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PrfS'S*-

Occupational Projections
and Training Data, 1980 Edition
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
September 1980
Bulletin 2052







Occupational Projections
and Training Data, 1980 Edition
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
September 1980
Bulletin 2052

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For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402







Preface

Projections of occupational employment and infor­
mation on occupational training are needed to plan
education and training programs and provide voca­
tional guidance. This bulletin presents general and
detailed information on the relationship between oc­
cupational requirements and training needs. It is a revi­
sion and update of Bulletin 2020 of the same title
published in 1979, and was prepared as part of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) program for develop­
ing and disseminating projections of economic and
employment data. The BLS revises its projections every
2 years. During the next revision, projections again will
be developed for 1990; the base year will be 1980.
This bulletin was prepared in the Division of Occupa­
tional Outlook under the general direction of Michael




m

Pilot. Patrick Wash supervised its preparation. The
data and information presented were collected, analyz­
ed, and prepared by Charles A. Byrne III, Conley Hall
Dillion, Jr., Lawrence C. Drake, Jr., Thomas Nardone,
and James V. Petrone. Jon Q. Sargent contributed the
discussion of job prospects for college graduates. The
employment projections and the information on train­
ing required for entry to individual occupations repre­
sent the work of economists who prepared the 1980-81
Occupational Outlook Handbook.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and may be reproduced without the permission of the
Federal Government. Please credit the Bureau of Labor
Statistics and cite Occupational Projections and Train­
ing Data, 1980 Edition, Bulletin 2052.

Contents

Page
Chapters:
1.
Introduction.........................................................
Uses in career guidance...............................................................................
Qualitative training inform ation...............................................................
Uses in planning and evaluating training programs...................................

1
1
2
2

2.

Occupational projections....................................................................................
Occupational profile..................................................................................
Job openings, 1978-90 ...............................................................................

4
5
7

3.

Occupational training..........................................................................................
Public vocational education.......................................................................
Private vocational education.....................................................................
Employer training......................................................................................
Apprenticeship program s...........................................................................
Federal employment and training programs..............................................
Armed F or ces training................................................................................
Home study schools....................................................................................
Community and junior colleges.................................................................
Colleges and universities.............................................................................

9
9
11
12
13
14
14
15
15
16

4.

Relating training to occupational needs.............................................................
The outlook for college graduates.............................................................
Industrial production and related occupations..........................................
Foundry occupations.........................................................................
Machining occupations.....................................................................
Printing occupations.........................................................................
Other industrial production and related occupations.......................
Office occupations......................................................................................
Clerical occupations...........................................................................
Computer and related occupations....................................................
Banking occupations.........................................................................
Insurance occupations.......................................................................
Administrative and related occupations..........................................
Service occupations....................................................................................
Cleaning and related occupations......................................................
Food service occupations...............................................
Personal service occupations.............................................................
Private household service occupations..............................................
Protective and related service occupations.......................................
Other service occupations.................................................................
Education and related occupations...........................................................
Teaching occupations.......................................................................
Library occupations...........................................................................
Sales occupations........................................................................................
Construction occupations...........................................................................
Occupations in transportation activities....................................................

18
18
23
23
23
24
25
29
29
31
32
33
34
37
37
37
38
39
40
41
42
42
43
44
47
50




IV

Contents—Continued
Page
Chapter 4—Continued
Air transportation occupations..........................................................
Merchant marine occupations............................................................
Railroad occupations.........................................................................
Driving occupations.......................
Scientific and technical occupations..........................................................
Conservation occupations.................................................................
Engineers............................................................................................
Environmental scientists...................................................................
Life science occupations...................................................................
Mathematics occupations.................................................................
Physical scientists...............................................................................
Other scientific and technical occupations......................................
Mechanics and repairers.............................................................................
Telephone craft occupations.....................
Other mechanics and repairers..........................................................
Health occupations.....................................................................................
Dental occupations.............................................................................
Medical practitioners........................................................................
Medical technologist, technician, and assistant occupations............
Nursing occupations.........................................................................
Therapy and rehabilitation occupations..........................................
Other health occupations...................................................................
Social scientists............................................................................................
Social service occupations...........................................................................
Counseling occupations.....................................................................
Other social service occupations........................................................
Performing arts, design, and communications occupations . . .................
Performing a rtis ts...............................................
Design occupations...........................................................................
Communications occupations............................................................
Charts:
1.
Construction and finance, insurance, and real estate industries differ substan­
tially in the kinds of workers they em ploy......................................................
2.
Through the 1980’s, over half of all workers will have white-collar jo b s ..........
3.
Many job openings are created by replacement needs
and employment growth................................
4.
Bachelor’s degrees earned increased rapidly during the 1960’s leveled off dur­
ing the 1970’s, and will remain on this plateau through 1990.........................
5.
Recent college graduates have been entering types of jobs graduates tradi­
tionally have not sought...................................................................................
6.
College graduates entering the labor force between 1978 and 1990 are expected
to exceed openings in jobs traditionally filled by graduates by 3.3 million . . .
Tables:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Projected change in employment and job openings, by major occupational
group, 1978-90 ................................................................................................
Examples of curriculums offering training for specific occupations.................
Enrollments in public vocational education, by level, fiscal years 1963-78 ___
Enrollments in public vocational education, by major vocational education
area, fiscal year 1978........................................................................................




v

50
51
51
53
54
54
55
55
56
58
58
60
61
61
62
65
65
66
68
70
70
72
73
76
76
76
77
77
78
79

4
5
g
19
20
21

6
10
10
11

Contents—Continued
P age

Tables—Continued
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Number and distribution of private, postsecondary, noncollegiate schools with
occupational programs, by type of school, 1977-78.......................................
Total number of private vocational programs and the distribution of programs
and students for selected private vocational education areas, 1977-78..........
Enrollments and completions in private, postsecondary, noncollegiate voca­
tional education programs by major vocational field, 1978 ...........................
Training status of registered apprentices in all trades, 1960-78..........................
Enrollments in 4-year institutions of higher education, and earned degrees, by
level, in the 50 States and the District of Columbia, 1965-66 to 1977-78 . . .

11
11
12
13
16

Appendixes:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.




Assumptions and methods used to preparethe employment projections...........
Detailed occupational projections.......................................................................
Detailed training statistics..............................................................................
State employment security agencies.....................................................................
Bibliography........................................................................................................

vi

81
83
92
115
119

Chapter I

Introduction

Each year, millions of people enroll in education and
training programs that hopefully will lead to a suc­
cessful career. At the same time, millions of job open­
ings occur due to business expansion and the need to
replace workers because of retirements, deaths, or
transfers. However, the number of available jobs in an
occupation often does not match the number of people
trained in that field. In some occupations, the number
of qualified applicants exceeds the number of openings,
while in others, a shortage of workers exists. Such im­
balances are costly to both the individual and the Na­
tion.
Eliminating such imbalances may be impossible,
especially in an economy where individuals are en­
couraged to make their own educational and career
choices. However, the use of occupational demand and
supply information in career guidance and education
planning can limit the difficulties. The National Com­
mission on Employment and Unemployment Statistics
noted this fact in its recent report: “ Data on employ­
ment conditions and job prospects by occupation are
crucial for wise investment of the billions of dollars
spent each year on specialized occupational, educa­
tion and training programs by federal, state and local
governments, by employers, and by trainees or their
families.” 1
This bulletin presents demand and supply informa­
tion for nearly 240 occupations. The remainder of this
chapter describes some of the uses of this information
for career guidance and training evaluation.
Uses In career guidance

Choosing a career is a difficult process. It begins with
individuals learning about their interests and abilities.
Focusing on occupations that suit those interests and
abilities and learning about the prospects for employ­
ment in those occupations comes next. Acquiring the
necessary training is the last step. This bulletin provides
information on employment prospects and training re­
quirements, information that is useful when selecting or
preparing for a career. (Other Bureau of Labor
Statistics publications also provide information for
career guidance. The Occupational Outlook Handbook

1 Counting the Labor Force (National Commission on Employment
and Unemployment Statistics, 1979) p. 106.



1

Bulletin 2075, 1980, describes the nature of the work
and presents information on training, outlook, and ear­
nings for several hundred occupations. Exploring
Careers, Bulletin 2001, 1979, helps intermediate grade
students bridge the gap between self-exploration and
career exploration.)
Prospects for employment are only one factor to con­
sider when choosing an occupation; however, it can be a
crucial one. If a person is considering several similar oc­
cupations, the best choice may be the one that offers the
best prospects for employment. Also, knowing that stiff
competition will exist for certain jobs allows individuals
to seek training that will give them a competitive advan­
tage. To guage accurately future prospects for employ­
ment, individuals need estimates of labor demand and
supply.
Information about the future demand for workers is
provided in this bulletin in two ways. Chapter 2
discusses the employment outlook for 11 broad groups
of occupations and provides an overview of the changes
expected in the occupational structure of the economy
during the 1980’s. It should be particularly useful to in­
dividuals or counselors who are not well acquainted
with the job market.
Chapter 4 contains detailed statistics of future de­
mand for nearly 240 occupations, including 1978
employment estimates, projected 1990 employment re­
quirements, percent change in employment between
1978 and 1990, and estimates of average annual open­
ings due to employment growth and replacement needs.
(The same information is presented in tabular form in
appendix B.) These data were developed during the
research for the 1980-81 Occupational Outlook Hand­
book, Individuals or counselors can use these data to
compare various occupations by size (current and pro­
jected), growth rate, and number of job openings and to
show the relative level of demand among occupations.
For example, the rate of change of employment in all
occupation can be compared with the average rate for
all occupations. Rates faster than the average generally
indicate occupations where demand conditions will be
favorable.
Users of these data should be aware that the projec­
tions represent the level of employment required to pro­
duce an amount of goods and services implied by the
Bureau’s projections of the economy to 1990. These
projections are based on certain assumptions. Some of

those requiring formal training—data on completions
and entry rates are limited, making accurate estimates
of supply impossible.
Several types of occupational supply information are
presented in this bulletin. Enrollment and completion
data from current training programs are given in
chapter 3. Chapter 4 presents a comprehensive supplydemand analysis for college graduates as a whole, and
for the occupations where supply data are adequate. In
addition, for each occupation covered in this publica­
tion, chapter 4 gives available data on completions of
related training programs. (The data are presented in
tabular form in appendix C.)

the assumptions are quantitative, such as the size of the
population and the labor force, and the rate of
unemployment. Others are qualitative, such as those
concerning the institutional framework of the American
economy; economic, social, technological, and scien­
tific trends; and the fiscal and monetary policies of the
government. (Appendix A presents assumptions and
methods used to develop the projections.) Some of the
assumptions that have significant effects on the projec­
tions, such as how energy needs of the United States will
be met in 1990, cannot be made with precision because
of the considerable uncertainty about the availability of
certain types of energy. The result will depend largely on
the policies of future administrations and the actions of
foreign governments. Variations between the assump­
tions used by BLS and actual events, of course, will
result in errors in the projections, and users are advised
to evaluate these assumptions in any use of these projections.
It should be noted that the estimates of average an­
nual openings do not include occupational transfers.
When workers change occupations, they create open­
ings in their old occupation and increase the supply of
workers in the new one. Research has shown that oc­
cupational transfers are a larger source of job openings
than economic growth and replacement needs com­
bined. As a result of the omission of occupational
transfers, the estimates of annual openings may
understate the demand among the various occupa­
tions—particularly in some occupations with a high
level of occupational transfers.
Estimates of future occupational demand comprise
only half the information needed to evaluate employ­
ment prospects. To get the complete picture, individuals
must know not only how many jobs will be available,
but also how many people will seek those jobs. For each
occupation, supply estimates should include (1) the
number of persons completing training specifically
designed to prepare them for work in that occupation,
(2) the number completing related training, (3) the pro­
portion completing training who will seek jobs in the oc­
cupation, (5) the number of persons currently not in the
labor force who are qualified and who will seek jobs, (6)
the number of immigrants who are qualified, and (7) the
effect that changes in relative wages may have on each
of the above categories.
The reliability of supply estimates varies among oc­
cupations. In general, the best data are available for oc­
cupations requiring specific training programs. The sup­
ply of physicians, for example, can be estimated with a
high degree of confidence. Entry is limited to graduates
of U.S. medical schools and qualified immigrants. And
virtually all graduates and qualified immigrants become
physicians. However, for many occupations—even




Qualitative training information

Choosing a course of training is a major step toward a
career. Training is available from a wide variety of
sources: Colleges and universities, junior and communi­
ty colleges, apprenticeship and other formal employer
training programs, correspondence schools, public and
private vocational schools, the Armed Forces, and
government employment training programs. Although
employers often prefer one form of training and some
occupations have rigid training requirements, several
types of training are acceptable for most occupations.
For example, unions recommend a 4-year appren­
ticeship for carpenters, but many workers learn the
trade informally on the job. Lack of money, time, or
geographic mobility can limit the training options
available to an individual. Knowing the alternatives,
however, enables individuals to balance the training re­
quirements of the job with their own circumstances.
Chapter 3 provides general descriptions of current oc­
cupational training programs. In addition, chapter 4
provides a brief discussion of the training required for
each occupation covered in this publication, giving both
the preferred and the alternate method where ap­
plicable.
Uses in planning and evaluating training programs

Education and training officials use occupational
supply and demand information in planning and
evaluating programs. In fact, Congress has specified in
legislation that government training programs and voca­
tional education should be planned on the basis of in­
formation on employment prospects. Because the data
in this bulletin reflect the national situation, it cannot be
the sole basis for State and local area planning. Never­
theless, persons responsible for evaluating training pro­
grams cannot ignore national projections in a Nation
where workers frequently move from one area to
another. Because of this mobility, the National Com­
mission on Employment and Unemployment Statistics
questioned the desirability of planning vocational

2

education solely on the basis of the job prospects in a
single community.2
To meet the need for local data, the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, in cooperation with the Employment and
Training Administration and State employment security
agencies, conducts the Occupational Employment
Statistics program. Under this program, occupational

projections are prepared by State agencies, using pro­
cedures developed by the BLS. Information on the
availability of data for individual States can be obtained
from the State agencies listed in appendix D.
Readers who desire more information on occupa­
tional training than this summary bulletin can provide
may wish to consult the bibliography in appendix E for
other sources. The bibliography also lists selected
sources of information on earnings and other data
related to occupations that may be helpful.

2Counting the Labor Force, p. 110.




3

Chapter 2. Occupational
Projections

Many factors interact in the economy to change
employment levels in occupations. Because total
employment in an occupation is determined by the de­
mand from all industries using workers with those par­
ticular skills, a key factor is change in the demand for
the goods and services produced by these industries.
Generally, a rise in the demand for an industry’s pro­
ducts will cause a rise in that industry’s employment,
and a drop in demand, a decline. The precise effects of
changes in industry employment upon occupational
employment will depend on the occupational structure
of the industries and on factors that alter the occupa­
tional structure, such as technological and business in­
novations.

As shown in chart 1, industries differ greatly in the
types of workers they employ. In 1978, for example,
craft workers constituted about 55 percent of the work
force of the construction industry, but only 2 percent in
finance, insurance, and real estate. Should the demand
for new houses and office buildings rise, the overall de­
mand for workers in the construction industry would
rise, and employment of craft workers also would in­
crease. In contrast, even if the demand for banking and
insurance services skyrocketed, employment of craft
workers would change little.
The introduction of a new technology can alter the
mix of workers employed by industries and affect the
level of employment in several occupations. The use of

Chart 1. Construction and finance, insurance, and real estate industries differ substantially in the
kinds of workers they employ

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.




4

automated machinery in a manufacturing industry can
decrease the need for machine operators while increas­
ing employment of maintenance mechanics. In many in­
dustries, the introduction of the computer gave birth to
an entire group of occupations—programmers, systems
analysts, and peripheral equipment operators. Yet this
change often decreased the need for inventory clerks,
bookkeepers, and other workers.
Changes in business organization and operation also
can alter the demand for workers. As more stores,
restaurants, motels, and other enterprises have become
chain operations, the number of salaried managers has
grown, while the number of self-employed managers
has declined. In another instance, the trend toward selfservice has slowed employment growth of retail clerks
and gas station attendants.
This chapter presents the BLS projections for major
occupational groups through the 1980’s. Information
on the general methodology and assumptions used by
the Bureau in developing its employment projections is
provided in appendix A. Projections for individual oc­
cupations are presented in appendix B. A detailed
discussion of the development of projections for the ag­
gregate economy and for employment projections by in­
dustry appears in Employment Projections for the




1980’s, Bulletin 2030.
Occupational profile
Customarily, occupations are divided into four broad
categories: (1) W hite-collar—professional and
technical, clerical, sales, and managerial jobs; (2) bluecollar—craft workers, operatives, and laborers; (3) ser­
vice workers; and (4) farm workers. Changes in employ­
ment among these groups have differed markedly, as
shown in chart 2. Once a small proportion of the total
employed, white-collar workers now represent about
one-half of the total. The number of service workers
also has risen rapidly, while the number of blue-collar
workers has increased at a slower rate, and the number
of farm workers has declined. The following sections
describe expected changes in employment among the
broad occupational groups between 1978 and 1990. (See
table 1.)
Professional and technical workers include a wide
range of workers, many of whom are highly trained.
Among this group are scientists and engineers, medical
practitioners, teachers, and accountants. Employment
in this group is expected to rise from 14.2 to 16.9 million
workers, or about 19 percent, between 1978 and 1990,
slightly less than the rate of growth expected for all oc­
cupations (20.7 percent).

5

Table 1.

Projected change in employment and job openings, by major occupational group, 1978-90

[Numbers in thousands]
Openings, 1978-90

1978
employment

Projected
1990
employment

Percent
change
1978-90

Total

Growth

Replacement1

T o ta l...........................................

94,373

114,000

20.8

66,400

19,600

46,800

White-collar w orkers..........................
Professional and
technical workers....................
Managers and
administrators, except farm. . .
Sales workers................................
Clerical workers............................

47,205

58,400

23.6

36,800

11,200

25,600

14,245

16,900

18.3

8,300

2,600

5,700

10,105
5,951
16,904

12,200
7,600
21,700

20.8
27.7
28.4

7,100
4,800
16,600

2,100
1,700
4,800

5,000
3,100
11,800

Blue-collar w orkers............................
Craft workers................................
Operatives, except transport___
Transport operatives...................
Nonfarm laborers........................

31,531
12,386
10,875
3,541
4,729

36,600
14,900
12,500
4,100
5,100

16.1
20.0
15.0
16.2
8.1

16,200
7,000
5,600
1,700
2,000

5,100
2,500
1,600
1,600
400

11,100
4,500
4,000
1,100
1,600

Service workers...................................
Private household workers.........
Other service workers.................

12,839
1,162
11,677

16,700
900
15,800

29.9
-23.2
35.2

12,200
500
11,700

3,800
-300
4,100

8,400
800
7,600

Farm workers.......................................

2,798

2,400

-15.9

1,300

-400

1,700

Occupational group

1Due to deaths, retirements, and other separations from the labor
force. Does not include occupational transfers.

NOTE:

Greater efforts in energy production, transportation,
and environmental protection will contribute to a grow­
ing demand for scientists, engineers, and technicians.
The medical professions can be expected to grow as the
health service industry expands. The demand for profes­
sional workers to develop and utilize computer
resources also is projected to grow rapidly.
Some occupations will offer less favorable job pros­
pects, in many cases because the supply of workers ex­
ceeds available openings. Teachers will continue to face
competition, as will artists, entertainers, airline pilots,
and oceanographers.
Managers and administrators include workers such as
bank officers and managers, buyers, credit managers,
and self-employed business operators. Employment is
expected to increase from 10.1 to 12.2 million workers,
or 21 percent.
Changes in business size and organizational structure
have resulted in differing trends for self-employed and
salaried managers. Opportunities for self-employed
managers will continue to decline as many areas of
business are increasingly dominated by large corpora­
tions and chain operations. On the other hand, the de­
mand for salaried managers will grow as firms increas­
ingly rely on management specialists in highly technical
areas of operation.
Clerical workers, the largest occupational group, in­
clude bank tellers, bookkeepers, cashiers, secretaries,
and typists. Between 1978 and 1990, clerical employ­
ment is projected to rise from 16.9 to 21.7 million, or
about 28 percent.




Detail may not add to totals because of rounding,

New developments in information processing equip­
ment will affect employment in various occupations
within this group. For example, the more extensive use
of computers to store information and for billing,
payroll, and other clerical calculations will limit
employment opportunities for file clerks and office
machine operators. At the same time, however, the need
for computer and peripheral equipment operators will
increase. Dictation machines, which have sharply re­
duced the need for stenographers, will continue to affect
adversely employment prospects in that occupation.
Technological innovations will not affect many types of
clerical workers whose jobs involve a high degree of per­
sonal contact. Substantial growth, for example, is an­
ticipated for secretaries and receptionists.
Sales workers are employed primarily in retail stores,
manufacturing and wholesale firms, insurance com­
panies, and real estate agencies. Employment in this
group is expected to increase from 6.0 to 7.6 million
workers, or 27 percent, which is a faster rate than for
total employment.
Much of the increase in the number of sales workers
will result from expansion in the retail trade industry,
which employs over one-half of these workers. The de­
mand for both full- and part-time sales workers in retail
trade will increase as a growing population creates de­
mand for more shopping centers and stores. Despite the
widespread use of laborsaving merchandising techni­
ques, such as self-service and computerized checkout
procedures, more stores and longer hours will cause
employment to increase.

6

Craft and kindred workers include a wide variety of
highly skilled workers, such as automobile mechanics,
carpenters, electricians, machinists, and tool-and-die
makers. Employment of craft workers is expected to in­
crease from 12.4 to 14.9 million, or about 20 percent.
Construction occupations and mechanics and
repairers, the two largest occupational categories within
the craft group, are expected to account for about twothirds of the group’s employment gain, and blue-collar
worker supervisors and metalcraft workers for most of
the remainder.
Employment in nearly all construction trades is ex­
pected to grow, but particularly large increases are an­
ticipated for heavy equipment operators, electricians,
plumbers, and pipefitters. Among mechanics and
repairers, employment will increase most among
workers who repair automobiles, computers and office
machines, appliances, and industrial machinery.
In contrast, the long-run employment decline in the
railroad industry will lead to the decline of some craft
occupations concentrated in that industry, such as
railroad and carshop repairers. Similarly, very little
growth is expected in printing craft occupations because
of advances in printing technology.
Operatives include production workers, such as
assemblers, production painters, and welders. Employ­
ment of operatives is expected to rise from 10.9 million
to 12.5 million workers, or about 15 percent.
Employment of operatives is tied closely to the pro­
duction of goods, because the majority of these workers
are employed in manufacturing industries. The pro­
jected slow growth of some manufacturing industries,
along with improved production processes, will hold
down the demand for many types of operatives.
Employment of some textile operatives, for example, is
expected to decline due to increasing use of machinery
in the textile industry.
Transport equipment operatives include workers who
drive buses, trucks, forklifts, and taxicabs. Employ­
ment of most transportation operatives will increase
slowly along with employment in the transportation in­
dustry as a whole. Some occupations such as switch
operators are expected to decline. Between 1978 and
1990, the number of transport operatives will rise from
3.5 to 4.1 million, an increase of 17 percent.
Laborers (except farm) include workers such as gar­
bage collectors, construction laborers, freight and stock
handlers, and vehicle washers and equipment cleaners.
Employment in this group is expected to grow only
slowly as machinery increasingly replaces manual labor
in construction and manutacturing, the two industries
employing most of these workers. For example, powerdriven equipment will handle more and more materials
in factories, warehouses, and on construction sites, and
more companies will install integrated systems to pro­
cess and convey materials and equipment. Over the 1978



to 1990 period, employment of laborers is expected to
rise from 4.7 to 5.1 million, or about 9 percent.
Private household service workers include house­
keepers, child care workers, and caretakers. The
employment of private household workers will decline
about 26 percent from 1.2 million to 890,000 workers.
Despite a rising demand for their services, low wages
and lack of advancement opportunities make these oc­
cupations unattractive to most people.
Service workers include a wide range of workers
—firefighters, janitors, cosmetologists, and bartenders
are a few examples. Employment of service workers has
increased more than any other occupational group in re­
cent years. Some of the factors that are expected to con­
tinue this increase are the rising demand for commercial
cleaning and protective services, and more frequent use
of restaurants, beauty salons, and leisure services as in­
comes rise. Between 1978 and 1990, employment of ser­
vice workers is expected to rise 35 percent, from 11.7
million to 15.8 million workers.
Farm workers include farmers and farm operators, as
well as farm laborers. Employment of these workers has
declined for decades as farm productivity has increased
due to the trend toward fewer but larger farms; the use
of more and better machinery; and the development of
new feeds, fertilizers, and pesticides. Between 1978 and
1990, the number of farm workers is expected to decline
from 2.8 million to 2.4 million workers, a drop of about
14 percent.
Job openings, 1978-90

Changes in employment growth represents only part
of the demand for workers in an occupation. The need
to replace workers who die, retire, temporarily leave the
labor force, or transfer to another occupation creates
many job openings. Between 1978 and 1990, replace­
ment needs resulting from deaths and retirements alone
are expected to be more than double the number of
openings resulting from increases in employment (chart
3). Although data are not available to estimate other
replacement needs, research findings indicate that oc­
cupational transfers and temporary labor force separa­
tions are a larger source of job openings than employ­
ment growth, deaths, and retirements combined.
The relationship of occupational transfers and
employment is complex and not completely understood.
However, research indicates that the number of
transfers varies inversely with the amount of training re­
quired in an occupation. Workers who have minimal
training—salesclerks, machine operators, and laborers,
for example—lose little by transferring to another oc­
cupation. For workers who have taken extensive train­
ing-physicians, engineers, and bank managers—
transferring means loss of the time and money spent on
their training. It also may mean a cut in pay.
7

Chart 3. Many job openings are created by replacement needs and employment growth
Job openings — 1978-90 (millions)
-2
0
2
4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

Professional and technical workers
Managers and administrators
Sales workers
Clerical workers
Craft workers
Operatives, except transport
Transport equipment operatives
Nonfarm laborers
Private household workers
Other service workers
Farm workers

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Growth

of job openings is a serious limitation. Research to im
prove data on occupational transfers is continuing.

Because the transfer of workers among occupations is
a major source of both job openings and new entrants,
the exclusion of occupational transfers from estimates




j Death and retirements

8

Chapter 3.
Training

Occupational

The potential supply of workers for any occupation
consists of persons currently employed in that field, plus
individuals from other sources. They may be graduates
of programs specifically designed to train workers for
the occupation, or graduates of training programs for
related fields. They may be persons who possess the
necessary qualifications but who are employed in other
occupations, unemployed, or not in the labor force.
They also may be persons who will immigrate.
To determine supply, one must know not only the
number of persons who would fall in each category, but
also the proportion who actually will seek jobs in the oc­
cupation. In general, far more data are available on the
number completing formal training programs than on
any other component of supply.3
The supply of physicians, for example, can be gauged
with some confidence. Entry is limited to graduates of
U.S. medical schools and qualified immigrants, and
virtually all graduates and qualified immigrants become
physicians. Therefore, only projections of medical
school graduates plus projections of qualified im­
migrants are needed to specify supply. Good data are
available on medical degrees granted in the past, and
M.D. degrees are projected through fairly reliable
methods. Good historical data on immigrant physicians
also are available on which to base projections.
There are several other occupations for which suffi­
cient data are available to specify future supply, but the
estimates must be used cautiously because some of the
components of supply are difficult to project. For ex­
ample, in engineering, the primary source of supply is
new graduates of engineering schools and historical data
on degrees granted are available on which to base degree
projections. Sufficient data also are available to develop
estimates of the proportion of new graduates who can
be expected to enter engineering. In the past, however, a
large number of workers also have entered engineering
from other sources, including new college graduates
with degrees in related fields such as mathematics and
the physical sciences, transfers from other occupations,

and immigrants. Prospective supply from these sources
can be projected based on past trends, but because the
number of entrants depends on the relative wages
among related occupations and the availability of jobs
in engineering versus related fields, accurately esti­
mating this component of supply is very difficult.
For many other occupations that require formal
training, adequate analyses of supply are impossible
because only limited data on training completions and
entry rates are available. Usually, these occupations can
be filled by workers from many different training pro­
grams, and a significant portion of training takes place
on the job. Among this group are many professional
and administrative fields, such as marketing and per­
sonnel work, and most skilled craft occupations, such as
carpenters and television and radio repairers.
Finally, there are many occupations for which com­
prehensive supply analyses are meaningless because, in
comparison to the number of job openings available,
many workers possess entry level skills. Examples of
these occupations are receptionist, retail clerk, and
assembler.
This chapter presents information on one component
of supply—structured training programs. It describes
current programs and highlights enrollment and com­
pletion data for each. Detailed estimates are presented
in appendix C. Training programs discussed are:
Public vocational education
Private vocational education
Employer training
Apprenticeship programs
Federal employment and training programs
Armed Forces training
Home study schools
Community and junior colleges
Colleges and universities
Public vocational education

Vocational education in the public schools originated
with the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917. Subsequent legisla­
tion included the George-Barden Act (1941), which
called for expanded occupational training and increased
expenditures for vocational education; the Vocational
Education Act of 1963, which provided for research and

3A detailed discussion of occupational supply is presented in
Occupational Supply: Concepts and Sources of Data for Manpower
Analysis, BLS Bulletin 1816 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1974).



9

construction for the first time; and the Vocational
Education Amendments of 1968, which added new pro­
grams and money while changing the philosophical em­
phasis of vocational education to focus on the needs of
individuals rather than on specific occupational areas.
The 1963 law and its 1968 amendments not only provid­
ed for increased enrollments and expenditures but im­
proved the quality and expanded the scope of vocational
programs. Further amendments in 1976 set up improved
data collection systems for vocational education.
Vocational education is conducted on three lev­
els—secondary, postsecondary, and adult vocational
and technical programs. Secondary vocational educa­
tion is provided to high school students as part of the
curriculum and includes academic as well as vocational
courses. Postsecondary vocational education is intended
for persons who have completed or left high school and
includes those who are enrolled in programs leading to
an associate or other degree below the baccalaureate.
Adult vocational and technical programs retrain as well
as update and improve skills of persons already in the
labor force.

585,000. Within the agricultural sector, agricultural
production enrolled nearly 530,000 students. (See ap­
pendix table C-7.)
Table 2. Examples of curriculums offering training for
specific occupations
Major vocational area

Occupational title

Distribution................... Floristry
Distributive services
Recreation and
tourism

Floral designer
Purchasing agent
Recreation director

Health............................ Dental assistant
Medical lab assisting
Occupational therapy

Dental assistant
Medical lab assistant
Occupational therapy
aide

Home economics........ Care and guidance of
children
Food management,
production, and
services

Child care attendant

O ffice............................ Peripheral equipment
operator
Secretaries
Quality control clerk

High-speed printer
operator
Legal secretary
Claim examiner

Technical...................... Commercial pilot
training
Electronic technology
Scientific data
processing

Types of training available. Originally, vocational
education emphasized agricultural, trade, and industrial
education. At present, it also includes areas such as
distribution, health, home economics, and office and
technical occupations. Other programs that are offered,
such as consumer and homemaking training and in­
dustrial arts, do not generally lead directly to an occupa­
tional skill. Special vocational programs for the disad­
vantaged and handicapped also are provided.
Curriculums generally prepare trainees for specific
occupations. Table 2 records examples of instructional
programs related to job titles in the Dictionary of Oc­
cupational Titles.

Commercial airplane
pilot
Electrical technician
Programmer,
engineering and
scientific

Cook

Trades and industry . . . Body and fender repair Automobile body
repairer
Aircraft operation
Flight engineer
Product design
Industrial designer
SOURCE: Vocational Education and Occupations, OE80061 (U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education; and
U.S. Department of Labor, Manpower Administration), July 1969.

Table 3. Enrollments in public vocational education, by level,
fiscal years 1963-78

Enrollments. Vocational education grew rapidly after
the Vocational Education Act of 1963, and further
growth took place after passage of the 1968 amend­
ments (table 3). Enrollments in federally aided
vocational-technical education programs in 1978 totaled
16.7 million persons, including 1.8 million disadvantag­
ed and nearly 355,000 handicapped. Of the major voca­
tional areas leading to an occupational skill, the largest
enrollments were in the office and trades and industry
groups, which enrolled 3.3 million and 3.4 million
students, respectively. Consumer and homemaking
vocational education enrolled 3.7 million students;
however, this type of training is unlikely to lead to gain­
ful employment (table 4).
Specific program enrollments varied from several
hundred to several hundred thousand with most of the
large groups in office occupations. For example, filing,
office machine, and clerical programs enrolled 720,000
students; secretarial programs, 700,000; accounting and
computing programs, 590,000; and typing programs,



Instructional program

Agriculture................... Agricultural mechanics Farm equipment
mechanic
Soil conservationists
Soil
Forestry aid
Forestry

Fiscal year

Total1

Secondary

Post­
secondary

Adult

1963 .............
1964 .............
1965 .............
1966 .............
1967 .............
1968 .............
1969 .............
1970 .............
1971.............
1972 .............
1973 .............
1974 .............
1975 .............
1976 .............
1977 .............
1978 .............

4,217,198
4,566,390
25,430,611
26,070,059
27,047,501
27,533,936
27,979,366
8,793,960
10,495,411
11,602,144
12,072,445
13,555,639
15,340,426
15,133,322
16,134,979
16,704,926

1,950,016
2,140,756
2,819,250
3,048,248
3,532,823
3,842,896
4,079,395
5,114,451
6,494,641
7,231,648
7,353,962
8,433,750
9,426,376
8,860,947
9,562,836
10,236,117

144,060
170,835
207,201
442,097
499,906
592,970
706,085
1,013,426
1,140,943
1,304,092
1,349,731
1,572,779
1,889,946
2,202,800
2,363,194
2,089,170

2,123,122
2,254,799
2,378,522
2,530,712
2,941,109
2,987,070
3,050,466
2,666,083
2,859,827
3,066,404
3,368,752
3,549,110
4,024,104
4,069,575
4,208,949
4,379,639

^ d u p lic a te d total.
includes enrollments in special needs programs as follows: 1965,
25,638; 1966, 49,002; 1967, 73,663; 1968,111,000; 1969,143,420.
SOURCE: Summary Data, Vocational Education, Fiscal Years 1963-78
(U.S. Department of Education, Bureau of Occupational and Adult
Education).

10

Table 4. Enrollments in public vocational education, by major
vocational education area, fiscal year 1978
Vocational education area

Number

Table 5. Number and distribution of private, postsecondary,
noncollegiate schools with occupational programs, by type of
schools, 1977-78

Percent
distribution

Number
of
schools

Percent

Total .......................................

6,813

100.0

Allied health.....................................
Arts/design.......................................
Business/office................................
Cosmetology/barber......................
Flight..................................................
Hospital............................................
Technical institute............................
Trade..................................................
Vocational/technical......................
Other..................................................

241
246
1,245
2,163
1,059
770
92
702
102
193

3.5
3.6
18.3
31.7
15.5
11.3
1.4
10.3
1.5
2.8

Type of school
Total enrollment....................

17,598,619

100.0

Number of students1.................
Agribusiness.....................................
Distribution.........................................
Health ................................................
Home economics............................
Office..................................................
Technical ...........................................
Trades and industry..........................
Consumer and homemaking...........
Special programs2 ............................

16,704,926
1,006,542
962,009
758,808
459,590
3,312,475
527,681
3,402,722
3,659,441
3,509,351

5.7
5.5
4.3
2.6
18.8
3.0
19.3
20.8
19.9

1Unduplicated total.
includes prevocational, prepostsecondary, remedial, industrial arts,
volunteer firefighters, and other programs not elsewhere classified.
NOTE: Detail does not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Bureau of Occupational and
Adult Education.

NOTE: Detail does not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Educa­
tion Statistics.

Completions and placements. Of the nearly 2,225,000
persons completing programs during 1978, about
1,200,000, or 54 percent, were available for employ­
ment. Followup studies of graduates indicate that of
those available for employment or placement, 64.8 per­
cent were employed full time in the field in which they
trained or in a related field, 25.7 percent obtained other
employment, and 9.5 percent were unemployed. Of the
remaining 1,020,000 completing programs, about 24
percent were not available for placement (many con­
tinued their schooling), and 22 percent did not report or
their status was unknown.4

technology. Some programs—flight training, for exam­
ple—require considerable individual attention and
generally have low pupil/teacher ratios, while less
technically complex programs, such as real estate, can
accomodate large numbers of students. Data showing
the relative size of the 12 most popular programs during
1977-78 are shown in table 6.
Enrollments. Enrollments vary not only by program but
also by major field. Private vocational education
courses are classified into seven areas similar to those
used for public vocational education programs:
Agribusiness, marketing/distribution, health, home
economics, business/office, technical, and trades and
industry. In 1977-78, about 37 percent of all students in
private vocational education were in trades/industry
programs, another 23 percent were in business/office
training, and about 17 percent were in market­
ing/distribution programs (table 7).

Private vocational education

In 1978, the National Center for Education Statistics
(NCES) surveyed all private, postsecondary, and noncollegiate vocational schools (6,813) and recorded
1,043,000 enrollments in 175 different programs.
Although the distribution of schools varied significantly
by program area, cosmetology/barber schools,
b u sin e ss/o ffic e sch o o ls, and fligh t sch ools accounted

Table 6. Total number of private vocational programs and the
distribution of programs and students for selected private
vocational education areas, 1977-78

for about two-thirds of all schools (table 5).
Most private vocational schools enroll fewer than 100
students, although some of the largest have con­
siderably more. Large schools typically offer a variety
of programs in several vocational areas. Some business
schools, for example, offer shorthand, typing, stenog­
raphy, and fundamentals of accounting and computer
operations, while many trade schools offer courses
ranging from air-conditioning installation and repair to
welding and cutting operations. On the other hand,
small schools generally specialize in a single type of pro­
gram, such as commercial pilot training or radiologic

Percent
distribution
of total programs

Percent
distribution
of students

Total.........

14,600

100

100

_
Cosmetology_
Commercial pilot
Secretary...........
Accounting.........
General office . . .
Data processing
Nursing...............
X-ray technology
Apparel...............
Commercial a r t ..
Real estate.........
Autoworker.......

4Summary Data, Vocational Education, Fiscal Year 1978 (U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education,
Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education, Program Year 1978).



Total number
of programs
offered

2,354
2,255
1,957
793
536
527
423
398
317
268
222
221

16
15
13
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
2
2

14
7
9
3
2
5
6
1
3
2
14
3

Program

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
National Center for Education Statistics.

11

hours. Occasionally, employees are permitted to take
outside courses on company time or even to arrange for
extended educational leaves of absence.
Limited data indicate that companies use education
and training programs quite extensively. In a 1975
survey of firms with 500 or more employees, the Con­
ference Board5 found that of the 32 million employed,
4.3 million participated in “ in-house” company pro­
grams, and 1.25 million were in tuition-aid programs.
Although firms with fewer than 500 employees often do
not have the resources to develop “ in-house” programs,
tuition-aid programs are not uncommon among these
companies.
The lack of data on employer training hinders de­
tailed analysis of occupational training and supply,
however. The BLS, with the support of the Employment
and Training Administration (ETA), conducted a pilot
survey in 1970 to test the feasibility of collecting data on
occupational training in selected industries, and to
determine the best method of collecting such data.6 The
results encouraged the Bureau, with further support
from the ETA, to conduct a nationwide, full-scale mail
survey of employer training in nearly 5,000
establishments in 1975 and early 1976. The resulting
report, published in 1977, describes the characteristics
of occupational training provided by employers in 14
selected occupations in four metalworking industries.7
Although narrow in scope, the study presents
characteristics of training programs never before
documented, along with enrollment and completion
data. Some highlights from the BLS/ETA training
survey follow:

Completions. Nearly 285,000 completions were
reported from private vocational educational programs
during 1977-78. Trades/industry programs had the
greatest number of completions while marketing/distribution programs had the highest percent of comple­
tions. Business/office programs had the lowest comple­
tion rate. (See table 7 and appendix table C-8 for further
detail.)
Table 7. Enrollments and completions in private, post­
secondary, noncollegiate vocational education programs, by
major vocational field, 1978
[Numbers in thousands]
Major field

Enrollments Completions

Percent
completions

All programs...............

451.1

284.0

63

Agribusiness........................
Marketing/distribution.......
Health.....................................
Home economics.................
Business/office..................
Technical...............................
Trades/industry..................

.7
78.0
70.2
1.0
101.9
32.1
167.3

.5
63.4
38.5
.5
48.2
20.2
112.6

76
81
55
54
47
63
67

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Educa­
tion Statistics.

Employer training

Many companies in private industry have developed
educational training programs to meet their various
business needs. Generally, these programs serve three
purposes: (1) To train new employees, (2) to improve
the performance of employees in their present jobs, and
(3) to prepare employees for new jobs and respon­
sibilities.
Training varies among occupations. Skilled and semi­
skilled occupations have three on-the-job training
paths—apprenticeship, structured on-the-job instruc­
tion, and learning by doing. Structured instruction may
range from scheduled training conducted by designated
instructors to periodic training from supervisors and
fellow employees. Unstructured training often involves
simple directions on how to perform a routine task on a
machine; further skills then are acquired or developed at
the employee’s initiative.
White-collar employees also may receive structured
training. In larger companies, structured training usual­
ly consists of “ in-house” programs that offer courses
either during or after working hours. These courses nor­
mally are designed to meet specific company needs and
often are offered by professional associations. In the
banking industry, for example, the American Institute
of Banking offers programs in 12 areas of banking, such
as trusts, commercial lending, and bank marketing.
In addition, companies may allow employees to enroll
in college or university courses. For example, under the
tuition-aid program, employees may be partially or fully
reimbursed for job-related courses taken after working



1. Only 15 percent of all establishments in the four
metalworking industries selected provided struc­
tured occupational training in the 14 occupa­
tions studied.
2.

Establishments with 1,000 employees or more ac­
counted for 44 percent of all enrollments in struc­
tured training.

3.

About 71 percent of all structured training was
conducted to qualify employees for work in an
occupation whereas 29 percent was to improve
current job skills.

4.

More than two-thirds of all structured occupa­
tional training was provided on the job.

5Seymour Lusterman, Education in Industry, Report 719 (New
York, The Conference Board, Inc., 1977).
6“ The BLS Pilot Survey of Training in Industry,” Monthly Labor
Review, February 1974, pp. 26-32.
Occupational Training in Selected Metalworking Industries: A
Report on a Survey of Selected Occupations, 1974, BLS Bulletin
1976/ETA R&D Monograph 53 (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau
of Labor Statistics and Employment and Training Administration,
1977).

12

5.

6.

finance, apprenticeship programs.8 BAT provides
technical assistance and support to State apprenticeship
agencies and to employers and unions in establishing
and maintaining apprenticeship programs. In addition,
BAT maintains records of new registrations, comple­
tions, and cancellations of apprenticeships for each apprenticeable trade by State (table 8).
Of the 50,464 registered apprenticeship completions
in 1978, about 60 percent were in construction trades, 12
percent in metalworking, 2 percent in printing, 4 percent
in personal services, and the remaining 22 percent in
miscellaneous trades. (See appendix tables C-l and
C-4.) Since recording of apprentice data began in 1941,
over 1 million apprentices have completed training, and
apprenticeship training continues to be an important
source of skilled workers.
Although apprenticeship cancellations represent a
potential loss of highly trained workers, many dropouts
eventually become skilled craft workers through less
structured means. In many instances, particularly when
jobs are plentiful, apprentices drop their apprenticeship
in favor of earning a skilled worker’s wage immediately.
When the job market is depressed, however, they are
more likely to complete their apprenticeships.

Establishments provided training primarily
because they felt job skills could best be taught in
their own training programs and because
employees’ education or training was inadequate.
Employee interest in an occupation was the
primary factor used to select employees for train­
ing.

Apprenticeship programs

Training authorities generally recommend appren­
ticeship as the best way to acquire all-round proficiency
in a craft. Most apprenticeships range from 1 to 5 years,
depending upon the particular trade involved. The pro­
grams involve planned on-the-job training and ex­
perience, with instruction and required supervision,
combined with technical studies in subjects related to
the trade. Mastery of a particular trade requires: (1)
Learning the skills of the trade, (2) perfecting the use of
each specific skill, and (3) bringing each skill up to the
speed and accuracy required of the job.
Many apprenticeship programs have committees of
employers and local trade unions that interview ap­
plicants, review the apprentice’s progress, and deter­
mine when apprenticeship has been completed satisfac­
torily. Many programs are registered with Federal and
State apprenticeship agencies, but sponsors are not re­
quired to register their programs. No estimate is
available of the number of apprentices in programs that
are not registered.
The Department of Labor’s Bureau of Appren­
ticeship and Training (BAT) registers, but does not
Table 8.

8Apprentice Registration Actions, by Region and State (annual)
may be obtained from Division of Reporting Operations, Employ­
ment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor,
Washington, D.C. 20210. In addition, the annual Employment and
Training Report of the President contains a tabulation of tne training
status of registered apprentices.

Training status of registered apprentices in all trades, 1960-78
Apprentice actions during year
Year

In training at
end
of year

New registra­
tions and
reinstatements

Completions

Cancellations1

In training at
beginning
of year

1960.................................
1961.................................
1962.................................
1963.................................
1964.................................

172,161
161,128
155,649
158,887
163,318

54,100
49,482
55,590
57,204
59,960

31,727
28,457
25,918
26,029
25,744

33,406
26,414
26,434
26,744
27,001

161,128
155,649
158,887
163,318
170,533

1965.................................
1966.................................
1967.................................
1968.................................
1969.................................

170,533
183,955
207,511
2207,517
237,996

68,507
85,031
97,396
111,012
123,163

24,917
26,511
37,299
37,287
39,646

30,168
34,964
47,957
43,246
47,561

183,955
207,511
220,151
237,996
273,952

1970.................................
1971.................................
1972...............................
1973.................................
1974.................................

2269,626
2278,451
2247,840
2243,956
2280,965

108,779
78,535
103,527
133,258
112,830

45,102
42,071
53,059
43,580
46,454

53,610
43,104
56,750
49,860
56,292

279,693
274,024
264,122
283,774
291,049

1975.................................
1976.................................
1977.................................
1978.................................

2284,562
2265,647
253,993
263,660

83,018
88,418
107,897
131,139

45,765
49,447
54,347
50,464

55,338
49,650
44,957
54,111

266,477
254,968
262,586
290,224

includes voluntary quits, layoffs, discharges, out-of-State transfers,
upgrades within certain trades, and suspensions or interruptions for
military service.




13

Reflects changes or revisions in the reporting system from previous
year.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training.

Work Incentive (WIN) Program. The WIN Program
helps employable recipients of Aid to Families with
Dependent Children (AFDC) get and keep jobs. WIN,
created by 1967 amendments to the Social Security Act,
was significantly changed by 1971 amendments. The
revised program has been referred to as WIN II.
WIN, which is administered jointly by the Depart­
ment of Labor and the Department of Health and
Human Services through State employment services and
welfare agencies, provides job development services and
referrals and helps to provide employment, subsidizes
employment, and provides limited training and sup­
portive services, as needed.
After an interview to determine a person’s job poten­
tial and needs, an employability plan is started to iden­
tify the services and activities needed to get a job. WIN
tries to place people in unsubsidized jobs. Of the
1,013,247 persons registered during the 1978 fiscal year,
29 percent were placed in unsubsidized jobs and 19 per­
cent in work and training programs.

Federal employment and training programs

The Federal Government has conducted structured
employment and training programs since the enactment
of the Manpower Development and Training Act
(MDTA) of 1962. With the passage of the Comprehen­
sive Employment and Training Act (CETA) of 1973 and
the CETA amendments of 1978, programs were decen­
tralized. Although the Federal Government has retained
a few programs, such as the Work Incentive (WIN) Pro­
gram, most Federal employment and training funds
now are distributed to State and local governments,
along with the responsibility for planning and managing
these programs.
Comprehensive Employment and Training Act
(CETA). Under CETA, all States, cities, and counties,
with populations of 100,000 or more receive Federal
grants to run comprehensive employment and training
programs in their localities. Some smaller units and
rural areas also qualify for Federal allocations. In fiscal
year 1978, about 459 eligible units called prime sponsors
received funds to provide some of the services or to con­
tract with others. The amount each prime sponsor
receives is based upon its current population, unemploy­
ment rate, training needs, and number of economically
disadvantaged persons.
To receive Federal funds, every eligible sponsor must
submit a comprehensive plan describing its area, the ser­
vices to be provided, and persons to be served. To the
maximum extent feasible, employment and training ser­
vices, including the development of job opportunities
and placement in public service jobs, are provided for
unemployed, underemployed, and economically disad­
vantaged persons.
Every State and area that operates a comprehensive
employment development program must have a plan­
ning council whose members represent clients, labor,
business, education, community organizations, the
employment services, training agencies, and, where ap­
propriate, agriculture. The councils help governments
decide on the services needed and check on program
operations. Those prime sponsors operating programs
funded under Title VII (Private Sector Initiative Pro­
gram) must also have a private industry council (PIC).
In fiscal year 1978, CETA served about 2.6 million in­
dividuals, not counting nearly a million youth in sub­
sidized summer jobs. About 23 percent received
classroom training, 8 percent obtained on-the-job train­
ing, 47 percent were in public service employment, and
19 percent were provided work experience. The remain­
ing 3 percent received a variety of services designed to
improve their employability.
Of the 1,638,200 persons who left the various pro­
grams during the fiscal year, 40 percent entered un­
subsidized employment, 22 percent returned to school
or entered other training programs, and 38 percent
dropped out or were dismissed.



Job Corps. The Jop Corps assists youth between 16 and
21 years of age, mostly school dropouts, who have poor
educational records and who are “ economically disad­
vantaged,” to become more employable and produc­
tive. The program provides basic educational and voca­
tional skills as well as social skills and counseling,
medical, dental, and other support. The Job Corps dif­
fers from other Federal employment programs in that
centers provide residential living 24 hours a day, 7 days
a week. Centers vary in enrollment from 170 to 2,600
and serve men, women, or both; they may be urban or
rural.
At the beginning of the fiscal year ending September
30, 1978, 21,640 persons were enrolled in Job Corps
training programs in 66 centers in 32 States and Puerto
Rico. In addition, 48,880 new students were enrolled
later that fiscal year. Among the fields of training of­
fered were clerical-sales, services, forestry-farming,
food service, auto and machine repair, construction,
electrical appliance repair, industrial production,
transportation, and health occupations. Of the 70,520
students enrolled in fiscal year 1978, approximately
45,000 had left the progam by year’s end, of whom
about 26,700 were reported as completing the training.
During the same period, approximately 19,350 of those
completing the training were reported to be available for
placement. About 13,900 (72 percent) of those available
obtained job placements, with 6,350 being placed in
their chosen field. Most of the rest of those completing
training received school or military placement. Training
completions in specific fields are recorded in appendix
table C-l.
Armed Forces training

The Armed Forces are among the Nation’s largest
sources of training. Of the five categories of military

14

training programs—recruitment, specialized skill, of­
ficer acquisition, professional development, and
flight—the most important in numbers and influence is
specialized skill training. It provides military personnel
with skills for technical jobs, such as radio communica­
tion and aircraft engine repair, and for administrative
and service-related specialities, such as clerical work and
military police duty.
The impact of specialized skill training is clearly
reflected by the occupational distribution of the Armed
Forces. The number of enlisted personnel in each of the
nine major occupational groups on September 30, 1978,
was as follows:
Infantry, guncrews, and seamanship specialists.........
Electronic equipment repairers.......................................
Communications and intelligence specialists...............
Medical and dental specialists.........................................
Other technical and allied specialists............................
Functional support and administration........................
Electrical/mechanical equipment repairers.................
Craft w orkers.....................................................................
Service and supply handlers...............................................

Occupational Titles.9Although intended for use by high
school guidance counselors, the manual can also serve
as a useful tool for employees and vocational counselors
involved in job placement for veterans.
Home study schools

Home study (correspondence) schools provide many
individuals with an alternative means of education and
training. Courses vary in length, skill level, and degree
of specialization and emphasize vocational, academic,
or simply personal enrichment.
In 1978, about 3 million students were enrolled in
home study courses, according to the National Home
Study Council (NHSC). Of this number, 1.2 million
were enrolled in Federal Government and military pro­
grams and another 1.1 million took courses offered by
schools accredited by the National Home Study Coun­
cil. Most of the remaining home study students were
enrolled in programs offered by religious organizations,
colleges, and universities.
Information on home study is scarce. Few com­
prehensive studies have been completed that provide a
basis for a thorough analysis of past trends in
enrollments, completion rates, and the usefulness of
these courses in career development. But the limited in­
formation indicates that the demand for home study has
grown over the past decade and is expected to continue
because it is a convenient and relatively low-cost method
of obtaining new knowledge or skills.

260,087
165,408
150,135
79,837
37,234
266,511
356,072
70,677
160,760

This tabulation shows that the skills of enlisted per­
sonnel are concentrated in the mechanical and technical
areas. Thus, the military services are potentially a major
source of trained civilian workers in these fields. (See
appendix table C-6 for further detail.)
Although members of the Armed Forces acquire valu­
able skills during their military service, it is difficult to
determine from the Armed Forces listing the transferability of their skills to civilian life. An employer inter­
viewing a Navigation/Bombing Trainer and Flight
Simulator Specialist, for example, may never suspect
that the skills necessary for this service occupation are
closely related to those needed by electronics techni­
cians.
The Army, Navy, and Marine Corps, in concert with
the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, have estab­
lished registered apprenticeship programs for uni­
formed personnel. Only occupations that are com­
parable or identical to civilian occupations are regis­
tered. Individuals participating in a program record
their hours of training and work assignments in a log­
book that documents their service experience. The
logbook thus becomes proof of their progress in the ap­
prenticeship program and can be presented to an em­
ployer, labor union, or joint apprenticeship committee
when they apply for a job.
Most service personnel, however, are not in an ap­
prenticeship program. To aid in “ translating” military
job titles, the Department of Defense has compiled a
military-civilian job comparability manual. The Mili­
tary-Civilian Occupational Source Book relates military
jobs by service branch to their civilian counterparts as
identified in the Department of Labor’s Dictionary of



Community and junior colleges

Since the turn of the century, community and junior
colleges have become an integral part of the American
educational system. Originally, these schools served
primarily as an intermediate step for students between
high school and a 4-year college. Over the years,
however, providing vocational training for technical
and semiprofessional jobs has become equally impor­
tant.
By offering a wide variety of courses and programs,
community and junior colleges enable many students
from diverse backgrounds to obtain occupational and
educational training beyond high school. For students
interested in transferring to a 4-year college, many pro­
grams are designed to provide a general educational
background in the arts or sciences. Similarly, students
specilizing in a particular field may enroll in vocational
or occupational curriculums, such as dental hygiene,
data processing, or fire science management, which
typically last about 2 years and result in an associate
degree. According to the American Association of
Community and Junior Colleges, the number of schools
9Copies of the Source Book can be obtained from the Directorate
for Training and Education, Office of the Assistant Secretary of
Defense (Manpower, Reserve Affairs, and Logistics), The Pentagon,
Washington, D.C. 20301.

15

in operation grew about 24 percent between 1968 and
1978, and enrollments more than doubled from their
1968 level.
Each year, graduates of community and junior col­
leges add substantially to the supply of workers entering
the labor force. According to recent surveys,1 the
0
number of associate degrees and other awards granted
below the baccalaureate has increased tremendously
during the 1970’s. About 450,000 awards were granted
in the academic year 1977-78, an increase of 42 percent
over 1971-72. Awards in occupational curriculums,
constituting 62 percent of all awards granted in
1977-78, have risen the most in recent years. (Appendix
table C-5 provides occupational curriculum data only.)
Unfortunately, projections of degrees awarded below
the baccalaureate are not available. Because community
and junior colleges can quickly adjust their programs to
meet new employment situations and student interests,
radical changes in enrollments in particular curriculums
can and do take place in a short period of time. For this
reason, reliable degree projections based on past trends
and future expectations are difficult to make. Without
these projections, a critical component is missing for the
development of employment outlook for specific occu­
pations. Some information on future enrollments may
be obtained from State and local community and junior
college administrators.

Colleges and universities

Colleges and universities serve many purposes, in­
cluding providing individuals with specific occupational
training. A college education provides the necessary
background to enter fields such as engineering, law,
business, the humanities, and the natural sciences.
The length of a college education depends on the stu­
dent’s interests and career goals. Most students seek
employment after obtaining a bachelor’s degree, which
usually requires 4 years. Those who wish to qualify for
positions requiring more specialized knowledge often
continue their study. Master’s, doctorate, and profes­
sional degree programs require several additional years
of study after the bachelor’s degree. Occasionally, these
programs accept students after 2 or 3 years of
undergraduate work.
College and university enrollments increased steadily
during the 1950’s and 1960’s, but the rate of increase
slowed in the 1970’s (table 9). Although no single factor
was responsibile for this decline, the tight job market
for college graduates and the expectation it would con­
tinue surely influenced the decisions of many students.
Earned degrees are closely related to enrollments. The
number of degrees conferred by 4-year institutions has
In addition to collecting current data, the NCES annually develops
10-year projections of enrollments and degrees granted by curriculum
at the baccalaureate level and above. Projections, along with a discus­
sion of the projection methodology, are published by the NCES in
Projections of Education Statistics to 1986-87 (NCES 78-403).
Projections of total degrees over the 1978-90 period are presented in
the section of chapter 4 dealing with the outlook for college graduates,
and projections by field are presented in the individual occupations
discussed in chapter 4.
The Bureau of Health Manpower within the Health Resources Ad­
ministration, U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services, has collected training data on health manpower
and developed projections of completions of formal training pro­
grams for a number of health-related occupations. Several of these
projections are included in discussions of individual health occupa­
tions in chapter 4.

1 The Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) of the
0
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) provides annual data
on associate degrees and other awards below the baccalaureate, in­
cluding those granted by 4-year colleges. Generally, 2-year colleges
have awarded about 85 percent of these degrees. Unfortunately, only
some of the data collected by NCES can be used to estimate the
number of new graduates entering specific occupations because many
categories are too broad to allow for meaningful estimates. For exam­
ple, to estimate the number of 2-year graduates qualified to become
cosmetologists, the personal service technologies category would have
to be broken down into its more specific components which presently
cannot be done.

Table 9. Enrollments in 4-year institutions of higher education, and earned degrees, by level, in the 50 States and the District of
Columbia, 1965-66 to 1977-78
Earned degrees
Academic year
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78

..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................
..........................

Total
enrollments1
4,747,912
25,064,000
25,398,000
5,720,795
6,028,002
6,357,679
6,462,733
6,549,073
6,590,023
6,819,735
7,214,740
7,128,816
7,242,845

Bachelor’s

First
professional

Master’s

Doctor’s, except
first professional

520,923
558,852
632,758
729,071
792,656
839,730
887,273
922,362
945,776
922,933
925,746
928,228
930,201

30,124
31,695
33,939
35,114
34,578
37,946
43,411
50,018
53,816
55,916
62,649
64,780
66,964

140,548
157,707
176,749
193,756
208,291
230,509
251,633
263,371
277,033
292,450
311,771
318,241
312,816

18,237
20,617
23,089
26,188
29,866
32,107
33,363
34,777
33,816
34,083
34,064
33,244
32,156

1Fall of academic year.
2Estimated.




SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

16

increased throughout the 1960’s and 1970’s. During the
1977-78 academic year in the 50 States and the District
of Columbia, 930,000 persons earned bachelor’s
degrees, 67,000 earned first professional degrees,
313,000 earned master’s degrees, and 32,000 earned
doctorates.

lege major are substantially lower. This is especially true
at the bachelor’s degree level since many graduates enter
professional school, teaching, or occupations where a
college degree in any one of a number of fields may be
adequate preparation.
Comprehensive followup data on college students are
available from the American Council on Education
(ACE) surveys of college freshmen in 1961 and 1966.
The 1961 cohort included over 127,000 freshmen, of
whom a sample was resurveyed in 1966 and 1971. The
1966 cohort included 254,000 freshmen surveyed at col­
lege entry, of whom a sample of 60,000 was resurveyed
in 1971. In 1974, science and engineering students who
were freshmen in 1967 and 1968 also were resurveyed.
The surveys asked questions on high school and college
education, including major of bachelor’s and higher
degrees received, current employment and occupational
status, work activity, and type of employer. These
longitudinal data allow analysis of occupational entries
and career development over the decade after college en­
try. Numerous studies based on the ACE surveys have
been published, and the BLS has developed entry rates
for specific occupations from the survey data.
Additional followup studies of college students and
graduates are available from surveys conducted by col­
lege placement offices, professional societies, and other
organizations. Most of these data are limited to
graduates from a single institution or field.

Entry rates. Projections of degrees by curriculum play a
vital part in estimating employment prospects in specific
occupations. Because many graduates do not pursue
careers in their field of study, however, projections
alone do not provide an accurate estimate of future sup­
ply. For this reason, entry rates must be developed that
indicate the probability that a college graduate who ma­
jors in a particular subject area will enter a specific oc­
cupation. These entry rates are calculated from
followup studies conducted during or after training and
generally include data on field of study and intended or
current occupation.
Studies have shown that the proportion of graduates
of occupationally oriented programs who directly enter
related occupations tends to be very high, particularly if
training takes a number of years. For example, almost
100 percent of medical school graduates enter medicine
and about 85 percent of engineering school graduates
enter engineering. However, for many liberal arts
graduates, whose training is less occupationally
oriented, entry rates into occupations related to a col­




17

Chapter 4. Relating Training
to Occupational Needs

This chapter presents projections of job openings and
the training information that the Bureau has gathered or
developed as part of its occupational outlook program.
Nearly 240 individual occupations are discussed. For
each, a description of the ways workers are trained for
the job is presented, along with summary statistics on
1990 projected employment, percent growth over the
1978-90 period, and annual openings over this period
due to growth and replacement needs. For most occupa­
tions, replacement needs include openings due to
deaths, retirements, and other labor force separations,
but not those arising from transfers to other occupa­
tions. Transfers, however, account for a significant
number of job openings in many occupations, and
therefore estimates of average annual openings gen­
erally understate the actual number of jobs available.
Also included are the most recent data on the number
of persons completing training; a dash means that
statistics on training are not available. Data are for the
following time periods:

Public vocational education completions—fiscal year
1978
Private vocational education completions—fiscal year
1978
Apprenticeship completions in programs registered
with the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training
—calendar year 1978
Job Corps—fiscal year 1978
Junior college graduates—academic year 1977-78
College graduates—academic year 1977-78 and pro­
jected 1978-90 annual average (where available).
For occupations where sufficient data on supply are
available, a brief supply-demand analysis is presented.
Statistics on occupational requirements and training
also are presented in tabular form in appendixes B and
C.
A discussion of the overall outlook for college
graduates for the 1978-90 period and some of the major
implications of this outlook precedes the detailed oc­
cupational information.

The Outlook for College Graduates
Throughout most of the 1960’s, a college degree was
considered almost a guarantee of a good job. Overall,
there probably were more jobs for which employers
sought graduates than there were graduates to fill them.
Consequently, graduates generally had their pick of
jobs and almost all graduates found the jobs they
sought. Beginning about 1969, however, the job market
for college graduates changed dramatically. Profes­
sional and technical jobs grew more slowly in the
1970’s, and a smaller proportion of college graduates
entered the desirable jobs that graduates easily found in
the 1960’s. Less rapid growth during the 1970’s in the
education field and in many high-technology industries
contributed to this turnabout, for they employed many
college graduates. However, the principal reasons have
been the sharp increase in the number of bachelor’s
degrees granted (chart 4) and the higher proportion of
college students seeking jobs.
Approximately twice as many college graduates
entered the labor market annually, on average, between
1969 and 1978 as during the 1962-69 period. Because



job openings in the occupations that graduates tradi­
tionally sought have not been adequate, more and more
graduates have entered nontraditional areas. Chart 5
compares the kinds of jobs graduates entered between
1962 and 1969 and those entered between 1969 and
1978.
Of the roughly 575,000 graduates who entered the
labor force annually, on average, between 1962 and
1969, about 73 percent entered professional and
technical occupations. This group includes accountants,
engineers, doctors, lawyers, teachers, and other occupa­
tions for which a college degree usually is required.
About 17 percent entered managerial and administrative
occupations, another major occupational area generally
felt by graduates to be appropriate for their education
and abilities. Another 3 percent entered sales jobs, most
probably in the better paying sales jobs such as
securities sales workers and manuafacturers’ sales
representatives. Over 6 percent entered clerical, bluecollar, service, and farm occupations.
A different pattern emerged for the 1,150,000 college
18

Chart 4. Bachelor’s degrees earned increased rapidly during the 1960’s, leveled off during the
1970’s, and will remain on this plateau through 1990
Thousands of bachelor’s degrees

1,200

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1,000

800

600

400

200

Source: National Center for Education Statistics.

graduates who entered the labor force each year be­
tween 1969 and 1978. Although more graduates entered
professional and technical occupations than during the
1962-69 period, because many more graduates were
competing for available positions, a much smaller
percentage—only 46 percent—found professional and
technical jobs. About 20 percent entered managerial
jobs, and another 9 percent entered sales jobs. It is
estimated that about one-fourth of the graduates spilled
over into occupations not previously sought or filled by
college graduates. Most were clerical, blue-collar, ser­
vice, and farm occupations, but some were managerial
and sales occupations. Most of the increase in the pro­
portion entering managerial and sales jobs probably
represents upgrading which occurs as jobs become more
complex and, therefore, require people who have more
education. The great majority of graduates who took
clerical, service, and blue-collar jobs over the 1969-78
period, however, did not enter upgraded positions.
Graduates also have experienced higher rates of
unemployment than in the past. From early 1969 to
early 1978, the unemployment rate for all graduates in­
creased from less than 1 percent to 2.5 percent, and for



graduates 20 to 24 years old, from 2.4 to 6.1 percent.
Although some of this increase can be attributed to
generally poor economic conditions, the rise in the rate
of unemployment of college graduates reflects mostly
an increasing supply of graduates. Young graduates still
fared much better than young high school graduates,
however, who had an unemployment rate of 11.3 per­
cent in 1978. The difference in rates indicates, for the
most part, that graduates have been able to outbid
nongraduates for jobs.
Overall, about 1 out of 4 graduates who entered the
labor force between 1969 and 1978 had to take a job not
sought or filled by graduates in better times, or was un­
employed.
Increased competition for jobs also has adversely af­
fected earnings. Although average salaries of newly
hired graduates have risen since 1969, earnings of non­
graduates have risen more rapidly. As a result, on
average, the premium paid to college graduates has
declined, both because competition in fields traditional­
ly sought by graduates has kept salaries down and be­
cause relatively more graduates are in lower paying,
nontraditional fields.

19

Chart 5. Recent college graduates have been entering types of jobs graduates traditionally
have not sought

Percent of workers

College graduates entering the labor force through
the 1980’s are likely to face job market conditions very
similar to those faced by graduates during the 1970’s as
entrants continue to exceed openings in jobs traditional­
ly sought by graduates. As a result, about 1 graduate in
4 will have to enter a nontraditional occupation or face
unemployment.
It is estimated that about 13.5 million college
graduates will enter the labor force over the 1978-90
period, but only about 10.2 million job openings are ex­
pected to arise in traditional jobs for college graduates
(chart 6). About half of these projected openings are ex­
pected to result from growth in the kinds of jobs filled
by graduates in the past and from upgrading jobs, and
half from the need to replace graduates who retire, die,
or leave the labor force for other reasons.
Like college graduates in the 1970’s, future graduates
may be less likely to find jobs in the occupation of their
choice than graduates during the 1960’s. Many may be
unemployed or have to move from job to job to find
satisfying employment or compete with nongraduates
for the more desirable jobs not previously filled by
graduates. As in the past, college graduates will have an

The 1980’s are expected to be marked by
demographic and college enrollment trends that con­
trast sharply with those of the 1960’s and 1970’s. As the
trailing end of the population bulge representing the
post-World War II baby boom leave their teenage years
and move into their 20’s, the proportion of the popula­
tion between the ages of 18 and 21 will decline from 7.8
percent in 1978 to 6.0 percent in 1990. This is a reversal
of the trend of the last two decades when the proportion
of the population in the 18 to 21 age group continually
increased and college enrollments grew rapidly.
Although the proportion of the population in the typ­
ical age range for college attendance is expected to
decline during the 1980’s, college enrollments are not
projected to fall. The drop in the number of students
between 18 and 21 is expected to be offset by growth in
the number of older students in college. Persons bet­
ween 25 and 34 will increase from 15.5 percent of the
population in 1978 to nearly 17 percent in 1990, and a
greater proportion are expected to be students. Thus,
the number of bachelor’s degrees granted annually dur­
ing the 1980’s is projected to be slightly higher than at
present.



20

Chart 6. College graduates entering the labor force between 1978 and 1990 are expected to exceed
openings in jobs traditionally filled by graduates by 3.3 million.

M illions

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

13.5
New
entrants

10.2
Job
openings

Growth
5.4

Labor force separations
4.8

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

advantage over nongraduates, but, in some fields, they
may have to compete with junior and community col­
lege graduates who have learned job-related skills. In
addition, there are some jobs, such as high-paying sales
jobs, where proven sales ability may be valued more
highly than a 4-year degree. Graduates who are less well
prepared for the job market may be unable to make full
use of their skills, and thus may experience job
dissatisfaction. As in the 1970’s, however, most
graduates probably will find a job, and few should face
sustained unemployment.
Although the employment outlook for college gradu­
ates may not be promising, neither is it bleak. Job
satisfaction depends upon a number of factors that are
difficult to analyze. College graduates might be satisfied
in occupations not traditionally sought by graduates.
Persons without a college degree have filled many highpaying responsible jobs in the past, and graduates can
be expected to move into these in greater numbers.
Graduates who enter clerical, sales, and blue-collar jobs
and who prove their abilities on the job are likely to be
promoted. Therefore, some graduates who take jobs as
clerks should be able to move into administrative posi­




tions, and those in craft and service jobs are likely to
have an advantage in advancing within their organiza­
tion or in starting their own business.
Finding a job directly related to one’s college major
probably is not necessary for job satisfaction. One study
found that most liberal arts graduates—those whose
college majors were in fields such as English, history,
and psychology—generally were happy with jobs in
business administration.1 Business administration, like
1
many other jobs, permits graduates to use their writing,
analytical, and interpersonal skills. If graduates feel
they are using these skills, they are likely to be satisfied
with their jobs.
The study also found that a substantial proportion of
graduates in jobs they considered nonprofessional,

“Nancy L. Ochsner and Lewis C. Solomon, College Education and
Employment . . . . The Recent Graduates (Bethlehem, Pa., The CPC
Foundation, 1979). The study is a followup of a group of people
whose highest degree held was a bachelor’s degree: 1961 college
freshmen who were working full time between Nov. 1974 and Mar.
1975, and 1970 college freshmen who were working full time between
Nov. 1976 and Mar. 1977.

21

satisfied. Ideas about what constitutes an appropriate
job for graduates are changing. More and more grad­
uates views jobs as craft workers, farmers, and selfemployed retail store managers, which may in some
instances be associated with “ alternative life styles,”
as more desireable than the traditional jobs chosen by
graduates. This shift in attitudes eases the prob­




lems of underemployment and job dissatisfaction for
many college graduates.
It should be pointed out that the number of graduates
entering the labor force may be lower than that pro­
jected in this bulletin because a higher proportion of
high school graduates, aware of the plight of college
graduates, may decide not to attend a 4-year college.

22

Industrial Production and Related Occupations
education; however, most employers prefer high school
graduates, and some require apprentices to have
graduated. For less skilled coremaking jobs, inex­
perienced workers may be hired and trained on the job.

Foundry occupations

Patternmakers. A 5-year apprenticeship is considered
the best way to learn this trade. Vocational school
courses in patternmaking, metalworking, and machin­
ing may be credited toward completion of the appren­
ticeship. Because of the precise skills needed, appren­
ticeships for wood and metal patternmaking are
separate. A high school diploma generally is required,
and courses in mechanical drawing, blueprint reading,
and shop mathematics are helpful.
Employment, 1978 ...............................................................
Projected employment, 1990.............................................
Percent growth, 1978-90....................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ................................
Growth............................................................................
Replacem ent.................................................................

66

J molders.
See

Machining occupations

All-round machinists. A 4-year apprenticeship is the
best way to learn the trade; however, some companies
have shorter training programs for machinists who
specialize in one type of product or machine. Many
machinists learn their skills on the job. Apprenticeship
programs combine on-the-job training with classroom
instruction in mathematics, physics, and machine shop
practices. Taking these courses in high school or voca­
tional school is good preparation. A high school
diploma is strongly recommended. Applicants should be
mechanically inclined and able to do precise work that
requires concentration as well as physical effort.

Molders. Completion of a 4-year apprenticeship is the
recommended way to learn skilled hand molding.
Workers who have this training also are preferred for
some kinds of machine molding. Some people learn
molding skills informally on the job, but this way of
learning the trade takes longer and is less reliable than
apprenticeship. In addition to on-the-job training, ap­
prenticeship programs include instruction in subjects
such as shop mathematics, metallurgy, and shop draw­
ing. An eighth grade education usually is the minimum
requirement for apprenticeship; however, many
employers prefer high school graduates. The less skilled
hand molding jobs can be learned by inexperienced
workers after 2 to 6 months of on-the-job training.
Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
R eplacem ent.............................................................

45

1,182

Instrument makers (mechanical). Many instrument
makers learn their trade through 4-year apprenticeships
that combine on-the-job training with classroom in­
struction in mathematics, physics, and machine shop
practices. Others advance from the ranks of machinists
or skilled machine tool operators and usually require
only 1 or 2 years of instrument shop experience to learn
the trade. Employers generally prefer high school
graduates, especially for apprenticeship programs.
Courses in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, science,
and machine shop work are useful.

includes some coremakers.

Coremakers. Completion of a 4-year apprenticeship is
the recommended way to learn skilled hand coremak­
ing. Workers with this training also are preferred for the
more difficult machine coremaking jobs. Appren­
ticeship programs combine on-the-job training with
classroom instruction in subjects such as shop
mathematics and the properties of metals. Applicants
for apprenticeships must have at least an eighth grade



484,000
584,000
20.7
22,500
8,000
14,500

Available training data:
Apprenticeship com p letion s.................................

21,000
22,100
5.2
500
100
400

Available training data:
Apprenticeship completions1...................................

12,000
12,600
5.2
350
50
300

Available training data:
Apprenticeship completions1 .................................

3,700
3,900
5.2
135
15
120

Available training data:
Apprenticeship com p letion s.....................................

Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth..........................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

Employment, 1978 .....................................................
Projected employment, 1990......................................
23

6,000
6,900

Percent change, 1 978-90....................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ................................
Growth...........................................................................
Replacem ent..................................................................
Available training d a ta ......................................................

17.1
300
100
200

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

Machine tool operators. These workers are classified as
either semiskilled or skilled operators. Most are trained
on the job. Just a few months of experience are required
for most semiskilled operators to learn their trade, but 1
to 2 years of experience often are required for a person
to become a skilled operator. Some opertors receive
training in vocational schools and apprenticeship pro­
grams that combine on-the-job experience with
classroom instruction. Manufacturers of machine tools
also give short courses to operators. A high school
diploma is not required, but courses in mathematics and
blueprint reading are helpful. Employers look for
workers who have physical stamina and mechanical ap­
titude, or experience working with machinery.

Compositors. Some compositors learn their trade
through apprenticeships, which generally require 4 years
of on-the-job training supplemented by classroom in­
struction or correspondence courses. Applicants for ap­
prenticeships usually must be high school graduates.
Most compositors, however, learn their trade on the
job by working as helpers for several years; others com­
bine trade school and helper experience. Many technical
institutes, junior colleges, and colleges offer courses in
printing technology which provide a valuable back­
ground for people who want to be compositors.

3,437
95

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Decline.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

Setup workers (machine tools). Setup workers usually
must be qualified as all-round machinists. They have to
know how to operate more than one type of machine
tool and be able to plan the sequence of a machining
operation so that metal parts will be made according to
specifications. Being able to communicate clearly is im­
portant because setup workers must explain the machin­
ing operations that they set up to the semiskilled
workers who will perform the work.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

Public vocational education completions1.........
Apprenticeship com p letion s................................

26,920
108

1
Includes completions for bookbinders, composing room
occupations, lithographic occupations, press operators, and
miscellaneous printing occupations.

146

Lithographers. Although most lithographers learn their
trade on the job by helping experienced lithographers,
employers recommend a 4- or 5-year apprenticeship
program which combines on-the-job training with
classroom instruction. Apprenticeship programs may
emphasize a specific craft, such as camera operator or
platemaker, although an attempt is made to introduce
an apprentice to all lithographic operations. Applicants
for apprenticeships usually must be high school
graduates.
Two-year programs in printing technology, which
many technical institutes, junior colleges, and colleges
offer, provide a valuable background for people who
want to be lithographers. High school and vocational

Tool-and-die makers. The best way to learn this trade is
through a 4- or 5-year apprenticeship, but many
workers learn in vocational school programs or on the
job. Several years of experience often are required after
completing an apprenticeship for more difficult tooland-die work. High school graduates are preferred for
apprenticeships. Applicants should have a good work­



181,000
158,000
-1 2 .8
3,900
-1 ,9 0 0
5,800

Available training data:

65,000
81,000
24.6
3,000
1,400
1,600

Available training data:
Apprenticeship com pletions...................................

2,396
73
1,236

Printing occupations

542,000
609,000
12.4
19,600
5,600
14,000

Available training:
Public vocational education
com pletions..........................................................
Job Corps com p letion s.........................................

170,000
210,000
23.5
8,600
3,300
5,300

Available training data:
Public vocational education co m p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Apprenticeship com p letion s................................

—

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

ing knowledge of mathematics and physics, as well as
considerable mechanical ability, finger dexterity, and
aptitude for precise work.

24

school courses in printing, photography, mathematics,
chemistry, and art also are useful. Useful skills also can
be learned in the Armed Forces.

Job Corps com p letio n s.........................................
Apprenticeship com p letion s................................

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

28,000
45,000
61.1
2,300
1,400
900

Available training data:
Public vocational education completions1...........
Armed F orces............................................................
Apprenticeship completions2..................................

—
1,900
169

Bookbinders and bindery workers. A 4- or 5-year ap­
prenticeship that combines on-the-job training with
related classroom instruction generally is the recom­
mended type of training for skilled bookbinders. Ap­
plicants for apprenticeships usually must be high school
graduates. Because bindery workers need not be as
skilled as bookbinders, they learn their trade through in­
formal on-the-job training that may last from several
months to 2 years.

‘See compositors.

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

Photoengravers. Most photoengravers learn their skills
through a 5-year apprenticeship program that combines
on-the-job training with classroom instruction. Ap­
plicants for apprenticeships usually must be high school
or vocational school graduates; courses in printing,
chemistry, and physics are useful.
8,000
7,500
-6 .3
150
-5 0
200

Available training data:
Public vocational education completions1.............

—

Other industrial production and related occupa­
tions

Assemblers. For most assembly work, inexperienced
persons can be trained on the job in a few days or
weeks, but for some types of complicated assembly
work, training lasts much longer. Employers look for
workers who can do routine work at a fast pace.
Although a high school diploma usually is not required,
vocational school courses, such as machine shop, may
be helpful, especially for the more highly skilled jobs.

Printing press operators and assistants. The recom­
mended way to learn the press operator’s trade is
through an apprenticeship program that combines onthe-job training with classroom or correspondence
school work. The apprenticeship program in commer­
cial printing shops lasts 2 years for press assistants and 4
years for press operators. Applicants for appren­
ticeships usually must be high school graduates.
Many workers learn their skills on the job by working
as helpers or press assistants, or through a combination
of work experience and training in vocational or
technical schools. High school or vocational school
courses in printing, physics, and chemistry are recom­
mended.

Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent growth, 1978-90 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
Growth...................................................................
R eplacem ent........................................................

1,164,000
1,662,000
43.0
77,000
42,000
35,000

Available training data:
Jobs Corps com pletions.....................................

308

Automobile painters. Most of these workers start as
helpers and acquire their skills informally on the job by
working for 3 to 4 years with experienced painters. A
small number learn through a 3-year apprenticeship. A
high school diploma usually is not required but may be
an advantage. Good color sense and the ability to do
precise work are helpful personal characteristics.

167,000
182,000
8.9
5,000
1,200
3,800

Available training data:
Public vocational education completions1



—
1
48

‘See compositors.

‘See compositors.

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

69,000
70,000
1.3
2,600
100
2,500

Available training data:
Public vocational education completions1...........
Job corps com pletions.............................................
Apprenticeship com pletions..................................

‘See compositors.
includes some photoengravers.

Employment, 1978 ..............................................................
Projected employment, 1990.............................................
Percent change, 1978-90....................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ................................
D ec lin e.........................................................................
Replacem ent.................................................................

321
204

Employment, 1978

25

42,000

Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-80..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................
Available training d a ta ....................................................

dustrial relations, mathematics, engineering, or science.
In addition, a growing number of workers are improv­
ing their skills in public vocational education courses.

54,000
27.2
2,000
1,000
1,000
—

Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent change, 1978-90 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
G rowth...................................................................
R eplacem ent........................................................
Available training data:
Public vocational education com pletions___

Blacksmiths. Many blacksmiths are trained on the job
while working as helpers in blacksmith shops or in­
dustrial firms that employ blacksmiths. Some enter
through 3- or 4-year apprenticeship programs that com­
bine on-the-job experience with classroom instruction in
subjects such as blueprint reading, forging methods,
metal properties, and heat-treatment of metal. Voca­
tional school or high school courses in metalworking
and blueprint reading also are helpful. A high school
diploma is not required.
Blacksmiths who shoe horses are called farriers. Most
farriers learn their craft by assisting experienced
workers. Others take a 3- or 4-week course in horseshoe­
ing before gaining experience on their own or as a far­
rier’s assistant. Several colleges and private schools
offer horseshoeing courses. At least 3 to 5 years of
special training or experience are needed to obtain the
skills necessary to shoe racehorses. Farriers who work at
racetracks must pass a licensing examination during
which they demonstrate their knowledge of corrective
shoeing techniques and proper choice of shoes tor
various track conditions.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90.................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
D ecline.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

37,000
56,000
46.2
3,100
1,600
1,500

Available training data:
Apprenticeship com p letion s...................................

—

277

Boiler tenders. Most boiler tenders learn their skills by
working as helpers or oilers in boilerrooms. High school
graduation usually is not required; however, courses in
mathematics, motor mechanics, chemistry, and
blueprint reading may be helpful. Stamina and en­
durance are necessary because boiler tenders are expos­
ed to noise, heat, fumes, and smoke on the job. Some
large cities and a few States require tenders to be licen­
sed. Applicants for a license must pass a written test.

Blue-collar worker supervisors. Most blue-collar super­
visors are high school graduates who have risen through
the ranks and learned their skills on the job. Rising
through the ranks gives supervisors the advantage of
knowing how the work should be done and what pro­
blems may arise. Supervisors sometimes are former
union representatives who are familiar with grievance
procedures and union contracts. To supplement work
experience, most employers provide either written
materials or classroom training covering subjects such
as communication skills, motivation, and management
decisionmaking.
Although fewer man one-tenth of all supervisors are
college graduates, a growing number of employers are
hiring supervisor trainees who have college
backgrounds. This is most prevalent in industries with
highly technical production processes, such as the
chemical, oil, and electronics industries. Employers
prefer backgrounds in business administration, in­



18,650

Boilermaking occupations. This group includes layout
workers, fitters, and boilermakers. Most layout workers
and fitters are hired as helpers and learn the craft by
working with experienced employees. It generally takes
about 2 years or more to become skilled at these jobs.
Although many boilermakers also learn their trade on
the job, most training authorities recommend a 4-year
apprenticeship. For all three occupations, employers
prefer high school or vocational school graduates who
have had courses in shop, mathematics, blueprint
reading, and welding. Due to the strenuous nature of
the jobs, most firms require applicants to pass a
physical examination.

11,000
7,000
-3 6 .4
300
-3 0 0
600

Available training d a ta ....................................................

1,671,000
1,925,000
16.0
69,000
21,000
48,000

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1 978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

71,000
71,000
0.0
2,800
o
2,800

Available training data......................................................

—

Electroplaters. Most electroplaters learn their trade on
the job, as helpers to experienced workers. Some learn
through a 3- or 4-year apprenticeship program that
26

combines on-the-job training with classroom instruc­
tion. Applicants for apprenticeships usually must be
high school graduates. A few people take 1- or 2-year
courses in electroplating that are offered by junior col­
leges, technical institutes, and vocational schools. High
school or vocational school courses in chemistry, elec­
tricity, physics, mathematics, and blueprint reading are
useful.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90.................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

Forge shop occupations. Most workers learn these
trades on the job. Generally, they start as helpers or
heaters on hammer or press crews and learn by watching
and assisting experienced workers. Thus, new workers
begin at the bottom of the ladder and advance to more
skilled occupations as they gain experience and as open­
ings occur. Some forge shops offer 4-year appren­
ticeship programs for skilled jobs, such as diesinker and
heat treater. These programs combine on-the-job ex­
perience with classroom instruction in metal properties,
power hammer and furnace operation, blueprint
reading, safety, and other machine shop subjects. High
school graduation generally is not required but may be
preferred for the more skilled occupations. Workers
need stamina and endurance to work in the heat and
noise of a forge shop, and strength to lift and move
heavy forgings and dies.

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

Inspectors (manufacturing). Inspectors generally learn
their skills on the job. Depending on the skill required
for the particular job, training may last from a few
hours to several months. Requirements for the job vary.
Some employers hire applicants who do not have a high
school diploma, but who have worked as an assembler
and are able to follow instructions and concentrate on
details. Good eyesight—with or without glasses—is
necessary.




528

Motion picture projectionists. Most motion picture
theaters in urban areas are unionized and projectionists
in these theaters must meet union membership re­
quirements. Some union locals accept only persons who
have experience running theater projectors. Other locals
conduct apprenticeship progams for inexperienced per­
sons. In these programs, apprentices work with a variety
of projection equipment under the supervision of ex­
perienced projectionists. They also may take courses in
basic electronics and mechanics. In a nonunion theater,
a trainee may start as an usher or helper and learn the
trade by working with an experienced projectionist.
A high school diploma is preferred by employers and
may be required by union locals. Experience with pro­
jectors gained while serving in the Armed Forces is
helpful. Local governments may require projectionists
to be licensed.

—

Employment, 1978 .................................................
Projected employment, 1990..................................

95,000
118,000
25.0
4,700
1,900
2,800

Available training data:
Apprenticeship com pletions................................

77,000
80,100
3.6
2,000
200
1,800

Available training data......................................................

—

Millwrights. Generally, these workers learn their skills
on the job. New employees may start as helpers to skill­
ed workers and rotate from job to job for 6 to 8 years.
Millwrights also are trained through 4-year appren­
ticeship programs that combine on-the-job training with
classroom instruction in blueprint reading,
mathematics, welding, and safety. On-the-job training
covers the use of hoisting equipment and the installa­
tion, assembly, and repair of industrial machinery.
Good physical condition is required. High school
courses in science, mathematics, mechanical drawing,
and machine shop are useful.

—

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978-90 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

18.0
35,000
11,500
23,500

Available training data....................................................

40,000
40,000
0.0
800
0
800

Available training data......................................................

Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978-90 .................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
D ecline.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

11,000
10,500
-4 .5
750
-5 0
800

Available training data,

Ophthalmic laboratory technicians. Most technicians
learn their skills on the job, but some learn through 3- to

771,000
909,000
27

Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

4-year apprenticeship programs that combine on-thejob training with classroom instruction. Some techni­
cians receive training in the Armed Forces. Others at­
tend community colleges or vocational or technical
schools, where they receive certificates, diplomas, or
associate degrees in programs varying in length from 9
months to 3 years. Employers prefer high school
graduates; applicants for apprenticeships usually must
be graduates. High school courses in the basic sciences
are useful. Some States require ophthalmic laboratory
technicians in retail optical shops to be licensed. Ap­
plicants for a license must pass an examination.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

Available training data....................................................

Production painters. New workers usually learn by
watching and helping experienced painters. Beginners
often start out assigned to loading and unloading the
conveyor lines that carry the items to be painted. Train­
ing may vary from a few days to several months. A high
school diploma is not required. Good physical condition
is necessary because painters must stand, stoop, and
bend in their work, and are exposed to fumes.

26,400
32,200
22.0
1,400
500
900

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s...........

24.0
14,200
8,000
6,000

577

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................
Available training data....................................................

Photographic laboratory occupations. Most photo­
graphic laboratory workers learn their skills through onthe-job training. High school graduates generally are
preferred by employers. Some trainees become
specialists in a particular laboratory procedure; training
time for one of these specialities ranges from a few
weeks to several months. Some trainees become all­
round technicians, learning their trade in about 3 years.
Completion of postsecondary courses in photographic
technology is useful for technicians who wish to become
supervisors or managers.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90.................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

7,960
866

*May include other photographic occupations.

Power truck operators. Newly hired operators usually
are trained on the job. Most workers can learn how to
operate a power truck in just a few days, but it may take
several weeks to learn the physical layout and operation
of a plant and the most efficient way of handling the
materials to be moved. Some power truck manufac­
turers conduct short training courses for operators
employed by their customers. A high school diploma is
not required.
Employment, 1978 .................................................
Projected employment, 1990..................................



—

Stationary engineers. Many stationary engineers start as
helpers or oilers and acquire their skills informally dur­
ing many years on the job. This experience can be sup­
plemented by technical or other training in vocational
schools or through home study. A good background
also can be obtained in the Navy or Merchant Marine.
Most training authorities, however, recommend com­
pletion of a 4-year apprenticeship as the best way to
learn this trade. These programs combine on-the-job
training with classroom instruction in practical
chemistry, blueprint reading, and other technical sub­
jects.
Employers prefer to hire high school graduates; high
school or vocational school courses in mathematics,
machine shop, mechanical drawing, chemistry, and
physics are an asset. Many States and large cities require
stationary engineers to be licensed. Each of the classes
of license specify the steam pressure or horsepower of
the equipment the engineer may operate. A high school
diploma may be required for higher class licenses.,
Generally, applicants must be at least 18, meet the ex ­
perience requirements for the class of license, and pass a
written examination.

57,000
68,000
20.0
2,700
900
1,800

Available training data:
Public vocational education completions1...........
Junior college graduates.........................................

133,000
158,000
19.0
5,200
2,100
3,100

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................
Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s.........
Apprenticeship com p letion s................................

363,000
458,000
28

179,000
186,000
4.0
7,700
600
7,100

3,639
315

Welders. There are several levels of skill within this oc­
cupation and the training time varies accordingly. Some
less-skilled jobs can be learned in a few months on the
job, but generally it takes several years of training and
experience to become a skilled welder. Many large com­
panies train their own welders, but for entry to skilled
jobs, many employers prefer to hire applicants who
have high school or vocational school training in
welding. Courses in shop mathematics, mechanical
drawing, blueprint reading, physics, and chemistry are
helpful. Before being assigned to work where the
strength of the weld is a highly critical factor, welders

may be required to pass a qualifying examination given
by an employer or government agency.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

679,000
907,000
33.6
35,000
19,000
16,000

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letio n s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Job Corps com p letio n s.........................................

51,772
4,357
1,827

Office Occupations
Clerical occupations

R eplacem ent........................................................
Available training data:
Job Corps com pletions.......................................

Bookkeeping workers. High school graduates who have
taken business arithmetic, bookkeeping, and basic ac­
counting meet the minimum requirements for most
bookkeeping jobs. Some employers prefer applicants
who have completed business courses at a junior college
or business school and have had some work experience.
General knowledge of how computers are used to per­
form bookkeeping transactions is very helpful, as is the
ability to type and use various office machines. In a few
States, a license is required to work on tax returns.
Cooperative work/study programs also can provide
high school students with an opportunity to learn book­
keeping skills through on-the-job experience.
Employment, 1978 .........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent growth, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
G rowth...................................................................

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

219

1,830,000




—

File clerks. Newly hired workers usually are given
several weeks or months of on-the-job training to learn
the employer’s filing system and procedures. A high
school diploma usually is required for beginning jobs,
but employers often consider an eagerness to work hard
and learn the job equally important. Most employers
seek applicants who can type and have some knowledge
of office practices. These and other office skills can be
learned in high schools, vocational schools, private
business schools, and community and junior colleges. In
addition, many States and localities sponsor programs
that furnish training in basic clerical skills, particularly
to prepare underemployed and low-skilled workers for
entry level jobs.

Cashiers. Many cashiers learn their skills on the job
under the supervision of an experienced cashier. In large
firms, training often includes classroom instruction in
the use of electronic or computerized cash registers and
other phases of the job. Cashier training also is
available in many public school vocational programs.
The cashier’s job may serve as a stepping stone to a
more responsible clerical position or to a supervisory or
managerial job.
Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent growth, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
G rowth...................................................................

78,000
95,000
21.8
4,600
1,400
3,200

Available training data......................................................

78,000

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletions.......................................

178

Collection workers. Newly hired workers are trained on
the job and learn chiefly by observing experienced
workers. A high school diploma generally is required.
Training also is available through the educational
branch of the American Collectors’ Association.
Business courses are good preparation, and the ability
to get along with all kinds of people is very important.

2,045,000
11.8
96,000
18,000

R ep la c e m e n t...........................................................

60,500

1,400,000
2,100,000
49.7
119,000
58,500

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................

29

273,000
335,000
22.6
16,500

Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................
Available training data:
Jobs Corps completions.........................................

pass an examination that tests clerical accuracv, and the
ability to read, do simple arithmetic, and memorize mail
sorting systems. Applicants also must pass a physical ex­
amination and may have to show that they can handle
mail sacks weighing up to 70 pounds.

5,100
11,400

209

Hotel front office clerks. High school graduation is the
usual requirement for front office jobs. Newly hired
workers usually begin as mail, information, or key
clerks and are trained on the job. Some clerks may need
additional training in data processing or office machine
operation. Most hotels fill front office jobs by promo­
tion from within, so that a key or mail clerk may be pro­
moted to room clerk, then to assistant front office
manager, and eventually to front office manager.
Clerks can improve their opportunities for promotion
by taking courses in hotel management offered by col­
leges, junior colleges, and vocational schools, or by tak­
ing home or group study courses, such as those offered
by the Educational Institute of the American Hotel and
Motel Association. College training is an asset for ad­
vancement to managerial jobs.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

77

Secretaries and stenographers. High school graduation
is the minimum educational requirement for practically
all secretarial and stenographic positions. Good spel­
ling, punctuation, and grammar are important skills.
Many employers prefer to hire applicants who have had
additional training at a public or private vocational
school or in college. These courses range in length from
several months’ instruction in shorthand and typing to
1- or 2-year programs that teach specialized skills, such
as legal or medical secretarial work. Employers gener­
ally test applicants to see that they meet minimum stan­
dards of typing and stenographic speed. Persons seeking
a job as a shorthand reporter should be able to
transcribe 225 words per minute.
Several States require court reporters to be Certified
Shorthand Reporters (CSR’s). Certification is ad­
ministered by a board of examiners in each State. The
National Shorthand Reporters Association confers the
designation Registered Professional Reporter (RPR)
upon individuals who pass a two-part examination and
participate in continuing education programs. This

160,000
202,000
26.2
9,700
3,500
6,200

—

!Fewer than 25.

Postal clerks. These workers are trained on the job. Ap­
plicants must be at least 18 except for high school
graduates, who must be at least 16. Applicants must



588,000
752,000
27.9
41,000
14,000
27,000

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letio n s.........................................

Office machine operators. These workers generally are
trained on the job; the amount of training varies with
the type of machine being operated. Training can range
from a few days for duplicating machine operators to
several months of training at a manufacturer’s school
for bookkeeping and billing machine operators.
Employers prefer to hire high school or business school
graduates and generally expect applicants to be able to
type and know how to operate adding machines and
calculators. A knowledge of business arithmetic also is
helpful. Many high schools, vocational schools, and
State and local training programs teach these skills.

Available training data:
Job Corps completions1.........................................

104

Receptionists. Receptionists are trained on the job and
usually can learn the proper office procedures in a
month. If operating a switchboard is part of the job,
this skill may take longer to learn. A high school
diploma generally is required and courses in English,
typing, elementary bookkeeping, and business practices
are helpful. A neat appearance, a pleasant voice, and an
even disposition are important. Some employers prefer
applicants who have had some college training. College
or business school training can help a receptionist ad­
vance to secretary or administrative assistant.

—

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1978-90 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

260,000
210,000
-1 9 .0
2,000
-4 ,0 0 0
6,000

Available training data:
Job Corps co m p letio n s.........................................

79,000
98,000
24.9
5,400
1,700
3,700

Available training data......................................................

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
D ecline.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

30

Available training data....................................................

designation, which is widely recognized as a mark of ex­
cellence in the field, can be substituted for the CSR in
some of the States that require it.
The mark of achievement in the secretarial field is the
designation Certified Professional Secretary (CPS),
which the National Secretaries Association awards to in­
dividuals who pass a series of examinations.
Currently, employers report a shortage of wellqualified secretaries. Employment prospects should be
very good, particularly for applicants with excellent typ­
ing and shorthand skills and experience in office work.
Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990 .....................................
Percent growth, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
Growth...................................................................
Replacem ent........................................................

Stock clerks. There are no specific educational re­
quirements for beginning stock clerks, although
employers prefer to hire high school graduates. The
ability to read and write well and a knowledge of
arithmetic are necessary; knowing how to type and file
is useful. Newly hired workers learn their skills on the
job and usually begin by counting and marking stock.
Basic duties usually are learned in a few weeks. Stock
clerks who handle jewelry, liquor, or drugs must be
bonded (which requires good character references).

3,684,000
5,357,000
45.4
305,000
138,000
167,000

Available training data:
Public vocational education com pletions----Private vocational education completions . . .
Job Corps com pletions.......................................
Junior college graduates...................................
Bachelor’s degrees in secretarial studies.........

170,167
17,991
171
23,132
1,830

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................
Replacem ent............................................................

Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent change, 1978-90 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
Growth...................................................................
R eplacem ent........................................................

144,077
700
1,600

Computer and related occupations

Statistical clerks. A high school diploma or its equi­
valent is required for most jobs as statistical clerks.
Newly hired workers are trained on the job and taught
their employers’ record systems and procedures. In
some instances, individuals are hired as general office
clerks before being promoted to statistical clerk. High
school courses in mathematics, data processing, book­
keeping, and typing are good preparation.




1,044,000
1,246,000
19.4
59,000
17,000
42,000

Available training data:
Public vocational education com pletions___
Private vocational education completions . . .
Job Corps com pletions.......................................

—

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

114

Typists. Employers generally prefer to hire high school
graduates who can type at least 50-60 words per minute.
Good spelling, punctuation, and grammar are impor­
tant skills. Most typists learn their skills in high school,
or take courses lasting several months at public or
private vocational schools. Community and junior col­
leges also offer the business courses needed for a typist
job.

461,000
567,000
23.0
22,000
8,800
13,200

Available training data....................................................

507,000
600,000
18.3
23,000
7,800
15,200

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letio n s.........................................

Shipping and receiving clerks. High school graduates
are preferred for beginning jobs in shipping and receiv­
ing departments. English, typing, business arithmetic,
and other high school or vocational school business sub­
jects are helpful. Newly hired workers are trained on the
job and often begin by filing, checking addresses, at­
taching labels, and verifying the contents of shipments.
Alter gaining experience, clerks may be assigned more
responsible tasks, such as dealing with damaged mer­
chandise.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1978 -9 0 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth...................
Replacem ent............................................................

—

Computer operating personnel. High school graduation
is the minimum educational requirement for computer
operating jobs such as keypunch operator, auxiliary
equipment operator, and console operator. Many
employers prefer console operators who have some
community or junior college education. Beginners
usually are trained on the job; the length of training
varies. Auxiliary equipment operators can learn their
jobs in a few weeks, but console operators require
several months of training before they are sufficiently
familiar with the equipment to be able to trace the
causes of breakdowns.
Formal computer training is desirable because most
employers look for applicants who already are skilled in

377,000
475,000
26.0
23,500
8,200
15,300

31

operating data entry equipment or computer consoles.
Many high schools, vocational schools, computer and
business schools, and community and junior colleges of­
fer computer training.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1978-90 .............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
D eclin e.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

11,519
627
278
5,652

includes training for keypunch and other input technologies, com­
puter operators and peripheral equipment operators, and general data
processing workers.

Programmers. There are no universal training re­
quirements for programmers because employers’ needs
vary. Most programmers are college graduates; others
have taken courses in programming to supplement their
experience. Firms that use computers for scientific or
engineering applications usually require programmers
to have a bachelor’s degree with a major in the physical
sciences, mathematics, engineering, or computer
science. Some of these jobs require a graduate degree.
Although some employers who use computers for
business applications do not require college degrees,
they prefer applicants who have had courses in data pro­
cessing, accounting, and business administration.
Public and private vocational schools, high schools,
community and junior colleges, and universities teach
computer programming. Instruction ranges from in­
troductory courses to advanced courses at the graduate
level. High schools in many parts of the country also of­
fer courses in computer programming.
An indication of experience and professional com­
petence at the senior programmer level is the Certificate
in Computer Programming (CCP), conferred by the In­
stitute of Certification of Computer Professionals upon
candidates who have passed a 5-part examination.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

3,038
196

Systems analysts. No one way of preparing for a job as
a systems analyst exists because employers’ preferences
depend on the type of work done in the firm. Generally,
however, a bachelor’s degree is the minimum educa­
tional requirement. For a job with a bank, insurance
company, or business firm, a college degree in accoun­
ting, business, or economics is appropriate. For work in
a scientific or technical organization, applicants need a
degree in the physical sciences, mathematics, engineer­
ing, or computer science. In addition to a bachelor’s
degree in a suitable field, some employers prefer ap­
plicants to have related work experience. Others require
a graduate degree. A growing number of employers seek
applicants who have a degree in computer science, in­
formation science, information systems, or data proces­
sing. Regardless of college major, most employers look
for people who are familiar with programming
languages. Courses in computer concepts, systems
analysis, and data base management systems offer good
preparation for a job in this field.
In addition, most employers prefer applicants who
have some experience in computer programming.
Because of the importance of programming experience,
many who begin as programmers are promoted to
analyst trainees. Employers, computer manufacturers,
and college and universities offer formal training in
systems analysis.
Because technological advances occur so rapidly in
the computer field, continuous study is required to keep
skills up to date. Usually employers and “ software”
vendors offer 1- and 2-week courses. Additional train­
ing may come from professional development seminars
offered by professional computing societies. An indica­
tion of experience and professional competence is the
Certificate in Data Processing (CDP), conferred by the
Institute for Certification of Computer Professionals
upon candidates who have completed 5-years’ ex­
perience and passed a 5-part examination.

666,000
665,000
-0 .2
12,500
-1 0 0
12,600

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Job Corp completions1...........................................
Junior college graduates1.......................................

Master’s degrees...............................................
Doctor’s degrees...............................................

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1 978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................
Available training data1..................................................

247,000
320,000
29.6
9,200
6,100
3,100

182,000
250,000
37.4
7,900
5,700
2,200
—

J programmers.
See

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Junior college grad u ates.......................................

11,165
4,776
3,368

Degrees in computer and information sciences:
Bachelor’s degrees...........................................

7,224




Banking occupations

Bank clerks. These workers are trained on the job and
generally learn their skills in just a few days or weeks. A
high school diploma is not absolutely required, but
32

definitely is preferred. High school or vocational school
courses in bookkeeping, typing, business arithmetic,
and office machine operation are useful.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

—

—

Insurance occupations

Actuaries. A bachelor’s degree with a major in
mathematics or statistics provides a good background
for a beginning job in a large life or casualty insurance
company; a degree in actuarial science is even better.
Some companies hire applicants who have an economics
or business administration major, provided they have a
thorough foundation in calculus, probability, and
statistics. Other useful courses are insurance law,
economics, and accounting. Although only 25 colleges
and universities offer a degree in actuarial science,
several hundred schools offer a degree in mathematics
or statistics.
It usually takes from 5 to 10 years after beginning an
actuarial career to complete the entire series of examina­
tions required for full professional status. Applicants
who pass the first two examinations while still in college
usually have an advantage in competing for actuarial
jobs upon graduation. The advanced examinations re­
quire extensive home study and on-the-job experience.

Bank officers and managers. These positions generally
are filled by hiring and promoting management
trainees, although outstanding bank clerks or tellers
may be promoted to trainee jobs and then to manage­
ment positions. A bachelor’s degree is the minimum
educational requirement for management trainees. A
major in banking and finance is useful, but liberal arts
graduates who have had courses in accounting,
economics, and statistics also are well qualified. Some
banks prefer to hire persons who have graduate degrees
for trainee positions; the most desirable degree is the
Master of Business Administration. Bank clerks and
tellers who are promoted to management trainee posi­
tions usually are not college graduates. Often, however,
they have taken home study courses in subjects related
to banking, such as finance and commercial credit, of­
fered by the American Bankers Association.
In-house training programs for bank officers general­
ly last from 6 months to 1 year. Trainees usually rotate
among all the departments in the bank and are en­
couraged to continue their education through courses
offered by local colleges and universities, or through the
American Bankers Association.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

410,000
455,000
11.0
17,000
4,000
13,000

Available training data....................................................

505,000
760,000
50.5
45,000
21,000
24,000

Available training data....................................................

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................
Available training data:
Degrees in business statistics:
Bachelor’s d eg rees...........................................
Master’s degrees...............................................
Doctor’s degrees1.............................................

330,000
510,000
54.5
28,000
15,000
13,000

9,000
12,000
32.4
500
250
250

291
164
—

Tewer than 25.

Available training data:
Degrees in banking and finance:
Bachelor’s d egrees.........................................
Master’s degrees.............................................
Doctor’s degrees.............................................

Claim representatives. A growing number of insurance
companies prefer to hire college graduates for positions
as claim representatives (examiners and adjusters).
Although courses in insurance, economics, or other
business subjects are helpful, a major in almost any
field is acceptable. An adjuster who has a business or
accounting major might specialize in handling claims
for losses due to business interruption or damage to
merchandise. Someone who has a degree in industrial
engineering might adjust industrial claims. College
training is not always necessary, however. Persons
experienced in automobile repair work might be hired as
auto adjusters, and those who have clerical work ex­
perience might get jobs as inside adjusters.

8,796
3,298
32

Bank tellers. These workers learn their skills on the job.
Generally, banks prefer to hire high school graduates
who have some experience in office work. Prior ex­
perience is important because employers look for ap­
plicants who have the maturity and tact to deal with
customers. High school courses in typing, mathematics,
and office machine operation are useful. Because tellers
handle large amounts of money, applicants must be
bonded (which requires good character references).



33

Administrative and related occupations

Newly hired claim representatives are trained on the
job under the supervision of an experienced worker.
The Insurance Institute of America offers a six-semester
program leading to a diploma in insurance loss and
claim adjusting upon successful completion of six ex­
aminations. Adjusters can prepare for these examina­
tions through home study or classroom courses.
The Life Office Management Association (LOMA),
in cooperation with the International Claim Associa­
tion, offers a claims education program for life and
health examiners. The program is part of the LOMA In­
stitute Insurance Education Program leading to the pro­
fessional designation, FLMI (Fellow, Life Management
Institute) upon successful completion of eight written
examinations.
About three-fourths of the States require adjusters to
be licensed. State licensing requirements vary, but ap­
plicants usually must complete an approved course in
insurance or loss adjusting and pass a written examina­
tion. They should be bonded (which requires good
character references) and be at least 20 years old.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 19 7 8 -9 0 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

169,000
237,000
40.5
10,250
5,600
4,650

Available training data....................................................

Accountants. Most large firms require applicants to
have a bachelor’s degree with a major in accounting.
Some prefer applicants who have a master’s degree in
accounting. Training in accounting also is available in
junior and community colleges, business schools, and
correspondence schools; however, job opportunities for
graduates of these 1- and 2-year programs usually are
limited to small accounting and business firms. A grow­
ing number of employers prefer applicants who are
familiar with computers and their applications in ac­
counting and internal auditing.
All States require certified public accountants
(CPA’s) to be certified by the State board of account­
ancy. Individuals receive this designation by passing the
CPA examination, which is prepared by the American
Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and meeting
the education and experience requirements of the State.
Other designations indicating professional competence
include certified internal auditor (CIA) and certified
management accountant (CMA).
College graduates will be in greater demand than ap­
plicants who lack this training. Experience in an accoun­
ting firm while in school helps in job placement after
graduation.

—

Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent growth, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
G rowth...................................................................
R eplacem ent........................................................
Available training data:
Junior college graduates.....................................

Underwriters. A bachelor’s degree is the minimum
educational requirement for beginning underwriting
jobs in most insurance companies. Applicants who have
degrees in business administration or liberal arts are
preferred, but college training in almost any field is ac­
ceptable. In some companies, high school graduates
who have experience as underwriting clerks are trained
as underwriters. Independent study programs, which
often are required for advancement in underwriting, are
available through the American Institute of Property
and Liability Underwriters, the American College of
Life Underwriters, the Academy of Life Underwriters,
the Health Insurance Association of America, and the
Life Office Management Association.
The following estimates represent combined data for
insurance agents, brokers, and underwriters:
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

12,135
Projected
1978-90

1977-78
Degrees in accounting:
Bachelor’s d eg rees___
Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........

(annual
average)

40,856
3,389
44

49,615
4,493
49

Buyers. Although many buyers have worked their way
from stockroom and sales positions, a college degree is
increasingly important and may be required in the
future. Many colleges, junior colleges, and business
schools offer 1- or 2-year programs in marketing and
purchasing. Generally, however, employers accept
graduates in any field and train them on the job.
Many stores have formal training programs for all
management trainees, including buyers. These pro­
grams last from 6 to 8 months and combine classroom

568,000
682,000
20.0
30,000
9,500
20,500

Available training data




985,000
1,275,000
29.4
61,000
24,000
37,000

34

instruction in merchandising and purchasing with short
rotations to various jobs and departments in the store.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

115,000
142,000
23.5
7,400
2,200
5,200

Available training data....................................................

hotel or restaurant management can be helpful, in part
because such programs also provide opportunities for
part-time or summer job experience and contacts with
prospective employers. Many employers prefer ap­
plicants who have completed a 4-year college curriculum
in hotel and restaurant administration. In 1979, about
50 such programs were offered. Others hire graduates of
the hotel training program offered by some junior col­
leges, technical institutes, and the Educational Institute
of the American Hotel and Motel Association. Some
large hotels have special management trainee programs
in which newly hired workers or persons promoted from
within rotate among various departments to acquire a
thorough knowledge of the hotel’s operation.

—

City managers. Although some individuals who have a
bachelor’s degree in public administration may find
employment as a city manager, a master’s degree in
public or business administration is becoming an essen­
tial qualification. Workers in this field usually begin as
a management assistant in a position such as ad­
ministrative assistant, department head assistant, or
assistant city manager. As they gain experience and ad­
ministrative skills, assistants may advance to more
responsible positions or to city manager jobs. Profes­
sional advancement usually involves relocating to city
manager jobs in progressively larger cities.
Employment, 1978 ..............................................................
Projected employment, 1990.............................................
Percent change, 1 978-90....................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ................................
Growth...........................................................................
Replacem ent.................................................................

—

Degrees in hotel and restau
rant management:
Junior college
graduates.................
Bachelor’s degrees . . .
Master’s degrees.........

—

Hotel managers and assistants. Although experience
and management ability are the most important con­
siderations in selected hotel managers, employers in­
creasingly prefer college graduates. Formal training in



2,149
1,696
150

P rojected
1978-90
(annual
average)

—
1,827
70

Lawyers. In all States, admission to the bar is required
before an individual can practice law. To qualify for the
bar examination, applicants generally must complete 4
years of college followed by 3 years of law school. Four
years of study usually are required to complete a night
school law curriculum.
Although formal training takes place in law school,
the courses one selects as an undergraduate are impor­
tant because there is no “ prelaw major.” Students
should choose courses that develop and expand their
reading, writing, verbal, and analytical skills. College
majors in the social sciences, natural sciences, or
humanities are particularly suitable. Competition for
admission to law school is intense, and as is true for
other professional schools, law schools vary widely in
quality and reputation. Graduates will find that their
standing in the graduating class and the stature of the
school they attended are important to prospective
employers.
Despite strong employment growth among lawyers,
the sizable number of law school graduates entering the
job market each year has created keen competition for

49,000
56,000
14.3
2,200
600
1,600

Available training data......................................................

3,495

1977-78

Credit managers. A bachelor’s degree usually is re­
quired for beginning jobs in credit management.
Employers generally prefer applicants who have majors
in business administration, economics, or accounting,
although some employers hire liberal arts graduates as
well. Experience may be substituted for the college
degree; some employers accept high school graduates
who have had experience in credit collection or in pro­
cessing credit information. Many formal training pro­
grams are available through the educational branches of
the associations that service the credit and finance
fields.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

168,000
193,000
14.9
8,900
2,100
6,800

Available training data:
Public vocational education co m p letion s.........

3,300
5,000
52.0
350
150
200

Available training data........................................................

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

35

salaried positions. While the number of graduates is ex­
pected to level off during the 1980’s, competition will
remain intense. The best prospects for establishing new
practices will be in small towns and expanding suburbs,
although this will remain a risky and expensive venture.
An increasing proportion of law graduates will enter ad­
ministrative and managerial positions for which legal
training is an asset but not normally a requirement.
Such jobs are available in banks, insurance firms, real
estate companies, government agencies, and other
organizations.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

Available training data:

Purchasing agents. A college degree is required for a
beginning position with a large company. Many com­
panies hire business administration, business manage­
ment, or liberal arts majors for trainee positions, but
firms that manufacture machinery or chemicals general­
ly prefer applicants who have a science or engineering
degree. A growing number of large companies look for
applicants who have a master’s degree in business ad­
ministration or management. Some small firms select
purchasing agents from their own staff and do not re­
quire a college degree.
Continuing education is essential for career advance­
ment. Purchasing agents are encouraged to participate
in seminars sponsored by professional societies and to
take courses in purchasing at local colleges and univer­
sities. The recognized mark of experience and profes­
sional competence in private industry is the designation
Certified Purchasing Manager (CPM), conferred by the
National Association of Purchasing Management upon
candidates who have passed four examinations and
meet educational and experience requirements. In
government agencies, the mark of professional com­
petence are the designations Professional Public Buyer
(PPB) and Certified Public Purchasing Officer (CPPO),
conferred by the National Institute of Governmental
Purchasing upon persons who have passed two ex­
aminations and meet educational and experience re­
quirements.

Projected
1978-90
(annual
average)

34,616

36,632

1
Includes all schools approved by the American Bar Association
(ABA), about 170, but excludes the overwhelming majority of schools
not approved by ABA, about 60.

Personnel and labor relations workers. A bachelor’s
degree is the minimum educational background for a
beginning job in personnel work—a field which includes
occupations such as recruiter, interviewer, job analyst,
position classifier, wage administrator, training
specialist, and em p loyee cou n selor. Som e em ployers
look for college graduates who have majored in person­
nel administration, public administration, business, or
economics, while others prefer applicants who have a
liberal arts background. Graduate study in industrial
relations, economics, business, or law usually is re­
quired for labor relations jobs. The combination of a
law degree plus a master’s in industrial relations is in­
creasingly desirable for people seeking to enter the small
and highly competitive labor relations field. Experience
is important, too, and some workers gain essential ex­
perience in personnel work and then switch to labor
relations. While at least 200 colleges and universities of­
fer programs leading to a bachelor’s degree in personnel
and labor relations, only 30 schools offer the master’s
degree in labor or industrial relations.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................



11,000

Available training data,

487,000
609,000
25.0
37,000
10,000
27,000

1977-78

Law school graduates1 ___

Replacem ent........

Employment, 1978............................................................
Projected employment, 1990 .........................................
Percent growth, 1978— ...............................................
90
Average annual openings, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

85,000
67,000
44.3
13,400
6,800
6,600

Available training data......................................................

Urban and regional planners. A master’s degree in plan­
ning is the usual requirement for jobs at the entry level.
There are some beginning jobs, however, for which a
bachelor’s degree in city planning, architecture, land­
scape architecture, engineering, or other closely related
fields is acceptable. A master’s degree is essential for ad­
vancement in most jobs.
Although employment of urban and regional plan­
ners is expected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s, persons seeking jobs as
urban or regional planners may face competition. In re­
cent years, qualified applicants have exceeded job open­
ings in planning, and the situation is expected to persist
unless fewer degrees are awarded through the 1980’s
than in recent years.

405,000
473,000
16.8
17,000
6,000

36

Employment, 1978 ...............
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

Available training data:
Degrees in city, community, and regional

17,000
22,000
30.0
800
450
350

planning:
Bachelor’s d eg rees...........................................
Master’s degrees................................................
Doctor’s degrees................................................

521
1,192
46

Service Occupations
Cleaning and related occupations

Pest controllers. Pest controllers are trained on the job.
Many large firms provide several weeks of training that
includes formal class work and closely supervised ex­
perience. Pest controllers may become certified by pass­
ing a State examination on the nature and safe use of
pesticides. Most States require pest control firms to
have at least one certified pest controller available for
consultation to noncertified workers.

Building custodians. Most building custodians are train­
ed on the job. A high school diploma is not required, as
a rule, but workers should know simple arithmetic and
read well enough to follow written instructions. High
school shop courses are helpful because minor plumbing
or carpentry may be part of the job. Training in
custodial skills is available through government training
programs, labor unions, and public and private voctional education programs.
Employment, 1978 ...................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent change, 1978-90 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
Growth.....................
R eplacem ent........................................................

2,251,000
2,744,000
24.8
180,000
41,000
139,000

Available training data:
Public vocational education com pletions___
Private vocational education completions . . .
Job Corps com pletions.......................................

Employment, 1978 ............................................................. 31,500
44,500
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
42.0
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
2,500
Growth.............................................................................
1,100
Replacem ent...................................................................
1,400

5,406
108
1,603

Available training data......................................................

Food service occupations

Bartenders. Most bartenders learn their trade on the
job. A high school diploma is not required. Experience
as a bartender’s helper, dining room attendant, waiter,
or waitress is good training. Some schools offer short
courses in bartending. Generally, bartenders must be at
least 21 years old; some employers prefer to hire persons
who are 25 or older. Some States require bartenders to
have health certificates assuring that they are free from
contagious diseases. In some instances, bartenders must
be bonded.

Hotel housekeepers and assistants. Employers prefer to
hire applicants who are high school graduates. Ex­
perience or training in hotel housekeeping also is helpful
in getting a job. Several colleges, junior colleges, and
technical institutes have programs in hotel administra­
tion that include courses in housekeeping. The Educa­
tional Institute of the American Hotel and Motel
Association offers courses for either classroom or home
study. The National Executive Housekeepers Associa­
tion certifies those who complete certain education and
experience requirements. Persons who have degrees in
institutional housekeeping management or who have
taken courses in this area may have the best op­
portunities to advance to executive housekeeper.
Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

Employment, 1978 ...........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1 9 7 8-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

282,000
369,000
30.9
21,600
7,300
14,300

Available training data....................................................

—

Cooks and chefs. Most cooks acquire their skills on the
job while employed as kitchen helpers, although it is
becoming common for cooks to have had high school or
post-high school vocational training in food prepara­
tion. Cooks and chefs may also be trained as appren­
tices under trade union contracts, professional associa­
tions, or employee training programs conducted by

20,000
29,000
49.9
2,000
800
1,200

Available training data



—

37

large hotels and restaurants. A high school diploma is
not required for most beginning jobs; however,
employers usually prefer high school graduates, and ap­
plicants for apprenticeship must be graduates. A few
private schools have 2- to 3-year training programs for
cooks and chefs. The Armed Forces also are a good
source of training and experience in food service. Per­
sons who wish to become chefs may find courses in
business administration helpful since chefs often are
responsible for directing the operation of their kitchens,
including purchasing supplies, planning menus, and
supervising other kitchen staff. Most States require
cooks and chefs to have health certificates showing that
they are free from contagious diseases.
Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent growth, 1978-90 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
G rowth...................................................................
R eplacem ent........................................................

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990......................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
D ecline.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

455,000
741,000
62.8
37,000
24,000
13,000
—

Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent growth, 1978-90 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
G rowth............................................. ; ...................
R eplacem ent........................................................




1,383,000
1,635,000
18.2
70,000
21,000
49,000

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletions.......................................

Food counter workers. Most counter workers learn their
skills on the job. For counter jobs that require totaling
bills and making change, employers prefer persons who
are good in arithmetic and have attended high school. A
diploma generally is not necessary. Managers of fastfood restaurants often hire high school students as parttime counter workers. State laws often require counter
workers to obtain health certificates showing that they
are free of contagious diseases.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

108
392

Waiters and waitresses. Although most waiters and
waitresses start as dining room attendants, carhops, or
food counter workers, or learn their skills on the job,
some attend training courses offered by public and
private vocational schools, restaurant associations, or
large restaurant chains. Employers generally prefer ap­
plicants who have had at least 2 or 3 years of high
school, and are good in arithmetic. Expensive
restaurants that take pride in the quality of service they
provide often hire only experienced waiters and
waitresses. Knowledge of a foreign language is helpful
in restaurants specializing in food of a foreign country.
State laws often require waiters and waitresses to obtain
health certificates showing that they are free of con­
tagious diseases.

Dining room attendants and dishwashers. These oc­
cupations can be learned on the job with very little for­
mal training. A high school diploma is not required, and
many employers will hire applicants who do not speak
English. State laws often require dining room atten­
dants and dishwashers to obtain health certificates
showing that they are free of contagious diseases.

Available training data....................................................

204,000
187,000
-8 .3
5,200
-1 ,4 0 0
6,600

Available training data:
Job Corps co m p letio n s.........................................
Apprenticeship com p letion s................................

1,955
86

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

77

Meatcutters. Although many learn their skills inform­
ally on the job, most meatcutters complete a 2-year ap­
prenticeship program. A few attend private schools
specializing in meatcutting. At the end of the training,
apprentices are given a meatcutting test which their
employers observe. Employers prefer high school
graduates. Some States require meatcutters to have
health certificates showing that they are free of con­
tagious diseases.

1,186,000
1,564,000
31.9
86,000
31,000
55,000

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletions.......................................
Apprenticeship completions..............................

Available training data:
Job Corps completions..................................

46

Personal service occupations

Barbers. All States require barbers to be licensed. To
obtain a license, applicants must have graduated from a
State-approved barber school and be at least 16 years
old (in some States 18). States have varying education
requirements—some require graduation from high
school, while others have no requirement at all. Many
States require a beginner to take an examination for an

463,000
648,000
39.9
34,000
15,000
19,000

38

apprentice license, and then, after 1 or 2 years of work,
take a second examination for a license as a registered
barber. Many public and private schools and a few
vocational schools offer barber training which usually
lasts 9 to 12 months. Because some States do not
recognize out-of-State training, apprenticeship work, or
licenses, persons who wish to become barbers should
review the laws of the State in which they wish to work
before entering barber school.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

121,000
140,000
15.7
9,700
1,600
8,100

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Job Corps completions1.........................................
Apprenticeship completions2................................

1,094
5,859
—
229

1
Fewer than 25.
2May include some beauticians.

Bellhops and bell captains. Bellhops are trained on the
job. Although a high school diploma is not required, it
improves chances for promotion to bell captain or to
front office clerk. Opportunities for advancement to
bell captain are limited, however.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90.................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
D ecline.........................................................................
Replacem ent.......................................................

20,000
19,000
- 5 .0
600
-1 0 0
700

Available training data......................................................

—

Cosmetologists. All States require cosmetologists to be
licensed. Most States require applicants for a license to
be at least 16 years old and pass a physical examination.
States have varying education requirements—some have
no requirement, while others require graduation from
high school. Successful completion of a State-approved
cosmetology course is appropriate preparation for tak­
ing a State licensing examination. In some States, com­
pletion of an apprenticeship program can substitute for
graduation from cosmetology school, but few
cosmetologists learn their skills this way. Both public
and private vocational schools offer training in
cosmetology. A daytime course usually takes 6 months
to 1 year; an evening course takes longer. An appren­
ticeship generally lasts 1 or 2 years.
Employment, 1978 .................................................
Projected employment, 1990..................................



542,000
624,000

Percent growth, 1 978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

15.1
28,500
6,900
21,600

Available training data:
Public vocational education co m p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Job Corps com p letio n s.........................................

27,215
51,177
71

Funeral directors and embalmers. All States require embalmers to be licensed. Although licensing standards
vary by State, an embalmer generally must be 21, have a
high school diploma or its equivalent, graduate from a
mortuary science school, serve an internship, and pass a
State board examination. About half of the States re­
quire a year or more of college in addition to training in
mortuary science.
Mortuary science programs are offered by vocational
schools, colleges, and junior colleges. Most of these
programs are 2 years in length, although a few last 4
years. Internships are 1 to 2 years in length and may be
served before, during, or after one attends mortuary
school, depending on State regulations.
All but six States also require funeral directors to be
licensed. The requirements are similar to those for em­
balmers, but directors have special internship training
and board examinations. Most people obtain both
licenses.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

45,000
45,000
0.0
2,200
o
2,200

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letio n s...........
Private vocational education com pletions...........

307
2,060

Private household service occupations

Private household workers. Most jobs require no for­
mal education. Instead, the ability to cook, sew, wash
and iron, clean house, and care for children is impor­
tant. Many necessary skills are learned in the home;
more advanced skills can be learned in home economics
courses in high schools, junior colleges, vocational
schools, and through government and private training
programs.
Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent growth, 1978-90 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
D ecline...................................................................
R eplacem ent........................................................
Available training data

39

1,162,000
893,000
-2 3 .2
45,000
-23,000
68,000

Armed Forces or in the State or local police departments
is helpful. Most newly hired guards receive on-the-job
training combined with formal instruction that covers
areas such as the use of firearms, first aid, emergency
procedures, and security problems.

Protective and related occupations

Correction officers. Most State and local governments
prefer individuals who are high school graduates and
are at least 21 years old. Many require applicants to pass
a physical examination and meet standards of height,
weight, vision, and hearing. Some State and local
governments require applicants to qualify through a
written examination that tests general intelligence.
Although some correction officers attend training
academies, most are trained on the job. Areas covered
during their training include institutional policies and
regulations, inmate behavior, custody procedures,
report writing, and security.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

—

Police officers. Most large cities and many smaller com­
munities fill police jobs by competitive examination.
Candidates usually must be at least 21 years old, high
school graduates, in good health, and must meet height,
weight, hearing, and vision requirements. Police depart­
ments in some large cities generally require 1 or more
years of college, and a growing number of police depart­
ments hire students majoring in law enforcement as
police interns. Some small cities may consider ap­
plicants who have not finished high school.
Small communities often train police officers on the
job; large cities have formal training at a police
academy for a few weeks or several months. Training
usually includes instruction in laws and ordinances, civil
rights, investigation techniques, traffic control, selfdefense, use of firearms, and first aid.
Police careers are attractive to many people because
entrance requirements are minimal, the work is
challenging, layoffs are rare, and pay and pensions are
relatively good. As a result, keen competition is ex­
pected for job openings through the 1980’s.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

78,542
2,827

21,744
3,331
—
17,278

J
May include some State police officers.
2Fewer than 25.

Guards. Employers prefer high school graduates; ap­
plicants who have not completed high school may be
tested for their ability to read, write, and follow written
and oral instructions. Police experience gained in the



450,000
550,000
22.7
16,500
8,500
8,000

Available training data:
Public vocational education completions1.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Job Corps completions2 .........................................
Junior college grad u ates.......................................

220,000
270,000
21.0
7,500
3,900
3,600

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s.........
Junior college grad u ates.......................................

—

1
Fewer than 25.

Firef ighters. In most communities, applicants must take
a written test, be at least 18 years of age, have a high
school education or the equivalent, and meet certain
height and weight requirements. They also must pass a
physical examination and tests of strength, stamina, and
agility. Those who score the highest on these examina­
tions have the best chances for appointment. Experience
as a volunteer firefighter or in the Armed Forces may
help chances for appointment, too. Beginners in large
fire departments generally are trained for several weeks
at the city’s fire school before assignment to local fire
companies. Small communities either train firefighters
on the job or hire experienced workers. Additional
study can be valuable in preparing for promotion ex­
aminations, and many firefighters participate in train­
ing programs conducted by fire departments and public
vocational schools. Many 2- and 4-year colleges and
universities offer courses in fire engineering and fire
science.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

550,000
820,000
50.0
70,000
20,000
50,000

Available training data:
Job Corps completions1.........................................

110,000
153,000
38.9
13,000
3,500
9,500

Available training data....................................................

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

State police officers. State civil service regulations
govern the appointment of State police officers; a com­
petitive examination generally is required. In most
40

States, the examination is open to high school
graduates, or to persons who have an equivalent com­
bination of education and experience. State police of­
ficers must be at least 21, in good health, and must meet
height, weight, hearing, and vision standards. Tests of
strength and agility often are required. The character
and background of candidates usually are investigated.
In some States, high school graduates who are under 21
may enter State police work as cadets. They attend
classes, are assigned nonenforcement duties, and, if
they qualify, may be appointed officrs at age 21.
In all States, recruits must enter a formal training
program for several months of classroom instruction in
topics such as State laws and jurisdictions, traffic con­
trol, and accident investigation. Recruits also learn selfdefense, use of firearms, driving techniques, and first
aid.
High school and college courses in English, govern­
ment, psychology, sociology, and physics are useful.
Physical education and sports develop stamina and
agility. Driver education courses and military police
training also are helpful.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

Available training data......................................................

Health and regulatory inspectors (government). Because
inspectors perform a wide range of duties, qualifica­
tions for employment vary. The Federal Government re­
quires a passing score on the Professional and Ad­
ministrative Career Examination (PACE) for many oc­
cupations, including immigration, customs, occupa­
tional safety and health, and consumer safety inspec­
tors. To take the examination, a bachelor’s degree or 3
years of responsible work experience are required.
Other Federal inspectors must pass an examination
based on specialized knowledge, in addition to having
work experience in a related field. Qualifications for in­
spectors at the State and local level usually are similar to
those for Federal employees. All inspectors are trained
in the laws and inspection procedures in their specific
field through a combination of classroom and on-thejob training.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

632

Other service occupations

Mail carriers. These workers are trained on the job. Ap­
plicants must be at least 18, except for high school
graduates, who must be at least 16. They also must pass
an examination that tests clerical accuracy and the abili­
ty to read, do simple arithmetic, and memorize mail
sorting systems. If the job involves driving, an applicant
must have a driver’s license and pass a road test. Ap­
plicants also must pass a physical examination and may
be asked to show that they can handle mail sacks
weighing up to 70 pounds.

'See Police officers.

Construction inspectors (government). These workers
receive most of their training on the job. Generally, ap­
plicants m ust have several years of experience as a co n ­
struction contractor, supervisor, or craft worker.
Previous experience as an electrician, plumber, pipe­
fitter, or carpenter is particularly helpful. A high school
diploma is required by Federal, State, and most local
governments. Many employers prefer inspectors to be
graduates of an apprenticeship program or to have had
college courses in architecture, engineering,
mathematics, or construction technology. Periodic
retraining is necessary to keep abreast of changes in
technology, building codes, and related areas.




100,000
122,000
24.6
5,800
2,000
3,800

Available training data:
Junior college grad u ates.......................................

47,000
59,000
26.0
1,800
1,000
800

Available training data:
Public vocational education completions1.
Private vocational education completions1
Junior college graduates1..............................

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

—

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

245,000
260,000
6.0
7,000
1,000
6,000

Available training data....................................................

—

Telephone operators. New operators are trained on the
job. Instruction and practice usually last from 1 to 3
weeks, and then operators are assigned to regular
operator jobs and receive further instruction from
supervisors. PBX operators may have a somewhat
shorter training period than telephone company
operators. High school graduation is required, and

20,000
30,000
50.0
2,200
800
1,400

41

courses in speech, office practices, and business
arithmetic are helpful.

Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Decline.......................................................................
Replacem ent.......................

-6 .8
9,900
-1 ,8 0 0
11,700

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................

Available training data:
Job Corps co m p letio n s.........................................

67

311,000
290,000

Education and Related Occupations
Teaching occupations

Kindergarten and elementary school teachers. All States
require public elementary school teachers to be cer­
tified, and some States also require certification of
elementary teachers in private and parochial schools. To
become certified, an individual must have a bachelor’s
degree from an institution with a State-approved
teacher education program; student teaching and basic
education courses also are required. In 1978, 23 States
required teachers to have graduate degrees. However,
this requirement was often coupled with provisions con­
cerning continued education. Thirty States had continu­
ing education requirements for teachers in 1978. Some
States demand U.S. citizenship, some an oath of
allegiance, and several a health certificate. Local school
systems sometimes have additional requirements.
Kindergarten and elementary school teachers may
face competition for jobs of their choice through the
1980’s. If the pattern continues in line with past trends,
the number of persons qualified to teach in elementary
schools will approximate the number of openings. The
demand for teachers is determined mainly by pupil
enrollments, which in turn depend on population
growth. Based on projections of the population, the Na­
tional Center for Education Statistics (NCES) projects
that the downward enrollment trend for elementary
schools, which has existed since 1967, will halt around
1983. Thereafter, enrollments will increase through the
1980’s. Pupil-teacher ratios, which are expected to con­
tinue to decline, also will contribute to an increased de­
mand for teachers. The primary source of teacher sup­
ply is new degree recipients. NCES projects an average
of about 1 million new bachelor’s degrees to be awarded
annually over the 1978-90 period, although not all
graduates will be qualified to teach in elementary
schools. On the basis of recent trends, it is anticipated
that an average of 103,000 graduates will be prepared to
teach each year. Of these 87,000 are expected actively to
seek teaching positions.
Teachers who have left the labor force and certified
teachers who did not enter the labor force after gradua­
tion also are sources of supply. However, the number of
prospective entrants from these sources is influenced by



factors which cannot be projected with accuracy, such
as the availability of teaching jobs relative to other jobs,
and salaries of teachers relative to other occupations.
Despite the problem of estimating future supply, there is
every indication that the potential supply will exceed the
average annual openings over the 1978-90 period. As a
result, an increasing proportion of new college
graduates certified to teach in elementary schools, as
well as delayed entrants and reentrants, may have to
seek employment in other occupations.
Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent growth, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
G rowth...................................................................
R eplacem ent........................................................
Available training data:
1977-78

1,322,000
1,652,000
24.9
86,000
27,500
58,500
Projected
1978-90
(annual

average)
New college graduates
prepared to teach in
elementary schools1. .

93,622

103,000

National Education Association.

Secondary school teachers. All States require public
secondary school teachers to be certified, and some
States also require certification of secondary teachers in
private and parochial schools. To become certified, an
individual must have a bachelor’s degree from an in­
stitution with a State-approved teacher education pro­
gram. Student teaching and basic education courses also
are required. In 1978, 23 States required graduate
degrees for initial certification. However, this require­
ment was often coupled with provisions concerning con­
tinued education. Thirty States required continuing
education of teachers in 1978. Some States demand U.S.
citizenship, some an oath of allegiance, and several a
health certificate. Local school systems sometimes have
additional requirements.
The supply of secondary school teachers is expected
to exceed greatly the available number of openings
42

through the 1980’s, if past trends of entry into the pro­
fession continue. The number of teaching positions pro­
jected to decline during this period as enrollment in
secondary schools declines. The largest source of
secondary teachers is new degree recipients. The Na­
tional Center for Education Statistics projects an
average of about 1 million new bachelor’s degrees to be
awarded annually over the 1978-90 period, although not
all graduates will be qualified to teach in secondary
schools. On the basis of recent trends, it is anticipated
that about 132,000 graduates will be prepared to teach
each year. Of these, 94,000 are expected to seek teaching
positions.
Teachers who have left the labor force and certified
teachers who did not enter the labor force after gradua­
tion also are sources of supply. However, the number of
prospective entrants from these sources cannot be pro­
jected with accuracy, as it is affected by the availability
of teaching jobs relative to other jobs, and salaries of
teachers relative to other occupations. Despite the prob­
lem of estimating future supply, there is every indication
that the potential supply will greatly exceed the expected
number of openings. As a result, an increasing propor­
tion of new college graduates certified to teach in secon­
dary schools, as well as delayed entrants and reentrants,
may have to seek employment in other occupations.
Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent change, 1978-90 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
D eclin e...................................................................
R eplacem ent........................................................
Available training data:

1,087,000
861,000
-2 0 .8
7,200
-18,800
26,000

119,432

(annual
average)

103,000

*Data from National Education Association.

College and university faculty. Beginning instructor
positions in community and junior colleges and some 4year colleges require a master’s degree in the subject to
be taught. A doctoral degree is required for entry level
appointments in some colleges and universities and for
tenure, which is increasingly difficult to attain. Ad­
vancement to assistant professor, and then to professor,
requires additional teaching experience and published
books and articles that evidence knowledge and research
capability in one’s discipline.
The number of doctoral and master’s degree holders
seeking junior college, college, and university faculty
positions is expected to exceed greatly available job




673,000
611,000
- 9 .2
11,000
-5 ,0 0 0
16,000

Available training data....................................................

—

^ o e s not include part-time junior instructors.

Teacher aides. Requirements vary widely. Some schools
hire high school graduates; some do not require a
diploma. Others want aides to have some college train­
ing or a bachelor’s degree. Teacher aides may be trained
on the job or through a formal training program. A
growing number of junior and community colleges offer
teacher aide programs that culminate in an associate
degree. When hiring, schools may give preference to in­
dividuals who have experience working with children
and have the most education. Some schools have regula­
tions regarding the hiring of aides. Applicants may be
required to have a family income below a certain level or
to be parents of children in the school district. In addi­
tion, health regulations may require teacher aides to
pass a physical examination.
342,000
519,000
51.8
26,000
15,000
11,000

Available training data:
Job Corps completions...........................
Junior college graduates.........................

1978-90

New college graduates
prepared to teach in
elementary schools1. . .

Employment, 19781 ........................................................
Projected employment, 19901 .......................................
Percent change, 1 9 78-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Decline.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

Employment, 1978...........................................
Projected employment, 1990 .........................
Percent change, 1978-90 ...................
Average annual openings, 1978-90................
G row th....................................................
Replacement.............................................

Projected

1977-78

openings. Applicants face extremely keen competition,
particularly for positions in the largest and most
outstanding institutions. It appears, therefore, that an
increasing proportion of prospective college teachers
will have to seek nonacademic jobs.

35
6,187

Library occupations

Librarians. A master’s degree in library science general­
ly is required to enter the occupation. A Ph. D. degree
is an asset for individuals who plan a teaching career or
who aspire to a top administrative post, particularly in a
college or university library, or in a large library system.
Information scientists and special librarians generally
need a master’s degree or doctorate in the subject area
of the specialized library. Most States require public
school librarians to be certified both as teachers and
librarians. Some States require certification of public
43

librarians; the specific education and experience
necessary vary.
The employment outlook for librarians is expected to
remain very competitive through the 1980’s. Although
library school enrollments are expected to decline, the
number of new graduates and labor force reentrants
seeking jobs probably will exceed openings. Most job
openings in libraries during the 1980’s will result from
replacement needs. Opportunities will be best for
librarians with scientific and technical backgrounds,
particularly in private libraries in the health sciences.
The development of new information handling jobs out­
side the traditional library setting is also expected to
offer increased employment opportunities.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................
Available training data:

Degrees in library science:
Bachelor’s degrees. . . . .
Master’s degrees.............
Doctor’s degrees.............

770
7,058
80

Library technicians and assistants. These workers may
receive training either on the job or in a formal posthigh school program. Some libraries require only
graduation from high school for library clerks, who,
after a few years of training on the job, may advance to
technician positions. Other libraries hire only techni­
cians who have formal training.
In 1977, over 180 institutions, mostly 2-year colleges,
offered this training. Programs usually consist of a year
of liberal arts courses and a year of library-related study
and culminate in an associate of arts degree in library
technology.

142,000
160,000
12.7
8,000
1,500
6,500

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
R eplacem ent............................................................

(annual

average)

172,000
195,000
13.4
7,700
1,000
6,700

Available training data:
Junior college grad u ates.......................................

Projected
1978-90
1977-78

693
5,935
67

549

Sales Occupations
high school graduates. Courses in public speaking, com­
mercial arithmetic, psychology, business law, and sell­
ing are useful. Appropriate personal characteristics,
such as a pleasant appearance, an outgoing personality,
and the ability to inspire confidence, also are important.
Previous sales experience or other work involving con­
tact with the public is desirable.

Automobile parts counter workers. These workers learn
on the job, usually beginning as helpers to experienced
employees. Generally, 2 years of work experience are
needed before a person becomes thoroughly familiar
with most types of parts and accessories. Employers
usually prefer to hire high school graduates. High
school or vocational school courses in auto mechanics,
commercial arithmetic, selling, and bookkeeping are
helpful. Practical experience in a gasoline station,
automobile repair shop, or on vehicles as a hobby also is
an asset.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

69

—

Automobile service advisors. These workers are trained
on the job. Trainees usually are selected from among
personnel already employed in the organization, for ex­
ample, an experienced mechanic or parts counter
worker. Generally, 1 to 2 years of training are needed
before a new service advisor can handle all aspects of
the job. Some advisors attend training programs con­
ducted by automobile manufacturers. A high school
diploma is preferred but not required. Because the job

Automobile sales workers. Most beginners are trained
on the job, although large dealers sometimes provide
formal classroom training. Many employers require
beginning sales workers to be at least 21 years old and



158,000
200,000
26.5
10,400
3,500
6,900

Available training data....................................................

97,000
119,000
22.1
4,200
1,800
2,400

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s.........................................

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

44

involves close contact with customers and mechanics in
the shop, personal characteristics, such as an ability to
deal with customer complaints and communicate clear­
ly, are important.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90.................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth...................
Replacem ent..............................................................

25,000
30,400
22.1
1,100
500
600

Available training data......................................................

(CLU) designation by passing a series of examinations
given by the American College of Bryn Mawr, Penn­
sylvania. Property-liability agents can qualify for the
Chartered Property Casualty Underwriter (CPCU)
designation by passing a series of examinations given by
the American Institute for Property and Liability
Underwriters. The CLU and CPCU designations are
recognized marks of achievement in their respective
fields.
All agents and most brokers must be licensed in the
State where they sell insurance. Most States require can­
didates for a license to pass a written examination in in­
surance fundamentals and State insurance laws.
Data for insurance agents and brokers are combined
with data on underwriters.

—

Gasoline service station attendants. These workers are
trained on the job. A high school diploma usually is not
required, and students often are hired for these jobs.
Attendants who wish to become station managers need
a diploma, however, to participate in service station
management programs conducted by oil companies.
Applicants for attendant jobs should have a driver’s
license, a general understanding of how an automobile
works, and some sales ability.
340,000
322,000
-5 .6
5,200
-1 ,6 0 0
6,800

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s.........................................

134

—

Manufacturers' sales workers. Employers generally pre­
fer to hire college graduates for these positions. A
bachelor’s degree in liberal arts or in business ad­
ministration is good preparation for selling
nontechnical products. Industrial manufacturers look
for applicants who have degrees in science or engineer­
ing, and pharmaceutical companies usually prefer per­
sons who have studied pharmacy.
Newly hired sales workers may receive specialized
training before they start on the job. Some companies,
especially those that manufacture complex technical
products, have formal training programs that last 2
years or longer. Other firms offer classroom instruction
followed by additional training under the supervision of
field managers.

Insurance agents and brokers. Many employers prefer
college graduates for insurance sales workers. Degrees
in almost any field are acceptable, but applicants who
have studied accounting, economics, finance, business
law, or insurance are preferred. Because success in sell­
ing greatly depends on personal qualities such as ag­
gressiveness and self-confidence, employers look for
these traits. Some employers hire experienced in­
dividuals who have these characteristics, whether or not
they have attended college.
Newly hired workers usually receive some formal
training in insurance regulations, selling, policy writing,
and techniques for determining the amount of insurance
policyholders require. Trainees may attend companysponsored classes or courses at local colleges and univer­
sities. Home study (correspondence) courses also are
available.
Many sales workers take courses offered by insurance
organizations. The Life Underwriter Training Council
(LUTC) awards a diploma in life insurance marketing to
agents who successfully complete the council’s 2-year
life program; there also is a course in health insurance.
As agents and brokers gain experience and knowledge,
they can qualify for the Chartered Life Underwriter




568,000
682,000
20.0
30,000
9,500
20,500

Available training data....................................................
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Decline.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0...............................................
Average annual openings, 1 9 7 8 - 9 0 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

402,000
499,000
24.0
21,700
8,000
13,700

Available training data....................................................

—

Real estate agents and brokers. All States require real
estate agents and brokers to be licensed. To obtain a
license as an agent, an individual must be a high school
graduate, be at least 18 years old, and pass a written
test. Many large firms prefer to hire college graduates.
However, most employers consider personality traits as
important as academic training and seek applicants who
have maturity, tact, and sales ability.

45

Most States require candidates for the general sales
license to have completed 30 hours of classroom instruc­
tion in the fundamentals and legal aspects of real estate
transactions. Courses to prepare candidates for the real
estate sales examination are offered in high schools,
vocational schools, and colleges and universities. Many
real estate firms offer these preparatory courses, and
some periodiclly offer continuing education courses for
their experienced sales workers. In addition, many com­
munity and junior colleges and 4-year colleges and
universities offer courses and programs leading to
associate, bachelor’s, or advanced degrees in real estate.
Courses in areas such as mortgage financing, real estate
appraisal, and real estate management are offered to ex­
perienced sales workers through affiliates of the Na­
tional Assocation of Realtors.
Most States require candidates for the real estate
broker’s license to have completed 90 hours of
classroom instruction in real estate and have 1-3 years
of experience selling real estate.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Decline.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

Retail trade sales workers. Most sales workers learn
their skills on the job. In large stores, training programs
for newly hired workers usually begin with several days
of classroom instruction, followed by on-the-job train­
ing under the supervision of an experienced worker. In
small stores, an experienced worker, or in some cases
the proprietor, trains new sales workers. Employers
prefer to hire high school graduates, and courses in
commercial arithmetic and merchandising provide a
good background. Thousands of high schools also offer
distributive education programs that allow students to
work part time at local stores while taking courses in
merchandising, accounting, and other aspects of retail­
ing. Some programs are intended for adults as well and
offer training for persons beginning their careers or
seeking advancement.

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

—

Travel agents. Although no specific educational
background is required, some employers prefer to hire
college graduates for these jobs. Courses in geography,
history, ana foreign languages can be helpful. Useful
experience may be gained by working as a reservation
clerk or receptionist in a travel agency or as an airline
reservation or ticket agent. Correspondence and voca­
tional schools offer courses in this area.

7,879
167




109,000
120,000
10.0
5,500
900
4,600

Available training data............... ....................................

2,851,000
3,785,000
32.8
226,000
78,000
148,000

Available training data:
Pubic vocational education com p letion s___
Job Corps com pletions.......................................

—

Securities sales workers. Employers generally prefer to
hire college graduates and consider a degree in business
administration, economics, finance, or liberal arts good
preparation for the job. Employers look for individuals
who are well groomed, able to motivate others, am­
bitious, and self-starters. Successful sales or managerial
experience is particularly helpful. Almost all States re­
quire securities sales workers to be licensed; a personal
bond is required and applicants must pass a written test.
In addition, practically all sales workers must be
registered representatives of their firms according to the
regulations of the securities exchanges through which
they do business, or the National Association of
Securities Dealers. Examinations and character in­
vestigations are required for registration.
Most employers provide training to help newly hired
sales workers meet the requirements for registration.
Depending on the size of the firm, this initial training
varies from short, informal programs to combined
classroom instruction and on-the-job experience lasting
6 months or more.

37,855
41,913

Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990 .....................................
Percent change, 1978-90 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
G rowth...................................................................
R eplacem ent........................................................

195,000
190,000
-2 .9
3,600
-5 0 0
4,100

Available training data....................................................

555,000
670,000
20.7
50,000
10,000
40,000

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........

Route drivers. Although some large companies have
classes in sales techniques, most route drivers are train­
ed on the job. Employers generally prefer applicants
who are high school graduates and have good driving
records. Most States require route drivers to have a
chauffeur’s license.

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................

46

18,500
30,000
62.2

Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................
Available training data......................................................

jobs, such as stock clerk or shipping clerk, before being
assigned to sales. Usually, it takes 2 years or longer to
prepare trainees for outside sales. College graduates
enter the sales force directly out of school. Very large
wholesalers offer formal training programs; smaller
firms rely on experienced sales workers to instruct
trainees.

1,900
950
950
—

Wholesale trade sales workers. Employers generally re­
quire applicants to be high school graduates, although
college training is becoming a requirement for an in­
creasing number of these jobs. The background a sales
worker needs depends mainly upon the product line and
the market. Selling certain products, such as phar­
maceuticals, may require a background in chemistry,
biology, or pharmacy, for example. High school
graduates may begin in a nonselling job and work their
way up or may be hired as sales trainees. In either case,
beginners usually work in several types of nonselling

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth..................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

840,000
958,000
14.0
40,000
10,000
30,000

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letio n s.........

1,692

Construction Occupations
Bricklayers, stonemasons, and marblesetters. Most
bricklayers learn their trade on the job, usually in 3 to 5
years. But, some bricklayers and most stonemasons and
marblesetters learn their skills through a 3-year appren­
ticeship program that combines on-the-job training with
classroom instruction. A high school diploma or its
equivalent is usually required by employers for entry in­
to apprenticeship programs. Others learn skills in public
or private vocational schools. Courses in blueprint
reading and shop provide a useful background.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
R eplacem ent............................................................

44,625
374
1,741
3,453

Cement masons and terrazzo workers. Most cement
masons learn their trade informally on the job in 2 to 3
years. Others complete a 2- or 3-year apprenticeship
program that combines on-the-job training with
classroom instruction in subjects such as basic
mathematics, blueprint reading, and safety. Employers
prefer to hire high school graduates, and courses in
mathematics and mechanical drawing provide a useful
background.

11,891
90
816
583

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

Carpenters. The recommended way to learn this trade is
to complete a 4-year apprenticeship. Most workers learn
on the job, however, often by beginning as a helper to
experienced carpenters and gradually acquiring skills. It
takes much longer to become a skilled carpenter in this
way than it does through an apprenticeship. Some
knowledge of the trade also may be obtained through
vocational school courses in carpentry, shop, and
mechanical drawing. Employers generally prefer to hire
applicants who are high school graduates, but a diploma
is not required.

83,000
110,000
32.5
4,400
2,300
2,100

Available training data:
Job Corps co m p letio n s.........................................
Apprenticeship com p letion s.................................

‘Also includes tilesetters.




1,254,000
1,390,000
10.9
58,000
11,000
47,000

Available training data:
Public vocational education com pletions___
Private vocational education completions . . .
Job Corps com pletions.......................................
Apprenticeship completions..............................

205,000
220,000
7.3
6,200
1,300
4,900

Available training data:
Public vocational education completions1.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Job Corps completions1.........................................
Apprenticeship completions1................................

Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent growth, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
G rowth...................................................................
R eplacem ent........................................................

418
289

Construction laborers. Most laborers are trained on the
job as this work does not require specific skills. General­
ly applicants must be at least 18 years old and in good
physical condition. An experienced construction laborer
47

can advance to carpenter, bricklayer, cement mason, or
other craft occupation.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

233

Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent employment, 1990 .............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

19,000
25,000
31.6
1,000
500
500

Available training data:
Apprenticeship com p letion s...................................

155

Insulation workers. The majority of these workers learn
their trade on the job. Others learn through a 4-year
“ improvership” program that combines on-the-job
training with classroom instruction in areas such as
safety and insulation application techniques. The “ improvership” program is similar to an apprenticeship. A
few insulation workers pick up their skills while working
in another trade or in a manufacturing plant where ap­
plying insulation is part of their job. Employers prefer
to hire high school graduates who are licensed to drive.
High school or vocational school courses in blueprint
reading and shop mathematics are helpful.

290,000
350,000
20.7
12,900
5,000
7,900

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Job Corps1.................................................................
Apprenticeship com pletions................................

119

Glaziers (construction). The majority of these workers
learn their trade through a 3-year apprenticeship that
combines on-the-job training with classroom instruction
in related subjects such as blueprint reading and safety.
Others learn on the job, and a few pick up the skills
while working in another industry where glass is install­
ed—automobile manufacturing, for example. Employ­
ers generally prefer to hire high school graduates.
Courses in mathematics, shop, and mechanical drawing
are helpful.

Electricians (construction). Completion of a 4-year ap­
prenticeship that combines on-the-job training with
classroom instruction in subjects such as circuits and
wiring, fundamentals of electronics, and the National
Electrical Code is the recommended way to learn the
trade. Many electricians learn their skills on the job,
however. Training in some of the skills needed for the
occupation also may be acquired through vocational
school courses. Employers prefer to hire high school or
vocational school graduates who have 1 year of algebra.
Courses in electricity, electronics, mechanical drawing,
science, and shop provide a good background. Ap­
plicants for apprenticeships must be high school
graduates. Most cities require electricians to be licensed.
To obtain a license, applicants must pass a written test
and may have to demonstrate their skill.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

110,000
25.0
3,200
1,800
1,400

Available training data:
Apprenticeship com p letion s................................

860,000
970,000
12.8
49,000
10,000
39,000

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s.........................................

Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

18,373
247
488
3,678

}May include some maintenance electricians.

Floor covering installers. Most of these workers learn
their skills on the job, usually beginning as helpers to ex­
perienced workers. Others qualify through appren­
ticeship programs that combine on-the-job training with
related classroom instruction. The program for floor
covering installers lasts 2 to 4 years. Individuals also
may learn the basic skills necessary for the trade as part
of an apprenticeship in carpentry, tilesetting, bricklay­
ing, or stone and marble setting. Employers prefer to
hire high school or vocational school graduates, and
courses in general mathematics and shop may be
helpful. Applicants for apprenticeships generally must
have a high school diploma.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................



88,000

Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 19 9 0 ..........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

51,000
65,000
27.5
2,600
1,600
1,000

Available training data:
Apprenticeship completions1...................................

228

^‘Improvership” and apprenticeship are interchangeable in
reference to insulation workers.

Ironworkers (structural, ornamental, and reinforcing
ironworkers; riggers; and machine movers). Most
workers learn their skills on the job; however, comple­
tion of a 3-year apprenticeship program that sup­
plements on-the-job experience with related classroom
48

instruction is recommended. Employers generally prefer
to hire high school graduates. Courses in blueprint
reading, drafting, and mathematics are helpful. The job
requires agility, a good sense of balance, and aboveaverage strength.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1978 -9 0 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

78,000
104,000
33.3
4,100
2,200
1,900

Available training data:
Apprenticeship com pletions................................

Plasterers. A 3- to 4-year apprenticeship that combines
on-the-job training with classroom instruction in sub­
jects such as blueprint reading, tool care, and safety is
the recommended way to learn the trade. Many
plasterers learn the trade on the job, however, by work­
ing as plasterer’s helpers or laborers. Employers
generally prefer to hire high school graduates. Courses
in mathematics, mechanical drawing, and shop are
useful.

1,155

Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................
Available training data:
Job Corps com p letio n s...........................................
Apprenticeship com p letion s...................................

Operating engineers (construction machinery
operators). Completion of a 3-year apprenticeship pro­
gram including related classroom instruction is recom­
mended. Learning to operate a variety of machines
through apprenticeship or, in some instances, private
training schools usually results in better job oppor­
tunities. Some operating engineers learn their skills on
the job, starting as helpers or oilers and then progress­
ing from operating light equipment to highly complex
construction machinery. A few individuals learn their
skills in the Armed Forces. Most employers prefer high
school graduates, and a diploma may be required for
entry into apprenticeship programs. Courses in
automobile mechanics are helpful.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

581,000
820,000
41.4
36,000
20,000
16,000

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s.........................................
Apprenticeship com p letion s................................

473
706

Employment, 1978 ...........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

428,000
513,000
19.9
20,000
7,000
13,000

Available training data:1
Public vocational education com p letio n s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Job Corps com p letio n s.........................................
Apprenticeship com p letion s.................................

8,312
283
136
3,572

includes sprinkler fitters and steamfitters.

Roofers. The majority of roofers acquire their skills on
the job as helpers to experienced workers. Completion
of a 3-year apprenticeship that combines on-the-job
training with classroom instruction in cutting and apply­
ing various roofing materials, blueprint reading, and
safety is recommended, however. Employers prefer to
hire high school graduates; courses in mechanical draw­
ing and basic mathematics are helpful.

504,000
572,000
13.5
27,000
6,000
21,000

Available training data:
Job Corps completions..................................
Apprenticeship completions...........................

730
488




215
57

P lumbers and pipefitters. Although many learn their
trade informally on the job, completion of a 4- to 5-year
apprenticeship is recommended. Employers prefer high
school graduates. High school or vocational school
courses in mathematics, drafting, physics, and
chemistry can provide some useful skills. Some localities
require workers to be licensed; applicants must pass a
written examination.

Painters and paperhangers. Although completion of a
3-year apprenticeship combining on-the-job experience
and related classroom instruction is recommended, op­
portunities are very limited. Informal on-the-job train­
ing is available through local contractors, however. A
high school education is preferred by employers.
Manual dexterity and good color sense are important
assets.
Employment, 1978..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

28,000
30,000
7.1
1,100
200
900

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

49

114,000
140,000
22.8
4,500
2,200
2,300

Available training data:
Apprenticeship com pletions................................

Public vocational education completions.........
Job Corps completions....................................
Apprenticeship completions.............................

218

Sheet-metal workers. Although many workers learn the
trade informally on the job, completion of a 4-year ap­
prenticeship program is the recommended way to enter
the occupation. These programs combine on-the-job
training with classroom instruction in subjects such as
sheet-metal drawing and patternmaking, applied
mathematics, and blueprint reading. A high school
diploma is preferred by employers and required for en­
try to apprenticeship programs. Courses in
mathematics, mechanical drawing, and shop provide a
helpful background for learning the trade.
Employment, 1978 .............................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

6,571
86
1,256

Tilesetters. The best way to learn this trade is through a
3-year apprenticeship program, but many workers ac­
quire their skills on the job, working as helpers. When
hiring apprentices or helpers, employers usually prefer
high school or vocational school graduates who have
had courses in mathematics, mechanical drawing, and
shop. Good physical condition, manual dexterity, and a
good sense of color harmony also are important.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

70,000
90,000
28.6
3,500
1,700
1,800

33,000
45,000
36.4
1,800
1,000
800

Available training data1
‘See bricklayers, stonemasons, and marblesetters.

Available training data:

Occupations in Transportation Activities
structural parts of the plane; powerplant mechanics
work on the engine. Some mechanics and all aircraft in­
spectors must have both licenses.
At least 18 months of work experience are required
for an airframe or powerplant license; for a combined
license, at least 30 months of experience working with
both engines and airframes are required. To obtain an
inspector’s license, a mechanic must have held an
airframe-and-powerplant license for at least 3 years.
Applicants for all licenses must pass written and oral
tests and demonstrate their ability to do the work.
Employers prefer to hire high school graduates.
Courses in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and
mechanical drawing are helpful.

Air transportation occupations

Air Traffic controllers. Trainees are selected through
the competitive Federal Civil Service System. Ap­
plicants must be not more than 30 years old, pass a writ­
ten test, and have either 3 years of work experience that
demonstrates their potential, or a college degree. Newly
hired controllers receive 16 weeks of formal training as
well as on-the-job training during which they learn
Federal Aviation Administration regulations, operation
of their equipment, and performance characteristics of
different aircraft. It usually takes several years of ex­
perience to learn the job thoroughly.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

21,000
26,000
23.9
700
400
300

Available training data......................................................

—

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................
Available training data:
Private vocational education completions.........
Apprenticeship completions1................................

Airplane mechanics. Most mechanics learn their job
through 2-year programs offered by trade schools cer­
tified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). A
few learn on the job. The majority of mechanics who
work on civilian aircraft are licensed by the FAA as
“ airframe mechanics,” “ powerplant mechanics,” or
“ aircraft inspectors.” Airframe mechanics work on the



132,000
145,000
10.1
3,500
1,100
2,400

1,142
—

‘Fewer than 25.

Airplane pilots. Pilots who transport passengers or
cargo must have at least a commercial pilot’s license
from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). To
50

obtain a license, applicants must be at least 18, have at
least 250 hours of flight experience, and must pass a
strict physical examination. Applicants must pass a
written test covering the principles of safe flight, naviga­
tion techniques, and FAA regulations. They also must
demonstrate their flying ability to FAA examiners.
Pilots who have to fly in bad weather also must be
licensed to fly by instruments. This license requires 40
hours of experience using instruments, passing a written
test, and demonstrating the ability to fly by instruments
to an FAA examiner.
Most new airline pilots are hired as flight engineers
and usually must have fulfilled the added requirements
to obtain this license before they are hired. Airline cap­
tains must have a transport pilot’s license which requires
even more flight experience.
Flying can be learned in military or civilian flying
schools, but the airlines and many businesses prefer
pilots trained in the Armed Forces. Pilots hired by the
airlines must be high school graduates; however, most
airlines require 2 years of college and prefer to hire col­
lege graduates.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................
Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth....................................
Replacem ent...............................................................
Available training data......................................................

Merchant marine officers. Candidates must either have
acquired at least 3 years’ appropriate sea experience, or
have graduated from the U.S. Merchant Marine
Academy, from 1 of 6 State merchant marine
academies, or from a trade union training program.
Candidates also must pass a Coast Guard examination
to obtain a license. Usually, applicants who have sea ex­
perience but are not graduates of academies must obtain
training to pass the examination. A high school diploma
is not required.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Decline.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

13,500
13,000
-3 .7
700
-5 0
750

Available training data......................................................

—

Merchant marine sailors. Most sailors learn on the job,
although previous sea experience in the Coast Guard or
Navy is helpful. Graduation from high school is not re­
quired. Applicants must obtain a doctor’s certificate
stating that they are in excellent health, and, if they do
not have previous sea experience, a letter from an
employer stating that they will be hired if a job becomes
available. In addition, they must acquire special iden­
tification papers, “ merchant mariner’s documents,”
from the Coast Guard.
Several training programs exist to help experienced
sailors upgrade their skills, but only the school operated
by the Seafarer’s International Union of North America
trains inexperienced sailors.

1,325
11,560

Flight attendants. Most large airlines train their own
flight attendants; those that do not operate schools
usually send their trainees to another airline’s school.
Training programs generally last about 5 weeks during
which attendants learn flight regulations, how to handle
emergencies, and how to deal with passengers. Ap­
plicants must be high school graduates and individuals
who have 2 years or more of college or experience deal­
ing with the public are preferred.
48,000
76,000
56.2
4,800
2,300
2,500

Available training data......................................................

—

Merchant marine occupations

76,000
110,000
43.9
3,800
2,800
1,000

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

56,000
64,000
15.0
2,200
700
1,500

—

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Decline.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................
Available training data......................................................

Reservation and passenger agents. Most agents receive
several weeks of classroom instruction and on-the-job
training during which they learn how to use flight
schedule information, book reservations, and deal with
customers. A pleasant speaking voice is essential and a
high school diploma is required.



24,800
16,000
-3 6 .9
-2 5 0
-7 0 0
450
—

Railroad occupations

Brake operators. On some railroads, operators receive a
few days of training, but most learn their skills on the
job. It usually takes a year to learn the job thoroughly.

51

Employers prefer applicants who have a high school
diploma and require applicants to have good eyesight
and hearing.
Employment, 1978............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

66,000
67,000
1.3
1,600
100
1,500

Available training data......................................................

76,000
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990........................................... 71,000
-6 .7
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
2,100
Decline.........................................................................
-4 0 0
Replacem ent..................................................................
2,500

—

Available training data......................................................

—

Signal department workers. These workers begin as
helpers and are trained on the job. After 60 to 90 days
of training, they may advance to assistants; after 2
years’ additional training and experience, they may be
promoted to signal installers or maintainers. Railroads
prefer applicants who are high school or vocational
school graduates and have had courses in blueprint
reading, electricity, or electronics.

Conductors. Conductors are promoted from the ranks
of qualified brake operators on the basis of seniority.
To qualify, a brake operator must pass examinations
covering signals, timetables, operating rules, and related
subjects.
37,000
39,000
6.2
1,700
200
1,500

Available training data......................................................

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

—

Employment, 1978 ..............................................................
Projected employment, 1990.............................................
Percent change, 1978-90....................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ................................
Decline...........................................................................
Replacem ent.................................................................

—

Telegraphers, telephoners, and tower operators. These
jobs usually are filled from the ranks of clerical workers
according to seniority provisions. Upon promotion,
new workers receive on-the-job training that covers
operating rules, train orders, and station operations.
Before the promotion is final, they must pass examina­
tions on train operating rules and show that they can use
all the equipment. A high school diploma generally is
preferred and may be required by some railroads.

—

Shop trades. The major railroad shop trades are car
repairer, machinist, electrical worker, sheet metal
worker, boilermaker, and blacksmiths. Completing a 3to 4-year apprenticeship program is the most common
way to enter shop trades, although some helpers and
laborers are upgraded to these jobs. A high school
diploma is preferred but not required. Shop training in
high school or vocational school is an advantage.
Automobile repair and machining courses are useful for
machinists. Courses in electricity and physics will help
applicants who want jobs as electrical workers.



5,900
2,400
-5 9 .6
-2 0 0
-3 0 0
100

Available training data........................................................

34,000
37,000
9.6
2,000
300
1,700

Available training data......................................................

—

Station agents. These workers rise from the ranks of
other railroad occupations. Experienced telegraphers,
telephoners, tower operators, and clerks may advance
to jobs as agents in small stations and may be promoted
to larger stations as they gain seniority.

Locomotive engineers. Openings in engineer jobs usual­
ly are filled by training and promoting engineer helpers
according to their seniority. Applicants for helper jobs
must be at least 21 years old and have good eyesight,
hearing, and color vision. High school graduates are
preferred. Helpers are placed in engineer training pro­
grams within a year after they are hired. They qualify
for promotion to engineer by proving their ability to
operate locomotives and by passing a comprehensive ex­
amination on subjects such as mechanical and electrical
equipment and operating rules and regulations.
Employment, 1978............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

12,800
14,100
10.0
450
100
350

Available training data......................................................

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

Employment, 1978 ..............................................................
Projected employment, 1990.............................................
Percent change, 1 978-90....................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ................................
Decline...........................................................................
Replacem ent.................................................................

9,700
6,800
-3 0 .2
50
-2 5 0
300

Available training data........................................................

—

Track workers. Most workers acquire their skills in
about 2 years of on-the-job training. A high school
52

d iplom a is n ot required, but applicants should be able to
read and w rite. T he ab ility to perform heavy w ork is
essential.
Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

59,000
59,000
0.0
1,400
0
1,400

Available training data......................................................

m ust have a ch a u ffeu r’s licen se, and em ployers prefer to
hire individuals w h o have g o o d driving records. The
am oun t o f driving experience required o ften depends on
the size o f truck to be driven and value o f the cargo. A
high sch o o l d ip lom a is n ot required.

—

Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent growth, 1978-90 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
G rowth...................................................................
R eplacem ent........................................................
Available training data:1
Job Corps com pletions.......................................

Driving occupations

Intercity busdrivers. T hese w orkers are trained on the

Long-distance truckdrivers. M inim um q u alification s set
by the U .S . D ep artm ent o f T ransportation require
drivers to be at least 21 years o ld , pass a physical ex­
am ination , and pass a w ritten test on m otor carrier sa fe­
ty regulations. M ost States require drivers to have a
ch a u ffeu r’s licen se. E m p loyers m ay have even higher
standards. M an y sp ecify height and w eight re­
quirem ents for drivers, and som e hire o n ly applicants
w ho have several years’ experience driving trucks.
Driver training courses in high sch o o l or in a private
driving sch o o l are g o o d preparation, but they do not
assure a jo b . M o st truckdrivers start as freight handlers
at a load in g d ock , advance to local truckdriver, and
then to lon g-d istan ce driver.

23,500
23,700
0.8
500
25
475

Available training data......................................................

—

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

w eeks o f classroom and driving instruction in w hich
they learn com p a n y rules, safety regulations, h o w to
keep records, and h ow to deal w ith passengers. A p ­
plicants m ust be at least 21 years old , have a ch a u ffeu r’s
license, and have g o o d eyesigh t— w ith or w ithou t
glasses. M ost em ployers require applicants to pass a
physical exam in ation and a w ritten test. A g o o d driving
record is essential. A high sch o o l d iplom a is n ot re­
quired, but is preferred by m any em ployers.

—

Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

Local truckdrivers. N ew drivers u sually are trained on
the jo b . M any drivers begin by w orking as freight
handlers on a load in g d ock . In m ost States, applicants



—

Parking attendants. T hese w orkers are trained on the
jo b . S om e em ployers o ffe r training, ranging from a few
hours to a w eek, that includes a review o f proper driving
techniques and an ou tlin e o f com p an y p o licy on record­
keeping procedures and dam age claim s. A pp licants
m ust have a driver’s license and be able to drive all types
o f cars. C o m p letio n o f a driver’s ed u cation course is an
asset. T he ab ility to keep records o f claim tickets, co m ­
pute parking charges, and m ake change also is im por­
tant. G enerally,
em p loyers prefer high sch o o l
graduates.

77,000
91,000
18.9
3,100
1,200
1,900

Available training data............................ .........................

584,000
689,000
18.0
21,000
8,700
12,800

Available training data....................................................

Local transit busdrivers. N ew drivers receive several

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 19 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

30

!May include some long-distance truckdrivers.

jo b . M ost com p anies con d u ct 2- to 8-w eek training p ro ­
gram s for new em p loyees that include driving and
c la ssr o o m
in str u c tio n .
M in im u m
q u a lific a tio n s
established by the U .S . D ep artm ent o f T ransportation
require intercity busdrivers to be at least 21 years old ,
pass a physical exam in ation , and pass a w ritten test on
m otor vehicle regulations. M ost States require a ch a u f­
feu r’s license. Bus com p an ies generally have even higher
requirem ents. M ost prefer applicants w ho are at least 25
years old; som e prefer th ose w h o have truck or bus driv­
ing experience. A high sch ool d ip lom a is preferred, but
n ot required. H igh sch o o l driver training is u seful.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
R eplacem ent...............................................................

1,720,000
2,040,000
18.4
64,000
26,000
38,000

Available training data,

53

44,000
50,000
13.6
3,200
500
2,700

Taxicab drivers. In most cities, taxi drivers must have a
chauffeur’s license and pass a written test on taxicab
and traffic regulations to obtain a special license issued
by the local police or safety department or Public
Utilities Commission. Some companies teach drivers
taxicab regulations and the location of streets. A large
number of companies hire only applicants who are at
least 21, and some require drivers to be 25 or older.

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

94,000
94,000
0.0
4,300
0
4,300

Available training data,

Scientific and Technical Occupations
Conservation occupations

Available training data:
1977-78

Foresters. A bachelor’s degree with a major in forestry
generally is required to become a forester. Because of
the large supply of forestry graduates, however, many
employers prefer applicants who have advanced
degrees. Teaching and research generally require ad­
vanced degrees.
In recent years, the number of forestry graduates has
exceeded available openings, and this situation is ex­
pected to continue through the 1990’s. Opportunities
will be better for individuals who can offer an
employeer either an advanced degree or several years of
related work experience.
Growth and replacement needs are expected to create
about 900 openings annually between 1978 and 1990.
The National Center for Education Statistics projects
that about 3,000 bachelor’s degrees in forestry will be
awarded each year during this period. Followup data on
forestry graduates indicate that about two-thirds, in­
cluding those who go on to graduate study, seek entry to
the field. If this entry pattern continues, about 2,000
graduates can be expected to seek forester positions
each year.
Other sources of supply are immigrants, reentrants to
the labor force, and transfers from other occupations.
Foresters who enter other occupations also create job
openings. Current data on occupational mobility are
not adequate to assess the net effect of transfers as a
source of supply or openings. Nor are data on im­
migrants and reentrants to the labor force adequate to
allow an assessment of the effect of these sources of
supply. Overall, however, it appears that the number of
persons seeking jobs as foresters will exceed available
openings. As a result, a number of forestry graduates
will be forced to seek employment in other fields.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................




Projected
1978-90

Degrees in forestry:
Bachelor’s degrees . . .
Master’s degrees.........
Doctor’s degrees.........

(annual
average)

2,671
488
93

3,000
500
65

Forestry technicians. Most persons qualify for begin­
ning jobs as forestry technicians by completing a
specialized course of study in a 1- or 2-year post­
secondary program, or through work experience on
firefighting crews, in tree nurseries, or in other forest
work. Most employers require a high school diploma.
Post-secondary training can be obtained in technical in­
stitutes, junior or community colleges, and some univer­
sities. Enthusiasm for outdoor work, physical stamina,
and the ability to work with or without direct super­
vision are essential for success in this field.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1 978-90.........................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
G row th.........................................................................
Replacem ent............. .................................................

13,700
17,300
26.0
700
300
400

Available training data:
Public vocational education co m p letion s...........
Job Corps co m p letio n s...........................................
Junior college grad u ates.........................................

5,182
164
1,992

Range managers. A bachelor’s degree with a major in
range management, range science, or a closely related
field usually is required for employment as a range
manager. Courses in economics, forestry, computer
science, and wildlife and recreation also are useful.
Many college students obtain valuable experience
through summer jobs with Federal Government agen­
cies, such as the Forest Service in the U.S. Department
of Agriculture or the Bureau of Land Management in
the U.S. Department of the Interior.

31,200
38,000
20.6
1,400
500
900

54

Employment, 1978 ...............................................................
Projected employment, 1990.............................................
Percent growth, 1978-90....................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ................................
Growth...........................................................................
Replacem ent............................
Available training data:

3,700
4,700
27.0
200
100
100

Degrees in range management:
1977-78
Bachelor’s degrees.............................................
221
Master ’s degrees..................................................
100
Doctor’s degrees..................................................
27

Soil conservationists. Most soil conservationists have
degrees in agronomy or a closely related field of natural
resource science, such as wildlife biology, forestry, or
range management. Only a few colleges and universities
offer degrees in soil conservation. A background in
agricultural engineering and courses in cartography are
very useful. The ability to communicate clearly, both
orally and in writing, also is important.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

9,300
11,400
21.7
450
200
250

source of supply of engineers is new graduates majoring
in engineering. The National Center for Education
Statistics projects that about 81,400 bachelor’s degrees
in engineering will be awarded annually during this
period. Followup on college graduates of the 1960’s in­
dicate that about 85 percent of the bachelor’s degree
recipients in engineering, including those who went on
to graduate study, actually entered the field. This pro­
portion dropped to 80 percent for graduates during the
mid-1970’s. Because of the high level of recruiting dur­
ing this period, this entry rate probably represents fairly
accurately the proportion of graduates who seek
engineering jobs. If an 80-percent rate continues, an
average of about 65,000 are expected to enter the field
annually. Other sources of supply are recent graduates
in other fields—primarily mathematics and the natural
sciences—immigrants, reentrants to the labor force, and
transfers from other occupations. The projected large
increase in engineering degrees may result in more
limited opportunities than in the past for entrants from
these sources, however.
Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990................................
Percent growth, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
G rowth...................................................................
Replacement1...................

Available training data:
Degrees in agronomy:
1977-78
Bachelor’s degrees.............................................
1,609
Master’s degrees............... . ................................
443
Doctor’s degrees..................................................
15 7

Available training data:

1,136,000
1,441,000
26.8
46,500
25,500
21,000
Projected

1978-90
1977-78

(annual
average)

56,009
16,409
2,440

81,441
16,722
3,158

Engineers

A bachelor’s degree in engineering is required for
most entry positions. College graduates who have
degrees in one of the natural sciences or mathematics
also may qualify for some beginning jobs. Occasionally,
experienced technicians are able to advance to some
engineering jobs. Graduate training in engineering is be­
ing emphasized for a number of jobs, and is essential
for teaching and research, and for advancement in
many areas.
In all States, engineers must be registered if they offer
their services directly to the public, or if they design
buildings, dams, or other projects where safety is a fac­
tor. Registration requirements include a degree from an
accredited engineering school, 4 years of relevant work
experience, and passing a State-board written examina­
tion. The majority of engineers are not registered.
Employment opportunities for those with engineering
degrees are expected to be good through the 1980’s.
Growth and replacement needs resulting from deaths
and retirements are expected to result in an annual
average of about 46,500 openings between 1978 and
1990. In addition, many openings will occur each year
as employed engineers transfer to other occupations,
but the number is difficult to estimate. The major



55

Degrees in engineering:2
Bachelor’s degrees . . .
Master’s degrees.........
Doctor’s degrees.........

^ o e s not include openings resulting from transfers,
includes engineering technology.

Environmental scientists

Geologists. A bachelor’s degree in geology or a related
field is appropriate training for many entry jobs. An ad­
vanced degree is helpful for promotion in most types of
work and is required for college teaching and some
research positions.
Employment opportunities in geology are expected to
be good for geology and earth science graduates.
Growth in the employment of geologists and replace­
ment needs are expected to result in about 1,700 open­
ings each year between 1978 and 1990. The major source
of supply of geologists is new graduates majoring in
geology and earth sciences. The National Center for
Education Statistics projects that bachelor’s degrees in
these majors will average about 5,400 during this

Degrees in geophysics and
seismology:
Bachelor’s d eg rees___
Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........

period. F ollow u p data on college graduates o f the
1960’s indicate that ab out 30 percent o f the b ach elor’s
degree recipients in these m ajors, including those w ho
w ent on to graduate study in geo lo g y or the earth
sciences actually entered g eo lo g y . T he rapid increase in
the em p loym ent o f geologists during the past few years,
how ever, indicates that this p rop ortion m ay have in ­
creased. A ssu m in g an entry rate o f 30 percent at a
m inim um , at least 1,600 g eo lo g y and earth science
graduates can be expected to seek entry to the field an ­
nually.
Other sources o f supply are graduates from other
fields, im m igrants, reentrants to the labor force, and
transfers from other occu p ation s. G eologists w ho enter
other occu p ation s also create job op en ings. Current
data on occu p ation al m ob ility are n ot adequate to assess
the net effect o f transfers as a source o f supply or o p en ­
ings, h ow ever. N or is it p ossib le to determ ine the effects
o f im m igration and reentrants on supply. O verall,
how ever, it appears that the num ber o f persons likely to
seek em p loym ent as g eologists w ill roughly equal the
num ber o f expected job op en ings in the field.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................
Available training data:

Degrees in geolog> and
earth science:
Bachelor’s degrees . . . .
Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........

4,191
1,126
228

a b ach elor’s degree in m eteo ro lo g y , a related science, or
engineering, w ith courses in m eteo ro lo g y . A n advanced
degree is necessary for som e p o sitio n s, particularly in
research and in college and university teaching.
Employment, 1978 ...............................................................
Projected employment, 1990.............................................
Percent growth, 1978-90........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ................................
Growth............................................................................
Replacem ent.................................................................
Available training data:
1977-78

Degrees in atmospheric
sciences and
meteorology:
Bachelor’s degrees . . .
Master’s degrees.........
Doctor’s degrees.........

31,000
42,000
35.5
1,700
900
800




1977-78

P rojected
1 978-90
(annual
average)

408
275
86

Employment, 1978 ..............................................................
Projected employment, 1990.............................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ....................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ................................
Growth...........................................................................
R eplacem ent.................................................................

5,392
1,332
323

G e o p h y s i c i s t s . A b ach elor’s degree in geop h ysics, or a
geop h ysical specialty, or in a related field o f science or
engineering w ith courses in geop h ysics, physics,
geo logy, m athem atics, chem istry, and engineering
generally is the m inim um requirem ents for these p o si­
tions. G raduate training usually is necessary for job s in
research and college and university teaching and for
supervisory p o sition s in exp loration activities.

Available training data:

353
199
58

7,300
8,800
20.0
300
100
200

O c e a n o g r a p h e r s . A n advanced degree, preferably a
P h . D . degree in oceanograph y, on e o f the natural
sciences, or engineering generally is required to b ecom e
an oceanographer. A b a ch elo r’s degree is su fficien t for
beginning jo b s as a research or laboratory assistant in
oceanograph y.

(annual
average)

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

149
145
59

M e t e o r o l o g i s t s . G enerally, the m inim um requirem ent is

Projected
1978-90
1977-78

144
97
34

Available training data:

3,600
4,400
21.6
150
75
75

P rojected

1978-90
1977-78

Degrees in oceanography:
Bachelor’s d eg rees----Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........

11,000
14,600
35.5
600
300
300

234
177
91

(annual
average)

273
154
117

Life science occupations
B ioch em ists. M any b egin ning job s in biochem istry,
especially in research and teaching, require an advanced
degree. A P h . D . degree u sually is necessary for highlevel b ioch em ical research and for advancem ent to
m anagem ent and adm inistrative jo b s. A b a ch elo r’s

Projected
1978-90
(annual
average)

56

degree with a m ajor in b ioch em istry or chem istry, or
w ith a m ajor in b io lo g y and a m inor in chem istry, m ay
be su fficien t for entry job s as research assistants or
technicians.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

20,000
25,000
25.5
900
450
450

Projected
1978-90

Available training data:
1971-18

Degrees in biochemistry:
Bachelor’s degrees . . .
Master’s degrees.........
Doctor’s degrees.........

Other sources o f supply are im m igrants, reentrants to
the labor force, and transfers from other occup ations.
L ife scientists w h o enter other occu p ation s also create
job op en ings. C urrent d ata on o ccu p ation al m obility
are not adequate to assess the net effec t o f transfers as a
source o f supply or op en ings, h ow ever. N o r is it p o ssi­
ble to determ ine the effects o f im m igration and reen­
trants on supply. O verall, it appears that the num ber o f
persons w ith advanced degrees w h o w ill seek em p loy­
m ent as life scientists w ill roughly equal the num ber o f
job op en ings in the field.

1,752
319
429

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

(annual
average)

2,275
374
478

Available training data:

(annual
average)

botanists, zo o lo g ists, m icrob iologists, and nutritionists.
A lth ou gh a b ach elor’s degree is adequate for som e jobs
in these fields, m ost p osition s require graduate training.
A P h . D . degree usually is required to teach in a college
or university, or to ob tain a senior research or ad­
m inistrative p o sitio n . A p rofession al health degree,
such as an M .D . or D .D .S ., is necessary for som e jobs
in m edical research.
M ost colleges and universities o ffe r life science curriculum s. Liberal arts colleges m ay em phasize the
b io logical sciences, w hile m any State universities also
concentrate on program s in agricultural science.
Students seeking careers in the life sciences sh oyld o b ­
tain as broad a background as p ossib le in the sciences,
including b io lo g y , chem istry, physics, and m athem atics.
E m p loym ent p rosp ects for advanced degree holders
are expected to be g o o d , but persons w ho have
b a ch elor’s degrees w ill face com p etition for jo b s.
G row th in em p loym ent o f life scientists and replace­
m ent needs are expected to result in ab ou t 11,200 o p en ­
ings each year betw een 1978 and 1990. A b o u t 14,000
m aster’s degrees and 4 ,1 0 0 d octorates are projected in
the life sciences an nu ally b etw een 1978 and 1990.
F ollow u p data indicate that ab out 50 percent o f the
m aster’s degree recipients and 90 percent o f the d o c­
torate recipients entered the field in the p ast. If this p at­
tern con tinu es, ab o u t 10,500 individuals w ith advanced
degrees can be expected to enter the life sciences annual-

Degrees in biological
sciences and in
agriculture and
natural resources:
Bachelor’s d eg rees___
Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........

74,937
10,887
4,284

88,268
13,972
4,096

Soil s c i e n t i s t s . A b a ch elo r’s degree in soil science,
agronom y, or a clo sely related field u sually is required.
Som e em ployers also require applicants to have had
courses in chem istry and cartography. Soil scientists
w ho have trained in b o th fieldw ork and laboratory
w ork m ay have the edge in ob tain in g the best jo b s. A n
advanced degree, especially a d octorate, m ay be
necessary for h igh-level research jo b s. A few States re­
quire certification o f soil scientists w ho inspect soil co n ­
ditions b efo re con stru ction starts. T o be certified, ap ­
plicants m ust have a b a ch elo r’s degree and 3 years’ ex­
perience as a soil scientist or a m aster’s degree and 2
years’ experience. A p p lican ts m ust pass a w ritten ex­
am ination.
Employment, 1978 ...............................................................
Projected employment, 1990.............................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ....................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ................................
Growth...........................................................................
Replacem ent.................................................................

iy.
A lth ou gh this num ber approxim ates the estim ate o f
annual op en ings (11,200), data from the sam e follo w u p
studies indicate that several thou sand graduates in other
fields also can be expected to seek life scientist p o si­
tions. B ecause som e p osition s require a p rofession al
m edical degree, a num ber o f individuals w ho have these
degrees are expected to enter the field.




Projected
1978-90

1977-78

L i f e s c i e n t i s t s . This group includes scientists such as

215,000
280,000
28.4
11,200
5,100
6,100

3,500
4,200
20.7
180
60
120

Available training data:
Degrees in soil science:
1977-78
Bachelor’s d eg rees.............................................
620
Master’s degrees..................................................
136
Doctor’s degrees..................................................
81

57

Mathematics occupations

degrees because many of the openings will be in
academic and other areas that require a Ph. D.

Mathematicians. Although a bachelor’s degree in
mathematics is adequate for some jobs in private in­
dustry and government, employers usually require an
advanced degree. A Ph. D. degree usually is required to
teach in a college or university. For work in applied
mathematics, training in the field in which the
mathematics will be used is important.
Competition for mathematician jobs is expected to re­
main keen throughout the 1978-90 period. Individuals
who have advanced degrees in applied mathematics
should have the best chances for employment. Those
mathematics degree holders who are unable to locate
mathematician jobs may find openings in other areas re­
quiring a mathematics background, such as actuarial
work, statistics, and computer work.
Growth in the employment of mathematicians and
replacement needs are expected to create about 1,000
job openings annually between 1978 and 1990. The ma­
jor source of supply of these workers is new graduates
majoring in mathematics. The National Center for
Education Statistics projects that about 500 doctorates
and 2,700 master’s degrees will be awarded each year
during this period. Followup data on college graduates
of the 1960’s indicate that almost one-half of the
master’s degree recipients and almost all of the doc­
torate recipients actually entered the field. During the
1970’s, the entry rate for master’s degree recipients
dropped to slightly more than one-fourth, largely due to
the growing competition for mathematician jobs and
the availability of jobs in the computer field that utilized
a mathematics background. However, at least one-third
of the master’s degree recipients and nearly all the doc­
torate recipients sought mathematician jobs. If the same
proportions hold true in the future, about 1,400 ad­
vanced degree holders are expected to seek mathematics
positions each year. If past trends continue, several hun­
dred graduates in other fields, primarily the natural
sciences, also could look for mathematician jobs.
Other sources of supply are immigrants, reentrants to
the labor force, and transfers from other occupations.
Mathematicians who enter other occupations also create
job openings. Current data on occupational mobility
are not adequate to assess the net effect of transfers as a
source of supply or openings. Nor are data on im­
migrants and reentrants to the labor force adequate to
evaluate the effect of these sources on supply. Overall,
however, it appears that, despite a continued decline in
the number of persons receiving advanced degrees in
mathematics, many degree holders will have to seek
employment in other fields. However, those with doc­
torates will have better chances of obtaining employ­
ment as mathematicians than those with master’s




Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1 978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................
Available training data:

Projected
1978-90
1977-78

Degrees in mathematics:
Bachelor’s degrees . . .
Master’s degrees.........
Doctor’s degrees.........

33,500
37,000
9.9
1,000
300
700

11,886
2,640
592

(annual
average)

11,616
2,667
508

Statisticians. A bachelor’s degree in statistics or
mathematics generally is required to become a statisti­
cian. For some jobs, however, a bachelor’s degree in
economics or another applied field and a minor in
statistics is preferable. An advanced degree is required
for some positions, particularly college teaching.
Courses in computer programming, systems analysis,
and other computer-related subject areas are highly
recommended.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0.........................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................
Available training data:

23,000
31,100
35.2
1,500
700
800

Projected

1978-90
1977-78

degrees in statistics:
Bachelor’s degrees . . .
Master’s degrees.........
Doctor’s degrees.........

(annual
average)

273
507
153

300
510
131

Physical scientists

Astronomers. The usual requirement for a job in
astronomy is a Ph. D. degree. Persons who have less
education may qualify for some entry level jobs; how­
ever, advancement in most areas is open only to those
who have a doctorate. In 1978, about 50 colleges and
universities had programs leading to the bachelor’s de­
gree in astronomy. Students with a bachelor’s degree in
physics, or in mathematics with a physics minor, usually
can qualify for the graduate programs in astronomy.

58

Almost all doctorate recipients can be expected to seek
entry to the field. Unless the number of doctorates
granted in the future is substantially lower than the
number granted in 1977-78, many doctorate recipients
may be forced to enter other occupations.
Employment, 1978 ..............................................................
Projected employment, 1990.............................................
Percent change, 1978 -9 0 ....................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ................................
Growth...........................................................................
Replacem ent.................................................................
Available training data:

Chemists who enter other occupations also create job
openings. Current data on occupational mobility are
not adequate to assess the net effect of transfers as a
source of supply or openings, however. Nor is it possi­
ble to determine the effects of immigration and reen­
trants on supply. Overall, however, it appears that the
number likely to seek employment as chemists will
roughly equal the number of expected jobs openings in
the field.

2,000
2,100
5.0
40
10
30

Projected
1978-90

1977-78

....
....

Employment, 1978 ............................
Projected employment, 1990...........
Percent growth, 1978-90.................
Average annual openings, 1978-90
Growth.........................................
Replacem ent..............................

(annual
average)

Available training data:
Degrees in astronomy:
Bachelor’s degrees . . .
Master’s degrees.........
Doctor’s degrees.........

110
84
80

138
80
64

Chemists. A bachelor’s degree in chemistry usually is
the minimium requirement for entry positions in
analysis and testing, quality control, technical service
and sales, or jobs as assistants to senior chemists in
research and development laboratories. Graduate train­
ing is essential for many positions and is helpful for ad­
vancement in all types of work. A Ph. D. degree
generally is required for teaching in colleges and univer­
sities.
Employment opportunities in chemistry are expected
to be good for graduates at all degree levels through the
1980’s. About three-fourth of the available openings
will be in private industry. Little growth in college and
university employment is expected, and competition for
teaching positions will be keen.
Growth in the employment of chemists and replace­
ment needs are expected to average about 6,100 open­
ings annually between 1978 and 1990. The major source
of supply of chemists is new graduates majoring in
chemistry. The National Center for Education Statistics
project that bachelor’s degrees in chemistry will average
12,500 annually during this period. Recent followup
data on college graduates indicate that about one-third
of those who receive bachelor’s degrees in chemistry, in­
cluding those who went on to graduate study in
chemistry, actually enter the field. (Many of those not
entering chemistry have gone on to medical, dental, or
veterinary schools, or have become secondary school
teachers.) Thus, if past entry patterns continue, about
4,000 new graduates are expected to seek jobs as
chemists each year. In addition, data from these same
followup studies indicate that about 1,400 recent
graduates in other fields, primarily biology and other
natural sciences, could seek chemist jobs each year.
Other sources of supply are immigrants, reentrants to
the labor force, and transfers from other occupations.



143,000
178,000
24.0
6,100
2,900
3,200

Projected
1978-90
1977-78

Degrees in chemistry:
Bachelor’s d eg rees___
Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........

(annual
average)

11,474
1,892
1,525

12,523
1,483
1,199

Physicists. Graduate training in physics or in a closely
related field is necessary for most jobs. A doctorate
usually is required for teaching positions in colleges and
universities and for senior research and administrative
positions. A bachelor’s degree is adequate for some en­
try level jobs, but graduate training is needed for ad­
vancement.
For persons who have graduate degrees in physics,
employment opportunities are expected to be favorable
through the 1980’s. Most openings will be in research
and development work. However, competition is ex­
pected to be keen for teaching positions in colleges and
universities. Persons who have only a bachelor’s degree
are expected to face very stiff competition for physicist
jobs.
Growth in the employment of physicists and replace­
ment needs are expected to result in an annual average
of about 1,000 openings between 1978 and 1990. Most
of these openings will require graduate training and a
substantial number will require doctorates.
College graduates who have majored in physics are
the primary source of supply. Since individuals who
have only a bachelor’s degree in physics rarely find
physicist jobs, the number of graduate degrees in
physics that are expected to be awarded is of more im­
portance. (Many of those who do not pursue a graduate
degree enter high school teaching, computer-related oc­
cupations, and engineering.) The National Center for
Education Statistics projects that an average of about
1,200 master’s and 760 doctor’s degrees will be awarded
annually between 1978 and 1990. Followup data on col­
lege graduates of the mid-1970’s indicate that about 20
59

percent of the master’s degree recipients and 90 percent
of the doctorate recipients entered the field. If these
rates continue, an average of at least 900 new graduate
degree recipients are expected to seek physicist jobs each
year. Because the proportion entering with master’s
degrees in the mid-1970’s was undoubtedly held down
by the lack of job opportunities in physics, 900 probably
represents an understatement of the number who will
seek jobs in the future.
In addition to new graduates in physics, individuals
also enter the field from other sources: Graduates with
degrees in related fields, immigrants, reentrants to the
labor force, and transfers from other occupations.
Physicists who enter other occupations also create open­
ings. Current data on occupational mobility are not ade­
quate to assess the net effect of transfers as a source of
supply or openings. Overall, however, it appears that
the number of persons likely to seek employment as
physicists will roughly equal the number of expected
openings in the field.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................
Available training data:
1977-78

Degrees in physics:
Bachelor’s d egrees___
Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Job Corps co m p letio n s.........................................
Apprenticeship com p letion s................................

Engineering and science technicians. Many combina­
tions of education and work experience qualify in­
dividuals for these occupations, but most employers
prefer applicants who have had some specialized
technical training. This specialized training consists of 1
to 4 years of full-time study at a technical institute,
junior or community college, extension division of a
college or university, or vocational-technical high
school. Training also can be acquired on the job,
through part-time courses in postsecondary schools, or
through correspondence school courses. Experience in
technical jobs in the Armed Forces also can be good
preparation for these occupations. A high school
diploma usually is required.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
R eplacem ent............................................................

600,000
760,000
25.1
23,000
12,500
10,500

Available training data:
Public vocational education co m p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Apprenticeship completions1................................
Junior college graduates2.......................................

44,000
48,000
8.9
1,000
300
700

Projected
1978-90
(annual
average)

3,259
1,270
841

33,294
1,350
110
85

44,726
4,679
116
53,364

Electronics technicians.
includes graduates from all mechanical and engineering
technologies, general natural science technologies, marine and
oceanographic technologies, and general laboratory technologies.

3,290
1,204
763

Drafters. Specialized training in technical institutes,
junior and community colleges, extension divisions of
universities, and vocational and technical high schools
generally provides the best preparation for beginning
drafters. The necessary skills also may be acquired by
combining on-the-job training programs with part-time
schooling, through 3- or 4-year apprenticeship pro­
grams, or in the Armed Forces. A high school diploma
usually is required. High school or vocational school
courses in mathematics, physical sciences, mechanical
drawing, and drafting are useful.

Food technologists. A bachelor’s degree with a major in
food technology or in the physical or life sciences, such
as chemistry or biology, is the usual minimum require­
ment for entry jobs. An advanced degree is necessary
for many jobs, particularly research and college
teaching and for some management level jobs in in­
dustry. Over 60 colleges and universities offered pro­
grams leading to the bachelor’s degree in food
technology in 1978. Undergraduates usually take
courses in physics, chemistry, mathematics, biology, the
social sciences, humanities, and business administra­
tion, as well as food technology courses. Food
technology courses cover areas such as preservation,
processing, sanitation, and marketing of foods.

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................
Replacem ent............................................................

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

Other scientific and technical occupations




296,000
367,000
24.0
11,000
5,900
5,100

60

15,000
17,000
12.0
500
150
350

Available training data:
1977-78

Degrees in food science and
technology:
Bacholor’s d egrees___
Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........

degrees in surveying or a closely related field such a
geodesy, photogrammetry, or civil engineering. High
school courses in mathematics, drafting, and
mechanical drawing provide a good background.
Surveyors who are responsible for locating and describ­
ing land boundaries must be licensed by the State in
which they work. Requiremens for licenses vary, but ap­
plicants generally must meet education and experience
requirements and must pass a written test.

Projected
1978-90
(annual
average)

717
323
113

902
328
106

Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth..........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................
Available training data:
Junior college grad u ates.........................................

Surveyors and surveying technicians. A combination of
postsecondary school courses in surveying and extensive
on-the-job training is the most common way to enter
this occupation. Junior colleges, technical institutes,
and vocational schools offer 1-, 2-, and 3-year programs
in surveying. Some colleges and universities offer

62,000
74,000
20.0
2,300
1,000
1,300

2,257

Mechanics and Repairers
throughout an installer’s career to improve skills and
teach new installing techniques. A high school diploma
generally is preferred, and courses in blueprint reading
and electronic theory are helpful. Because electrical
wires are color coded, applicants must not be color
blind.

Telephone craft occupations

Central office craft occupations. Trainee jobs generally
are filled by employees already with the company, such
as telephone operators or line installers. Occasionally,
workers are hired from outside. A high school diploma
is not required, but a basic knowledge of electricity or
electronics is helpful. Telephone training in the Armed
Forces is good preparation for the job. New craft
workers receive both classroom instruction and on-thejob training. Some vocational schools, particularly
those in rural areas served by small independent
telephone companies, also offer training. A few people
learn these crafts through apprenticeship programs
designed by State employment agencies in conjunction
with local telephone companies. Because electrical wires
usually are color coded, applicants must not be color
blind.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1978 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
D ecline.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

—

Line installers and cable splicers. These workers usually
are trained on the job. Classrooms are equipped with
actual telephone apparatus, including poles and other
fixtures, to simulate working conditions as much as
possible. Trainees learn how to climb poles and are
taught safe working practices to avoid falls and contact
with power wires. After several weeks, trainees general­
ly are assigned to a crew for on-the-job training under a
line supervisor. Some small independent telephone com­
panies, particularly in rural areas, rely on local voca­
tional and technical schools to provide classroom train­
ing. A few 4-year apprenticeships also are available in
which State employment agencies provide classroom
training. A high school diploma is not required. Train­
ing in installing telephone systems while in the Armed
Forces is helpful. Because the job is strenuous, ap­
plicants usually are given physical examinations. Many
line installers and cable splicers transfer to other
telephone occupations as they advance in age.

—

Central office equipment installers. These workers learn
their skills on the job. New employees attend classes the
first few weeks to learn basic installation and then begin
on-the-job training. Often trainees will be transported
to the plant where the equipment is manufactured to
receive their training. It usually takes several years to
become a skilled installer, and training continues



21,400
18,000
-1 5 .9
-1 0 0
-3 0 0
200

Available training data......................................................

135,000
130,000
-3 .7
1,000
-4 0 0
1,400

Available training data....................................................

Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
D ecline..........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

61

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

59,000
60,000
2.1
600
100
500

Available training data......................................................

—

Jobs Corps com pletions.........................................
Apprenticeship com p letion s................................

Appliance repairers. Formal training in appliance repair
is available in some vocational and technical schools
and community colleges. Graduates of these programs
still need on-the-job experience, however, to become
familiar with a variety of appliances and repairs.
Generally, it takes about 3 years to learn the trade. A
high school diploma usually is required and courses in
appliance repair, electricity, electronics, shop
mathematics, and blueprint reading provide a good
background. To keep up with changes in appliance
design, experienced repairers may attend training pro­
grams conducted by appliance manufacturers.

Telephone and PBX installers and repairers. These
workers are trained on the job. Telephone companies
provide several weeks of classroom instruction in sub­
jects such as mathematics and electrical and electronic
theory, supplemented by on-the-job training. Many
small independent telephone companies, particularly in
rural areas, rely on local vocational and technical
schools to train workers. A few 4-year apprenticeships
also are available in which State employment agencies
provide classroom training. Because telephone wires are
color coded, applicants must not be color blind.
Physical examinations are sometimes required, and ap­
plicants may have to pass a test to determine their ap­
titude for the job. Often trainees are chosen from cur­
rent telephone company employees. A high school
diploma is preferred but not required.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1978 -9 0 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

—

Automobile body repairers. Generally 3 to 4 years of
on-the-job training are necessary to learn all phases of
automobile body repair. Most repairers learn informally
on the job, but the recommended way to enter this oc­
cupation is through completion of a 3- or 4-year appren­
ticeship that combines on-the-job training with
classroom instruction in safety procedures, shop
mathematics, and business. Although high school
graduation is not required, most employers consider it
an asset. High school or vocational school courses in
automobile body repair or automobile mechanics are
helpful.

Air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heating mechanics.
Most workers start as helpers and learn their skills on
the job in about 4 years. A few individuals learn the
trade through a 4-year apprenticeship program that
combines on-the-job training with classroom instruction
in related subjects. In addition, many high schools and
vocational schools offer courses in air-conditioning,
refrigeration, and other subject areas that prepare
students for entry jobs. Employers generally prefer to
hire high school graduates and a diploma is required for
entry into apprenticeship programs. Courses in
mathematics, physics, basic mechanics, electricity, and
blueprint reading are helpful.

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

18,272
1,662




185,000
235,000
28.0
7,800
4,300
3,500

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Job Corps co m p letio n s.........................................
Apprenticeship com p letion s................................

210,000
245,000
16.7
8,200
2,900
5,300

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........

5,948
—
42

Tewer than 25.

Other mechanics and repairers

Employment, 1978 .....................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
R eplacem ent............................................................

145,000
180,000
24.1
6,900
2,900
4,000

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letio n s.........
Private vocational education completions1 ___
Jobs Corps com pletions.........................................

115,000
135,000
17.5
3,000
1,700
1,300

Available training data....................................................

171
203

29,401
845
672
99

Automobile mechanics. Most automobile mechanics
learn their trade through 3 to 4 years of on-the-job ex­
perience, but additional time may be needed to learn a
difficult specialty such as automatic transmission
62

repair. Training authorities usually recommend comple­
tion of a 3- or 4-year apprenticeship program which
combines on-the-job experience with classroom instruc­
tion in mathematics, physics, shop safety, and customer
relations. Automobile mechanic training in the Armed
Forces is good preparation. High school or vocational
school courses in science, mathematics, automobile
repair, and machine shop also are useful. A high school
diploma is preferred but not required.
Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent change, 1978-90 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
G rowth...................................................................
R eplacem ent........................................................

99,528
6,565
1,448
789

13,171

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

Business machine repairers. These workers usually are
hired as trainees and taught their skills on the job.
Trainees who work in a manufacturer’s branch office or
for a franchised dealer usually receive several weeks to
several months of training at a school sponsored by the
manufacturer. Training offered by independent repair
shops generally is less formal, with trainees completing
a self-study course and receiving on-the-job training
from an experienced repairer. Training also is available
through apprenticeship programs and in public and
private vocational schools.
Applicants must be high school graduates, and some
employers require at least 1 year of technical training in
basic electricity or electronics. Employers agree that
electronics training received in the Armed Forces is ex­
cellent preparation. Good eyesight, including color vi­
sion, and good hearing are important. High school

63,000
121,000
92.5
5,400
4,800
600

Available training data:
Junior college com p letion s...................................

'Graduates of small engine repair vocational programs.




1,217
195
—
94

Computer service technicians. Employers usually re­
quire applicants to have 1 to 2 years of post-high school
training in basic electronics or electrical engineering
from a computer school, a technical institute, a junior
college, or college. A few technicians are trained
through apprenticeship programs. Electronics training
in the Armed Forces also is excellent preparation.
Generally, 6 months to 2 years of on-the-job experience
is required before newly hired technicians are con­
sidered competent to work independently on the more
complex systems. High school courses in mathematics,
chemistry, and physics are considered good prepara­
tion. Appearance, disposition, and communication
skills also are important.

20,000
24,000
23.9
1,000
400
600

Available training data:
Public vocational education completions1...........

63,000
98,000
56.0
4,200
2,900
1,300

*May include some computer service technicians.
2Fewer than 25.

Boat engine mechanics. Most mechanics learn on the
job. Generally 2 to 3 years of experience are required to
become skilled in repairing both outboard and inboard
motors. A high school diploma is preferred by
employers but is not required. High school or voca­
tional school courses in small engine repair, auto
mechanics, and machine shop are helpful.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90.................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................
Available training data:1
Public vocational education co m p letion s...........
Private vocational education com pletions...........
Job Corps completions2...........................................
Apprenticeship com pletions...................................

860,000
1,060,000
22.7
37,000
16,000
21,000

Available training data:
Public vocational education com pletions___
Private vocational education completions . . .
Job Corps com pletions.......................................
Apprenticeship completions..............................

courses in physics, chemistry, and mathematics are
helpful.
Employment prospects will be excellent for those with
electronics training.

319

Electric sign repairers. Most electric sign repairers are
trained on the job, although some are trained in appren­
ticeship programs conducted by local unions and sign
manufacturing shops. At least 4 years of training and
experience are required to become a fully qualified
repairer. Employers prefer to hire high school or voca­
tional school graduates, but many repairers have less
education.
All electric sign repairers must be familiar with the
National Electric Code. Many cities require repairers to
pass an examination in local electric codes, and electric
theory and application.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................

63

15,000

Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................
Available training data......................................................

have to lift heavy equipment or climb to reach large
machines.

18,000
20.0
700
300
400
—

Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990 .....................................
Percent change, 1978-90 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
G rowth...................................................................
R eplacem ent........................................................
Available training data:
Job Corps com pletions.......................................
Apprenticeship completions..............................

Farm equipment mechanics. Most farm equipment
mechanics begin as helpers and learn their skills on the
job. Employers generally prefer to hire high school
graduates who have a farm background. Usually, at
least 3 years of on-the-job experience are necessary
before a person is able to handle all types of repairs.
Some mechanics learn their skills by completing a 3- to
4-year apprenticeship program, while others learn
through a vocational program. High school courses in
automobile repair, machine shop, science, and
mathematics are helpful.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

40
438

Maintenance electricians. Most maintenance electricians
work at least 4 years informally on the job to learn their
trade. Some workers learn through 4-year appren­
ticeship programs which combine on-the-job training
with classroom instruction in subjects such as electrici­
ty, blueprint reading, and safety. A high school diploma
usually is required. Vocational education courses in
electrical construction are useful, as are high school
courses in electricity, physics, mathematics, and science.
Many cities and counties require electricians to be
licensed. To obtain a license, an applicant must pass a
written examination and may have to demonstrate oc­
cupational skills.

62,000
77,000
24.2
3,500
1,300
2,200

Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s...........................................

655,000
1,085,000
66.0
58,000
36,000
22,000

43
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 19 7 8 -9 0 ...............
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978-90 .................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

29,000
29,000
0.0
1,100
0
1,100

Available training data:
Public vocational education completions1...........
Private vocational education com pletions...........
Job Corps com p letion s...........................................

7,198
75
102

600
32
594

Piano and organ tuners and repairers. Most workers
learn their trade on the job. Generally, 4 to 5 years of
on-the-job training are needed to qualify as a piano or
pipe organ technician. Piano tuning alone may be learn­
ed in less than 2 years. Electronic organ technicians
usually need formal training in electronics available in
technical schools, junior colleges, and the Armed
Forces. Courses in piano technology are offered by a
small number of technical schools and colleges. Home
study (correspondence school) courses in piano
technology also are available. Employers prefer high
school graduates for beginning jobs in these fields.
Music courses are helpful in developing an ear for tonal
quality, and woodworking courses also are useful
because many moving parts in pianos and pipe organs
are made of wood.

includes some upholsterers other than furniture.

Industrial machinery repairers. Most workers learn their
skills on the job as helpers to experienced workers by
rotating from job to job for several years. Others learn
their trade through 4-year apprenticeship programs that
combine on-the-job training with classroom instruction
in welding, blueprint reading, shop mathematics, and
safety. A high school diploma is not required, but high
school or vocational school courses in mathmatics and
machine shop may be helpful. Good physical condition
and agility are necessary because repairers sometimes



300,000
385,000
28.3
15,500
7,000
8,500

Available training data:
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Job Corps co m p letion s.........................................
Apprenticeship com pletions................................

Furniture upholsterers. The most common way to learn
this trade is to work with experienced upholsterers for
about 3 years and acquire skills on the job. Vocational
or high school courses in upholstery provide a good
background, but experience on the job still is necessary
to refine one’s skills. A high school diploma is not re­
quired.

Employment, 1978 ..............................................................
Projected employment, 1990.............................................
Percent growth, 1978-90....................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ................................

64

8,000
8,800
10.0
700

Growth............................................................................
Replacem ent.................................................................
Available training data........................................................

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth ,1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
R eplacem ent.............................................................

—

Shoe r e p a i r e r s . These workers generally start as helpers
and are trained on the job in shoe repair shops. It takes
up to 2 years to learn all aspects of the job. Some
repairers learn the trade in vocational schools, but addi­
tional training under an experienced shoe repairer
generally is helpful. A high school diploma is not re­
quired. Business courses are useful because many shoe
repairers own their shops. Some high schools and junior
colleges offer courses in shoe repair.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Decline.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

510
—
76

1
Fewer than 25.
T r u c k mechanics a n d b u s m e c h a n i c s . Most mechanics
learn their skills on the job in 3 to 4 years, but comple­
tion of a 4-year apprenticeship program is the recom­
mended way to learn this trade. These programs com­
bine on-the-job training with classroom instruction in
mathematics, physics, and shop safety. A high school
diploma is preferred by employers and strongly recom­
mended for applicants for apprenticeships. High school
or vocational school courses in automobile repair and
mathematics provide good preparation. For some jobs
that require driving, mechanics must have a chauffeur’s
license.

22,000
21,000
-4 .5
1,600
-1 0 0
1,700

Available training data......................................................

131,000
166,000
26.7
6,100
2,900
3,200

Available training data:
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Job Corps completions1.........................................
Apprenticeship com p letion s................................

100
600

—

T e l e v i s i o n a n d r a d i o s e r v i c e t e c h n i c i a n s . Employers
usually hire persons who have had formal training in
electronics while in high school, vocational school, or
junior college. Armed Forces electronics training is
useful, although employers may require additional
training in television electronics. Up to 4 years of onthe-job training are necessary to become skilled in most
types of repair work. A high school diploma is required.
Some States have licensing requirements.

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................

165,000
210,000
27.0
6,800
3,300
3,500

Available training data

Health Occupations
Dental occupations

Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent..................................................................

Dentists. All States require dentists to have a license to
practice. To be licensed, candidates must graduate from
a dental school approved by the American Dental
Association and pass a State board examination. Most
State licenses permit dentists to engage in both general
and specialized practice. However, 14 States require
specialists to have 2 or 3 years of graduate education
and in some cases, pass a State examination on the
specialty. Dental school training generally lasts 4
academic years, although some institutions condense it
into 3 calendar years. Applicants to dental school must
have 2 to 4 years of college education, including courses
in the sciences and humanities. In 1978, about 4 out of 5
students in dental school had a bachelor’s or master’s
degree.
Employment, 1978 ........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................



Available training data:
1977-78

29.2
5,500
3,000
2,500

Projected
1978-90
(annual
average)

Dental school graduates . . .

5,238

5,400

a s s i s t a n t s . Most dental assistants learn their
skills on the job, but an increasing number are trained
through post-high school programs offered in junior
and community colleges, and in vocational and
technical schools. These programs generally take 1 year
to complete and lead to a certificate or diploma.
Graduates of 2-year programs offered in junior and
community colleges earn associate degrees. Training
also is available in the Armed Forces. Individuals who
have had formal training generally have an advantage
D en tal

120,000
155,000

65

when seeking a job. A high school diploma is required,
and courses in biology, chemistry, health, and typing
are helpful.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.........................

150,000
225,000
50.0
11,000
6,300
4,700

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Job Corps com p letion s.........................................
Junior college grad u ates.......................................

In 1978, 55 junior colleges, colleges, and vocational
and technical schools offered training programs ac­
credited by the Commission on Accreditation of Dental
and Dental Auxiliary Educational Programs. After
completion of these 2-year programs, the trainee may
need about 3 years of experience to become a fully
qualified technician. Some technicians complete ap­
prenticeship programs. Dental laboratory technicians
may become certified dental technicians by passing writ­
ten and practical examinations given by the National
Association of Dental Laboratories. Certification is
becoming increasingly important as evidence of a
technician’s competence.

8,013
3,521
64
1,329

Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

Medical practitioners

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s...........
2,360
Junior college grad u ates.............................................
3,825

Degrees in dental hygiene:
Bachelor’s degrees. . .
Master’s degrees.........
Doctor’s degrees.........

1,141
30
—

1,234
793
26
763

includes some medical technicians.

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
35,000
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
65,000
85.7
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..................................
6,000
Growth.............................................................................
2,500
Replacem ent..................................................................
3,500

1977-78

47,000
70,000
48.9
2,800
1,900
900

Available training data:
Public vocational education co m p letion s...........
Private vocational education com pletions...........
Apprenticeship completions1...................................
Junior college grad u ates.........................................

Dental hygienists. Completion of an associate degree
program usually is sufficient training to practice in a
dentist’s office. To do research, teach, and work in
public or school health programs, at least a bachelor’s
degree is required. Dental hygienists must be licensed
and only graduates of the associate or bachelor’s degree
programs of accredited dental hygiene schools are eligi­
ble for licensing. To obtain a license, applicants must
pass both a written and a clinical examination. Dental
hygiene training given in the Armed Forces does not ful­
ly prepare one to pass the licensing examination, but
credit for that training may be granted to persons seek­
ing admission to accredited schools. High school
courses in biology, health, chemistry, and mathematics
are useful.

Projected
1978-90
(annual
average)

Chiropractors. All States require chiropractors to meet
certain educational requirements and pass a State board
examination for a license. Although the type of
chiropractic procedures permitted and the education re­
quired vary, most States require graduation from a 4year chiropractic course following 2 years of
undergraduate college work.
Enrollments in chiropractic colleges have grown
dramatically. As more students graduate and the
number of practitioners swells, new chiropractors may
find it increasingly difficult to establish a practice in
those areas where chiropractors already are located.
Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990............
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

1,695
100
—

Available training data:

Dental laboratory technicians. Many dental laboratory
technicians learn their skills on the job, usually in 3 to 4
years. A few vocational schools offer courses in dental
laboratory work. High school graduates are preferred,
and courses in art, crafts, metal shop, metallurgy, and
science are helpful. Persons who receive dental
laboratory training in the Armed Forces usually qualify
for civilian jobs as technicians.



Chiropractic school graduates................................

18,000
21,000
17.2
1,500
250
1,250
1977-78
1,661

Optometrists. All States require optometrists to be
licensed. Applicants for a license must have a Doctor of
Optometry degree from an accredited school of op­
tometry and pass a State board examination. The Doc­
tor of Optometry degree requires a minimum of 6 years
of education after high school, consisting of 4 years of
66

optometry school preceded by at least 2 years of
undergraduate college study. In 1979, the American Optometric Association accredited 13 schools.
Employment opportunities are expected to be
favorable through the 1980’s. About 1,600 new op­
tometrists will be needed annually, although the U.S.
Public Health Service projects an average of 1,000 op­
tometry graduates each year.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth..........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................
Available training data:

M .D. degrees1 ...............
D.O. degrees1 ....................

Podiatrists. All States require a license for the practice
of podiatry. Applicants for a license must graduate
from an accredited 4-year program in a college of
podiatric medicine and pass a State board examination.
Four States also require a 1-year residency. At least 3
years of college are required for admission to any of the
five colleges of podiatric medicine. Most successful ap­
plicants to schools of podiatry in 1978 had bachelor’s
degrees. No one college major is required.
Opportunities for graduates to establish new practices
or obtain salaried positions are expected to be
favorable. It is anticipated that an average of 600
podiatrists will be needed each year. The U.S. Public
Health Service projects that the supply of new graduates
should approximate requirements.

21,000
26,000
25.2
1,600
500
1,100

1,014

Physicians and osteopathic physicians. All States re­
quire a license for the practice of medicine. Applicants
for a license must graduate from an approved medical
school or school of osteopathy, pass a State board ex­
amination, and in almost all cases, serve a 1- or 2-year
hospital residency. Most students who enter medical
school or a school of osteopathy have earned a
bachelor’s degree, although many schools accept
students who have had just 3 years of college. Although
no one college major is best, a major in one of the
sciences is good preparation. Most medical schools and
schools of osteopathy have 4-year curriculums. Persons
who wish to specialize must complete “ advanced
residency training” usually followed by 2 or more years
of practice in the specialty before they may take the
specialty board examinations.
The employment outlook for physicians and
osteopathic physicians is expected to be favorable. Over
the 1978-90 period, about 17,900 students are projected
to graduate from U.S. medical schools each year, and
about 1,600 foreign medical graduates are expected to
enter the country annually, according to the U.S. Public
Health Service. The number of physicians and
osteopathic physicians from both of these sources
(19,500) approximates the estimated total requirements
(19,000).
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................
Available training data:




Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth..........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................
Available training data:
1977-78

Podiatry school graduates1. . .

543

8,000
12,500
53.7
600
350
250

Projected
1978-90
(annual
average)

594

‘U.S. Public Health Service data.

Veterinarians. A license is required to practice
veterinary medicine in all States. To be licensed, a can­
didate must earn the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
(D. V.M.) degree and pass a State board examination.
Four years of study in a college of veterinary medicine
preceded by at least 2 years of undergraduate education
are required to earn the D.V.M. degree. Applicants for
admission to veterinary college must have completed 2
to 3 years of study in a program that emphasizes the
physical and biological sciences. Most students,
however, have completed 3 to 4 years of college study.
Veterinary employment is expected to grow faster
than the average for all occupations through the 1980’s.
At the same time, however, enrollments and gradua­
tions from veterinary schools have swelled, and new
graduates may face competition in establishing practices
in some areas. Although 1,700 new veterinarians will be
needed annually, the U.S. Public Health Service pro­
jects an average of 2,100 students will graduate each
year.

405,000
560,000
38.1
19,000
13,000
6,000

Projected
1978-90
1977-78

16,550
1,350

‘U.S. Public Health Service data.

1977-78

Optometry school graduates...................................

14,598
964

(annual
average)

67

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................
Available training data:
1977-78

high school diploma with courses in science and
mathematics.
Medical laboratory technicians may obtain training
through 2-year programs offered by junior colleges, col­
leges and universities, and vocational and technical
schools. Some are trained in the Armed Forces. Medical
technologists usually must complete 4 years of college,
including 12 months of study and extensive laboratory
work in medical technology. About 670 hospitals and
colleges and universities offered programs accredited by
the American Medical Association. A bachelor’s degree
usually is awarded upon completion, although a few
programs require a bachelor’s degree for entry.

33,500
45,000
35.6
1,700
1,000
700

Projected f o r
1978-90
(annual
average)

Veterinary school
graduates1 ..............................

1,635

2,100

‘U.S. Public Health Service data.

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990................................
Percent growth, 1 978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

Electroencephalographic (EEG) technologists and
technicians. Most EEG technologists and technicians
are trained on the job by experienced EEG personnel.
Training authorities, however, recommend completion
of a formal training program. These programs, which
usually last from 1 to 2 years, may be offered in col­
leges, junior colleges, medical schools, hospitals, and
vocational or technical schools. In 1978, there were 27
of these programs, 12 of which were approved by the
Committee on Allied Health Education and Accredita­
tion. High school graduation is required, and courses in
health, biology, and electronics are helpful.
EEG personnel who have 1 year of training and 1 year
of experience and pass a written and oral examination
administered by the American Board of Registration of
Electroencephalographic Technologists can become
“ Registered EEG Technologists.” Registration is not a
requirement for employment but is acknowledgement of
a technologist’s qualifications and makes it easier to ob­
tain better paying positions.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978 -9 0 .................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

1977-78

Degrees in medical laboratory
technologies:
Bachelor’s d eg rees.........
Master’s degrees.............

(annual
average)

5,288
292

6,219
350

‘Fewer than 25.

Medical record technicians and clerks. High school
graduates who have basic secretarial skills can enter the
medical record field as clerks. About 1 month of on-thejob training is needed to learn routine tasks. Although
not required, high school courses in science, health, and
mathematics are helpful. The American Medical Record
Association (AMRA) offers a correspondence course in
medical transcription; the certificate awarded upon suc­
cessful completion of the course is helpful in applying
for a job as a clerk.
Most employers prefer to fill technician positions
with graduates of 2-year associate degree programs in
medical record technology. In 1978, the American
Medical Association and the AMRA had accredited 70
programs. Technicians may take the Accredited Record
Technician (ART) examination. Passing the examina­
tion indicates competence in the field and can be helpful
for promotion.

89

includes all electrodiagnostic technicians.

Medical laboratory workers. There are three occupa­
tions within this group—medical laboratory assistant,
medical laboratory technician, and medical
technologist. Most medical laboratory assistants are
trained on the job. In recent years, however, an increas­
ing number have completed 1-year training programs
conducted by hospitals, junior colleges, and vocational
schools. Applicants to these programs should have a



5,223
231
—
3,819

Projected
1978-90

7,000
10,500
49.9
500
300
200

Available training data:
Junior college graduates1.........................................

210,000
265,000
26.2
14,800
4,600
10,200

Available training data:
Public vocational education co m p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Job Corps completions1.........................................
Junior college grad u ates.......................................

Medical technologist, technician, and assistant
occupations

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................

68

50,000
65,000
30.0

Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................
Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s...........................................
Junior college grad u ates.........................................

medical schools, colleges, junior colleges, vocational
schools, and the military services. A few schools con­
duct 3- or 4-year programs, and some schools award
bachelor’s and master’s degrees in X-ray technology.
Generally, there is more potential for advancement for
persons who hold bachelor’s or master’s degrees. High
school graduation is required for entry to all training
programs, and courses in mathematics, physics,
chemistry, and biology are helpful.
Although the demand for radiologic technologists
should continue to be strong, the number of graduates
of AMA-approved programs in this field is expected to
grow rapidly through the 1980’s. If present enrollment
patterns continue, the number seeking to enter the oc­
cupation is likely to exceed the number of openings. As
a result, graduates may face competition for positions
of their choice.

4,900
1,300
3,600

96
1,098

Operating room technicians. Most operating room
technicians are trained in vocational and technical
schools, hospitals, and community and junior colleges.
Generally, these programs last from 9 months to 1 year,
but some junior college programs last 2 years and lead
to an associate degree. In 1978, there were 68 training
programs accredited by the Committee on Allied Health
Education and Accreditation. Some technicians are
trained on the job. The length of training ranges from 6
weeks to 1 year, depending on the individual’s qualifica­
tions and the extent and difficulty of the work assigned.
Applicants who have worked as nursing aides or prac­
tical nurses may be preferred. Some operating room
technicians also are trained in the Armed Forces. A high
school diploma generally is required, and courses in
health and biology are helpful.
The Association of Surgical Technologists awards a
certificate to operating room technicians who pass its
comprehensive examination. This certification is
recognized as a sign of competence and often com­
mands a higher salary.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

Respiratory therapy workers. There are three levels of
workers-assistants, technicians, and therapists.
Assistants trained on the job learn their skills in about 6
weeks. A high school diploma is not required but may
be preferred by some employers. Formal training
beyond high school is required for technicians and
therapists. Programs are offered in colleges and univer­
sities, junior colleges, and hospitals. Generally,
technician training programs last 12 months, while
therapist training programs last 18 to 24 months.
Therapists completing the 2-year program at a college
earn an associate degree. Some colleges and universities
offer 4-year programs for therapists that culminate in a
bachelor’s degree. High school courses in health,
biology, mathematics, physics, and bookkeeping are
useful preparation for these occupations.
The National Board of Respiratory Therapy awards
the Registered Respiratory Therapist (RRT) and Cer­
tified Respiratory Therapy Technician (CRTT) creden­
tials to individuals who meet their requirements. To
earn the RRT, therapists must complete an approved
training program, have 62 semester hours of college

15,000
21,500
42.4
1,200
500
700

Available training data:
Junior college grad u ates.........................................

662

Radiologic (X-ray) technologists. Completion of a 2year training program in radiography is required for en­
try to the field. These programs are offered in hospitals,




1977-78
392
42
—

Tewer than 25.

Optometric assistants. Most optometric assistants are
trained on the job, but training also can be acquired
through 1- or 2-year courses in junior colleges. A high
school diploma or its equivalent, including knowledge
of mathematics and office procedures, is preferred for
both on-the-job and formal training.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

3,090
3,533
3,959

Degrees in radiologic technologies:
Bachelor’s d eg rees.........................................
Master’s degrees.............................................
Doctor’s degrees1 ...........................................

1,381
291

100,000
140,000
40.0
9,000
3,300
5,700

Available training data:
Public vocational education co m p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Junior college grad u ates.......................................

35,000
53,000
49.9
2,600
1,400
1,200

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s...........
Junior college grad u ates.........................................

Employment, 1978 ....................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

69

1977-78

credit, 1 year of experience, and pass written and
clinical examinations. To earn the CRTT, technicians
must complete an approved training program, have
1 year of experience, and pass a written test.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

50,000
77,500
55.0
5,000
2,300
2,700

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s...........
Job Corps completions1...........................................
Junior college grad u ates.........................................

3,168
—
2,567

1
Fewer than 25.

Nursing occupations

Registered nurses. All States require professional nurses
to be licensed. Applicants for a license must graduate
from a school approved by the State board of nursing
and pass the State board examination. All nursing
schools require a high school diploma for entry. Pro­
grams vary in length from 2 to 5 years. Nurses who com­
plete 2-year courses earn associate degrees; those who
complete 3-year courses earn diplomas; and bachelor’s
degrees are awarded to graduates of 4- and 5-year
courses. A master’s degree is preferred for research,
consultation, teaching, and clinical specialization.
Employment opportunities are expected to be
favorable through the 1980’s. Between 1978 and 1990,
an average of 85,000 new registered nurses will be need­
ed annually. The U.S. Public Health Service projects
that the average number of graduates each year will be
about 76,000. Traditionally, not all graduates have
entered nursing immediately upon graduation, and
many have left the labor force early in their careers.
Thus, a substantial pool of qualified nurses exists out­
side the labor force. Many nurses are expected to seek
entry or reentry into the field, but the number depends
on many factors which are difficult to analyze, such as
the availability of jobs in specific localities, general
economic conditions, and job opportunities and salaries
in other occupations for which nurses are qualified.
Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent growth, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
G rowth...................................................................
R eplacem ent........................................................

1,060,000
1,570,000
49.6
85,000
43,000
42,000

Available training data:
Public vocational education completions1 . . .
Private vocational education completions . . .
Junior college graduates1 ..................................

24,895
154
36,193




Degrees in nursing:
Bachelor’s degrees___
Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........

Projected
1978-90
(annual
average)

30,307
3,812
56

30,088
4,104
20

’Some graduates may be counted in both junior college and vocational education programs.

Licensed practical nurses. All States require applicants
for licenses as practical nurses to complete a Stateapproved course in practical nursing and pass an ex­
amination. Educational requirements for enrollment in
these courses vary by State and range from completion
of eighth or ninth grade to high school graduation.
Generally, the course lasts 1 year and is given in junior
colleges, local hospitals, health agencies, and vocational
schools.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

518,000
840,000
62.2
60,000
26,000
34,000

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s.........
Private vocational education com pletions.........
Job Corps co m p letion s.........................................
Junior college com p letion s..................................

34,399
3,242
42
3,019

Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants. Although
some employers prefer to hire high school graduates, a
diploma is not required. Training usually is acquired on
the job, often in combination with classroom instruc­
tion covering areas such as the correct procedures for
changing bed linens, taking temperatures, and giving
back rubs. Public and private vocational schools also
offer this training.
Employment, 1978 ......................................................
Projected employment, 1990.....................................
Percent change, 1978-90 ...........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90..........................
Growth...................................................................
R eplacem ent........................................................

1,037,000
1,575,000
52.0
94,000
45,000
49,000

Available training data:
Public vocational education com pletions___
Private vocational education completions . . .
Job Corps com pletions.......................................

42,325
2,725
1,768

Therapy and rehabilitation occupations

Occupational therapists. A bachelor’s degree in occupa­
tional therapy generally is required to enter this profes­
sion. Some schools, however, offer programs leading to

70

are expected to face some competition through the
1980’s.

a certificate or a master’s degree in occupational
therapy for students who have a bachelor’s degree in
another field. Graduates of approved programs may
take the American Occupational Therapy Association
examination to become registered occupational
therapists (OTR). This designation is recognition of
professional competence.
The increasing number of graduates from training
programs is expected to be in balance with openings.
Employment opportunities, therefore, are expected to
be favorable through the 1980’s.
Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth..........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

Available training data:
1977-78

15,000
30,000
100.0
2,500
1,300
1,200

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s...........

Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 .........................
Growth..........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

820

Degrees in physical therapy:
Bachelor’s degrees----Master’s degrees...........

1978-90
(annual

average)
Degrees in occupational therapy:
1,528
Bachelor's degrees___
Master’s degrees...........
222

1,920
190

Occupational therapy assistants. Most occupational
therapy assistants graduate from 1- or 2-year junior col­
lege programs or complete an approved occupational
therapy assistant program in the Armed Forces. Some
learn their skills in vocational and technical programs.
Applicants for training programs must have a high
school diploma or its equivalent.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

10,000
15,000
50.0
1,100
400
700

Available training data:
Junior college grad u ates.........................................

Projected
1978-90
(annual
average)

3,049
177

Physical therapist assistants and aides. Some States now
license physical therapist assistants. To obtain a license,
applicants must complete an approved 2-year associate
degree program and pass a written examination. A few
States, however, license those who learned their skills
before the associate degree programs became available.
States which do not require licensing allow physical
therapist aides to advance to assistants by acquiring the
necessary knowledge and skills on the job, but
employers often prefer to hire graduates of approved
programs for assistant jobs.
Physical therapist aides train on the job. The length
and content of these training programs depends on the
difficulty of the duties aides are expected to perform
and the needs of the patients in the particular program.
Employers generally prefer to hire high school
graduates who have worked as hospital nursing aides.
High school courses in health, biology, psychology, and
physical education are useful preparation for both aides
and assistants.

Projected
1977-78

2,418
258

30,000
45,000
50.0
2,700
1,300
1,400

661

Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth..........................................................................
R eplacem ent...............................................................
Available training data:
Public vocational education co m p letio n s...........
Job Corps completions1...........................................
Junior college grad u ates.........................................

Physical therapists. All States require physical
therapists to be licensed. Applicants for a license must
have a bachelor’s degree in physical therapy and pass a
State board examination. For persons who have
bachelor’s degrees in other fields, 12- to 16-month cer­
tificate programs and master’s degree programs are
available. A graduate degree combined with clinical ex­
perience increases advancement opportunities, especial­
ly in teaching, research, and administration.
The rapidly growing number of new graduates is ex­
pected to exceed the number of openings that will occur
each year in this occupation. As a result, new graduates



12,500
15,000
20.0
400
200
200

854
—
975

1
Fewer than 25.

Speech pathologists and audiologists. Most States
prefer and some require applicants for beginning jobs in
public schools to have a master’s degree. In addition, a
teacher’s certificate often is required, and some States
insist that workers who deal with handicapped children
have special training. In 30 States, those offering speech
pathology and audiology services outside of schools
71

Dispensing opticians. Most dispensing opticians learn
their skills on the job. Employers prefer high school
graduates, and graduation is required for formal train­
ing programs. Some dispensing opticians learn their
skills through 2- to 4-year apprenticeship programs that
teach optical mathematics, optical physics, and the use
of laboratory equipment. Apprentices also are taught to
fit patients with eyeglasses and contact lenses. High
school courses in physics, geometry, algebra, and
mechanical drawing are useful.
In 1978, 21 schools offered 2-year full-time courses in
optical fabricating and dispensing work leading to an
associate degree. In 1978, 20 States required dispensing
opticians to be licensed. Applicants for a license must
pass an examination.

must be licensed; licensure requirements vary. Many
Federal programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, re­
quire participating speech pathologists and audiologists
to have a master’s degree.
Competition for jobs in many areas of the country is
expected to be keen. Over the 1978-90 period, an
average of nearly 4,000 new speech pathologists will be
needed each year. Graduates of master’s degree pro­
grams alone are expected to approach that number, and
a number of bachelor’s degree holders also will compete
for jobs. Some rural and inner-city jobs have been dif­
ficult to fill, however, so opportunities for master’s
degree holders who are willing to work in these areas
should be favorable.
Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
R eplacem ent...............................................................

32,000
60,000
87.5
3,900
2,300
1,600

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................
Available training data:
Apprenticeship com p letion s...................................
Junior college grad u ates.........................................

Available training data:
Degrees in speech pathology and audiology:
1977-78
Bachelor’s d egrees...................................................3,551
Master’s degrees....................................................... 3,190
Doctor ’s degrees...................................................... 121

Dietitians. A bachelor’s degree, preferably with a major
in foods and nutrition or institution management, is the
basic educational requirement. This degree usually is
earned through departments of home economics. To
qualify for professional recognition, the American
Dietetic Association recommends completion of an ap­
proved dietetic internship or an approved individual
trainee program following graduation. The internship
lasts 6 to 12 months and the trainee program, 1 to 2
years. A growing number of coordinated undergraduate
programs enable students to complete all requirements
in 4 years.

Available training data:

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................

35,000
50,000
42.9
3,300
1,300
2,000

180,000
282,000
57.1
18,000
8,100
9,900

Available training data:
Degrees in hospitals and health care
administration:
Bachelor’s d eg rees.........................................
Master’s degrees.............................................
Doctor’s degrees1 ...........................................

P r o je c te d
1978-90

1977-78

52
662

Health service administrators. Educational require­
ments for health administrators vary. A bachelor’s de­
gree is often the minimum educational preparation. For
some jobs, a master’s degree in hospital or health care
administration or in public health is required. The Ph.
D. degree generally is required for teaching and research
positions and for administrative jobs in large,
prestigious organizations. Some employers hire persons
who have other background. A few hospitals and clinics
require administrators to be physicians or registered
nurses.

Other health occupations

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
R eplacem ent...............................................................

17,600
24,300
38.1
1,200
600
600

(annual

1977-78
1,158
1,565
—

average)

Tewer than 25.

Degrees in foods and
nutrition:
Bachelor’s degrees----Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........



3,068
676
33

Medical record administrators. Preparation for a career
as a medical record administrator is offered in special­
ized 4-year programs in colleges and universities. Most
programs lead to a bachelor’s degree in medical record

1,071
531
176

72

administration. Some persons transfer into these pro­
grams from junior colleges. One-year certificate pro­
grams are available for persons who already have a
bachelor’s degree and the required courses in the liberal
arts and biological sciences. High school courses in
health, business administration, mathematics, and
biology are useful.
Graduates of approved schools in medical record ad­
ministration may become Registered Record Ad­
ministrators by passing an examination given by the
American Medical Record Association.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90.................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

Education in the 72 colleges of pharmacy. Most
graduates receive a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) or
Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm) degree. About onethird of the colleges offer advanced professional degree
programs leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.
D.) degree; 3 schools offer only the Pharm. D. degree.
The Pharm. D. degree, a master’s degree, or a Ph. D.
degree in pharmacy is required for certain research, ad­
ministrative, or teaching positions. Some pharmacists
enter medical, dental, or law school, or pursue graduate
degrees in science or engineering.
If the number of pharmacy college graduates con­
tinues to rise as rapidly as it has in recent years, the job
market for graduates may become increasingly com­
petitive. Job prospects vary within the profession.
Although community pharmacies will continue to be the
primary employer of pharmacists, employment of these
workers is expected to rise fastest in hospitals and other
health facilities. Pharmacists in these settings increas­
ingly provide direct patient care and consultative ser­
vices to physicians and other professionals.

12,500
15,000
20.0
900
200
700

Available training data:
Degrees in medical record librarianship:
1977-78
Bachelor’s d egrees...........................................
543
Master’s degrees1 .............................................
—

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

!Fewer than 25.

Pharmacists. All States require pharmacists to be licen­
sed. To obtain a license, one must graduate from an ac­
credited pharmacy college, pass a State Board examina­
tion, and usually have a specified amount of practical
experience or a period of internship under a licensed
pharmacist. For entry to a college of pharmacy, at least
1 or 2 years of prepharmacy education in an accredited
junior college, college, or university usually is required.
At least 5 years of study beyond high school are re­
quired to graduate from one of the degree programs ac­
credited by the American Council on Pharmaceutical

Available training data:

Projected
1978-90
1977-78

Degrees in pharmacy:
Bachelor’s d eg rees___
Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........

135,000
185,000
37.0
7,800
4,200
3,600

(annual
average)

7,468
320
96

8,079
299
61

Social Scientists
The proportion of social scientists employed in col­
leges and universities varies widely among occupations.
(See table below.) Economists and psychologists are
much more heavily involved in nonacademic “ applied”
pursuits than are other social scientists. Little if any
employment growth is anticipated in the academic sec­
tor through the 1980’s, a reflection of declining college
enrollments. The number of advanced degrees awarded
in the social sciences is expected to exceed job openings,
producing a highly competitive job market. As a result,
an increasing proportion of advanced degree holders are
expected to enter nonacademic positions.

E conom ists................................
Geographers..............................
H istorians...................................
Political Scientists......................
Psychologists..............................
Sociologists.................................

Anthropologists. A Ph. D. degree in anthropology is
necessary for permanent positions in colleges and
universities and for many nonacademic jobs. A master’s
degree is sufficient for teaching jobs in community and
junior colleges and some 4-year colleges and for some
beginning jobs in business and government, but ad­
vancement generally is limited.
The number of qualified anthropologists seeking to
enter the field is expected to exceed available positions.

E s t i m a t e d p e rc en t e m p l o y e d in
colleges and universities

A nthropologists.......................



10
60
70
80
25
80

80

73

As a result, persons who have a Ph. D. degree may face
keen competition, particularly for college and university
positions. Master’s and bachelor’s degree holders are
likely to face even greater competition, although some
may find research or administrative positions in govern­
ment and industry, or teaching jobs in junior colleges or
high schools.
Employment, 1978 ..............................................................
Projected employment, 1990.............................................
Percent growth, 1978-90....................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ................................
Growth...........................................................................
Replacem ent.................................................................
Available training data:

Projected
1978-90
(annual
average)

4,300
856
398

4,218
1,065
353

Economists. A bachelor’s degree in economics is suffi­
cient for many beginning jobs in government and in­
dustry. A master’s degree is sufficient for teaching posi­
tions in community and junior colleges and some 4-year
colleges and may be required for more responsible
nonacademic positions. A Ph. D. degree is required for
permanent positions in colleges and universities and is
an asset for advancement in all areas.
Persons who have a Ph. D. degree are likely to face
competition for academic positions but should find
favorable prospects in government, industry, research
organizations, and consulting firms. Master’s degree
holders may face keen competition for academic posi­
tions but may find good opportunities for ad­
ministrative, research, and planning positions in
nonacademic areas. Bachelor’s degree holders are ex­
pected to face very strong competition for jobs as
economists, although some may find employment in
government, industry, and business as management or
sales trainees, or as research or administrative
assistants. Economists well trained in quantitative
methods should be in particular demand.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ...................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.........................
Available training data:
1977-78

Degrees in economics:
Bachelor’s d egrees___



15,746

1,997
706

2,254
706

Geographers. A bachelor’s degree in geography is the
minimum requirement for beginning jobs in govern­
ment and industry. A master’s degree is sufficient for
teaching jobs in community and junior colleges and
some 4-year colleges and may be required for advance­
ment in nonacademic areas. A Ph. D. degree is neces­
sary for permanent positions in colleges and universities
and for some senior level research, planning, and ad­
ministrative positions.
Persons who have a Ph. D. degree are expected to
face competition for academic positions but should
have favorable prospects for research and ad­
ministrative jobs in government, industry, research
organizations, and environmental and other consulting
firms. Master’s degree holders may face strong competi­
tion for academic positions but may find job oppor­
tunities in planning and marketing. Bachelor’s degree
holders are likely to face competition for jobs as
geographers. Some may find employment as manage­
ment trainees or research or administrative assistants.
Others may become secondary school teachers, or earn
library science degrees and become map librarians.
Geographers trained in applied areas, such as quan­
titative methods, cartography, or remote sensing data
interpretation, should have the best opportunities.

7,000
8,600
23.1
350
150
200

1977-78

Degrees in anthropology:
Bachelor’s d egrees___
Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........

Master’s degrees.........
Doctor’s degrees.........

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90........................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................
Available training data:

Projected
1978-90
1977-78

Degrees in geography:
Bachelor’s d eg rees___
Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........

10,000
12,300
22.6
500
200
300

3,732
648
158

(annual
average)

3,188
755
133

Historians. Graduate education usually is necessary for
employment as a historian. Although a master’s degree
is sufficient for teaching jobs in community and junior
colleges and some 4-year colleges and for some
nonacademic positions, advancement opportunities
may be quite limited for persons who do not have a
Ph. D. degree. A Ph. D. is required for permanent
positions in colleges and universities and for many
research and administrative jobs.
The number of qualified persons expected to seek
jobs as historians will greatly exceed available positions.
Ph. D.’s are expected to face very keen competition,
particularly for academic positions. Those with a strong

130,000
183,000
39.2
7,800
4,300
3,500

Projected
1978-90
(annual
average)

16,923

74

Master’s degrees.........
Doctor’s degrees.........

background in quantitative methods should have the
best job prospects. Master’s and bachelor’s degree
holders may face even greater competition, although
some may find teaching positions in community colleges
or high schools, or management, sales, research, or ad­
ministrative positions in government and industry.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

23,000
23,000
0.0
700
0
700

1977-78

Degrees in history:
Bachelor’s d egrees___
Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........

(annual
average)

23,145
3,040
813

21,558
3,210
788

Political scientists. Graduate training generally is re­
quired for employment as a political scientists. A
Ph. D. degree is necessary for permanent positions in
colleges and universities and for some nonacademic jobs
as well as for various administrative and research jobs in
government, industry, consulting firms, and nonprofit
research or civic organizations.
The number of qualified persons seeking to enter this
field is expected to exceed greatly the number of
available positions. Ph. D .’s may face stiff competition,
particularly for academic positions. Master’s degree
holders are likely to face stiff competition for academic
jobs, but may find jobs in government, research
organizations, political organizations, and business
firms. Advanced degree holders with training in applied
areas, such as public administration or public policy,
should have the best job prospects. Bachelor’s degree
holders are expected to find limited opportunities for
jobs as political scientists. Some graduates, however,
may find* jobs as secondary school teachers or as
trainees in government, business, and industry.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................
Available training data:

14,000
16,100
13.8
500
150
350

P r o je c te d

1978-90
1977-78

Degrees in political science and
government:
Bachelor’s d egrees___
26,245



(annual
average)

19,395

2,285
555

Psychologists. A doctoral degree in psychology general­
ly is the minimum requirement for employment as a
psychologist. It is needed for many beginning positions
and is increasingly important for advancement, par­
ticularly in colleges and universities. Master’s degree
holders may teach in community and junior colleges and
some 4-year colleges, work as school psychologists or
counselors, or serve as psychological assistants.
Bachelor’s degree holders may assist psychologists in a
variety of settings.
All States and the District of Columbia have certifica­
tion or licensing requirements for psychologists who
want to enter independent practice. The requirements
generally include a doctorate in psychology, 2 years of
professional experience, and successful completion of a
written examination. Some States certify master’s
degree holders as psychological assistants or associates.
Persons who have doctoral degrees are expected to
face increasing competition, particularly for academic
positions. Persons who have doctorates in applied
areas, such as clinical, counseling, and industrial or
organizational psychology, are expected to have better
opportunities than those trained in experimental,
physiological, or comparative psychology.

Projected
1978-90

Available training data:

2,070
636

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................
Available training data:

Projected
1978-90
1977-78

Degrees in psychology:
Bachelor’s degrees
Master’s degrees ..
Doctor’s degrees..

130,000
171,000
32.1
6,700
3,500
3,200

45,057
8,194
2,597

(annual
average)

40,687
10,280
3,003

Sociologists. A master’s degree in sociology generally is
the minimum requirement for employment as a
sociologist. While a master’s degree is sufficient for
teaching jobs in community and junior colleges and
some 4-year colleges and for some nonacademic posi­
tions, advancement opportunities may be limited. A
Ph. D. is necessary for permanent positions in colleges
and universities and for jobs as directors of major
research projects, administrators, or consultants.
The number of qualified persons seeking to enter this
field is likely to exceed greatly available job openings.
Persons who have Ph. D. degrees face increasing com­
petition, particularly for academic positions. Ph. D.’s
with strong backgrounds in quantitative methods
75

should have the best job prospects. Master’s and
bachelor’s degree holders face even stiffer competition,
although some may find teaching jobs in junior colleges
and secondary schools or research or administrative
jobs in government and industry.
Employment, 1978 .............................................
Projected employment, 1990............................
Percent growth, 1978-90...................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ...............
Growth..........................................................

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............

500

Replacement
Available training data:
1977-78

19,000
20,700
8.1
600
100

Degrees in sociology:
Bachelor’s d eg rees___
Master’s degrees.........
Doctor’s degrees.........

22,991
1,611
599

Projected
1978-90
(annual
average)

17,961
1,800
700

Social Service Occupations
Counseling occupations

induction training programs and can improve their skills
through regular in-service training programs.

School counselors. Most States require school
counselors to have both counseling and teaching cer­
tificates, although an increasing number of States no
longer require teaching certification. To obtain a
teaching certificate, an individual must have a
bachelor’s degree from an institution with a Stateapproved teacher education program and complete
basic education courses and student teaching. Depend­
ing on the State, graduate work and from 1 to 5 years of
teaching experience usually are required for a counsel­
ing certificate.
Most undergraduate students interested in becoming
school counselors take the regular program of teacher
education with additional courses in psychology and
sociology. In States that do not require teaching ex­
perience, students can major in any field. A few States
substitute a counseling internship for teaching ex­
perience. One to two years of study are necessary to
earn a master’s degree in counseling.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

45,000
50,000
11.1
1,700
400
1,300

Available training data......................................................

—

Other social service occupations

Cooperative extension service workers. These workers
must have at least a bachelor’s degree in the field in
which they will conduct their educational program.
Although one can specialize in a variety of areas, the
most common are agriculture, home economics, youth
activities, and community resource development. In ad­
dition, training in educational techniques and in a com­
munications field, such as journalism, is helpful. Often
workers receive instruction in extenstion work in pre­




76

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0.................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

16,000
18,000
12.5
650
175
475

Available training data

Homemaker-home health aides. Homemaker-home
health aides need to be able to read and write, but high
school graduation generally is not required. High school
home economics courses, such as meal planning and
family living, are helpful, however, particularly for
young persons who have little personal experience in
homemaking. Some employers hire only experienced
nursing aides for jobs as homemaker-home health
aides, and require at least a year’s experience as a nurs­
ing aide in a hospital or nursing home.
As a rule, homemaker-home health aides undergo
orientation and training after they are hired; the length
and quality of this training vary, however. Agencies that
insist on previous experiences as a nursing aide may pro­
vide only a few hours of orientation. Most agencies,
however, provide 1 or 2 weeks of training, including
classroom instruction in topics such as nutrition, meal
planning and preparation, personal care of the sick,
emotional aspects of illness, and the aging process.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
G row th......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

110,000
185,000
70.0
36,000
7,000
29,000

Available training data:
Public vocational education com p letion s.........

5,217

beginning jobs in the field. However, many positions,
particularly supervisory, research, or administrative
jobs, require a master’s degree in social work. A doc­
torate often is preferred for teaching positions.
In 1976, 22 States had licensing or registration laws
concerning social work practice and the use of profes­
sional social work titles. Usually, work experience, suc­
cessful completion of an examination, or both are re­
quired. One of these titles is ACSW (Academy of Cer­
tified Social Workers) which can be used by members of
the National Association of Social Workers who have at
least 2 years of post-master’s degree work experience
and have passed the ACSW examination.

Social service aides. Social service aides are trained on
the job. These workers have a wide range of educational
backgrounds, from elementary school to college. An
aide’s level of responsibility usually is related to formal
educational attainment, so that people who have more
schooling do different kinds of work than those who
have less. For example, persons who have a grade
school education may enter the field in clerical posi­
tions, while those who have a college degree may assume
some duties normally performed by social workers.
In hiring, employers consider an applicant’s desire to
help people and his or her ability to communicate with
community agencies and clients. An individual’s poten­
tial for advancement and need for work also may be
considered. Most employers emphasize the development
of career ladders for these workers based upon on-thejob training, work experience, and further education.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1978 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent.............................................................

134,000
160,000
18.3
7,500
2,000
5,500

Available training data:
Junior college grad u ates.......................................

Employment, 1978 ......................
....
Projected employment, 1 9 9 0 ...
....
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0...........
Average annual openings, 1978--90 .................... . . . .
Growth............. .....................
Replacem ent........................

4,238

385,000
475,000
24.2
22,000
8,000
14,000

Projected
1978-90

Available training data:
1977-78

(annual
average)

Degrees in social work
and helping services:
Bachelor’s degrees . . .
Master’s degrees.........
Doctor’s degrees . . . . .

Social workers. A bachelor’s degree in social work
generally is the minimum educational requirement for

12,672
9,886
138

12,664
11,595
111

Performing Arts, Design, and Communications Occupations
Performing artists

Degrees in drama:
1977-78
Bachelor’s d eg rees...........................................
5,056
Master’s d eg rees...............................................
1,295
Doctor ’s degrees...........................
116

Actors and actresses. Formal training in acting is in­
creasingly necessary for entrance in the field. Training
can be obtained at dramatic arts schools, located chiefly
in New York, and in hundreds of college and univer­
sities throughout the country. Experience is important;
participating in school or community productions is ex­
cellent preparation.
Overcrowding has existed in the acting field for many
years, and this condition is expected to persist. The
number of persons seeking to enter the profession is ex­
pected to continue to exceed the number of openings
through the 1980’s. Even the highly talented are likely to
face stiff competition and economic difficulties.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 19 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

Dancers. Serious training at a dance school or through
private lessons should begin by age 12 or earlier,
especially for ballet dancers. Training and practice con­
tinue throughout a dancer’s career. Many colleges and
universities offer dance instruction, but a college educa­
tion is not required for employment as a professional
dancer.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

13,400
18,000
34.3
850
400
450

Available training data:
Degrees in dance:
1977-78
Bachelor’s d eg rees................................................
886
Master’s degrees....................................................
205

Available training data:



8,000
11,000
37.5
550
250
300

77

overstates supply to the extent that it includes degrees in
allied fields as well as professional degrees in architec­
ture. Moreover, not all graduates will seek to become
registered architects.

Musicians. Studying an instrument, either through
school or private lessons, should begin at an early age.
More advanced training can be acquired through fur­
ther study under an accomplished musician, in a college
or university which has a strong music program, or in a
music conservatory.
Employment, 1978 ............................
Projected employment, 1990...........
Percent change, 1 978-90.................
Average annual openings, 1978-90
Growth.........................................
Replacem ent..............................

....
....

54,000
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
77,000
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
42.6
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
4,000
Growth.........................................................................
1,900
Replacem ent..................................................................
2,100

127,000
177,000
39.4
8,900
4,200
4,700

Available training data:
1977-78

Available training data:
Armed F orces............................

5,239

1977-78

Degrees in architecture:
Bachelor’s d eg rees___
Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........

(annual
average)

5,243
2,668
266

(annual

average)

Projected
1978-90
Degrees in music:1
Bachelor’s d egrees___
Master’s degrees...........
Doctor’s degrees...........

Projected
1978-90

10,136
3,100
423

5,405
1,392
14

5,690
1,868
25

Display workers. Most display workers learn their trade
on the job in 1 to 2 years. A high school diploma is
usually required, and some employers prefer applicants
who have studied interior decorating, fashion design, or
art. Many high schools and vocational schools offer
these courses.

includes degrees in music performance, composition, and theory.

Singers. As a rule, intensive voice training should not
begin until after the individual has matured physically.
Voice training can be obtained through private lessons,
or in a music conservatory or department of music in a
college or university. A background in music theory and
history is helpful for persons interested in singing pro­
fessionally, although formal voice training is not essen­
tial for a successful career in popular music.

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
44,000
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
59,000
35.3
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..................................
3,300
Growth.........................................................................
1,300
Replacem ent..................................................................
2,000
Available training data......................................................

Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected em ploym ent, 1990.............................................

31,000

Percent change, 1 978-90.................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent..............................................................

40.9
1,600
800
800

Available training data......................................................

—

—

22,000

Floral designers. Although there are no minimum
educational requirements, most employers prefer high
school graduates. Training usually takes place on the
job. However, an increasing number of these workers
receive training by attending adult education programs,
junior colleges, or commercial floral design schools.
Manual dexterity and a good sense of color, balance,
and proportion are primary qualifications. High school
courses in business arithmetic, bookkeeping, selling
techniques, and other business subjects are helpful.

Design occupations

Architects. All States require architects to be licensed
(registered). To obtain a license, applicants must have a
bachelor’s degree in architecture and have 3 years of ex­
perience, or a master’s degree and 2 years of experience.
They also must pass a written examination. In most
States, 12 years of practical experience as an architect
may be substituted for the bachelor’s degree.
Architects are expected to face competition for jobs
through the 1980’s as the number of degrees granted in
architecture continues to grow. The National Center for
Education Statistics (NCES) data presented below are
useful in establishing trends, but do not constitute an
accurate supply estimate. The NCES projection



Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

56,000
76,000
35.2
4,200
1,700
2,500

Available training data:
Public vocational education co m p letion s...........

2,267

Industrial designers. The usual way to enter this field is
to complete an industrial design curriculum in an art
78

school, an art department of a university, or a technical
college. Persons majoring in engineering, architecture,
or fine arts may qualify as industrial designers if their
backgrounds match the type of work being done by
their employers. Artistic talent is important.
Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

13,000
15,300
17.5
550
200
350

Available training data......................................................

work as a professional photographer. People interested
in commercial photography often start as trainees in a
commercial studio and learn the necessary skills through
2 or 3 years of on-the-job training. For work in in­
dustrial or scientific photography, post-high school
education and training are needed. Requirements for
news photographers vary with the size of the newspaper
or magazine. Photographic training is available in col­
leges, universities, community and junior colleges, and
art schools.

—

Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1 9 7 8 -9 0 ................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................
Available training data:
Armed F o rces..........................................................
Junior college grad u ates.......................................

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth,1 9 7 8 -9 0 ..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

79,000
95,000
20.9
3,600
1,400
2,200

5,927
866

Degrees in photography:
Bachelor’s d eg rees.........................................
Master’s degrees.............................................

Interior designers. Formal training in interior design is
increasingly necessary for entrance into the field. Train­
ing is available through a 3-year course in a professional
school of interior design, or through a 4-year college or
university program leading to a degree in interior design
and decoration. In most cases, 1 to 5 years of on-the-job
training also are necessary before a trainee becomes
eligible for advancement to designer.

93,000
107,000
15.0
3,800
1,100
2,700

1977—
78
959
89

Communications occupations

Landscape architects. A bachelor’s degree in landscape
architecture through a 4- to 5-year program of study is
the usual requirement for employment. To qualify for a
license for independent practice, which is required in
more than half of the States, applicants must have a
degree in landscape architecture from an accredited
school, 2- to 4-years’ experience, and must pass an ex­
amination. Experience sometimes may be substituted
for the degree.

Newspaper reporters. Most newspapers consider only
applicants who have a bachelor’s degree; either a jour­
nalism major or another major combined with jour­
nalism classes is preferred. Graduate work is becoming
increasingly important. Some jobs are available for
talented writers without a college degree on rural,
smalltown, and suburban papers, where most reporters
begin their career, but even these jobs are largely filled
by college graduates who are seeking experience.
Journalism graduates who have specialized in newseditorial studies and completed a newspaper internship
should have the best job prospects. Every year, a
substantial number of journalism graduates take media
jobs in technical publishing, magazine publishing, radio
and television broadcasting, advertising, and public
relations, while other graduates accept nonmedia posi­
tions in sales, management, and other areas.

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent change, 1 978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

Employment, 1978 .............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

Available training data:
Degrees in home decoration and
home equipment:
1977-78
Bachelor’s d egrees.................
836
Master’s degrees...............................................
39

14,000
20,500
45.8
1,100
550
550

Available training data:

Available training data:

45,000
53,000
19.6
2,400
700
1,700

Projected

1978-90
1977-78

Degrees in landscape architecture:
1977-78
Bachelor’s d egrees...........................................
965
Graduate d egrees.............................................
211
Degrees in journalism:
Bachelor’s d eg rees___

Photographers. There are several ways to prepare for



79

8,299

(annual
average)

9,018

Master’s degrees.........
Doctor’s degrees.........

797
32

Radio and television announcers. Formal training in
broadcasting in a college or technical school and ex­
perience working for a campus or local station are
valuable preparation for this occupation. However, sta­
tion officials pay particular attention to taped audi­
tions. It often is helpful to have a Federal Communica­
tions Commission radiotelephone operator license,
since the added skill enables announcers to handle a
variety of broadcasting duties. Such versatility is par­
ticularly important in small stations, where announcers
generally get their first jobs. Larger stations often re­
quire several years of successful announcing experience.
The great attraction of the broadcasting field will
result in keen competition for jobs, particularly on sta­
tions in major metropolitan areas.

672
20

Public relations workers. A bachelor’s degree in jour­
nalism, communications, or public relations usually is
the preferred educational background for beginning
jobs. Some employers seek college graduates who have a
degree in a scientific or technical field, plus communica­
tions skills. Experience can be very important in getting
a job, and many employers prefer applicants who have
media or journalism experience.
Some companies that have large public relations
staffs have formal training programs for new workers.
The Public Relations Society of America accredits those
who have passed a comprehensive examination and
worked at least 5 years’ in the field.
Employment, 1978 ..........................................................
Projected employment, 1990.........................................
Percent change, 1978-90...............................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ............................
Growth.......................................................................
Replacem ent............................................................

Employment, 1978 ............................................................
Projected employment, 1990...........................................
Percent growth, 1978-90..................................................
Average annual openings, 1978-90 ..............................
Growth.........................................................................
Replacem ent...............................................................

131,000
163,000
24.4
7,500
2,600
4,900

Available training data,




Available training data,

80

27,000
33,500
22.2
850
500
350

Appendix A. Assumptions and
Methods Used to Prepare
the Employment Projections

The projections in this bulletin were developed as part
of the Bureau’s program for conducting research in,
and producing information on, future occupational and
industrial requirements and resources. The Bureau
revises its projections every 2 years; during the next revi­
sion, projections again will be prepared for 1990.
The Bureau’s projections to 1990 presented here were
developed from data on population, industry and oc­
cupational employment, productivity, consumer expen­
ditures, and other factors expected to affect employ­
ment. The Bureau’s research offices provided much of
these data, but many other agencies of the Federal
Government were important contributors. In addition,
experts in industry, unions, professional societies, and
trade associations furnished data and supplied informa­
tion through interviews.
Information compiled from these sources was ana­
lyzed in conjunction with the Bureau’s model of the
economy used in projecting to 1990. Like other models
used in economic projections, it encompasses the major
facets of the economy and represents a comprehensive
view of its projected structure. The Bureau’s model is
comprised of internally consistent projections of gross
national product (GNP) and its components—consumer
expenditures, business investment, government expen­
ditures, and net exports; industrial output and produc­
tivity; labor force; average weekly hours of work; and
employment for detailed industry groups and occupa­
tions. The methods used to develop the employment
projections used in this bulletin are the same as those us­
ed in other Bureau of Labor Statistics studies of the
economy. Detailed descriptions of these methods ap­
pear in Employment Projections for the 1980’s, Bulletin
2030 (1979) and the BLS Handbook of Methods for
Surveys and Studies, Bulletin 1910 (1976).

. Higher energy prices will not constrain growth in gross
national product (GNP). Energy use was assumed to in­
crease at about 3.0 percent a year, considerably slower
than pre-1973. Natural gas use was assumed to be con­
strained by supply limitations. The higher expected
relative price of oil was assumed to cause a relative shift
to other energy sources.
• The institutional framework of the U.S. economy will
not change radically.
• Current social, technological, and scientific trends will
continue.
• No major event, such as widespread or long-lasting
energy shortages or war, will significantly alter the in­
dustrial structure of the economy or alter the rate of
economic growth.
Methods

Beginning with population projections by age and sex
developed by the Bureau of the Census, a projection of
the total labor force is derived using expected labor
force participation rates for each population group. In
developing participation rates, the Bureau takes into ac­
count a variety of factors that affect decisions to enter
the labor force, such as school attendance, retirement
practices, knd family responsibilities.
The labor force projection then is translated into the
level of GNP that would be produced by the labor force
at the assumed level of unemployment. GNP is derived
by subtracting assumed unemployment from the labor
force and multiplying the resulting employed labor
force by a projection of output per worker. The
estimates of future output per worker are based on an
analysis of trends in productivity (output per work
hour) among industries and changes in average weekly
hours of work.
Next, the projection of GNP is divided among its
major components: Consumer expenditures, invest­
ment, government expenditures—Federal, State, and
local—and net exports. Each of these components is
broken down by producing industry. Consumer expen­
ditures, for example, are divided among industries pro­
ducing goods and services such as housing, food,
automobiles, medical care, and education.

Assumptions

The Bureau’s projections to 1990 are based on the
following general assumptions:
• Inflation will decelerate to 5.2 percent annually during
1980-90.
• A stable, long-run unemployment rate close to 4.5 per­
cent will be achieved by the mid-1980’s.



81

remains constant, but industry employment increases.
In some cases, employment is related directly to one
of the components of the Bureau’s model—for exam­
ple, the number of cosmetologists is related to consumer
expenditures for beauty shop services. In others,
employment is related to an independent variable not
explicitly projected in the model but believed to be a
primary determinant of employment in that occupation.
The projection of automobile mechanics, for example,
is based on the expected stock of motor vehicles. Projec­
tions that are developed independently are compared
with those in the matrix and revised, if necessary, to
assure consistency.
In addition to a projection of employment for each
occupation, a projection is made of the number of
workers who will be needed to replace those who die or
retire. To estimate these replacement needs, the Bureau
has developed tables of working life based on actuarial
experience for deaths, and on decennial census data for
general patterns of labor force participation. Tables of
working life provide death and labor force separation
rates for the entire labor force, by age and sex groups.
The rate for each age and sex groups then is adjusted to
reflect expected changes in labor force behavior. An
overall separation rate for an occupation is obtained by
weighting each projected rate by employment in the oc­
cupation for that age and sex group, and computing the
weighted average. Average annual replacement needs
are calculated by applying the projected occupational
separation rate to projected employment.
The Bureau is continuing research to determine the
effect of occupational transfers and temporary labor
force separations on job openings. These transfers have
not been taken into account in calculating replacement
needs.
Supply estimates used in analysis of certain occupa­
tions represent the numbers of workers who are likely to
seek entry to a particular occupation, if past trends of
entry to the occupation continue. These estimates are
developed independently of the demand estimates.
Thus, supply and demand are not discussed in the usual
sense, in which wages play a major role in equating sup­
ply and demand.

Once estimates are developed for these products and
services, they are translated into detailed projections of
industry output, not only for the industries producing
the final product—such as an automobile—but also for
the industries that provide electric power, transporta­
tion, component parts, and other inputs required in the
production process. Input-output tables developed by
the Department of Commerce and modified and pro­
jected to future years by the BLS are used to estimate
output.
By using estimates of future output per work hour
based on studies of productivity and technological trend
for each industry, industry employment projections are
derived from the output estimates.
These projections are then compared with employ­
ment projections derived using regression analysis. This
analysis develops equations that relate employment by
industry to combinations of economic variables, such as
population and income, that are considered deter­
minants of long-run changes in employment. By com­
paring projections resulting from input-output analysis
and regression analysis, areas may be identified where
adjustments are needed. These projections are recon­
ciled after an analysis of underlying factors affecting
both projections.
Projections of industry employment are translated in­
to occupational employment projections using an
industry-occupation matrix. This matrix, which is di­
vided into 200 industry sectors and 400 occupational
categories, describes the current and projected occupa­
tional structure of each industry. By applying the pro­
jected occupational structure for each industry to the in­
dustry employment projection and aggregating the
resulting estimates for all industries, employment pro­
jections for each of the 400 occupations contained in the
matrix are obtained. Thus, the projected employment of
an occupation is determined by changes in the propor­
tion of workers in the occupation in each industry, and
the growth rate of industries in which an occupation is
concentrated. For example, employment in an occupa­
tion would be projected to grow: 1) If its proportion of
the work force increases, but industry employment re­
mains constant; or 2) if its proportion of the work force




82

Appendix B. Detailed
Occupational Projections

repairers; health occupations; social scientists; social
service occupations; and performing arts, design, and
communications occupations.
Applicable program codes for related instructional
programs are included, both for vocational and higher
education (Vocational Education Codes and Higher
Education General Information Survey (HEGIS)
Codes). Totals and percentages in table B-l were
calculated from unrounded figures and may not corres­
pond exactly to the rounded data shown.

This appendix presents 1978 employment, projected
1990 employment, and projected average annual job
openings in tabular form for 235 occupations. These
data were developed as part of the research underlying
the 1980-81 Occupational Outlook Handbook. The 13
occupational clusters from the Handbook have been
used: Industrial production and related occupations; of­
fice occupations; service occupations; eduation and
related occupations; sales occupations; construction oc­
cupations; occupations in transportation activities;
scientific and technical occupations; mechanics and

Table B -l.

Employment, 1978 and 1990 (projected), and average annual openings, by occupation, 1 9 7 8 -9 0

Occupation

Vocational
educa­
tional
code1

HEGIS
code2

Estimated
employ­
ment,
1978

Projected
employ­
ment,
1990

Annual average openings, 1 9 7 8 -9 0
Percent
change,
1978-903

Total

Employ­
ment
change

Replace­
ment
needs4

Foundry occupations:
Patternm akers........................
M o ld ers ....................................
Corem akers.............................
Matchining occupations:
All-round machinists............
Instrument makers
(mechanical)......................
Machine tool operators..............
Setup workers (machine tools) .
Tool-and-die m akers...................
Printing occupations:
Bookbinders and bindery
workers...............................
Compositors.............................
Electrotypers and
stereotypers......................
Lithographers................... .. .
Photoengravers........................
Printing press operators
and assistants...................
Other industrial production
and related occupations:
Assemblers .............................
Automobile p a in te rs ............
Blacksmiths .............................




17.2302
17.3699
17.2301
17.2301

3,700

3,900

5.2

135

15

120

21,000
12,000

22,100
12,600

5.2
5.2

500
350

100
50

400
300

17.2302

484,000

584,000

20.7

22,500

8,000

14,500

17.2302
17.2302
17.2302
17.2307
17.1900

6,000
542,000
65,000
170,000

6,900
609,000
81,000
210,000

17.1
12.4
24.6
23.5

300
19,600
3,000
8,600

100
5,600
1,400
3,300

200
14,000
1,600
5,300

17.1906
17.1901

69,000
181,000

70,000
158,000

1.3
-1 2 .8

2,600
3,900

100
-1 ,9 0 0

2,500
5,800

17.1903
17.1902
17.1904

2,000
28,000
8,000

(5)
45,000
7,500

(5)
61.1
- 6 .3

(5)
2,300
150

(s )
1,400
-5 0

(5)
900
200

17.1902

167,000

182,000

8.9

5,000

1,200

3,800

17.0301
17.2399

1,164,000
42,000
11,000

1,662,000
54,000
7,000

43.0
27.2
-3 6 .4

77,000
2,000
300

42,000
1,000
-3 0 0

o o
o o
o o

Industrial production and
related occupations:

5009

83

600

Table B-1.

Employment, 1978 and 1990 (projected), and average annual openings, by occupation, 1978-90— Continued

Occupation

Blue-collar worker
supervisors........................
Boilermaking occupations . .
Boiler tenders ........................
Electroplaters ........................
Forge shop occupations . . . .
Inspectors
(m anufacturing)..............
Millwrights .............................
Motion picture
projectionists...................
Ophthalmic laboratory
technicians........................
Photographic laboratory
occupations......................
Power truck operators..........
Production painters..............
Stationary eng ineers............
Wastewater treatment plant
operators (sewage plant
operators) ........................
W e ld e rs ....................................
Office occupations:
Clerical occupations:
Bookkeeping workers ..........
Cashiers.............. .....................
Collection w orkers.................
File c le rk s ...............................
Hotel front office
c le rk s .................................
Office m a c h in e ......................
o p e ra to rs ..........................
Postal clerks ..........................
R e c e p tio n is ts ..............................

Secretaries and
stenographers...................
Shipping and receiving
c le rk s .................................
Statistical clerks ...................
Stock clerks ..........................
Typists ....................................
Computer and related
occupations:
Computer operating
personnel.............................

Programmers..........................
Systems analy s ts...................
Banking occupations:
Bank clerks...............................

Bank officers and
managers.............................
Bank te lle rs .............................
Insurance occupations:
Actuaries ..................................
Claim representatives............


See footnotes at end of table.


Vocational
educa­
tional
code1

Annual average openings, 1 9 7 8 -9 0

Estimated
employ­
ment,
1978

Projected
employ­
ment,
1990

Percent
change,
1978-903

17.1700
17.1099
17.3200
17.2399
17.2399

1,671,000
37,000
71.000
40.000
77.000

1,925,000
56,000
71.000
40.000
80,100

16.0
46.2
0
0
3.6

17.2400
17.1099

771,000
95.000

909.000
118.000

11.000
5212
5007

HEGIS
code2

Employ­
ment
change

Replace­
ment
needs4

69,000
3,100
2,800
800
2,000

21,000
1,600
0
0
200

48,000
1,500
2,800
800
1,800

18.0
25.0

35,000
4,700

11,500
1,900

23,500
2,800

10,500

-4 .5

750

-5 0

800

26,400

32,200

22.0

1,400

500

900

57,000
363.000
133.000
179.000

68,000
458.000
158.000
186.000

20.0
24.0
19.0
4.0

2,700
14,000
5,200
7,700

900
8,000
2,100
600

1,800
6,000
3.100
7.100

112,000
679,000

907,000

(5)
33.6

(s)
35,000

19,000

16,000

14.0102
14.0103
04.0800
14.9900
14.0302

1,830,000
1,400,000
78,000

2,045,000
2,100,000
95,000

11.8
49.7
21.8

96,000
119,000
4,600

18,000
58,500
1,400

78,000
60,500
3,200

273,000

335,000

22.6

16,500

5,100

11,400

04.1100

79,000

98,000

24.9

5,400

1,700

3,700

07.0601
17.2101
17.0900
17.100302
17.3200

17.3203
17.2306

5308

(5 )

Total

(5 )

(s )

14.0000

14.0104
14.0403
14.0406

5005

160,000
260,000
588,000

201,000
210,000
752,000

26.2
-1 9 .0
27.9

9,700
2,000
41,000

3,500
-4 ,0 0 0
14,000

6,200
6,000
27,000

14.0700

5005

3,684,000

5,357,000

45.4

305,000

138,000

167,000

5005

461,000
377,000
507,000
1,044,000

567,000
475,000
600,000
1,246,000

23.0
26.0
18.3
19.4

22,000
23,500
23.000
59.000

8,800
8,200
7,800
17,000

13,200
15,300
15,200
42,000

5102
5104

666,000

665,000

-.2

12,500

-1 0 0

12,600

0704
0705
0705

247,000

320,000

29.6

9,200

6,100

3,100

182,000

250,000

37.4

7,900

5,700

2,200

505,000

760,000

50.5

45,000

21,000

24,000

330,000

510,000

54.5

28,000

15,000

13,000

410,000

455,000

11.0

17,000

4,000

13,000

9,000
169,000

12,000
237,000

32.4
40.5

500
10,250

250
5,600

250
4,650

14.0503
14.0303
14.0504
14.0900

14.0200
14.0201
14.0202
14.020201
14.0203
14.0204
14.0102
14.0104
14.0303
14.0399
04.0400
14.0105
04.1300
04.1300

0504
5003
0512
1703

i

84

Table B-1.

Employment, 1978 and 1990 (projected), and average annual openings, by occupation, 1978-90— Continued

Vocational
educa­
tional
code1

Occupation

Insurance agents, brokers,
and underwriters . . . .
Administrative and
related occupations:..

City managers .................
College student personnel
w orkers........................
Credit managers..............
Hotel managers and
assistants......................
L aw y e rs .............................
Marketing research
workers ......................
Personnel and labor
relations workers. . . .

Public relations workers .
Purchasing agents............

Pest c o n tro lle rs

Annual average openings, 1 9 7 8 -9 0
Percent
change,
1978-903

Total

Employ­
ment
change

Replace­
ment
needs4

682,000

20.0

30,000

9,500

20,500

985.000
115.000

1,275,000
142,000

29.4
23.5

61,000
7,400

24,000
2,200

37,000
5,200

3,300

5,000

52.0

350

150

200

0826
0504
5003

55.000
49.000

(5 )
56,000

(5)
14.3

(5 )
2,200

(5)
600

( 5)
1,600

04.1100

0508
1401

168,000
487,000

193,000
609,000

14.9
25.0

8,900
37,000

2,000
10,000

6,800
27,000

04,0100

0509

24,000

( 5)

(5)

(5)

04.0800

14.0899

0502
5002
0509
5004
2102

(5 )

(5)

405,000

473,000

16.8

17,000

6,000

11,000

185,000
185,000

269,000
267,000

24.4
44.3

7,500
13,400

2,600
6,800

4,900
6,600

17,000

22,000

30.0

800

450

350

17.1100

2,251,000

2,704,000

20.1

176,000

38,000

138,000

09.0205

20,000
31,500

29,000
44,500

49.9
42.0

2,000
2,500

800
1,100

1,200
1,400

14.0602
14.0603
14.0699
04.0800
04.0800

0515
0516
0509
0509
5004
0206

.................

Food service occupations:

Projected
employ­
ment,
1990

568,000

Urban and regional
planners ......................
Service occupations:
Cleaning and related
occupations:
Building custodians . . . .
Hotel housekeepers and
assistants . . . . . . . . .

Estimated
employ­
ment,
1978

04.1300

A c c o u n ta n ts ...........

B u y e rs ...............................

HEGIS
code2

17.2900

C o o k s an d c h e f s .................

17.2902

282,000
1,186,000

369,000
1,564,000

30.9
31.9

21,600
86,000

7,300
31,000

14,300
55,000

Dining room attendants
and dishwashers . . . .
Food counter workers . .
M e a tc u tte rs ......................
Waiters and waitresses . .

17.2904
17.2903
17.2904

455.000
463.000
204,000
1,383,000

741.000
648.000
187,000
1,635,000

62.8
39.9
- 8 .3
18.2

37.000
34.000
5,200
70,000

24.000
15.000
-1 ,4 0 0
21,000

13.000
19.000
6,600
49,000

B a r t e n d e r s ............................

Personal service occupations:
Barbers .............................
Bellhops and bell
cap tains

.........................

Cosmetologists.................
Funeral directors and
e m b a lm e rs

...................

Private household service
occupations:
Private household
workers .....................

17.2601

5006

121,000

140,000

15.7

9,700

1,600

8,100

04.1100
17.2602

5006

20,000
542,000

19,000
624,000

-5 .0
15.1

600
29,000

-1 0 0
7,000

700
22,000

07.0909

45,000

45,000

0.0

2,200

0

2,200

09.0201
09.0202
09.0203
09.0205

1,162,000

893,000

-2 3 .2

45,000

-2 3 ,0 0 0

68,000

110,000
8,000

153,000
(5 )

38.9
(5 )

13,000
(5 )

3,500
(5 )

9,500
(s )

Protective and related service
occupations:
Correction officers . . . .
FBI special agents ..........
See footnotes at end of table.




85

Table B-1.

Employment, 1978 and 1990 (projected), and average annual openings, by occupation, 1978-90— Continued

Occupation

Firefighters........................
G u a rd s ...............................
Police officers .................
State police officers . . . .

Construction inspectors
(government) ............
Health and regulatory
inspectors
(government) ............
Occupational safety and
health w o r k p r s ..........

Other service occupations:
Mail carriers......................
Telephone operators. . . .
Education and related occupations:
Teaching occupations:
Kindergarten and
elementary school
teachers ......................
Secondary school
feachers ......................
College and university
faculty ........................
Teacher aides .................
Library occupations:
Librarians ...................... ..
Library technicians
and assistants............

Vocational
educa­
tional
code1

17.2801
17.2802
17.2802
17.2802

5507
2105
2105
2?09
5505

Projected
employ­
ment,
1990

220,000
550,000
450,000
47,000

270,000
820,000
550,000
59,000

21.0
50.0
22.7
26.0

30,000

100,000

122,000

17.2899

17.2899

Annual average openings, 1 9 7 8 -9 0

Estimated
employ­
ment,
1978

20,000

HEGIS
code2

5408

Percent
change,
1978-903

Employ­
ment
change

Replace­
ment
needs4

7,500
70,000
16,500
1,800

3,900
20,000
8,500
1,000

3,600
50,000
8,000
800

50.0

2,200

800

1,400

24.6

5,800

2,000

3,800

(5 )

(5 )

16.0602
17.2801
17.2899

80,000

14.0403
14.0401

245,000
311,000

260,000
290,000

6.0
-6 .8

0802

1,322,000

1,652,000

0803

1,087,000

0805

(5 )

(5 )

7,000
9,900

1,000
-1 ,8 0 0

6,000
11,700

24.9

86,000

27,500

58,500

861,000

-2 0 .8

7,200

-1 8 ,8 0 0

26,000

673.000
342.000

611,000
519,000

-9 .2
51.8

11,000
26,000

-5 ,0 0 0
15,000

16,000
11,000

1601
14.0499

(5 )

Total

142,000

160,000

12.7

8,000

1,500

6,500

5504

172,000

195,000

13.4

7,700

1,000

6,700

04.0000

Sales occupations:
Automobile parts
counter workers..........
Automobile sales
workers ......................

04.0330

0509

97,000

119,000

22.1

4,200

1,800

2,400

04.0300

0507
0507

158,000

200,000

26.5

10,400

3,500

6,900

Automobile service
advisors........................

04.0300

0509
5004

25,000

30,400

22.1

1,100

500

600

340,000

322,000

- 5 .6

5,200

-1 ,6 0 0

6,800

402,000

499,000

24.0

21,700

8,000

13,700

( 5)

(5 )

Gasoline service station
attendants...................
Manufacturers' sales
workers ......................

04.1600
04.1200

0509
5004

60,000

(5)

04.1700

0511
5004

555,000

670,000

20.7

50,000

10,000

40,000

Retail trade sales
workers ......................

04.0800

0509
5004

2,851,000

3,785,000

32.8

226,000

78,000

148,000

04.0400

0505

195.000
109.000
18,500

190.000
120.000
30,000

- 2 .9
10.0
62.2

3,600
5,500
1,900

-5 0 0
900
950

4,100
4,600
950

04.0800

0509

840,000

958,000

14.0

40,000

10,000

30,000

Route d riv e rs ...................
Securities sales workers .
Travel a g e n ts ...................
Wholesale trade sales
workers ......................

See footnotes at end of table.




86

(5)

(5)

M o d e ls ...............................
Real estate agents and
b ro ke rs ........................

Table B-1.

Employment, 1978 and 1990 (projected), and average annual openings, by occupation, 1978-90— Continued
Vocational
educa­
tional
code1

Occupation

Construction occupations:
Bricklayers, stonemasons,
and marblesetters . . .
C arpenters........................
Cement masons and
terrazzo workers . . . .
Construction laborers . . .
Drywall installers and
finishers................... .. .
Electricians (construction)
Elevator constructors . . . .
Floor covering installers .
Glaziers (construction) . .
Insulation w o rk e rs ..........
Iro nw o rkers.....................
Lathers...............................
Operating engineers
(construction
machinery operators).
Painters and paperhangers
Painters...................
Paperhangers . . . . ,
Plasterers..........................
Plumbers and pipefiIters .
Roofers .............................
Sheet-metal workers . . . .
Tilesetters ........................
)ccupations in transportation
activities:
Air transportation occupations:
Air traffic controller . . .
Airplane mechanics. . . .
Airplane p ilo ts ..............
Flight a tte n d a n ts ..........
Reservation and
passenger agents . . .
Merchant marine occupations:
Merchant marine
o ffic e rs ........................
Merchant marine
sailors..........................
Railroad occupations:
Brake o p e ra to rs ..............
C o n d u c to rs

Projected
employ­
ment,
1990

Percent
change,
1978-903

17.1004
17.1001

205,000
1,253,000

220,000
1,390,000

7.3
10.9

17.1099
17.1099

83,000
860,000

110,000
970,000

17.1008
17.1002
17.1099
17.1099
17.1099
17.1099
17.1099
17.1006

82,000
290,000
17,000
88,000
19,000
51,000
78,000
23,000

(5)
350,000
(5)
110,000
25,000
65,000
104,000

17.100302
17.1005

17.1006
17.1007
17.1010
17.2305
17.1004

581,000
504,000
484,000
20,000
28,000
428,000
114,000
70,000
33,000

17.0400
17.0401
16.0601
04.1900

Employ­
ment
change

Replace­
ment
needs4

6,200
58,000

1,300
11,000

4,900
47,000

32.5
12.8

4,400
49,000

2,300
10,000

2,100
39,000

( 5)
20.7
( 5)
25.0
31.6
27.5
33.3
(5)

(5 )
12,900
(5)
3,200
1,000
2,600
4,100

(5)
5,000

(5)
7,900

(5 )

(5)

820,000
572,000
550,000
22,000
30,000
513,000
140,000
90,000
45,000

41.4
13.5
13.6
10.0
7.1
19.9
22.8
28.6
36.4

36,000
27,000
26,000
1,500
1,100
20,000
4,500
3,500
1,800

20,000
6,000
6,000
200
200
7,000
2,200
1,700
1,000

16,000
21,000
20,000
1,300
900
13,000
2,300
1,800
800

21,000
132,000
76,000
48,000

26,000
145,000
110,000
76,000

23.9
10.1
43.9
56.2

700
3,500
3,800
4,800

400
1,100
2,800
2,300

300
2,400
1,000
2,500

04.1900

56,000

64,000

15.0

2,200

700

1,500

17.0802

13,500

13,000

-3 .7

700

-5 0

750

17.0801

24,800

16,000

-3 6 .9

-2 5 0

-7 0 0

450

66,000
37,000
34,000
76,000

67,000
39,000
37,000
71,000

1.3
6.2
9.6
-6 .7

1,600
1,700
2,000
2,100

100
200
300
-4 0 0

1,500
1,500
1,700
2,500

17.1402
04.1900
14.0103

12,800
5,900

14,100
2,400

10.0
-5 9 .6

450
-2 0 0

100
-3 0 0

350
100

14.0401

9,700
59,000

6,800
59,000

-3 0 .2
0.0

50
1,400

-2 5 0
0

300
1,400

04.1900
04.1900

23,500
77,000
1,720,000

23,700
91,000
2,040,000

0.8
18.9
18.4

500
3,100
64,000

25
1,200
26,000

475
1,900
38,000

584,000
44,000
94,000

689,000
50,000
94,000

18.0
13.6
0

21,500
3,200
4,300

8,700
500
0

12,800
2,700
4,300

.........................

Locomotive engineers. . .
Shop trades ......................
Signal department
workers ......................
Station agents .................
Telegraphers, tele­
phones, and tower
operators ...................
Track w o r k e rs .................
Driving occupations:
Intercity busdrivers . . . .
Local transit busdrivers. .
Local tru ck d riv e rs ..........
Long-distance
truckdrivers ..............
Parking a ttend ants..........
Taxicab drivers.................

04.0300
04.1900

See footnotes at end of table.




Annual average openings, 1 9 7 8 -9 0

Estimated
employ­
ment,
1978

HEGIS
code2

87

(5)

Total

<5 )

1,800
500
1,600
2,200

(5)

1,400
500
1,000
1,900
(5)

Table B-1.

Employment, 1978 and 1990 (projected), and average annual openings, by occupation, 1978-90—Continued

Occupation

Scientific and technical occupations:^
Conservation occupations:
Foresters ..........................
Forestry technicians . . . .
Range managers..............
Soil conservationists . . . .
Engineers6 ......................................
Aerospace ........................
A g ric u ltu ra l......................
Biom edical........................
C e ra m ic .............................
Chemical ..........................
C iv il....................................
E le c tric a l..........................
In d u s tria l..........................
Mechanical ......................
Metallurgical ...................
M in in g ...............................
Petroleum ........................
Environmental scientists:
Geologists ........................
Geophysicists...................
Meteorologists.................
Oceanographers..............
Life science occupations:
Biochem ists......................
Life scientists...................
Soil scientists...................
Mathematics occupations:
M athem aticians..............
Statisticians......................
Physical scientists:
Astronomers ...................
Chemists ..........................
Physicists..........................
Other scientific and technical
occupations:
Broadcast technicians . . .
D ra fte rs .............................
Engineering and science
technicians.................

Vocational
educa­
tional
code1

HEGIS
code2

01.0700
01.0601
01.0608

0114
5403
0117

Projected
employ­
ment,
1990

Percent
change,
1978-903

0900
0902
0903
0905
0916
0906
0908
0909
0913

31,200
13,700
3,700
9,300
1,136,000
60,000
14,000
4,000
14,000
53,000
155,000
300,000
185,000

38,000
17,300
4,700
11,400
1,441,000
70,000
17,800
5,100
17,800
63,000
190,000
364,000
233,000

20.6
26.0
27.0
21.7
26.8
20.7
26.8
26.8
26.8
20.0
22.8
21.5
26.0

0910
0914
0918
0907

195,000
16,500
6,000
17,000

232,000
21,300
9,500
23,400

1914
1916
1913
1919

31,000
11,000
7,300
3,600

0414
0400

Employ­
ment
change

Replace­
ment
needs4

1,400
700
200
450
46,500
1,900
600
175
550
1,800
7,800
10,500
8,000

500
300
100
200
25,500
1,000
300
100
300
900
2,900
5,400
4,000

900
400
100
250
21,000
900
300
75
250
900
4,900
5,100
4,000

19.1
29.0
58.3
37.6

7,500
750
600
900

3,100
400
300
550

4,400
350
300
350

42,000
14,600
8,800
4,400

35.5
35.5
20.0
21.6

1,700
600
300
150

900
300
100
75

800
300
200
75

20,000
215,000
3,500

25,000
280,000
4,200

25.5
28.4
20.7

900
11,200
180

450
5,100
60

450
6,100
120

1701
1702

33,500
23,000

37,000
31,100

9.9
35.2

1,000
1,500

300
700

700
800

1911
1905
1902

2,000
143,000
44,000

2,100
178,000
48,000

5.0
24.0
8.9

40
6,100
1,000

10
2,900
300

30
3,200
700

16.0108
17.1300

5008
5304

40,000
296,000

( 5)
367,000

(5)
24.0

(5)
11,000

(s)
5,900

(s)
5,100

16.0100

5300
5401
5407
0113

600,000

760,000

25.1

23,000

12,500

10,500

15,000

17,000

12.0

500

150

350

5409

62,000

74,000

20.0

2,300

1,000

1,300

17.1501

135,000

130,000

- 3 .7

1,000

-4 0 0

1,400

17.1501

21,400

18,000

-1 5 .9

-1 0 0

-3 0 0

200

17.1402

59,000

60,000

2.1

600

100

500

17.1501

115,000

135,000

17.5

3,000

1,700

1,300

210,000
145,000

245,000
180,000

16.7
24.1

8,200
6,900

2,900
2,900

5,300
4,000

Food technologists..........
Surveyors and surveying
technicians.................
Mechanics and repairers:
Telephone craft occupations:
Central office craft
occupations ..............
Central office equipment
installers.....................
Line installers and cable
splicers........................
Telephone and PBX
installers and
rep airers.....................
Other mechanics and repairers:
Air-conditioning,
refrigeration and
heating mechanics . . .
Appliance repairers . . . .

17.0100
17.0200

5317
5310

See footnotes at end of table.




Annual average openings, 1 9 7 8 -9 0

Estimated
employ­
ment,
1978

88

Total

Table B-1.

Employment, 1978 and 1990 (projected), and average annual openings, by occupation, 1978-90—-Continued

Occupation

Automobile body
rep airers......................
Automobile mechanics. .
Boat engine mechanics . .
Bowling-pin machine
mechanics...................
Business machine
rep airers......................
Computer service
technicians.................
Electric sign repairers . . .
Farm equipment
mechanics...................
Furniture upholsterers . .
Industrial machinery
rep airers......................
Jew elers.............................
Locksmiths ......................
Maintenance
electricians.................
Motorcycle mechanics . .
Piano and organ tuners
and repairers..............
Shoe repairers...................
Television and radio
service technicians. . .
Truck and bus
mechanics...................
Vending machine
mechanics...................
Watch repairers ..............
Health occupations:
Dental occupations:
D e n tis ts .............................
Dental assistants..............
Dental hygienists............
Dental laboratory
technicians.................
Medical practitioners:
Chiropractors .................
O p to m e tris ts ...................
Physicians and osteo­
pathic physicians . . .

Vocational
educa­
tional
code1

HEGIS
code2

17.0301
17.0302
17.2200

5306

17.1401

235,000
1,060,000
24,000

28.0
22.7
23.9

Total

Employ­
ment
change

Replace­
ment
needs4

7,800
37,000
1,000

4,300
16,000
400

3,500
21,000
600

(5)

(s)

(s)

(5)

(5)

63,000

98,000

56.0

4,200

2,950

1,250

16.0108
17.1002

5105

63,000
15,000

121,000
18,000

92.5
20.0

5,400
700

4,800
300

600
400

62,000
29,000

77.000
29.000

24.2
0

3,500
1,100

1,300
0

2,200
1,100

655,000
32.000
15.000

1,085,000

66.0

58,000

36,000

(s)
(5)

(s)
(5)

(5)
(5 )

(5)
(s)

22,000
(5)
(5)

17.1400
17.3100

300,000
13,000

385,000
(5)

28.3
<5)

15,500
(5)

7,000
(5)

8,500
(5)

17.3402

8,000
22,000

8,800
21,000

10.0
-4 .5

700
1,600

100
-1 0 0

600
1,700

5310

131,000

166,000

26.7

6,100

2,900

3,200

5306

165,000

210,000

27.0

6,800

3,300

3,500

(5)
(5)

(5)
(5)

01.0301
17.3500
17.10031

17.1503

23.000
19.000

17.2102

(5)
(5>

(5)
(5)

(5)
(5)

07.0101
07.0102

1204
5202
5203

120,000
150,000
35,000

155.000
225.000
65,000

29.2
50.0
85.7

5,500
11,000
6,000

3,000
6,300
2,500

2,500
4,700
3,500

07.0103

5204

47,000

70,000

48.9

2,800

1,900

900

1221
1209

18,000
21,000

21,000
26,000

17.2
25.2

1,500
1,600

250
500

1,250
1,100

1206
1210
1216
1218

405,000

560,000

38.1

19,000

13,000

6,000

8,100
33,500

12,500
45,000

53.7
35.6

600
1,700

350
1,000

250
700

20,000

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

10,500

49.9

(5)

(5)

07.0901

5217

7,000
115,000

500
(5)

300
(5)

(s)

200
(5)

07.0200
07.0203
07.0299

1223
5205

210,000

265,000

26.2

14,800

4,600

10,200

14.0499

5213

50,000

65,000

30.0

4,900

1,300

3,600

See footnotes at end of table.




Annual average openings, 1 9 7 8 -9 0
Percent
change.
1978-903

5310

t e c h n ic ia n s ....................

Medical record techni­
cians and clerks . . . .

185.000
860.000
20,000
6,200

t e c h n ic ia n s ...................

Medical laboratory
w orkers........................

Projected
employ­
ment,
1990

17.0600

P o d ia tris ts ........................
Veterin arians...................
Medical technologist, technician,
and assistant occupations:
Electrocardiograph
Electroencephalograph ic
technologists and
technicians.................
Emergency medical

Estimated
employ­
ment,
1978

89

Table B-1.

Employment, 1978 and 1990 (projected), and average annual openings, by occupation, 1978-90— Continued
Vocational
educa­
tional
code1

Occupation

Operating room
technicians.................
Optometric assistants . . .
Radiologic (X-ray)
technologists..............
Respiratory therapy
workers ......................
Nursing occupations:
Registered nurses............
Licensed practical
nurses..........................
Nursing aides, orderlies,
and a tte n d a n ts ..........
Therapy and rehabilitation
occupations:
Occupational
therapists ...................
Occupational therapy
assistants ...................
Physical therap ists..........
Physical therapist
assistants and aides . .
Speech pathologists and
audiologists ..............
Other health occupations:
D ie titia n s ..........................
Dispensing opticians . . .

HEGIS
code2

Estimated
employ­
ment,
1978

Projected
employ­
ment,
1990

Annual average openings, 1 9 7 8 -9 0
Percent
change,
1978-903

Total

Employ­
ment
change

Replace­
ment
needs4

07.0305
07.0603

5211
5212

35,000
15,000

53,000
21,500

49.9
42.4

2,600
1,200

1,400
500

1,200
700

07.0501

5207

100,000

140,000

40.0

9,000

3,300

5,700

07.0903

5215

50,000

77,500

55.0

5,000

2,300

2,700

07.0301
16.0305

1203
5208

1,060,000

1,570,000

49.6

85,000

43,000

42,000

07.0302

5209

518,000

840,000

62.2

60,000

26,000

34,000

1,037,000

1,575,000

52.0

94,000

45,000

49,000

1208

15,000

30,000

100.0

2,500

1,300

1,200

07.0401

5210
1212

10,000
30,000

15,000
45,000

50.0
50.0

1,100
2,700

400
1,300

700
1,400

07.0402

5219

12,500

15,000

20.0

400

200

200

1220

32,000

60,000

87.5

3,900

2,300

1,600

1306
5212

35,000
17,600

50,000
24,300

42.9
38.1

3,300
1,200

1,300
600

2,000
600

1202

180,000

282,000

57.1

18,000

8,100

9,900

1202
1211

12,500
135,000

15,000
185,000

20.0
37.0

900
7,800

200
4,200

700
3,600

2202
2203
2204
2206
2205
2207
2000
2009

7,000

8,600

23.1

350

150

200

130,000
10,000
23,000
14,000
130,000
19,000

183,000
12,300
23,000
16,100
171,000
20,700

39.2
22.6
0.0
13.8
32.1
8.1

7,800
500
700
500
6,700
600

4,300
200
0
150
3,500
100

3,500
300
700
350
3,200
500

0826

45,000

50,000

11.1

1,700

400

1,300

6,100

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5 )

(5 )

19,000

(5)

(5)

(s )

(5)

(5)

5,000

(5)

(5 )

(5 )

(5 )

(5)

16,000

18,000

12.5

650

175

475

110,000

185,000

70.0

36,000

7,000

29,000

134,000
385,000

160,000
475,000

18.3
24.2

7,500
22,000

2,000
8,000

5,500
14,000

07.0303

07.0601
17.2101

Health services adminis­
trators ........................
Medical record adminis­
trators ..........................
Pharmacists ......................
Social scientists:
A n th ro p o lo g is ts
E cono m ists

. .

Geographers......................
Historians..........................
Political scientists............
Psychologists...................
Sociologists .....................
Social service occupations:
Counseling occupations:
School counselors ..........
Employment
counselors .................
Rehabilitation
counselors .................
College career planning
and placement
counselors .................
Other social service occupations:
Cooperative extension
service w o rk e rs ..........
Homemaker-home
health aides ...............
Social service aides..........
Social w o rk e rs .................

14.0602

5506
5506
2104

See footnotes at end of table.




90

Table B-1.

Employment, 1978 and 1990 (projected), and average annual openings, by occupation, 1978-90— Continued

Occupation

Vocational
educa­
tional
code1

Floral designers...............
Industrial designers . . . .
Interior designers............
Landscape architects . . .
Photographers.................
Communications occupations:
Newspaper reporters. . . .
Public relations
workers ......................
Radio and television
announcers.................
Technical w r ite r s ............

Percent
change,
1978-903

13,400
8,000
127,000

18,000
11,000
177,000

34.3
37.5
39.4

850
550
8,900

400
250
4,200

450
300
4,700

22,000

31,000

40.9

1,600

800

800

0202

54,000
44,000

77,000
59,000

42.6
35.3

4,000
3,300

1,900
1,300

2,100
2,000

0203
0204
1011

56,000
13,000
79,000
14,000
93,000

76,000
15,300
95,000
20,500
107,000

35.2
17.5
20.9
45.8
15.0

4,200
550
3,600
1,100
3,800

1,700
200
1,400
550
1,100

2,500
350
2,200
550
2,700

0602

04.0100
17.0702
04.0500
17.0703
17.0701

Projected
employ­
ment,
1990

1007
1008
1004
1005
1006
1007

Performing arts, design, and
communications occupations:
Performing artists:
Actors and actresses . . . .
D a n c e rs .............................
M usicians..........................

Singers...............................
Design occupations:
Architects ........................
Display w o rk e rs ..............

45,000

53,000

19.6

2,400

700

1,700

131,000

163,000

24.4

7,500

2,600

4,900

27,000
24,000

33,500
(5)

22.2
(5)

850
(5)

500
(5 )

350
(s)

04.0100
0603

Total

Employ­
ment
change

Replace­
ment
needs4

4 Replacement needs include openings arising from deaths,
retirements, and other separations from labor force. Does not
include transfers to other occupations.
5 Not available.
6Totals do not equal the sum of individual estimates because all
branches of engineering are not covered separately.

1 Vocational education codes are from Vocational Education and
Occupations (U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department
of Labor, 1969).
2 H EG IS codes are from the Higher Education General Informa­
tion Survey. See A Taxonomy o f Industrial Programs in Higher
Education (U.S. Department of Education 1970).
3Percentages calculated from unrounded numbers.




Annual average openings, 1 9 7 8 -9 0

Estimated
employ­
ment,
1978

HEGIS
code2

NOTE:

91

Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

Appendix C. Detailed
Training Statistics

trained in a particular occupational specialty, and tables
C-l and C-8 give data on vocational education comple­
tions.
Because data in these tables are fragmentary and in­
consistent, they must be used with caution. In table C-l,
data are not strictly comparable because different pro­
grams cover different time periods (fiscal years, calen­
dar years, and academic years). Furthermore, many
junior and community college completions in table C-5
and vocational education completions in C-l do not
match a specific occupation. Extensive footnotes in­
dicate data limitations.

This appendix presents detailed statistics on the
number of persons completing formal training pro­
grams. Table C-l presents statistics for those occupa­
tions listed in appendix B that generally require less than
a bachelor’s degree for entry. Tables C-2 and C-3 pre­
sent data on bachelor’s, master’s, doctor’s, and first
professional degrees awarded, by field of study.
Tables C-4 and C-5 present limited historical data on
junior or community college graduates who are in
occupation-related curriculums and on persons who
have completed apprenticeship programs, respectively.
Table C-6 presents data on enlisted military personnel

Table C-1.

Available training data for occupations generally requiring less than a bachelor's degree

Occupation

Industrial production and related
occupations:
Foundry occupations:
Patternm akers........................
M o ld e rs ....................................
Coremakers ............................
Machining occupations:
All-round machinists..............
Machine tool operators..........
Setup workers (machine
tools) .................................
Tool-and-die makers..............
Printing occupations:1
Compositors............................
Lithographers..........................
Printing press operators and
assistants............................
Bookbinders and bindery
workers ............................
Other industrial production and
related occupations:
Assemblers ............................
Blue-collar worker
supervisors........................
Boilermaking
occupations .....................
Furniture upholsterers.........
M illw rights...............................
Ophthalmic lab technicians. .

Vocational
education
code

HEGIS
code

Public
vocational
education
completions,
Fy 1978

Job
Corps
comple­
tions,
Fy 1978

17.2302
17.2301
17.2301

Junior
college
grad­
uates,
1 9 77-78

95

17.2302
17.2303
17.2302
17.2307
17.1900
17.1906
17.1902

Appren­
ticeship
comple­
tions,
1978

162

2,859
3,437

2,396
26,920

5009

95
225
2,311
971
159
508

73

17.1902

321

204

17.1906

1

100

308
17.1700

18,650

17.1099
17.3500
17.1099
07.0600

721
27,198

75

102
1,087

577

See footnotes at end of table.



Private
vocational
education
completions,
19 7 7-7 8

92

719

Table C-1.

Available training data for occupations generally requiring less than a bachelor's degree—Continued

Occupation

Photographic laboratory
occupations3 .....................
Stationary engineers..............
Welders ....................................
Office occupations:
Clerical occupations:
Bookkeeping w orkers............
Cashiers............ .......................
File clerks ...............................
Office machine operators . . .
Postal clerks.............................
Receptionists..........................
Secretaries and
stenographers...................
Stock c le rk s .............................
T yp is ts......................................
Computer and related occupations:
Computer operating
personnel ..........................
Program m ers..........................
Administrative and related
occupations:
Accountants ..........................
Hotel managers and
assistants............................
Service occupations:
Cleaning and related occupations:
Building custodians ..............
Food service occupations:
Cooks and chefs.....................
Food counter w o rk e rs ..........
M e a tc u tte rs .............................
Waiters and waitresses..........
Personal service occupations:
Barbers ....................................
Cosmetologists........................
Funeral directors and
embalmers ........................
Private household service
occupations:
Private household service
workers .............................

Protective and related service
occupations:
Firefighters .............................
G u ards......................................
Police officers13 .....................
Health and regulatory
inspectors (government)..
Other service occupations:
Telephone operators ............
Education and related occupations:
Teaching occupations:
Teacher a id e s ..........................
Library occupations:
Library technicians and
assistants ..........................

Vocational
education
code

17.0900
17.3200
17.2306

HEGIS
code

Public
vocational
education
completions,
Fy 1978

5007

7,960
3,639
51,772

Appren­
ticeship
comple­
tions,
1978

Junior
college
grad­
uates,
197 7-7 8

866
480
4,357

1,827

5 3,412
219
178
209
8
104
77

5005

14.0700
14.0504
14.0900
14.0200

5005

170,167

17,991

5005

144,077

700

14.0201
14.0202
14.0203

5101
5102
0704

11,519

627
5,171
4,775

11,165

171
114
1,600

6 23,132

7 278

7 5,095

12,135

5002
0508
5010

3,495
*2 ,1 4 9

17.1100

5,406

108

1,603

9

1 0 1,955
77
108
46

17.2902
17.2904
17.2903
17.2904
1,094
27,215

5,859
51,177

07.0909

307

09.0200

36,487
17,767
41,587
5,243
4,686

2
71

1 ‘ 464

783

1 2 112,680

09.0201
09.0202
09.0203
09.0204
09.0205

10 160

2,060

17.2601
17.2602

5006
5006

17.2801
17.2802
17.2802

5507

17.2899

48

2,827

78,542

5408

21,744

5505

17,278

67

14.0401

35

5503

14.0499

3,331

1
3

632

6,187

549

5504

See footnotes at end of table.



Job
Corps
comple­
tions,
Fy 1978

4 728,189

14.0000
14.0102
14.0103
14.0302
14.0104
14.0403
14.0406

Private
vocational
education
completions,
197 7-7 8

93

Table C-1.

Available training data for occupations generally requiring less than a bachelor's degree—Continued

Occupation

Sales occupations:
Automobile parts counter
w orkers...............................
Gasoline service station
attendants..........................
Real estate agents and
b ro ke rs ...............................
Retail trade sales workers . . .
Wholesale trade sales
w orkers...............................
Construction occupations:
Bricklayers, stonemasons,
and marblesetters............
C arpenters...............................
Cement massons and terazzo
w orkers...............................
Construction laborers............
Drywall installers and
finishers .............................
Electricians (construction)18.
Floor covering installers . . . .
Glaziers (construction).........
Insulation w o rk e rs .................
Ironw orkers.............................
Lathers ....................................
Operating engineers
(construction machinery
operators)..........................
Painters and paperhangers . .
Plasterers.................................
Plumbers and pipefitters19. . .
Roofers ....................................
Sheet-metal workers..............
Occupations in transportation activities:
Air transportation occupations:
Airplane mechanics ..............
Airplane p ilo ts ........................
Driving occupations:
Local truckdrivers...................
Scientific and technical occupations:
Conservation occupations:
Forestry technicians..............
Other scientific and technical
occupations:
D ra fte rs ....................................
Engineering and science
technicians . ......................

Vocational
education
code

04.0000

‘ *6 3 ,4 2 7

Appren­
ticeship
comple­
tions,
1978

Junior
college
grad­
uates,
1 9 7 7-7 8
1 *25 ,2 9 3

0509

69

04.1600

5004

134

04.1700
04.2000

5004

37,855
16 7,879

04.3100

17.1004
17.1001

11,891
44,625

41,913
167

1,692

90
374

17.1008
17.1002
17.1099
17.1099
17.1099
17.1099
17.1006

18,373

17.100302
17.1005
17.1006
17.1007
17.1010
17.2305

___ 8,312

1 7 1,031
5,577
402

247

488

283

487
730
215
136

6,571

17.0400
17.0401
16.0601

816
1,741
418
233

17,1099
17,1099

86

180
6,920
241
250
228
1,841
172

1,433
947
164
6,801
428
2,390

50 6,459
1,325

1,142
11,560

86

21 30

01.0601

5403

5,182

17.1300

5304

33,294

1,350

16.0100

5300
5401
5407
5309

44,726

4,679

17.0100
17.0200
17.0301
17.0302

5317
5310
5306

18,272
5,948
29,401
99,528

1,662
8
845
6,565

171
42
672
1,448

455
1,484

17.0600

5310

1,217

195

4

234

164

110

2,133

170
2 2 479

33 51,200

2,257

See footnotes at end of table.




Job
Corps
comple­
tions,
Fy 1978

04.0300

Surveyors.................................
Mechanics and repairers:
Air-conditioning, refrigera­
tion, and heating
mechanics..........................
Appliance repairers.................
Automobile body repairers . .
Automobile mechanics..........
Business machine
repairers2 4 . . .....................

Private
vocational
education
completions,
19 7 7-7 8

1 *2 7 9 ,9 2 0

HEGIS
code

Public
vocational
education
completions,
Fy 1978

94

439

Table C-1.

Available training data for occupations generally requiring less than a bachelor's degree—Continued

Occupation

Computer service
technicians........................
Farm equipment
mechanics..........................
Furniture upholsterers..........
Industrial machinery
rep airers.............................
Maintenance electricians . . . .
Television and radio service
technicians........................
Health occupations:
Dental occupations:
Dental assistants......................
Dental hygienists...................
Dental laboratory
technicians........................
Medical technologists, technicians,
and assistant occupations:
Electrocardiograph
technicians .....................
Electroencephalographic
technologists and
technicians........................
Medical laboratory
workers .............................

Medical record technicians
and c le rk s ..........................
Operating room
technicians........................
Optometric assistants
Radiologic (X-ray)
technologists ..............
Respiratory therapy
workers
Nursing occupations:
Registered nurses26.................
Licensed practical nurses . . .
Nursing aides, orderlies,
and assistants..........
Therapy and rehabilitation
occupations:
Occupational therapy
assistants
........................
Physical therapist assistants
and aides.............................
Other health occupations:
Dispensing opticians..............

Vocational
education
code

HEGIS
code

16.0108

Job
Corps
comple­
tions.
Fy 1978

Appren­
ticeship
comple­
tions,
1978

43

01.0301

17.10031
17.1400

102
40
32

947

510

*7 ,1 9 8

75

600

17.3500

9

133

64

17.1503

5310

07.0101
07.0102

5202
5203

8,013
2,360

3,521

07.0103

5204

1,234

793

07.0902

5217

07.0901

5217

07.0200
07.0203
07.0299

1223
5205

14.0499

5213

07.0305
07.0603

5211
5212

1,381

07.0501

5207

3,090

07.0903

5215

3,168

07.0301
07.0302

5208
5209

24,895
34,399
42,325

07.0401

763

2 589

2 589
10
3,894
1,329

3,819

231
856
96

5219

07.0601

73

291
662
3,959

3,533
6

2,567

154
3,242

42

36,193
3,019

2,725

1,768

5210

07.0402

1,329
3,825

16

07.0303

5212

661
854

975

16
83

662

4,238

5506

17.0700

Junior
college
grad­
uates,
19 7 7-7 8

319

1009
1011

10,975

5,860

3
866

4 Includes all persons who completed office occupation programs.
3 Includes all persons who completed clerical occupation programs.
3 Includes office machine training.

11ncludes bookbinders, composing room occupations, lithographic
occupations, press operators, and miscellaneous printing occupations.
2 Includes some upholsterers other than furniture.
3 May Include other photographic occupations.




Private
vocational
education
completions,
1 9 7 7-7 8

5105

Social service occupations:
Social service aides.................
Performing arts, design, and
communications occupations:
Design occupations:
Commercial a rtis ts .................
Photographers ........................

Public
vocational
education
completions,
Fy 1978

95

7 Includes training for keypunch and other input and peripheral
1 Includes tilesetters.
7
1 training data may include some maintenance electricians.
8
equipment operators, and general data processing workers.
1 Includes sprinkler fitters and steamfitters.
9
* Includes restaurant management.
2 Includes all persons who completed air transportation occupation
0
9
Includes all persons who completed quantity food preparation pro­
grams.
programs.
1 Includes bakers.
0
2 May include some over-the-road drivers.
1
1 Includes beauticians.
1
2 Electronics technicians.
2
2 Includes an unknown number of workers trained for skilled craft oc­
3
1 Includes all persons who completed private household service oc­
2
cupations and technical occupations, such as industrial drafters.
cupation programs.
1 May include some State police officers.
3
2 May include some computer service technicians.
4
1 Includes all distribution programs.
4
2 EEG and EKG technicians combined.
9
2 Some graduates may be counted in both junior college and voca­
8
1
9
Recipients of associate degrees in marketing, distribution, pur­
chasing, business, and industrial management.
tional education programs.
1 Includes training for other occupations in retail trade.
9




96

Table C-2. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field of study,
1977-78—Continued
Doctor's
degrees
(Ph. D., Ed. D.,
etc.)

Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Second-level
(master's)
degrees

........................................................................................................................

930,201

312,816

32,156

Agriculture and natural resources ...............................................................................................
Agriculture, general ...........................................................................................................
Agronomy ...........................................................................................................................
Soil s c ien c e ...........................................................................................................................
Animal s c ien c e .....................................................................................................................
Dairy sc ien c e ........................................................................................................................
Poultry science.....................................................................................................................
Fish, game, and wildlife m an agem en t............................................................................
Horticulture ........................................................................................................................
Ornamental horticulture ............................................................................... ..................
Agricultural and farm management ...............................................................................
Agriculture economics .....................................................................................................
Agriculture business...........................................................................................................
Food science and technology............................................................................................
F o re s try ..................................................................................................................................
Natural resources m anagem ent........................................................................................
Agriculture and forestry technologies............................................................................
Range management ...........................................................................................................
Other ............................................................... .....................................................................

22,724
1,948
1,609
620
4,122
283
116
1,526
1,844
585
356
1,697
1,078
717
2,671
2,268
162
221
901

4,036
327
443
136
480
57
31
364
261
26
2
552
21
323
488
273
24
100
128

971
10
157
81
125
11
14
67
66
1

9,266
Architecture and environmental d e s ig n .....................................................................................
1,353
Environmental design, general .........................................................................................
5,405
Architecture ........................................................................................................................
Interior design .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 864
Landscape a rc h ite c tu re ............................................................................................................................................................................... 965
7
Urban architecture ...............................................................................................................................................................................................
521
City, community, and regional planning ........................................................................................................................
151
Other ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3,121
67
1,392
26
211
167
1,192
66

73
5
14

2,869
............................ ...........................
.....
.....
193
Asian studies, general ........................................................................................................
166
East Asian s tu d ie s ...............................................................................................................
12
South Asian (India, etc.) s tu d ie s .....................................................................................
—
Southeast Asian s tu d ie s ...............................................................................................................................................................................
African s tu d ie s .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Islamic s tu d ie s .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... —
Russian and Slavic studies .................................................................................................................................................................... 146
Latin American s tu d ie s ............................................................................................................................................................................... 293
Middle Eastern studies ............................................................................................................................................................................... 63
52
European studies, g e n e ra l .........................................................................................................................................................................
7
Eastern European s tu d ie s ..........................................................................................................................................................................
Western European studies..................................................................................................
45
1,488
American studies .....................................................................................................................................................................................................
7
Pacific area studies................................ ........................................................................................................................................
Other ......................................... ... ........................................................................................................................................................ 376

925
96
86
8
5
21
2
66
162
52
8
5
12
248
12
142

145
7
13
-

52,213
Biological sciences .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................
38,307
Biology, general .....................................................................................................................................................................................................
1,021
Botony, general .....................................................................................................................................................................................................
Bacteriology ................................................................................................................................................................................................................340
113
Plant pathology ..................................................................................................................
Plant p harm acolo gy...........................................................................................................
88
Plant p h y s io lo g y ..................................................................................................................
4,478
Zoology, g e n e ra l..................................................................................................................
13
Pathology, human and animal .........................................................................................................................................................
30
Pharmacology, human and a n im a l ..............................................................................................................................................
Physiology, human and a n im a l ......................................................................................................................................................... 317
2,355
M ic ro b io lo g y ................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2
A n a t o m y .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................
.....
H is to lo g y ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1,752
B io ch em istry ................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Biophysics ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 91
Molecular biology ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 241

6,851
3,118
302
85
174
4
31
476
90
112
257
532
88
2
319
50
27

3,313
664
139
15
93
15
264
79
182
219
340
131

Major field of study

All fields

A rp a *turiip3




97

-

161
—
113
93
33
10
27
2

-

1
3
46
4

—

7
2
4
7
17
1
1
—

70
—

16

—

429
73
66

Table C-2. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field of study,
1977-78—Continued
Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Second-level
(master's)
degrees

Doctor's
degrees
(Ph. D., Ed. D.,
etc.)

Cell b io lo g y ...........................................................................................................................
Marine b io lo g y ............................................
..................................................................
Biometrics and biostatistics...............................................................................................
E c o lo g y .................................................................................................................................
Entomology ........................................................................................................................
G enetics..................................................................................................................................
Radio biology .....................................................................................................................
Nutrition, s c ie n tific .................................................................................. .........................
Neuro sciences.....................................................................................................................
T o x ic o lo g y ...........................................................................................................................
Embryology ........................................................................................................................
Other .....................................................................................................................................

54
509
17
841
301
97
6
142
34
27
1,037

24
112
109
139
230
136
27
155
7
19
3
173

25
24
25
48
142
93
22
54
37
10
124

Business and management ...........................................................................................................
Business and commerce, g e n e ra l.....................................................................................
A c c o u n tin g ...........................................................................................................................
Business statistics ...............................................................................................................
Banking and fin a n c e ...........................................................................................................
Investments and securities ..............................................................................................
Business management and adm inistration......................................................................
Operations research ...........................................................................................................
Hotel and restaurant m anagem ent..................................................................................
Marketing and purchasing..................................................................................................
Transportation and public u tilitie s ..................................................................................
Real estate ...........................................................................................................................
Insurance ..............................................................................................................................
International business........................................................................................................
Secretarial s tu d ie s ...............................................................................................................
Personnel management .....................................................................................................
Labor and industrial relations .........................................................................................
Business economics ...........................................................................................................
Other .....................................................................................................................................

163,274
32,165
40,856
291
8,796
114
51,595
496
1,696
17,030
1,088
659
621
306
1,830
1,492
1,343
2,266
630

48,661
9,989
3,389
164
3,298
213
25,306
489
150
1,618
158
78
31
1,043
63
1,051
755
318
548

867
162
44
10
32
—
457
43
1
29
1
1
6
9
1
1
14
54
2

Com m unications..............................................................................................................................
Communications, g e n e ra l..................................................................................................
Journalism ...........................................................................................................................
Radio/television ..................................................................................................................
A d v e rtis in g ...........................................................................................................................
Communication media .....................................................................................................
Other .....................................................................................................................................

25,401
9,760
8,299
4,125
1,410
1,527
280

3,297
1,830
797
247
117
219
87

191
134
32
13
12
-

Computer and information sciences............................................................................................
Computer and information sciences, g e n e ra l...............................................................
Information sciences and s y s te m s ..................................................................................
Data processing ..................................................................................................................
Computer program ming.....................................................................................................
Systems a n a ly s is ................................................................................................................
Other .....................................................................................................................................

7,224
5,963
742
395
24
61
39

3,038
2,713
224
53
—
30
8

196
183
13
—
—
—

E d ucation ...........................................................................................................................................
Education, g en e ra l...............................................................................................................
Elementary education, g e n e ra l.........................................................................................
Secondary education, general ........................................................................................
Junior high school e d u c a tio n ............................................................................................
Higher education, general . ...............................................................................................
Junior and community college e d u c a tio n .....................................................................
Adult and continuing e d u c a tio n .....................................................................................
Special education, general ...............................................................................................
Administration of special e d u c a tio n ...............................................................................
Education of the mentally re ta rd e d ...............................................................................
Education of the g i f t e d .....................................................................................................
Education of the d e a f ........................................................................................................
Education of the culturally disadvantaged ..................................................................
Education of the visually handicapped .........................................................................
Speech correction ...............................................................................................................

137,742
3,993
49,915
4,343
204
7
13
34
8,604
—
3,341
11
388
29
112
2,110

118,857
15,749
19,915
6,519
66
451
201
919
9,105
65
920
24
444
102
94
745

7,586
1,376
223
172
—
304
216
147
255
34
8
2
2
2
3
4




98

Table C-2. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field of study,
1977-78—Continued
Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Second-level
(master's)
degrees

Doctor's
degrees
(Ph, D., Ed. D.,
etc.)

963
213
105
23
320
5,002
2
—
240
187
37
579
234
3,670
7,412
1,107
791
22,823
98
2,400
4,801
7,456
1,115
116
3,097
357
937

540
108
1,814
88
27
534
2,122
1,510
52
101
15,832
11,191
1,407
4,205
6,759
966
1,355
600
775
4,651
279
1,057
1,670
2,732
305
152
580
333
1,893

3
4
23
1
—
193
577
42
51
19
629
1,432
128
712
106
40
66
39
65
210
2
90
63
228
20
1
10
84

Engineering........................................................................................................................................
Engineering, g e n e ra l...........................................................................................................
Aerospace, aeronautical, astronautical engineering ...................................................
Agricultural engineering.....................................................................................................
Architectural engineering.................................................................................................
Bioengineering and biomedical engineering..................................................................
Chemical engineering ............................................................... ........................................
Petroleum engineering........................................................................................................
Civil, construction, and transportation engineering ...................................................
Electrical, electronics, communications engineering...................................................
Mechanical e n g in e e rin g .....................................................................................................
Geological engineering .....................................................................................................
Geophysical engineering ..................................................................................................
Industrial and management engineering.........................................................................
Metallurgical e n g in e e rin g ..................................................................................................
Materials engineering ........................................................................................................
Ceramic engineering...........................................................................................................
Textile engineering ..................................................................................................
Mining and mineral engineering ................ .....................................................................
Engineering p h y s ic s ...........................................................................................................
Nuclear en g in e e rin g ...........................................................................................................
Engineering mechanics .....................................................................................................
Environmental and sanitary engineering .....................................................................
Naval architecture and marine engineering ..................................................................
Ocean eng ineerin g ..............................................................................................................
Engineering technologies ..................................................................................................
Other .....................................................................................................................................

56,009
3,329
1,186
551
326
350
4,615
590
9,265
11,213
8,924
157
56
2,712
420
234
152
60
509
236
545
176
309
567
162
8,787
578

16,409
1,593
411
144
18
191
1,237
98
2,691
3,742
1,943
52
19
1,722
204
224
47
9
92
106
474
152
517
75
110
360
158

2,440
235
115
37
—
61
259
21
277
503
279
1
118
75
114
19
1
16
37
112
78
36
3
20
3
20

Fine and applied arts .....................................................................................................................
Fine arts, gen eral.................................................................................................................
A r t ................................... .......................................................................................................
Art history and a p p re c ia tio n ...........................................................................................
Music (performing, composition, and theory) ............................................................
Music (liberal arts program) ............................................................................................
Music history and appreciation........................................................................................

41,033
4,665
14,122
1,833
5,243
3,599
169

9,036
668
2,333
406
2,668
698
98

708
76
6
109
266
88
41

Education of the emotionally disturbed .....................................................................
Remedial e d u c a tio n ............................................................................................................
Special learning d is a b ilitie s ...............................................................................................
Education of the physically handicapped.....................................................................
Education of the multiple handicapped.........................................................................
Social fo u n d a tio n s ..............................................................................................................
Educational psychology.....................................................................................................
Pre-elementary e d u c a tio n ..................................................................................................
Educational statistics and research..................................................................................
Educational testing, evaluation, and measurement.................................................. .
Student p ers o n n e l..............................................................................................................
Educational adm inistration ...............................................................................................
Educational supervision.....................................................................................................
Curriculum and in s tru c tio n ........................................................................................ ... .
Reading e d u c a tio n ..............................................................................................................
Art education .....................................................................................................................
Music education ..................................................................................................................
Mathematics education .....................................................................................................
Science education ..............................................................................................................
Physical e d u c a tio n ...............................................................................................................
Driver and safety education ............................................................................................
Health edu c a tio n ..................................................................................................................
Business, commerce, and distributive e d u c a tio n .........................................................
Industrial arts, vocational and technical education ...................................................
Agricultural education .....................................................................................................
Education of exceptional children, not classified a b o v e ............................................
Home economic e d u c a tio n ...............................................................................................
Nursing e d u c a tio n ...............................................................................................................
Other .....................................................................................................................................




99

553
—

Table C-2. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field of study,
1977-78—Continued
Bachelor’s
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Second-level
(master's)
degrees

Doctor’s
degrees
(Ph. D., Ed. D.,
etc.)

Dramatic a r t s ........................................................................................................................
Dance ............................................................................... .....................................................
Applied d e s ig n .................................................................................................. ..................
C inem atography..................................................................................................................
Photography ........................................................................................................................
Other .....................................................................................................................................

5,056
886
3,526
651
959
324

1,295
205
282
147
89
147

116
—
1
2
1
2

Foreign languages ...........................................................................................................................
Foreign languages, general ...............................................................................................
French .................................................................................................................................
G e r m a n .................................................................................................................................
It a l i a n .....................................................................................................................................
Spanish .................................................................................................................................
Russian .................................................................................................................................
C h in e s e .................................................................................................................................
Japanese .................................................................................................. ............................
Latin .....................................................................................................................................
Greek, classical.....................................................................................................................
H e b r e w .................................................................................................................................
A r a b ic .....................................................................................................................................
Indian (Asiatic) ..................................................................................................................
Scandinavian languages.....................................................................................................
Slavic languages (other than R u s s ia n )............................................................................
African languages (n o n -S e m itic ).....................................................................................
Other .....................................................................................................................................

13,008
1,043
3,736
1,647
301
5,082
442
116
155
117
105
73
8
3
38
82
1
59

2,741
505
692
357
58
837
50
23
18
14
10
38
3
2
16
69
5
44

649
180
155
101
19
113
12
4
1
2
7
1
1
1
1
37
10
4

Health professions...........................................................................................................................
Health professions, g e n e ra l...............................................................................................
Hospital and health care adm inistration.........................................................................
N u r s in g .................................................................................................................................
Dental specialties ..............................................................................................................
Medical specialties..............................................................................................................
Occupational t h e r a p y ........................................................................................................
O p t o m e t r y ...........................................................................................................................
P h a rm a c y ..............................................................................................................................
Physical t h e r a p y ..................................................................................................................
Dental h y g ie n e .....................................................................................................................
Public h e a l t h ........................................................................................................................
M ed ic a l record lib ra ria n s h ip
............................................................................................
Podiatry or podiatric m e d ic in e ........................................................................................
Biomedical com m unication...............................................................................................
Veterinary medicine specialties .....................................................................................
Speech pathology and au d io lo g y.....................................................................................
Chiropractic ........................................................................................................................
Clinical social work ...........................................................................................................
Medical laboratory tech no log ies.....................................................................................
Dental tech n o lo g ies...........................................................................................................
Radiologic technologies.....................................................................................................
Other .....................................................................................................................................

60,031
4,399
1,158
30,307
—
—
1,528
385
7,468
2,418
1,141
552
546
—
100
—
3,551
—
270
5,288
11
392
517

14,483
757
1,565
3,812
352
77
222
7
320
258
30
2,288
8
1
49
150
3,190
_
706
292
3
42
354

654
65
12
56
10
27
_
7
96
1
_

Home econom ics..............................................................................................................................
Home economics, g e n e ra l..................................................................................................
Home decoration and home e q u ip m e n t.........................................................................
Clothing and textiles ........................................................................................................
Consumer economics and home management ............................................................
Family relations and child development ......................................................................
Foods and n u t r it io n ...........................................................................................................
Institutional management and cafeteria m an agem en t...............................................
Other ............................................ .......................................................................................

17,737
6,327
836
2,819
746
3,135
3,068
461
355

2,613
949
39
122
91
630
676
51
55

203
71
_

Law, general ........................................................................................................................
Other ......................................................... ...........................................................................

653
645
8

1,786
1,217
569

39
39
—




100

148
—
—
_
31
121
—
16
4
_
2
58

10
12
71
33
_
6

Table C-2. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred by Institutions of higher education, by field of study,
1977-78—Continued
Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Second-level
(master's)
degrees

Doctor's
degrees
(Ph. D„ Ed. D.,
etc.)

..............................................................................................................................................
English, general ..................................................................................................................
Literature, E n g lis h ...................................... ........................................................................
Comparative literature .....................................................................................................
Classics ..................................................................................................................................
Linguistics ...........................................................................................................................
Speech, debate, and forensic science ............................................................................
Creative writing ..................................................................................................................
Teaching of English as a foreign language......................................................................
P h ilo s o p h y ...........................................................................................................................
Religious s tu d ie s ..................................................................................................................
Other .....................................................................................................................................

44,733
26,580
2,260
531
441
596
5,508
257
64
4,035
3,892
569

10,062
5,135
699
214
132
522
1,326
200
456
567
685
126

2,076
879
199
128
57
159
177
2
9
283
161
22

Library science.................................................................................................................................
Library science, g e n e ra l.....................................................................................................
Other ............................................................................................... .....................................

693
680
13

6,935
6,837
98

67
58
9

Mathematics .....................................................................................................................................
Mathematics, general ........................................................................................................
Statistics, mathematical and th e o re tic a l.........................................................................
Applied mathematics ........................................................................................................
Other .....................................................................................................................................

12,701
11,886
273
412
130

3,383
2,640
507
195
41

805
592
153
56
4

Military sciences..............................................................................................................................
Military science ( A r m y ) .....................................................................................................
Naval science (Navy, Marines) ........................................................................................
Aerospace science (Air Force) ........................................................................................
Merchant m a r in e ......................................................................... ........................................
Other .....................................................................................................................................

386
11
10
34
252
79

45
45
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—

Physical sciences...............................................................................................................................
Physical sciences, g e n e ra l................................... ..............................................................
Physics, general ..................................................................................................................
Molecular physics ............................................ ..................................................................
Nuclear physics ..................................................................................................................
Chemistry, g e n e ra l...............................................................................................................
Inorganic c h e m is try ...........................................................................................................
Organic c h e m is try ..............................................................................................................
Physical c h e m is try ............................................................... ...............................................
Analytical chemistry ........................................................................................................
Pharmaceutical c h em istry..................................................................................................
A s tro n o m y ...........................................................................................................................
A stro p h ysics........................................................................................................................
Atmospheric sciences and m e te o ro lo g y .........................................................................
G e o lo g y .................................................................................................................................
Geochemistry .....................................................................................................................
Geophysics and seism ology..................................................................................... ...
Earth sciences, general .....................................................................................................
P a le o n to lo g y ........................................................................................................................
Oceanography .....................................................................................................................
Metallurgy ...........................................................................................................................
Other earth sciences...........................................................................................................
Other physical s c ien c e s .....................................................................................................

23,175
1,310
3,259
19
52
11,408
52
—
2
1
11
110
18
353
4,191
9
144
1,069
3
234
29
206
695

5,576
204
1,270
4
20
1,757
9
23
31
18
54
84
11
199
1,126
16
97
215
2
177
31
96
132

3,137
73
841
1
31
1,378
23
24
21
19
60
80
9
58
228
6
34
55
5
91
18
39
42

Psycho log y........................................................................................................................................
Psychology, general ...........................................................................................................
Experimental psychology..................................................................................................
Clinical psychology ...........................................................................................................
Psychology for counseling ...............................................................................................
Social psychology ..............................................................................................................
Psychometrics .....................................................................................................................
Statistics in p sych olo gy.....................................................................................................
Industrial p sy c h o lo g y ........................................................................................................
Developmental p sych olo gy...............................................................................................

45,057
43,501
38
4
173
549
9
3
36
439

8,194
5,185
67
494
1,719
241
49
—
106
217

2,597
1,958
50
348
72
84
2
1
4
39

Letters




101

Table C-2. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field of study,
1977-78—Continued
Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Second-level
(master's)
degrees

Doctor's
degrees
(Ph. D., Ed. D.,
etc.)

Physiological p sy c h o lo g y ..................................................................................................
Other .....................................................................................................................................

33
272

6
110

15
24

Public affairs and services...............................................................................................................
Community services, g e n e ra l............................................................................................
Public administration ........................................................................................................
Parks and recreation m an agem en t..................................................................................
Social work and helping services.....................................................................................
Law enforcement and correction ..................................................................................
International public serv ic e ...............................................................................................
Other .....................................................................................................................................

37,685
1,707
2,047
5,623
12,672
14,923
125
588

20,191
425
6,921
574
9,886
1,902
140
343

395
56
153
10
138
17
11
10

Social s c ien c e s .................................................................................................................................
Social sciences, general .....................................................................................................
Anthropology .....................................................................................................................
Archaeology ........................................................................................................................
Economics ...........................................................................................................................
History .................................................................................................................................
Geography ...........................................................................................................................
Political science and governm ent.....................................................................................
S o c io lo g y ..............................................................................................................................
Criminology ........................................................................................................................
International relation s........................................................................................................
Afro-American (black culture) studies .........................................................................
American Indian cultural studies . ..................................................................................
Mexican-American cultural studies ...............................................................................
Urban studies........................................................................................................................
Demography ........................................................................................................................
Other ...................... .............................................................................................................

114,184
11,552
4,300
72
15,746
23,145
3,732
26,245
22,991
2,350
1,435
281
19
102
1,342
82
790

14,660
2,259
856
25
1,997
3,040
648
2,070
1,611
284
872
44
—
12
745
39
158

3,583
110
398
16
706
813
158
636
599
12
54
—
—

Theology ...........................................................................................................................................
Theological professions, general .....................................................................................
Religious music ..................................................................................................................
Biblical languages ..............................................................................................................
Religious education..............................................................................................................
Other ....................................................................................................................................

6,344
4,052
294
38
1,665
295

3,329
1,847
142
36
1,094
210

1,160
1,079
5
9
37
30

Interdisciplinary studies..................................................................................................................
G eneral liberal arts and sciences .....................................................................................
Biological and physical sciences .....................................................................................
Humanities and social sciences........................................................................................
Engineering and o t h e r ........................................................................................................
Other .....................................................................................................................................

36,059
19,707
3,898
3,911
189
8,354

4,487
1,387
376
872
966
886

301
55
56
84
5
101

NOTE:
Dash indicates data are not available.
SOURCE:
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.




102

-

9
7
65

Table C-3.

First professional degrees1 conferred by institutions of higher education, 1 9 7 7 -7 8
Field of study

First professional
degrees

Total, all institutions....................................

1,661
5,238
14,399
1,014
944
547

First professional
degrees

66,964

Chiropractic (D .C .).............................................
Dentistry (D.D.S. or D .M .D .) ..........................
Medicine ( M .D .) ..................................................
Optometry (O .D .)...............................................
Osteopathy ( D . O .) .............................................
Pharmacy (Pharm. D .)........................................

Field of study

Podiatry (Pod. D. or D.P) or
Podiatry Medicine (D .P .M .)........................
Veterinary Medicine (D .V .M .)..........................
Law (LL.B. or J . D . ) ...........................................
Theology (B.D., M. Div., or Rabbi).................
Other .....................................................................

1 Includes degrees that require at least 6 years of college work for
completion (including at least 2 years of preprofessional training).




103

543
1,635
34,616
6,367
-

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for
Education Statistics.

Table C-4.

Apprentice completions in selected trades, 1964-78
Trade

Construction trades:4
Bricklayers, stone and
tile s e tte rs .....................
Carpenters.............................
Cement masons...................
Electricians..........................
Floor coverers......................
Glaziers.................................
Insulation workers ............
L ath ers .................................
Line erectors, light and
power .............................
Operating engineers............
Ornamental iron w o rkers..
Painters.................................
Plasterers...............................
Plumbers-pipefitters5 . . . .
Roofers..................................
Sheet-metal w o rk e rs ..........
Structural steel workers. . .
Tapers, dry-wall
installers..........................
Not classified above ..........
Metalworking trades:
Boilermakers........................
Machine set-up and
operators........................
Machinists ........................ .
Patternmakers......................
Toolmakers, diemakers . . .
Not classified above ..........
Graphic art trades:
Bookbinders, bindery
w o rk e rs ..........................
Compositors........................
Lithographers, photo­
engravers ........................
Press o p e ra to rs ...................
Not classified above ..........
Personal services trades:
Barbers, b eu tician s............
Butchers, meatcutters . . . .
Cooks, b ak e rs ......................
Medical and dental
technicians ...................
Office machine servicers . .
Optical workers .................
Radio and T V repairers . . .
Miscellaneous trades:4
Air-conditioning and
refrigeration
m echanics......................
Aircraft mechanics............
Auto and related body
repairers ........................
Auto and related
mechanics......................
Cabinetmakers, wood
machinists.....................
Car repairers........................
Drafters ...............................
Electrical w orkers..............
Electronic technicians . . . .

1964

1965

1966 I9 6 7 1 19682 19693 1970

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1,369 1,342 1,346 1,602 1,206 1,651 1,801 1,431 1,998 1,400 1,184 1,418 1,407 1,138 1,031
2,882 3,272 3,340 4,249 3,423 3,698 3,083 3,639 5,054 5,719 5,211 5,669 6,211 6,614 5,577
384
664
297
293
372
386
300
273
460
526
566
399
402
222
825
3,887 3,327 3,654 6,075 4,742 5,091 5,224 4,364 5,991 5,730 6,138 6,003 6,563 6,849 6,920
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
294
324
241
300
283
173
316
256
297
337
217
244
335
236
239
223
296
250
266
222
228
248
266
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
264
354
312
282
365
295
260
228
214
236
183
466
290
145
202
276
206
172
240
268
198
188
278
201
-

219
-

236
-

552
-

412
-

617
—

943
-

621
586
439 1,035

807 1,019
770
829
832
992
983
969
868
264
267
215
201
161
161
245
181
228
3,101 3,050 2,736 3,601 3,788 4,888 4,266 5,080 5,663
241
383
257
282
272
226
290
379
278
1,742 1,477 1,568 2,184 2,401 2,544 2,309 2,401 2,768
732
870 1,075 1,387 1,209 2,006 1,536 1,381 2,098

526

654

640

52

111

91

669
848
87
909
176
4,843
426
2,775
1,801

1,159
829
112
1,057
183
6,190
391
2,548
1,513

1,117
932
115
1,148
230
6,009
447
2,302
1,952

1,151
945
50
1,139
153
6,061
482
2,351
2,223

800
1,299
95
981
148
7,770
564
2,542
2,129

831
1,433
67
947
164
6,801
428
2,390
1,774

451

552

446
-

404
-

390
-

195
-

99

230 1,279 1,063 1,221

-

180
517

364

405

504

353

367

340

508

630

721

199

135

180

141
144
112
212
251
225
1,309 1,339 1,616 2,367 2,108 3,527 3,822 3,234 3,695 2,357 2,047 1,905 2,526 2,967 2,859
131
160
150
444
326
350
395
290
275
166
181
163
158
129
162
1,489 1,293 1,704 3,596 2,502 4,125 4,748 3,482 3,825 2,716 2,051 1,849 1,901 2,387 2,311
164
240
446 1,040
541 1,673
690
531
446
-

235
666

182
675

160
559

116
807

170
810

315
837

223
774

142
623

231
844

81
377

151
442

159
475

122
264

143
230

100
159

640
551
175

329
304
75

444
423
106

469
517
164

325
721
98

839
826
160

987
637
279

320
354
285

518
635
478

183
507
387

587
684
647

212
635
326

292
466
230

186
364
217

508
204
128

369
34

448
40

531
29

631
22

756
47

362
80

727
91

817
261

997
229

176
794
105

316
919
226

315
661
135

347
467
853 1,431
548
251

464
783
160

18

32

13

30

59

65

92

78

145

18

24

88
199
67
156

117
387
153
248

106
479
142
222

138
567
140
108

96
388
131
122

73
234
83
113

-

-

-

-

—

-

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

149

65

153
53

293
36

212
26

360
48

352
60

439
86

135

133

151

218

214

211

595

307

308

238

310

275

266

198

455

517

334

529

525

705 1,017

641

774 1,269 1,231 1,341 1,297 1,343 1,425 1,484

213
13
128
251
-

207
24
126
277

235
9
182
382
-

177
77
243
583
-

164
140
311
591
-

186
212
278
101
138
128
538
453
528
446 1,074 1,691
377
400
-

"I

See footnotes at end of table.




1971

104

120
82
447
319
-

241
174
273
833
163

268
185
338
835
217

285
294
293
290
298
860
220
246
188
778 1,106 1,398
354
125
275

257
659
170
167
479

Table 0 4 ,

Apprentice completions in selected trades, 1964-78—Continued
Trade

Maintenance mechanics . . .
M illw rig h ts ..........................
Molders, coremakers..........
Stationary engineers..........
Not classified a b o v e ..........

1964
322
251
126
98
-

1965
354
165
110
161
-

1966 1 9671 1968’ 19693 1970
442
270
112
125
-

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

774
731
947
662
920 1,303
718 1,072 1,293 1,682 1,253 1,846
624
794
933 1,167 1,087
786
331
615
763
780
695 1,080
—
—
87
147
67
123
95
212
200
149
199
281
—
—
141
480
130
179
308
168
288
75
80
119
1,447 2,146 3,304 2,182 2,742 2,581 2,985 3,668 4,227
-

1 Figures are understated because detailed data for Florida
and Louisiana were not reported.
2 Figures are understated because detailed data for Florida were
not reported.
3 Figures are understated because detailed data for California and
Florida were not reported.
4 It was not possible to provide a historical series for several trades
because they were either recently listed as a separate trade (i.e., mov­




1971

ed from a not elsewhere classified category), or were consolidated
with one or more related occupations.
9 Includes also sprinklerfitters and steamfitters.
NOTE: Dash indicates data not available.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training.

105

Table C-5. Associate degrees and other formal awards below the baccalaureate granted in occupational curriculums,
1971-72 to 1977-781—Continued
Academic year

HEGIS
code2

5000
5001
5002
5003
5004
5005
5006
5007
5008
5009
5010
5011
5012
5099
5100
5101
5102
5103
5104
5105
5199
5200
5201
5202
5203
5204
5205
5206
5207
5208
5209
5210
5211
5212
5213
5214
5215
5216
5217
5218
5219
5299

Curriculum
1971-72

1 9 7 2-7 3 1 9 7 3 -7 * 1 9 74-75 1 9 7 5-7 6 1 9 7 6-7 7 1 9 7 7-7 8

All curriculum s..................................................
Business and commerce technologies...............................
Business and commerce technologies, general . .
Accounting technologies........................................
Banking and finance technologies ..., ..................
Marketing distribution, purchasing, business
and industrial m anagem ent........................
Secretarial technologies (includes office
machines training)................................................
Personal service technologies (flight attendant,
cosmetologist, e t c . ) ...........................................
Photography technologies......................................
Communications and broadcasting technologies
(radio/television, newspapers)........................
Printing and lithography technologies.................
Hotel and restaurant management
technologies .......................................................
Transportation and public utilities
technologies .......................................................
Applied arts, graphic arts, and fine arts technologies (includes advertising design)............
Other ..........................................................................

190,039
61,077
12,781
6,583
349

174,101
55,311
11,402
6,331
460

201,538
65,326
12,379
7,880
1,605

217,949
68,036
14,325
8,208
642

243,101
79,179
17,392
9,374
890

265,324
87,783
23,022
11,041
860

278,969
96,930
21,670
12,135
1,110

10,155

9,989

13,559

14,065

19,926

19,064

25,293

20,355

15,526

18,650

19,229

19,704

21,011

23,132

1,297
619

552
661

468
645

580
734

632
810

869
747

815
866

986
600

1,032
450

1,292
535

1,525
584

1,850
587

1,814
808

1,735
719

1,258

1,451

1,852

2,037

1,865

1,702

2,149

409

467

462

521

627

734

909

3,873
1,832

4,107
2,883

4,594
1,405

4,161
1,425

4,814
708

5,294
817

5,460
937

Data processing technologies.............................................
Data processing technologies, g en eral.................
Keypunch operator and other input
preparation technologies.................................
Computer programmer technologies...................
Computer operator and peripheral equipment
operation technologies......................................
Data processing equipment maintenance
technologies.........................................................
Other ............................................................................

8,971
5,669

7,640
4,584

6,998
4,360

6,821
3,912

7,176
3,989

7,993
4,671

9,339
5,095

402
2,198

327
2,118

133
2,018

237
2,199

202
2,547

131
2,618

264
3,368

431

249

205

240

229

304

263

104
167

103
259

226
56

179
54

188
21

241
28

319
30

Health services and paramedical technologies..............
Health services assistant...........................................
Dental assistant technologies.................................
Dental hygiene technologies.................................
Dental laboratory technologies............................
Medical or biological laboratory assistant
technologies .......................................................
Animal laboratory assistant technologies ..........
Radiologic technologies (X-ray, etc.) .................
Nursing, R .N. (less than 4-year program)............
Nursing, practical (L.P.N. or L .V .N .—less than
4-year program )..................................................
Occupational therapy technologies......................
Surgical technologies................................................
Optical technologies (includes ocular care,
ophthalmic, optometric technologies)..........
Medical record technologies.................................
Medical assistant and medical office assistant
technologies .......................................................
Inhalation therapy technologies..........................
Psychiatric technologies (includes mental
health aide programs)........................................
Electrodiagnostic technologies (includes EKG,
E EG, e t c . ) ............................................................
Institutional management technologies (rest
home, e tc .)...........................................................
Physical therapy technologies...............................
O ther.......................... .................................................

45,412
202
2,779
3,113
374

42,910
121
1,255
3,465
414

51,207
771
1,197
3,738
594

57,943
1,683
1,341
3,717
643

61.918
2,367
1,425
3,538
622

66,560
2,863
1,699
3,872
676

68,447
2,465
1,329
3,825
763

1,826
162
1,727
18,211

1,902
202
2,157
23,252

2,617
387
2,758
28,158

3,238
502
3,035
31,994

3,313
728
3,323
34,187

3,796
903
3,465
35,670

3,819
1,263
3,959
36,193

9,939
287
423

2,637
435
110

2,447
491
183

2,486
485
207

2,794
560
252

2,981
546
241

3,019
661
291

146
447

215
581

395
627

438
753

519
919

595
1,055

662
1,098

1,828
982

1,340
1,542

1,623
1,824

1,845
2,103

2,046
2,080

2,278
2,239

2,352
2,567

842

1,138

1,785

1,862

1,730

1,874

2,009

55

29

24

55

66

81

89

225
355
1,489

22
469
1,624

64
717
807

89
839
628

81
749
619

94
781
831

144
975
964

See footnotes at end of table.




106

Table C-5. Associate degrees and other formal awards below the baccalaureate granted in occupational curriculums,
1971-72 to 1977-781
Academic year

HEGIS
code1
2
5300
5301
5302
5303
5304
5305
5306
5307
5308
5309
5310

5311
5312
5313
5314
5315
5316
5317

5399
5400
5401
5402
5403
5404
5405
5406
5407
5408

5499
5500
5501
5502
5503
5504
5505
5506
5507
5508
5599

Curriculum
1 9 7 1-7 2 19 7 2-7 3 19 7 3-7 4 19 7 4-7 5 1 9 7 5-7 6 1976-77

1 9 7 7-7 8

Mechanical and engineering technologies........................
Mechanical and engineering technologies,
general ................................................................
Aeronautical and aviation technologies..............
Engineering graphics (tool and machine
drafting and design)...........................................
Architectural drafting technologies......................
Chemical technologies (includes plastics)............
Automotive technologies.........................................
Diesel technologies..................................................
Welding technologies................................................
Civil technologies (surveying, photogrammetry,
etc.) .....................................................................
Electronics and machine technologies (television, appliance, office machine repair,
e tc .) .......................................................................
Electromechanical technologies ..........................
Industrial technologies.............................................
Textile technologies..................................................
Instrumentation technologies...............................
Mechanical technologies........................................
Nuclear technologies................................................
Construction and building technologies
(carpentry, electric work, plumbing, sheetmetal, air conditioning, heating, e tc .)............
O ther............................................................................

44,145

34,781

37,631

40,775

45,169

49,249

51,200

2,925
2,656

2,455
2,378

3,295
2,060

2,436
2,208

3,506
1,983

5,046
2,422

4,746
2,679

2,907
2,369
529
5,109
835
1,548

2,122
1,897
576
3,676
603
652

2,385
2,249
555
4,300
785
579

2,477
2,583
590
4,507
926
842

2,587
2,445
632
4,714
943
1,063

2,746
2,489
656
5,389
1,197
1,317

2,818
2,764
748
5,697
1,462
1,300

2,095

2,290

2,203

2,219

2,331

2,316

2,257

9,129
1,530
2,313
244
189
2,678
79

6,397
1,179
1,315
245
276
1,954
88

7,470
1,670
1,928
223
259
2,496
77

8,638
2,333
2,011
242
340
2,193
98

11,145
2,549
2,051
329
360
2,451
169

10,772
2,551
2,282
301
367
2,629
138

12,297
2,185
2,096
308
641
2,473
118

4,927
2,083

3,648
3,030

4,652
508

5,632
500

5,285
626

5,806
825

5,789
830

Natural science technologies.............................................
Natural science technologies, general...................
Agriculture technologies (includes
h o rtic u ltu re ).......................................................
Forestry and wildlife technologies (includes
fisheries) ..............................................................
Food services technologies....................................
Home economics technologies .............................
Marine and oceanographic technologies..............
Laboratory technologies, general
Sanitation and public health inspection tech­
nologies (environmental health tech­
nologies) ..............................................................
O ther............................................................................

9,418
795

9,242
648

11,496
768

12,966
785

13,316
1,004

15,534
1,231

15,980
1,341

3,321

3,440

4,470

4,823

5,238

6,150

6,457

1,523
886
1,210
334
162

1,671
704
1,042
378
189

1,980
1,581
1,542
414
211

2,203
2,046
1,770
544
261

2,133
2,138
1,406
413
246

2,219
2,640
1,427
578
317

1,992
2,703
1,652
525
298

632
555

346
874

464
66

437
97

460
278

550
422

632
380

Public-service-related technologies.............. ....................
Public service technologies, general......................
Bible study or religion-related occupations . . . .
Education technologies (teacher aide and
2-year teacher training programs)...................
Library assistant technologies
Police, law enforcement, correction tech­
nologies ..............................................................
Recreation and social work and related
technologies ......................................................
Fire control technology...........................................
Public administration and management
technologies .......................................................
O ther............................................................................

21,016
504
929

24,167
509
612

28,880
834
558

31,408
914
1,071

36,343
2,003
1,011

38,225
2,460
1,444

37,073
2,596
1,363

5,170
571

4,839
586

5,840
506

6,189
607

5,840
594

5,879
657

6,187
549

9,204

11,658

14,915

15,639

18,698

18,572

17,278

1,965
1,205

2,269
1,448

3,731
2,013

3,712
2,188

3,009
3,234

3,949
3,142

4,238
2,827

186
1,282

240
2,008

354
129

491
597

741
1,213

896
1,226

840
1,195

1These data do not include associate degrees and other formal
awards below the baccalaureate granted in arts and sciences
curriculums.
2 HEGIS codes are from the Higher Education General Informa­




107

tion Survey. See A Taxonomy o f Instructional Programs in Higher
Education (U.S. Department of Education, 1970).
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for
Education Statistics.

C-6. Enlisted strength in Department of Defense (DOD) occupational groups, September 3 0 ,1 9 7 8
Group title and description of coverage

0

IN F A N T R Y , GUN CREWS, A N D SEAMANSHIP S P E C IA L IS T S ....................................................................................................

01

Infantry — includes weapon specialists, ground reconnaisance specialists and crew-served artillery specialists, armor
.................................................................
and amphibious crews, and specialists in combat engineering and seamanship

02

Arm or and A m p h ib io u s .....................................................................................................................................................................

03

Combat Engineering — includes specialists in hasty and temporary construction of airfields, roads, and bridges and
in demolition, field illumination, and chemical w a r f a r e .............................................................................................................

04

A rtillery /Gunnery, Rockets, and Missiles — includes conventional field, anti-air and shipboard guns and artillery, and
rocket and missile s p e c ia lis ts ............................................................................................................................................................

05

A ir Crew — includes pilots and navigators, flight engineers, and other air c r e w .................................................................

06

Seamanship — includes boatswains, navigators, and other seamanship specialists

07

Installation Security — includes specialists who guard weapon systems, defend installations, and protect personnel,
equipment, and facilities
. . . .
..........................................................................................................................

1
10

ELECTRO NIC EQ UIPM ENT REPAIRERS

.............................................................

...........................................................................................................................................

Radio/Radar — includes fixed and mobile radio, air traffic and tracking radar, communication, navigation, and
electronic countermeasure g e a r ........................................................................................................................................................

11

Fire Control Electronic System (Non-Missile)

12

Missile Guidance, Control and Checkout — includes specialists in guidance, control, and checkout equipment for
guided and ballistic missiles
............................................................................................................................................................

13

Sonar Equipment — includes specialists in underwater detection and fire control systems, oceanographic equipment,
and related antisubmarine gear
........................................................................................................................................................

14

Nuclear Weapons Equipment

15

A DP Computers

.......................................

...................................

..........................

........................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................................................

16

Teletype and Cryptographic E q u i p m e n t ......................................................................................................................................

19

Other Electronic Equipment — includes training devices, inertial navigation systems, and electronics instruments
specialists
...........................................................................................................................................................................................

2

CO M M UNICA TIO NS A N D IN T E LL IG E N C E S P E C IA L IS T S .............................................................................................................

20

Radio and Radio Code — includes operators of radio, radio teletype, and visual communications equipment

21

Sonar

..........................................................................

.

. .

.......................................................................................

22

Radar and A ir Traffic Control

23

Signal Intelligence/Electronic Warfare — includes the intercept, translation, and analysis of foreign communications,
....................................................
and the operation of electronic countermeasures equipment

24

Intelligence — includes the gathering, receipt, and analysis of nonsignal intelligence data, the interrogation of
prisoners, other language translators and interpreters, image interpretation, and specialists in counterintelligence and
investigational a c t iv it ie s .....................................................................................................................................................................

25

Combat Operations Control — includes specialists in forward area tactical operations and intelligence and in
command post control activities
...................................................................................................................................................

26

Communications Center Operations — includes the receipt and distribution of messages, the operation of
communications center equipment, and the operation of major field communications systems
...............................

3

M ED IC A L A N D D EN TA L S P E C IA L IS T S ...............................................................................................................................................

30

Medical Care

. . . .

..................

................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................................................

31

Technical Medical Services — includes laboratory, pharmaceutical, and X-ray services

32

Related Medical Services — includes specialists in sanitation, health preservation, and veterinary services and
preventive medical services
............................................................................................................................................................

33

Dental Care — includes specialists in dental care and treatment and in related technical and laboratory services

....................................................

. .

4

OTHER TEC H N IC A L A ND A L L IE D S P E C IA L IS T S .........................................................................................................................

40

Photography — includes still, motion, and television camera operators, precision photographic processing, editing,
and b ro a d c a s tin g .............................................................................................................................................................................

41

Mapping, Surveying, Drafting, and Illustrating

42

Weather — includes specialists in the collection of weather and sea condition data and in weather forecasting

43

Ordnance Disposal and Diving — includes the excavation and rendering safe of explosive ordnance and of chemical
and nuclear agents, and underwater demolition and other types of diving
..........................................................................




.................................................................................................................

108

. . .

06.

Enlisted strength in Department of Defense (DOD) occupational groups, September 3 0 ,1 9 7 8 —1

Group title and description of coverage
M u s ic ia n s ...............................................................................................................................................................................................
Technical Specialists, N.E.C. — includes physical science laboratory analysts, specialists in memorial activities,
safety, NBC warfare, and firefighting and damage control, and other technical specialists and aids such as scientific
engineering a s s is ta n ts .........................................................................................................................................................................
FU N C TIO N A L SUPPORT A ND A D M I N I S T R A T I O N ..........................................................................................................................
Personnel — includes specialists in personnel administration, personnel and manpower management, and recruiting
and counseling
..................................................................................................................................................................................
51

Administration — includes clerks, typists, and stenographers and legal and medical administrative specialists

52

Clerical/Personnel — includes combined personnel and administrative specialists and senior enlisted personnel whose
primary responsibilities are non-technical
.....................................................................................................................

. . .

53

Data Processing — includes computer operators, analysts, and programmers and electric accounting machine
o p e r a t o r s ......................................................................................................................................................................... .... . . . .

54

Accounting, Finance, and Disbursing

55

Other Functional Support — includes specialists who provide support in the functional areas of supply accounting
and procurement, transportation, flight operations, and related a r e a s ...................................................................................

56

Religious, Morale, and Welfare — includes chaplains' assistants and specialists in theater, arts, sports, and related
activities
...............................................................................................................................................................................................

57

Information and Education — includes specialists in public affairs, radio/TV, and other types of information and
e d u c a tio n ...............................................................................................................................................................................................

6

...........................................................................................................................................

EL E C T R IC A L /M E C H A N IC A L EQ UIPM ENT REPAIRERS

.............................................................................................................

60

Aircraft and Related — includes aircraft engines, electrical systems, structural components and surfaces, and launch
equipment
...........................................................................................................................................................................................

61

Automotive — includes construction equipment and other wheel and track v e h ic le s .........................................................

62

Wire Communications — includes specialists in the installation and maintenance of telephones, switchboards, and
central office and related interior communications e q u ip m e n t ................................................................................................
..........................

63

Missile, Mechanical and Electrical — includes missiles and missile systems and related components

64

Armament and Munitions — includes small arms, artillery, mines, bombs and associated mountings, nuclear
weapons, and ammunition r e n o v a t io n ...........................................................................................................................................

65

Shipboard Propulsion — includes marine main engines, boilers, and auxiliary e q u ip m e n t ................................................

66

Power Generating Equipment — includes nuclear power reactors and primary electric generating plants

67

Precision Equipment — includes optical and other precision instruments and office m a c h in e s .......................................

69

Other Mechanical and Electrical Equipment — includes specialists in the maintenance and repair of mechanical and
electrical equipment which is not readily classifiable in another group
..............................................................................

7

C R A FT WORKERS

.................

......................................................................................................................................................................................

70

Metalworking — includes specialists in the machining, shaping, and forming of metal and in the fabrication of metal
p a r t s ..........................................................................................................................
...............................

71

Construction — includes specialists in construction trades and construction equipment operation

72

Utilities — includes plumbers, heating and cooling specialists, and electricians

74

Lithography

75

Industrial Gas and Fuel Production — includes specialists in the production of liquid oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen,
and carbon d i o x i d e ..............................................................................................................................................................................

76

Fabric, Leather, and R u b b e r ............................................................................................................................................................

79

Other Craft Workers, N.E.C. — includes specialists in trades such as molding, camouflage, and plastic work, which
are not readily classifiable elsewhere in this section
.................................................................................................................

8

...............................

.................................................... ....

......................................................................................................................................................................................

SERVICE A ND SUPPLY HANDLERS

. . . .......................................................................................................................................

80

Food Service

81

M otor Transport — includes the operation of wheel and track vehicles (except construction equipment) and railway
equipment
...........................................................................................................................................................................................

82

Materia! Receipt, Storage, and Issue — includes specialists in the receipt, storage, issue, and shipment of general and
specialized classes of supplies, excluding ammunition
.............................................................................................................

83

Law Enforcement — includes military police, protective and corrections specialists, and criminal and noncriminal
inspectors and investigators
........................................................................................................................................................




......................................................................................................................................................................................

109

Table C-6.

Enlisted strength in Department of Defense (DOD) occupational groups, September 3 0 ,1 9 7 8 —Continued

DOD
code

Group title and description of coverage

84

Personal Service — includes laundry, dry cleaning, and related services

85

Auxiliary Labor — includes unskilled laborers and their supervisors

86

Forward Area Equipment — includes specialists in parachute packing and repair, in aerial delivery operations, and in
flight equipment fitting and maintenance
..................................................................................................................................

87

Other Services, N.E.C. — includes service specialists who are not readily classifiable in one of the other groups in this
section
...................................................................................................................................................................................................

NOTE: Definitions are provided for most occupational groups.
The lack of explanatory material for a few occupational groups
indicates that the title of the grouping is considered a sufficient
definition.




..............................................................................
...................................................................................

Enlisted
strength
2,142
0
5,625
0

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Manpower
Data Center—Enlisted Master File,

110

Table C-7.

Enrollments and completions in public vocational education by Office of Education (OE) instructional

program, fiscal year 1978
OE nstructional code and title

Enroll­
ments

Comple­
tions

OE instructional code and title

Enroll­
ments

Comple­
tions

125,909

23,046

Consumer and homemaking1

3,659,441

0

09.0101
09.0102
09.0103
09.0104
09.0106
09.0107
09.0108
09.1019
09.1099

Comprehensive homemaking . .
Child development.....................
Clothing and te x tile s .................
Consumer e d u c a tio n .................
Family relations ........................
Food and n u tr itio n ...................
Home m anagem ent...................
Housing and home furnishings .
O th e r.............................................

1,434,941
260,252
356,456
185,805
264,117
427,769
52,682
161,567
506,852

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

09.02

Occupational preparation1

459,590

112,680

09.0201
09.0202

153,478

36,487

70,807

17,767

151,134

41,578

29,222

5,243

09.0299

Care and guidance of children .
Clothing management,
production, and services . . .
Food management, production,
and services ..........................
Home furnishing, equipment,
and services.............................
Institutional and home
management and services . .
O th e r.............................................

17,751
37,198

4,686
6,919

14.

Office occupations1

3,312,475

728,189

14.0100

588,971

119,569

50,666
83,479

11,519
11,165

84,015

22,915

719,267

174,592

45,400

11,144

4,198

991

58,717

14,858

700,586

170,167

212,792

29,078

14.9900

Accounting and computing
occupations..........................
Computer and console
operators.................................
Programmers...............................
Other business data
processing .............................
Filing, office machines,
clerical occupations..............
Information, communication
occupations..........................
Materials support,
transportation, etc................
Personnel, training, and
related occupations............
Stenography, secretarial, and
related o ccupations............
Supervisory and administrative
management occupations . .
Typing and related occupa­
tions .........................................
O th e r.............................................

584,247
180,137

144,077
18,114

16.

Technical1 ....................................

527,681

94,305

16.0101
16.0103
16.0104
16.0105
16.0106
16.0107
16.0108
16.0109
16,0110

Aeronautical technology............
Architectural technology..........
Automotive technology............
Chemical technology.................
Civil technology..........................
Electrical technology.................
Electronic technology..............
Electromechanical technology .
Environmental control
technology.............................
Industrial technology.................
Instrumentation technology. . .

5,591
30,660
14,041
5,492
30,100
25,032
90,306
4,298

1,041
4,910
2,354
896
3,701
2,607
17,216
971

8,612
18,056
3,681

1,639
2,183
645

07.9900

O th e r.............................................

09.01

Total (unduplicated).................
01.

Agriculture1 .................................

1,006,542

181,014

01.0100
01.0200
01.0300
01.0400
01.0500
01.0600
01.0700
01.990

Agricultural production............
Agricultural supplies/services . .
Agricultural m echanics............
Agricultural products.................
Ornamental h o rtic u ltu re ..........
Agricultural resources..............
Forestry........................................
O th e r.............................................

528,946
33,022
133,576
12,680
130,836
24,517
22,382
120,583

80,459
9,383
34,457
3,481
32,765
6,923
4,639
8,907

04.

Distribution1 ...............................

962,009

279,720

04.0100
04.0200
04.0300
04.0400
04.0500
04.0600
04.0700
04.0800
04.0900
04.1000
04.1100
04.1200
04.1300
04.1400
04.1500
04.1600
04.1700
04.1800
04.1900
04.2000
04.3100
04.9900

Advertising services...................
Apparel and accessories............
A u to m o tive.................................
Finance and c re d it.....................
Floristry........................................
Food distribution .....................
Food services ............................
General merchandise.................
Hardware, building materials . .
Home furnishings .....................
Hotel and lodging .....................
Industrial marketing...................
Insurance ......................................
International trade ...................
Personal services ........................
P e tro le u m ....................................
Real estate....................................
Recreation and tourism . . . . . .
Transportation ..........................
Retail trade, o th e r.....................
Wholesale trade, o th e r..............
Other .............................................

17,760
32,012
9,050
48,745
7,767
37.117
57,277
284,230
4,837
4,435
19,276
22,012
16,773
1,096
19,314
4,318
194,365
26,860
17,069
23,524
4,500
109.672

4,243
11,821
3,923
10,419
2,267
18,990
21,661
108,484
2,527
1,724
3,495
3,769
2,875
337
5,421
2,117
37,855
6,418
4,164
7,879
1,692
17,639

07.

Health1...........................................

758,808

202,061

14.0400

07.0101
07.0102
07.0103
07.0199
07.0203
07.0299

Dental assistant..........................
Dental hygiene (associate). . . . .
Dental laboratory technology. .
Other dental.................................
Medical laboratory assisting . . .
Other medical laboratory
technology ..........................
Nursing, associate degree..........
Practical (vocational) nursing. .
Nursing assistant ( a id e ) ............
Surgical technician.....................
Other nursing...............................
Occupational therapy.................
Physical therapy ........................
Other rehabilitation...................
Radiologic technology..............
Nuclear medical technology . . .
Other radiologic ........................
O ph thalm ic.................................
Environmental health.................
Mental health technology..........
Inhalation therapy technology.
Medical assisting ........................
Health aide....................................
Medical emergency technician .
Mortuary science .....................

21,724
7,465
4,185
1,251
17,988

8,013
2,360
1,234
516
3,894

14,0500

5,464
115,940
94,874
117,495
3,895
49,386
2,531
3,310
2,819
10,983
343
317
2,758
4,049
14,837
14,008
31,973
15,699
88,092
1,513

1,329
24,895
34,399
42,325
1,381
7,003
820
854
421
3,090
88
51
577
230
2,807
3,168
10,288
5,217
23,748
307

14.0800

07.0301
07.0302
07.0303
07.0305
07.0399
07.0401
07.0402
07.0499
07.0501
07.0503
07.0599
07.0600
07.0700
07.0800
07.0903
07.0904
07.0906
07.0907
07.0909

09.0203
09.0204
09.0205

14.0201
14.0203
14.0299
14.0300

14.0600
14.0700

14.0900

16.0111
16.0112

See footnotes at end of table.




Ill

Table C-7.

Enrollments and completions in public vocational education bv Office of Education (OE) instructional

program, fiscal year 1978—Continued

OE instructional code and title

Enroll­
ments

Comple­
tions

30,168
1,529
15,887
8,874
29,147
3,292
2,709
105,457
183

5,173
524
4,848
1,325
3,615
543
362
18,511
9

16.9900

Mechanical technology..............
Metallurgical technology..........
Scientific data technology . . . .
Commercial pilot training . . . .
Fire and safety technology . . .
Forestry technology...................
Oceanographic technology. . . .
Police science...............................
Air pollution technology..........
Water and wastewater
technology.............................
O th e r.............................................

7.254
87,312

557
20,675

17.

Trade and industrial1 .................

3,402,722

856,388

17.0100
17.0200
17.0301
17.0302
17.0399
17.0400
17.0500
17.0600

Air-conditioning ........................
Appliance repair ........................
Body and fender re p a ir............
Auto mechanic.............................
Other automotive .....................
Aviation occupations.................
Blueprint reading .....................
Business machine
maintenance..........................
Commercial art occupations . .
Commercial fishery occupations
Commercial photographic
occupations..........................
Carpentry, construction............
Electricity, construction ..........
Masonry........................................
Plumbing and p ip e fittin g ..........
Other construction and
maintenance trades..............
Custodial services .....................
Diesel mechanic..........................
Drafting occupations.................
Electrical occupations..............
Electronic o ccupations............
Fabric maintenance services . . .
Supervisor and management
development ........................

79,357
19,758
93,339
340,686
108,980
36,814
16,856

18,272
5,948
29,401
99,528
44,233
6,459
2,892

3,962
52,966
7,108

1,217
10,975
1,135

16.0113
16.0114
16.0117
16.0601
16.0602
16.0603
16.0604
16.0605
16.9901
16.9902

17.0700
17.0800
17.0900
17.1001
17.1002
17.1004
17.1007
17.1099
17.1100
17.1200
17.1300
17.1400
17.1500
17.1600
17.1700

17.3400
17.3500
17.3600
17.9900
99.

Special programs1 .....................

99.0100

Group guidance
(prevocational).....................
Prepostsecondary........................
R em edial......................................
Industrial arts ............................
Volunteer fire fig h te r.................
Other not elsewhere classified .

17.2100
17.2200
17.2302
17.2303
17.2305
17.2306
17.2307
17.2399
17,2400
17.2601
17.2602
17.2699
17.2700
17.2801
17.2802
17.2899
17.2900
17.3000
17.3100
17.3200

7,960
44,625
18,373
11,891
8,312

130,991
19,895
25,859
152,327
118,022
146,294
2,865

32,133
5,406
7,303
33,294
24,349
35,217
701

76,014

18,650

99.0200
99.0300
99.0400
99.0500
99.0600

1 Unduplicated total.

1977 and 1978 (U.S. Department
occupational and Adult Education).

SOURCE: Summary Data, Vocational Education—fiscal years




Graphic arts occupations..........
Industrial atomic energy
occupations..........................
Instrument maintenance and
repair occupations..............
Maritime occupations ..............
Machine shop occupations . . . .
Machine tool operation..............
Sheet metal....................................
Welding and c u ttin g ...................
Tool and die m a k in g .................
Other metalworking
occupations..........................
Metallurgy occupations............
Barbering......................................
Cosm etology...............................
Other personnel services............
Plastics occupations...................
Firefighter training ...................
Law enforcement training . . . .
Other public services.................
Quantity food occupations . . .
Refrigeration...............................
Small engine repair ...................
Stationary energy sources
occupations..........................
Textile production and
fa b ric a tio n ............................
Leather working ........................
Upholstering...............................
Woodworking occupations. . . .
O th e r.............................................

17.1900
17.2000

17.3300
40,185
162,313
95,382
44,723
43,995

Enrollments

OE instructional code and title

112

of

1 Comple­
tions

108,584

26,920

582

114

4,547
9,096
117,069
14,232
45,694
205,486
8,475

913
1,103
32,588
3,437
6,571
51,772
2,396

58,709
4,213
4,184
97,947
6,114
7,608
186,472
104,194
66,991
54,468
8,973
52,524

17,548
400
1,094
27,215
2,118
1,943
78,542
21,744
7,346
14,389
2,260
13,171

14,021

3,639

45,642
1,930
22,136
89,620
243,520

12,755
677
7,198
17,653
50,059

3,509,351

0

1,508,189
—
101,904
1,492,790

0

406,468

0

Education,

0
0

Bureau of

Table C-8. Total enrollments and total completing programs in private postsecondary schools with occupational programs,
by program: [U.S. total] 1977-78
(Thousands)
Enroll­
ments

Completed
program

Total, private schools............

451,131

283,984

01.

Agribusiness....................................

684

517

01.01
01.99
01.0299

Agricultural Production..............
Agricultural, Miscellaneous . . . .
Veterinarian assistant...................

284
67
333

255
45
217

04.

Marketing and distribution..........

78,018

63,427

04.01
04.02
04.03
04.04
04.05
04.06
04.07
04.08
04.10
04.11
04.12
04.13
04.14
04.16
04.17
04.18
04.19
04.20
04.99

Advertising service .....................
Apparel and accessories..............
A u to m o tive....................................
Finance and c re d it........................
Floristry...........................................
Food distribution ........................
Food services.................................
General merchandise...................
Home furn is h in g ..........................
Hotel and lodging ........................
Industrial marketing......................
Insurance .........................................
International tra d e ........................
P e tro le u m ......................................
Real estate......................................
Recreation and to u ris m ..............
Transportation .............................
Retail trade, o th e r ........................
Distributive education, o th e r. . .

41
11,400
_
2,522
1,298
6
47
288

40
9,376
—
2,143
1,240
6
37
264

10
—
—
50,366
4,223
922
2,806
3,452

6
—
41,913
3,796
481
554
3,394

07.

Health occupations.....................

70,211
4,449
1,244
660
3
360
2

3,521
793
434
3
231
2

1,226
418
4,181
3,367
122
140
35,401
60

856
154
3,242
2,725
71
58
12,929
60
—
3,533
309
—
12
—
448
6,607
260
2,060
40
97
12

Enroll­
ments

Completed
program

38,513

OE instructional code and title

OE instructional code and title

Dental assisting.............................
Dental laboratory technology . .
Dental, o th e r .................................
Histology........................................
Medical laboratory assisting. . . .
Hemotology....................................
Medical laboratory technology,
other...........................................
07.0301 Nursing (associate degree)............
07.0302 Practical (vocational) nursing. . .
07.0303 Nursing assistant ( a id e ) ..............
07.0304 Psychiatric a id e ............................
07.0305 Surgical technician........................
07.0399 Nursing, o th e r ...............................
07.0401 Occupational therapy...................
07.0402 Physical therapy ..........................
07.0499 Rehabilitation services, other. . .
07.0501 Radiologic technology.................
07.0503 Nuclear medical technology. . . .
Ophthalmic technology..............
07.06
Mental health te c h n o lo g y ..........
07.08
07.0902 Electrocardiograph technology .
07.0903 Inhalation th e ra p y ........................
07.0904 Medical assisting (o ffic e )............
07.0906 Community health a id e ..............
07.0907 Medical emergency technician . .
07.0909 Mortuary science..........................
07.0915 Medical records technician..........
07.0920 Physician's assistant.....................
Health occupations, o th e r ..........
07.99
See footnotes at end of table.

07.0101
07.0103
07.0199
07.0202
07.0203
07.0204
07.0299




—

—
5,664
369
—
29
—
512
9,211
—

309
2,228
45
140
15

........................

964

520

09.0201
09.0202

Child care ......................................
Clothing management, produc­
tion, and services...................
Food management, production,
and services ............................

25

10

58

48

881

462

14.

Business and office .....................

101,805

48,240

14.01

14,336
785
7,674
6,913
3,365

5,968
627
5,171
4,776
1,614

7,620

4,398

188
—

168
—

40,190

17,991

15,752

4,449

14.99

Accounting and computing
occupations ..........................
Computer o p e ra to r.....................
Keypunch operator .....................
Computer programmer.................
Business data processing, NEC. .
Filing, office machines, clerical
occupations.............................
Information communication
occupations.............................
Materials support occupations . .
Stenographic, secretarial, and
related occupations
Supervisory and administrative
management occupations . . .
Typing and related occupa­
tions ...........................................
Office occupations, other............

807
4,075

700
2,284

Technical occupations.................

32,145

20,249

Aeronautical technology............
Agricultural technology..............
Architectural technology............
Automotive technology..............
Chemical technology...................
Civil technology ..........................
Electrical technology...................
Electronic technology.................
Electromechanical technology . .
Environmental control tech­
nology ......................................
16.0111 Industrial technology .................
16.0112 Instrumentation technology. . . .
16.0113 Mechanical te c h n o lo g y ..............
16.0114 Metallurgical technology............
16.0115 Nuclear technology.....................
16.0117 Scientific data processing............
16.0203 Legal assistant ............................
16.0601 Commercial pilot tra in in g ..........
16.0602 Fire and fire safety technology .
16.0605 Police science technology............
16.0606 Teacher's assistant .....................
16.0607 Library assistant ..........................
16.0608 Communications technology . . .
16.0695 Performing artists ........................
16.9901 Air pollution technology............
16.9902 Water and waste water treat­
ment ...........................................

107
16
320
634
93
111
7,917
71

45
8
213
335
22
19
3,365
46

174
—
30
115

111
—
22
57

09.0203

14.0201
14.0202
14.0203
14.0299
14.03
14.04

-

637
—

Home economics

16.

-

09.

177
—

14.05
14.07
14.08
14.09

16.0101
16.0102
16.0103
16.0104
16.0105
16.0106
16.0107
16.0108
16.0109
16.0110

17.

113

Trade and industrial.....................

—

—

—

—

1,113
180
15,483
—
60
—
—
4,619
925
-

675
102
11,560
—
18
—
—
3,257
355
-

-

-

167,304

112,518

Table C-8. Total enrollments and total completing programs in private postsecondary schools with occupational programs,
by program: [U.S. total] 1977-78—Continued
(Thousands)
OE instructional code and title
Air conditioning installation and
re p a ir........................................
Appliance repair.............................
17.02
17.0301 Body and fender repair.................
17.0302 Auto mechanic ............................
17.0303 Auto specialization, rep air..........
17.0399 Automotive services, other . . . .
17.0401 Aircraft maintenance .................
17.0402 Aircraft operations .....................
17.0403 Ground operations .....................
Blueprint reading..........................
17.05
Business-machine maintenance..
17.06
Commercial art occupations . . .
17.07
Commercial fishery occupa­
17.08
tions ...........................................
Commercial photography occu­
17.09
pations ......................................
17.1001 Carpentry, construction..............
17.1002 Electricity, construction ............
17.1003 Heavy equipment maintenance
operations ...............................
17.1004 Masonry...........................................
17,1005 Painting and decorating..............
17.1007 Plumbing and p ip e fittin g ............
17.1008 Dry wall installation.....................
17.1099 Construction and maintenance
trades, o th e r.............................
17.11
Custodial services ........................
17.12
Diesel mechanic............................
Drafting occupations...................
17.13
17.14
Electrical occupations.................
17.1503 Radio and T V re p a ir ...................
17.1599 Electronics occupations, o th er. .
Fabric maintenance services. . . .
17.16

Enroll­
ments

Completed
program

OE instructional code and title
Supervisor and management
development ..........................
Graphic arts occupations............
17.19
Industrial atomic energy occupa­
17.20
tions ...........................................
Instrument maintenance and
17.21
repair occupations...................
17.22
Maritime occupations .................
17.2302 Machine shop occupations..........
17.2303 Machine tool o p e ra tio n s ............
17.2306 Welding and c u ttin g .....................
17.2307 Tool and diem aking.....................
17.2399 Metalworking, other.....................
17.24
Metallurgy occupations..............
17.2601 Barbering........................................
17.2602 Cosm etology.................................
17.2699 Personal services, o t h e r ..............
17.27
Plastics occupations.....................
17.2801 Firefighter training .....................
17.2802 Law enforcement tra in in g ..........
!17.2899 Public service occupations,
other...........................................
17.29
Quantity food occupations..........
Refrigeration.................................
17.30
17.31
Small engine repair, internal
combustion .............................
Textile production and fabri­
17.33
cation ........................................
17.34
Leatherworking.............................
Upholstering.................................
17,35
17.36
Woodworking occupations..........
Truck driving ...............................
17.40
17.9900 Trade and industrial occupa­
tions, o th e r...............................

Completed
program

17.17

17.01

2,635
8
1,495
11,680
528
1,255
1,550
—
—
8
241
8,916

1,662
8
845
6,565
443
612
1,142
—
8
195
5,860

-

—

1,040
719
438

732
374
247

496
173
—
490
—

443
90
—
283
—

217
192
3,053
2,583
1,101
946
4,830
-

122
108
2,067
1,350
600
510
2,332
-

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for
Education Statistics.




Enroll­
ments

114

1,421

707

—

—

2,628
3,304
370
505
6,650
318
1,294
19
7,764
76,688
3,018
20
3,513

1,949
2,649
149
206
4,357
73
938
8
5,859
51,177
2,665
10
—
3,331

—
3,757
100

—
3,171
48

114

74

—

354
—

204
—

83
456
8,212

75
411
6,339

565

494

Appendix D. State
Employment Security
Agencies

State employment security agencies develop occupa­
tional projections and related employment statistics in
cooperation with the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the

Alabama

Chief, Research and Statistics
Department of Industrial Relations
Industrial Relations Building
649 Monroe Street
Montgomery 36130

Alaska

U.S. Department of Labor. The following list gives the
addresses of the employment security agencies.

Chief, Research and Analysis
Employment Security Division
Department of Labor
P.O.Box 3-7000
Juneau 99802

Arizona

Arkansas

California




Colorado

Connecticut

115

Chief, Branch of Labor Market
Information and Analaysis
D.C. Department of Labor
605 “ G” Street, N.W.
Room 1000
Washington, D.C. 20001

Florida

Chief, Employment Data and
Research Division
Employment Development
Department
P.O. Box 1679
Sacramento 95808

Chief, Office of Research, Planning,
and Evaluation
Department of Labor
Building D
Chapman Road and Route 273
Newark 19713

District of
Columbia

Chief, Research and Statistics
Employment Security Division
P.O.Box 2981
Little Rock 72203

Director, Research and Information
Connecticut Employment Security
Division
200 Folly Brook Boulevard
Weatherfield 06109

Delaware

Chief, Labor Market Information
Research and Analysis
Department of Economic Security
P.O.Box 6123
Phoenix 85005

Chief, Research and Analysis
Division of Employment
Department of Labor and
Employment
1210 Sherman Street
Denver 80203

Chief, Research and Statistics
Division of Employment Security
Florida Department of Commerce
Caldwell Building
Tallahassee 32304

Director, Research and Analysis
Department of Human Resources
1100 North Eutaw Street
Baltimore 21201
Director, Information and Research
Division of Employment Security
Hurley Building
Government Center
Boston 02114

Michigan

Director, Research and Statistics
Division
Employment Security Commission
Department of Labor Building
7310 Woodward Avenue
Detroit 48202

Minnesota

Acting Director, Research and
Statistical Services
Department of Economic Security
Services
390 North Robert Street
St. Paul 55101

Mississippi

Chief, Research and Statistics
Employment Security Commission
P.O. Box 1699
Jackson 39205

Missouri

Director, Information Systems
Employment Security Agency
Department of Labor
254 Washington St., S.W.
Atlanta 30334

Hawaii

Maryland

Massachusetts

Georgia

Chief, Research and Statistics
Division of Employment Security
Department of Labor and Industrial
Relations
P.O.Box 59
Jefferson City 65101

Chief, Research and Statistics
Department of Labor and Industrial
Relations
P.O.Box 3680
Honolulu 96811

Idaho

Chief, Research and Analysis
Department of Employment
P.O.Box 35
Boise 83707

Illinois

Manager, Research and Analysis
Division
Bureau of Employment Security
Department of Labor
910 South Michigan Avenue
Chicago 60605

Indiana

Chief of Research
Employment Security Division
10 North Senate Avenue
Indianapolis 46204

Iowa

Chief, Research and Statistics
Department of Job Service
1000 East Grand Avenue
Des Moines 50319

Kansas

Chief, Research and Analysis
Department of Human Resources
401 Topeka Avenue
Topeka 66603

Montana

Chief, Research and Special Projects
Department of Human Resources
275 E. Main Street
Frankfort 40601

Chief, Reports and Analysis
Employment Security Division
P.O. Box 1728
Helena 59601

Nebraska

Chief, Research and Statistics
Division of Employment
Department of Labor
P.O.Box 94600
Lincoln 68509

Nevada

Chief, Employment Security
Research
Employment Security Department
500 East Third Street
Carson City 89713

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine




Chief, Research and Statistics
Department of Employment Security
P.O. Box 44094
Baton Rouge 70804
Director, Manpower Research
Division
Employment Security Commission
20 Union Street
Augusta 04330

116

New Hampshire Director, Economic Analysis and
Reports
Department of Employment Security
32 South Main Street
Concord 03301

Pennsylvania

New Jersey

Director, Division of Planning and
Research
Department of Labor and Industry
P.O.Box 2765
Trenton 08625

Puerto Rico

Chief of Research and Statistics
Bureau of Employment Security
427 Barbosa Avenida
Hato Rey 00917

Rhode Island
New Mexico

Chief, Research and Statistics
Employment Security Commission
P.O. Box 1928
Albuquerque 87103

Supervisor, Employment Security
Research
Department of Employment Security
24 Mason Street
Providence 02903

New York

Director, Division of Research and
Statistics
Department of Labor
State Campus
Building 12
Albany 12240

South Carolina

Director, Manpower Research and
Analysis
Employment Security Commission
P.O. Box 995
Columbia 29202

South Dakota
North Carolina

Director, Bureau of Employment
Security Research
Employment Security Commission
P.O.Box 25903
Raleigh 27611

Chief, Research and Statistics
Employment Security Department
607 North Fourth Street
P.O.Box 730
Aberdeen 57401

Tennessee
North Dakota

Chief, Research and Statistics
Employment Security Bureau
P.O. Box 1537
Bismarck 58501

Chief, Research and Statistics
Department of Employment Security
Cordell Hull Building
Room 519
Nashville 37219

Ohio

Director, Division of Research and
Statistics
Bureau of Employment Services
145 South Front Street
Columbus 43216

Texas

Chief, Economic Research and
Analysis
Employment Commission
TEC Building
15th and Congress Avenue
Austin 78778

Oklahoma

Chief, Research and Planning
Division
Employment Security Commission
310 Will Rogers Memorial Office
Building
Oklahoma City 73105

Director, Research and Statistics
Bureau of Employment Security
Department of Labor and Industry
7th and Forster Streets
Harrisburg 17121




117

Chief, Research and Statistics
Department of Employment Security
P.O. Box 488
Montpelier 05602

Virginia

Assistant Administrator
Research and Statistics
Employment Division
875 Union Street, N.E.
Salem 97311

Director, Research and Analysis
Department of Employment Security
P.O. Box 11249
Salt Lake City 84147

Vermont
Oregon

Utah

Commissioner, Virginia Employment
Commission
P.O. Box 1358
Richmond 23211

Washington

Chief, Research and Statistics
Employment Security Department
1007 South Washington St.
Olympia 98501

West Virginia

Chief, Labor and Economic Research
Department of Employment Security
112 California Avenue
Charleston 25305




Wisconsin

Director, Research and Statistics
Department of Industry
Labor and Human Relations
P.O.Box 7944
Madison 53701

Wyoming

Chief, Research and Analysis
Employment Security Commission
P.O.Box 2760
Casper 82601

118

Appendix E

Bibliography

This appendix includes additional sources of occupa­
tional information. The publications listed under each

subject heading are intended to provide a representative
sample of the wealth of information available.

General information
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.
Census 0/ Population: 1970 Subject Reports, Final
Report PC(2)-7A, Occupational Characteristics,
1973.

U.S. Department of Labor and U.S. Department of
Education. Employment and Training Report of the
President, 1978. Annual from 1963 through 1975
under Manpower Report of the President.

Employment and unemployment data for detailed oc­
cupations by color, sex, class of worker, earnings, and a
variety of other characteristics. Data for earlier censuses
are available in publications of the same title for the ap­
propriate census years.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Handbook of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 2000, 1979.
Compilation of major statistical series on employment,
unemployment, wages, and other subjects produced by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Also includes related
series from other governmental agencies and foreign
countries. Contains 160 tables which generally begin with
1967 data and run through 1977. Annual.

U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training
Administration. Research and Development Projects.
Annual.
Lists completed research and development projects fund­
ed by the Employment and Training Administrations,
with annotations.

Education and training information
Lusterman, Seymour, Education in Industry, Report
719. New York, The Conference Board, Inc., 1977.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
BLS Handbook of Methods for Surveys and Studies,
Bulletin 1910, 1976.
Describes each BLS statistical program, noting the origin
of data, defining terms, and outlining concepts. Tables,
survey forms, and mathematical formulations are
presented for clarification. Sources of additional infor­
mation also are included.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Occupational Outlook Handbook. Biennial.
A comprehensive publication on occupations and in­
dustries. Describes nature of work, training, outlook, and
earnings for hundreds of occupations.

A study of the aims, scope, and character of employee
education and training activities among corporations with
500 or more employees. Sections are included on cor­
porate employee education and training activities, in­
dustry’s use of outside resources for employee develop­
ment, internal programs conducted during working
hours, and case illustrations of individual company pro­
grams.

Neary, H. James. “ The BLS Pilot Survey of Training In
Industry,” Monthly Labor Review, February 1974,
pp. 26-32.
Describes the results of the BLS pilot survey of training in
metalworking industries, including methods of data col­
lection and the survey design. The pilot survey was con­
ducted to determine whether reliable data could be col­
lected on training enrollments and completions in in­
dustry.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
U.S. Working Women: A Databook, Bulletin 1977,
1977.
Statistical report on the changing role of women in the
labor force. Brief text gives highlights of tables and charts
on labor force participation of women, employment and
unemployment, marital status, income, education, job
tenure, work life expectancy and other social and
demographic characteristics.



Includes the Department of Labor’s annual report on
employment and training requirements, resources and
utilization, and employment and training programs.
Statistical appendix presents data on the labor force,
employment, and education as well as projections rele­
vant to these areas.

U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training
Administration. Training Opportunities in Job
Corps: A Directory of Job Corps Centers and
Courses. Annual.
119

Renetzky, Alvin, and Schlachter, Gail A., editors.
Directory of Internships, Work Experience Pro­
grams, and On-the-Job Training Opportunities.
Thousand Oaks, California, Reddy Reference Press,
1976.
A guide to internship, work experience, and on-the-job
training opportunities sponsored by governmental agen­
cies, business and industry, professional associations,
foundations, and various social and community organiza­
tions.

U.S. Department of Education, National Institute of
Education. Home-Based Education: Needs and
Technological Opportunities, 1976.
Reviews literature on correspondence education and a
Stanford University research project on computerassisted instruction at home. A cross-referenced an­
notated bibliography covering the home-based instruc­
tional uses of computers, television, and other media also
is included.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for
Education Statistics. The Condition of Education.
Annual since 1975.
A statistical report that examines differences in educa­
tional opportunities, participation, and outcomes among
groups of individuals according to sex, ethnic origin,
family income, and other characteristics.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for
Education Statistics. Digest of Educational Statistics.
Annual since 1962.
Contains data on enrollments, degrees, and other items.
Compiled from various sources indicated in table foot­
notes.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for
Education Statistics. Directory of Postsecondary
Schools with Occupational Programs, 1971. NCES
Publications No. 78-352 and No. 78-352A (supple­
ment).
A comprehensive list of all schools offering postsecond­
ary occupational training, including private vocational
schools as well as 2- and 4-year colleges.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for
Education Statistics. Education Directory, Colleges
and Universities. 1978-79. NCES Publication No.
78-322.

Contains enrollments by detailed occupational program
for fiscal years.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for
Education Statistics. Projections of Educational
Statistics. Annual since 1964.
Lists projections of enrollments, graduates, faculty, and
expenditures for higher education, as well as similar pro­
jections for elementary and secondary schools.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics
and Employment and Training Administration.
Occupational Training in Selected Metalworking In­
dustries: A Report on a Survey of Selected Occupa­
tions, 1974, BLS Bulletin 1976/ETA R&D Mono­
graph 53, 1977.
The results of a nationwide survey of employer training in
nearly 5,000 establishments conducted in 1975 and early
1976. Describes the characteristics of occupational train­
ing provided by employers for 14 selected occupations in
four metalworking industries.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Tomorrow’s Manpower Needs. Bulletin 1606, Sup­
plement 3 (Revised), 1975.
Contains conversion tables for matching occupational
classifications of BLS projections to vocational education
program codes. Based on 1970 census.

U.S. Department of Labor, Education and Training
Administration. Screening and Admissions Guide for
Job Corps Under the Comprehensive Employment
and Training Act of 1973, 1976.
Provides guidelines on the screening and admissions pro­
cess and procedures to be followed when recommending
and processing youth for enrollment in the Job Corps
programs under CETA.

Wasserman, Paul. Training and Development
Organizations Directory. Detroit, Mi., Gale Research
Co., 1978.
Describes firms, institutes, and other agencies offering
training programs.

Wenrich, Ralph C., and Wenrich, J. William.
Leadership in Administration of Vocational and
Technical Education. Columbus, Ohio, Merrill
Publishing Co., 1974.

A comprehensive list of public and private colleges and
universities.

Analyzes changes in vocational education and suggests
ways in which a program administrator might use this in ­
formation in planning programs designed to prepare
youth and adults for employment.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Education.
Enrollment in Vocational Education Occupation Pro­
grams Vocational Education Information No. 11.
Annual since fiscal year 1966.

Followup data
Astin, Alexander. The College Drop Out: /i National
Profile. Washington, D.C., American Council on
Education, 1972.




120

Examines what happens to college dropouts, their entry
into the labor force, transfer rates, and likelihood of
return to college.

Astin, Helen, and Bisconti, Ann S. Career Plans of
College Graduates of 1965 and 1970. Bethlehem, Pa.,
College Placement Council, Inc., 1972.
Reports on entry to employment by type of employer,
undergraduate major, occupation, and other items. Bas­
ed on data from the American Council on Education.

Astin, Helen, and Bisconti, Ann S. Undergraduate and
Graduate Study in Scientific Fields. Washington,
D.C.,
American Council on Education, ACE
Research Reports, Vol. 8, No. 3, August 1973.
Examines the flow of a national cohort of college
freshmen of 1961 over a decade, focusing on patterns of
undergraduate study, attrition, degree attainment, ad­
vanced study, and employment. Findings on the progress
and goals of 1966 freshmen are included as a means of
comparison with the 1961 cohort. Contains 78 separate
cross-tabulations.

Astin, Helen; El-Khawas, Elaine; and Bisconti, Ann S.
Beyond the College Years. Washington, D.C.,
American Council on Education, 1974.
Report prepared for the National Science Foundation and
the National Institutes of Health. Uses correlation and
regression analysis to examine factors associated with
career outcomes and presents data on career flows.

Bayer, Alan; Royer, Jeannie; and Webb, Richard. Four
Years After College Entry. Washington, D.C.,
American Council on Education, ACE Research
Reports, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1973.
Followup of a sample of the freshman class of 1967.

College Placement Council, Inc. The College Graduate:
Turnover and Mobility, Report No. 3, Bethlehem,
Pa., 1970.
Using National Opinion Research Center data for 33,000
graduates of the class of 1961, the report studies labor
force mobility and job changing during 5 years after
graduation.Detail includes degree field, type of employer,
and sex. Earlier reports in the series dealt with graduates’
attitudes toward business, and job satisfaction.

College Placement Council, Inc. College Graduates and
Their Employers—A National Study of Career Plans
and Their Outcomes, Report No. 4, 1975.
Actual occupations of college graduates compared with
college-year plans. Analyses flow directly from Career
Plans o f College G r a d u a t e s o f 1965 and 1970 (see above),
but provide greater detail in classification of majors and
careers.

College Placement Council, Inc. The Hard-to-Place



121

Majority—A National Study of the Career Outcomes
of Liberal Arts Graduates, Report No. 5, 1975.
Actual occupations of college graduates compared with
field of study. Analyses flow directly from Career Pla ns
o f College G r a d u a t e s o f 1965 a n d 1970 (see above), with
emphasis on liberal arts graduates.

College Placement Council, Inc. Four-Year Liberal Arts
Graduates: Their Utilization in Business, Industry,
and Government—The Problem and Some Solutions.
1975.
A position statement covering the dilemma facing the
liberal arts graduates, dimensions of the dilemma, new
directions, areas in which action is needed, and conclu­
sions.

College Placement Council, Inc. Job Satisfaction After
College. . .The Graduate’s Viewpoint. 1977.
Followup study of people who were freshmen in 1961,
whose highest degree held was a bachelor’s degree, and
who were working full time.

El-Khawas, Elaine, and Bisconti, Ann S. Five and Ten
Years After College Entry. Washington, D.C.,
American Council on Education, ACE Research
Reports, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1974.
Descriptive report including
freshmen of 1961 and 1966.

1971

data on

college

Engineering Manpower Commission, Engineering and
Technology Graduates, New York, Engineers Joint
Council. Annual.
Survey of 2-year associate degrees granted for completion
of engineering and technology curriculums.

Engineering Manpower Commission. Placement of
Engineering Graduates. New York, Engineers Joint
Council. Annual.
Data from a survey of over 200 engineering schools pro­
vide information on the placement status of 24,000
technical and 14,500 nontechnical graduates who received
bachelor’s degrees. Numbers and percentages of
graduates entering employment, graduate school, and
military service are given.

National Research Council, National Academy of
Sciences. Careers of Ph. D.'s—Academic Versus
Non-Academic—A Second Report on Follow-up of
Doctorate Cohorts 1935-1960. Career Patterns
Report No. 2, Publication 1577, 1968.
By studying the careers of 10,000 holders of third-level
research degrees, systematically selected from the
graduating classes of 1935, 1940, 1950, 1955, and 1960,
this report focuses on the factors associated with choice
of employment in academic or other settings, with par­
ticular emphasis on the circumstances surrounding a
change in employer category.

Project Talent — A 5-year Follow-up Information on
High School Graduates of 1960. Pittsburgh, Universi­
ty of Pittsburgh, School of Education, July 1969.
A continuing follow-up of the high school graduates,
their activities during the 5 years .after graduation, ex­
amining employment and continuing education.

Eck, Alan. Measuring Labor Force Movements: A New
Approach, Report No. 581. Bureau of Labor
Statistics, 1979.

Sharp, Laure M., and Biderman, Albert D.
Employment of Retired Military Personnel. BSSR
361. Washington, D.C., Bureau of Social Science
Research, 1966.

Uses newly developed data to describe workers’
movements into and out of the labor force. Discusses
limitations to the data and compares them with other
sources of information.

A detailed study of the employment practices of those
leaving the military. Occupational information is given by
age, race, and rank. Excerpts are published in the
Monthly Labor Review, January and February, 1967.

Parnes, Herbert S. “ Longitudinal Surveys: Prospects
and Problems.” Monthly Labor Review, February
1972, pp. 11-15.

Sharp, Laure M., et. al. Five Years After the College
Degree. Washington, D.C., Bureau of Social Science
Research, 5 volumes:
Parti:

Graduate
1965.

and Professional Education.

Part II:

Occupational Outcome (text tables; ap­

Part III:
Part IV:
PartV:

Discusses occupational mobility of workers between
January 1972 and January 1973 by age, sex, and race, and
compares results of postcensal survey to those of a similar
survey in 1965.

Methodological Note. 1966.

pendix tables). 1965.

Discusses the surveys and lists additional articles and
reports based on survey data.

Sharp, Laure M., et. al. Five Years After the College
Degree. Washington, D.C., Bureau of Social Science
Research, 5 volumes: Part V: Geographic Mobility,
1967.
Based on a survey in 1963 of 1958 bachelor’s degree reci­
pients including a subsample of individuals surveyed in
the National Science Foundation study, Two Years After
the College Degree, who obtained further graduate and
professional education during 1958-63.

Military Service. 1967.
Geographic Mobility. 1967.

Based on a survey in 1963 of 1958 bachelor’s degree reci­
pients including a subsample of individuals surveyed in
the National Science Foundation study, Two Years After
the College Degree, who obtained further graduate and
professional education during 1958-63. Describes occupa­
tional entry and other characteristics by type of training.

Sommers, Dixie, and Eck, Alan: “ Occupational Mobili­
ty in the American Labor Force.” Monthly Labor
Review, January 1977, pp. 3-19.

Somers, Gerald G. The Effectiveness of Vocational and
Technical Programs: A National Follow-up Study.
Madison, University of Wisconsin, Center for Studies
in Vocational and Technical Education, 1971.

Provides data on occupational mobility revealed by the
1970 Census of Population. It discusses the uses of
mobility information, the patterns of separation and en­
try, and the limitations on the data.

Based on a 1969 survey of a national sample of 1966 voca­
tional and technical program graduates, reports labor
force and employment status by type of program, major
occupational classification, and personal characteristics.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Census of Population: 1970, Subject Reports, Final
Report PC(2)-7E, Occupation and Residence in 1965,
1973.

U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
National Center for Educational Statistics. [Office of
Eduation]. National Longitudinal Study of the High
School Class of 1972, Comparative Profiles—One
and One-Half Years after Graduation. DHEW
Publication No. (NCES) 76-220, 1975.

Geographic mobility data for major occupational groups,
comparable 1960 data are in Final Report PC(2)-2B,
Mobility for States and State Economic Areas.

A continuing followup study of a sample of 20,000 high
school seniors of 1972 to examine their postsecondary
and occupational status, and its relation to high school
training experience.

Discusses patterns of mobility, demographic characteris­
tics, flows among occupations, and job and industrial
mobility.

Immigration
National Science Foundation. Immigrant Scientists and
Engineers in the United States. A Study of
Characteristics and Attitudes. NSF 73-302, 1973.

Occupational mobility

Byrne, James J. “ Occupational Mobility of Workers.”
Monthly Labor Review, February 1975, pp. 53-59.



U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Occupational Mobility of Workers, Special Labor
Force Report 176, 1975.

122

Reports on a survey conducted by NSF in mid-1970 of a
sample of those admitted between February 1964 and
January 1969 and who filed address reports with the Im­
migration and Naturalization Service in 1969.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Resources, Na­
tional Institutes of Health. The Foreign Medical
Graduate: A Bibliography, DHEW Publication No.
(NIH) 73-440, November 1972.
Citations of information about foreign medical graduates
in the United States, including their education abroad,
flow into the United States, and their training and
employment in the United States. Includes only publica­
tions before September 1972.

U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training
Administration. Immigrants and the American Labor
Market, Manpower Research Monograph 31, 1974.
Discusses the behavior of immigrants in the labor market,
the skills they bring with them, skills being used, and their
adjustment to the labor market.

Labor force entrants
American Nurses Association. The Nation’s Nurses: In­
ventory of Registered Professional Nurses. 1965.
Data on work activity and labor force mobility character­
istics of R .N .’s.

National Education Association. Status of the
American Public School Teacher, 1970-71. Research
Report 1972-R3, 1972.
Data on reentrants.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Length of Working Life for Men and Women, 1970,
Special Labor Force Report 187, 1976.
Discusses worklife expectancies for men and women. The
working life table and its uses are explained in the
technical appendix.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Tomorrow’s Manpower Needs, Bulletin 1606, Vol. 1,
February 1969, and Supplement 4, Estimating Oc­
cupational Separations from the Labor Force for
States, 1974.
Vol. 1 discusses the development of death and separation
rates, and shows 1960 rates for individual occupations by
sex in appendix A. Supplement 4 contains estimates of oc­
cupational separations for States and shows 1970 and
1985 rates for individual occupations by sex in appendix
B.

Trends

Bednarzik, Robert W., and Klein, Deborah P. Labor
Force Trends: A Synthesis and an Analysis and a
Bibliography. Special Labor Force Report 208, U.S.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
1978.
Syntheizes studies of the labor force behavior of men,
women, and teenagers. Discusses trends and possible
changes.

Taeuber, Karl E. Demograhpic Trends Affecting the
Future Labor Force. Madison, Wis., Institute for
Research on Poverty, 1976.
Reviews population and manpower projections along
with their relation to demographic shifts and minority
participation.

Ornstein, Michael. Entry into the American Labor
Force. New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1976.
A detailed examination of the way in which a sample of
American men entered the labor force. Discusses trends
and social mobility after entry.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.
Census of Population: 1970, Subject Reports, Final
Report PC(2)-6C, Persons Not Employed, 1973.
Data on occupational characteristics of persons not in the
labor force or unemployed. Comparable 1960 data in
Final Report PC(2)-6C, L a b o r R e se rv e.

Earnings
American Society for Personnel Administration. Trends
in Employment of College and University Graduates
in Business and Industry. Annual since 1946.
Survey of beginning monthly salaries in 185 companies
representing large- and medium-sized firms in 22 States
and 20 industries. Salaries are for bachelor’s and master’s
degree holders in engineering, accounting, sales, business
administration, liberal arts, production management,
physics, chemistry, mathematics, economics, and other
fields.

Separations from the labor force

Fullerton, Howard N. “ A New Type of Working Life
Table for Men.” Monthly Labor Review, July
1972, pp. 20-27.
Uses a “ generation” life table in which the life spans of
cohorts are followed through time, instead of a “ period”
life table based on mortality rates applicable to each age
observed at one point in time. Includes tables, data
sources, and technical appendix.



123

College Placement Council, Inc., College Placement
Council Salary Survey. Issued three times each year.
Reports beginning salary data based on offers made to <
graduating students at all degree levels in selected cur­
ricula and graduate programs.

Endicott, Frank S. Trends in Employment of College
and University Graduates in Business and Industry.

Placement Center of Northwestern University. An­
nual since 1946.
Survey of beginning monthly salaries in 185 companies
representing large- and medium-sized firms in 22 States
and 20 industries. Salaries are for bachelor’s and master’s
degree holders in engineering, accounting, sales, business
administration, liberal arts, production management,
physics, chemistry, mathematics, economics, and other
fields.

Professional and business associations. The following
associations or periodicals conduct salary surveys for
occupations of special interest to them:
Advertising Age (magazine)
American Anthropology Association
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy
American Chemical Society
American Collectors Association, Inc.
American Dental Assistants Association
American Dental Association
American Dental Hygienists Association
American Dietetic Association
American Economic Association
American Institute for Design and Drafting
American Institute of Physics
American Management Association
American Marketing Association
American Mathematical Society
American Petroleum Institute
American Political Science Association
American Psychological Association
American Sociey of Interior Designers
American Society of Landscape Architects
American Society of Radiologic Technologists
Child Welfare League of America
Engineers Joint Council
Industrial Designers Society of America
Institute of Food Technologists
International City Management Association
International Personnel Management Association
International Taxicab Association
M e d ica l Economics (magazine)
National Academy of Sciences
National Association of Realtors
National Executive Housekeepers Association
National Farm and Power Equipment Dealers Associa­
tion
PR R e p o r t e r (public relations newsletter)
Society of American Foresters
University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston)

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Area Wage Surveys: Metropolitan Areas, United
States and Regional Summaries. Annual.
Provides national and regional estimates of occupational
earnings, supplementary wage benefits, and establish­
ment practices for workers in the Nation’s Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Six industry divisions are
covered: Manufacturing; transportation, communica­
tion, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail
trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and selected
services.



124

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Directory of Occupational Wage Surveys, January
1970-December 1977, Report 537, 1979.
Lists publications resulting from the Bureau of Labor
Statistics’ occupational wage programs between 1970 and
1976.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Employment and Earnings, State and Areas, 1939-75,
Bulletin 1370-12, 1977.
This bulletin is a comprehensive historical reference
volume of State and area employment and earnings
statistics released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Employment and Earnings, United States, 1909-78,
Bulletin 1312-16, 1979.
Presents historical national earnings data released by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics for individual nonagricultural
industries.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
National Survey of Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay. Annual since Winter
1959-60, various bulletins.
Summarizes the results of the Bureau of Labor Statistics’
annual salary survey of selected professional, ad­
ministrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private
industry. Averages are shown for annual, monthly, and
weekly rates, excluding overtime pay.

Periodicals
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Employment and Earnings, monthly.
Presents charts and detailed tables on the labor force,
employment, unemployment, hours, earnings, and labor
turnover. Compiled from data based on household inter­
views, nonagricultural establishment records, and ad­
ministrative records of unemployment insurance systems.
March issue contains annual averages for previous year
for all national industry series.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Monthly Labor Review.
Presents articles on employment, labor force, wages,
prices, productivity, unit labor costs, collective bargain­
ing, workers’ satisfaction, social indicators, and labor
developments abroad. Regular features include a review
of developments in industrial relations, significant court
decisions in labor cases, book reviews, and current labor
statistics.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Occupational Outlook Quarterly.
Presents current information on employment trends and
outlook, supplementing and updating information in the
Occupational Outlook Handbook.

U. s.

GOVERNMENT PRINTING O FFIC E : 1 9 8 0

311-146/4047

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Bureau of Labor Statistics
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