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Occupational Projections and
Training Data
U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1976

Bulletin 1918




Occupational Projections and
Training Data
U.S. Department of Labor
W. J. Usery, Jr., Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1976
Bulletin 1918

For sale by the S up erin ten dent of D ocum ents, U.S. G overnm ent Printing O ffice, W ashington, D.C. 20402, GPO Bookstore, or




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Preface
This bulletin presents both general and detailed inform ation on the relationship
betw een occupational requirem ents and training needs. It is a revision and updating
of BLS Bulletin 1824, O ccupational M anpow er and Training N eeds. This bulletin
was prepared as part of the Bureau of L abor Statistics program for preparing
and dissem inating projections of econom ic and occupational and industrial em ploy­
m ent data.
Inform ation needed to plan education and training program s and for vocational
guidance includes projections of occupational requirem ents and inform ation on
occupational training. C hapter 1 of this bulletin discusses how occupational
projections and training data can be used in planning and counseling. C hapter 2
presents an overview o f occupational projections, and C hapter 3 provides inform a­
tion from a variety of sources on the status of occupational training. C hapter 4
gives detailed inform ation on how w orkers in specific occupations obtain training,
along with projections of em ploym ent requirem ents for each of these occupations,
and statistics on training program s to the extent that they are available.
This bulletin was prepared in the Division of Occupational Outlook of the B ureau
o f L abor Statistics under the general direction of Neal H. R osenthal. Daniel E.
H ecker supervised the preparation of the bulletin. H arold Blitz, C hester Levine,
M ax C arey, Anne K ahl, and H. Jam es N eary contributed to the collection, prepara­
tion, and analysis of the data.
M aterial in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced w ith­
out the perm ission of the Federal G overnm ent. Please credit the B ureau of L abor
Statistics and cite the nam e and num ber of the publication.




m

C o n te n ts

C hapters:

Page

1.

Using occupational data for planning and co u n se lin g ........................................................................................
D ata on projections...............................................................................................................................................
D ata on supply........................................................................................................................................................
U ses o f data in p lan n in g .....................................................................................................................................

1
1
2
3

2.

O ccupational pro jectio n s..............................................................................................................................................
F actors affecting occupational em ploym ent ................................................................................................
Changing occupational s tru c tu re ......................................................................................................................
G row th trends in m ajor groups .......................................................................................................................
N et occupational openings ................................................................................................................................

4
4
4
4
9

3.

The status of occupational tra in in g ............................................................................................................................11
V ocational education.................................................................
11
Private vocational sch o o ls................................................................................................................................... 12
A pprenticeship p ro g ra m s.....................................................................................................................................13
E m ployer training................................................................................................................................................... 13
Arm ed F orces training...........................................................................................................................................14
Federal em ploym ent and training p ro g ram s................................................................................................... 15
H om e study c o u r s e s .................................................................
16
Com m unity and junior co lleg es............................................
16
Colleges and universities...................................................................................................................................... 16

4.

Relating training to occupational n ee d s.....................................................................................................................19
The outlook for college g rad u ates..................................................................................................................... 19
Industrial production and related occupations.....................................
22
F oundry occupations.................................................................................................................................... 22
M achining o cc u p atio n s................................................................................................................................ 22
Printing occupations......................................................................................................................................23
O ther industrial production and related o c c u p a tio n s......................................................................... 24
Office o cc u p atio n s................................................................................................................................................. 26
Clerical o ccu p atio n s......................................................................................................................................26
C om puter and related o ccupations...........................................................................................................28
Banking o cc u p atio n s.................................................................................................................................. ,29
Insurance o cc u p atio n s..................................................................................................................................30
A dm inistrative and related o c c u p a tio n s................................................................................................. 31
Service o cc u p atio n s...............................................................................................................................................33
Cleaning and related o c c u p a tio n s............................................................................................................ 33
F ood service occupations..................................................................
33
Personal service o cc u p atio n s..................................................................................................................... 34
Private household service o c c u p a tio n s...................................................................................................35
Protective and related service o ccu p atio n s............................................................................................35
O ther service o cc u p atio n s...........................................................................................................................36
Education and related o c c u p a tio n s.................................................................................................................. 36
Teaching o cc u p atio n s................................................................................................................................... 36
L ibrary o cc u p atio n s...................................................................................................................................... 38




IV

C o n te n ts — C o n tin u e d
C hapter 4—Continued

Page

Sales o c c u p a tio n s.................................................................................................................................................. 38
C onstruction o ccu p atio n s....................................................................................................................................40
O ccupations in transportation ac tiv itie s......................................................................................................... 43
Air transportation o ccu p atio n s..................................................................................................................43
M erchant m arine o c c u p a tio n s...................................................................................................................44
Railroad occu p atio n s.................................................................................................................................... 44
Driving o cc u p atio n s......................................................................................................................................45
Scientific and technical o ccupations................................................................................................................ 46
C onservation o c c u p a tio n s.......................................................................................................................... 46
E n g in eers......................................................................................................................................................... 46
Environm ental scien tists............................................................................................
47
Life science o ccupations............................................................................................
48
M athem atics o ccu p atio n s........................................................................................................................... 49
Physical scientists..........................................................................................................................................49
O ther scientific and technical occupations.............................................................................................50
M echanics and re p a ire rs......................................................................................................................................51
Telephone craft o cc u p atio n s.....................................................................................
51
O ther m echanics and re p airers..................................................................................................................51
H ealth o cc u p atio n s................................................................................................................................................55
Dental o c c u p a tio n s....................................................................................................................................... 55
M edical practitioners.................................................................................................................................... 55
M edical technician, technologist, and assistant
o cc u p atio n s...................................................................................................................
57
Nursing o c c u p a tio n s.................................................................................................................................... 58
Therapy and rehabilitation o c c u p a tio n s.................................................................................................59
O ther health o c c u p a tio n s............................................................................................................................59
Social scientists.....................................................................................................................
60
Social service o c c u p a tio n s................................................................................................................................. 62
Counseling o c c u p a tio n s.............................................................................................
62
O ther social service o c c u p a tio n s............................................................................................................. 63
A rt, design, and com m unications-related occupations ............................................
63
Design o cc u p atio n s.......................................................................................................................................63
C om m unications-related o c c u p a tio n s.....................................................................................................65
Charts:
1. Through the m id-1980’s em ploym ent growth will vary widely
am ong occupations .....................................................................................................................................................
2. Em ploym ent is expected to continue to shift
tow ard white-collar and service occupations ......................................................................................................

5
6

Tables:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

E m ploym ent in 1974 and projected requirem ents in 1985 by m ajor
occupational group ......................................................................................................................................................... 7
Projected requirem ents and jo b openings by m ajor occupational
group, 1974-85 ................................................................................................................................................................ 9
Exam ples of curriculum s offering training for specific occupations ................................................................... 12
Enrollm ents in vocational education, by level, fiscal years 1964-74 ..................................................................12
Enrollm ents in vocational education, by m ajor vocational education
area, fiscal year 1974 ......................................................................................................................................................12
N um ber of private noncollegiate postsecondary schools with occupational program s
and full and part-tim e enrollm ents, by type of school, 1973-74
............................................................. 13




v

C o n te n ts — C o n tin u e d
Page

7.
.
9.

8

10.
11.
12.
13.

Enrollm ents in private noncollegiate postsecondary schools with
occupational program s, by program 1973-74
........................................................................................ 13
Training status o f registered apprentices in all trades, 1962-74 ......................................................................... 14
Total degree-credit enrollm ent in 4-year institutions of higher
education, and earned degrees, by level, 1963-64 to 1973-74 academ ic
years .....................................................................................................................................................................................17
College degrees aw arded, 1963— and projected 1974-85 .....................................................................................19
74
Projected supply of college graduates, 1974-85 ..........................................................................................................20
P rojected jo b openings for college graduates, 1974-85 ............................................................................................20
P rojected openings and new supply for Ph. D ’s, 1974-85 ....................................................................................... 21

A ppendixes:
A. M ethods and assum ptions for projections of m anpow er requirem ents ........................................................66
B. Detailed occupational projections ........................................................................................................................... 68
C. D etailed training statistics ......................................................................................................................................... 77
D. State em ploym ent security agencies ..................................................................................................................... 98
E. B ibliography ................................................................................................................................................................101




vi

Chapter 1.

Using Occupational Data for Planning and Counseling
projecting occupational requirements for States and areas.
The program encompasses the training of analysts in pro­
jection techniques, research on methods of developing
projections, the development of computer systems, and the
publication of national data for use by States.

O ccupational dem and and supply inform ation are
key elem ents in vocational counseling and planning
education and training program s. A lthough m any indi­
viduals m ake career decisions based on substantial oc­
cupational inform ation, others use little or no such data
in planning their w orking life. Some are successful, but
others are not because o f m isinform ation or lack of
inform ation. Similarly, planners of education and train­
ing program s often do not have adequate occupational
inform ation to m ake wise decisions. As a result, voca­
tio n ally o rie n te d program s m ay prepare stu d en ts
for jo b s in ov ercrow ded fields while a shortage
m ay ex ist in o th e r fields.
Occupational dem and and supply inform ation serves
m any other purposes. Such data m ay be used to alert
governm ent and other interested parties to potential
o cc u p atio n al su p p ly -d em an d im b alan ces; to help
choose betw een program or policy alternatives; to pro­
vide inform ation necessary for developing other types
of projections; and to encourage an inform ed and re­
sponsible public concern for occupational supplydem and problem s.
Inform ation in this bulletin serves all of these pur­
poses. O ther B ureau publications, how ever, focus on
som e uses m ore sharply. The O ccupational Outlook
H a n d b o o k, for exam ple, which draw s on the same re­
search, provides inform ation for use in vocational guid­
ance.
D ata in this bulletin reflect the national situation.
M ost vocational counseling and education and training
planning, how ever, are done at the State or local level.
To m eet the needs for local data, the B ureau of L abor
Statistics (BLS), in cooperation with the Em ploym ent
and Training A dm inistration and the individual State
em ploym ent security agencies, has established the Oc­
cupational E m ploym ent Statistics Program . This pro­
gram has the following three elem ents:

U n d e r th e O ccu p atio n al E m ploym ent S ta tistics
Program , projections of 1985 occupational require­
m ents are ex p e cted to be available in the fall of
1976 for all States and Standard M etropolitan Statistical
A reas (SM SA’s) of 50,000 population or m ore that are
consistent with the national occupational projections
presented in this report. Inform ation on the availability
of data for individual States can be obtained from the
State agencies listed in appendix D of this bulletin.
D ata on p ro je c tio n s
This bulletin presents inform ation on future require­
m ents for 241 occupations analyzed during preparation
of the 1976-77 edition of the O ccupational Outlook
H andbook. These occupations are projected to include
about 70 million w orkers or approxim ately tw o-thirds
of all w orkers in 1985. M ost of these occupations re­
quire considerable training. F o r exam ple, projections
account for about 90 percent or m ore of professional,
sales, and craft w orkers, and 80 percent of clerical
w orkers.
The data are part of the continuing BLS program to
develop econom ic and em ploym ent projections. A p­
pendix A gives underlying assum ptions as well as
m ethods used. Some assum ptions are quantitative,
such as the unem ploym ent rate, average weekly hours,
and level of the A rm ed Forces. O thers are qualitative
such as those concerning the international political cli­
m ate; the institutional fram ew ork of the A m erican
econom y, econom ic; social, technological, and scien­
tific trends; and fiscal and m onetary policies of the
governm ent.
Some assum ptions that have significant effects on the
projections, such as how energy needs of the U nited
States will be m et in 1985, cannot be m ade with preci­
sion. The outcom e will depend largely on the policies of
future adm inistrations and of the oil-producing coun­
tries, as well as other uncertainties. U sers, therefore,
should be aw are that these projections represent the
level of em ploym ent required to produce the am ount of

1. The Occupational Employment Statistics Survey
—collects wage and salary employment data by occupation
and industry from nonfarm establishments by mail.
2. The National/State Industry-Occupation Matrix
System—shows total employment in 241 occupational
categories, cross-classified by 201 industrial sectors for
each State and the District of Columbia. These tables are
used to project occupational requirements for States and
sub-State areas.
3. The State and Area Occupational Projections
Program—assists State employment security agencies in



1

goods and services implied in the B ureau’s model of the
1985 econom y.
The key item in this bulletin on dem and is the pro­
jected num ber of openings by occupation. These esti­
m ates reflect projected grow th and estim ated separa­
tions from the labor force for all causes, including
death, retirem ent, sickness, and family responsibilities.
Openings created because of shifts from one occupation
to another are not included in the estim ates of jo b open­
ings, because of a lack of inform ation.

F or several other occupations, sufficient data are
available to specify future supply, but the results m ust
be used with caution because some of the sources of
supply are difficult to project. F or exam ple, in engineer­
ing, the prim ary source of supply is new graduates of
engineering schools, and data are available on degrees
granted in the past on which to base degree projections.
Also, data are sufficient to develop estim ates of the
proportion who can be expected to seek w ork as en­
gineers. In the past, large num ber of w orkers also have
entered engineering from other sources, including new
college graduates with degrees in related fields such as
m athem atics and the physical sciences, transfers from
other occupations, and im migrants. Prospective supply
from these sources can be projected, based on past
trends. These data, how ever, m ust be used cautiously
because relative wages among related occupations and
the availability of jobs in engineering versus related
fields, which can vary greatly over tim e, influence the
num ber of prospective entrants.
F or occupations w hich are predom inantly fem ale, for
exam ple, nurses, a significant proportion of entrants
com e from the pool of qualified w orkers not in the labor
force. V ery little data are available on past patterns of
entry and reentry from this source and the num ber who
seek to enter depends on a variety of factors th at are
difficult to analyze, including relative wage rates, and
the choice betw een w ork and o ther activities by w om en
w hose husbands provide adequate incom e.
M any other occupations requiring formal training
have limited data on training com pletions and entry
rates, making adequate analyses of supply im possible.
In general, these occupations can be filled by w orkers
from a num ber of different training program s and a
significant portion of training can be provided on the
job. These occupations include many in professional
and adm inistrative fields, such as m arketing and p er­
sonnel w orkers, but m any are in the skilled craft occu­
pations such as T. V. repairers, electroplaters, and car­
penters.
F o r m any o c c u p a tio n s, co m p re h e n siv e su p p ly
analyses are not m eaningful because, com pared to the
num ber of jo b openings, large num bers of w orkers
possess entry level skills. F or exam ple, the num ber of
w orkers qualified to becom e receptionists is m uch
greater than the num ber of positions available, but the
num ber of persons seeking such jobs depends on rela­
tive wages, the availability of com parable jo b s, and
other m arket forces.
C hapter 4 presents supply analyses for a limited
num ber of occupations; for other occupations, avail­
able current training d ata are presented. C hapter 3
assesses data availability from all types of training
sources including junior colleges, the Job C orps, and
o th er G overnm ent-sponsored program s, vocational
education, registered apprenticeships, and colleges and
universities. A ppendix C sum m arizes in tabular form

D ata on su p p ly
E stim ates of future occupational openings com prise
only p art of the inform ation needed to evaluate career
prospects and the adequacy of education and training
program s. Inform ation also is needed on the prospec­
tive supply of w orkers by occupation. The key item in
the data on supply is projected new entrants. F or each
occupation such data include (1) the num ber of persons
com pleting training specifically designed to prepare
them for w ork in that occupation, (2) the num ber com ­
pleting related training, (3) the proportion of persons
com pleting specific training or related program s who
can be expected to seek entry to the occupation, (4) the
num ber of w orkers who can be expected to transfer
from other occupations, (5) the num ber of qualified
persons not currently in the labor force who can be
expected to seek em ploym ent in the occupation, (6)
unem ployed persons who are qualified to w ork in the
o c c u p a tio n , an d (7) th e n u m b e r o f q u alifie d
im m igrants.1
The ability to determ ine supply varies among occupa­
tions, depending on the availability of current data on
entrants from each of these sources and the reliability of
projections. In general, m uch better data are available
on entrants from specific training program s than from
other sources. The supply of physicians, for example,
can be analyzed with some confidence. E ntry is limited
to graduates of U .S. medical schools and qualified im­
m igrants, and virtually all graduates and qualified im­
m igrants becom e physicians. Therefore, projections of
medical school graduates, plus projections of qualified
im migrants are all that are needed to specify supply.
G ood data are available on medical degrees granted in
the past, and M .D. degrees are projected through fairly
reliable m ethods. Good historical data on im migrant
physicians are also available on which to base projec­
tions. O ther com ponents such as occupational transfers
and labor force reentrants are negligible in this occupa­
tion, and the lack of such data are, therefore, not crucial
to the analysis.

1 A detailed discussion of occupational supply is presented in
Occupational Supply: Concepts and Sources o f Data fo r Manpower
Analysis, Bulletin 1816 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1974).




2

all available data for those occupations discussed in
chapter 4.

cupations that are subject to large num bers of entrants
from other occupations due to factors such as estab­
lished career ladder patterns or high relative wages.
Therefore, this bulletin m ay significantly understate the
Uses of data in planning
num ber o f w orkers expected to seek jo b s in the occupa­
tion. F urtherm ore, w hen em ployers desire experienced
O ccupational projections and training data are used
w orkers, care m ust be used by planners in expanding
in a variety o f ways to plan education and training
training program s for the occupation.
program s. Previous issues of this publication2 have in­
In addition, this bulletin does not include training
dicated several uses, including statistical analyses in
program s sponsored under C ETA or em ployer training
which data can be arranged by size of annual openings,
program s other than registered apprenticeships. Statis­
growth rates, or em ploym ent size, and analyses in
tics on supply also do not include w orkers who qualify
which com parisons can be made of current training and
for occupations through Arm ed Forces training, cor­
projected annual openings. In addition, exam ples of
respondence school training, private vocational school
how national and State jo b prospects can be com pared
have been shown.
training, or partial com pletion o f a form al training pro­
gram.
Illustrations of uses were also presented for analyz­
To use the data in this bulletin, therefore, the dem and
ing specific occupations, including (1) occupations for
and supply structure of the occupation m ust be under­
which 4 years of specialized college training are re­
stood. On the supply side, the discussion of occupa­
quired or preferred, but in which entrants come from a
tional training requirem ents in chapter 4 should be con­
variety of other sources, (2) occupations for which for­
sidered along with all available statistical data. Consid­
mal vocational training (apprenticeship) is recom ­
eration m ust be given to questions such as: Is the
m ended, but in which m any w orkers nevertheless enter
num ber of reentrants to the labor force generally large
by casual on-the-job training m ethods, and (3) occupa­
in this occupation? Does Arm ed F orces training play a
tions for which formal occupational training generally is
significant role in training w orkers for this occupation?
not required.
Do established career patterns and career ladders indi­
Individuals engaged in vocational guidance and plan­
cate that large num bers of w orkers will desire to tran s­
ning education and training program s should under­
fer into the occupation from related fields? Do em ­
stand the lim itations of data on occupational projec­
ployer training program s (other than registered appren­
tions and training. F or exam ple, data on annual open­
ticeships for which data are available) provide large
ings exclude those arising from occupational transfers.
num bers of w orkers in these occupations? On the de­
Some occupations may have m any m ore openings than
m and side, questions should concern the significance o f
this bulletin indicates because large num bers of w ork­
openings caused by w orkers transferring to other occu­
ers transfer to other occupations each year. This may
pations. M any questions can be answ ered with some
occur because the occupation (1) is an “ en try ” occupa­
a s s u ra n c e an d w ill c a u s e few p ro b le m s in th e
tion and the norm al career ladder follows an established
analysis. The answ ers to others are in doubt, and deci­
pattern, or (2) the occupation has low wages and/or
sions based only on available statistics m ust be consid­
poor working conditions which result in high turnover.
ered carefully. Some further inform ation, how ever,
Transfers m ay also add significantly to supply in occan be developed fro m th e studies re ferred to in th e
bibliography in appendix E. The BLS also is developing
inform ation, to be available in late 1976, on occupa­
2
Occupational Manpower and Training Needs, Bulletin 1701, tional m obility, em ployer training in selected craft
1971, and Occupational Manpower and Training Needs, Bulletin
occupations in selected industries, and working patterns
1824, 1974.
of college graduates.




3

Chapter 2.

Occupational Projections

This chapter presents projections of occupational re­
q u ire m e n ts th ro u g h th e m id -1980’s b ase d on the
B ureau’s extensive studies o f econom ic grow th, tech­
nological ch an g e, and in d u strial and occupational
trends. A ppendix A furnishes inform ation on the as­
sum ptions underlying these projections. Appendix B
presents projections of specific occupations. M ore de­
tail on the econom ic and industry projections underly­
ing the occupational projections is presented in the
M arch 1976 issue of the M onthly L abor Review .

from 85.9 to 103.4 m illio n .3 E m ploym ent in both
w hite-collar and service jo b s is expected to grow faster
than total em ploym ent, but em ploym ent in blue-collar
jobs is expected to grow m ore slowly. F arm w orkers are
expected to decline.
W hite-collar w orkers, the largest m ajor occupational
category, are projected to rise by alm ost 28 percent
betw een 1974 and 1985, fro m 41.7 to 53.2 million (chart
1 ). Service w orkers also are expected to rise by about 28
percent, from 11.4 to 14.6 million. Blue-collar w orkers,
the second largest m ajor occupational category, are
expected to increase by only 13 percent, from 29.8
million in 1974 to 33.7 million in 1985. The num ber of
farm w orkers will decline 39 percent from 3 million in
1974 to 1.8 million in 1985.
By 1985, w hite-collar w orkers are expected to m ake
up 51.5 percent of the econom y’s total em ploym ent, up
from 48.6 percent in 1974 (chart 2). The share o f the
total attributed to service w orkers also is expected to
increase, from 13.2 to 14.1 percent. The blue-collar
share of total em ploym ent, on the other hand, is ex­
pected to decline from 34.6 percent in 1974 to 32.6
percent in 1985, despite the projected increase in the
num ber of these w orkers. Farm w orkers are expected
to m ake up only 1.8 percent of total em ploym ent in
1985, dow n from 3.5 percent in 1974.

Factors affecting occupational employment
M any factors will change em ploym ent levels of major
o ccu p atio n al gro u ps and specific occupation s: (1)
G row th rates o f industries. Rapid grow th in an industry
likely would cause rapid grow th o f occupations heavily
concentrated in th at industry. Similarly, slow grow th of
an industry likely would cause slow grow th for occupa­
tions heavily concentrated in it. (2) Changing occupa­
tional structure within an industry. Such changes can
result from a variety of causes. Technological innova­
tions in m achines or production processes can cause
em ploym ent in occupations to expand or contract and
create a need for new occupations. F or exam ple, the
com puter resulted in the em ergence and rapid growth of
em ploym ent o f program m ers, system s analysts, and
com puter operators, but contributed to the decline in
relative im portance of file clerks and other clerical oc­
cupations. Changes in business operations, such as a
shift to self-service in stores, also alter the occupational
stru ctu re of industries. In addition, supply-dem and
conditions in one occupation may affect the dem and for
another. F o r exam ple, in hospitals, nurses aides have
been substituted for registered nurses during periods
w hen registered nurses have been in short supply.

Growth trends in major groups
P rofessional and technical workers. Professional and
technical em ploym ent, w hich includes such highly
trained personnel as physicians, law yers, engineers,
and scientists, is expected to rise from 12.3 million in
3
Statistics on employment in this report are based on the concept
used by the Current Population Survey that each individual is counted
once in his major occupation. The data for total employment here,
therefore, differ from a count of jobs as presented in the articles by
Ronald E. Kutscher, and Charles T. Bowman and Terry H. Morlan, in
the March 1976 issue of the Monthly Labor Review. Since one worker
may hold more than one job, the job count in these articles is greater
than that presented here. Additional differences between the totals
occur because the job count is based primarily on data from a survey
of establishments collected by State agencies in a cooperative pro­
gram with the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the count of individuals
is based on a survey of households conducted by the Bureau of the
Census for the BLS. The reasons that cause the employment count to
differ between these two surveys are indicated in “ Comparing Em­
ployment Estimates from Household and Payroll Series,” Monthly
Labor Review, December 1969, pp. 9-20.

Changing occupational structure
V arious factors will interact to change the occupa­
tional mix o f the U .S. econom y betw een 1974 and 1985,
but m ost long-term trends among m ajor categories of
w orkers— w hite-collar, blue-collar, service, and farm
w orkers—are projected to continue.
F rom assum ptions discussed in appendix A, total
em ploym ent is expected to increase about 20 percent,



4

Chart 1

Through the mid-1 9 8 0 ’s employment
growth will vary widely among occupations

Projected percent change, 1974-85

All Workers

W hite-collar workers

Professional and
technical workers
Managers and
administrators

Sales workers

Clerical workers

Blue-collar workers

Craft and
kindred workers
Operatives

Nonfarm laborers

Service workers

Private
household workers
Other service workers

Farm workers

-40

-30




-20

-10

0

0

5

10

20

30

40

Chart 2

Employment is expected to continue to shift
toward white-collar and service occupations




6

1974 to 16 million in 1985 or one and one-third times the
rate of increase projected for total em ploym ent. As a
result, the share of total em ploym ent attributed to pro­
fessional and technical w orkers is expected to grow
from 14.4 to 15.5 p ercent over the 1974-85 period (table
1).
Em ploym ent in this area is expected to expand as a
rising population requires more goods and services and
as the N ation m akes greater efforts in energy explora­
tion and production, m ass transportation, urban re­
newal, and environm ental protection. The quest for
scientific and technical knowledge is bound to grow and
raise the dem and for scientific and technical w orkers.
During the late 1970’s and early 1980’s, em phasis will
continue on social sciences and medical services. The
dem and for professional w orkers to develop and use
com puter resources also is projected to grow rapidly.
Although professional and technical w orkers as a
group are expected to increase rapidly, growth rates
will differ among individual fields. N otew orthy is the
difference betw een two of the largest occupations in the
group—registered nurses and teachers. Em ploym ent of
nurses is projected at 1.2 million in 1985, about one-half
more than the num ber em ployed in 1974, as the popula­
tion grows and as a larger percentage of the population
becom es older. The num ber of people covered by hos­
pitalization and medical insurance, including m edicare
and m edicaid, also will increase and stim ulate dem and
for nurses. At the sam e time the older population is
growing, the teen-age population will decline due to the
low birth rates of the 1960’s. C onsequently, the dem and
for secondary school teachers is expected to decline
slightly, from about 1.2 million in 1974 to about 1.1
million in 1985. A m ore rapid decline in em ploym ent
would be projected if it w ere not for an anticipated
decrease in the ratio of students to teachers.

Table 1. Em ploym ent in 1974 and projected
requirem ents in 1985 by m ajor occupational group
[Numbers in thousands]

Occupational group

Projected
1985 requirements

Number Percent Number Percent
Total................................... 85,936

100.0 103,400 100.0

White-collar workers....................... 41,739
Professional and technical
workers............................... 12,338
Managers and administra-......
tors.................................... 8,941
Salesworkers........................... 5,417
Clerical workers...................... 15,043

48.6

53,200

51.5

14.4

16,000

15.5

10.4
6.3
17.5

10,900
6,300
20,100

10.5
6.1
19.5

Blue-collar workers........................ 29,776
Craft and kindred workers....... 11,477
Operatives.............................. 13,919
Nonfarm laborers.................... 4,380

34.6
13.4
16.2
5.1

33,700
13,800
15,200
4,800

32.6
13.3
14.7
4.6

Service workers.............................. 11,373
Private household workers....... 1,228
Other service workers.............. 10,145

13.2
1.4
11.8

14,600
900
13,700

14.1
.9
13.2

3,048

3.5

1,900

1.8

Farm workers..................................

N T : Detail m not add to totals because of rounding.
OE
ay

em ploym ent growth. F or exam ple, m ore technically
trained m anagers will be needed to adm inister research
and developm ent program s and m ake decisions on the
installation and use of autom ated m achinery and com ­
puters.
M anager em ploym ent in various industries is ex­
pected to increase at different rates. F o r exam ple, in the
relatively slow growing m anufacturing sector, em ­
ploym ent of m anagers betw een 1974 and 1985 is p ro ­
jected to increase about 10 percent contrasted with a 40percent growth in service industries.

M anagers and adm inistrators. Em ploym ent of m ana­
gers and adm inistrators is projected to reach 10.9 mil­
lion in 1985, up from 8.9 million in 1974, or a slightly
faster rate than that anticipated for total em ploym ent.
The share of total em ploym ent attributed to m anagers
and adm inistrators is expected to increase by a small
am ount, from 10.4 to 10.5 percent in 1985.
Changes in business size and organization have re­
sulted in differing trends for self-em ployed and salaried
m anagers. The num ber of self-em ployed m anagers
(proprietors) is projected to continue to decline as the
trend tow ard larger business establishm ents continues
to restrict growth in the total num ber of business estab­
lishm ents. T he ex p an sio n of som e kinds of small
businesses, such as quick-service grocery stores and
restaurants, how ever, should slow the rate of decline.
R equirem ents for salaried m anagers, on the other hand,
are expected to continue to grow rapidly as firms in­
creasingly depend on trained m anagem ent specialists.
Technological developm ents will contribute further to



1974
employment

Salesw orkers. Em ploym ent in sales occupations is p ro ­
jected to rise from 5.4 million in 1974 to 6.3 million in
1985, but the rate of increase is slower than that antici­
pated for total em ploym ent. As a result, the proportion
of total em ploym ent attributed to sales w orkers is ex­
pected to decrease from 6.3 to 6.1 percent.
M uch of the grow th in salesw orkers is expected to
stem from expansion of the retail trade industry, which
em ploys about one-half of these w orkers. The dem and
for both full-and part-tim e salesw orkers in retail trade is
expected to increase as population grows and stores
rem ain open longer and expand into suburban areas.
H ow ever, the m ore w idespread use of laborsaving
m echandising tech n iq u es, such as self-service and
ch e ck o u t c o u n te rs, should m o d erate em ploym ent
growth. C onsequently, the rate of grow th for sales­
w orkers in retail trade is expected to be som ewhat
slower than that for salesw orkers in wholesale trade,
insurance, real estate, and m anufacturing.

7

Clerical workers. W ith 15 million w orkers in 1974, the
clerical group w as the larg est o f all occupational
groups. Clerical em ploym ent is expected to rise to 20.1
million in 1985, an increase of about one-third, or more
than any other group but service w orkers, excluding
private household. The clerical share of total em ploy­
m ent is projected to rise from 17.5 to 19.5 percent
during the 1974-85 period. D evelopm ents in com puters,
office equipm ent, and com m unications devices will re­
tard em ploym ent grow th in some clerical occupations
and increase it in others. G row th in the em ploym ent of
file clerks and office m achine operators, for exam ple,
will be limited as com puters are used m ore extensively
to arrange, store, and transm it inform ation. At the same
tim e, em ploym ent of com puter and peripheral equip­
m ent operators is expected to increase substantially.
A dvances in mail processing equipm ent should have an
adverse im pact on the grow th o f postal clerks. D ictation
m achines have reduced severely the need for stenog­
raphers, and fu rth er reductions are anticipated, al­
though the need for stenographers who are trained as
court reporters is expected to increase.
Technological developm ents are unlikely to affect
m any types of clerical w orkers, including secretaries,
typists, and receptionists, w hose jobs involve a high
degree o f personal contact. Em ploym ent in these three
occupations is projected to grow about 2.1 million be­
tw een 1974 and 1985, or m ore than two-fifths of the total
growth in the clerical group. Secretaries alone are ex­
pected to grow nearly 1.6 million. The rapid growth
anticipated for secretaries, typists, and receptionists is
due partly to the high concentrations of these w orkers
in rapidly expanding industries such as medical and
other health services and m iscellaneous business ser­
vices.

quired, and as alteration and m aintenance needs for
existing structures increase. N early all construction
trades are expected to grow and particularly rapid in­
creases are anticipated for heavy equipm ent operators,
plum bers, structural m etal w orkers, roofers, cem ent
finishers, and electricians.
As our society becom es increasingly m echanized,
the num ber of m echanics needed to repair industrial
and consum er m achinery is projected to rise from 3
million in 1974 to 3.6 million in 1985. A large part o f this
increase is attributed to the dem and for m echanics who
w ork on equipm ent pow ered by internal com bustion
engines, such as m otor vehicles and m uch of the heavy
construction equipm ent.
M echanics who repair com puters, office m achines,
air conditioners, and radios and television sets are ex­
pected to grow m ost rapidly.
O peratives. The grow th of operative o ccupatio n s,
which em ploy m ore w orkers than any other blue-collar
group, is tied closely to the output of m anufacturing
industries. As consum er dem and continues to shift
from goods- to service-producing industries and as m ore
sophisticated technological advances increase produc­
tivity, em ploym ent of operatives is expected to slow to
h a lf th e ra te o f in c re a s e a n tic ip a te d fo r to ta l
em ploym ent—from 13.9 million in 1974 to 15.2 million
in 1985. C onsequently, the operative share of total em ­
ploym ent is expected to decline from 16.2 percen t in
1974 to 14.7 percent in 1985. A bout 3 of every 5 opera­
tives in 1974 w orked in m anufacturing industries. Large
num bers w ere m achine operators, assem blers, and in­
spectors. Outside of m anufacturing, operatives were
concentrated in trade and transportation industries.
M any w ere transport equipm ent operatives, such as
truckdrivers and route w orkers.
Em ploym ent requirem ents for individual operative
occupations reflect different rates of grow th and differ­
ing technological innovations of the employing indus­
tries. F o r exam ple, the projected decline in the em ­
ploym ent of spinners and w eavers reflects not only the
anticipated relatively small increase in the output o f the
fabric and yarn industry w here these w orkers are con­
centrated, but also the increased m echanization of
spinning and weaving processes.

Craft and kindred workers. Em ploym ent in this highly
skilled blue-collar group is projected to increase at
about the sam e rate as total em ploym ent, rising from
11.5 million in 1974 to 13.8 million in 1985. The craft
share of total em ploym ent will continue to be slightly
m ore than 13 percent.
C onstruction trade w orkers and m echanics, the two
largest occupational categories in the craft group, are
expected to m ake up about tw o-thirds of the group’s
em ploym ent gain, and blue-collar supervisors and metal
craftw orkers, m ost of the rem ainder. B ecause o f ad­
vances in printing technology, very little growth is an­
ticipated in printing crafts.
The num ber of w orkers in construction trades is pro­
jected to increase from 3.5 to 4.4 million during the
1974-85 period, prim arily as a result of growth in the
construction industry. Population grow th and the rela­
tively low levels o f housing erected in the m id-1970’s
should create a strong pressure for new housing in the
years ahead. The industry also will be stim ulated as
m ore com m ercial and industrial stru ctu re s are re ­



N onfarm laborers. Like operatives, laborers are ex­
pected to increase less than one-half as fast as the
average for all occupations. Em ploym ent in this small
blue-collar group is projected to rise from 4.4 to 4.8
million betw een 1974 and 1985. L ab o rers’ share o f total
em ploym ent is expected to decline from 5.1 to 4.6 p er­
cent.
Increases in dem and for laborers are expected to be
offset partially by rising output per w orker resulting
from the continuing substitution of m achinery for m an­
ual labor. F or exam ple, pow er-driven equipm ent such

8

as forklift trucks, derricks, cranes, hoists, and con­
veyor belts will take over more of the handling of m ate­
rials in factories, at freight terminals, and in warehouses.
Pow er-driven m achines also will be doing m ore ex­
cavating, ditch digging, and similar w ork. In addition,
an increasing num ber of plants will install integrated
system s to process and handle m aterials and equip­
m ent.

agricultural products both at hom e and for export, farm
w orkers are expected to decline from 3 to 1.9 million
betw een 1974 and 1985 as productivity rises on farm s.
Im proved m achinery, fertilizer, seeds, and feed will
lead to greater output with few er w orkers. N ew hybrid
plants are expected to produce sturdier fruits and veg­
etables w hich can be h arvested m echanically. D e­
velopm ents in packing, inspection, and sorting system s
for fruits, vegetables, and other products also will re­
duce em ploym ent.

w o r k e r s , e x clu d in g p r iv a te h o u seh o ld .
N um bering 10.1 million in 1974, these service w orkers
are projected to increase to 13.7 million in 1985, a faster
rate o f increase than that anticipated for any other oc­
cupational group. As a result, their share of the total is
expected to rise from 11.8 to 13.2 percent. Em ploym ent
grow th in this heterogenous occupational group, which
includes such jo b s as police officer, cook, hairdresser,
and jan ito r, will stem mainly from growth in population,
business activity, and personal incom e. Technological
change affects service w orkers less than it does m any
other categories; hence, productivity advances do not
restrain their em ploym ent growth very much.

S ervice

Net occupational openings
O ccupational growth provides only part of the esti­
m ate of future requirem ents. M ore than twice as many
openings will result from deaths and retirem ents as
from grow th over the 1974-85 period. Openings from
grow th and replacem ent are expected to be about 57.6
million or average 5.2 million jobs each year. O f this
num ber, replacem ent needs are expected to total 40.2
million com pared with 17.4 million for growth.
R eplacem ent needs will be m ore significant than jo b
grow th in each of the m ajor occupational groups, par­
ticularly in occupations which em ploy many wom en
and older w orkers. H ow ever, in some occupations,
growth requirem ents are likely to exceed those for re­
placem ent.
Occupational shifts also will create many jo b open­
ings. F or exam ple, w hen a technician is upgraded to an
engineer, a technician jo b opening is created. This
shift also adds to the supply of engineers. E xcept for
some professions specifically noted for which data are
available, estim ates for jo b openings in this bulletin
exclude transfers. H ow ever, data are being developed
on occupational m obility from the 1970 D ecennial C en­
sus.

P r i v a t e h o u s e h o ld w o rk e rs. In contrast to the rapid

em ploym ent gain anticipated for other service w orkers,
the num ber of private household w orkers is projected to
decline from 1.2 million to 900,000 betw een 1974 and
1985. A continued decline for these w orkers is expected
despite a rise in dem and for them . As personal incom es
rise and m ore w om en w ork outside the hom e, the
dem and for maids and other household w orkers should
increase. H ow ever, few er persons are expected to seek
household jobs because o f the poor earnings and low
social status associated with these jobs.
F a r m w o rk e rs. D espite rapid growth in the dem and for

Table 2.

Projected requirem ents and job openings by m ajor occupational group, 1 9 7 4 -8 5

[Numbers in thousands]
Occupational group

1974
employment

Projected
1985
requirements

Percent
change

TO L
TA

85,936

103,400

White-collar workers................................................................
Professional and technical workers...................................
Managers and administrators..........................................
Salesworkers....................................................................
Clerical workers...............................................................

41,739
12,338
8,941
5,417
15,043

Blue-collar workers.................................................................
Craft and kindred workers................................................
Operatives.......................................................................
Nonfarm laborers............................................................

Openings, 1974-85
Total

Growth

Replacements

20.3

57,600

17,400

40,200

53,200
16,000
10,900
6,300
20,100

27.5
29.4
21.6
15.7
33.8

34,300
9,400
5,200
3,400
16,300

11,500
3,600
1,900
900
5,100

22,800
5,700
3,200
2,600
11,300

29,776
11,477
13,919
4,380

33,700
13,800
15,200
4,800

13.2
19.9
9.0
8.8

12,500
5,100
6,000
1,400

3,900
2,300
1,300
400

8,600
2,800
4,800
1,100

Service workers.......................................................................
Private household workers................................................
Other service workers......................................................

11,373
1,228
10,145

14,600
900
13,700

28.0
-26.7
34.7

11,000
600
10,400

3,200
-300
3,500

7,800
900
6,900

Farm workers..........................................................................

3,048

1,900

-39.0

-100

-1,200

1,000

N T : Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.
OE



9

F o r ease o f com parison with training data, this bulle­
tin lists jo b openings of individual occupations in term s
o f average annual openings rather than for the whole




1974-85 period. A verage openings d ata w ere d e ­
veloped by dividing projected openings for the entire
1974-85 period by 11.

10

Chapter 3.

The Status of Occupational Training
sources o f entry rates and chapter 4 incorporates avail­
able data in occupational analyses.
A recent B L S study4 provides an in-depth discussion
o f w ays to analyze training statistics and other data on
occupational supply for vocational guidance and educa­
tion planning and presents a detailed bibliography o f
data sources.

Each year occupational training is needed by m illions
o f young people and the disadvantaged to qualify for
entry lev el job s and by experienced workers w ho need
further training for advancem ent.
A s show n in the preceding chapter, the N ation in­
creasingly is shifting from blue- to w hite-collar and
service jo b s, which often require high levels o f educa­
tion and skill acquired through formal training. A l­
though blue-collar job s are projected to grow more
slow ly than the average, an increasingly large propor­
tion o f blue-collar workers are exp ected to be craftworkers, w ho require more training than other bluecollar workers. In addition, the proportion o f formally
educated workers within occupations has been increas­
ing. A s these trends continue, more jobs than ever before
will require specialized training. Furthermore, occupa­
tional training is being broadened to prepare workers
for the changing nature o f job s and for changing labor
market conditions.
This chapter covers available training for occupa­
tions through:

Vocational education
V o cation al ed u cation in clu d es secon d ary, p o st­
secondary, and adult vocational and technical pro­
grams funded under the V ocational Education A ct o f
1963, as a m en d ed b y th e V o c a tio n E d u c a tio n a l
A m endm ents o f 1968. The legislation provides that
vocational-technical education include within its scope
all occupations which are not generally considered pro­
fessional and do not require a baccalaureate or higher
degree.
V ocation al ed u cation is co n d u cted on three levels.
Secondary vocational education is provided to high
school students as part o f the high school curriculum
and includes academ ic as w ell as vocational courses.
P ost-secondary vocational education is for persons
w ho have com pleted or left high school and are availa­
ble for full-time study in preparation for entering the
labor market. Adult education retrains as w ell as up­
dates and upgrades skills o f persons already in the labor
force.

Vocational education
Private vocational schools
Apprenticeship programs
Employer training
A r m e d F o r c e s t r a in in g

Federal employment and training programs
Home study courses
Junior colleges and community colleges
Colleges and universities
The d iscu ssion s o f occupational training cover the
nature o f training programs, available data on training,
uses o f data for supply-dem and analysis, and problems
associated with using data. Chapter 4 d iscu sses specific
training needed to enter each o f 241 occupations. Ap­
pendix C presents statistics on training for each detailed
occupation.
Data on occupational training are m ost useful w hen
accom panied by entry rate inform ation, because not all
graduates o f training programs for particular occupa­
tions enter th ose occupations. Entry rates, applied to
current or projected training com pletions, indicate the
number o f people with specific training expected to
seek entry into an occupation. This chapter covers



Originally, vocational edu­
cation em phasized agricultural and trade and industrial
education. It now includes other areas such as distribu­
tive occupations, health, hom e econ om ics, and office
occupations. C onsum er and hom em aking skills are
another area, but the relation b etw een training and an
occupation is not so direct in this field as in the other
fields. Special programs for the disadvantaged and
handicapped also are included. Curriculums are de­
signed to prepare workers for specific occupations.
T y p e s o f tr a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e .

4
Occupational Supply: Concepts and Sources o f Data for Man­
power Analysis.

11

Table 3 show s exam ples o f instructional programs re­
lated to job titles in the D i c t i o n a r y o f O c c u p a t i o n a l

Table 4. Enrollm ents in vocational education, by level,
fiscal years 1 9 6 4 -7 4 __________________________________

T itle s .

1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

E n r o l l m e n t s . V ocational education grew rapidly after
the passage o f the V ocational Education A ct o f 1963,
and further growth was spurred by the 1968 amendments
(table 4). E n ro lled in fed era lly aid ed v o c a tio n a ltechnical education programs in 1974 w ere 13.6 million
persons, including 1.6 m illion disadvantaged and more
than 230,000 handicapped. Programs are grouped into
eigh t m ajor v o c a tio n a l area s. T he co n su m er and
h o m em a k in g area, w h ich h ad th e largest en roll­
m e n t— 3 .2 m illio n — w as fo llo w e d by th e o ffic e and
the trades and industry areas which had about 2.8 million
each (table 5). Programs with the largest enrollm ents in
1974 were: typing and related skills (661,730); agricul­
tural production (552,441); stenography, secretarial,
and related skills (656,522); filing and office m achines
(508,915); and accounting and com puting (429,708).

Adult

Instructional program

4,566,390
5,430,611
6,070,059
7,047,501
7,533,936
7,979,366
8,793,960
10,495,411
11,602,144
12,072,445
13,555,639

2,140,756
2,819,250
3,048,248
3,532,823
3,842,896
4,079,395
5,114,451
6,494,641
7,231,648
7,353,962
8,433,750

170,835
207,201
442,097
449,906
592,970
706,085
1,013,426
1,140,943
1,304,092
1,349,731
1,572,779

2,254,799
2,378,522
2,530,712
2,941,109
2,987,070
3,050,466
2,666,083
2,859,827
3,066,404
3,368,752
3,549,110

Private vocational schools.

Occupational title

Agricultural mechanics Farm equipment
mechanic
Soil
Soil conservationist
Forestry
Forest aid

Distribution.................

Floristry
Distributive services
Recreation and
tourism
Dental assistant
Medical lab assisting
Occupational therapy

Dental assistant
M
edical lab assistant
Occupational therapy
aide

Hom economics...........
e

Care and guidance of
children
Food management,
production, and
services

Child care attendant
C
ook

Office..........................

Peripheral equipment
operator
Secretaries
Quality control clerk

High-speed printer
operator
Legal secretary
Claim examiner

Technical....................

Commercial pilot
training
Electronic technology
Scientific data
processing

Commercial airplane
pilot
Electrical technician
Program er,
m
engineering and
scientific

Trades and industry.....

In the 1 9 7 3 -7 4 academ ic year there were 7,824 pri­
vate vocational sch ools, including 2,401 cosm etology/
barber sch ools, 1,477 flight sch ools, 1,241 business/
office sch ools, and 1,077 hospital sch ools, according
to the N C E S . Enrollm ents were greatest in business/
office schools (319,700); trade schools (126,342); cosm etology/barber schools; (113,643); and vocationaltechnical schools (112,605) (table 6).
Private vocational schools vary greatly in size, with
enrollm ents from under 24 to over 5,000 students. M ost
have small enrollm ents, how ever; 90 percent have
few er than 250 students. About 170 different course
areas w ere offered by the 7,824 private vocational
sch ools. Som e business schools offer courses in short­
hand, typing, stenography, and fundamentals o f ac­
counting, w hile others offer only one course. Trade
sch ools offer courses in many fields, such as auto
m echanics, barbering, locksm ithing, radio-TV broad­
ca stin g , and truckdriving. The program s in other
schools cover a broad spectrum o f fields including
com m ercial art, health-related occupations and fashion
design.
The courses offered by private vocational education

Floral designer
Purchasing agent
Recreation director

Health.........................

............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............

fiscal year 1974,5 approxim ately 60 percent were avail­
able for placem ent. (O f this 60 percent, about 68 percent
obtained em ploym ent in the field for w hich they were
trained, or in a related field; 23 percent w ere em ployed
in other field s; and 9 p ercen t w ere u n em p loyed ).
T w enty-five percent w ere not available for placem ent,
and 15 percent did not report or their status w as
unknow n .6

T able 3. Exam ples of curriculum s offering training
for specific occupations

Body and fender repair Automobile body
repairer
Flight engineer
Aircraft operation
Product design
Industrial designer

5 See appendix C. Excludes Consumer and home making comple­
tions.
6 Summary Data, Vocational Education, Fiscal Year 1974, U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education,
Bureau of Occupational and Adult Education.

S U C : Vocational Education and Occupations, (U D
ORE
.S. epartm of H
ent
ealth,
Education, and W
elfare, Office of Education; and U Departm of L
.S.
ent
abor,
M
anpow Adm
er
inistration) O 80061, July 1969.
E



Post­
secondary

.S. e­
S U C :Annual Reports, Vocational andTechnical Education, 1964-1974, U D
OR E
partm of H
ent
ealth, E
ducation, and W
elfare, O of E
ffice ducation, B
ureau of O
ccupa­
tional and A E
dult ducation.

O f the 1,921,000 persons
w ho had com pleted vocational education programs in

Agriculture..................

Secondary

1U
nduplicated total.

C o m p le tio n a n d p la c e m e n ts .

M vocational area
ajor

Total1

Fiscal year

12

T able 7. Enrollm ents in private noncollegiate post­
seco nd ary schools with o ccup atio nal program s, by
program, 19 7 3 -7 4

Table 5. Enrollm ents in vocational education, by major
vocational education area, fiscal year 1974

Vocational education area

Num
ber

Total ...........................
Agriculture .............................
Distribution ............................
Health ....................................
Occupational home economics ...
Office .....................................
Technical ................................
Trades and industry.................
Consumer and homemaking......
O programs2 .....................
ther

113,555,629
976,319
832,905
504,913
496,117
2,757,464
392,887
2,824,317
3,206,567
1,803,023

Percent distribution

[In thousands]

100.0
7.2
6.1
3.7
3.7
20.3
2.9
20.8
23.7
13.3

Program
Total ............................................
Agriculture .............................................
Distributive.............................................
Health....................................................
H e Economics......................................
om
Office.....................................................
Technical ...............................................
Trades and Industry ................................ ■

1U
nduplicated.
2 Includes prevocational, prepostsecondary, rem
edial, and other not elsew
here
classified. Som overlapping w other program
e
ith
s.

Num
ber
887.4
2.1
140.5
109.2
.2
202.0
80.2
353.2

Percent
distribution
100.0
.2
15.8
12.3
22.8
9.0
39.8

S U C: U D
O R E .S. epartm of H
ent
ealth, Education,and W
elfare, N
ational C
enter for
E
ducation Statistics.

S U C: U D
O R E .S. epartm of H
ent
ealth, E
ducation, and W
elfare, O of E
ffice ducation,
B
ureau of O
ccupational and A E
dult ducation.

N T : D m not add to total due to rounding.
OE etail ay

school are classified, for analytic purposes, into the
sam e seven areas used for public vocational education
program s: agricu ltu re, d istrib u tiv e, h ea lth , hom e
econom ics, office, technical, and trades and industry.
In 1 9 7 3 -7 4 , about 40 percent o f all students in pri­
vate vocational education sch ools w ere enrolled in the
trades and industry programs; alm ost 23 percent in the
office programs; and approxim ately 16 percent in the
distributive programs (table 7).
Further detail on enrollm ents and data on com ple­
tions are not available.

apprenticeship agencies. N o estim ate is available o f the
number o f apprentices in programs that are not regis­
tered.
The Departm ent o f Labor’s Bureau o f Apprentice­
ship and Training (BAT) registers but does not finance
apprenticeship programs. BA T provides technical as­
sistance and support to State apprenticeship agencies
and to em ployers and unions in establishing and main­
taining apprenticeship programs. In addition, BA T
maintains records o f new registrations, com pletions,
and cancellations o f apprenticeship for each apprenticeable trade by S ta te.7 O f the 44,768 registered ap­
prenticeship com pletions in 1974, 58.9 percent were in
construction trades, 10.1 percent in m etalworking, 5.1
percent in printing, and the remaining 25.9 percent in a
m iscellaneous trades category. Since the m id-1960’s,
a p p r e n tic e sh ip
r e g istr a tio n s
have
in c r e a se d
significantly.8 (table 8). Training craftworkers to m eet
future m anpower requirements has becom e a com m on
goal for em ployers, unions, and governm ent manpower
officials. Apprenticeship cancellations which represent
a potential loss o f highly trained workers may not be so
serious as they appear, h ow ever, since many dropouts
eventually becom e skilled journeym en through less
formal m eans. Many apprentices, particularly when
jobs are plentiful, drop their apprenticeship because o f
the opportunity to work at the journeym an level.

Apprenticeship programs
Training authorities recom m end formal apprentice­
ship training as the best w ay to acquire all-round profi­
c ie n c y in a sk illed craft. It p ro v id es a thorough
know ledge o f the trade and enables the apprentice
to perform m ost tasks com pletely.
M ost apprenticeship programs have com m ittees of
em ployers and local trade unions w hich interview ap­
plicants, review the trainee’s progress, and determine
when an apprenticeship has been com pleted satisfactor­
ily. M ost programs are registered with Federal or State

T a b le 6. N u m b e r of p riv a te n o n c o lle g ia te p o s t­
secondary schools with occupational programs, and fulland part-tim e enrollm ents, by type of school, 1 9 7 3 -7 4

Employer training
Type of school

Enrollments

Num of
ber
schools
Total

Total ..........................
Vocational-technical ...........
Trade ................................
Technical Institute.............
Business/Office ..................
Cosmetology/Barber............
Flight................................
Hospital............................
Other'...................::..........



7,824 887,365
588 112,605
678 126,342
163 49,260
1,241 319,700
2,401 113,643
1,477 74,963
1,077 62,693
199 28,159

In em ployer training, workers learn occupations
either formally or informally, usually on the job. Both

Full-time Part-time
583,866 303,499
83,794 28,811
94,200 32,142
10,313
38,947
180,156 139,544
91,841
21,802
23,806 51,157
62,298
395
8,824
19,335

7 See appendix C.
8 Annual copies of Apprentice Registration Actions, by Region and
State, may be obtained from Division of Reporting Operations,
Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of
Labor, Washington, D.C. 20210. In addition, the annual Employment
and Training Report o f the President (formerly the Manpower Report
o f the President), U.S. Department of Labor, contains a tabulation on
the training status of registered apprentices.
13

Table 8.

Training status of registered apprentices in all trades, 1 9 6 2 -7 4

Year

In training
at beginning
of year

Apprentice actions during year
New registra­
tions and rein­
statements

Completions

Cancellations1

In training
at the end
of year

1962 ............................................
1963 ............................................
1964 ............................................

155,649
158,887
163,318

55,590
57,204
59,960

25,918
26,029
25,744

26,434
26,744
27,001

158,887
163,318
170,533

1965 ............................................
1966 ............................................
1967 ............................................
1968 ............................................
1969 ............................................

170,533
183,955
207,511
2207,517
237,996

68,507
85,031
97,896
111,012
123,163

24,917
26,511
37,299
37,287
39,646

30,168
34,964
47,957
43,246
47,561

183,955
207,511
220,151
237,996
273,952

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

2269,626
2278,431
2247,840
2243,956
2269,214

108,779
78,535
103,527
133,258
109,706

45,102
42,071
53,059
43,580
44,768

53,610
40,891
56,750
49,860
55,285

279,693
274,004
264,122
283,774
278,867

............................................
............................................
............................................
....... ....................................
............................................

1 Includes voluntary quits, layoffs, discharges, out-of-State transfers, upgrading
w certain trades, and suspensions or interruptions for m
ithin
ilitary service.
2 Reflects changes or revisions in the reporting system from previous year.

S U C: U D
O R E .S. epartm of L or, B
ent ab ureau of A
pprenticeship and T
raining,

Armed Forces training

skilled and sem iskilled occupations have at least three
on-the-job training paths— a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , f o r m a l o n th e -jo b
i n s t r u c t i o n , and l e a r n i n g
by
d o in g .
Apprenticeship programs, d iscu ssed in the preceding
section, represent formal em ployer training with skills
acquired on the jo b in conjunction with related cla ss­
room instruction. Formal on-the-job instruction may
range from structured training by designated instruc­
tors to periodic instruction from supervisors and other
em ployees.
In m ost instances, em ployer training takes place in­
form ally within the work environm ent. M ost workers,
according to a study on occupational training con ­
ducted in 1963 by the Departm ent o f Labor, had “just
picked u p ” their current skills informally on the jo b 9 by
observin g fello w w ork ers, practicing during lunch
hours and coffee breaks, and by asking questions o f
experienced workers.
The lack o f data on em ployer training hinders proper
m anpow er analysis. The B L S , with the support o f the
Em ploym ent and Training Adm inistration, conducted a
pilot survey in 1971 and 1972 to test the feasibility o f
collecting data on enrollm ents and com pletions o f o c ­
cupational training in selected industries, and to deter­
mine the best m ethod o f collecting such d ata.10 The
results were generally positive. With further Education
and Training A dm inistration support, the Bureau has in
progress a nationw ide, full-scale survey o f occupational
training for 13 occupations in selected metalworking
industries. R esults o f this survey should be available by
fall 1976.

The Arm ed F orces is one o f the N ation ’s largest
sources o f trained manpower. M ilitary training pro­
grams are classified in five categories: recruit training,
specialized skill training, officer acquisition training,
professional developm ent training, and flight training.
Of th ese, specialized skill training is the m ost important
in numbers and influence. Specialized training provides
military personnel with skills for technical job s such as
radio com m unication and aircraft engine repair, and for
adm inistrative and service-related specialties such as
clerical work and military police duty.
The im pact o f specialized training is clearly reflected
by the occupational distribution o f the Armed F o r c e s.11
The number o f enlisted personnel in each o f the nine
major occupational groups on June 30, 1975, is as fol­
lows:
Infantry, gun crews, and seamanship specialists..... 223,558
Electronic equipment repairers.....................................179,077
Communications and intelligence specialists.............. 122,538
Medical and dental specialists..................................... 83,803
Other technical and allied specialists......................... 33,872
Administrative specialists and clerks..........................323,253
Electrical and mechanical equipment repairers.........360,006
Craftworkers.................................................................... 86,574
Service and supply handlers.......................................... 192,611
T otal................................................................1,605,292
This tabulation show s that the skills o f enlisted per­
sonnel are concentrated in the m echanical and technical
areas. Thus, the military is potentially a major source o f
trained civilian workers in these fields.

9 F orm al O ccu patio n a l Training o f A du lt W orkers. Manpower/Automation Research Report No. 2 (U.S. Department of
Labor, December 1964).
10 See “The BLS Pilot Survey of Training in Industry,” Monthly
Labor Review, February 1974, pp. 26-32.



1
1
Appendix table C-6 presents detailed statistics on the 67 occupa­
tional subgroups.
14

The act also provides that, to the maximum extent
feasible, em ploym ent and training services, including
the developm ent o f job opportunities, be provided to
the unem ployed, underem ployed, and econom ically
disadvantaged. Every State and area that operates a
co m p reh en sive em p loym en t d evelop m en t program
m ust have a planning council w h ose members represent
clients, labor, business, education, com m unity organi­
zations, the em ploym ent service, training agencies, and
where appropriate, agriculture. The councils help g o v ­
ernments decide on the em ploym ent and training ser­
vices needed in their areas.
In fiscal year 1975, its first year o f operation, CETA
served over 1,510,000 individuals. About 21 percent
received classroom training; 5 percent, on the job train­
ing; 25 percent, public service em ploym ent; and 43
percent, work experience. The remaining 6 percent re­
ceived many services designed to improve their em ­
ployability. U nfortunately, under this decentralized
system , data on training are not available on a national
basis. H ow ever, State and local area data may be avail­
able from prime sponsors.

It is difficult to determ ine from the Arm ed Forces
listing the transferability o f military skills to civilian
s k ills . F o r e x a m p le , th e A ir F o r c e o c c u p a tio n
N avigation /B om b in g Trainer and F light Sim ulator
Specialist appears to have no relation to a civilian occu ­
pation. H ow ever, studies indicate that the skills n eces­
sary for this service occupation are highly related to
those needed by electronics technicians. To “ trans­
late” military job titles, the Departm ent o f D efen se,
O ffice o f the A ssistant Secretary o f D efen se for Man­
pow er and R eserve Affairs, has com piled a tw o-section
Military-Civilian Job Comparability Manual. The first
section relates military job specialties by service branch
either “ highly” or “ substantially” to civilian occupa­
tions. A second section , essentially the inverse o f the
first, relates civilian jo b categories to military special­
ties. Although intended as a guide for em ployers and
vocational counselors in job placem ent for the veteran,
the manual can serve as a useful tool for manpower
analysis.

Federal employment and training programs

The Work Incentive
(W IN) Program helps recipients o f Aid to Fam ilies with
D ependent Children (AFDC) get and keep jobs. W IN
w as created as a program by the 1967 am endm ents to
the Social Security A ct and w as significantly changed
by the 1971 am endm ents to the act. Since passage o f the
1971 am endm ents, the program has been referred to as
W IN II.
W IN II is adm inistered jointly by the Department
o f Labor and the Departm ent o f H ealth, Education, and
W elfare through State em ploym ent services (or other
em ploym ent and training agencies) and welfare agen­
cies across the country. To serve W IN participants
better, staffs o f the tw o agencies have been brought
together in the sam e office at national and regional
levels and to a great extent at State and local levels as
w ell. W IN II may provide participants with job de­
velopm ent services and referrals, preparation for find­
ing em ploym ent, subsidized em ploym ent, limited train­
ing, and supportive services such as child care. U pon
registration, people receive labor market information
and voluntary referrals to job s. During fiscal year 1975,
there were 586,060 participants, and 170,641 or about 30
percent w ere helped to m ove into unsubsidized jobs.
W o rk I n c e n tiv e (W IN ) P r o g r a m .

The Federal Governm ent has sponsored em ployment
and training programs on a form al b asis since the
enactm ent o f the M anpower D evelopm ent and Training
A ct (M DTA) o f 1962. With the passage o f the Com­
prehensive E m ploym ent and Training A ct (CETA) o f
1973, this nationally directed program w as replaced by
a decentralized system o f Federal, State, and local em ­
ploym ent and training activities. Although a few pro­
grams, such as W IN , have been retained under direct
Federal control, m ost Federal em ploym ent and training
funds are now distributed to State and local govern­
m ents, and along with them , the responsibility for plan­
ning and managing programs. The Federal Government,
how ever, has retained oversight and technical assis­
tance functions.
In fiscal year 1975, there w ere 431 eligible units of
governm ent, called prime sponsors, receiving funds.
The com prehensive em ploym ent and training programs
o f these prime sponsors can include— but are not lim ­
ited to—
• Outreach to make needy persons aware of available em­
ployment and training services.
• Assessment of individual needs, interests, and potential;
referral to appropriate jobs or training; and followup to help
new workers stay on the job.
• Orientation, counseling, education, and classroom skill
training to help people prepare for jobs or qualify for better
jobs.
• Subsidized on-the-job training.
• Allowances to support trainees and their families and
needed services, such as child care and medical aid.
• Labor market information and job redesign to open up
positions for employment and training program graduates.
• Transitional public service jobs.
• Special programs for groups such as Indians, migrants,
persons with limited English, exoffenders, and youth.



The Job Corps assists youth betw een 16 and
21 years o f age, m ostly school drop-outs, w ho have low
educational records and who are “ econom ically disad­
vantaged,” becom e more responsive, em ployable, and
productive. The program provides basic educational
and vocational skills as w ell as social skills and counsel­
ing, m edical, dental, and other support. The Job Corps
differs from other Federal m anpower programs in that
centers provide residential living 24 hours a day, 7 days

J o b C orps.

15

a w eek . Centers vary in enrollm ent from 150 to 2,200;
m ay be urban or rural; and serve m en, w om en or both.
For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1974, training was
provided 63,300 corpsm em bers in 61 centers in 31
States and Puerto R ico. A m ong the fields o f training
w ere clerical-sales, service, forestry-farm ing, food ser­
vice, auto and m achine repair, construction trades,
electrica l ap p lian ce repair, industrial p rod u ction ,
transportation, and health occupations. School and
military placem ents constitute a significant proportion
o f all placem ents, but job placem ents predom inate. In
fiscal year 1974 approxim ately 15,250 Job Corps term inees w ere placed in jo b s, about 7,000 o f w hom were
placed in the field for w hich they w ere trained.

Statistics (N C E S) com piles data each year on associate
degrees and other awards below the baccalaureate.12
T hese data represent all awards granted, including 2and 3-year degree programs offered by 4-year colleges.
Tw o-year colleges generally have awarded over 80 per­
cent o f all degrees.
B etw een July 1, 1973 and June 30, 1974, the time
frame o f the m ost recent survey for w hich data are
available, about 370,000 associate degrees and other
awards below the baccalaureate w ere granted in the
U nited States. M ore than half were in curriculums de­
signed to provide occupational com petence at the tech­
nician or sem iprofessional level.
The data provided by the N C E S are in som e cases
classified by relatively broad curriculum areas. For e x ­
am ple, according to the latest survey, 4,360 awards
w ere granted in “ G en eral data p r o c e ssin g te c h ­
n o lo g ies.’’ In the absence o f detailed descriptions o f the
curriculum co n ten t leading to th ese aw ards, their
treatment as potential supply in more narrowly defined
occupations such as com puter operator, peripheral
equipm ent operator, or programmer has som e w eak­
n esses. H ow ever, meaningful estim ates o f the availabil­
ity o f graduates in many occupations can be made by
grouping the more narrow specialties. Data on junior
college degrees related to specific occupations are pre­
sented in appendix C.
P rojection s o f d egrees aw arded b elo w the b a c­
calaureate are not available and are a critical m issing
elem ent in the supply analysis o f specific occupational
fields. Statistics also are unavailable on the projected
com position o f State and local junior college enroll­
m ents by curriculum and full-or part-time status. H ow ­
ever, several State administrators o f junior college sy s­
tem s have com piled data on these and other topics. For
exam ple, past experience in Illinois suggests that future
junior college enrollm ents in that State may include a
higher proportion o f students in career-oriented cur­
riculums as w ell as increases in part-time enrollment
and adult education. L ocal m anpower planners can
contact State junior college administrators for informa­
tion to assess State educational needs.

Home study courses
In 1973, more than 4.3 million persons w ere enrolled
in hom e study (correspondence) courses which w ere
accredited by the N ational H om e Study Council. T hese
co u rses vary in len gth , skill le v e l, and degree o f
specialization, and include academ ic instruction, voca­
tional training, and personal enrichm ent programs.
C ourses are useful primarily for persons already em ­
ployed, in the Arm ed F orces, living in rural areas, or for
people w ho cannot leave hom e for institutional training.
In 1973, over 1.8 m illion students w ere enrolled in
hom e study private sch ools; over 1.5 million through
the Federal G overnm ent and the military services; over
300,000 in religious schools; and alm ost 14,000 in busi­
ness and industrial training. H ow ever, information is
lacking about the number o f entrants, com pletions, and
follow -up o f persons trained in specific occupations.

Community and junior colleges
Com m unity colleges serve m any functions. For som e
students, they provide the first 2 years o f academ ic
training leading to a bachelor’s degree. For others, they
offer educational programs w hich prepare students for
specific occupations upon graduation.
Although the typical program lasts 2 years or m ore, a
number o f courses can be com pleted within 1 year.
T ypes o f career education include business and com ­
m erce technologies; data processing technologies, in­
cluding com puter m aintenance as w ell as operation and
programming; health services and paramedical tech­
nologies; m echanical and engineering technologies;
natural s c ie n c e te c h n o lo g ie s; and p u b lic -se rv icerelated technologies such as law enforcem ent.
A ccording to the Am erican A ssociation o f Commun­
ity and Junior C olleges, the number o f sch ools in opera­
tion grew about 77 percent b etw een 1960 and 1974, and
enrollm ents reached over 4 tim es the 1960 level.
Through the H igher Education General Information
Survey (H E G IS), the N ational Center for Education



Colleges and universities
C ollege training covers a w ide range o f subjects
— including engineering, natural scien ces, hum anities,
arts, business, law , and m edicine. M ost bachelor’s d e­
gree programs require 4 years, and professional training
generally requires several additional years.
The N C E S collects data on numbers o f institutions,
enrollm ents, and earned degrees. In 1974, there were
12
For a manual describing the taxonomy, consult a Taxonomy o f
Instructional Programs in Higher Education. OE-500064-70 (U. S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education,
1970).
16

(LTRA) 75-38. A number o f these projections are in­
cluded in discussions o f individual occupations in chap­
ter 4.

1,887 4-year institutions o f higher education, 552 public
and 1,335 private. Since 1970, the number o f 4-year
institutions has increased by 220, or over 13 percent.
Enrollm ents in colleges and universities have in­
creased steadily since the late 1940’s; how ever, the rate
o f increase in recent years has been declining (table 9).
In the fall o f 1974, 6,825,000 persons w ere enrolled in
degree-credit programs in 4-year institutions.
The number o f earned degrees also has increased
steadily. In 1974, 954,000 persons earned bachelor’s
d eg r e e s, 278,000 earned m a ster’s d e g r e e s, 33,800
earned doctorates, and 54,300 earned first professional
degrees. Earned degree statistics by curriculum and
degree level are presented in d iscu ssion s o f individual
occupations in chapter 4 and in appendix tables C-2 and
C-3.

The proportions o f graduates o f occupationally oriented programs directly entering related occupa­
tions tend to be very high, particularly if training takes a
number o f years. For exam ple, alm ost 100 percent o f
the m edical school graduates enter m edicine and about
85 percent o f engineering school graduates enter en­
gineering. For many liberal arts graduates how ever,
particularly at the bachelor’s degree level, entry rates
into occupations directly related to a college jnajor are
substantially low er. Liberal arts training tends to be less
o c c u p a tio n a lly o r ie n te d . W h ile it m ay p rep are
graduates for im m ediate entry into directly related o c­
cupations, it also provides n ecessary preparation for
entry into professional sch ools, teaching, or occupa­
tions w here a college degree in any one o f a number o f
fields may be adequate preparation.
Entry rates are calculated from follow up studies o f
persons during or after their training. Generally, these
include data on field o f study and intended or current
occupation.
C om prehensive follow up data on college students are
available from Am erican Council on Education (ACE)
surveys o f college freshm en o f 1961 and 1966. The 1961
cohort originally included over 127,000 freshm en, o f
whom a sample w ere resurveyed in 1966 and 1971. The
1966 cohort included 254,000 freshm en surveyed at col­
lege entry, o f w hom a sample o f 60,000 w ere resurveyed
in 1971. The surveys asked questions on high school
and college education, including major o f bachelor’s
and higher degrees received , current em ploym ent and
occupational status, work activity, and type o f em ­
p lo y er. T h ese longitudinal data a llow a n a ly sis o f
E n tr y r a t e s .

The N C E S , in addition to collecting cur­
rent data on earned degrees, annually develops 10-year
projections o f degrees granted by curriculum at the
baccalaureate level and above. H istorical trends and
projections, along with a discussion o f the projection
m ethodology, are published in P r o j e c t i o n s o f E d u c a ­
tio n S t a t i s t i c s t o 1 9 8 4 —8 5 (N C E S 76-210). Projections
o f total degrees over the 1 9 7 4 -8 5 period are presented
in the outlook for college graduates and projections by
field are presented in discussions o f individual occupa­
tions in chapter 4.
The Bureau o f Health M anpower within the Health
R esources Adm inistration, U .S . Public H ealth Service,
U .S . Department o f Health, Education, and Welfare has
collected training data on health m anpower and de­
veloped projections o f com pletions o f formal training
for a number o f health-related occupations. T hese pro­
jection s and a d iscu ssion o f the m ethodology are pub­
lished in T h e S u p p l y o f H e a l t h M a n p o w e r , 1 9 7 0 P r o f i l e s
a n d P r o j e c t i o n s t o 1 9 9 0 , D H E W p u b lication N o .
P r o je c tio n s .

Table 9. Total d egree-cred it enrollm ent in 4-year institutions of higher education, and earned degrees, by level,
1 9 6 3 -6 4 to 1 9 7 4 -7 5 academ ic years

Academic year
1963-64
64-65
65-66
66-67
67-68
68-69
69-70
70-71
71-72
72-73
73-74
74-75

......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................

Total degree credit enrollment1

Bachelor’s

3,869,837
4,239,305
4,684,888
24,984,000
25,325,000
5,638,616
5,955,644
6,290,167
6,390,782
6,473,203
6,598,259
36,825,152

466,486
501,248
520,248
558,075
631,923
728,167
791,510
839,730
887,273
930,272
954,376
-

1 F of academ year.
all
ic
2 Estim
ated.
3E
arned degree data not yet available.




Earned degrees
First
Master’s
professional
27,667
28,755
30,799
32,472
34,787
36,018
35,724
37,946
43,411
50,435
54,278
-

105,551
117,152
140,548
157,707
176,749
193,756
208,291
230,509
251,633
264,525
278,259
-

Doctor’s except
first professional
14,490
16,462
18,237
20,617
23,089
26,188
29,866
32,107
33,363
34,790
33,826
-

S U C: N
O R E ational C for E
enter
ducation Statistics, U D
.S. epartm of H
ent ealth, E u
dcation, and W
elfare.

17

occupational entries and career developm ent over the
decade after college entry. N um erous studies based on
the A C E surveys have been published, and the B LS
currently is developing entry rates to specific occupa­
tions from the survey data.




Additional follow up studies o f college students and
graduates are available from surveys conducted by co l­
lege placem ent o ffic e s, p rofession al so cieties, and
other organizations. M ost o f th ese data are limited to
graduates from a single institution or field.

18

Chapter 4.

Relating Training to Occupational Needs
of persons com pleting training for the following time
periods:
Junior college graduates-academic year 1973-74
Job Corps-fiscal year 1974
Vocational education completions-fiscal year 1974
Apprenticeship completions-calendar year 1974
College graduates-academic year 1973-74 and projected
1974-85 annual average (where available)
A dash m eans that statistics on training are not avail­
able.
Statistics on occupational requirem ents and training
also are presented in tabular form in appendixes C and
D. F or occupations w here sufficient data on supply are
available, a brief supply-dem and analysis is presented.
A discu ssio n of the o verall o utlook for college
graduates for the 1974-85 period and some of the m ajor
im plications of this outlook precede the detailed occu­
pational inform ation.

This chapter presents inform ation on ways w orkers
qualify for jo b s in each of 241 occupations. Each dis­
cussion of occupational training requirem ents is fol­
low ed by statistics on 1974 em ploym ent, projected 1985
requirem ents, percent grow th from 1974 to 1985, and
projected average annual openings due to growth and
replacem ent over the 1974— 85 period. F o r m ost occu­
pations, replacem ents include openings due to deaths,
retirem ents, and other labor force separations, but not
transfers to other occupations. Transfers, however, ac­
count for a significant num ber of jo b openings in many
occupations, and therefore estim ates of average annual
openings generally understate the actual num ber of jobs
available. The few occupations which have data on the
num ber of openings from transfers are indicated in a
footnote.
Also included are the m ost recent data on the num ber

The Outlook for College Graduates

During the past two decades, the advance in the
educational level of the labor force w as paralleled by
the rise in the educational requirem ents of jobs, as
reflected in the faster growth of occupations requiring
th e m o st e d u c atio n . F ro m th e late 1950’s to the
mid-1960’s, m ajor shortages appeared among scien­
tists, engineers, teachers, and doctors. During the early
1970’s how ever, the supply of graduates in some fields
caught up with or exceeded requirem ents. The question
arises as to w hether the increase in the num ber of jobs
offering satisfactory em ploym ent for those with the
m ost education will be sufficient to absorb the antici­
p ated increasing num bers of college graduates. An
analysis o f existing supply and dem and trends for
graduates m ay throw some light on the question.

part of the effective new supply of college educated
w orkers. M ost advanced degree recipients already
w ork, and therefore are part of the supply of college
graduates in the labor force. M any others, especially
those holding bachelor’s degrees, delay entry into the
civilian labor force to continue their education, enter
the A rm ed F orces, or becom e full-time hom em akers.
A bout 13.1 million graduates are expected to enter
the civilian labor force from 1974 to 1985 (table 11). On
the basis o f past patterns of entry, 8 out of ten will come
directly from college, including 9.1 million bachelor’s
degree recipients, m ore than 1.2 million m aster’s deTable 10. College degrees aw arded, 1 9 6 3 -7 4 and pro­
jected 1 9 7 4 -8 5

[in millions]

U .S. colleges and universities — principal suppliers
of the co u n try ’s m ost highly trained m anpow er — are
projected by the N C E S to continue turning out record
num bers of graduates through the m id-1980’s. B etw een
1974 and 1985, about 16.1 million college degrees are
expected to be aw arded (table 10), or 50 percent m ore
than during the previous 11 years. A lthough these
graduates represent potential additions to the supply of
w orkers at each degree level, not all can be considered



Degree
Total ...............................
Bachelor’s .................................
Master’s ...................................
Doctor’s ....................................
First professional,
including law medicine,
,
dentistry, etc........................
19

1974-85
1963-74
Degrees awarded Degrees awarded
10.6
7.8
2.1
.3

16.1
11.4
3.6
.4

.4

.7

Table II. Projected supply of college graduates, 1 9 7 4 -8 5

tions continue to affect an ever-broadening range of
jo b s, college-educated w orkers increasingly will be
needed. F o r other jo b s, an understanding of com plex
legal and regulatory constraints im posed on business
and industry is becom ing essential.
Educational upgrading is anticipated in a wide range
of m anagerial and adm inistrative jo b s as well as profes­
sional and technical jobs. F o r exam ple, as business and
governm ent increasingly rely on salaried m anagem ent
sp ec ia lists, as self-em ployed m anagers declin e in
num ber, and as sales jo b s require m ore technical know ­
ledge, these occupations will be upgraded and filled by
college graduates.
E ducational upgrading, how ever, m ay partly reflect
em ployers’ response to the greater availability of col­
lege graduates. M any em ployers have w anted to hire
college graduates but w ere unable to do so in the 1960’s
because supply-dem and conditions favored college
graduates. As a surplus of graduates began to appear in
the early 1970’s, college graduates began to fill an in­
creasing num ber of positions traditionally not requiring
a college degree.
The projection of 12.1 million openings for college
graduates, already discussed, is based on the assum p­
tion that the percent of graduates in clerical and bluecollar occupations through 1985 will rem ain at 1974
levels. Proportions for other groups are expected to
increase as in the past.
A lthough the projected 13.1 million college graduates
entering the labor force over the 1974-85 period is about
950,000 above projected openings, graduates are not
expected to experience high levels of unem ploym ent.
College graduates are expected to continue to have a
com petitive advantage over those with less education.
Their problem s likely will center on underem ploym ent
and jo b dissatisfaction as many individuals take jo b s for
which a college degree is not required — jo b s in which
their training is not fully used.
A “ spillover’’ of graduates into nontraditional fields
already has becom e apparent. F o r exam ple, betw een
1970 and 1974, the proportion of w orkers having four or
m ore years of college education has increased by m ore
than 60 percent in clerical, service, and blue-collar oc­
cupations — areas w hich have traditionally had very
small proportions of college graduates. The estim ated
num ber of college graduates currently em ployed in
these occupations is about 750,000 higher than would
have been expected had trends of the I960’s continued.
Some spillover m ay also have occurred in m ajor
groups w hich have traditionally em ployed large propor­
tions of graduates. Since 1970, the proportions o f col­
lege graduates in the professional-technical, managerial,
and sales groups have grown faster than through the
1960’s, as som e occupations in th ese groups have
helped to absorb a surplus of college graduates.
The “ spillover’’ has been ca u sed — at least in p a rt—
by generally po o r econom ic conditions during the

[In thousands]
Source
Total .........................................................
N college graduates ..........................................
ew
Bachelor’s degree recipients .............................
Master’s degree recipients .................................
Doctor’s degree recipients..................................
First professional degree recipients.....................
Military separations .............................................
Other ...................................................................

Number
13,108
10,884
9,066
1,262
15
541
217
2,008

N T : D m not add to totals due to rounding.
OE etail ay
gree recipients, 15,000 d o cto r’s degree recipients, and
540,000 holders o f first professional degrees. In addi­
tion, 2.25 million college graduates are expected to
enter or reen ter the civilian labor force from sources
other than the N ation’s colleges and universities. They
include reentrants to the labor force, persons separat­
ing from the Arm ed F orces, and im migrants and per­
sons returning to the U nited States after living in a
foreign country.
B etw een 1974 and 1985, m ore than one-fifth of all
openings are expected to require persons who have
com pleted 4 years or m ore of college. These graduates
are expected to fill one-third of the openings for whitecollar jo b s, three-fourths of the openings in professional
and technical occupations, and nearly one-half of the
openings in m anagerial and adm inistrative occupations.
The increasing requirem ents for college graduates re­
flect a continuing trend. The proportion of all em ployed
persons who w ere college graduates grew from 10 per­
cent in 1959 to 15.5 percent in 1974; the expectation is
that this proportion will keep increasing, and reach
alm ost 19 percent by the mid-1980’s.
O ver the 1974 to 1985 period, jo b openings for college
graduates, which are expected to total 12.1 million
(table 12), will stem from three sources: em ploym ent
grow th, replacem ent needs, and educational upgrading.
G row th o f em ploym ent in jobs traditionally held by
college graduates is expected to require 3.5 million
graduates, or 29 percent of total requirem ents. B etw een
1974 and 1985, m ore than 50 percent of the open­
ings for graduates are expected to be for replace­
m ent of graduates who die, retire, or otherw ise leave
the lab o r fo rce; and ab o u t 18 p e rc e n t will be for
replacem ent of w orkers w hose jobs did not previously
require a degree. This “ educational upgrading’’ of jobs
is due to the increasingly com plex skills required. F or
exam ple, as com puters and other technological innovaT able 12. P rojected job openings for college grad­
uates, 1 9 7 4 -8 5

[In thousands]
Type
Total .....................................................
Growth ............................ .......................................
Replacement ............................................................
Upgrading ................................................................



Number
12,100
3.500
6.500
2,100
20

assum ing a continued increase in the proportion of
P h .D .’s in each occupation, openings from grow th and
labor force separations will total about 200,000 for the
1974-85 period. The m ost recent projections for Ph.D.
degrees to be aw arded over the same period developed
by the N C E S , which are based on 10-year trends in
enrollm ents for advanced degrees, indicate that 420,000
new P h .D .’s would be available for em ploym ent in the
U nited S ta tes.13
P h .D .’s in some fields will feel the effects of this
prospective oversupply m ore strongly than others. F or
exam ple, jo b openings and the supply of new P h .D .’s in
engineering are p rojected to balance, w hereas the
num ber of new P h .D .’s in education is expected to
far exceed openings, (table 13).
Despite the significantly large difference betw een
projected openings and new supply, P h .D .’s will prob­
ably not experience high levels of unem ploym ent. In­
stead underem ploym ent— em ploym ent in a jo b requir­
ing less skill than the w orker has acquired— with its
inherent jo b dissatisfaction—m ay be w idespread. In
addition, adjustm ents also are likely to take place on the
supply side, as relatively few er young people pursue a
Ph.D . The excess supply of P h .D .’s that was develop­
ing in the early 1970’s already has affected advanced
degree enrollm ents in m any fields. As a result, the
current N C ES degree projections, which are used in
this analysis, are significantly low er than the N C ES
projections w hich w ere used in an earlier B ureau
analysis.14

1970-75 period. A erospace cutbacks and the recession
of 1970-71, followed by an oil em bargo in 1973-74 and
recession in 1974-75, have dram atically slowed the
econom y’s grow th during the first half of this decade.
As a resu lt, em ployers have hired few er w orkers.
H ow ever, since 1970 the num ber of college graduates
entering o r reentering the labor force has nearly dou­
bled.
O ver the nex t decade, the prospective oversupply of
college graduates also is likely to limit the advancem ent
of those with less education in professional fields such
as engineering and accounting, as well as in higher level
m anagerial, sales, and service jobs. Thus, while college
graduates are expected to face com petition for jobs,
those w ithout a college education are likely to en­
co unter great com petition for better jobs.
On the other hand, graduates of 4-year colleges are
likely to face com petition in some occupations from
com m unity and ju nior college graduates. Com munity
colleges and other post-secondary institutions have
show n th at they can train students for many occupa­
tions in 2 years or even less, and the num ber of students
com pleting career education program s in these institu­
tions is increasing rapidly.
As the plight of new graduates who are unable to
en ter the field of their choice becom es known, how ­
ever, som e high school students may change their aspi­
ratio n s for a college education. C onsequently, the
num ber o f graduates may be low er than projected and
the oversupply reduced.
The outlook for w orkers holding a Ph.D . has the same
general prospective as college graduates as a whole.
During the late 1960’s and early 1970’s, the proportion
of P h .D .’s in m ost occupations increased significantly.
Since m ost new P h .D .’s found em ploym ent in the field
o f their choice, it appears that this increased proportion
o f P h .D .’s reflects actual dem and rather than a spillover
into non-traditional areas. If dem and is projected by
Table 13.

13 Ph.D.’s awarded to individuals expected to emigrate or return
to their home country are excluded and workers expected to receive
Ph.D.’s in another country who are expected to immigrate to the
United States are included.
14 See Ph.D. Manpower: Employment, Demand, and Supply,
1972-85. BLS Bulletin 1860 for a more complete discussion of the
Bureau methodology used to analyze supply and demand.

Projected openings and new supply for Ph.D.’s, 1 9 7 4 -8 5

Openings—1974-■
85

Estimated
1974
employment

Projected
1985
requirements

Total

Growth

A fields.................................
ll

378,400

488,600

201,900

110,100

Labor force
separations
91,800

Engineering and natural science ....
Engineering.............................
Physical science.......................
Chemistry............................
Physics ................................
Life science ............................
Mathematics ...........................
Social science and psychology.......
Psychology..............................
Arts and humanities....................
Education...................................
Business and commerce................
Other fields ................................

177,500
35,000
68,500
37,700
24,700
60,000
14,000
71,600
26,300
46,600
68,700
6,500
7,500

237,500
55,700
86,300
43,300
25,900
78,900
16,600
101,600
46,200
45,900
87,400
6,800
9,300

104,000
30,300
34,200
14,200
6,600
33,600
5,900
48,400
27,500
9,100
35,200
1,600
3,600

60,000
20,700
17,800
5,600
1,200
18,900
2,600
30,000
19,900
-600
18,700
200
1,800

44,000
9,600
16,400
8,600
5,400
14,700
3,200
18,300
7,700
9,800
16,500
1,400
1,800

Field

NT: D
OE etails m not add to totals due to rounding.
ay



21

Projected
new supply
1974-85
422,900
139,400
29,100
38,300
18,000
12,100
59,500
12,400
88,800
38,100
52,600
115,400
13,300
13,300

Difference
between new
supply and
openings
221,000
35,400
-1,200
4,200
3,800
5,500
25,900
6,500
40,400
10,600
43,400
80,200
11,700
9,700

Industrial Production and Related Occupations
Foundry occupations

m achinists that require less than 4 years, and m any
m achinists learn on the job. A typical 4-year appren­
ticeship includes 8,000 hours of shop training and 570
hours of classroom training. A high school or vocational
school education that includes courses in m athem atics,
physics, and m achine shop is desirable.

P a tte r n m a k e r s . A 5-year apprenticeship is the best way

to learn the patternm aking trade. Trade school courses
in patternm aking may be credited tow ard com pletion of
the apprenticeship. A high school education generally is
required.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ..................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85.......................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ..................
G row th.................................................................
R eplacem ents ..................................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G row th .......................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

20,500
21,200
3.4
500
50
450

A vailable training data:

A vailable training data:

A pprenticeship com p letion s ...........................

A pprenticeship c o m p le tio n s.......................

335,000
414,000
23.6
14,500
7,200
7,300

1,879

167

I n s tr u m e n t m a k e r s (m e c h a n ic a l). M ost instru m en t
M o ld e rs. A 4-year apprenticeship is the recom m ended

m akers learn th eir trad e th ro u g h ap p ren ticesh ip s.
O thers advance from the ranks of m achinists or skilled
m achine tool operators. A typical 4-year apprenticeship
consists of about 8,000 hours o f shop training and 576
hours of classroom instruction.
Em ployers generally prefer that apprentices have a
high school education, including courses in algebra,
geom etry, trigonom etry, science, and m achine shop
work.

training for hand m olders. Some less skilled hand mold­
ers acquire skills on the job. A pprenticeship training is
also preferred for some kinds of m achine molding. An
eighth grade education is required for apprentices, but
m any em ployers require additional training.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ..................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ..............................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ......................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .................
G r o w th ...............................................................
R eplacem ents ..................................................

60,000
62,000
3.3
1,300
200
1,100

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

A vailable training data:
A pprenticeship com pletions .....................

*78

5,500
6,000
5.2
150
50
100

1 Includes corem akers.
A vailable training d a ta ...............................................

C o re m a k e rs. A 4-year apprenticeship is the recom ­

M a c h in e to o l o p e r a to r s . A few m onths on the jo b are

m ended training for core m akers. A pprentices m ust
have at least an eighth grade education, but some em ­
ployers require graduation from high school. F o r less
skilled core making jobs, inexperienced w orkers may be
hired and trained on the job or other foundry w orkers
m ay be upgraded.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

required for m ost semiskilled operators to learn their
trade, but 1 to 2 y ears’ experience is often required for
an operator to becom e skilled. Although there are no
special educational requirem ents, courses in m athem a­
tics and blueprint reading are helpful.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

24,500
25,300
3.3
550
50
500

600,000
650,000
8.3
18,000
4,500
13,500

A vailable training data:

A vailable training data:
A pprenticeship com pletions

-

..........................

Job Corps com p letion s .....................................

O

76

S e tu p w o rk e rs (m a c h in e to o ls). Setup w orkers usually

1 S ee m olders.

A ll-ro u n d m a c h in ists. A 4-year apprenticeship program

m ust qualify as all-round m achinists. They m ust be able
to operate one or m ore kinds of m achine tools and select
the sequence of operations so that m etal parts will be
made according to specifications.

is the best w ay to learn the trade. H ow ever, some
com panies have training program s for single-purpose

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................

Machining occupations




22

50,000
55,000

Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

ally m ust be high school graduates. M any technical
institutes, junior colleges, and colleges offer courses in
printing technology, which provide a valuable back­
ground for people who are interested in becoming com ­
positors.

5.2
1,350
250
1,100

A vailable training data:
A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................

138

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

T o o l a n d d ie m a k e rs. Skill can be acquired through a 4or 5-year apprenticeship or on the job. Several years of
experience after apprenticeship often are required for
the m ore difficult tool and die work. M ost em ployers
prefer apprentices who have a high school or trade
school education.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

Available training data:
A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................

170,000
200,000
19.9
6,600
3,000
3,600

learn their trades through 5-to-6 year apprenticeships
that include training on the jo b and classes in related
technical subjects. A pprenticeship applicants usually
m ust have a high school education.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

1,971

Printing occupations
B o o k b in d e r s a n d r e la te d w o r k e r s . A 4- or 5-year

Available training data ..............................................

apprenticeship that com bines on-the-job training with
related classroom instruction generally is the recom ­
m ended training for skilled bookbinders. A pprentice­
ship applicants usually m ust have a high school educa­
tion.
The less skilled bindery w orkers learn the trade
through informal on-the-job training that may last from
several m onths to 2 years.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

-

w orkers learn their trades through 4- or 5-year appren­
ticeship program s. These program s may em phasize a
specific craft, such as platem aker or press operator,
although an attem pt is made to m ake the apprentice
familiar with all lithographic operations. A pprentice­
sh ip a p p lic a n ts g e n e ra lly m u st be high sc h o o l
graduates. Tw o-year program s in printing technology,
which m any technical institutes, junior colleges, and
colleges offer, provide a valuable background for peo­
ple who are interested in learning lithographic crafts.

35,000
38,000
9.1
1,900
300
1,600

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

27
*17,658
2150

85,000
108,000
30.3
4,300
2,300
2,000

A vailable training data:

1 V o ca tio n a l ed u ca tio n data in clu d e c o m p le tio n s for
bookbinders, com posin g room o ccu p ation s, lithographic o c ­
cupations, press operators, and m iscellaneous occupations.
2 There w ere also 2,302 apprenticeship com pletions for
occupations listed in footn ote 1. The number being trained for
each occupation under th ese tw o programs cannot be deter­
mined from available data.

A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................

*574

1 Includes photoengravers.

P h o to e n g r a v e r s . M ost photoengravers learn their skills

through a 5-year apprenticeship that includes at least
800 hours of classroom instruction. A pprenticeship ap­
plicants usually m ust have a high school education,
preferably with courses in printing, chem istry, and
physics.

C o m p o s in g ro o m o c c u p a tio n s . M any com positors

learn their trade through apprenticeships that generally
require 6 years of progressively advanced training sup­
plem ented by classroom instruction or correspondence
courses. Some learn on the jo b by working as helpers
for several years; others com bine trade school and
helper experience. Applicants for apprenticeships usu­



4,000
3,200
- 2 0 .9
20
80
100

L ith o g r a p h ic o c c u p a tio n s . M any lithographic craft

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletions ......................................
V ocational education com pletions ...............
A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................

430

E le c tr o ty p e r s a n d s te r e o ty p e r s . These w orkers usually

A vailable training data:
A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................

165,000
158,000
- 4 .6
3,900
-7 0 0
4,600

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
23

17,000
16,000
- 5 .9

A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

250
-1 0 0
350

G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................
A vailable training d a ta ................................................

500
400
—

A vailable training data:
A pprenticeship c o m p le tio n s.............................

B la c k sm ith s. M ost beginners train on the job as helpers

0)

in blacksm ith shops. O thers en ter through form al
apprenticeship program s which generally last 3 or 4
years.

1 S ee lithographic occu p ation s.

P r in tin g p r e s s o p e r a to r s a n d a s s is ta n ts . The re c ­

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85
.....................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .........................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

om m ended way o f learning the press o p erato r’s trade is
through apprenticeship that com bines on-the-job train­
ing and related classroom or correspondence school
w ork. The apprenticeship period in com m ercial print­
ing shops is 2 years for press assistants and 4 to 5 years
for operators. Some w orkers learn their skills on the jo b
by working as helpers or press assistants or through a
com bination of w ork experience and training in voca­
tional o r technical schools. High school education gen­
erally is required; courses in printing, physics, and
chem istry are recom m ended.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

A vailable training data ...............................................

prom oted to blue-collar supervisor jo b s are high school
graduates who have learned their skills on the job.
Although few er than one-tenth of all supervisors are
college graduates, a growing num ber of em ployers are
hiring supervisor trainees with college backgrounds.

140,000
170,000
22.3
5,600
2,800
2,800

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual op en in gs, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ................................................ # ....

288
581

1,460,000
1,770,000
21.0
61,000
28,000
33,000

A vailable training data:
V ocational education com p letion s ...............

Other industrial production and related occupa­
tions

8,506

B o ile rm a k e r o c c u p a tio n s . M ost boilerm akers acquire

skills on the jo b , but m ost training authorities agree that
a 4-year apprenticeship is the best way to learn this
trade. L ayout m en and fitup men generally learn their
trades on the jo b by working as helpers for 2 or m ore
years. Em ployers prefer high school graduates.

A s s e m b le r s . Training varies according to the level of

skill re q u ired . M ost inex p erien ced people can be
trained in a few days or w eeks, but some training lasts
m uch longer. Although a high school diplom a usually is
n o t re q u ire d , v o c a tio n a l sch o o l c o u rse s such as
m achine shop m ay be helpful, especially for the more
highly skilled jobs.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

-

B lu e -c o lla r w o rk e r su p e r v is o r s . M ost w orkers who are

A vailable training data:
Job Corps com pletion s ......................................
A pprenticeship c o m p le tio n s.............................

9,000
6,100
- 3 0 .8
50
-2 5 0
300

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

1,140,000
1,350,000
18.5
63,000
19,000
44,000

45,000
62,000
40.9
2,700
1,600
1,100

A vailable training data:
A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................

352

A vailable training data:
441

B o ile r te n d e rs. M ost learn their skills by working as

A u to m o b ile p a in te r s . M ost autom obile painters start as

helpers in boiler room s. Some large cities and a few
States require boiler tenders to be licensed.

Job Corps com pletions ......................................

helpers and acquire their skills informally by working
for 3 to 4 years with experienced painters. A small
num ber learn through a 3-year apprenticeship. A high
school education is generally not required.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................



E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

25,000
32,000
21.1
900

90,000
86,000
-4 .4
2,100
-4 0 0
2,500

A vailable training data:
V ocational education c o m p le tio n s.................
24

1,031

E le c tr o p la te r s . M ost electroplaters learn the trade on

A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

the jo b . A small percentage of electroplaters train
through a 3- or 4-year apprenticeship program . High
school c o u rse s in ch em istry , ele c tric ity , p h y sics,
m athem atics, and blueprint reading provide a helpful
background for people who are interested in becoming
electroplaters.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

A vailable training d a ta ................................................

skills on the jo b or through 4-year apprenticeship p ro­
grams that com bine shop training with classroom in­
struction. M any com panies prefer that apprentice ap­
plicants be high school graduates.
H igh sch o o l c o u rse s in sc ie n c e , m ath em atics,
m echanical drawing, and m achine shop are useful to the
prospective millwright.

-

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

F o rg e sh o p o c c u p a tio n s . M ost w orkers learn their

trades on the job. Some forge shops offer apprentice
training program s for skilled jo b s, such as die sinker and
heat treater. High school graduates are preferred, espe­
cially for the m ore skilled jobs.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................

theaters in urban areas are unionized and young people
who aspire to work as projectionists in these theaters
m ust com plete a union apprenticeship program . In a
nonunion theater, a trainee may start as a usher or
helper and learn the trade by working with an experi­
enced projectionist. A high school education is pre­
ferred by em ployers.

-

this trade is to com plete on-the-job training in an uphol­
stery shop. O ther ways of acquiring training are by
working for furniture m anufacturers in jobs closely re­
lated to upholstering, or through vocational or high
school courses. A few people acquire the necessary
skills through apprenticeship program s that last from 3
to 4 years.

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 re q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................
Available training data ..............................................

34,000
35,500
7.6
1,200
200
1,000

139
*6,258

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

I n s p e c to rs. Inspectors generally are trained on the job.

Training may last from a few hours to several m onths
depending on the skill level. R equirem ents for the jo b
vary. Some em ployers hire applicants who do not have
a high school diplom a but who have qualifying aptitudes
or related experience. O ther em ployers prefer experi­
enced production w orkers.




-

skills on the job. O thers learn through 3- to 4-year
a p p r e n tic e s h ip s . E m p lo y e rs p re fe r high s c h o o l
graduates who have had courses in the basic sciences.
Some States require licenses for ophthalm ic laboratory
technicians in retail optical shops.

1 M ay include som e upholsterers other than furniture.

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................

18,000
19,500
8.5
1,000
150
800

O p h th a lm ic la b o r a to r y te c h n ic ia n s. M ost learn their

A vailable training data:
Job Corps c o m p le tio n s.......................................
V ocational education c o m p le tio n s.................

561

M o tio n p ic tu r e p r o je c tio n is ts . M ost m otion picture

F u rn itu re u p h o ls te r e r s . The m ost com m on way to learn

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

95,000
115,000
21.0
3,800
1,800
2,000

A vailable training data:

65,000
73,000
8.9
1,750
550
1,200

A vailable training d a ta ................................................

-

M illw r ig h ts . T hese w orkers generally acquire their

34,000
41,000
18.8
1,250
600
650

A vailable training data ..............................................

51,000
19,000
32,000

Available training data ...............................................

22,000
35,000
59.1
2,100
l ,300
800
-

P h o to g r a p h ic la b o r a to r y w o r k e r s . M ost darkroom

technicians learn their trade by 3 to 4 years of on-the-job
training; some helpers becom e specialists in a particular
activity, which usually requires less training time. A
high school education is preferred and college courses
are helpful for those interested in supervisory or mana-

790,000
1,000,000
26.5
25

gerial jobs. On-the-job training for w orkers in semi­
skilled photographic laboratory occupations may range
from a few weeks to several m onths.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual op en in gs, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

50,000
61,000
26.5
3,300
1,200
2,100

A vailable training data:
V ocational education com p letion s ...............
A pprenticeship com p letion s ...........................

V ocational education c o m p le tio n s.................
Junior college graduates ...................................

*4,680
*645

W a s te w a te r tr e a tm e n t p la n t o p e r a to r s (s e w a g e p la n t
o p e ra to r s ). Trainees usually start as helpers and learn

1 M ay include other photographic occupations.

their skills on the job. Some States require, and em p­
loyers generally prefer, high school graduates. Some
positions, especially in larger cities and tow ns, are co ­
vered by civil service regulations and applicants may be
required to pass e x a m in atio n s on e le m e n ta ry m a th e ­
m atics, m echanical a p titu d e , an d general in telli­
gence. A 2-year program leading to an associate de­
gree in w astew ater tech n o lo g y provides a g o o d
general know ledge o f th e w a te r p o llu tio n co n tro l
field as well as basic p re p a ra tio n fo r beco m in g an
o p erato r.

P o w e r tru ck o p e r a to r s . M ost w orkers can be trained on

the jo b to operate a pow er truck in a few days. It may
take several w eeks, how ever, to learn the physical lay­
out and operation of a plant and the m ost efficient way
of handling the m aterials to be m oved.

A vailable training data ...............................................

347,000
400,000
15.3
9,100
4,800
4,300

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

-

P ro d u c tio n p a in te r s . N ew w orkers usually learn the jo b

by watching and helping experienced painters. Training
may vary from a few days to several m onths. A high
school diplom a generally is not required.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85
.....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .........................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................
A vailable training d a ta ................................................

62,000
100,000
61.3
6,100
3,450
2,650

A vailable training data:
V ocational education com p letion s ..............

125,000
151,000
19.1
5,000
2,200
2,800
~

2,620

W eld ers. G enerally, it takes several years o f on-the-job
training to becom e a skilled welder. Some less skilled
jo b s, how ever, can be learned in a few m onths. F o r
entry to skilled jo b s, m any em ployers prefer applicants
who have high school or vocational school training in
welding. B efore being assigned to w ork w here the
strength of the weld is a highly critical factor, w elders
may be required to pass a qualifying exam ination given
by an em ployer or governm ent agency.

S ta tio n a r y e n g in e e rs. M any stationary engineers start

as helpers or craftw orkers in other trades and acquire
their skills informally on the job. M ost training au­
thorities, how ever, recom m end a 4-year apprenticeship
as the best way to learn this trade. High school or trade
school graduates with courses in m athem atics, m echan­
ical drawing, m achine shop practices, physics, and
chem istry are preferred. Some States and cities require
stationary engineers to be licensed.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................

11,031
164

1 Includes stationary firem en.

A vailable training data:

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

193,000
0.0
5,000
0
5,000

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

645,000
815,000
26.2
27,000
15,000
11,500

A vailable training data:

193,000

Job Corps com p letion s ......................................

1,523

Office Occupations
Clerical occupations

ing m eet the m inimum requirem ents for m ost book­
keeping jobs. Some em ployers prefer applicants who
have com pleted business courses at a junior college or
business school. W ork/study program s provide high

B o o k k e e p in g w o rk e rs. High school graduates who have

taken business arithm etic, bookkeeping, and account


26

school students w ith an opportunity to learn bookkeep­
ing skills through on-the-job experience.
E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th , 1 9 7 4 - 8 5 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th ......................................................................
R ep la cem en ts.........................................................

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ............................................
A verage annual op en in gs, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th......................................................................
R e p la c e m e n ts.........................................................

1,700,000
1,875,000
10.9
121,000
17,000
104,000

A vailable training d a ta ................................................

cashier jobs. C ourses in business arithm etic, bookkeep­
ing, typing, and other business subjects are good prep­
aration. M ost cashiers are trained on the job. In large
firm s, training often includes classroom instruction in
the use of cash registers and other equipm ent. Cashier
training also is available in m any public school voca­
tional program s.

21

F ile c le rk s. Em ployers prefer high school graduates for

beginning file clerk jobs. M any seek applicants who can
type and have some knowledge of office practices. High
schools, private business schools, and com m unity and
ju n io r colleges teach these and other office skills. Many
States and localities sponsor program s which furnish
training in basic clerical skills.
N ew ly hired w orkers usually begin with several
w eeks of on-the-job training to learn the em ployer’s
filing system and procedures.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
P rojected 1985 requirem ents......................................
P ercent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ...........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ......................
G row th......................................................................
R ep la cem en ts.........................................................

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents.....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ...........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th.......................................................................
R e p la c e m e n ts.........................................................

Job Corps c o m p le tio n s.......................................

the minimum educational requirem ent for m ost office
m achine operator jobs. N ewly hired w orkers usually
are expected to be able to type and operate adding
m achines and calculators. M any high schools, private
business schools, and State and local governm ent train­
ing program s teach these skills. The am ount of on-thejo b training beginners receive depends on the type of
m achines they operate. Generally, it lasts a few weeks.

393

usual requirem ent for front office jobs. Newly hired
w orkers usually begin as mail, inform ation, or key
clerks and are trained on the job.
Some em ployers prefer college graduates with ad­
vancem ent potential for front office jobs. Opportunities
for prom otion are good in m ost hotels, so that a key or
mail clerk may be prom oted to room clerk, then to
assistant front office m anager, and eventually to front
office m anager. C lerks can im prove opportunities for
prom otion by taking courses in hotel m anagem ent, of­
fered by ju nior and com m unity colleges, public and
p riv a te v o c a tio n a l sc h o o ls, an d c o rre sp o n d e n c e
schools.

A vailable training d a ta ................................................

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ...........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th.......................................................................
R ep la c e m e n ts.........................................................

170,000
190,000
13.1
12,800
2,100
10,700

A vailable training data:
Job Corps c o m p le tio n s.......................................

274

P o s ta l c le rk s. These w orkers m ust be at least 18, pass

an examination that tests clerical accuracy, and have the
ability to read, do simple arithm etic, and m em orize mail
distribution system s. Applicants also m ust pass a phys­
ical exam ination and may have to show that they can lift
and handle mail sacks weighing up to 70 pounds. New
clerks are trained on the job.

54,000
63,000
17.3
4,250
850
3,400

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th.......................................................................
R e p la c e m e n ts.........................................................

-

C o lle c tio n w o r k e r s . A high school diplom a is the

minimum educational requirem ent for m ost beginning
jo b s in collection work. Newly hired w orkers learn their
skills on the jo b , chiefly by observing experienced
w orkers.



161

O ffice m a c h in e o p e r a to r s . High school graduation is

H o te l f r o n t o ffice c le rk s. High school graduation is the

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ...........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th......................................................................
R ep la cem en ts.........................................................

1,111,000
1,340,000
20.6
97,000
21,000
76,000

A vailable training data:

275,000
320,000
15.9
25,000
4,000
21,000

A vailable training data:
Job Corps co m p le tio n s.......................................

-

C a sh ie rs. Em ployers prefer high school graduates for

A vailable training data:
Job Corps co m p le tio n s.......................................

63,000
81,500
29.4
4,500
1,700
2,800

293,000
302,000
3.1
9,700
800
8,900

A vailable training data:
Job Corps c o m p le tio n s.......................................
27

42

R e c e p tio n is ts . High school graduation generally is the

ity to operate calculators, tabulating m achines, and
other office equipm ent can be helpful. Newly hired
w orkers are trained on the jo b , and learn the em ployer’s
record system and procedures.

minimum requirem ent for work as a receptionist. Busi­
ness courses such as typing and elem entary bookkeep­
ing are helpful. Some em ployers prefer applicants with
college training. College or business school training can
help, too, in advancing from a receptionist to a secre­
tary or adm inistrative assistant.
E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ............................................
A verage annual openin gs, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th.......................................................................
R ep la cem en ts...............................................................

460,000
635,000
38.3
57,500
16,000
41,500

A vailable training data:
Job Corps co m p le tio n s.......................................

20

Job Corps c o m p le tio n s.......................................

174

T y p is ts . T ypists generally need to be high school
graduates, and m ust be able to type at least 40-50 words
per m inute. Good spelling, punctuation, and gram m ar
are im portant skills. M ost typists learn their skills in
high school, or take courses at public or private voca­
tional schools. C om m unity and junior colleges also
offer the business courses needed for a typist’s job.

157
166,926

B ach elor’s degrees in
secretarial stu d ies.............................................
Junior college graduates .....................................

490,000
610,000
25.0
26,000
11,000
15,000

A vailable training data:

3,300,000
4,860,000
47.8
439,000
142,500
296,500

Job Corps c o m p le tio n s.......................................
V ocational education c o m p le tio n s.................

1,896
18,650

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents.....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ...........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th.......................................................................
R e p la c e m e n ts.........................................................

S h ip p in g a n d re c e iv in g c le rk s. High school graduates

are preferred for beginning jo b s in shipping and receiv­
ing departm ents. N ewly hired w orkers are trained on
the jo b , and often begin by filing, checking addresses,
attaching labels, and verifying the contents of ship­
m ents.

1,000,000
1,400,000
34.9
125,000
33,000
92,000

A vailable training data:
Job Corps c o m p le tio n s.......................................
V ocational education c o m p le tio n s.................

889
119,477

Computer and related occupations

465,000
560,000
20.4
20,500
8,700
11,800

C o m p u te r o p e r a tin g p e rso n n e l. High school graduation

is the m inimum educational requirem ent for com puter
operating jobs such as keypunch operator, auxiliary
equipm ent operator, and console operator. M any em ­
ployers prefer console operators to have some college
education. Form al com puter training is desirable, for
m ost em ployers look for applicants already skilled in op­
erating data-entry equipm ent or com puter consoles.
C om puter training is offered in m any high schools, pub­
lic and private vocational schools including com puter

-

S t a t i s t i c a l c le r k s . H igh sch o o l g ra d u a tio n is the

m inimum educational requirem ent for m ost jobs as
statistical clerks. C ourses in business arithm etic, book­
keeping, and typing are good preparation, and the abil­



Job Corps c o m p le tio n s.......................................

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
P ercent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th.......................................................................
R e p la c e m e n ts.........................................................

A vailable training data:

A vailable training d a ta ................................................

A vailable training data:

N ew ly hired w orkers learn their skills on the jo b , and
usually begin by counting and m arking stock. Basic
duties usually are learned within a few weeks. Stock
clerks who handle jew elry, liquor, or drugs m ust m eet
bonding standards.

is the minimum educational requirem ent for practically
all secretarial and stenographic positions. M any em ­
ployers prefer applicants who have had additional train­
ing at a college or private business school. Courses
range from several m onths’ instruction in shorthand
and typing to 1- or 2-year program s teaching specialized
skills such as legal or medical secretarial work. Appli­
cants generally m ust m eet minimum standards of typing
and stenographic speed.

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
P ercent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ...........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ......................
G row th......................................................................
R ep la cem en ts.........................................................

325,000
375,000
15.8
23,000
4,500
18,500

S to c k c le rk s. High school graduates are preferred.
38

S e c r e ta r ie s a n d s te n o g ra p h e rs. High school graduation

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 - 8 5 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th.......................................................................
R ep la cem en ts.........................................................

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th...........................................
R ep la c e m e n ts.........................................................

28

m athem atics, engineering, or com puter science. In ad­
dition to the bachelor’s degree in a suitable field, some
em ployers prefer applicants w ith w ork experience in
that field. O thers require a graduate degree. F urther,
m ost em ployers prefer applicants with some experience
in com puter program m ing. B ecause of the im portance
of program ming experience, m any who begin as pro­
gram m ers are p ro m o ted to a n a ly st train e es. E m ­
ployers, com puter m anufacturers, and colleges and
universities offer formal training in system s analysis.

schools and business schools, and in com m unity and
junior colleges.
E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents.....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ...........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th ......................................................................
R ep la cem en ts.........................................................

500,000
545,000
10.1
27,500
4,500
23,000

A vailable training data:
Job Corps co m p le tio n s.......................................
V ocational education c o m p le tio n s.................
Junior college g ra d u a te s....................................

353
x4 1,666
24,754

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ...........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th......................................................................
R e p la c e m e n ts.........................................................

1 Includes training for programmers and system analysts
2 Includes training for keypunch and other input tech ­
n o lo g ies, com puter operators and peripheral equipm ent
operators, and general data processing w orkers.

115,000
190,000
65.2
9,100
7,000
2,100

A vailable training data:

P ro g ra m m e rs. There are no universal training require­

D egrees in system s analysis:

m ents for program m ers because em p lo y ers’ needs
vary. Some require college graduates; others do not.
Firm s that use com puters for scientific or engineering
applications usually require program m ers to have a
bachelor’s degree with a major in the physical sciences,
m athem atics, engineering, or com puter science. Some
of these jo b s require a graduate degree. In firms that use
com puters for business applications, experience in in­
ventory control, payroll, or accounting often is more
im portant than a college degree. N onetheless, these
firms usually prefer applicants who have had courses in
data processing or programming.
C om puter program ming is taught at public and pri­
vate vocational schools, com m unity and junior col­
leges, and colleges and universities. Instruction ranges
from introductory courses to advanced courses at the
graduate level. High schools also offer courses in com ­
puter programming.
E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ...........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974 —85 .......................
G row th......................................................................
R ep la cem en ts.........................................................

B a ch elor’s d e g r e e s ......................................
M aster’s d e g r e e s..........................................
D o c to r ’s d e g r e e s..........................................

Banking occupations
B a n k c le rk s. High school graduation is adequate p rep­

aration for m ost beginning clerical jo b s in b anks.
C ourses in bookkeeping, typing, business arithm etic,
and office m achine operation are useful.
E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th.......................................................................
R ep la c e m e n ts.........................................................
A vailable training data:

200,000
285,000
42.5
13,000
7,800
5,200

-

m ent trainees or by prom oting outstanding bank clerks
or tellers. A bachelor’s degree is the minimum educa­
tional requirem ent for m anagem ent trainees. A major in
banking and finance is useful, but liberal arts graduates
with course w ork in accounting, econom ics, and statis­
tics also are well qualified. B ank em ployees who are
prom oted to m anagem ent trainee positions usually are
not college graduates. Often, how ever, they have taken
hom e study courses offered by the A m erican Institute
of Banking.
In-house training program s for bank officers gener­
ally last from 6 m onths to a year. Trainees usually rotate
among all the departm ents in the bank, and are encour­
aged to take courses offered by local colleges and uni­
versities, or through the A m erican Institute of Banking.

D egrees in com puter and information
sciences:
4,757
2,276
198
2,018

S y s te m s a n a ly s ts . There is no single way of preparing

for a jo b as a system s analyst because em p lo y ers’
preferences d ep en d o n th e ty p e o f w ork d o n e in th e
firm . G enerally, how ever, a b a c h e lo r’s degree is th e
minimum educational requirem ent. F o r a jo b with a
bank, insurance com pany, or business firm , a college
degree in accounting, business, or econom ics is ap­
propriate. F o r w ork in a scientific or technical organiza­
tion, applicants need a degree in the physical sciences,



517,000
718,000
38.9
54,000
18,000
36,000

B a n k o ffic e rs. These positions are filled by m anage­

Available training data:

B ach elor’s d e g r e e s .......................................
M aster’s d e g r e e s............................................
D o cto r’s d e g r e e s...........................................
Junior college g r a d u a te s............................

54
124
—

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ............................................
A verages annual openings, 1 9 7 4 - 8 5 .....................
G row th.......................................................................
R e p la c e m e n ts..............................
29

240,000
333,000
38.9
16,000
8,500
7,500

to m erchandise. Som eone w ith a degree in engineering
might adjust industrial claim s. College training is not
always necessary, how ever. Persons experienced in
autom obile repair w ork might be hired as auto adjust­
ers, and those with clerical w ork experience might get
jobs as inside adjusters.
N ew ly hired claim representatives are trained on the
jo b under the supervision of an experienced w orker.
The Insurance Institute of A m erica offers a 6-sem ester
study program leading to a diplom a in insurance loss
and claim adjusting upon successful com pletion of six
exam inations. A djusters can prepare for these exam i­
nations through hom e study or classroom courses.
The Life Office M anagem ent A ssociation (LOMA) in
cooperation with the International Claim A ssociation
offers a claims education program for life and health
exam iners. The program is part of the LOM A Institute
Insurance E ducation Program leading to the profes­
sional designation, FL M I (Fellow , Life M anagem ent
Institute) upon successful com pletion of eight w ritten
exam inations.
A bout three-fourths of the States require adjusters to
be licensed. State licensing requirem ents vary a great
deal, but applicants usually m ust com plete an approved
course in insurance or loss adjusting, and pass a w ritten
exam ination. They should be bonded and at least 20
years of age.

A vailable training data:
D egrees in banking and finance:
B ach elor’s d e g r e e s ......................................
M aster’s d e g r e e s..........................................
P h .D .’s ..............................................................

6,518
2,252
34

B a n k te lle rs. Tellers learn their skills on the job. Banks

generally prefer high school graduates with some ex­
perience in office w ork. Prior experience is im portant
because em ployers are looking for applicants with the
m aturity and tact to deal with custom ers. B ecause tell­
ers handle large am ounts of m oney, applicants m ust
m eet bonding standards.
E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
P rojected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th.......................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................
A vailable training d a ta ................................................

270,000
377,000
38.9
30,000
10,000
20,000
-

Insurance occupations
A c t u a r i e s . A b a c h e lo r’s d e g re e w ith a m ajo r in

m athem atics or statistics is the minimum educational
requirem ent for beginning actuarial jobs in large insur­
ance com panies. Some com panies hire applicants with
an econom ics or business adm inistration m ajor, pro­
vided they have a thorough foundation in calculus,
probability, and statistics. O ther useful courses are in­
surance law , econom ics, and accounting. Few er than
20 colleges and universities offer training program s
specifically designed for actuarial careers. Several
hundred schools offer som e of the necessary courses,
how ever.
It usually takes from 5 to 10 years after beginning an
actuarial career to com plete the entire series of exami­
nations required for full professional status. Applicants
w ho pass the first two exam inations while still in college
usually have an advantage in com peting for actuarial
jo b s upon graduation. The advanced exam inations re­
quire extensive hom e study and on-the-job experience.
E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
P ercent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..............
G row th ......................................................................
R ep la cem en ts.........................................................
A vailable training d a ta ................................................

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
P ercent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th .......................................................................
R e p la c e m e n ts.........................................................
A vailable training d a ta ................................................

—

U n d e rw rite rs. A bachelor’s degree is the m inimum
educational requirem ent for beginning underw riting
jobs in m ost insurance com panies. A pplicants with d e­
grees in business adm inistration or liberal arts are p re­
ferred, but college training in alm ost any field is accept­
able. In som e com panies, high school graduates with
experience as underw riting clerks are trained as u n der­
w riters. Independent study program s, which are often
required for advancem ent in underw riting, are available
through the A m erican Institute of Property and Liabil­
ity U nderw riters, the A m erican College of Life U nder­
w riters, the H om e Office Life U nderw riters A ssocia­
tion, the Institute of H om e Office U nderw riters, and
the Life Office M anagem ent A ssociation.
The following figures are the com bined data for in­
surance agents, brokers, and underw riters:

10,700
14,400
34.1
700
350
350
-

C la im r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s . A growing num ber of insurance

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ......................
G row th.......................................................................
R e p la c e m e n ts.........................................................

com panies prefer college graduates for claim represen­
tatives (exam iners and adjusters). Although courses in
insurance, econom ics, or other business subjects are
helpful, a m ajor in alm ost any field is acceptable. An
adjuster with a business or accounting m ajor might
specialize in loss from business interruption or damage



125,000
152,000
21.8
6,600
2,500
4,100

A vailable training data
30

470,000
536,000
15.0
19,400
6,400
13,000

Administrative and related occupations

city m anager. A m aster’s degree in public or municipal
adm inistration is preferred.

A c c o u n ta n ts . M ost large firms require the bachelor’s
E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th.......................................................................
R e p la c e m e n ts.........................................................

2,900
4,200
47.4
150
100
50

degree w ith a m ajor in accounting, or in a closely related
field such as business adm inistration or econom ics.
Some prefer applicants with a m aster’s degree in ac­
counting. In addition to program s at the college level,
training in accounting is available in junior and com ­
munity colleges, business schools, and correspondence
schools. Job opportunities for graduates of these 1- and
2-year program s usually are limited to small accounting
and business firms.
All States require “ certified public accountants’’ to
be certified by the State board of accountancy. This is
done by passing the CPA exam ination adm inistered by
the A m erican Institute of Certified Public A ccountants
and m eeting State requirem ents as to education and
experience. Three-fourths of the States require CPA
candidates to be college graduates, and nearly all of
them insist on 2 years or m ore of public accounting
experience.

quired for beginning jobs in credit m anagem ent. Newly
hired em ployees w ork as m anagem ent trainees under
experienced credit personnel.
E m ployers generally prefer applicants who have
m ajored in business adm inistration, econom ics, or ac­
counting. Some em ployers hire liberal arts m ajors. E x­
perience som etim es can be substituted for the college
degree. Some em ployers accept high school graduates
who have had experience in credit collection or in pro­
cessing credit inform ation.

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents.....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ...........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th......................................................................
R ep la cem en ts.........................................................

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .............................
G row th.............................................................................
R e p la c e m e n ts................................................................

A vailable training d a ta ................................................

C re d it m a n a g e rs. A bachelor’s degree usually is re­

805,000
995,000
23.9
45,500
17,500
28,000

A vailable training d a ta ................................................

A vailable training data:
D e g re e s in accou n tin g
1 9 7 3-74
B ach elor’s degrees ..
M aster’s degrees ......
D octor’s degrees ......
Junior college graduates ..

P ro je c te d
1 974-85
(annual a vera g e)

29,770
1,806
70

-

and m anagem ent ability are the m ost im portant consid­
erations in selecting hotel m anagers, em ployers in­
creasingly prefer college graduates. Form al training in
hotel or restaurant m anagem ent can be helpful, in part
because such program s provide opportunities for parttime or sum m er jo b experience and contacts with pro­
spective em ployers. M any em ployers prefer applicants
who have com pleted a 4-year college curriculum in
h o tel and re s ta u ra n t a d m in istra tio n . O th ers h ire
graduates of the hotel training program s offered by
some junior and com m unity colleges, public and private
vocational schools, and hom e study (correspondence)
schools. These program s generally take from 3 m onths
to 2 years. Some large hotels have special m anagem ent
trainee program s for college graduates and persons
prom oted from within.

38,945
2,719
84

B u yers. M ost retail stores prefer college or junior col­

lege graduates for buying jobs. C ourses in m erchandis­
ing or m arketing may help, but em ployers generally
accept graduates in any field and train them on the job.
Many stores have formal training program s for all
m anagem ent trainees, including buyers. These pro­
grams last from 6 to 8 m onths and com bine classroom
instruction in m erchandising and purchasing with short
rotations to various jobs in the store.

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

110,000
150,000
37.6
9,000
4,000
5,000

120,000
150,000
22.8
6,500
2,500
4,000

Available training data:

Available training data

D egrees in hotel and restaurant
managem ent:
B ach elor’s ....................................................
M aster’s .....................................................
Junior college graduates ........................
V ocational education c o m p le tio n s..................

C ity m a n a g e rs. A bachelor’s degree, preferably with a

major in public adm inistration or a related field, is the
minimum educational background needed to becom e a



66,000
90,000
36.4
4,500
2,200
2,300

H o te l m a n a g e rs a n d a s s is ta n ts . Although experience

7,880

E m ploym ent, 1974.........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents......................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ...........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G row th.......................................................................
R ep la cem en ts.........................................................

-

31

1,188
64
1,852
3,430

L a w y e r s . A dm ission to the bar is a prerequisite for the

P u b lic re la tio n s w o rk e rs. A bachelor’s degree in jo u r­

practice o f law in all States. To qualify for the bar
exam ination, m ost States require 4 years of college
followed by 3 years of law school. F our years of parttime study usually are required to com plete a night
school law curriculum .
It is anticipated that about 26,000 entrants will be
needed annually over the 1974-85 period to m eet pro­
jected requirem ents. N C E S projections indicate an av­
erage of about 31,700 law school graduates annually
over this period. N ot all law school graduates, how ­
ever, pass the bar exam ination and seek to practice law.
In the p ast, law school graduates, either by choice or
because of econom ic circum stances, have entered poli­
tics, public adm inistration, business, and other fields.
N evertheless, unless a significant change occurs in en­
rollm ent trends, an oversupply of law school graduates
can be expected for careers in law, and m any graduates
may have to find em ploym ent in these other fields.

nalism , English, or public relations usually is preferred
for a beginning jo b . Som e em ployers have special
needs, how ever, and seek college graduates with a d e­
gree in a scientific or technical field, plus appropriate
com m unications skills. E xperience can be very im por­
tant in getting a jo b , and m any em ployers prefer appli­
cants with m edia or journalism experience.

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................
A vailable training d a t a ................................................

large com pany, a college degree is required. M any
com panies hire business adm inistration or liberal arts
majors for trainee positions. Firm s th at m anufacture
m achinery or chem icals, how ever, generally prefer ap ­
plicants with a degree in science or engineering. A
growing num ber of large com panies look for applicants
with a m aster’s degree in purchasing m anagem ent or in
a related field. Some small firms select purchasing
agents from their own staff, w hether or not the w orker
has a college degree.

A vailable training data:

L .L .B . or J.D . degrees ..

P ro je c te d
1974-85
(annual a vera g e)

29,652

31,700

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
P rojected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

P e rso n n e l a n d la b o r re la tio n s w o rk e rs. A bachelor’s

degree is the minimum educational background for a
beginning jo b in personnel w ork — a field which in­
cludes occupations such as recruiter, interview er, job
analyst, position classifier, wage adm inistrator, train­
ing specialist, and em ployee counselor. Some em ­
ployers look for college graduates who have m ajored in
personnel adm inistration, public adm inistration, busi­
ness, or econom ics, while others prefer applicants with
a liberal arts background and evident m anagem ent po­
tential.
G raduate study in industrial relations, econom ics,
business, or law usually is required for labor relations
jobs. The com bination of a law degree plus a m aster’s in
industrial relations is increasingly desirable for people
seeking to enter the small and highly com petitive labor
relations area. E xperience is im portant, too, and some
w orkers gain essential experience in personnel work
and then switch to labor relations.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

189,000
258,000
36.5
11,700
6,300
5,400

A vailable training d a ta ................................................

-

U rb a n p la n n e rs. The m aster’s degree in planning is th e
usual requirem ent for jobs at the entry level. For som e
jobs, how ever, a bachelor’s degree in city planning,
architecture, landscape architecture, engineering, o r
other closely related field is acceptable.
The num ber of persons enrolled in graduate planning
program s has risen rapidly in recent years. If this tren d
continues, the num ber of applicants may outstrip avail­
able openings and lead to increased com petition for jo b s
in this small field.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th 1974-85 ............................................
A verage annual op en in gs, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

320,000
450,d00
40.2
23,000
12,000
11,000

13,000
18,000
38.5
700
450
250

A vailable training data:
D egrees in city, com m unity, and regional planning:
B ach elor’s d e g r e e s ......................................
M aster’s degrees .........................................
D o cto r’s degrees .........................................

A vailable training data



-

P u rc h a sin g a g e n ts . F or a beginning position with a

342,000
490,000
43.3
26,400
13,500
12,900

19 7 3 -7 4

100,000
134,000
28.8
6,500
2,500
4,000

32

410
1,380
51

Service Occupations
attendant, w aiter, or w aitress is good training. Some
private schools offer short courses in bartending. G en­
erally, bartenders m ust be at least 21 years of age, and
some em ployers prefer those who are 25 or older.

Cleaning and related occupations
B u ild in g c u s to d ia n s . M ost building custodians are

trained on the jo b . A high school diplom a is not re­
quired, as a rule, but w orkers should know simple
arithm etic and read well enough to follow w ritten in­
structions. High school shop courses are helpful be­
cause m inor plumbing or carpentry may be part of the
job. Training in custodial skills is available through
governm ent training prograjns and labor unions.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th ....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................
Available training data ..............................................

1,900,000
2,400,000
26.6
146,000
47,000
99,000

3 ,4 1 2
1,104

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

H o te l h o u se k e e p e rs a n d a s s is ta n ts . A high school edu­

cation usually is preferred, and experience or training in
hotel housekeeping is helpful in getting ajob. C ourses in
housekeeping are offered by colleges and universities
having program s in hotel adm inistration, public and
private vocational schools, and hom e study (corres­
p o n d en c e) schools.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent growth 1974-85 .............................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R e p la c e m e n ts.......................................................

955,000
1,250,000
30.9
78,600
26,800
51,800

A vailable training data:
V ocational education com pletions .............
A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................

18,000
21,000
15.6
1,450
250
1,200

11,803
2225

1 Includes training for bakers, m eatcutters, and servers.
2 Includes bakers.

D in in g ro o m a tte n d a n ts a n d d ish w a sh e rs. Little formal

training is needed to qualify for these occupations.
M any em ployers will hire applicants who do not speak
English, and som e m entally retarded persons can be
trained as dishw ashers.

A vailable training data:
V ocational education com p letion s ...............

-

C o o k s a n d ch e fs. M ost cooks acquire their skills on the
jo b while em ployed as kitchen helpers, although it is
becom ing com m on for cooks to have high school or
post high school training in food preparation. Less fre­
quently, they are trained as apprentices under trade
union contracts or em ployee training program s con­
ducted by large hotels and restaurants.

Available training data:
V ocational education com pletions ...............
Job Corps com pletions ..................................

233,000
200,000
28.8
15,200
6,100
9,100

4,700

P e s t c o n tro lle rs. M ost controllers can do routine w ork

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th 1974-85 .............................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

370,000
435,000
17.6
17,200
6,800
10,400

after 2 or 3 m onths of on-the-job training. Em ployers
prefer trainees w ho are high school graduates. A bout 30
States require licenses. In m ost S tates, the license is
only for re g istratio n , b u t a few require ap p lican ts to
pass a w ritten exam ination. Beginning in O ctober 1976,
the U .S . E nvironm ental P rotection Agency will require
that pest controllers be certified.

F o o d c o u n te r w o rk e rs. In counter jobs that require

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

totaling bills and making change, em ployers prefer to
hire persons who are good in arithm etic and have at­
tended high school, although a diplom a generally is not
necessary. C ounter jobs in cafeterias usually require no
specific education.

A vailable training data ...............................................

A vailable training data ..............................................

27,000
36,500
32.1
2,100
800
1,300

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

-

Food service occupations
B a rte n d e rs. M ost bartenders learn their trade on the
job. Experience as a b arten d er’s helper, dining room



A vailable training data
33

-

350,000
425,000
21.4
29,200
6,700
22,500

M e a tc u tte r s . These w orkers acquire their skills either

B e llh o p s a n d b e ll c a p ta in s. Bellhops are trained on the

informally on the jo b or through apprenticeship pro­
gram s. Those in apprenticeship program s generally
com plete 2 to 3 years of supervised on-the-job training
which may be supplem ented by some classroom work.
E m ployers prefer high school graduates.

job. High school graduates are preferred, because they
are m ore likely to have the qualities needed for prom o­
tion. M any h o tels fill bellh o p jo b s by pro m o tin g
elevator operators. Bellhops, in turn, may advance to
jobs as front office clerks.

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

202,000
204,000
0.9
5,000
200
4,800

A vailable training data:
Job Corps com pletion s ......................................
A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................

A vailable training data ...............................................
124
914

be licensed. M ost States require applicants for licensing
to pass a physical exam ination, be at least 16 years old,
and have com pleted at least the 10th grade. Successful
com pletion of a State-approved cosm etology course is
adequate preparation for a State licensing exam ination.
In some States com pletion of an apprenticeship training
program can substitute for graduation from cosm etol­
ogy school, but few cosm etologists learn their skills this
way.
B oth public and private vocational schools offer
cosm etologist training. A daytim e course usually takes
6 m onths to 1 year; an evening course takes longer. An
apprenticeship program generally lasts 1 or 2 years.

w aitresses pick up their skills on the job, some attend
special training courses offered by some public and
private schools and restaurant associations. M ost em ­
ployers prefer applicants who have had at least 2 or 3
years of high school.
1,180,000
1,440,000
21.8
105,000
24,000
81,000

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletions ......................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

70

Personal service occupations
B a rb e rs. All States require barbers to be licensed. To

V ocational education com pletions ...............
Job Corps com p letion s ......................................




19,270
182

F u n era l d ire c to rs a n d e m b a lm e r s . All States require

em balm ers to be licensed. Although licensing standards
vary by State, an em balm er generally m ust be 21, have a
high school diplom a or its equivalent, graduate from a
m ortuary science school, serve an apprenticeship, and
pass a State board exam ination. O ne-half of the States
require a year or m ore of college in addition to training
in m ortuary science.
All but six States also require funeral directors to be
licensed. Qualifications are similar to those for em balm ­
ers, but directors have special apprenticeship training
and board exam inations. M ost people obtain b o th
licenses.

130,000
135,000
3.6
5,550
450
5,100

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

A vailable training data:
V ocational education com p letion s ...............
A pprenticeship com p letion s ...........................

500,000
622,000
24.9
50,800
11,300
39,500

A vailable training data:

obtain a license, a person m ust have graduated from a
S tate-approved b arb er school, have com pleted the
eighth grade, m eet certain health requirem ents, and be
at least 16 years old (in some States 18). N early all
States require a beginner to take an exam ination for an
apprentice license, and then, after 1 or 2 years of work,
take a second exam ination for a license as a registered
barber.
M any public and private schools and a few vocational
schools offer barber training. C ourses usually last 6 to
12 m onths. B ecause m ost States do not recognize train­
ing, ap p ren ticesh ip w ork, o r licenses obtained in
an other State, persons who wish to becom e barbers
should review the laws of the State in which they wish
to w ork before entering barber school.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

-

C o s m e to lo g is ts . All States require that cosm etologists

W a iters a n d w a itr e s s e s . Although m ost w aiters and

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

17,000
19,000
9.6
600
150
450

940
316

A vailable training data
34

45,000
45,000
0.0
1,400
0
1,400

Private household service occupations

In many com m unities, police jobs are
filled by com petitive exam ination. Candidates must be
high school graduates, as a rule. Police departments in
large cities generally require one or more years o f col­
lege, and a growing number o f police departments pre­
fer can d id ates w ith c o lle g e training in so c io lo g y ,
p sychology, com m unity relations, and related subjects.
Som e city police departments hire students in collegelevel law enforcem ent programs as police interns.
Police departments in som e small cities consider ap­
plicants w ho have not finished high school, but w ho
have had experience in law enforcem ent.
In small com m unities police officers often are trained
on the job; in large cities formal training ranges from a
few w eeks to m onths.
P o lic e o ffic e r s .

P r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d w o r k e r s . M ost household worker
jobs require no formal education. Instead, the ability to
cook, sew , wash and iron, clean house, and care for
children is important. Many o f the n ecessary skills are
learned in the hom e; more advanced skills can be
learned in hom e econom ics courses in public and pri­
vate sch ools.

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements ................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
Growth .............................................................
Replacements .................................................

1,200,000
900,000
-26.7
52,000
-30,000
82,000

Available training data

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G rowth.............................................................
Replacements ...........................

Protective and related service occupations
In m ost com m unities, qualifying exam ina­
tions are open to high school graduates. T hose who
score the highest on th ese exam inations which test in­
telligence as w ell as strength, stamina, and agility have
the best chances for appointm ent. E xperience gained as
a volunteer firefighter or through training in the Armed
Forces may help chances for appointm ent, too. Begin­
ners in large fire departments generally are trained for
several w eeks at the city ’s fire school before being
assigned to local fire com panies.
Additional study can be valuable in preparing for
promotion exam inations. Fire departm ents frequently
conduct training programs, and many colleges and uni­
versities offer courses in fire engineering and fire sci­
ence.

F ir e fig h te r s .

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements ................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
Growth .............................................................
Replacements .................................................

Available training data:
Junior college graduates ...............................
Job Corps completions .................................
Vocational education ....................................

o f f i c e r s . State civil service regulations
govern the appointment o f State police officers; a com ­
petitive exam ination generally is required. In m ost
S ta te s , th e e x a m in a tio n is o p e n to high sc h o o l
graduates, or to persons with an equivalent com bina­
tion o f education and experience. In som e States, high
school graduates may enter State police work as cadets.
They attend c la sses, are assigned nonenforcem ent
duties and, if they qualify, may be appointed State
police officers at age 21.
In all States, recruits must enter a formal training
program o f several m onths for classroom instruction in
State laws and jurisdictions, in procedures for traffic
control and accid en t in v estig a tio n , and in related
topics.
S ta te p o lic e

220,000
270,000
23.3
7,300
4,600
2,700

4,084

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements ................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G rowth.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

High school graduates are preferred, and ap­
plicants who have not com pleted high school may be
asked to take a test to dem onstrate their ability to follow
written and oral instructions. M ost guards are trained
on the job. They learn the use o f firearms, first aid, w ays
to handle em ergencies, and other n ecessary skills.

G u ards.

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 ......................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
Growth .............................................................
Replacements .................................................

45,500
76,000
68.3
3,600
2,850
750

Available training data:
Vocational education completions .............
Junior college graduates ...............................

475,000
508,000
7.4
26,000
3,000
23,000

(*)
(*)

1 See police officers.
i n s p e c t o r s (g o v e r n m e n t ). Construction
inspectors receive m ost o f their training on the job.
Applicants generally must have several years o f experi­

C o n s tr u c tio n

Available training data



114,915
3
A
23,511

1 May include some State police officers.

Available training data:
Vocational education completions .............

480,000
650,000
35.5
22,000
15,500
6,500

35

en ce as a construction contractor, supervisor, or craftworker. Federal, State and m ost local governm ents also
require a high school diplom a. M any em ployers prefer
inspectors to be graduates o f an apprenticeship pro­
gram or have 2 years o f college in architecture, en­
gineering, or construction technology.
Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

prior work experience in the field and are likely to
prefer applicants with first-hand experience in industry,
insurance, or in safety.
For jobs at the technician level, com pletion o f a
2-year associate degree in an appropriate curriculum,
plus relevant work ex p erien ce, provides the b ack­
ground many em ployers seek.

22,000
30,000
43.0
1,700
750
950

Available training data .........................................

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements ................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 ......................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G rowth..............................................................
Replacements ..................................................

-

Available training data .........................................
M ost
health and regulatory inspectors are required to have
several years o f experience in a field related to the area
in w hich they will work. Often a bachelor’s degree or
several years o f college w ith courses in related subjects
may be substituted for som e or all o f the required years
o f experience. Specialized know ledge is learned on the
job in m any inspector jo b s. A pplicants for Federal jobs
often are required to take the Professional and A dm inis­
trative Career Exam ination (PACE).

25,000
32,500
29.0
1,100
700
400
—

H e a l t h a n d r e g u l a t o r y i n s p e c t o r s (g o v e r n m e n t ) .

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

Other service occupations
M a il c a r r ie r s .

T hese workers m ust be at least 18 and
pass a written exam ination that tests clerical accuracy,
and the ability to read, do sim ple arithm etic, and
m em orize mail distribution system s. If the job involves
driving, the applicant must have a driver’s license and
pass a road test. A pplicants also m ust pass a physical
exam ination and may be asked to show that they can lift
and handle 70-pound mail sacks.

110,000
160,000
44.0
7,900
4,500
3,400

Employment, 1974 ..................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G rowth.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

Available training data:
Junior college graduates ...............................

Available training data .........................................

464

267,000
275,000
3.0
5,600
700
4,900
-

T e l e p h o n e o p e r a t o r s . N e w operators receive on-thejob training to becom e familiar with equipm ent, re­
cords, and work activities. After about 1 to 3 w eek s o f
instruction they are assigned to regular operator job s.

In this field, a
b a ch elo r’s degree in sc ie n c e or engineering is the
minimum requirement for beginning professionals in­
cluding safety engineer, fire protection engineer, indus­
trial hygienist, and lo ss control consultant. A degree in
safety m anagem ent, industrial safety, fire protection
engineering, environm ental health, or other closely re­
lated field is an asset; m any em ployers prefer applicants
with a m aster’s degree or Ph.D . in occupational safety
or health. E m ployers also attach great im portance to

O c c u p a tio n a l s a f e ty a n d h e a lth w o r k e r s .

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th..............................................................
Replacements .................................................

390,000
385,000
-1 .3
28,000
-5 0 0
28,500

Available training data

Education and Related Occupations
Teaching occupations

tion. L ocal school system s som etim es have additional
requirements for em ploym ent.
Over the 1974-85 period an average o f about 94,000
entrants will be needed annually to m eet projected re­
quirem ents for kindergarten and elem entary school
teachers. This is the largest number o f openings o f any
professional occupation. M ost openings are expected
to result from the need to replace teachers who leave
the field because o f deaths, retirem ents, and other labor
force separations, rather than from growth.

a n d e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . All
States require teachers in public elem entary schools to
be certified. Som e States also require teachers in pri­
vate and parochial schools to be certified. A bachelor’s
degree w hich includes student-teaching and education
cou rses is generally the m inim um requirem ent for
certification. Som e States require a m aster’s degree or
equivalent within a certain period after initial certifica­

K in d e r g a r te n




36

An average o f 37,000 entrants will be needed annually
over the 1974-85 period to m eet the projected require­
m ents for secondary school teachers. All openings will
result from the need to replace teachers w ho leave the
field because o f deaths, retirem ents, and other labor
force separations. In fact, the number o f secondary
school teaching positions is projected to decline.
The primary sources o f secondary school teacher
supply are new degree recipients, reentrants, and de­
layed entrants. The largest source is new degree recip­
ients. The N C E S projects an average o f about 1 mil­
lion new bachelor’s degrees to be awarded annually
over the 1974-85 period, although not all graduates are
expected to qualify for teaching in secondary schools.
During the 1960’s and early 1970’s, about one-fifth o f
bachelor’s degree recipients qualified for certification.
If this proportion continues from 1974 to 1985, an an­
nual average o f about 200,000 new graduates would be
certified to teach in secondary schools over the period.
Teachers w ho have left the labor force and certified
teachers w ho did not enter the labor force after gradua­
tion also are primary sources o f teacher supply. H ow ­
ever, the number o f prospective entrants from these
sources cannot be projected with accuracy, as it is
affected by the availability o f teaching jobs relative to
other jo b s, and salaries o f teachers relative to other
occupations. D espite the problem s o f estimating future
supply, there is every indication that the potential aver­
age annual number o f workers seeking jobs as secon ­
dary school teachers will greatly exceed the annual
average openings over the 1974-85 period. The situa­
tion has existed over recent years, resulting in a decline
in the rate o f entry to the profession o f new ly certified
college graduates. In the 1960’s, about two-thirds o f
new graduates w ho had secondary school certification
obtained positions in secondary sch ools, but by 1974,
the proportion had declined to under one-half. In addi­
tion, the number o f reentrants and delayed entrants has
declined significantly. Over the 1974-85 period, it is
expected that an even greater proportion o f new college
graduates certified to teach in secondary schools, as
w ell as potential delayed entrants and reentrants, may
have to seek em ploym ent in other occupations.

N ew degree recipients, reentrants, and delayed en­
trants are the primary sources o f elem entary school
teacher supply. T he largest source is n e w degree recip­
ients. T he N ation al C enter for E ducation Statistics
(N C ES) projects an average o f about 1 million new
bachelor’s degrees to be awarded annually over the
1 9 7 4 -8 5 period, although not all graduates are ex ­
pected to qualify for teaching in elementary schools. Dur­
ing the 1960’s and early 1970’s, more than one out of eight
bachelor’s degree recipients qualified for certification.
If this proportion continues from 1974 to 1985, an annual
average o f about 130,000 new graduates w ould be certi­
fied to teach in elem entary sch ools over the period.
Teachers w ho have left the labor force and certified
teachers w ho did not enter the labor force after gradua­
tion also are primary sources o f supply. H ow ever, the
number o f prospective entrants from these sources is
influenced by factors w hich cannot be projected with
great accuracy, such as availability o f teaching jobs
relative to other jo b s, and salaries o f teachers relative to
other occupations. D esp ite the problem o f estimating
future supply, there is every indication that the poten­
tial average annual number o f w orkers seeking jobs as
elem entary school teachers will significantly exceed the
average annual openings over the 1974-85 period. This
situation has existed over recent years, resulting in a
decline in the rate o f entry to the profession o f new ly
certified college graduates. In the 1960’s, about 80 per­
cent o f new graduates w ho had elem entary school certi­
fication obtained positions in elem entary sch ools, but
by 1974 the proportion had declined to under 60 per­
cent. In addition, the number o f reentrants and delayed
entrants has declined significantly. Over the 1974-85
period, therefore, an increasing proportion o f new col­
lege graduates certified to teach in elem entary schools,
as w ell as d ela y ed entrants and reentrants, m ay
have to seek e m p lo y m e n t in o th er o ccu p a tio n s.
Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements ............
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings 1974-85 ....................
Growth .............................................................
Replacements .................................................

1,276,000
1,439,000
12.8
94,000
15,000
79,000

Available training data:
New college graduates prepared to teach in
elementary schools in 1974 .....................

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements ................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings 1974-85 .....................
Growth .............................................................
Replacements .................................................

428,800

1 Source: National Education Association.
All States require teachers
in public secondary schools to be certified. Som e States
also require teachers in private and parochial schools to
be certified. A bachelor’s degree is the minimum re­
quirement for certification. T w elve States usually re­
quire a fifth year o f study, or a m aster’s degree within a
specified period after beginning em p loym en t. The
number and type o f education courses, subject spe­
cialty cou rses, and type o f student-teaching preferred
vary among States and school system s.

S e c o n d a r y s c h o o l te a c h e r s .




1,086,000
998,000
-8.1
37,500
-4,000
41,500

Available training data:
New college graduates prepared to teach in
secondary schools in 1974 .........................

467,839

1 Source: National Education Association.
At least a m aster’s
degree in the subject to be taught is required for m ost
beginning instructor positions, although a Ph.D is gen­
C o lle g e a n d u n iv e r s ity te a c h e r s .

37

erally preferred. A dvancem ent to assistant professor,
to associate professor, and then to a full professorship
requires increasing am o u n ts o f ad d itio n a l teach in g
and research ex p erien ce. C urrently, m ore than oneh a lf o f th e fa cu lty in un iversities and a b o u t 10 per­
cent o f th e fa cu lty in 2-year co lleg es have d octo rates.
A n average o f about 14,000 entrants will be needed
annually over the 1974-85 period to m eet projected
requirem ents.
T he N C E S projects an average o f about 40,000
P h .D .’s to be awarded annually over this period. In
the past, about one-half o f all Ph.D . recipients entered
college teaching. If this entry rate continues, the supply
o f P h .D .’s alone seeking em ploym ent as college and
university teachers could ex ceed requirem ents. It ap­
pears, therefore, that a m uch higher proportion o f ad­
vanced degree h old ers in th e fu tu re than in th e past
m ay have to seek e m p lo y m e n t in field s oth er than
college teach in g.
Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 growth ...........................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

new library science graduates are exp ected to seek
entry into the field annually. H ow ever, many qualified
librarians outside the labor force w ho have not w orked
in the field or w ho have left the field are exp ected to
seek entry or reentry to the field. In addition, persons
w ith d e g r e e s in ed u c a tio n w ith sp e c ia liz a tio n in
librarianship or audiovisual technology are exp ected to
seek entry. Although data on entrants from those other
sources are lim ited, it is anticipated that the number o f
people seeking to enter or reenter the field may ex ceed
openings, and som e may have to find em ploym ent in
other fields.
Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G rowth.............................................................
Replacements .................................................
Available training data:
D e g re e s in library sc ien ce
1973-74

1527,000
*516,000
-2 .1
14,000
-1,000
15,000

Available training data .........................................

125,000
150,000
20.0
10,700
2,300
8,400

Bachelor’s degrees ...
Master’s degrees .......
Doctor’s degrees .......

P ro je c te d
19 7 4 -85
(annual a vera g e)

1,160
8,130
60

1,374
10,004
87

-

1 Does not include part-time junior instructors.

A high sch ool di­
plom a or its equivalent plus on-the-job or formal posthigh sch ool training is usually required for library tech ­
nicians and assistants.
On-the-job programs generally take from 1 to 3 years
to com plete, depending on the library. Junior and com ­
munity colleges and technical institutions offer formal
2-year education programs w hich lead to an associate o f
arts degree in library technology.
L ib r a r y te c h n ic ia n s a n d a s s is ta n ts .

Library occupations
F or p r o fe ssio n a l librarians in p u b lic,
academ ic, and special libraries, com pletion o f a 1-year
m aster’s degree program in library scien ce is usually
required. For librarians in school libraries, a bachelor’s
degree in education with specialization in librarianship
or audiovisual technology is the basic requirement, al­
though a m aster’s degree may be preferred.
It is anticipated than an average o f about 10,500 en­
trants will be needed annually over the 1974-85 period
to m eet requirem ents. N C E S projects that 11,400
bachelor’s and m aster’s degrees in library science will
be awarded annually over this period. In the past, not all
graduates have sought entry into the labor force im­
m ediately upon graduation; therefore few er than 11,400

L ib r a r ia n s .

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

135,000
175,000
29.3%
14,100
3,600
10,500

Available training data:
Junior college graduates ...............................

506

Sales Occupations
Skills for this occu ­
pation are learned on the job and usually 2 years o f
working experience are necessary before an em ployee
is fully qualified. Em ployers usually prefer to hire high
school graduates. High school or vocational school
courses in auto m echanics, com m ercial arithm etic, sell­
ing, and bookkeeping are helpful. Practical working
experience in a gasoline service station or auto repair
shop also is an asset.

Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
*Replacements .................................................

A u to m o b ile p a r ts c o u n te r w o r k e r s .

Employment, 1974 ................................................



96,000
27.5
3,500
1,900
1,600

Available training data:
Job Corps completions .................................

31

M ost beginners are trained
on the job , although large firms som etim es provide

A u to m o b ile s a le s w o r k e r s .

75,000
38

formal classroom training. M any em ployers require be­
ginning autom obile salesw orkers to be at least 21 years
old and high sch ool graduates. C ourses in public speak­
ing, com m ercial arithmetic, p sych ology, business law,
and selling are useful. Previous sales experience or
work requiring contact with the public also is helpful.
Employment, 1974 ..................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements .................................................
Available training data .........................................

Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G rowth.............................................................
Replacements .................................................
Available training data:
Job Corps completions .................................

130,000
160,000
25.5
5,500
2,900
2,600

s a l e s w o r k e r s . E m ployers generally
prefer college graduates for m anufacturers’ salesw ork­
ers. A bachelor’s degree in liberal arts or in business
administration is good preparation for selling nontech­
nical products. Industrial manufacturers look for appli­
cants with degrees in science or engineering, and phar­
m aceutical com panies usually prefer people who have
studied pharm acy. Industrial marketing training is
available in vocational education programs.
N ew ly hired workers generally receive formal train­
ing before starting on the job. Som e com panies have 1
to 2 year program s; other firms offer classroom instruc­
tio n fo llo w e d by a d d itio n a l tra in in g u n d er the
supervision o f field managers.

-

s e r v i c e a d v i s o r s . T rainees are usually
selected from the em p loyees in the em ployer’s organi­
zation. For exam ple, a person may apply for a job as
service advisor trainee after gaining exp erience as
m echanic or parts counter worker trainee. Service ad­
visors trained on the job usually b ecom e qualified after
1 to 2 years o f experience.

Available training data .........................................

174

M a n u fa c tu r e r s '

A u to m o b ile

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements ....•............................................

525,000
16.3
12,700
6,700
6,000

20,000
28,000
21.3
800
450
350

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements ................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
Growth.............................................................
Replacements .................................................
Available training data .........................................

-

M any em ployers prefer
college graduates for insurance sales workers. D egrees
in alm ost any field are acceptable, but applicants who
have studied accounting, econ om ics, finance, business
law , or insurance are preferred. B ecau se su ccess in
selling is associated with personal qualities such as
aggressiveness and self-confidence, em ployers look for
these traits. Som e em ployers prefer individuals with
appropriate experience and personal characteristics,
whether or not they have attended college.
N ew ly hired workers usually receive som e formal
training. T rainees m ay attend com p an y-sp onsored
classes or courses at local colleges and universities.
H om e study (correspondence) courses are also availa­
ble.
All agents and m ost brokers m ust be licensed in the
State w here they sell insurance. M ost States require
that candidates for a licen se pass a written exam ination
in insurance fundam entals and State insurance law s.
Data for insurance agents and brokers are com bined
with data on underwriters.

380,000
387,000
2.4
9,500
800
8,700
-

In su ra n c e a g e n ts a n d b ro k e rs.

s a l e s w o r k e r s a n d b r o k e r s . High school
graduation is g en era lly th e m inim um ed u ca tio n a l
requirement for a job as a real estate salesw orker. M any
large firms prefer college graduates. H ow ever, m ost
em ployers consider personality traits as important as
academ ic training and prefer applicants with maturity,
tact, and sales ability.
Many firms offer formal training programs for begin­
ners and experienced workers. Many com m unity and
junior colleges and 4-year colleges and universities
offer co u rses and program s leading to a sso c ia te ,
bachelor’s, or advanced degrees in real estate. Courses
also are available through the N ational A ssociation of
Realtors.
All States and the District o f Columbia require real
estate salesw orkers and brokers to pass a w ritten
exam ination and to be licensed. M ost States require
brokers to have a specific amount o f experience selling
real estate or the equivalent in related experience or
education.
R e a l e s ta te

Employment, 1974 ..................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G rowth.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

Applicants should
have a driver’s licen se, a general understanding o f how
an autom obile w orks, and som e sales ability. A high
school education usually is not required excep t for ser­
vice station m anagem ent training programs conducted
by oil com panies. Attendants are trained on the job.

G a s o lin e s e r v ic e s ta tio n a t te n d a n ts .

Employment, 1974 .................................................



400,000
480,000
21.8
28,500
7,800
20,700

Available training data:

450,000

Vocational education completions .............
39

37,937

securities to be licensed. Personal bonds and written
exam inations are required to obtain this license. In
addition, practically all salesw orkers must be registered
representatives o f their firm according to the regula­
tions o f the securities exchanges through w hich they do
bu sin ess, or the N ational A ssociation o f Securities
D ealers, Inc. Exam inations and character investiga­
tions are required for registration.
M ost em ployers provide training to help new ly hired
salesw orkers m eet the requirements for registration.
Depending on the size o f the firm, this initial training
varies from short informal programs to com bined cla ss­
room instruction and on-the-job experience lasting 6
months or more.

s a l e s w o r k e r s . E m p loyers prefer high
school graduates. High sch ool subjects such as com ­
mercial arithmetic and merchandising provide a good
background. Som e high sch ools have distributive edu­
cation programs w hich teach the principles o f retail
selling. M ost sales workers learn their skills on the job,
how ever. In large stores, training programs for new ly
hired workers usually begin with several days o f class­
room instruction, follow ed by on-the-job training under
the supervision o f an experienced worker.

R e ta il tr a d e

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

2,800,000
3,175,000
15.1
190,000
38,000
152,000

Available training data:

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
Growth .............................................................
Replacements .................................................

-

Job corps com pletions...................................
Vocational education completions .............

141
169,319

1 Includes training for other occupations in retail trade.

Available training data .........................................

R o u te d r iv e r s .

M ost States require a route driver to
have a chauffeur’s licen se. M ost em ployers prefer
applicants w ho are high sch ool graduates and over 25
years o f age. Som e large com panies have classes in
sales techniques, but training is m ostly on the job.
Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements .................................................
Available training data .........................................

100,000
130,000
31.9
6,100
2,900
3,200
-

W h o l e s a l e t r a d e s a l e s w o r k e r s . High school graduation
is the usual requirement for a w holesale salesw orker,
although som e sales jobs require college training. An
engineering degree generally is needed to sell scientific
and technical products. N ew ly hired workers usually
begin as trainees, and are trained in several kinds o f
nonselling job s before being assigned to sales. Trainee
programs for college graduates usually involve cla ss­
room instruction as w ell as rotations to nonselling job s.
G enerally 2 years or longer are required before a trainee
is ready for his or her ow n sales territory.

190,000
200,000
4.1
3,700
700
3,000
-

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
Growth .............................................................
Replacements .................................................

Em ployers generally prefer
college graduates. A degree in business administration,
econ om ics, finance, or liberal arts is good preparation
for work selling securities. Su ccessfu l sales or m anage­
rial experience helps in getting a job , because many
em ployers look for specific personality traits and signs
o f sales ability. M ost States require persons w ho sell

S e c u r itie s s a le s w o r k e r s .

770,000
883,000
15.0
30,000
10,000
20,000

Available training data:
Vocational education completions .............

Construction Occupations
1 4‘Improvership” and apprenticeship are interchangeable
in reference to asbestos and insulation workers.

A sb estos workers
learn their trade through either informal on-the-job
training or a 4-year “ im provership” program. The improvership program is similar to apprenticeship. Em ­
ployers prefer high sch ool graduates.

A s b e s t o s a n d in s u la tio n w o r k e r s .

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements ................................
Percent growth, 1974— .....................................
85
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

Com pletion of a 3-year
apprenticeship program is the recom m ended training
for these trades. A high school education or its equiva­
lent is important for entry to apprenticeship programs.
Training may also be obtained informally on the job.
During the early 1970’s apprenticeship com pletions
numbered slightly more than one-half o f openings re­
sulting from growth and deaths and retirements.

B r ic k la y e r s a n d s to n e m a s o n s .

30,000
50,000
66.7
2,300
1,800
500

Available training data:
Apprenticeship completions ........................



Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................

*277
40

165,000
205,000

Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

T hese workers usually
start as helpers and learn m ost o f their skills on the job.
Som e em ployers, in cooperation with unions, offer
classroom instruction to supplem ent on-the-job train­
ing. High school graduates are preferred, but applicants
with less education frequently are hired.

24.2
6,500
3,600
2,900

D r y w a ll in s ta lle r s a n d f in is h e r s .

Available training data:
Vocational education completions .............
Job Corps completions .................................
Apprenticeship completions .......................

8,908
785
11,162

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
Growth.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

1 Includes stonemasons, marble-setters, and tile setters.
A 4-year apprenticeship program, includ­
ing 144 hours o f cla ssro o m instruction, is recom ­
m ended. Training may also be acquired on the job. A
high school education or its equivalent is desirable.
Som e know ledge o f the trade may be obtained through
vocational school courses in carpentry and shop.
During the early 1970’s, apprenticeship com pletions
numbered about 15 percent o f openings resulting from
growth and deaths and retirements.

C a r p e n te r s .

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

Available training data ......................................... *

A high school education
usually is required for electrician job s. An apprentice­
ship program lasting 4 years and including 144 hours o f
cla ssroom instruction each year is recom m en ded.
Training also may be acquired on the job. Som e trade
skills m ay be acquired through voca tio n a l sch o o l
courses. M ost cities require electricians to pass licens­
ing exam inations.
During the early 1970’s, apprenticeship com pletions
numbered about 60 percent o f openings resulting from
growth and deaths and retirements in the construction
industry, but many individuals w ho com pleted electri­
cian training w ent into other industries.

1,060,000
1,300,000
22.5
49,100
21,700
27,400

30,173
2,758
5,153

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
Growth.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

C em ent m asons learn their trade
either through on-the-job training as helpers or through
2 -y ea r or 3 -y ea r a p p r e n tic e s h ip s . H igh s c h o o l
graduates are preferred.
During the 1970’s, apprenticeship com pletions num­
bered about 15 percent o f openings resulting from growth
and deaths and retirem ents.

C em en t m ason s.

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G rowth.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

Job Corps completions .................................
Vocational education completions...............
Apprenticeship completions..........................

90,000
120,000
33.3
4,300
2,700
1,600

A high school education is re­
quired. A lm ost all elevator constructors learn their
trade p rim arily th rou gh o n -th e-jo b training su p ­
plem ented by classroom instruction. A trainee usually
can becom e a fully qualified constructor within 4 years.

E le v a to r c o n s tr u c to r s .

344
520

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
Growth.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

Employment, 1974 .................................................
865,000
Projected 1985 requirements................................ 1,004,000
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
16.1
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
28,400
Growth.............................................................
12,600
Replacements .......................................................
15,800
Available training data:




595
112,776
*5,933

1 All electricians, including maintenance.

C o n s t r u c t i o n l a b o r e r s . Little formal training is required
for w o rk as a b u ild in g or c o n s tr u c tio n lab orer.
Generally, applicants m ust be at least 18 years o f age
and in good physical condition.

Job Corps completions .................................

245,000
320,000
30.6
11,700
6,800
4,900

Available training data:

Available training data:
Job Corps completions .................................
Apprenticeship completions ........................

-

E le c tr ic ia n s (c o n s tr u c tio n ).

Available training data:
Vocational education completions .............
Job Corps completions .................................
Apprenticeship completions ........................

60,000
75,000
25.0
1,900
1,400
500

37

Available training data .........................................

-

High school graduates are
preferred. Courses in general m athem atics and shop
may provide a helpful background for floor covering
work. M ost workers acquire their skills on the job.
Others qualify through apprenticeship programs.

F lo o r c o v e r in g in s ta lle r s .

Employment, 1974 .................................................
41

19,000
25,000
31.6
1,050
550
500

85,000

Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 ......................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

100,000
17.6
2,400
1,400
1,000

A high school education is
preferred but not essential for painter and paperhanger
em ploym ent. Although a 3-year formal apprenticeship
program including related classroom instruction is
recom m ended, training also may be obtained infor­
mally on the job. During the early 1970’s apprentice­
ship com pletions numbered less than 10 percent o f open­
ings resulting from growth and deaths and retirem ents.

P a in te r s a n d p a p e r h a n g e r s .

Available training data:
Apprenticeship completions ........................

295

T hese w orkers learn their trade
through a 4-year apprenticeship or through on-the-job
training. A high sch ool diplom a or its equivalent is
required for entry into apprenticeship programs.
During the early 1970’s, apprenticeship com pletions
num bered nearly 50 percent o f openings resulting from
growth and deaths and retirem ents in the construction
industry, but som e individuals w ho com pleted glazier
training w ent into other industries.
G la z ie r s (c o n s tr u c tio n ).

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements ................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
Growth ..............................................................
Replacements ..................................................
Available training data:
Job Corps completions ..................................
Apprenticeship completions ........................

9,000
13,000
44.4
500
350
150

A 3- to 4-year apprenticeship including class­
room instruction is recom m ended, but many learn the
trade on the job by working as plasterers’ helpers or
laborers. High school graduates are preferred.
Employment, 1974 ..................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 ......................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th..............................................................
Replacements ..................................................

295

A lthough many lathers acquire their skills in­
form ally on the job , apprenticeship is recom m ended.
D epending on the local union, apprenticeship programs
last 2, 3, or 4 years. A pprenticeship applicants usually
are required to have a high school education or its
equivalent.
During the early 1970’s, apprenticeship com pletions
num bered slightly m ore than 35 percent o f openings
resulting from growth and deaths and retirements.

L a th e r s .

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

Job Corps completions .................................
Apprenticeship completions ........................

A 5-year apprenticeship
including related cla ssro o m in stru ction is reco m ­
m ended, but many learn the trade informally on the job.
E m ployers prefer high school graduates. Som e skills
may be acquired through vocational school courses.
Som e localities require workers to pass a licensing e x ­
amination.

25,000
25,000
0.0
200
0
200

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements ................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings .....................................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

277

e n g in e e r s
(c o n s tr u c tio n m a ch in ery
operators). A 3-year apprenticeship program is the
recom m ended training. High school graduates are pre­
ferred for th ese programs. M ost people, how ever, are
trained inform ally on the job .




375,000
535,000
42.7
23,500
14,600
8,900

Available training data:
Vocational education completions .............
Job Corps completions .................................
Apprenticeship completions.........................

400,000
610,000
51.4
27,000
18,800
8,200

7,174
127
x5,860

1 Includes sprinkler-fitters.
A 3-year apprenticeship including related
classroom instruction is recom m en ded for roofing
work. The majority o f roofers, how ever, acquire their
skills by working as helpers.

R o o fers.

Available training data:
Job corps com pletions...................................
Apprenticeship completions ........................

187
182

P lu m b e r s a n d p ip e fitte r s .

O p e r a tin g

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th.............................................................
Replacements .................................................

26,000
25,000
-3 .8
450
—100
550

Available training data:

Available training data:
Apprenticeship completions: .......................

605
1,037

P la s te r e r s .

Available training data:
Apprenticeship completions ........................

470,000
525,000
10.8
18,100
4,700
13,400

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements................................

914
806
42

90,000
130,000

Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

Growth..................................................
Replacements ........................................

44.4
5,000
3,600
1,400

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletions ......................................
A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................

Available training data:
A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................

129
2,464

387

S tru c tu ra l, o rn a m e n ta l, a n d re in fo rcin g iro n w o rk ers,
rig g e rs, a n d m a ch in e m o v e rs. A 3-year apprenticeship

S h e e t-m e ta l w o rk e rs. A 4-year apprenticeship program

including classroom instruction is recom m ended for
sheet-metal w orkers, but many people learn the trade
informally on the job. A high school education is re­
quired for en try to ap prenticeship program s, and
courses in m athem atics, m echanical drawing, and shop
provide a helpful background for learning the trade.
During the early 1970’s, the num ber of apprentice­
ship com pletions was greater than openings for sheetmetal w orkers in the construction industry, but m any
individuals completing sheet-m etal training went into
other industries.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................

900
1,100

program including related classroom instruction is re­
com m ended for these jobs. A pplicants for apprentice­
ship generally m ust have a high school education.
During the 1960’s and early 1970’s, apprenticeship
com pletions num bered about 30 percent of openings
resulting from grow th and deaths and retirem ents.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

65,000
75,000
15.4
2,000

85,000
112,000
31.8
3,900
2,500
1,400

Available training data:
A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................

Occupations in Tra

1,615

portation Activities
R eplacem ents .......................................................

Air tra n s p o rta tio n o c c u p a tio n s

1,800

Available training data:

A ir tra ffic c o n tro lle rs. Trainees are selected through the

A pprenticeship com pletions ....................................

com petitive Federal Civil Service System . Applicants
must have 3 years of progressively responsible work
experience that dem onstrates their potential and/or a
college degree. Successful applicants receive both onthe-job and formal training. It usually takes 2 to 3 years
to becom e a fully qualified controller.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ......................

A irp la n e p ilo ts . All com m ercial pilots m ust be licensed

by the Federal Aviation Adm inistration. Flying can be
learned in m ilitary or civilian flying schools. Applicants
hired by a scheduled airline usually start as flight en­
gineers, although they may begin as copilots.

22,000
27,500
24.8
750
500
250

Available training data ...............................................

—

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974—
85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

V ocational education com pletions ...............

red. M ost m echanics learn their jo b in the Arm ed
Forces or in private trade schools certified by the F ed­
eral A viation A d m inistration (FAA). O thers learn
through formal apprenticeship program s or on-the-job
training. Some large airlines train apprentices in care­
fully planned 3- or 4-year program s which include both
classroom instruction and w ork experience. M echanics
who w ork on civilian aircraft usually m ust be licensed
by the FAA.




79,000
101,000
28.7
2,800
2,100
700

A vailable training data:

A irp la n e m e c h a n ic s. High school graduates are prefer­

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................

19

1,016

F lig h t a tte n d a n ts . A pplicants m ust be high school

graduates, and those who have 2 years of college,
nurses’ training, or experience in dealing with the pub­
lic are preferred. M ost large airlines train their own
flight attendants; those that do not operate schools gen­
erally send trainees to the school of another airline.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

130,000
145,000
12.1
3,200
1,400

Available training data
43

41,000
56,000
35.2
6,400
1,300
5,100

R e s e r v a tio n , tic k e t , a n d p a s s e n g e r a g e n ts . Airlines re­

R eplacem ents .......................................................

quire a high school education and usually prefer appli­
cants with some college training.

A vailable training data ..............................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................
Available training data ..............................................

conductors on a seniority basis. To qualify, a perso n
usually m ust have several y ears’ experience as a brake
operator and pass exam inations covering signals, tim e­
tables, operating rules, and related subjects.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

least 3 years of appropriate sea experience or be a
graduate o f an approved training program . Training
may be obtained at either the U .S. M erchant M arine
A c a d e m y , o n e o f fiv e S ta te m e rc h a n t m a rin e
academ ies, or in a trade union training program . Officer
candidates also m ust pass a C oast G uard exam ination.
Although there are no educational requirem ents, formal
training usually is needed to pass the exam ination for an
officer’s license.

usually filled by training and promoting engineer helpers
according to seniority rules. A pplicants for h elp er
jobs m ust be at least 21 years old; high school graduates
are preferred. H elpers qualify for prom otion by proving
their ability to operate locom otives and by passing a
com prehensive exam on subjects such as m echanical
and electrical equipm ent and operating rules and regu­
lations.

7,500
7,500
0.0
150
0
150

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

-

A vailable training data ..............................................

vious sea experience in the C oast G uard or N avy is
helpful. In addition, applicants m ust obtain m erchant
m arine papers from the C oast Guard. M ost training
program s are designed to upgrade experienced w ork­
ers, but the S eafarers’ International Union of N orth
A m erica operates a school that trains inexperienced
young people.

Available training data ...............................................

-

m on way of entering the railroad shop trades, although
some w orkers learn on the job and are upgraded from
jobs as helpers and laborers. A pplicants who have had
shop training in high schools are preferred.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual op en in gs, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

20,000
17,150
- 1 4 .2
50
250
300

75,000
57,000
- 2 7 .0
—300
—1,900
1,600

A vailable training data ...............................................

-

S ig n a l d e p a r tm e n t w o rk e rs. N ew em ployees are as­

signed as helpers to experienced w orkers. A fter about
60 to 90 days of training, they may advance to assis­
tants; after another 2 to 4 years, qualified assistants m ay
be prom oted to signal installers or m aintainers. Rail­
roads prefer applicants who are high school graduates.

B ra k e o p e ra to r s . Em ployers prefer applicants with a

high school education. O perators learn their skills on
the job. It usually takes a year or so to learn the job
thoroughly.




37,000
38,500
4.3
1,350
150
1,200

S h o p tr a d e s . A pprenticeship training is the m ost com ­

R ailro ad o c c u p a tio n s

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openin gs, 1974-85 ......................
Growth .....................................................................

—

L o c o m o tiv e e n g in e e rs. Openings in engineer jo b s are

M e rc h a n t m a rin e s a ilo rs. Although not required, pre­

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Prokected 1985 requirem ents ..................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

39,500
41,000
4 .6
1,250
150
1,100

A vailable training data ...............................................

-

M e rc h a n t m a rin e o ffic e rs. C andidates m ust have at

Available training data ..............................................

-

C o n d u c to rs. Qualified brake operators are prom oted to

56,000
76,000
35.8
4,250
1,800
2,450

M e rc h a n t m a rin e o c c u p a tio n s

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r eq u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

1,100

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual op en in gs, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

73,000
69,000
-5 .8
700
-4 0 0

Available training data
44

11,500
11,200
-2 .6
250
-5 0
300

S ta tio n a g e n ts . Station agents rise from the ranks of

L o c a l tra n sit b u sd riv e rs. Generally, applicants m ust

other railroad occupations. E xperienced telegraphers,
telephoners, tow er operators, and clerks may advance
to jobs as agents in small stations and may be prom oted
to larger stations as they gain seniority.

have a chauffeur’s license. N ew drivers usually are
trained on the job.

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................
Available training data ..............................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ....................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

7,600
3,700
- 5 1 .0
-2 0 0
-3 5 0
150

A vailable training data ..............................................

the type of truck and nature of the business. In m ost
States, how ever, applicants m ust have a chauffeur’s
license. N ew drivers usually are trained on the job.

workers receive on-the-job training that covers operat­
ing rules, train orders, and station operations. M ost
railroads require trainees to pass exam inations on train
operating rules and dem onstrate ability to use the
eq u ip m en t b efo re th ey can q u alify . H igh school
graduates are preferred.

Available training data ..............................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 re q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

11,000
6,600
- 3 9 .0
-1 5 0
-4 0 0
250

Job Corps com p letion s

set by the U .S. D epartm ent of Transportation require
that drivers m ust be at least 21 years old and pass
written and physical examinations. Most States require a
chauffeur’s license. Some trucking com panies have
even higher standards. M any com panies specify height
and weight lim itations for drivers and some hire only
applicants who have several y ears’ experience driving
trucks. In addition, they m ust pass an exam ination on
the M otor C arrier Safety Regulations of the U .S. D e­
partm ent of T ransportation. D river training courses in
high school or in a private driving school are good p rep­
aration.

-

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .....................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

In te r c ity b u sd riv e rs. M inimum qualifications estab­

lished by the U .S. D epartm ent of Transportation re­
quire intercity bus drivers to be at least 21 years old, and
pass w ritten and physical exam inations; bus com panies
generally have even higher requirem ents. M ost prefer
applicants who are at least 25 years old, and m any
prefer those who have truck or bus driving experience.
M ost companies conduct 2- to 6-week training programs
for new em ployees. M ost States require busdrivers to
have a chauffeur’s license.

540,000
585,000
8.1
12,000
4,000
8,000

A vailable training data ...............................................

Driving o c c u p a tio n s

~

P a r k in g a tte n d a n ts . E m ployers prefer high school

graduates. A pplicants m ust have a valid driver’s license
and be able to drive all types of cars. The ability to keep
records of claim tickets, com pute parking charges, and
m ake change also is im portant. Some em ployers offer
training program s that review proper driving tech ­
niques and outline com pany policy on recordkeeping
procedures and dam age claims.

25,000
26,000
3.9
850
100
750

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .....................

Available training data



x115

L o n g -d is ta n c e tru c k d riv e rs. M inimum qualifications

57,000
55,000
- 2 .9
1,050
-1 5 0
1,200

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

....................................

1 M ay include long-distance drivers.

T rack w o rk ers (ra ilro a d ). M ost learn their skills through
on-the-job training that lasts about 2 years. Applicants
should be able to read, write, and perform heavy work.

Available training data ..............................................

1,600,000
1,760,000
8.5
38,500
12,500
26,000

A vailable training data:

-

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

-

L o c a l tru c k d riv e rs. Qualifications vary depending on

-

T e le g ra p h e rs, te le p h o n e rs, a n d to w e r o p e ra to rs. New

E m ploym ent, 1984 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u irem en ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

71,000
78,500
10.4
2,900
700
2,200

45

42,000
45,000
7.0
1,800

Growth..................................................
Replacements ........................................

300
1,500

A vailable training data ...............................................

the location of streets. A large num ber of com panies
only hire applicants who are at least 21; some require
drivers to be 25 years of age.

-

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .....................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

T a x ica b d riv e rs. In m ost cities taxi drivers m ust have a

State-issued chauffeur’s license, as well as a special
o p erato r’s license issued by the local police, safety
d ep artm en t, or Public U tilities C om m ission. Some
com panies teach the applicant taxicab regulations and

92,000
89,000
- 3 .7
2,450
-3 0 0
2,750

A vailable training data

Scientific and Technical Occupations
C o n s e rv a tio n o c c u p a tio n s

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
A verage annual op en in gs, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .....................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

F o r e s te r s . A bachelor’s degree with a m ajor in forestry

generally is required to becom e a forester. Teaching
and research generally require advanced degrees.
It is anticipated that an average of about 950 new
entrants will be required annually over the 1974-85
period to m eet projected requirem ents. Follow up data
on college graduates indicate that m ore than two-thirds
of those obtaining bachelor’s degrees in forestry have
sought to enter the field. If this proportion were to seek
em ploym ent in forestry in the future, 1,300 bachelor’s
degrees w ould have to be granted annually over the
1974-85 period to m eet projected requirem ents. Projec­
tions of the N ational C enter for E ducation Statistics
indicate an average of alm ost 2,500 bachelor’s degrees
in forestry annually over this period. Thus, unless the
num ber of degrees granted in forestry is low er than the
num ber p ro jected , a higher p ro p o rtio n of fo restry
graduates may have em ploym ent in other fields than in
the past.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ......
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974—85 .....................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

A vailable training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ....................................
Junior college graduates ...................................

1 9 7 3 -7 4
B achelor’s degrees .
M aster’s degrees ....
D octor’s degrees ....

2,337
408
35

range m anagem ent, range conservation, or a closely
related field usually is required to becom e a range m an­
ager. An advanced degree is generally necessary for
research and teaching positions. M any college students
obtain valuable experience through sum m er jo b s with
Federal G overnm ent agencies such as the F orest Ser­
vice or B ureau of L and M anagem ent.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th 1974—85 ............................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .....................
Growth ...........
R eplacem ents ........................................................

24,000
29,000
20.5
950
450
500

2,500
3,850
53.9
150
100
50

A vailable training data:
D egrees in range m anagem ent:
B ach elor’s degrees ..................................
M aster’s degrees ..............
D o cto r’s degrees ............

P ro je c te d
1 9 7 4 -8 5
(annual a vera g e)

163
43
19

E n g in e e rs

2,480
462
89

A b a c h e lo r’s degree in engineering generally is
required for m ost entry positions. College graduates
trained in one of the physical sciences or m athem atics
also may qualify for some jobs. Experienced techni­
cians with some engineering education may advance to
engineering jobs. G raduate training is em phasized for
an increasing num ber of jobs; it is essential for college
and university teaching and for some research posi­
tions, and is desirable for advancem ent in m any areas.
All 50 S tates and the D istrict of Colum bia require
licensing for engineers w hose w ork may affect life,

F o r e s tr y te c h n ic ia n s. C om pletion of specialized 1- or

2-year p o stseco n d ary school curriculum s, govern­
m e n t s p o n s o re d tra in in g p ro g ra m s , o r e x p e ri­
ence in forest w ork such as planting trees or fighting
fires generally is required for beginning technician jobs.
P ostsecondary training can be obtained in technical
institutes, ju nior or com m unity colleges, and some uni­
versities.



216
1,980

R a n g e m a n a g e rs. A bachelor’s degree with a m ajor in

A vailable training data:
D eg rees in fo r e str y

10,500
13,800
32.1
500
300
200

46

health, or property, or who offer their services to the
public.
New graduates with engineering m ajors are the pri­
mary source of engineers. Lim ited data on past patterns
of entry into the occupation indicate large num bers also
have entered from other sources: w orkers who shift
occupations (including workers who are upgraded); per­
sons not in the labor force (including those in the
Armed Forces); im migrants; and college graduates with
majors in fields other than engineering.15 However, pat­
terns of entry from these other sources are affected, to
some extent, by the availability of engineering graduates.
If the same proportion of openings as during the 1960’s
were to be filled from these o ther sources, an estim ated
32.000 other entrants could be expected annually over
the 1974-85 period. U nder these assum ptions, about
41.000 new engineering graduates would have to enter
the field annually to m eet projected requirem ents.
Followup studies of new college graduates indicate that
about 85 percent of bachelor’s degree recipients in
engineering eventually enter the profession. Therefore,
about 48,000 engineering graduates would be needed
an n u ally to o b tain th is re q u ire d n u m b er o f new
entrants.
Projections of the N ational C enter for E ducation
S tatistics, how ever, indicate an average of alm ost
57.000 bachelor’s degrees in engineering annually over
this period. T herefore, to the extent that em ployers
prefer to hire new engineering graduates, requirem ents
for engineers could be m et with less reliance on other
entrants than in the past.
Em ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

E n v iro n m en tal s c ie n tis ts
G e o lo g is ts . A bachelor’s degree in geology or a related

field is adequate training for m any entry jobs. An ad­
vanced degree is helpful for prom otion in m ost types of
w ork and is necessary for college teaching and some
research positions.
N ew college graduates with a m ajor in geology are the
m ajor source of supply. H ow ever, limited data on past
patterns of entry into the occupation indicate that a
significant num ber of w orkers have entered geology
from other sources: new college graduates not majoring
in geology, im m igrants, persons not in the labor force,
and persons employed in other occupations.16 Although
many factors affect the num ber of other entrants, in­
cluding the availability of geology graduates, significant
num bers probably will continue to enter. If past p at­
terns of entry from these other sources continue, it is
expected that about 900 new geology graduates would
need to enter the occupation each year to m eet pro­
jected requirem ents. Followup data on college grad­
uates indicate that in the past, less than one-third of
those who received bachelor’s degrees in geology, in­
cluding those who did graduate study in geology, actu ­
ally entered the field. (Many of those not entering the
field becam e high school teachers, or entered other
occupations.) If this entry rate were to continue, an
average of about 2,800 bachelor’s degree graduates in
geology would be needed annually to m eet projected
requirem ents. Projections of the N C ES indicate an av­
erage of about 4,000 bachelor’s degrees annually in
geology.

1,100,000
1,500,000
32.8
73,000
33,500
x39,600

E m ploym ent, 1974 .............
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ........................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

A vailable training data:
D eg rees in en g in eerin g 2
197 3 —74
B achelor’s degrees .
M aster’s degrees ....
D octor’s degrees ....

50,693
15,385
3,312

P ro je c te d
1 9 7 4 -8 5
(annual a vera g e)

A vailable training data:
D e g re e s in g e o lo g y

56,714
17,128
2,827

73—74
B ach elor’s degrees
M aster’s degrees ....
D o cto r’s degrees ....

in c lu d e s an estim ated 20,600 replacem ents for th ose w ho
transfer to other occupations,
in c lu d e s engineering tech n ology.
15
Data on past patterns of entry are available from Two Years After
the College D egree-W ork and Further Study Patterns (National
Science Foundation, 1963), and thePostcensal Study o f Professional
and Technical Personnel, a followup study of persons who were
reported in professional and technical occupations in the 1960
Census. Selected data from the study are presented in Technician
Manpower: Requirements, Resources, and Training Needs, Bulletin
1512 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1966). The Bureau currently is
developing more recent entry rates. The National Science Founda­
tion has published data on scientists and engineers from abroad,
based on special tabulations prepared by the Immigration and
Naturalization Service of the Department of Justice.



23,000
32,000
39.4
1,900
800
1 1,100

47

3,151
870
258

P ro je c te d
1 9 7 4 -8 5
(annual a vera g e)
4,054
866
302

1 Includes an estim ated 600 replacem ents for th ose w ho
transfer to other occupations.

G e o p h y s ic is ts . A bachelor’s degree in geophysics or a

geophysical specialty, or a bachelor’s degree in a re­
lated field of science or engineering with courses in
geophysics, physics, geology, m athem atics, chem istry,
and engineering is generally the m inimum requirem ent
16 See footnote 15.

for em ploym ent as a geophysicist. G raduate training is
usually necessary for research, college and university
teaching, and for supervisory positions in exploration
activities.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
P rojected 1985 r eq u ir e m e n ts....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

Life s c ie n c e o c c u p a tio n s
L ife s c ie n tis ts . A bachelor’s degree is adequate p rep­

aration for some jobs. H ow ever, m any positions re­
quire graduate training; a Ph.D usually is required for
college teaching and for senior research positions. A
professional health degree is necessary for some jo b s in
medical research.
N ew graduates with a m ajor in one of the life sciences
are the prim ary source o f supply of life scientists. H ow ­
ever, limited data on patterns of entry into the occupa­
tion indicate that a significant num ber of w orkers have
entered from other sources: im migration, reentran ts to
the labor force; graduates with m ajors other than in the
life sciences; and w orkers who transfer from other o c­
cupations. A lthough m any factors, including the rela­
tive availability of life science graduates, affect the
num ber of other entrants, significant num bers probably
will continue to enter the occupation. If past pattern s of
entry from these sources continue, it is expected th at
about 9,200 life science graduates would need to enter
each year to m eet projected requirem ents. L ess than
one-third of those w ho received bachelor’s degrees in
the life sciences in the p ast, including those who did
graduate study in the life sciences, actually entered the
field. (M any have becom e secondary school teachers
and laboratory technicians or gone to m edical, dental,
and veterinary schools; som e with degrees in agri­
culture have becom e farm ers and ranchers.) If this
entry rate w ere to continue, an average of 32,200
bachelor’s degree graduates in the life sciences would
be needed annually to m eet projected requirem ents.
Projections of the N C E S indicate an average of about
68,000 bachelor’s degrees annually in the life sciences
over this period. T herefore, unless the num ber o f de­
grees granted in the life sciences is low er than the
num ber projected, a higher proportion of graduates
may have to seek em ploym ent in other fields than in the
past.

8,200
11,400
39.4
650
300
*350

A vailable training data:
D egrees in geop h y sics and seism ology:
B ach elor’s degrees ....................................
M aster’s degrees .........................................
D o cto r’s degrees .........................................

84
56
47

1 Includes an estim ated 200 replacem ents for th ose w ho
transfer to other occupations.

M e te o r o lo g is ts . A bachelor’s degree in m eteorology or

in a related science—usually physics, m athem atics, or
engineering with courses in m eteorology— is generally
the minimum education required to becom e a m eteo­
rologist. An advanced degree is necessary for some
positions, particularly in research and in college and
university teaching.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

5,000
6,900
23.3
200
100
100

A vailable training data:
D egrees in atm ospheric scien ces and
m eteorology:
B ach elor’s degrees ....................................
M aster’s degrees .........................................
D o cto r’s degrees .........................................

294
195
54

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

O c e a n o g ra p h e rs. An advanced degree, preferably a

Ph.D . in oceanography, one of the natural sciences, or
e n g in e e rin g g e n e ra lly is re q u ire d to b e c o m e an
oceanographer. A bachelor’s degree is sufficient for
beginning jo b s as research or laboratory assistant in
oceanography.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
P rojected 1985 requirem ents .....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

A vailable training data:

2,500
3,100
22.5
100
50
50

D e g re e s in b io lo g ic a l scien ces
a n d in agricu ltu ral a n d natural reso u rces
1 9 7 3-74

A vailable training data:

B ach elor’s degrees .
M aster’s degrees ....
D o cto r’s degrees ....

D egrees in oceanography:
B achelor’s degrees .........................................
M aster’s degrees .............................................
D octor’s degrees .............................................



190,000
245,000
29.0
16,400
5,400
1 11,00

237
199
70

P ro je c te d
1 974-85
(annual averaQ e)

65,159
9,520
4,370

68,427
10,665
4,765

1 Includes an estim ated 5,700 replacem ents for th ose w ho
transfer to other occu p ation s.

48

M a th e m a tic s o c c u p a tio n s

A vailable training data:
D egrees in statistics:

M a th e m a tic ia n s . F or the m ajority of positions, at least

a m aster’s degree in m athem atics generally is required;
a Ph.D. generally is required for teaching in colleges
and u n iv ersities. H o w ev er, fo r som e po sitio n s, a
bachelor’s degree is adequate.
It is anticipated that an average of about 1,550 new
entrants will be needed annually over the 1974-85
period to m eet projected requirem ents. Projections of
the N C ES indicate an annual average of about 800
d o c to ra te s and a b o u t 4,200 m a s te r’s d eg rees in
m athem atics over the period. Lim ited followup d ata on
college graduates indicate that in the past, alm ost all
doctorate holders and about a third of m aster’s degree
holders entered the field. (Many m aster’s degree hold­
ers not entering the field have becom e high school
teachers or entered com puter-related occupations.)
Limited d ata on past patterns of entry into the occupa­
tion indicate that some w orkers also entered from other
sources: transfers from other occupations, reentrants
into the labor force, im m igrants, and new college
graduates not majoring in m athem atics.17 Data, however,
are not sufficient to estim ate future entrants from these
sources.
N e v e rth e le ss, it ap p e ars likely th a t u n less the
num ber of advanced degrees granted in m athem atics is
lower than the num ber projected, a higher proportion of
m athem atics graduates may have to seek em ploym ent
in other fields than in the past.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

B ach elor’s degrees ....................................
M aster’s degrees ........................................
D o cto r’s degrees ........................................

P h y sic a l s c ie n tis ts
A s tr o n o m e r s . A Ph.D. degree in astronom y usually is

required for jobs as astronom ers. Persons with less
education may qualify for some jobs, but their ad­
vancem ent opportunities are limited.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings ..........................................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

1 9 7 3-74
B achelor’s degrees .
M aster’s degrees ....
D o cto r’s degrees ....

21,813
4,840
1,031

D egrees in astronom y:
B ach elor’s degrees ....................................
M aster’s degrees ..................................................
D o cto r’s degrees ..................................................

th e m inim um re q u ire m e n t fo r e n try p o sitio n s in
analysis and testing, quality control, technical service
and sales, or jobs as assistants to senior chem ists in
research and developm ent laboratories. G raduate train­
ing is essential for many positions, and is helpful for
advancem ent in all types of work. A Ph.D . degree gen­
erally is required for teaching in colleges and univer­
sities.
The m ajor source of supply of chem ists is from new
graduates m ajoring in chem istry. H ow ever, limited
data on past patterns of entry into the occupation indi­
cate that a significant num ber of w orkers have entered
chem istry from other sources: immigration; persons
reentering the labor force; graduates who did not m ajor
in chem istry; and persons entering from other occupa­
tio n s.18 Although m any factors affect the num ber of
other entrants, including the availability of chem istry
graduates, significant num bers probably still will con­
tinue to enter the occupation.
If past entry patterns continue, about 4,600 entrants
could be expected from these other sources. Therefore
it is expected that about 5,300 chem istry graduates
would need to enter each year to m eet projected re­
quirem ents. Followup data on college graduates indi­
cate that in the past few er than half of those who re­
ceived bachelor’s degrees in chem istry, including those
who did graduate study in chem istry, actually entered
the field. (Many of those not entering chem istry have
gone on to m edical, dental or veterinary schools, or
becom e secondary school teachers.) If this entry rate

P ro je c te d
1974-85
(annual a vera g e)
19,205
4,154
769

S ta tis tic ia n s . A b a c h e lo r’s degree in statistics or

m athem atics generally is required to becom e a statis­
tician. F or some jo bs, how ever, a bachelor’s degree in
econom ics or another applied field and a m inor in statis­
tics is preferable. An advanced degree is required for
some positions, particularly college teaching.
24,000
31,000
32.6
1,450
650
800

18 See footnote 15, p. 47.

17 See footnote 15„, p. 47.



152

C h e m ists. A bachelor’s degree in chem istry is usually

40,000
46,100
16.5
1,550
600
950

Em ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

2,000
2,080
4.0
30
10
20

Available training data:

Available training data:
D eg rees in m a th em a tics

257
453
147

49

82
77

continues, an average of about 10,900 bachelor’s degree
graduates in chem istry would be needed annually over
the 1974-85 period to m eet projected requirem ents.
Projections of the N C ES indicated an average of about
10,100 bachelor’s degrees annually in chem istry over
this period.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85
......................................
Average annual openin gs, 1974-85 .........................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
A vailable training data:
D e g re e s in p h y sic s

135,000
173,000
28.6
10,000
3,500
^ ,5 0 0

1 973-74
B ach elor’s degrees .
M aster’s d egrees ....
D o cto r’s d egrees ....

D eg rees in ch em istry
19 7 3 -7 4

P ro je c te d
1974-85
(annual avera g e)

3,936
1,645
1,100

3,625
1,514
794

10,517
2,095
1,760

10,064
2,076
1,507

O th er sc ie n tific a n d te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s
B r o a d c a s t te c h n ic ia n s . T echnicians m ust ob tain a

R adio-Telephone F irst Class O perator license from the
F ederal Com m unications Com m ission. To obtain the
license, applicants m ust pass a series of w ritten tests
covering subjects such as the construction and o p era­
tion of transm ission and receiving equipm ent. C ourses
in m athem atics, science, and electronics and special
courses designed to prepare students for the F C C ’s
license test are good preparation. Technical school or
college education is an advantage for those wanting to
advance to supervisory positions or to m ore specialized
jobs in large stations and in the netw orks.

1 Includes an estim ated 3,600 replacem ents for those w ho
transfer to other occup ation s.

P h y s ic is ts . G raduate training in physics or a related

field is necessary for m ost jobs; a doctorate is usually
required for teaching in colleges and universities and for
senior research positions. F or som e jo b s, how ever, a
bachelor’s degree is adequate.
College graduates with a m ajor in physics are the
prim ary source of supply of new physicists. H ow ever,
limited data on past patterns of entry into the occupa­
tion indicate that a significant num ber of w orkers also
have entered physics from other sources: immigration;
college graduates with nonphysics m ajors; persons re­
entering the labor force; and persons entering from
other occu p atio n s.19 A lthough m any factors, including
the availability o f physics graduates, affect the num ber
of other entrants, significant num bers probably will
continue to enter the occupation.
If past entry patterns continue, about 1,400 entrants
could be expected from these sources. Thus, it is ex­
pected that about 1,600 physics graduates would need
to enter each year to m eet projected requirem ents. F ol­
lowup data on college graduates indicate that in the past
few er than half of those who received bachelor’s de­
grees in physics, including those who did graduate
study in physics, actually entered the field. (M any of
those not becom ing physicists entered high school
teaching, com puter-related occupations, and engineer­
ing.) If this entry rate w ere to continue, about 3,300
b a c h e lo r’s d eg ree g ra d u ates in ph y sics w ould be
needed annually to m eet projected requirem ents. *
Projections of the N C ES indicate an average of about
3,600 bachelor’s degrees annually over this period.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ..............................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

22,000
26,000
18.2
1,350
350
1,000

A vailable training data ..............................................

—

D r a fte r s . Post-high school drafting training in technical

institutes, junior and com m unity colleges, extension
divisions of universities, and vocational and technical
high schools generally provides adequate training for
beginning drafters. N ecessary skills also m ay be ob­
tained on the job, com bined with part-tim e schooling or
through 3- or 4-year apprenticeship program s.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual op en in gs, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

313,000
444,000
41.7
17,300
12,000
5,300

* Available training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ......................................
V ocational education com p letion s ...............
A pprenticeship com p letion s ...........................

48,000

65
30,151
324

E n g in e e rin g a n d s c ie n c e te c h n ic ia n s. Persons can qual­

ify as engineering and science technicians through
m any com binations of education and w ork experience.

See footnote 15, p. 47.



P ro je c te d
1 9 7 4 -85
(annual a v era g e)

1 Includes an estim ated 1,300 replacem ents for th o se w ho
transfer to other occu p ation s.

A vailable training data:

B achelor’s degrees .
M aster’s degrees ....
D o cto r’s degrees ....

59,400
25.0
3,000
11,900

50

Post-high school technical training consists of 1 to 4
years o f full-time study at a technical training institute,
junior and com m unity college, extension division of a
college and university, or vocational-technical high
school. Training also may be acquired on the jo b or
through part-tim e courses in postsecondary schools or
in correspondence schools. Qualifications also can be
obtained through experience in technical jobs in the
Arm ed Forces.

A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................
Junior co llege graduates ...................................

*138
39,024

1 E lectronics technicians.

S u r v e y o rs. A com bination of postsecondary school

courses in surveying and extensive on-the-job training
is the m ost com m on m ethod of entry. Junior colleges,
technical institutes, and vocational schools offer 1-, 2-,
and 3-year program s in surveying. All 50 States require
licensing or registration of those land surveyors respon­
sible for locating and describing land boundaries.

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r eq u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

560,000
794,000
41.4
32,000
21,000
11,000

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings ..........................................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

55,000
86,600
592
3,600
2,700
900

Available training data:
V ocational education com pletions ...............

42,408

Available training data:
Junior college graduates ...................................

2,203

Mechanics and Repairers
Telephone craft occupations

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

C e n tra l o ffic e c ra ft o c c u p a tio n s . Trainee jobs are filled

by em ployees already with the com pany such as tele­
phone operators, and occasionally by w orkers from
outside the com pany. Although no formal education is
required, a basic knowledge of electricity and elec­
tronics and/or telephone training in the Arm ed Forces is
helpful. N ew craftw orkers receive classroom instruc­
tion and on-the-job training.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................
Available training data ..............................................

Available training data ..............................................

T e le p h o n e

110,000
130,000
18.2
2,900
1,800
1,100
-

and

Available training data ..............................................

r e p a ir e r s .

115,000
130,000
12.1
2,400
1,300
1,100
-

Other mechanics and repairers

30,000
36,000
18.0
800
500
300

A ir -c o n d itio n in g , r e f r ig e r a tio n , a n d
h e a tin g
m e c h a n ic s. M ost m echanics start as helpers and learn

their skills on the job. Em ployers prefer high school
graduates who have studied m athem atics, physics,
electronics, and blueprint reading. M any high schools
and vocational schools offer courses to prepare stu­
dents for entry jobs.

-

L in e in sta lle rs a n d c a b le sp lic e r s . Com panies hire in­

experienced w orkers as trainees. Knowledge of the
basic principles of electricity and/or telephone training
in the A rm ed Forces is helpful. Applicants usually m ust
pass physical exam s because som e line and cable work
is strenuous. Training includes classroom and on-thejo b instruction.



in s ta lle r s

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

ceive on-the-job training and classroom instruction. It
takes several years to becom e a skilled installer.

A vailable training data ...............................................

PBX

-

Applicants are selected from telephone com pany em ­
ployees and inexperienced people from outside the
com pany who have passed an aptitude test. Training
includes both on-the-job and classroom instruction.

C e n tra l o ffic e e q u ip m e n t in sta lle rs. N ew w orkers re­

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

and

55,000
53,500
- 3 .6
150
-2 0 0
350

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings ..........................................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

51

200,000
285,000
33.6
10,900
7,000
3,900

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletions ......................................
V ocational education com pletions ...............
A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................

B o a t m o to r m e c h a n ic s. G enerally, 2 to 3 years of on-

the-job training are necessary to becom e skilled in re ­
pairing both outboard and inboard gasoline m otors. A
high school diplom a is preferred but not required.
C ourses in small engine repair, auto m echanics, and
m achine shop are helpful.

240
13,215
279

A p p lia n c e re p a ire rs. These w orkers usually start as

helpers and are trained on the job. High school courses
in electricity, electronics, shop m ath, and blueprint
reading provide a good background for appliance repair
work. Form al training in appliance repair and related
subjects is available from som e vocational schools,
technical schools, and com m unity colleges.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings ..........................................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings ..........................................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................
A vailable training data ..............................................

135,000
170,000
24.1
5,600
3,000
2,600

their skills at schools m aintained by bowling-m achine
m anufacturers or on the job. A fter attending factory
schools, trainees need several m onths of on-the-job
ex p erien ce. E m ployers p refer to hire high school
graduates.

4,877
108

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

A u to m o b ile b o d y re p a ire rs. G enerally, 3 to 4 years of

on-the-job training are necessary to becom e fully qual­
ified. M ost training authorities recom m end the com ple­
tion of a 3- or 4-year apprenticeship program which
includes on-the-job and related classroom instruction.
Although high school graduation is not required for an
entry jo b , m ost em ployers consider this an asset.
Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements ...............................
Percent growth, 1974-85 ....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ....................
G row th............................................................
Replacements ....'............................................

A vailable training data ...............................................

765
17,310
307

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent change, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual op en in gs, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

learn the trade through 3 to 4 years of on-the-job experi­
ence. A dditional time may be needed to learn a difficult
specialty such as autom atic transm ission repair. T rain­
ing authorities usually recom m end com pletion of a 3- or
4-year apprenticeship program as the best way to learn
the trade. Auto m echanic training in the Arm ed Forces
and courses offered at high schools, vocational schools,
or private trade schools are helpful.




65,000
97,000
49.8
3,100
2,900
200

A vailable training data:
Job Corps com pletions ......................................
V ocational education com pletions ...............
A pprenticeship c o m p le tio n s.............................

60
x988
*387

1 M ay include som e com puter service technicians.

C o m p u te r se r v ic e te c h n ic ia n s. Em ployers usually re­

735.000
875.000
19.3
24,400
12,900
11,500

quire applicants to have 1 to 2 years of post-high school
training in basic electronics or electrical engineering
from a com puter school, a technical institute, a ju n io r
college, or a college. E lectronics training in the A rm ed
Forces is also excellent preparation for trainees.

Available training data:
Job Corps completions ................................
Vocational education completions ............
Apprenticeship com pletions........................

-

through on-the-job training following instruction in
m an u fa ctu rers’ training schools. E m ployers desire
applicants who are at least high school graduates, and
like to hire veterans who have had electronics training
in the A rm ed Forces. Trainees usually need 1 to 3 years
of on-the-job training following a formal training p ro ­
gram before they are considered fully qualified.

A u to m o b il e m e c h a n ic s . M ost autom obile m echanics

Employment, 1974 .................................................
Projected 1985 requirements...............................
Percent growth, 1974-85 .....................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ...................
G row th............................................................
Replacements ................................................

5,000
5,600
7.7
150
50
100

B u sin e ss m a c h in e re p a ire rs. M ost acquire their skills

145.000
176.000
21.4
4,700
2,800
1,900

Available training data:
Job Corps completions ................................
Vocational education completions ............
Apprenticeship com pletions........................

-

B o w lin g -p in -m a c h in e m e c h a n ic s . M echanics learn

Available training data:
V ocational education com pletions ...............
Job Corps com pletions ......................................

11,000
14,000
29.0
550
300
250

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................

1,962
76,280
1,330

52

50,000
93,000
86.0
4,300

Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................
Available training data:
Junior college com pletions ..............................

formal apprenticeship program s consisting of on-thejob training and related classroom instruction.

3,900
400
226

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

D ie se l m e c h a n ic s. G enerally, m echanics need 3 to 4

years of on-the-job training or formal apprenticeship to
become fully qualified. Em ployers prefer to hire high
school graduates. Trade and technical school courses in
diesel engine m aintenance and experience in repairing
gasoline engines are helpful.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

Available training data:
Job Corps c o m p le tio n s......................................
A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................

95,000
125,000
29.5
3,400
1,700
1,700

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletions ......................................
V ocational education com pletions ...............

93
4,308

or through formal apprenticeship program s. A ppren­
ticeships generally last 4 years and com bine classroom
instruction with work experience. Some repairers train
for instrum ent w ork in technical institutes or junior
colleges. These schools offer program s that usually last
2 years and em phasize basic engineering courses, sci­
en c e, and m ath em atics. A rm ed F o rc e s tech n ic al
schools also offer training. Trainees or apprentices gen­
erally m ust be high school graduates.

the job. Some repairers qualify through 4-year elec­
tricians’ apprenticeship program s. Em ployers prefer to
hire high school graduates. M any cities require repair­
ers to pass a com prehensive exam ination in electrical
theory and its application to receive a license.

Available training data ..............................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth ............................ ........................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

trade either by serving a 3 to 4 year formal apprentice­
ship or through inform al on-the-job training while w ork­
ing for an experienced jew eler. Some technical schools
offer courses in jew elry repair.

-

E m ploym ent, 1974 .............
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

18,000
18,600
2.8
750
50
700

A vailable training data ...............................................

—

L o c k sm ith s. A bout 4 years of on-the-job training are

60,000
75,000
25.0
2,700
1,300
1,400

needed to qualify as a locksm ith. A dditional training is
needed to service electronic security system s. High
school graduates are preferred. Some cities require
locksm iths to be licensed.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

49
*27,822

1 In c lu d e s o th er o c c u p a tio n s r e la te d to agricu ltu ra l
machinery.

Available training data ..............................................

In d u stria l m a c h in e ry re p a ire rs. M ost w orkers who be­

9,000
11,000
27.3
400
200
200
-

M a in te n a n c e e le c tr ic ia n s . A high school education

come industrial m achinery repairers begin as helpers
and acquire their skills through several y ea rs’ experi­
ence on the job. O thers learn their trade through 4-year



—

J e w e le r s . These w orkers generally learn the jew elry

mechanics begin as helpers and learn skills on the job.
Em ployers prefer high school graduates who have a
farm background. Generally, at least 3 years of on-thejob training are necessary before a person can becom e a
qualified m echanic. Some m echanics qualify by com ­
pleting a 3- to 4-year ap p ren ticesh ip program , or
through a vocational education program .

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletions ......................................
Vocational education com pletions ...............

110,000
154,000
40.0
6,600
4,000
2,600

Available training data ..............................................

9,000
12,000
29.4
450
250
200

F a rm e q u ip m e n t m e c h a n ic s. M ost farm equipm ent

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

68
721

In stru m e n t re p a ire rs. M ost learn their trade on the jo b

E le c tric sign re p a ire rs. M ost repairers are trained on

Em ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

500,000
840,000
65.8
42,500
30,500
12,000

usually is required for electrician jo b s. The skills o f the
trade are learned on the jo b or through formal appren­

53

ticeship program s. A pprenticeships usually last 4 years
a n d co m b in e o n -th e -jo b tra in in g w ith c la ssro o m
instruction in related technical subjects. It may take
m ore than 4 years to learn the trade informally on the
job. M any cities and counties require electricians to
pass a com prehensive exam ination and get a license.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openin gs, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................
A vailable training data:
Job Corps com p letion s ......................................
A pprenticeship com p letion s ...........................

280,000
370,000
32.1
13,800
8,200
5,600

m echanics learn their skills on the job. A formal 4-year
apprenticeship is the recom m ended way to learn these
trades. A pprentices typically have about 8,000 hours of
shop training and at least 576 hours of related classroom
instruction. High school or vocational school courses in
autom obile repair and m athem atics provide a helpful
background. F or som e jobs that require driving, the
m echanic m ust have a State chauffeur’s license and
m eet qualifications for drivers established by the U .S.
D epartm ent of T ransportation.

811
0)

1 S ee construction electricians.

P ia n o a n d o rg a n tu n ers a n d re p a ire rs. Trainees gener­

ally learn the trade on the job. It usually takes 3 to 4
years to becom e qualified in one o f these fields, al­
though piano tuning alone may be learned in less than 2
years. E lectronic organ technician applicants usually
need form al training in electronics available from tech­
nical schools, ju n io r colleges, and som e technicalvocational high schools.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r eq u ir e m e n ts....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings 1974-85 ..........................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................
A vailable training data ...............................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................
A vailable training data ...............................................

8,000
8,000
0.0
350
0
350
-

on-the-job training in large shoe repair shops. It usually
takes about 2 years to becom e fully qualified. Some
repairers learn the trade in vocational schools and a few
en ter the occupation through apprenticeship training
program s.

A vailable training data ...............................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .....................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

30,000
26,800
- 1 0 .5
1,300
-3 0 0
1,600

A vailable training data ..............................................

-

ing in electronics in technical, vocational, or high
schools or in the military com bined with 2 to 4 years of
on-the-job training is required to becom e a qualified
technician. Inexperienced persons who show an ap­
titude for the w ork or have a hobby in electronics may
be hired as helpers.




-

24,000
25,000
4.2
600
100
500
-

W a tch re p a ire rs. M ost persons prepare for this trade
through 18- to 24-month courses in watch repair schools.
O thers are trained informally on the jo b or through
formal apprenticeship. M ost students in w atch repair
schools are high school graduates. A few States require
w atch repairers to pass a qualifying exam ination and
obtain a license.

T e le v isio n a n d ra d io se rv ic e te c h n ic ia n s. Form al train­

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r eq u ir e m e n ts....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................

135,000
173,000
27.9
5,600
3,400
2,200

V en din g m a c h in e m e c h a n ic s. M any vending m achine
m echanics are high school graduates. High school or
vocational school courses in electricity, refrigeration,
and m achine repair are helpful, but 1 to 2 years o f
o n -th e -jo b train in g , so m etim e s su p p le m e n te d by
m anufacturer-sponsored training sessions, are required
to qualify as a skilled m echanic. A com m ercial d riv er’s
license and a good driving record usually are required.

S h o e re p a ire rs. M ost are hired as helpers and receive

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

87
247

T ruck m e c h a n ic s a n d b u s m e c h a n ic s . M ost truck or bus

A vailable training data:
A pprenticeship com p letion s ...........................
V ocational education com p letion s ...............

6,600
4,200
2,400

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

135,000
180,000
26.9

A vailable training data

54

17,000
17,700
5.6
800
100
700

Health Occupations
Dental occupations

years and lead to a certificate or an associate degree.
Some schools have 4-year bachelor’s degree program s.
Generally the 2-year program s are sufficient for work in
a private dental office. A bachelor’s degree usually is
required for research, teaching, and w ork in public or
school health program s.

D e n tists. All States require dentists to have a license to

practice. To qualify for a license, a candidate must
graduate from an approved dental school and pass a
State board exam ination. In 13 States a dentist cannot
be licensed as a “ specialist” w ithout 2 or 3 years of
g ra d u a te e d u c a tio n an d p a ssin g a sp e c ia l S ta te
examination. Dental colleges require 2 or 3 years of
predental college education. H ow ever, about 3 out of 4
students entering dental school have a bachelor’s de­
gree. Dental school generally lasts 4 academ ic years
although some school condense this into 3 calendar
years.
If, over the 1974— period, the immigration of foreign
85
dentists continues in line with past trends, (about 400
net additions a year), it is expected that dental schools
will have to graduate about 5,800 dentists annually to
m eet projected requirem ents. U .S. Public H ealth Ser­
vice projections indicate an average of about 5,200 den­
tal school graduates annually over this period.
Em ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................
A vailable training data:
V ocational education com pletions ...............
Junior college graduates ...................................
B ach elor’s degrees .............................................

acquire their skills on the job. This training usually lasts
4 or 5 years. Some are trained in 2-year education
program s accredited by the A m erican Dental A ssocia­
tion. D ental technicians may becom e certified by p ass­
ing an exam ination given by the N ational Board for
Certification, a trust established by the N ational A sso­
ciation of Dental L aboratories.

105,000
145,000
34.9
6,200
3,400
2,800

1973-74

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

P ro je c te d
1974-85
(annual average)

4,478

5,195

V ocational education com pletions ...............
Junior college graduates ..................................

skills on the job. An increasing num ber, how ever, are
trained in formal post-high school program s. M ost of
these program s, available in vocational and technical
schools, last 1 year, and lead to a certificate or a di­
ploma. Two-year program s offered in junior and com ­
m unity colleges lead to an associate degree.

C h iro p ra c to rs. All States require chiropractors to m eet

certain educational requirem ents and to pass a State
board exam ination for a license. Although the type of
practice perm itted and the educational requirem ents
vary, m ost States require graduation from a 4-year
chiropractic course after 2 years of preprofessional col­
lege work.
To m eet projected needs for chiropractors betw een
1974 and 1985, schools would have to provide an aver­
age of 1,200 graduates each year or about 50 percent
more than current levels. If the expansion in enroll­
ments of recent years continues, supply could exceed
projected requirem ents.

120,000
155,000
32.5
14,500
3,500
11,000

35
7,949
1,197

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

D e n ta l h y g ie n ists. Dental hygienists m ust be licensed,

and for all States except Alabam a, only graduates of
accredited dental hygiene schools are eligible for licens­
ing. To get a license they m ust pass both a written and a
clinical exam ination. M ost accredited program s last 2



1,211
594

Medical practitioners

A vailable training data:
Job Corps com pletions .....................................
Vocational education com pletions ...............
Junior college graduates ..................................

32,000
47,500
47.8
2,600
1,400
1,200

Available training data:

D e n ta l a s s is ta n ts . M any dental assistants learn their

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

1,699
3,738
875

D e n ta l la b o ra to ry te c h n ic ia n s. M ost dental technicians

Available training data:

^
„
Graduates of
dental schools ...............

23,000
58,000
156.7
6,300
3,200
3,100

55

18,000
22,500
25.6
1,200
400
800

Available training data:

Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

1973-74
D octor o f Chiropractic degrees .....................

*794

1 R eported by chiropractic sch ools.

49.3
23,000
15,600
7,400

Available training data:

1 9 7 3-74

P ro je c te d
1 9 7 4 -85
(annual a vera g e)

11,447
685

14,966
811

O p to m e tr is ts . All States require that optom etrists be

licensed. Applicants for a license m ust have a D octor of
O ptom etry degree from an accredited school of op­
tom etry and pass an exam ination. The D octor of O p­
tom etry degree requires a minimum of 6 years of educa­
tion after high school, consisting of 4 years of op­
to m e try sch o o l p re c e d e d by at le a s t 2 y e a rs o f
pre-optom etric study at an approved university, college,
or junior college. In 1974, the A m erican O ptom etric
A ssociation accredited 12 optom etric schools.
It is anticipated that optom etry schools will have to
graduate an average of 900 new optom etrists annually
over the 1974-85 period to m eet projected require­
m ents. U .S. Public H ealth Service projections indicate
an average of about 960 graduates annually in op­
tom etry over this period.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

M .D . degrees ....................
D .O . degrees .....................

P o d ia tr is ts . All States require a license for the practice

of podiatry. To qualify for a license an applicant m ust
graduate from an accredited 4-year program in a college
of podiatric m edicine and pass a State board exam ina­
tion. A t least 2 years of college are required for adm is­
sion to any of the six colleges of podiatric m edicine.
It is anticipated that podiatry schools will have to
graduate an average of about 400 podiatrists annually
over the 1974-85 period to m eet projected req u ire­
m ents. U .S. Public H ealth Service projections indicate
an average of about 470 graduates of podiatry schools
annually over this period.

19,000
23,500
22.8
900
400
500

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................

7,500
8,700
15.8
400
100

Available training data:

Graduates in
optom etry sch ools

1 9 7 3-74
791

A vailable training data:

P ro je c te d
1974-85
(annual avera g e)
960

1 973-74
Graduates in podiatry sch o o ls

P h y sic ia n s a n d o s te o p a th ic p h y s ic ia n s . All States re­




371

471

V e te rin a ria n s. A license is required to practice veteri­

quire a license for the practice of medicine. Applicants
for a license m ust be graduates of an approved medical
school or school of osteopathy, pass a State board
exam ination, and in m any S tates, serve a 1-year hospi­
tal internship. M ost students who enter medical school
or a school of osteopathy have earned a bachelor’s
degree, although many schools accept students with
ju s t 3 years of college. M ost m edical schools and
sch o o ls o f o s te o p a th y h av e 4 -y e ar c u rric u lu m s.
Specialists m ust have 2 to 5 years of additional hospital
training followed by 2 years of supervised practice in
the specialty.
If, over the 1974-85 period, the influx of foreign
medical graduates continues as in the past (about 5,000
net additions a year), m edical schools will need to
graduate about 18,000 physicians a year to m eet pro­
jected requirem ents.
U .S. Public H ealth Service projections indicate that
over the 1974-85 period the num ber of M.D. and D.O.
degrees g ranted will average som ew hat below the
num ber needed to m eet projected requirem ents.

Employment, 1974 ........................................
Projected 1985 requirements ..........................

P ro je c te d
1 9 7 4-85
(annual a v e ra g e

nary m edicine in all States and the D istrict of Colum bia.
To be licensed a candidate m ust earn the D octor of
V eterinary M edicine (D.V.M .), pass a State board ex­
am ination, and in some States have some practical ex­
perience under supervision.
Minimum requirem ents for the D.V.M . degree are 2
years of preveterinary college w ork (m ost applicants to
veterinary schools have 3 or 4 years of college), fol­
lowed by 4 years of study in a college of veterinary
m edicine.
It is anticipated that veterinary schools will have to
graduate an average of about 1,500 veterinarians annu­
ally over the 1974-85 period to m eet projected require­
m ents.
U .S. Public H ealth Service projections indicate an
average of alm ost 1,600 veterinary graduates annually
over this period.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

350,000
520,000
56

29,000
38,500
33.0
1,450
850
600

Available training data:
_
.
.
Graduates m veterinary
sch ools ............................

1 9 7 3-74
1,384

Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

P ro je c te d
1974-85
(annual avera g e)
1,586

A vailable training data:
Job Corps com pletions .....................................
V ocational education com pletions ...............
D egrees in m edical laboratory
technologies:
B ach elor’s degrees ....................................
M aster’s degrees ...................
Junior college graduates ..........................
A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................

Medical technician, technologist, and assistant
occupations
E le c tr o c a r d io g r a p h (E K G ) te c h n ic ia n s . M ost EK G

technicians are trained on the jo b for 3 m onths to a year
by a senior E K G technician or a cardiologist. High
school graduation generally is required for entry into
the occupation.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

11,000
15,000
39.0
1,000
400
600

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

29
*24

E le c tr o e n c e p h a lo g r a p h ic (E E G ) te c h n ic ia n s . M ost

Junior college graduates ..................................

cians are trained in vocational and technical schools,
com m unity and ju n io r colleges, and in the A rm ed
F orces. M ost training program s last from 9 m onths to 1
year; some junior college program s take 2 years and
lead to an associate degree.

3,800
5,500
44.7
350
150
200

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

*24

28,000
41,000
43.7
2,700
1,100
1,600

A vailable training data:

1 Includes electrocardiograph (EK G ) technicians.

Junior college graduates ...................................

M e d ic a l la b o r a to r y w o rk e rs. A medical technologist

183

O p to m e tr ic a s s is ta n ts . M ost op tom e trie assistants are

usually needs at least 4 years of college including com ­
pletion of a specialized training program in medical
technology. M edical laboratory technicians generally
need 1 year or m ore of post-high school training in a
ju n io r college or vocational school, although some are
trained in the Arm ed Forces. M ost m edical laboratory
assistants are trained on the job. In recent years, how ­
ever, an increasing num ber have studied in 1-year train­
ing program s conducted by hospitals, junior colleges,
and vocational schools.




627

O p e ra tin g ro o m te c h n ic ia n s. Operating room techni­

A vailable training data:

Employment, 1974 ........................................
Projected 1985 requirements..........................

53,000
120,000
121.7
11,500
5,900
5,600

A vailable training data:

E E G technicians are trained on the jo b by experienced
E E G personnel. H ow ever, with advances in medical
technology, electroencephalograph equipm ent has be­
com e increasingly m ore com plex and requires techni­
cians with m ore training. A few training program s, last­
ing 6 m onths to 1 year, are available in som e colleges
and medical schools.

Junior college graduates ..................................

4,840
164
2,617
116

prefer to hire m edical record technicians who have
graduated from an accredited college or hospital-based
program . These program s range from 10 m onths for a
certificate to 2 years for an associate degree. High
school graduates with basic secretarial skills can enter
the m edical record field as clerks. A bout one m onth of
on-the-job training will prepare them for routine tasks.

1 Includes electroencephalographic (EEG ) technicians.

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

21
3,376

M e d ic a l r e c o r d te c h n ic ia n s a n d cle rk s. M ost em ployers

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletions ......................................
Junior college graduates ..................................

42.9
18,800
6,800
12,000

trained on the job. Training also can be acquired in
1-year courses or in 2-year courses leading to an as­
sociate degree. High school graduation or its equiva­
lent, including knowledge of m athem atics and office
procedures, is preferred for both on-the-job and formal
training.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

175,000
250,000
57

11,500
19,000
63.8
1,800
700
1,100

A vailable training data:
Junior college graduates ...................................

It is anticipated that an average of about 71,000 en­
trants will be needed annually over the 1974-85 period
to m eet p ro jec ted req u irem en ts. T he U .S . Public
H ealth Service projects that the average annual num ber
of graduates of nursing schools will approxim ate this
total over the period.
A clear assessm ent of the adequacy of training in this
field is d ifficu lt, h o w e v er. T ra d itio n a lly , n o t all
g raduates have en tered nursing im m ediately upon
graduation, or have left the labor force early in their
careers. Thus, a substantial pool of qualified nurses
exists outside the labor force. M any of these nurses are
expected to seek entry or reentry into the field, but the
num ber depends on m any factors, which are difficult to
analyze, including the availability of jobs in specific
localities, overall econom ic conditions, and relative
salaries betw een nursing and other occupations for
which nurses are qualified.

395

R a d io lo g ic (X -ra y) te c h n o lo g is ts . A form al training

program in X-ray technology generally is required to
enter the field. These program s, which usually last 24
m onths, are offered in hospitals, medical schools, col­
leges, com m unity colleges, vocational schools, and the
m ilitary services. A few schools conduct 3- or 4-year
program s and some aw ard a bachelor’s degree in X-ray
technology. High school graduation is required for ad­
m ission to all program s.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

82,000
112,000
36.5
8,600
2,700
5,900

A vailable training data:
V ocational education com pletions ...............
D egrees in radiologic technologies:
B ach elor’s degrees ....................................
M aster’s degrees .........................................
Junior college graduates ..........................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85
......................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .........................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

2,413
169
48
2,758

860,000
1,290,000
50.0
71,000
39,000
32,000

A vailable training data:

R e s p ir a to r y th e ra p y w o rk e rs. Although a few therapists

P ro je c te d
E stim a te d
1 9 7 4-85
19 7 3 -7 4 (annual a vera g e)

are trained on the jo b, m ost entry level positions require
form al training. High school graduation is required for
entry to the more than 100 institutions offering educa­
tional program s in respiratory therapy. Courses last
from 18 m onths to 4 years and include both theory and
clinical work. A b achelor’s degree is aw arded for com ­
pleting the 4-year program .
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th ....................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

Graduates in sch ools
o f nursing1 ......

L ic e n s e d p r a c tic a l n u rse s. All S tates regulate the

38,000
80,000
110.5
6,800
3,800
3,000

licensing of practical nurses. To be licensed, applicants
m ust com plete an approved course in practical nursing
and pass an exam ination. Educational requirem ents for
enrollm ent in State-approved training program s range
from com pletion of eighth or ninth grade to high school
graduation. The required course generally lasts 1 year,
and is given in junior colleges, local hospitals, health
agencies, and public schools.

2
1,608
1,824

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 re q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

Nursing occupations
R e g is te r e d n u rse s. All States require the licensing of

495,000
965,000
95.0
93,000
43,000
50,000

Available training data:

professional nurses. To obtain a license, a nurse m ust
be a graduate of a school approved by the State board of
nursing and pass the State board exam ination. All nurs­
ing schools require a high school diplom a for entry.
Program s vary in length from 2 to 5 years. N urses
com pleting 2-year co u rses earn asso ciate degrees;
those in 3-year courses earn a diplom a; and bachelor’s
degrees are aw arded to graduates of 4 and 5-year
courses. A m aster’s degree is preferred for research,
consultation, teaching, and clinical specialization.



71,054

1 Includes, associate degree, baccalaureate degree, and di­
plom a programs.

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletions ......................................
V ocational education com p letion s ...............
Junior college graduates ...................................

61,951

Job Corps com pletions .....................................
V ocational education com pletions ...............
Junior college graduates ...................................

76
34,455
2,447

N u rsin g a id e s , o rd e rlie s, a n d a tte n d a n ts . Although

some em ployers prefer high school graduates, m any
hire nongraduates. Training is usually acquired on the
jo b , often in com bination with classroom instruction.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................

58

970,000

Projected 1985 req u irem en ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

1,500,000
54.6
123,000
48,000
75,000

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

Available training data:
Job Corps com pletions .....................................
Vocational education com pletions ...............

Available training data:

2,237
32,220

D egrees in physical therapy:
B ach elor’s degrees ....................................
M aster’s degrees .........................................

Therapy and rehabilitation occupations

now license physical therapist assistants. Com pletion
of an approved 2-year associate degree program is re­
quired for a license. M any of these States, how ever,
also license experienced physical therapist assistants
who learned their skills in vocational, technical, or
adult education program s or from on-the-job training
before associate degree program s w ere available.

pational therapy generally is required to enter this pro ­
fession. Some schools, how ever, offer program s lead­
ing to a certificate or a m aster’s degree in occupational
therapy for students who have a bachelor’s degree in
another field. G raduates with 6 to 9 m onths of clinical
ex p e rien ce m ay tak e th e A m erican O ccu p atio n al
Therapy A ssociation exam ination to becom e registered
occupational therapists (OTR).

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

9,400
13,800
46.5
1,000
400
600

B achelor’s degrees ....................................
M aster’s degrees .........................................

Job Corps com pletions .....................................
V ocational education com pletions ...............
Junior college graduates ..................................

1973-74
1,277
174

25
583
717

S p e e c h p a th o lo g is ts a n d a u d io lo g is ts . M ost States pre­
fer and some require a m aster’s degree or its equivalent
in speech pathology or audiology for beginning jo b s in
public schools. A teach er’s certificate often is required
also and some States require that w orkers dealing with
handicapped children have special training. M any F ed ­
eral program s, such as M edicare and M edicaid, require
participating speech pathologists and audiologists to
have a m aster’s degree.

O c c u p a tio n a l th e ra p y a s s is ta n ts . M ost occupational

therapy assistants are trained on the jo b in hospitals
and other health care facilities. Some learn their skills in
vocational and technical program s. O ther assistants
graduate from 1- or 2-year junior college program s or
com plete an approved military occupational therapy
assistant program . A pplicants for training program s
must be high school graduates or the equivalent.
Em ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

10,500
18,000
71.4
1,400
650
750

A vailable training data:

Available training data:
D egrees in occupational therapy:

1,900
I ll

P h y s ic a l th e r a p is t a s s is ta n ts a n d aides.* Some States

O c c u p a tio n a l th e ra p ists. A bachelor’s degree in occu­

Em ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

20,000
32,000
60.0
2,400
1,100
1,300

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 re q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

7,900
14,300
81.4
1,150
600
550

31,000
51,000
63.0
3,700
1,800
1,900

Available training data:

Available training data:

D egrees in sp eech pathology and audiology:
V ocational education com pletions ...............
Junior college graduates ...................................

829
491

B ach elor’s degrees ....................................
M aster’s degrees .........................................
D o cto r’s degrees .........................................

P h y sic a l th e r a p is ts . All States require a license to prac­

tice therapy. A pplicants for a license m ust have a
bachelor’s degree in physical therapy and pass a State
board exam ination. F or those with bachelor’s degrees
in other fields, 12- to 16-month certificate program s and
2-year m a ste r’s degree program s are available. A
graduate degree com bined with clinical experience in­
crease s ad v a n c e m e n t o p p o rtu n itie s, esp ecially in
teaching, research, and adm inistration.



3,278
1,964
78

Other health occupations
D ie titia n s . A bachelor’s degree, preferably with a major

in foods and nutrition or institution m anagem ent, usu­
ally available in departm ents of hom e econom ics, is the
basic educational requirem ent for dietitians. To qualify
for professional recognition, the A m erican D ietetic

59

A ssociation recom m ends the com pletion after gradua­
tion o f an approved dietetic internship or 2 years of
experience. Some new program s com bine a bachelor’s
degree and internship in a 4-year program .
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................
A vailable training data ...............................................

M aster’s degrees ........................................
D o cto r’s degrees .........................................

M e d ic a l r e c o r d a d m in is tr a to r s . A bachelor’s degree in

m edical record librarianship usually is required for this
occupation. O ne-year certificate program s are avail­
able, how ever, for those who already have a bachelor’s
degree in another field.

33,000
42,500
29.4
3,200
900
2,300

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual op en in gs, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

-

D is p e n s in g o p tic ia n s. Em ployers prefer high school

graduates w ho have had courses in the basic sciences.
M ost trainees learn their skills on the job. Some learn
through 3- to 4-year apprenticeship program s. A small
num ber of schools offer post-high school training, lead­
ing to an associate degree in optical fabricating and
dispensing work. In 1974, 19 States had licensing re­
quirem ents for dispensing opticians.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
P rojected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

D egrees in m edical record librarianship:
B a ch elor’s degrees ....................................
M aster’s d e g r e e s .........................................

m acy in all S tates. To obtain a license one m ust
graduate from an accredited pharm acy college, pass a
State board exam ination, and usually have a specified
am ount of practical experience under the supervision of
a registered pharm acist. A t least 5 years of study
beyond high school are required to graduate from one of
the 73 accredited colleges of pharm acy and receive a
bachelor of science degree. M ost colleges provide 3 or
4 years of professional instruction after prepharm acy
education in an accredited junior college, college, or
university.
It is anticipated that pharm acy schools will have to
graduate an average of about 6,500 pharm acists annu­
ally over the 1974-85 period to m eet projected require­
m ents. U .S. Public H ealth Service projections indicate
an average o f ab o u t 6,300 graduates of pharm acy
schools annually over the period.

150
395

m ents for health adm inistrators vary. A m aster’s degree
in hospital and health care adm inistration or in public
health is som etim es required. H ow ever, some em ­
ployers hire persons with other backgrounds. A few
require adm inistrators to be physicians or registered
nurses.
150,000
250,000
66.7
17,400
9,100
8,300

E m ploym ent, 1974 ..............................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ...........
Percent grow th, 1974-85 .................
A verage annual op en in gs, 1974-85
G r o w th ..........................................
R eplacem ents .......................................
A vailable training data:

A vailable training data:
D eg rees in hospital and
h ea lth care a d m in istration :
B achelor’s degrees ....................................

420
7

P h a r m a c is ts . A license is required to practice ph ar­

17,000
27,000
58.8
1,550
900
650

H e a lth s e r v ic e s a d m in is tr a to r s . Educational require­

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
P rojected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

12,000
14,500
27.6
1,100
300
800

A vailable training data:

A vailable training data:
A pprenticeship com pletions ...........................
Junior college graduates ...................................

990
21

Pharm acy sch ool
graduates ........

185

117.000
137.000
17.4
6,500
1,900
4,600

1 9 7 3-74

P ro je c te d
1 9 7 4-85
(annual a vera g e)

5,773

6,306

Social Scientists
projected requirem ents. N C ES projects that an average
o f alm ost 600 d o cto ra te degrees and alm ost 1,400
m aster’s degrees will be aw arded in anthropology an­
nually over the period. Lim ited followup data on col­
lege graduates indicate that in the past, the m ajority of
graduate degree holders have entered the field. (Some

A n th r o p o lo g is ts . A Ph.D . degree is usually necessary

to becom e a professional anthropologist. A m aster’s
degree, plus field experience, is sufficient for many
beginning jo b s but advancem ent generally is limited. It
is anticipated that an average of about 250 entrants will
be required annually over the 1974-85 period to m eet



60

n o t e n te rin g th e field h av e b ec o m e high school
teachers.) U nless the num ber of degrees granted in the
future is low er than the num ber projected, a higher
proportion of graduates may have to find em ploym ent
in other fields than in the past.
Em ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent change, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

H isto ria n s. G raduate education usually is necessary for

em ploym ent as a historian. A m aster’s degree is the
minimum requirem ent for college instructors. Many
colleges and universities, how ever, require a Ph.D. de­
gree for advancem ent. M ost historians in the Federal
G overnm ent and in nonprofit organizations have Ph.D.
degrees or their equivalent. It is anticipated that an
average of about 1,300 entrants will be required annu­
ally over the 1974-85 period to m eet projected require­
m ents. Projections of the N C ES indicate an average of
m ore than 1,000 d o c to r’s degrees and about 4,400
m aster’s degrees will be aw arded annually over this
period. Lim ited followup data show that in the past,
the m ajority of doctorate degree holders and about
one-fourth of the m aster’s degree holders entered the
field. (Many not entering the field becam e high school
teachers.) U nless the num ber of degrees granted in the
future is low er than the num ber projected, a higher
proportion of graduates may have to find em ploym ent
in other fields than in the past.

3,800
5,400
42.9
250
150
100

Available training data:
D eg rees in an th ro p o lo g y
1973-74
B achelor’s degrees .
M aster’s degrees ....
D octor’s degrees ....

P ro je c te d
1974-85
(annual a vera g e)

6,002
885
376

8,396
1,356
584

E c o n o m ists. A bachelor’s degree in econom ics is suffi­

cient for m any beginning jobs in governm ent and pri­
vate industry, but a m aster’s degree is required for
some positions. A Ph.D. degree generally is required
for teaching in colleges and universities and is an asset
for advancem ent in all areas.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
.....................................
Percent change, 1974-85
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .........................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

71,000
104,000
45.9
4,700
3,000
1,700

A vailable training data:
D e g re e s in h istory
1973-74
B ach elor’s degrees .
M aster’s degrees ....
D o cto r’s degrees ....

Available training data:
D eg rees in eco n o m ics
1 973-74
B achelor’s degrees
M aster’s degrees ....
D o cto r’s degrees ....

P ro je c te d
1974-85
(annual a vera g e)

14,418
2,145
788

26,000
32,000
19.8
1,300
500
800

P ro je cted
1974-85
(annual average)

37,381
4,543
1,114

33,436
4,409
1,051

P o litic a l s c ie n tis ts . G raduate training generally is re­

quired for em ploym ent as a political scientist. A P h .D .
norm ally is necessary for teaching in colleges and uni­
versities and is helpful for advancem ent in nonacademic
areas. Those with a master’s degree often qualify for vari­

13,972
2,184
748

G e o g r a p h e r s . A b a c h e lo r ’s d e g r e e w ith a m a jo r in g e o g ­

o u s a d m in istr a tiv e an d r e s e a r c h j o b s in g o v e r n m e n t an d

raphy is the minimum education required to becom e a
geographer. H ow ever, for research, college, and uni­
versity teaching, and for advancem ent in other areas,
an advanced degree, preferably a P h.D ., is often re­
quired.

in nonprofit research or civic organizations. It is antici­
pated that an average of about 600 entrants will be
required annually over the 1974-85 period to m eet pro­
jected requirem ents. The N C ES projects that an aver­
age of alm ost 800 doctorates and m ore than 2,600
m aster’s degrees will be aw arded annually over the
period. Lim ited followup data on college graduates
indicate that in the past, the m ajority of doctorate de­
gree holders and about one-third of m aster’s degree
holders entered the field. (Many advanced degree hol­
ders who did not enter the field reported being adm inis­
trators, high school teachers, and writers and jo u r­
nalists.) Unless the num ber of degrees granted in the
future is lower than the num ber projected, a higher
proportion of graduates may have to find em ploym ent
in other fields than in the past.

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent change, 1974—
85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

9,000
13,000
42.8
650
350
300

Available training data:
D eg re e s in g e o g ra p h y
1973-74
B achelor’s degrees .
M aster’s degrees ....
D o cto r’s.degrees ....



P ro je c te d
1974-85
(annual avera g e)

4,239
763
217

5,202
822
247

Employment, 1974 ........................................
Projected 1985 requirements ..........................
61

11,500
14,500

P ercent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annualopenings, 1974-85 .................................
Growth ..............................................................................
R eplacem ents ..............................................................
Available training data:
D eg re e s in p o litic a l
scien ce
19 7 3 -7 4
B achelor’s degrees .
M aster’s degrees ....
D octor’s degrees ....

S o c io lo g is ts . A m aster’s degree in sociology is gener­

27.5

600 ally the minimum requirem ent for em ploym ent as a
300
sociologist. A Ph.D . is necessary for teaching at m ost
300

colleges and universities. It also com m only is needed
fo r jo b s as d ire c to rs o f m ajor re se a rc h p ro je c ts,
adm inistrative positions, and for consultants. It is an­
ticipated that an average of about 750 entrants will be
required annually over the 1974-85 period to m eet p ro ­
jected requirem ents. The N C ES projects an average o f
m ore than 800 doctorate degrees and m ore than 2,800
m aster’s degrees to be aw arded annually over this
period. Lim ited followup data on college graduates
indicate that in the past, the m ajority o f those with
advanced degrees have entered the field. U nless the
num ber of degrees granted in the future is low er than
the num ber projected, a larger proportion of graduates
may have to find em ploym ent in other fields than in the
past.

P ro je c te d
1974-85
(annual a vera g e)

30,932
2,448
766

32,760
2,639
781

P s y c h o lo g is ts . A m aster’s degree in psychology is gen­

erally the minimum education required for em ploym ent
as a psychologist. A P h.D ., considered the full profes­
sional degree, is needed for m any entrance positions
and is becoming increasingly im portant for advance­
m ent. Psychologists who w ant to enter independent
practice m ust m eet certification or licensing require­
m ents in m ost States.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85
......................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .........................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................
A vailable training data:
D eg rees in p sy c h o lo g y
1973-74
B achelor’s degrees .
M aster’s degrees ....
D octor’s degrees ....

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

75,000
105,000
40.7
5,200
2,800
2,400

A vailable training data:
D e g re e s in so c io lo g y

P ro je c te d
1974-85
(annual avera g e)

52,258
6,616
2,630

1 9 7 3-74
B ach elor’s degrees .
M aster’s degrees ....
D o cto r’s d egrees ....

69,045
8,164
3,534

14,000
18,000
28.7
750
350
400

P ro je c te d
1 9 7 4-85
(annual a vera g e)

35,896
2,196
632

37,150
2,871
804

Social Service Occupations
Counseling occupations

counseling-related experience may be substituted for 15
graduate hours. F or higher level jobs and w ork in pri­
vate and com m unity agencies, a m aster’s degree in
vocational counseling or in a related field such as
psychology, personnel adm inistration, or guidance
education is preferred and som etim es required. All
States require counselors in public em ploym ent offices
to m eet State civil service requirem ents that include
minimum education and experience standards.

S c h o o l c o u n se lo rs. M ost States require school coun­

selors to have counseling and teaching certificates. D e­
pending on the State, graduate w ork and from 1 to 5
years of teaching experience usually are required for a
counseling certificate. M ost college students interested
in becoming school counselors usually take the regular
program of teacher education with additional courses in
psychology and sociology.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .....................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................
A vailable training data ..............................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
A verage annual op en in gs, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .....................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

44,000
48,000
8.9
2,050
350
1,700

A vailable training data ..............................................

7,000
10,800
54.2
650
350
300
_

-

R e h a b ilita tio n c o u n se lo rs. The minimum educational
E m p lo y m e n t c o u n se lo rs. State em ploym ent service of­

re q u ir e m e n t fo r re h a b ilita tio n c o u n s e lo rs is a
bachelor’s degree with courses in counseling, psychol­
ogy, and related fields. Increasing em phasis is being

fices require em ploym ent counselors to have 30 hours
o f graduate courses in a counseling field. One year of



62

placed, how ever, on a m aster’s degree in vocational
counseling or rehabilitation counseling or in related
subjects such as psychology, education, and social
work. W ork experience in fields such as vocational
counseling and placem ent, psychology, education, and
social work is an asset for em ploym ent as a rehabilita­
tion counselor.
E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .....................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................
A vailable training data ..............................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .....................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................
A vailable training data ...............................................

19,000
29,000
52.6
2,100
900
1,200

erally is not required for social service aide jobs. Em ­
ployers do not always look for the m ost highly skilled
applicants. A p erson’s need for w ork, as well as po­
tential for upgrading skills, often is considered.

-

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

bachelor’s degree is generally the minimum require­
m ent for career planning and placem ent work and a
m aster’s degree is being increasingly stressed. An un­
dergraduate m ajor in a behavioral science such as
psychology or sociology and courses in counseling,
personnel adm inistration, and related business ad­
m inistration subjects are preferred for entry in the field.

A vailable training data ..............................................

70,000
115,000
60.9
8,400
3,900
4,500

A vailable training data:
Junior college graduates ..................................

4,100
5,000
22.0
250
100
150

3,731

S o c ia l w o rk e rs. A bachelor’s degree, preferably in so­

cial w ork or a related field, generally is the minimum
educational requirem ent for beginning jobs in social
work. H ow ever, m any positions require a m aster’s de­
gree in social work.

-

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85
......................................
A verage annual op en in gs, 1974-85 .........................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

Other social service occupations
R e c r e a tio n w o rk ers. An associate degree from a com ­

300,000
435,000
45.7
30,500
12,500
18,000

A vailable training data:

m unity or ju nior college is preferred for jobs as recrea­
tion leaders. Activity specialists need training in a par­
ticular field such as dram a, art, dance, or athletics.
G enerally, recreation directors have a bachelor’s de­
gree with a m ajor in recreation or a related field as
well as experience; a m aster’s degree is helpful for ad­
vancem ent.

D e g re e s in so c ia l work
19 7 3 -7 4
B ach elor’s degrees .
M aster’s degrees ....
D o cto r’s degrees ....

P ro je c te d
1974-85
(annual a verage)

9,960
7,974
109

11,220
9,060
204

tions-Related Occupations

Art, Design, and Communi

entrants will be required in architecture annually over
the 1974-85 period to m eet projected requirem ents.
A bout 60 percent of those receiving bachelor’s degrees
in architecture in 1965 becam e licensed architects,
according to a followup study. If this entry rate con­
tinues, an average of alm ost 5,000 graduates would be
needed annually to m eet projected requirem ents. The
N C ES projected an average of about 4,800 bachelor’s
degree recipients annually in architecture betw een 1971
and 1982 who would be eligible for licensing over the
1974-85 period.

Design occupations
A r c h ite c ts . A rchitects m ust obtain a license to practice

in every State and the D istrict of Columbia. To qualify
for a license, applicants m ust have a bachelor’s degree
in a rch itectu re , have 3 years of ex p erien ce in an
architect’s office, and pass a 2-day written examination.
Those with a m aster’s degree need 2 years of experi­
ence. In m ost States 12 years of practical experience as
an architect m ay be substituted for the bachelor’s de­
gree.
It is anticipated that an average of about 3,000 new



—

S o c ia l s e r v ic e a id e s. G raduation from high school gen­

C o lle g e c a r e e r p la n n in g a n d p la c e m e n t c o u n se lo rs. A

E m ploym ent, 1974
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1 9 7 4 -8 5 .....................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

65,000
96,000
42.6
5,900
2,700
3,200

E m ploym ent, 1974 .......................................................

63

40,000

Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

60,000
52.3
3,000
1,900
1,100

15.0
450
150
300

A vailable training data ..............................................

-

A vailable training data:
D eg rees in arch itectu re

In te rio r d e sig n e rs. Form al training in interior design is

1971-82
(annual
1973-74 a vera g e)

B ach elor’s degrees ........................ 4,531
M aster’s degrees .............................
929
D octor’s degrees .............................
16

becoming increasingly im portant for entry. Training is
available through a 2- or 3-year course at a recognized
art school or institute specializing in interior decorating
and design or a college or university program leading to
a degree in interior design and decoration. In m ost
cases, 1 to 5 years of on-the-job training also are re ­
quired.

4,860
1,145
22

C o m m e rc ia l a r tis ts . A rtistic ability and good taste are

the m ost im portant qualifications for success in com ­
m ercial art. H ow ever, these qualities m ust be de­
veloped by specialized training in the techniques of
com m ercial and applied art. The course of study gener­
ally takes 2 or 3 years; a certificate is aw arded on
graduation. A growing num ber of art schools, par­
ticularly those connected with universities, require 4
years or m ore of study and confer a bachelor’s degree.
Lim ited training in com m ercial art also may be obtained
through public vocational high schools and on-the-job
experience but supplem ental training usually is needed
for advancem ent.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 req u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................
A vailable training data:
D egrees in interior design:
B ach elor’s degrees ....................................
M aster’s degrees .........................................

scape architecture requiring 4 to 5 years of study is the
usual requirem ent for em ploym ent. M ore than half of
all States require a license for independent practice. To
qualify for a license, applicants m ust have a degree in
landscape architecture from an accredited school. 2 to 4
y e a rs’ experience, and m ust pass an exam ir \tion
Experience som etim es may be substituted foi
gree.

42
6,272

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

D is p la y w o rk e rs. M ost display w orkers learn their trade

on the jo b in 2 or 3 years. Em ployers require high school
graduates and some prefer applicants who have studied
interior decorating, fashion design, and art.
E m p lo y m e n t....................................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

489
15

L a n d s c a p e a rc h ite c ts . A bachelor’s degree in land­

64,000
80,000
24.3
4,000
1,400
2,600

A vailable training data:
Job Corps com pletions .....................................
V ocational education com pletions ...............

34,000
40,000
18.0
1,550
550
1,000

34,000
40,000
17.6
2,200
500
1,700

12,000
18,000
52.3
900
600
300

Available training data:
D egrees in landscape architecture:
B ach elor’s degrees ....................................
M aster’s degrees ........................................
D o cto r’s degrees ........................................

601
170
-

A vailable training data:
Job Corps com pletions .....................................

P h o to g r a p h e r s . T here are several ways to prepare for

2

work as a professional photographer. People interested
in com m ercial photography often start as trainees in a
com m ercial studio, and undergo 2 or 3 years of on-thejob training. F or w ork in industrial, scientific, or news
photography, formal training and experience usually
are needed. Photographic training is available in col­
leges, universities, com m unity and junior colleges, and
art schools. Program s leading to associate, bachelor’s,
and m aster’s degrees in photography are offered, and
some schools have certificate program s.

In d u stria l d e sig n e rs. Persons usually enter this field by

com pleting an industrial design curriculum in an art
school, an art departm ent o f a university, or a technical
college. Those with degrees in other fields such as en­
gineering, architecture, and fine arts may qualify as
industrial designers if they have the appropriate experi­
ence and artistic talent.

Employment, 1974 ........................................
Projected 1985 requirements ..........................



10,000
11,500
64

Em ploym ent, 1974 .........
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
.....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85
Average annual openings, 1974-85 .........................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

R a d io a n d te le v isio n a n n o u n c e rs. A college liberal arts

80,000
95,000
19.2
3,400
1,400
2,000

education provides an excellent background for an an­
nouncer, and many universities offer courses of study
in the broadcasting field. A num ber of private voca­
tional schools also offer training. Some radio stations
require announcers to have a Federal Com m unications
Com mission radiotelephone operator license.

A vailable training data:
D egrees in photography:
B achelor’s degrees ....................................
M aster’s degrees ........................................
Junior college graduates ..........................

E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
Growth .....................................................................
R eplacem ents .......................................................

663
59
645

Communications-related occupations

A vailable training data .............................................

N e w s p a p e r r e p o rte rs. M ost large new spapers will con­

sider only applicants with a college education; graduate
work is becoming increasingly im portant. Some jobs for
talented writers w ithout college training are available
on rural, small-town, and suburban papers.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 requirem ents ....................................
Percent change, 1974-85 ..........................................
A verage annual openings, 1974-85 .......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................
Available training data:
D eg rees in jo u rn a lism

B ach elor’s degrees .
M aster’s degrees ....
D octor’s degrees ....




quired to begin work in technical writing. Technical
w riters may qualify with a degree in engineering or
science, and courses in writing or a degree in English or
journalism and courses in scientific and technical sub­
je c ts . S o m e tim es, e x p e rie n c e d w rite rs w ith less
academ ic training but some knowledge of technical
fields can qualify.
E m ploym ent, 1974 ........................................................
Projected 1985 r e q u ir e m e n ts....................................
Percent grow th, 1974-85 ..........................................
Average annual openings, 1974-85 ......................
G r o w th .....................................................................
R eplacem ents ........................................................

P ro je c te d
1974-85
(annual a vera g e)

6,710
998
20

-

T ech n ica l w rite rs. A bachelor’s degree generally is re­

40,000
45,500
13.9
2,200
500
1,700

19 7 3 -7 4

19,000
23,000
21.1
600
350
250

7,709
1,272
20

Available training data

65

20,000
26,000
24.9
1,150
450
700

Appendix A. Methods and Assumptions
for Projections of Manpower Requirements
O nce developed for these products and services,
estim ates are translated into detailed projections of
industry output, not only for the industries producing
the final product, but also for the interm ediate and basic
industries which provide the raw m aterials, electric
pow er, transportation, and other inputs required in the
production process. To facilitate this translation, the
D epartm ent of C om m erce has developed input-output
tables which indicate the am ount of output of each
industry—steel, glass, plastics, e tc .—that is required to
produce a final product, autom obiles for example.
Using estim ates of future output p er hour based
on studies of productivity and technological trends for
each industry, industry em ploym ent projections may
be derived from the output estim ates.
These projections then are com pared with em ploy­
m en t p ro je c tio n s fro m re g re ssio n a n a ly sis. T his
analysis develops equations that relate em ploym ent by
industry to com binations of econom ic variables, such
as population and incom e, that are considered d eter­
m inants of long-run changes in em ploym ent. By com ­
paring projections from input-output and regression
analysis, it is possible to identify areas w here one
m ethod produces a projection inconsistent with past
trends or the B ureau’s econom ic m odel, and the projec­
tions are adjusted accordingly.
Projections of industry em ploym ent then are tran s­
lated into occupational em ploym ent projections from
an industry-occupation m atrix. This m atrix, which is
divided into 201 industry sectors and 421 occupation
sectors, describes the current and expected occupa­
tional structure of each industry.3 By applying the p ro­
jected patterns of occupational structure for each indus­
try to the industry em ploym ent projection and aggregat­
ing the resulting estim ates, em ploym ent for each o f the
421 occupations contained in the m atrix can be p ro ­
jected.
In some cases em ploym ent is related directly to one
of the com ponents of the B ureau’s model—for exam ­
ple, the num ber of cosm etologists is related to con­
sum er expenditures for beauty shop services. In others,
em ploym ent is related to an independent variable not

The B ureau of L abor Statistics has developed a com ­
prehensive model o f the econom y in 1985. The model is
com prised of internally consistent projections of gross
national product (GNP) and its com ponents — con­
sum er expenditures, investm ent, governm ent expendi­
tures, and net exports; industrial output and produc­
tivity; labor force; average w eekly hours of w ork; and
e m p lo y m e n t fo r d e ta ile d in d u s try g ro u p s an d
occu p atio n s.1 The m ethods and assum ptions used to
develop the projected 1985 m anpow er requirem ents
presented in this bulletin are the sam e as those used in
other B LS studies of the econom y. These are briefly
sum m arized in the following sections.

Projection methods
Beginning with population projections by age, sex,
and race developed by the B ureau of the Census, the
total labor force is projected, using expected labor force
participation rates. In developing the participation
rates, the B ureau takes into account a variety of factors
th at affect a p erso n ’s decision to enter the labor m arket,
such as school attendance, retirem ent practices, and
family responsibilities.
The labor force projection is then translated into the
level o f G N P th at would be produced by a fully em ­
ployed labor fo rc e .2 U nem ployed persons are sub­
tracted from the labor force estim ate and the result is
multiplied by a projection o f output per w orker. The
estim ates of future output per w orker are based on
analysis o f trends in productivity growth among indus­
tries and changes in the average w eekly hours of work.
N ex t, the projection o f G N P is divided among its m ajor
com ponents: consum er expenditures, business invest­
m ent, and governm ent expenditures — Federal, State,
and lo cal— and n et exports. E ach of these com ponents
is broken dow n by producing industry. Thus, consum er
expenditures, for exam ple, are divided among indus­
tries producing goods and services such as housing,
food, autom obiles, m edical care, and education.

1 See the Monthly Labor Review, March 1976.
2 The Bureau’s labor force projections, which were developed in

3
A detailed report will be published as a supplement to
Tomorrow’s Manpower Needs.

January 1975, assume a 4-percent unemployment rate.




66

Supply estim ates used to analyze the prospective job
outlook for certain occupations represent the numbers
o f workers who w ould seek jobs in particular occupa­
tion if past trends o f entry to the occupation continue.
T hese estim ates are developed independently o f the
demand estim ates and, therefore, demand relationships
are not discussed in the usual econom ic sense in which
w ages play a major role in equating supply and demand.

explicitly projected in the m odel, but b elieved to be a
primary determinant o f em ploym ent in that occupation.
The projection o f autom obile m echanics, for exam ple,
is based on the exp ected stock o f motor vehicles. Pro­
jections that are developed independently are com ­
pared with those in the matrix and revised, if necessary,
to assure con sisten cy.
In addition to a projection o f em ploym ent for each
occupation, the number o f replacem ents is estim ated.
Separations constitute a significant source o f openings.
In m ost occupations, more workers are needed to re­
place those w ho retire or die than to fill job s created by
grow th. C on seq u en tly, ev en declining occu p ations
offer em ploym ent opportunities.
To estim ate replacem ent openings, the Bureau has
developed tables o f working life based on actuarial ex ­
perience for deaths and on decennial census data on
general patterns o f labor force participation by age and
s e x .4 W ithdrawals from each occupation are calcu­
lated separately for m en and w om en by age group and
used to com pute a separation rate for the occupation.
T hese rates are used to estim ate average annual re­
placem ent needs for each occupation over the period.
The effects o f interoccupational transfers are not
considered w hen calculating replacem ent needs be­
cause little information is available on this type o f sep­
aration. The B L S is currently developing such esti­
m ates from the 1970 D ecennial C ensus.

Assumptions

The Bureau’s projections to 1985 are based on the
follow ing general assum ptions:
The institutional framework o f the U .S . econom y will
not change radically.
Current social, technological, and scientific trends
will continue, including values placed on work, educa­
tion, incom e, and leisure.
The econom y will gradually recover from the high
unem ploym ent levels o f the m id -1970’s and reach full
em ploym ent (defined as 4-percent unem ploym ent) in
the m id-1980’s.
N o major event such as widespread or long-lasting
energy shortages or war will significantly alter the in­
dustrial structure o f the econom y or alter the rate of
econom ic growth.
Trends in the occupational structure o f industries will
4
F o r d e ta ile d in fo r m a tio n s e e Tomorrow's Manpower Needs,
not be altered radically by changes in relative w ages,
Supplement No. 4, Estimating Occupational Separations from the
technological changes, or other factors.
Labor Force for States (B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s , 1974).




67

Appendix B. Detailed Occupational Projections
in chapter 4 are classified by the same 13 clusters as are
the training data in appendix C. Within each o f the 13
major occupational clusters, data are subclassified into
related fields: printing occupations, engineers, etc.
W hen applicable, table B -l includes the program
codes for related instructional programs for both v o ca ­
tional and higher education (V ocational E ducation
C odes and Higher Education General Information Sur­
vey (H EG IS) C odes). This coding helps to bridge the
gap betw een education and m anpower data.
In the table, absolute figures are rounded and percen­
tages are show n to one decim al place. H en ce, totals and
percentages calculated on the basis o f unrounded fig­
ures do not alw ays correspond exactly with rounded
data.

This appendix presents em ploym ent estim ates, pro­
jected requirem ents, and average annual job openings
in tabular form for 241 occupations, analyzed as part of
the research underlying information in the 1976-77 edi­
tion o f the O c c u p a t i o n a l O u t l o o k H a n d b o o k . These
date are classified into the 13 occupational clusters used
to group H a n d b o o k occupations: industrial production
and related occupations; office occupations; service
occupations; education and related occupations; sales
o c c u p a tio n s ; c o n s tr u c tio n o c c u p a tio n s ; o c c u p a ­
tio n s in tr a n sp o r ta tio n a c tiv itie s ; s c ie n tific and
technical occupations; m echanics and repairers; health
occupations; social scientists; social service occupa­
tions; and art, design, and com m unications - related
occupations. The descriptions o f occupational training

Table B -1 . Estim ated 1974 em ploym ent, projected 1985 requirem ents, and ave ra g e annual openings, by occupa­
tion, 1 974-85
V o c a t io n a l
O c c u p a ti o n

e d u c a tio n
code1

H e g is
code2

E s tim a te d

P ro je c te d

P ercen t

e m p lo y m e n t

r e q u ir e m e n ts

1974

1985

1 9 7 4 -8 5

A n n u a l a v e ra g e o p e n in g s , 1 9 7 4 - 8 5

change
T o ta l

E m p lo y m e n t

R e p la c e m e n t

change

needs3

I n d u s tr ia l p ro d u c tio n a n d
re la te d o c c u p a tio n s :
F o u n d ry o c c u p a tio n s :
P a tte rn m a k e rs

...........................................................

1 7 .2 3 0 2

2 0 ,5 0 0

3 .4

2 1 ,2 0 0

500

50

450

1 7 .3 6 9 9
...........................................................................

1 7 .2 3 0 1

6 0 ,0 0 0

6 2 ,0 0 0

3 .3

1 ,3 0 0

200

1 ,1 0 0

C o r e m a k e r s ...................................................................

1 7 .2 3 0 1

2 4 ,5 0 0

2 5 ,3 0 0

3 .3

550

50

500

1 7 .2 3 0 2

3 3 5 ,0 0 0

4 1 4 ,0 0 0

2 3 .6

1 4 ,5 0 0

7 ,2 0 0

7 ,3 0 0

M o ld e r s

M a c h in in g o c c u p a tio n s :
A l l- r o u n d m a c h i n i s t s .............................................
In stru m e n t m ak e rs
1 7 .2 3 0 2

5 ,5 0 0

6 ,0 0 0

5 .2

150

50

100

........................................

1 7 .2 3 0 3

6 0 0 ,0 0 0

6 5 0 ,0 0 0

8 .3

1 8 ,0 0 0

4 ,5 0 0

1 3 ,5 0 0

( m a c h i n e t o o l s ) .......................................................

(m e c h a n ic a l)

.............................................................

M a c h i n e to o l o p e r a t o r s
S e tu p w o rk e rs
T ool a n d d i e m a k e r s
P r in tin g o c c u p a tio n s

1 7 .2 3 0 2

5 0 ,0 0 0

5 5 ,0 0 0

5 .2

1 ,3 5 0

250

1 ,1 0 0

..............................................

1 7 .2 3 0 7

1 7 0 ,0 0 0

2 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 9 .9

6 ,6 0 0

3 ,0 0 0

3 ,6 0 0

.................................................

1 7 .1 9 0 0

5009

B o o k b in d e rs a n d re la te d
w o rk ers

.........................................................................

C o m p o s in g ro o m o c c u p a t i o n s

........................

E le c tro ty p e rs a n d s te r e o ty p e r s

1 7 .1 9 0 6

3 5 ,0 0 0
1 6 5 ,0 0 0

1 5 8 ,0 0 0

9 .1

3 8 ,0 0 0

1 7 .1 9 0 1

-

1 ,9 0 0

300

1 ,6 0 0

4 .6

3 ,9 0 0

-7 0 0

4 ,6 0 0

......................

1 7 .1 9 0 3

4 ,0 0 0

3 ,2 0 0

- 2 0 .9

20

80

100

..................................

1 7 .1 9 0 2

8 5 ,0 0 0

1 0 8 ,0 0 0

3 0 .3

4 ,3 0 0

2 ,3 0 0

2 ,0 0 0

P h o t o e n g r a v e r s ...........................................................

1 7 .1 9 0 4

1 7 ,0 0 0

1 6 ,0 0 0

5 .9

250

-1 0 0

350

L ith o g r a p h ic o c c u p a tio n s

See footnotes at e d of table.
n




68

-

-

Table B-1. Estimated 1974 employment, projected 1985 requirements, and average annual openings, by occupa­
tion, 1974-85—Continued
V o c a t io n a l
O c c u p a tio n

e d u c a tio n
code1

H e g is
code2

E s tim a te d

P r o je c t e d

P ercen t

e m p lo y m e n t

re q u ir e m e n ts
1985

A n n u a l a v e ra g e o p e n in g s , 1 9 7 4 - 8 5

change

1974

1 9 7 4 -8 5

T o ta l

E m p lo y m e n t

R e p la c e m e n t

change

n eeds3

In d u s tr ia l p ro d u c tio n a n d
r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s — C o n t in u e d
P r i n t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s — C o n t in u e d
P rin tin g p r e s s o p e ra to rs
.......................................................

and a s s is ta n ts

1 4 0 ,0 0 0

1 7 .1 9 0 2

2 2 .3

1 7 0 ,0 0 0

5 ,6 0 0

2 ,8 0 0

2 ,8 0 0

O th e r in d u s tr ia l p ro d u c tio n
a n d r e la te d o c c u p a tio n s :
1 ,1 4 0 ,0 0 0

1 ,3 5 0 ,0 0 0

1 8 .5

6 3 ,0 0 0

1 9 ,0 0 0

4 4 ,0 0 0

A u to m o b ile p a i n t e r s .....................................................

1 7 .0 3 0 1

2 5 ,0 0 0

3 2 ,0 0 0

2 1 .1

900

500

400

B la c k s m ith s

1 7 .2 3 9 9

9 ,0 0 0

6 ,1 0 0

- 3 0 .8

50

-2 5 0

300
3 3 ,0 0 0

A s s e m b le rs

.........................................................................
.......................................................................

B l u e - c o l la r w o r k e r
s u p e r v i s o r s .......................................................................

1 7 .1 7 0 0

1 ,4 6 0 ,0 0 0

1 ,7 7 0 ,0 0 0

2 1 .0

6 1 ,0 0 0

2 8 ,0 0 0

B o i le r m a k i n g o c c u p a t i o n s ........................................

1 7 .1 0 9 9

4 5 ,0 0 0

6 2 ,0 0 0

4 0 .9

2 ,7 0 0

1 ,6 0 0

1 ,1 0 0

B o ile r t e n d e r s

...................................................................

1 7 .3 2 0 0

9 0 ,0 0 0

8 6 ,0 0 0

4 .4

2 ,1 0 0

-4 0 0

2 ,5 0 0

E le c tr o p la te r s

-

...................................................................

1 7 .2 3 9 9

3 4 ,0 0 0

4 1 ,0 0 0

1 8 .8

1 ,2 5 0

600

650

F o rg e s h o p o c c u p a t i o n s ............................................
F u r n it u r e u p h o l s t e r e r s ................................................

1 7 .2 3 9 9

6 5 ,0 0 0

7 3 ,0 0 0

8 .9

1 ,7 5 0

550

1 ,2 0 0

1 7 .3 5 0 0

3 4 ,0 0 0

3 5 ,5 0 0

7 .6

1 ,2 0 0

200

1 ,0 0 0

In sp e c to rs

...........................................................................

1 7 .2 4 0 0

7 9 0 ,0 0 0

1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

2 6 .5

5 1 ,0 0 0

1 9 ,0 0 0

3 2 ,0 0 0

M il lw r ig h t s

.........................................................................

1 7 .1 0 9 9

9 5 .0 0 0

1 1 5 ,0 0 0

2 1 .0

3 ,8 0 0

1 ,8 0 0

2 ,0 0 0

1 8 .0 0 0

1 9 ,5 0 0

8 .5

1 ,0 0 0

150

850

2 2 ,0 0 0

3 5 ,0 0 0

5 9 .1

2 ,1 0 0

1 ,3 0 0

800

M o tio n p i c t u r e p r o j e c t i o n i s t s ................................
O p h t h a l m i c l a b o r a t o r y ...............................................
te c h n ic ia n s

.....................................................................

0 7 .0 6 0 1
1 7 .2 1 0 1

5212

1 7 .0 9 0 0

5007

P h o to g ra p h ic la b o r a to r y
o c c u p a tio n s

.....................................................................

Pow er tru c k o p e ra to rs
P ro d u c tio n p a in t e r s

................................................

5 0 ,0 0 0

6 1 ,0 0 0

2 6 .5

3 ,3 0 0

1 ,2 0 0

2 ,1 0 0

1 7 .1 0 0 3 0 2

3 4 7 ,0 0 0

4 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 5 .3

9 ,1 0 0

4 ,8 0 0

4 ,3 0 0

1 2 5 .0 0 0

1 5 1 ,0 0 0

1 9 .1

5 ,0 0 0

2 ,2 0 0

2 ,8 0 0

1 7 .3 2 0 0

1 9 3 .0 0 0

1 9 3 ,0 0 0

0 .0

5 ,0 0 0

0

5 ,0 0 0

6 2 ,0 0 0

1 0 0 ,0 0 0

6 1 .3

6 ,1 0 0

3 ,4 5 0

2 ,6 5 0

6 4 5 ,0 0 0

8 1 5 ,0 0 0

2 6 .2

2 7 ,0 0 0

1 5 ,5 0 0

1 1 ,5 0 0

.....................................................
...................................................

S ta tio n a ry e n g in e e r s
W a ste w a te r tre a tm e n t

p l a n t o p e r a t o r s .............................................................
W e ld e r s

.................................................................................

O f f ic e o c c u p a t i o n s

...........................................................

1 7 .3 2 0 3
1 7 .2 3 0 6

5308

1 4 .0 0

C le ric a l o c c u p a tio n s :
B o o k k e e p in g w o r k e r s .............................................

1 4 .0 1 0 2

1 ,7 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 ,8 7 5 ,0 0 0

1 0 .9

1 2 1 ,0 0 0

1 7 ,0 0 0

1 0 4 ,0 0 0

C a s h ie rs

1 4 .0 1 0 3

1 ,1 1 1 ,0 0 0

1 ,3 4 0 ,0 0 0

2 0 .6

9 7 ,0 0 0

2 1 ,0 0 0

7 6 ,0 0 0

.........................................................................

C o l le c t io n w o r k e r s ...................................................
F ile c l e r k s

.....................................................................

0 4 .0 8 0 0
1 4 .9 9 0 0

6 3 ,0 0 0

8 1 ,5 0 0

2 9 .4

4 ,5 0 0

1 ,7 0 0

2 ,8 0 0

1 4 .0 3 0 2

2 7 5 ,0 0 0

3 2 0 ,0 0 0

1 5 .9

2 5 ,0 0 0

4 ,0 0 0

2 1 ,0 0 0

H o te l f r o n t o f f i c e
c le r k s

.............................................................................

O f f ic e m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s

5 4 ,0 0 0

0 4 .1 1 0 0

..................................

1 4 .0 1 0 4

5005

6 3 ,0 0 0

1 7 .3

4 ,2 5 0

850

3 ,4 0 0

1 7 0 ,0 0 0

1 9 0 ,0 0 0

1 3 .1

1 2 ,8 0 0

2 ,1 0 0

1 0 ,7 0 0

...............................................................

1 4 .0 4 0 3

2 9 3 ,0 0 0

3 0 2 ,0 0 0

3 .1

9 ,7 0 0

800

8 .9 0 0

R e c e p t i o n i s t s ...............................................................

1 4 .0 4 0 6

4 6 0 ,0 0 0

6 3 5 ,0 0 0

3 8 .3

5 7 ,5 0 0

1 6 ,0 0 0

4 1 ,5 0 0

S e c r e t a r i e s a n d s t e n o g r a p h e r s ......................

1 4 .0 7 0 0

3 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0

4 ,8 6 0 ,0 0 0

4 7 .8

4 3 9 ,0 0 0

1 4 2 ,5 0 0

2 9 6 ,5 0 0

S h i p p i n g a n d r e c e i v in g c l e r k s ........................

1 4 .0 5 0 3

4 6 5 ,0 0 0

5 6 0 ,0 0 0

2 0 .4

2 0 ,5 0 0

8 ,7 0 0

1 1 ,8 0 0

S t a ti s t i c a l c le r k s

.....................................................

1 4 .0 3 0 3

3 2 5 ,0 0 0

3 7 5 ,0 0 0

1 5 .8

2 3 ,0 0 0

4 ,5 0 0

1 8 ,5 0 0

.................................................................

1 4 .0 5 0 4

4 9 0 ,0 0 0

6 1 0 ,0 0 0

2 5 .0

2 6 ,0 0 0

1 1 ,0 0 0

1 5 ,0 0 0

.............................................................................

1 4 .0 9 0 0

5005

1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0

3 4 .9

1 2 5 ,0 0 0

3 3 ,0 0 0

9 2 ,0 0 0

5 0 0 ,0 0 0

5 4 5 ,0 0 0

1 0 .1

2 7 ,5 0 0

4 ,5 0 0

2 3 ,0 0 0

2 0 0 ,0 0 0

2 8 5 ,0 0 0

4 2 .5

1 3 ,0 0 0

7 ,8 0 0

5 ,2 0 0

1 1 5 ,0 0 0

1 9 0 ,0 0 0

6 5 .2

9 ,1 0 0

7 ,0 0 0

2 ,1 0 0

5 1 7 ,0 0 0

7 1 8 ,0 0 0

3 8 .9

5 4 ,0 0 0

1 8 ,0 0 0

3 6 ,0 0 0

P o s ta l c le r k s

S to c k c l e r k s
T y p is ts

C o m p u te r a n d r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s

5005

1 4 .0 2 0 0

......................

1 4 .0 2 0 1

5102

1 4 .0 2 0 2

C o m p u te r o p e r a t i n g p e r s o n n e l

................

5104

14 020201
P ro g ra m m e rs

...............................................................

1 4 .0 2 0 3

0704
5103

S y s te m s a n a ly s ts

......................................................

1 4 .0 2 0 4

0705

B a n k in g o c c u p a tio n s :
B a n k c l e r k s ....................................................................

1 4 .0 1 0 2
1 4 .0 1 0 4
14 0 3 0 3
1 4 .0 3 9 9

S footnotes at en of table.
ee
d




69

Table B-1. Estimated 1974 employment, projected 1985 requirements, and average annual openings, by occupa­
tion, 1974-85—Continued
V o c a t io n a l
O c c u p a ti o n

e d u c a tio n
code1

H e g is
code2

E s tim a te d

P r o je c t e d

P e rce n t

e m p lo y m e n t

r e q u ir e m e n ts

1974

1985

1 9 7 4 -8 5

A n n u a l a v e ra g e o p e n in g s , 1 9 7 4 - 8 5

change
T o ta l

E m p lo y m e n t

R e p la c e m e n t

change

n eeds3

O f f ic e o c c u p a t i o n s — C o n t in u e d
B a n k i n g o c c u p a t i o n s — C o n t in u e d
B a n k o f f i c e r s ................................................................

0 4 .0 4 0 0

0504

2 4 0 ,0 0 0

3 3 3 ,0 0 0

3 8 .9

1 6 ,0 0 0

8 ,5 0 0

7 ,5 0 0

2 7 0 ,0 0 0

3 7 7 ,0 0 0

3 8 .9

3 0 ,0 0 0

1 0 ,0 0 0

2 0 ,0 0 0

5003
B ank te lle rs

.................................................................

In su ra n c e o c c u p a tio n s

..............................................

1 4 .0 1 0 5
0 4 .1 3 0 0

A c t u a r i e s .........................................................................
C la im r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s

..........................................

0512
1 0 ,7 0 0

1 4 ,4 0 0

3 4 .1

700

350

350

0 4 .1 3 0 0

1703

1 2 5 ,0 0 0

1 5 2 ,0 0 0

2 1 .8

6 ,6 0 0

2 ,5 0 0

4 ,1 0 0

0 4 .1 3 0 0

4 7 0 ,0 0 0

5 3 6 ,0 0 0

1 5 .0

1 9 ,4 0 0

6 ,4 0 0

1 3 ,0 0 0

8 0 5 ,0 0 0

9 9 5 ,0 0 0

2 3 .9

4 5 ,5 0 0

1 7 ,5 0 0

2 8 ,0 0 0

1 1 0 ,0 0 0

1 5 0 ,0 0 0

3 7 .6

9 ,0 0 0

4 ,0 0 0

5 ,0 0 0

In su ra n c e a g e n ts , b ro k ers
a n d u n d e r w r i t e r s ....................................................
A d m in is tr a tiv e a n d r e la te d
o c c u p a tio n s:
A c c o u n ta n ts

0502

.................................................................

5002
B u y ers

...............................................................................

0 4 .0 8 0 0

0509
5004

C ity m a n a g e r s

...........................................................

2102

C r e d i t m a n a g e r s ........................................................

1 4 .0 8 9 9

H o te l m a n a g e r s a n d a s s i s t a n t s ....................

0 4 .1 1 0 0

2 ,9 0 0

4 ,2 0 0

4 7 .4

150

100

50

0504

6 6 ,0 0 0

9 0 ,0 0 0

3 6 .4

4 ,5 0 0

2 ,2 0 0

2 ,3 0 0

1 2 0 ,0 0 0

1 5 0 ,0 0 0

2 2 .8

6 ,5 0 0

2 ,5 0 0

4 ,0 0 0

3 4 2 ,0 0 0

4 9 0 ,0 0 0

4 3 .3

2 6 ,4 0 0

1 3 ,5 0 0

1 2 ,9 0 0

3 2 0 ,0 0 0

4 5 0 ,0 0 0

4 0 .2

2 3 ,0 0 0

1 2 ,0 0 0

1 1 ,0 0 0

5003
0508
5010
L a w y e rs

...........................................................................

1401

P e rso n n e l a n d la b o r
r e l a t i o n s w o r k e r s ....................................................

1 4 .0 6 0 2
1 4 .0 6 0 3

0515

1 4 .0 6 9 9

0516

P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s w o r k e r s ......................................

0 4 .0 1 0 0

P u rc h a s in g a g e n ts

0 4 .0 8 0 0

..................................................

1 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 3 4 ,0 0 0

2 8 .8

6 ,5 0 0

2 ,3 0 0

4 ,0 0 0

1 8 9 ,0 0 0

2 5 8 ,0 0 0

3 6 .5

1 1 ,7 0 0

6 ,3 0 0

5 ,4 0 0

1 3 ,0 0 0

1 8 ,0 0 0

3 8 .5

700

450

250

1 ,9 0 0 ,0 0 0

2 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0

2 6 .6

1 4 6 ,0 0 0

4 7 ,0 0 0

9 9 ,0 0 0

1 8 ,0 0 0

2 1 ,0 0 0

1 5 .6

1 ,4 5 0

250

1 ,2 0 0

2 7 ,0 0 0

0509

3 6 ,5 0 0

3 2 .1

2 ,1 0 0

800

1 ,3 0 0

5004
U rb a n p la n n e r s

..........................................................

0206

S e r v ic e o c c u p a t i o n s :
C le a n in g a n d r e la te d
o c c u p a tio n s:
B u i ld i n g c u s t o d i a n s ................................................

1 7 .1 1 0 0

H o te l h o u s e k e e p e r s a n d
a s s is ta n ts

...................................................................

P e s t c o n tr o lle r s

0 9 .0 2 0 5

.........................................................

Food s e rv ic e o c c u p a tio n s

............................ ...........

1 7 .2 9 0 0

B a r t e n d e r s ......................................................................
C ooks a n d c h e fs

........................................................

2 3 3 ,0 0 0

3 0 0 ,0 0 0

2 8 .8

1 5 ,2 0 0

6 ,1 0 0

9 ,1 0 0

9 5 5 ,0 0 0

1 7 .2 9 0 2

1 ,2 5 0 ,0 0 0

3 0 .9

7 8 ,6 0 0

2 6 ,8 0 0

5 1 ,8 0 0

D in in g ro o m a t t e n d a n t s
a n d d ish w a sh e rs

....................................................

F ood c o u n t e r w o r k e r s
M e a tc u tte rs

............................................

..................................................................

W a ite rs a n d w a i tr e s s e s

......................................

3 7 0 ,0 0 0

4 3 5 ,0 0 0

1 7 .6

1 7 ,2 0 0

6 ,8 0 0

1 0 ,4 0 0

3 5 0 ,0 0 0

1 7 .2 9 0 4

4 2 5 ,0 0 0

2 1 .4

2 9 ,2 0 0

6 ,7 0 0

2 2 ,5 0 0

1 7 .2 9 0 3

2 0 2 ,0 0 0

2 0 4 ,0 0 0

0 .9

5 ,0 0 0

200

4 ,8 0 0

1 7 .2 9 0 4

1 ,1 8 0 ,0 0 0

1 ,4 4 0 ,0 0 0

2 1 .8

1 0 5 ,0 0 0

2 4 ,0 0 0

8 1 ,0 0 0

1 3 0 ,0 0 0

1 3 5 ,0 0 0

3 .6

5 ,5 5 0

450

5 ,1 0 0

1 7 ,0 0 0

1 9 ,0 0 0

9 .6

600

150

450

5 0 0 ,0 0 0

6 2 2 ,0 0 0

2 4 .9

5 0 ,8 0 0

1 1 ,3 0 0

3 9 ,5 0 0

0 7 .0 9 0 9

4 5 ,0 0 0

4 5 ,0 0 0

0 .0

1 ,4 0 0

0

1 ,4 0 0

0 9 .0 2 0 1

1 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0

9 0 0 ,0 0 0

- 2 6 .7

5 2 ,0 0 0

- 3 0 ,0 0 0

8 2 ,0 0 0

P e r s o n a l s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s .B a r b e r s ..............................................................................

1 7 .2 6 0 1

B e l lh o p s a n d b e ll c a p t a i n s

..............................

0 4 .1 1 0 0

C o s m e t o l o g i s t s ............................................................

1 7 .2 6 0 2

5006
5006

F u n e ral d ire c to rs a n d
e m b a lm e rs

..................................................................

P riv a te h o u s e h o ld s e rv ic e
o c c u p a t i o n s .P r iv a te h o u s e h o ld w o rk e rs

................................

0 9 .0 2 0 2
0 9 .0 2 0 3
0 9 .0 2 0 5

S footnotes at en o table.
ee
d f




70

Table B-1. Estimated 1974 employment, projected 1985 requirements, and average annual openings, by occupa­
tion, 1974-85—Continued
V o c a t io n a l
O c c u p a ti o n

e d u c a tio n
code1

H e g is
code2

E s tim a te d

P r o je c t e d

P e rce n t

e m p lo y m e n t

re q u ir e m e n ts

1974

1985

1 9 7 4 -8 5

A n n u a l a v e ra g e o p e n in g s , 1 9 7 4 - 8 5

change
T o ta l

E m p lo y m e n t

R e p la c e m e n t

change

needs3

S e r v ic e o c c u p a t i o n s — C o n t in u e d
P r o te c t iv e a n d r e l a t e d s e r v i c e
o c c u p a tio n s:
F ire f ig h te rs

...................................................................

1 7 .2 8 0 1

.............................................................................

P o l ic e o f f i c e r s .............................................................

1 7 .2 8 0 2

2 3 .3

7 ,3 0 0

4 ,6 0 0

2 ,7 0 0

7 .4

2 6 ,0 0 0

3 ,0 0 0

2 3 ,0 0 0

4 8 0 ,0 0 0

6 5 0 ,0 0 0

3 5 .5

2 2 ,0 0 0

1 5 ,5 0 0

6 ,5 0 0

4 5 ,5 0 0

7 6 ,0 0 0

6 8 .3

3 ,6 0 0

2 ,8 5 0

750

3 0 ,0 0 0

4 3 .0

1 ,7 0 0

750

950

1 1 0 ,0 0 0

1 6 0 ,0 0 0

4 4 .0

7 ,9 0 0

4 ,5 0 0

3 ,4 0 0

2 5 ,0 0 0

2105

2 7 0 ,0 0 0
5 0 8 ,0 0 0

2 2 ,0 0 0

5507

2 2 0 ,0 0 0
4 7 5 ,0 0 0

1 7 .2 8 0 2

G u a rd s

3 2 ,5 0 0

2 9 .0

1 ,1 0 0

700

400

2209
5505
S t a t e p o l ic e o f f i c e r s

..............................................

1 7 .2 8 0 2

2105
2209
5505

C o n s tru c tio n in s p e c to r s
( g o v e r n m e n t ) .............................................................

1 7 .2 8 9 9

H e a l th a n d r e g u l a t o r y
..................................

1 7 .2 8 9 9

h e a l t h w o r k e r s .........................................................

1 6 .0 6 0 2

in s p e c to r s (g o v e rn m e n t)

5408

O c c u p a tio n a l s a f e ty a n d
1 7 .2 8 0 1
17 2 8 9 9
O th e r s e rv ic e o c c u p a tio n s :
...............................................................

1 4 .0 4 0 3

2 6 7 ,0 0 0

1 4 .0 4 0 1

3 9 0 ,0 0 0

3 8 5 ,0 0 0

3 .0

2 7 5 ,0 0 0

T e l e p h o n e o p e r a t o r s ................................................

M a il c a r r i e r s

-

2 8 ,0 0 0

700

5 ,6 0 0

1 .3

-

4 ,9 0 0

500

2 8 ,5 0 0

E d u c a ti o n a n d r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s :
T e a c h in g o c c u p a tio n s :
K i n d e r g a r te n a n d e l e m e n t a r y
.....................................................

0802

1 ,2 7 6 ,0 0 0

1 ,4 3 9 ,0 0 0

1 2 .8

9 4 ,0 0 0

1 5 ,0 0 0

7 9 ,0 0 0

S e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ................................

0803

1 ,0 8 6 ,0 0 0

9 9 8 ,0 0 0

-

8 .1

3 7 ,5 0 0

- 4 ,0 0 0

4 1 ,5 0 0

0805

5 2 7 ,0 0 0

5 1 6 ,0 0 0

-

2 ,1

1 4 ,0 0 0

- 1 ,0 0 0

1 5 ,0 0 0

1601

1 2 5 ,0 0 0

1 5 0 ,0 0 0

2 0 .0

1 0 ,7 0 0

2 ,3 0 0

8 ,4 0 0

5504

1 3 5 ,0 0 0

1 7 5 ,0 0 0

2 9 .3

1 4 ,1 0 0

3 ,6 0 0

1 0 ,5 0 0

0509

7 5 ,0 0 0

9 6 ,0 0 0

2 7 .5

3 ,5 0 0

1 ,9 0 0

1 ,6 0 0

1 3 0 ,0 0 0

1 6 0 ,0 0 0

2 5 .5

5 ,5 0 0

2 ,9 0 0

2 ,6 0 0

2 0 ,0 0 0

2 8 ,0 0 0

2 1 .3

800

450

350

4 5 0 ,0 0 0

5 2 5 ,0 0 0

1 6 .3

1 2 ,7 0 0

6 ,7 0 0

6 ,0 0 0

3 8 0 ,0 0 0

3 8 7 ,0 0 0

2 .4

9 ,5 0 0

800

8 ,7 0 0

4 0 0 ,0 0 0

4 8 0 ,0 0 0

2 1 .8

2 8 ,5 0 0

7 ,8 0 0

2 0 ,7 0 0

2 ,8 0 0 ,0 0 0

3 ,1 7 5 ,0 0 0

1 5 .1

1 9 0 ,0 0 0

3 8 ,0 0 0

1 5 2 ,0 0 0

sch o o l te a c h e rs

C o lle g e a n d u n i v e r s i t y
te a c h e rs

.......................................................................

L ib ra r y o c c u p a t i o n s :
L i b r a r i a n s .......................................................................
L ib ra r y t e c h n i c i a n s a n d
a s s i s t a n t s ...................................................................
S a le s o c c u p a tio n s:

.............................................................

1 4 .0 4 9 9
0 4 .0 0 0 0

A u to m o b ile p a r t s c o u n t e r
w o rk ers

...............................................................................

0 4 .0 3 0 0

5004
A u to m o b ile s a l e s w o r k e r s

..........................................

0 4 .0 3 0 0

0509
5004

A u to m o b ile s e r v i c e a d v i s o r s

..................................

0 4 .0 3 0 0

0509
5004

G a s o l in e s e r v i c e s t a t i o n
a t t e n d a n t s .......................................................................

0 4 .1 6 0 0

M a n u f a c tu r e r s ’ s a le s w o r k e rs

0 4 .1 2 0 0

................................

0509
5004

R eal e s ta t e s a le s w o r k e rs
an d b ro k ers

.....................................................................

0 4 .1 7 0 0

0511
5004

R e t a il t r a d e s a l e s w o r k e r s

........................................

0 4 .0 8 0 0

0509
5004

R o u te d r iv e r s .....................................................................
S e c u ritie s s a le s w o r k e rs

............................................

1 9 0 ,0 0 0
0 4 .0 4 0 0

0505

2 0 0 ,0 0 0

4 1

3 ,7 0 0

700

3 ,0 0 0

1 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 3 0 ,0 0 0

3 1 .9

6 ,1 0 0

2 ,9 0 0

3 ,2 0 0

7 7 0 ,0 0 0

8 8 3 ,0 0 0

1 5 .0

3 0 ,0 0 0

1 0 ,0 0 0

2 0 ,0 0 0

3 0 ,0 0 0

5 0 ,0 0 0

6 6 .7

2 ,3 0 0

1 ,8 0 0

500

5004
W h o le s a le t r a d e
s a le s w o r k e rs

...................................................................

0 4 .0 8 0 0

0509
5004

C o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s :

5317

............................................

A s b e s to s a n d in s u la tio n w o rk e rs

......................

1 7 .1 0 9 9

S e footnotes at en o table.
e
d f




71

Table B-1. Estimated 1974 employment, projected 1985 requirements, and average annual openings, by occupa­
tion, 1974-85—Continued
V o c a t io n a l *
O c c u p a ti o n

e d u c a tio n
code1

H e g is
code2

E s tim a te d

P r o je c t e d

P ercen t

e m p lo y m e n t

r e q u ir e m e n ts

1974

1985

1 9 7 4 -8 5

A n n u a l a v e ra g e o p e n in g s , 1 9 7 4 - 8 5

change

E m p lo y m e n t
T o ta l

R e p la c e m e n t

change

needs3

C o n s tru c tio n o c c u p a tio n s — C o n tin u e d
B ric k la y e rs a n d s to n e m a s o n s

....

C a r p e n t e r s .....................................................

1 7 .1 0 0 4

1 6 5 ,0 0 0

1 7 .1 0 0 1

1 ,0 6 0 ,0 0 0

2 4 .2

3 ,6 0 0

4 9 ,1 0 0

2 ,9 0 0

2 1 ,7 0 0

2 7 ,4 0 0

6 ,5 0 0

2 2 .5

2 0 5 ,0 0 0
1 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0

C em en t m a so n s (ce m e n t an d
c o n c r e t e f i n i s h e r s ) ..............................

1 7 .1 0 9 9

9 0 ,0 0 0

C o n s t r u c t i o n l a b o r e r s ...........................

1 7 .1 0 9 9

8 6 5 ,0 0 0

3 3 .3

4 ,3 0 0

2 ,7 0 0

1 ,6 0 0

1 6 .1

1 2 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,0 0 4 ,0 0 0

2 8 ,4 0 0

1 2 ,6 0 0

1 5 ,8 0 0

D ry w a ll i n s t a l l e r s a n d
f i n i s h e r s .......................................................
E le c tr ic ia n s ( c o n s tru c tio n )

...............

1 7 .1 0 0 8

6 0 ,0 0 0

7 5 .0 0 0

2 5 .0

1 ,9 0 0

1 .4 0 0

500

1 7 .1 0 0 2

2 4 5 ,0 0 0

3 2 0 .0 0 0

3 0 .6

1 1 ,7 0 0

6 ,8 0 0

4 ,9 0 0

...........................

1 7 .1 0 9 9

1 9 .0 0 0

2 5 .0 0 0

3 1 .6

1 ,0 5 0

550

500

F lo o r c o v e r i n g i n s t a l l e r s ......................

1 7 .1 0 9 9

8 5 .0 0 0

1 0 0 .0 0 0

1 7 .6

2 ,4 0 0

1 .4 0 0

1 ,0 0 0

E le v a to r c o n s tr u c to r s
G l a z ie r s

...........................................................

1 7 .1 0 9 9

9 ,0 0 0

1 3 .0 0 0

4 4 .4

500

350

150

L a th e rs

.............................................................

1 7 .1 0 0 6

2 5 .0 0 0

2 5 .0 0 0

0 .0

200

0

200

1 7 .1 0 0 3 0 2

4 0 0 ,0 0 0

6 1 0 ,0 0 0

5 1 .4

2 7 ,0 0 0

1 8 ,8 0 0

8 ,2 0 0

1 7 .1 0 0 5

4 5 0 .0 0 0

5 0 0 .0 0 0

1 0 .1

1 6 ,7 0 0

4 ,2 0 0

1 2 ,5 0 0

2 0 ,0 0 0

2 5 .0 0 0

2 5 .0

1 ,4 0 0

500

900

3 .8

450

-1 0 0

550

2 3 ,5 0 0

1 4 ,6 0 0

8 ,9 0 0

O p e r a tin g e n g in e e r s ( c o n s tru c tio n
m a c h in e ry o p e ra to rs )

.........................

P a in te rs a n d p a p e rh a n g e rs :
P a in te rs

.....................................................

P a p e rh a n g e rs

..............................

P l a s t e r e r s ......................................................

1 7 .1 0 0 6

2 6 ,0 0 0

2 5 .0 0 0

P l u m b e r s a n d p i p e f i t t e r s ..................

1 7 .1 0 0 7

3 7 5 .0 0 0

5 3 5 .0 0 0

4 2 .7

R o o f e r s ...........................................................

1 7 .1 0 1 0

9 0 .0 0 0

1 3 0 .0 0 0

4 4 .4

5 .0 0 0

3 ,6 0 0

1 ,4 0 0

S h e e t- m e ta l w o rk e rs

1 7 .2 3 0 5

6 5 .0 0 0

7 5 .0 0 0

1 5 .4

2 .0 0 0

900

1 ,1 0 0

1 7 .1 0 9 9

8 5 ,0 0 0

1 1 2 ,0 0 0

3 1 .8

3 ,9 0 0

2 ,5 0 0

1 ,4 0 0

.............................

-

S tru c tu ra l, o rn a m e n ta l, a n d
r e i n f o r c i n g iro n w o r k e r s ,
r ig g e r s , a n d m a c h in e m o v ers ...
O c c u p a t i o n s in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
a c tiv itie s :
A ir t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o c c u p a t i o n s :

A i r p la n e m e c h a n i c s

..

1 7 .0 4 0 3

2 2 ,0 0 0

2 7 .5 0 0

2 4 .8

750

500

250

....

A ir t r a f f i c c o n t r o l l e r s
A i r p la n e p i l o t s

1 7 .0 4 0 0

1 7 .0 4 0 1

1 3 0 ,0 0 0

1 4 5 .0 0 0

1 2 .1

3 ,2 0 0

1 ,4 0 0

1 ,8 0 0

...................

0 4 .1 9 0 0

7 9 .0 0 0

1 6 .0 6 0 1

F l ig h t a t t e n d a n t s ..............

5006

1 0 1 .0 0 0

2 8 .7

2 ,8 0 0

2 ,1 0 0

700

4 1 .0 0 0

5 6 ,0 0 0

3 5 .2

6 ,4 0 0

1 ,3 0 0

5 ,1 0 0

5 6 ,0 0 0

7 6 ,0 0 0

3 5 .8

4 ,2 5 0

1 ,8 0 0

2 ,4 5 0

R e s e rv a tio n , tic k e t, a n d
p a s s e n g e r a g e n ts

........

0 4 .1 9 0 0

M e rc h a n t m a rin e o c c u p a tio n s:
M e rc h a n t m a rin e o ffic e rs

..................................

1 7 .0 8 0 2

7 ,5 0 0

7 ,5 0 0

0 .0

150

0

150

M e rc h a n t m a rin e s a ilo rs

....................................

1 7 .0 8 0 1

2 0 ,0 0 0

1 7 ,1 5 0

1 4 .2

50

250

300

R a i lr o a d o c c u p a t i o n s :
B r a k e o p e r a t o r s ........................

7 3 .0 0 0

6 9 .0 0 0

5 .8

700

400

1 ,1 0 0

C o n d u c to rs

..................................

3 9 .5 0 0

4 1 .0 0 0

4 .6

1 ,2 5 0

150

1 ,1 0 0

..........

3 7 .0 0 0

3 8 ,5 0 0

4 .3

1 ,3 5 0

150

1 ,2 0 0

................................

7 5 .0 0 0

5 7 .0 0 0

- 2 7 .0

-3 0 0

- 1 ,9 0 0

1 ,6 0 0

-

L o c o m o tiv e e n g i n e e r s
Shop tra d e s

S ig n a l d e p a rtm e n t w o rk e rs

1 7 .1 4 0 2

1 1 .5 0 0

1 1 ,2 0 0

S ta tio n a g e n ts

0 4 .1 9 0 0

7 ,6 0 0

3 ,7 0 0

..........................

-

-

2 .6

250

- 5 1 .0

-2 0 0

50
-3 5 0

- 3 9 .0

-1 5 0

400

250

-

1 ,0 5 0

150

1 ,2 0 0

-

300
150

1 4 .0 1 0 3
T e le g ra p h e rs , te le p h o n e rs ,
1 1 ,0 0 0

6 ,6 0 0

5 7 ,0 0 0

5 5 ,0 0 0

0 4 .1 9 0 0

2 5 .0 0 0

2 6 ,0 0 0

3 .9

850

100

750

0 4 .1 9 0 0

7 1 .0 0 0

7 8 ,5 0 0

1 0 .4

2 ,9 0 0

700

2 ,2 0 0

.................

1 ,6 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 ,7 6 0 ,0 0 0

8 .5

3 8 ,5 0 0

1 2 ,5 0 0

2 6 ,0 0 0

L o n g d i s t a n c e t r u c k d r iv e r s

5 4 0 ,0 0 0

5 8 5 ,0 0 0

8 .1

1 2 ,0 0 0

4 ,0 0 0

8 ,0 0 0

300

1 ,5 0 0

300

2 ,7 5 0

a n d to w e r o p e r a to r s
T ra ck w o rk e rs

..........

1 4 .0 4 0 1

............................

2 .9

D r iv in g o c c u p a t i o n s :

I n te r c ity b u s d riv e rs

..............

L ocal t r a n s it b u s d riv e rs
L ocal tr u c k d r iv e r s

...

P a r k i n g a t t e n d a n t s ..................

0 4 .0 3 0 0

4 2 .0 0 0

4 5 .0 0 0

7 .0

1 ,8 0 0

T a x i c a b d r i v e r s ............................

0 4 .1 9 0 0

9 2 .0 0 0

8 9 .0 0 0

3 .7

2 ,4 5 0

S e footnotes at en o table.
e
d f




72

-

Table B-1. Estimated 1974 employment, projected 1985 requirements, and average annual openings, by occupa­
tion, 1974-85—Continued
V o c a t io n a l
O c c u p a tio n

e d u c a tio n
code1

H e g is
c o d .e 2

E s tim a te d

P r o je c t e d

P e rce n t

e m p lo y m e n t

r e q u ir e m e n ts

1974

1985

A n n u a l a v e ra g e o p e n in g s , 1 9 7 4 - 8 5

change
1 9 7 4 -8 5

T o ta l

E m p lo y m e n t

R e p la c e m e n t

change

. needs3

S c ie n tific a n d te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s :
C o n s e rv a tio n o c c u p a tio n s :
F o re ste rs

.........................................................................

0 1 .0 7 0 0

0114

2 4 ,0 0 0

2 9 ,0 0 0

2 0 .5

950

450

500

..............................................

0 1 .0 6 0 1

5403

1 0 ,5 0 0

1 3 ,8 0 0

3 2 .1

500

300

200

R a n g e m a n a g e r s ........................................................

0 1 .0 6 0 8

0117

2 ,5 0 0

3 ,8 5 0

5 3 .9

150

100

50

3 2 .8

45 2 ,5 0 0

43 3 ,5 0 0

4 1 9 ,0 0 0

F o re stry te c h n i c ia n s

E n g in e e rs :

...........................................................................

0900

4 1 ,1 0 0 0 0 0

A e r o s p a c e .......................................................................

0902

5 2 ,0 0 0

5 8 ,3 0 0

1 2 .1

1 ,1 0 0

550

550

A g r i c u l t u r a l ...................................................................

0903

1 2 ,0 0 0

1 5 ,9 0 0

3 2 .5

550

350

200

4 1 1 0 0 j0 00
5
X sJ\J\J vV/v

B i o m e d i c a l .....................................................................

0905

3 ,0 0 0

4 ,0 0 0

3 3 .3

150

100

50

C e ra m ic

0916

12 0 0 0

1 5 ,9 0 0

3 2 .5

550

350

200

...........................................................................

C h e m i c a l .........................................................................

0906

5 0 ,0 0 0

6 2 ,8 0 0

2 5 .6

1 ,8 5 0

1 ,2 0 0

650

C i v i l .....................................................................................

0908

1 7 0 ,0 0 0

2 2 8 ,1 0 0

3 6 .6

9 ,3 0 0

5 ,6 0 0

3 ,7 0 0

E l e c t r i c a l .........................................................................

0909

2 9 0 ,0 0 0

3 7 8 ,9 0 0

3 2 .0

1 2 ,2 0 0

8 ,4 0 0

3 ,8 0 0

I n d u s tr ia l

.......................................................................

0913

1 8 0 ,0 0 0

2 2 7 ,1 0 0

2 6 .2

7 ,2 0 0

4 ,3 0 0

2 ,9 0 0

....................................................................

0910

1 8 5 ,0 0 0

2 3 7 ,0 0 0

2 9 .5

7 ,9 0 0

4 ,9 0 0

3 ,0 0 0

M e t a l l u r g i c a l ...............................................................

0914

1 7 ,0 0 0

2 0 ,0 0 0

2 1 .2

•

550

300

250

M i n i n g ...............................................................................

0918

5 ,0 0 0

7 ,1 0 0

4 2 .0

350

200

150

P e tro le u m

0907

1 2 ,0 0 0

1 8 ,2 0 0

5 1 .7

750

550

200

M e c h a n ic a l

.......................................................................

E n v i r o n m e n ta l s c i e n t i s t s :
.....................................................................

1914

2 3 ,0 0 0

3 2 ,0 0 0

3 9 .4

1 ,3 0 0

800

500

.............................................................

1916

8 ,2 0 0

1 1 ,4 0 0

3 9 .4

450

300

150

...........................................................

1913

5 ,6 0 0

6 ,9 0 0

2 3 .3

200

100

100

O c e a n o g r a p h e r s .........................................................

1919

2 ,5 0 0

3 ,1 0 0

2 2 .5

100

50

50

0400

1 9 0 ,0 0 0

2 4 5 ,0 0 0

2 9 .0

1 0 ,7 0 0

5 ,4 0 0

5 ,3 0 0

........................................................

1701

4 0 ,0 0 0

4 6 ,1 0 0

1 6 .5

1 ,5 5 0

600

950

...............................................................

1702

2 4 ,0 0 0

3 1 ,0 0 0

3 2 .6

1 ,4 5 0

650

800

G e o l o g is t s

G e o p h y s ic is ts
M e te o r o lo g is ts

L ife s c i e n c e o c c u p a t i o n s :
L ife s c i e n t i s t s .............................................................
M a th e m a tic s o c c u p a tio n s :
M a th e m a tic ia n s
S ta tis tic ia n s

P h y s ic a l s c ie n t is t s :
.................................................................

1911

2 ,0 0 0

2 ,1 0 0

4 .0

30

10

20

C h e m i s t s .........................................................................

1905

1 3 5 ,0 0 0

1 7 3 ,0 0 0

2 8 .6

6 ,4 0 0

3 ,5 0 0

2 ,9 0 0

P h y s i c i s t s .......................................................................

1902

4 8 ,0 0 0

5 9 ,4 0 0

2 5 .0

1 ,7 0 0

1 ,1 0 0

600

A s tro n o m e rs

O th e r s c i e n t i f i c a n d t e c h n i c a l
o c c u p a tio n s:
B r o a d c a s t t e c h n i c i a n s ..........................................

1 6 .0 1 0 8

5008

2 2 ,0 0 0

2 6 ,0 0 0

1 8 .2

1 ,3 5 0

350

1 ,0 0 0

D r a f te r s

1 7 .1 3 0 0

5304

3 1 3 ,0 0 0

4 4 4 ,0 0 0

4 1 .7

1 7 ,3 0 0

1 2 ,0 0 0

5 ,3 0 0

5300

5 6 0 ,0 0 0

7 9 4 ,0 0 0

4 1 .4

3 2 ,0 0 0

2 1 ,0 0 0

1 1 ,0 0 0

5 5 ,0 0 0

8 6 ,6 0 0

5 9 .2

3 ,6 0 0

2 ,7 0 0

900

1 7 .1 5 0 1

1 1 0 ,0 0 0

1 3 0 ,0 0 0

1 8 .2

2 ,9 0 0

1 ,8 0 0

1 ,1 0 0

1 7 .1 5 0 1

3 0 ,0 0 0

3 6 ,0 0 0

1 8 .0

800

500

300

1 7 .1 4 0 2

5 5 ,0 0 0

5 3 ,5 0 0

3 .6

150

-2 0 0

350

1 7 .1 5 0 1

1 1 5 ,0 0 0

1 3 0 ,0 0 0

1 2 .1

2 ,4 0 0

1 ,3 0 0

1 ,1 0 0

...........................................................................

E n g in e e rin g a n d s c ie n c e
te c h n ic ia n s

...............................................................

1 6 .0 1 0 0

5401
5407
S u r v e y o r s .........................................................................

5309

M e c h a n ic s a n d r e p a ire r s :
T e le p h o n e c r a f t o c c u p a tio n s :
C e n tra l o ffic e c r a f t
o c c u p a tio n s

...............................................................

C e n tra l o ffic e e q u ip m e n t
in s ta lle rs

.....................................................................

L in e i n s t a l l e r s a n d c a b l e
s p lic e rs

.........................................................................

-

T e l e p h o n e a n d PBX i n s t a l l e r s
a n d re p a ire rs

...........................................................

S e footnotes at e d o table.
e
n f




73

Table B-1. Estimated 1974 employment, projected 1985 requirements, and average annual openings, by occupa­
tion, 1974-85—Continued
V o c a t io n a l
e d u c a tio n

O c c u p a ti o n

code1

H e g is
code2

E s tim a te d

P r o je c t e d

P e rce n t

e m p lo y m e n t

r e q u ir e m e n ts

1974

1985

1 9 7 4 -8 5

A n n u a l a v e ra g e o p e n in g s , 1 9 7 4 - 8 5

change
T o ta l

E m p lo y m e n t

R e p la c e m e n t

change

n eeds3

M e c h a n ic s a n d r e p a ir e r s — C o n tin u e d
O th e r m e c h a n ic s a n d r e p a ir e r s :
A ir-c o n d itio n in g , r e f r ig e r a tio n ,
....................................

1 7 .0 1 0 0

5317

2 0 0 ,0 0 0

2 8 5 ,0 0 0

3 3 .6

1 0 ,9 0 0

7 ,0 0 0

3 ,9 0 0

................................................

1 7 .0 2 0 0

5310

1 3 5 ,0 0 0

1 7 0 ,0 0 0

2 4 .1

5 ,6 0 0

3 ,0 0 0

2 ,6 0 0

1 4 5 ,0 0 0

1 7 6 ,0 0 0

2 1 .4

4 ,7 0 0

2 ,8 0 0

1 ,9 0 0

5306

7 3 5 ,0 0 0

8 7 5 ,0 0 0

1 9 .3

2 4 ,4 0 0

1 2 ,9 0 0

1 1 ,5 0 0
250

a n d h e a tin g m e c h a n ic s
A p p lia n c e r e p a ir e r s

................................

1 7 .0 3 0 1

A u t o m o b il e m e c h a n i c s ..........................................

A u t o m o b il e b o d y r e p a i r e r s

1 7 .0 3 0 2

B o a t m o to r m e c h a n i c s ..........................................

1 7 .2 2 0 0

1 1 ,0 0 0

1 4 ,0 0 0

2 9 .0

550

300

B o w lin g p i n - m a c h i n e m e c h a n i c s ..................

1 7 .1 4 0 1

5 ,0 0 0

5 ,6 0 0

7 .7

150

50

100

B u s in e s s m a c h in e re p a ire rs

1 7 .0 6 0 0

6 5 ,0 0 0

9 7 ,0 0 0

4 9 .8

3 ,1 0 0

2 ,9 0 0

200

............................

C o m p u te r s e rv ic e t e c h n i c ia n s

5310

........................

1 6 .0 1 0 8

5105

5 0 ,0 0 0

9 3 ,0 0 0

8 6 .0

4 ,3 0 0

3 ,9 0 0

400

D ie s e l m e c h a n i c s ......................................................

1 7 .1 2 0 0

5307

9 5 ,0 0 0

1 2 5 ,0 0 0

2 9 .5

3 ,4 0 0

1 ,7 0 0

1 ,7 0 0

E l e c t r ic s i g n r e p a i r e r s

..........................................

1 7 .1 0 0 2

9 ,0 0 0

1 2 ,0 0 0

2 9 .4

450

250

200

............................

0 1 .0 3 0 1

6 0 ,0 0 0

7 5 ,0 0 0

2 5 .0

2 ,7 0 0

1 ,3 0 0

1 ,4 0 0

5 0 0 ,0 0 0

8 4 0 ,0 0 0

6 5 .8

4 2 ,5 0 0

3 0 ,5 0 0

1 2 ,0 0 0

1 1 0 ,0 0 0

1 5 4 ,0 0 0

4 0 .0

6 ,6 0 0

4 ,0 0 0

2 ,6 0 0

1 8 ,0 0 0

1 8 ,6 0 0

2 .8

750

50

700

9 ,0 0 0

1 1 ,0 0 0

2 7 .3

400

200

200

1 7 .1 4 0 0

2 8 0 ,0 0 0

3 7 0 ,0 0 0

3 2 .1

1 3 ,8 0 0

8 ,2 0 0

5 ,6 0 0

8 ,0 0 0

8 ,0 0 0

0 .0

350

1 7 .3 4 0 2

3 0 ,0 0 0

2 6 ,8 0 0

- 1 0 .5

1 ,3 0 0

5310

1 3 5 ,0 0 0

1 8 0 ,0 0 0

2 6 .9

5306

1 3 5 ,0 0 0

1 7 3 ,0 0 0

2 4 ,0 0 0

2 5 ,0 0 0

1 7 ,0 0 0

F a rm e q u ip m e n t m e c h a n ic s

I n d u s tr ia l m a c h in e ry r e p a ir e r s
In stru m e n t re p a ire rs
J e w e le r s

......................

..............................................

1 7 .1 0 0 3 1
1 7 .2 1 0 1

5314

...........................................................................

L o c k s m ith s

...................................................................

M a in te n a n c e e le c tr ic ia n s

..................................

P ia n o a n d o r g a n t u n e r s a n d
r e p a i r e r s .......................................................................
S h o e re p a ire rs

............................................................

0

350

300

1 ,6 0 0

6 ,6 0 0

4 ,2 0 0

2 ,4 0 0

2 7 .9

5 ,6 0 0

3 ,4 0 0

2 ,2 0 0

4 .2

600

100

500

1 7 ,7 0 0

5 .6

800

100

700

-

T e l e v i s io n a n d r a d i o s e r v i c e
te c h n ic ia n s

................................................................

1 7 .1 5 0 3

T ru c k m e c h a n ic s a n d b u s
m e c h a n i c s ...................................................................
V e n d in g m a c h in e m e c h a n ic s

..........................

W a tc h r e p a i r e r s ..........................................................

1 7 .2 1 0 2

H e a l th o c c u p a t i o n s :
D e n ta l o c c u p a tio n s :
D e n tis ts

1204

...........................................................................

D e n ta l a s s i s t a n t s

....................................................

0 7 .0 1 0 1

1 0 5 ,0 0 0

1 4 5 ,0 0 0

3 4 .9

6 ,2 0 0

3 ,4 0 0

2 ,8 0 0

5202

1 2 0 ,0 0 0

1 5 5 ,0 0 0

3 2 .5

1 4 ,5 0 0

3 ,5 0 0

1 1 ,0 0 0

D e n t a l h y g i e n i s t s ......................................................

0 7 .0 1 0 2

5203

2 3 ,0 0 0

5 8 ,0 0 0

1 5 6 .7

6 ,3 0 0

3 ,2 0 0

3 ,1 0 0

D e n ta l la b o r a to r y t e c h n i c ia n s

0 7 .0 1 0 3

5204

3 2 ,0 0 0

4 7 ,5 0 0

4 7 .8

2 ,6 0 0

1 ,4 0 0

1 ,2 0 0

C h i r o p r a c t o r s ...............................................................

1221

1 8 ,0 0 0

2 2 ,5 0 0

2 5 .6

1 ,2 0 0

400

800

O p to m e tr is ts

1209

1 9 ,0 0 0

2 3 ,5 0 0

2 2 .8

900

400

500

1206

3 5 0 ,0 0 0

5 2 0 ,0 0 0

4 9 .3

2 3 ,0 0 0

1 5 ,6 0 0

7 ,4 0 0

1216
1218

7 ,5 0 0
2 9 ,0 0 0

8 ,7 0 0
3 8 ,5 0 0

1 5 .8
3 3 .0

400
1 ,4 5 0

100
850

300
600

600

........................

M e d ic a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s :

...............................................................

P h y s ic ia n s a n d o s te o p a th ic
p h y s i c i a n s ....................................................................

1210
P o d i a t r i s t s .....................................................................
V e t e r i n a r i a n s ................................................................
M e d ic a l t e c h n o l o g i s t , t e c h n i c i a n ,
a n d a s s i s ta n t o c c u p a tio n s:
0 7 .0 9 0 2

5217

1 1 ,0 0 0

1 5 ,0 0 0

3 9 .0

1 ,0 0 0

400

....

0 7 .0 9 0 1

5217

3 ,8 0 0

5 ,5 0 0

4 4 .7

350

150

200

..............................

0 7 .0 2 0 0

1223

1 7 5 ,0 0 0

2 5 0 ,0 0 0

4 2 .9

1 8 ,8 0 0

6 ,8 0 0

1 2 ,0 0 0

0 7 .0 2 0 3

5205

5 ,6 0 0

E le c tr o c a r d io g r a p h t e c h n i c ia n s

....................

E le c tr o e n c e p h a lo g r a p h ic t e c h n ic ia n s
M e d ic a l l a b o r a t o r y w o r k e r s

0 7 .0 2 9 9
M e d ic a l r e c o r d t e c h n i c i a n s a n d
1 4 .0 4 9 9

5213

5 3 ,0 0 0

1 2 0 ,0 0 0

1 2 1 .7

1 1 ,5 0 0

5 ,9 0 0

....

0 7 .0 3 0 5

5211

2 8 ,0 0 0

4 1 ,0 0 0

4 3 .7

2 ,7 0 0

1 ,1 0 0

1 ,6 0 0

....................

0 7 .0 6 0 3

5212

1 1 ,5 0 0

1 9 ,0 0 0

6 3 .8

1 ,8 0 0

700

1 ,1 0 0

R a d i o lo g i c (X -ra y ) t e c h n o l o g i s t s

0 7 .0 5 0 1

5207

8 2 ,0 0 0

1 1 2 ,0 0 0

3 6 .5

8 ,6 0 0

2 ,7 0 0

5 ,9 0 0

R e s p ira to ry th e ra p y w o rk e rs

....

0 7 .0 9 0 3

5215

3 8 ,0 0 0

8 0 ,0 0 0

1 1 0 .5

6 ,8 0 0

3 ,8 0 0

3 ,0 0 0

..............................

0 7 .0 3 0 1

1203

8 6 0 ,0 0 0

1 ,2 9 0 ,0 0 0

5 0 .0

7 1 ,0 0 0

3 9 ,0 0 0

3 2 ,0 0 0

1 6 .0 3 0 5

5208

c le r k s

........................................................

O p e r a tin g ro o m t e c h n i c ia n s
O p t o m e t r ic a s s i s t a n t s

N u rs in g o c c u p a tio n s :
R e g is te r e d n u r s e s

S e footnotes at en of table.
e
d




74

Table B-1. Estimated 1974 employment, projected 1985 requirements, and average annual openings, by occupa­
tion, 1974-85—Continued

Occupation
Health occupations—Continued
Nursing occupations—Continued
Licensed practical nurses...................
Nursing aides, orderlies,
and attendants................................

Vocational
education
code1

07.0302

Estimated
Hegis employment
code2
1974

Projected
requirements
1985

Percent
change
1974-85

Annual average openings, 1974-85
Total

Employment Replacement
change
needs3

07.0303

495,000

965,000

95.0

93,000

43,000

50,000

970,000

5209

1,500,000

54.6

123,000

48,000

75,000

Therapy and rehabilitation
occupations:
Occupational therapists .....................
Occupational therapy assistants .........
Physical therapists............................
Physical therapist assistants
and aides ......................................
Speech pathologists and
audiologists....................................
Other health occupations:
Dietitians .........................................
Dispensing opticians .........................

07.0401

1208
5210
1212

9,400
7,900
20,000

13,800
14,300
32,000

46.5
81.4
60.0

1,000
1,150
2,400

400
600
1,100

600
550
1,300

07.0402

5219

10,500

18,000

71.4

1,400

650

750

1220

31,000

51,000

63.0

3,700

1,800

1,900

1306
5212

33,000
17,000

42,500
27,000

29.4
58.8

3,200
1,550

900
900

2,300
650

1202
1202
1211

150,000
12,000
117,000

250,000
14,500
137,000

66.7
27.6
17.4

17,400
1,100
6,500

9,100
300
1,900

8,300
800
4,600

2202
2203
2204
2206
2205
2207
2000
2208

3,800

5,400

42.9

250

150

100

71,000
9,000
26,000
11,500
75,000
14,000

104,000
13,000
32,000
14,500
105,000
18,000

45.9
42.8
19.8
27.5
40.7
28.7

4,700
650
1,300
600
5,200
750

3,000
350
500
300
2,800
350

1,700
300
800
300
2,400
400

0826

44,000
7,000
19,000

48,000
10,800
29,000

8.9
54.2
52.6

2,050
650
2,100

350
350
900

1,700
300
1,200

14.0602

0826

4,100

5,000

22.0

250

100

150

04.1800

2103
5506
5506
2104

65,000

96,000

42.6

5,900

2,700

3,200

70,000
300,000

115,000
435,000

60.9
45.7

8,400
30,500

3,900
12,500

4,500
18,000

0202
1009

40,000
64,000
34,000

60,000
80,000
T , 000
O

52.3
24.3
17.6

3,000
4,000
2,200

1,900
1,400
500

1,100
2,600
1,700

0203
0204
1011

10,000
34,000
12,000
80,000

11,500
40,000
18,000
95,000

15.0
18.0
52.3
19.2

450
1,550
900
3,400

150
550
600
1,400

300
1,000
300
2,000

07.0601
17.2101

Health services administrators............
M
edical record administrators ............
Pharmacists .....................................
Social scientists:
Anthropologists ....................................
Economists ..........................................
Geographers .........................................
Historians............................................
Political scientists ................................
Psychologists........................................
Sociologists ........................................
Social service occupations:
Counseling occupations:
School counselors .............................
Employment counselors.......................
Rehabilitation counselors ...................
College career planning and
placement counselors .......................
Other social service occupations:
Recreation workers ............................
Social service aides ...........................
Social workers ..................................
A design, and communicationsrt,
related occupations:
Design occupations:
Architects.........................................
Commercial artists............................
Display workers .................................
Industrial designers ..........................
Interior designers .............................
Landscape architects .........................
Photographers...................................

17.0700
04.0100
17.0702
17.0703
17.0701

S footnotes at en of table.
ee
d




75

Table B-1. Estimated 1974 employment, projected 1985 requirements, and average annual openings, by occupa­
tion, 1974-85—Continued

Occupation

Vocational
education
code1

Estimated
Hegis employment
code2
1974

Projected
requirements
1985

Percent
change
1974-85

Annual average openings, 1974-85
Total

Employment Replacement
change
needs3

A design, and communicationsrt,
related occupations—Continued
Communications-related
occupations:
Newspaper reporters ..........................
Radio and television announcers .........
Technical writers ...............................

0602
0603

40.000
19.000
20.000

1V
ocational education codes are from Vocational Education and Occupations
(U . D
.S epartm of H
ent
ealth, Education, and W
elfare, and U . D
.S epartm of L
ent abor,
1969).

13.7
21.1
24.9

2,200
600
1,150

500
350
450

1,700
250
700

separations from the labor force. D not include transfers to other occupations.
oes
4Totals do not equal the sum of the individual estimates because all branches of
engineering are not covered separately.

2 HG codes are from the H
E IS
igher Education G
eneral Inform
ation Survey. See A
Taxonomy of Instructional Programs in Higher Education (U Departm of
.S.
ent

N T : Percentages w calculated using unrounded num and therefore m not
OE
ere
bers
ay
agree w rounded num on em
ith
bers
ploym and projected requirem show in the
ent
ents
n
table.

H
ealth, Education, and W
elfare, 1970).

3 Replacem needs include openings arising fromdeaths, retirem and other
ent
ents,




45,500
23.000
26.000

76

Appendix C.

Detailed Training Statistics
on vocational education com pletions.
D ata in table C -l are not strictly com parable because
different program s cover different time periods (fiscal
years, calendar years, and academ ic years). CETA
training and private vocational training are not listed
because data on com pletions are insufficient to m atch
training with related occupations. F utherm ore, not all
junior college com pletions in table C-5 and all voca­
tional education com pletions in table C - l could be
m atched with a related occupation. Table C -l em ­
phasizes the fragm entary and inconsistent nature of the
data on occupational training and the need for im­
provem ent. Extensive footnotes indicate data lim ita­
tions.

This appendix presents tabulations of all available
statistics on the num bers of persons com pleting training
for occupations for which appendix B presents projec­
tions. Table C -l presents statistics for occupations that
generally require few er than 4 years of college; tables
C-2 and C-3 present data for bachelor’s, m aster’s,
d o cto r’s, and first professional degrees aw arded. C hap­
ter 4 also presents these data, along with inform ation on
how w orkers trained for specific occupations and pro­
jections of occupational requirem ents.
Tables C-4 and C-5 present limited trend data for
junior college graduates and apprenticeship com ple­
tions. Table C-6 presents A rm ed Forces m anpower
data by occupational specialty. Table C - l presents data

T a b le C-1.
K n o w n tra in in g in o c c u p a tio n s w h ich g e n e r a lly re q u ire le s s th a n a b a c h e lo r ’s d e g re e , fo r w h ic h
p ro je c tio n s of m a n p o w e r re q u ire m e n ts h a v e b e e n p re p a re d

Vocational
education
code

Occupation
Industrial production
and related occupations-.
Foundry occupations:
Patternmakers . .
M
olders
Coremakers

.. ..

..........
............

Machining occupations:
All-round machinists .................
Instrument makers
(mechanical)
Machine tool operators
Setup workers
(machine tools)
Tool and die makers .................
Printing occupations1 .....................
Bookbinders and related
workers ...................................
Composing room occupations .......
Electrotypers and stereotypers ......
Lithographic occupations..............
Photoengravers ...........................
Printing press operators and
assistants ................................

Junior
college
graduates
1973-74

Hegis
code

Vocational
education
completions
F 1974
y

Apprenticeship
completions
1974

17.2302
17.3699
17.2301
17.2301

167

17.2302

1,879

78

17.2302
17.2303

76

17.2302
17.2307
17.1900

138
1,971
5009

17,658

535

17.1906
17.1901
17.1903
17.1902
17.1904

27

17.1902

288

2,302
150
430
574

S e footnotes at en o table.
e
d f




Job
corps
completions
F 1974
y

77

581

Table C-1. Known training in occupations which generally require less than a bachelor’s degree, for which
projections of manpower requirements have been prepared—Continued
Vocational
education
code

Occupation

Junior
college
graduates
1973-74

Hegis
code

Job
corps
completions
F 1974
y

Vocational
education
completions
F 1974
y

Apprenticeship
completions
1974

Industrial production
and related occupations—
Continued
Other industrial production and
related occupations:
Assemblers.................................
Automobile painters ....................
Blacksmiths .
.......................
Blue-collar worker supervisors.......
Boilermaking occupations ............
Boiler tenders ............................
Electroplaters
...
.......
Forge shop occupations................
Furniture upholsterers
.........
Inspectors ..................................
Millwrights.................................
M
otion picture projectionists ........
Ophthalmic laboratory technicians ..
Photographic laboratory
occupations3 ............................
Power truck operators ..................
Production painters.....................
Stationary engineers ...................
Wastewater treatment plant
operators..................................
Welders ...
........

441
17.0301
17.2399
17.1700
17.1099
17.3200
17.2399
17.2399
17.3500
17.2400
17.1099

8,506

139

Clerical occupations

561

07.0601
17.2101

5212

17.0900
17.100302

5007

4,680

645

1,031

17.3200
17.3203
17.2306

2,620
1,523

5308

4634,006

.........

Bookkeeping workers ...................
........
Cashiers
. ...
Collection workers
File clerks..................................
H front office clerks ...............
otel
Office machine operators..............
Postal clerks ...............................
Receptionists .............................
Secretaries and stenographers
Shipping and receiving clerks .......
Statistical clerks........................
Stock clerks
....
.......
Typists .......................................
Computer and related occupations ....
Computer operating
personnel .................................
Programmers..............................

14.0102
14.0103
04.0800
14.9900
14.0302
04.1100
14.0104
14.0403
14.0406
14.0700
14.0503
14.0303
14.0504
14.0900

21
161
393
5005
518,650

5005

Bank clerks ................................

...........................

Insurance occupations ..................
Claim representatives ...
.......
Insurance agents, brokers and
underwriters.............................

166,926

119,477
41,666

14.0200
14.0201
14.0202
14.020201
14.0203

5101
5102
5104
5199
0704
5103

6
4,754

2,018
1,605

14.0102
14.0104
14.0303
14.0399
14.0105
04.1300

0512

04.1300
04.1300

S footnotes at en of table.
ee
d



274
42
38
157
174
877

5005

Banking occupations

Bank tellers

26,258

14.00

Office occupations:

352

1,031

78

6353

164

Table C-1. Known training in occupations which generally require less than a bachelor’s degree, for which
projections of manpower requirements have been prepared—Continued
Occupation

Vocational
education
code

Junior
college
graduates
1973-74

Hegis
code

Job
corps
completions
F 1974
y

Vocational
education
completions
F 1974
y

Apprenticeship
completions
1974

Office occupations—Continued
Administrative and related occupations:
Accountants................................
Buyers ...................................

04.0800

Credit managers .........................

14.0899

H managers and assistants ....
otel

04.1100

0502
5002
0509
5004
0504
5003
0508
5010

7,880

3,430

71,852

Service occupations:
Cleaning and related occupations:
Building custodians ....................
H housekeepers and assistants .
otel
Pest controllers

17.1100
09.0205

Food service occupations .................

17.2900

Bartenders .................................
Cooks and chefs ..........................
Dining room attendants and
dishwashers .............................
Food counter workers...................
Meatcutters ................................
Waiters and waitressess...............

1,104

3,412
4,700
14,127

17.2902

81,803

8225

17.2904
17.2903
17.2904

124
70

914

Personal service occupations:
Barbers .....................................
Bellhops and bell captains...........
Cosmetologists ...........................
Funeral directors and embalmers ...

17.2601
04.1100
17.2602
07.0909

5006

3

940

5006

182

19,270

Private household service
occupations:
Private household workers............

09.0201
09.0202
09.0203
09.0205

Protective and related service
occupations:
Firefighters.................................
Guards ......................................
Police officers9 ...........................

17.2801
17.2802
17.2802

State police officers....................

17.2802

Construction inspectors
(government) ............................
Health and regulatory
inspectors (government) .............
Occupational safety and health
workers....................................

4,084

2,013

5507

6
3

2105
2209
5505
2105
2209
5505

14,915

5408

464

17.2899
17.2899
16.0602
17.2801
17.2899

Other service occupations:
M carriers...............................
ail
Telephone operators ....................

14.0403
14.0401

7

S e footnotes at en of table.
e
d




79

23,511

316

Table C-1. Known training in occupations which generally require less than a bachelor’s degree, for which
projections of manpower requirements have been prepared—Continued
Vocational
education
code

Hegis
code

Junior
college
graduates
1973-74

Library technicians and
assistants ................................

14.0499

5504

506

Sales occupations .............................

04.0000

Automobile parts counter
workers....................................

04.0300

Automobile salesworkers...............

04.0300

Automobile service advisors..........

04.0300

Gasoline service station
attendants................................
Manufacturers salesworkers .........

04.1600
04.1200

Real estate salesworkers
and brokers...............................
Retail trade salesworkers ............

04.1700
04.0800

5004
0509
5004

Route drivers ..............................
Securities salesworkers ................

04.0400

Wholesales trade salesworkers ......

04.0800

0505
5004
0509
5004

Occupation

Job
corps
completions
F 1974
y

Vocational
education
completions
Fy 1974

Apprenticeship
completions
1974

Education and related occupations:
Library occupations:

Construction occupations...................
Asbestos and insulation workers .....
Bricklayers and stonemasons ..........
Carpenters ...................................
Cement masons (cement and concrete
finishers) ...................................
Construction laborers ....................
D
rywall installers and finishers .......
Electricians (construction)1
4 .......
Elevator constructors .....................
Floor covering installers
.......
Glaziers........................................
Lathers ........................................
Operating engineers (construction
machinery operators) ...................
Painters and paperhangers ............
Plasterers ....................................
Plumbers and pipefitters1 .............
5
Roofers ........................................
Sheet-metal workers.......................
Structural ornamental, and reinforcing
iron workers, riggers, and machine
movers........................................

4

1013,559
0509
5004
0509
5004
0509
5004

11225,436
31

174
0509
5004
141

31,937
1269,319

785
2,758

8,908
30,173

5317
17.1099
17.1004
17.1001

277
131,162
5,153

17.1099
17.1099
17.1008
17.1002
17.1099
17.1099
17.1099
17.1006

344
37

2

295
295
277

17.100302
17.1005
17.1006
17.1007
17.1010
17.2305

914
605
187
127

806
1,037
182
5,860
387
2,464

595

520
12,776

7,174

129

17.1099

5,933

1,615

Occupations in transportation
activities:
A transportation occupations ........
ir
A traffic controllers...................
ir
Airplane mechanics.....................
Airplane pilots............................
Flight attendants ........................
Reservation, ticket, and
passenger agents .....................

17.0400
17.0403
17.0401
16.0601
04.1900

5,830
19
1,016
5006

04.1900

Merchant marine occupations:
Merchant marine officers..............
Merchant marine sailors...............

17.0802
17.0801

S footnotes at en of table.
ee
d



80

Table C-1. Known training in occupations which generally require less than a bachelor’s degree, for which
projections of manpower requirements have been prepared—Continued
Occupation

Vocational
education
code

Junior
college
graduates
1973-74

Hegis
code

Job
corps
completions
F 1974
y

Vocational
education
completions
Fy 1974

Apprenticeship
completions
1974

Occupations in transportation
activities—Continued
Railroad occupations:
Brake operators ...................
Conductors ..........................
Locomotive engineers............
Shop trades ........................
Signal department workers....
Station agents.....................
Telegraphers, telephoners, and
tower operators ..................
Track workers......................

17.1402
04.1900
14.0103
14.0401

Driving occupations:
Intercity busdrivers .........
Local transit busdrivers ...
Local truck drivers..........
Long distance truck drivers
Parking attendants .........
Taxicab drivers ...............

04.1900
04.1900
16115
04.0300
04.1900

Scientific and technical
occupations:
Conservation occupations:
Forestry technicians ........

01.0601

5403

16.0108
17.1300

5008
5304

16.0100

5300
5401
5407
5309

1,980

216

Other scientific and technical
occupations:
Broadcast technicians ....
Drafters.........................
Engineering and science
technicians ..................
Surveyors ...................................

30,151

324

42,408

18138

240
108
765
1,962

13,215
4,877
17,310
76,280

279
307
1,330

60

988

387

93

4,308

49
62

2027,822

65
1739,024
2,203

Mechanics and repairers:
Telephone craft occupations:
Central office craft occupations ....
Central office equipment
installers .................................
Line installers and cable
splicers ...................................
Telephone and PB installers
X
and repairers............................

17.1501
17.1501
17.1402
17.1501

Other mechanics and repairers:
Air-conditioning, refrigeration,
and heating mechanics .............
Appliance repairers.....................
Automobile body repairers............
Automobile mechanics .................
Boat motor mechanics .................
Bowling-pin-machine mechanics ....
Business machine repairers19 .......
Computer service technicians........
Diesel mechanics ........................
Electric sign repairers .................
Farm equipment mechanics ..........
Industrial machinery repairers ......
Instrument repairers ...................
Jewelers ....................................

17.0100
17.0200
17.0301
17.0302
17.2200
17.1401
17.0600
16.0108
17.1200
17.1002
01.0301
17.10031
17.2101

5317
5310
5306
5310
5105
5307

226

5314

S e footnotes at en of table.
e
d



81

721

Table C-1. Known training in occupations which generally require less than a bachelor’s degree, for which
projections of manpower requirements have been prepared—Continued
Occupation
Mechanics and repairers—
Continued
Other mechanics and repairers—
Continued
Locksmiths .................................
Maintenance electricians..............
Piano and organ tuners
and repairers............................
Shoe repairers ............................
Television and radio service
technicians ...............................
Truck mechanics and bus
mechanics ................................
Vending machine mechanics.........
W repairers ..........................
atch

Vocational
education
code

Junior
college
graduates
1973-74

Hegis
code

17.1400

Job
corps
completions
F 1974
y

11

Vocational
education
completions
F 1974
y

(21)

Apprenticeship
completions
1974

811

17.3402
17.1503

5310

87

247

5306
17.2102

Health occupations:
Dental occupations:
Dental assistants ........................
Dental hygienists ........................
Dental laboratory technicians .......

07.0101
07.0102
07.0103

5202
5203
5204

1,197
3,738
594

35

07.0902

5217

22 24

29

07.0901
07.0200
07.0203
07.0299

5217
1223
5205

22 24
2,617

14.0499
07.0305
07.0603
07.0501
07.0903

5213
5211
5212
5207
5215

627
183
395
2,758
1,824

5
2

2,413
1,608

07.0301
16.0305
07.0302

1203
5208
5209

28,158
2,447

76

19,019
34,455

2,237

32,220

7,949
1,699
1,211

Medical technologist, technician,
and assistant occupations:
Electrocardiograph technicians.....
Electroencephalographic
technicians ...............................
M
edical laboratory workers...........
Medical record technicians
and clerks ................................
Operating room technicians..........
Optometric assistants..................
Radiologic (X technologists....
-ray)
Respiratory therapy workers..........
Nursing occupations:
Registered nurses23 ....................
Licensed practical nurses .......
Nursing aides, orderlies, and
attendants................................

21

07.0303

116
2,497
879

Therapy and rehabilitation
occupations:
Occupational therapy assistants ....
Physical therapist assistants
and aides .................................

07.0401

5210

491

07.0402

5219

717

07.0601
17.2101

5212

395

5506

3,731

829
25

583

Other health occupations:
Dispensing opticians ...................

150

Social service occupations:
Social service aides ....................
A design, and communicationsrt,
related occupations:
Design occupations:
Commercial artists ......................
Display workers ..........................

17.0700
04.0100
17.0702

1009

42

S footnotes at end of table.
ee



82

6,272

T a b le C-1.

K n o w n train in g in o c c u p a tio n s w hich g e n e ra lly req u ire le s s than a b a c h e lo r ’s d e g re e , for w hich

p ro je c tio n s of m a n p o w e r re q u ire m e n ts h a v e b e e n p re p a re d — C o n tin u e d

Occupation

Vocational
education
code

Junior
college

Hegis
code

graduates
1 9 7 3 -7 4

Job
corps
completions
Fy 1974

Vocational
education
completions
Fy 1974

Apprenticeship
completions
1974

Art, design, and communicationsrelated occupations— Continued
Design occupations— Continued
Interior designers ..................................

17.0701

Photographers ........................................

0203
1011

Communications-related occupations:
Interpreters ............................................
Newspaper re p o rte rs .............................
Radio and television announcers ....

0602
0402

Technical w r ite r s .............................

1 Includes bookbinders, composing room occupations, lithographic occupations,
press operators, and miscellaneous printing occupations.
2 Includes some upholsterers other than furniture.
3 May include other photographic occupations.
4 Includes all persons who completed office occupations programs.
5 Includes office machine training.
6 Includes training for keypunch and other input technologies, computer operators
and peripheral equipment operators, and general data processing workers.
7 Includes restaurant management.
8 Includes bakers.
9 May include some State police officers.
10 Recipients of associate degrees in marketing, distribution, purchasing, busi­
ness, and industrial management.
11 Includes all distribution programs.
12 Includes training for other occupations in retail trade.




13 Includes stonemasons, marble-setters, and tile setters.
14 All electricians, including maintenance.
15 Includes sprinkler-fitters.
16 May include some over-the-road drivers.
17 Includes an unknown number of workers trained for skilled craft occupations
and technical occupations such as industrial drafter.
18 Electronics technicians.
19 May include some computer service technicians.
20 Includes other occupations related to agricultural machinery.
21 See construction electricians.
22 E G and E technicians combined.
K
EG
23 Some graduates may be counted in both junior college and vocational
education programs. In addition to training sources shown, many nurses were
trained in 4-year college programs.

83

T ab le C-2. B achelor’s, m aster’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field
of study, 1973-74
Bachelor’s
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

M ajor field of study

Second-level
(m aster’s)
degrees

Doctor’s
degrees
(Ph.D.,
Ed.D., etc.)

All field s .....................................................................................................................................................................

9 5 4 ,3 1 6

2 7 0 ,2 5 9

3 3 ,8 2 6

Agriculture and natural re s o u rc e s .........................................................................................................................

16,3 03

2 ,9 3 9

930

Agriculture, g e n e r a l................................................................................................................................................
Agronomy ....................................................................................................................................................................

1,8 3 3
833

220

3

271
87

156

Soil science ...............................................................................................................................................................
Animal s c ie n c e ..........................................................................................................................................................
Dairy s c ie n c e .............................................................................................................................................................
Poultry s c ie n c e ..........................................................................................................................................................
Fish, game, and w ildlife m anagement ...........................................................................................................
H o rtic u ltu re ................................................................................................................................................................
Ornamental h o rtic u ltu re ........................................................................................................................................
Agricultural and farm m a n a g e m e n t.................................................................................................................
Agriculture economics ...........................................................................................................................................
Agriculture business ..............................................................................................................................................
Food science and technology ..............................................................................................................................
Forestry ......................................................................................................................................................................
N atural resources m a n a g e m e n t.........................................................................................................................
Agriculture and forestry te c h n o lo g ie s ..............................................................................................................
Range m anagement ................................................................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................
Architecture and environmental d e s ig n ...............................................................................................................
Environmental design, general ...........................................................................................................................
Architecture ..............................................................................................................................................................
Interior design ..........................................................................................................................................................
Landscape architecture

379
3 ,1 1 8
239
77
1 ,3 4 4
639
252

72
129

370
55
46
295
166
24

27
10
58
45
2

200
1 ,1 7 8
867
402
2 ,3 3 7
1 ,5 1 9
117

14
415

10
165

27
197
408
160
8

163
808

43
133

3
88
78
26
12
19

7 ,8 4 0
1 ,2 8 4
4 ,5 3 1

2 ,7 3 3
75
929

489

15

27
69
1
16
_

........................................................................................................................................

601

170

Urban architecture .................................................................................................................................................
City, community, and regional planning .......................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................

26
4 10
499

98
1,3 8 0
66

51

Area s tu d ie s ...................................................................................................................................................................
Asian studies, general .........................................................................................................................................
East Asian studies .................................................................................................................................................
South Asian (India, etc.) studies ......................................................................................................................
Southeast Asian studies ......................................................................................................................................
African studies ........................................................................................................................................................
Islam ic studies ........................................................................................................................................................
Russian and Slavic s tu d ie s .................................................................................................................................
Latin American s tu d ie s .........................................................................................................................................
Middle Eastern studies .........................................................................................................................................
European studies, general ...................................................................................................................................
Eastern European studies ....................................................................................................................................
West European studies ..........................................................................................................................................
American studies .....................................................................................................................................................
Pacific area studies ..............................................................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................

3 ,2 0 3
242

1 ,1 4 2
126

163
7

176
24

93
11

13
17
2

15
56

9
2
1

150
280
52
34
16
90
1 ,8 4 4
1

74
136
21
12
10
326
1

262

261

34

Biological s c ie n c e s ......................................................................................................................................................

4 8 ,8 5 6

6 ,581

3 ,4 4 0

Biology, general .....................................................................................................................................................
Botany, g e n e r a l......................................................................................................................................................

3 6 ,6 3 0
865

3 ,2 1 0
323

657
182

404

57

36

29

90

82
10

Plant physiology ......................................................................................................................................................

24

Zoology, general ......................................................................................................................................................
Pathology, human and anim al ...........................................................................................................................

5 ,7 8 8

16
683

34
278
89

Bacteriology .............................................................................................................................................................
Plant p a th o lo g y ........................................................................................................................................................
Plant p h arm ac o lo g y ................................................................................................................................................

Pharmacology, human and anim al
Physiology, human and anim al

...................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

M ic ro b io lo g y ..............................................................................................................................................................
A n a to m y ......................................................................................................................................................................

63
1

66

207
1,907
2

210

H is to lo g y .....................................................................................................................................................................

93
452

1

9
1
8
7
5
_
80

153
227

93

348
116

Biochemistry .............................................................................................................................................................

1,101

7
249

451

Biophysics ..................................................................................................................................................................

74

43

83

Molecular b io lo g y ....................................................................................... .............................................................
Cell b io lo c v ................................................................................................................................................................

92
43

25
5

57
9




84

T a b le C-2.
B a c h e lo r ’s, m a s te r’s, a n d d o c to r ’s d e g r e e s co n fe rre d by in stitu tio n s of h ig h er e d u ca tio n , by field
of study, 1973-74— C o n tin u e d
Bachelor’s
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Second-level
(m aster’s)
degrees

Doctor’s
degrees
(Ph.D.,
Ed.D., etc.)

Biological sciences— Continued
Marine biology .........................................................................................................................................................

163

Biometrics and biostatistics ..............................................................................................................................
Ecology ........................................................................................................................................................................
Entomology ...............................................................................................................................................................
G e n e tic s ......................................................................................................................................................................
R adiobiology..............................................................................................................................................................
Nutrition, scientific ...............................................................................................................................................

13
298
203

N eurosciences...........................................................................................................................................................
Toxicology ...................................................................................................................................................................
Embryology.................................................................................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................

20
8

Business and management ......................................................................................................................................
Business and commerce, g e n e r a l.....................................................................................................................
A cc o u n tin g .................................................................................................................................................................
Business s ta tis tic s .................................................................................................................................................
Banking and f in a n c e ..............................................................................................................................................
Investments and securities .................................................................................................................................
Business management and adm inistration ..................................................................................................
Operations re s e a rc h ...............................................................................................................................................
Hotel and restaurant management ..................................................................................................................
Marketing and p u rc h a s in g ............................................................................................................................... ..
Transportation and public u t i lit i e s ..................................................................................................................
Real estate ...............................................................................................................................................................
Insurance ..................................................................................................................................................................
International b u s in e s s ..........................................................................................................................................
Secretarial studies .................................................................................................................................................

46
96

99
71

25
27
29
172

130
198
97
25
144
3

93
15
81

19

16
8
1

779

173

161

1 33 ,90 5
3 3 ,0 0 7

3 2 ,8 2 0

983
176

2 9 ,7 7 0

8 ,7 8 7
1 ,8 0 6

70
11

126

67
2 ,2 5 2
44
14,9 64
472

1,188
14,8 34
618

64
1,331
109

769
441
274
1 ,896
1,122

19

126
6 ,5 1 8
1
3 7 ,0 5 2

34
445
62
1
59
2
4
6
4

Personnel m a n a g e m e n t.........................................................................................................................................
Labor and industrial relations ..........................................................................................................................

1 ,2 2 0

76
48
870
29
369
385

Business econom ics...............................................................................................................................................
Other ..........................................................................................................................................................................

2 ,5 2 5
2 ,4 1 8

266
881

69
16

Communications ..........................................................................................................................................................

17,0 96

2 ,6 4 2

175

Communications, general ....................................................................................................................................
Journalism .................................................................................................................................................................

4 ,7 1 1

942

85

6 ,7 1 0

998

Radio/television .......................................................................................................................................................
Advertising ...............................................................................................................................................................
Communication media ..........................................................................................................................................

3 ,1 8 3
1,031
846
615

248
49

20
1

Other

..........................................................................................................................................................................

Computer and information s c ie n c e s .....................................................................................................................

5

7

137
268

62
198

4 ,7 5 7
3 ,761
338
540
15
54
49

2 ,2 7 6
1,801

1 86,623
3 ,7 5 2
81,041
5 ,2 9 6
471
9

1 12 ,73 9
13,4 19
2 2 ,0 3 2
7 ,2 3 8
138
351

53
6 ,701

208
579
5 ,2 4 9
174

27

1,443
13

28

Education of the gifted .........................................................................................................................................

5 ,5 1 7
12

Education of the d e a f ............................................................................................................................................

476

287

6

70

6

143
3 ,2 8 6
915

129
809

4
8

634

18

2

112

1

Computer and information sciences, g e n e r a l...............................................................................................
Information sciences and systems ..................................................................................................................
Data processing ......................................................................................................................................................
Computer programming .......................................................................................................................................
Systems analysis ....................................................................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................
Education .......................................................................................................................................................................
Education, general .................................................................................................................................................
Elementary education, general ..........................................................................................................................
Secondary education, general ............................................................................................................................
Junior high school education .....................................................................................................................
Higher education, general ..................................................................................................................................
Junior and community college education .......................................................................................................
Adult and continuing education .......................................................................................................................
Special education, general .................................................................................................................................
Adm inistrative or special e d u c a tio n ................................................................................................................
Education of the mentally retarded .................................................................................................................

Education of the culturally disadvantaged ....................................................................................................
Education of the visually handicapped ..........................................................................................................
Speech correction ..................................................................................................................................................
Education of the emotionally d is tu rb e d ..........................................................................................................
Remedial education ...............................................................................................................................................




85

198
113
8
124
32

178
13
_
_
7
7 ,2 9 3
1 ,7 5 4
230
202
2
306
4
117
159

T able C-2. B achelor’s, m aster’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by field
of study, 1973-74— Continued
Bachelor’s
degrees
requiring

Major field of study

4 or 5 years

Second-level
(m aster’s)
degrees

Doctor’s
degrees
(Ph.D.,
Ed.D., e tc.)

Education— Continued
Special learning d isabilities ..............................................................................................................................
Education of the physically handicapped ......................................................................................................
Education of the m ultiply h a n d ic a p p e d ..........................................................................................................
Social foundations ..................................................................................................................................................
Educational psychology.........................................................................................................................................
Pre-elementary education ....................................................................................................................................
Educational statistics and research ...............................................................................................................
Educational testing, evaluation, and measurement ..................................................................................
Student personnel ...................................................................................................................................................
Educational adm inistration .................................................................................................................................
Educational supervision ........................................................................................................................................
Curriculum and instruction .................................................................................................................................
Reading education .................................................................................................................................................
Art e d u c a tio n .............................................................................................................................................................
Music education ......................................................................................................................................................
M athem atics education ........................................................................................................................................
Science education ...................................................................................................................................................
Physical education .................................................................................................................................................
Driver and safety education ................................................................................................................................
Health education .....................................................................................................................................................
Business, commerce, and distributive education .......................................................................................
Industrial arts, vocational and technical education .................................................................................
Agricultural e d u c a tio n ...........................................................................................................................................
Education of exceptional children, not classified a b o v e ..........................................................................
Home economics education .................................................................................................................................
Nursing e d u c a tio n ...................................................................................................................................................

424
266
173
190
318
6 ,9 8 8
4
51
5
390
155
5 ,9 6 9
7 ,7 5 2
2 ,0 3 9
941
2 7 ,8 2 3
71
1 ,5 1 9
7,153
8 ,0 5 5
1,107
174
5 ,6 7 6

835
202

2
6
1
174
536
24

101
644
2 ,2 0 8
1 ,5 4 4
82

50
31
632

106
17,497
9 ,4 1 7
884
2 ,9 7 9
4 ,9 5 4
1 ,0 3 6
1,4 7 2
828

1 ,0 9 6
66
568
101
49

904
4 ,7 0 1
127
715
1,911
2 ,6 1 3
474
55

83
290

87
59

47
70
205
27
1

719

607
144

20
29

...........................................................................................................................................................................

987

2 ,8 1 4

167

E n g in e e rin g .....................................................................................................................................................................
Engineering, general ..............................................................................................................................................

5 0 ,6 9 3

15,385

3 ,3 1 2

3 ,0 8 7

907

260

Aerospace, aeronautical, astronautical engineering .................................................................................

1 ,2 1 0
522

557
151

173
45

306
152

24
142

3
43

3 ,4 5 4
372
8 ,1 4 5
1 1,4 19
7 ,7 3 7
127
37
2,9 2 1

400
25
3 68
705
385
14
7
146
119
94
19
3
7
21
106
157
59

Other

Agricultural engineering ......................................................................................................................................
Architectural engineering ....................................................................................................................................
Bioengineering and biomedical engineering .................................................................................................
Chemical e n g in e e rin g ............................................................................................................................................
Petroleum e n g in e e rin g ...........................................................................................................................................
Civil, construction, and transportation e n g in e e rin g ..................................................................................
Electrical, electronics, communications e n g in e e rin g .................................................................................
Mechanical engineering ........................................................................................................................................
Geological engineering .........................................................................................................................................
Geophysical engineering ......................................................................................................................................

M aterials engineering ...........................................................................................................................................
Ceramic engineering ..............................................................................................................................................
Textile engineering .................................................................................................................................................
Mining and mineral engineering .......................................................................................................................
Engineering p h y s ic s ................................................................................................................................................
Nuclear e n g in e e rin g ................................................................................................................................................

458
161
191
52
279
281
309

1,045
66
2 ,6 5 3
3 ,4 9 9
1,8 4 4
34
13
1,734
216
208
68
22
64
116
403

Engineering mechanics .........................................................................................................................................
Environmental and sanitary engineering .......................................................................................................

146
182

214
570

Naval architecture and marine e n g in e e rin g ..................................................................................................
Ocean engineering .................................................................................................................................................

379
138

Engineering te ch n o lo g ies ......................................................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................

Industrial and management engineering .......................................................................................................
M etallurgical e n g in e e rin g ....................................................................................................................................

55

3
36

7 ,4 5 6
1,1 7 4

80
209
491

110

Fine and applied a r t s .................................................................................................................................................

4 0 ,0 1 6

8,001

585

Fine arts, general ...................................................................................................................................................

5 ,1 1 2

817

36

Art ................................................................................................................................................................................
Art history and a p p re c ia tio n ...............................................................................................................................
Music (performing, composition, theory) .......................................................................................................

1 4,2 68
2 ,1 3 0
4 ,4 3 9

1,8 8 8
327
2 ,2 7 1

Music (liberal arts program) ..............................................................................................................................
Music history and appreciation .........................................................................................................................

3 ,2 7 3
164

600
134

10
67
257
82
46

Dramatic arts ...........................................................................................................................................................

5 ,4 1 2

1 ,2 5 0

74

Dance ...........................................................................................................................................................................

516
3 ,0 0 4

142

Applied design .........................................................................................................................................................




86

204

4

1
1

T a b le C-2.
B a c h e lo r ’s, m a s te r’s, a n d d o c to r ’s d e g r e e s co n fe rre d by in stitu tio n s of h ig h er e d u ca tio n , by field
of study, 1973-74— C o n tin u e d
_____
Bachelor’s
degrees
requiring

Major field of study

4 or 5 years

Second-level
(m aster’s)
degrees

Doctor’s
degrees
(Ph.D.,
Ed.D., etc.)

Fine and applied arts— Continued
2

......................................................................................................................................................

338

Photography ..............................................................................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................

663
697

141
59
168

Foreign la n g u a g e s ........................................................................................................................................................
Foreign languages, general .................................................................................................................................

1 9,479
848

3,991
496

923
198

French .........................................................................................................................................................................

6 ,2 9 3
2 ,4 2 5
292
7 ,8 5 9
624
121
142

1,195
550
81
1,242
100
37
8
63
26
42
5
2
7

213
149
19
203
27
5
2
6
12
4
1
1
2

53
2

41
1

82

29

9 ,741
208

578

Cinematography

G e rm a n ........................................................................................................................................................................
Italian .........................................................................................................................................................................
Spanish ......................................................................................................................................................................
Russian ......................................................................................................................................................................
Chinese ......................................................................................................................................................................
Japanese ....................................................................................................................................................................
Latin ............................................................................................................................................................................
Greek, classical ......................................................................................................................................................
Hebrew ........................................................................................................................................................................
Arabic .........................................................................................................................................................................
Indian (Asiatic) .......................................................................................................................................................
Scandinavian languages ......................................................................................................................................
Slavic languages (other than Russian) ..........................................................................................................
African languages (n o n -S e m itic ).......................................................................................................................
Other ..........................................................................................................................................................................
Health professions ......................................................................................................................................................
Health professions, general ...............................................................................................................................
Hospital and health care adm inistration .......................................................................................................
N u rs in g ........................................................................................................................................................................
Dental specialties ...................................................................................................................................................
Medical specialties ................................................................................................................................................
Occupational therapy ............................................................................................................................................
O p to m etry ...................................................................................................................................................................
Pharmacy ...................................................................................................................................................................
Physical th e r a p y ......................................................................................................................................................
Dental hygiene .........................................................................................................................................................
Public health ............................................................................................................................................................
Medical record librarianship ..............................................................................................................................
Podiatry or podiatric' medicine ..........................................................................................................................
Biomedical communication .................................................................................................................................
Veterinary medicine s p e c ia ltie s .........................................................................................................................
Speech pathology and a u d io lo g y .......................................................................................................................
Chiropractic ..............................................................................................................................................................
Clinical social work ...............................................................................................................................................
Medical laboratory technologies .........................................................................................................................
Dental technologies ...............................................................................................................................................
Radiologic technologies .......................................................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................

311
122
152
20
5
33
77
4
101
4 1 ,8 0 9
901
185
1 9,409

9

3
21

990
2 ,2 9 3

40
22

4 10
105
174
8
240
111

1,277
309
5 ,7 7 3
1,9 0 0
875

18

273

7

33
7
132
-

113

1,781

420
57
21

14
1

-

-

-

104
3 ,2 7 8
-

110
1 ,9 6 4
-

65

511

4 ,8 4 0
14

164

46
78

-

10
-

169
1,931

48
599

6
114

Home economics ...........................................................................................................................................................
Home economics, general ....................................................................................................................................
Home decoration and home equipment ..........................................................................................................
Clothing and textiles ............................................................................................................................................
Consumer economics and home management .............................................................................................
Family relations and child development .........................................................................................................

15,4 33

1,8 6 9

6 ,0 8 0
692
2 ,2 3 5
511
3 ,2 8 2

726
35
125
100
412

136
21

Foods and nutrition ...............................................................................................................................................

1 ,925

407

Institutional management and cafeteria m a n a g e m e n t.............................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................

356
372

31
33

Law ...................................................................................................................................................................................

4 94

1,181

Law, general ............................................................................................................................................................

687

Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................

4 50
44

Letters ..............................................................................................................................................................................
English, general ......................................................................................................................................................

4 2 ,8 5 3

Literature, English .................................................................................................................................................
Comparative lite r a tu r e ...........................................................................................................................................
C la s s ic s ......................................................................................................................................................................




87

6 5 ,3 2 5

494

15
1
47
51
-

1
27
27
-

1 2,1 65
6 ,4 4 2

2 ,6 3 3
1 ,0 7 4

897
231

365

406
4 50

126

46

3 ,5 9 7

130

T a b le C-2.
B a c h e lo r ’s, m a s te r’s, a n d d o c to r’s d e g r e e s c o n fe rre d by in stitu tio n s of h ig h er e d u c a tio n , by fie ld
of study, 1973-74— C o n tin u e d
Bachelor’s
degrees
requiring

Major field of study

4 or 5 years

Second-level
(m aster’s)
degrees

Doctor’s
degrees
(Ph.D.,
Ed.D., etc.)

Letters— Continued
431
7,2 7 1
162

455
1 ,6 8 9
218

265
5 ,8 0 9
3 ,6 5 3
428

388
664
721
334

Library s c ie n c e ..............................................................................................................................................................

1 ,1 6 4

8 ,1 8 5

60

Library science, g e n e r a l........................................................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................

1,071
93

7 ,9 6 4
221

56
4

M athem atics .................................................................................................................................................................
M athem atics, general ...........................................................................................................................................
Statistics, m athem atical and theoretical ......................................................................................................
Applied m athem atics ............................................................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................

2 1 ,8 1 3
2 0 ,9 3 7
257
519

4 ,8 4 0
4 ,1 9 6
453
155

1,031
819
147

100

36

13

M ilitary sciences .........................................................................................................................................................
M ilitary science (Army) .........................................................................................................................................

328

_

_

6
9
65
79

-

-

-

-

L in g u is tic s .................................................................................................................................................................
Speech, debate, and forensic science ............................................................................................................
Creative w r it in g ........................................................................................................................................................
Teaching of English as a foreign language ..................................................................................................
Philosophy .................................................................................................................................................................
Religious studies .....................................................................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................

Naval science (Navy, Marines)

...........................................................................................................................

Aerospace science (Air Force) ............................................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................

145
281
4 13
144
34

52

-

Physical s c ie n c e s .........................................................................................................................................................
Physical sciences, g e n e r a l...................................................................................................................................
Physics, general ......................................................................................................................................................
Molecular physics ...................................................................................................................................................

2 1 ,2 8 7
1,0 7 9
3 ,9 3 6
11

6 ,0 8 7
263
1,645
2

Nuclear p h y s ic s ........................................................................................................................................................
Chemistry, general .................................................................................................................................................
Inorganic chemistry ................................................................................................................................................
Organic chemistry ...................................................................................................................................................
Physical chemistry .................................................................................................................................................

15

15

8
7

10,4 35

2 ,0 2 1

1 ,6 3 5

76
6

3
48
21

13
65
43

8
152

2
43
82

4
68
77
6

Analytical chemistry ..............................................................................................................................................
Pharmaceutical chemistry ...................................................................................................................................
A stronom y...................................................................................................................................................................
A strop hysics..............................................................................................................................................................
Atmospheric sciences and meteorology ..........................................................................................................
G eology........................................................................................................................................................................
Geochemistry .............................................................................................................................................................
Geophysics and seismology .................................................................................................................................
Earth sciences, general ........................................................................................................................................
P a leonto log y..............................................................................................................................................................
Oceanography ...........................................................................................................................................................
M etallurgy .................................................................................................................................................................
Other earth s c ie n c e s ..............................................................................................................................................
Other physical sciences ........................................................................................................................................'

-

-

27
294
3 ,1 5 1
21
84
1 ,0 2 8
8
237
11
294
4 14

3 ,6 3 1
36
1 ,1 0 0

7
195
870
12
56
343
4
199
29
91
136

54
258
10
47
30
1
70
14
36
49

Psychology ......................................................................................................................................................................

5 2,2 56

6 ,6 1 6

2 ,3 3 9

Psychology, general ................................................................................................................................................

5 1,0 76

1,723

Experimental psychology ......................................................................................................................................

98

4 ,6 8 6
69

C linical psychology.................................................................................................................................................
Psychology for c o u n s e lin g ....................................................................................................................................

85

482

280

31

847

53

58

P sychom etrics...........................................................................................................................................................
Statistics in psychology .......................................................................................................................................
Industrial psychology ............................................................................................................................................

365
6
1
42

Development psychology.......................................................................................................................................
Physiological psychology ......................................................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................

383
18
153

113
5

7
62
7

284

77

Public a ffairs and services ......................................................................................................................................
Community services, general ..............................................................................................................................
Public a d m in is tra tio n ............................................................................................................................................

2 4 ,2 6 4
1,002

12,6 94
107

1 ,0 2 4

3 ,2 9 6

230
9
76

Parks and recreation management ...................................................................................................................
Social work and helping services ......................................................................................................................

3 ,7 0 5
9 ,9 6 0

440
7 ,9 7 4

25
109

Social psychology....................................................................................................................................................




88

24
1
47

71

58
_

1

T a b le C-2.
B a c h e lo r ’s, m a s te r’s, a n d d o c to r ’s d e g r e e s co n fe rre d by in stitu tio ns of h ig h e r e d u ca tio n , by fie ld
o f study, 1973-74— C o n tin u e d
Bachelor’s
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Second-level
(m aster’s)
degrees

Doctor’s
degrees
(Ph.D.,
E d.D., etc.)

Public affairs and services— Continued
3
1

294

561
44
272

Social sciences .............................................................................................................................................................
Social sciences, general ......................................................................................................................................
Anthropology ............................................................................................................................................................

152 ,20 3

17,297

4 ,1 2 6

17,0 50
6 ,0 0 2

2 ,3 1 9
885

A rchaeology................................................................................................................................................................
Economics .................................................................................................................................................................
History .........................................................................................................................................................................
Geography .................................................................................................................................................................
Political science and go vernm ent......................................................................................................................

78
1 4 ,4 18

11
2 ,1 4 5

67
376
12

3 7,3 81
4 ,2 3 9
3 0 ,9 3 2

4 ,5 4 3

3 5 ,8 9 6

2 ,1 9 6
140

Law enforcement and c o rre c tio n s ......................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................

8 ,2 5 7
22

Other ........................ ..................................................................................................................................................

International public service

S ociology.....................................................................................................................................................................
C rim in o lo g y ...............................................................................................................................................................
International re la tio n s ...........................................................................................................................................
Afro-American (Black culture) studies ............................................................................................................
American Indian cultural studies
...................................................................................................................
Mexican-American cultural s tu d ie s ...................................................................................................................
Urban studies ...........................................................................................................................................................
Demography ..............................................................................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................
Theo log y.......................................................................................................................................................................
Theological professions, general ......................................................................................................................
Religious m u s ic .......................................................................................................................................................
Biblical languages .................................................................................................................................................
Religious education ...............................................................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................
Interdisciplinary studies ...........................................................................................................................................
General liberal arts and sciences ....................................................................................................................
Biological and physical sciences ......................................................................................................................
Humanities and social sciences ........................................................................................................................
Engineering and other disciplines ....................................................................................................................
Other ...........................................................................................................................................................................

1,497
1,193
392
20
111

7

788
1 ,1 1 4
217
766
632
19

763
2 ,4 4 8

76

706
19
12

1 ,289

794

19
1 ,6 8 6

40
276

4 ,2 3 1
2 ,5 3 0
160
78

2 ,8 9 8

1,301
162

1 ,3 4 0
145
76
1 ,2 2 9
108

2 4 ,9 3 8
9 ,8 6 0
4 ,2 4 5

3 ,4 3 7
1 ,593
500

3 ,6 2 0
298
6 ,9 2 0

898
217
4 29

3
7
9
40
768
685
4
4
35
40
196
20
15
70
28
63

SOURCE: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

Table C-3.

First professional d egrees1 conferred by institutions of higher education, 1973-74
Field of study

First professional
degrees

Field of study

degrees

4 ,4 7 8
11,447
791

Podiatry (Pod. D. or D.P.) or Podiatry Medicine
(D .P .M .) ............................................................................
Veterinary Medicine (D .V .M .) ....................................
Law (LL.B. or J . D . ) .........................................................
Theology (B.D., M. Div., or Rabbi) ..........................

371
1 ,3 8 4
2 9 ,6 52

685

Other ..................................................................................

422

Total, all institutions ..........................................

5 4 ,2 7 8

Dentistry (D.D.S. or D .M .D .) ..................................
Medicine (M .D .) ..........................................................
Optometry (O.D.) .........................................................
Osteopathy (D.O.) .......................................................

in c lu d e s degrees which require at least 6 years of college work for
completion (including at least 2 years of preprofessional training).




First professional

5 ,0 4 8

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Center
for Education Statistics.

89

T able C -4 .

A pprentice com pletions in selected trades, 19 6 2 -7 4

Trade

1962

Construction trades:4
Asbestos workers ......................
Bricklayers, stone and
tilesetters ..................................
Carpenters ....................................

1963

1964

1965

1966

1 96 7 1

19682

19693

1970

1,527
2 ,9 8 6

1,4 8 4

1 ,3 6 9
2 ,8 8 2
222

1,342
3 ,2 7 2
297

1,651
3 ,6 9 8
300

1,801
3 ,0 8 3
273

1,431
3 ,6 3 9
384

1 ,9 9 8
5 ,0 5 4
825

1 ,4 0 0
5 ,7 1 9
4 60
446

4 ,3 6 4
248

5,991

5 ,7 3 0
296

3 ,2 7 9

3 ,1 4 8

3 ,8 8 7

3,3 2 7

3 ,6 5 4

6 ,0 7 5

4 ,7 4 2

5,091

5 ,2 2 4

202

201

266

222

239

223

244

217

Lathers ..........................................

387

216

240

268

198

466

290

145

228
202

M achine set-up and operators.
M achinists ....................................
P a tte rn m a k e rs .............................
Toolmakers, diemakers ...........
Not classified a b o v e ..................
Graphic a rt trades:
B ookbinders..................................
Compositors

................................
Lithographers, photoengravers.
Press operators ..........................
Not classified a b o v e ..................

365

1 ,2 0 6
3 ,4 2 3
386

G la z ie rs ..........................................

790
290
3 ,4 0 9

282

1,602
4 ,2 4 9
372

327

Metalworking, trades:
B oilerm akers................................

1973

1 ,346
3 ,3 4 0
293

Cement masons ..........................
Dry-wall fin is h e r s .......................
Electricians ..................................

Sheet-m etal w o rk e rs ..................
S p rin k le r-fitte rs ..........................
Structural iron workers ...........
Construction workers not
classified above .......................

1972

312

3 ,0 1 3
312

Operating e n g in e e rs ..................
Painters ........................................
Plasterers .....................................
Plum bers-pipefitters ................
Roofers ..........................................

1971

895
338

770
267

969

228

2 ,9 2 4
197

3 ,101
282

181
3 ,0 5 0
272

1 ,7 4 9

1,558

1 ,742

1,4 7 7

1,568

379
2 ,1 8 4

896

773

732

870

1,075

1,387

2,401
200
1 ,209

407

500

526

654

640

230

59

59

52

111

91

199

1,011

1,3 3 0
150

1,3 0 9

1 ,3 3 9

1,616

131
1,489

160
1,293
350

150
1,7 0 4
558

2 ,3 6 7
326
3 ,5 9 6
1 ,2 3 9

807
215
2 ,7 3 6
241

335

188

276

439
992

1,035
983

161
4 ,8 8 0
257

245

1 ,0 1 9

868

829

832

264
3,601

201
3 ,7 8 8

228
4 ,8 8 8

161
4 ,2 6 6

226

290
2 ,5 4 4

278
2 ,3 0 9

2 ,0 0 6

1,536

1,381

1,279

1,063

1,221

135
112
2 ,1 0 8

180
138
3 ,5 2 7

350
2 ,5 0 2
902

395
4 ,1 2 5
822

214
848
909

277
1,1 6 2
5 ,1 5 3
520
404
5 ,9 3 3
295
277
806
1 ,0 3 7

2 ,0 9 8

426
2 ,7 7 5
187
1,801

182
5 ,5 2 6
387
2 ,4 6 4
334
1,503

451

552

87

112

364

405

504

353

352

3 ,8 2 2

3 ,2 3 4
290
3 ,4 8 2

3 ,6 9 5
275
3 ,8 2 5

2 ,3 5 7
166
2 ,7 1 6

1 ,8 7 9

444
4 ,7 4 8
1,032

446

531

2,401

5 ,2 5 5
383
2 ,7 6 8
408

176
4 ,6 5 6

1974

195
1 ,3 3 9
294

1,3 6 7
333

246

453

235

182

160

116

170

315

223

142

231

81

150

869

730
458
598
280

666
538
551
277

675

559

264
304
140

380
423
170

807
403
517
230

810
250
721

837
785
826

774
906
637

623
320
354

844
518
635

377
183
507

430
574
581

173

214

360

285

478

387

567

153

279

149

65

53

19

238
1,231
176
794
241
174

307
1,3 3 0
316
914
266
185

105
273
833
163
294

225
324
811
138
295

223
611
337

290

167
1,971

Miscellaneous trades:4
Air conditioning and
refrigeration m e c h a n ic s ........
Aircraft mechanics ...................
Automotive body buildersrepairers ....................................
Automotive mechanics .............
Barbers, b e a u tic ia n s ................

154
559

117
443

135
517

133
334

151
529

218
525

214
705

211
1,017

595
641

307
774

308
1,2 6 9

Butchers, m eatcutters .............
C ab in e tm ak e rs-m illm e n ...........

401
248
20

350
243
42

369
213
13

448
207
24

531
235
9

631
177
77

756
164
140

362
120
82

727
186

817
212

997
278

101

197

131

128

126

182

243

311

4 47

538

138
261
528
1 ,0 7 4
377
316

128
229
453
1,691
400
256

603

621

586

669

1,1 5 2

1 ,682

1,253

1,8 4 6

774

721

Car re p a ire rs ................................
Cooks, bakers .............................
Drafters ........................................
Electrical w o rk e rs .......................
Electronic technicians .............
Floor coverers ...............................
Line erectors, light
and power ................................
M aintenance mechanics
(repairers) ................................
Medical and dental
te c h n ic ia n s ................................
M illw r ig h ts ...................................
Molders, coremakers

552

439

322

354

442

718

1,072

1,293

25

23

18

32

13

30

59

65

92

78

145

88

116

191

218

251

165

270

780

331

615

763

695

1,0 8 0

786

561

67

Optical workers

78

199

Office machine servicers

387

................

67

150

Radio and TV repairers ..
Stationary engineers ......

156
130
2 ,1 8 2

247
164
2 ,6 0 2

Not classified a b o v e ........

2 ,1 4 6

1 Figures are understated because detailed data for Florida and Louisiana were not
reported.
2 Figures are understated because detailed data for Florida were not reported.
3 Figures are understated because detailed data for California and Florida were not
reported.




3 ,3 0 4

4
It was not possible to provide a historical series for several trades because they
were either recently listed as a separate trade (i.e., moved from a not elsewhere
classified category), or were consolidated with one or more related occupations.
NO
TE: Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.

90

Table C -5 .

A ssociate degrees and other form al aw ards below the b accalau reate, 1 9 6 7 -6 8 to 1 9 7 3 -7 4
Academic year

HEGIS
code1

5000
5001
5002
5003
5004
5005
5006
5007
5008
5009
5010
5011
5012
5099
5100
5101
5102
5103
5104
5105
5199
5200
5201
5202
5203
5204
5205
5206
5207
5208
5209
5210
5211
5212
5213
5214
5215
5216
5217
5218
5219
5299
5300
5301
5302
5303
5304
5305
5306
5307
5308
5309

Curriculum
1 9 6 7 -6 8

1 9 6 8 -6 9

1 9 6 9 -7 0

1 9 7 0 -7 1

1 9 7 1 -7 2

1 9 7 2 -7 3

1 9 7 3 -7 4

All curriculums .......................................................................................
B usiness and commerce tech n ologies ....................................................
B usiness and commerce tech n ologies, general ............................
Accounting technologies .........................................................................
Banking and finance tech n ologies .....................................................
Marketing, distribution, purchasing, b u sin ess and
industrial m a n a g e m e n t.........................................................................
Secretarial technologies (includes o ffice m achines
training) ......................................................................................................
Personal service technologies (flight attendant,
cosm etologist, e t c . ) ................................................................................
Photography technologies ......................................................................
Communications and broadcasting technologies
(radio/television, n e w s p a p e r s)............................................................
Printing and lithography technologies .............................................
Hotel and restaurant m anagem ent tech n ologies .........................
Transportation and public u tilities te c h n o lo g ie s ..........................
Applied arts, graphic arts, and fine arts
technologies (includes advertising design) .................................
Other ................................................................................................................

8 8,082
_

108 ,0 8 8
_

124 ,3 2 7
-

10,156
4 ,2 0 3
-

12,591
4,741
-

14,666
4 ,8 2 4
-

1 5 3 ,5 4 9
5 1 ,0 3 7
11,008
5,301
272

1 9 0 ,0 3 9
6 1 ,0 7 7
12,781
6 ,583
349

174,101
55,311
1 1,402
6,331
460

2 0 1 ,5 3 8
6 5 ,3 2 6
12,3 7 9
7 ,8 8 0
1,605

2 ,1 5 8

3 ,6 8 5

4 ,0 4 8

9 ,2 3 7

1 0,155

9 ,9 8 9

13,5 5 9

13,770

1 4 ,8 5 8

15,3 8 8

1 6 ,5 3 4

2 0 ,3 5 5

1 5 ,5 2 6

1 8 ,6 5 0

-

-

-

1,262
577

1,297
619

552
661

468
645

-

-

-

728
512
916
324

986
600
1 ,258
409

1 ,032
450
1,451
467

1,292
535
1,852
462

3 ,4 3 3

3 ,5 3 7

4 ,2 4 9

-

-

-

2 ,9 9 8
1,368

3 ,8 7 3
1,832

4 ,1 0 7
2 ,8 8 3

4 ,5 9 4
1 ,4 0 5

Data processing te c h n o lo g ie s ....................................................................
Data processing technologies, g e n e r a l.............................................
Keypunch operator and other input preparation
t e c h n o lo g ie s ...............................................................................................
Computer programmer technologies ..................................................
Computer operator and peripheral
equipment operation tech n ologies ..................................................
Data processing equipm ent m aintenance technologies ............
Other ................................................................................................................

2 ,9 0 8
-

4 ,6 2 3
-

6 ,4 8 7
-

8 ,7 4 5
5 ,0 2 7

8 ,971
5 ,6 6 9

7 ,6 4 0
4 ,5 8 4

6 ,9 9 8
4 ,3 6 0

_

-

-

648
2 ,1 4 9

402
2 ,1 9 8

327
2 ,1 1 8

133
2 ,0 1 8

-

387
431
103

431
104
167

249
103
259

205
226
56

Health services and param edical technologies .................................
Health services a s s i s t a n t ........................................................................
Dental a ss ista n t technologies ..............................................................
Dental hygiene tech n ologies .................................................................
Dental laboratory tech n ologies ............................................................
Medical or biological laboratory a ss ista n t technologies ..........
Animal laboratory a ss ista n t tech n ologies ......................................
Radiologic technologies (X-ray, etc.) ................................................
Nursing, R.N. (less than 4-year program) ......................................
Nursing, practical (L.P.N. or L.V.N.— le ss than
4-year program) ........................................................................................
Occupational therapy tech n ologies ....................................................
Surgical technologies ..............................................................................
Optical technologies (includes ocular care,
ophthalm ic, optometric te c h n o lo g ie s).............................................
Medical record technologies .................................................................
Medical a ssista n t and medical office a ssista n t
t e c h n o lo g ie s ...............................................................................................
Inhalation therapy tech n ologies ..........................................................
Psychiatric technologies (includes mental health
aide p ro g ra m s)..........................................................................................
Electrodiagnostic technologies (includes
EKG, EEG, e t c . ) ..........................................................................................
Institutional m anagem ent technologies (rest home, etc.) .......
Physical therapy technologies ..............................................................
Other ...............................................................................................................

1 6,903
1,013
1,555
229
829
587
6 ,9 3 0

1,307
1,956
364
772
570
8 ,9 6 0

1,663
2 ,2 2 9
362
970
647
11,7 3 0

3 4 ,5 1 8
258
2 ,1 9 1
2 ,5 0 6
264
1,335
55
1 ,139
14,4 0 8

4 5 ,4 1 2
202
2 ,7 7 9
3 ,1 1 3
374
1,826
162
1,727
18,211

4 2 ,9 1 0
121
1 ,2 5 5
3 ,4 6 5
414
1,902
202
2 ,1 5 7
2 3 ,2 5 2

5 1 ,2 0 7
771
1 ,197
3 ,7 3 8
594
2 ,6 1 7
387
2 ,7 5 8
2 8 ,1 5 8

4 ,3 8 0
52
7

5 ,5 6 4
154
53

6 ,1 0 2
166
133

7,708
243
244

9 ,9 3 9
287
423

2 ,6 3 7
435
110

2 ,4 4 7
491
183

-

29
-

60
-

81
374

146
447

215
581

395
627

Mechanical and engineering technologies ...........................................
Mechanical and engineering tech n ologies, general ....................
Aeronautical and aviation tech n ologies ...........................................
Engineering graphics (tool and m achine drafting
and d e s ig n ) .................................................................................................
Architectural drafting t e c h n o lo g ie s ...................................................
Chemical technologies (includes p la s t i c s ) .................*...................
Automotive tech n ologies .........................................................................
Diesel technologies ...................................................................................
Welding te c h n o lo g ie s ................................................................................
Civil technologies (surveying, photogrammetry, e t c . ) .................

See footnote at end of table.




91

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

2 1 ,8 7 6
-

2 6 ,7 7 8
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

1,256
570

1 ,828
982

1 ,3 4 0
1,542

1,623
1,824

_

_

_

634

842

1 ,138

1 ,785

_

-

11
-

23
-

-

-

-

22
176
239
815

55
225
355
1 ,489

29
22
4 69
1 ,624

24
64
717
807

2 2 ,6 8 6
1 ,400

2 6 ,7 3 6
1,528

2 8 ,9 5 9
1,672

3 7 ,4 3 7
2 ,5 6 0
2 ,1 7 3

4 4 ,1 4 5
2 ,9 2 5
2 ,6 5 6

3 4,781
2 ,4 5 5
2 ,3 7 8

37,6 3 1
3 ,2 9 5
2 ,0 6 0

2 ,9 1 7
1,938
589
4 ,0 4 1
721
1,097
1 ,6 3 7

2 ,9 0 7
2 ,3 6 9
529
5 ,1 0 9
835
1,548
2 ,0 9 5

2 ,122
1,897
576
3 ,6 7 6
603
652
2 ,2 9 0

2 ,3 8 5
2 ,2 4 9
555
4 ,3 0 0
785
579
2 ,2 0 3

-

426
1,103

-

513
-

1,391

556
1 ,537

T able C -5 .

Associate degrees and other form al awards below the b accalau reate, 1967-68 to 1 9 7 3 -7 4 — Continued
Academic year

HEGIS
cod e1
5310
5311
531 2
5313
531 4
5315
5316
5317

5399
540 0
5401
540 2
5403
540 4
5405
540 6
5407
5408
549 9
550 0
5501
5502
5503
550 4
5505
550 6
550 7
5508
550 9

Curriculum
1 9 6 7 -6 8
Electronics and m achine tech n ologies (television,
appliance, office m achine repair, etc.) ........................................
Electromechanical tech n ologies ..........................................................
Industrial technologies ...........................................................................
Textile technologies .................................................................................
Instrumentation tech n ologies ...............................................................
M echanical technologies ..................................................................
Nuclear technologies ................................................................................
Construction and building technologies (carpentry,
electric work, plumbing, sheet-m etal,
air conditioning, heating, etc.) ........................................................
Other ...............................................................................................................
Natural scien ce technologies ....................................................................
Natural scien ce technologies, general .............................................
Agriculture technologies (includes horticulture) ...........................
Forestry and w ildlife tech n ologies (includes fisheries) .............
Food services tech n ologies ....................................................................
Home econom ics technologies ..............................................................
Marine and oceanographic technologies ..........................................
Laboratory technologies, g e n e r a l........................................................
Sanitation and public health inspection technologies
(environmental health technologies) ..............................................
Other ...............................................................................................................
Public-service-related technologies ........................................................
Public service technologies, general ................................................
Bible study or religion-related occupations ...................................
Education technologies (teacher aide and 2-year
teacher training program s)..................................................................
Library a ss ista n t te c h n o lo g ie s .............................................................
Police, law enforcem ent, correction technologies .......................
Recreation and social work and related
te c h n o lo g ie s ...............................................................................................
Fire control te c h n o lo g y .............................................................................
Public adm inistration and m anagem ent technologies ...............
Other ...............................................................................................................

1 9 6 9 -7 0

1 9 7 0 -7 1

1 9 7 1 -7 2

1 9 7 2 -7 3

1 9 7 3 -7 4

9 ,1 2 9
1 ,5 3 0
2,313
244
189
2 ,6 7 8
79

6 ,3 9 7
1 ,179
1 ,3 1 5
245
276
1 ,9 5 4
88

7 ,4 7 0
1 ,6 7 0
1 ,9 2 8
223
259
2 ,4 9 6
77

120
3 ,7 4 5
14

180
8 ,0 6 9
17

207
9,391
38

7 ,8 5 1
1,301
1,657
155
203
2 ,7 4 9
65

-

-

-

4 ,2 9 9
1 ,5 5 4

4 ,9 2 7
2 ,0 8 3

3 ,6 4 8
3 ,0 3 0

4 ,6 5 2
508

7 ,0 2 8
656
2 ,8 7 0
1,087
693
872
183
144

9 ,4 1 8
795
3 ,3 2 1
1,523
886
1 ,210
334
162

9 ,2 4 2
648
3 ,4 4 0
1,671
704
1 ,042
378
189

1 1 ,4 9 6
768
4 ,4 7 0
1 ,9 8 0
1,581
1,542
4 14
211

145
378

632
555

346
874

464
66

-

-

-

1,121

1 ,653

1 ,7 5 5

-

-

-

_

_

_

1 ,6 4 8
564

2 ,2 8 2
596

2 ,5 9 6
727

-

-

-

723
-

776
-

841
-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

762

690

642

1 4 ,7 8 4
277
744

2 1 ,0 1 6
504
929

2 4 ,1 6 7
509
612

2 8 ,8 8 0
834
558

1 ,998
107
1 ,8 4 0

2 ,6 9 4
134
2 ,851

3 ,2 1 8
313
4 ,0 8 4

3 ,8 5 6
471
6 ,873

5 ,1 7 0
571
9 ,2 0 4

4 ,8 3 9
586
11,6 5 8

5 ,8 4 0
506
1 4 ,9 1 5

-

-

-

-

-

-

1,146
735
111
571

1,965
1,205
186
1,282

2 ,2 6 9
1 ,4 4 8
240
2 ,0 0 8

3 ,7 3 1
2 ,0 1 3
354
129

SOURCE: U.S. D e p a rtm e n t of H ealth , E d u catio n , a n d W elfare, N atio n al C e n te r for
E d u catio n S t a ti s t i c s
NOTE: D ash m e a n s d a ta a re n o t a v a ila b le or th e r e w ere no p ro g ra m s.

1 HEGIS c o d e s a re from th e H igher E d u catio n G eneral In fo rm atio n Survey. See A
(U.S. D e p a rtm e n t of H ealth ,
E d u c a tio n , a n d W elfare, 1970).
T a x o n o m y o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o g r a m s in H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n




1 9 6 8 -6 9

92

Table C-6. Enlisted strength in Department of Defense occupational groups, June 30, 1975
DOD
code
0

01

Group title and description of coverage

Enlisted
strength
2 2 3 ,5 5 8

INFANTRY, GUN CREWS, AND SEAMANSHIP SPECIALISTS

In fa n try - Includes light and heavy w eapons infantrym en, related w eapons s p e c ia lis ts , ground r e c o n n a issa n ce men,
and infantry lea d ers.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................

113,004

02

Armor and A m ph ibiou s-\n cM es land and amphibious tank crews and leaders.......................................................................................

18,950

03

C om bat E n g in e e rin g - In clu d es h asty and temporary con stru ction of forward area a ir fie ld s, roads, and b rid ges,
dem olition, field illum ination, and chem ical w arfare.....................................................................................................................................................

04

2 2 ,4 0 8

A rtillery/G unnery, R o ck e ts, an d M i s s i le s - In clu d es con ven tion al fie ld , a n ti-a ir c r a ft and sh ip b oard g u n s and
artillery, rockets, and m issile s.................................................................................................................................................................................................

5 0 ,1 3 9

05

Com bat Air C r e w - Includes enlisted pilots and navigators, fligh t engineers, and fligh t crew ordnancem en...................................

4 ,2 3 7

06

S e a m a n s h ip - Includes boatsw ains, navigators, and sim ilar seam anship sp e c ia lis ts .................................................................................

14,780

1

ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT REPAIRMEN ...............................................................................................................................................................................................

179,077

10

R adio/R ada r- Includes fixed and mobile radio, electronic com munication gear, navigation and counterm easure equipment
and surveillance, air traffic and tracking radar................................................................................................................................................................

11

Fire Control Electronic S ystem s (Non-Missile)-\nc\u6es m aintenance and repair of electronic fire control and bomb
navigation equipment, excluding m issile and underwater fire control equipm ent..............................................................................................

12

11,147

M issile G uidance, Control, an d C h eckou t - I n c lu d e s electron ic and elec tr ic a l m issile and torpedo sy ste m s and
com ponents, including guidance, control, and checkout equipment for both guided and b allistic m issile s..........................................

13

8 8 ,4 7 8

2 3 ,9 2 9

Sonar E q u ip m e n t- In clu d es underw ater d e te c tio n and fire control sy s te m s , o c e a n o g r a p h ic and m ine d e te c tio n
equipm ent, and related antisubm arine electronic gear..................................................................................................................................................

5 ,7 6 0

14

Nuclear Weapons E q u ip m e n t- Includes nuclear w eapons control and te st equipm ent..........................................................................

1 ,8 4 4

15

ADP C o m p u te rs- Includes all digital and analog com puters................................................................................................................................

8,174

16

Teletype and Cryptographic E q u ip m e n t- Includes teletype and associated on-and-off line encryption d evices.......................

17,229

19

Other Electronic E q tv /p m e n f-I n c lu d e s electronic instruments, training devices, medical equipm ent, television, electronic
photographic controls, infra-red devices, and other electronic sen sin g and control equipm ent..................................................................

2
20

2 2 ,5 1 6

COMMUNICATIONS AND INTELLIGENCE SPECIALISTS..................................................................................................................................................................

12 2 ,5 3 8

Radio and Radio C o d e - l n c l u d e s the operation of radio, "continuous w ave” equipm ent, radio teletype, and visual
com munication equipm ent...........................................................................................................................................................................................................

4 0 ,7 7 5

21

S o n a r - Includes the operation of sonar and related detection equipm ent...........................................................................................................

3 ,8 0 8

22

Radar and Air Traffic Control - I n c lu d e s the operation of surveillance, target a cq u isition and tracking radars, fire
distribution devices, and air traffic control visual and electronic navigational a id e s ......................................................................................

23

Signal Intelligence/Electronic W a rfa re- Includes the intercept, translation, and an alysis of foreign com m unications,
and electronic counterm easure equipm ent operation.......................................................................................................................................................

24

11,572

Com bat Operations Control -I n c lu d e s forward area tactical operations and in telligen ce, com bat information center
and command post control a ctiv ities......................................................................................................................................................................................

3

2 4 ,4 3 2

Military I n te llig e n c e - Includes g atherin g, receipt, and a n a ly sis of in te llig e n c e d ata, prisoner in terrogation, im age
interpretation, and counterintelligence and investigational a c tiv ities....................................................................................................................

25

27,641

1 4,310
83,8 0 3

MEDICAL AND DENTAL SPECIALISTS

30

Medical C a r e - Includes all medical care and treatment, technical and related medical and dental services..................................

5 7 ,7 2 6

31

Technical Medical S e r v ic e s - Includes pharmaceutical, laboratory, X-ray, and diagnostic te st services........................................

10,699

32

R elated Medical S e r v ic e s - Includes san itation , health preservation and veterinary services, and preventive m edicine
services................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

33

5 ,1 1 7

Dental C a r e - Includes dental care and treatment and related technical and laboratory serv ices..........................................................

10,261




93

Table C-6.

Enlisted strength in Department of Defense occupational groups, June 30, 1975—Continued

DOD
code
4
40

Group title and description of coverage

OTHER TECHNICAL AND ALLIED SPECIALISTS ................................................................................................................................................................................

3 3 ,8 7 2

P h o to g r a p h y - In clu d es s t ill, m otion, and telev isio n cam eram en, p recision p h otograp h ic p ro c e ssin g , e d itin g , and
sound synchronization....................................................................................................................................................................................................................

41

Enlisted
strength

8 ,3 1 6

Drafting, Surveying, and M a p p in g - Includes drafting, illustrating, photom apping, map com piling and construction,
and topographic surveying and com puting...........................................................................................................................................................................

42

43

8 ,7 3 8

W e a th e r - In clu d es the o b ser v a tio n , recording, reporting, and c o lle c tio n of w ea th er and se a con d ition d ata and
weather fo reca stin g ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

6 ,0 1 8

O rdnance D isp o sa l a n d D iv in g - In clu d es th e exca v a tio n and ren d erin g s a f e of e x p lo siv e o rd n an ce, c h e m ic a l
and nuclear ag en ts, underwater dem olition, and diving...............................................................................................................................................

44

2 ,1 4 7

Scientific and Engineering A id e s - Includes professional college-graduate level a ss ista n c e to physical and biological
sc ie n tis ts and en g in eers...............................................................................................................................................................................................................

3 59

45

M u sic ia n s- Includes military bandsmen and special band m u sician s.................................................................................................................

5 ,8 5 3

49

Technical S p e c ia lists, N .E .C . - I n c lu d e s ph ysical laboratory a n a ly sts, nu clear, b io lo g ic a l, and c h em ica l w arfare
sp e c ia lists, safety sp e c ia lists, and memorial a c tiv itie s................................................................................................................................................

5
50

2 ,441

ADMINISTRATIVE SPECIALISTS AND CLERKS ..................................................................................................................................................................................

3 2 3 ,2 5 3

P e r s o n n e l - In c lu d e s

p e r so n n e l
a d m in is tr a tio n ,
p e r so n n e l and m anp ow er m a n a g e m e n t,
r e c r u itin g and
personnel te stin g .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

4 4 ,7 5 8

51

Administration -I n c lu d e s adm inistrative personnel, general clerks, not elsew here c la s s ifie d .................................................................

1 0 9 ,2 6 0

52

C lerical P e r s o n n e l - In c lu d e s n o n -te c h n ic a l F irst S e r g e a n ts and S e r g e a n t M ajors and a co m b in e d p e r so n n e l
m anagem ent and adm inistrative clerk in Marine Corps u n its......................................................................................................................................

8 ,0 1 4

53

Data P ro c e ss in g - Includes EAM and ADP equipment operators and programmers........................................................................................

1 8 ,0 5 4

54

Accounting, Finance, and Disbursing-\nc\u6es audit, accounting and disbursing..............................................................................

1 6 ,0 3 3

55

Supply and L o g istic s - Includes supply accounting, stock control, requisitioning, and related a c tiv itie s........................................

8 7 ,5 2 3

56

Religious, Morale, and W e lfa re - Includes recreation, morale, w elfare, and religious a ctiv itie s........................................................

6 ,4 5 9

57

Information and E d u c a tio n - Includes troop and public information and ed u cation ..................................................................................

6 ,5 4 2

58

Comm unications Center O p e ra tio n s- Includes receipt and distribution of m essa g e s, the operation of com m unications
center equipm ent, and settin g up and adm inistering of major field com m unications sy stem s....................................................................

6

60

2 6 ,6 1 0

ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT REPAIRMEN ...........................................................................................................................................................

3 6 0 ,0 0 6

4 / r c r a f t - I n c l u d e s a ir c r a ft p o w e r p la n ts, e le c tr ic a l s y s te m s , str u c tu r a l c o m p o n e n ts and s u r f a c e s , and re la te d
instrum ents and a c c e s so r ie s......................................................................................................................................................................................................

1 6 1 ,1 8 3

61

A u to m o tiv e - Includes wheel and track vehicles and com ponents and related construction equipm ent................................................

5 3 ,0 8 4

62

Wire C o m m u n ic a tio n s-\n c \u d e s in s t a lla tio n and m a in te n a n c e of t e le p h o n e s , s w itc h b o a r d s , and c e n tr a l
office and related interior com m unications equipm ent...................................................................................................................................................

2 7 ,4 9 0

63

Missile, M echanical and E le c tric a l- Includes m issile propulsion and structures, and m issile m echanical, electrical,
hydraulic, and pneum atic system s and com ponents........................................................................................................................................................

64

6 ,2 1 8

A rm a m e n t a n d M u n itio n s - I n c l u d e s sm a ll arm s, a r tille r y , m in e s , b o m b s, and a s s o c ia t e d m o u n tin g s , and
am munition renovation..................................................................................................................................................................................................................

3 4 ,3 7 3

65

Shipboard P ro p u lsio n - Includes marine and rail main en gin es, boilers, and auxiliary equipm ent.....................................................

3 5 ,2 7 8

66

Power Generating E q u ip m e n t- Includes nuclear power reactors and primary electric generating p la n ts......................................

3 0 ,8 0 6

67

Precision E q u ip m e n t- Includes optical, m echanical, and electrical instrum ents, office m achines, and non-electronic
photographic, dental, and topographic equipm ent...........................................................................................................................................................




94

3 ,5 5 0

Table C-6.

Enlisted strength in Department of Defense occupational groups, June 30, 1975—Continued

DOD
code

Group title and description of coverage

Enlisted
strength

ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT REPAIRMEN— Continued
68

Aircraft Launch Equipm ent-\nc\udes operation, m ainten an ce, and repair of aircraft catap u lt and arrestin g gear
and related equipm ent..................................................................................................................................................................................................................

69

5 ,7 7 4

Other Mechanical and Electrical E q u ip m e n t- Includes m aterials handling reproduction, chem ical warfare and other
m echanical and electrical equipment m aintenance, n .e .c ............................................................................................................................................

2 ,2 5 0

7

CRAFTSMEN.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

8 6 ,5 7 4

70

M etalw orkin g- Includes the m achining, shaping, and forming of metal and fabrication of metal parts...........................................

15,078

71

C on stru ction - Includes construction trades and pipeline construction and operation....................................................................... >........

1 5 ,2 1 5

72

U tilitie s - Includes plumbing, heating, air conditioning, water supply and sanitation, electric wiring, power distribution,
and related tra d es..........................................................................................., .............................................................................................................................

73

2 1 ,1 4 9

Construction E quipm ent O p e r a tio n - Includes construction m ach ines, power tools, cran es, quarry equipm ent, and
12,4 1 4

asp h alt and concrete equipm ent operators..........................................................................................................................................................................
74

L ith o g ra p h y-\n c\u d es th e m a k in g of p r in tin g p la te s , c o m p o sin g , and th e o p e r a tio n of o f f s e t and le tte r
2 ,5 6 5

p r e sse s.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
75

Industrial Gas a n d Fuel P r o d u c tio n - Includes the production of liquid oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon
dioxide..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

1,105

76

Fabric, Leather and R u b b e r - includes leather, rubber, and other fabric repair........................................................................................

1,466

78

Firefighting and Damage C o n tro l- Includes firefighting, dam age control, and rescue and survival a c tiv itie s...........................

8 ,9 2 4

79

O th er C ra ftsm en , N .E .C . - I n c l u d e s m o d e lm a k in g , m o ld in g , c a m o u fla g e , and o th e r c r a f t s not e ls e w h e r e
c la s sifie d ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

8 ,6 5 8

8

SERVICE AND SUPPLY HANDLERS.......................................................................................................................................................................................................

192,611

80

Food S e r v ic e - Includes handling, preparation, and serving of food....................................................................................................................

4 9 ,7 9 9

81

Motor T ra n sp o r t- Includes the operation of w heel and track v e h ic le s and railw ay equipm ent for general transport
purposes, aerial and parachute delivery operations.........................................................................................................................................................

82

3 7 ,9 5 5

M aterial R e c e ip t, S to ra g e a n d / s s u e — In clu d es r e c e ip t, sto r a g e , is s u e , and sh ip m e n t of both g e n e r a l and
specialized c la s s e s of supplies, excluding ammunition.................................................................................................................................................

3 2 ,8 3 0

83

Military P o lic e - Includes protective and custodial services, military police, and criminal investigation............................................

6 2 ,5 5 6

84

Personal S e r v ic e - Includes laundry, dry cleaning, and related se rvices..........................................................................................................

1 ,6 5 4

85

Auxiliary L a b o r - Includes unskilled labor and unskilled labor supervisors.......................................................................................................

393

86

Forward Area E quipm ent S u p p o r t- Includes parachute packing and repaif, aerial delivery operations, and flig h t
equipment fitting and m ainten an ce........................................................................................................................................................................................

SOURCE: U.S. D e p a rtm e n t of D efense,




Occupational Conversion

Table, Enlisted, M a r c h

95

1974,

DOD 1312. 1 - E , a n d D e p a rtm e n t of D efen se u n p u b lis h e d d a ta .

7 ,4 2 4

Table C-7. Com pletions in vocational education by Office of Education instructional program, fiscal years
1973 and 1974
1973

1974

OE instructional code and title

Grand total (U n d u p lica ted )........................

2 ,2 8 5 ,7 2 0

2 ,4 1 1 ,8 2 2

01.

Agriculture ...............................................

1 3 8 ,2 0 7

1 40 ,4 2 4

0 1 .0 1 0 0
0 1 .0 2 0 0
0 1 .0 3 0 0
0 1 .0 4 0 0
0 1 .0 5 0 0
0 1 .0 6 0 0
0 1 .0 7 0 0
0 1 .9 9 0 0

Agricultural p ro d u ctio n .......................
Agricultural s u p p lie s /s e r v ic e s ..........
Agricultural m e c h a n ic s .......................
Agricultural products ...........................
Ornamental h o rticu ltu re......................
Agricultural resources .........................
Forestry ......................................................
Other ..........................................................

6 5 ,0 5 1
7,991
2 5 ,8 7 6
2 ,7 4 8
1 7 ,1 1 0
5 ,3 4 9
4 ,8 2 5
8 ,8 3 3

6 3 ,5 4 5
8 210

Home econom ics (gainful)— Continued
0 9 .0 2 0 4
Home furnishings, equipment,
s e r v i c e .....................................................
Institutional and home m anagem ent,
0 9 .0 2 0 5
and supervision ...................................
Other ...........................................................
0 9 .0 2 9 9

04.

Distribution1 ............................................

2 0 8 ,2 2 6

OE instructional code and title

2 1 ,m
2 ,8 9 4
19,361
5 ,6 9 6
4 ,4 7 6
8 ,3 9 8

Advertising s e r v ic e s ..............................
Apparel and accesso r ie s ....................
A utom otive................................................
Finance and c r e d i t ................................
F lo r istr y .....................................................
Food distribution ...................................
Food s e r v ic e s ...........................................
General m erchandise ...........................
Hardware, building m aterials, e t c . .
Home furnishings .................................
Hotel and lodging .................................
Industrial m a r k e tin g ............................
Insurance ..................................................
International t r a d e ................................
Personal s e r v ic e s ...................................
P e tr o le u m ..................................................
Real e s t a t e ...............................................
Recreation and tourism ......................
Transportation ........................................
Other ..........................................................

6 ,6 4 2
8 ,9 9 6
3 ,6 5 5
6 ,3 2 4
2 ,3 0 5
13,3 9 3
14,2 0 2
6 4 ,1 0 4
2 ,8 5 9
2 ,2 3 8
4 ,1 0 2
3 ,9 1 7
3 ,5 7 2
211
6 ,7 8 3
2 ,3 3 9
2 8 ,0 6 5
3 ,2 3 0
4 ,3 8 3
2 6 ,3 1 8

Health1 .......................................................

12 8 ,8 8 9
6 ,5 8 9
1 ,2 8 4
931
2 ,7 4 1
627
17 ,3 9 0
3 2 ,4 3 6
3 2 ,4 9 7
407
527
1 ,9 9 2
379
1 ,413
1,6 7 7
3 ,5 5 4
4 ,2 3 2
1 9,673

Consumer and homemaking1 ............

4 7 9 ,9 1 8

5 7 2 ,4 5 3

6 3 4 ,0 0 6

Accounting and com puting ...............
B u siness data processing sy ste m s..
Filing, office m a c h in e s .......................
Information, communication
occupations
M aterials support, transportation,
e t c .................................................................
Personnel, training, and related
occupations ...........................................
Stenographer, secretary, and
related occupations ...........................
Supervisory and adm inistrative
m anagem ent ........................................
Typing and related occupations .......
Other ..........................................................

7 9 ,6 4 4
3 9,221
147,883

9 4 ,3 9 6
4 1 ,6 6 6
1 6 1 ,2 1 6

9 ,2 8 2

10,011

2 ,2 5 2

2 ,4 8 8

4 ,2 6 6

4 ,6 0 2

143 ,7 3 8

1 6 6 ,9 2 6

1 0,212
1 1 1,399
2 1 ,1 6 8

1 1 ,1 2 5
1 1 9 ,4 7 7
2 2 ,1 0 0

T echnical1 ................................................

6 5 ,9 3 2

7 3 ,9 6 9

16.0101
16.0103
1 6 .0 1 0 4
16.0105
16.0106
1 6 .0 1 0 7
1 6 .0 1 0 8
16 .0 1 0 9
1 6 .0110
16.0111
16.0112
16.0113
1 6 .0 1 1 4
16.0117
16.0601
16.0602
16.0603
16.0 6 0 4
1 6 .0 6 0 5
16.9901
16.9902
16.9 9 0 0

Aeronautical te c h n o lo g y ......................
Architectural technology ....................
Automotive te c h n o lo g y .........................
Chemical te c h n o lo g y ............................
Civil te c h n o lo g y ......................................
Electrical te c h n o lo g y ............................
Electronics te c h n o lo g y .........................
Electromechanical te c h n o lo g y ..........
Environmental control technology ...
Industrial technology ...........................
Instrumentation te c h n o lo g y ...............
M echanical technology .......................
M etallurgical te c h n o lo g y ....................
Scientific data te c h n o lo g y .................
Commercial pilot training .................
Fire and safety te c h n o lo g y .................
Forestry technology ..............................
Oceanographic technology .................
Police scien ce te c h n o lo g y ..................
Air pollution te c h n o lo g y ......................
Water and w astew ater technology ..
Other ..........................................................

1 ,330
3 ,0 7 5
1 ,4 0 4
997
4 ,3 3 0
2 ,6 0 2
13,673
870
1,052
911
745
4 ,0 3 4
385
3 ,7 8 7
1 ,0 9 8
1,325
629
490
9,381
187
978
12,498

2 ,1 8 0
3 ,2 6 9
990
838
4 ,0 1 7
2 ,7 8 5
14,341
960
1 ,4 2 0
1 ,486
413
4 ,7 7 9
318
4 ,6 1 2
1 ,016
4 ,1 8 1
758
348
12,2 6 2
192
2 ,6 2 0
1 0 ,1 9 4

17.

Trade and industrial1 ...........................

5 9 1 ,5 1 8

593 ,5 2 3

17.0100
1 7.0200
17.0301
17.0302
17.0399
17.0400
17.0 5 0 0
17 .0 6 0 0
17 .0 7 0 0
1 7 .0 8 0 0
17.0 9 0 0

4 9 0 ,9 4 4

0 9 .0 1 0 2
0 9 .0 1 0 3
0 9 .0 1 0 4
0 9 .0 1 0 6
0 9 .0 1 0 7
0 9 .0 1 0 8
0 9 .0 1 0 9
0 9 .0 1 9 9

Child development ................................
Clothing and textiles ...........................
Consumer education ............................
Family relations .....................................
Food and nutrition ................................
Home m a n a g e m e n t................................
Housing and home furnishings .......
Other ..........................................................

3 0 ,0 1 9
7 1 ,6 3 5
17,357
4 7 ,8 9 6
4 5 ,0 2 9
5 ,5 6 1
1 6 ,5 8 0
2 4 5 ,8 4 1

2 7 ,3 6 3
7 0 ,4 5 7
2 5 ,1 0 0
5 2 ,4 3 6
51,1 5 6
7,023
2 2 ,7 0 2
217,041

0 9 .0 2 0 0

Home econom ics (gainful)1 ...............

10 1 ,4 8 5

93,852

0 9 .020 1
0 9 .0 2 0 2

Care and guidance of c h ild r e n ........
Clothing m anagem ent, production,
service .....................................................
Food m anagem ent, production, and
service .......................................................

2 3 ,7 0 2

Air conditioning .....................................
Appliance r e p a ir .....................................
Body and fender, a u t o .........................
M echanics, a u t o .....................................
Other autom otive ...................................
Aviation o c c u p a tio n s ............................
Blueprint reading .................................
B u siness m achine m aintenance ....
Commercial art o c c u p a tio n s .............
Commercial fishery o cc u p a tio n s.......
Commercial photographic
o c c u p a t io n s ...........................................
Carpentry ..................................................
E le c tricity ..................................................
M a so n r y .....................................................
Plumbing and pipefitting ..................
Other construction and
m a in te n a n c e ..........................................
Custodial s e r v ic e s .................................
Diesel m echanic .....................................
Drafting o c c u p a tio n s............................
Electrical occupations .........................

15,064
4 ,2 5 9
1 4 ,9 1 9
70,313
15,081
7 ,035
2 ,3 0 6
846
6 ,753
746

13,215
4 ,8 7 7
17,3 1 0
7 6 ,2 8 0
1 7 ,7 4 0
5 ,8 3 0
2 ,3 1 8
988
6 ,2 7 2
608

3 ,6 8 0
2 8 ,3 5 6
12,9 7 0
8,881
7 ,016

4 ,6 8 0
3 0 ,1 7 3
12,7 7 6
8 ,9 0 8
7 ,1 7 4

1 8,446
4 ,0 5 5
3 ,7 3 4
2 7 ,5 9 5
12,945

2 4 ,7 5 8
3 ,4 1 2
4 ,3 0 8
30,1 5 1
15,1 1 9

2 7 ,3 2 3

0 9 .0 2 0 3

1 8 ,9 8 4

1 4 .0 6 0 0
1 4 .0700
1 4 .0 8 0 0

17.1001
17.1002
1 7 .1004
17.1007
17.1099
17.1100
17.1200
1 7 .1300
1 7 .1 4 0 0

1 5,413

3 0 ,2 3 0

3 1 ,5 4 6

See fo o tn o te s a t end of ta b le .




4 ,7 0 0
7 ,3 4 0

16.

879
1 9 ,0 1 9
3 4 ,4 5 5
3 2 ,2 2 0
829
583
2 ,4 1 3
526
2 ,1 3 7
1,608
5 ,5 8 7
5,663
2 3 ,7 2 8

0 9 .0 1 0 0

3 ,9 5 4
16,557

14.0900
14.9 9 0 0

7 ,949
1,699
1,211
2 ,4 9 7

0 7 .0 2 9 9
0 7 .0 3 0 1
0 7 .0 3 0 2
0 7 .0 3 0 3
0 7 .0 4 0 1
0 7 .0 4 0 2
0 7 .0 5 0 1
0 7 .0 7 0 0
0 7 .0 8 0 0
0 7 .0 9 0 3
0 7 .0 9 0 4
0 7 .0 9 0 6
0 7 .9 9 0 0

Dental a s s i s t a n t .....................................
Dental hygienists (a sso cia te) ..........
Dental laboratory technician ............
Medical laboratory a ss istin g ............
Other m edical laboratory
technology .............................................
Nurse, a sso c ia te degree ....................
Practical (vocational) nurse .............
Nurses’ a ss ista n ts (aide) ..................
Occupational t h e r a p y ...........................
Physical th e r a p y .....................................
Radiologic technology .........................
Environmental health ...........................
Mental health t e c h n o lo g y ..................
Inhalation therapy te c h n o lo g y ..........
Medical a s s i s t a n t .................................
Health a i d e ...............................................
Other ..........................................................

7 ,5 3 0

Office occu p ations1 ..............................

14.0500

143 ,0 1 0

0 7 .0 1 0 1
0 7 .0 1 0 2
0 7 .0 1 0 3
0 7 .0 2 0 3

7 ,8 3 3

1 4 .0100
1 4 .0200
1 4 .0 3 0 0
1 4 .0400

4 ,0 2 4
1 1 ,6 1 8
4 ,0 5 2
7 ,6 4 2
2 ,5 9 5
15,1 9 0
1 3 ,1 3 4
6 9 ,3 1 9
2 ,6 2 8
1,592
3 ,4 3 0
3 ,9 3 0
3 ,5 1 4
294
6 ,5 8 5
2 ,182
3 1 ,9 3 7
4 ,4 9 2
4 ,2 8 1
2 2 ,9 9 5

07.

1974

14.

2 2 5 ,4 3 6

0 4 .0 1 0 0
0 4 .0 2 0 0
0 4 .0 3 0 0
0 4 .0 4 0 0
0 4 .0 5 0 0
0 4 .0 6 0 0
0 4 .0 7 0 0
0 4 .0 8 0 0
0 4 .0 9 0 0
0 4 .1 0 0 0
0 4 .1 1 0 0
0 4 .1 2 0 0
0 4 .1 3 0 0
0 4 .1 4 0 0
0 4 .1 5 0 0
0 4 .1 6 0 0
0 4 .1 7 0 0
0 4 .1 8 0 0
0 4 .1 9 0 0
0 4 .9 9 0 0

1973

96

Table C-7. Com pletions in vocational education by Office of Education instructional program, fiscal years
1973 and 1 9 7 4 -C o n tin u e d
OE instructional code and title

1973

1974

OE instructional code and title
Trade and industrial1 Continued
—
Fireman training ...................................
17.2801
Law enforcem ent tr a in in g ..................
17.2802
Other public services ...........................
17.2899
Quantity food occupation ..................
17.2900
Refrigeration ...........................................
17.3 0 0 0
Small engine r e p a ir ..............................
1 7 .3 1 0 0
17.3 2 0 0
Stationary energy sources
occupations ..........................................
1 7 .3300
Textile production and fabrica­
tion ..........................................................
Leather working .....................................
17.3 4 0 0
Upholstering ...........................................
1 7 .3500
1 7 .3600
Woodworking o c c u p a tio n s..................
Other ..........................................................
1 7 .9900

Trade and industrial1— Continued
17.150 0
17 .1 6 0 0
17 .1 7 0 0
17.190 0
17.2 0 0 0
17.2100
17.220 0
17 .2 3 0 0
17.240 0
17.2601
1 7.260 2
17.269 9
17.270 0

Electronic o c c u p a tio n s.............
Fabric m aintenance services
Foremanship, supervisor, and
m anagem ent developm ent ..
Graphic arts o c c u p a tio n s.......
Industrial atom ic e n e r g y .......
Instrument m aintenance and
repair ..........................................
Maritime o c c u p a tio n s...............
Metalworking ............................
Metallurgy .................................
Barbering .....................................
C o sm eto lo g y ................................
Other personal services ........
P la stics occupation ..................

1U n d u p lica te d to ta l.
S o u rc e: S u m m a ry D a ta V o c a tio n a l E d u c a tio n ,




2 5 ,8 7 7
1,872

2 7 ,2 2 8
1,116

1 3,813
15,431
100

8 ,5 0 6
1 7,658
21

611
854
6 8 ,2 0 9
512
1 ,0 2 7
1 8 ,1 0 5

924
768
3 ,2 0 3
495
940
1 9,270
1,061
2 ,4 3 0

1 ,2 5 8
1 ,6 2 9

99.

Special p r o g ra m s...................................

U.S. D ept, of H e a lth , E d u c a tio n ,
F is c a l Y e a rs 1 9 7 3 a n d

1974,

O c c u p a tio n a l a n d A dult E d u catio n .

97

1974

1973

3 7 ,3 7 2
25,2 4 2
18,6 4 8
1 0 ,6 0 0
2 ,0 0 0
8 ,3 5 9

4 ,0 8 4
23,511
1 0,886
14,127
2 ,5 6 8
9 ,9 7 9

816

1,031

17,426
912
5,621
12,197
3 3 ,9 1 0

15,306
481
6 ,2 5 8
15,805
3 8 ,0 4 2

-

7 ,428

a n d W e lfa re , O ffice of E d u c a tio n , B ureau of

Appendix D.

State Employment Security Agencies

State em ploym ent security agencies are engaged in
developing occupational projections and related manpower statistics in cooperation with the Bureau o f Labor
A la b a m a .........................
A la sk a ..............................
A rizon a............................
A rkan sas.........................
C aliforn ia........................
C olora d o.........................
C o n n e c tic u t...................
D elaw are.........................
District o f
C o lu m b ia ...................
Florida..............................
G eorgia............................
H a w a ii..............................
Idaho.................................
Illin o is ..............................
In d ia n a ............................
Io w a ..................................
K a n s a s ............................
K e n tu c k y ........................
L o u isia n a ........................
M a in e ...............................
M a ry la n d ........................
M a ssa ch u setts...............



Statistics o f the U .S . Departm ent o f Labor. The follow ing list gives the addresses o f the em ploym ent security
a g en cies.

R esearch and Statistics D ivision, Departm ent o f Industrial R elations, Industrial Rela­
tions Building, M ontgom ery 36130
D irector, E m ploym ent Security D ivision, Departm ent o f Labor, B ox 3 -7 0 0 0 , Juneau
99802
C hief, Bureau o f Statistical Inform ation, R esearch and A n alysis, D epartm ent o f
E conom ic Security, P.O . B ox 29026, Phoenix 85038
Chief, R esearch and Statistics Section, Em ploym ent Security D ivision, Departm ent o f
Labor, P.O . B o x 2981, Little R ock 72202
Chief, Em ploym ent D ata and R esearch D ivision, MIC 57, P.O . B ox 1679, Sacram ento
95808
C hief o f R esearch and A nalysis, D ivision o f E m ploym ent and Training, Departm ent o f
Labor and E m ploym ent, 1210 Sherman Street, D enver 80203
D irector o f R esearch and Information, Em ploym ent Security D ivision, Labor D epart­
m ent, 200 F olly Brook Boulevard, W eathersfield 06109
C hief o f Adm inistration, Departm ent o f Labor, P.O. B ox 2168, W ilmington 19899
Chief, D ivision o f M anpower Reports and A nalysis, D .C . M anpower Adm inistration,
R oom 625, 500 C Street, N W . W ashington, D .C . 20001
Secretary o f Com m erce and Em ploym ent Security Administrator, Caldwell Building,
1720 South G adsden Street, T allahassee 32304
Chief, Labor Information System s, E m ploym ent Security A gency, Departm ent o f
Labor, 254 W ashington St. S.W . Atlanta 30334
D irector o f Labor and Industrial R elations, 825 Mililani Street, H onolulu 96813
Chief, R esearch and A nalysis Bureau, Departm ent o f Em ploym ent, 317 Main Street,
B o ise 83707
M anager, R esearch and A nalysis D ivision, Bureau o f Em ploym ent Security, 910 South
M ichigan Street, (4th Floor), Chicago 60605
Chief, R esearch and Statistics Section, Em ploym ent Security D ivision, 10 N orth Senate
A venue, Indianapolis 46204
E xecutive Secretary, Em ploym ent Security C om m ission, 1000 East Grand A ven u e, D es
M oines 50319
Chief, R esearch and A nalysis, Em ploym ent Security D ivision, Departm ent o f Labor,
401 Topeka B oulevard, Topeka 66603
D irector, D ivision for Research and Special Projects, D ept, for Hum an R esources, 275
East Main Street, Frankfort 40601
C hief o f R esearch and Statistics, Departm ent o f E m ploym ent Security, P.O . B ox 44094,
Baton R ouge 70804
M anpower R esearch D ivision, Em ploym ent Security C om m ission, 20 U nion Street,
A ugusta 04330
D irector, R esearch and A nalysis D ivision, Departm ent o f Human R esources, E m ploy­
ment Security Adm inistration, 1100 North Eutaw Street, Baltimore 21201
D irector, D ivision o f Em ploym ent Security, Charles F. Hurley Building, G overnm ent
C enter, B oston 02114
98

M ichigan........................
M in n e so ta .....................
M ississip p i....................
M issouri..........................
M o n ta n a ........................
N e b ra s k a .......................
N e v a d a ...........................
N ew H a m p sh ire ..........
N ew J e r s e y ..................
New M ex ico .................
New Y o rk .....................
N orth C aro lin a.............
N orth D ak o ta................
O h io .................................
O klahom a.......................
O re g o n ...........................
P ennsylvania.................
Puerto R ic o ...................
R hode I s la n d ................
South C aro lin a.............
South D a k o ta................
T e n n e s s e e .....................
T e x a s ..............................
U ta h .................................
V erm ont.........................
V irginia...........................
W ashington....................
W est V irginia................
W isc o n sin .....................
W yom ing........................




D irector, R esearch and Statistics Division, Em ploym ent Security Com m ission, 7310
W oodw ard Avenue, D etroit 48202
C om m issioner, D epartm ent of Em ploym ent Service, 390 N orth R obert Street, St. Paul
55101
Chief, R esearch and Statistics D epartm ent, M ississippi Em ploym ent Security Com m is­
sion, Box 1699, Jackson 39205
Chief, M ethods and P rocedures, Division of Em ploym ent Security, D ept, of L abor and
Industrial R elations, P.O . Box 59, Jefferson City 65101
A dm inistrator, Em ploym ent Security Division, D ept, o f L abor and Industry, P.O. Box
1782, H elena 59601
Chief, R esearch and Statistics, Division of Em ploym ent, D ept, of L abor, P.O . Box
94600, Lincoln 68509
Chief, M anpow er Inform ation and R esearch Section, Em ploym ent Security D e p t., 500
E ast Third Street, C arson City 89713
Com m issioner, D epartm ent of Em ploym ent Security, 32 South Main Street, C oncord
03301
A ssistant D irector, Office of Statistics, R eports and A nalysis, Division of Planning and
R esearch, D ept, of L abor and Industry, P.O . Box 359, Trenton 08625
Chairm an, Em ploym ent Security C om m ission, A lbuquerque 87103
Division o f R esearch and Statistics, State Dept, of L abor, State C am pus, Albany 12201
Bureau of Em ploym ent Security R esearch, Em ploym ent Security Com m ission, P.O.
Box 25903, Raleigh 27611
D irector, Em ploym ent Security B ureau, P.O. Box 1537, Bism arck 58505
A dm inistrator, B ureau of Em ploym ent Services, P.O . Box 1618, Colum bus 43216
C hief of R esearch and Planning, Em ploym ent Security Com m ission, Will Rogers
M em orial Office Building, O klahom a City 73105
Chief, R esearch and Statistics Section, Dept, of H um an R esources, 875 U nion Street
N .E ., Salem 97310
D irector, R esearch and Statistics, B ureau of Em ploym ent Security, Dept, of L abor and
Industry, Seventh and F orster S treets, H arrisburg 17121
Dept, of L abor, B ureau of Em ploym ent Security, H ato R ey 00917
D irector, D ept, of Em ploym ent Security, 24 M ason Street, Providence 02903
D irector of M anpow er R esearch and A nalysis, Em ploym ent Security Com m ission, P.O.
Box 995, Columbia 29202
C hief of R esearch and Statistics, Office of A dm inistrative Services, D ept, of L abor, P.O.
Box 1730, A berdeen 57401
C hief of R esearch and Statistics, D ept of Em ploym ent Security, Nashville 37219
Chief, M anpow er D ata Analysis & R esearch (MDAR), Em ploym ent C om m ission, TEC
Building, 15th and C ongress Ave., Austin 78778
D irector of R eports and Analysis, D ept, of Em ploym ent Security, P.O. Box 11249, Salt
Lake City 84111
C hief of R esearch and Statistics, Dept, of E m ploym ent Security, P.O . B ox 488, M ont­
pelier 05602
D irector of R esearch and Statistics, Dept, of L abor and Industry, P.O . Box 1814,
Richm ond 23214
Chief, R esearch and Statistics, Em ploym ent Security D ept., P.O. Box 367, Olympia
98504
Chief, R esearch and Statistics Section, Dept, of Em ploym ent Security, 112 California
Ave., C harleston 25305
D irector, Bureau of R esearch and Statistics, D ept, of Industry L abor and H um an
R elations, P.O. Box 608, M adison 53701
Chief, R esearch and A nalysis, Em ploym ent Security Com m ission, P.O. Box 2760,
C asper 82601

99

Appendix E. Bibliography
This appendix lists selected sources of occupational
inform ation discussed in this bulletin. Although m any
useful d ata sources are not included here, the listing is
intended to provide a representative sampling in a
num ber of areas.

U .S. D epartm ent of L abor, M anpow er A dm inistration.
M a n p o w e r R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e lo p m e n t P r o je c ts .

A nnual since 1971.
Lists com pleted research and developm ent proj­
ects funded by the M anpow er A dm inistration, with
annotations.

G e n e r a l in f o r m a tio n
T r a in in g d a t a
U .S. D epartm ent of C om m erce, B ureau of the Census.
C ensus of Population: 1970 Subject R eports, Final
R ep o rt PC(2)-7A, O c c u p a tio n a l C h a r a c te r is tic s ,
1973.

U .S . D epartm ent of H ealth, E ducation, and W elfare,
N ational C enter for E ducational Statistics, Office of
Education. D ig e s t o f E d u c a tio n a l S ta tis tic s . Annual
since 1962.

Em ploym ent and unem ploym ent data for detailed
occupations by color, sex, class of w orker, earn­
ings, and a variety of other characteristics. D ata for
earlier censuses are available in publications of the
sam e title for the appropriate census years.

Contains data on enrollm ents, degrees, and other
item s. Com piled from various sources indicated in
table footnotes.

U .S. D epartm ent o f L abor, B ureau of L abor Statistics.
T o m o rro w 's M a n p o w e r N e e d s , Bulletin 1606, Sup­
plem ent 3, 1973.

U .S. D epartm ent of H ealth, E ducation, and W elfare,
N ational C enter for E ducational Statistics, Office of
E ducation. P r o je c tio n s o f E d u c a tio n a l S ta tis tic s .
Annual since 1964.

C ontains conversion tables for m atching occupa­
tional classifications of BLS projections to voca­
tional education program codes. B ased on 1960
census.

Lists projections of enrollm ents, graduates, fa­
culty, and expenditures for higher education, as
well as similar projections for elem entary and sec­
ondary schools.

U .S. D epartm ent of L abor, B ureau of L abor Statistics.
T o m o rro w 's M a n p o w e r N e e d s , Bulletin 1606, Sup­
plem ent 3. (Revised), 1975.

U .S. D epartm ent of H ealth, Education, and W elfare,
N ational C enter for Educational Statistics, Office of
E d u catio n . E n r o llm e n t in V o c a tio n a l E d u c a tio n
O c c u p a tio n P r o g r a m s . Vocational E ducation Infor­
m ation N o. 11. Annual since fiscal year 1966.

C ontains conversion tables for m atching occupa­
tional classifications of BLS projections to voca­
tional education program codes. B ased on 1970
census.

C ontains enrollm ents by detailed occupational
program s for fiscal years.

U .S. D epartm ent of Labor. E m p lo y m e n t a n d T ra in in g
R e p o r t o f th e P re s id e n t, 1 9 7 6 . A nnual since 1963
u n d e r title M a n p o w e r R e p o r t o f th e P re s id e n t.

U .S. D epartm ent of Labor. E m p lo y m e n t a n d T rain in g
R e p o r t o f th e P r e s id e n t, 1976. Annual since 1963
under title M a n p o w e r R e p o r t o f th e P r e s id e n t.

Statistical appendix presents sum m ary data on
F ederal m anpow er program s, including total en­
ro llm en ts, com pletions, and post-training em ­
ploym ent. M anpow er policy developm ents of each
year are discussed in the text of the report. For
further inform ation see In d e x to th e M a n p o w e r

Contains sum m ary data on annual new registra­
tio n s, c a n c e lla tio n s, an d co m p letio n s o f a p ­
prenticeship training since 1947.
N eary, H. Jam es. “ The B LS Pilot Survey of Training in
In d u stry ,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , F ebruary 1974,
pp. 26-32.

R e p o r ts o f th e P r e s id e n t, 1 9 6 3 —72.



100

gree attainm ent, advanced study, and em ploy­
m ent. Findings on the progress and goals of 1966
freshm en are included as a m eans of com parison
with the 1961 cohort. Contains 78 separate cross­
tabulations.

D escribes the results of the BLS pilot survey of
training in m etalw orking in d u stries, including
m ethods of data collection and the survey design.
The pilot survey w as conducted to determ ine
w hether reliable data could be collected on training
enrollm ents and com pletions in industry.

Astin, H elen, Elaine El-K haw as, and Ann S. Bisconti.
B e y o n d th e C o lle g e Y e a rs. W ashington, D .C .:
A m erican Council on Education, 1974.

U .S. D epartm ent of D efense, Office of A ssistant Secre­
tary. S e le c te d M a n p o w e r S ta tis tic s . Annual.

R eport prepared for the N ational Science Founda­
tion and the National Institutes of H ealth, uses
correlation and regression analysis t o exam ine fac­
tors associated with career outcom es and presents
data on career flows.

D ata on p erso n s d isch arg ed from the A rm ed
Forces, by broad m ilitary job classification.
U .S. D epartm ent of H ealth, Education, and W elfare,
National C enter for Educational Statistics, Office of
Education. D ir e c to r y o f P o s ts e c o n d a r y S c h o o ls w ith
O c c u p a tio n a l P ro g r a m s , 1971. D H EW Publication
No. (OE)73-11410, 1973.

B ayer, Alan, Jeannie R oyer, and R ichard Webb. F o u r
Y e a rs A f t e r C o lle g e E n tr y . W a sh in g to n , D .C .:
A m erican Council on Education, A CE R esearch R e­
ports, Vol. 8, N o. 1, 1973.

A com prehensive list of all schools offering post­
secondary occupational training, including private
vocational schools as well as 2- and 4-year col­
leges.

Followup of a sample of the freshm en class of 1967.
C o lleg e P la c e m e n t C o u n c il, In c .

The C o lle g e
G ra d u a te : T u rn o ver a n d M o b ility . R eport No. 3,

U .S. D epartm ent of H ealth, Education, and Welfare,
National C enter for Educational Statistics, Office of
Education. S u rv e y o f P ro g r a m s a n d E n ro llm e n ts in
P o s ts e c o n d a r y S c h o o ls. In process 1976.

Bethlehem , P a., 1970.
Using N ational Opinion R esearch C enter data for
33,000 graduates of the class of 1961, the report
studies labor force mobility and job changing dur­
ing five years after graduation. Detail includes de­
gree field, type of em ployer, and sex. Earlier re­
ports in the series dealt with graduates’ attitudes
tow ard business, and job satisfaction.

Survey of a sample of schools draw n from the
D ire c to ry cited in the previous source.

F o llo w u p d a t a
Astin, A lexander. The C o lle g e D ro p O u t: A N a tio n a l
P ro file . W ashington, D .C .: A m erican Council on
Education, 1972.

College Placem ent Council, Inc. C o lle g e G ra d u a te s
a n d T h eir E m p lo y e r s — A N a tio n a l S tu d y o f C a re e r
P la n s a n d T h eir O u tc o m e s. R eport No. 4, 1975.

Exam ines what happens to college dropouts, their
entry into the labor force, transfer rates, and likeli­
hood of return to college.

Actual occupations of college graduates com pared
with college-year plans. A nalyses flow directly
from C a re e r P la n s o f C o lle g e G r a d u a te s o f 1965
a n d 1970 (see above), but provide greater detail in
classification of majors and careers.

Astin, H elen, and A nn S. Bisconti. C a re e r P la n s o f
C o lle g e G ra d u a te s o f 1965 a n d 1970. Bethlehem , P a .:
College Placem ent Council, Inc., 1972.

College Placem ent Council, Inc. The H a rd -to -P la c e

R eports on entry to em ploym ent by type of em ­
ployer, u n d ergraduate m ajor, occupation, and
other items. Based on data from the Am erican
Council on Education.

M a jo r ity — A N a tio n a l S tu d y o f th e C a re e r O u tc o m e s
o f L ib e r a l A r ts G ra d u a te s. R eport N o. 5, 1975.

Astin, Helen, and Ann S. B isconti. U n d e rg ra d u a te a n d
G ra d u a te S tu d y in S c ie n tific F ie ld s. W ashington,
D.C.: Am erican Council on Education, ACE R e­
search R eports, Vol. 8, N o. 3, A ugust 1973.

C a re e r P la n s o f C o lle g e G r a d u a te s o f 1965 a n d
1970 (see above), with em phasis on liberal arts

Actual occupations o f college graduates com pared
with field of study. A nalyses flow directly from

graduates.
College Placem ent Council, Inc., F o u r-Y e a r L ib e ra l

This report exam ines the flow of a national cohort
of college freshm en of 1961 over a decade focusing
on patterns o f undergraduate study, attrition, de­



A r ts G r a d u a te s: T heir U tiliza tio n in B u sin e ss, In d u s­
try, a n d G o v e r n m e n t— The P ro b le m a n d S o m e S o lu ­
tio n s, 1975.
101

B ased on a survey in 1963 of 1958 bachelor’s
degree recipients including a subsam ple of indi­
viduals surveyed in the N ational Science F oun­
dation study, T w o Years A fte r th e C o lle g e D e ­
g r e e , who obtained further graduate and profes­
sional education during 1958-63. D escribes oc­
cupational entry and other characteristics by
type of training.

A position statem ent covering the dilem ma facing
liberal arts graduates, dim ensions of the dilemma,
new directions, areas in which action is needed,
and conclusions.
El-K haw as, Elaine, and Ann S. Bisconti. F ive a n d Ten
Y e a r s A f t e r C o lle g e E n tr y . W ash in g to n , D .C .:
A m erican Council on E ducation, A CE R esearch R e­
ports, Vol. 9, N o. 1, 1974.

Duis, H arold. “ Em ploym ent of Vocational Program
G raduates,’’ A m e r ic a n E d u c a tio n , F ebruary 1968.

D escriptive report including 1971 data on college
freshm en o f 1961 and 1966.

Gives data on entrance rates of graduates from
vocational training program s into different occupa­
tional classifications.

Engineering M anpow er Com mission. E n g in eerin g a n d
T e c h n o lo g y G r a d u a te s. N ew York: Engineers Joint
Council. Annual.

Som ers, G erald G. The E ffe c tiv e n e s s o f V o c a tio n a l a n d
T ech n ica l P r o g r a m s : A N a tio n a l F o llo w -u p S tu d y .

Survey of 2-year associate degrees granted for
com pletion of engineering and technology curriculum s.

M ad iso n : U n iv e rsity o f W isco n sin , C e n te r fo r
S tudies in V ocational and T echnical E d u catio n ,
1971.

Engineering M anpow er C om m ission. P la c e m e n t o f
E n g in e e rin g G ra d u a te s . N ew York: Engineers Joint
Council. Annual.
D ata from a survey of over 200 engineering schools
provide inform ation on the placem ent status of
24,000 technical and 14,500 nontechnical graduates
who received bach elo r’s degrees. N um ber and
percentages o f graduates entering em ploym ent,
graduate school, and m ilitary service are given.

N o n -A c a d e m ic — A S e c o n d R e p o r t on F o llo w -u p o f
D o c to r a te C o h o rts 1 9 3 5 -1 9 6 0 . C areer P atterns R e­

po rt No. 2, Publication 1577, 1968.
By studying the careers of 10,000 holders of thirdlevel research degrees, system atically selected
from the graduating classes of 1935, 1940, 1950,
1955, and 1960, this report focuses on the factors
associated with choice of em ploym ent in academ ic
or other settings, with particular em phasis on the
circum stances surrounding a change in em ployer
category.

M .,

an d

A lb e rt

D.

B id e rm a n .

361. W ashington, D .C .: B ureau of Social Science
R esearch, 1966.

T a le n t— O ne

Y e a r F o llo w - u p

S tu d ie s .

Pittsburgh: U niversity of Pittsburgh, School of E d u ­
cation, 1966.
From an original study in 1966 of a 5-percent sam ­
ple of high school students (440,000) in 1,353
schools, the report com piles inform ation on each
group one year after graduation. It studies the na­
ture of their em ploym ent and job satisfaction, the
nature and extent of their post-high school educa­
tion, and long-range career plans.
P r o je c t T a le n t— A 5 -y e a r F o llo w -u p In fo rm a tio n on
H ig h S c h o o l G r a d u a te s o f 1960. Pittsburgh: U niver­

G ra d u a te a n d P r o fe ssio n a l E d u c a tio n .
O c c u p a tio n a l O u tc o m e (Text T ables:

1965.

sity of Pittsburgh, School of Education, July 1969.
A c o n tin u in g fo llo w u p o f th e high s c h o o l
graduates, their activities during the 5 years after
graduation, examining em ploym ent and continuing
education.

A ppendix Tables). 1965.
P art III: M e th o d o lo g ic a l N o te . 1966.
P art IV: M ilita ry S e r v ic e . 1967.
P art V: G e o g ra p h ic M o b ility . 1967.




L a u re

E m p lo y m e n t o f R e tir e d M ilita ry P e rso n n e l. BSSR

P r o je c t

Sharp, L aure M ., et. al. F iv e Y ears A f te r th e C o lle g e
D e g r e e . W ashington, D .C .: B ureau of Social Science
R esearch, 5 volum es:

P art II:

S h a rp ,

A detailed study of the em ploym ent practices of
those leaving the military. O ccupational inform a­
tion is given by age, race, and rank. E xcerpts are
published in the M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , January
and F ebruary, 1967.

N ational R esearch C ouncil, N ational A cadem y of Sci­
en c es. C a r e e r s o f P h . D . ’s — A c a d e m ic V e rsu s

P art I:

B ased on a 1969 survey of a national sample o f 1966
vocational and technical program graduates, re ­
ports labor force and em ploym ent status by type of
program , m ajor occupational classification, and
personal characteristics.

102

U .S. D epartm ent of H ealth, Education, and Welfare,
National C enter for Educational Statistics, Office of
Education. N a tio n a l L o n g itu d in a l S tu d y o f th e H ig h

U .S. D epartm ent of Com m erce, B ureau of the C ensus,
C ensus of Population: 1970, Subject R eports, Final
R eport P C (2)-7E , O c c u p a tio n a n d R e s id e n c e in
1965, 1973.

S c h o o l C la ss o f 1972, C o m p a r a tiv e P r o file s — O ne
a n d O n e - H a lf Y e a rs A f te r G r a d u a tio n . D H E W

Geographic mobility data for m ajor occupational
groups, com parable 1960 data are in Final R eport
PC(2)-2B, M o b ility f o r S ta te s a n d S ta te E c o n o m ic

Publication No. (NCES) 76-220, 1975.
Study is designed to followup a sample of 20,000
high school seniors of 1972 for several years to
examine their postsecondary educational and oc­
cupational status, and its relation to high school
training experience.

A reas.
S h a rp , L a u re M ., et. a l. F iv e Years A fte r th e C o lle g e
D e g r e e . W ashington, D .C.: Bureau of Social Science
R esearch, 5 volum es: Part V: G e o g ra p h ic M o b ility,

1967.
B ased on a survey in 1963 of 1958 bachelor’s de­
gree recipients including a subsam ple of individu­
als surveyed in the N ational Science Foundation
study, T w o Y ears A fte r th e C o lle g e D e g r e e , who
obtained further graduate and professional educa­
tion during 1958-63.

O c c u p a tio n a l tr a n s f e r s
A promising source of occupational mobility data is
the 5-percent sample of the 1970 C ensus, which pro­
vides inform ation on occupations in 1970 and in 1965.
D ata are pu b lish ed only for 10 m ajor occu p atio n
groups. How ever, unpublished tabulations for detailed
occupations obtained by the B ureau o f L abor Statistics
are currently being analyzed. Several articles dealing
with this subject are scheduled to be published in the
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w in 1976.

im m ig r a tio n
N ational Science Foundation. Im m ig ra n t S c ie n tis ts
a n d E n g in e e rs in th e U n ite d S ta te s . A S tu d y o f
C h a ra c te ristic s a n d A ttitu d e s . N S F 73-302, 1973.

Seltzer, N orm an. “ The 1972 Postcensal Survey of Pro­
fessional, Scientific, and T echnical M anpow er,”
Am erican Statistical A ssociation, P ro c e e d in g s o f the
S o c ia l S ta tis tic s S e c tio n , 1972, 1973, pp. 178-80.

R e p o rts on a su rv e y c o n d u c te d by N S F in
m id-1970 of a sample of those adm itted betw een
F ebruary 1964 and January 1969 and who filed
a d d re s s re p o rts w ith th e Im m ig ra tio n an d
N aturalization Service in 1969.

Parnes, H erbert S. “ Longitudinal Surveys: Prospects
and P roblem s,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , F ebruary
1972, pp. 11-15.

U .S. D epartm ent of H ealth, Education, and Welfare,
N ational Institutes of Health. The F o re ig n M e d ic a l
G ra d u a te : A B ib lio g ra p h y . D H EW Publication No.
(NIH) 73-440, N ovem ber 1972.

D iscusses the surveys and lists additional articles
and reports based on survey data.
Byrne, Jam es J. “ O ccupational Mobility of W orkers,”
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , February 1975, pp. 53-59.

C itations of inform ation about foreign medical
graduates in the U nited States, including their edu­
cation abroad, flow into the U nited States, and
their training and use in the U nited States. Includes
only publications before Septem ber 1972.

Discusses occupational mobility of w orkers be­
tw een January 1972 and January 1973 by age, sex,
and race, and com pares results of postcensal sur­
vey to those of a similar survey in 1965.

E n t r a n t s fro m o u t s i d e t h e l a b o r f o r c e
G e o g r a p h i c m ig r a tio n

A m erican N urses Association. The N a tio n s N u rse s:
In v e n to ry o f R e g is te r e d P ro fe s s io n a l N u rse s. 1965.

U .S. D epartm ent of C om m erce, Bureau of the Census,
Census of Population: 1960, Subject R eports, Final
R eport PC (2)-2B , M o b ility f o r S ta te s a n d S ta te
E c o n o m ic A r e a s , 1963.

D ata on w ork activity and labor force mobility
characteristics of R .N .’s.
N ational Education Association. S ta tu s o f the A m e r i­
can P u b lic S c h o o l T each er, 1 9 7 0 -7 1 . R esearch R e­
port 1972-R3, 1972.

Contains data on econom ic, dem ographic, and so­
cial characteristics, including m ajor occupational
groups, o f the population classified by mobility
status.




D ata on reentrants.
103

U .S. D epartm ent of Com m erce, B ureau of the Census.
Census of Population: 1970, Subject R eports, Final
R eport PC(2)-6C , P e r s o n s N o t E m p lo y e d , 1973.

D ata include high, low, and average beginning
salaries in business and industry, by type o f cur­
riculum and type of em ploym ent (industry), for
recent college graduates. D ata are collected from
college placem ent offices, covering male graduates
in accounting, business, hum anities-social sci­
ences, m arketing, seven areas of engineering, ag­
ricultural science, chem istry-m ath-physics, and
com puter science, and female graduates in ac­
counting, business com m unications, com m unity
service w ork, ED P, engineering, health, hom e
econom ics, libraries, m athem atics, m erchandis­
ing, research, and secretarial services.

D ata on occupational characteristics of persons
not in the labor force or unem ployed. Com parable
1960 data in Final R eport PC(2)-6C , L a b o r R e ­
se rv e .

S e p a r a t i o n s fro m t h e l a b o r f o r c e
Fullerton, H ow ard N. “A N ew Type of Working Life
Table for M en,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , July 1972,
pp. 20-27.

E ndicott, F rank S. T ren d s in E m p lo y m e n t o f C o lle g e
a n d U n iv e rsity G ra d u a te s in B u sin e ss a n d In d u stry .

U ses a “ generation” life table in which the life
spans of cohorts are fQllowed through time, instead
of a “ period” life table based on m ortality rates
applicable to each age observed at one point in
time. Includes tables, data sources, and technical
appendix.

A m erican Society for Personnel A dm inistration. A n­
nual since 1946.
Survey of beginning m onthly salaries in 185 com ­
panies representing large- and m edium -sized firms
in 22 States and 20 industries. Salaries are for
b ach elo r’s and m aster’s degree holders in en ­
gineering, accounting, sales, business adm inistra­
tio n , lib e ra l a r ts , p ro d u c tio n m a n a g e m e n t,
physics, chem istry, m athem atics, econom ics, and
other fields.

U .S. D epartm ent of L abor, B ureau of L abor Statistics.
T o m o rro w 's M a n p o w e r N e e d s , Bulletin 1606, Vol. 1,
F ebruary 1969, and Supplem ent 4, E stim a tin g O c c u ­
p a tio n a l S e p a r a tio n s f r o m
S ta te s , 1974.

th e L a b o r F o r c e f o r

Professional and business associations. The following
associations or periodicals conduct salary surveys
for occupations of special interest to them:

Vol. 1 discusses the developm ent of death and
separation rates, and shows 1960 rates for indi­
vidual occupations by sex in appendix A. Supple­
m ent 4 contains estim ates of occupational separa­
tions for States and shows 1970 and 1985 rates for
individual occupations by sex in appendix B.

A d v e r tis in g A g e (magazine)

Am erican D ental A ssociation
A m erican Dental A ssistants Association
Am erican D ental Hygienists Association
A m erican Insurance Association/A m erican
M utual Insurance Alliance
A m erican M arketing Association
A m erican M edical A ssociation
A m erican M edical R ecord A ssociation
A m erican O steopathic A ssociation
A m erican Speech and H earing A ssociation
B u sin e ss A u to m a tio n , ED P Salary Survey
Flight Engineers International A ssociation
Life Office M anagem ent A ssociation, Actuarial
Student Salary Survey
N ational A ssociation of Certified Dental
L aboratories
N ational Farm and Pow er Equipm ent Dealers
A ssociation
Public Personnel A ssociation, P a y R a te s in P u b lic

E a rn in g s
D ir e c to r y o f In d u stry W age S u rv e y s a n d U nion W a g es
a n d H o u rs S tu d ie s, 1960-75, 1976.

L ists industries covered in the BLS industry wage
survey program , including publication titles, bulle­
tin num bers, and a limited description of their con­
tent.
A r e a W a g e S u r v e y s , M e tr o p o lita n A r e a s , U n ite d
S ta te s a n d R e g io n a l S u m m a rie s, 1973-74. Bulletin

1850-28, 1976. Annual since 1950, various bulletin
num bers. Before Bulletin 1465 (1965-66) the series
were called O ccupational Wage Surveys. D ata for
individual m etropolitan areas are published in indi­
vidual volum es.

S e rv ic e

U .S. D epartm ent of L abor, Bureau of L abor Statistics.
N a tio n a l S u r v e y o f P r o fe s s io n a l, A d m in is tr a tiv e ,
T ech n ica l, a n d C le ric a l P a y . Annual since W inter

College Placem ent Council, Inc. M e n 's S a la ry S u rv e y
a n d W o m en 's S a la ry S u rv e y . Annual.




1959-60, various bulletins.
104

contains annual averages for previous year for all
national industry series.

D ata on salary levels and distributions and 80
occu p atio n -w ork levels, including accounting,
legal services, personnel m anagem ent, engineering
and chem istry, buying, clerical supervisory, draft­
ing, and clerical jobs. A verages are shown for an­
nual, m onthly, or w eekly rates, excluding overtim e
pay. D ata are shown for total U nited States, for
metropolitan areas combined, for establishments of
2,500 or m ore, and for m ajor industry divisions.

U .S. D epartm ent of L abor, Em ploym ent and Training
Adm inistration. W o rk life , m onthly.
Presents articles on a wide variety of m anpowerrelated topics — people, jobs, poverty, em ploy­
m ent and unem ploym ent, transportation, educa­
tion, econom ics, housing, training, health ser­
vices, upgrading, apprenticeship, research.

Sommers, Dixie, “ O ccupational Rankings for M en and
W om en by E a rn in g s,” M o n th ly L a b o r R e v i e w ,
August 1974, pp. 34-51.

U .S. D epartm ent of L abor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w .

Ranks selected occupations of m en and wom en
according to 1969 m edian earnings, based on 1970
C ensus data.

P resen ts articles on em ploym ent, labor force,
wages, prices, productivity, unit labor costs, col­
lective bargaining, w o rk ers’ satisfaction, social
indicators, and labor developm ents abroad. Regu­
lar features include a review of developm ents in
industrial relations, significant court decisions in
labor cases, book review s, and current labor statis­
tics.

P e rio d ic a ls
U .S. D epartm ent of L abor, B ureau of L abor Statistics.
E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a rn in g s, m onthly.

U .S. D epartm ent of L abor, B ureau of L abor Statistics.

Presents charts and detailed tables on the labor
force, em ploym ent, unem ploym ent, hours, earn­
ings, and labor turnover. Com piled from data
based on household interview s, nonagricultural
establishm ent records, and adm inistrative records
of unem ploym ent insurance system s. M arch issue




O c c u p a tio n a l O u tlo o k Q u a rte rly .

P re se n ts c u rre n t in fo rm atio n on em ploym ent
trends and outlook, supplem enting and updating
inform ation in the O c c u p a tio n a l O u tlo o k H a n d ­
book.

105
☆ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1976

0 - 241-016(13)

U.S. Workers
and Their Jobs:
The Changing
Picture

This colorful new 40-page chartbook
illustrates some of the important
changes affecting the U.S. work
force. Some of the ideas shown are:
• How the rapid growth of the labor
force made possible this coun­
try’s swift industrial advance.
• That most of the employment
growth in the past 50 years has
been in industries which produce
services rather than goods.

Single copies of “ U.S. Workers and
Their Jobs: The Changing Picture,’’
Bulletin 1919, are 60 cents each,
minimum order $1. When 100 or
more copies are sent to one address,
the buyer is given a 25 percent
discount.
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics

• That the unemployment rate of
black workers has averaged about
twice the rate of white workers.
• That consumer prices have risen
almost four times as fast since
1965 as in the previous 10 years.

O rd e r Form
Please send_______
copies of BLS Bulletin
1919, ‘‘U.S. Workers and
Their Jobs: The Changing
Picture,” No. 029-00101917-3, 60 cents each,
minimum mail order $1.
(25 percent discount for
order of 100 copies or
more.)

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of Documents.
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ent of Documents.)
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my Deposit Account No.

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of Documents
U.S. Government
Printing Office
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Official Business
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Penalty for private use,
Digitized$300
for FRASER



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Postage and Fees Paid
U.S. Government
Printing Office
375
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Book Rate

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
REGIONAL OFFICES

Region i
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617)223-6761
Region il
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone : (212) 399-5405

Region V
9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312)353-1880
Region V
I
Second Floor
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i
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P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215)596-1154

Regions V and Vlir
II
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816)374-2481

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street, NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: (404)526-5418

Regions IXand X**
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
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Phone: (415)556-4678




‘Regions V and V are serviced by Kansas City
II
III
“ Regions IXand Xare serviced by San Francisco

R ev. 1 0 /7 6

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Lab-441

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