................................
Forging machine setters and set-up
operators, metal and plastic...................
Grinding machine setters and set-up
operators, mdtal and plastic...................
Lathe machine tool setters and set-up
operators, metal and plastic...................
Machine forming operators and tenders,
metal and plastic.....................................
Machine tool cutter operators and
tenders, metal and plastic.......................
Milling machine setters and set-up
operators, metal and plastic...................
Press machine setters and set-up
operators, metal and plastic...................
Punching machine setters and set-up
operators, metal and plastic...................
Rolling machine setters and set-up
operators, metal and plastic...................
Sawing machine tool setters and set-up
operators, metal and plastic...................
Shear machine setters and set-up
operators, metal and plastic...................
Metal fabricating machine setters,
operators, and related workers.....................
Metal fabricators, structural metal
products....................................................
Soldering and brazer machine operators,
tenders, setters, and set-up operators ..
Welding machine operators, tenders,
setters, and set-up operators.................
Metal and plastic process machine setters,
operators, and related workers.....................
Electric plating machine operators,
tenders, setters, and set-up operators,
metal and plastic ......................................
Foundry mold assembly and shakeout
workers......................................................
Furnace operators and tenders................
Heaters, metal and plastic.........................
Heating equipment setters and set-up
operators, metal and plastic...................
Heat treating machine operators and
tenders, metal and plastic.......................
See footnote at end of table.



Total employment (in thousands)
1995
1984
Low
Moderate
High
trend
trend
trend
340.4
380.9
400.6
417.2
51.3
57.2
61.3
64.3
21.5
20.9
21.9
22.8
10.7
9.8
10.3
11.1

Percent change, 1984-95
Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

11.9
11.4
-3 .0

17.7
19.4
1.7

22.6
25.3
6.1

4.7

9.1

13.0

6.7
25.1
225.9

6.9
30.5
255.2

7.2
31.9
267.7

7.4
33.1
278.4

4.0
21.2
12.9

7.7
26.9
18.5

11.1
31.8
23.2

5,552.8

5,472.2

5,748.3

5,996.1

-1 .5

3.5

8.0

56.8

70.3

74.1

76.9

23.9

30.5

35.4

107.6

130.8

136.3

140.9

21.6

26.7

30.9

845.7

779.3

820.1

857.4

-7 .9

-3 .0

1.4

64.3

61.0

64.2

66.7

-5 .2

-.2

3.8

27.7

23.7

25.2

27.1

-14.3

-9.1

-2.1

17.8

15.6

16.4

17.1

-12.4

-8.1

-3 .9

94.5

89.4

94.0

97.8

-5 .4

-.5

3.4

97.9

92.9

97.9

101.9

-5.1

.0

4.1

171.4

156.9

164.9

172.6

-8 .5

-3 .8

.7

170.3
35.4

154.8
33.5

162.7

-9.1
-5 .2

-4 .5
-.2

-.4
3.7

48.3

44.5

35.3
46.7

169.6
36.7

58.3
12.3
17.1
19.3

61.3
13.1
18.0
20.5

-7 .8
-7 .7
-20.2
-6 .0
-9 .2

-3 .2

63.2
15.4
18.2
21.3

48.8
63.9
14.5
18.8
21.8

1.0
1.2
-5 .4
3.5
2.2

191.8
43.6

220.0
50.9

231.0

14.7

17.9

20.1

53.3
21.2

240.3
55.0

130.3
303.7

148.9

-3 .0
-14.6
-1 .0
-4 .0

25.3

16.9

20.5
22.3

26.3

22.0

12.6

18.5

23.2

156.5

163.3

14.3

20.1

25.3

342.5

362.1

382.2

12.8

19.2

25.9

48.2
6.0
22.1
5.5
7.6

54.6
5.2
21.5
5.4

60.1
5.9
24.6
6.4

13.4
-14.0
-2 .9
-2.1

8.8

21.2

21.3

22.4

23.8

4.7
.4

19.4
-8 .4
3.1
4.8
10.3
5.7

24.7
-1 .7
11.3
15.9

8.0

57.5
5.5
22.8
5.8
8.4

118

16.1
12.3

Table B-1. Continued— Civilian employment in occupationa with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1984 and projected 1995

Occupation
Metal molding machine operators,
tenders, setters, and set-up operators ..
Nonelectric plating machine operators,
tenders, setters, and set-up operators,
metal and plastic.....................................
Plastic molding machine operators,
tenders, setters, and set-up operators ..
All other metal and plastic machine
setters, operators, and related workers .
Printing, binding, and related workers..........
Bindery machine operators, setters, and
set-up operators.......................................
Printing press operations...........................
Letterpress setters and set-up
operators.............................................
Offset lithographic press setters and
set-up operators.................................
Printing press machine operators
and tenders.........................................
All other printing press setters and
set-up operators.................................
Photoengraving and lithographic
machine operators and tenders............
Photoengraving and lithographing
photographers.........................................
Screen printing machine setters and
set-up operators.......................................
Typesetting and composing machine
operators and tenders.............................
All other printing, binding, and related
workers......................................................
Textile and related setters, operators, and
related w orkers.............................................
Extruding and forming machine operators
and tenders, synthetic fiber.....................
Laundry and drycieaning machine
operators and tenders, except
pressers ....................................................
Pressing machine operators and tenders,
textile, garment, and related...................
Sewing machine operators, garment........
Sewing machine operators, non-garment .
Shoe sewing machine operators and
tenders......................................................
Textile bleaching and dyeing machine
operators and tenders.............................
Textile draw-out machine operators and
tenders......................................................
Textile machine operators, tenders,
setters, and set-up operators, winding ..
Woodworking machine setters, operators,
and other related workers.............................
Head sawyers.............................................
Sawing machine operators, tenders,
setters, and set-up operators ................
Woodworking machine operators
tenders, setters, and set-up operators ..
Other machine setters, set-up operators,
and tenders....................................................
Boiler operators and tenders, low pressure
Cementing and gluing machine operators
and tenders..............................................
Chemical equipment controllers, opera­
tors, and tenders.....................................
Cooking machine operators and tenders,
food and tobacco.....................................
See footnote at end of table.



Total employment (in thousands)
1995
1984
Low
Moderate
High
trend
trend
trend

Percent change, 1984-95
Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

37.1

37.6

39.7

41.8

1.3

6.9

12.5

12.2

13.9

14.6

15.4

13.7

19.9

26.1

143.7

175.0

185.3

195.4

21.8

29.0

36.0

95.3
406.7

102.7
442.6

107.8
460.9

113.1
477.9

7.7
8.8

13.1
13.3

18.6
17.5

69.6
222.1

79.1
238.6

82.4
248.0

85.6
256.9

13.6
7.4

18.3
11.7

23.0
15.7

20.6

18.9

19.6

20.4

- 8.2

-4 .6

-1.1

69.5

75.8

78.5

81.1

9.2

13.0

16.7

112.8

122.9

128.1

8.9

19.2

21.0

21.8

133.1
22.4

9.4

13.6
13.4

17.9
16.7

9.1

10.4

11.3

14.7

20.1

24.8

20.2

23.3

10.9
24.2

25.1

15.6

20.1

24.4

14.6
35.8

15.1

16.4

3.2
5.6

35.2

38.2

40.1

40.8
41.7

8.0
9.9

12.4

37.9

15.8
39.4

8.6

13.9

18.5

1,422.1

1,189.7

1,252.7

1,309.6

-16.3

-11.9

-7 .9

18.7

16.9

17.8

18.5

-9 .4

-4 .8

-.8

125.3
116.2
675.6
135.6
32.8
23.3

134.4

140.9

7.3

12.5

18.0

106.0
563.1
135.1
22.5
19.8

-31.5
-14.9

-5.1
-13.2
4.5
-27.7
-10.4

12.8
234.7

13.5
246.7

-13.3
-20.9
-5 .4
-36.1
-19.3
-24.4
-19.9

-8 .8
-16.7
-.4

16.1
278.5

100.8
534.3
128.2
21.0
18.8
12.2
223.0

147.8
110.4
586.4
141.7

-20.3
-15.7

-16.1
-11.4

145.1
9.9
62.5

149.5
9.6
64.7

156.7
9.9

161.9
10.1

8.0
.1

67.9

70.3

3.0
-2 .7
3.4

8.6

11.6
2.2
12.4

72.6
1,978.2
44.2

75.2

81.5

2,044.9
45.4

78.8
2,146.7
47.1

44.5

42.4

77.0
14.2

75.2
12.7
119

23.8
20.9

13.8

8.5

12.2

2,236.0
48.8

3.5
3.4
2.8

8.5
6.6

13.0
10.4

44.7

46.4

-4 .7

.4

79.2
13.4

82.6
14.0

-2 .2

3.0
-5 .6

4.2
7.4

-10.3

-1 .8

Table B-1. Continued— Civilian employment in occupations with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1984 and projected 1995

Occupation
Crushing and mixing machine operators
and tenders..............................................
Cutting and slicing machine operators
and tenders..............................................
Dairy processing equipment operators,
including setters.......................................
Electronic semiconductor processors___
Extruding and forming machine operators
and tenders..............................................
Furnace, kiln, or kettle operators and
tenders......................................................
Motion picture projectionists.....................
Packaging and filling machine operators
and tenders..............................................
Painting machine operators and tenders .
Painters, transportation equipment..........
Paper goods machine setters and set-up
operators....................................................
Photographic processing machine opera­
tors and tenders.......................................
Roasting machine operators and tenders,
food and tobacco.....................................
Separating and still machine operators
and tenders..............................................
Tire building machine operators..............
All other machine operators, tenders,
setters, and set-up operators................
Hand working occupations, including
assemblers and fabricators . . ...........................
Precision assemblers.......................................
Aircraft assemblers, precision...................
Electrical and electronic equipment
assemblers, precision.............................
Electromechanical equipment assemblers,
precision....................................................
Fitters, structural metal, precision............
Machine builders and other precision
machine assemblers...............................
Watch and clock assemblers and related
workers, precision...................................
All other precision assemblers, m etal___
Other hand workers, including assemblers
and fabricators................................................
Cannery workers.........................................
Cutters and trimmers, hand.......................
Electrical and electronic assemblers........
Machine assemblers. . . .............................
Meat, poultry, and fish cutters and
trimmers, hand.........................................
Metal pourers and casters, basic shapes .
Molders and casters, hand .......................
Painting, coating, and decorating
workers, hand............................................
Portable machine cutters...........................
Pressers, hand............................................
Sewers, h a n d ..............................................
Welders and cutters...................................
All other assemblers, fabricators, and
hand workers
Plant and system occupations.............................
Chemical plant and system operators___
Gaugers........................................................
Petroleum refinery and control panel
operators....................................................

Total employment (in thousands)
1995
1984
Low
Moderate
High
trend
trend
trend

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

122.3

119.1

125.2

130.9

-2 .6

2.4

7.0

61.5

59.0

61.9

64.3

-3 .9

.8

4.6

16.3
30.4

13.5
36.2

14.1
38.1

14.7
39.5

-17.2
18.9

-13.3
25.4

-9 .3
29.9

70.9

72.1

75.9

79.3

1.7

7.0

11.9

62.8
15.5

47.1
13.6

49.7
14.0

52.1
14.6

-25.0
-12.6

-20.9
-9 .8

-17.0
-5 .8

369.0
68.8
60.4

381.9
72.1
66.2

401.8
76.0
69.5

419.3
79.4
72.2

3.5
4.8
9.7

8.9
10.4
15.0

13.6
15.4
19.6

60.4

59.2

64.8

-2.1

3.5

7.3

26.4

31.9

62.5
33.4

34.8

26.8

12.1

10.6

11.1

11.5

20.9
-12.4

-8 .5

31.8
-4 .9

23.6
13.4

22.5
10.0

23.7
10.4

24.9
11.1

-4 .9
-25.8

.2
-22.7

5.2
-17.3

784.4

854.2

894.9

930.7

8.9

14.1

18.6

2,624.2
352.8
21.0

2,755.0
398.7
22.9

2,893.1
418.6
24.1

3,015.0
434.4
24.9

5.0
13.0
8.7

10.3
18.6
14.5

14.9
23.1
18.2

175.9

195.6

205.1

11.2

71.8
16.9

75.3
17.7

17.1
17.7

16.6
22.8
23.5

20.9

61.3
14.3

212.6
78.2
18.3

27.6
27.8

52.2
3.9
24.1
2,271.4
77.0
49.5
259.4
51.5

60.5
3.7
27.4

63.7
4.0
28.7

2,356.3
67.7
43.6
287.6
58.7

98.0
12.5
17.1

15.8
-3 .2
13.4

21.9
2.8
19.0

26.7
12.6
23.6

2,474.6
71.6
46.0
301.6
61.5

66.1
4.4
29.8
2,580.6
74.5
48.2
313.1
64.1

3.7
-12.1
-11.9
10.9
14.0

8.9
-7 .0
-7 .0
16.2
19.6

13.6
-3 .3
-2 .7
20.7
24.5

89.8
12.0
16.8

93.1
12.8
17.3

95.5
13.8
17.8

-8 .4
-3 .9
-1 .9

-5 .0
2.3
1.3

-2 .6
10.5
4.5

40.7
18.2
21.6
15.7
308.2

42.6
13.5
17.7
11.6
332.9

45.0
14.3
18.7
12.3
348.7

47.4
14.9
19.4
12.9
363.8

4.6
-25.5
-18.0
-26.1
8.0

10.7
-21.4
-13.6
-21.7
13.1

16.6
-17.8
-9 .9
-17.9
18.1

1,302.1
275.1
35.0
5.7

1,361.9
285.2
34.5
5.2
13.4

1,431.7
297.3
36.4
5.5
13.9

1,495.3
308.7
38.0
5.8
14.5

4.6
3.7
-1 .4
-7 .9

10.0
8.1
3.9
-4 .0
-4.1

14.8
12.2
8.6
1.4

14.5

See footnote at end of table.



Percent change, 1984-95

120

-8 .0

-.5

Table B-1. Continued— Civilian employment in occupation with 5,000 workers or more, actual 1984 and projected 1995

Occupation
Power distributors and dispatchers..........
Stationary engineers...................................
Water and liquid waste treatment plant
and system operators.............................
All other plant and system operators . . . .
Transportation and material moving
machine and vehicle operators.........................
Aircraft pilots and flight engineers.................
Motor vehicle operators...................................
Busdrivers....................................................
Busdrivers, local and intercity............
Busdrivers, school.................................
Taxi drivers and chauffeurs.......................
Truck drivers................................................
Rail transportation workers.............................
Locomotive engineers ...............................
Locomotive firers .......................................
Railroad brake, signal, and switch
operators....................................................
Railroad conductors and yardmasters. . . .
Rail yard engineers, dinkey operators,
and hostlers..............................................
Subway and streetcar operators..............
Water transportation and related
workers............................................................
Captains, water vessel...............................
Mates and able seamen.............................
Ordinary seamen and marine o ile rs ........
Ship engineers...........................................
Parking lot attendants.....................................
Service station attendants...............................
Material moving equipment operators..........
Conveyor operators and tenders...............
Hoist, winch, and crane operators ..........
Industrial truck and tractor operators___
Loading machine operators, underground
mining........................................................
Oil pumpers, except well h e a d .................
Operating engineers...................................
Shuttle car operators.................................
Well head pumpers ...................................
All other transportation and
material moving equipment operators........
Helpers, laborers, and material movers,
hand................................................................
Helpers, construction trades...........................
Helpers, extractive workers.............................
Machine feeders and off bearers...............
Refuse collectors..............................................
Hand packers and packagers.........................
Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners ...
All other helpers, laborers, and material
movers, hand..................................................

Total employment (in thousands)
1995
1984
Low
High
Moderate
trend
trend
trend
26.1
28.6
30.3
31.6
58.3
54.5
56.0
60.5

Low
trend

Moderate
trend

High
trend

9.8
2.9

16.2
7.0

21.3
11.1

81.6
57.8

88.3
59.1

90.9
62.1

93.5
64.8

8.3
2.2

11.5
7.4

14.7
12.1

4,677.8
78.7
3,061.2
458.9
131.2
327.7
118.4
2,483.8
112.8
14.1
6.3

4,968.6
93.6
3,422.1
522.0
145.5
376.6
131.9
2,768.2
84.2
11.2
4.2

5,206.3
97.0
3,586.1
536.3
149.2
387.1
138.4
2,911.5
87.9
11.6
4.4

6.2
18.9
11.8
13.8
10.9
14.9
11.4
11.4
-25.4
-20.9
-34.2

11.3
23.2
17.1
16.9
13.7
18.1
16.8
17.2
-22.1
-17.5
-31.4

47.6
23.8

33.5
17.5

35.0
18.2

5,418.0
101.0
3,728.9
552.4
153.3
399.1
143.5
3,033.0
92.7
12.3
4.6
37.0
19.1

-29.7
-26.5

-26.4
-23.4

15.8
28.3
21.8
20.4
16.8
21.8
21.1
22.1
-17.8
-13.2
-27.8
-22.1
-19.5

15.2
5.8
56.4
17.6
10.8
17.9
10.2
40.4
302.8
928.5
37.9
103.5
388.6

11.5
6.4

13.0
6.7

-14.7
16.1

62.0
19.3
12.1
19.8
10.8
43.5
309.8
976.5
40.8
122.3
357.4

-24.1
10.1
1.7
2.8
2.7
1.9
-1 .6
-2 .3
-7.1
-3.5
-2 .3
5.9
-16.2

-20.1
13.1

57.4
18.1
11.1
18.3
10.0
39.5
281.4
896.2
37.0
109.6
325.7

12.1
6.5
59.7
18.7
11.6
19.0
10.4
41.7
297.1
937.9
38.9
115.4
342.3

5.8
6.4
7.3
6.2
2.4
3.1
-1 .9
1.0
2.7
11.5
-11.9

9.8
9.9
11.7
10.5
6.3
7.7
2.3
5.2
7.8
18.1
-8 .0

6.1
16.4
357.4
9.3
9.1
96.9

6.0
15.6
384.8
8.6
8.9
94.1

6.3
16.4
400.3
8.9
9.4
98.8

6.5
17.1
413.4
9.1
9.8
103.6

-2.5
-5.1
7.6
-7.4
-2.3
-2.8

1.9
.0
12.0
-4.9
2.8

6.2
4.6
15.6
-2 .7
7.2

2.0

7.0

4,166.3
442.7
29.1
277.9
98.7
324.8
143.8

4,230.6
449.1
29.9
281.2
112.3
327.4
145.3
2,885.4

4,435.7
469.7
31.2
295.9
116.1
343.6
152.9

4,614.8
485.9
32.2
308.6
120.4
357.6
159.5

1.5
1.4
2.5
1.2
13.7
.8
1.0

10.8
9.8
10.6
11.1
22.0
10.1
10.9

3,026.2

3,150.5

1.3

6.5
6.1
7.1
6.5
17.6
5.8
6.3
6.2

2,849.3

1Wage and salary workers only.




Percent change, 1984-95

121

10.6

Appendix C. Detailed Data
on Gross Separations
and Age Distributions

This appendix presents data for detailed occupa­
tions that supplement information presented in chapter
3. Table C-l provides gross separation rates; table C-2
contains age distribution data. The tables also identify




the occupations in the Current Population Survey (CPS)
that are equivalent to those in the Occupational Employ­
ment Statistics (OES) surveys.

122

Table C-1. Separation rates for selected occupations with 100,000 or more employees, 1983-84

(Percent)
Separation rates, 1983-84’
Occupation

Total

Transfers to
other
occupations

Not working
Total

Unemployed

Not in the
labor force

Total employed in 1983, age 16 and over ........................................

17.8

8.0

9.8

2.8

7.0

Executive, administrative, and managerial......................................................

11.7

6.0

5.6

1.4

4.2

Officials and administrators, public administration.......................................
Administrators and officials, public administration ....................................
Executives, officials, and managers, except public administration.............
Financial managers.....................................................................................
Personnel and labor relations managers....................................................
Managers; marketing, advertising, and public relations ............................
Administrators, education and related fields..............................................
Managers, medicine and health .................................................................
Managers and administrators, n.e.c.............................................................

14.3
14.2
11.2
8.6
7.5
11.6
10.6
15.6
11.1

6.0
6.0
5.7
3.8
4.2
7.1
6.1
13.1
5.7

8.3
8.2
5.6
4.7
3.3
4.6
4.6
2.5
5.4

1.7
1.8
1.5
1.4
1.6
1.8
.8
.0
1.5

6.6
6.4
4.1
3.3
1.7
2.8
3.8
2.5
3.9

Management-related occupations.................................................................
Accountants and auditors............................................................................
Other financial officers................................................................................
Management analysts.................................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists...................................
Buyers, wholesale and retail trade, except farm products2 ......................
Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c.2........................................................
Management-related occupations, n.e.c......................................................

12.3
9.9
14.0
19.6
14.8
13.9
12.3
8.8

6.8
5.7
9.2
8.8
8.6
7.1
3.8
3.6

5.5
4.1
4.8
10.8
6.2
6.7
8.5
5.2

1.3
1.2
.9
1.0
1.5
1.5
3.6
.5

4.2
2.9
3.9
9.8
4.7
5.2
4.9
4.7

Professional specialty occupations..................................................................

10.7

4.9

5.8

1.1

4.7

Engineers, architects, and surveyors............................................................
Architects.....................................................................................................
Engineers.....................................................................................................
Civil engineers2..........................................................................................
Electrical and electronics engineers2 .......................................................
Industrial engineers2 .................................................................................
Mechanical engineers2 .............................................................................
Engineers, n.e.c..........................................................................................
Mathematical and computer scientists.........................................................
Computer systems analysts and scientists2 ...............................................
Operations and systems researchers and analysts..................................
Natural scientists............................................................................................
Chemists, except biochemists2 ...................................................................

4.5
1.8
4.4
2.7
2.6
9.4
1.8
6.6
6.6
7.7
2.0
3.4
4.4

4.2
4.1
4.2
2.2
2.5
5.9
6.7
4.7
2.5
1.4
3.0
3.8
1.9

1.1
.4
1.2
.9
.5
1.7
1.9
1.3
1.1
.4
1.1
.9
.0

3.1
3.7
3.0
1.3
2.0
4.2
4.8
3.4
1.4
1.0
1.9
2.9
1.9

Health diagnosing occupations......................................................................
Physicians2...................................................................................................
Dentists2 .......................................................................................................
Health assessment and treating occupations ..............................................
Registered nurses2 ......................................................................................
Pharmacists2.................................................................................................
Therapists....................................................................................................
Teachers, college and university...................................................................
Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified.........................................
Teachers, except college and university......................................................
Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten.............................................
Teachers, elementary school......................................................................
Teachers, secondary school2......................................................................
Teachers, special education .......................................................................
Counselors, educational and vocational2 .....................................................

8.7
6.0
8.6
5.0
5.2
3 15.4
8.5
11.3
9.1
9.1
4.9
7.2
6.3
2.7
2.7
3.8
8.9
9.0
2.9
10.2
16.9
17.2
11.6
14.9
9.2
9.1
5.9
12.1

.6
.5
1.7
2.7
2.1
.0
6.2
9.8
12.2
5.1
5.1
4.0
4.6
2.3
7.6

2.0
2.3
2.1
6.3
6.9
2.9
4.0
7.0
5.1
6.5
9.8
5.1
4.6
3.6
4.4

.1
.1
.5
1.3
1.2
.0
2.0
1.4
1.3
.7
.6
.4
.7
.4
.5

1.9
2.2
1.6
5.0
5.7
2.9
2.0
5.6
3.8
5.8
9.2
4.7
3.9
3.2
3.9

Librarians, archivists, and curators ...............................................................
Librarians .....................................................................................................
Social scientists and urban planners............................................................
Economists..................................................................................................
Psychologists................................................................................................
Social, recreation, and religious workers .....................................................
Social workers..............................................................................................
Clergy ...........................................................................................................
Lawyers and judges.......................................................................................
Lawyers........................................................................................................

9.4
9.3
9.7
8.1
8.5
11.5
10.6
6.3
5.7
4.9

5.0
5.2
4.8
3.9
3.7
5.0
4.5
2.4
3.0
2.4

4.4
4.2
4.8
4.2
4.8
6.5
6.0
3.9
2.6
2.5

.4
.3
1.4
1.1
1.2
1.5
1.9
.9
.2
.3

4.0
3.9
3.4
3.1
3.6
5.0
4.1
3.0
2.4
2.2

Writers, artists, entertainers, and athletes....................................................
Designers.....................................................................................................
Musicians and composers...........................................................................

17.9
15.4
22.0

7.9
7.8
5.8

10.0
7.6
16.2

2.8
1.2
7.5

7.2
6.4
8.7

See footnotes at end of table




123

Table C-1. Continued— Separation rates for selected occupations with 100,000 or more employees, 1983-84

(Percent)
Separation rates, 1983-841
Occupation

Total

Transfers to
other
occupations

Not working
Total

Unemployed

Not in the
labor force

Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers................. ..........
Photographers..............................................................................................
Editors and reporters ..................................................................................
Public relations specialists2 .........................................................................

15.2
14.9
11.5
18.2

7.1
7.5
3.2
8.7

8.1
7.4
8.3
9.5

1.6
3.1
1.9
1.5

6.5
4.3
6.4
8.0

Technicians and related support......................................................................

12.6

6.1

6.5

2.2

4.3

Health technologists and technicians...........................................................
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians .....................................
Radiologic technicians................................................................................
Licensed practical nurses2...........................................................................
Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c................................................
Technologists and technicians, except health .............................................
Engineering and related technologists and technicians............................
Electrical and electronics technicians2.....................................................
Engineering technicians, n.e.c...................................................................
Drafting occupations.................................................................................
Science technicians.....................................................................................
Technicians, except health, engineering, and science..............................
Computer programmers ............................................................................
Legal assistants ........................................................................................
Technicians, n.e.c.......................................................................................

10.5
8.5
8.5
12.3
11.1
13.8
13.7
7.9
3 18.0
16.0
15.6
13.6
8.9
17.6
16.4

3.3
2.4
4.6
3.8
3.3
7.7
6.2
3.3
5.9
8.7
9.6
8.9
4.8
12.2
11.5

7.2
6.1
3.9
8.5
7.7
6.1
7.5
4.6
12.1
7.3
6.0
4.7
4.1
5.4
4.9

1.8
1.6
.5
1.8
2.7
2.4
3.4
1.5
5.8
3.5
2.4
1.4
1.8
1.0
1.2

5.4
4.5
3.4
6.7
5.0
3.7
4.1
3.1
6.3
3.8
3.6
3.3
2.3
4.4
3.7

Sales occupations.............................................................................................

19.8

9.5

10.3

2.5

7.8

Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations ..........................................
Sales representatives, finance and business services.................................
Insurance sales occupations2 .....................................................................
Real estate sales occupations....................................................................
Securities and financial services sales occupations2.................................
Advertising and related sales occupations ................................................
Sales occupations, other business services..............................................
Sales representatives, commodities except retail.........................................
Sales representatives; mining, manufacturing, and wholesale.................

11.1
13.6
10.4
18.1
7.5
12.6
15.5
12.3
12.7

5.6
7.1
4.1
11.7
2.2
4.8
8.4
7.9
8.2

5.5
6.5
6.4
6.4
5.3
7.8
7.1
4.4
4.5

1.3
1.6
1.9
1.1
.7
3.4
2.3
1.5
1.5

4.2
4.9
4.5
5.3
4.6
4.4
4.8
2.9
3.0

Sales workers, retail and personal services.................................................
Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats..................................................
Sales workers, apparel ................................................................................
Sales workers, shoes...................................................................................
Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings.........................................
Sales workers; radio, television, hi-fi, and appliances...............................
Sales workers, hardware and building supplies ........................................
Sales workers, parts....................................................................................
Sales workers, other commodities.............................................................
Sales counter clerks....................................................................................
Cashiers2.......................................................................................................
Street and door-to-door sales workers.......................................................
News vendors ..............................................................................................

28.9
17.8
32.6
23.4
19.2
25.3
19.2
19.8
27.9
26.5
30.4
39.1
45.2

12.9
10.9
14.2
5.7
10.1
18.0
9.0
14.8
13.2
13.3
13.8
9.6
8.2

16.0
6.9
18.3
17.8
9.2
7.4
10.3
5.0
14.8
13.2
16.6
29.5
37.0

3.8
3.1
4.1
3.0
2.5
3.1
5.5
1.4
3.1
2.3
4.2
5.3
7.9

12.2
3.8
14.2
14.8
6.7
4.3
4.8
3.6
11.7
10.9
12.4
24.2
29.1

Administrative support, including clerical.........................................................

19.3

9.2

10.1

2.4

7.7

Supervisors, administrative support occupations.........................................
Supervisors, general office..........................................................................
Supervisors; distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks.......................
Computer equipment operators.....................................................................
Computer operators2 ...................................................................................
Secretaries, stenographers, and typists.......................................................
Secretaries....................................................................................................
Typists..........................................................................................................
Information clerks...........................................................................................
Interviewers ..................................................................................................
Receptionists................................................................................................
Information clerks, n.e.c...............................................................................

12.9
3 15.1
12.5
19.3
18.4
16.8
15.5
23.2
27.3
32.6
26.5
34.3

7.6
9.5
6.7
13.8
12.8
7.2
6.6
10.7
11.6
21.2
12.3
7.8

5.3
5.6
5.8
5.5
5.6
9.6
8.9
12.5
15.7
11.5
14.2
26.5

1.3
1.1
2.2
2.6
2.6
2.1
2.0
2.7
3.8
3.5
3.7
4.9

4.0
4.5
3.6
2.9
3.0
7.5
6.9
11.9
8.0
10.5
21.6

Records processing occupations, except financial......................................
Order clerks..................................................................................................
Library clerks2...............................................................................................
File clerks2 ....................................................................................................
Records clerks.............................................................................................
Financial records processing occupations....................................................

23.0
3 20.8
29.0
25.9
3 20.4
19.0

9.7
13.4
12.0
6.6
9.9
7.2

13.3
7.4
17.0
19.4
10.4
11.8

3.1
.5
2.7
5.7
2.1
2.2

10.2
6.9
14.3
13.7
8.3
9.6

See footnotes at end of table.




124

9.8

Table C-1. Continued— Separation rates for selected occupations with 100,000 or more employees, 1983-84

(Percent)
Separation rates, 1983-841
Occupation

Not working

Total

Transfers to
other
occupations

Total

Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks2 ..........................................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks2 ..................................................................
Billing clerks ................................................................................................
Communications equipment operators.........................................................
Telephone operators...................................................................................
Mail and message distributing occupations..................................................
Postal clerks, except mail carriers............................................................
Mail carriers, postal service ........................................................................
Mail clerks, except postal service2 .............................................................
Messengers2 ................................................................................................

18.9
3 17.6
3 21.4
20.1
20.4
15.5
7.7
3 10.1
25.1
33.7

6.8
7.3
12.0
10.9
11.3
5.7
3.2
1.5
16.7
3.7

12.1
10.3
9.4
9.2
9.1
9.8
4.5
8.6
8.5
30.0

1.9
4.8
1.1
1.9
1.7
1.5
.2
1.3
2.3
4.2

10.2
5.5
8.3
7.3
7.4
8.3
4.3
7.3
6.2
25.8

Material recording, scheduling and distribution clerks, n.e.c........................
Dispatchers..................................................................................................
Stock and inventory clerks..........................................................................
Expediters....................................................................................................
Adjusters and investigators...........................................................................
Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators...................................
Investigators and adjusters, except insurance ..........................................
Miscellaneous administrative support occupations......................................
General office clerks...................................................................................
Bank tellers2 ................................................................................................
Data entry keyers ........................................................................................
Teacher aides ..............................................................................................
Administrative support occupations, n.e.c...................................................

21.9
19.6
25.6
21.4
15.0
9.8
15.6
21.9
25.3
22.3
18.4
22.3
18.7

13.3
13.9
14.5
9.5
9.0
6.5
10.7
11.8
12.5
13.0
11.6
10.7
10.9

8.6
5.6
11.0
11.9
5.9
3.3
4.9
10.2
12.8
9.3
6.8
11.7
7.8

3.1
1.5
4.5
1.7
2.4
2.5
1.2
2.2
3.5
1.2
2.9
1.9
1.3

5.5
4.1
6.5
10.2
3.5
.8
3.7
8.0
9.3
8.1
3.9
9.8
6.5

Private household occupations ........................................................................

39.7

5.1

34.6

6.1

28.5

Childcare workers, private household2 .........................................................
Private household cleaners and servants.....................................................

61.7
28.6

6.0
4.7

55.7
23.9

11.1
3.3

44.6
20.6

Service workers, except private household.....................................................

24.8

9.6

15.3

3.7

11.6

Protective service occupations......................................................................
Supervisors, protective service occupations..............................................
Firefighting and fire prevention occupations..............................................
Firefighting occupations2 ...........................................................................
Police and detectives..................................................................................
Police and detectives, public service.......................................................
Correctional institution officers2 ...............................................................
Guards..........................................................................................................
Guards and police, except public service ...............................................
Food preparation and service occupations ..................................................
Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations...........................
Bartenders2 ..................................................................................................
Waiters and waitresses2 .............................................................................
Cooks, except short order...........................................................................
Food counter, fountain, and related occupations .....................................
Kitchen workers, food preparation .............................................................
Waiters/waitresses assistants2 ...................................................................
Miscellaneous food preparation occupations ............................................

13.5
7.6
3.8
3.8
8.6
5.8
15.7
23.1
22.0
31.5
24.2
32.2
32.5
26.2
43.3
31.5
43.2
32.2

6.1
1.7
1.6
1.5
5.6
3.2
12.6
8.8
9.0
13.9
13.4
16.9
14.8
11.3
19.2
15.6
16.8
13.2

7.3
5.9
2.2
2.3
3.0
2.6
3.2
14.3
13.0
17.6
10.9
15.3
17.8
15.0
24.1
15.9
26.4
19.0

2.0
.4
.5
.5
.7
.9
.3
4.5
4.5
4.6
3.5
7.1
3.9
4.3
5.1
4.5
5.5
5.6

5.3
5.5
1.7
1.8
2.3
1.7
2.9
9.8
8.5
13.0
7.4
8.2
13.9
10.7
19.0
11.4
20.9
13.4

Health service occupations............................................................................
Dental assistants2 ........................................................................................
Health aides, except nursing.......................................................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants....................................................
Cleaning and building service occupations, except private household.......
Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers .................................
Maids and housemen..................................................................................
Janitors and cleaners..................................................................................
Personal service occupations........................................................................
Hairdressers and cosmetologists ...............................................................
Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities2 .....................................
Childcare workers, except private household2 ...........................................
Personal service occupations, n.e.c............................................................

20.8
16.4
19.5
21.7
22.8
17.9
22.7
23.4
25.3
10.3
41.5
35.9
31.6

7.1
3.0
7.8
7.3
7.9
11.1
8.0
7.7
6.5
1.0
16.4
7.0
10.4

13.8
13.4
11.6
14.3
14.9
6.7
14.7
15.8
18.8
9.2
25.1
28.9
21.1

3.6
2.0
3.4
3.8
4.2
1.6
4.0
4.6
2.1
1.2
5.3
1.9
3.9

10.2
11.4
8.2
10.5
10.7
5.1
10.7
11.2
16.7
8.0
19.8
27.0
17.2

Farming, forestry, and fishing...........................................................................

21.5

5.2

16.3

3.0

13.3

Farm operators and managers......................................................................
Farmers, except horticultural.......................................................................
Farm occupations, except managerial..........................................................

3 13.4
3 13.4
28.5

2.8
2.5
6.1

10.5
10.8
22.3

.5
.4
5.0

10.0
10.4
17.3

See footnotes at end of table.




125

Not in the
labor force

Unemployed

'

Table C-1. Continued— Separation rates for selected occupations with 100,000 or more employees, 1983-84

(Percent)
Separation rates, 1983-84'
Occupation

Not working

Total

Transfers to
other
occupations

Total

Farm workers...............................................................................................
Related agricultural occupations...................................................................
Supervisors, related agricultural occupations............................................
Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm2 ..........................................
Forestry and logging occupations.................................................................

29.1
29.1
15.0
30.8
27.8

6.3
7.4
4.1
7.6
11.8

22.7
21.7
10.9
23.2
16.0

5.2
5.3
3.4
5.7
8.0

17.5
16.4
7.5
17.5
8.0

Precision production, craft, and repair............................................................

14.9

7.0

7.9

3.4

4.5

Mechanics and repairers...............................................................................
Supervisors, mechanics and repairers........................................................
Mechanics and repairers, except supervisors ...........................................
Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics and repairers.......................
Automobile mechanics ...........................................................................
Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics2 .....................................
Automobile body and related repairers2................................................
Industrial machinery repairers..................................................................
Electrical dnd electronic equipment repairers.........................................
Electronics repairers, commercial and industrial equipment...............
Data processing equipment repairers2 ..................................................
Telephone installers and repairers2 .......................................................
Heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics2..........................
Miscellaneous mechanics and repairers..................................................
Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c..............................................
Not specified mechanics and repairers.................................................

13.2
10.4
13.4
15.0
13.8
14.4
13.5
13.3
10.6
3 15.7
11.5
3 7.4
8.8
12.9
12.6
18.6

7.2
5.9
7.3
8.5
8.6
9.7
5.1
7.8
4.6
8.7
8.2
.9
4.1
7.0
7.5
10.6

5.9
4.5
6.0
6.5
5.2
4.7
8.4
5.4
5.9
7.0
3.3
6.5
4.7
5.8
5.0
7.9

2.2
1.0
2.3
3.0
2.8
3.1
3.5
1.5
1.4
2.2
1.5
.9
3.1
2.1
1.7
2.7

3.7
3.5
3.7
3.5
2.4
1.6
4.9
3.9
4.5
4.8
1.8
5.6
1.6
3.7
3.3
5.2

Construction trades........................................................................................
Supervisors, construction occupations .......................................................
Supervisors, n.e.c......................................................................................
Construction trades, except supervisors ....................................................
Brickmasons and stonemasons...............................................................
Carpenters .................................................................................................
Drywall installers2 ......................................................................................
Electricians.................................................................................................
Painters, construction and maintenance..................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters.....................................................
Roofers2 .....................................................................................................
Construction trades, n.e.c..........................................................................
Extractive occupations...................................................................................

16.8
15.3
16.5
17.0
13.9
18.8
12.1
12.0
23.6
12.1
25.6
26.9
29.3

6.9
7.9
8.4
6.7
6.4
7.6
.5
5.1
6.3
4.3
12.3
14.3
18.6

9.9
7.3
8.0
10.3
7.5
11.3
11.7
6.9
17.4
7.8
13.2
12.6
10.6

5.1
4.1
4.4
5.3
4.4
5.7
10.6
3.0
8.1
5.0
5.5
5.6
7.4

4.8
3.2
3.6
5.0
3.1
5.6
1.1
3.9
9.3
2.8
7.7
7.0
3.2

Precision production occupations .................................................................
Supervisors, production occupations ..........................................................
Precision metalworking occupations...........................................................
Tool-and-die makers..................................................................................
Machinists..................................................................................................
Sheet-metal workers.................................................................................
Precision woodworking occupations ..........................................................
Precision textile, apparel, and furnishings machine workers....................
Dressmakers..............................................................................................
Precision workers, assorted materials........................................................
Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers....................................
Precision food production occupations.......................................................
Bakers .......................................................................................................
Precision inspectors, testers, and related workers...................................
Inspectors, testers, and graders..............................................................
Plant and system operators........................................................................
Stationary engineers.................................................................................

14.1
10.6
13.9
6.4
14.6
3 18.3
17.9
24.4
3 35.8
15.4
15.2
3 20.0
14.5
13.6
14.0
11.9
3 14.1

6.3
6.3
6.4
1.2
8.0
7.8
9.6
3.8
7.2
8.4
6.3
6.0
.0
5.9
6.3
5.0
5.9

7.8
4.2
7.5
5.1
6.6
10.5
8.4
20.7
28.6
7.0
8.9
14.0
14.6
7.6
7.7
6.9
8.3

2.7
1.8
3.2
2.6
2.2
7.0
2.8
2.1
2.2
2.6
3.3
5.6
4.5
3.2
3.0
2.0
2.9

5.1
2.4
4.3
2.5
4.4
3.5
5.6
18.6
26.4
4.4
5.6
8.4
10.1
4.4
4.7
4.9
5.4

Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............................................

19.5

9.6

10.0

4.2

5.8

Machine operators and tenders, except precision.......................................
Metalworking and plastic-working machine operators...............................
Punching and stamping press machine operators.................................
Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators ..............
Metal and plastic processing machine operators .....................................
Woodworking machine operators...............................................................
Printing machine operators .........................................................................
Printing machine operators.......................................................................
Textile, apparel, and furnishings machine operators.................................
Textile sewing machine operators............................................................
Pressing machine operators2....................................................................

19.2
18.7
18.8
19.4
21.2
24.8
14.0
3 13.4
20.2
18.0
16.0

9.1
10.3
12.1
8.3
12.7
15.7
8.9
8.6
5.8
3.4
3.4

10.0
8.3
6.8
11.0
8.6
9.0
5.0
4.9
14.4
14.7
12.6

4.1
3.7
4.6
3.0
3.5
4.3
1.6
1.6
5.3
5.5
4.2

5.9
4.6
2.2
8.0
5.1
4.7
3.4
3.3
9.1
9.2
8.4

See footnotes at end of table.




126

Unemployed

Not in the
labor force

Table C-1. Continued— Separation rates for selected occupations with 100,000 or more employees, 1983-84

(Percent)
Separation rates, 1983-84'
Occupation

Not working

Total

Transfers to
other
occupations

Total

Laundering and drycleaning machine operators.....................................

25.5

10.5

14.9

3.1

11.8

Machine operators, assorted materials .....................................................
Packaging and filling machine operators.................................................
Mixing and blending machine operators..................................................
Painting and paint spraying machine operators .....................................
Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, except food.....................................
Slicing and cutting machine operators....................................................
Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c..................................................
Fabricators, assemblers, and handworking occupations.............................
Welders and cutters....................................................................................
Assemblers..................................................................................................
Production inspectors, testers, samplers, and weighers..............................
Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners......................................

19.3
19.3
3 15.5
19.6
14.8
20.3
17.6
21.2
19.8
20.1
18.6
16.2

10.4
8.0
8.3
11.1
5.7
11.3
9.4
10.3
10.1
9.7
10.7
9.3

8.9
11.4
7.2
8.4
9.0
9.1
8.1
10.9
9.7
10.4
7.8
6.9

4.0
4.6
4.0
4.9
2.8
3.8
4.2
4.8
6.1
4.3
3.1
2.9

4.9
6.8
3.2
3.5
6.2
5.3
3.9
6.1
3.6
6.1
4.7
4.0

Transportation and material moving occupations...........................................

18.7

10.4

8.3

3.6

4.7

Motor vehicle operators.................................................................................
Truckdrivers, heavy .....................................................................................
Truckdrivers, light ........................................................................................
Driver-sales workers....................................................................................
Busdrivers....................................................................................................
Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs2 .................................................................
Transportation occupations, except motor vehicle......................................
Rail transportation occupations..................................................................
Material moving equipment operators..........................................................
Operating engineers....................................................................................
Grader, dozer, and scraper operators........................................................

18.4
16.5
26.6
12.9
17.6
26.5
13.0
14.4
20.9
18.0
14.9

9.5
8.5
15.5
7.1
9.6
7.4
7.3
9.5
13.5
9.3
5.8

8.8
8.0
11.2
5.8
8.0
19.2
5.6
5.0
7.4
8.7
9.2

3.5
4.0
3.9
1.3
2.4
4.0
2.1
2.0
4.1
6.1
5.1

5.3
4.0
7.3
4.5
5.6
15.2
3.5
3.0
3.3
2.6
4.1

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....................................

28.2

13.3

14.9

6.6

8.3

Helpers, construction and extractive occupations.......................................
Helpers, construction trades.......................................................................
Construction laborers.....................................................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand ...................................................
Stock handlers and baggers.......................................................................
Freight, stock, and material movers, hand, n.e.c........................................
Garage and service station related occupations2 ........................................
Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners2 ...................................................
Hand packers and packagers........................................................................
Laborers, except construction .......................................................................

37.9
37.4
28.3
28.5
33.2
21.5
38.7
30.7
21.0
25.5

17.5
15.8
11.4
14.8
18.6
9.9
17.6
13.3
5.2
12.8

20.4
21.6
16.9
13.7
14.6
11.6
21.1
17.4
15.8
12.7

9.1
9.4
9.8
5.5
4.5
6.4
8.1
7.7
5.8
5.6

11.3
12.2
7.1
8.2
10.1
5.2
13.0
9.7
10.0
7.1

1The occupational separation rate is the percentage of in­
dividuals previously employed in an occupation who are not
employed in that same occupation a year later. Occupational
transfers occur if individuals remain employed, but in a different oc­
cupation. Separations exclude deaths.
2This Current Population Survey occupation is equivalent to the
Occupatonal Employment Statistics survey occupation with the
same title.
3 During 1983-84, employment in this occupation declined; some




Unemployed

Not in the
labor force

workers who left were not replaced.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, individual items may not add to totals.
SOURCE: Merged Current Population Survey data. The
methodology used to develop the data is presented in “ New Occupa­
tional Data Improve Replacement Estimates,” M o n th ly La bor
Review, March 1984.

127

Table C-2. Age distribution for selected occupations with 100,000 or more employees, 1984

(Percent)
Percent of employees
Occupation

Total

Age 16-24

6.2 13.5 66.7 28.8 22.4

8.1

7.3 13.6 10.9

2.7

.6

6.9 76.6 28.2 28.7 10.4

9.3 15.9 13.0

2.9

100.0 2.4

.3

2.1 75.8 20.8 31.7 11.6 11.6 21.8 18.2

3.6

100.0 2.4

.3

2.1 76.8 21.5 32.1 11.7 11.4 20.8 17.6

3.2

100.0 6.7
100.0 5.6

.7
.0

6.0 76.8 26.0 29.5 11.3 10.1 16.5 13.5
5.6 84.0 37.5 30.7 8.9 7.0 10.3 9.5

2.9
.8

100.0 4.0

.1

3.9 85.1 30.1 36.7

100.0 6.2

.3

5.9 81.8 29.9 32.2 10.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

2.8
3.0
6.4
7.4

.4
.1
.2
.9

2.4
2.8
6.2
6.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

10.1
13.3
7.1
2.7

Executive, administrative, and managerial 100.0 7.5

Management-related occupations..........
Accountants and auditors....................
Other financial officers.........................
Management analysts..........................
Personnel, training, and labor relations
specialists............................................
Buyers, wholesale and retail trade,
except farm products'.........................
Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c.' .
Inspectors and compliance officers,
except construction.............................
Management-related occupations,

Age 55 and older

65
Total 16-19 20-24 Total 25-34 35-44 45-49 50-54 Total 55-64 and
older

Total employed in 1983, age 16
and over ...................................... 100.0 19.7
Officials and administrators, public
administration .......................................
Administrators and officials, public
administration.......................................
Executives, officials, and managers,
except public administration .................
Financial managers ..............................
Personnel and labor relations
managers.............................................
Managers; marketing, advertising, and
public relations....................................
Administrators, education and related
fields.....................................................
Managers, medicine and health ..........
Managers, properties and real estate ..
Managers and administrators, n.e.c.....

Age 25-54

80.7
80.8
64.4
76.3

17.9
29.5
22.4
25.8

.4 9.7 76.3 34.9
.3 13.0 75.1 39.2
.3 6.8 79.7 33.4
.3 2.4 73.7 26.5

7.4 10.7 11.0 10.6
9.3 12.0 10.7

37.6 12.5 12.8 16.5
32.8 10.7 7.8 16.3
21.4 9.4 11.1 29.2
28.9 11.6 10.1 16.3
26.4 7.9
24.0 6.4
28.9 9.3
28.0 11.7

7.0
5.6
8.1
7.5

.4
1.3

14.7 1.8
12.8 3.5
17.7 11.5
13.5 2.8

13.6 10.9
11.6 9.0
13.2 10.9
23.6 15.8

2.8
2.6
2.3
7.8

100.0 6.6

.5

6.2 82.2 32.1 34.9

7.8

7.4 11.2 10.4

.8

100.0 12.4
100.0 8.2

.8 11.6 73.5 33.6 24.8
.1 8.1 75.5 33.3 24.4

9.5
8.3

5.6 14.1 10.3
9.5 16.3 13.9

3.8
2.4

100.0 5.6

.3

5.3 77.2 30.5 27.5 10.5

8.7 17.2 14.0

3.2

100.0 10.1

.3

9.8 77.7 34.7 26.2

8.1

8.7 12.2 10.5

1.7

Professional specialty occupations.......... 100.0 8.1

.8

79.0 34.0 28.7

8.7

7.6 13.0 10.2

2.7

8.8
3.7
9.2
9.4
9.8
8.6
9.1
7.7
6.2

14.5
12.2
14.8
14.4
12.8
14.0
17.2
16.2
6.7

13.0
10.1
13.4
13.2
11.2
12.3
15.5
14.5
5.8

1.5
2.1
1.5
1.2
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.7
.8

4.4

7.9
6.2
7.9
9.0
7.9
5.6
7.6
7.6
7.6

.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.3
.1
.1
.2

7.3
7.7
6.1
7.8
8.9
7.8
5.3
7.6
7.6
7.4

100.0 8.1

.1

8.0 87.6 41.4 32.0

8.6

5.5

3.8

.5

100.0 5.1
100.0 6.5
100.0 7.3

.1
.2
.3

5.0 83.8 35.8 31.0
6.3 80.2 39.4 26.6
7.0 79.5 40.2 26.0

9.3
7.1
7.8

7.8 11.0 10.2
7.2 13.3 11.1
5.4 13.2 11.3

.8
2.2
1.9

100.0 1.4
100.0 1.4
100.0 1.1

.1
.0
.3

1.3 75.5 29.5 27.9
1.4 75.8 28.2 29.3
.8 71.7 26.3 24.3

9.2 8.8 23.1 16.3
9.9 8.6 22.7 16.2
9.8 11.3 27.2 18.7

6.8
6.5
8.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.3 9.5 80.6
.1 8.5 81.4
.5 8.7 76.2
.7 13.7 82.5
.6 6.3 76.0

Engineers, architects, and surveyors.....
Architects..............................................
Engineers..............................................
Civil engineers'...................................
Electrical and electronics engineers'
Industrial engineers’ ..........................
Mechanical engineers' ......................
Engineers, n.e.c..................................
Mathematical and computer scientists ...
Computer systems analysts and
scientists'.............................................
Operations and systems researchers
and analysts........................................
Natural scientists....................................
Chemists, except biochemists' ...........

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Health diagnosing occupations..............
Physicians'............................................
Dentists'................................................
Health assessment and treating
occupations............................................
Registered nurses’ ...............................
Pharmacists’ .........................................
Therapists.............................................
Teachers, college and university...........
Postsecondary teachers, subject not
specified ..............................................
Teachers, except college and university




9.8
8.5
9.2
14.4
6.9

100.0 11.6
100.0 7.3

77.5
81.6
77.3
76.6
79.3
80.5
75.2
76.2
85.7

33.2
37.5
32.9
29.5
33.6
37.1
31.3
32.3
39.3

25.7 7.3
26.9 8.5
25.2 5.8
21.7 3.3
29.7 11.3

7.0 9.6 8.2
7.6 10.1 9.0
6.4 14.5 10.3
4.0 3.1 2.4
9.3 17.1 14.7

1.4
1.1
4.2
.7
2.4

1.5 10.1 75.2 25.9 27.1 12.9
1.1 6.2 82.5 31.8 33.1 9.6

9.3 13.2 11.5
8.0 10.3 8.4

1.7
1.9

See footnotes at end of table.

128

40.7
38.5
38.9
53.6
25.7

26.3 9.2
34.1 6.3
25.9 9.3
25.9 11.7
27.5 8.5
26.7 8.1
25.2 9.6
26.0 10.1
31.8 8.4

Table C-2. Continued— Age distribution for selected occupations with 100,000 or more employees, 1984

(Percent)
Percent of employees
Occupation

Total

Age 16-24

Age 25-54

Age 55 and older

Total 16-19 20-24 Total 25-34 35-44 45-49 50-54 Total 55-64 and
older
Teachers, prekindergarten and
kindergarten ........................................
Teachers, elementary school..............
Teachers, secondary school1 ..............
Teachers, special education ...............
Teachers, n.e.c......................................
Counselors, educational and vocational1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

15.1
4.5
4.6
7.3
18.0
7.2

2.1 13.1 78.2 33.3 30.9 7.9
.2 4.2 85.1 30.9 34.7 10.3
.3 4.3 84.7 30.1 35.8 10.4
.5 6.8 85.5 46.5 27.2 6.2
5.8 12.3 69.3 31.5 24.2 8.0
1.0 6.2 77.9 22.6 34.1 11.5

6.2
9.2
8.4
5.6
5.7
9.7

6.6 5.3
10.4 9.1
10.7 9.0
7.2 5.9
12.6 7.4
14.9 13.5

Librarians, archivists, and curators .......
Librarians ..............................................
Social scientists and urban planners.....
Economists...........................................
Psychologists........................................
Social, recreation, and religious workers
Social workers......................................
Clergy ....................................................
Lawyers and judges ...............................
Lawyers.................................................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

7.0
7.1
6.5
9.9
3.6
7.7
6.7
2.3
2.6
2.7

1.0
1.0
.3
.4
.1
1.3
.4
.1
.1
.1

8.5
8.9
5.6
4.7
6.6
7.6
5.5
9.7
7.0
6.2

26.3
26.7
9.3
7.5
9.4
16.6
10.3
26.8
15.3
13.9

Writers, artists, entertainers, and
athletes...................................................
Designers..............................................
Musicians and composers...................
Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and
artist printmakers................................
Photographers......................................
Editors and reporters ...........................
Public relations specialists1 .................

6.1
6.0
6.3
9.4
3.5
6.4
6.4
2.2
2.5
2.6

66.7
66.2
84.2
82.6
87.0
75.6
83.0
70.9
82.1
83.5

23.6
23.3
37.5
39.0
35.9
34.5
41.1
27.8
34.8
36.4

24.8 9.9
23.8 10.2
33.1 7.9
31.1 7.8
35.6 8.9
24.4 9.2
27.7 8.7
22.7 10.6
33.2 7.2
33.8 7.0

100.0 14.9
100.0 12.8
100.0 15.3

2.5 12.4 73.0 35.8 24.5
2.2 10.6 76.0 33.6 27.3
3.1 12.2 70.2 42.5 19.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.4 9.7 75.5 34.3
2.6 15.1 71.5 36.7
.8 11.6 76.4 41.5
.3 9.5 75.2 33.5

11.0
17.7
12.4
9.8

7.1
8.5
4.8

25.6 7.6
24.8 5.4
22.9 6.7
26.9 10.3

5.7 12.1
6.6 11.2
3.9 14.5
8.0
4.7
5.4
4.5

1.3
1.3
1.7
1.4
5.2
1.4

19.7 6.6
20.1 6.6
7.5 1.8
6.4 1.2
6.9 2.5
11.1 5.5
8.6 1.7
15.0 11.8
10.1 5.2
9.1 4.8
8.6
8.3
7.0

3.5
2.9
7.5

13.5 9.5
10.8 8.9
11.2 7.3
15.0 10.9

4.0
1.9
4.0
4.1

Technicians and related support.............. 100.0 16.7

1.4 15.4 75.6 40.9 22.6

7.2

4.9

7.6

6.6

1.0

100.0 15.1

1.0 14.1 76.5 41.6 23.5

6.6

4.9

8.4

7.1

1.2

100.0 17.2
100.0 20.1
100.0 7.7

1.1 16.1 77.6 41.3 27.2
.6 19.5 75.5 42.3 24.8
.4 7.3 79.3 40.5 23.2

5.7
4.6
8.6

3.4 5.2 4.4
3.7 4.4 4.1
7.0 13.1 11.1

.8
.3
1.9

100.0 22.9

2.3 20.6 70.4 40.8 20.1

5.5

4.0

6.8

5.5

1.3

100.0 17.6

1.6 16.0 75.1 40.5 22.1

7.5

5.0

7.3

6.4

.9

100.0 18.1

1.7 16.5 73.5 38.3 20.9

8.2

6.1

8.3

7.6

.8

Health technologists and technicians....
Clinical laboratory technologists and
technicians ..........................................
Radiologic technicians .........................
Licensed practical nurses1...................
Health technologists and technicians,
n.e.c......................................................
Technologists and technicians, except
health.....................................................
Engineering and related technologists
and technicians...................................
Electrical and electronics
technicians1 ......................................
Engineering technicians, n.e.c...........
Drafting occupations..........................
Science technicians..............................
Technicians, except health,
engineering, and science ...................
Computer programmers ....................
Legal assistants ................................
Technicians, n.e.c...............................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

15.7
16.9
20.4
21.0

1.6
1.8
1.5
2.5

14.1
15.1
18.9
18.6

78.6
73.7
69.9
71.1

44.7
30.3
39.0
39.2

21.8 7.4
25.2 11.3
17.4 6.9
20.0 7.0

4.7
7.0
6.6
4.9

5.8
9.4
9.8
7.9

5.2
8.7
8.7
7.6

.5
.7
1.0
.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

16.5
19.7
13.4
16.6

1.4
1.7
.5
1.4

15.2
18.1
12.9
15.2

77.3
77.6
77.9
74.3

42.7
47.7
38.4
41.6

23.7
22.3
27.0
22.1

7.0
5.1
8.7
6.2

3.9
2.4
3.8
4.4

6.2
2.7
8.7
9.0

5.1
2.6
6.0
7.2

1.1
.1
2.7
1.8

9.9 14.9 60.5 25.4 20.5

7.5

7.0 14.6 11.1

3.5

100.0 11.4

1.2 10.2 72.3 28.2 25.3

9.5

9.3 16.3 12.9

3.4

100.0 10.5
100.0 7.2
100.0 4.8

1.4
.4
.2

9.1 72.2 27.6 27.0 9.3 8.3 17.3 12.8
6.7 75.0 29.2 27.4 9.0 9.4 17.8 13.3
4.6 70.0 18.7 28.4 12.0 10.9 25.2 17.4

4.6
4.5
7.8

Sales occupations..................................... 100.0 24.9
Supervisors and proprietors, sales
occupations............................................
Sales representatives, finance and
business services..................................
Insurance sales occupations1 .............
Real estate sales occupations............
Securities and financial services sales
occupations1........................................
Advertising and related sales
occupations.........................................
Sales occupations, other business
services................................................

100.0 12.5

.4 12.1 74.6 31.9 28.2

7.7

6.9 13.0

9.9

3.1

100.0 12.9

1.3 11.6 76.4 39.2 26.2

6.9

4.0 10.7

8.2

2.5

100.0 21.0

4.9 16.1 69.2 32.3 24.2

7.3

5.4

8.3

1.6

See footnotes at end of table.




129

9.8

Table C-2. Continued— Age distribution for selected occupations with 100,000 or more employees, 1984

(Percent)
Percent of employees
Occupation

Total

Age 16-24

1.0

8.9 74.5 32.7 26.0

8.8

7.0 15.6 12.2

3.3

1.1

9.0 74.3 32.7 26.0

8.7

6.9 15.6 12.2

3.4

100.0 41.0 20.0 21.1 46.4 21.4 14.3

5.5

5.2 12.5

9.2

3.3

6.9 14.5 11.9
5.4 19.6 13.0
3.5 10.0 6.7

2.7
6.6
3.2

5.7 10.9 16.8 12.7

4.1

100.0 38.7 11.9 26.8 54.2 29.8 15.2

4.3

5.0

7.0

5.9

1.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

13.2
14.9
14.4
16.7
12.2
21.9
11.7

6.1
6.7
5.5
5.9
4.7
7.5
4.2

6.2
3.8
5.9
6.3
4.2
6.1
2.9

20.4
10.0
16.0
16.7
8.1
14.4
7.0

12.9
8.6
12.1
10.8
6.1
10.0
5.6

7.5
1.5
3.9
5.9
1.9
4.4
1.4

5.0 16.3 65.9 28.9 21.8

7.9

7.3 12.7 10.5

2.2

6.3 80.4 31.4 27.4 11.9 9.7 12.9 12.2
6.4 79.5 30.0 27.3 12.1 10.1 13.7 12.9

.7
.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

7.6
.5 7.1 78.6 29.0 27.5 11.9 10.1 13.8 13.3
27.8 4.5 23.4 66.9 35.5 20.8 5.8 4.8 5.3 4.7
27.9 4.5 23.4 66.9 35.6 20.7 5.8 4.7 5.3 4.7
21.2 4.8 16.4 66.7 28.5 23.0 8.3 6.9 12.1 10.3
19.5 3.8 15.8 68.2 28.5 24.1 8.6 7.1 12.3 10.5
29.8 10.0 19.8 59.2 28.0 18.2 7.0 6.0 11.0 8.9
31.1 9.6 21.5 55.8 25.0 18.0 6.5 6.4 13.2 9.7
26.9 6.8 20.1 60.9 29.5 18.7 6.7 6.0 12.3 10.5
32.7 10.5 22.2 54.6 24.3 16.9 6.3 7.3 12.6 9.4
29.8 12.5 17.3 53.2 22.2 18.1 7.1 5.8 17.0 11.1

.5
.5
.5
1.8
1.7
2.1
3.5
1.8
3.2
5.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

28.8 10.3 18.5 59.1 27.6 19.6
17.1 3.3 13.9 73.5 35.7 25.3
38.1 16.1 22.0 47.1 16.9 18.9
40.6 17.4 23.2 48.9 26.1 14.5
18.5 3.5 15.0 64.9 28.2 20.4

6.0
6.7
6.4
3.8
7.5

5.9
5.7
5.0
4.4
8.7

12.1 10.1
9.4 8.5
14.7 12.5
10.5 8.8
16.6 12.8

1.9
.9
2.2
1.7
3.8

2.6 12.7 68.1 26.3 23.3

8.9

9.6 16.6 13.2

3.5

2.4
1.3
4.7
5.2
5.3

100.0 13.8 2.2 11.6 71.7 31.3 22.4 11.1
100.0 43.3 20.6 22.7 37.1 14.0 12.3 5.5
100.0 57.9 28.7 29.2 32.2 18.0 6.6 4.0
100.0 17.3
25.8
28.2
38.9
32.7
51.8
18.0
60.1

Administrative support, including clerical .. 100.0 21.4
Supervisors, administrative support
occupations............................................
Supervisors, general office..................
Supervisors, distribution, scheduling,
and adjusting clerks............................
Computer equipment operators.............
Computer operators' ............................
Secretaries, stenographers, and typists .
Secretaries............................................
Typists...................................................
Information clerks...................................
Interviewers ..........................................
Receptionists........................................
Information clerks, n.e.c........................
Records processing occupations,
except financial .....................................
Order clerks..........................................
Library clerks’ .......................................
File clerks’ ............................................
Records clerks.....................................
Financial records processing
occupations............................................
Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing
clerks' ..................................................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks'...........
Billing clerks.........................................
Communications equipment operators ...
Telephone operators............................
Mail and message distributing
occupations............................................
Postal clerks, except mail carriers.....
Mail carriers, postal service ................
Mail clerks, except postal service’ ......
Messengers'.........................................
Material recording, scheduling and
distribution clerks, n.e.c..........................
Dispatchers...........................................
Production coordinators.......................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks .
Stock and inventory clerks..................




Age 55 and older

65
Total 16-19 20-24 Total 25-34 35-44 45-49 50-54 Total 55-64 and
older

Sales representatives, commodities
except retail ........................................... 100.0 9.9
Sales representatives; mining,
manufacturing, and wholesale........... 100.0 10.1
Sales workers, retail and personal
services ..................................................
Sales workers, motor vehicles and
boats....................................................
Sales workers, apparel ........................
Sales workers, shoes...........................
Sales workers, furniture and home
furnishings ...........................................
Sales workers, radio, television, hi-fi,
and appliances ....................................
Sales workers, hardware and building
supplies................................................
Sales workers, parts.............................
Sales workers, other commodities......
Sales counter clerks.............................
Cashiers’ ...............................................
Street and door-to-door sales workers
News vendors ......................................

Age 25-54

100.0 6.7
100.0 6.8

100.0 15.3

5.1 12.3 65.8 26.4 22.8
9.3
6.0
18.4
14.8
26.6
7.4
52.0

.4
.4

16.5
22.3
20.5
17.9
25.1
10.6
8.0

53.9
61.7
45.1
50.7
40.2
67.6
32.9

28.4
36.3
19.3
21.8
19.1
32.0
14.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

14.4
14.1
21.0
22.4
22.5

9.1 10.2 17.4 13.5
9.6 8.8 14.8 13.0
7.6 5.8 13.4 12.2
7.8 9.6 17.0 13.9
7.9 9.7 17.1 13.9

3.9
1.8
1.2
3.1
3.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

18.1 5.7 12.3 66.0 28.5 20.7 8.2 8.6 15.9 12.8
.4 4.3 79.9 32.2 27.0 9.3 11.4 15.5 13.3
4.6
3.9
.3 3.6 81.2 31.3 27.0 11.7 11.3 14.8 13.8
36.9 9.6 27.2 47.0 23.7 12.1 6.3 4.8 16.2 12.0
48.5 22.3 26.2 32.8 21.7 6.9 1.5 2.7 18.6 11.0

3.1
2.1
1.1
4.1
7.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

21.1
13.0
12.9
25.3
24.2

5.6
1.7
1.1
5.8
8.2

12.0
12.8
16.3
17.2
17.2

15.5
11.2
11.7
19.5
16.0

See footnotes at end of table.
130

68.2
71.1
65.6
60.7
60.5

66.7
75.7
76.0
64.2
62.5

25.5
27.9
30.3
23.3
23.1

32.0
35.8
33.7
32.3
29.6

23.5
24.8
21.9
20.0
19.7

20.0
24.2
26.4
19.6
17.5

7.4
8.5
8.4
6.1
7.0

7.2
7.1
7.5
6.2
8.4

12.2
11.4
11.1
10.5
13.3

10.6
10.2
10.6
9.3
11.3

1.6
1.2
.5
1.2
1.9

Table C-2. Continued— Age distribution for selected occupations with 100,000 or more employees, 1984

(Percent)
Percent of employees
Occupation

Expediters.............................................
Adjusters and investigators....................
Insurance adjusters, examiners, and
investigators........................................
Investigators and adjusters, except
insurance .............................................
Miscellaneous administrative support
occupations............................................
General office clerks............................
Bank tellers' .........................................
Data entry keyers ................................
Teacher aides ......................................
Administrative support occupations,
n.e.c......................................................

Total

Age 25-54

Age 16-24

Age 55 and older

65
Total 16-19 20-24 Total 25-34 35-44 45-49 50-54 Total 55-64 and
older

100.0 19.7
100.0 17.7

5.9 13.8 66.9 32.1 19.7
2.2 15.5 72.0 36.3 21.2

7.5
8.2

7.6 13.4 11.1
6.3 10.3 8.7

2.3
1.6

100.0 13.0

2.2 10.7 78.4 41.6 23.7

7.2

5.9

8.7

7.4

1.3

100.0 21.5

1.9 19.6 68.7 34.8 18.9

8.5

6.5

9.8

8.1

1.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

5.3
7.5
8.0
3.7
3.3

6.9 11.8 9.7
7.9 15.6 12.3
4.4 5.7 4.8
5.5 7.4 6.9
8.5 12.7 11.2

2.1
3.3
1.0
.6
1.5

24.1
24.9
40.0
23.5
13.7

18.8
17.4
32.0
19.8
10.4

64.1
59.5
54.3
69.1
73.6

28.9
26.1
27.4
36.2
24.2

21.1 7.3
17.5 8.0
16.9 5.6
22.7 4.7
30.5 10.5

3.1 14.9 68.4 30.6 22.9

7.6

7.4 13.6 11.2

2.4

Private household occupations ................ 100.0 31.5 20.6 10.9 40.9 14.1 13.0

6.3

7.6 27.5 17.9

9.6

Childcare workers, private household1 ... 100.0 62.7 45.6 17.0 26.7 14.0 7.6
Private household cleaners and
servants.................................................. 100.0 11.1 4.5 6.5 51.1 14.4 16.8

2.5

2.7 10.7

4.4

100.0 18.0

Service workers, except private
household ................................................. 100.0 31.5 13.9 17.6 54.7 24.1 17.8
Protective service occupations..............
Supervisors, protective service
occupations.........................................
Firefighting and fire prevention
occupations.........................................
Firefighting occupations' ...................
Police and detectives...........................
Police and detectives, public service
Correctional institution officers' .......
Guards..................................................
Guards and police, except public
service...............................................
Food preparation and service
occupations............................................
Supervisors, food preparation and
service occupations ............................
Bartenders' ...........................................
Waiters and waitresses'.......................
Cooks, except short order...................
Food counter, fountain, and related
occupations.........................................
Kitchen workers, food preparation ......
Waiters/waitresses assistants’ ...........
Miscellaneous food preparation
occupations.........................................

100.0 15.7

Health service occupations....................
Dental assistants1 ................................
Health aides, except nursing...............
Nursing aides, orderlies, and
attendants............................................
Cleaning and building service
occupations, except private household .
Supervisors, cleaning and building
service workers....................................
Maids and housemen...........................
Janitors and cleaners...........................
Personal service occupations................
Barbers' ................................................
Hairdressers and cosmetologists ........
Attendants, amusement and
recreation facilities’ ............................
Childcare workers, except private
household'...........................................




100.0 2.2

8.8 11.1 37.8 25.3 12.5
6.5

6.3 13.8 10.3

3.5

7.1

6.6 14.6 10.8

3.8

2.2 83.2 19.0 38.7 13.3 12.2 14.6 13.6

.9

3.8 11.9 69.7 30.2 25.7
.1

6.3

8.9
9.4
11.8
8.7
19.1
24.2

.3 8.6 85.0 36.0 35.1
.3 9.2 85.8 36.9 36.2
.7 11.1 81.4 39.8 30.3
.4 8.3 87.0 42.2 33.5
1.6 17.4 71.0 34.6 24.8
8.5 15.7 51.2 21.4 16.1

7.6
7.3
6.5
7.1
5.5
6.2

6.4 6.0 5.6
5.4 4.8 4.8
4.8 6.8 5.5
4.3 4.3 4.0
6.1 9.9 9.1
7.5 24.7 16.9

.4
.0
1.3
.3
.9
7.8

100.0 20.7

5.3 15.4 54.3 23.0 16.6

6.5

8.1 25.0 17.8

7.2

100.0 48.4 25.5 22.8 42.6 20.6 12.3

5.0

4.7

7.3

1.8

35.7 16.8 18.9 52.0 21.8
25.3 1.9 23.4 65.1 37.7
48.2 18.1 30.2 46.2 27.1
42.1 21.1 20.9 45.5 18.1

17.2
17.2
11.5
14.3

5.7
6.0
4.1
6.6

7.2 12.3 9.5
4.3 9.6 7.4
3.4 5.6 4.7
6.5 12.4 10.3

2.9
2.2
.9
2.2

100.0 83.4 66.3 17.1 14.9 8.1 3.6
100.0 51.3 27.2 24.1 37.2 15.0 11.6
100.0 68.3 48.4 19.9 25.4 11.5 7.6

1.7
6.0
3.1

1.5 1.7
4.7 11.5
3.2 6.3

1.2
8.1
4.7

.6
3.4
1.6

100.0 46.3 29.0 17.3 40.5 16.4 13.3

5.3

5.6 13.2 10.5

2.7

100.0 23.0
100.0 39.1
100.0 27.7

5.4 17.6 64.2 27.6 21.4
8.5 30.6 56.8 35.3 16.2
7.1 20.6 63.5 29.5 22.5

7.9
3.2
5.5

7.2 12.8 10.2
2.1 4.1 3.7
6.0 8.8 6.9

2.5
.4
1.9

100.0 19.6

4.5 15.0 65.4 26.0 21.9

9.3

8.2 15.1 12.0

3.0

100.0 22.6

9.0 13.5 56.0 21.8 17.3

8.1

8.9 21.4 16.0

5.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

7.0 1.0 6.0 70.3 21.7
20.0 6.6 13.5 63.0 23.5
24.5 10.4 14.1 52.9 21.0
22.6 7.4 15.1 62.5 28.2
4.5
.6 4.0 65.6 16.6
21.0 4.3 16.7 66.6 28.9

9.1

22.0 14.6 12.0 22.7
20.4 9.8 9.2 17.0
16.2 7.2 8.6 22.6
22.7 6.3 5.4 14.9
26.3 8.1 14.6 29.9
27.1 5.4 5.2 12.4

18.5 4.2
13.9 3.0
16.3 6.3
9.5 5.4
15.6 14.3
8.3 4.1

100.0 52.8 30.2 22.6 38.2 20.1 12.4

3.6

2.1

9.0

5.7

3.3

7.2 14.1 63.6 31.3 20.6

7.1

4.6 15.1

9.8

5.3

100.0 21.3

See footnotes at end of table.

I3l

Table C-2. Continued— Age distribution for selected occupations with 100,000 or more employees, 1984

(Percent)
Percent of employees
Occupation

Total

Age 16-24

Age 25-54

Age 55 and older

65
Total 16-19 20-24 Total 25-34 35-44 45-49 50-54 Total 55-64 and
older

Personal service occupations, n.e.c..... 100.0 28.8 10.4 18.5 48.4 19.7 15.5

7.3

6.0 22.7 13.4

9.4

Farming, forestry, and fishing................... 100.0 24.3 11.3 13.1 53.6 22.5 16.6

7.5

7.0 22.1 14.1

8.0

Farm operators and managers..............
Farmers, except horticultural...............
Farm occupations, except managerial....
Farm workers .......................................
Related agricultural occupations...........
Supervisors, related agricultural
occupations.........................................
Groundskeepers and gardeners,
except farm’ ........................................
Forestry and logging occupations..........

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

6.8 1.3 5.5 57.5
6.3 1.1 5.2 56.6
34.9 18.0 16.9 51.9
36.0 18.7 17.3 51.4
40.5 20.2 20.3 45.8

100.0 28.1

19.1
18.2
23.5
23.2
24.4

18.6
18.3
16.6
16.4
12.5

9.5 10.3 35.8 21.8 14.0
9.6 10.5 37.1 22.5 14.6
6.9 5.0 13.2 9.2 4.0
6.9 4.8 12.7 8.7 3.9
4.7 4.1 13.8 9.1 4.6

7.1 21.0 59.4 31.9 16.2

5.5

5.9 12.5 10.1

2.3

100.0 42.7 22.7 20.0 42.5 22.5 11.5
100.0 17.2 4.6 12.5 73.9 37.5 20.1

4.5
8.2

4.0 14.8
8.0 8.9

9.6
8.1

5.2
.8

3.1 12.7 71.5 32.4 22.8

8.7

7.7 12.7 10.9

1.8

Precision production, craft, and repair ..... 100.0 15.8
Mechanics and repairers........................
Supervisors, mechanics and repairers .
Mechanics and repairers, except
supervisors ..........................................
Vehicle and mobile equipment
mechanics and repairers ..............
Automobile mechanics ...................
Bus, truck, and stationary engine
mechanics’ ....................................
Automobile body and related
repairers’ ........................................
Heavy equipment mechanics.........
Industrial machinery repairers ..........
Electrical and electronic equipment
repairers............................................
Electronics repairers, commercial
and industrial equipment.............
Data processing equipment
repairers’ ........................................
Telephone installers and repairers'
Heating, air-conditioning, and
refrigeration mechanics’ ..................
Miscellaneous mechanics and
repairers............................................
Specified mechanics and repairers,
n.e.c.................................................
Not specified mechanics and
repairers.........................................

100.0 15.4
100.0 2.8

2.9 12.5 72.9 32.4 23.9 8.9 7.8 11.7 10.0
.1 2.7 80.9 22.7 31.0 13.6 13.6 16.3 15.3

1.6
1.0

100.0 16.2

3.1 13.1 72.4 33.0 23.4

8.6

7.4 11.4

9.7

1.7

100.0 20.3
100.0 24.1

4.4 15.9 70.1 34.7 21.8
5.1 19.1 67.5 35.1 19.8

7.9
7.2

5.8
5.3

9.6
8.4

8.1
6.8

1.6
1.6

100.0 15.4

2.4 13.0 74.9 35.7 25.2

7.9

6.1

9.7

8.7

1.0

100.0 28.0
100.0 6.3
100.0 10.3

7.4 20.6 63.9 32.8 17.6 9.4
1.1 5.2 81.3 38.5 25.8 9.8
1.4 8.9 74.9 29.6 24.8 10.9

4.2 8.1 7.0
7.2 12.4 11.5
9.5 14.8 13.6

1.1
1.0
1.2

100.0 11.7

1.7 10.0 79.3 33.9 29.0

8.3

8.1

7.8

1.3

100.0 21.2

4.7 16.6 64.5 31.5 20.6

6.7

5.7 14.2 11.8

2.4

100.0 15.2
100.0 5.7

.6 14.6 80.6 41.5 25.2
.5 5.2 87.1 31.8 35.3

100.0 17.8

3.0 14.8 72.1 34.2 23.2

100.0 14.6

2.6 12.0 70.3 30.6 21.8

100.0 18.0

Construction trades.................................
Supervisors, construction occupations
Supervisors, n.e.c..............................
Construction trades, except
supervisors..........................................
Brickmasons and stonemasons........
Carpenters .........................................
Drywall installers’ ...............................
Electricians.........................................
Electrical power installers and
repairers............................................
Painters, construction and
maintenance.....................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and
steamfitters.......................................
Roofers’ .............................................
Construction trades, n.e.c...................
Extractive occupations............................




9.0
4.2
7.3

3.6
7.1

.6
.2

8.0

6.7 10.1

8.0

2.1

9.1

8.9 15.0 12.5

2.5
2.4

100.0 12.7

3.3 14.7 67.1 31.2 19.7 8.6 7.6 14.9 12.4
1.9 10.8 70.7 31.4 19.3 10.0 10.0 16.6 13.8

100.0 18.8
100.0 5.3
100.0 5.4

4.0 14.8 70.0 34.8 21.0 7.4 6.8 11.2 9.7
.3 5.0 78.1 30.1 26.0 10.9 11.1 16.6 15.0
.2 5.1 78.1 30.7 24.9 11.4 11.1 16.5 14.8

1.5
1.6
1.7

6.2
9.9
5.0
4.2
6.6

9.9 80.8 34.4 32.5

7.4

6.5

8.1

8.0

.1

100.0 24.9

7.8 17.1 63.3 31.9 18.2

6.6

6.5 11.9

9.3

2.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.7
7.7
9.3
2.2

7.7
4.9
5.7
8.7

7.8 12.8 11.3
5.1 5.0 4.4
7.2 8.6 8.0
7.8 8.4 7.9

1.5
.5
.6
.5

2.3 10.4 71.7 29.2 23.7 9.9 8.8 15.7 13.4
.4 5.5 78.1 26.7 28.2 12.0 11.1 16.0 14.7
2.0 11.4 71.2 33.3 21.0 9.1 7.8 15.4 13.5

2.2
1.3
1.9

4.5
4.0
4.3
7.1
1.3

100.0 11.1

1.2

14.0
32.0
29.2
17.7

Precision production occupations .......... 100.0 12.7
Supervisors, production occupations ... 100.0 5.9
Precision metalworking occupations .... 100.0 13.4

16.1
12.3
16.7
24.4
10.7

12.2
24.3
19.9
15.5

See footnotes at end of table.

132

68.9
68.9
67.9
64.7
76.2

73.2
63.0
62.2
73.9

36.2
37.9
31.6
37.5

21.5
15.1
17.8
20.0

10.5 8.9
14.7 13.5
11.1 9.1
3.8 3.2
11.8 10.5

2.8

20.3 7.0
21.4 11.0
19.1 6.5
18.6 7.4
26.3 7.9

20.6
16.4
20.9
31.5
12.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

35.4
26.7
37.3
34.5
35.3

8.3 5.7
9.1 10.9

1.5
1.2
2.1
.6
1.3

Table C-2. Continued— Age distribution for selected occupations with 100,000 or more employees, 1984

(Percent)
Percent of employees
Occupation

Tool-and-die makers..........................
Machinists..........................................
Sheet-metal workers..........................
Precision woodworking occupations ....
Precision textile, apparel, and
furnishings machine workers .............
Dressmakers......................................
Precision workers, assorted materials .
Electrical and electronic equipment
assemblers .......................................
Precision food production occupations
Butchers and meat cutters...............
Bakers ................................................
Precision inspectors, testers,
and related workers............................
Inspectors, testers, and graders.......
Plant and system operators................
Stationary engineers..........................

Total

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Age 16-24

10.0
13.2
14.4
21.2

1.0 9.0 71.8 25.5
1.9 11.4 72.7 36.3
3.4 11.1 72.1 31.4
5.2 16.1 64.1 28.3

19.6 11.5 15.3 18.2 15.0
21.3 8.9 6.3 14.0 12.6
21.5 11.6 7.5 13.5 13.2
19.9 6.8 9.2 14.7 11.0

3.2
1.4
.3
3.7

100.0 12.7
100.0 7.4
100.0 21.1

3.6 9.2 57.5 21.2 19.2
2.2 5.2 53.6 18.4 17.8
4.5 16.7 68.5 30.7 23.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

22.8
24.3
23.6
24.9

5.2
5.6
4.1
7.9

29.4
26.7
26.2
28.5

24.4 7.8 5.2 10.3 9.8
20.2 9.0 7.2 12.7 9.8
21.6 8.4 5.9 14.4 10.9
15.9 10.6 11.0 9.2 7.8

.5
2.8
3.5
1.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

10.6
11.6
5.0
4.7

1.5 9.1 71.6 30.1
1.7 10.0 71.4 28.6
.2 4.8 78.9 36.7
.3 4.4 73.2 26.8

21.2 10.2 10.1 17.8 17.5
22.3 10.5 10.0 16.9 16.7
24.5 9.1 8.6 16.2 14.9
25.9 9.5 11.0 22.1 19.5

.3
.2
1.3
2.6

17.6
18.7
19.5
17.0

66.9
63.1
62.1
65.9

9.2
8.5
8.3

7.9 29.7 19.2 10.5
8.9 39.0 27.8 11.2
6.1 10.4 9.2 1.1

4.1 14.6 68.6 30.1 22.6

8.4

7.4 12.7 11.2

1.5

100.0 19.3

4.3 15.0 67.6 29.7 22.2

8.4

7.3 13.0 11.4

1.6

100.0 16.0

3.2 12.9 71.3 30.7 23.1

9.2

8.3 12.7 11.4

1.2

100.0 18.1

2.4 15.8 70.0 31.1 21.7

7.7

9.5 11.9 11.1

.7

100.0 18.0

4.3 13.7 68.9 28.1 25.5

8.9

6.4 13.1 11.4

1.7

100.0 19.0

3.5 15.5 68.5 32.4 25.2

5.7

5.3 12.5 10.7

1.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

3.7
6.3
5.4
5.6

23.6
18.0
20.7
20.6

6.5
7.2
7.1
7.5

4.7 12.0 10.4
7.6 8.8 7.9
6.6 12.4 10.8
5.5 12.6 11.0

1.6
1.0
1.6
1.7

3.8 12.2 68.2 27.7 22.4
3.0 10.5 70.4 28.9 23.7
3.9 14.1 64.0 24.2 22.4

9.6
9.8
8.2

8.5 15.8 13.3
8.0 16.0 13.5
9.3 17.9 15.5

2.5
2.6
2.4

5.4 17.7 59.5 22.4 17.7 10.1

9.2 17.4 12.8

4.7

4.4 16.2 67.3 30.1 22.3

8.1

6.7 12.1 10.8

1.3

6.6 16.8 63.2 29.9 20.2

7.5

5.6 13.4 12.0

1.4

2.6 19.8 64.6 28.9 20.9

7.8

7.0 13.0 11.0

1.9

5.6 18.3 67.2 32.4 20.5

8.8

5.5

7.5

1.2

7.9 11.2 13.0 11.9

1.1

4.7 19.1 62.9 29.7 19.1

7.8

6.3 13.3 11.1

2.2

3.5 15.4 69.3 29.1 24.8
4.1 14.9 67.9 30.0 22.2

8.6
8.4

6.8 11.7 10.6
7.3 13.0 11.9

1.2
1.1

4.6 14.9 70.0 32.2 24.0
3.0 13.1 74.1 35.5 24.9
5.2 15.3 69.1 30.7 23.9

7.3
7.2
7.7

6.5 10.4
6.5 9.8
6.9 10.4

9.3
9.1
9.5

1.1
.7
.9

2.2 11.4 71.1 28.6 22.4 10.4

9.7 15.3 13.7

1.6

1.7 10.8 71.5 27.5 23.2 10.9

9.8 16.1 14.8

1.3

19.8
24.5
23.4
24.0

100.0 16.0
100.0 13.5
100.0 18.0

100.0 23.1
Machine operators, assorted materials 100.0 20.7
Packaging and filling machine
operators........................................... 100.0 23.4
Mixing and blending machine
operators........................................... 100.0 22.5
Painting and paint spraying machine
operators........................................... 100.0 24.0
Furnace, kiln, and oven operators,
except food........................................ 100.0 9.9
Slicing and cutting machine
operators........................................... 100.0 23.8
Miscellaneous machine operators,
n.e.c.................................................... 100.0 18.9
Machine operators, not specified ..... 100.0 19.1
Fabricators, assemblers, and
handworking occupations...................... 100.0 19.5
Welders and cutters............................. 100.0 16.1
Assemblers........................................... 100.0 20.4
Production inspectors, testers,
samplers, and weighers ........................ 100.0 13.6
Production inspectors, checkers, and
examiners............................................ 100.0 12.4
Graders and sorters, except
agricultural........................................... 100.0 19.6




Age 55 and older

65
Total 16-19 20-24 Total 25-34 35-44 45-49 50-54 Total 55-64 and
older

Machine operators, assemblers, and
inspectors.................................................. 100.0 18.7
Machine operators and tenders, except
precision.................................................
Metalworking and plastic-working
machine operators ..............................
Punching and stamping press
machine operators............................
Grinding, abrading, buffing, and
polishing machine operators...........
Metal and plastic processing machine
operators .............................................
Molding and casting machine
operators...........................................
Woodworking machine operators........
Printing machine operators .................
Printing machine operators...............
Textile, apparel, and furnishings
machine operators.............................
Textile sewing machine operators....
Pressing machine operators'............
Laundering and drycleaning machine
operators...........................................

Age 25-54

16.1
18.2
18.1
18.4

68.2
66.7
64.1
63.4

33.4
33.8
29.7
29.8

9.2 77.1 35.9 22.2

.6

4.8 14.8 67.9 32.4 15.7

See footnotes at end of table.

133

8.8

9.1 10.8 12.4

9.8

2.7

Table C-2. Continued—Age distribution for selected occupations with 100,000 or more employees, 1984
(Percent)
Percent of employees
Occupation

Total

Age 16-24

Age 55 and older

v)J
Total 16-19 20-24 Total 25-34 35-44 45-49 50-54 Total 55-64 and
older

Transportation and material moving
occupations............................................... 100.0 15.8
Motor vehicle operators..........................
Truckdrivers, heavy ..............................
Truckdrivers, light ................................
Driver-sales workers.............................
Busdrivers.............................................
Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs1 .........
Transportation occupations, except
motor vehicle.........................................
Rail transportation occupations...........
Material moving equipment operators ....
Operating engineers.............................
Grader, dozer, and scraper operators .
Industrial truck and tractor equipment
operators .............................................
Miscellaneous material moving
equipment operators...........................

Age 25-54

3.4 12.5 70.9 30.0 23.2

9.5

8.1 13.3 11.6

1.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

16.2 4.0 12.2 70.7 29.7
12.6 1.9 10.8 75.1 30.2
36.2 12.9 23.3 53.7 29.3
13.5 3.1 10.4 78.2 37.0
8.9 2.8 6.1 73.3 24.8
14.5 3.6 10.9 63.2 27.8

23.6 9.4
25.2 10.8
15.0 4.7
25.4 8.5
29.3 10.5
19.3 7.4

8.0
8.8
4.7
7.4
8.6
8.6

13.0
12.3
10.0
8.2
17.8
22.3

11.1
11.2
7.6
7.8
15.1
15.0

1.9
1.1
2.4
.5
2.7
7.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

8.3
3.4
16.1
11.2
12.8

26.4 9.9
27.4 10.8
21.5 9.7
22.6 10.5
19.7 9.5

9.6
9.9
7.9
9.5
9.9

17.8
18.1
13.2
13.2
22.4

17.1
17.3
12.0
12.4
19.6

.7
.7
1.2
.9
2.7

9.6

.5 7.9 73.9 27.9
.1 3.3 78.5 30.4
2.0 14.1 70.6 31.5
1.2 10.0 75.6 33.0
1.5 11.3 64.9 25.8

100.0 20.9

2.8 18.1 69.4 33.0 20.8

8.2

7.4

9.1

.6

100.0 17.3

2.8 14.4 68.6 32.1 21.8

8.2

6.5 14.1 12.2

2.0

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers,
and laborers.............................................. 100.0 43.5 19.3 24.2 48.6 24.8 13.8

5.1

4.8

7.9

6.6

1.3

100.0 56.9 23.4 33.5 40.1 26.0 8.4
100.0 57.8 24.0 33.8 39.2 26.3 7.5
100.0 36.1 12.7 23.4 55.8 28.4 15.9

2.5
2.5
6.2

3.2
2.9
5.3

3.0
2.9
8.1

2.6
2.6
6.6

.4
.3
1.4

100.0 53.9 28.3 25.5 39.8 21.4 10.6
100.0 69.1 41.9 27.2 26.5 15.1 6.7

4.4
2.6

3.4
2.1

6.3
4.4

5.1
3.3

1.2
1.1

100.0 38.4 13.0 25.4 54.2 29.4 14.4
100.0 57.0 27.8 29.2 34.7 18.4 8.9

6.1

4.4

7.4

6.2

1.2

4.1

3.3

5.6

2.7

100.0 52.1 21.8 30.3 41.9 21.3 11.2
100.0 25.8 8.9 16.9 61.5 27.8 19.0
100.0 31.3 10.2 21.1 59.0 28.6 17.9

5.9
6.5
5.8

3.5 6.0 5.3
8.3 12.6 11.6
6.7 9.7 8.2

.7
1.1
1.5

Helpers, construction and extractive
occupations............................................
Helpers, construction trades...............
Construction laborers..............................
Freight, stock, and material movers,
hand.......................................................
Stock handlers and baggers...............
Freight, stock, and material movers,
hand, n.e.c............................................
Garage and service station related
occupations1...........................................
Vehicle washers and equipment
cleaners1.................................................
Hand packers and packagers................
Laborers, except construction ...............

'T h is Current Population Survey occupation is
equivalent to the Occupational Employment Statistics
survey occupation with the same title,
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.




8.2

NOTE: Due to rounding, individual items may not add
to totals.
SOURCE: Current Population Survey.

134

Appendix D. Statistics on
How Workers Get Their
Training, by Occupation

discussion in chapter 4). Table D-l presents data on the
total number of workers who needed training from any
source to obtain their jobs. Tables D-2 through D-l 1 con­
tain information on the different sources of training.

This appendix presents data by detailed occupation on
workers who reported that specific skills or training were
needed to obtain their current jobs, based on a supple­
ment to the January 1983 Current Population Survey (see

Table D-1. Occupational distribution of workers who needed specific training to qualify for their Jobs, 1983

Number who
needed training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
needed training

Total, all occupations................................................................

53,890

55.4

100.0

Professional specialty occupations ....................................................
Teachers, elementary school . ................ ...................................
Teachers, secondary school..........................................................
Registered nurses...........................................................................
Lawyers.................................
..........
Physicians ......................................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers ..............................................
Social workers.................................................................................
Clergy...............................................................................................
Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten...............................
Designers................................... ..................................................
Computer systems analysts and scientists.................................
Industrial engineers........................... .......... ..............................
Mechanical engineers....................................................................
Editors and reporters......................................................................
Pharmacists.....................................................................................
Civil engineers.................................................................................
Librarians.........................................................................................
Counselors, educational and vocational.......................................
Musicians and composers..............................................................
Dentists.............................................................................................
Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers............
Psychologists...................................................................................
Operations and systems researchers and analysts.....................
Chemists, except biochemists ......................................................
Photographers
Aerospace engineers......................................................................
Architects.............................
Public relations specialists
Inhalation therapists ............................... ............ ...................
Economists...........................
Geologists and geodesists ............................................................
Chemical engineers.........................................................................
Speech therapists
Actors and directors ......................................................................
English teachers .............................................................................
Physical therapists...........................................................................
Dietitians...............................
...........................
Authors.................................
Biological and life scientists..........................................................

11,797
1,554
1,280
1,262
548
482
404
316
284
281
266
243
199
198
181
180
175
169
164
126
123
121
121
117
106
99
94
91
84
76
75
70
69
65

92.6
98.1
96.7
97.9
94.8
98.4
92.4
85.7
92.6
86.0
80.4
93.9
85.4
89.3
84.4
99.2
84.7
81.1
93.4
86.6
97.4
82.9
97.8
85.5
96.2
80.5
100.0
93.9
71.5
93.6
88.0
96.9
94.7
100.0
92.7
97.7
95.8
75.8
83.2
100.0

21.9
2.9
2.4

See footnote at end of table.



135

60

57
55
55
54
51

2.3
1.0
.9
.8
.6
.5
.5
.5
.5

.4
.4

.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2

.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1

(1)

Table D-1. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who needed specific training to qualify for their Jobs, 1983

Occupation

Number who
needed training
(thousands)

Forestry and conservation scientists............................................
Mathematical sciences teachers....................................................
Athletes.............................................................................................
Recreation workers.........................................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical.....................
Secretaries.......................................................................................
Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks.............................
Typists .............................................................................................
Computer operators.........................................................................
Receptionists...................................................................................
General office clerks.......................................................................
Bank te lle rs .....................................................................................
Supervisors, general office............................................................
Data entry keyers.............................................................................
Investigators and adjusters, except insurance.............................
Teacher aides .................................................................................
Stock and inventory clerks............................................................
Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators.....................
Telephone operators.......................................................................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks......................................................
Production coordinators ................................................................
Records clerks.................................................................................
Order clerks.....................................................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks..........................................
Billing clerks.....................................................................................
Stenographers.................................................................................
File clerks.........................................................................................
Postal clerks, except mail carriers................................................
Interviewers.....................................................................................
Supervisors; distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks . . . .
Transportation, ticket, and reservation agents ...........................
Supervisors, financial records processing...................................
Mail carriers, postal service..........................................................
Dispatchers .....................................................................................
Statistical clerks...............................................................................
Cost and rate c le rk s .......................................................................
Bill and account collectors............................................................
Expediters .......................................................................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping.....................
Mail clerks, except postal service..................................................
Eligibility clerks, social welfare......................................................
Library clerks...................................................................................
Weighers, measurers, and checkers............................................
Hotel clerks .....................................................................................
Messengers.....................................................................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations...................
Accountants and auditors..............................................................
Administrators, education and related field s...............................
Managers; marketing, advertising, and public relations............
Administrators and officials, public administration.....................
Financial managers.........................................................................
Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists.....................
Managers, properties and real estate .........................................
Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction..........
Management analysts.....................................................................
Buyers, wholesale and retail trade, except farm products........
Managers, medicine and health....................................................
Personnel and labor relations managers.....................................
Purchasing managers.....................................................................
Construction inspectors..................................................................
Business and promotion agents....................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.........................
Supervisors, production occupations...........................................
Carpenters.......................................................................................
Automobile mechanics ..................................................................

50
48
48
43
9,157
2,746
1,195
593
408
285
274
266
228
213
179
170
168
132
119
118
117
105
101
99
99
87
87
73
72
70
61
61
59
59
54
52
50
45
43
40
40
33
27
24
15
7,738
962
400
337
312
310
251
124
110
108
106
96
83
60
40
33
7,603
676
639
549

See footnote at end of table.



136

Percent of—
Total
Total who
employment in
needed training
occupation
93.4
92.8
86.5
84.5
56.8
72.8
59.8
70.0
75.2
46.2
51.4
59.2
65.0
71.3
64.1
46.6
31.3
65.9
51.4
58.0
60.4
51.4
49.8
23.0
55.6
88.0
33.1
31.0
48.6
40.3
53.8
70.0
22.2
39.8
66.8
44.2
47.7
37.3
56.6
23.2
58.5
24.1
32.7
46.6
13.0
71.4
88.9
86.2
74.3
71.4
82.6
73.9
48.7
73.0
74.8
50.7
78.4
76.1
66.6
60.7
55.8
65.1
56.3
64.6
70.0

0
0
0)
<1)
17.0
5.1
2.2
1.1
.8
.5
.5
.5
.4
.4
.3
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
(1)
o
0
0
0
o
0
0
0
(1)
14.4
1.8
.7
.6
.6
.6
.5
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
(1)
(1)
14.1
1.3
1.2
1.0

Table D-1. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who needed specific training to qualify for their jobs, 1983

Number who
needed training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Electricians.......................................................................................
Machinists .......................................................................................
Industrial machinery repairers ......................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters.........................................
Supervisors, mechanics and repairers.........................................
Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics.............................
Painters, construction and maintenance.....................................
Telephone installers and repairers................................................
Butchers and meat cutters............................................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics ............
Tool and die makers......................................................................
Electronic repairers, communications and industrial equipment..
Automobile body and related repairers.......................................
Heavy equipment mechanics........................................................
Brickmasons and stonemasons ....................................................
Inspectors, testers, and graders....................................................
Data processing equipment repairers .........................................
Sheet-metal w orkers......................................................................
Aircraft engine mechanics..............................................................
Stationary engineers......................................................................
Carpet installers...............................................................................
Dressmakers ...................................................................................
Office machine repairers
Drywall installers.............................................................................
Electrical power installers and repairers.....................................
Roofers.............................................................................................
Bakers .............................................................................................
Upholsterers.....................................................................................
Telephone line installers and repairers.......................................
Millwrights .......................................................................................
Camera, watch, and music instrument repairers.........................
Supervisors, extractive occupations.............................................
Structural metal workers................................................................
Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians................
Optical goods workers....................................................................
Drillers, oil well ...............................................................................
Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers.........................

465
342
308
299
202
177
161
147
144
140
138
129
118
101
94
93
89
87
79
75
75
64
62
60
57
56
55
53
51
50
50
48
41
39
35
25
17

84.8
74.4
63.3
77.5
68.1
64.7
47.5
56.8
49.7
75.2
84.5
74.9
66.3
61.6
69.5
68.9
91.7
67.4
82.1
66.7
70.0
59.4
86.8
71.5
52.9
55.4
44.9
80.2
73.7
59.7
90.7
62.2
66.5
73.8
65.4
43.3
21.2

Sales occupations.................................................................................
Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations.........................
Sales representatives; mining, manufacturing, and wholesale
trade...............................................................................................
Cashiers...........................................................................................
Real estate sales occupations ......................................................
Insurance sales occupations..........................................................
Securities and financial services sales occupations...................
Street and door-to-door sales workers.........................................
Sales workers, apparel..................................................................
Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats ...................................
Advertising and related sales occupations...................................
Sales workers, p a rts ......................................................................
Sales workers; radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances...........................
Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings...........................
Sales workers, hardware and building supplies .........................
Sales engineers...............................................................................
Sales workers, shoes.......................................................................
Sales counter c le rks......................................................................
News vendors .................................................................................

4,867
1,392
697
544
431
421
146
108
84
64
62
58
58
57
56
42
28
27
7

43.4
50.1
53.8
27.8
89.1
76.1
77.4
28.0
20.8
37.8
49.7
36.9
41.9
36.6
28.0
77.5
22.3
23.0
4.7

Service workers, except private household.......................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants.....................................
Hairdressers and cosmetologists..................................................
Cooks, except short order..............................................................
Police and detectives, public service...........................................
Waiters and waitresses..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners....................................................................
Guards and police, except public service...................................

4,397
790
570
412
303
299
237
227

35.5
63.6
96.5
29.9
80.1
23.7
12.3
37.4

See footnote at end of table.



137

Total who
needed training
.9
.6
.6
.6
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
<
1)
(1)
(1)

9.0
2.6
1.3
1.0
.8
.8
.3
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
0
(1)

1

(’)

8.2
1.5
1.1
.8
.6
.6

.4
.4

Table D-1. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who needed specific training to qualify for their jobs, 1983

Number who
needed training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
Total who
employment in
needed training
occupation

Health aides, except nursing ........................................................
Childcare workers, except private household.............................
Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations............
Bartenders.......................................................................................
Correctional institution officers......................................................
Barbers.............................................................................................
Dental assistants.............................................................................
Firefighting occupations................................................................
Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers.................
Maids and housemen .....................................................................
Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers...................
Supervisors, police and detectives................................................
Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities.........................
Waiters’ and waitresses’ assistants..............................................
Food counter, fountain, and related occupations.......................
Kitchen workers, food preparation................................................
Welfare service a id e s ....................................................................
Short-order cooks ...........................................................................

171
116
113
111
101
97
96
93
67
57
51
42
39
36
31
27
22
9

52.6
17.9
53.4
36.3
63.9
87.7
73.2
54.5
70.3
11.6
41.0
56.7
32.3
10.7
12.4
18.3
26.0
11.7

Machine optrators, assemblers, and inspectors...............................
Weldeft and cutters .......................................................................
Textile itoMng machine operators................................................
AssemNira.......................................................................................
Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners.......................
Printing machine operators............................................................
Paint and spray machine operators..............................................
Photographic process machine operators...................................
Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, except fo o d .........................
Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators .
Winding and twisting machine operators.....................................
Production testers...........................................................................
Typesetters and compositors........................................................
Packaging and filling machine operators.....................................
Slicing and cutting machine operators.........................................
Laundry and dry cleaning machine operators.............................
Lathe and turning machine operators..........................................
Pressing machine operators..........................................................
Mixing and blending machine operators.....................................
Punching and stamp press machine operators...........................
Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators..............
Shoe machine operators................................................................
Molding and casting machine operators.....................................
Sawing machine operators............................................................
Metal plating machine operators..................................................
Crushing and grinding machine operators...................................
Graders and sorters, except agriculture .....................................
Technicians and related support occupations...................................
Licensed practical nurses..............................................................
Computer programmers ................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians............................................
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians.......................
Drafting occupations.......................................................................
Radiologic technicians.....................................................................
Dental hygienists.............................................................................
Legal assistants...............................................................................
Chemical technicians.......................................................................
Biological technicians.....................................................................

2,742
355
252
229
222
187
80
74
66
56
53
53
52
51
50
45
45
33
31
27
26
23
20
15
14
13
11

37.0
67.5
33.2
23.6
38.3
61.9
43.3
69.5
52.1
36.3
51.3
70.1
71.7
14.1
24.3
24.5
59.9
25.5
22.6
25.9
42.7
27.6
23.4
18.3
25.1
25.4
12.8

2,579
419
371
260
240
218
99
96
85
53
40
1,462
574
231
105
83
60
55
55

84.6
95.3
91.1
87.7
88.2
84.7
92.4
92.7
79.4
62.9
73.1

Transportation and material moving occupations.............................
Truck drivers, heavy.......................................................................
Bus drivers.......................................................................................
industrial truck and tractor equipment operators .......................
Truck drivers, light...........................................................................
Driver-sales workers .......................................................................
Crane and tower operators............................................................
Operating engineers.......................................................................
See footnote at end of table.



138

36.3
36.1
58.0
30.1
19.8
28.1
59.0
45.7

o
0

.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1

(')
0

(1)
0
(1)
(1)
5.1
.7
.5
.4
.4
.3
.1
.1
.1
.1
0
0)
o
o
0
0
0
o
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0)
4.8
.8
.7
.5
.4

.4

.2
.2
.2
(1)
(1)
2.7
1.1
.4
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1

Table D-1. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who needed specific training to qualify for their |obs, 1983

Number who
needed training
(thousands)

Occupation
Excavating and loading machine operators.................................
Grader, dozer, and scraper operators.........................................
Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs ....................................................
Locomotive operating occupations................................................

40
39
33
33
862

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation
43.2
50.0
17.6
60.7

Total who
needed training

0
(1)
0
(1)

164
75
59
26
25
24
17

27.9
30.5
19.0
22.5
52.3
37.6
32.2
27.1
34.4

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers.....................
Laborers, except construction........................................................
Stock handlers and baggers..........................................................
Construction laborers ....................................................................

605
158
91
88

16.2
17.0
12.1
20.0

Hand packers and packagers
Garage and service station related occupations.........................
Helpers, construction trades..........................................................
Machine feeders and offbearers....................................................
Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners...................................
Production helpers..........................................................................
Garbage collectors..........................................................................

46
45
35
24
20
18
6

16.6
16.1
24.5
26.7
13.8
27.7
8.0

0)
(1)
0
0
0
0

Private household occupations ..........................................................
Child care workers, private household.........................................
Private household cleaners and servants ...................................

81
41
28

8.3
9.7
5.7

C
)

Farming, forestry, and fishing occupations.......................................
Farmers, except horticulture................................... ...................
Farm workers...................................................................................
Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm .............................
Animal caretakers, except farm ....................................................
Managers, farms, except horticulture...........................................
Supervisors, related agricultural occupations
Timber cutting and logging occupations.....................................
Fishers.............................................................................................

1 Less than 0.1 percent.




139

406

1.6
.8
.3
.1
.1

0

(1)

0

(1)

1.1
.3
.2
.2

(1)

.2

(1)
NOTE: Percentages are based on unrounded numbers. Because
of rounding, individual items may not add to totals.

Table D-2. Occupational diatribution of workers who used training in 4*year or longer college programs to qualify for their Jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Total, all occupations................................................................

16,078

16.5

100.0

Professional specialty occupations ....................................................
Teachers, elementary school........................................................
Teachers, secondary school..........................................................
Registered nurses...........................................................................
Lawyers ...........................................................................................
Physicians .......................................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers ..............................................
Social workers.................................................................................
Clergy...............................................................................................
Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten...............................
Pharmacists.....................................................................................
Counselors, educational and vocational.......................................
Librarians.........................................................................................
Civil engineers.................................................................................
Computer systems analysts and scientists.................................
Mechanical engineers.....................................................................
Dentists.............................................................................................
Editors and reporters.......................................................................
Designers.........................................................................................
Industrial engineers.........................................................................
Psychologists...................................................................................
Chemists, except biochemists ......................................................
Architects.........................................................................................
Aerospace engineers.......................................................................
Musicians and composers..............................................................
Geologists and geodesists............................................................
Chemical engineers.........................................................................
Speech therapists...........................................................................
Operations and systems researchers and analysts.....................
Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers............
English teachers.............................................................................
Public relations specialists............................................................
Biological and life scientists..........................................................
Physical therapists...........................................................................
Mathematical sciences teachers....................................................
Economists.......................................................................................
F orestry and c o n s e rv a tio n s c ie n tis ts ............................................
Authors.............................................................................................
Dietitians...........................................................................................
Athletes.............................................................................................
Actors and directors .......................................................................
Photographers.................................................................................
Recreation w orkers.........................................................................
Inhalation therapists .......................................................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations................
Accountants and auditors..............................................................
Administrators, education and related field s...............................
Managers; marketing, advertising, and public relations............
Financial managers.........................................................................
Administrators and officials, public administration .....................
Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists.....................
Management analysts.....................................................................
Managers, medicine and health....................................................
Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction..........
Personnel and labor relations managers.....................................
Buyers, wholesale and retail trade, except farm products........
Managers, properties and real estate ..........................................
Purchasing managers.....................................................................

8,961
1,469
1,194
585
524
454
275
240
223
219
160
148
144
141
135
129
123
119
118
116
115
88
79
69
67
65
61
60
60
53
53
49
48
48
47
45
41
34
32
29
29
26
25
13

70.4
92.7
90.2
45.4
90.6
92.8
62.9
65.2
72.6
67.1
88.5
84.5
69.0
68.4
52.3
58.3
97.0
55.4
35.7
49.9
93.0
80.1
81.4
73.2
46.2
90.1
84.4
93.0
43.7
36.5
92.1
41.3
94.2
84.0
89.9
53.1
77.0
52.3
45.0
52.6
44.8
21.4
48.8
15.8

3,638
678
343
173
164
157
103
63
57
48
38
38
37
35

33.6
62.7
73.8
38.3
43.7
36.0
30.2
43.3
46.8
32.1
34.7
17.9
14.4
38.3

55.7
9.1
7.4
3.6
3.3
2.8
1.7
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.0
.9
.9
.9
.8
.8
.8
.7
.7
.7
.7
.5
.5
.4
.4
.4
.4
.4
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
(1)
22.6
4.2
2.1
1.1
1.0
1.0
.6
.4
.4
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2

Administrative support occupations, including clerical.....................
Secretaries.......................................................................................
Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks.............................
Investigators and adjusters, except insurance.............................
Teacher aides .................................................................................
See footnote at end of table.

976
270
149
54
43

6.1
7.1
7.5
19.2
11.7

6.1
1.7
.9
.3
.3




140

Table D-2. Continued— Occupational diatribution of workers who used training in 4-year or longer college programs to qualify for
their Jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Supervisors, general office............................................................
Computer operators........................................................................
Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators.....................
Typists.............................................................................................
Supervisors, financial records processing...................................
Receptionists...................................................................................
General office clerks......................................................................
Records clerks................... ..........................................................
Interviewers.....................................................................................
Stenographers.................................................................................
Stock and inventory clerks............................................................
Production coordinators ................................................................
Bank te lle rs.....................................................................................
Order clerks.....................................................................................
Statistical clerks...............................................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks.........................................
Library clerks...................................................................................
Supervisors; distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks . . . .
Payroll and timekeeping clerks......................................................
Billing clerks.....................................................................................
Eligibility clerks, social welfare......................................................

42
40
28
28
25
24
24
20
15
14
14
12
12
10
8
7
7
7
7
6
6

12.1
7.4
14.0
3.2
29.4
3.9
4.5
9.6
10.1
14.7
2.5
6.0
2.6
4.9
9.6
1.7
5.2
3.9
3.3
3.6
8.6

Sales occupations.................................................................................
Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations.........................
Sales representatives; mining, manufacturing, wholesale trade
Insurance sales occupations..........................................................
Real estate sales occupations ......................................................
Securities and financial services sales occupations...................
Advertising and related sales occupations...................................
Sales engineers...............................................................................
Cashiers...........................................................................................
Sales workers; radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances...........................
Sales workers, apparel..................................................................
Street and door-to-door sales workers.........................................
Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings...........................
Sales workers, hardware and building supplies.........................
Technicians and related support occupations...................................
Computer programmers ................................................................
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians.......................
Drafting occupations......................................................................
Dental hygienists.................................................... .....................
Electrical and electronic technicians...........................................
Legal assistants...............................................................................
Chemical technicians............................................. ........................
Biological technicians....................................................................
Licensed practical nurses..............................................................
Radiologic technicians....................................................................
Service workers, except private household.......................................
Police and detectives, public service...........................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants.....................................
Health aides, except nursing ........................................................
Childcare workers, except private household.............................
Guards and police, except public service...................................
Correctional institution officers......................................................
Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers.................
Cooks, except short order..............................................................
Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations............
Dental assistants.............................................................................
Supervisors, police and detectives................................................
Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers...................
Janitors and cleaners....................................................................

941
314
226
89
82
58
17
16
15
9
7
7
7
6
744
161
109
56
50
33
32
27
21
17
11
316
63
39
34
23
16
14
13
10
9
8
7
7
6

8.4
11.3
17.4
16.1
16.9
31.0
14.0
29.2
.8
6.4
1.7
1.7
4.3
2.8
24.4
39.6
39.8
21.7
48.3
11.2
30.4
31.6
37.6
3.9
10.6
2.6
16.7
3.1
10.4
3.5
2.6
9.1
13.4
.7
4.4
6.4
10.1
5.5
.3

See footnote at end of table.




141

<
•

Total who
used the
training
0.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
(1)
(1)
(1)

0
0
0
0

(1)
(1)
(1)

0
0
0

5.9
2.0
1.4
.6
.5
.4
.1
(1)
0
(1)
0
(1)
(1)
(1)
4.6
1.0
.7
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
(1)
2.0
.4
.2
.2
.1
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

Table D-2. Continued-—Occupational di8tribution of workers who used training in 4-year or longer college programs to qualify for
their jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.........................
Supervisors, production occupations............................................
Carpenters.......................................................................................
Electricians.......................................................................................
Supervisors, mechanics and repairers..........................................
Dressmakers ...................................................................................
Data processing equipment repairers ..........................................
Industrial machinery repairers ......................................................

282
99
21
14
11
8
8
6

Farming, forestry, and fishing occupations.......................................
Farmers, except horticulture..........................................................
Managers, farms, except horticulture............................................
Farm workers...................................................................................
Animal caretakers, except fa rm ....................................................

128
80
11
7
6

Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors...............................
Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners.......................
Production testers...........................................................................
Photographic process machine operators...................................

69
16
14
7

Transportation and material moving occupations.............................

10

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers.....................

7

Private household occupations ..........................................................

4

1 Less than 0.1 percent.




Percent of—
Total
Total who
employment in
used the
training
occupation
2.4
8.2
2.1
2.5
3.9
7.8
7.7
1.2
4.1
6.0
15.7
.8
5.3
.9
2.7
19.3
6.8
.3
.2
.4

0.8
.6
.1
0
0
0
0
(1)
.8
.5
(1)
(1)
(1)
.4
0
0
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

NOTE: Percentages are based on unrounded numbers. Because
of rounding, individual items may not add to totals.

142

Table D-3. Occupational diatribution of workera who
jobs, 1983

U8ed training from junior collages or technical institutes to qualify for their
Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Total, all occupations................................................................

4,965

5.1

100.0

Administrative support occupations, including clerical.....................
Secretaries.......................................................................................
Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks.............................
Computer operators.........................................................................
T ypists.........................
........................................................
Receptionists...................................................................................
Teacher aides ................
...........................................
General office clerks......................................................................
Data entry keyers.............................................................................
Supervisors, general office........ ...................................................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks......................................................
Bank te lle rs....................................................................................
Stock and inventory clerks............................................................
Investigators and adjusters, except insurance.............................
Interviewers.....................................................................................
Stenographers.................................................................................
Eligibility clerks, social welfare......................................................
Production coordinators ................................................................
Records clerks.................................................................................
File clerks.........................................................................................
Supervisors; distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks___
Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators.....................
Weighers, measurers, and checkers...........................................
Library clerks...................................................................................
Billing clerks.....................................................................................
Dispatchers .....................................................................................
Statistical clerks...............................................................................
Order clerks.....................................................................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping.....................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks.........................................

1,282
530
172
80
63
48
40
29
28
25
22
17
16
16
15
14
11
8
8
8
8
7
7
6
6
5
5
5
5
5

8.0
14.1
8.6
14.8
7.4
7.8
10.9
5.4
9.3
7.2
10.6
3.7
3.0
5.7
9.9
14.6
16.2
4.2
4.0
3.0
4.3
3.7
8.3
4.6
3.5
3.6
6.5
2.5
6.5
1.1

Professional specialty occupations ....................................................
Registered nurses.............................................................. ............
Teachers, elementary school........................................................
Designers...........................
Inhalation therapists .......................................................... ............
Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten...............................
Teachers, secondary school..........................................................
Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers............
Computer systems analysts and scientists.................................
Mechanical engineers....................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers ..............................................
Operations and systems researchers and analysts.....................
Clergy...............................................................................................
Civil engineers.................................................................... ............
Editors and reporters......................................................................
Chemists, except biochemists ......................................................
Psychologists...................................................................................
Actors and directors .......................................................................
Musicians and composers...............................................................
Photographers.................................................................................
Industrial engineers.........................................................................
Pharmacists.....................................................................................
Physical therapists...........................................................................
Authors.................
Architects.........................................................................................
Social workers.................................................................................

906
372
42
37
37
35
29
27
24
23
19
13
12
11
10
10
9
8
8
7
7
7
7
6
5
5

7.1
28.9
2.6
11.3
45.7
10.8
2.2
18.2
9.2
10.2
4.4
9.3
4.1
5.2
4.7
9.0
7.1
12.4
5.2
6.0
3.0
3.9
11.5
8.9
5.2
1.3

Technicians and related support occupations...................................
Licensed practical nurses
Computer programmers ................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians...........................................
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians.......................

600
148
75
75
65

19.7
33.7
18.5
25.3
23.9

25.8
10.7
3.5
1.6
1.3
1.0
.8
.6
.6
.5
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
0
(1)
18.3
7.5
.8
.8
.7
.7
.6
.5
.5
.5
.4
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
(1)
12.1
3.0
1.5
1.5
1.3

See footnote at end of table.



143

Table D-3. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who used training from junior colleges or technical institutes to qualify
for their jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Drafting occupations.......................................................................
Radiologic technicians....................................................................
Dental hygienists.............................................................................
Legal assistants...............................................................................

57
42
39
9

22.0
39.0
37.7
8.0

1.1
.8
.8
.2

Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations...................
Accountants and auditors..............................................................
Financial managers.........................................................................
Managers, properties and real estate .........................................
Administrators and officials, public administration.....................
Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists.....................
Managers; marketing, advertising, and public relations............
Administrators, education and related field s...............................
Management analysts....................................................................
Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction..........
Buyers, wholesale and retail trade, except farm products........
Personnel and labor relations managers.....................................
Construction inspectors..................................................................

581
91
24
22
21
18
13
13
10
8
7
7
6

5.4
8.4
6.4
8.8
4.9
5.2
3.0
2.9
6.6
5.3
3.3
6.2
8.8

11.7
1.8
.5
.5
.4
.4
.3
.3
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1

Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.........................
Automobile mechanics ..................................................................
Supervisors, production occupations............................................
Electricians.......................................................................................
Machinists .......................................................................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics ............
Industrial machinery repairers ......................................................
Data processing equipment repairers ..........................................
Electronic repairers, communications and industrial
equipment.....................................................................................
Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics.............................
Aircraft engine mechanics..............................................................
Carpenters.......................................................................................
Office machine repairers................................................................
Stationary engineers.......................................................................
Inspectors, testers, and graders....................................................
Heavy equipment mechanics........................................................
Supervisors, mechanics and repairers.........................................
Automobile body and related repairers.......................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters.........................................
Tool and die m akers.......................................................................
Optical goods workers.....................................................................
Telephone installers and repairers................................................
Painters, construction and maintenance.....................................
Sheet-metal w orkers.......................................................................
Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers.....................
Upholsterers.....................................................................................
Service workers, except private household........................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants.....................................
Hairdressers and cosmetologists..................................................
Police and detectives, public service............................................
Health aides, except nursing ........................................................
Dental assistants.............................................................................
Barbers.............................................................................................
Cooks, except short order..............................................................
Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers.................
Guards and police, except public service...................................
Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations............
Firefighting occupations................................................................
Childcare workers, except private household.............................
Correctional institution officers......................................................
Welfare service a id e s .....................................................................
Supervisors, police and detectives................................................
Janitors and cleaners.................................................................. ..

568
55
49
45
34
28
25
25

4.9
7.0
4.1
8.2
7.4
15.1
5.2
25.3

11.4
1.1
1.0
.9
.7
.6
.5
.5

18
17
17
16
15
13
12
12
10
10
9
8
7
7
5
5
5
5

10.5
6.2
17.2
1.6
20.4
11.8
8.9
7.1
3.3
5.4
2.3
4.7
13.0
2.7
1.6
4.0
8.6
7.1

.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1

461
136
73
39
31
25
22
18
14
14
12

3.7
11.0
12.3
10.2
9.4
19.1

See footnote at end of table.



144

11

8

7
7

5
4

19.9

1.3
15.1
2.3
5.5
6.6
1.2
4.5
7.8
7.5
.2

o
(1)
9.3
2.7
1.5
.8
.6
.5
.4
.4
.3
.3

.2
.2
.2

.1
.1
.1
(1)

Table D-3. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who used training from Junior colleges or technical institutes to qualify
for their Jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Sales occupations.................................................................................
Real estate sales occupations ......................................................
Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations.........................
Sales representatives; mining, manufacturing, wholesale trade .
Insurance sales occupations..........................................................
Cashiers...........................................................................................
Sales engineers...............................................................................
Securities and financial services sales occupations..................

356
113
89
35
28
24
11
10

3.2
23.3
3.2
2.7
5.1
1.2
19.5
5.3

7.2
2.3
1.8

Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors...............................
Welders and cutters ......................................................................
Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners.......................
Printing machine operators............................................................
Photographic process machine operators...................................
Lathe and turning machine operators .........................................

115
34
12
8
6
6

1.6
6.4
2.1
2.8
6.0
7.7

2.3
.7
.2
.2
.1
.1

Farming, forestry, and fishing occupations.......................................
Farmers, except horticulture..........................................................
Farm workers...................................................................................

58
21
11

1.9
1.6
1.2

1.2
.4
.2

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers.....................
Stock handlers and baggers..........................................................
Laborers, except construction........................................................

21
9
6

.6
1.2

.4
.2
.1

Transportation and material moving occupations.............................
Truck drivers, heavy......................................................................

18
10

.4

.7

.4
.2

Private household occupations ..........................................................

-

-

-

1Less than 0.1 percent.




.7

.7

.6
.5
.2
.2

NOTE: Percentages are based on unrounded numbers. Because
of rounding, individual items may not add to totals. Dash indicates
that data were not reported.

145

Table D-4. Occupational distribution of workers who used high school vocational training to qualify for their jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation
Total, all occupations................................................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical.....................
Secretaries.......................................................................................
Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks.............................
T ypists.............................................................................................
Receptionists...................................................................................
General office clerks.......................................................................
Computer operators.........................................................................
Billing clerks.....................................................................................
Data entry keyers.............................................................................
Bank te lle rs .....................................................................................
File clerks.........................................................................................
Stenographers.................................................................................
Teacher aides .................................................................................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks......................................................
Stock and inventory clerks............................................................
Supervisors, general office............................................................
Production coordinators ................................................................
Records clerks.................................................................................
Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators.....................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping.....................
Interviewers.....................................................................................
Telephone operators.......................................................................
Order clerks.....................................................................................
Expeditors .......................................................................................
Library clerks...................................................................................
Statistical clerks...............................................................................
Eligibility clerks, social welfare......................................................
Dispatchers .....................................................................................
Bill and account collectors............................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks..........................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.........................
Automobile mechanics ..................................................................
Carpenters.......................................................................................
Electricians.......................................................................................
Machinists .......................................................................................
Supervisors, production occupations............................................
Industrial machinery repairers ......................................................
Tool and die m akers.......................................................................
Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics.............................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters.........................................
Supervisors, mechanics and repairers..........................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics ............
Electronic repairers, communications and industrial
equipment.....................................................................................
Dressmakers ...................................................................................
Sheet-metal w orkers.......................................................................
Data processing equipment repairers ..........................................
Heavy equipment mechanics........................................................
Bakers .............................................................................................
Telephone installers and repairers................................................
Automobile body and related repairers.......................................
Aircraft engine mechanics..............................................................
Butchers and meat cutters............................................................
Office machine repairers................................................................
Stationary engineers.......................................................................
Brickmasons and stonemasons....................................................
Electrical power installers and repairers.....................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations...................
Accountants and auditors..............................................................
Administrators and officials, public administration.....................
Financial managers.........................................................................
Administrators, education and related field s...............................
Management analysts....................................................................
See footnote at end of table.



146

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

4,692
2,659
1,323
341
306
84
68
62
39
37
35
29
25
23
23
20
19
17
16
15
14
8
8
7
7
7
7
7
6
5
3
606
101
52
51
44
33
30
25
14
13
11
11
11
10
10
8
8
7

4.8
16.4
35.1
17.1
36.1
13.6
12.8
11.4
21.9
12.4
7.7
11.2
25.5
6.4
11.3
3.7
5.4
8.9
8.1
7.5
18.7
5.4
3.3
3.7
6.0
5.1
8.6
9.9
4.1
5.1
.7
5.2
12.8
5.3
9.3
9.6
2.8
6.1
15.6
5.0
3.3
3.9
6.1
6.5
9.6
7.4
8.1
4.6
6.0

100.0
56.7
28.2
7.3
6.5
1.8
1.4
1.3
.8
.8
.7
.6
.5
.5
.5
.4
.4
.4
.4
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1

6
6
6
6
5
5

2.5

.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1

4
4

333
49

13
9
8
6

3.5
6.0
2.0
7.6
4.5
3.2
3.3

3.1
4.5

3.1
2.3
1.7

4.2

(1)

12.9
2.1
1.1
1.1
.9
.7
.6
.5
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2

0
(1)
7.1
1.0

.3

.2
.2
.1

Table D-4. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who used high school vocational training to qualify for their jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Managers, properties and real estate .........................................
Buyers, wholesale and retail trade, except farm products........
Business and promotion agents....................................................

5
5
3

2.2
2.2
5.3

Professional specialty occupations ....................................................
Registered nurses...........................................................................
Designers.........................................................................................
Computer systems analysts and scientists.................................
Photographers...............................................................................•.
Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers............
Teachers, elementary school ........................................................
Clergy...............................................................................................
Public relations specialists............................................................
Mechanical engineers....................................................................
Civil engineers.................................................................................
Social workers.................................................................................
Inhalation therapists ......................................................................
Actors and directors ......................................................................
Operations and systems researchers and analysts.....................

208
19
12
11
10
8
7
7
6
6
6
5
4
4
4

1.6
1.5
3.6
4.4
8.4
5.3
.5
2.0
5.1
2.6
2.7
1.5
5.2
6.1
2.8

Service workers, except private household.......................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants.....................................
Hairdressers and cosmetologists..................................................
Janitors and cleaners....................................................................
Childcare workers, except private household.............................
Cooks, except short order..............................................................
Police and detectives, public service...........................................
Dental assistants.............................................................................
Health aides, except nursing ........................................................
Guards and police, except public service...................................
Welfare service a id e s ....................................................................
Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations............

207
50
41
19
14
12
9
8
7
6
5
5

1.7
4.1
7.0
1.0
2.1
.9
2.3
6.2
2.1
1.0
5.5
2.2

Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors...............................
Printing machine operators............................................................
Welders and cutters ......................................................................
Assemblers......................................................................................
Typesetters and compositors........................................................
Painting and paint spraying machine operators.........................
Lathe and turning machine operators .........................................
Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners.......................
Photographic process machine operators...................................
Sawing machine operators............................................................
Sales occupations.................................................................................
Cashiers...........................................................................................
Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations.........................
Sales representatives; mining, manufacturing, wholesale trade .
Real estate sales occupations ......................................................
Insurance sales occupations..........................................................
Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings.........................
Sales workers; radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances...........................
Advertising and related sales occupations...................................
Sales workers, apparel..................................................................

196
41
31
16
15
9
6
5
4
4

2.6
13.7
5.9
1.7
21.2
4.8
7.4
.9
4.2
4.5
1.6
2.4
1.5
1.3
2.4
1.8
5.1
4.1
3.9
1.0

Technicians and related support occupations...................................
Drafting occupations......................................................................
Licensed practical nurses..............................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians...........................................
Legal assistants...............................................................................
Chemical technicians......................................................................
Computer programmers ................................................................
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians.......................
Farming, forestry, and fishing occupations.......................................
Farmers, except horticulture..........................................................

149

See footnote at end of table.



147

185
48
42
17
12
10
8
6

5
4

64

19
17
8
6

4.9
24.9
4.4

4

5.7
7.8
7.2
1.4
1.4

75
43

2.4
3.2

6

Total who
used the
training
0.1
(1)
(1)
4.4
.4
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
<1)
(1)
(1)
4.4
1.1
.9
.4
.3
.3
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1
(1)
4.2
.9
.7
.3
.3
.2
.1
.1
o
(1)
3.9
1.0
.9
.4
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
.9

3.2
1.4
.4

.4

.2
.1

.1
(1)

1.6
.9

Table D-4. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who used high school vocational training to qualify for their jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation
Farm workers...................................................................................
Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm .............................

18
8

Transportation and material moving occupations.............................
Bus drivers.......................................................................................
Truck drivers, heavy......................................................................
Truck drivers, light...........................................................................
Operating engineers.......................................................................
Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs ....................................................
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers.....................
Construction laborers ....................................................................
Helpers, construction trades..........................................................
Garage and service station related occupations.........................
Laborers, except construction........................................................

34
11
6

5
4
3
30
9
7
4
4

Private household occupations ..........................................................
Childcare workers, private household .........................................

9

7

1Less than 0.1 percent.




Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation
2.1
2.3

Total who
used the
training
0.4
.2
.7

.9

2.8
.4
1.2
3.3
1.7
.8
2.0
5.1
1.4
.4
1.0
1.7

.2

.1
.1

0
0

.6

.2
.2

c >

(1)

.2
.2

NOTE: Percentages are based on unrounded numbers. Because
of rounding, individual items may not add to totals.

148

Table D-5. Occupational distribution of workers who used private post-high school vocational training to qualify for their Jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Total, all occupations................................................................

2,098

2.2

100.0

Administrative support occupations, including clerical.....................
Secretaries.......................................................................................
Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks.............................
Typists............................................................................... ..........
Computer operators........................................................................
Data entry keyers.............................................................................
General office clerks......................................................................
Stenographers.................................................................................
Billing clerks.....................................................................................
Receptionists...................................................................................
Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping.....................
Investigators and adjustors, except insurance.............................
Production coordinators ................................................................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks......................................................
Bank tellers .....................................................................................
Supervisors, general office............................................................

506
231
71
24
22
13
12
11
11
11
10
9
8
7
7
5

3.1
6.1
3.6
2.8
4.0
4.3
2.3
11.4
6.3
1.7
13.5
3.3
4.1
3.7
1.6
1.6

24.1
11.0
3.4
1.2
1.0
.6
.6
.5
.5
.5
.5
.4
.4
.4
.3
.3

Service workers, except private household.......................................
Hairdressers and cosmetologists..................................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants.....................................
Barbers . . . . . . . .
. ...............................
Health aides, except nursing ........................................................
Cooks, short order...........................................................................
Police and detectives, public service...........................................
Dental assistants.............................................................................
Professional specialty occupations ....................................................
Registered nurses...........................................................................
Clergy...............................................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers .............................................
Physicians.......................................................................................
Teachers, secondary school..........................................................
Teachers, elementary school ........................................................
Photographers.................................................................................
Designers ..........................................................................................
Operations and systems researchers and analysts.....................
Mechanical engineers....................................................................
Architects.........................................................................................
Editors and reporters......................................................................
Computer systems analysts and scientists.................................
Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers............
Inhalation therapists ......................................................................
Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.........................
Automobile mechanics ..................................................................
Electricians.......................................................................................
Carpenters.......................................................................................
Supervisors, production occupations...........................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters.........................................
Industrial machinery repairers ......................................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics ............
Supervisors, mechanics and repairers.........................................
Sheet-metal w orkers.......................................................................
Electronic repairers, communications and industrial equipment ..
Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations..................
Accountants and auditors..............................................................
Managers, medicine and health....................................................
Managers; marketing, advertising, and public relations............
Administrators and officials, public administration .....................
Technicians and related support occupations...................................
Licensed practical nurses..............................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians...........................................
Radiologic technicans....................................................................

442
266
65
34
17
13
10
7
367
180
15
14
9
8
8
8
8
8
7
6
6
6
5
5
193
24
18
16
9
7

3.6
45.0
5.2
30.8
5.2
.9
2.7
5.7
2.9
14.0
4.9
3.2
1.8
.6
.5
6.3
2.3
5.5
3.4
6.7
2.9
2.2
3.8
6.5
1.7
3.1
3.3
1.6
.8
1.8
1.3
3.2
2.0
4.4
3.2
1.6
1.9
6.0
1.5

21.1
12.7
3.1
1.6
.8
.6
.5
.4
17.5
8.6
.7
.7
.4
.4
.4
.4
.4
.4
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2
9.2
1.2
.9
.8
.5
.3
.3
.3
.3

1.1

.2

5.5

8.0
2.6
1.2
1.0

See footnote at end of table.



149

6
6
6
6

5

169
20
7
7

5

168
55
26
20

12.5
8.7
18.6

.3

.3
8.1
1.0
.4
.3

Table D-5. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who used private post-high school vocational training to qualify for
their jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training
0.7
.6
.5
7.8
2.6
2.2
.9
.4
.4

Computer programmers ................................................................
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians.......................
Drafting occupations.......................................................................

15
12
10

3.6
4.4
3.8

Sales occupations.................................................................................
Real estate sales occupations......................................................
Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations.........................
Insurance sales occupations..........................................................
Cashiers...........................................................................................
Sales representatives; mining, manufacturing, wholesale trade

163
54
45
19
8
8

1.5
11.1
1.6
3.5
.4
.6

Machine operators, asemblers, and inspectors ...............................
Welders and cutters .......................................................................
Textile sewing machine operators................................................

.6
3.2
.7

Transportation and material moving occupations.............................
Truck drivers, heavy.......................................................................

45
17
5
23
10

Farming, forestry, and fishing occupations.......................................
Farmers, except horticulture..........................................................

15
10

.5
.7

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers.....................

6

.2

.7
.5
.3

Private household occupations ..........................................................

2

.2

.1

NOTE: Percentages are based on unrounded numbers. Because
of rounding, individual items may not add to totals.




150

.6
.7

2.2
.8
.3
1.1
.5

Table D-6. Occupational distribution of workers who used public post-high school vocational training to qualify for their jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Total, all occupations................................................................

1,586

1.6

100.0

Administrative support occupations, including clerical.....................
Secretaries.......................................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing c le rks...........................
Typists.............................................................................................
Data entry keyers.............................................................................
Receptionists...................................................................................
General office clerks.......................................................................
Teacher aides .................................................................................
Computer operators.........................................................................
Bank te lle rs.....................................................................................
Stock and inventory clerks............................................................
File clerks..........................................................................................

367
144
49
36
17
14
13
10
9
7
6
5

2.3
3.8
2.4
4.2
5.6
2.2
2.5
2.9
1.7
1.5
1.1
1.8

23.2
9.1
3.1
2.3
1.1
.9
.8
.7
.6
.4
.4
.3

Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.........................
Automobile mechanics ..................................................................
Electricians................................. .....................................................
Machinists .......................................................................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics ............
Carpenters.......................................................................................
Supervisors, production occupations...........................................
Industrial machinery repairers ......................................................
Data processing equipment repairers .........................................
Brickmasons and stonemasons....................................................
Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics.............................
Tool and die m akers......................................................................
Aircraft engine mechanics..............................................................
Supervisors, mechanics and repairers.........................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters.........................................
Millwrights .......................................................................................
Stationary engineers.......................................................................

280
33
32
22
18
16
14
13
12
9
9

2.4
4.2
5.9
4.7
9.4
1.6
1.2
2.6
12.3

17.6
2.1
2.0
1.4
1.1
1.0
.9
.8
.8

3.1

4.4

.5
.5

6.6

5

4.7

.4
.4
.4
.4

.3

Professional specialty occupations ....................................................
Registered nurses...........................................................................
Teachers, secondary school..........................................................
Designers.........................................................................................
Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers............
Teachers, elementary school........................................................
Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten...............................
Photographers.................................................................................
Social workers................................................................................
Mechanical engineers....................................................................
Civil engineers................................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers ..............................................
Service workers, except private household.......................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants.....................................
Hairdressers and cosmetologists..................................................
Barbers.............................................................................................
Janitors and cleaners....................................................................
Guards and police, except public service...................................
Health aides, except nursing ........................................................
Police and detectives, public service...........................................
Childcare workers, except private household.............................
Technicians and related support occupations...................................
Licensed practical nurses..............................................................
Drafting occupations......................................................................
Computer programmers ................................................................
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians.......................
Electrical and electronic technicians...........................................
Chemical technicians.......................................................................

213
43
19
15
10
10
8

1.7
3.4
1.4
4.6
7.0

13.4
2.7
1.2
1.0

.5

195
67
64
17
13
7
5
3
3

2.5
5.7
1.8
3.0
3.0
1.1
1.6
5.4
10.8
15.7
.7
1.2
1.5
.8
.5

185
108
16
15
9
8
4

6.1
24.5
6.4
3.7
3.4
2.6
5.0

11.7
6.8
1.0
.9

Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations...................
Accountants and auditors..............................................................

134
23

1.2
2.1

8.5
1.4

See footnote at end of table.



151

7
7
6
6
6

7
7
7
6
5

6.6

6.7
2.1
1.6

.6

.6

.6
.6
.4
.4
.4
.4

.3
12.3
4.2
4.0
1.1
.8
.4
.3
.2
.2

.6

.5
.3

Table D-6. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who used public post-high school vocational training to qualify for
their Jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Administrators and officials, public administration.....................
Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists.....................
Managers; marketing, advertising, and public relations............
Administrators, education and related field s...............................

8
7
6
5

1.7
2.0
1.4
1.0

Sales occupations.................................................................................
Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations.........................
Real estate sales occupations......................................................
Sales representatives; mining, manufacturing, wholesale trade
Cashiers...........................................................................................

90
26
24

Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors...............................
Welders and cutters .......................................................................
Assemblers.......................................................................................
Printing machine operators............................................................
Lathe and turning machine operators.........................................

79
27
13
11
6

.8
.9
5.1
.7
.5
1.1
5.1
1.4
3.5
7.6

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers.....................

16

.4

1.0

Farming, forestry, and fishing occupations.......................................
Farmers, except horticulture..........................................................
Supervisors, related agricultural occupations.............................

16
8
4

.5
.6
5.8

1.0
.5
.3

Transportation and material moving occupations.............................

10

.3

.6

9

9

Private household occupations ..........................................................

-

NOTE: Dash indicates that no data were reported. Percentages
are based on unrounded numbers. Because of rounding, individual
items may not add to totals.




152

-

0.5
.4
.4
.3
5.7
1.6
1.5
.6
.6
5.0
1.7
.9
.7
.4

-

Table D-7. Occupational diatributlon of workara who used Informal on-the-job training to qualify for their Jobe, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Total, all occupations..........................................................

27,004

27.8

100.0

Administrative support occupations, including clerical.....................
Secretaries.......................................................................................
Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks.............................
T ypists.............................................................................................
Computer operators........................................................................
Bank te lle rs.....................................................................................
Receptionists...................................................................................
General office clerks......................................................................
Supervisors, general office............................................................
Data entry keyers.............................................................................
Stock and inventory clerks............................................................
Investigators and adjusters, except insurance.............................
Order clerks.....................................................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks.........................................
Production coordinators ................................................................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks......................................................
Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators.....................
Teacher aides .................................................................................
Records clerks.................................................................................
Billing clerks.....................................................................................
Postal clerks, except mail carriers................................................
File clerks.........................................................................................
Supervisors; distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks . . . .
Dispatchers .....................................................................................

4,945
1,172
721
246
238
186
165
155
144
124
123
113
77
74
74
72
69
64
58
50
50
47
47
45

30.7
31.1
36.1
29.0
43.9
41.5
26.7
29.1
41.0
41.4
22.8
40.7
37.9
17.1
38.0
35.5
34.7
17.7
28.6
28.3
21.3
18.1
27.3
30.4

18.3
4.3
2.7
.9
.9
.7
.6
.6
.5
.5
.5
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2

Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.........................
Supervisors, production occupations...........................................
Carpenters.......................................................................................
Automobile mechanics ..................................... .........................
Electricians.......................................................................................
Machinists.......................................................................................
Industrial machinery repairers ......................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters.........................................
Supervisors, mechanics and repairers.........................................
Painters, construction and maintenance.....................................
Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics.............................
Butchers and meat cutters............................................................
Automobile body and related repairers.......................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics ............
Tool and die m akers......................................................................
Telephone installers and repairers................................................
Heavy equipment mechanics........................................................
Brickmasons and stonemasons....................................................
Sheet-metal w orkers.......................................................................
Inspectors, testers, and graders....................................................
Electronic repairers, communication and industrial equipment .
Carpet installers...............................................................................
Roofers.............................................................................................
Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations...................
Accountants and auditors..............................................................
Managers; marketing, advertising, and public relations............
Financial managers.........................................................................
Administrators and officials, public administration.....................
Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists.....................
Administrators, education and related field s...............................
Managers, properties and real estate .........................................
Buyers, wholesale and retail trade, except farm products........
Management analysts....................................................................
Operations and systems researchers and analysts.....................
Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction..........
Sales occupations.................................................................................
Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations.........................

4,710
468
448
299
241
196
196
188
128
120
117
101
77
74
72
70
64
59
56
5
1
49
47
45
4,242
354
208
174
153
145
96
77
69
53
47

17.4
1.7
1.7
1.1
.9

44

40.3
39.0
45.3
38.2
43.9
42.5
40.3
48.6
43.2
35.5
42.6
34.9
43.2
39.7
43.8
27.1
38.9
43.5
43.2
37.6
28.5
44.2
44.2
30.2
32.7
45.9
46.3
35.0
42.7
20.8
30.4
33.2
36.8
34.4
28.9

3,148
957

28.1
34.5

See footnote at end of table.



153

.7
.7
.7
.5
.4
.4
.4

.3
.3
.3
.3

.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
15.7
1.3
.8
.6
.6
.5

.4

.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
11.7
3.5

Table D-7. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who used informal on-the-job training to qualify for their jobs, 19113

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Sales representatives; mining, manufacturing,wholesale trade.
Cashiers...........................................................................................
Insurance sales occupations..........................................................
Real estate sales occupations......................................................
Street and door-to-door sales workers.........................................
Sales workers, apparel..................................................................
Securities and financial services sales occupations...................
Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats ...................................

485
428
214
134
73
70
63
54

37.5
21.9
38.7
27.8
19.0
17.3
33.6
31.8

1.8
1.6
.8
.5
.3
.3
.2
.2

Professional specialty occupations ....................................................
Registered nurses...........................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers ..............................................
Designers.........................................................................................
Teachers, secondary school..........................................................
Teachers, elementary school ........................................................
Social workers.................................................................................
Computer systems analysts and scientists.................................
Editors and reporters.......................................................................
Lawyers...........................................................................................
Industrial engineers........................................................................
Mechanical engineers....................................................................
Clergy...............................................................................................
Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten...............................
Civil engineers.................................................................................
Public relations specialists............................................................
Librarians.........................................................................................
Photographers.................................................................................
Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers............
Musicians and composers..............................................................
Operations and systems researchers and analysts.....................
Economists.......................................................................................
Counselors, educational and vocational.......................................
Service workers, except private household.......................................
Cooks, except short order..............................................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants.....................................
Waiters and waitresses..................................................................
Janitors and cleaners....................................................................
Guards and police, except public service...................................
Police and detectives, public service............................................
Health aides, except nursing ........................................................
Bartenders.......................................................................................
Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations............
Hairdressers and cosmetologists..................................................
Childcare workers, except private household.............................
Dental assistants.............................................................................
Maids and housemen....................................................................
Correctional institution officers......................................................

2,767
206
139
130
127
124
120
115
113
96
96
70
65
64
61
56
54
52
48
48
47
46
45

21.7
16.0
31.8
39.2
9.6
7.8
32.4
44.5
52.6
16.6
41.0
31.8
21.3
19.4
29.5
47.6
25.7
42.1
33.0
33.2
34.4
53.3
25.9
18.0
24.1
26.1
21.0
8.3
20.5
26.9
28.3
29.6
33.3
10.8
9.4
37.7
9.7
29.2

10.2
.8
.5
.5
.5
.5
.4
.4
.4
.4
.4
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2

Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors...............................
Textile sewing machine operators................................................
Welders and cutters .......................................................................
Assemblers.......................................................................................
Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners.......................
Printing machine operators............................................................
Paint and paint spray machine operators...................................
Photographic process machine operators...................................
Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, except fo o d .........................
Winding and twisting machine operators.....................................
Packaging and filling machine operators.....................................

1,957
197
174
172
158
116
57
49
49
47

7.2
.7
.6
.6
.6

44

26.4
25.9
33.0
17.7
27.3
38.4
30.7
46.0
38.4
45.9
12.2

Transportation and material moving occupations
Truck drivers, heavy......................................................................
Bus drivers.......................................................................................
Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators .......................
Truck drivers, light...........................................................................

1,028
404
113
83
55

25.5
25.4
28.3
23.8
13.1

See footnote at end of table.



154

2,233
332
324
265
159
124
102
92
90
70
64
61
50
48
46

8.3
1.2
1.2
1.0
.6
.5
.4
.3
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2

.4

.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
3.8
1.5

.4

.3
.2

Table D-7. Continued— Occupational dietribution of workers who used Informal on-the-job training to qualify for their jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Operating engineers......................................................................
Driver-sales workers ......................................................................
Crane and tower operators............................................................

53
46
43

44.2
21.7
46.2

0.2
.2
.2

Technicians and related support occupations...................................
Computer programmers ................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians...........................................
Drafting occupations......................................................................
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians.......................
Licensed practical nurses..............................................................
Legal assistants..............................................................................

962
168
116
84
69
68
63

31.6
41.3
39.1
32.8
25.4
15.4
58.8

3.6
.6
.4
.3
.3
.3
.2

Farming, forestry, and fishing occupations.......................................
Farmers, except horticultural ........................................................
Farm workers...................................................................................
Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm .............................

507
211
104
46

16.4
15.9
12.0
13.8

1.9
.8
.4
.2

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers.....................
Laborers, except construction........................................................
Stock handlers and baggers..........................................................
Construction laborers ....................................................................

468
120
75
67

12.5
12.9
10.1
15.4

1.7
.4
.3
.2

Private household occupations ..........................................................

36

3.7

.1

NOTE: Percentages are based on unrounded numbers. Because
of rounding, individual items may not add to totals.




155

Table D-8. Occupational distribution of workers who used formal company training to qualify for their fobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Total, all occupations..........................................................

9,418

9.7

100.0

Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.........................
Electricians.......................................................................................
Supervisors, production occupations...........................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters.........................................
Automobile mechanics ..................................................................
Machinists .......................................................................................
Telephone installers and repairers................................................
Industrial machinery repairers ......................................................
Carpenters.......................................................................................
Supervisors, mechanics and repairers.........................................
Tool and die makers.......................................................................
Inspectors, testers, and graders....................................................
Butchers and meat cutters........................................... ................
Painters, construction and maintenance.....................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics ............
Electronic repairers, communication and industrial equipment .
Data processing equipment repairers .........................................
Office machine repairers................................................................
Brickmasons and stonemasons ....................................................
Electrical power installers and repairers.....................................
Telephone line installers and repairers.......................................
Carpet installers...............................................................................
Heavy equipment mechanics........................................................
Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics.............................
Camera, watch, and music instrument repairers.........................
Millwrights .......................................................................................
Aircraft engine mechanics..............................................................
Structural metal workers................................................................
Sheet-metal w orkers.......................................................................
Stationary engineers.......................................................................
Automobile body and related repairers.......................................
Drywall installers.............................................................................

1,945
174
148
119
115
108
90
86
77
65
57
43
39
31
31
30
30
29
27
26
25
24
22
21
20
19
19
19
17
15
15
12

16.6
31.6
12.4
30.9
14.7
23.5
34.9
17.8
7.8
21.9
35.1
31.9
13.5
9.3
16.7
17.4
30.5
40.8
19.6
24.3
36.6
22.6
13.6
7.7
37.1
19.9
19.9
30.8
13.2
13.3
8.4
14.5

20.6
1.8
1.6
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
.9
.8
.7
.6
.5
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1

Executive, adminstrative, and managerial occupations...................
Managers; marketing, advertising, and public relations............
Accountants and auditors..............................................................
Administrators and officials, public administration .....................
Financial managers.........................................................................
Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction..........
Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists.....................
Managers, medicine and health....................................................
Managers, properties and real estate .........................................
Administrators, education and related fields...............................
Management analysts....................................................................
Construction inspectors..................................................................
Buyers, wholesale and retail trade, except farm products........

1,346
96
90
63
63
37
37
21
17
16
15
14
13

12.4
21.1
8.3
14.5
16.8
24.5
10.8
17.5
6.7
3.5
10.1
20.6
6.1

14.3
1.0
1.0
.7
.7
.4
.4
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1

Sales occupations.................................................................................
Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations.........................
Insurance sales occupations..........................................................
Real estate sales occupations......................................................
Sales representatives; mining, manufacturing, wholesale trade
Cashiers...........................................................................................
Securities and financial services sales occupations...................
Street and door-to-door sales workers.........................................
Sales workers; radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances...........................
Advertising and related sales occupations...................................
Sales workers, hardware and building supplies.........................
Sales engineers...............................................................................
Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats ...................................

1,315
310
231
179
149
91
71
43
19
16
15
15
14

11.7
11.2
41.9
37.0
11.5
4.6
37.6
11.1
13.7
12.6
7.6
27.3
8.6

14.0
3.3
2.5
1.9
1.6
1.0
.8
.4
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2

Administrative support occupations, including clerical.....................
Secretaries.......................................................................................
Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks.............................

1,198
151
97

7.4
4.0
4.8

12.7
1.6
1.0

See footnote at end of table.



156

Table D-8. Continued— Occupational diatributlon of workers who used formal company training to qualify for their jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Computer operators........................................................................
Bank te lle rs.....................................................................................
Supervisors, general office............................................................
Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators.....................
Investigators and adjusters, except insurance.............................
Telephone operators......................................................................
T ypists.............................................................................................
Data-entry keyers.............................................................................
Receptionists...................................................................................
Transportation ticket and reservation agents...............................
Order clerks.....................................................................................
General office clerks......................................................................
Postal clerks, except mail carriers................................................
Teacher aides .................................................................................
Records clerks.................................................................................
Stock and inventory clerks............................................................
Mail carriers, postal service..........................................................
Interviewers.....................................................................................
Production coordinators ................................................................
Billing clerks.....................................................................................
Supervisors; distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks . . . .
Mail clerks, except postal service..................................................

84
77
58
50
49
46
43
43
31
30
30
29
29
27
23
19
17
16
15
13
13
12

15.4
17.2
16.5
25.0
17.5
19.7
5.1
14.4
5.1
27.0
15.0
5.5
12.2
7.4
11.5
3.6
6.5
10.6
7.9
7.6
7.3
7.2

0.9
.8
.6
.5
.5
.5
.5
.5
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1

Professional specialty occupations ....................................................
Registered nurses..........................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers .............................................
Computer systems analysts and scientists.................................
Teachers, elementary school ........................................................
Teachers, secondary school..........................................................
Physicians .......................................................................................
Social workers.................................................................................
Operations and systems researchers and analysts.....................
Clergy...............................................................................................
Industrial engineers........................................................................
Designers.............................
Mechanical engineers....................................................................
Lawyers ...........................................................................................
Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten...............................
Aerospace engineers......................................................................
Photographers.................................................................................
Editors and reporters......................................................................
Architects.........................................................................................

1,184
185
77
69
66
61
58
41
41
41
35
31
27
20
18
17
16
14
13

9.3
14.4
17.7
26.6
4.2
4.6
11.8
11.2
30.0
13.3
14.9
9.2
12.3
3.5
5.6
17.6
12.8
6.6
13.4

12.6
2.0
.8
.7
.7
.6
.6
.4
.4
.4
.4
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1

Service occupations.............................................................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants.....................................
Police and detectives, public service...........................................
Hairdressers and cosmetologists..................................................
Guards and police, except public service...................................
Firefighting occupations ................................................................
Correctional institution officers......................................................
Cooks, except short order
Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers.................
Childcare workers, except private household.............................
Janitors and cleaners....................................................................
Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations............
Waiters and waitresses..................................................................
Health aides, except nursing ........................................................
Bartenders.......................................................................................

1,104
220
183
132
73
69
60
41
36
27
27
24
24
23
12

8.9
17.7
48.3
22.3
12.1
40.7
38.3
2.9
37.5
4.2
1.4
11.3
1.9
7.0
3.9

11.7
2.3
1.9
1.4
.8
.7
.6
.4
.4

Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors...............................
Welders and cutters ......................................................................
Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners.......................
Assemblers.......................................................................................
Printing machine operators............................................................
Textile sewing machine operators................................................

476
87
48
42
36
18

6.4
16.5
8.3
4.3
11.8
2.4

5.1
.9
.5

See footnote at end of table.



157

.3
.3
.3
.3
.2

.1

.4
.4
.2

Table D-8. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who used formal company training to qualify for their jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Photographic process machine operators...................................

14

13.3

0.1

Technicians and related support occupations...................................
Computer programmers ................................................................
Licensed practical nurses..............................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians...........................................
Radiologic technicians....................................................................
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians.......................
Drafting occupations.......................................................................

422
78
60
55
25
24
23

13.8
19.1
13.6
18.5
23.6
8.6
9.0

4.5
.8
.6
.6
.3
.2
.2

Transportation and material moving occupations.............................
Bus drivers.......................................................................................
Truck drivers, heavy.......................................................................
Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators .......................
Locomotive operating occupations................................................

311
124
71
20
13

7.7
31.0
4.5
5.7
23.9

3.3
1.3
.8
.2
.1

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers.....................
Laborers, except construction........................................................

68
15

1.8
1.6

.7
.2

Farming, forestry, and fishing occupations.......................................

41

1.3

.4

Private household occupations ..........................................................

10

1.0

.1

NOTE: Percentages are based on unrounded numbers. Because
of rounding, individual items may not add to totals.




158

Table D-9. Occupational diatribution of workers who used Armed Forces training to qualify for their joba, 1983

Percent of—
Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Total, all occupations....................................................

1,902

2.0

100.0

Precision production, craft, and repair occupations......................
Electricians..............................................................................
Supervisors, production occupations.......................................
Automobile mechanics ...........................................................
Aircraft engine mechanics.......................................................
Electronic repairers, communication and industrial equipment .
Supervisors, mechanics and repairers.....................................
Industrial machinery repairers ................................................
Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics..........................
Data processing equipment repairers .....................................
Machinists..............................................................................
Telephone installers and repairers...........................................
Carpenters..............................................................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics ...........
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters.....................................
Sheet metal workers...............................................................
Stationary engineers...............................................................
Electrical power installers and repairers.................................
Office machine repairers.........................................................
Inspectors, testers, and graders..............................................
Telephone line installers and repairers...................................

599
66
53
47
43
37
33
27
24
2
1
2
1
18
14
14
13
10
9
8
8
7
7

5.1
12.0
4.4
5.9
44.8
21.4
11.1
5.5
8.7
22.1
4.6
6.9
1.4
7.5
3.4
7.8
7.8
7.7
11.4
5.4
10.1

31.5
3.5
2.8
2.4
2.3
1.9
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.1
1.1
.9
.7
.7
.7
.5
.5
.4
.4
.4
.4

Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations.................
Accountants and auditors........................................................
Administrators and officials, public administration ..................
Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists..................
Managers; marketing, advertising, and public relations...........
Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction.........
Management analysts.............................................................
Construction inspectors...........................................................
Personnel and labor relations managers.................................

314
22
20
16
14
13
9
8

2.9
2.0
4.6
4.8
3.1
8.5
6.3
11.5
6.4

16.5
1.1
1.1
.9

Professional specialty occupations ..............................................
Electrical and electronic engineers .........................................
Teachers, secondary school....................................................
Industrial engineers.................................................................
Registered nurses...................................................................
Aerospace engineers...............................................................
Physicians.............................................................................
Editors and reporters...............................................................
Computer systems analysts and scientists..............................
Operations and systems researchers and analysts..................
Mechanical engineers.............................................................
Dentists...................................................................................

281
38
26
18
15
14
13
12
12
10
10
8

2.2

14.8
2.0
1.4
.9
.8

Technicians and related support occupations...............................
Electrical and electronic technicians.......................................
Computer programmers .........................................................
Drafting occupations...............................................................

152
51
10

Service workers, except private household...................................
Guards and police, except public service...............................
Police and detectives, public service.......................................
Cooks, except short order........................................................
Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers...............
Firefighting occupations.........................................................

141
42
25
16

9
9

9.0
5.0

Administrative support occupations, including clerical..................
Stock and inventory clerks......................................................
Secretaries..............................................................................
Investigators and adjusters, except insurance..........................
Computer operators.................................................................
Supervisors, general office......................................................
Mail carriers, postal service....................................................

136
21
15
13

.8
4.0
.4
4.5
1.6
2.5
3.2

See footnote at end of table.




159

7

7

9
9

8

8.6
2.0

7.7

1.2
14.5
2.6
5.8
4.6
7.5

.7
.7

.5
.4
.4

.7
.7
.7

4.4

.6
.5
.5

6.1

.4

5.0
17.2
2.5
2.6

8.0
2.7
.5

1.1
7.0
6.5

7.4

1.1

.4

2.2

1.3
.8
.5
.5

7.1

1.1

.8

.7

.5
.5
.4

Table D-9. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who used Armed Forces training to qualify for their Jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Sales occupations........................................................................
Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations......................
Sales representatives; mining, manufacturing, wholesale trade .

90
90
17

0.8
.8
1.3

4.7
4.7
.9

Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............................
Welders and cutters ...............................................................
Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners....................
Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, except food......................
Assemblers..............................................................................

81
17
15
9
7

1.1
3.3
2.5
7.3
.8

4.3
.9
.8
.5
.4

Transportation and material moving occupations..........................
Truck drivers, heavy...............................................................
Bus drivers..............................................................................
Crane and tower operators......................................................

80
41
9
7

2.0
2.6
2.4
7.3

4.2
2.2
.5
.4

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers..................
Laborers, except construction..................................................

20
7

.5
.7

1.1

Farming, forestry, and fishing occupations...................................

7

.2

.3

Private household occupations ....................................................

-

NOTE: Dash indicates that no data were reported. Percentages
are based on unrounded numbers. Because of rounding, individual
items may not add to totals.




160

-

.4

-

Table D-10. Occupational distribution of workers who used training from correspondence courses to qualify for their jobs, 1983

Percent of—
Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

777

0.8

100.0

Precision production, craft, and repair occupations......................
Electronic repairers, communications and industrial
equipment......... .................................................................
Supervisors, production occupations.......................................
Supervisors, mechanics and repairers.....................................
Electricians..............................................................................
Telephone installers and repairers...........................................
Stationary engineers...............................................................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters.....................................
Automobile mechanics ...........................................................
Supervisors, extractive occupations.........................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics ...........
Aircraft engine mechanics.................... ................................
Carpenters..............................................................................
Inspectors, testers, and graders..............................................
Machinists ..............................................................................
Upholsterers............................................................................
Millwrights ..............................................................................
Data processing equipment repairers .....................................

188

1.6

24.2

21
14
13
1
1
9
8
8

5
5
4
3
3
3
3

12.4
1.2
4.3
2.0
3.3
7.5
2.0
.8
7.8
3.0
5.5
.5
3.3
.8
5.3
3.9
3.4

2.8
1.9
1.7
1.4
1.1
1.1
1.0
.8
.8
.7
.7

Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations.................
Administrators and officials, public administration..................
Managers; marketing, advertising, and public relations...........
Accountants and auditors........................................................
Financial managers.................................................................

140
17
10
10
4

1.3
3.8
2.3
.9
1.1

18.0
2.1
1.3
1.3
.5

Professional specialty occupations ..............................................
Electrical and electronic engineers .........................................
Teachers, secondary school....................................................
Teachers, elementary school..................................................
Industrial engineers.................................................................
Clergy.....................................................................................
Designers................................................................................
Mechanical engineers.............................................................
Civil engineers........................................................................
Counselors, educational and vocational...................................
Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers...........
Photographers........................................................................

118
19
18

.9

15.2
2.4
2.3
1.0

4
4
4

4.3
1.4
.5
3.1
2.3
2.1
2.8
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.9

Sales occupations........................................................................
Insurance sales occupations....................................................
Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations......................
Securities and financial services sales occupations.................
Sales representatives; mining, manufacturing, wholesale trade
Real estate sales occupations................................................
Street and door-to-door sales workers.....................................

113
33
30
14

1.0
6.0
1.1
7.4

Administrative support occupations, including clerical..................
Secretaries..............................................................................
Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks..........................
Investigators and adjusters, except insurance..........................
Stock and inventory clerks......................................................
Supervisors; general office......................................................
Typists................................... ...............................................
Supervisors, distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks . . . .
General office clerks...............................................................
Postal clerks, except mail carriers...........................................

101
20
12
12

2

2.3
.6
1.0

Technicians and related support occupations...............................
Electrical and electronic technicians.......................................
Drafting occupations...............................................................
Computer programmers .........................................................

54
20

6.7

Total, all occupations............................................

See footnote at end of table.




161

6
6
6

8
7
7
7

6
5

9
9

3

9

5
5
4

3

8
2

.7
.7

1.8

.6
.6

.4
.4
.4
.4

.9
.9
.9
.8
.7

.6
.5
.5
14.5
4.2
3.8
1.8
1.2
1.1
.3

.6
.5
.6
4.3
1.7
1.5

13.0
2.6
1.6
1.5
1.2

.6

.6
.5
.4

1.8
3.2
.6

.7

.3

7.0
2.6
1.0

.3

Table D-10. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who used training from correspondence courses to qualify for their
Jobs, 1983

Percent of—
Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Service workers, except private household...................................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants.................................
Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations...........
Guards and police, except public service................................
Janitors and cleaners.............................................................

23
6
5
4
3

1.8
.5
2.4
.7
.2

2.9
.7
.6
.5
.4

Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors............................
Welders and cutters ...............................................................
Paint and paint spray machine operators................................

22
6
5

.3
1.2
2.6

2.8
.8
.6

Transportation and material moving occupations..........................
Truck drivers, heavy...............................................................

7
3

.2
.2

.9
.3

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers..................
Construction laborers .............................................................
Laborers, except construction..................................................

7
2
2

.2
.5
.2

.9
.3
.3

Farming, forestry, and fishing occupations...................................
Farmers, except horticuture....................................................

5
5

.2
.4

.7
.7

Private household occupations ....................................................

-

NOTE: Dash indicates that no data were reported. Percentages
are based on unrounded numbers. Because of rounding, individual
items may not add to totals.




162

-

-

Table D-11. Occupational distribution of workers who used training from friends or relatives or other experience unrelated to work
to qualify for their jobs, 1983

Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Percent of—
Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Total, all occupations..........................................................

3,205

3.3

100.0

Precision production, craft, and repair occupations.........................
Carpenters......................................................................................
Automobile mechanics ..................................................................
Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics.............................
Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters.........................................
Dressmakers ..................................................................................
Industrial machinery repairers .....................................................
Automobile body and related repairers .......................................
Electricians......................................................................................
Supervisors, production occupations...........................................
Painters, construction and maintenance.....................................
Machinists .......................................................................................
Heavy equipment mechanics........................................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics ............
Brickmasons and stonemasons ...................................................
Electronic repairers, communication and industrial equipment .
Drywall installers............................................................................
Butchers and meat cutters............................................................
Carpet installers..............................................................................
Aircraft engine mechanics..............................................................
Camera, watch, and instrument repairers...................................
Supervisors, mechanics and repairers.........................................
Roofers.............................................................................................
Bakers .............................................................................................
Upholsterers....................................................................................
Tool and die makers......................................................................
Inspectors, testers, and graders...................................................
Office machine repairers................................................................

939
174
120
36
35
34
33
30
30
25
24
20
16
15
15
11
11
10
10
10
9
9

8.0
17.6
15.3
13.2
9.0
31.6
6.9
17.0
5.4
2.1
7.0
4.3
9.6
7.9
10.8
6.3
12.8
3.5
9.3
9.9
16.5
2.9
8.3
6.2
10.7
3.4
3.6
6.1

29.3
5.4
3.7
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.0
.9
.9
.8
.7
.6
.5
.5
.5
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1

Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations..................
Managers, properties and real estate .........................................
Administrators and officials, public administration ....................
Managers; marketing, advertising, and public relations............
Financial managers........................................................................
Accountants and auditors..............................................................
Personnel and labor relations managers.....................................
Buyers, wholesale and retail trade, except farm products........
Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction..........
Business and promotion agents...................................................
Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists....................
Administrators, education and related fields...............................
Construction inspectors..................................................................
Farming, forestry, and fishing occupations.......................................
Farmers, except horiculture ..........................................................
Farm workers..................................................................................
Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm .............................
Animal caretakers, except farm ...................................................
Fishers.............................................................................................
Supervisors, related agricultural occupations.............................
Timber cutting and logging occupations.....................................

341
13
13
9

10.6
.4
.4
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
10.4
6.4
1.8
.9
.4
.2
.2

4

3.1
5.1
2.9
2.0
2.1
.6
5.5
2.9
2.8
6.6
1.1
.8
5.1
10.8
15.4
6.8
9.0
9.9
11.8
7.2
5.0

331
38
29
25
23
14
13

2.6
26.4
8.7
20.4
1.7
25.4
3.0

10.3
1.2

6.8
2.7
6.4

.3
.3
.2

Professional specialty occupations ...................................................
Musicians and composers..............................................................
Designers........................................................................................
Photographers................................................................................
Teachers, secondary school..........................................................
Athletes.............................................................................................
Electrical and electronic engineers .............................................
Teachers, elementary school ........................................................
Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers............
Clergy ...............................................................................................
Public relations specialists............................................................
See footnote at end of table.



163

8
8

7
6
5
4

8

7
6
6
4
4
4
4
3
335
204
59
30
11
6
6

13
10
8
8

.8

.1

.9

.8

.7

.4
.4
.4

Table D-11. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who used training from friends or relatives or other experience unrelated
to work to qualify for their jobs, 1983

Percent of—
Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation

Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

Civil engineers.................................................................................
Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten.............. ............
Psychologists...................................................................................
Social workers.................................................................................
Computer systems analysts and scientists.................................
Registered nurses..........................................................................
Counselors, education and vocational.........................................
Authors.............................................................................................
Aerospace engineers......................................................................

7
7
6
6
6
5
4
4
4

3.6
2.2
5.2
1.7
2.4
2.5
6.5
4.0

0.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1

Sales occupations.................................................................................
Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations.........................
Sales representatives; mining, manufacturing, wholesale
trade...............................................................................................
Insurance sales occupations..........................................................
Sales workers; radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances...........................
Cashiers...........................................................................................
Sales workers, hardware and building supplies .........................
Sales workers, p a rts ......................................................................
Street and door-to-door sales workers.........................................
Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings...........................
Sales workers, apparel..................................................................
Real estate sales occupations ......................................................
Securities and financial services sales occupations...................
Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats ...................................

330
120

2.9
4.3

10.3
3.7

47
19
11
11
10
10
8
8
7
7
6
4

3.6
3.5
8.2
.5
5.2
6.6
2.2
5.0
1.6
1.4
3.0
2.2

1.5
.6
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1

Service workers, except private household.......................................
Cooks, except short order..............................................................
Janitors and cleaners ....................................................................
Child care workers, except private household.............................
Waiters and waitresses..................................................................
Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities.........................
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants.....................................
Barbers.............................................................................................
Guards and police, except public service...................................
Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations............
Bartenders.......................................................................................
Health aides, except nursing ........................................................
Hairdressers and cosmetologists.................................................
Firefighting occupations ................................................................
Police and detectives, public service...........................................
Administrative support occupations, including clerical.....................
Secretaries.......................................................................................
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing c le rk s ...........................
Teacher aides .................................................................................
General office clerks......................................................................
Computer operators........................................................................
Typists .............................................................................................
Supervisors, general office............................................................
Receptionists...................................................................................
Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks.........................................
Bank tellers .....................................................................................
Investigators and adjusters, except insurance.............................
Stenographers.................................................................................

216
48
31
19
18
13
11
7
7
6
6
5
4
4
4
198
55
37
12
9
7
7
6
6
4
4
4
4

1.7
3.5
1.6
2.9
1.4
11.1
.9
6.2
1.1
3.1
2.1
1.5
.8
2.4
1.0
1.2
1.5
1.9
3.3
1.7
1.4
.8
1.7
.9
1.0
.9
1.5
3.7

6.7
1.5
1.0
.6
.6
.4
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
.1
6.2
1.7
1.2
.4
.4
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1

Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors...............................
Textile sewing machine operators...............................................
Welders and cutters ......................................................................
Paint and paint spray machine operators...................................
Printing machine operators............................................................
Assemblers.......................................................................................
Photographic process machine operators...................................
Laundry and dry cleaning machine operators.............................

186
42
37
14
10

2.5
5.5
7.0
7.7
3.4

5.8
1.3

See footnote at end of table.



164

9
7
6

.4

.9

6.3
3.0

.1
.1

1.1
.4
.3
.3
.2
.2

Table D-11. Continued— Occupational distribution of workers who used training from friends or relatives or other experience unrelated
to work to qualify for their jobs, 1983

Percent of—
Number who
used the training
(thousands)

Occupation
Typesetters and compositors.......................................................
Slicing and cutting machine operators.........................................
Transportation and material moving occupations.............................
Truck drivers, heavy......................................................................
Bus drivers......................................................................................
Truck drivers, light..........................................................................
Driver-sales workers ......................................................................
Excavating and loading machine operators.................................
Operating engineers......................................................................
Crane and tower operators............................................................
Industrial truck and tractor equipment operator.........................
Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs ...................................................

4
3
185
113
16
14
5
5
4
4
4
4

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers....................
Construction laborers ....................................................................
Laborers, except construction.......................................................
Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners...................................
Helpers, construction trades.........................................................

54
17
14
7
6
47
9
6
6
5

Technicians and related support occupations...................................
Drafting occupations......................................................................
Computer programmers ................................................................
Biological technicians....................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians...........................................
Private household occupations ..........................................................
Childcare workers, private household .........................................
Private household cleaners and servants ...................................
NOTE: Percentages are based on unrounded numbers. Because
of rounding, individual items may not add to totals.




165

45
33
10

Total
employment in
occupation

Total who
used the
training

5.5
1.7

0.1
.1

4.6
7.1
4.0
3.4
2.6
5.0
3.3
4.0
1.1
1.9
1.4
3.8
1.5
4.8
4.0

5.8
3.5
.5
.4
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1

1.5
3.5
1.5
10.1
1.8

1.5
.3
.2
.2

4.6
7.6
2.1

1.4
1.0

1.7
.5
.4
.2
.2

.2

.3

Appendix E. Detailed
Training Statistics

to the States (for discretionary use) to administer manyof
these programs. States in the past have strongly supported
vocational education programs and are likely to continue
this policy.

This appendix presents information on one component
of supply—structured training programs. It discusses the
status of education and training programs and provides
the latest available data on enrollments and completions.
The type of data presented and the time period covered
vary. Training programs discussed and available data
presented include:

Types o f training available. Vocational education includes
programs in agriculture, distribution, health, home
economics, business and office, technical, and trade and
industrial education. Other programs, such as consumer
and homemaking training and industrial arts, do not
generally lead directly to an occupational skill. Special
vocational programs for the disadvantaged and handi­
capped also are provided.
Curriculums generally prepare trainees for specific oc­
cupations. Table E-l provides data on enrollments and
completions in occupationally specific public vocational
education programs during 1982-83. These programs,
which are offered at or above grade 11, are designed to
impart entry level job skills.

Public vocational education (table E-l)
Noncollegiate postsecondary vocational education
(table E-2)
Employer training
Apprenticeship programs
Federal employment and training programs
Armed Forces training (table E-3)
Home study schools
Community and junior colleges (table E-4)
Colleges and universities (tables E-5 and E-6)
Users who wish to relate educational and occupational
classifications should consult Vocational Preparation and
Occupations (VPO), developed by the National Occupa­
tional Information Coordinating Committee (NOICC).
This crosswalk is maintained in a computerized data base
and updated periodically. Education programs in the
VPO are coded according to the Classification o f Instruc­
tional Programs (CIP)1 developed by the National
,
Center for Education Statistics (NCES). It replaces the
two NCES classification systems that were used
previously—the Standard Terminology for Curriculum
and Instruction in Local and State School Systems, com­
monly referred to as Handbook VI, and A Taxonomy
o f Instructional Programs in Higher Education, com­
monly known as the HEGIS Taxonomy. Information on
the VPO is available from NOICC, (202) 653-5665.

Enrollments. Total enrollments in public vocational
education programs grew from 12.3 million in 1972-73
to 19 million in 1982-83. Occupationally specific
enrollments, which totaled nearly 6 million in 1982-83,
accounted for 31 percent of all public vocational educa­
tion enrollments. About 38 percent of the occupationally
specific enrollments were in business and office programs,
and 25 percent were in trade and industrial programs
(table E-l).
Noncollegiate postsecondary vocational education
Over 1.5 million persons were enrolled in nearly 6,500
noncollegiate postsecondary schools with occupational
programs during the year ended June 30, 1981, the most
recent year for which data are available. The following
tabulation shows the distribution of these schools by type
of school:

Public vocational education
Vocational education programs are conducted on both
the secondary and postsecondary levels. Included in the
postsecondary level are adult education programs, in
which persons—many already in the labor force—retrain
or update and improve their job skills. Federal Govern­
ment funding currently takes the form of block grants

School

C osm etology/barber..................................................
Business/commercial..................................................
Trade..............................................................................
Hospital .......................................................................
V ocational/technical..................................................
Allied health.................................................................
A rts/design...................................................................
Technical.......................................................................

1The VPO includes only codes related to secondary and postsecon­
dary vocational education. Baccalaureate and higher level programs are
not included.




166

P ercen t

34
20
12
12
10
6
4
2

ing or learning by doing often involves simple directions
for performing a routine task on a machine; further skills
then are acquired through work experience or developed
at the employee’s initiative. Structured instruction may
range from scheduled training conducted by designated
instructors to periodic training from supervisors and
fellow employees.
In many companies, structured training usually con­
sists of “in-house” programs that offer courses during
or after working hours. These courses normally are
designed to meet specific company needs and often are
offered by professional associations. In the banking in­
dustry, for example, the American Institute of Banking
offers programs in 19 areas of banking, such as trusts,
commercial lending, and bank marketing.
In addition, companies may allow employees to enroll
in college or university courses. For example, under
tuition-aid programs, employees may be partially or fully
reimbursed for job-related courses taken after working
hours. Occasionally, employees are permitted to take out­
side courses on company time or even to arrange for
extended educational leaves of absence.
Studies indicate that companies use education and
training programs extensively. For example, a recent
study conducted by the American Society for Training
and Development estimates that 13 million, or 1 of every
8, workers are receiving job-related training. Almost twothirds of these training programs are provided in house
and the remainder are offered by colleges and universities,
vocational schools, labor unions, government agencies,
and community-based organizations.2

Of the more than 6,000 noncollegiate postsecondary
schools included here, 75 percent were proprietary
schools, 12 percent were independent nonprofit schools,
and 13 percent were public schools. Over 70 percent of
the proprietary schools were either cosmetology/barber
schools or business/commercial schools. Hospital schools
made up 75 percent of the independent nonprofit schools,
and vocational/technical institutes accounted for over 70
percent of the public schools.
Large schools typically offer a variety of programs in
several vocational areas. Some business schools, for
example, offer shorthand, typing, stenography, and
fundamentals of accounting and computer operations,
while many trade schools offer courses ranging from airconditioning installation and repair to welding and cutting
operations. On the other hand, small schools generally
specialize in a single type of program, such as
cosmetology or radiologic technology. Some programs—
flight training, for instance—require considerable in­
dividual attention and generally have low pupil/teacher
ratios; less technically complex programs—real estate, for
example—can accommodate large numbers of students.

E n ro llm e n ts . Enrollments in noncollegiate post­
secondary schools vary considerably by program. The
seven major program areas are: Agribusiness, marketing
and distribution, health, home economics, technical,
business and office, and trade and industrial. In 1981,
40 percent of total enrollments were in trade and in­
dustrial programs, 24 percent were in business/office
programs, and 16 percent were in marketing and distribu­
tion programs (table E-2).

Apprenticeship programs
Training authorities generally recommend appren­
ticeship as the best way to acquire all-round proficiency
in a craft. Apprenticeships range from 1 to 6 or more
years, depending upon the trade. These programs involve
planned on-the-job training in conjunction with related
classroom instruction—generally 144 hours each year.
Mastery of a particular trade requires: (1) Learning the
skills of the trade, (2) perfecting the use of each specific
skill, and (3) bringing each skill up to the level of com­
petency and productivity required for the occupation.
Most apprentices are in programs that have commit­
tees of employers and local trade unions that interview
applicants, review the apprentice’s progress, and deter­
mine when an apprenticeship has been completed satisfac­
torily. It has been estimated that only about one-half of
all programs are registered with Federal and State appren­
ticeship agencies. Unfortunately, no estimate is available
of the number of apprentices in programs that are not
registered.

C o m p le tio n s. Almost 900,000 persons completed
occupational programs in noncollegiate postsecondary
schools in 1981. Approximately 40 percent were in trade
and industrial programs; 22 percent were in marketing/
distribution; and 20 percent were in business/office pro­
grams. Almost 100,000 students did not complete their
training but left with a marketable job skill. Table E-2
provides complete information on enrollments, comple­
tions, and persons leaving with or without a marketable
job skill, by detailed occupational program.
Employer training
Many companies in private industry have developed
their own educational training programs. Generally, these
programs serve three purposes: (1) To train new
employees, (2) to improve the performance of employees
in their present jobs, and (3) to prepare employees for
new jobs and responsibilities.
Training varies among occupations. Skilled and
semiskilled occupations have three on-the-job training
paths—apprenticeship, learning by doing, and structured
on-the-job instruction. Formal apprenticeship programs
are discussed in the following section. Unstructured train­




2A n th o n y C arnevale an d H arold G old stein , Employee Training: Its
Changing Role and An Analysis o f New Data (T h e A m erica n S o ciety
fo r T rain in g an d D e v e lo p m e n t, 1983).

167

The Department of Labor’s Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training (BAT) registers, but does not finance ap­
prenticeship programs. BAT provides technical assistance
and support to State apprenticeship agencies and to
employers and unions in establishing and maintaining
apprenticeship programs. Data on new registrations,
completions, and cancellations of apprenticeships for
each apprenticeable trade are available through the
Apprenticeship Management System (AMS).3
Although apprenticeship cancellations represent a
potential loss of highly trained workers, many who do
not complete an apprenticeship program eventually
become skilled craft workers through less structured
means. When the job market is depressed, however,
workers are more likely to complete their apprenticeship.
In other instances, apprentices who cancel may have
acquired enough experience to reenter the occupation at
another time. Apprentices sometimes are dropped in­
voluntarily for noncompliance with the terms of the ap­
prenticeship agreement. In addition, the number of new
apprentices often is reduced during prolonged periods of
economic slowdown or high unemployment.

tion; the Work Incentive (WIN) program, which helps
employable recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent
Children to get and keep jobs; occupational, social, and
educational assistance provided to migrant and seasonal
farm workers; help for workers 55 and older to get parttime jobs and social services; and a variety of training
and aid programs that are designed to benefit Native
Americans.
Armed Forces training
The Armed Forces provide training in hundreds of
specialized occupational skills. Each year, thousands of
military recruits complete extensive training in computer
repair, medical care, food service, metalworking, and
many other fields. When these persons leave military
service, they often possess skills that qualify them for
civilian occupations.
Some military occupations are not directly comparable
to civilian ones or are specific only to the needs of the
Armed Forces. Individuals in these fields may need ad­
ditional training after they leave the service to qualify for
civilian jobs that are similar to their military jobs. For
example, an electrician’s mate may have many, but not
all, of the skills needed to become an electronics techni­
cian. A few military skills, such as those learned by in­
fantry specialists, are unique to the Armed Forces and
have limited or no application to civilian jobs.
To assist military personnel in utilizing their training
to qualify for civilian jobs, the Army, Navy, and Marine
Corps, in concert with the Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training, have established registered apprenticeship pro­
grams for uniformed personnel. Only occupations that
are comparable or identical to civilian occupations are
registered. Individuals participating in a program record
their hours of training and work assignments in a logbook
that documents their service experience and which can
be presented to an employer, labor union, or joint ap­
prenticeship committee when they apply for a job.
The largest proportion of Armed Forces enlistees train
in the mechanical and technical areas. The following
tabulation shows the number of enlisted personnel in each
of the nine major occupational groups as of June 30,
1985:

Federal employment and training programs
The Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) of 1982
relies on the private sector—through local Private In­
dustry Councils (PIC’s)—to plan, organize, dispense
funds for, and evaluate the success of employment and
training programs within their jurisdiction. JTPA focuses
on training the economically disadvantaged as well as
displaced workers—those long attached to the labor force
who have been laid off permanently from their jobs and
who need assistance to regain employment through train­
ing, job search, and job relocation.
JTPA also provides for two specific youth programs:
(1) The Job Corps4, with over 100 centers throughout
the United States that annually assist nearly 88,000 young
men and women ages 16 to 21 to learn a job skill or obtain
the educational base needed to advance in society; and
(2) the Summer Youth Employment Program, that an­
nually provides approximately 800,000 temporary sum­
mer jobs in city, county, and State government agencies.
Other Federal programs administered by the Employ­
ment and Training Administration include the following:
The Trade Adjustment Act program, which assists
workers who have lost their jobs due to foreign competi­
3Apprenticeship

O c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p

Registration Actions, by Region and State m ay be

Infantry, guncrew, and seam anship sp ecialists.....................266
Electronic equipm ent rep airers................................................. 174
Com m unications and intelligence sp ecia lists..........................177
M edical and dental sp e c ia lists.................................................. 89
Other technical and allied sp e c ia lists.................................... 44
Functional support and a d m in istra tio n .................................. 292
Electrical and m echanical equipment repairers.....................370
Craft w o rk ers................................................................................. 77
Service and supply h an d lers...................................................... 175

o b ta in e d fro m th e B ureau o f A p p r e n tic e sh ip an d T r a in in g , E m p lo y ­
m en t a n d T ra in in g A d m in istr a tio n , U .S .

D ep a rtm e n t o f L a b or,

W a sh in g to n , D .C . 2 0 2 1 3 .
4 D a ta o n th e n u m b er o f p e rso n s w h o ha v e co m p le te d a train in g
p ro g ra m o r le ft w ith a m a rk eta b le sk ill— by p rogram ca teg o ry an d
S tate— are availab le from the N a tio n a l O ccu p a tio n a l In fo rm ation C o o r ­
d in a tin g C o m m itte e (N O IC C ), S u ite

156, 2 1 0 0 M

S treet N W .,

W a sh in g to n , D .C . 2 0 0 3 7 (2 0 2 ) 6 5 3 -5 6 6 5 .




N um ber
(in t h o u s a n d s )

168

Community and junior colleges
Community and junior colleges are an integral part
of the American educational system. By offering a wide
variety of courses and programs, these schools enable
many students from diverse backgrounds to obtain oc­
cupational and educational training beyond high school.
For students interested in transferring to a 4-year college,
many programs are designed to provide a general educa­
tional background in arts and sciences. Students who wish
to specialize in a particular field may enroll in vocational
or occupational curriculums, such as dental hygiene or
data processing. Some community and junior colleges
have expanded their curriculums to include televised
courses. More information about these programs is
available in the section on home study schools above.
Typically, programs in junior and community colleges
last 2 years and lead to an associate degree. Some pro­
grams last less than 2 years and students are granted cer­
tificates or other formal awards upon completion.
According to the NCES, enrollments in 2-year institu­
tions of higher education grew rapidly over the 1973-83
period—from 3.0 million to 4.7 million. NCES projects
that enrollments in 2-year institutions will remain at their
current level through the early 1990’s.
During the 1973-83 period, awards of associate degrees
increased 43 percent, according to recent surveys.5 A
shift in student attitudes, placing more value on job
training, was apparently a factor in the upsurge in
associate degrees awarded. Associate degrees in occupa­
tional curriculums grew 73 percent over the 1973-83
period, while degrees in the arts and sciences increased
15 percent during the same period. In academic year
1982-83, 59 percent of all associate degrees were awarded
in occupational curriculums, while 41 percent were
awarded in arts and sciences and general programs. Table
E-4 provides detailed data for the academic year 1982-83
on associate degrees and other formal awards below the
baccalaureate.
Because community and junior colleges can quickly
adjust their programs to the needs of local employers as
well as to student interests, radical changes in enrollments
in particular curriculums can and do take place in a short
time. For this reason, NCES does not project the number
of enrollments in specific curriculums. Information on
curriculum plans may be obtained from State and local
community and junior college administrators.

Table E-3 provides more detail on these occupational
groups.
To aid in “translating” military job titles, the Depart­
ment of Defense has compiled a job comparability
manual. The Military-Civilian Occupational Source Book
relates military jobs by service branch to their civilian
counterparts as identified in the Department of Labor’s
Dictionary o f Occupational Titles. Although intended for
use by high school guidance counselors, the manual can
also serve as a useful tool for employees and vocational
counselors involved in job placement for veterans.
Home study schools
Home study (correspondence) schools provide an alter­
native means of education and training for many in­
dividuals who are unable to attend school. Courses of­
fered through home study programs vary in length, skill
level, and degree of specialization, and emphasize voca­
tional training, academic study, or simply personal
enrichment.
In 1984, about 5.1 million persons were enrolled in
home study courses, according to the National Home
Study Council (NHSC). Enrollment in Federal Govern­
ment and military programs totaled 2.5 million; 1.7
million students took courses offered by private schools;
and most of the remaining home study students were
enrolled in programs offered by religious organizations,
colleges and universities, and industry.
Correspondence schools generally require students to
complete a certain number of lessons within a specified
length of time to obtain a certificate of completion.
A rapidly expanding area of home study is electronic
media courses. These are usually developed by a college
or university and broadcast over a local Public Broad­
casting System (PBS) or cable television station. Course
offerings and requirements vary, but most allow the stu­
dent to receive college credit after successfully completing
the television course.
Since 1981, approximately 900 colleges and universities
and 290 stations have participated in this type of program.
Because of the convenience it offers, this method of home
study has attracted over 330,000 students since 1981. Dur­
ing the 1984-85 academic year alone, 130,000 people were
enrolled.
In view of the popularity of this method of instruc­
tion, the Adult Learning Service of PBS plans to initiate
more programming aimed toward education and train­
ing. Proposed areas include: Computer literacy and ap­
plications, basic skills and personal enrichment, sales and
customer service, effective communication skills, and
management skills. More information regarding these
programs can be obtained by contacting the Adult Learn­
ing Liaison at any PBS Station.




Colleges and universities
Colleges and universities serve many purposes, in­
cluding providing individuals with specific occupational
5

T h e H igh er E d u c a tio n G en eral In fo r m a tio n Su rvey (H E G IS ) o f

N C E S provides annual d ata on associate degrees and other aw ards below
th e b a cca la u rea te, in clu d in g th o s e gran ted by 4-year co lle g e s.

169

training. A college education provides the necessary
background to enter fields such as engineering, law,
business, the humanities, and the natural sciences.
In recent years, colleges and universities have adopted
new methods to attract more students. Expanded parttime programs, additional evening course offerings,
extension programs, and “telecourses” are means by
which many of these institutions are making education
more accessible. For more information regarding
“telecourses,” see the section of this appendix on home
study schools.
The length of a college education depends on the stu­
dent’s interests and career goals. Most students seek
employment after obtaining a bachelor’s degree, which
usually requires 4 years. Those who wish to qualify for
a position requiring more specialized knowledge often
continue their study. Master’s, doctoral, and first pro­
fessional degree programs require several additional years
of study after the bachelor’s degree. Occasionally, these
programs accept exceptional students after 2 or 3 years
of undergraduate work.
College and university enrollments increased steadily
during the 1960’s and early 1970’s—from 4.8 million in
1964-65 to 7.2 million in 1974-75. The rate of increase
slowed during the late 1970’s—to 7.7 million by 1981-82.
The NCES projects that enrollments will slowly decline
to 7.4 million by 1985-86 and continue downward to an
expected enrollment of 7.1 million by 1992.
The number of degrees conferred by colleges and
universities is closely related to enrollments. During
academic year 1982-83, nearly 1.4 million persons earned
degrees—970,000 bachelor’s degrees, 290,000 master’s
degrees, 33,000 doctoral degrees, and 73,000 first pro­
fessional degrees. NCES projects that the total number




of degrees earned will decrease to 1.3 million in academic
year 1986-87, then taper off to 1.2 million by 1992-93.6
Tables E-5 and E-6 show the number of degrees con­
ferred by major Held of study. Although many graduates
do not pursue careers in their field of study, the propor­
tion of graduates of occupational curriculums who
directly enter related occupations tends to be very high,
particularly if training takes a number of years. For ex­
ample, nearly all medical school graduates enter medicine
and most engineering school graduates enter engineering.
However, for many liberal arts graduates, whose train­
ing is less occupationally oriented, entry rates into oc­
cupations related to a college major are substantially
lower. This is especially true at the bachelor’s degree level
since many graduates enter professional school, teaching,
or occupations for which a college degree in any one of
a number of Helds may be adequate preparation.
The NCES periodically collects and publishes data on
the labor force status of people who have recently received
a bachelor’s degree. The Bureau of Labor Statistics has
analyzed these data for all graduates and for each of 20
major Helds of study. Information on the labor force,
occupational, and graduate school status of each of these
groups will be presented in a forthcoming issue of the
O ccupational O u tlook Q uarterly. Additional followup
studies of college students and graduates are available
from surveys conducted by college placement offlces, pro­
fessional societies, and other organizations. Most of these
data are limited to graduates from a single institution or
field.
6Projections, along with a discussion of the projection methodo­
logy, have been published by NCES in P ro jec tio n s o f E du cation
S tatistics to 1992-93 (July 1985).

170

Table E-1. Enrollments and completions in occupationally specific public vocational education programs,1 1982-83

CIP
code2

Title
Total..............................................................................................................................

Enrollments

Completions

01.00
01.01
01.02
01.03
01.04
01.05
01.06
01.99

Agribusiness and agricultural production................................................................................
Agricultural business and management..............................................................................
Agricultural mechanics.........................................................................................................
Agricultural production .........................................................................................................
Agricultural products and processing..................................................................................
Agricultural services and supplies......................................................................................
Horticulture ............................................................................................................................
Agribusiness and agricultural production, o th e r................................................................

5,853,769
317,333
13,214
60,057
143,247
4,115
15,746
64,570
16,384

02.00
02.02
02.03
02.04
02.05
02.99

Agricultural sciences.................................................................................................................
Animal sciences.....................................................................................................................
Food sciences.......................................................................................................................
Plant sciences.......................................................................................................................
Soil sciences.........................................................................................................................
Agricultural sciences, other .................................................................................................

5,259
907
3
665
20
3,664

1,852
391
1
216
7
1,237

03.00
03.01
03.02
03.03
03.04
03.06
03.99

Renewable natural resources...................................................................................................
Renewable natural resources, general................................................................................
Conservation and regulation.................................................................................................
Fishing and fisheries.............................................................................................................
Forestry production and processing....................................................................................
Wildlife management.............................................................................................................
Renewable natural resources, other ..................................................................................

19,997
6,592
2,042
230
10,130
559
444

5,991
1,740
775
76
3,085
121
194

06.00
06.04
06.07
06.14
06.1401
06.17
06.18
06.20

Business and management.......................................................................................................
Business administration and management........................................................................
Institutional management.....................................................................................................
Marketing management and research................................................................................
Marketing management...................................................................................................
Real estate..............................................................................................................................
Small business management and ownership ....................................................................
Trade and industrial supervision and management..........................................................

135,218
58,528
8,988
23,426
23,413
29,707
6,432
8,137

24,783
5,836
2,290
4,190
4,187
10,010
1,166
1,291

07.00
Business and office...................................................................................................................
Accounting, bookkeeping, and related programs..............................................................
07.01
07.02
Banking and related financial programs ............................................................................
07.03
Business data processing and related programs ..............................................................
07.0302
Business computer and console operation ..................................................................
07.0303
Business data entry equipment operation....................................................................
07.0304
Business data peripheral equipment operation............................................................
07.04
Office supervision and management..................................................................................
07.05
Personnel and training programs........................................................................................
07.06
Secretarial and related programs........................................................................................
07.07
Typing, general office, and related programs....................................................................
07.0701
Typing, general office, and related programs, general...............................................
07.0702
Clerk-typist.......................................................................................................................
07.0707
Receptionist and communication systems operation...................................................
07.99
Business and office, other ...................................................................................................
08.00
Marketing and distribution.........................................................................................................
08.01
Apparel and accessories marketing....................................................................................
08.02
Business and personal services marketing........................................................................
Entrepreneurship...................................................................................................................
08.03
08.04
Financial services marketing ...............................................................................................
08.05
Floristry, farm and garden supplies marketing..................................................................
08.06
Food marketing.....................................................................................................................
08.07
General marketing.................................................................................................................
08.0704
Purchasing.......................................................................................................................
08.08
Home and office products marketing..................................................................................
08.09
Hospitality and recreation marketing..................................................................................
08.10
Insurance marketing.............................................................................................................
08.11
Transportation and travel marketing ..................................................................................
08.1101
Transportation and travel marketing, general ..............................................................
08.1104
Tourism..............................................................................................................................
08.1105
Travel services marketing...............................................................................................
08.12
Vehicles and petroleum marketing......................................................................................
08.99
Marketing and distribution, other........................................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.
171

2,094,595
423,342
22,272
448,452
82,506
13,496
1,719
100,196
10,356
423,528
572,080
367,648
12,984
3,173
94,369
416,413
32,632
8,993
2,670
21,750
5,985
28,634
129,044
354
4,913
39,248
3,985
19,938
9,585
5,550
3,647
6,341
112,280

568,915
105,047
5,460
79,739
10,872
5,066
1,101
12,703
925
139,013
203,170
140,667
5,754
1,576
22,858
161,088
14,480
5,017
1,248
3,346
2,342
15,306
46,548
153
2,256
16,815
1,611
7,305
4,429
961
1,412
3,051
41,763




1,790,698
123,121
6,792
23,413
58,402
1,545
7,042
20,256
5,671

Table E-1. Continued— Enrollments and completions in occupationally specific public vocational education programs,1 1982-83

CIP
code2

Title

Enrollments

Completions

09.00
09.02

Communications..........................................................................................................................
Advertising..............................................................................................................................

10,605
10,605

2,475
2,475

10.00
10.0104

Communication technologies ...................................................................................................
Radio and television production and broadcasting technology...................................

16,091
7,938

3,099
1,678

11.00
11.02
11.04
11.99

Computer and information sciences.........................................................................................
Computer programming .......................................................................................................
Information sciences and systems.......................................................................................
Computer and information sciences, o th e r........................................................................

45,641
41,185
165
4,291

7,202
5,274
38
1,890

12.00
12.01
12.03
12.04
12.0402
12.0403
12.99

Consumer, personal, and miscellaneous services..................................................................
Drycleaning and laundering services...................................................................................
Funeral services ....................................................................................................................
Personal services ..................................................................................................................
Barbering ..........................................................................................................................
Cosmetology......................................................................................................................
Consumer, personal, and miscellaneous services, other..................................................
Engineering and engineering-related technologies................................................................
Architectural technologies.....................................................................................................
Civil technologies....................................................................................................................
Surveying and mapping technology...............................................................................
Electrical and electronic technologies.................................................................................
Electrical technology.......................................................................................................
Electronic technology.......................................................................................................
Electromechanical instrumentation and maintenance technologies.................................
Environmental control technologies.....................................................................................
Water and wastewater technology.................................................................................
Industrial production technologies.......................................................................................
Quality control and safety technologies...............................................................................
Mechanical and related technologies...................................................................................
Automotive technology.....................................................................................................
Mining and petroleum technologies.....................................................................................
Engineering and engineering-related technologies, other ...............................................

110,693
1,176
1,588
94,925
2,279
91,134
13,004

44,860
514
464
37,384
751
35,662
6,498

309,292
15,210
24,422
901
135,327
13,456
112,907
13,446
11,006
2,806
26,411
1,919
36,564
13,061
6,134
38,853
358,957
28,728
17,899
7,245
3,584
50,088
950
135
10,788
10,209
4,057
20,648
15,473
33,689
18,907
3,280
5,361
45
149,803
1,610
942
7,062
51
51,856
115,629
115,629

55,866
2,621
4,526
179
24,671
3,695
18,540
2,131
2,725
842
5,345
340
5,850
1,400
932
6,725
139,775
11,800
8,073
2,545
1,182
15,770
654
71
2,671
2,985
1,532
6,360
4,300
11,648
6,099
834
1,544
40
69,373
532
247
2,194
32
17,798
29,031
29,031

307,460
97,469
37,773

103,662
28,515
11,795

15.00
15.01
15.02
15.0203
15.03
15.0302
15.0303
15.04
15.05
15.0506
15.06
15.07
15.08
15.0803
15.09
15.99
17.00
17.01
17.0101
17.0102
17.0103
17.02
17.0203
17.0204
17.0209
17.0210
17.0211
17.03
17.04
17.05
17.0503
17.0506
17.0508
17.0509
17.06
17.07
17.0701
17.08
17.0818
17.99
18.00
18.11

Allied health................................................................................................................................
Dental services ......................................................................................................................
Dental assisting................................................................................................................
Dental hygiene..................................................................................................................
Dental laboratory technology...........................................................................................
Diagnostic and treatment services.......................................................................................
Electrocardiograph technology.......................................................................................
Electroencephalograph technology.................................................................................
Radiograph medical technology.....................................................................................
Respiratory therapy technology.......................................................................................
Surgical technology.........................................................................................................
Medical laboratory technologies...........................................................................................
Mental health/human services.............................................................................................
Miscellaneous allied health services...................................................................................
Medical assisting..............................................................................................................
Medical records technology.............................................................................................
Physician assisting-primary care.....................................................................................
Physician assisting-specialty...........................................................................................
Nursing-related services.......................................................................................................
Ophthalmic services............................................................................................................
Ophthalmic dispensing.................................................................................................
Rehabilitation services .........................................................................................................
Respiratory therapy.........................................................................................................
Allied health, other ................................................................................................................
Health sciences..........................................................................................................................
Nursing....................................................................................................................................

20.00
20.02
20.03

Vocational home economics.....................................................................................................
Child care and guidance management and services........................................................
Clothing, apparel, and textiles management, production, and services.........................

See footnotes at end of table.



172

Table E-1. Continued— Enrollments and completions in occupationally specific public vocational education programs,1 1982-83

CIP
code2

Enrollments

Title

Completions

20.04
20.0403
20.05
20.06
20.0601
20.99

Food production, management, and services....................................................................
Chef/cook..........................................................................................................................
Home furnishings and equipment management, production, and services ...................
Institutional, home management, and supporting services .............................................
Institutional, home management, and supporting services, general .........................
Vocational home economics, o th e r....................................................................................

126,691
9,148
10,728
15,996
9,343
18,803

47,098
2,656
2,346
5,843
2,669
8,065

22.00
22.0103

Law ..............................................................................................................................................
Legal assisting.....................................................................................................................

7,117
7,117

886
886

25.00
25.03

Library and archival sciences...................................................................................................
Library assisting...................................................................................................................

449
449

105
105

31.00
31.02

Parks and recreation.................................................................................................................
Outdoor recreation...............................................................................................................

1,193
1,193

41.00
41.01
41.02
41.03
41.99

Science technologies.................................................................................................................
Biological technologies.........................................................................................................
Nuclear technologies.............................................................................................................
Physical science technologies.............................................................................................
Science technologies, o th er.................................................................................................

5,688
185
666
3,876
961

290
290
1,432
32
208
992
200

43.00
43.01
43.02
43.99

Protective services.....................................................................................................................
Criminal ju s tice .....................................................................................................................
Fire protection.......................................................................................................................
Protective services, o th e r.....................................................................................................

143,877
92,219
37,066
14,592

39,548
19,832
16,637
3,079

46.00
46.01
46.0101
46.0102
46.0103
46.02
46.03
46.0302
46.04
46.0403
46.0405
45.0406
46.0408
46.05
46.99

Construction trades...................................................................................................................
Brickmasonry, stonemasonry, and tile setting....................................................................
Brickmasonry, stonemasonry, and title setting, general.............................................
Brick, block, and stonemasonry....................................................................................
Title setting.......................................................................................................................
Carpentry................................................................................................................................
Electrical and power transmission installation....................................................................
Electrician..........................................................................................................................
Miscellaneous construction trades......................................................................................
Construction inspection...................................................................................................
Floor covering installation...............................................................................................
Glazing..............................................................................................................................
Painting and decorating...................................................................................................
Plumbing, pipefitting, and steamfitting................................................................................
Construction trades, other ...................................................................................................

245,637
21,706
3,854
17,809
43
69,196
57,366
33,841
13,882
46
125
249
1,834
15,646
67,841

97,221
8,201
1,399
6,784
18
27,377
20,097
12,616
6,070
9
76
153
767
6,236
29,240

47.00
47.01
47.0101
47.0102
47.0103
47.0104
47.0105
47.0106
47.0108
47.0109
47.02
47.03
47.0302
47.04
47.0404
47.0406
47.05
47.06
47.0602
47.0603
47.0604
47.0605
47.0606
47.99

Mechanics and repairers...........................................................................................................
Electrical and electronics equipment repair ......................................................................
Electrical and electronics equipment repair, general .................................................
Business machine repair.................................................................................................
Communications electronics...........................................................................................
Computer electronics.......................................................................................................
Industrial electronics.................................................................. .................................
Major appliance repair.....................................................................................................
Small appliance repair.....................................................................................................
Vending and recreational machine repair ....................................................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics ...................................................
Industrial equipment maintenance and repair....................................................................
Heavy equipment maintenance and repair....................................................................
Miscellaneous mechanics and repairers............................................................................
Muscial instrument re p a ir...............................................................................................
Shoe and boot repair.......................................................................................................
Stationary energy sources ...................................................................................................
Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics and repairers.................................................
Aircraft mechanics...........................................................................................................
Automotive body repair...................................................................................................
Automotive mechanics.....................................................................................................
Diesel engine mechanics.................................................................................................
Small engine repair.........................................................................................................
Mechanics and repairers, o th e r...........................................................................................

561,038
101,899
56,539
1,612
15,522
1,340
15,636
7,880
689
2,364
52,935
16,450
3,722
4,250
251
522
1,694
362,707
12,557
67,920
219,362
24,185
22,543
21,103

Precision production ...............................................................................................................

496,560

185,709
30,935
16,710
477
4,755
254
5,203
2,640
288
499
15,235
4,636
1,081
1,632
89
196
799
123,067
3,607
22,324
74,538
7,556
8,175
9,405
157,502

48.00

See footnotes at end of table.



173

Table E-1. Continued— Enrollments and completions in occupationally specific public vocational education programs,1 1982-83

CIP
code2

Title

Enrollments

Completions

48.01
48.02
48.0205
48.0206
48.03
48.0301
48.0303
48.04
48.05
48.0503
48.0506
48.0507
48.0508
48.06
48.0602
48.07
48.99

Drafting....................................................................................................................................
Graphic and printing communications.................................................................................
Composition, make-up, and typesetting........................................................................
Lithography, photography, and platemaking................................................................
Leatherworking and upholstering.........................................................................................
Leatherworking and upholstering, general....................................................................
Upholstering......................................................................................................................
Precision food production.....................................................................................................
Precision metal work..............................................................................................................
Machine tool operation/machine s h o p ...........................................................................
Sheet metal ......................................................................................................................
Tool and die m aking.......................................................................................................
Welding, brazing, and soldering.....................................................................................
Precision work, assorted materials.......................................................................................
Jewelry design, fabrication, and repair...........................................................................
Woodworking..........................................................................................................................
Precision production, other...................................................................................................

99,325
117,368
636
744
7,222
446
6,704
2,492
213,482
77,799
7,303
3,221
109,684
3,531
1,201
27,902
25,238

28,500
35,508
182
180
2,213
337
1,855
952
72,062
27,303
2,443
1,044
35,249
1,409
589
7,970
8,888

49.00
49.01
49.0101
49.0102
49.02
49.0205
49.03
49.99

Transportation and material moving.......................................................................................
Air transportation....................................................................................................................
Air transportation, general...............................................................................................
Airplane piloting and navigation.....................................................................................
Vehicle and equipment operation.........................................................................................
Truck and bus driving.....................................................................................................
Water transportation..............................................................................................................
Transportation and material moving, o th e r........................................................................

17,909
2,311
1,323
823
5,011
3,144
2,229
8,358

50.00
50.08

Visual and performing a rts .....................................................................................................
Graphic arts technology........................................................................................................

48,806
11,702
4,281
6,614
8,912
4,254
5,558
22,634
4,332
4,332

99.00

Other, not elsewhere classified...............................................................................................

75,889

17,120

2 CIP codes are the taxonomy used by the National Center for
Education Statistics to classify instructional programs. See A
Classification of Instructional Programs (U.S. Department of Educa­
tion, 1981).
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for
Education Statistics.

10ccupationally specific enrollments include students above
grade 10 enrolled in programs which are designed to train individuals
for specific occupations. Excluded are all programs in industrial arts
and consumer and homemaking training as well as prevocational,
counseling and guidance, and cluster programs (those programs that
include 4 or more subjects that cannot be separated and identified
as a complete program).




1,256
1,256

174

Table E-2. Total enrollments, total completions, total who left with or without a marketable skill, and total still enrolled, by pro­
gram, for noncollegiate postsecondary schools with occupational programs, 1980-811

Left with
Left without
Total enrollments Completions marketable skill marketable skill Still enrolled
246,614
Total, all programs...............................................
1,555,526
889,969
92,188
323,755
643
01. Agriculture, to ta l..................................................................
8,426
3,516
1,706
2,563
1,546
171
192
674
01.0100 Agricultural production...........................................
510
1,034
102
01.0200 Agricultural supplies/services ...............................
1,679
265
278
01.0300 Agricultural mechanics...........................................
725
275
38
149
263
504
247
419
1,285
116
01.0400 Agricultural products .............................................
977
827
2,773
186
783
01.0500 Ornamental horticulture.........................................
171
01.0600 Agricultural resources ...........................................
121
8
5
37
247
22
01.0700 Forestry....................................................................
95
65
65
DOE instructional code and title2

04. Marketing and distribution, total.........................................

246,967

191,778

8,462

28,383

18,348

Advertising services...............................................
Apparel and accessories.......................................
Finance and credit.................................................
Floristry....................................................................
Food distribution......................................................
Food service technology.......................................
General merchandise.............................................
Hardware, building materials.................................
Home furnishings...................................................
Hotel and lodging...................................................
Insurance ................................................................
Petroleum sale s.....................................................
Real estate..............................................................
Recreation and tourism .........................................
Transportation services.........................................
Retail trade, other .................................................
Wholesale trade, other...........................................
Other ........................................................................

145
12,369
19,053
4,264
99
782
6,011
27
69
1,108
7,517
52
97,399
44,717
2,385
1,479
723
48,768
164,057

59
6,388
17,111
3,453
73
291
3,635
19
16
261
6,048
14
78,681
34,012
1,069
842
708
39,098

28
1,485
1,379
310
18
162
998
3
43
218
819
15
11,637
5,146
128
362
16
5,616

55
2,466
381
270
0
240
1,135
0
0
476
276
19
4,597
4,720
762
190
0
2,761

91,603

4
2,030
182
231
9
88
243
5
10
153
373
4
2,484
840
427
86
0
1,293
7,667

21,589

43,209

7,354
46
740
2,448
92
53
2,069
129
2,277
5,061
16,973
18,532
62
901
6,367
55
10
3,383
21
214
114
383
55
0
508
3,219
15,035
69

432
10
77
341
0
0
124
16
83
247
2,127
1,203
64
44
538
8
4
94
0
0
0
50
0
0
53
297
1,544
1

1,518
18
305
490
39
0
422
33
608
1,242
4,808
3,169
33
203
1,956
36
6
817
0
48
0
114
35
0
124
973
3,196
3

1,836
23
775
429
0
1
742
75
640
6,188
7,013
1,888
212
254
10,743
57
8
3,060
0
69
108
128
22
70
106
1,675
4,385
3

04.0100
04.0200
04.0400
04.0500
04.0600
04.0700
04.0800
04.0900
04.1000
04.1100
04.1300
04.1600
04.1700
04.1800
04.1900
04.2000
04.3100
04.9900

07. Health occupations, to ta l...................................................
07.0101
07.0102
07.0103
07.0199
07.0201
07.0202
07.0203
07.0204
07.0299
07.0301
07.0302
07.0303
07.0304
07.0305
07.0399
07.0401
07.0499
07.0501
07.0502
07.0503
07.0599
07.0600
07.0800
07.0901
07.0902
07.0903
07.0904
07.0906

Dental assistant......................................................
Dental hygiene (associate).....................................
Dental laboratory technology.................................
Dental, other............................................................
Cytology ..................................................................
Histology..................................................................
Medical laboratory assisting .................................
Hematology..............................................................
Medical laboratory technology, o th e r..................
Nursing (associate degree)...................................
Practical (vocational) nursing.................................
Nursing assistant (aide).........................................
Psychiatric aide ......................................................
Surgical technician.................................................
Nursing, other..........................................................
Occupational therapy.............................................
Rehabilitation services, other ...............................
X-ray technician......................................................
Radiation therapy...................................................
Nuclear medical technology .................................
Radiologic, other ....................................................
Optical technology.................................................
Mental health technology.......................................
Electroencephalograph technology.......................
Electrocardiograph technology .............................
Inhalation therapy technology...............................
Medical assisting (office).......................................
Community health a id e .........................................

11,140
97
1,897
3,708
131
54
3,356
253
3,608
12,738
30,921
24,792
370
1,401
19,604
155
28
7,353
21
331
222
675
111
70
791
6,163
24,160
75

See footnotes at end of table.




175

Table E-2. Continued— Total enrollments, total completions, total who left with or without a marketable skill, and total still enrolled,
by program, for noncollegiate postsecondary schools with occupational programs, 1980-811

DOE instructional code and title2
07.0907
07.0909
07.0915
07.9900

Medical emergency technician.............................
Mortuary science....................................................
Medical records technicians.................................
Health occupations, o th er.....................................

09. Home economics, total........................................................
09.0201
09.0202
09.0203
09.0204
09.0205
09.0299

Left with
Left without
Total enrollments Completions marketable skill marketable skill Still enrolled
1,885
1,260
36
230
360
560
296
0
165
100
958
495
82
163
218
5,283
2,533
161
610
1,980
9,005
4,702
753
1,539
2,011

Child care................................................................
Clothing management, production, and services.
Food management, production, and services . ..
Home furnishings....................................................
Institutional/home management ...........................
Home economics, other.........................................

3,136
2,337
1,305
593
783
851

1,202
1,379
582
300
522
717

235
251
97
40
109
21

574
403
265
148
102
47

1,125
303
361
105
50
67

14. Business and office, total....................................................

366,759

180,455

35,166

73,046

78,096

Accounting..............................................................
Computer operator..................................................
Peripheral equipment operator.............................
Computer programmer...........................................
System analyst........................................................
Business data processing, other...........................
General office..........................................................
Information communication occupations............
Materials support occupations .............................
Personnel occupations...........................................
Stenographic, secretarial, and related occupatio n s .......................................................................
Supervisory and administrative management
occupations..........................................................
Typing and related occupations...........................
Office occupations, other.......................................

45,630
8,949
13,670
40,246
206
45,880
26,469
3,843
136
59

19,880
3,276
7,899
22,329
99
21,580
11,497
1,559
100
23

4,130
2,867
882
2,539
10
3,147
2,533
345
0
0

9,888
2,340
2,851
7,370
36
8,658
7,172
1,063
36
12

11,732
466
2,039
8,009
61
12,496
5,268
876
0
23

117,507

11,879

21,850
11,247
31,067

62,486
10,134
7,278
12,315

1,751
669
4,416

20,535
4,988
1,644
6,453

22,608
4,977
1,659
7,882

132,997

65,534

8,597

21,650

37,218

Aeronautical technology .......................................
Agriculture technology...........................................
Architectural technology .......................................
Automotive technology...........................................
Chemical technology..............................................
Civil technology......................................................
Electrical technology..............................................
Electronic technology..............................................
Electromechanical technology...............................
Environmental-control technology.........................

1,036
1,510
2,236
10,384
386
9,502
3,328
45,919
2,997
2,524

Industrial technology..............................................
Instrumentation technology...................................
Mechanical technology.........................................
Metallurgical technology.......................................
Nuclear technology................................................
Petroleum technology............................................
Scientific data processing.....................................

1,298
727
1,408
435
79
241
64

510
53
748
5,085
213
3,478
1,316
18,189
1,090
1,525
447
231
473
135
28
173
64

8
42
135
391
27
695
395
2,687
166
39
160
99
136
25
0
5
0

180
99
558
2,107
72
2,067
753
7,263
812
465
321
120
268
84
13
31
0

338
1,316
797
2,800
75
3,261
863
17,421
929
495
370
278
531
191
38
33
0

Food processing technology.................................
Commercial pilot training.......................................
Fire and fire safety technology.............................
Forestry technology................................................
Police science technology.....................................
Teacher’s assistant................................................
Library assistant......................................................
Broadcast technician..............................................
Performing artists....................................................
Technology, other ..................................................
17. Trade and industrial, to ta l..................................................

87
1291
1,265
147
889
700
4,235
17,632
18,655
5,020

87
184
1,225
35
763
238
2,886
10,057
13,960
2,341

0
4
6
8
0
50
388
1,253
1,310
568

0
8
0
80
6
195
439
2,780
1,646
923

0
95
34
24
120
217
522
3,543
1,739
1,188

627,318

352,389

30,951

101,711

142,497

17.0100 Air conditioning installation and repair.....................

22,240

8,999

1,685

4,546

7,009

14.0100
14.0201
14.0202
14.0203
14.0204
14.0299
14.0300
14.0400
14.0500
14.0600
14.0700
14.0800
14.0900
14.9900
16.

Technical occupations, to ta l.........................................

16.0101
16.0102
16.0103
16.0104
16.0105
16.0106
16.0107
16.0108
16.0109
16.0110
16.0111
16.0112
16.0113
16.0114
16.0115
16.0116
16.0117
16.0203
16.0601
16.0602
16.0603
16.0605
16.0606
16.0607
16.0608
16.0695
16.0699

See footnotes at end of table.



176

Table E-2. Continued— Total enrollment8, total completions, total who left with or without a marketable skill, and total still enrolled,
by program, for noncolleglate postsecondary schools with occupational programs, 1980-811

DOE instructional code and title2

Left with
Left without
Total enrollments Completions marketable skill marketable skill Still enrolled
2,309
905
264
482
658
13,535
5,330
1,218
2,930
4,058
40,457
13,862
4,140
8,238
14,217
5,824
8,770
335
1,335
1,276
871
57
303
327
183
7,667
1,992
373
1,966
3,335
1,043
14
322
613
94

17.0200
17.0301
17.0302
17.0303
17.0399
17.0401
17.0500

Appliance repair......................................................
Body and fender repair.........................................
Auto mechanic........................................................
Auto specialization re p a ir.....................................
Automotive services, o th e r...................................
Aircraft maintenance..............................................
Blueprint reading....................................................

17.0600
17.0700
17.0800
17.0900
17.1001
17.1002
17.1003
17.1004
17.1005
17.1007
17.1010
17.1099

Business machine maintenance...........................
Commercial art occupations.................................
Commercial fishing occupations...........................
Commercial photography occupations.................
Carpentry................................................................
Electricity................................................................
Heavy equipment maintenance operations........
M asonry..................................................................
Painting and decorating.........................................
Plumbing and pipefitting.......................................
Roofing....................................................................
Construction and maintenance trades, other___

976
25,650
136
7,109
9,619
5,449
5,297
3,522
970
4,261
111
5,983

335
12,910
37
3,999
4,542
2,229
2,845
1,248
476
2,213
67
3,027

52
799
0
191
830
562
327
363
43
363
22
326

272
3,502
5
790
2,002
1,050
898
937
236
767
18
1,035

17.1100
17.1200
17.1300
17.1400
17.1503
17.1599
17.1600
17.1900

Custodial services..................................................
Diesel mechanic......................................................
Drafting occupations..............................................
Electrical occupations, other.................................
Radio and TV repair .............................................
Electronics occupations, o th e r.............................
Fabric maintenance services.................................
Graphic arts occupations.......................................

3,180
19,975
21,363
6,340
4,388
12,155
380
7,876

1,234
9,700
7,962
2,641
1,707
5,503
250
3,444

153
1,348
1,647
481
406
657
58
564

555
2,957
4,696
1,401
1,074
2,624
64
1,794

317
8,439
94
2,130
2,246
1,607
1,226
975
216
918
5
1,595
1,237
5,971
7,058
1,817
1,201
3,372
8
2,073

17.2000
17.2100
17.2200
17.2302
17.2302
17.2306
17.2307
17.2399

Industrial atomic energy occupations...................
Instrument maintenance and repair occupations.
Maritime occupations.............................................
Machine shop occupations...................................
Machine tool operations .......................................
Welding and cutting................................................
Tool and die m aking.............................................
Metalworking, oth er................................................

506
2,256
11,293
2,565
14,208
64,525
920
3,274

159
1,419
8,453
1,337
4,878
35,030
443
1,566

29
120
288
115
1,252
4,563
62
332

153
324
1,513
393
3,369
12,288
84
506

165
392
1,038
721
4,710
12,645
331
869

17.2400
17.2601
17.2602
17.2699
17.2700
17.2801
17.2802
17.2899
17.2900
17.3000
17.3100
17.3200
17.3300
17.3400
17.3500
17.3600
17.4000
17.5000
17.9900

Metallurgy occupations.........................................
Barbering................................................................
Cosmetology............................................................
Personal services, o th e r.......................................
Plastics occupations .............................................
Firefighter training..................................................
Law enforcement training.....................................
Public service occupations, other.........................
Quantity food occupations.....................................
Refrigeration engineering.....................................
Small engine repair, internal combustion............
Stationary energy sources.....................................
Textile production and fabrication.........................
Leatherworking........................................................
Upholstering............................................................
Woodworking occupations.....................................
Truckdriving............................................................
Dog grooming..........................................................
Trade and industrial occupations, other..............

744
13,400
167,388
8,930
622
1,046
762
160
8,283
7,363
2,285
6,021
613
74
2,088
3,513
43,393
2,420
17,034

369
9,927
113,179
6,336
273
645
279
86
3,401
2,681
896
4,968
512
20
1,104
1,321
34,995
1,768
12,257

39
477
2,743
137
33
31
145
5
749
285
230
206
2
6
120
240
834
107
478

145
1,352
21,894
916
138
83
154
38
1,666
1,487
594
484
51
19
338
963
3,418
530
1,988

192
1,645
29,572
1,542
178
288
184
31
2,466
2,909
565
363
49
28
527
989
4,256
16
2,310

1Does not include collegiate, flight, and other schools.
2DOE Instructional codes and titles refer to the Handbook VI
Vocational Programs code and titles. Data collected after 1980-81
are classified under the CIPS taxonomy. For coding information,




see Handbook VI (U.S. Department of Education, National Center
for Education Statistics).
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for
Education Statistics.

177

Table E-3. Enlisted strength in Department of Defense occupational groups, June 30, 1985
DOD

Group title and description of coverage

code
0
01

02

03
04
05
06
07

1
10

11

12
13
14
15
16
19

2

20
21

22

23
24
25
26

3
30
3
1
32
33
4
40
41
42
43
45
49

Enlisted
strength

INFANTRY, GUN CREWS, AND SEAMANSHIP SPECIALISTS....................................................................
Infantry - includes weapon specialists, ground reconnaissance and crew-served artillery specialists,
armor and amphibious crews, and specialists in combat engineering and seamanship.......................
Armor and Amphibious.....................................................................................................................................
Combat Engineering - includes specialists in hasty and temporary construction of airfields, roads,
and bridges and in demolition, field illumination, and chemical warfare..................................................
Artillery/Gunnery, Rockets, and Missiles - includes conventional field, anti-air and shipboard guns
and artillery, and rocket and missile specialists.........................................................................................
Air Crew - includes pilots and navigators, flight engineers, and other air crew ...................................
Seamanship - includes boatswains, navigators, and other seamanship specialists.............................
Installation Security - includes specialists who guard weapon systems, defend installations, and
protect personnel, equipment, and facilities ...............................................................................................

266,283

ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS.........................................................................................................
Radio/Radar - includes fixed and mobile radio, air traffic and tracking radar, communication,
navigation, and electronic countermeasure gear.......................................................................................
Fire Control Electronic System (Non-Missile)...............................................................................................
Missile Guidance, Control and Checkout - includes specialists in guidance, control, and checkout
equipment for guided and ballistic missiles .............................................................................................
Sonar Equipment - includes specialists in underwater detection and fire control systems,
oceanographic equipment, and related antisubmarine gear....................................................................
Nuclear Weapons Equipment..................................................................................................................v. ..
ADP Computers..............................................................................................................................................
Teletype and Cryptographic Equipment........................................................................................................
Other Electronic Equipment - includes training devices, inertial navigation systems, and electronics
instruments specialists ................................................................................................................................

174,020

COMMUNICATIONS AND INTELLIGENCE SPECIALISTS................................................................................
Radio and Radio Code - includes operators of radio, radio teletype, and visual communications
equipment ...........................................................................................................................................................
Sonar.....................................................................................................................................................................
Radar and Air Traffic Control..............................................................................................................................
Signal Intelligence/Electronic Warfare - includes the intercept, translation, and analysis of foreign
communications, and the operation of electronic countermeasures equipment .......................................
Intelligence - includes the gathering, receipt, and analysis of nonsignal intelligence data, the
interrogation of prisoners, other language translators and interpreters, image interpretation, and
specialists in counterintelligence and investigational activities ....................................................................
Combat Operations Control - includes specialists in forward area tactical operations and intelligence
and in command post control activities...........................................................................................................
C o m m u n ication s C e n te r O p era tio n s - includes the receipt and distribution of messages, the operation
of communications center equipment, and the operation of major field communications systems..........

176,703

MEDICAL AND DENTAL SPECIALISTS.................................................................................................................
Medical Care .......................................................................................................................................................
Technical Medical Services - includes laboratory, pharmaceutical, and X-ray services...........................
Related Medical Services - includes specialists in sanitation, health preservation, and veterinary
services and preventive medical services........ ...............................................................................................
Dental Care - includes specialists in dental care and treatment and in related technical and laboratory
services ...............................................................................................................................................................

88,725
61,587
12,014

OTHER TECHNICAL AND ALLIED SPECIALISTS.................................................................................................
Photography - includes still, motion, and television camera operators, precision photographic
processing, editing, and broadcasting................................................................................................................
Mapping, Surveying, Drafting, and Illustrating...................................................................................................
Weather - includes specialists in the collection of weather and sea condition data and weather
forecasting.............................................................................................................................................................
Ordnance Disposal and Diving - includes the excavation and rendering safe of explosive ordnance
and of chemical and nuclear agents, and underwater demolition and other types of diving.......................
Musicians...............................................................................................................................................................
Technical Specialists, N.E.C. - includes physical science laboratory analysts, specialists in memorial
activities, safety, NBC warfare, and firefighting and damage control, and other technical specialists and
aides such as scientific engineering assistants.................................................................................................

43,690

See note at end of table.




178

109,908
24,095
23,191
56,061
10,841
15,852
26,335

81,806
8,692
23,750
8,590
1,365
9,888
14,985
24,944

60,112
3,829
29,859
30,189
10,422
24,884
17,408

5,924
9,200

5,429
7,974
5,174
1,969
5,128
18,016

Table E-3. Continued— Enlisted strength in Department of Defense occupational groups, June 30, 1985

DOD
code
5
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
6
60
61
62
63
64
65

66

67
69
7
70
71
72
74
75
76
79

8

80
81
82
83
84
86

Group title and description of coverage

Enlisted
strength

FUNCTIONAL SUPPORT AND ADMINISTRATION.............................................................................................
Personnel - includes specialists in personnel administration, personnel and manpower management,
and recruiting and counseling............................................................................................................................
Administration - includes clerks, typists, and stenographers and legal and medical administrative
specialists.............................................................................................................................................................
Clerical/Personnel - includes combined personnel and administrative specialists and senior enlisted
personnel whose primary responsibilities are non-technical..........................................................................
Data Processing - includes computer operators, analysts, and programmers and electric accounting
machine operators..............................................................................................................................................
Accounting, Finance, Disbursing.......................................................................................................................
Other Functional Support - includes specialists who provide support in the functional areas of supply
accounting and procurement, transportation, flight operations, and related areas.....................................
Religious, Morale, and Welfare - includes chaplains’ assistants and specialists in theater, arts, sports,
and related activities..........................................................................................................................................
Information and Education - includes specialists in public affairs, radio/TV, and other types of
information and education..................................................................................................................................

292,488

ELECTRICAUMECHANICAL EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS........................................................................................
Aircraft and Related - includes aircraft engines, electrical systems, structural components and
surfaces, and launch equipment............................................................................................................................
Automotive - includes construction equipment and other wheel and track vehicles ...................................
Wire communications - includes specialists in the installation and maintenance of telephones,
switchboards, and central office and related interior communications equipment.........................................
Missile, Mechanical and Electrical - includes missiles and missile systems and related components----Armament and Munitions - includes small arms, artillery, mines, bombs and associated mountings,
nuclear weapons, and ammunition renovation ...................................................................................................
Shipboard Propulsion - includes marine main engines, boilers, and auxiliary equipment...........................
Power Generating Equipment - includes nuclear power reactors and primary electric generating plants..
Precision Equipment - includes optical and other precision instruments and office machines..................
Other Mechanical and Electrical Equipment - includes specialists in the maintenance and repair of
mechanical and electrical equipment which is not readily classifiable in another group...............................

369,713

CRAFT WORKERS..................................................................................................................................................
Metalworking - includes specialists in the machining, shaping, and forming of metal and in the
fabrication of metal parts....................................................................................................................................
Construction - includes specialists in construction trades and construction equipment operation........
Utilities - includes plumbers, heating and cooling specialists, and electricians.......................................
Lithography...........................................................................................................................................................
Industrial Gas and Fuel Production - includes specialists in the production of liquid oxygen, hydrogen,
nitrogen, and carbon dioxide ...........................................................................................................................
Fabric, Leather, and Rubber..............................................................................................................................
Other Craft Workers, N.E.C. - includes specialists in trades such as molding, camouflage, and plastic
work, which are not readily classifiable elsewhere in this section................................................................
SERVICE AND SUPPLY HANDLERS.....................................................................................................................
Food Service.........................................................................................................................................................
Motor Transport - includes the operation of wheel and track vehicles (except construction equipment)
and railway equipment ......................................................................................................................................
Material Receipt, Storage, and Issue - includes specialists in the receipt, storage, issue, and shipment
of general and specialized classes of supplies, excluding ammunition.......................................................
Law Enforcement - includes military police, protective and corrections specialists, and criminal and
noncriminal inspectors and investigators.........................................................................................................
Personal Service - includes laundry, dry cleaning, and related services...................................................
Forward Area Equipment - includes specialists in parachute packing and repair, in aerial delivery
operations, and in flight equipment fitting and maintenance........................................................................

NOTE: Definitions are provided for most occupational groups.
The lack of explanatory material for a few groups indicates that the
title of the grouping is considered a sufficient definition.




41,319
76,470
7,056
24,329
15,019
116,402
5,940
5,953

158,899
68,874
20,536
4,620
41,559
39,601
35,776
3,133
1,715
76,888
15,029
25,922
20,401
1,933
626
2,661
10,316
175,336
49,360
34,334
36,844
45,145
2,769
6,884

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Manpower Data
Center—Enlisted Master File,

179

Table E-4. Associate degrees and other formal awards below the baccalaureate level granted in 1982-83

CIP
code1

Curriculums of
at least 1 but
less than
4 years
453,960
114,989

Associate
degrees

Curriculum
Total.....................................................................................................

Curriculums
of under
1 year
28,044

Agricultural sciences .......................................................................................
Agricultural sciences, general ..................................................................
Animal sciences .........................................................................................
Food sciences.............................................................................................
Plant sciences.............................................................................................
Agronomy...............................................................................................
Range management ............................................................................
Soil sciences...............................................................................................
Agricultural sciences, o th e r......................................................................

4,732
1,092
316
695
20
424
1,177
1,008
1,459
388
785
25
196
17
4
8
57

2,366
257
362
369
1
134
1,177
66
812
39
621
29
110
52
0
0
13

437
106
40
82
0
103
101
5
16
1
2
13
0
0
0
0
0

03.00
03.01
03.02
03.03
03.04
03.05
03.06
03.99

Renewable natural resources ........................................................................
Renewable natural resources, general ....................................................
Conservation and regulation......................................................................
Fishing and fisheries...................................................................................
Forestry production and processing..........................................................
Forestry and related sciences ..................................................................
Wildlife management .................................................................................
Renewable natural resources, o th e r........................................................

1,454
123
102
48
458
296
364
63

189
57
3
19
51
24
32
3

51
0
1
6
21
23
0
0

04.00
04.01
04.02
04.03
04.04
04.05
04.06

Architecture and environmental design..........................................................
Architecture and environmental design, general.....................................
Architecture.................................................................................................
City, community, and regional planning ..................................................
Environmental design................................................................................
Interior design.............................................................................................
Landscape architecture...............................................................................

1,454
107
111
1
32
1,183
20

210
7
0
0
0
203
0

05.00
05.01
05.02
05.99
06.00
06.01
06.02
06.03
06.04
06.0402
06.05
06.06
06.07
06.08
06.09
06.10
06.11
06.12
06.13
06.14
06.1401
06.15
06.16
06.17
06.18
06.19
06.20
06.99

Area and ethnic studies...................................................................................
Area studies.................................................................................................
Ethnic studies.............................................................................................
Area and ethnic studies, other..................................................................
Business and management............................................................................
Business and management, general........................................................
Accounting...................................................................................................
Banking and finance...................................................................................
Business administration and management.............................................
Contract management and procurement/purchasing .......................
Business economics...................................................................................
Human resources development................................................................
Institutional management..........................................................................
Insurance and risk management..............................................................
International business management ........................................................
Investments and securities........................................................................
Labor/industrial relations............................................................................
Management information systems............................................................
Management science................................................................................
Marketing management and research......................................................
Marketing management........................................................................
Organizational behavior............................................................................
Personnel management............................................................................
Real estate...................................................................................................
Small business management and ownership.........................................
Taxation.......................................................................................................
Trade and industrial supervision and management...............................
Business and management, other............................................................

21
3
16
2
49,619
13,152
6,028
500
21,272
74
9
21
2,692
50
2
6
251
79
314
2,006
1,869
25
75
1,081
347
6
1,040
663

3
2
1
0
8,257
716
731
51
4,965
4
0
3
331
4
0
0
372
28
48
133
125
19
22
252
63
158
289
72

22
0
0
0
0
22
0
34
30
4
0

01.00
01.01
01.02
01.03
01.04
01.05
01.06
01.99

Agribusiness and agricultural production......................................................
Agricultural business and management ..................................................
Agricultural mechanics...............................................................................
Agricultural production...............................................................................
Agricultural products and processing ......................................................
Agricultural services and supplies............................................................
Horticulture.................................................................................................
Agribusiness and agricultural production, other.....................................

02.00
02.01
02.02
02.03
02.04
02.0402
02.0409
02.05
02.99

See footnote at end of table.



180

1,323
237
103
6
141
3
0
1
280
0
4
0
50
0
2
30
30
0
19
253
7
16
41
133

Table E-4. Continued— Associate degrees and other formal awards below the baccalaureate level granted in 1982-83

Associate
degrees

Curriculums of
at least 1 but
less than
4 years
18,227
1,598
104
3,930
871
681
91
186
45
8,719
3,055
540
1,445
65
590

Curriculums
of under
1 year

CIP
code1

Curriculum

07.00
07.01
07.02
07.03
07.0302
07.0303
07.0304
07.04
07.05
07.06
07.07
07.0701
07.0702
07.0707
07.99

Business and office ........................................................................................
Accounting, bookkeeping, and related programs...................................
Banking and related financial programs.................................................
Business data processing and related programs...................................
Business computer and console operation .......................................
Business data entry equipment operation.........................................
Business data peripheral equipment operation.................................
Office supervision and management .....................................................
Personnel and training programs ............................................................
Secretarial and related programs..............................................................
Typing, general office, and related programs.........................................
Typing, general office, and related programs, general....................
Clerk-typist.............................................................................................
Receptionist and communication systems operation .......................
Business and office, o th e r........................................................................

51,353
8,347
573
16,201
229
129
79
2,755
82
19,066
1,285
770
120
51
3,044

08.00
08.01
08.02
08.03
08.04
08.05
08.06
08.07
08.0704
08.08
08.09
08.10
08.11
08.1101
08.1104
08.1105
08.12
08.99

Marketing and distribution..............................................................................
Apparel and accessories marketing..........................................................
Business and personal services marketing.............................................
Entrepreneurship........................................................................................
Financial services marketing ....................................................................
Floristry, farm and garden supplies marketing.......................................
Food marketing...........................................................................................
General marketing......................................................................................
Purchasing.............................................................................................
Home and office products marketing.......................................................
Hospitality and recreation marketing.......................................................
Insurance marketing..................................................................................
Transportation and travel marketing.......................................................
Transportation and travel marketing, general...................................
Tourism...................................................................................................
Travel services marketing....................................................................
Vehicles and petroleum marketing...........................................................
Marketing and distribution, other..............................................................

14,449
2,213
395
130
81
16
111
2,526
34
74
309
32
1,124
132
540
336
44
7,394

2,326
415
28
0
27
43
32
274
42
9
113
44
539
40
247
156
90
712

969
31
0
0
0
23
68
112
0
5
157
22
475
129
150
200
7
65

09.00
09.01
09.02
09.04
09.05
09.06
09.07
09.99

Communications...............................................................................................
Communications, general..........................................................................
Advertising
Journalism...................................................................................................
Public relations...........................................................................................
Radio/television news broadcast..............................................................
Radio/television, general............................................................................
Communications, other..............................................................................

10.00
10.0104
11.00
11.01
11.02
11.03
11.04
11.05
11.99

C o m m u n ica tio n s te c h n o lo g ie s ...........................................................................................

Radio and television production and broadcasting technology . . . .
Computer and information sciences..............................................................
Computer and information sciences, general.........................................
Computer programming............................................................................
Data processing ......................................................................................
Information sciences and systems............................................................
Systems analysis.........................................................................................
Computer and information sciences, other.............................................

2,020
394
138
502
60
44
258
624
1,814
589
9,670
2,201
3,545
3,106
593
28
197

135
6
44
15
0
7
41
22
289
80
1,697
264
756
468
206
2
1

7
0
0
5
0
2
0
0
8
0
765
87
565
80
33
0
0

12.00
12.01
12.02
12.03
12.04
12.0402
12.0403
12.99

Consumer, personal, and miscellaneous services.......................................
Drycleaning and laundering services.......................................................
Entertainment services..............................................................................
Funeral services........................................................................................
Personal services......................................................................................
Barbering
Costmetology........................................................................................
Consumer, personal, and miscellaneous services, other.......................

858
1
16
391
389
2
383
61

3,295
3
22
270
2,958
100
2,744
42

1,107
0
0
32
1,073
13
370
2

13.00
13.01
13.02

Education .........................................................................................................
Education, general ....................................................................................
Bilingual/bicultural education....................................................................

7,520
4,852
75

354
5
15

44
6
0

See footnote at end of table.



181

4,691
342
195
1,016
199
335
22
164
0
1,955
937
238
236
112
82

Table E-4. Continued— Associate degrees and other formal awards below the baccalaureate level granted in 1982-83

CIP
code1
13.04
13.05
13.08
13.10
13.11
13.12
13.1202
13.1203
13.1204
13.1205
13.13
13.14
13.99

Associate
degrees

Curriculum

Curriculums of
at least 1 but
less than
4 years
19
17
0
54
3
118
1
0
117
0
68
8
47

Curriculums
of under
1 year

Education administration ..........................................................................
Educational media.......................................................................................
School psychology .....................................................................................
Special education.......................................................................................
Student counseling and personnel services...........................................
Teacher education, general programs......................................................
Elementary education..........................................................................
Junior high education..........................................................................
Pre-elementary education....................................................................
Secondary education............................................................................
Teacher education, specific subject areas .............................................
Teaching English as a second language/foreign language...................
Education, o th e r.........................................................................................

148
35
1
166
0
1,134
392
1
605
66
896
0
213

14.00
14.01
14.02
14.03
14.04
14.06
14.07
14.08
14.09
14.10
14.11
14.12
14.13
14.14
14.17
14.19
14.25
14.26
14.99

Engineering.......................................................................................................
Engineering, general...................................................................................
Aerospace, aeronautical, and astronautical engineering.......................
Agricultural engineering............................................................................
Architectural engineering..........................................................................
Ceramic engineering...................................................................................
Chemical engineering.................................................................................
Civil engineering.........................................................................................
Computer engineering ...............................................................................
Electrical, electronics, and communications engineering.......................
Engineering mechanics...............................................................................
Engineering physics...................................................................................
Engineering science...................................................................................
Environmental health engineering............................................................
Industrial engineering.................................................................................
Mechanical engineering............................................................................
Petroleum engineering..............................................................................
Surveying and mapping sciences ............................................................
Engineering, other.......................................................................................

3,207
2,433
52
0
5
20
10
40
11
276
1
4
73
10
15
72
2
2
181

85
48
0
22
4
0
0
3
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
1

9
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2

15.00
15.01
15.02
15.0203
15.03
15.0302
15.0303
15.04
15.05
15.0506
15.06
15.07
15.08
15.0803
15.09
15.99

Engineering and engineering-related technologies .....................................
Architectural technologies..........................................................................
Civil technologies .......................................................................................
Surveying and mapping technology .................................................
Electrical and electronic technologies......................................................
Electrical technology............................................................................
Electronic technology ..........................................................................
Electromechanical instrumentation and maintenance technologies . . .
Environmental control technologies..........................................................
Water and wastewater technology......................................................
Industrial production technologies............................................................
Quality control and safety technologies....................................................
Mechanical and related technologies ......................................................
Automotive technology ........................................................................
Mining and petroleum technologies..........................................................
Engineering and engineering-related technologies, o th e r.....................

46,404
1,678
4,167
259
23,173
2,354
13,619
2,177
1,374
170
3,079
353
7,369
1,585
1,233
1,801

13,137
118
644
51
6,779
344
5,936
578
949
131
945
230
1,203
649
106
1,585

1,534
4
64
11
482
18
284
42
224
113
241
43
422
352
0
12

16.00
16.01
16.03
16.04
16.05
16.09
16.11
16.99

Foreign languages...........................................................................................
Foreign languages, multiple emphasis ...................................................
Asiatic languages .....................................................................................
Balto-Slavic languages..............................................................................
Germanic languages...................................................................................
Italic languages...........................................................................................
Semitic languages.......................................................................................
Foreign languages, o th er..........................................................................

342
154
5
2
16
127
0
38

39
0
0
0
0
0
1
38

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

17.00
17.01
17.0101
17.0102
17.0103
17.02
17.0203

Allied health .....................................................................................................
Dental services...........................................................................................
Dental assisting.....................................................................................
Dental hygiene.......................................................................................
Dental laboratory technology ..............................................................
Diagnostic and treatment services............................................................
Electrocardiograph technology............................................................

25,866
4,546
636
3,244
660
5,403
12

24,515
2,933
2,367
380
167
3,039
15

8,817
318
271
22
20
1,789
0

See footnote at end of table.



182

0
0
0
3
0
29
0
0
29
0
1
0
5

Table E-4. Continued— Associate degrees and other formal awards below the baccalaureate level granted in 1982-83

CIP
code1

Associate
degrees

Curriculum

Curriculums of
at least 1 but
less than
4 years
8
500
550
167
803
834
236
445
2,163
1,363
160
124
14,417
115
6
621
546

Curriculums
of under
1 year

Electroencephalograph technology.....................................................
Emergency medical technology-ambulance.......................................
Emergency medical technology-paramedic.......................................
Radiograph medical technology..........................................................
Respiratory therapy technology .........................................................
Surgical technology..............................................................................
Medical laboratory technologies................................................................
Mental health/human services..................................................................
Miscellaneous allied health services.......................................................
Medical assisting..................................................................................
Medical records technology ................................................................
Physician assisting-primary care.........................................................
Nursing-related services............................................................................
Ophthalmic services..................................................................................
Ophthalmic dispensing ........................................................................
Rehabilitation services ..............................................................................
Allied health, o th e r....................................................................................

21
485
200
2,856
1,196
209
3,019
2,041
3,838
1,803
873
91
2,710
562
145
2,934
813

18.00
18.01
18.03
18.04
18.07
18.09
18.10
18.11
18.12
18.14
18.17
18.18
18.19
18.20
18.24
18.99

Health sciences ...............................................................................................
Audiology and speech pathology..............................................................
Chiropractic.................................................................................................
Dentistry.......................................................................................................
Health sciences administration..................................................................
Medical laboratory......................................................................................
Medicine .....................................................................................................
Nursing .......................................................................................................
Optometry ...................................................................................................
Pharmacy.....................................................................................................
Pre-dentistry.................................................................................................
Pre-medicine...............................................................................................
Pre-pharmacy .............................................................................................
Pre-veterinary .............................................................................................
Veterinary medicine ..................................................................................
Health sciences, o th e r..............................................................................

39,883
9
10
1
112
18
340
38,249
7
4
20
105
46
21
0
941

669
8
0
22
12
0
25
505
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
96

262
0
0
41
0
0
104
93
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
24

19.00
19.01
19.02
19.03
19.04
19.05
19.07
19.09
19.99
20.00
20.01
20.02
20.03
20.04
20.0403
20.05
20.06
20.99

Home economics.............................................................................................
Home economics, general ........................................................................
Business home economics........................................................................
Family and community services................................................................
Family/consumer resource management.................................................
Food sciences and human nutrition.........................................................
Individual and family development............................................................
Textiles and clothing..................................................................................
Home economics, o th e r............................................................................
Vocational home economics ..........................................................................
Consumer and homemaking home economics.......................................
Child care and guidance management and services.............................
Clothing, apparel, and textiles management, production, and
services .................................................................................................
Food production, management, and services.........................................
Chef/cook...............................................................................................
Home furnishings and equipment management, production, and
services.....................................................................................................
Institutional, home management, and supporting services..................
Vocational home economics, o th e r..........................................................

1,045
179
2
168
23
223
90
320
40
7,999
1,114
3,084
176
3,484
892
40
46
59

302
8
0
0
1
73
39
159
22
3,452
704
1,185
1,130
1,250
221
90
76
17

1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
964
126
509
3
509
109
11
32
14

22.00
22.0103
23.00
23.01
23.04
23.05
23.06
23.08
23.09

L a w ...................................................................................................................
Legal assisting......................................................................................
Letters...............................................................................................................
English, general ........................................................................................
Composition.................................................................................................
Creative w riting...........................................................................................
Linguistics (includes phonetics, semantics, and philology)..................
Literature, English......................................................................................
Rhetoric.......................................................................................................

1,742
1,550
618
404
3
2
0
2
1

452
442

93
23
77
73
0
0
2
0
0

17.0204
17.0205
17.0206
17.0209
17.0210
17.0211
17.03
17.04
17.05
17.0503
17.0506
17.0508
17.06
17.07
17.0701
17.08
17.99

See footnote at end of table.



183

15
0
0
0
13
0
0

0
1,441
140
7
78
109
8
216
1,376
620
36
6
4,772
14
0
36
288

Table E-4. Continued— Associate degrees and other formal awards below the baccalaureate level granted in 1982-83

CIP
code1

Curriculums of
at least 1 but
less than
4 years
0
0
2
675
83
11
62
7
0
3
105
1
0
0
30
0
74
0

Curriculums
of under
1 year

Curriculum

Associate
degrees

23.10
23.11
23.99
24.00
25.00
25.01
25.03
25.04
25.05
25.99
26.00
26.01
26.02
26.03
26.05
26.06
26.07
26.99

Speech, debate, and forensics..................................................................
Technical and business w ritin g................................................................
Letters, other...............................................................................................
Liberal/general studies.....................................................................................
Library and archival sciences........................................................................
Library and archival sciences, general....................................................
Library assisting .........................................................................................
Library science ...........................................................................................
Museology...................................................................................................
Library and archival sciences, o th e r........................................................
Life sciences.....................................................................................................
Biology, general...........................................................................................
Biochemistry and biophysics....................................................................
Botany.........................................................................................................
Microbiology.................................................................................................
Miscellaneous specialized areas, life sciences.......................................
Zoology .......................................................................................................
Life sciences, other.....................................................................................

84
8
114
107,625
218
45
130
36
2
5
981
763
1
6
8
93
15
95

27.00
27.01
27.03
27.99

Mathematics.....................................................................................................
Mathematics, general................................................................................
Applied mathematics...................................................................................
Mathematics, other.....................................................................................

777
723
21
33

2
2
0
0

2
2
0
0

28.00
28.03

Military sciences...............................................................................................
Military science (Army)..............................................................................

1
1

0
0

0
0

29.00

Military technologies.........................................................................................
Multi/interdisciplinary studies..........................................................................
Biological and physical sciences..............................................................
Engineering and other disciplines............................................................
Humanities and social sciences................................................................
Women’s studies.........................................................................................
Multi/interdisciplinary studies, other..........................................................
Parks and recreation .......................................................................................
Parks and recreation, general ..................................................................
Outdoor recreation .....................................................................................
Parks and recreation management..........................................................
Water resources.........................................................................................
Parks and recreation, o th e r......................................................................
Philosophy and religion...................................................................................
Philosophy...................................................................................................
Religion.......................................................................................................
Philosophy and religion, o th e r..................................................................
Theology........................................... : ..............................................................
Bible studies...............................................................................................
Missionary studies.......................................................................................
Religious education.....................................................................................
Religious music...........................................................................................
Theological studies.....................................................................................
Theology, other...........................................................................................
Physical sciences.............................................................................................
Physical sciences, general........................................................................
Astronomy...................................................................................................
Atmospheric sciences and meteoroloy ...................................................
Chemistry.....................................................................................................
Geological sciences ...................................................................................
Miscellaneous physical sciences..............................................................
Physics.........................................................................................................
Physical sciences, other............................................................................

87

0

10,247
2,398
247
4,032
0
3,570
1,020
455
204
297
0
64
178
26
145
7
671
302
8
114
21
164
62
1,665
1,075
4
126
188
112
34
91
35

117
1
0
9
0
107
120
23
55
11
1
30
45
1
33
11
639
226
0
66
2
161
184
2
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0
62
1
0
0
4
57
2
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
51
27
0
0
4
18
2
23
0
0
0
0
0
23
0
0

30.00
30.01
30.03
30.04
30.07
30.99
31.00
31.01
31.02
31.03
31.04
31.99
38.00
38.01
38.02
38.99
39.00
39.02
39.03
39.04
39.05
39.06
39.99
40.00
40.01
40.02
40.04
40.05
40.06
40.07
40.08
40.99

See footnote at end of table.



184

0
2
0
81
4
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Table E-4. Continued— Associate degrees and other formal awards below the baccalaureate level granted in 1982-83

CIP
code1

Associate
degrees

Curriculum

Curriculums of
at least 1 but
less than
4 years
75
4
10
56
5

Curriculums
of under
1 year
1
1
0
0
0

41.00
41.01
41.02
41.03
41.99

Science technologies......................................................................................
Biological technologies..............................................................................
Nuclear technologies ................................................................................
Physical science technologies..................................................................
Science technologies, other......................................................................

1,438
140
396
548
354

42.00
42.01
42.02
42.06
42.16
42.99

Psychology.......................................................................................................
Psychology, general..................................................................................
Clinical psychology....................................................................................
Counseling psychology..............................................................................
Social psychology......................................................................................
Psychology, o th e r......................................................................................

973
930
0
3
22
18

10
0
6
0
0
4

0
0
0
0
0
0

43.00
43.01
43.02
43.0201
43.0203
43.99

Protective services...........................................................................................
Criminal justice...........................................................................................
Fire protection.............................................................................................
Fire control and safety technology.....................................................
Firefighting.............................................................................................
Protective services, other..........................................................................

12,989
10,733
2,139
1,409
471
117

1,674
1,419
229
147
54
26

1,018
795
191
43
146
32

44.00
44.01
44.02
44.04
44.05
44.06
44.07
44.99

Public affairs.....................................................................................................
Public affairs, general................................................................................
Community services..................................................................................
Public administration..................................................................................
Public policy studies..................................................................................
Public works ...............................................................................................
Social work .................................................................................................
Public affairs, other....................................................................................

2,683
313
535
95
19
51
969
701

284
68
19
10
0
10
94
83

51
12
7
16
0
1
14
1

45.00
45.01
45.02
45.03
45.04
45.05
45.06
45.07
45.08
45.09
45.10
45.11
45.12
45.99
46.00
46.01
46.0101
46.0102
46.02
46.03
46.04
46.05
46.99
47.00
47.01
47.0101
47.0102
47.0103
47.0104
47.0105
47.0106
47.0108
47.0109
47.02
47.03
47.0302

Social sciences.................................................................................................
Social sciences, general............................................................................
Anthropology...............................................................................................
Archeology...................................................................................................
Criminology.................................................................................................
Demography ...............................................................................................
Economics...................................................................................................
Geography...................................................................................................
H istory.........................................................................................................
International relations................................................................................
Political science and government ............................................................
Sociology.....................................................................................................
Urban studies .............................................................................................
Social sciences, other................................................................................
Construction trades .........................................................................................
Brickmasonry, stonemasonry, and tile setting.........................................
Brickmasonry, stonemasonry, and tile setting, general ..................
Brick, block, and stone masonry ........................................................
Carpentry.....................................................................................................
Electrical and power transmission installation .......................................
Miscellaneous construction trades............................................................
Plumbing, pipefitting, and steamfitting ...................................................
Construction trades, o th e r........................................................................

2,755
1,701
42
2
75
4
99
43
211
3
201
284
8
82
2,382
10
2
2
428
394
302
57
1,191
8,636
2,074
555
18
415
606
362
19
1
2
729
373
100

41
1
0
18
0
0
0
2
1
16
1
1
0
1
5,305
171
42
124
1,156
2,693
293
428
564

4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
599
110
76
34
133
113
37
68
138
2,380
917
92
6
184
452
57
50
0
0
182
43
12

Mechanics and repairers................................................................................
Electrical and electronics equipment re p a ir...........................................
Electrical and electronics equipment, general...................................
Business machine repair......................................................................
Communication electronics..................................................................
Computer electronics............................................................................
Industrial electronics............................................................................
Major appliance repair..........................................................................
Small appliance repair..........................................................................
Vending and recreational machine re p a ir.........................................
Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics.........................
Industrial equipment maintenance and repair.........................................
Heavy equipment maintenance and repair .......................................

See footnote at end of table.



185

13,805
2,740
1,203
46
498
341
303
104
13
17
2,024
809
257

Table E-4. Continued— Associate degrees and other formal awards below the baccalaureate level granted in 1982*83

Curriculums of
at least 1 but
less than
4 years
281
29
52
7,729
659
1,430
3,349
1,699
347
170
9,767
1,900
1,063
42
76
138
134
6,104
120
100
240
68

Curriculums
of under
1 year

CIP
code1

Curriculum

47.04
47.0406
47.05
47.06
47.0602
47.0603
47.0604
47.0605
47.0606
47.99
48.00
48.01
48.02
48.0205
48.0206
48.03
48.04
48.05
48.06
48.0602
48.07
48.99

Miscellaneous mechanics and repairers.................................................
Shoe and boot repair............................................................................
Stationary energy sources........................................................................
Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics and repairers.......................
Aircraft mechanics.................................................................................
Automotive body repair........................................................................
Automotive mechanics..........................................................................
Diesel engine mechanics ....................................................................
Small engine repair..............................................................................
Mechanics and repairers, o th e r................................................................
Precision production.........................................................................................
Drafting .......................................................................................................
Graphic and printing communications......................................................
Composition, make-up, and typesetting.............................................
Lithography, photography, and platemaking.....................................
Leatherworking and upholstering..............................................................
Precision food production..........................................................................
Precision metal work...................................................................................
Precision work, assorted materials ..........................................................
Jewelry design, fabrication, and repair .............................................
Woodworking...............................................................................................
Precision production, other........................................................................

125
4
9
5,015
1,528
331
1,875
748
34
311
8,570
3,372
3,101
19
221
-14
0
1,798
51
2
99
105

49.00
49.01
49.0101
49.0102
49.02
49.0205
49.03
49.99

Transportation and material m oving..............................................................
Air transportation.........................................................................................
Air transportation, general....................................................................
Airplane piloting and navigation..........................................................
Vehicle equipment operation....................................................................
Truck and bus driving..........................................................................
Water transportation...................................................................................
Transportation and material moving, other.............................................

1,600
1,245
242
395
64
63
195
96

634
291
63
148
219
112
103
21

742
18
0
18
704
602
6
14

50.00
50.01
50.02
50.03
50.04
50.05
50.06
50.0605
50.07
50.08
50.09
50.0901
50.0903
50.0904
50.99

Visual and performing arts..............................................................................
Visual and performing arts, general..........................................................
C rafts...........................................................................................................
Dance...........................................................................................................
D esign.........................................................................................................
Dramatic arts...............................................................................................
Film arts.......................................................................................................
Photography...........................................................................................
Fine arts.......................................................................................................
Graphic arts technology............................................................................
M usic...........................................................................................................
Music, general.......................................................................................
Music performance..............................................................................
Music theory and composition ............................................................
Visual and performing arts, other ............................................................

6,365
418
37
31
768
225
300
250
1,654
2,030
695
596
62
9
207

780
22
33
7
155
80
58
51
70
186
152
17
46
12
17

61
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
42
0
0
0
0
19

Associate
degrees

1CIP codes are the taxonomy used by the National Center for
Education Statistics to classify instructional programs. See A
Classification of Instructional Programs (U.S. Department of Educa­
tion, 1981).




17
2
13
1,200
37
172
521
372
64
8
1,731
268
95
0
0
69
180
1,034
83
83
2
0

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for
Education Statistics, Higher Education General Information Survery.

186

Table E-5. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred in institutions of higher education by field of study, 1982-83

01.00
01.01
01.02
01.03
01.04
01.05
01.06
01.07
01.99

Doctor’s
Bachelor’s
degrees Master’s degrees
Major field of study
requiring degrees (Ph.D., Ed.D.,
4 or 5 years
etc.)
969,504 289,921
32,775
All fields.............................................................................................................
5,757
833
196
Agribusiness and agricultural production....................................................................
4,102
166
666
Agricultural business and management................................................................
362
0
20
Agricultural mechanics.............................................................................................
134
39
6
Agricultural production.............................................................................................
4
7
3
Agricultural products and processing....................................................................
20
0
0
Agricultural services and supplies..........................................................................
23
8
308
Horticulture...............................................................................................................
16
20
0
International agriculture...........................................................................................
62
12
808
Agribusiness and agricultural production, other...................................................

02.00
02.01
02.02
02.03
02.04
02.0402
02.0409
02.05
02.99

Agricultural sciences.....................................................................................................
Agricultural sciences, general................................................................................
Animal sciences.......................................................................................................
Food sciences...........................................................................................................
Plant sciences...........................................................................................................
Agronomy.............................................................................................................
Range management...........................................................................................
Soil sciences.............................................................................................................
Agricultural sciences, oth er....................................................................................

10,270
1,681
4,111
637
3,197
1,020
194
264
380

2,265
297
584
276
922
386
76
144
42

745
7
195
103
347
203
19
67
26

03.00
03.01
03.02
03.03
03.04
03.05
03.06
03.99

Renewable natural resources.......................................................................................
Renewable natural resources, general..................................................................
Conservation and regulation ..................................................................................
Fishing and fisheries ...............................................................................................
Forestry production and processing......................................................................
Forestry and related sciences................................................................................
Wildlife management...............................................................................................
Renewable natural resources, o th er......................................................................

4,882
1,361
358
189
299
1,649
794
232

1,156
295
23
88
37
535
135
43

208
37
0
26
15
95
25
10

04.00
04.01
04.02
04.03
04.04
04.05
04.06
04.07
04.99
05.00
05.01
05.02
05.99
06.00
06.01
06.02
06.03
06.04
06.0402
06.05
06.06
06.07
06.08
06.09
06.10
06.11
06.12
06.13
06.1301
06.14
04.1401
06.15
06.16
06.17
06.18

Architecture and environmental design ......................................................................
Architecture and environmental design, general.................................................
Architecture...............................................................................................................
City, community, and regional planning................................................................
Environmental design...............................................................................................
Interior design...........................................................................................................
Landscape architecture...........................................................................................
Urban design ...........................................................................................................
Architecture and environmental design, o th e r.....................................................
Area and ethnic studies.................................................................................................
Area studies.............................................................................................................
Ethnic studies...........................................................................................................
Area and ethnic studies, other................................................................................
Business and management...........................................................................................
Business and management, general......................................................................
Accounting ...............................................................................................................
Banking and finance.................................................................................................
Business administration and management............................................................
Contract management and procurement/purchasing.....................................
Business economics.................................................................................................
Human resources development..............................................................................
Institutional management.........................................................................................
Insurance and risk management............................................................................
International business management......................................................................
Investments and securities.......................................................................................
Labor/industrial relations.........................................................................................
Management information systems..........................................................................
Management science...............................................................................................
Business statistics...............................................................................................
Marketing management and research....................................................................
Marketing management ....................................................................................
Organizational behavior...........................................................................................
Personnel management...........................................................................................
Real estate...............................................................................................................
Small business management and ownership........................................................

9,823
614
4,587
450
986
1,450
1,030
3
703
2,971
2,476
411
84
220,077
42,174
45,732
15,556
67,984
368
3,209
488
3,486
520
636
197
1,296
1,784
2,091
101
24,688
23,464
436
2,020
646
92

3,357
22
1,630
1,043
86
20
285
107
164

97
0
26
67
2
0
0
1
1

826
715
67
44
65,245
11,543
3,046
4,062
36,596
401
333
421
268
38
1,519
166
898
359
875
17
1,747
1,599
289
247
133
0

153
137
6
10
809
164
66
28
357
0
44
4
1
1
9
0
11
0
49
6
25
22
19
3
0
0

CIP
code1

See footnote at end of table.



187

Table E-5. Continued— Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred in institutions of higher education by field of study,
1982-83

Doctor’s
Bachelor’s
degrees Master’s
degrees
requiring degrees (Ph.D., Ed.D.,
4 or 5 years
etc.)
Taxation......................................................................................................................
967
0
0
622
32
Trade and industrial supervision and management..............................................
0
Business and management, other..........................................................................
1,706
28
6,420

CIP
code1

Major field of study

06.19
06.20
06.99
07.00
07.01
07.02
07.03
07.04
07.05
07.06
07.07
07.99

Business and office.......................................................................................................
Accounting, bookkeeping, and related programs..................................................
Banking and related financial programs................................................................
Business data processing and related programs........................................