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Occupational Outlook for
College Graduates, 1980-81 Edition
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of LaL>or Statistics
December 1980
Bulletin 2076

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Occupational Outlook for
College Graduates, 1980-81 Edition
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
December 1980
Bulletin 2076
Material in this publication is in the
public domain and may be reproduced
without permission of the Federal
Government. Please credit the
Bureau of Labor Statistics and cite
the name and number of this publication.

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402
Stock Number 029-001-02066-0

☆ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1980— 0 - 2 9 6 - 6 6 8



Career planning has become increasingly important to college graduates who seek a reward­
ing career. During the 1970’s, the number of college graduates entering the labor force
exceeded the number of job openings in the kinds of jobs usually sought by graduates. As a
result, college graduates, as a group, faced competition for the jobs they wanted. However,
graduates prepared to enter some occupations fared much better than those prepared to enter
others. This competition for jobs is likely to continue through the 1980’s. Graduates who
choose their career field unwisely or who are least qualified will probably continue to face
difficulties finding the kinds of jobs they want.
The Occupational Outlook for College Graduates is a guide to career opportunities in a
broad range of occupations for which a college degree is, or is becoming, the usual background
for employment. It contains a brief summary of the expected changes in the economy, in
addition to an analysis of the overall supply and demand situation for college graduates
through the 1980’s. Each occupational statement presents information on the nature of the
work; places of employment; education, skills, and abilities required for entry; employment
outlook; related occupations; and earnings.
The assessment of employment outlook for college graduates was prepared by Jon Q.
Sargent, Division of Occupational Outlook.




l How to use this book
5 Where to go for more

12 Assumptions and methods
used in preparing employment
14 Tomorrow’s jobs for college
25 Occupations
v 49

Actors and actresses
Air traffic controllers
Airplane pilots
Bank officers and managers
Blue-collar worker supervisors
Broadcast technicians
City managers
Claim representatives
Protestant ministers
Roman Catholic priests
College student personnel workers _
Cooperative extension service
School counselors
Employment counselors
Rehabilitation counselors
College career planning and
placement counselors
Credit managers
Dental hygienists


Engineering and science techni­
FBI special agents
Flight attendants
Food technologists
Health and regulatory inspectors
Health services administrators
Hotel managers and assistants
Industrial designers
Insurance agents and brokers
Interior designers
Landscape architects
Life scientists
Manufacturers’ sales workers
Marketing research workers
Medical laboratory workers
Medical record administrators
Merchant marine officers
Newspaper reporters
Occupational therapists

140 Occupational safety and health
142 Oceanographers
143 Optometrists
145 Osteopathic physicians
146 Personnel and labor relations
149 Pharmacists
151 Photographers
153 Physical therapists
154 Physicians
157 Physicists
158 Podiatrists
159 Police officers
161 Political scientists
163 Programmers
165 Psychologists
168 Public relations workers
169 Purchasing agents
171 Radio and television announcers
173 Range managers
174 Real estate sales workers and
176 Registered nurses
178 Securities sales workers
179 Singers
181 Social workers
183 Sociologists
185 Soil conservationists
186 Soil scientists
187 Speech pathologists and audiologists
189 State police officers
190 Statisticians
192 Surveyors and surveying technicians
193 Systems analysts
195 Teachers


K indergarten and elem entary
school teachers

Secondary school teachers
College and university faculty
Technical writers
Urban and regional planners
Wholesale trade sales workers



As the economy grows and as new tech­
nologies and ways of doing business are de­
veloped, the variety of careers from which to
choose increases. According to the Dictio­
nary o f Occupational Titles, there currently
are more than 20,000 separate jobs in our
economy. But most of us are familiar with
only a few of these, usually the occupations
of people we know or the characters we see
on television or in films. Since choosing a
career is one of the most important decisions
a person can make, you should take some
time to fully explore the possibilities before
you make a selection. You may be surprised
to discover that a job you never heard of, or
never seriously considered seems right for
you. Or, you may find that the career you
now have in mind still seems like a good
choice, and you can make your plans more
One way to begin studying about careers is
to look through the Occupational Outlook for
College Graduates. This chapter describes
the information presented and offers some
useful hints on how to use it to help you find
the right career. The occupational statements
that follow the four introductory chapters
are reprinted from the 1980-81 edition of the
Occupational Outlook Handbook. These oc­
cupations generally are those of greatest in­
terest to college students and graduates, and
are those for which a college education is
required, is becoming increasingly necessary,
or is the usual educational background for
employment. Occupations covered include
workers in professional and related occupa­
tions, sales occupations, managerial and ad­
ministrative occupations, and service occu­
pations. The statements in this publication
account for about 90 percent of all workers
in professional and related occupations, and
for smaller proportions of workers in other
major groups. Almost three-fifths of all col­
lege graduates work in professional and
related occupations; smaller proportions are
in other major occupational groups.

Where do I start?
Like a dictionary, encyclopedia, or other ref­
erence book, the Occupational Outlook for
College Graduates has no beginning or end­
ing point. You can simply look through the
table of contents or index, find the occupa­
tion^) you are interested in, and read those
sections. If you want to know more about the
working world, read the section on Tomor­
row’s Jobs for College Graduates. It explains
some of the changes taking place in the job
market today, and what is expected to hap­
pen through the 1980’s.
If you are just beginning to think about
planning for a career, you may wonder what

things you should consider. Start with what
you know about your own interests and abili­
ties. Does science or art interest you? Do you
enjoy working with your hands and building
things, or do you really prefer working with
people? Is money, recognition, or being a
leader important to you? The answers to
these and similar questions can help you dis­
cover your own characteristics. Understand­
ing something about yourself is important be­
cause your traits, abilities, and goals will
largely determine whether you will like
working in a particular job and if, in fact, you
can do that job well. Your school counselor
or another professional trained in human be­
havior can help you ask yourself the right
questions. Talking with your family and
friends can help you learn about yourself,
Once you have decided what your interests
are, look in the alphabetical list of occupa­
tional reports provided in the table of con­
tents to find occupations that appear to
match your interests.

What will I learn?
Once you have chosen a place to begin—an
occupation you’d like to learn more about—
you can use the Occupational Outlook for
College Graduates to find out what the job is
like, what education and training are needed;
what the advancement possibilities, earnings,
and employment outlook are likely to be; and
also related occupations you might want to
explore. Each section of this book follows a
standard format, making it easier to compare
different jobs. What follows is a description
of the type of information presented in each
occupational section with some hints on how
to use this information.

About those Numbers at the
Head of Each Statement
The numbers in parentheses that appear just
below the title of most occupations chapters are
D.O.T. code numbers. D.O.T. stands for the
Dictionary o f Occupational Titles (fourth edi­
tion), a U.S. Department of Labor publication,
now in its fourth edition. Each number helps
classify jobs by the type of work done, training
required, physical demands, and working con­
ditions. D.O.T. numbers are used by public em­
ployment service agencies for classifying appli­
cants and job openings, and for reporting and
other operating purposes. They are included in
the Occupational Outlook fo r College Gradu­
ates because career information centers and li­
braries frequently use them for filing occupa­
tional information.

The Nature of the Work section describes
the major duties of workers in the occupa­
tion. It tells what workers do on the job, what
tools or equipment they use, and how they do
their work. Although the descriptions are
typical of each job, there are many occupa­
tions where the work varies with the size or
type of employer. For example, a registered
nurse who works in an elementary school will
spend more time treating minor injuries and
soothing children’s feelings than one who
works in a hospital. There also are many
fields of work that contain specialties; teach­
ing and medicine are good examples.
An important part in your career decision
will probably be whether the work done on
the job appeals to you, so try to find out as
much as possible about work in those occu­
pations which interest you. The next chap­
ter of the Occupational Outlook for College
Graduates— Where to Go for More Infor­
mation—suggests ways to learn more about
jobs. You also can look for more informa­
tion in your school library or counseling
center. If you and your counselor can ar­
range it, talk to someone who works in the
occupation or, even better, watch them on
the job.
Working conditions also are very impor­
tant to consider when finding a career that
appeals to you. Some people, for example,
like outdoor work because of the chance to
enjoy beautiful weather and the freedom that
often goes with this type of job. Others like
to work in an office to avoid bad weather and,
usually, noise and dirt, too. A list of working
conditions common to different occupations
in this book follows. Since those you feel
strongly about, whether you like or dislike
them, can make a job more or less attractive,
you should consider them when making your
Overtime work. When overtime is required
on a job, employees must give up some of
their free time and be flexible in their per­
sonal lives. Usually, however, overtime does
offer added income or a chance to earn extra
days off.
Shift work. Evening or nightwork is part of
the regular work schedule in many jobs.
Broadcast technicians and newspaper report­
ers, for example, may be required to work
these shifts on a permanent basis. Workers in
other occupations, such as nurses and police
officers, may work nights on a rotating basis.
Still other workers may be assigned to split
shifts: Airplane pilots, for example may have
time off during layovers between flights.
Some people prefer shift work because they
can pursue leisure activities or take care of
errands during daytime hours.

Environment. Work settings vary greatly.
People work in office buildings; on construc­
tion sites; in mines, factories, restaurants,
and stores; and on ships and planes. Some
people like a quiet, air-conditioned setting,
others prefer the hum of machinery. By
knowing the setting of jobs you find interest­
ing, you can avoid working in an environ­
ment that you would find unpleasant.
Outdoor work. Many workers have to be out­
doors some or all of the time. Police officers,
surveyors and foresters are examples. Being
exposed to all types of weather may be pre­
ferred to indoor work, however, by those
who enjoy the outdoors and consider it
Hazards. Some jobs are potentially danger­
ous. Cuts, bums, and falls can occur in res­
taurant kitchens, factory assembly lines, and
laboratories, for example. Consequently,
many jobs, such as mining and construction
work, require the use of specially designed
equipment and protective clothing.
Physical demands. Some jobs require stand­
ing, crouching in awkward positions, or are
otherwise strenuous. Be sure you have the
physical strength and stamina the work you
are interested in requires.
The Places of Employment section pro­
vides information on the number of workers
in an occupation and tells whether they are
concentrated in certain industries or geo­
graphic areas. The size of an occupation is
important to a jobseeker because large occu­
pations, even those growing slowly, offer
more openings than small ones as many
workers retire or die each year.
Some occupations, such as bank officers
and buyers, are concentrated in particular
industries. Other occupations, such as ac­
countants, are found in almost every indus­
try. If an occupation is found primarily in
certain industries, this section lists them.
A few occupations are concentrated in cer­
tain parts of the country. Actors and ac­
tresses, for example, usually work in Califor­
nia or New York. This information is
included for the benefit of people who have
strong preferences about where they live. For
most occupations, however, employment is
widely scattered and generally follows the
same pattern as the distribution of the popu­
In addition, information on part-time em­
ployment is included because it is important
to students, homemakers, retired persons,
and others who may want to work part time.
Knowing which occupations offer good op­
portunities for part-time work can be a valu­
able lead in finding a job.

Workers can prepare for jobs in a variety
of ways, including college study leading to a
degree, certificate, or associate degree; pro­
grams offered by public and private post­
secondary vocational schools; home study
courses; government training programs; ex­
perience or training obtained in the Armed
Forces; apprenticeship and other formal
training offered by employers; and high
school courses. For each occupation, the Oc­
cupational Outlook for College Graduates
identifies which way is preferred. In many
cases, alternative ways of obtaining training
are listed as well. It is worth remembering
that the level at which you enter an occupa­
tion and the speed with which you advance
often are determined by the amount of train­
ing you have.
Many occupations are natural stepping
stones to others. After working for a time as
a computer programmer, for example, many
people advance to jobs as systems analysts.
The world of work is constantly changing
and fewer people spend their lives in one or
even two occupations. Some have several jobs
over a lifetime, changing careers as they learn
new skills or feel a need to try another line of
work. If a pattern of movement from one
occupation to another exists, it is discussed in
this portion of each occupational statement.
Information on occupational mobility can
be useful in several ways. It is helpful to
know, for example, that skills gained work­
ing at one job can make you more employable
in another—perhaps a job that is more desir­
able in terms of earnings, working condi­
tions, or scope for self-expression. On the
other hand, it also is useful to know which
jobs offer the most opportunity for transfer­
ring to other work of a similar nature. Per­
sons trained in electrical or chemical engi­
neering, for example, frequently can transfer
to another engineering specialty where they
can apply general engineering knowledge in
different ways.
In some cases, moving from one occupa­
tion to another takes more than the training
or experience acquired on the job. For exam­
ple, an engineering technician usually must
have additional specialized training before
advancing to an engineering job. Many state­
ments describe the possibilities for advance­
ment after additional training and note inservice programs that allow employees to
gain needed skills while continuing to work
part time.

The Training, Other Qualifications, and
Advancement section should be read care­

It usually is wise to discuss the patterns of
job transfer and advancement described in
this book with counselors, local employers,
and others who know about the particular
job market where you want to work. The
average patterns of movement from one oc­
cupation to another may not exist in every
industry or area.

fully because preparing for an occupation can
mean a considerable investment of time and
money. If you currently are in school, it’s a
good idea to look closely at the list of high
school and college courses considered useful
preparation for the career you have in mind.

One more factor you must consider is that
all States have certification or licensing re­
quirements for some occupations. Physicians
and nurses, elementary and secondary school
teachers, and real estate agents and brokers
are examples of workers who must be li­
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

censed. If you are considering an occupation
that is licensed, be sure to check the require­
ments in the State in which you plan to work
because a license from one State may not be
valid in another. Common requirements for
a license include completion of a Stateapproved training or educational program
and a passing grade on a written test.
A very important item to consider when
making a career choice is the extent to which
a particular job matches your personality.
Although it often is difficult for people to
assess themselves, your counselor undoubt­
edly is familiar with tests that can help you
learn about yourself. For each occupation de­
scribed in information is provided which al­
lows you to match you own unique personal
characteristics—your likes and dislikes—
with the characteristics of the job. A particu­
lar job could require a person who is able to
do one or more of the following:
—make responsible decisions.
—motivate others.
—direct and supervise others.
—work in a highly competitive atmosphere.
—enjoy working with ideas and solving problems.
—enjoy working with people.
—enjoy working with tools or machinery—good
coordination and manual dexterity are neces­
—work independently—initiative and self-disci­
pline are necessary.
—work as part of a team.
—enjoy working with detail, either numbers or
technical written material.
—enjoy helping people.
—use creative talents and ideas and enjoy having
an opportunity for self-expression.
—derive satisfaction from seeing the physical re­
sults of your work.
—work in a confined area.
—perform repetitious work.
—enjoy working outside, regardless of the

Most jobs require some combination of
these characteristics.
The Employment Outlook section dis­
cusses prospective job opportunities. Know­
ing whether or not the job market is likely to
be favorable is quite important in deciding
whether to pursue a specific career. While
your interests, abilities, and career goals are
extremely important, you also need to know
something about the availability of jobs in the
fields that interest you most.
In most cases, the description of employ­
ment outlook for an occupation begins with
a sentence about the expected change in em­
ployment through the 1980’s. The occupa­
tion is described as likely to grow about as
fast as, faster than, or slower than the average
for all occupations (figure I). Job opportuni­
ties in a particular occupation usually are
favorable if employment is expected to in­
crease at least as rapidly as for the economy
as a whole. Occupations in which employ­
ment is likely to stay about the same or to
decline generally offer less favorable job pros­
In some cases, a statement is made about
the effect fluctuations in economic activity

suggested ways to find out more about job

Figure I


Projected 1978-90
change in employment

Much faster than the average for all o c cu p atio n s.......................................... 50.0 percent or more
Faster than the average for all occupations.......................................................25.0 to 49.9 percent
About as fast as the average for all occupations1............................................. 15.0 to 24.9 percent
More slowly than the average for all occupations.......................................... 5.0 to 14.9 percent
Little change is e x p ected ..................................................................................... 4.9 to —4.9 percent
Expected to d e c lin e .............................................................................................. —5.0 percent or more
'The average increase projected for all occupations for the 1978-90 period is 20.8 percent.

have on employment in the occupation. This
information is valuable to people looking into
long-range career possibilities at a time when
the economy is in a recession. People under­
standably wonder: What will the economy be
like when I enter the labor market? Will it be
harder to find a job 5 or 10 years from now
than it is today? The Occupational Outlook
for College Graduates gives information,
wherever feasible, on occupations whose lev­
els of employment fluctuate in response to
shifts in the economic climate. It is important
to bear in mind that employment in many—
but not all—occupations is directly affected
by an economic downturn. A sharp improve­
ment in the outlook for these occupations is
likely as the economy picks up. However,
other occupations are less vulnerable to
short-term changes in economic activity.
Their growth or decline is influenced by
other factors discussed in this section.
For some occupations, information is
available on the supply of workers—that is,
the number of people pursuing the type of
education or training needed and the number
subsequently entering the occupation. When
such information is available, the Occupa­
tional Outlook for College Graduates de­
scribes prospective job opportunities in terms
of the expected demand-supply relationship.
The prospective job situation is termed excel­
lent when the demand for workers is likely to
greatly exceed the supply of workers; keenly
competitive when the supply of workers is
likely to exceed the demand for them. The
precise terms used in this book are shown in
figure II.
Workers who transfer into one occupation
from another sometimes are a significant part
of the supply of workers; similarly, those who
transfer out may have a substantial effect on
demand for workers because their leaving
usually creates job openings. Although the
information currently available on transfers
among occupations is limited, the Occupa­
tional Outlook for College Graduates de­
scribes transfer patterns and their effect on

the supply of workers for certain occupa­
tions. The employment outlook for engi­
neers, for example, notes that transfers into
the field are likely to constitute a substantial
portion of supply, if past trends continue.
The information in the employment out­
look section should be used carefully, how­
ever. The prospect of relatively few openings,
or of strong competition, in a field that inter­
ests you should make you take a second look
at your career choice. But this information
alone should not prevent you from pursuing
a particular career, if you feel confident in
your ability and are determined to reach your
goal. Getting a job may be difficult if the field
is so small that openings are few (actuaries
and city managers are examples) or so popu­
lar that it attracts many more jobseekers than
there are jobs (radio and television broadcast­
ing, journalism, the performing arts, and
modeling). Getting a job also can be difficult
in occupations in which employment is de­
clining such as secondary school teachers,
although this is not always the case.
Remember, even occupations that are
small or overcrowded provide some jobs. So
do occupations in which employment is
growing very slowly or even declining, for
there is a need to replace workers who leave
the occupation. If the occupation is large, the
number of job openings arising from replace­
ment needs can be quite substantial. Ac­
countants, teachers, and police officers are
examples of large occupations that provide a
significant number of job openings each year
because workers leave. On the average, open­
ings resulting from replacement needs are ex­
pected to account for the vast majority of all
job openings in the next 10 years.
In other words, don V rule out a potentially
rewarding career simply because the prospec­
tive outlook in an occupation is not favor­
able. Do discuss your abilities and aptitudes
with your counselor. Getting more informa­
tion is a good idea, too—look at the section
on Where to Go for More Information for

Figure II
Job opportunities

Prospective demand-supply relationship

Very good
Good or favorable
May face competition
Keen competition

Demand much greater than supply
Demand greater than supply
Rough balance between demand and supply
Likelihood of more supply than demand
Supply greater than demand

How reliable is the information on the out­
look for employment over the next 10 years?
No one can predict future labor market con­
ditions with perfect accuracy. In every occu­
pation and industry, the number of jobseek­
ers and the number of job openings
constantly changes. A rise or fall in the de­
mand for a product or service affects the
number of workers needed to produce it.
New inventions and technological innova­
tions create some jobs and eliminate others.
Changes in the size or age distribution of the
population, work attitudes, training oppor­
tunities, or retirement programs determine
the number of workers available. As these
forces interact in the labor market, some oc­
cupations experience a shortage of workers,
some a surplus, some a balance between job­
seekers and job openings. Methods used by
economists to develop information on future
occupational prospects differ, and judgments
that go into any assessment of the future also
differ. Therefore, it is important to under­
stand what underlies each statement on em­
ployment outlook.
For every occupation covered in the Occu­
pational Outlook for College Graduates an
estimate of future employment needs is devel­
oped. These estimates are consistent with a
set of assumptions about the future of the
economy and the country. For a more de­
tailed explanation of how these projections
are developed, see the chapter on Assump­
tions and Methods Used In Preparing the
Employment Projections.
Finally, you should remember that job
prospects in your community or State may
not correspond to the description of the em­
ployment outlook in this book. For the par­
ticular job you are interested in, the outlook
in your area may be better or worse. This
book does not discuss the outlook in local
areas; such information has been developed,
however, by many States and localities. The
local office of your State employment service
is the best place to ask about local and area
employment projections. Names and ad­
dresses of these State and local information
sources and suggestions for additional infor­
mation on the job market are given in the
following chapter, Where to Go for More
The Earnings section helps answer many
of the questions that you may ask when
choosing a career. Will the income be high
enough to maintain the standard of living I
want and to justify my training costs? How
much will my earnings increase as I gain ex­
perience? Do some areas of the country or
some industries offer better pay than others
for the same type of work?
Like most people, you probably think of
earnings as money—a paycheck in the bank
or cash in the pocket. But money is only one
type of financial reward for work. Paid vaca­
tions, health insurance, uniforms, and dis­
counts on clothing or other merchandise also
are part of total earnings.

Table 1. Career ladder of accountants
Average annual earnings, 1978

Beginning accountants............................................................................
Experienced acco u n ta n ts......................................................................
Chief a c c o u n ta n ts..................................................................................


SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

For about 9 out of 10 workers, money in­
come is received in the form of a wage or
salary. A wage usually is an hourly or daily
rate of pay, while a salary is a weekly,
monthly, or yearly rate. Most craft workers,
operatives, and laborers are wage earners,
while most professional, technical, and cleri­
cal workers are salary earners.

Some occupations may offer workers a
chance to supplement their wage or salary
income with self-employment income. For
example, salaried lawyers often have a pri­
vate practice, seeing clients during evenings
or weekends, and college professors fre­
quently publish articles based on indepen­
dent research.

In addition to their regular pay, wage and
salary workers may receive extra money for
working overtime. Those who work on a
night shift or who work irregular hours often
receive extra pay called a shift differential.
Workers in some occupations also receive
tips based on the services they provide cus­
tomers. Securities sales workers and real es­
tate agents are among those who are paid a
commission—a percent of the amount they
sell. Factory workers are sometimes paid a
piece rate, which is an extra payment for each
item they produce. For many workers, these
types of pay amount to a large part of their
total earnings.

Besides money income, most wage and sal­
ary workers receive a variety of fringe be­
nefits as part of their earnings on the job.
Several are required by Federal and State
law, including social security, workers’ com­
pensation, and unemployment insurance.
These benefits provide income to persons
when they are not working because of old
age, work-related injury or disability, or lack
of suitable jobs.

The remaining 10 percent of all workers
are in business for themselves and earn selfemployment income instead of wages or sala­
ries. This group includes workers in a wide
variety of occupations: Physicians, shopkeep­
ers, writers, photographers, and farmers are
examples of workers who frequently are selfemployed.

Among the most common fringe benefits
are paid vacations, holidays, and sick leave.
In addition, many workers are covered by
life, health, and accident insurance; partici­
pate in retirement plans; and are entitled to
supplemental unemployment benefits. All of
these benefits are provided—in part or in full
—through their employers. Some employers
also offer stock options and profit-sharing
plans, savings plans, and bonuses.
Workers in many occupations receive part
of their earnings in the form of goods and
services, or payments in kind. Sales workers

Table 2. Average weekly earnings of beginning computer programmers, 1978, selected cities
Average weekly earnings
D etroit................................................................................................................ $283.00
M ilw au k ee....................................................................................................... 282.00
C leveland.......................................................................................................... 260.50
C hicago........................................................................................................... 260.00
H ouston............................................................................................................. 257.50
N e w a rk ............................................................................................................. 254.50
Minneapolis-St. P a u l .................................................................................... 241.50
B altim ore.......................................................................................................... 234.00
Birmingham....................................................................................................... 228.50
Boston................................................................................................................ 210.50
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 3. Median annual earnings of private physicians, 1977, by specialty


Orthopedic surgeons.......................................................................................................................$91,940
General surgeons.......................................................................................................................... 68,720
P ed iatrician s................................................................................................................................ 54,180
General p ra c titio n e rs................................................................................................................. 51,000
SOURCE: Medical Economics. After tax-deductible expenses but before income taxes.
Reserve Bank of St. Louis

in department stores, for example, often re­
ceive discounts on merchandise. Workers in
other jobs may receive uniforms, business ex­
pense accounts, free meals, housing, or free
transportation on company-owned planes.
Which jobs pay the most? This is a difficult
question to answer because good information
is available for only one type of earnings—
wages and salaries—and for some occupa­
tions even this is unavailable. Nevertheless,
the Occupational Outlook for College Gradu­
ates does include some comparisons of earn­
ings among occupations. Generally, earnings
are compared to the average earnings of
workers in private industry who are not
supervisors and not in farming. This group
represented about 60 percent of all workers
in 1978.
Besides differences among occupations,
many levels of pay exist within each occupa­
tion. Beginning workers almost always earn
less than those who have been on the job for
some time because pay rates increase as
workers gain experience or do more responsi­
ble work. An example is shown in table 1.
Earnings in an occupation also vary by ge­
ographic location. The average weekly earn­
ings of beginning computer programmers,
for example, vary considerably from city to
city. (See table 2.) Of the 10 cities listed, the
highest earnings occurred in Detroit, Mich.,
and the lowest in Boston, Mass. Although it
is generally true that earnings are higher in
the North Central and Northeast regions
than in the West and South, there are excep­
tions. You also should keep in mind that
those cities which offer the highest earnings
are often those in which it is most expensive
to live.
In addition, workers in the same occupa­
tion may have different earnings depending
on the industry in which they work. For ex­
ample, in 1978, chemists averaged $29,100 a
year in m anufacturing, $26,300 in nonprofit
research institutions, $22,700 in colleges and
universities, and $19,400 in State and local
Salaries also vary by the specialty or type
of work performed. Surgeons, for example,
earn more on the average than pediatricians
or general practitioners. (See table 3.) Also,
in most occupations, workers who become
supervisors or managers earn more than their
fellow workers.
Because of all these variations in earnings,
you should check with a counselor or with
local employers if you are interested in spe­
cific earnings information for occupations in
your area.
The Related Occupations section is ap­
pearing for the first time in this edition of the
Occupational Outlook for College Graduates.
If you find that an occupation you are read­
ing about appeals to you, you also may wish
to explore the jobs listed in this section. Usu­
ally, the related occupations are those that
require similar aptitudes, interests, and edu­
cation and training.

Whether you have questions about a par- ' mation. Thousands of books, brochures,
ticular job or are trying to compare various magazines, and audiovisual materials are
fields, the Occupational Outlook for College available on such subjects as occupations, ca­
Graduates is a good place to begin. It will reers, self-assessment, and job hunting. Your
answer many of your initial questions. But school librarx.iDx.guidance office is likely to
remember that it is only one of many sources have some of this material; ask the staff for
of information about jobs and careers. After help. Collections of occupational material
reading a few statements, you may decide also can be found in public libraries, college
that you want more detailed information libraries, learning resource centers, and ca­
about a particular occupation. You may want reer counseling centers.
to find out where you can go for training, or
Begin your library search by looking in
where you can find this kind of work in your an encyclopedia under “vocations” or “ca­
community. If you are willing to make an reers,” and then look up specific fields. The
effort, you will discover a wealth of occupa­ card catalog will direct you to books on par­
tional information available at little or no ticular careers, such as architect or social
worker. Be sure to check the periodical sec­
tion, too. You’ll find trade and professional
Sources of Career Information
magazines and journals in specific areas
Government agencies, professional societies, such as psychology or interior design. Some
trade associations, labor unions, corpora­ magazines have classified advertising sec­
tions, and educational institutions put out tions that list job openings. Many libraries
career material that is available for the ask­ and career centers have pamphlet files for
ing. Write to organizations listed in the specific occupations. Collections of occupa­
Sources of Additional Information section at tional information may also include non­
the end of every statement in the Occupa­ print materials such as films, filmstrips, cas­
tional Outlook for College Graduates and ask settes, tapes, and kits. Computerized
for information on career opportunities. You occupational information systems enable
will find the names and addresses of other users to obtain career information instantly.
organizations that publish career informa­ In addition to print and nonprint materials,
tion in directories in your library’s reference most career centers and guidance offices
section. There are directories that list:
offer individual counseling, group discus­
sions, guest speakers, field trips, and career
—trade associations.
—professional associations.
—business firms.
—junior and community colleges.
—home study and correspondence programs.
—business, trade, and technical schools.

Lists of organizations that distribute career
information also may be found in directories
put out by several commercial publishers.
Carefully assess any career materials you
obtain. Keep in mind the date and source, in
particular. Material that is too old may con­
tain obsolete or even misleading information.
Be especially cautious about accepting infor­
mation on employment outlook, earnings,
and training requirements if it is more than
5 years old. The source is important because
it affects the content. Although some occupa­
tional materials are produced solely for the
purpose of objective vocational guidance,
others are produced for recruitment pur­
poses. You should be wary of biased informa­
tion, which may tend to leave out important
items, overglamorize the occupation, over­
state the earnings, or exxagerate the demand
for workers.
Libraries, career centers, and guidance
offices are important sources of career infor­

Counselors play an important role in pro­
viding career information. Vocational testing
and counseling are available in a number of
places, including:
—guidance offices in high schools.
—career planning and placement offices in col­
—placement offices in vocational schools.
—vocational rehabilitation agencies.
—counseling services offered by community or­
ganizations, commercial firms, and professional
—Job Service offices affiliated with the U.S. Em­
ployment Service.

The reputation of a particular counseling
agency should be checked with professionals
in the field. As a rule, counselors will not tell
you what to do. Instead, they are likely to
administer interest inventories and aptitude
tests; interpret the results; talk over various
possibilities; and help you explore your op­
tions. Counselors are familiar with the job
market and also can discuss entry require­
ments and costs of the schools, colleges, or
training programs that offer preparation for
the kind of work in which you are interested.
Most important of all, a counselor can help

you consider occupational information in re­
lation to your own abilities, aspirations, and
Don’t overlook the importance of personal
contacts. Talking with people is one of the
best ways of learning about an occupation.
Most people are glad to talk about what they
do and how well they like their jobs. Have
specific questions lined up; you might ques­
tion workers about their personal experiences
and knowledge of their field. By asking the
right questions, you will find out what kind
of training is really important, how workers
got their first jobs as well as the one they’re
in now, and what they like and dislike about
the work. These interviews serve several pur­
poses: You get out into the business world,
you learn about an occupation, you become
familiar with interviewing, and you meet
people worth contacting when you start look­
ing for a job.
State occupational information coordinat­
ing committees have recently been estab­
lished. These committees can help you find
career information tailored to the job situa­
tion in your State or area. By contrast, the
Occupational Outlook for College Graduates
provides information for the Nation as a
whole. The committee may provide the infor­
mation directly, or refer you to other sources.
In many States, it can also tell you where you
can go to use the State’s career information
system. To find out what career materials are
available, write to the director of your State
occupational information coordinating com­
mittee. Following is a list of their titles and

Director, Alabama Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, State Department of Ed­
First Southern Towers, Suite 402,
100 Commerce St.,
Montgomery, Ala. 36104.

Coordinator, Alaska Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee,
Pouch F—State Office Bldg.,
Juneau, Alaska 99811.

Executive Director, Arizona State Occupational
Information Coordinating Committee,
1535 West Jefferson Ave., Room 345,
Phoenix, Ariz. 85007.




Director, Arkansas State Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee,
P.O. Box 5162,
Little Rock, Ark. 72205.

SOICC Contact, Indiana Office of Manpower De­
State Board of Vocational and Technical Educa­
17 W. Market St.,
401 Illinois Bldg.,
Indianapolis, Ind. 46204.

Director, Missouri Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee,
830d E. High St.,
Jefferson City, Mo. 65101.

Director, California Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee,
800 Capitol Mall, MIC #57,
Sacramento, Calif. 95814.

SOICC Director, Office of Occupational Informa­
tion, Colorado Occupational Information Coor­
dinating Committee,
770 Grant St.,
Room 222,
Denver, Colo. 80203.

Executive Director, Connecticut State Occupa­
tional Information Coordinating Committee,
Hartranft Hall,
55 Elizabeth St.,
Hartford, Conn. 06053.

Executive Director, Iowa State Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee,
523 E. 12th St.,
Des Moines, Iowa 50319.

Director, Kansas Occupational Information Coor­
dinating Committee,
Department of Human Resources,
634 S. Harrison,
Suite C,
Topeka, Kans. 66603.

New Hampshire
SOICC Director, Department of Employment Se­
32 S. Main St.,
Concord, N.H. 03301.


New Jersey

Executive Director, State Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee,
State House Station 71,
Augusta, Maine 04330.

Acting Staff Director, New Jersey Occupational
Information Coordinating Committee,
Department of Labor and Industry, Division of
Planning and Research,
P.O. Bo* 2765,
Trenton, N.J. 08625.

Executive Director, Maryland Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee,
Department of Human Resources,
1100 North Eutaw St.,


Executive Director, Hawaii State Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee,
1164 Bishop St.,
Suite 502,
Honolulu, Hawaii 96813.


Executive Director, Illinois Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee,
623 E. Adams St.,
P.O. Box 1587,
Springfield, 111. 62705.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

New Mexico
SOICC Director, New Mexico State Occupational
Information Coordinating Committee,

Executive Plaza,
4219 Montgomery Blvd. NE.,
Albuquerque, N.M. 87125.

Executive Director, Massachusetts Occupational
Information Coordinating Committee,
Park Square Bldg.,
Suite 341,
31 St. James Ave.,
Boston, Mass. 02116.

SOICC Director, State Department of Labor,
Labor Department Bldg. #1 2 ,
State Campus,
Albany, N.Y. 12240.


North Carolina

Executive Coordinator, Michigan Occupational
Information Coordinating Committee,
309 N. Washington, P.O. Box 30015,
Lansing, Mich. 48909.

SOICC Director, North Carolina Department of
112 W. Lane St.,
Raleigh, N.C. 27611.


North Dakota

SOICC Director, Department of Economic Secu­
690 American Center Bldg.,
150 E. Kellogg Blvd.,
St. Paul, Minn. 55101.

State Director, State Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee,
1424 W. Century Ave.,
P.O. Box 1537,
Bismarck, N. Dak. 58501.



SOICC Director, Vocational Technical Education,
P.O. Box 771,
Jackson, Miss. 39205.

SOICC Director, State Department Bldg.,
S-65 S. Front St., Room 904,
Columbus, Ohio 43215.

Coordinator, State Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, Len B. Jordan Bldg.,
650 W. State St.,
Boise, Idaho 83720.


Director, Louisiana State Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee,
P.O. Box 44094,
Baton Rouge, La. 70804.

Baltimore, Md. 21201.
Executive Director, State Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee,
151 Ellis St., NE„
Suite 504,
Atlanta, Ga. 30303.

Executive Director, State Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee,
W. 300 Nebraska Hall,
University of Nebraska,
Lincoln, Nebr. 68588.


Director, Florida Occupational Information Coor­
dinating Committee,
325 John Knox Rd.,
Suite L-500,
Tallahassee, Fla. 32303.


Coordinator, Kentucky Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee,
601 Versailles Rd.,
Frankfort, Ky. 40601.


District of Columbia
Executive Director, D.C. Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee,
500 C St. NW„ Suite 621,
Washington, D.C. 20001.

Program Manager, Montana State Occupational
Information Coordinating Committee,
P.O. Box 1728,
Helena, Mont. 59601.

Director, State Occupational Information Coor­
dinating Committee,
Capitol Complex,
505 E. King St.,
Kinkead Bldg.,
Room 603,
Carson City, Nev. 89710.

Director, State Occupational Information Coor­
dinating Committee of Delaware,
3 Peddler’s Row,
Christiana, Del. 19702.


New York



Executive Director, State Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee, School of Occupa­
tional and Adult Education, Oklahoma State Uni­
1515 W. 6th St.,
Stillwater, Okla. 74074.

SOICC Director, Vocational and Adult Educa­
tion, Department of Education,
P.O. Box 6Q,
Richmond, Va. 23216.

Executive Secretary, Oregon Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee,
875 Union St. NE.,
Salem, Oreg. 97311.

SOICC Director, Pennsylvania Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee,
Labor and Industry Bldg.,
7th and Forster Sts.,
Room 1008,
Harrisburg, Pa. 17121.

Puerto Rico
Executive Director, Puerto Rico Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee,
414 Barbosa Ave.,
Hato Rey, P.R. 00917.

SOICC Director, Commission for Vocational Edu­
Bldg. 17,
Airdustrial Park,
Mail Stop LS-10,
Olympia, Wash. 98504.

West Virginia
Executive Director, West Virginia State Occupa­
tional Information Coordinating Committee, Cap­
itol Complex,
1600V^ Washington St., East,
Charleston, W. Va. 25305.

SOICC Director, Wisconsin Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee, Educational
Sciences Building, Room 952,
1025 W. Johnson,
Madison, Wis. 53706.

Rhode Island
Executive Director, Rhode Island Occupational
Information Coordinating Committee,
22 Hayes St., Room 315,
Providence, R.I. 02908.

South Carolina
SOICC Director,
1550 Gadsden St.,
Columbia, S.C. 29202.

South Dakota
Executive Director, South Dakota Occupational
Information Coordinating Committee,
108 E. Missouri,
Pierre, S. Dak. 57501.

Director, Tennessee Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee,
512 Cordell Hull Bldg.,
Nashville, Tenn. 37219.

Executive Director, State Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee, Texas Employment
Commission Bldg.,
15th and Congress Ave.,
Room 648,
Austin, Tex. 78778.

Director, Wyoming Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee,
1520 E. 5th St.,
Cheyenne, Wyo. 82002.

American Samoa
SOICC State Director for Vocational Education,
Government of American Samoa,
Pago Pago, American Samoa 96799.

Acting Executive Director, Guam Occupational
Information Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box
2817, Agana, Guam 96910.

Northern Mariana Islands
Executive Director Northern Mariana Islands Oc­
cupational Information Coordinating Committee,
P.O. Box 149, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands

Trust Territory of the Pacific
Chairman, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands,
Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­
Office of Planning and Statistics, Saipan,
Mariana Islands 96950.

Virgin Islands


Acting Chairman, Virgin Islands Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, Department
of Education,
Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas,
Virgin Islands 00801.

Director, Occupational Information Coordinating
Committee, State Board of Education,
250 E. 5th St. South,
Salt Lake City, Utah 84111.

Sources of Education and Training

Director, Vermont Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee,
P.O. Box 488,
Montpelier, Vt. 05602.

As a rule, professional or trade associations
can provide lists of schools that offer training
in a particular field—nursing, interior design,
or operations research, for example. When­
ever possible, the Sources of Additional In­
formation section at the end of every state­

ment directs you to organizations that can
provide training information. For general in­
formation, a library, career center, or guid­
ance office may be the best place to look; all
of them ordinarily have collections of cata­
logs, directories, and guides to educational
and job training opportunities. The State ca­
reer information system available in many
States can also provide specific information
on where to go for training in various fields.
These systems are located in school guidance
offices, Job Service offices, and other places.
You can find out about the career informa­
tion system in your State by writing to the
director of the State occupational informa­
tion coordinating committee at the address
listed above.
A number of standard guides give perti­
nent information on expenses, student
financial aid, admissions requirements, and
courses of study at most of the Nation’s
community and junior colleges and colleges
and universities. These are updated and re­
vised frequently; be sure to use the most re­
cent edition. Libraries and guidance offices
often have collections of college catalogs as
Directory o f Postsecondary Schools with
Occupational Programs, 1978, a publication
of the U.S. Department of Education’s Na­
tional Center for Education Statistics, lists
approximately 9,500 schools that offer
training after high school. The directory
lists business, trade, and technical schools
as well as community and junior colleges and
colleges and universities.

Sources of Financial Aid
If possible, consult a high school guidance
counselor or college financial aid officer for
advice on sources of financial aid. Don’t ne­
glect any possibility, for many organizations
offer scholarships, fellowships, grants, loans,
and work-study programs. Study the many
directories and guides to sources of student
financial aid which are updated and revised
periodically and are generally available in
guidance offices and public libraries. Many
career information systems also provide in­
formation on financial aid.
The Federal Government provides several
kinds of financial assistance to needy stu­
dents: Grants, loans, work-study, and be­
nefits. Details are presented in a pamphlet
entitled, Student Consumer's Guide; Six Fed­
eral Financial Aid Programs, 1979-80. This
pamphlet is frequently revised; request the
current edition from:
Bureau of Student Financial Assistance, Post
Office Box 84, Washington, D.C. 20044.

Some student aid programs are designed to
assist specific groups: Hispanics, blacks, na­
tive Americans, or women, for example. Se­
lected List o f Postsecondary Education Oppor­
tunities for Minorities and Women, published
annually by the U.S. Department of Educa­
tion, is a useful guide to organizations that
offer loan, scholarship, and fellowship assist­

ance, with special emphasis on aids for
minorities and women. Opportunities for
financial aid are listed by fields of study, in­
cluding architecture, arts and science, busi­
ness, education, engineering and science,
health, international affairs, journalism, law,
political science and public administration,
psychology, sociology, social work, speech
pathology and audiology, and theology. Edu­
cational opportunities with the Armed
Forces are also described. This publication
can be found in many libraries and guidance
offices, or may be purchased from the Super­
intendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.
Price for the 1979 edition is $3.75.

Career and Counseling Information
for Special Groups
Certain groups of jobseekers face special diffi­
culties in obtaining suitable and satisfying
employment. All too often, veterans, youth,
handicapped persons, minorities, and women
experience difficulty in the labor market. The
reasons for job market disadvantages vary, of
course. People may have trouble setting ca­
reer goals and looking for work for reasons as
different as a limited command of English, a
prison record, or lack of self-confidence.
Some people are held back by their back­
ground—by growing up in a setting that pro­
vided only a few role models and little expo­
sure to the wide range of opportunities in the
world of work.
A growing number of communities have
career counseling, training, and placement
services for people with special needs. Pro­
grams are sponsored by a variety of organiza­
tions, including churches and synagogues,
nonprofit organizations, social service agen­
cies, vocational rehabilitation agencies, and
the Job Service. Some of the most successful
programs provide the extensive counseling
that disadvantaged job-seekers require. They
begin by helping clients resolve the personal,
family, or other fundamental problems that
prevent them from finding a suitable job.
Some agencies that serve special groups take
a strong interest in their clients, and provide
an array of services designed to help people
find and keep jobs.
Employment counseling programs of all
kinds are included in Directory o f Counseling
Services, an annual publication that lists ac­
credited or provisional members of the Inter­
national Association of Counseling Services,
Inc. (IACS), an affiliate of the American Per­
sonnel and Guidance Association. The
1979-80 edition is available for $6 from
IACS at Two Skyline Place, Suite 400, 5203
Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Va. 22041.
A directory of 140 women’s employment
programs, entitled The National Directory o f
Women's Employment Programs, was pub­
lished in 1979 by Wider Opportunities for
Women, a nonprofit organization. You might
look for it in a library, or it can be purchased
for $7.50 plus 40 cents postage from Wider
Opportunities for Women, 1649 K St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

A revised edition of Directory o f Organiza­
tions Interested in the Handicapped is sched­
uled for publication in 1980. The Directory
lists more than 100 voluntary and public
agencies in the rehabilitation field and briefly
describes their purpose, programs, and publi­
cations. Copies of the Directory may be ob­
tained from the People to People Committee
for the Handicapped, 1522 K St. NW., Room
1130, Washington, D.C. 20005
Career counseling and job placement ser­
vices for older workers are listed in Finding
a Job: A Resource Book for the Middle-Aged
and Retired, published in 1978 by Adelphi
University. The book is out of print, but cop­
ies may be available in libraries and counsel­
ing centers.
Career materials tailored to the needs of
women, handicapped workers, ex-offenders,
and other special groups are generally availa­
ble in counseling centers and libraries. State
vocational rehabilitation agencies are an im­
portant source of career and counseling in­
formation for people with disabilities. Several
agencies of the Federal Government publish
pamphlets on career opportunities and job
hunting techniques that may interest counse­
lors working with special groups. Much of
this material is free. Requests for career
materials currently in stock may be directed

Office of Information, Inquiries Unit,
Employment and Training Administration,
U.S. Department of Labor, Room 10225, 601 D St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20213.
Office of Information and Consumer Affairs, Em­
ployment Standards Administration, U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor, Room C-4331, 200 Constitution
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20210.

Office of Information and Consumer Affairs, Em­
ployment Standards Administration, U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor, Room C-4331, 200 Constitution
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20210.
Higher Education Scholarship Program, Division
of Postsecondary Education, Bureau of Indian
Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1951
Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.

President’s Committee on Employment of the
Handicapped, Room 600, Vanguard Building,
1111 20th St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
President’s Committee on Mental Retardation,
Washington, D.C. 20201.
Office of Information and Consumer Affairs,
Employment Standards Administration,
U.S. Department of Labor, Room C-4331, 200
Constitution Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20210.

Older Workers
Office of Information, Inquiries Unit,
Employment and Training Administration, U.S.
Department of Labor, Room 10225, 601 D St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20213.
National Clearinghouse on Aging,
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
Room 4551,
330 Independence Ave., SW.,
Washington, D.C. 20201.

Women’s Bureau,
U.S. Department of Labor, Room S3002,
200 Constitution Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20210.

Office of Information, Inquiries Unit,
Employment and Training Administration,
U.S. Department of Labor, Room 10225,
601 D St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20213.
Office of Personnel Management,
Federal Job Information Center,
P.O. Box 52,
Washington, D.C. 20044.
Department of Veterans Benefits, 232A,
Veterans Administration Central Office,
810 Vermont Avenue, NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20420.

Federal laws, Executive Orders, and se­
lected Federal grant programs bar dis­
crimination in employment based on race,
color, religion, sex, national origin, age,
and handicap. Employers in the private
and public sectors, Federal contrators, and
grantees are covered by these laws. The
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Co­
mission is responsible for administering
many of the programs that prohibit dis­
crimination in employment. Information
and inquiries about how to file a charge of
discrimination should be sent to:
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission,
2401 E ST. NW., Washington, D.C. 20506.

Information on Finding a Job
Do you need help in finding a job? For infor­
mation on job openings, follow up as many
leads as possible. Parents, neighbors, teach­
ers, and counselors may know of jobs. Check
the want ads. Investigate your local Job Ser­
vice office and find out whether private or
nonprofit employment agencies in your com­
munity can help you. The following section
will give you some idea of where you can go
to look for a job and what sort of help to

Rehabilitation Services Administration, U.S. De­
partment of Education,
Room 1427, 330 C St. SW„
Washington, D.C. 20201.

Informal job search methods. Informal meth­
ods of job search are the most popular, and
also the most effective. Informal methods in­
clude direct application to employers with or
without referral by friends or relatives. Job­
seekers locate a potential employer and file
an application, often without certain knowl­
edge that an opening exists.

Office of Personnel Management, Federal Job In­
formation Center,
P.O. Box 52, Washington, D.C. 20044.

You can find targets for your informal
search in several ways. The Yellow Pages and
local chambers of commerce will give the

names and addresses of appropriate firms in
the community where you wish to work. You
can also get listings of most firms in a specific
industry—banking, insurance, and newspa­
per publishing, for example—by consulting
one of the directories on the reference shelf of
your public library. Friends, relatives, and
people you meet during your job search are
likely to give you ideas about places where
you can apply for a job.
Want ads. The “Help Wanted” ads in a
major newspaper contain hundreds of job
listings. As a job search tool, they have
two advantages: They are cheap and easy
to acquire, and they often result in success­
ful placement. There are disadvantages as
well. Want ads give a distorted view of the
local labor market, for they tend to under­
represent small firms. They also tend to
overrepresent certain occupations, such as
clerical and sales jobs. How helpful they
are will depend largely on the kind of job
you seek.
Bear in mind that want ads do not provide
complete information; many give little or no
description of the job, working conditions,
and pay. Some omit the identity of the em­
ployer. In addition, firms often run multiple
listings. Some ads offer jobs in other cities
(which do not help the local worker); others
advertise employment agencies rather than
If you use the want ads, keep the following
suggestions in mind:
—Don’t rely exclusively on the want ads;
follow up other leads, too.
—Answer ads promptly. The opening may
be filled before the ad stops running.
—Follow the ads diligently. Checking
them every day as early as possible gives you
the best advantage over other applicants,
which may mean the difference between a job
and a rejection.
—Don’t expect too much from “blind ads”
that do not reveal the employer’s identity.
Employers use blind ads to avoid being
swamped with applicants, or to fill a particu­
lar vacancy quietly and confidentially. The
chances of finding a job through blind ads
tend to be slim.
—Be cautious about answering “no experi­
ence necessary” ads. Most employers are able
to fill job openings that do not require experi­
ence without advertising in the newspaper.
This type of ad may mean that the job is hard
to fill because of low wages or poor working
conditions, or because it is straight commis­
sion work.
Public employment service. The public em­
ployment service, also called the Job Ser­
vice, is often overlooked in finding out
about local job openings. Run by the State
employment security agencies under the di­
rection of the Labor Department’s U.S.
Employment Service, the 2,500 local Job
Service offices provide help without charge.
Job Service staff help jobseekers find em­
ployment and help employers find qualified

workers. As its motto says, the Job Service
aims to “bring people to jobs and jobs to
people.” To find the office nearest you,
look in the State government telephone
listings under “Job Service” or “Employ­
Job matching and referral. Upon entering a
Job Service center, an applicant is inter­
viewed to determine the type of work for
which he or she indicates an interest and apti­
tude. The interviewer determines if the appli­
cant is “job ready” or if counseling and test­
ing services are needed. Applicants who
know what kind of work they are qualified
for may spend some time examining the Job
Bank, a computerized listing of public and
private sector job openings that is updated
every day. The Job Bank is self-service; appli­
cants examine a book or microfilm viewer
and select openings that interest them. After­
wards, a Job Service staff member may de­
scribe a particular job opening in some detail
and arrange for an interview with the pro­
spective employer.

and community programs concentrating on
youth employment.
Occupations in Demand. A monthly publica­
tion of the U.S. Employment Service entitled
Occupations in Demand highlights occupa­
tions for which the Job Bank network reports
large numbers of job openings. It also indi­
cates which cities and areas have significant
numbers of job openings. An extra edition for
students and graduates, published twice a
year, lists high-demand occupations for
which employers usually request people with
high school or postsecondary training. The
extra edition also identifies hard-to-fill occu­
pations listed with the Job Service. Copies of
Occupations in Demand may be found in li­
braries and counseling centers. Or you can
request single copies from:
Consumer Information Center, Pueblo, Colorado

Private employment agencies. In the ap­
propriate section of the classified ads or
the telephone book you can find numerous
advertisements for private employment
agencies. All are in business to make
money, but some offer higher quality ser­
vice and better chances of successful place­
ment than others.

Counseling and testing. Job Service centers
also help jobseekers who are uncertain about
their qualifications and the kind of work they
want. Most centers are staffed with a special­
ist who furnishes complete counseling and
testing services. Counselors help jobseekers
choose and prepare for an occupation based
on their qualifications and interests. They
aim to help individuals become aware of their
job potential and then develop it. The testing
program measures occupational aptitudes,
clerical and literary skills, and occupational
interests. Testing and counseling before job
referral ensure a better match between appli­
cant and job.

The three main places in which private
agencies advertise are newspaper want ads,
the Yellow Pages, and trade journals. Tele­
phone listings give little more than the name,
address, phone number, and specialty of the
agency, while trade journals generally adver­
tise openings for a particular occupation,
such as accountant or computer program­
mer. Want ads, then, are the best source of
general listings of agencies.

Servicesfor veterans and youth. By law, veter­
ans are entitled to priority in interviewing,
counseling, testing, job development, and job
placement. Special counselors called veterans
reemployment representatives are trained to
deal with the particular problems of veterans,
who may find it difficult to readjust to civilian
life. Although such veterans often face multi­

These listings fall into two categories—
those offering specific openings and those off­
ering general promise of employment. You
should concentrate on the former and use the
latter only as a last resort. With a specific
opening mentioned in the ad, you have
greater assurance of the agency’s desire to
place qualified individuals in suitable jobs.

ple problem s, joblessness alone is a m ajor

When responding to such an ad, you may
learn more about the job over the phone. If
you are interested, visit the agency, fill out an
application, present a resume, and talk with
an interviewer. The agency will then arrange
an interview with the employer if you are
qualified, and perhaps suggest alternative
openings if you are not.

barrier to resuming an ordinary life. Special
help for disabled veterans begins with out­
reach units in each State, whose job it is to
identify jobless disabled veterans and make
them aware of the many kinds of assistance
To reduce excessive youth unemployment,
Job Service centers test, counsel and refer
young people to training programs or jobs
whenever possible. Each year, local Job Ser­
vice centers conduct a Summer Youth Pro­
gram to provide full and part-time summer
jobs for youth age 14 through 21. The pro­
gram, which gives priority to disadvantaged
youth, arranges for jobs in schools, libraries,
community service organizations, hospitals,
and private nonprofit agencies. The Job Ser­
vice also refers applicants to job and training
opportunities under the Comprehensive Em­
ployment and Training Act (CETA); Youth
Conservation Corps (YCC); National Alli­
ance of Business (NAB); and other Federal

Most agencies operate on a commission
basis, with the fee contingent upon a success­
ful match. The employer pays agencies ad­
vertising “no fees, no contracts” and the ap­
plicant pays nothing. Many agencies,
however, do charge applicants. You should
find out the exact cost before using the ser­
Community agencies. A growing number of
nonprofit organizations throughout the Na­
tion provide counseling, career development,
and job placement services. These agencies
generally concentrate on services for a partic­
ular labor force group—women, the elderly,

youth, minorities, or ex-offenders, for exam­
ple. Some of these agencies are listed in direc­
tories already mentioned in the section on
Career and Counseling Information for Spe­
cial Groups.
It’s up to you to discover whether your
community has such agencies and whether
they can help you. The local Job Service cen­
ter should be able to tell you whether such an
agency has been established in your commu­
nity. Your church, synagogue, or local li­
brary may have the information, too. The
U.S. Department of Labor is another possible
source of information, for many of these
agencies receive some or all of their funding
from the Federal government, through the
Comprehensive Employment and Training
Act (CETA). Among its many and varied
provisions, CETA authorizes Federal money
for local organizations that offer job counsel­
ing, training, and placement help to unem­
ployed and disadvantaged persons. For fur­
ther information, write:
Office of Comprehensive Employment Develop­
ment, Employment and Training Administration,
U.S. Department of Labor, Room 6000, 601 D
Street, NW„ Washington, D.C., 20213.

College career planning and placement
offices. For those who have access to them,
career planning and placement offices at col­
leges and universities offer the jobseeker
many valuable services. Like community
agencies that offer supportive services to
disadvantaged jobseekers, college placement
offices function as more than just employ­
ment agencies. In addition to counseling,
they teach students to acquire jobseeking
skills. They emphasize writing resumes and
letters of application, listing possible employ­
ers, preparing for interviews, and other as­
pects of job search. College placement offices
offer other services, too. At larger campuses
they bring students and employers together
by providing schedules and facilities for in­
terviews w ith industry


M any

offices also maintain lists of local part-time
and temporary jobs, and some have files of
summer openings.

Labor Market Information
All State employment security agencies de­
velop detailed labor market data needed by
employment and training specialists and
educators who plan for local needs. Such in­
formation helps policymakers decide
whether to expand a vocational training pro­
gram, for example—or drop it altogether.
Jobseekers and counselors also may find
these studies helpful. Typically, State agen­
cies publish reports that deal with future oc­
cupational supply, characteristics of the
work force, changes in State and area eco­
nomic activities, and the employment struc­
ture of important industries. For all States,
and for nearly all Standard Metropolitan Sta­
tistical Areas (SMSA’s) of 50,000 inhabitants
or more, data are available that show current
employment as well as estimated future
needs. Each State issues a report covering
current and future employment for hundreds
of industries and occupations. In addition,
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

major statistical indicators of labor market
activity are released by all of the States on a
monthly, quarterly, and annual basis. For in­
formation on the various labor market stud­
ies, reports, and analyses available in a spe­
cific State, contact the chief of research and
analysis in the State employment security
agency. Titles and addresses are as follows:

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of In­
dustrial Relations,
Industrial Relations Bldg.,
649 Monroe St.,
Montgomery, Ala. 36130.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment Secu­
rity Division,
Department of Labor,
P.O. Box 3-7000,
Juneau, Alaska 99802.

Chief, Labor Market Information, Research and
Department of Economic Security,
P.O. Box 6123,
Phoenix, Ariz. 85005.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Secu­
rity Division,
P.O. Box 2981,
Little Rock, Ark. 72203.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Division of Em­
ployment Security,
Florida Department of Commerce,
Caldwell Bldg.,
Tallahassee, Fla. 32304.

Director, Information Systems, Employment Se­
curity Agency,
Department of Labor,
254 Washington St. SW„
Atlanta, Ga. 30334.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of
Labor and Industrial Relations,
P.O. Box 3680,
Honolulu, Hawaii 96811.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Department of Em­
P.O. Box 35,
Boise, Idaho 83707.

Manager, Research and Analysis Division, Bureau
of Employment Security,
Department of Labor,
910 South Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60605.

Chief of Research, Employment Security Division,
10 North Senate Ave.,
Indianapolis, Ind. 46204.



Chief, Employment Data and Research Division,
Employment Development Department,
P.O. Box 1679,
Sacramento, Calif. 95808.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Job
1000 East Grand Ave.,
Des Moines, Iowa 50319.



Chief, Research and Analysis, Division of Employ­
Department of Labor and Employment,
1210 Sherman St.,
Denver, Colo. 80203.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Department of
Human Resources,
401 Topeka Avenue,
Topeka, Kans. 66603.


Chief, Research and Special Projects, Department
of Human Resources,
275 E. Main St.,
Frankfort, Ky. 40601.

Director, Research and Information, Connecticut
Employment Security Division,
200 Folly Brook Blvd.,
Weatherfield, Conn. 06109.

Chief, Office of Research, Planning, and Evalua­
Department of Labor,
Bldg. D,
Chapman Rd.,
Route 273,
Newark, Del. 19713.


Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Em­
ployment Security,
P.O. Box 44094,
Baton Rouge, La. 70804.

Director, Manpower Research Division, Employ­
ment Security Commission,
20 Union St.,
Augusta, Maine 04330.

District of Columbia
Chief, Branch of Labor Market Information and
D.C. Department of Labor,
605 G St. NW„ Room 1000,
Washington, D.C. 20001.

Director, Research and Analysis, Department of
Human Resources,
1100 North Eutaw St.,
Baltimore, Md. 21201.


New Mexico

Director, Information and Research, Division of
Employment Security,
Hurley Bldg.,
Government Center,
Boston, Mass. 02114.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Secu­
rity Commission,
P.O. Box 1928,
Albuquerque, N. Mex. 87103.

New York
Director, Research and Statistics Division, Em­
ployment Security Commission,
Department of Labor Bldg.,
7310 Woodward Ave.,
Detroit, Mich. 48202.

Acting Director, Research and Statistics Services,
Department of Economic Security,
390 North Robert St.,
St. Paul, Minn. 55101.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Secu­
rity Commission,
P.O. Box 1699,
Jackson, Miss. 39205.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Division of Em­
ployment Security,
Department of Labor and Industrial Relations,
P.O. Box 59,
Jefferson City, Mo. 65101.

Chief, Reports and Analysis, Employment Secu­
rity Division,
P.O. Box 1728,
Helena, Mont. 59601.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Division of Em­
Department of Labor,
P.O. Box 94600,
Lincoln, Nebr. 68509.

Chief, Employment Security Research, Employ­
ment Security Department,
500 East Third St.,
Carson City, Nev. 89713.

New Hampshire
32 South

Economic Analysis and Reports, De­
of Employment Security,
Main St.,
N.H. 03301.

New Jersey
Director, Division of Planning and Research, De­
partment of Labor and Industry,
P.O. Box 2765,
Trenton, N.J. 08625.

Director, Division of Research and Statistics, De­
partment of Labor,
State Campus,
Bldg. 1Z,
Albany, N.Y. 12240.

North Carolina
Director, Bureau of Employment Security Re­
search, Employment Security Commission,
P.O. Box 25903,
Raleigh, N.C. 27611.

North Dakota
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Secu­
rity Bureau,
P.O. Box 1537,
Bismarck, N.Dak. 58501.

Director, Division of Research and Statistics, Bu­
reau of Employment Services,
145 South Front St.,
Columbus, Ohio 43216.

Chief, Research and Planning Division, Employ­
ment Security Commission,
310 Will Rogers Memorial Office Bldg.,
Oklahoma City, Okla. 73105.

Assistant Administrator, Research and Statistics,
Employment Division,
875 Union St. NE„
Salem, Oreg. 97311.

Director, Research and Statistics, Bureau of Em­
ployment Security,
Department of Labor and Industry,
7th and Forster Sts.,
Harrisburg, Pa. 17121.

Puerto Rico
Chief of Research and Statistics, Bureau of Em­
ployment Security,
427 Barbosa Ave.,
Hato Rey, P.R. 00917.

Rhode Island
Supervisor, Employment Security Research, De­
partment of Employment Security,
24 Mason St.,
Providence, R.I. 02903.

South Carolina
Director, Manpower Research and Analysis, Em­
ployment Security Commission,

P.O. Box 995,
Columbia, S.C. 29202.

South Dakota
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Secu­
rity Department,
607 North Fourth St.,
Box 730,
Aberdeen, S. Dak. 57401.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Em­
ployment Security,
Cordell Hull Bldg.,
Room 519,
Nashville, Tenn. 37219.

Chief, Economic Research and Analysis, Employ­
ment Commission,
TEC Bldg.,
15th and Congress Ave.,
Austin, Tex. 78778.

Director, Research and Analysis, Department of
Employment Security,
P.O. Box 11249,
Salt Lake City, Utah 84147.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Em­
ployment Security,
P.O. Box 488,
Montpelier, Vt. 05602.

Commissioner, Virginia Employment Commis­
P.O. Box 1358,
Richmond, Va. 23211.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Secu­
rity Department,
1007 So. Washington St.,
Olympia, Wash. 98501.

West Virginia
Chief, Labor and Economic Research, Depart­
ment of Employment Security,
112 California Ave.,
Charleston, W. Va. 25305.

P.O. Box

Research and Statistics, Department of
Labor and Human Relations,
Wis. 53701.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment Secu­
rity Commission,
P.O. Box 2760,
Casper, Wyo. 82601.


Although the discussions of future em­
ployment contained in the Occupational Out­
look for College Graduates are written in
qualitative terms, they are based on quantita­
tive estimates developed using the most re­
cent data available on population, industry
and occupational employment, productivity,
consumer expenditures, and other factors ex­
pected to affect employment. The Bureau’s
research offices provided much of these data,
but many other agencies of the Federal Gov­
ernment were important contributes, in­
cluding the Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training of the Department of Labor; the
Bureau of the Census of the Department of
Commerce; the Office of Education and the
Rehabilitation Services Administration of
the Department of Education; the Veterans
Administration; the Office of Personal Man­
agement; the Interstate Commerce Commis­
sion; the Civil Aeronautics Board; the Fed­
eral Communications Commission; the
Department of Transportation; and the Na­
tional Science Foundation.
In addition, experts in industry, unions,
professional societies, and trade associations
furnished data and supplied information
through interviews. Many of these individu­
als also reviewed preliminary drafts of the
statements. The information presented in
each statement thus reflects the knowledge
and judgment not only of the Bureau of
Labor Statistics staff, but also of leaders in
the fields discussed. The Bureau, of course,
takes full responsibility for the published ma­
After the information from these sources
was compiled, it was analyzed in conjunc­
tion with the Bureau’s model of the econ­
omy in 1990. Like other models used in
economic forecasting, the Bureau’s model
encompasses the major facets of the econ­
omy and represents a comprehensive view
of its projected structure. It is comprised
of internally consistent projections of gross
national product (GNP); industrial output
and productivity; labor force; average
weekly hours of work; and employment for
detailed industry groups and occupations.
A detailed description of the model ap­
pears in Methodology for Projections o f In ­
dustry Employment, Bulletin 2036 (forth­
Assumptions. The Bureau’s projections to
1990 are based on the following general as­


—Inflation will decelerate to 5.2 percent annually
during 1980-90.
—A stable, long-run unemployment rate close to
4.5 percent will be achieved by the mid-1980’s.
—Higher energy prices will not constrain growth
in GNP.
—The institutional framework of the U.S. econ­
omy will not change radically.
—Current social, technological, and scientific
trends will continue.
—No major event such as widespread or longlasting energy shortages or war will significantly
alter the industrial structure of the economy or
alter the rate of economic growth.

Detailed information about the assump­
tions used in the projections are presented in
Employment Projections for the 1980’
BLS Bulletin 2030.
Methods. Beginning with population pro­
jections by age and sex developed by the Bu­
reau of the Census, a projection of the total
labor force is derived using expected labor
force participation rates for each population
group. In developing participation rates, the
Bureau takes into account a variety of factors
that affect decisions to enter the labor force,
such as school attendance, retirement prac­
tices, and family responsibilities.
The labor force projection then is tran­
slated into the level of GNP that would be
produced by a fully employed labor force.
GNP is obtained by subtracting unemploy­
ment from the labor force and multiplying
the result by a projection of output per
worker. The estimates of future output per
worker are based on an analysis of trends in
productivity (output per work hour) among
industries and changes in average weekly
hours of work.
Next, the projection of GNP is divided
among its major components: Consumer ex­
penditures, investment, government expendi­
tures—Federal, State, and local—and net ex­
ports. Each of these components is broken
down by producing industry. Consumer ex­
penditures, for example, are divided among
industries producing goods and services such
as housing, food, automobiles, medical care,
and education.
Once estimates are developed for these
products and services, they are translated
into detailed projections of industry output,
not only for the industries producing the final
product—such as an automobile—but also
for the industries that provide electric power,

transportation, component parts and other
inputs required in the production process. In­
put-output tables developed by the Depart­
ment of Commerce and modified by the BLS
are used to estimate output.
By using estimates of future output per
workhour based on studies of productivity
and technological trends for each industry,
industry employment projections are
derived from the output estimates. These
projections are then compared with employ­
ment projections derived using regression
analysis. This analysis develops equations
that relate employment by industry to com­
binations of economic variables, such as
population and income, that are considered
determinants of long-run changes in em­
ployment. By comparing projections result­
ing from input-output analysis and regres­
sion analysis, areas may be identified where
one method produces a projection inconsis­
tent with trends or with the Bureau’s eco­
nomic model. The projections are then ad­
justed accordingly.
Occupational employment projections.
Projections of industry employment are tran­
slated into occupational employment projec­
tions using an industry-occupation matrix.
This matrix, which is divided into 200 indus­
try sectors and 400 occupation sectors, de­
scribes the current and projected occupa­
tional structure of each industry. By applying
the projected occupational structure for each
industry to the industry employment projec­
tion and aggregating the resulting estimates
for all industries, employment projections for
each of the 400 occupations contained in the
matrix are obtained. Thus, the projected em­
ployment of an occupation is determined by
changes in the proportion of workers in the
occupation in each industry, and the growth
rate of industries in which an occupation is
concentrated. For example, employment in
an occupation would be projected to grow:
(1) if its proportion of the work force in­
creases but industry employment remains
constant, or (2) if its proportion of the work
force remains constant but industry employ­
ment increases.
In some cases, employment is related di­
rectly to one of the components of the Bu­
reau’s model—for example, the number of
cosmetologists is related to consumer expen­
ditures for beauty shop services. In others,
employment is related to an independent
variable not explicitly projected in the model

but believed to be a primary determinant of
employment in that occupation. The projec­
tion of automobile mechanics, for example, is
based on the expected stock of motor vehi­
cles. Projections that are developed indepen­
dently are compared with those in the matrix
and revised, if necessary, to assure consist­
Replacement needs. In addition to a pro­
jection of employment for each occupation, a
projection is made of the number of workers
who will be needed to replace those who die
or retire. To estimate these replacement
needs, the Bureau has developed tables of
working life based on actuarial experience for
deaths, and on decennial Census data for
general patterns of labor force participation.
Tables of working life provide death and
labor force separation rates for the entire
labor force, by age and sex groups. The rate
for each age and sex group then is adjusted
to reflect expected changes in labor force be­
havior. An overall separation rate for an oc­
cupation is obtained by weighting each pro­
jected rate by employment in the occupation
for that age and sex group, and computing
the weighted average. Average annual re­
placement needs are calculated by applying
the projected occupational separation rate to
projected employment.
The Bureau is continuing research to de­
termine the effect of occupational transfers
and temporary labor force separations on job
openings. These transfers have not been
taken into account in calculating replace­
ment needs.
Job outlook for college graduates as a
whole. In addition to projecting the job out­
look for many occupations sought by college
graduates, the Bureau has analyzed the out­
look for graduates as a whole. The analysis
was done by comparing projected openings in
the types of jobs requiring a college degree or
usually sought by graduates with estimates of
the number of graduates expected to enter
labor force.
Table 1 presents data on trends in the pro­
portion of workers with 4 years of college or
more in each of the nine major occupational
These trends were analyzed to determine
what proportion of the jobs in each major
group by 1990 would require a degree or be
of the type usually sought by graduates.
These proportions were applied to projec­
tions of total requirements for workers in
each major occupational group to obtain pro­
jections of requirements for college graduates
by major occupational group, and group to­
tals were summed. The projected growth in
jobs for college graduates, therefore, reflects
both the overall growth in jobs in the econ­

Table 1. Percent of workers in major occupational groups with 4 years of college or more, selected years,
1959-78 and projected 1990

1959 ...............
1962 ...............
1964 ...............
1965 ...............
1966 ...............
1968 ...............
1969 ...............
1970 ...............
1 9 7 1 ...............
1972 ...............
1973 ...............
1974 ...............
1975 ...............
1976 ...............
1977 ...............
1978 ...............
Projected 1990

Managoccupa- and
ers and
Craft Operational technical adminis- Sales Clerical Service
groups workers trators workers workers workers workers tives Laborers workers











Source Bureau of Labor Statistics

omy and the increasing proportion of jobs
requiring graduates.

insurance adjusters and investigators and
craft workers.

Higher proportions of graduates are pro­
jected to be needed in professional and tech­
nical, managerial and administrative, sales
and farm occupations, reflecting long-term
trends in the increasingly sophisticated na­
ture of many of these jobs. The increased
sophistication of management techniques,
the greater amount of legislation affecting ad­
ministrators, and the more advanced level of
technology all should contribute to the up­
grading of many jobs. Higher proportions of
graduates are projected to be needed in ser­
vice occupations, reflecting the upgrading of
entry requirements in a few service jobs, such
as police officers. To some extent, however,
upgrading of jobs in these groups reflects em­
ployers’ responses to the greater availability
of college graduates, rather than any change
in the nature of the work.

Estimates of job openings over the
1978-90 period resulting from college gradu­
ates who are expected to die, retire, or leave
the labor force for other reasons were cal­
culated by applying actuarial-type data for
age and sex groups to the age and sex distri­
bution of college graduates in the labor force.

The proportions of workers in clerical and
blue-collar jobs requiring a college degree
were projected to be somewhat lower in 1990
than actual 1978 proportions. Employers tra­
ditionally have not sought college graduates
for these kinds of jobs, and, during the 1960’s
when other jobs for graduates were plentiful,
few graduates entered these occupations.
During the 1970’s, however, the proportions
of graduates in these jobs increased rapidly—
reflecting, for the most part, difficulty in
finding more desirable jobs rather than any
upgrading of job content. The projected pro­
portions, nevertheless, are higher than those
occurring during the 1960’s—reflecting the
greater attractiveness, and perhaps upgrad­
ing, of certain jobs in these groups such as

Estimates of the number of college gradu­
ates who are expected to enter the labor force
were based primarily on projections of
earned bachelor’s degrees developed by the
National Center for Education Statistics. The
average number of bachelor’s degrees
granted annually over the 1978-90 period is
expected to be slightly higher than the num­
ber granted during the 1977-78 academic
year. For detailed discussion of the method
used to develop these degree projections, see
Projections o f Education Statistics to 198687, U.S. Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare, National Center for Education
Statistics, NCES 78-403. Advanced degrees
were not included in the calculations since
virtually all advanced degree recipients
would already have a bachelor’s degree and,
therefore, were accounted for in the bache­
lor’s degree calculations.
The number of persons with college de­
grees entering the labor force over the
1978-90 period also includes some graduates
with degrees earned before 1978 who are not
currently in the labor force, graduates sepa­
rating from the military, and immigrants
with degrees. Projections of labor force en­
trants and re-entrants from these sources are
based on historical trends.


One statement can be made about the fu­
ture with absolute certainty: It will be differ­
ent from today. Constant change is one of
the most significant aspects of the U.S. job
market. Changes in the population, the in­
troduction of new technology or business
practices, and changes in the needs and
tastes of the public continually alter the
economy and affect employment in all occu­
pations. The growth of the population has
spurred the need for workers to provide
more housing, medical care, education, and
other services and goods. The use of new
technology has both created and eliminated
hundreds of thousands of jobs. The com­
puter, for example, has given birth to an en­
tire new group of occupations—program­
equipment operators—while at the same
time it has decreased the need for inventory
clerks, bookkeepers, and other clerical
workers. Changes in the way businesses are
organized and managed have had similar
effects. For example, the use of centralized
credit offices has reduced the need for credit
managers in retail stores.
As an individual planning for a career, you
must come to terms with changes that occur
in the job market. Your interests and abilities
will determine the occupations that attract
you, but future economic and social condi­
tions will determine the job opportunities you
face. Fortunately, most factors that alter the
demand for workers in occupations—shifts
in population or the labor force, the introduc­
tion of technology, and the development of
new organization and management tech­
niques—generally occur over several years.
By examining what has happened in the re­
cent past, it is possible to project future re­
quirements for workers in industries and oc­
cupations. Although no one can forecast the
future with certainty, these employment pro­
jections will help you learn about future op­
portunities in occupations that interest
Individual statements of the Occupational
Outlook for College Graduates present cur­
rent trends and projections of employment
for many occupations. This chapter provides
a perspective for those discussions. In it you
will find information about expected changes
in the population and the labor force, as well
as employment projections for major indus­
trial sectors and broad occupational groups.
The last part of this chapter describes the
overall employment situation that college
graduates are likely to face through the
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Changes in population are among the basic
factors that will affect employment oppor­
tunities in the future. The demand for work­
ers in any occupation depends ultimately on
the goods and services sought by the public.
Changes in the size and characteristics of the
population influence the amount and types of
goods and services required and also affect
the size and characteristics of the labor force
—the people who work or are available to
work. Three population trends that will affect
future employment opportunities are popula­
tion growth, shifts in the age structure of the
population, and movement of the population
within the country.
Population Growth. The population of the
United States has increased throughout the
century. However, the rate of growth (the
size of the annual increases) was declining
until the “baby boom,” after World War II.
During the 1960’s, the rate of growth started
to decline again (chart 1).
By 1990, the population is expected to in­
crease to 244 million. This is 11 percent
higher than the 1978 level of 219 million.
Continued growth will mean more people to
provide with goods and services causing
greater demand for workers in many indus­
tries. The effects of population growth on em­
ployment in various occupations will differ.
The differences are accounted for in part by
the age distribution of the future population.

Age Structure. Because of the “baby
boom,” the proportion of young people in the
population has been high in recent years.
Through the 1980’s, when these young adults
start to enter the prime work years, the pro­
portion of the population between the ages 25
to 44 will swell. By 1990, nearly one-third of
the population will be in this age group. As
a result of the relatively low number of births
during the 1960’s and early 1970’s, the num­
ber of people between the ages of 14 and 24
will decline in the coming decade. The num­
ber of people 65 and over will grow but more
slowly than in recent years. These changes in
the age structure of the population will di­
rectly affect the types of goods and services
demanded. For example, as the number of
young people declines, the need for education
services will fall. When greater numbers of
people from the baby boom establish fami­
lies, they will require more housing and
goods such as appliances.
Shifts in the age structure of the popula­
tion also will affect the composition of the
labor force. These effects are discussed in a
later section.
Regional Differences. National trends in
population may not be the same as changes
in a particular region or locality. A nation as
large and diversified as the United States is
bound to vary geographically in the rate of
the population growth. For example, be­
tween 1970 and 1975, the average annual rate

Since the 1960’s, the population has grown
more slowly
Average annual percent increase





Source: Bureau of the Census








Because of interstate migration, change in
population will vary among States


Percent change in population, 1975 to 1990

tions. In addition, because workers are a vital
part of the production process, the size of the
labor force limits the amount of goods and
services that can be produced. Growth, alter­
ations in the age structure, and rising educa­
tional levels are among the labor force
changes that will affect employment oppor­
tunities through the 1980’s.
Growth. The civilian labor force consists of
people with jobs—wage and salary workers,
self-employed workers, and unpaid family
workers—and people looking for jobs—the
unemployed. Through the late 1960’s and the
1970’s the number of people in the labor
force grew tremendously because many peo­
ple bom during the “baby boom” entered the
job market, and more women sought jobs. In
1978, the civilian labor force totaled about
100 million persons—63.2 percent of the
noninstitutional population 16 years of age
and over.
The labor force will continue to grow dur­
ing the 1980’s but at a slower rate than in
recent years. By 1990 about 119 million per­
sons will be in the labor force—an 18.5 per­
cent increase over the 1978 level. Contribut­
ing to this growth will be the expansion of the
working age population and the continued
rise in the proportion of women who work.
The labor force will grow more slowly be­
tween 1985 and 1990 than in the early 1980’s.
This slowdown will result from a drop in the
number of young people entering the work­
ing age and less rapid growth of the participa­
tion rate of women (Chart 3).

Source: Bureau of the Census

A larger labor force will mean more people
looking for jobs. However, because of shifts
in the age structure, the employment outlook
for many individuals will improve.

of population change in the Northeast and
North Central regions averaged .2 percent
and .4 percent compared with 1.5 percent
and 1.6 percent for the South and West.
These trends reflect the movement of people
between states—to find new jobs, to retire, or
for some other reason.
Chart 2 shows the projected trends in pop­
ulation growth among the states between
1975 and 1990 that will occur if the move­
ment of people in the next decade is similar
to that from 1970 to 1975. The population
shift to the South and West will result in over
half the population living in these areas by
Such geographic shifts in the population
will alter the demand for and supply of work­
ers in local job markets. In areas with grow­
ing populations for example, demand for ser­

vices such as police and fire protection, water
and sanitation will increase. At the same time
more people looking for work in those areas
could increase competition in some occupa­
tions. Individuals investigating future em­
ployment opportunities in an occupation
should remember that local conditions could
differ greatly from national projections pre­
sented in the Occupational Outlook for Col­
lege Graduates. Sources of information about
local job market conditions can be found in
the chapter, “Where to Go for More Infor­

Labor Force
The size and characteristics of the labor
force determine the number and type of peo­
ple competing for jobs in the various occupa­

Age Structure. As a result of the large
number of young people who have entered
the labor force in recent years, competition
for many entry level jobs has been stiff and
many young workers have been unemployed.
As the number of people between 16 and 24
—the ages when most people first enter the
labor force—drops, competition for entry
level jobs should ease. The 24 to 44 year old
age group, those born during the “baby
boom”, will find jobs and gain work experi­
ence. The whole economy should benefit
since experienced workers generally are more
productive and less likely to be unemployed.
(Chart 4).
Education. Employers always wish to hire
the best qualified persons available. This does
not mean that they always choose those ap­
plicants who have the most education. How­
ever, individuals looking for a job should be
aware that the higher educational attainment
of the labor force as a whole could increase
competition in many occupations.
Persons considering attending college
should recognize that a college education has
become more widespread. The proportion of
workers in the labor force who have comp­
leted at least 4 years of college has risen from
8 to nearly 18 percent between 1952 and
1978. The concluding section of this chapter

contains a discussion of the job prospects for
college graduates.

The previous sections discussed trends in
the population and the labor force—two
factors which affect employment oppor­
tunities. Other factors include the policies
of the Federal government, the inflation
rate, and the availability of energy. The
following sections present estimates of
1990 employment in major industries and
occupational groups; also included are dis­
cussions of the reasons for changes in the
level of employment.
Changes in the population and the labor
force and other factors determine the amount
and type of goods and services that will be
demanded in the future. If the demand for an
industry’s product increases in the future,
more workers generally will be hired to in­
crease production, and employment in the
industry will grow. Changes in occupational
employment will result from growth in the
industries that employ these workers. Every
industry group has a unique mix of workers.
Construction, for example, employs mostly
blue-collar workers, while finance, insurance,
and real estate is predominately a white-col­
lar industry group. (Chart 5). Growth in the
construction industry would result in an in­
crease in employment of blue-collar workers,
as would growth in mining, manufacturing
or transportation—industries that also em­
ploy high proportions of blue-collar workers.
Growth in the finance, insurance, and real
estate industries would result in an increase
in demand for white-collar workers.
The estimates of employment growth in
the following section are based on a model of
the U.S. economy prepared by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics. The model assumes, for the
next decade, a moderately expanding labor
force, a relatively slow decline in inflation,
and moderate growth of government expen­
The Bureau also has prepared a high em­
ployment alternative model which assumes
the Federal Government will seek to lower
the unemployment rate rapidly by increasing
grants to State and local governments. Be­
cause of government efforts to reduce unem­
ployment, the model also assumes a faster
rate of growth for the labor force. Under
these assumptions, employment in 1990
would be higher than estimated below for
virtually every industry. A discussion of the
assumptions and methods used to develop
the two models can be found in a separate
chapter of the Occupational Outlook for Col­
lege Graduates and a more detailed explana­
tion is given in Employment Projections for
the 1980's, BLS Bulletin 2030.

Industrial Profile
To discuss employment trends and projec­
tions in industries, it is useful to divide the
economy into nine industrial sectors under
two broad groups—service-producing indus­
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Through the 1980’s, the number of workers in the
prime working ages will grow dramatically


M illions of persons

16 to 24

25 to 54

55 and over

1970 1978 1990

1970 1978 1990



1978 1990

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Industries differ substantially in the kinds of
workers they employ
Service workers 0.5%


Blue-collar workers 3.5%

Finance, Insurance, and
Real Estate

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

tries and goods-producing industries. (Chart
6). Over two-thirds of the Nation’s workers
—including 4 out 5 employed college gradu­
ates—currently are employed in industries
that provide services such as health care,
trade, education, repair and maintenance,
government, transportation, banking, and in­
surance. Industries that produce goods
through farming, construction, mining, and
manufacturing employ less than one-third of
the country’s work force.
Service Producing-Industries. As shown in
chart 7, employment in service-producing in­
dustries has been increasing at a faster rate
than employment in goods-producing indus­
tries. Among the factors that have con­
tributed to this rapid growth are rising in­
comes and living standards that result in
greater demand for schooling, health care,

entertainment, and financial services. In ad­
dition, the growth of cities and suburbs
brought a need for more local government
services. Further, because many services in­
volve personal contact, people are less likely
to be replaced by machines in service-produc­
ing industries.
In 1978, about 1 out of 5 workers in ser­
vice-producing industries, nearly 12.7 mil­
lion, were college graduates.
Employment in the service-producing in­
dustries is expected to increase from 60.4 mil­
lion workers in 1978 to 78.4 million in 1990
or about 30 percent. Growth will vary among
industries within the group. (Chart 8). The
following paragraphs summarize recent
trends and the projections of employment in
the five industrial sectors that make up the
service-producing industries.

Transportation and public utilities. This is
the slowest growing sector of the service-pro­
ducing industries. Between 1965 and 1978,
employment in this sector increased only half
as fast as in the service-producing industries
as a whole due largely to declining employ­
ment requirements in the railroad and water
transportation industries. However, even in
the communications industries where de­
mand increased greatly, technological inno­
vations limited employment growth.
In 1978, only about 3 percent of employed
college graduates worked in the transporta­
tion and public utilities industries. College
graduates comprised less than 10 percent of
the workers in these industries.
Between 1978 and 1990, employment in
the transportation and public utility sector is

expected to rise from 4.9 to 5.4 million work­
ers or 10 percent. Communications indus­
tries will grow the fastest of the industries in
the sector, about 17 percent, from 1.2 to 1.4
million workers. Improvements in communi­
cations equipment which have minimized the
cost for such services and greatly increased
the demand, will keep employment from
growing as rapidly as output.
Although employment in railroad and
water transportation industries is expected to
decline (but at a slower rate than before),
other transportation industries such as air,
local transit, and trucking will increase. Em­
ployment in transportation as a whole will
rise about 7 percent from 2.9 to 3.1 million
The demand for electric power, gas utili­

Where people work
Millions of workers, 19781



Goods-producing industries

Trade. Both wholesale and retail trade em­
ployment have increased as the population
has grown and as rising incomes have ena­
bled people to buy a greater number and vari­
ety of goods. Retail trade has grown more
than wholesale trade; the expansion of the
suburbs has created a demand for more shop­
ping centers. Between 1978 and 1990, whole­
sale and retail trade employment is expected
to grow from 19.4 to 24.8 million workers or
about 28 percent. Employment will continue
to increase faster in retail trade than in
wholesale trade, 34 percent compared to 8
percent. Employment will rise despite the use
of some laborsaving innovations such as selfservice merchandizing and computerized
checkout systems. Some of the employment
growth in retail trade will result from parttime workers replacing full-time workers.
In 1978, almost 12 percent of employed
college graduates, roughly 1.8 million,
worked in trade. They comprised over 9 per­
cent of all workers in trade.




Finance, insurance, and real estate. This
sector grew 57 percent between 1965 and
1978 as these industries expanded to meet the
financial and banking demands of a growing
population. Within the sector, the two fastest
growing industries have been banking and
credit. Employment requirements have in­
creased as banks provide more services, such
as bank credit cards, and remain open longer

Service-producing industries
Wholesale and retail trade
Transportation, public utilities
Finance, insurance, real estate
1 Wage and salary workers except agriculture which
includes self-employed and unpaid family workers.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Less than 4
years of college


| 4 or more years
of college

Industries providing services will continue to
employ more people than those providing goods

Service producing:
and public utilities
Finance, insurance,
and real estate

ties, and water and sanitary services will in­
crease through the 1990’s as the population
grows and more households are formed.
Technological innovation in the systems used
to provide these services will limit employ­
ment growth to about 8 percent from 780,000
workers in 1978 to 840,000 workers in 1990.

Workers (millions)1
Service producing i„.»**‘**

Goods producing:

Services. This sector includes a variety of
industries, such as hotels, barber shops, auto­
mobile repair shops, business services, hospi­
tals, and nonprofit organizations. Employ­
ment in this sector has grown faster than any
other in the service-producing group, in­
creasing 77 percent between 1965 and 1978.
High demand for health care, maintenance
and repair, advertising, and commercial
cleaning services have been among the forces
behind this growth.

Goods producing








1Wage and salary workers, except for agriculture, which includes self-employed and unpaid family workers.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

About 7 percent of emplpyed college grad­
uates in 1978 worked in finance, insurance,
and real estate. Of all workers in these indus­
tries in 1978, 23 percent were college gradu­
Between 1978 and 1990, employment in
this sector is expected to rise from 4.7 to 6.3
million workers or 34 percent. A growing
population that increasingly uses credit to
finance purchases will keep the consumer de­
mand for credit and other financial services
high. In addition, businesses will need assist­
ance to finance the expansion of their plants
and the purchase of new equipment.

In 1978, 26 percent of all employed college
graduates, almost 4 million, worked in the
service industries. About 1 out 4 service
workers were college graduates.

From 1978 to 1990, employment in the
service industries is expected to increase from
16 to 24.4 million workers or 53 percent,
nearly twice the rate of the service-producing
industries as a whole. Employment require­
ments in health care are expected to grow
rapidly due to population growth—particu­
larly the elderly—and rising incomes that in­
crease people’s ability to pay for medical
care. Business services, including accounting,
data processing, and maintenance, also are
expected to grow rapidly.

mated production, improved machinery, and
other technological breakthroughs permitted
large increases in output without additional
In 1978, about 18 percent of all employed
college graduates, about 2.8 million, worked
in goods-producing industries. About 1 out
of 10 workers employed in these sectors in
1978 was a college graduate. Between 1978
and 1990, employment in goods-producing
industries is expected to increase from 28.7 to
32.5 million workers or about 13 percent.
Growth rates will vary among the four sec­
tors—agriculture, mining, construction, and

Government. Increased demand for ser­
vices provided by the government—educa­
tion, health and welfare, and police and fire
protection caused employment in the govern­
ment sector to rise about 54 percent between
1965 and 1978. Employment in State and
local governments expanded 65 percent com­
pared to 16 percent for the Federal Govern­

Agriculture. Employment in agriculture
which has long been declining dropped
nearly 23 percent between 1965 and 1978. At
the same time output of farms has been in­
creasing through the use of more and better
machinery, fertilizers, feeds, pesticides, and
hybrid plants.

School enrollments are expected to de­
cline through the 1980’s as a result of low
births rates in the 1960’s and 1970’s. Conse­
quently, State and local governments will
cut employment in schools. New govern­
ment programs to offset these cuts are un­
likely because of the public’s desire to limit
government growth. As a result, between
1978 and 1990, government employment is
expected to rise only 13 percent, from 15.5
to 17.5 million workers.

About 8 percent of all agricultural workers
were college graduates in 1978.
Domestic demand for food will increase
only slightly faster than the population
through the 1980’s. The worldwide demand
for food will rise because of population
growth, and exports of food will increase
through the next decade. Farm productivity
will continue to improve—although more
slowly than in the past—and production is
expected to rise even as employment contin­
ues to decline. Between 1978 and 1990, em­
ployment is projected to drop from 3.3 to 2.9
million workers or about 12 percent.
Mining. Having declined through most of
the 1960’s, employment in the mining sector
increased substantially during the 1970’s.
Employment rose about 32 percent between
1965 and 1978, mostly because of the coun­
try’s need for oil, coal, and other energy

Government employs more college gradu­
ates than any other sector. In 1978, 1 out 3
employed college graduates, over 5.3 mil­
lion, worked in government. More than 60
percent of them were employed in State and
local education. College graduates com­
prised 34 percent of all government workers
in 1978.
Goods-Producing Industries. Employment in
the goods-producing industries rose only 9
percent between 1965 and 1978. Significant
gains in productivity resulting from auto­

Through the 1980’s, changes in employment will
vary widely among industries


Projected change in employment, 1978-90 (millions)1







Contract construction
Transportation and public utilities
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Wage and salary workers, except for agriculture, which
Includes self-employed and unpaid family workers.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


Employment decline

As the development of fuel sources contin­
ues through the next decade, employment in
the mining sector is expected to grow from
830,000 to 1 million workers or about 20
percent. In some nonenergy industries such
as iron ore mining, employment will remain
the same because of improvements in mining
Contract construction. Employment grew
during the 1960’s because of high demand for
houses, apartments, office buildings, and
highways. The slowdown of the economy
during the early 1970’s limited employment
growth in the construction industries during
most of the decade. However, employment
has increased greatly in the last few years due
to a strong demand for new housing.
In 1978, over 7 percent of all workers in
construction were college graduates.
During the early 1980’s, the demand for
new housing will remain high because the
number of households is expected to increase.
Business expansion and maintenance of exist­
ing buildings also will require more construc­
tion. Between 1978 and 1990, employment in
the construction sector is expected to in­
crease from 4.2 to 4.9 million workers or
about 17 percent.
Manufacturing. Although a growing pop­
ulation and rising incomes have increased de­
mand for almost all types of goods, improved
production methods have limited employ­
ment growth in many manufacturing indus­
tries. In fact, employment grew more slowly
in manufacturing than in any other sector
between 1965 and 1978, only 13 percent.
In 1978, about 1 out of 7 employed college
graduates worked in manufacturing. Of all
workers in manufacturing in 1978, about 11
percent were college graduates.
Manufacturing employment is expected to
rise to 23.6 million workers by 1990, a 16
percent increase from the 1978 level of 20.3
million workers. Demand for consumer
goods is expected to rise because of increas­
ing incomes. Demand for capital goods such
as machinery also should rise as businesses
expand their plants and foreign countries in­
crease imports.
Manufacturing is divided into two broad
categories, durable goods manufacturing and
nondurable goods manufacturing. Employ­
ment in durable goods manufacturing is ex­
pected to increase by about 19 percent, from
12.2 to 14.5 million workers, while employ­
ment in nondurable goods manufacturing is
expected to increase by only 11 percent, from
8.2 to 9.1 million workers.



Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Of all workers in mining in 1978, about 14
percent were college graduates.



Growth rates will vary among individual
industries within each of these categories. In
nondurable goods industries, for example,
employment in bakeries is expected to de­
cline, while a moderate rise in employment is
projected for the paper industry. Among du­
rable goods industries, computers and periph­
eral equipment are expected to undergo a

rapid employment increase; iron and steel man­
ufacturing will employ about the same num­
ber of workers in 1990 as in 1978. (Chart 9).

ing section describes expected changes
among the broad occupational groups be­
tween 1978 and 1990. (Chart 11).White-col­
lar workers, who numbered 47.2 million in
1978, included more than 9 out of every 10
employed college graduates. (Chart 12).
More than 31 percent, or 14.9 million, of all
white-collar jobs were filled by college gradu­
ates in 1978. By 1990, 34 percent, or nearly
20 million, of the 58.4 million white-collar
jobs are expected to require a college degree.
Although employment requirements for col­
lege graduates are expected to increase by 34
percent, requirements in some white-collar
occupations will vary greatly.
Professional and technical workers. This
category includes many highly trained work­
ers, such as scientists and engineers, medical
practitioners, teachers, entertainers, pilots,

Occupational Profile
Customarily, occupations are divided into
white-collar occupations—professional and
technical, clerical, sales, and managerial jobs;
blue-collar occupations—craft, operative,
and laborer jobs; service occupations; and
farm occupations.
Growth rates among these groups have
differed markedly, as shown in chart 10.
Once a small proportion of the total labor
force, white-collar workers now represent
about half of the total. The number of service
workers also has risen rapidly, while the
blue-collar work force has grown only slowly
and farm workers have declined. The follow­

White-collar workers will continue to be the
largest occupational group


Managers and administrators. This group
includes workers such as bank officers and
managers, buyers, credit managers, and selfemployed business operators. In 1978, 30
percent of the workers in this group were
college graduates. Nearly 1 out of 5 em­
ployed graduates worked as managers and
administrators in 1978. Between 1978 and
1990, this group is expected to grow from
10.1 to 12.2 million or 21 percent. Require­
ments for college graduates are expected to
increase by 62 percent, from 3.1 million to
5.0 million.






B lu e -co lla r^........... .................. ...............

2 0 ------------------10




S er^ - e.....................................................






Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Through the 1980’s, changes in employment will
vary widely among occupational groups


Projected change in employment, 1978-90 (millions)
Professional and technical workers





Managers and administrators
Sales workers
Clerical workers
Craft workers
Operatives, except transport
Transport equipment operatives
Nonfarm laborers
Private household workers
Service workers, except private household



Farm workers

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Employment decline


Greater efforts in energy production,
transportation, and environmental protec­
tion will contribute to a growing demand for
scientists, engineers, and technicians. The
medical professions can be expected to grow
as the health services industry expands. The
demand for professional workers to further
develop and utilize computer resources also
is projected to grow.
Some occupations in this group will offer
less favorable jobs prospects, in many cases
because the supply of workers will exceed
openings. Teachers will continue to face com­
petition, as will artists and entertainers, air­
line pilots, and oceanographers.

Workers (millions)

and accountants. In 1978, 65 percent of the
workers in this group were college graduates.
(Chart 13). Nearly 4 out of 7 employed col­
lege graduates were professional and techni­
cal workers in 1978. Between 1978 and 1990,
employment in this group is expected to grow
from 14.2 to 16.9 million workers or about 19
percent. Requirements for college graduates
are expected to increase by about 27 percent,
from 9.2 million to 11.7 million.


Changes in business size and organization
have resulted in differing trends for selfemployed and salaried managers. The num­
ber of self-employed business managers will
continue to decline as large corporations and
chain operations increasingly dominate
many areas of business. Some small busi­
nesses, such as quick-service groceries and
fast-food restaurants, still will provide oppor­
tunities for self-employment, however. The
demand for salaried managers will continue
to grow as firms increasingly depend on
trained management specialists, particularly
in highly technical areas of operation.
Clerical workers. This group constitutes
the largest occupational group and includes
bank tellers, bookkeepers, cashiers, secretar­
ies, and typists. Although few clerical jobs
require a college degree, in 1978, more than
8 percent of all clerical workers, about 1.4
million, were college graduates. About 1 out
of 12 employed college graduates held cleri­
cal jobs in 1978.
Between 1978 and 1990, employment of
clerical workers is expected to grow from
16.9 to 21.7 million workers or 28 percent.
The proportion of clerical jobs that will re­
quire a college degree is not expected to in­
crease through the 1980’s, since no develop­
ments are forseen that are likely to cause the
educational requirements to be upgraded for

significant numbers of clerical jobs. More
college graduates could find employment in
clerical positions that will not require a col­
lege degree, however.
New developments in computers, office
machines, and dictating equipment will
greatly affect employment in many occupa­
tions within this group. As computers are
used more extensively to store information
and perform billing, payroll, and other calcu­
lations, employment of file clerks and many
types of office machine operators will level off
or decline. At the same time, however, the
need for computer and peripheral equipment
operators will increase. Dictation machines,
which have sharply reduced the need for ste­
nographers, will continue to adversely affect
employment prospects for workers in that

However, technological innovations will
not affect many clerical workers whose jobs
involve a high degree of personal contact.
Substantial opportunities, for example, are
anticipated for secretaries, and receptionists.

to grow from 6.0 to 7.6 million workers be­
tween 1978 and 1990, an increase of 27 per­
cent. Requirements for college graduates in
this group are expected to increase by 55 per­
cent, from 1.2 million to almost 1.8 million.

Sales workers. These workers are em­
ployed primarily by retail stores, manufac­
turing and wholesale firms, insurance compa­
nies, and real estate agencies. In 1978, less
than 1 employed college graduate in 12 was
in this group. About 20 percent of the sales
workers were college graduates in 1978. Col­
lege graduates employed in sales jobs are con­
centrated in industries other than retail trade
—in occupations such as insurance agents,
manufacturers sales representatives, and
securities sales workers, which employers
generally prefer to fill with college graduates.
Employment of sales workers is expected

Much of this growth will be due to expan­
sion in the retail trade industry, which em­
ploys nearly one-half of these workers. The
demand for both full- and part-time sales
workers in retail trade is expected to increase
as the growing population requires more
shopping centers and stores. Despite the use
of laborsaving merchandizing techniques
such as computerized checkout counters,
more stores and longer operating hours will
cause employment to increase.

Requirements for college graduates are expected
to grow faster than requirements for all workers


Percent change, 1978-90
All occupations
W hite-collar workers, total
Professional and technical workers
Managers and administrators, exc. farm

Employment of blue-collar workers is ex­
pected to grow by about 16 percent between
1978 and 1990, rising from 31.5 million to
36.6 million workers. Employment require­
ments for college graduates in these occupa­
tions are not expected to increase.

Sales workers
Clerical workers
Blue-collar workers, total
Service workers
Farm workers

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Most college graduates work in white-collar jobs
Percent distribution, 1978
Nonfarm laborers 1 %
Operatives 2%
Craft workers

Service workers
<Farm workers 1 %

Clerical workers

Sales workers
Professional and
technical workers

Managers and administrators,
except farm

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Blue-collar workers. Persons employed in
craft, operative, and nonfarm laborer jobs are
called blue-collar workers. Craft workers in­
clude a wide variety of highly skilled work­
ers, such as carpenters, tool-and-die makers,
instrument makers, allround machinists,
electricians, and automobile mechanics. Op­
eratives are the largest blue-collar group, in­
cluding workers such as assemblers, packers,
truck and bus drivers, and many types of
machine operators. Nonfarm laborers in­
clude workers such as garbage collectors,
construction laborers, freight and stock han­
dlers, and equipment washers. In 1978, about
5 percent of employed college graduates were
in blue-collar jobs, many in positions that do
not require a college degree.


Service workers include private household
service workers, such as housekeepers, child
care workers, and caretakers, and a wide
range of other workers—firefighters, cos­
metologists, and bartenders are a few exam­
ples. These workers, most of whom are em­
ployed in the service-producing industries,
make up the fastest growing occupational
group. In 1978, less than 3 percent of em­
ployed college graduates were in service jobs.
More than 3 percent of all service workers,
over 430,000, were college graduates. Many
college graduates were employed in positions
that do not require a college degree.
Although employment of private house­
hold service workers is expected to decline
between 1978 and 1990, total employment of
service workers is expected to increase nearly
30 percent from 12.8 million to 16.7 million
workers. Employment of private household
service workers is expected to decline despite
a rising demand for their services because the
low wages and the strenuous nature of the
work make these occupations unattractive to
many people. Factors expected to increase
the need for other types of service workers
are the rising demand for commercial clean­
ing services and protective services; and—as
incomes rise—more frequent use of restau­
rants, beauty salons, and leisure services. Be­
tween 1978 and 1990, requirements for col-

Most professional and technical workers
are college graduates


Millions of workers, 1978
W hite-collar workers
Professional and technical workers
Managers and administrators, exc. farm

occupations to which they could transfer
without taking a cut in pay.
Unfortunately, projected data about total
replacements needs are not available. How­
ever, the patterns of the past are unlikely to
change significantly: Occupations which re­
quire little training will provide more em­
ployment opportunities from replacement
needs than occupations which require exten­
sive training or experience.
When reviewing the employment projec­
tions, keep in mind replacement needs. Be­
cause of job transfers, deaths, retirements,
and other labor force separations, employ­
ment opportunities may exist even in occupa­
tions where employment is expected to de­
cline or to increase slowly.

Sales workers
Clerical workers
Blue-collar workers
Craft workers
Nonfarm laborers

College Graduates: Demand and
Supply, 1978-90

Service workers
Farm workers

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

I College graduates


I Less than 4 years college

lege graduates in service jobs are expected to
increase by more than 50 percent, reflecting
the upgrading of entry requirements in a few
service occupations, such as police officers.
Nevertheless, by 1990 only about 1 service
job out of 25 is expected to require a college

The relationship of replacement needs to
employment in an occupation is complex and
not completely understood. However, lim­
ited information indicates that some occupa­
tions will offer more job opportunities than
their projected employment or growth rates
would suggest.

Farm workers This group includes farmers
and farm operators as well as farm laborers.
About 1 percent of employed college gradu­
ates in 1978 were farm workers. Employment
of these workers has declined for decades as
farm productivity has increased as a result of
fewer but larger farms, the use of more and
better machinery, and the development of
new feeds, fertilizers, and pesticides. Between
1978 and 1990, the number of farmworkers
is expected to decline from 2.8 million to 2.4
million workers or 14 percent. Requirements
for college graduates in farm work are ex­
pected to increase, however, as agricultural
technology and farm management become
more complex.

Generally speaking, employees in occupa­
tions requiring the least training or experi­
ence—such as many operative, clerical, ser­
vice, and sales occupations—have a higher
replacement rate than other occupations.
These workers can quit and later easily find
a similar job. On the other hand, occupations
requiring the most training or experience—
such as professional and managerial occupa­
tions—tend to have the lowest replacement
rates. Architects and physicians, for exam­
ple, have extensive training and there are few

Throughout most of the 1960’s, a college
degree was considered almost a guarantee of
a good job. Overall, there probably were
more jobs for which employers sought gradu­
ates than there were graduates to fill them.
Consequently, graduates generally had their
pick of jobs and almost all graduates found
the kinds of jobs they sought. The job market
for college graduates, however, changed
dramatically beginning about 1969, and since
then, graduates have faced increased compe­
tition for the kinds of jobs they wanted. The
slowdown in the Nation’s economic growth
during the early and mid-1970’s and a drop
in the need for new teachers contributed, in
part, to this turnaround. However, the prin­
cipal reason for the competition faced by col­
lege graduates has been the sharp increase in
the number of graduates seeking jobs. This
increase has come about because of sharp
increases in the number of bachelor’s degrees
granted (chart 14), as well as because higher
proportions of college graduates are seeking
jobs. For example, between March 1966 and

Job Openings
Projected size and change in employment
are two indicators of future job prospects;
another is the total number of job openings
expected in the occupation. The total in­
cludes job openings resulting from employ­
ment growth and the need to replace em­
ployees in an occupation who die, retire,
transfer to another occupation, or simply
stop working, perhaps to attend college or
care for a family.
Between 1978 and 1990, replacement
needs from deaths and retirements are ex­
pected to be twice those from employment
growth. Although data are not available to
estimate other replacement needs, research
findings indicate occupational transfers and
temporary labor force separations are a
larger source of job openings than growth,
deaths, and retirements combined.


March 1978, the proportion of all college
graduates age 25 to 34 not in military service
who were employed or looking for work in­
creased from 79 to 86.5 percent.
Approximately twice as many college
graduates entered the labor market each year
—on average—between 1969 and 1978 as en­
tered during the 1962-69 period. Because job
openings in the occupations which graduates
traditionally sought were not available in
sufficient numbers, more and more graduates
entered nontraditional areas. Chart 15 com­
pares the kinds of jobs graduates entered be­
tween 1962 and 1969 with those they entered
between 1969 and 1978.
Of the roughly 575,000 graduates who en­
tered the labor force annually—on average—
between 1962 and 1969, about 73 percent en­
tered professional and technical occupations.
This group includes accountants, engineers,
doctors, lawyers, teachers, and other occupa­
tions for which a college degree usually is
required. About 17 percent entered
managerial and administrative occupations,
another major occupational area generally
felt by graduates to be appropriate to their
education and abilities. Another 3 percent
entered sales jobs, most probably in the better
paying sales jobs such as securities sales
workers and manufacturers’ sales representa­
tives. Less than 6 percent entered clerical,
blue-collar, service, and farm occupations.
A different pattern emerged for the 1,150,000 college graduates who entered the labor
force annually—on average—between 1969
and 1978. (Chart 15). Although more gradu­
ates entered professional and technical occu­
pations than during the previous period, the
percentage finding professional and technical
jobs was much smaller—only 45 percent—
because many more graduates were compet­
ing for available positions. About 20 percent
entered managerial jobs and another 8 per­
cent entered sales jobs. It is estimated that

Earnings of college graduates have declined
relative to earnings of high school graduates

Average earnings of college graduates divided by average earnings of high school graduates


Source: Bureau of the Census

about one-fourth of the graduates spilled
over into occupations not previously sought
or filled by college graduates, or were unem­
ployed. Most were clerical, blue-collar, ser­
vice, and farm occupations, but some were
managerial and sales occupations. Some of
the increase in the proportion entering
managerial and sales jobs probably repre­
sents upgrading, which occurs as jobs be­
come more complex and require people who
have more education. The great majority of
graduates who took clerical, service, and
blue-collar jobs over the 1969-78 period,
however, did not enter upgraded positions.
In addition to a spilling over into nontradi­
tional occupations, graduates also have ex­
perienced higher rates of unemployment.
From early 1969 to early 1978 the unemploy­
ment rate for all graduates increased from

Jobs entered by college graduates
1962-69 and 1969-78, by major occupational group


Operatives, laborers,
service, and farm
Craft workers
Clerical workers
Sales workers
Managers and
except farm

Professional and

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics




less than 1 percent to 2.5 percent, and for
graduates 20 to 24 years old from 2.4 to 6.1
percent. Although some of this increase can
be attributed to generally poor economic
conditions, the rise in the rate of unemploy­
ment of college graduates reflects mostly an
increasing supply of graduates. Young grad­
uates still fared much better than young high
school graduates, however, who had an
unemployment rate of 11.3 percent in 1978.
The difference in rates indicates, for the most
part, that college graduates have been able to
outbid nongraduates for jobs rather than re­
main unemployed.
Increased competition among graduates
for jobs has also adversely effected their earn­
ings. While average salaries of newly hired
graduates have increased since 1969, earn­
ings of nongraduates have increased more ra­
pidly. As a result, the premium paid to col­
lege graduates has declined (chart 16). Part
of this decline is due to the fact that competi­
tion for entry level positions in fields tradi­
tionally sought by graduates—such as ac­
counting, law, teaching, and engineering has
kept salaries down. Another is that a number
of graduates have been forced to accept lower
paying jobs not filled by graduates in the past.
College graduates entering the labor force
through the 1980’s are likely to face job mar­
ket conditions very similar to those faced by
graduates during the 1970’s. The number of
labor force entrants having a college degree
is expected to continue to exceed openings in
the types of jobs traditionally sought by grad­
uates. About 3 graduates out of 4 are ex­
pected to continue to find the kinds of jobs
sought by graduates, but about 1 graduate in
4 will have to enter nontraditional occupa­
tions or face unemployment.
Estimates based primarily on National
Center for Education Statistics projections of
earned degrees indicate that about 13.5 mil­
lion college graduates will enter the labor

College graduates entering the labor force are
expected to exceed openings in jobs traditionally
filled by graduates by 3.3 million between 1978 and 1990


force over the 1978-90 period. In compari­
son, only about 10.2 million job openings are
expected to arise in traditional jobs for col­
lege graduates. (Chart 17) About half of
these projected openings are expected to re­
sult from growth in the kinds of jobs filled by
graduates in the past and from upgrading
jobs, and half from the need to replace gradu­
ates who retire,^die, or leave the labor force
for other reasons.
These projections of a continued unfavora­
ble job market for college graduates reflect
the fact that the number of graduates enter­
ing the labor force annually over the 1978-90
period is not expected to decline from current
high levels, nor is the number of job openings
for graduates expected to increase.
The number of bachelors degrees granted,
the key determinant of new entrants, is ex­
pected to be slightly higher, annually—on
average—than the numbers granted during
the 1970’s. While the number of 22 year olds
is projected to decline during the last half of
the 1980’s, the number of bachelor’s degrees
is not expected to fall, as growth in the num­
ber of older students probably will offset the
drop in the number of younger ones.
Fewer growth openings are expected, pri­
marily because professional and technical oc­
cupations, which employed the majority of
graduates in 1978, are expected to grow at
less than half the annual rate of the 1970-78
period. The number of teaching jobs is not
expected to increase, and most other profes­
sional and technical occupations are ex­
pected to grow more slowly, reflecting slower
growth in the labor force in general.
The number of job openings created as em­
ployed graduates die or retire is expected to
be only slightly higher annually—on average.
Even though more graduates will be em­
ployed, most of the increase will be among
new graduates and few of them are likely to
die or retire.






Like graduates in the 1970’s, future gradu­
ates may be less likely to find jobs in the
occupation of their choice than graduates
during the 1960’s. Many may continue to
experience periods of unemployment, or
move from job to job seeking employment
that fits their abilities and expectations. A
substantial number may continue to compete
with nongraduates for the more desirable
jobs not previously filled by graduates. As in
the past, college graduates will generally
have an advantage over those with less edu­
cation, but in some fields they may face com­
petition from junior and community college
graduates who have learned job related skills.
In others, such as high paying sales jobs,
proven sales ability may be more valued by
employers than a degree. Graduates who are
least well prepared for the job market or most
unlucky will clearly face the prospect of un­
derutilization of their skills and job dissatis­
faction. As in the early and mid 1970’s, how­
ever, almost all will probably be able to find
a job, and few should face sustained unem­
Although the employment outlook for col­
lege graduates may not be promising, neither
is it bleak. Job satisfaction depends upon a
number of factors that are difficult to ana­
lyze, and it is not possible to classify all jobs
as being appropriate or not appropriate for
graduates. Even though college graduates
have not been traditionally employed in an
occupation, they still may find the work satis­
fying. Many high paying jobs with substan­
tial responsibility have been filled primarily
by non-college graduates in the past, and
graduates can be expected to move into these
in greater numbers. Graduates who enter
clerical, sales, and blue-collar jobs may be
able to prove their abilities once on the job
and be promoted. Some graduates who may
take jobs as clerks should eventually be able
to move into administrative positions, and
those in craft and service-worker jobs are

likely to be able to advance more quickly
within their organization, or start their own
Finding a job directly related to one’s col­
lege major probably is not necessary for job
satisfaction. One study found that most lib­
eral arts graduates—those whose college ma­
jors were in fields such as English, history,
and psychology—generally were happy with
jobs in business administration.1Business ad­
ministration, like many other jobs, permits
graduates to use their writing, analytical, and
interpersonal skills. If graduates feel they are
using these skills, they are likely to be sa­
tisfied with their jobs.
The study also found that a substantial
proportion of graduates in jobs they consid­
ered nonprofessional, perhaps not fully util­
izing these skills, were nevertheless satisfied.
Ideas about what constitutes an appropriate
job for graduates are changing. More gradu­
ates see jobs such as craft workers, farmers,
and self-employed retail store managers as
more desirable than the traditional jobs cho­
sen by graduates. This shift in attitudes
eases the problems of underemployment and
job dissatisfaction for many college gradu­
It should be pointed out that the number
of people actually obtaining degrees and en­
tering the labor force may be lower than pro­
jected here. A higher proportion of high
school graduates, aware of the plight of col­
lege graduates, may decide not to attend a
4-year college. They may decide that attend­
ing a 2-year community or junior college,
entering an apprenticeship, or finding a job
right out of high school is a better prepara­
tion for their longterm career goals.
College enrollees already are making some
adjustments in their selection of major field
of study. For example, the proportions pre­
paring to enter overcrowded fields have de­
clined. In teaching, education degrees have
declined from 21 percent in 1973 to 15 per­
cent of all bachelor’s degrees earned in 1978,
and lower proportions are studying liberal
arts as well. Higher proportions are obtaining
degrees in career related majors such as engi­
neering, accounting, and public affairs and
service. While this does not alter the number
of graduates who are likely to seek jobs
through the 1980’s, it may make graduates
better equipped to compete with nongradu­
ates who have technical training or work ex­
perience in these fields.
Despite the overall unfavorable job out­
look for college graduates, those prepared to
enter certain occupations such as accountant,
bank officer, computer programmer, engi‘Nancy L. Ochsner and Lewis C. Solmon, College
Education and Employment. . . . . The Recent
Graduates (Bethlehem, Pa., The CPC Foundation,
1979). The study is a followup of a group of people
whose highest degree held was a bachelor’s degree:
1961 college freshmen who were working full time
between November 1974 and March 1975, and
1970 college freshmen who were working full time
between November 1976 and March 1977.

neer, and physician are expected to have
good employment opportunities. Even in
overcrowded occupations, many of the better
qualified graduates will find jobs.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Knowledge about prospective employment
opportunities in various occupations can en­
able individuals to make a more informed
decision about whether to attend college, and

if they do choose to attend, what field to
study. The following chapter discusses the
outlook for more than 100 occupations usu­
ally sought by college graduates.


(D.O.T. 160 and 090.227-010)

trators. Many accountants teach part time,
work as consultants, or serve on committees
of professional organizations. For additional
information, see the Handbook statement on
college and university faculty.

Nature o f the W ork
Managers must have up-to-date financial
information to make important decisions.
Accountants prepare and analyze financial
reports that furnish this kind of information.
Three major fields are public, manage­
ment, and government accounting. Public ac­
countants have their own businesses or work
for accounting firms. Management account­
ants, also called industrial or private ac­
countants, handle the financial records of
their company. Government accountants ex­
amine the records of government agencies
and audit private businesses and individuals
whose dealings are subject to government
Accountants often concentrate on one
phase of accounting. For example, many
public accountants specialize in auditing (ex­
amining a client’s financial records and re­
ports to judge their compliance with stan­
dards of preparation and reporting). Others
specialize in tax matters, such as preparing
income tax forms and advising clients of the
advantages and disadvantages of certain
business decisions. They often help develop
estate plans that will have high benefits and
low taxes. Still others specialize in manage­
ment consulting and give advice on a variety
of matters. They might develop or revise an
accounting system to serve the needs of cli­
ents more effectively or give advice about dif­
ferent types of computers or electronic data
processing systems.
Management accountants provide the fi­
nancial information executives need to make
sound business decisions. They may work in
areas such as taxation, budgeting, costs, or
investments. Internal auditing, a specializa­
tion within management accounting, is ra­
pidly growing in importance. Accountants
who work as internal auditors examine and
evaluate their firm’s financial systems and
management control procedures to ensure ef­
ficient and economical operation.
Many persons with accounting back­
grounds work for the Federal Government as
Internal Revenue Service agents or are in­
volved in financial management, financial in­
stitution examining, and budget administra­
Accountants staff the faculties of business
and professional schools. As educators, they
may teach accounting as well as finance,
marketing, management, and related fields;
some are primarily researchers or adminis­

W orking Conditions
Most accountants work in offices and have
structured work schedules. Accounting
teachers, on the other hand, with more flexi­
ble schedules, divide their time among teach­
ing, research, and administrative respon­
sibilities. Self-employed accountants, who
may set up offices at home, work as many
hours as the business requires.
Tax accountants work long hours under
heavy pressure during the tax season. Ac­
countants employed by large firms may
travel extensively to audit or work for clients
or branches of the firm.

P laces o f Employment
Over 980,000 people worked as account­
ants in 1978, including over 150,000 Certified
Public Accountants (CPA), 17,000 licensed
public accountants, and about 9,000 Certi­
fied Internal Auditors (CIA).
About 60 percent of all accountants do
management accounting. An additional 25
percent are engaged in public accounting as
proprietors, partners, or employees of inde­
pendent accounting firms. Other accountants
work for Federal, State, and local govern­
ment agencies, and some teach in colleges
and universities. Opportunities are plentiful
for part-time work, particularly in smaller
Accountants are found in all business, in­
dustrial, and government organizations.
Most, however, work in large urban areas
where many public accounting firms and
central offices of large businesses are concen­
trated, such as Chicago, Los Angeles, New
York, and Washington, D.C.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
Training is available at colleges and uni­
versities, accounting and business schools,
and correspondence schools. Although many
graduates of business and correspondence
schools are successful, most public account­
ing and business firms require applicants for
accountant and internal auditor positions to
have at least a bachelor’s degree in account­
ing or a closely related field. Many employers
prefer those with the master’s degree in ac­
counting. A growing number of large em­
ployers prefer applicants who are familiar
with computers and their applications in ac­
counting and internal auditing. For begin­

ning accounting positions, the Federal Gov­
ernment requires 4 years of college (including
24 semester hours in accounting or auditing)
or an equivalent combination of education
and experience. However, applicants face
competition for the limited number of open­
ings in the Federal Government. For teach­
ing positions, most colleges and universities
require at least the master’s degree or the
Certified Public Accountant Certificate.
Previous experience in accounting can
help an applicant get a job. Many colleges
offer students an opportunity to gain experi­
ence through summer or part-time internship
programs conducted by public accounting or
business firms. Such training is invaluable in
gaining permanent employment in the field.
Professional recognition through certifica­
tion or licensure also is extremely valuable.
Anyone working as a “certified public ac­
countant” must hold a certificate issued by a
State board of accountancy. All States use
the four-part Uniform CPA Examination,
prepared by the American Institute of Certi­
fied Public Accountants, to establish certifi­
cation. The CPA examination is very rigor­
ous and candidates are not required to pass
all four parts at once. However, most States
require candidates to pass at least two parts
for partial credit. Although the vast majority
of States require CPA candidates to be col­
lege graduates, some States substitute a cer­
tain number of years of public accounting
experience for the educational requirement.
Most States require applicants to have some
public accounting experience for a CPA cer­
tificate. For example, bachelor’s degree hold­
ers most often need 2 years of experience
while master’s degree holders often need no
more than 1 year. Based on recommenda­
tions made by the American Institute of Cer­
tified Public Accountants, a few States now
require or are considering requiring CPA
candidates to have a bachelor’s degree plus
30 additional semester hours. This trend is
expected to continue in the coming years.
For a “public accountant” or “accounting
practitioner” license or registration, some
States require only a high school diploma
while others require college training. Infor­
mation on requirements may be obtained di­
rectly from individual State boards of ac­
countancy or from the National Society of
Public Accountants.
The Institute of Internal Auditors, Inc.,
confers the Certified Internal Auditor (CIA)
upon graduates from accredited colleges and
universities who have completed 3 years’ ex­
perience in internal auditing and who have
passed a four-part examination. The Na­
tional Association of Accountants (NAA)
confers the Certificate in Management Ac/25

counting (CMA) upon candidates who pass a
series of uniform examinations and meet spe­
cific educational and professional standards.
Persons planning a career in accounting
should have an aptitude for mathematics, be
able quickly to analyze, compare, and inter­
pret facts and figures, and to make sound
judgments based on this knowledge. They
must question how and why things are done
and be able to clearly communicate the re­
sults of their work, orally and in writing, to
clients and management.
Accountants must be patient and able to
concentrate for long periods of time. They
must be good at working with systems and
computers as well as with people. Accuracy
and the ability to handle responsibility with
limited supervision are important.
Perhaps most important, because millions
of financial statement users rely on the ser­
vices of accountants, the public expects ac­
countants to have the highest standards of
A growing number of States require both
CPA’s and licensed public accountants to
complete a certain number of hours of con­
tinuing education before licenses can be
renewed. Increasingly, accountants are
studying computer programming so they can
adapt accounting procedures to data process­
ing. Although capable accountants should
advance rapidly, those having inadequate ac­
ademic preparation may be assigned routine
jobs and find promotion difficult.
Junior public accountants usually start by
assisting with auditing work for several cli­
ents. They may advance to intermediate posi­
tions with more responsibility in 1 or 2 years

and to senior positions within another few
years. Those who deal successfully with top
industry executives often become supervi­
sors, managers, or partners, or transfer to
executive positions in private firms. Some
open their own public accounting offices.
Beginning management accountants often
start as ledger accountants, junior internal
auditors, or as trainees for technical account­
ing positions. They may advance to chief
plant accountant, chief cost accountant, bud­
get director, or manager of internal auditing.
Some become controllers, treasurers, finan­
cial vice-presidents, or corporation presi­
dents. Many corporation executives have
backgrounds in accounting and finance. In
the Federal Government, beginners are hired
as trainees and usually are promoted in a year
or so. In college and university teaching,
those having minimum training and experi­
ence may receive the rank of instructor with­
out tenure; advancement and permanent fac­
ulty status depend upon further education
and teaching experience and are increasingly
difficult to attain.

Employm ent O utlook
Employment is expected to grow faster
than the average for all occupations through
the 1980’s due to increasing pressure on busi­
nesses and government agencies to improve
budgeting and accounting procedures. Be­
cause of the size of the occupation, however,
even more job openings should result from
deaths, retirements, and other separations
from the labor force than from employment
Demand for skilled accountants will rise as

managers rely increasingly on accounting in­
formation to make business decisions. For
example, plant expansion, mergers, or for­
eign investments may depend upon the finan­
cial condition of the firm, tax implications of
the proposed action, and other considera­
tions. On a smaller scale, small businesses are
expected to rely more and more on the exper­
tise of public accountants in planning their
operations. Government legislation to moni­
tor business activity also is expected to add to
the demand for accountants. Legislation and
regulations regarding pension reform, tax re­
form, revenue sharing, funding of elections,
financial disclosure, and other matters
should create many jobs for accountants. In
addition, increases in investment and lending
and the need for government to allocate lim­
ited funds also should spur demand for ac­
College graduates will be in greater de­
mand for accounting jobs than applicants
who lack this training. Opportunities for ac­
countants without a college degree will occur
mainly in small businesses and accounting
Many employers prefer graduates who
have worked part time in a business or ac­
counting firm while in school. In fact, experi­
ence has become so important that some em­
ployers in business and industry seek persons
with 1 or 2 years’ experience for beginning
The increasing use of computers and elec­
tronic data processing systems in accounting
should stimulate the demand for those
trained in such procedures.

According to a 1978 College Placement
Council Salary Survey, bachelor’s degree
candidates in accounting received offers ave­
raging around $13,500 a year; master’s de­
gree candidates, $16,000. Public accounting
firms offered bachelor’s degree candidates
around $14,000 a year.
The starting salary of beginning account­
ants in private industry was about $12,800 a
year in 1978, according to a national survey.
Earnings of experienced accountants ranged
between $15,700 and $27,300, depending on
their level of responsibility and the complex­
ity of the accounting system. Chief account­
ants who direct the accounting program of a
company or one of its establishments earned
between $23,700 and $39,900, depending
upon the scope of their authority and size of
professional staff.
According to the same survey, beginning
auditors averaged $13,200 a year in 1978,
while experienced auditors’ earnings ranged
between $15,700 and $23,100.

Accountants must be able to concentrate and work accurately on detailed matters for long
periods of time.


In the Federal Government, the starting
salary for junior accountants and auditors
was $10,507 in early 1979. Candidates who
had a superior academic record could begin
at $13,014. Applicants with a master’s degree
or 2 years’ professional experience began at
$15,920. Accountants in the Federal Govern­

ment averaged about $24,300 a year in early
According to a 1978 survey of State gov­
ernments, average annual salaries of begin­
ning accountants or auditors ranged from
about $10,800 to $14,200; principal auditors
(work at first level of full supervision), $15,900 to $21,300; accounting supervisors (work
at first level of full supervision), $14,700 to
$19,600; and chief fiscal officers (those who
administer accounting and fiscal manage­
ment programs of large State agencies), $20,800 to $27,400.

Related Occupations
Accountants design and control financial
records and analyze financial data. Others
for whom training in accounting is invaluable
include appraisers, budget officers, loan offic­
ers, financial analysts, bank officers, actuar­
ies, underwriters, FBI special agents, securi­
ties sales workers, and purchasing agents.

Sources o f Additional Information
Information about careers in accounting
and about aptitude tests administered in high
schools, colleges, and public accounting
firms may be obtained from:
American Institute of Certified Public Account­
ants, 1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York,
N.Y. 10036.

Information on specialized fields of ac­
counting is available from:
National Association of Accountants, 919 Third
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10022.
National Society of Public Accountants, 1717
Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.
Institute of Internal Auditors, 249 Maitland Ave.,
Altamonte Springs, Fla. 32701.

For information on educational institu­
tions offering a specialization in accounting,

New stage actors generally start in “bit”
parts where they speak only a few lines. If
successful, they may progress to larger, sup­
porting roles. They also may serve as under­
studies for the principals. Film and television
actors, in contrast, may begin in large roles
or move into programs from working in com­
In addition to the actors and actresses with
speaking parts, “extras,” who have no lines
to deliver, are used in various ways in almost
all motion pictures and many television
shows and theatre productions. In “spectacu­
lar” productions, a large number of extras
take part in crowd scenes.
Some actors find alternative jobs as
coaches of drama or directors of stage, televi­
sion, radio, or motion picture productions. A
few teach in drama departments of colleges
and universities, where they usually special­
ize in a particular aspect of drama, such as
stage movement, stage speech and voice, or
acting. Some professional actors employed by
theater companies also teach acting in
courses offered to the public.

W orking Conditions
Acting demands patience and total com­
mitment, since aspiring actors and actresses
must wait for parts or filming schedules,
work long hours, and often do much travel­
ing. Evening work is a regular part of a stage
actor’s life. Rehearsals may be held late at
night and on weekends and holidays. When
plays are on the road, weekend traveling
often is necessary. Flawless performances re­
quire the tedious memorizing of lines, which
sometimes involves long rehearsal schedules.
Other performances, such as television pro­
grams, often allow little time for rehearsal, so
that the actor must deliver a good perform­
ance with very little preparation. The actor

needs stamina to withstand the heat of stage
or studio lights, or the adverse weather con­
ditions that may exist “on location.”

P laces o f Employment
About 13,400 actors and actresses worked
in stage plays, motion pictures, industrial
shows, and commercials in 1978. Many thou­
sands more were available for work in these
areas. In the winter, most employment op­
portunities on the stage are in New York and
other large cities. In the summer, stock com­
panies in suburban and resort areas provide
employment. In addition, many cities have
“little theaters,” repertory companies, and
dinner theaters, which provide opportunities
for local talent as well as for professional
actors and actresses. Normally, casts are se­
lected in New York City for shows that go
“on the road.”
Employment in motion pictures and film
television is centered in Hollywood and New
York City, although a few studios are located
in Miami and other parts of the country. In
addition, many films are shot on location and
employ local professionals and nonprofes­
sionals as “day players” and “extras.” A
number of American-produced films are shot
in foreign countries. In television, most op­
portunities for actors are at the headquarters
of the major networks—in New York, Los
Angeles, and, to a lesser extent, Chicago. A
few local television stations occasionally em­
ploy actors.

Training and Other Q ualifications
Young persons who aspire to acting ca­
reers should take part in high school and
college plays, or work with little theaters and
other acting groups for experience.
Formal training in acting, which is increas­
ingly necessary, can be obtained at schools of

American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Busi­
ness, 1755 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Suite 320,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Actors and Actresses
(D.O.T. 150.047)

Nature o f the W ork
Making a character come to life before an
audience is a job that has great glamour and
fascination. It is demanding and often uncer­
tain work, however, which requires persist­
ence, practice, and hard work as well as spe­
cial acting talent.
Only a few actors and actresses achieve
recognition as stars on the stage, in motion
pictures, or on television or radio. A some­
what larger number are well-known, ex­
perienced performers, who frequently are
cast in supporting roles. However, most ac­
tors and actresses struggle for a toehold in
the profession and are glad to pick up parts
wherever they can.

A c tin g re q u ire s ta le n t, v e r s a tility , a n d s ta g e p r e s e n c e a s w e ll a s h a rd w o r k a n d p r a c tic e .


dramatic arts, located chiefly in New York,
and in hundreds of colleges and universities
throughout the country. About 740 colleges
and universities confer bachelor’s or higher
degrees on students who major in dramatic
and theater arts. College drama curriculums
usually include courses in liberal arts, stage
speech and movement, directing, playwrit­
ing, play production, and history of the
drama, as well as practical courses in acting.
From these, the student develops an appreci­
ation of the great plays and a greater under­
standing of the roles he or she may be called
on to play. Graduate degrees in fine arts or
drama are needed for college teaching posi­

tributed and may be used for years. Also,
some American-produced films are shot in
foreign countries, resulting in reduced em­
ployment opportunities for American actors
and actresses. Television employs a large
number of actors and actresses. However,
employment in this medium has been re­
duced by the Federal Communications Com­
mission ruling that decreased major TV net­
work prime time programming. Local
stations often use reruns or low-cost game
shows that employ few actors. Also, the
trend toward 1- to 2-hour programs and
more reruns shortens the period of employ­
ment and reduces the number of persons

In all media, the best way to start is to use
local opportunities and to build on the basis
of such experience. Many actors who are suc­
cessful in local productions eventually try to
appear on the New York stage. Modeling
experience may also be helpful in obtaining
employment in television or motion pictures.
Above all, persons who plan to pursue an
acting career must have talent and the crea­
tive ability to portray different characters.
They must have poise, stage presence, and
aggressiveness to project themselves to the
audience. At the same time, the ability to
follow directions is important.

One possibility for future growth in the
legitimate theater lies in the establishment of
year-round professional acting companies in
cities. The number of such acting groups is
growing. The recent growth of summer and
winter stock companies, outdoor and re­
gional theaters, repertory companies, and
dinner theaters also has increased employ­
ment opportunities. In addition, some in­
creases may be likely in the employment of
actors on television in response to expansion
of the Public Broadcasting System, UHF sta­
tions, and cable TV. The development and
wider use of video cassettes also may result in
some employment opportunities. These
media will have a positive influence on em­
ployment only if original material and pro­
grams result, not reruns or old movies.

To become a movie extra, one must usually
be listed by Central Casting, a no-fee agency
that works with the Screen Extras Guild and
supplies all extras to the major movie studios
in Hollywood. Applicants are accepted only
when the number of persons of a particular
type on the list—for example, athletic young
men, old ladies, or small children—is below
the foreseeable need. In recent years, only a
very small proportion of the total number of
applicants have succeeded in being listed. An
actor employed as an extra in a film has very
little opportunity to advance to a speaking
role in that film.
The length of an actor’s or actress’ work­
ing life depends largely on skill and versatil­
ity. Great actors and actresses can work al­
most indefinitely. Generally, however,
employment becomes increasingly limited by
middle age, especially for those who become
typed in romantic, youthful roles. Due to the
factors discussed, persons who intend to pur­
sue an acting career may find that employ­
ment and earnings are irregular.

Employm ent O utlook
Overcrowding has existed in the acting
field for many years, and this condition is
expected to persist. In the legitimate theater,
motion pictures, radio, and television, job ap­
plicants greatly exceed the jobs available. As
a result, many actors and actresses are em­
ployed in their profession for only a part of
the year.
Motion pictures and TV have greatly re­
duced employment opportunities for actors
in the theater. Although a motion picture
production may use a very large number of
actors during filming, films are widely dis­

Though the field of acting as a whole is
expected to grow faster than the average for
all occupations through the 1980’s, the num­
ber of persons seeking to enter the profession
is expected to exceed by far the available
openings. Even the highly talented are likely
to face stiff competition and economic dif­

Actors and actresses in the legitimate thea­
ter belong to the Actors’ Equity Association;
in motion pictures, including television films,
to the Screen Actors Guild, Inc., or to the
Screen Extras Guild, Inc.; in television or
radio, to the American Federation of Televi­
sion and Radio Artists (AFTRA). These un­
ions and the producers of the shows sign
basic collective bargaining agreements which
set minimum salaries, hours of work, and
other conditions of employment. Each actor
also signs a separate contract, which may
provide for a higher salary than that specified
in the basic agreement.
The minimum weekly salary for actors in
Broadway productions was about $355 in
1978. Those in small “off-Broadway” theat­
ers received minimums ranging from $140 to
$270 a week, depending on the seating capac­
ity of the theater. For shows on the road, the
minimum rate was $27.50 extra per day. (All
minimum salaries are adjusted upward auto­
matically, by union contract, commensurate
with increases in the cost of living as reflected
in the Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer
Price Index.)

In 1978, motion picture and television ac­
tors and actresses earned a minimum daily
rate of $225, or $785 for a 5-day week. The
minimum rate for a 3-day week for actors
employed on a 1 or 1/2-hour television show
was $572. For extras, the minimum rate was
$60 a day. Television actors also receive addi­
tional compensation for reruns.
However, annual earnings of actors and
actresses are adversely affected by the fre­
quent periods of unemployment experienced
by many. According to data obtained by the
Actors’ Equity Association (which repre­
sents actors who work on the stage) and the
Screen Actors Guild, between two thirds and
three quarters of their members earned $2,500 or less a year from acting jobs in 1978,
and less than 5 percent earned over $25,000
from such work. Because of the frequent
periods of unemployment characteristic of
this profession, many actors must supple­
ment their incomes by maintaining other, no­
nacting jobs.
Many well-known actors and actresses
have salary rates above the minimums, and
salaries of the few top stars are many times
the figures cited.
Eight performances amount to a week’s
work on the legitimate stage, and any addi­
tional performances are paid for as over­
time. After the show opens, the basic work­
week is 36 hours, including 12 hours for
rehearsals. Before it opens, however, the
workweek usually is longer to allow time for
Most actors are covered by a union health,
welfare, and pension fund, including hospi­
talization insurance, to which employers
contribute. Under some employment condi­
tions, Equity and AFTRA members have
paid vacations and sick leave. Most stage ac­
tors get little if any unemployment compen­
sation solely from acting since they seldom
have enough employment in any State to
meet the eligibility requirements. Conse­
quently, when they are between acting jobs,
they often have to take any casual work they
can find.

Related Occupations
Actors and actresses entertain people
through their interpretations of dramatic
roles. They rely on facial and verbal expres­
sions as well as body motions for their crea­
tive expression. Related occupations for peo­
ple with these skills include: clowns,
comedians, directors, disc jockeys, drama
teachers or coaches, impersonators, mimes,
narrators, and radio and television announc­

Sources o f Additional Information
Information on colleges and universities
and conservatories that offer a major in
drama is available from:
American Theater Association, 1000 Vermont
Ave. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20005.

(D.O.T. 020.167-010)

Nature of the Work
Why do young persons pay more for auto­
mobile insurance than older persons? How
much should an insurance policy cost? An­
swers to these and similar questions are pro­
vided by actuaries who design insurance and
pension plans that can be maintained on a
sound financial basis. They assemble and an­
alyze statistics to calculate probabilities of
death, sickness, injury, disability, unemploy­
ment, retirement, and property loss from ac­
cident, theft, fire, and other hazards. Actuar­
ies use this information to determine the
expected insured loss. For example, they may
calculate how many persons who are 21 years
old today can be expected to live to age 65—
the probability that an insured person might
die during this period is a risk to the com­
pany. They then calculate a price for assum­
ing this risk that will be profitable to the
company yet be competitive with other insur­
ance companies. Finally, they must make
sure that the price charged for the insurance
will enable the company to pay all claims and
expenses as they occur. In the same manner,
the actuary calculates premium rates and de­
termines policy contract provisions for each
type of insurance offered. Most actuaries spe­
cialize in either life and health insurance or
property and liability (casualty) insurance; a
growing number specialize in pension plans.
To perform their duties effectively, actuar­
ies must keep informed about general eco­
nomic and social trends, and legislative,
health, and other developments that may af­
fect insurance practices. Because of their
broad knowledge of insurance, company ac­
tuaries may work on problems arising in their

Actuaries analyze statistical data.

company’s investment, group underwriting,
or pension planning departments. Actuaries
in executive positions help determine general
company policy. In that role, they may be
called upon to explain complex technical
matters to company executives, government
officials, policyholders, and the public. They
may testify before public agencies on pro­
posed legislation affecting the insurance busi­
ness, for example, or explain intended
changes in premium rates or contract provi­
Actuaries who work for the Federal Gov­
ernment usually deal with a particular insur­
ance or pension program, such as social secu­
rity or life insurance for veterans and
members of the Armed Forces. Actuaries in
State government positions regulate insur­
ance companies, supervise the operations of
State retirement or pension systems, and
work on problems connected with unemploy­
ment insurance or workers’ compensation.
Consulting actuaries set up pension and wel­
fare plans for private companies, unions, and
government agencies. They calculate future
benefits and determine the amount of the an­
nual employer contribution. Actuaries who
are enrolled under the provisions of the Em­
ployee Retirement Income Security Act of
1974 (ERISA) evaluate these pension plans
and submit reports certifying their financial

W orking Conditions
Actuaries have desk jobs that require no
unusual physical activity; their offices gener­
ally are comfortable and pleasant.
Most actuaries work between 35 and 40
hours a week, although they may be required
to work overtime during busy periods. Ac­
tuaries may travel to branch offices of their
company or to clients.

P laces of Employment
Approximately 9,000 persons worked as
actuaries in 1978. Four of every 10 actuaries
worked New York, Hartford, Chicago, Phil­
adelphia, or Boston.
About two-thirds of all actuaries worked
for private insurance companies. Almost 90
percent of these worked for life insurance
companies; the rest worked for property and
liability (casualty) companies. The number of
actuaries employed by an insurance company
depends on its volume of business and the
types of insurance policies it offers. Large
companies may employ over 100 actuaries on
their staffs; others, generally smaller compa­
nies, may rely instead on consulting firms or
rating bureaus (associations that supply actu­
arial data to member companies).
Consulting firms and rating bureaus em­
ploy about one-fifth of all actuaries. Other
actuaries work for private organizations ad­
ministering independent pension and welfare
plans or for Federal and State government
agencies. A few teach in colleges and univer­

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
A good educational background for a be­
ginning job in a large life or casualty com­
pany is a bachelor’s degree with a major in
mathematics or statistics; a degree in actuar­
ial science is even better. Some companies
hire applicants with a major in engineering,
economics, or business administration, pro­
vided they demonstrate a thorough founda­
tion in calculus, probability, and statistics
(20-25 hours). Courses in accounting, com­
puter science, economics, and insurance also
are useful. Although only 25 colleges and
universities offer a degree in actuarial sci­
ence, several hundred schools offer a degree
in mathematics or statistics.
A strong background in mathematics is
essential for persons interested in a career as
an actuary. Of equal importance, however, is
the need to pass, while in school, one or more
of the examinations offered by professional
actuarial societies. Three societies sponsor
programs leading to full professional status
in they specialty. The Society of Actuaries
gives nine actuarial examinations for the life
and health insurance and pension field, the
Casualty Actuarial Society gives ten exami­
nations for the property and liability field,
and the American Society of Pension Actuar­
ies gives nine examinations covering the pen­
sion field. Because the first parts of the exam­
ination series of each society cover similar
materials, students need not commit them­
selves to a career specialty until they have
taken about five examinations. The first two
test competence in subjects such as algebra,
calculus, elementary statistics, geometry, and
trigonometry; the next three the more ad­
vanced concepts of actuarial science such as
theories of compound interest, mortality ta­
bles, and risk. Success in passing these first
few examinations helps students evaluate

their potential as actuaries, and those who
pass usually have better opportunities for em­
ployment and higher starting salaries.
Actuaries are encouraged to complete the
entire series of examinations as soon as possi­
ble; completion generally takes from 5 to 10
years. Examinations are given twice each
year. Extensive home study is required in
order to pass the advanced examinations;
many actuaries spend as much as 20-25 hours
a week studying. Actuaries who complete
five examinations in either the life insurance
series or the pension series or seven examina­
tions in the casualty series are awarded “as­
sociate” membership in their society. Those
who have passed an entire series receive full
membership and the title “fellow.”
Consulting pension actuaries who service
private pension plans and certify their sol­
vency must be enrolled by the Joint Board for
the Enrollment of Actuaries. Applicants for
enrollment must meet certain experience and
education requirements as stipulated by the
Joint Board.
Beginning actuaries often rotate among
different jobs to learn various actuarial oper­
ations and to become familiar with different
phases of insurance work. At first, their work
may be routine, such as preparing tabulations
for actuarial tables or reports. As they gain
experience, they may supervise clerks, pre­
pare correspondence and reports, and do re­
Advancement to more responsible work as
assistant, associate, and chief actuary de­
pends largely on job performance and the
number of actuarial examinations passed.
Many actuaries, because of their broad
knowledge of insurance and related fields,
are selected for administrative positions in
other company activities, particularly in un­
derwriting, accounting, or data processing
departments. Many advance to top executive

Employment O utlook
Employment of actuaries is expected to
rise faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s. In addition to job
openings resulting from growth in demand
for actuaries, additional openings will arise
each year as individuals retire, die, or trans­
fer to other occupations. Job opportunities
will be best for new college graduates who
have passed at least two actuarial examina­
tions while still in school and have a strong
mathematical and statistical background.
However, because of the large number of per­
sons expected to receive degrees in actuarial
science, mathematics, and statistics, and the
large number of students taking actuarial ex­
aminations, competition for beginning jobs
should remain keen.
Employment in this occupation is in­
fluenced to a great extent by the volume of
insurance sales, which will continue to grow
over the next decade. Shifts in the age distri­
bution of the population through the 1980’s
will result in a large increase in the number


of people with established careers and family
responsibilities. This is the group that tradi­
tionally has accounted for the bulk of private
insurance sales.
Increased sales, however, are only one
determinant of the demand for actuaries.
Changes in existing insurance practices have
created a need for more actuarial services.
For example, as more and more insurance
companies branch out into more than one
kind of insurance coverage, more actuaries
will be needed to establish the rates for the
different types of insurance offered. Growth
in sales of relatively new forms of protection,
such as dental, prepaid legal, and kidnap in­
surance also will create additional demand
for actuaries. As more States pass competi­
tive rating laws, many companies that previ­
ously relied on rating bureaus for actuarial
data can be expected to expand existing actu­
arial departments or create new ones.
The liability of companies for damage re­
sulting from their product has recieved much
attention as a result of recent court decisions.
In the years ahead, actuaries will be more
involved in the development of product lia­
bility insurance, medical malpractice and
workers’ compensation coverage.

In 1978, actuaries had average salaries
more than twice as high as the average for all
nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming. New college graduates enter­
ing the life insurance field without having
passed any actuarial exams averaged $10,933
in 1978, according to a survey of U.S. compa­
nies by the Life Office Management Associa­
tion (LOMA). Applicants who had success­
fully completed the first exam received
$12,754 and those who had passed two exams
averaged $13,584.
In the Federal Government, new gradu­
ates with the bachelor’s degree could start at
$10,500 a year in 1978. Applicants with ei­
ther 1 year of graduate study or relevant
work experience were hired at $13,000, and
those with the master’s degree or 2 years’
experience started at $15,900 a year. Actuar­
ies in the Federal Government averaged $28,350 a year in 1978.
Beginning actuaries can look forward to a
marked increase in earnings as they gain pro­
fessional experience and advance in an actu­
arial society’s examination program. Life in­
surance companies usually give merit
increases averaging from $566 to $978 to
their actuaries as they pass each successive
examination leading to membership in the
Society of Actuaries. Associates who re­
ceived that designation in 1978 averaged
$18,325 a year; salaries for actuaries who be­
come fellows during that year averaged $27,163. Fellows with additional years of experi­
ence earned substantially more—top
actuarial executives averaged about $47,600
in 1978.
Although data are not available for salaries
of actuaries in casualty companies or consult­

ing firms, it is believed that salaries for these
specialists generally are comparable to those
paid by life insurance companies. Most ac­
tuaries have liberal vacation policies and
other employee benefits.

Related Occupations
Actuaries assemble aiid analyze statistics
as well as apply various statistical techniques
in their day-to-day work. Other workers
whose jobs involve similiar skills include
mathematicians, statisticians, economists, fi­
nancial analysts, and engineering analysts.

Sources o f Additional Information
For facts about actuarial opportunities and
qualifications, contact:
American Society of Pension Actuaries, 1700 K
St., NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.
Casualty Actuarial Society, 110 Plaza, 250 West 34
St., New York, N.Y. 10001.
Society of Actuaries, 208 South LaSalle St., Chi­
cago, 111. 60604.

Air Traffic
(D.O.T. 193.162-018)

Nature of the W ork
Air traffic controllers are the guardians of
the airways. Controllers keep track of planes
flying within their assigned area, giving pilots
instructions that will keep the planes sepa­
rated. Their immediate concern is safety, but
controllers also must direct planes efficiently
to minimize delays. Some regulate airport
traffic; other regulate flights between air­
Although airport controllers watch over
all planes travelling through the airport’s
airspace, their main responsibility is to orga­
nize the flow of aircraft in and out of the
airport. Relying both on radar and visual ob­
servation, they closely monitor each plane,
maintaining a safe distance between all air­
craft while guiding pilots between the hangar
or ramp and the end of the airport’s airspace.
During arrival or departure, each plane is
handled by several controllers. As a plane
approaches an airport, the pilot radios ahead
to inform the terminal of its presence. The
“arrival controller” in the radar room just
beneath the control tower has a copy of the
plane’s flight plan and already has observed
the plane on radar. If the way is clear, the
arrival controller directs the pilot to a run­
way; if the airport is busy, the plane is fitted
into a traffic pattern with other aircraft wait­
ing to land. As the plane nears the runway,
the pilot is asked to contact the tower. There,
a “local controller,” who also is watching the
plane on radar, monitors the aircraft the last
mile or so to the runway, delaying any depar­
tures that would interfere with the plane’s
approach. Once the plane has landed, a

“ground controller” in the tower directs it
along the taxiways. The ground controller
works almost entirely by sight, but may use
radar if visibility is very poor.
A similar procedure is used for departures.
The ground controller directs the plane to the
proper runway. The local controller instructs
the plane to take off, arranging a temporary
break in arriving traffic if necessary. Once in
the air, the plane is guided out of the airport’s
airspace by the “departure controller.”
Controllers constantly watch the planes
under their direction as they guide them to
and from the airport. If a controller notices
that two planes are on a collision course, one
or both pilots will be instructed to turn or
change altitude. Controllers also provide pi­
lots with information about conditions at the
airport, such as the weather, speed and direc­
tion of the wind, and visibility.
After each plane departs, airport traffic
controllers notify enroute controllers who
will next take charge. There are 25 enroute
control centers located around the country.
Airplanes generally fly along designated
routes and each center is assigned a certain
amount of airspace containing many of these
routes. Enroute controllers work in teams of
up to three members, depending on how
heavy traffic is; each team is responsible for
a section of the center’s airspace. A team, for
example, might be responsible for all planes
that are between 30 to 100 miles north of an
airport and flying at an altitude between 6,000 and 18,000 feet.
To prepare for planes about to enter the
team’s' airspace, the “manual handoff con­
troller” organizes flight plans coming over
teletype machines. If two planes are sched­
uled to enter the team’s airspace at a similar
time, location, and altitude, this controller
may arrange with the preceding control unit
for one plane to change plans. The previous
unit may have been another team at the same
or an adjacent center, or a departure control­
ler at a neighboring terminal. As a plane ap­
proaches a team’s airspace, the “radar hand­
off controller” accepts responsibility for the
plane from the previous controlling unit. The
controller also delegates responsibility for the
plane to the next controlling unit when the
plane leaves the team’s airspace.
The “radar controller,” who supervises the
other team members, observes the planes in
the team’s airspace on radar and communi­
cates with the pilots when necessary. Radar
controllers warn pilots about nearby planes,
bad weather conditions, and other possible
hazards. If two planes are on a collision
course, they will be directed around each
other. Or if a pilot wants to change altitude
in search of better flying conditions, the con­
troller will check to determine that no other
planes will be along the proposed path during
the altitude change. As the flight progresses,
the team responsible for the aircraft notifies
the next team in charge. Through this coordi­
nation, one team after another watches over
the plane until it arrives safely at its destina­

Both airport and enroute controllers usu­
ally have several planes under their control at
one time and often have to make quick deci­
sions about completely different activities.
For example, an arrival controller at an air­
port might direct a plane on its landing ap­
proach and at the same time provide pilots
just entering the airport’s airspace with infor­
mation about conditions at the airport. While
instructing these pilots, the controller also
would observe other planes in the vicinity,
such as those in a holding pattern waiting for
permission to land, to determine that they
remain well separated.

W orking Conditions
Controllers work a basic 40-hour week;
however, they may work additional hours for
which they receive overtime pay or equal
time off. Because control towers and centers
must be operated 24 hours a day, 7 days a
week, controllers rotate night and weekend
Air traffic controllers sometimes work
under great stress. They must keep track of
several planes at the same time and make
certain all pilots receive correct instructions.

Places o f Employment
About 21,000 persons worked as air traffic
controllers in 1978, mostly at major airports
and air route traffic control centers located
near large cities. Almost all were employed
by the Federal Aviation Administration

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
Air traffic controller trainees are selected
through the competitive Federal Civil Ser­
vice System. Applicants must be less than 31

years old and must pass a written test that
measures their ability to learn and perform
the controller’s duties. In addition, appli­
cants must have 3 years of general work expe­
rience or 4 years of college, or a combination
of both. Applicants must be in excellent
health and have vision correctable to 20/20.
Potential controllers should be articulate,
since directions to pilots must be given
quickly and clearly. A quick and retentive
memory also is important because controllers
constantly receive information about the
planes under their direction which they must
immediately grasp, interpret, and remember
for a short period. A decisive personality is
an asset, since controllers often have to make
rapid decisions.
Successful applicants receive a combina­
tion of on-the-job and formal training to
learn the fundamentals of the airway system,
Federal aviation regulations, controller
equipment, and aircraft performance charac­
teristics. They receive approximately 16
weeks of intensive training, including prac­
tice on simulators, at the FAA Academy in
Oklahoma City. It then takes several years of
progressively more responsible work experi­
ence, interspersed with considerable class­
room instruction and independent study, to
become a fully qualified controller.
At airports new controllers begin in the
tower, where they clear planes for takeoff.
The next step is to ground controller fol­
lowed by local controller, then departure
controller, and finally, arrival controller. At
a center, new controllers are first assigned to
delivering teletyped flight plans to teams,
gradually advancing to the position of man­
ual handoff controller, then radar handoff
controller and then radar controller. Failure
to become proficient in any position at a facil­
ity within a specified time may result in dis-

Controllers constantly monitor their radar screens to make sure planes remain well separated.


missal. A substantial minority of controllers
fail to complete either the academy or the
on-the- job portion of the training program.
Each year, controllers must pass a physical
examination. They must pass a job perform­
ance examination twice each year.
Controllers can transfer to jobs at different
locations and advance to supervisory posi­
tions. Some advance to management or staff
jobs in air traffic Control and a few to top
administrative jobs in the FAA.

Employment O utlook
Employment of air traffic controllers is ex­
pected to increase about as fast as the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s. In
addition to openings resulting from growth,
many others will arise as experienced con­
trollers retire, die, or leave the occupation for
other reasons. Competition for jobs should be
keen, however, because the number of quali­
fied applicants is expected to be much greater
than the number of openings.
As the number of aircraft increases, the
skyways will become more congested and
more controllers will be needed. Also, to pre­
vent collisions, the FAA has created spaces
near certain airports and above certain alti­
tudes within which pilots must receive direc­
tions from air traffic controllers. If, as ex­
pected, the number and size of these spaces
are expanded, additional controllers will be
needed despite the greater use of new, auto­
mated control equipment.
College graduates or individuals who have
civilian or military experience as controllers,
pilots, or navigators will have the best em­
ployment opportunities.

In 1978, controller trainees earned $12,500
a year; the average for all controllers was
$25,400 a year, or over twice that for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry, ex­
cept farming. Depending on length of service,
they receive 13 to 26 days of paid vacation
and 13 days of paid sick leave each year, life
insurance, health benefits, and, due to the
stress involved in the work, a more liberal
retirement program than other Federal em­
Many controllers belong to the Profes­
sional Air Traffic Controllers Organization.

Related Occupations
Other occupations which involve the di­
rection and control of traffic in air transpor­
tation are airline-radio operator, airplane dis­
patcher, and flight service specialist.

Sources o f Additional Information
A pamphlet providing general information
about controllers and instructions for sub­
mitting an application is available from any
U.S. Office of Personnel Management Job
Information Center. Look under U.S. Gov­
ernment, Office of Personnel Management,
in your telephone book to obtain a local Job
Digitized32/ FRASER

Information Center telephone number and
call for a copy of Announcement 418. If there
is no listing in your telephone book, dial the
toll-free number 800-555-1212 and request
the number of the Office of Personnel Man­
agement Job Information Center for your lo­

Airplane Pilots
(D.O.T. 196.167-010, .223-010 through .263-022,
.263-030, -034, and -042)

Nature o f the W ork
Pilots are skilled, highly trained profes­
sionals who fly planes to carry out a wide
variety of tasks. Although most pilots trans­
port passengers and cargo, many others per­
form tasks such as crop dusting, inspecting
powerlines, and taking photographs.
Except on small aircraft, two pilots usually
are needed to fly the plane. Generally, the
most experienced pilot (called captain by the
airlines) is in command and supervises the
other crew members on board. The copilot
assists in communicating with air traffic con­
trollers, monitoring the instruments, and fly­
ing the plane. Most large airliners have a
third pilot in the cockpit who serves as flight
engineer. The flight engineer assists the other
pilots by monitoring and operating many of
the instruments and systems, making minor
inflight repairs, and watching for other air­
Before departure, pilots plan their flights
carefully. They confer with dispatchers and
weather forecasters to find out about weather
conditions en route and at their destination.
Based on this information, they choose a
route, altitude, and speed that will give a fast,
safe, and smooth flight. When flying under
instrument flight rules, it is the responsibility
of the pilot in command to assure that an
instrument flight plan is filed with air traffic
control so that the flight can be coordinated
with other air traffic.
Before taking off, pilots thoroughly check
their planes to determine that the engines,
controls, instruments, and other systems are
working properly. They also make sure that
baggage or cargo has been loaded correctly.
Takeoff and landing are the most difficult
parts of the flight and require close coordina­
tion between the pilot and copilot. For exam­
ple, as the plane accelerates for takeoff, the
pilot concentrates on the runway while the
copilot scans the instrument panel. For large
airplanes, the pilots already have calculated
the speed they must attain to become air­
borne, taking into account the altitude of the
airport, the outside temperature, the weight
of the plane, and the speed and direction of
the wind. The moment the plane reaches this
speed, the copilot informs the pilot who then
pulls back on the controls to raise the nose of
the plane.
Unless the weather is bad, the actual flight

is relatively easy. Pilots steer the plane along
their planned route and are monitored by the
air traffic control stations they pass along the
way. They continuously scan the instrument
panel to check their fuel supply and the con­
dition of their engines. Pilots may request a
change in altitude or route if circumstances
dictate. For example, if the weather briefing
led the pilots to expect a smoother ride than
is being experienced, they may ask air traffic
control if pilots flying at other altitudes have
reported better conditions. If so, they may
request a change. This procedure also may be
used to find a stronger tailwind or a weaker
headwind to save fuel and increase speed.
If visibility is poor, pilots must rely com­
pletely on their instruments. Using the read­
ings on the altimeter, they know how high
above ground they are and can fly safely
over mountains and other obstacles. Special
navigation radios give pilots precise infor­
mation which, with the help of special
maps, tell them their exact position. Other
very sophisticated equipment provides di­
rections to a point just above the end of a
runway and enables pilots to land com­
pletely “blind.”
Once on the ground, pilots must complete
records on their flight for their company and
the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
Airline pilots have the services of large
support staffs and consequently perform few
nonflying duties. Pilots employed by busi­
nesses that use their own aircraft, however,
usually are the businesses’ only experts on
flying and consequently have many other du­
ties. For example, since pilots understand the
requirements for a balanced plane, the busi­
ness pilot loads the plane and handles all pas­
senger luggage. While the plane is being ref­
ueled, the business pilot stays with it to
assure that the job is done properly. Other
nonflying responsibilities include keeping
records, scheduling flights and major mainte­
nance, and performing minor maintenance
and repair work on their planes. Some pilots
are instructors and spend much of their time
giving flying lessons. They teach their stu­
dents the principles of flight in ground school
classes and demonstrate how to operate the
aircraft in “dual-controlled” planes. A few
specially trained pilots employed by the air­
lines are “examiners” or “check pilots.”
They periodically fly with each airline pilot
and copilot to make sure that they are profi­

W orking Conditions
By law, airline pilots cannot fly more than
85 hours a month. Most airline pilots actu­
ally fly less than 70 hours a month and, al­
though they have additional nonflying duty
hours, usually only work 16 days a month.
However, the majority of flights involve
layovers away from home. When pilots are
away from home, the airlines provide hotel
accommodations and an allowance for ex­
penses. Airlines operate flights at all hours of
the day and night, so work schedules often
are irregular. Pilots who have little seniority

and FAA regulations covering instrument
flying, and demonstrating their ability to fly
by instruments.
Airline pilots must fulfill additional re­
quirements. They must pass FAA written
and flight examinations to earn a flight engi­
neer’s license. Captains must have an airline
transport pilot’s license. Applicants for this
license must be at least 23 years old and have
a minimum of 1,500 hours of flying experi­
ence including night and instrument flying.


All licenses are valid as long as a pilot can
pass the required physical examinations and
the periodic tests of flying skills demanded by
government and company regulations.
Flying can be learned in military or civil­
ian flying schools. Either kind of training sat­
isfies the flight experience requirements for
licensing, but persons serving in the Armed
Forces have the opportunity to gain the sub­
stantial experience on jet aircraft that is pre­
ferred by airlines and many businesses.
Pilots hired by airlines must be high school
graduates; however, most airlines require 2
years of college and prefer to hire college
graduates. Because pilots must be able to
make quick decisions and accurate judg­
ments under pressure, airline companies give
all applicants psychological tests and reject
those who do not pass.

Before takeoff, pilots make sure that all equipment is working properly.

may be assigned night or early morning

trips. Federal, State, and local governments
also employed pilots.

Pilots employed outside the airlines often
have irregular schedules; they may fly 30
hours one month and 90 hours the next.
Since these pilots frequently have many non­
flying responsibilities, they have much less
free time than airline pilots. With the excep­
tion of business pilots, most pilots employed
outside the airlines do not remain away from
home overnight. They may work odd hours,
however. Instructors, for example, often give
lessons at night or on weekends.

Most pilots work at the major airports
located close to cities. In fact, over one-third
of all pilots work near seven metropolitan
areas—Los Angeles, San Francisco, New
York, Dallas-Fort Worth, Chicago, Miami,
and Atlanta.

Although flying does not involve much
physical effort, the mental stress of being re­
sponsible for a safe flight, no matter what the
weather, can be very tiring. Particularly dur­
ing takeoff and landing, pilots must be alert
and ready to act if something goes wrong.

Places o f Employm ent
About 76,000 civilian pilots worked full
time in 1978. About one-half worked for the
airlines. Many of the others worked as flight
instructors at local airports or for large busi­
nesses that use their own airplanes to fly
company cargo and executives. Some pilots
flew small planes for air taxi companies, usu­
ally flying passengers to or from lightly trav­
eled airports not serviced by the airlines. Oth­
ers worked for a variety of businesses
performing tasks such as crop dusting, in­
specting pipelines, or conducting sightseeing

Training, O ther Q ualifications, and
All pilots who are paid to transport pass­
engers or cargo must have at least a commer­
cial pilot’s license from the FAA. To qualify
for this license, applicants must be at least 18
years old and have at least 250 hours of flight
experience. They also must pass a strict phys­
ical examination to make sure that they are
in good health and have 20/20 vision with or
without glasses, good hearing, and no physi­
cal handicaps that could impair their per­
formance. Applicants must pass a written
test that includes questions on the principles
of safe flight, navigation techniques, and
FAA regulations. They also must demon­
strate their flying ability to FAA examiners.
In addition to a commercial license, pilots
who have to fly in bad weather must be li­
censed by the FAA to fly by instruments.
Pilots may qualify for this license by having
40 hours of experience flying by instruments,
passing a written examination on procedures

New airline pilots usually start as flight
engineers. Although airlines favor applicants
who already have a flight engineer’s license,
they may train those who have only the com­
mercial license. All new pilots receive several
weeks of intensive training in simulators and
classrooms before being assigned to a flight.
Companies other than airlines generally do
not require as much flying experience. How­
ever, a commercial pilot license is required
and companies prefer applicants who have
experience in the type of plane they will be
flying. New employees generally start as
Advancement for all pilots generally is
limited to other flying jobs. Many pilots start
as flight instructors, building up their flying
hours while they teach. As they become more
experienced, these pilots occasionally may
have the opportunity to fly charter planes
and perhaps get jobs with small air transpor­
tation firms such as air taxi companies. Some
advance to business flying jobs. A small num­
ber get flight engineer jobs with the airlines.
In the airlines, advancement usually de­
pends on seniority provisions of union con­
tracts. After 5 to 10 years, flight engineers
advance according to seniority to copilot
and, after 10 to 20 years, to captain. Seniority
also determines which pilots get the more
desirable routes. In a nonairline job, a copilot
may advance to pilot and, in large compa­
nies, to chief pilot in charge of aircraft sche­
duling, maintenance, and flight procedures.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of pilots is expected to in­
crease faster than the average for all occupa/33

tions through the 1980’s. In addition to the
jobs created by employment growth, open­
ings will result as experienced pilots die or
retire. Competition for job openings should
be keen, however, because the number of
qualified pilots seeking jobs is expected to
exceed the number of openings.
The expected growth in airline passenger
and cargo traffic will create a need for more
airliners and more pilots to fly them. But
more than half the openings for pilots will
occur outside the airlines. Businesses are ex­
pected to operate an increasing number of
planes and employ more pilots to fly execu­
tives and cargo to locations that the sched­
uled airlines do not service. More flight in­
structors also will be needed to train new
Because wages are lower outside of the air­
lines, there is not as much competition for
pilot jobs. Still, flying is a popular activity, so
there usually are more applicants than open­
ings even for these positions.

Pilots in these companies averaged $8 an
hour. Benefits in air taxi companies vary
widely. Some of the large firms offer health
and life insurance as well as pension plans to
their employees. Some smaller companies
offer none of these.
Most airline pilots are members of the Air
Line Pilots Association, International. Those
employed by one major airline are members
of the Allied Pilots Association. Many flight
engineers are members of the Flight Engi­
neers’ International Association.

Related Occupations
Helicopter pilots need skills and perform
duties similar to those of airplane pilots. Al­
though they are not in the cockpit, air traffic
controllers and dispatchers also play an im­
portant role in making sure flights are safe
and on schedule, and participate in many of
the decisions pilots must make.

Sources o f Additional Information

Recent college graduates who have experi­
ence flying jet aircraft and who have a com­
mercial pilot’s license and a flight engineer’s
license can expect first consideration for jobs
with the major airlines. Businesses generally
have fewer formal education and experience
requirements than airlines. However, these
companies prefer applicants with experience
in the type of plane they will be flying on the

Information about job opportunities in a
particular airline, and the qualifications re­
quired, may be obtained by writing to the
personnel manager of the airline. Addresses
of airline companies are available in the
booklet The People o f the Airlines. For a
copy, write to:


For information about the duties, as well
as the physical and educational requirements
for airline pilots, contact:

Earnings of airline pilots are among the
highest in the Nation. In 1978, the average
salary for airline pilots was $57,000 a year.
Starting salaries for flight engineers averaged
$14,400 a year, while some senior captains on
the largest aircraft earned as much as $ 110,000. Earnings depend on factors such as the
type, size, and speed of the plane, and the
number of hours and miles flown. Extra pay
is given for night and international flights.
Airline pilots generally are eligible for life
and health insurance plans. They also receive
retirement benefits and, if they fail their FAA
physicals, disability payments. Some airlines
provide allowances to pilots for purchasing
and cleaning their uniforms. As an additional
benefit, pilots and their immediate families
usually are entitled to a limited amount of
reduced fare transportation on their own and
other airlines.
According to a survey by a business air­
craft association, earnings of business pilots
ranged from $12,000 for copilots on small
planes to $60,000 for some chief pilots of
companies with large jets. Average salaries of
business pilots were $19,000 for those flying
light piston planes, $24,500 for light turbo­
prop planes, $29,000 for heavy turboprop
planes, and $34,000 for jet aircraft. Business
pilots usually are eligible for the same bene­
fits as other employees of their company.
According to a survey by an air transporta­
tion association, flight instructors working
for air taxi companies averaged $7 an hour.

Public Relations Department, Air Transport Asso­
ciation of America, 1709 New York Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

Aviation Education Program Division, Depart­
ment of Transportation, Federal Aviation Ad­
ministration, 800 Independence Ave. SW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20591.

For information about job opportunities in
companies other than airlines, consult the
classified section of aviation trade magazines
and apply to companies that operate aircraft
at local airports.

(D.O.T. 055.067 and 090.227-010)

Nature o f the W ork
Anthropologists study people—their evo­
lution and physical characteristics, and the
cultures they create. The domain is broad;
anthropologists study people’s traditions, be­
liefs, customs, languages, material posses­
sions, social relationships, and value systems.
They generally concentrate in one of four
subfields: Cultural anthropology, ar­
cheology, linguistics, or physical anthropol­
Most anthropologists specialize in cultural
anthropology, sometimes called ethnology.
Ethnologists study the customs, culture, and
social life of groups, and may spend months
or years living with a group to learn about its
way of life. These anthropologists may learn

another language or adopt new customs
while observing and studying a group. Eth­
nographic research may focus on a particular
institution or aspect of group life such as kin­
ship, personality, art, law, religion, econom­
ics, or ecological adaptation. The field lends
itself to comparative studies, such as those on
different societies’ attitudes towards old age.
In recent years, ethnologists have ventured
beyond their traditional concern with nonindustrialized societies. More and more, their
research deals with groups found in modem
urban societies: Ghetto inhabitants, drug ad­
dicts, politicians, and business leaders, for ex­
Archeologists study cultures from artifacts
and other remains in the ground. Using
scientific techniques for dating and analyzing
everything they find, archeologists gather
and examine the remains of homes, tools,
clothing, ornaments, and other evidences of
human life and activity to reconstruct the
inhabitants’ history and customs. Archeolog­
ical fieldwork takes place wherever people
once lived. Sites are found in all parts of the
world, and they span many centuries—from
ancient times up to the present. In a desert in
New Mexico, for example, archeologists have
uncovered an ancient kiva—an Indian reli­
gious chamber. In a cave by the Dead Sea,
they have found pieces of ancient scrolls sev­
eral thousand years old. Extensive excava­
tions at the huge Cahokia site just across the
Mississippi River from St. Louis have permit­
ted reconstruction of the Indian town as it
appeared in the 12th century and provided
clues as to the social and economic life of the
inhabitants. In recent years, support has
grown for archeological study of relatively
modern communities—American colonial
settlements and 19th century industrial
towns, for example.
Linguistic anthropologists study the role of
language in various cultures. They examine
the sounds and structure of a society’s lan­
guage and relate these to people’s behavior
and thought patterns. Their research tells us,
for example, that the way people use lan­
guage may influence the way they think
about things.
Physical anthropologists are concerned
with humans as biological organisms. They
study the evolution of the human body and
look for the earliest evidence of human life.
They also do research on racial groups and
may explore, for example, the effect of hered­
ity and environment on different races. Their
work requires extensive training in anatomy,
biology, chemistry, genetics, and the study of
primates (the order of mammals that in­
cludes humans, apes, and monkeys). A physi­
cal anthropologist might study children’s
growth and development or teach a chimpan­
zee to communicate with sign language. A
knowledge of body structure enables these
anthropologists to work as consultants on
projects as diverse as the design of military
equipment and the sizing of clothing. Anthropometrists specialize in the measurement
of the body or skeleton.

heavy workloads, and sometimes must work
overtime. Their routine may be interrupted
by numerous telephone calls, letters, special
requests for information, meetings, or confer­
Only when anthropologists participate in
field research do their working conditions
differ. Under these circumstances, they are
an integral part of a research team. Field­
work may require traveling to remote areas,
working under adverse weather conditions,
living in primitive housing, and adjusting to
different cultural environments. Physical
stamina is important because anthropologists
doing fieldwork may have to lift equipment,
walk considerable distances, and spend long
hours digging. In other words, fieldwork can
be arduous physical labor—relieved, how­
ever, by the hope that some new insight into
human society may result.

P laces o f Employment
About 7,000 persons worked as an­
thropologists in 1978. About 4 out of 5 an­
thropologists work in colleges and universi­
ties, where they teach and do research and
consulting work. (More detailed information
may be found in the Handbook statement on
college and university faculty.)

Anthropologists, like other social scien­
tists, are research-oriented. Most, however,
combine fieldwork or other forms of an­
thropological research with other activities:
Teaching, writing, consulting, or administer­
ing programs. Moreover, a growing number
of anthropologists specialize in applied an­
thropology, they concern themselves first and
foremost with practical applications for re­
search findings. Medical anthropologists, for
example, may study cultural attitudes to­
wards medicine and health care to help for­
mulate a health program for a particular
group. Some medical schools hire medical
anthropologists as instructors. Urban an­
thropologists study complex, industrialized
societies and examine the influence of city life
upon people and their institutions. Some an­
thropologists work with architects, design­
ers, and land use experts in planning commu­
nity development projects. Others advise
social service agencies; their cross-cultural
insights enable them to help improve the de­
livery of health, counseling, nutritional, and
other services to particular population
groups. Still other anthropologists use their
knowledge of ethnic customs and values to
help educators improve the effectiveness of
classroom teaching and increase parental in­
volvement. The advice of anthropologists has
been sought in the planning of bilingual edu­
cation programs, for example.
Preparing cultural environmental impact

statements is an increasingly important activ­
ity for anthropologists, as it is for other social
scientists. In many communities, environ­
mental protection and historic preservation
laws require local authorities to identify his­
toric areas which may be affected by develop­
ment or renovation plans. Typically, those
proposing to build something new or demol­
ish something old are required to suggest
ways of avoiding or lessening any adverse
impacts. Generally, the research and writing
involved in preparing an impact statement
are done on a consultant basis by anthropolo­
gists associated with museums, colleges and
universities, research institutes, or private
consulting firms. In some cases, anthropolo­
gists are hired by highway commissions or
planning departments to prepare impact

W orking Conditions
Dividing their time among teaching, re­
search, and administrative responsibilities,
anthropologists employed by colleges and
universities have flexible work schedules. On
the other hand, anthropologists working in
government agencies and private firms have
much more structured work schedules. An­
thropologists often work alone behind a desk,
reading, analyzing data, and writing up the
results of their research. Many experience the
pressures of deadlines, tight schedules, and

The Federal Government employs several
hundred anthropologists, chiefly in the De­
partments of Interior, State, Agriculture, and
the Army, and in the Smithsonian Institu­
tion. Anthropologists who work for State and
local governments are primarily involved in
community development planning, health
planning, archeological research, and his­
toric preservation. A number of them have
administrative jobs in museums.
Some anthropologists work for consulting
firms or operate their own consulting ser­
vices. They conduct research and prepare
proposals for government agencies, commu­
nity organizations, citizens’ groups, and busi­
ness firms. Some consultants specialize in
overseas development projects.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
Students who want to become anthropolo­
gists should obtain the Ph. D. degree. College
graduates with bachelor’s degrees often get
temporary positions and assistantships in
graduate departments where they are work­
ing for advanced degrees. A master’s degree,
plus field experience, is sufficient for many
beginning professional positions, but promo­
tion to top positions generally is reserved for
individuals who have a Ph. D. degree. Col­
leges and universities require a Ph. D. for
permanent teaching appointments. Persons
with a master’s or bachelor’s degree in an­
thropology may qualify for research and ad­
ministrative positions in government and pri­
vate firms.
A student interested in anthropology
should acquire a broad background in the
social and physical sciences and in languages.
Mathematics, statistics, and computer sci­

ence are increasingly important research
tools. Undergraduates may begin their field
training in archeology by arranging, through
their university departments, to accompany
expeditions as laborers or to attend field
schools established for training. They may
later become supervisors in charge of the dig­
ging or collection of material and finally may
direct a portion of the work of the expedition.
Ethnologists and linguists usually do their
fieldwork independently. Most anthropolo­
gists base their doctoral dissertations on data
collected through field research; they are
therefore experienced fieldworkers by the
time they earn the Ph. D. degree.
The Federal Government generally re­
quires a college degree with 24 semester
hours in anthropology for entry level posi­
tions as anthropologists and 20 semester
hours in anthropology, including one course
in American archeology, for archeologists.
However, because competition for Federal
jobs is keen, additional education or experi­
ence may be required.
Over 300 colleges and universities have
bachelor’s degree programs in anthropology;
some 160 offer master’s degree programs and
about 90, doctoral programs. The choice of a
graduate school is very important. Students
interested in museum work should select a
school associated with a museum that has
anthropological collections. Similarly, those
interested in archeology either should choose
a university that offers opportunities for sum­
mer experience in archeological fieldwork or
attend an archeological field school else­
where during summer vacations.
Interdisciplinary studies are an important
part of an anthropologist’s professional train­
ing, for anthropology embraces all aspects of
life and overlaps many other disciplines, each
with its own tradition and body of knowl­
edge. To bring anthropological insights to
bear on projects centered in another disci­
pline—bilingual education is a good example
—the anthropologist may have to learn the­
ory and techniques from another field. For
this reason, some departments of anthropol­
ogy are combined with other departments
such as sociology or geography.
Some anthropology students seek to
broaden their employment possibilities by
pursuing courses or degrees in other areas
including law, medicine, public administra­
tion, and education.
Anthropologists should have a special in­
terest in natural history and social studies
and enjoy reading, research, and writing.
Creativity and intellectual curiosity are es­
sential to success in this field. In addition,
anthropologists must be objective and sys­
tematic in their work. Perseverance is essen­
tial, particularly for archeologists who may
spend years accumulating and piecing to­
gether artifacts from ancient civilizations.
The ability to analyze data and think logi­
cally also is important. Anthropologists must
be able to speak and write well to communi­
cate the results of their work effectively.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Employm ent O utlook
Employment of anthropologists is ex­
pected to increase about as fast as the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s. How­
ever, nearly all of the anticipated employ­
ment growth will occur in nonacademic jobs
—notably in consulting firms, research insti­
tutes, corporations, and Federal, State and
local government agencies. Among the fac­
tors contributing to growth in the occupation
is environmental, historic, and cultural re­
source preservation legislation. This is ex­
pected to create opportunities for various
kinds of anthropologists to work full time or
on a temporary contract basis for consulting
firms, government agencies, academic insti­
tutions, and museums. Growing interest in
ethnic studies may spur demand for an­
thropological research in that area.

were lower in departments granting only
bachelor’s degrees than in departments
granting graduate degrees. Most professors
earned from $18,000 to over $30,000 a year;
associate professors, $15,000 to $27,000; as­
sistant professors, $12,000 to $24,000; and
instructors, $12,000 to $18,000.
The Federal Government recognizes edu­
cation and experience in certifying applicants
for entry level positions. Anthropologists
having a bachelor’s degree could begin at
$10,507 or $13,014 a year in 1979, depending
upon the applicant’s academic record and ex­
perience. The starting salary for those having
a master’s degree generally was $15,920 a
year; for those having a Ph. D., $19,263. An­
thropologists in the Federal Government
averaged around $31,200 in 1978; archeolo­
gists, around $17,900.

College and university teaching, which
will remain the largest area of employment
for anthropologists, is likely to experience lit­
tle growth due to the projected slowdown in
college enrollments.

Many anthropologists in colleges and uni­
versities supplement their regular salaries
with earnings from other sources such as
summer teaching, research grants, and con­
sulting fees.

The number of qualified anthropologists
seeking to enter the field is expected to ex­
ceed available positions. As a result, doctor­
ate holders may face keen competition
through the 1980’s, particularly for jobs in
colleges and universities. Some are expected
to accept temporary appointments with little
or no hope of gaining tenure. Graduates with
master’s degrees are expected to face very
keen competition, although some may find
jobs in junior colleges and government and
private agencies. The few bachelor’s degree
holders who do find jobs as anthropologists
may have very limited advancement oppor­
tunities within the profession. Some teaching
positions may be available in high schools for
those who meet State certification require­

R elated Occupations

For information about careers (including
opportunities for contract work in ar­
cheology and historic preservation and State
employment opportunities for archeologists);
job openings; grants and fellowships; and
schools that offer training in anthropology,

Overall, specialties offering the best em­
ployment prospects include archeology and
physical, medical, and urban anthropology.

The American Anthropological Association and
the Society for American Archeology, 1703 New
Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.


For information on careers and fieldwork
opportunities in archeology, contact:

According to the 1977-78 College Place­
ment Council Salary Survey, bachelor’s de­
gree candidates in the social sciences received
offers averaging around $10,700 a year; mas­
ter’s degree candidates in the social sciences,
around $13,200.
Based on limited information, starting sal­
aries in private industry and government for
anthropologists with a Ph. D. degree were
generally about $18,000 a year in 1978. Mas­
ter’s degree holders generally started at $15,000 to $18,000 a year.
The results of a 1978 American Anthropo­
logical Association survey of departments of
anthropology included data on faculty sala­
ries. The average beginning salary for new
faculty members without full-time teaching
experience was in the range of $14,000 to
$15,000 for persons with a Ph. D. and $11,500 to $13,500 for persons without a Ph. D.
Faculty salaries varied widely but generally

Like anthropologists, people in several
other occupations are concerned with under­
standing how social institutions operate.
Among them are economists, geographers,
historians, political scientists, psychologists,
sociologists, urban planners, marketing re­
search workers, and newspaper reporters.

Sources o f Additional Information

The Archeological Institute of America, 53 Park
Place, New York, N.Y. 10007.

(D.O.T. 001.061-010)

Nature o f the W ork
Attractive buildings and their surround­
ings enhance a community’s appearance. But
buildings must be safe as well as attractive
and suit the needs of the people who use
them. Architects take all these things into
consideration and design buildings that are
esthetically appealing, safe, and functional.
Architects provide a wide variety of pro­
fessional services to individuals, organiza­
tions, corporations, or government agencies
planning a building project. Architects are

involved in all phases of development of a
building or project, from the initial discus­
sion of general ideas through construction.
Their duties require a variety of skills—de­
sign, engineering, managerial, and supervi­
The architect and client first discuss the
purposes, requirements, and cost of a project.
The architect then prepares schematic draw­
ings that show the scale and the structural
and mechanical relationships of the building.
If the schematic drawings are accepted, the
architect develops a final design showing the
floor plans and the structural details of the
project. For example, in designing a school,
the architect determines the width of corri­
dors and stairways so that students may
move easily from one class to another; the
type and arrangement of storage space, and
the location and size of classrooms, laborato­
ries, lunchroom or cafeteria, gymnasium,
and administrative offices.
Next the architect prepares working draw­
ings showing the exact dimensions of every
part of the structure and the location of
plumbing, heating units, electrical outlets,
and air-conditioning.
Architects also specify the building materi­
als and, in some cases, the interior furnish­
ings. In all cases, the architect must ensure
that the structure’s design and specifications
conform to local and State building codes,
zoning laws, fire regulations, and other ordi­
Throughout this time, the architect may
make changes to satisfy the client. A client
may, for example, decide that an original de­
sign is too expensive and ask the architect to
make modifications. Or the client may
change the project requirements. Redesign­
ing plans to suit the client requires flexibility,
and sometimes considerable patience, on the
part of the architect.
After all drawings are completed, the ar­
chitect assists the client in selecting a con­
tractor and negotiating the construction con­
tract. As construction proceeds, the architect
visits the building site from time to time to
ensure that the contractor is following the
design and using the specified materials. The
architect also checks to be sure that work
meets the specified standards. The job is not
complete until construction is finished, all
required tests are made, construction costs
are paid, and guarantees are received from
the contractor.
Architects design a wide variety of struc­
tures, such as houses, churches, hospitals, of­
fice buildings, and airports. They also design
multibuilding complexes for urban renewal
projects, college campuses, industrial parks,
and new towns. Besides designing structures,
architects also may help in selecting building
sites, preparing cost and land-use studies,
and long-range planning for site develop­
When working on large projects or for
large architectural firms, architects often

specialize in one phase of the work, such as
designing or administering construction con­
tracts. This often requires working with engi­
neers, urban planners, landscape architects,
and others.

W orking Conditions
Most architects spend a great deal of their
time at the drawing board in well-equipped
offices. It is at the drawing board that ar­
chitects do most of their more creative and
imaginative work, so much of the time can be
very satisfying and rewarding. This work
often is varied by interviewing clients and
contractors and discussing the design, con­
struction procedures, or building materials of
a project with other architects, landscape ar­
chitects, or engineers. Contract administra­
tors frequently work outdoors during inspec­
tions at construction sites.

Places of Employment
About 54,000 architects were employed in
1978. This included architecture school grad­
uates who have not become registered (li­
censed), although they work in the field.
They must work under the supervision of li­
censed architects.
Most architects work for architectural
firms or for builders, real estate firms, or
other businesses that have large construction
programs. Some work for government agen­
cies responsible for housing, planning, or
community development. About 1,600 ar­
chitects work for the Federal Government,
mainly for the Departments of Defense, Inte­
rior, Housing and Urban Development, and
the General Services Administration.
Although found in many areas, a large
proportion of architects are employed in
seven cities: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles,
New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
All States and the District of Columbia
require individuals to be licensed before they
may call themselves architects or contract for
providing architectural services. To qualify
for the licensing exam, a person must have
either a Bachelor of Architecture degree fol­
lowed by 3 years of acceptable practical expe­
rience in an architect’s office or a Master of
Architecture degree followed by 2 years of
experience. As a substitute for formal train­
ing, most States accept additional experience
(usually 12 years) and successful completion
of a qualifying test for admission to the lic­
ensing examination. Many architecture
school graduates work in the field even
though they are not licensed. However, a reg­
istered architect is required to take legal re­
sponsibility for all work.
In 1978, the National Architectural Ac­
crediting Board had accredited 87 programs
of the 101 schools offering professional de­
grees in architecture. Most of these schools
offer either a 5-year curriculum leading to a

Architects spend many hours at the drawing

Bachelor of Architecture degree or a 6-year
curriculum leading to a Master of Architec­
ture degree. Students also may transfer to
professional degree programs after complet­
ing a 2-year junior or community college pro­
gram in architecture. Many architecture
schools also offer graduate education for
those who already have their first profes­
sional degree. Although such graduate edu­
cation is not essential for practicing ar­
chitects, it often is desirable for those in
research and teaching. A typical college ar­
chitecture program includes courses in ar­
chitectural theory, design, graphics, engi­
neering, and urban planning, as well as in
English, mathematics, physics, economics,
and the humanities.
Persons planning careers in architecture
should be able to work independently, have
a capacity for solving technical problems,
and be artistically inclined. They also must
be prepared to work in the competitive envi­
ronment of business where leadership and
ability to work with others are important.
Working for architects or building contrac­
tors during summer vacations is useful for
gaining practical knowledge.
New graduates usually begin as drafters in
architectural firms, where they prepare ar­
chitectural drawings and make models of
structures under the direction of a registered
architect. After several years of experience,
they may advance to chief or senior drafter
responsible for all major details of a set of
working drawings and for supervising other
drafters. Others may work as designers, con­
struction contract administrators, or specifi­
cation writers who prepare documents that
specify the building materials, their method
of installation, the quality of finishes, re­
quired tests, and many other related details.
Employees who become associates in their
firms may receive, in addition to a salary, a
share of the profits. Usually, however, the

architect’s goal is to own his or her own busi­

Employm ent O utlook
Architects are expected to face competi­
tion for jobs through the 1980’s. Although
employment of architects is expected to rise
faster than the average for all workers during
this period, the number of degrees granted in
architecture is expected to continue growing
as well. If so, supply in this small field could
exceed the number of job openings arising
from employment growth, deaths, and retire­
Demand for architects is highly dependent
upon the level of new construction, and the
anticipated rapid growth of nonresidential
construction is expected to be a major deter­
minant of job opportunities through the
1980’s. Any significant upswing or downturn
in building could temporarily alter demand,
however. Indeed, the cyclical nature of con­
struction activity leads some architects to
move in and out of the field from time to
time. Their design skills and familiarity with
building materials and techniques enable
them to move into related areas such as
graphic design, advertising, visual arts, prod­
uct design, construction contracting and
supervision, and real estate.
Although most job openings will be in ar­
chitectural firms, some will occur in con­
struction firms, colleges and universities, and
government agencies. Construction firms
employ architects to oversee various aspects
of project design and actual construction. In
colleges and universities, the anticipated in­
crease in enrollments in architecture and en­
vironmental design programs may create a
demand for additional faculty. Public con­
cern about the quality of the environment is
expected to heighten the demand for commu­
nity and environmental planning projects.
This should create opportunities in consult­
ing firms and planning agencies of various
kinds. (See the statement on urban planners
elsewhere in the Handbook.)

The average salary for architects in 1978
was well over $25,000, according to the lim­
ited information available. Architects with
well-established private practices generally
earn much more than even highly paid sala­
ried employees of architectural firms. Al­
though the range in their incomes is very
wide, some architects with many years of ex­
perience and good reputations earn well over
$40,000 a year. Architects starting their own
practices may go through a period when their
expenses are greater than their income. An­
nual income may fluctuate due to changing
business conditions.
In 1979, the average salary for architects
working in the Federal Government was
about $25,000.

R elated Occupations
Architects are concerned with the design
and construction of buildings and related


structures. Others who engage in related
work are building contractors, civil engi­
neers, urban planners, interior designers, in­
dustrial designers, landscape architects,
drafters, and surveyors.

Sources o f Additional Information
General information about careers in ar­
chitecture, including a catalog of publica­
tions, can be obtained from:
The American Institute of Architects, 1735 New
York Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

Information about careers and schools in
architecture is available from:
The Association of Collegiate Schools of Architec­
ture, Inc., 1735 New York Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.

Information about the licensing examina­
tions can be obtained from:
The National Council of Architectural Registra­
tion Boards, 1735 New York Ave. NW., Suite 700,
Washington, D.C. 20006.


Nature o f the W ork
Astronomers seek answers to questions
about the fundamental nature of the uni­
verse, such as its origin and history and the
evolution of our solar system. Astronomers
—sometimes called astrophysicists—use the
principles of physics and mathematics to
study and determine the behavior of matter
and energy in distant galaxies. One applica­
tion of the information they gain is to prove
or disprove theories of the nature of matter
and energy such as Einstein’s theory of rela­
To make observations of the universe, as­
tronomers use large telescopes, radiotele­
scopes, and other instruments that can de­
tect electromagnetic radiation from distant
sources. Astronomers of today seldom ob­
serve stars visually through telescopes be­
cause photographic and electronic light­
detecting equipment is more effective with
dim or distant stars and galaxies. By using
spectroscopes to analyze light from stars,
astronomers can determine their chemical
composition. Astronomers also use radi­
otelescopes and other electronic means to
observe radio waves, X-rays, and cosmic
rays. Computers are used to analyze data
and to solve complex mathematical equa­
tions that astronomers develop to represent
various theories. Computers also are useful
for processing astronomical data to calcu­
late orbits of asteroids or comets, guide
spacecraft, and work out tables for naviga­
tional handbooks.
Astronomers usually specialize in one of
the many branches of the science such as
instruments and techniques, the Sun, the
solar system, and the evolution and interiors
of stars or galaxies.

Astronomers who work on observational
programs begin their studies by deciding
what stars or other objects to observe and the
methods and instruments to use. They may
need to design optical measuring devices to
attach to the telescope to make the required
measurements. After completing their obser­
vations, they analyze the results, present
them in precise numerical form, and explain
them on the basis of some theory. Astromomers usually spend relatively little time in
actual observation and relatively more time
in analyzing the large quantities of data that
observatory facilities collect.
Some astronomers concentrate on theoret­
ical problems and seldom visit observatories.
They formulate theories or mathematical
models to explain observations made earlier
by other astronomers. These astronomers de­
velop mathematical equations using the laws
of physics to compute, for example, theoreti­
cal models of the internal structure of stars,
and how stars change as they grow older and
exhaust the energy sources deep in their in­
Almost all astronomers do research or
teach; those in colleges and universities often
do both. In schools that do not have separate
departments of astronomy or only small en­
rollments in the subject, they often teach
courses in mathematics or physics as well as
astronomy. Some astronomers administer re­
search programs, develop and design astro­
nomical instruments, and do consulting

W orking Conditions
Most astronomers spend the majority of
their time working in offices or classrooms,
although astronomers who make observa­
tions may need to travel to the observing fa­
cility and frequently work at night. Astro­
nomers are often under considerable pressure
to produce research results which are of pub­
lishable quality. In some universities, rela­
tively new astronomers who do not produce
significant research results are not granted
tenure, which is in effect a permanent, secure
position. Those not granted tenure face the
possibility of losing their jobs.

P laces o f Employment
Astronomy is the smallest physical sci­
ence; fewer than 2,000 persons worked as
astronomers in 1978. Most astronomers
work in colleges and universities. Some work
in observatories operated by universities,
nonprofit organizations, and the Federal
The Federal Government employed al­
most 550 astronomers and space scientists
in 1978. Most worked for the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Others worked for the Department of De­
fense, mainly at the U.S. Naval Observatory
and the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. A
few astronomers worked for firms in the
aerospace field, or in museums and

Astronomy is also related to other physical
sciences and mathematics.

Sources o f Additional Information
For information on careers in astronomy
and on schools offering training in the field,
Education Office, American Astronom ical Soci­
ety, University o f Delaware, Newark, Del. 19711.

Bank Officers and
(D.O.T. 186.117-026, 038, 050, -054, -070, -074 -078,
.137-010, .167-014, -050, -054, -058, and .267-018)

Nature o f the W ork

Astronomer giving lecture in a planetarium.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
The usual requirement for a job in astron­
omy is a Ph. D. degree. Persons with less
education may qualify for some jobs related
to astronomy, but higher level positions in
teaching and research and advancement in
most areas are open only to those with the
Many students who undertake graduate
study in astronomy have a bachelor’s degree
in astronomy. In 1978, about 50 colleges and
universities had programs leading to the
bachelor’s degree in astronomy. However,
students with a bachelor’s degree in physics,
or in mathematics with a physics minor, usu­
ally also can qualify for graduate programs in
About 50 universities offer the Ph. D. de­
gree in astronomy. These programs include
advanced courses in astronomy, physics, and
mathematics. Some schools require that
graduate students spend several months
working at an observatory. In most institu­
tions, the work program leading to the doc­
torate is flexible and allows students to take
courses in their own area of interest.
Persons planning careers in astronomy
should have great interest and ability in sci­
ence and mathematics, as well as imagination
and an inquisitive mind. Perseverance and
the ability to concentrate on detail and to
work independently also are important.
New graduates with a doctorate may work
for several years on a postdoctoral fellow­
ship, doing research and gaining further re­
search experience before obtaining a perma­
nent position. A postdoctoral fellowship
provides an opportunity to gain additional
qualification in astronomical research. It also
provides employment while looking for a per­

manent job. Other new Ph. D.’s, however,
enter teaching or research jobs immediately
after attaining their degree.

Employm ent O utlook
Persons seeking positions as astronomers
will face keen competition for the few availa­
ble openings expected through the 1980’s.
Employment of astronomers is expected to
grow slowly, if at all, because the funds avail­
able for basic research in astronomy, which
come mainly from the Federal Government,
are not expected to increase enough to create
many new positions. Most openings will
occur as replacements for those who die or
retire. Since astronomy is such a small pro­
fession, there will be few openings arising
from the need for replacements. There will be
keen competition for these openings because
the number of degrees granted in astronomy
probably will continue to exceed available

Astronomers have relatively high salaries,
with average earnings more than twice the
average earnings for nonsupervisory
In the Federal Government in 1979, astro­
nomers holding the Ph. D. degree could
begin at $19,263 or $23,087, depending on
their college record. The average annual sal­
ary for astronomers and space scientists in
the Federal Government was over $33,000 in
1978. Astronomers teaching in colleges and
universities received salaries equivalent to
those of other faculty members. (See state­
ment on college and university faculty else­
where in the Handbook.)

Related Occupations
Astronomy is closely related to physics,
and often is thought of as a branch of physics.

Practically every bank has a president who
directs operations; one or more vice presi­
dents who act as general managers or who
are in charge of bank departments such as
trust or credit; and a comptroller or cashier
who, unlike cashiers in stores and other busi­
nesses, is an executive officer generally re­
sponsible for all bank property. Large banks
also may have treasurers and other senior
officers, as well as junior officers, to supervise
the various sections within different depart­
ments. Banks employed over 330,000 officers
and managers in 1978.
Bank officers make decisions within a
framework of policy set by the board of direc­
tors and existing laws and regulations. They
must have a broad knowledge of business ac­
tivities to relate to the operations of their
department. For example, loan officers eval­
uate the credit and collateral of individuals
and businesses applying for a loan. Similarly,
trust officers must understand each account
before they invest funds to support families,
send young people to college, or pay retire­
ment pensions. Besides supervising financial
services, officers advise individuals and busi­
nesses and participate in community pro­
Because banks offer many services, a wide
choice of careers is available to workers who
Loan officers may handle installment,
commercial, real estate, or agricultural
loans. To evaluate loan applications prop­
erly, officers need to be familiar with eco­
nomics, production, distribution, merchan­
dising, and commercial law. Also, they
need to know business operations and
should be able to analyze an industry’s fi­
nancial statements.
Bank officers in trust management require
knowledge of financial planning and invest­
ment for investment research and for estate
and trust administration.
Operations officers plan, coordinate, and
control the workflow, update systems, and
strive for administrative efficiency. Careers
in bank operations include electronic data

sponsored by universities and local bankers’
Because banking is an essential part of
business, well trained, experienced officers
and managers may transfer to closely related
positions in other areas of finance or to posi­
tions within other industries, such as manu­
facturing, that need individuals with banking

Employment O utlook

Bank officers provide personal financial assistance to customers.

processing manager and other positions in­
volving internal and customer services.
A correspondent bank officer is responsi­
ble for relations with other banks; a branch
manager, for all functions of a branch office;
and an international officer, for advising cus­
tomers with financial dealings abroad. A
working knowledge of a foreign country’s fi­
nancial system, trade relations, and eco­
nomic conditions is beneficial to those inter­
ested in international banking.
Other career fields for bank officers are
auditing, economics, personnel administra­
tion, public relations, and operations re­

W orking Conditions
Since a great deal of bank business depends
on customers’ impressions, officers and
managers are provided attractive, comforta­
ble offices and are encouraged to wear con­
servative, somewhat formal, business clothes.
Bank officers and managers typically work
40 hours a week; however, attending civic
functions, keeping abreast of community de­
velopments, establishing and maintaining
business contacts, and similar activities are
aspects of their jobs that occasionally require
overtime work.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
Bank officer and management positions
generally are filled by management trainees,
and occasionally by promoting outstanding
bank clerks or tellers. College graduation
usually is required for management trainees.
A business administration major in finance
or a liberal arts curriculum, including ac­
counting, economics, commercial law, politi­
cal science, and statistics, serves as excellent
preparation for officer trainee positions. In


fact, a Master of Business Administration
(MBA) in addition to a social science bache­
lor’s degree comes closest to the “ideal” col­
lege education. However, banks do hire peo­
ple with diverse backgounds such as
chemical engineering, nuclear physics, and
forestry to meet the needs of complex, hightechnology industries with which they deal.
Valuable experience may be gained through
summer employment programs.
A management or officer trainee may
spend a year or two learning the various
banking areas before choosing a permanent
position. This practice is common but not
universal. A bank may hire an applicant with
specific skills for a position that is clearly
defined at the outset.
Persons interested in becoming bank offic­
ers should like to work independently and to
analyze detailed information. They also need
tact and good judgment to counsel customers
and supervise employees.
Advancement to an officer or management
position may come slowly in small banks
where the number of positions is limited. In
large banks that have special training pro­
grams, promotions may occur more quickly.
For a senior officer position, however, an em­
ployee usually needs many years of experi­
Although experience, ability, and leader­
ship are emphasized for promotion, advance­
ment may be accelerated by special study.
The American Bankers Association (ABA)
offers courses, publications, and other train­
ing aids to officers on every phase of banking.
The American Institute of Banking, an arm
of the ABA, has long filled the same educa­
tional need among bank support personnel.
(See the statement on the banking industry
elsewhere in the Handbook for more infor­
mation on these and other training programs

Through the 1980’s, employment of bank
officers is expected to increase much faster
than the average for all occupations. Rising
costs due to expanded banking services and
the increasing dependence on computers will
require more officers to provide sound man­
agement and effective quality control.
Greater international trade and investment
will stimulate international and domestic
banking activities, thus increasing the need
for bank officers and managers. Opportuni­
ties also will arise as experienced officers
leave their jobs. College graduates who meet
the standards for management trainees
should find good opportunities for entry po­

Officer trainees at the bachelor’s level gen­
erally earned between $900 and $1,000 a
month in 1978. Those with master’s degrees
started at between $1,100 and $1,300 a
month. A Master of Business Administra­
tion, however, appears to be worth more in
salary terms: Graduates with an MBA were
offered starting salaries of $1,400 to $1,600 a
month in 1978.
Salaries of senior bank officers may be sev­
eral times as much as starting salaries. The
actual salary level depends upon the particu­
lar position and the size and location of the
bank. For officers, as well as for other bank
employees, earnings are likely to be lower in
small towns than in big cities.

Related Occupations
Bank officers and managers combine for­
mal schooling with further exposure in one or
more areas of banking, such as lending, to
provide services for customers. Other occu­
pations which require similar training and
ability include business representatives, in­
dustrial relations directors, safety council di­
rectors, city managers, export managers, and
purchasing agents.

Sources o f Additional Information
See the statement on the banking industry
elsewhere in the Handbook for additional in­

(D.O.T. 041.061-026)

Nature o f the Work
Biochemists study the chemical composi­
tion and behavior of living things. Since life
is based on complex chemical combinations
and reactions, the work of biochemists is vital
for an understanding of reproduction,
growth, and heredity. Biochemists also may
study the effects of food, hormones, or drugs
on various organisms.
The methods and techniques of biochemis­
try are applied in areas such as medicine and
agriculture. For instance, biochemists may
investigate causes and cures for diseases, or
conduct research on transferring characteris­
tics of one kind of plant to another.
More than 3 out of 4 biochemists work in
basic and applied research activities. The dis­
tinction between basic and applied research is
often one of degree, and biochemists may do
both types. Most, however, are in basic re­
search. The few doing strictly applied re­
search use the results of basic research to
solve practical problems. For example,
knowledge of how an organism forms a hor­
mone is used to synthesize and produce hor­
mones on a mass scale.
Laboratory research involves weighing, fil­
tering, distilling, drying, and culturing
(growing microorganisms). Some experi­
ments also require the designing and con­
structing of laboratory apparatus or the use
of radioactive tracers. Biochemists use a vari­
ety of instruments, including electron micro­
scopes and centrifuges, and they may devise
new instruments and techniques as needed.
They usually report the results of their re­
search in scientific journals or before scien­
tific groups.
Some biochemists combine research with
teaching in colleges and universities. A few
work in industrial production and testing ac­

W orking Conditions
Biochemists usually work regular hours in
laboratories, offices, and classrooms. Some
biochemists may travel occasionally to at­
tend meetings and conferences. Biochemists’
laboratory work usually is not dangerous or
unhealthy, if the proper procedures are ob­

Places o f Employment
About 20,000 biochemists were employed
in 1978. About one-half worked for colleges
and universities and about one-fourth for pri­
vate industry, primarily in companies manu­
facturing drugs, insecticides, and cosmetics.
Some work for nonprofit research institutes
and foundations; others, for Federal, State,
and local government agencies. Most govern­
ment biochemists do health and agricultural
research for Federal agencies. A few selfemployed biochemists are consultants to in­
dustry and government.

Most biochemists work in basic or applied research.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
The minimum educational requirement for
many beginning jobs as a biochemist, espe­
cially in research or teaching, is an advanced
degree. A Ph. D. degree is a virtual necessity
for persons who hope to contribute signifi­
cantly to biochemical research and advance
to many management and administrative
jobs. A bachelor’s degree with a major in
biochemistry or chemistry, or with a major in
biology and a minor in chemistry, may qual­
ify some persons for entry jobs as research
assistants or technicians.
About 100 schools award the bachelor's
degree in biochemistry, and nearly all col­
leges and universities offer a major in biology
or chemistry. Persons planning careers as bi­
ochemists should take undergraduate courses
in chemistry, biology, biochemistry, mathe­
matics, and physics.

About 150 colleges and universities offer
graduate degrees in biochemistry. Graduate
students generally are required to have a
bachelor’s degree in biochemistry, biology, or
chemistry. Many graduate programs empha­
size one specialty in biochemistry because of
the facilities or the research being done at
that particular school. Graduate training re­
quires actual research in addition to ad­
vanced science courses, so students should
select their schools carefully. For the doc­
toral degree, the student does intensive re­
search and a thesis in one field of biochemis­
Persons planning careers as biochemists
should be able to work independently or as
part of a team. Biochemists should have ana­
lytical ability and curiosity, as well as the
patience and perseverance needed to com­
plete the hundreds of experiments necessary
to solve a single problem. They should also

express themselves clearly when writing and
speaking to communicate the findings of
their research effectively.
Graduates with advanced degrees may
begin their careers as teachers or researchers
in colleges or universities. In private indus­
try, most begin in research jobs and with ex­
perience may advance to positions in which
they plan and supervise research.
New graduates with a bachelor’s degree
usually start work as research assistants or
technicians. These jobs in private industry
often involve testing and analysis. In the
drug industry, for example, research assist­
ants analyze the ingredients of a pro­
duct to verify and maintain its purity or

Employm ent O utlook
Job opportunities for biochemists with ad­
vanced degrees should be favorable through
the 1980’s. The employment of biochemists is
expected to grow slightly faster than the av­
erage for all occupations during this period.
Some additional job openings will result each
year as biochemists retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.
The anticipated growth in this field should
result from the effort to find cures for cancer,
heart disease, and other diseases, and from
public concern with environmental protec­
tion. Colleges and universities may need ad­
ditional teachers if biochemistry enrollments
continue to increase.

Average earnings of biochemists were
about twice the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry, except
farming. According to a 1978 survey by the
American Chemical Society, salaries for ex­
perienced biochemists averaged about $17,000 for those with a bachelor’s degree; $21,000 for those with a master’s degree; and
$28,000 for those with a Ph. D.

Blue-Collar Worker
Nature o f the W ork
In any organization, someone has to be
boss. For the millions of workers who assem­
ble television sets, service automobiles, lay
bricks, unload ships, or perform any of thou­
sands of other activities, a blue-collar worker
supervisor is the boss. These supervisors di­
rect the activities of other employees and fre­
quently ensure that millions of dollars worth
of equipment and materials are used properly
and efficiently. While blue-collar worker
supervisors are most commonly known as
foremen or forewomen, they also have many
other titles. In the textile industry, they are
referred to as second hands; on ships, they
are known as boatswains; and in the con­
struction industry, they are often called over­
seers, strawbosses, or gang leaders.
Although titles may differ, the job of all
blue-collar worker supervisors is similar.
They tell other employees what jobs to do
and make sure the jobs are done correctly.
For example, loading supervisors at truck
terminals assign workers to load trucks, and
then check that the material is loaded cor­
rectly and that each truck is fully used. They
may mark freight bills and record the load
and weight of each truck. In some cases,
supervisors also do the same work as other
employees. This is especially true in the con­
struction industry where, for example, brick­
layer supervisors also lay brick.
Because they are responsible for the output
of other workers, supervisors make work
schedules and keep production and employee
records. They use judgment in planning and
must allow for unforeseen problems such as

absent workers and machine breakdowns.
Teaching employees safe work habits and en­
forcing safety rules and regulations are other
supervisory responsibilities. Supervisors also
may demonstrate timesaving or laborsaving
techniques to workers and train new em­
In addition to their other duties, blue-col­
lar worker supervisors tell their subordi­
nates about company plans and policies;
recommend good workers for wage in­
creases, awards, or promotions; and deal
with poor workers by issuing warnings or
recommending that they be disciplined or
fired. In companies where employees belong
to labor unions, supervisors meet with
union representatives to discuss work prob­
lems and grievances. They must know the
provisions of labor-management contracts
and run their operations according to these

W orking Conditions
Although working conditions vary from
industry to industry, most blue-collar worker
supervisors work in a normal shop environ­
ment. They may be on their feet much of the
time overseeing the work of subordinates and
may be subjected to the noise and grime of
Since these supervisors are responsible for
the work of other blue-collar workers, they
may work longer hours in order to be on the
job before other workers arrive and after they
First-line supervisors may have some prob­
lems being in the middle between the work
force and management. On the other hand,
blue-collar worker supervisors may find sat­
isfaction in having more challenging and
prestigious jobs than most blue-collar work­

Starting salaries of biochemists employed
in colleges and universities are comparable to
those for other faculty members. (See state­
ment on college and university faculty else­
where in the Handbook.)

Related Occupations
Biochemistry is closely related to biology
and chemistry. Medical laboratory workers
often use biochemical procedures in their
work, and physicians, pharmacists, and other
health practitioners need to know a great
deal about biochemistry.

Sources o f Additional Information
For general information on careers in bio­
chemistry, contact:
American Society o f Biological Chemists, 9650
Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Md. 20014.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Blue-collar worker supervisors tell other workers what jobs are to be done.

P laces o f Employment
About 1,670,000 blue-collar worker super­
visors were employed in 1978. Although they
work for almost all businesses and govern­
ment agencies, over half of them work in
manufacturing, supervising the production
of cars, washing machines, and thousands of
other products. Most of the rest work in the
construction industry, in wholesale and retail
trade, in public utilities, and transportation.
Employment is distributed in much the same
way as population, and jobs are located in all
cities and towns.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
When choosing supervisors, employers
generally look for experience, skill, and lead­
ership qualities. Employers place emphasis
on the ability to motivate employees, main­
tain high morale, command respect, and get
along with people. Completion of high school
often is the minimum educational require­
ment, and 1 or 2 years of college or technical
school can be very helpful to workers who
want to become supervisors.
Most supervisors rise through the ranks—
that is, they are promoted from jobs where
they operated a machine, worked on an as­
sembly line, or at a construction craft. This
work experience gives them the advantage of
knowing how jobs should be done and what
problems may arise. It also provides them
with insight into management policies and
employee attitudes towards these policies.
Supervisors are sometimes former union rep­
resentatives who are familiar with grievance
procedures and union contracts. To supple­
ment this work experience, many companies
have training programs to help develop su­
pervisory skills.
Although few blue-collar worker supervi­
sors are college graduates, a growing number
of employers are hiring trainees with a col­
lege or technical school background. This
practice is most prevalent in industries with
highly technical production processes, such
as the chemical, oil, and electronics indus­
tries. Employers generally prefer back­
grounds in business administration, indus­
trial relations, mathematics, engineering, or
science. The trainees undergo on-the-job
training until they are able to accept supervi­
sory responsibilities.
Outstanding supervisors, particularly
those with college education, may move up to
higher management positions. In manufac­
turing, for example, they may advance to jobs
such as department head and plant manager.
Some supervisors, particularly in the con­
struction industry, use the experience and
skills they gain to go into business for them­

Employment O utlook
Employment of blue-collar worker super­
visors is expected to increase about as fast as
the average for all occupations through the

1980’s. In addition, many job openings will
arise as experienced supervisors retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations.
Population growth and rising incomes will
stimulate demand for goods such as houses,
air conditioners, TV sets, and cars. As a re­
sult, more blue-collar workers will be needed
to produce these items, and more supervisors
will be needed to direct their activities. Al­
though most of these supervisors will con­
tinue to work in manufacturing, a large part
of the increase in jobs will be in nonmanufac­
turing industries, especially in the trade and
service sectors.

In 1978, average annual earnings of bluecollar worker supervisors who worked full
time were about $ 18,000, approximately one
and one-half times the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry, ex­
cept farming. Supervisors usually are sala­
ried. Their salaries generally are determined
by the wage rates of the highest paid workers
they supervise. For example, some compa­
nies keep wages of supervisors about 10 to 30
percent higher than those of their subordi­
nates. Some supervisors receive overtime

Related O ccupations
Many other workers have supervisory du­
ties, including those who supervise profes­
sional and technical, sales, clerical, and ser­
vice workers. Some of these are retail store or
retail department managers; bank officers
and head tellers; hotel managers, housekeep­
ers, and assistants; postmasters and line
supervisors; head cooks; head nurses; and

switch broadcasts from one camera or studio
to another, from film to live programming, or
from network to local programs. By means of
hand signals and, in television, by use of tele­
phone headsets, they give technical direc­
tions to personnel in the studio.
When events outside the studio are to be
broadcast, technicians may go to the site and
set up, test, and operate the equipment. After
the broadcast, they dismantle the equipment
and return it to the station.
As a rule, broadcast technicians in small
stations perform a variety of duties. In large
stations and in networks, on the other hand,
technicians are more specialized, although
specific job assignments may change from
day to day. Transmitter technicians monitor
and log outgoing signals and are responsible
for transmitter operation. Maintenance tech­
nicians set up, maintain, and repair elec­
tronic broadcasting equipment. Audio con­
trol technicians regulate sound pickup,
transmission, and switching, and video con­
trol technicians regulate the quality, bright­
ness, and contrast of television pictures. The
lighting of television programs is directed
by lighting technicians. For programs origi­
nating outside the studio, field technicians
set up and operate broadcasting equipment.
Recording technicians operate and maintain
sound recording equipment; video recording
technicians operate and maintain video tape
recording equipment. Some technicians op­
erate equipment designed to produce special
effects. Sometimes the term “operator”
or “engineer” is substituted for “tech­

Sources o f Additional Information

Supervisory personnel with job titles such
as chief engineer or transmission engineer di­
rect activities concerned with the operation
and maintenance of studio broadcasting

A bibliography of career literature on
management occupations is available from:

W orking Conditions

American Management Association, 135 West
50th St., New York, N.Y. 10020.


Broadcast technicians generally work in­
doors in pleasant surroundings. Many sta­
tions are air-conditioned since transmitters
and other electronic equipment must be ope­
rated at cool temperatures. Broadcasts out­
side the studio, however, may require techni­
cians to work out of doors under less
favorable conditions.

(D.O.T. 003.167-030 and -034; 193.167-014, .262-018
and -038; 194.262-010 and -018, .282, .362, and
.382-014; 822.281-030; 962.162, .167-010, .281-014 and
-018, .362-014, .384, and .665)

Network technicians may ocasionally have
to work long hours under great pressure to
meet broadcast deadlines.

Nature o f the W ork

P laces o f Employm ent

Broadcast technicians operate and main­
tain the electronic equipment used to record
and transmit radio and television programs.
They work with microphones, sound record­
ers, light and sound effects, television cam­
eras, video tape recorders, and other equip­

About 40,000 broadcast technicians were
employed in radio and television stations in
1978. Television stations employ, on the av­
erage, many more technicians than radio sta­
tions. Although broadcast technicians are
employed in every State, most are located in
large metropolitan areas. The highest paying
and most specialized jobs are concentrated in
New York City, Los Angeles, and Washing­
ton, D.C.—the originating centers for most
of the network programs.

In the control room, broadcast technicians
operate equipment that regulates the quality
of sounds and pictures being recorded or
broadcast. They also operate controls that


Training, Other Q ualifications, and
While broadcast technicians have some
duties that do not require a high degree of
training in electronics, employers prefer ap­
plicants who can handle the full range of
technical duties. A person interested in
becoming a broadcast technician therefore
should plan to get a first class radiotelephone
operator license from the Federal Communi­
cations Commission (FCC). Federal law re­
quires that anyone who operates broadcast
transmitters in television stations must hold
such a license. In radio stations, technicians
who maintain, repair, or adjust transmitters
also need the first class license; however, in
most cases, those involved in the most rou­
tine operation of transmitters only need a
restricted radiotelephone operator permit,
for which no examination is required. Appli­
cants for an FCC license, however, must pass
a series of written examinations. These cover
construction and operation of transmission
and receiving equipment; characteristics of
electromagnetic waves; and regulations and
practices, both Federal and international,
which govern broadcasting.
Among high school courses, algebra, trigo­
nometry, physics, electronics, and other
sciences provide valuable background for
persons anticipating careers in this occupa­
tion. Building and operating a radio also are
good training. Taking an electronics course
in a technical school is still another good way
to acquire the knowledge for becoming a
broadcast technician. Some persons gain
work experience as temporary employees
while filling in for regular broadcast techni­
cians who are on vacation.
Many schools give courses especially de­
signed to prepare the student for the FCC’s
first class license test. Technical school or
college training is an advantage, particularly
for those who hope to advance to supervisory
positions or to the more specialized jobs in
large stations and in the networks.
Broadcast technicians must have an apti­
tude for working with electrical and mechan­
ical systems and equipment. Manual dexter­
ity, the ability to perform tasks requiring
precise hand skills, is necessary for success in
this occupation.
Persons with FCC first class licenses who
get entry jobs are instructed and advised by
the chief engineer, or by other experienced
technicians, concerning the work proce­
dures of the station. They begin their ca­
reers in small stations, operating the trans­
mitter and handling other technical duties,
after a brief instruction period. As they ac­
quire more experience and skill, they are as­
signed to more responsible jobs. Those who
demonstrate above-average ability may
move into top level technical positions such
as supervisory technician or chief engineer.
A college degree in engineering is becoming
increasingly important for advancement to
supervisory and executive positions. (See the
statement on occupations in the radio and


Broadcast technicians must have an aptitude for working with electrical and mechanical equipment.

television broadcasting industry elsewhere
in the Handbook.)

Employm ent O utlook
People seeking beginning jobs as broadcast
technicians face strong competition, espe­
cially in major metropolitan areas where the
number of qualified jobseekers greatly ex­
ceeds the number of openings. Prospects for
entry level positions are best in smaller cities
for people with appropriate training in elec­
tronics. As is the case with other occupations
in the radio and television broadcasting in­
dustry, stations in major metropolitan areas
seek highly experienced personnel.
Employment of broadcast technicians is
expected to increase about as fast as the aver­
age for all occupations through the 1980’s.
Some job openings also will result from the
need to replace experienced technicians who
retire, die, or transfer to other occupations.
Some new job opportunities for techni­
cians will arise as new radio and television
stations go on the air. Demand for broadcast
technicians also will increase as cable televi­
sion stations broadcast more of their own
programs. At the same time, technological
developments are likely to limit future de­
mand; such laborsaving technical advances
as automatic programming and remote con­
trol of transmitters will hold down demand
for additional technicians. Technological de­
velopments such as these have shifted the
emphasis from operations to maintenance
work, which calls for a strong technical back­

In 1978, technicians generally started at
$140 to $150 a week in small stations, ac­
cording to the limited information availa­
ble. Earnings of experienced technicians

were much higher. Licensed technicians
who can perform the full range of tasks
are, of course, the highest paid. As a rule,
technicians’ wages are highest in large cit­
ies and in large stations. Technicians em­
ployed by television stations usually are
paid more than those who work for radio
stations because television work is gener­
ally more complex. Technicians employed
by educational broadcasting stations gener­
ally earn less than those who work for
commercial stations.
Most technicians in large stations work a
40-hour week with overtime pay for addi­
tional hours. Broadcast technicians in small
stations generally work a considerable
amount of overtime. Evening, night, and
weekend work frequently is necessary since
many stations are on the air 24 hours a day,
7 days a week.

Related Occupations
Broadcast technicians need the knowledge
and hand coordination to operate technical
equipment; they generally complete special­
ized postsecondary training programs, in­
cluding courses in science and engineering.
Others whose jobs have similar requirements
include drafters, engineering and science
technicians, surveyors, air traffic controllers,
radiologic technologists, respiratory therapy
workers, electrocardiograph technicians,
electroencephalographic technicians, and
medical laboratory technicians.

Sources of Additional Information
For information about radiotelephone op­
erator permits and licenses, and examination
study guides, write to:
Federal Com munications Commission, Policy
Analysis Branch, 1919 M St. NW ., Washington,
D.C. 20554.

For information on careers for broadcast
technicians, write to:
National Association of Broadcasters, 1771 N St.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

For a list of schools that offer programs or
courses in broadcasting, contact:
Broadcast Education Association, National Asso­
ciation of Broadcasters, 1771 N St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 162.157-018 and -022; 185.167-034)

Nature o f the Work
The Americans have been invited to a
private showing in Paris. Representing a
major New York department store, they sit
with a select group in an elegantly fur­
nished room. They watch closely as grace­
ful models float down the runway before
them to display the latest creations by the
world’s most famous designers. After some
consultation, they make choices involving
thousands, perhaps millions of dollars. All
in a day’s work.
The job of retail buyer often brings to mind
the glamour of high fashion; indeed, many
fashion buyers do lead exciting, fast-paced
lives involving travel abroad. Not every
buyer, however, deals in fashion. All mer­
chandise sold in a retail store—garden furni­
ture, automobile tires, toys, aluminum pots,
and canned soups alike—appears in that
store on the decision of a buyer. Although all
buyers seek to satisfy their stores’ customers
and sell at a profit, the kind and variety of
goods they purchase depend on the store
where they work. A buyer for a small cloth­
ing store, for example, may purchase its com­
plete stock of merchandise, from sportswear
to formal evening clothes. Buyers who work
for larger retail businesses often handle one
or a few related lines of goods, such as men’s
wear, ladies’ sportswear, or children’s toys.
Some, known as foreign buyers, purchase
merchandise outside the United States.
In order to purchase the best selection of
goods for their stores, buyers must be famil­
iar with the manufacturers and distributors
who handle the merchandise they need. They
also must keep informed about changes in
existing products and the development of
new ones. To learn about merchandise, buy­
ers attend fashion and trade shows and visit
manufacturers’ showrooms. They usually
order goods during buying trips, and also
place orders with wholesale and manufactur­
ers’ sales workers who call on them to display
their merchandise.
Buyers must be able to assess the resale
value of goods after a brief inspection and
make a purchase decision quickly. They are
aware of their stores’ profit margins and try
to select merchandise that will sell quickly
at well above the original cost. Since most
buyers work within a limited budget, they

must plan their purchases to keep needed
items always in stock but also allow for
unexpected purchases when a “good buy”
presents itself.

purchase lawn chairs and picnic tables for
the entire chain.

Because buyers purchase merchandise for
their firms to resell (unlike purchasing agents
who buy goods for direct use by the firm—
see the statement on purchasing agents else­
where in the Handbook), they must know
what motivates customers to buy. Before or­
dering a particular line of merchandise, buy­
ers study market research reports and ana­
lyze past sales records to determine what
products are currently in demand. They also
work closely with assistant buyers and sales
clerks whose daily contact with customers
furnishes information about consumer likes
and dislikes. In addition, buyers read fashion
and trade magazines to keep abreast of style
and manufacturing trends; follow ads in
newspapers and other media to check retail
competitors’ sales activities; and watch gen­
eral economic conditions to anticipate con­
sumer buying patterns.

Retailing is a highly competitive business,
and buyers operate under considerable pres­
sure. Anticipating customers’ preferences
and ensuring that goods are in stock when
they are needed is far from easy, and mistakes
can be costly. The buyer’s job calls for re­
sourcefulness and good judgment, as well as
the self-confidence to make decisions and
take risks. However, many successful buyers
feel that the stimulation and excitement the
job can provide more than make up for any
emotional strain.

Merchandise managers (D.O.T. 185.167034) plan and coordinate buying and selling
activities for large and medium-sized stores.
They divide the budget among buyers, decide
how much merchandise to stock, and assign
each buyer to purchase certain goods. Mer­
chandise managers may review buying deci­
sions to ensure that needed categories of
goods are in stock, and help buyers to set
general pricing guidelines.

P laces o f Employment

Buyers and merchandise managers usu­
ally have very busy schedules and deal
with many different people in the course of
a day. They work with manufacturers’ rep­
resentatives, other store personnel includ­
ing store executives and sales workers, and
customers. Assisting with sales promotions
and creating enthusiasm among sales per­
sonnel are part of the buyer’s job, and he
or she may be asked to provide informa­
tion, such as dress sizes and product de­
scriptions, to the advertising department
for a sales promotion, or to meet with
floor sales workers before a new line of
merchandise is introduced. Some buyers
direct assistants who handle routine as­
pects of purchasing such as verifying ship­
ments; others supervise department manag­
Some buyers represent large stores or
chains in cities where many manufacturers
are located. The duties of these “market
representatives” vary by employer; some
purchase goods, while others supply infor­
mation and arrange for store buyers to
meet with manufacturers when they are in
New technology has altered the buyer’s
role in retail chainstores. In the past, firms
employed a buyer for each store or group of
stores in a local area. Now cash registers
connected to a computer, known as pointof-sale terminals, allow retail chains to
maintain centralized, up-to-the-minute in­
ventory records. With these records, a sin­
gle garden furniture buyer, for example, can

W orking Conditions

Buyers frequently work more than a 40hour week because of special sales, confer­
ences, and travel. The amount of traveling
a buyer does varies with the type of mer­
chandise bought and the location of supp­
liers, but most spend 4 or 5 days a month
on the road.

In 1978, approximately 115,000 buyers
and merchandise managers worked for re­
tail firms. Although jobs for buyers are
found in all parts of the country, most jobs
are in major metropolitan areas where re­
tail stores are concentrated. Market repre­
sentatives work for buying offices in major
market areas such as New York, Chicago,
and Dallas.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
Because familiarity with the merchandise
and with the retailing business itself is such
a central element in the buyer’s job, prior
retailing experience sometimes provides suf­
ficient preparation. Many a successful buyer
began in a stockroom or behind a sales
counter and worked up the ladder. High
school distributive education programs have
launched careers in retailing that led, eventu­
ally, to a buyer’s position. (More information
about distributive education appears in the
statement on retail trade sales workers else­
where in the Handbook.)
More and more, however, employers pre­
fer applicants who have a college degree.
Many colleges and universities offer associate
degree or bachelor’s degree programs in mar­
keting and purchasing. Postsecondary train­
ing also is offered in vocational schools or
technical institutes that prepare students for
careers in fashion merchandising. While
courses in merchandising or marketing may
help in getting started in retailing, such train­
ing is not essential, as a rule. Most employers
accept college graduates in any field of study
and train them on the job.
In many stores, beginners who are candi­
dates for buying jobs start out in executive
training programs. These programs usually
last from 6 to 8 months and combine class­
room instruction in merchandising and pur­
chasing with short rotations to various jobs

partment stores. Most earned between $23,000 and $32,000 a year in 1978, though many
earned salaries outside this range. Merchan­
dising managers earned considerably more.
The actual income depends upon the product
line purchased, the sales volume of the store,
and the individual’s seniority.
Buyers often earn large bonuses (cash
gifts) for exceptional performance. In addi­
tion, many stores have incentive plans, such
as profit sharing and stock options.

Related Occupations
Workers in other occupations need a
knowledge of marketing and the ability to
assess consumer demand; among them are
comparison shoppers, manufacturers’ sales
representatives, insurance sales agents,
wholesale trade sales representatives, and
travel agents.

Sources of Additional Information
General information about a career in re­
tailing is available from:
National Retail Merchants Association, 100 West
31st St., New York, N.Y. 10001.

Information on schools that teach retailing
is available from:
U.S. Department of Education, Division of Vocational/Technical Education, Washington, D.C.
National Association of Trade and Technical
Schools, 2021 K St. NW., Washington, D.C.
Buyers must be able to assess the resale value of goods.

in the store. This training introduces the new
worker to store operations and policies, and
provides the fundamentals of merchandising
and management as well.

need physical stamina and emotional stabil­

The trainee’s first job is likely to be that
of assistant buyer. The duties include super­
vising sales workers, checking invoices on
material received, and keeping account of
stock on hand. Assistant buyers gradually
assume purchasing responsibilities, depend­
ing upon their individual abilities and the
size of the department where they work.
Training as an assistant buyer usually lasts
at least a year. After years of working as a
buyer, those who show exceptional ability
may advance to merchandise manager. A
few find further promotion to top executive
jobs such as general merchandise manager
for a retail store or chain. The length of
time it takes to reach any of these levels de­
pends not just on the individual’s ability but
on the store’s need for management person­
nel. The faster the company grows, the
greater the opportunity for a worker to ac­
quire responsibility.

Employment of buyers is expected to grow
about as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s. The rate of growth
is expected to be slower than that projected
for the retail trade industry as a whole, how­
ever. This mainly reflects the increased use of
computerized systems to maintain invento­
ries and to order standard items of merchan­
dise through centralized buying. Such sys­
tems are gaining popularity among
chainstores and are expected increasingly to
dominate general merchandise retailing.
Most job openings will arise each year from
the need to replace workers who leave the

Buyers should be good at planning and
decisionmaking and have an interest in mer­
chandising. They need leadership ability and
communications skills to supervise sales
workers and assistant buyers and to deal ef­
fectively with manufacturers’ representatives
and store executives. Because of the fast pace
and constant pressure of their work, buyers


Employment O utlook

Competition for buying jobs is expected to
be keen, for merchandising attracts large
numbers of college graduates every year.
Prospects are likely to be best for qualified
applicants who enjoy the competitive nature
of retailing and work best in a demanding,
fast-paced job.

Buyers for discount department stores and
other mass merchandising firms are among
the most highly paid in the industry, as are
those who buy centrally for large chain de­

(D.O.T. 022.061-010 and -014, .137-010, .161-010, and

Nature o f the Work
The clothes we wear, the foods we eat, the
houses in which we live—in fact most things
that help make our lives better, from medical
care to a cleaner environment—result, in
part, from the work done by chemists.
Chemists search for and put into practical
use new knowledge about substances. Their
research has resulted in the development of a
tremendous variety of synthetic materials,
such as nylon and polyester fabrics, ingredi­
ents that have improved other substances,
and processes which help save energy and
reduce pollution, such as improved oil refin­
ing methods.
Nearly one-half of all chemists work in
research and development. In basic re­
search, chemists investigate the properties
and composition of matter and the laws that
govern the combination of elements. Basic
research often has practical uses. For exam­
ple, synthetic rubber and plastics have re­
sulted from research on small molecules
uniting to form larger ones (polymeriza­
tion). In research and development, new
products are created or improved. The pro­
cess of developing a product begins with de­

scriptions of the characteristics it should
have. If similar products exist, chemists test
samples to determine their ingredients. If no
such product exists, experimentation with
various substances yields a product with the
required specifications.
Nearly one-eighth of all chemists work in
production and inspection. In production,
chemists prepare instructions (batch sheets)
for plant workers that specify the kind and
amount of ingredients to use and the exact
mixing time for each stage in the process. At
each step, samples are tested for quality con­
trol to meet industry and government stan­
dards. Records and reports show results of
Others work as marketing or sales repre­
sentatives to obtain technical knowledge of
products sold. A number of chemists teach in
colleges and universities. Some chemists are
consultants to private industry and to gov­
ernment agencies.

health and agriculture, and for Federal agen­
cies, chiefly the Department of Defense;
Health and Human Services; Agriculture;
and Interior. Smaller numbers worked for
nonprofit research organizations.
Chemists are employed in all parts of the
country, but they are concentrated in large
industrial areas. Nearly one-fifth of all chem­
ists were located in four metropolitan areas—
New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, and New­

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree with a major in chem­
istry or a related discipline is sufficient for
many beginning jobs as a chemist. However,
graduate training is required for many re­
search jobs and most college teaching jobs

require a Ph. D. degree. Beginning chemists
should have a broad background in chemis­
try, with good laboratory skills.
About 1,175 colleges and universities offer
a bachelor’s degree in chemistry. In addition
to required courses in analytical, inorganic,
organic, and physical chemistry, under­
graduates usually study mathematics and
More than 350 colleges and universities
award advanced degrees in chemistry. In
graduate school, students generally specialize
in a particular subfield of chemistry. Re­
quirements for the master’s and doctor’s de­
gree usually include a thesis based on inde­
pendent research.
Students planning careers as chemists
should enjoy studying science and mathemat­
ics, and should like working with their hands

Chemists often specialize in one of the subfields of chemistry. Analytical chemists deter­
mine the structure, composition, and nature
of substances, and develop new techniques.
An outstanding example was the analysis of
moon rocks by an international team of ana­
lytical chemists. Organic chemists at one time
studied the chemistry of only living things,
but this area has been broadened to include
all carbon compounds. When combined with
other elements, carbon forms a vast number
of substances. Many modern commercial
products, including plastics and other syn­
thetics, have resulted from the work of or­
ganic chemists. Inorganic chemists study
compounds other than carbon. They may, for
example, develop materials to use in solid
state electronic components. Physical chem­
ists study energy transformations to find new
and better energy sources. Increasingly, how­
ever, chemists consider themselves members
of new specialties that include two or more of
the preceding fields. Biochemists, often con­
sidered as either chemists or life scientists,
are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.
Some chem ists specialize in the chem istry of
foods. (See statement on food technologists
elsewhere in the Handbook.)

W orking Conditions
Chemists usually work in offices, laborato­
ries, or classrooms. Some are exposed to
health or safety hazards when handling cer­
tain chemicals, but there is little risk if proper
procedures are followed. Chemists usually
work regular hours and seldom travel.

Places o f Employment
Over 140,000 persons worked as chemists
in 1978. About one-half of all chemists work
for manufacturing firms—about one-half of
them are in the chemical manufacturing in­
dustry, with the rest scattered throughout
other manufacturing industries.
Colleges and universities employed about
25,000 chemists in 1978. Chemists also work Although many chemists spend much of their time in laboratories, chemists also work in offices,
for State and local governments, primarily in classrooms, and industrial plants.


building scientific apparatus and performing
experiments. Perseverance and the ability to
concentrate on detail and to work indepen­
dently are essential. Other desirable assets
include an inquisitive mind and imagination.
Graduates with the bachelor’s degree gen­
erally begin their careers in government or
industry by analyzing or testing products,
working in technical sales or service, or as­
sisting senior chemists in research and devel­
opment laboratories. Some employers have
special training and orientation programs
which provide special knowledge needed for
the employer’s type of work. Candidates for
an advanced degree often teach or do re­
search in colleges and universities while
working toward advanced degrees.
Beginning chemists with the master’s de­
gree can usually go into applied research in
government or private industry. They also
may qualify for teaching positions in 2-year
colleges and some universities.
The Ph. D. generally is required for basic
research, for teaching in colleges and univer­
sities, and for advancement to many adminis­
trative positions.

Employm ent O utlook
Employment opportunities in chemistry
are expected to be good for graduates at all
degree levels through the 1980’s. The em­
ployment of chemists is expected to grow
about as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions during this period, creating many job
openings. In addition, openings will result
each year as chemists retire, die, or transfer
to other occupations.
This outlook for chemists is based on the
assumption that research and development
expenditures of government and industry
will increase through the 1980’s, although at
a slower rate than during the 1960’s. If actual
expenditures differ significantly from those
assumed, the outlook for chemists would be
Approximately three-fourths of total em­
ployment is expected to be in private indus­
try, primarily in the development of new pro­
ducts. In addition, industrial companies and
government agencies will need more chem­
ists to help solve problems related to energy
shortages, pollution control, and health care.
Little growth in college and university em­
ployment is expected, and competition for
teaching positions will be keen. (See state­
ment on college and university faculty else­
where in the Handbook.)
Some graduates will find openings in high
school teaching after completing professional
education courses and other requirements for
a State teaching certificate. They usually are
then regarded as teachers rather than chem­
ists. (See statement on secondary school
teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Earnings of chemists averaged more than
twice as much as those of nonsupervisory


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

workers in private industry, except farming.
According to the American Chemical Soci­
ety, salaries of experienced chemists having a
bachelor’s degree averaged $23,900 a year in
1978; for those with a master’s degree, $25,400; and for those with a Ph. D., $29,200.
Private industry paid chemists with the
bachelor’s degree starting salaries averaging
$13,500 a year in 1978; those with the mas­
ter’s degree, $15,600; and those with the Ph.
D„ $21,500.

Because of the emphasis on the spine and
its position, most chiropractors use X-rays to
aid in locating the source of patients’ difficul­
ties. In addition to manipulation, most chiro­
practors use supplementary measures such as
water, light, ultrasound, electric, and heat
therapy. They also prescribe diet, supports,
exercise, and rest. Most State laws specify the
types of supplementary treatment permitted
in chiropractic. Chiropractors do not use pre­
scription drugs or surgery.

In colleges and universities, the average
salary of those with the master’s degree was
$18,100 and of those with the Ph. D., $23,400. In addition, many experienced chemists
in educational institutions supplement their
regular salaries with income from consulting,
lecturing, and writing.

W orking Conditions

Depending on a person’s college record,
the annual starting salary in the Federal Gov­
ernment in early 1979 for an inexperienced
chemist with a bachelor’s degree was either
$10,507 or $13,014. Those who had 2 years
of graduate study could begin at $15,920 a
year. Chemists having the Ph. D. degree
could start at $19,263 or $23,087. The aver­
age salary for all chemists in the Federal
Government in early 1979 was $26,000 a

About 18,000 persons practiced chiroprac­
tic in 1978. Most chiropractors were in pri­
vate practice. Some were salaried assistants
of established practitioners or worked for
chiropractic clinics. Others taught or con­
ducted research at chiropractic colleges.

Related O ccupations
The occupations of biochemist, life scien­
tist, food scientist, and chemical technician
are closely related to chemistry. Other physi­
cal science and environmental science occu­
pations are also related to chemistry.

Sources o f Additional Information
General information on career opportuni­
ties and earnings for chemists is available
American Chemical Society, 1155 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
Chemical Manufacturers Association, 1825 Con­
necticut Ave. NW., Washington D.C. 20009.

Information on Federal job opportunities
is available from State employment service
offices or from U.S. Office of Personnel Man­
agement area offices or Federal Job Informa­
tion Centers located in various large cities
throughout the country.

(D.O.T. 079.101-010)

Nature o f the W ork
Chiropractic is a system of treatment
based on the principle that a person’s health
is determined largely by the nervous system,
and that interference with this system im­
pairs normal functions and lowers resistance
to disease. Chiropractors treat patients pri­
marily by manual manipulation (adjust­
ments) of parts of the body, especially the
spinal column.

Chiropractors generally work in private
offices. Their workweek typically is 4 1/2 to
5 days.

P laces o f Employment

Chiropractors often locate in small com­
munities—about half of work in cities of 50,000 inhabitants or less.

Training, O ther Q ualifications, and
All 50 States and the District of Columbia
regulate the practice of chiropractic and
grant licenses to chiropractors who meet cer­
tain educational requirements and pass a
State board examination. Many States have
reciprocity agreements that permit chiro­
practors licensed in one State to obtain a li­
cense in others without taking an examina­
Although the type of practice permitted
and the educational requirements for a li­
cense vary considerably from one State to
another, most States require successful com­
pletion of a 4-year chiropractic course fol­
lowing 2 years of preprofessional college
work. Some States require that specific sub­
jects such as English, chemistry, biology, or
physics be a part of this preprofessional
work. In addition, several States require that
chiropractors pass a basic science examina­
In 1978, 6 of the 15 chiropractic colleges
in the United States were fully accredited by
the Council on Chiropractic Education; 3
others were recognized candidates working
toward accreditation. All required appli­
cants to have a minimum of 2 years of col­
lege before entrance, and most required that
courses in English, the social sciences,
chemistry, biology, and mathematics be
taken during those 2 years. Chiropractic
colleges emphasize courses in manipulation
and spinal adjustments. Most offer a
broader curriculum however, including sub­
jects such as physiotherapy and nutrition.
In most chiropractic colleges, the first 2
years of the curriculum chiefly include
classroom and laboratory work in subjects
such as anatomy, physiology, and biochem-

perienced chiropractors averaged about $25,000, according to limited data available, al­
though many earned more.

Related Occupations
Chiropractors diagnose, treat and work to
prevent diseases, disorders, and injuries.
They emphasize the importance of the ner­
vous system for good health. Other occupa­
tions that require similar skills include audi­
ologists, dentists, optometrists, osteopaths,

Sources o f Additional Information
The State board of licensing in the capital
of each State can supply information on State
licensing requirements for chiropractors.
General information on chiropractic as a
career is available from:
American Chiropractic Association, 2200 Grand
Ave., Des Moines, Iowa 50312.
Chiropractic requires keen powers of observa­
tion in order to detect physical abnormalities.

istry. During the last 2 years, students ob­
tain practical experience in college clinics.
The degree of Doctor of Chiropractic
(D.C.) is awarded to students completing 4
years of chiropractic training.
Chiropractic requires a keen sense of ob­
servation to detect physical abnormalities
and considerable hand dexterity but not
unusual strength or endurance. Persons
desiring to become chiropractors should be
able to work independently and handle re­
sponsibility. The ability to work with detail is
important. Sympathy and understanding are
desirable qualities for dealing effectively with
Most newly licensed chiropractors either
set up a new practice or purchase an estab­
lished one. A moderate financial investment
is usually necessary to open and equip an
office. Some start as salaried chiropractors to
acquire experience and funds needed.

Employment O utlook
Requirements for chiropractors are ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s. En­
rollments in chiropractic colleges, however,
have grown dramatically, partly in response
to apparent broader public acceptance of the
profession. As more students graduate, new
chiropractors may find it increasingly dif­
ficult to establish a practice in those areas
where other practitioners already are located.
The best opportunities for new chiropractors
may be in small towns and in areas with com­
paratively few established practitioners.

In chiropractic, as in other types of inde­
pendent practice, earnings are relatively low
in the beginning. New graduates who worked
as associates to established practitioners
earned about $12,000 a year in 1978. Ex­

International Chiropractors Association, 1901 L
St. NW„ Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036.

For a list of chiropractic colleges, as well
as general information on chiropractic as a
career, contact:
Council on Chiropractic Education, 3209 Ingersoll
Street, Suite 206, Des Moines, Iowa 50312.

For information on requirements for ad­
mission to a specific chiropractic college,
contact the admissions office of that school.

City Managers
(D.O.T. 188.117-114)

Nature o f the W ork
Population growth and industrial expan­
sion place increasing pressure on housing,
transportation, and other facilities of cities.
Problems associated with the growth of mod­
ern communities, such as air and water pollu­
tion and rising crime rates, also demand at­
tention. To cope effectively with these
problems, many communities hire a special­
ist in management techniques—the city man­
A city manager usually is appointed by the
community’s elected officials and is responsi­
ble directly to them. Although duties vary by
city size, city managers generally administer
and coordinate the day-to-day operations of
the city. They are responsible for functions
such as tax collection and disbursement, law
enforcement, and public works. They also
hire department heads and their staffs and
prepare the annual budget to be approved by
elected officials. In addition, they study cur­
rent problems, such as traffic congestion,
crime, or urban renewal, and report their
findings to the elected council.
City managers must plan for future growth
and development of cities and surrounding
areas. To provide for an expansion of public

services, they frequently appear at civic meet­
ings to advocate certain programs or to in­
form citizens of current government opera­
City managers work closely with planning
departments to coordinate new and existing
programs. In smaller cities that have no per­
manent planning staff, coordination may be
done entirely by the manager.
To aid the city manager, many cities em­
ploy management assistants: assistant city
managers, department head assistants,
(D.O.T. 189.167-030), administrative assist­
ants (D.O.T. 169.167-010), and management
analysts (D.O.T. 161.167-010). Under the
manager’s direction, management assistants
administer programs, prepare reports, re­
ceive visitors, answer correspondence, and
generally help to keep the city government
functioning smoothly. Assistant city manag­
ers organize and coordinate city programs,
supervise city employees, and act for the city
manager on occasion. They also may assume
responsibility for some projects, such as the
development of a preliminary annual budget.
Department head assistants generally are re­
sponsible for one activity, such as personnel,
finance, or law enforcement, but they also
may assist in other areas. Administrative as­
sistants, also called executive assistants or as­
sistants to the city manager, usually do ad­
ministrative and staff work in all
departments under the city manager. For in­
stance, they may compile operating statistics
or review and analyze work procedures.
Management analysts study and recommend
possible changes in organization or adminis­
trative procedures.

W orking Conditions
City managers generally work in well
lighted and ventilated offices. They often
work overtime at night and on weekends
meeting citizens’ groups, attending civic
functions, reading and writing reports, or fin­
ishing paperwork. When a problem arises or
a crisis occurs, they may be called to work at
any hour.

P laces o f Employment
About 3,000 city managers were employed
in 1978. In addition, several times as many
persons worked as administrative assistants,
department head assistants, and assistant city
managers. Most city managers worked for
cities and counties that had a councilmanager form of government. Under this
type of government, an elected council ap­
points a manager who is responsible for the
day-to-day operation of the government as
well as for the hiring and firing of assistants,
department heads, and other staff. Many
other city managers worked for municipali­
ties that had the mayor-council form of gov­
ernment, in which the mayor appoints the
city manager as his or her chief administra­
tive officer. A few city managers also worked
for county governments, metropolitan or re­
gional planning organizations, and councils
of governments. All types of local govern/49

employed by other types of local government
to help elected officials with day-to-day oper­
ations of government. Increased emphasis on
regional solutions to urban problems should
result in additional job opportunities for city
managers and management assistants in
councils of government.
Persons who seek beginning management
assistant jobs are expected to face keen com­
petition through the 1980’s. Competition also
should be keen among the growing number
of administrative assistants, department head
assistants, and assistant city managers for the
relatively few city manager positions. How­
ever, many of those unable to find employ­
ment as management assistants or city
managers should find jobs in other fields of
public administration.


City manager and management assistant prepare to brief the city council
on the proposed city budget.

ments employed management assistants, but
larger jurisdictions generally employed them
in greater numbers.
Although over three-fourths of all city
managers work for small cities having
fewer than 25,000 inhabitants, many larger
cities also employ a city manager. About
one-half of the cities having a population
of between 10,000 and 500,000 have city

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
A master’s degree, preferably in public or
business administration, is becoming essen­
tial for those seeking a career in city manage­
ment. Although some applicants with only a
bachelor’s degree may find employment,
strong competition for positions, even among
master’s degree recipients, will make the
graduate degree a requirement for most entry
level jobs. In some cases, employers may hire
a person with a graduate degree in a field
related to public administration, such as en­
gineering, social work, political science or
In 1978, over 200 colleges and universities
offered graduate degrees in public affairs or
administration. Degree requirements in some
schools include completion of an internship
program in a city manager’s office. During
this internship period, which may last from 6
months to a year, the degree candidate ob­
serves local government operations and does
research under the direct supervision of the
city manager.
Nearly all city managers begin as man­
agement assistants. Most new graduates
work as management analysts or adminis­
trative assistants to city managers for sev­
eral years to gain experience in solving


urban problems, coordinating public ser­
vices, and applying management tech­
niques. Others work in a government de­
partment such as finance, public works, or
public planning. They may acquire supervi­
sory skills and additional experience by
working as assistant city manager or de­
partment head assistant. City managers
often are first employed in small cities, but
during their careers they may work in sev­
eral cities of increasing size.
Persons who plan a career in city manage­
ment should like to work with detail and to
be a part of a team. They must have sound
judgment, self-confidence, and the ability to
perform well under stress. To handle emer­
gencies, city managers must quickly isolate
problems, identify their causes, and provide
a number of possible solutions. City manag­
ers should be tactful and able to communi­
cate and work well with people.
City managers also must be dedicated to
public service since they often put in long,
hard hours in times of crisis.

Employment O utlook
Employment of city managers and local
government management assistants is ex­
pected to expand faster than the average for
all occupations through the 1980’s as man­
agement of our governments becomes more
complex. Examples of more sophisticated
management techniques include computer­
ized tax and utility billing, electronic traffic
control, and application of systems analysis
to urban problems. The demand for city
managers also will increase as more cities
convert to the council-manager form of gov­
ernment, currently the fastest growing form
of city government. Furthermore, city
managers and management assistants will be

Salaries of city managers and manage­
ment assistants vary according to experi­
ence, job responsibility, and city size. In
1978, the average annual salary for all
managers was more than $26,000, about
two and one- half times the average earn­
ings for all nonsupervisory workers in pri­
vate industry, except farming. In 1978, aver­
age annual salaries of city managers ranged
from about $22,000 in small cities of 5,000
to 10,000 inhabitants to about $40,000 in
medium-sized cities of 50,000 to 100,000 in­
habitants, according to the International
City Management Association. City manag­
ers employed in large cities earned salaries
of more than $50,000 a year. City managers
in cities not having council-manager govern­
ments received slightly less.
Salaries of management assistants ranged
from about $12,000 in small cities to more
than $20,000 in large ones. Salaries of as­
sistant city managers generally were higher
than those of other management assistants.
City managers often work more than 40
hours a week. Emergencies may require eve­
ning and weekend work and meetings with
individuals and citizen’s groups consume ad­
ditional time.

Related Occupations
A variety of related careers are open to
persons interested in managerial work. In the
private sector, a wide range of managerial
and executive carrers are possible in business
and industry. In the public sector, related
managerial occupations include: Program
analysts, government program managers,
management analysts, budget officers, school
or hospital administrators, and airport

Sources o f Additional Information
For information on a career in city man­
agement, contact:
International City Management Association,
1140 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 168.267-014, 241.217-010. .267-018, and

Nature o f the Work
/r'Fast and fair settlement of all claims is
essential to any insurance company if it is to
meet its commitments to policyholders and
also protect its own financial well-being. The
people who investigate claims, negotiate set­
tlement with policyholders, and authorize
payment are known as claim representatives
—a group that includes claim adjusters and
claim examiners.
When a property-liability (casualty) insur­
ance company receives a claim, the claim ad­
juster determines whether the policy covers it
and the amount of the loss. Adjusters use
reports, physical evidence, and testimony of
witnesses in investigating a claim. When their
company is liable, they negotiate with the
claimant and settle the case.
Adjusters must make sure that settlements
reflect the claimant’s actual losses. They
must protect their company from false or in­
flated claims but, at the same time, settle
valid claims fairly and promptly. Some ad­
justers are allowed to issue checks on com­
pany funds; most, however, submit their
findings to claim examiners who review them
to insure that proper procedures have been
followed and then authorize payment.
Some adjusters work with all lines of insur­
ance. Others specialize in claims from fire
damage, marine loss, automobile damage,
workers’ compensation loss, or product lia­
bility. Several States have “no-fault” automo­
bile insurance plans that relieve the adjuster

from determining responsibility for a loss.
Adjusters in these States still must decide the
amount of loss, however. A growing number
of casualty companies employ special adjust­
ers to settle small claims, usually minor auto­
mobile or homeowner damage claims. These
workers, generally called “inside adjusters”
or “telephone adjusters,” contact claimants
by telephone or mail and have the policy­
holder send repair costs, medical bills, and
other statements to the company. Many com­
panies centralize this operation in a drive-in
claims center where the cost of repair is de­
termined and a check is issued on the spot.
Adjusters work away from the office most
of the time. They may be called to the site of
an accident, fire, or burglary. Adjusters make
their own schedules of the activities needed
to dispose of a claim properly. They also keep
written or taped records of information ob­
tained from witnesses and other sources and
prepare reports of their findings.
In life insurance companies, the counter­
part of the claim adjuster is the claim exam­
iner, who investigates questionable claims or
those exceeding a specified amount. They
may check claim applications for complete­
ness and accuracy, interview medical special­
ists, consult policy files to verify information
on a claim, or calculate benefit payments.
Generally, examiners are authorized to inves­
tigate and approve payment on all claims up
to a certain limit; larger claims are referred to
a senior examiner.
Examiners checking incorrect or question­
able claims may correspond with investigat­
ing companies, field managers, agents, or the
family of the insured. Claim examiners occa­
sionally travel to obtain information by per­
sonal interview, or contact State insurance
departments and other insurance companies.
In addition to verifying claims and approving

payment, examiners also maintain records of
settled claims and prepare reports to be sub­
mitted to their company’s data processing
department. Some experienced examiners
serve on committees, conduct surveys of
claim practices within their company, and
help devise more efficient ways to process
claims. They, like claim adjusters, sometimes
testify in court on contested claims.

W orking Conditions
Claim adjusting is not a desk job. It re­
quires that a person be physically fit because
much of the day may be spent in traveling,
walking about outdoors, and climbing stairs.
Adjusters may have to work evenings or
weekends in order to interview witnesses and
claimants. Since most companies provide 24hour claim service to their policyholders,
some adjusters always must be on call. (See
the statement on the insurance industry for
additional information on working condi­
tions and employee benefits.) Occasionally,
an experienced adjuster may travel to the
scene of a disaster, such as a hurricane or a
riot, to work with local personnel. Some
cases may require travel outside the United
Claim examiners have desk jobs that re­
quire no unusual physical activity. Although
the average workweek for examiners is 35 to
40 hours, they may work longer at times of
peak claim loads or when quarterly and an­
nual statements are prepared. They also may
need to travel occasionally.

P laces o f Employment
About 169,000 persons worked as claim
representatives in 1978. The majority of
claim adjusters worked for insurance compa­
nies that sell property and liability coverage.
Some were employed by independent adjust­
ing firms that contract their services for a fee.
These independent firms ranged from na­
tional companies employing hundreds of ad­
justing specialists to small 3- or 4-person
local operations. A relatively small number
of adjusters represent the insured rather than
the insurance company. These "public ad­
justers” usually are retained by banks, finan­
cial organizations, and other business firms
to handle fire and other losses to property.
They negotiate claims against insurance
companies and deal with adjusters for such
Most claim examiners worked for life in­
surance companies in large cities, such as
New York, San Francisco, Chicago, Dallas,
and Philadelphia, where most home offices
are located.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and

Recording the details of damage assists agents in accurately estimating repair costs.

Although a growing number of insur­
ance companies prefer claim representa­
tives to have a college degree, many hire
those without college training, particularly
if they have specialized experience. For ex­
ample, persons experienced in automobile

repair may qualify as auto adjusters, and
those with clerical experience might be
hired as inside adjusters.
No specific field of college study is recom­
mended. Although courses in insurance, eco­
nomics, or other business subjects are help­
ful, a major in almost any college field is
adequate preparation. An adjuster who has a
business or accounting background might
specialize in financial loss from business in­
terruption or damage to merchandise. Col­
lege training in engineering is helpful in ad­
justing industrial claims. A legal background
is most helpful to those handling workers’
compensation and product liability cases.
Most large insurance companies provide
beginning claim adjusters and examiners onthe-job training and home study courses.
Claim representatives are encouraged to take
courses designed to enhance their profes­
sional skills. For example, the Insurance In­
stitute of America offers a six-semester study
program leading to an associate degree in
claims adjusting upon successful completion
of six examinations. Adjusters can prepare
for these examinations by independent home
study or through company or public classes.
A professional Certificate in Insurance Ad­
justing also is available from the College of
Insurance in New York City.
The Life Office Management Association
(LOMA), in cooperation with the Interna­
tional Claim Association, offers a claims edu­
cation program for life and health examiners.
The program is part of the LOMA Institute
Insurance Education Program leading to the
professional designation, FLMI (Fellow, Life
Management Institute) upon successful com­
pletion of eight written examinations.
About three-fourths of the States require
adjusters to be licensed. Despite wide varia­
tion in State licensing requirements, appli­
cants usually must comply with one or more
of the following: Pass a written examination
covering the fundamentals of adjusting; fur­
nish character references; be 20 or 21 years of
age and a resident of the State; offer proof
that they have completed an approved course
in insurance or loss adjusting; and file a
surety bond.
Because they often work closely with
claimants, witnesses, and other insurance
professionals, representatives must be able to
adapt to many different persons and situa­
tions. They should be able to communicate
effectively and gain the respect and coopera­
tion of people from different backgrounds.
For example, when adjusters’ evaluations of
claims differ from those of the persons who
have suffered the loss, they should be able to
explain their conclusions tactfully. Examin­
ers need to be familiar with medical and legal
terms and practices and Federal and State
insurance laws and regulations. Because they
may have to check premium payments, pol­
icy values, and other numerical items in proc­
essing a claim, examiners should be adept at
making mathematical calculations. Both ad­


justers and examiners should have a good
memory and enjoy working with details.

process more claims, especially routine ones
and those that arise under group policies.

Beginning adjusters and examiners work
on small claims under the supervision of an
experienced worker. As they learn more
about claim investigation and settlement,
they are assigned claims that are higher in
loss value and more difficult. Trainees are
promoted as they demonstrate competence in
handling assignments and as they progress in
their course work. Because of the complexity
of insurance regulations and claims proce­
dures, workers who lack formal academic
training may advance more slowly than those
with 2 years or more of college. Employees
who show unusual competence in claims
work or outstanding administrative skills
may be promoted to department supervisor
in a field office or to a managerial position in
the home office. Qualified adjusters and ex­
aminers sometimes transfer to other depart­
ments, such as underwriting or sales.


Employment O utlook
Employment of claim representatives is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s as the num­
ber of insurance claims continues to increase.
In addition to jobs created by growth in the
need for these workers, many jobs will result
from the need to replace workers who die,
retire, or transfer to other jobs.
Several factors point to a growing volume
of insurance and a resulting need for claim
adjusters. Over the next decade a steadily
rising number of workers will be entering
their most productive years. These workers
and their families are likely to seek insurance
protection as they purchase homes, automo­
biles, and other consumer durables. New or
expanding businesses will need protection for
new plants and equipment and for insurance
covering their employees’ health and safety.
As more people live and work in densely
populated areas, the increased risk of auto­
mobile accident, fire, or theft should result in
a greater number of claims.
As ways of doing business continue to
change, the demand for certain kinds of
claim adjusters will be stronger than for oth­
ers. For example, the growing trend toward
drive-in claim centers and claim handling by
telephone should reduce the demand for au­
tomobile adjusters while it stimulates de­
mand for inside adjusters. Independent ad­
justers who specialize in automobile damage
claims should continue to suffer some loss of
business. Prospects should be excellent, how­
ever, for adjusters who specialize in highly
complex types of business insurance such as
marine cargo, workers’ compensation, and
product liability.
A similar situation exists for claim examin­
ers. Employment of examiners in casualty
companies should rise about as fast as for
adjusters; however, much slower growth is
expected for life insurance examiners as in­
creased use of computers enables them to

According to a survey of property and lia­
bility companies, claim adjusters averaged
about $14,760 a year in 1978; inside adjusters
earned average salaries of about $11,215.
Most public adjusters are paid a percentage
of the amount of the settlement—generally
10 percent. Adjusters are furnished a com­
pany car or are reimbursed for use of their
own vehicles for business purposes. Salaries
of claim adjusters are about one and one-half
times the average earnings for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry, except
farming; salaries of inside adjusters are
slightly above the average for all nonsupervisory workers.
A survey of life insurance companies by
the Life Office Management Association re­
vealed that claim examiners earned average
salaries of $13,870 a year in 1978. According
to the survey of property and liability compa­
nies, casualty claim examiners averaged $17,100. Claim supervisors in casualty companies
and life companies averaged $18,650 a year.
Claim examiners earn more than one and
one-half times the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry, except
Most insurance companies have liberal va­
cation policies and other employee benefits.

Related O ccupations
Other workers who have to make critical
decisions on the basis of financial data in­
clude auditors, loan officers, credit manag­
ers, and real estate appraisers.

Sources o f Additional Information
General information about a career as a
claim examiner or adjuster is available from
the home offices of many life and property
and liability insurance companies.
Information about licensing requirements
for claim adjusters may be obtained from the
department of insurance in each State.
•• •
Information about career opportunities in
these occupations also may be obtained from:
Insurance Information Institute, 110 William St.,
New York, N.Y. 10038.
American Alliance of Insurance, 20 N. Wacker
Dr., Chicago, 111. 60606. f t ' -- '- .’. - f o , - > . ’-r ■
- ij
The National Association of Independent Insurers,
Public Relations Department, 2600 River Rd., Des
Plaines, *111. 60018.: ,-i'■■■■ -.* 1* 1■ -y, ■■■■ V a t - . ; * - : ;. •
For information about public insurance
adjusting, contact:
National Association of Public Adjusters, 1613
Munsey Building, Baltimore, Md. 21202.


- -


' '





Career information on life insurance claim
examining is available from:
American Council of Life Insurance, 1850 K St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

Deciding on a career in the clergy involves
considerations different from those involved
in other career choices. When persons choose
to enter the ministry, priesthood, or rabbin­
ate, they do so primarily because they possess
a strong religious faith and a desire to help
others. Nevertheless, it is important to know
as much as possible about the profession and
how to prepare for it, the kind of life it offers,
and its needs for personnel.
The number of clergy needed depends
largely on the number of people who partici­
pate in organized religious groups. This af­
fects the number of churches and synagogues
established and pulpits to be filled. In addi­
tion to the clergy who serve congregations,
many others teach or act as administrators in
seminaries and in other educational institu­
tions; still others serve as chaplains in the
Armed Forces, industry, correctional institu­
tions, hospitals, or on college campuses; or
render service as missionaries or in social
welfare agencies.
Persons considering a career in the clergy
should seek the counsel of a religious leader

of their faith to aid in evaluating their qualifi­
cations. The most important of these are a
deep religious belief and a desire to serve the
spiritual needs of others. The priest, minister,
or rabbi also is expected to be a model of
moral and ethical conduct. A person consid­
ering one of these fields must realize that the
civic, social, and recreational activities of a
member of the clergy often are influenced
and restricted by the customs and attitudes of
the community.
The clergy should be sensitive to the needs
of others and able to help them deal with
these needs. The job demands an ability to
speak and write effectively, to organize, and
to supervise others. The person entering this
field also must enjoy studying because the
ministry is an occupation which requires
continuous learning. In addition, the minis­
try demands considerable initiative and selfdiscipline.
More detailed information on the clergy in
the three largest faiths in the United States—
Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Jewish—is
given in the following statements, prepared

in cooperation with leaders of these faiths.
Information on the clergy in other faiths may
be obtained directly from leaders of the re­
spective groups.

Protestant Ministers
(D.O.T. 120.007-010)

Nature o f the W ork
Protestant ministers lead their congrega­
tions in worship services and administer the
various rites in their churches, such as bap­
tism, confirmation, and Holy Communion.
They prepare and deliver sermons and give
religious instruction. They also perform mar­
riages; conduct funerals; counsel individuals
who seek guidance; visit the sick, aged, and
handicapped at home and in the hospital;
comfort the bereaved; and serve church
members in other ways. Many Protestant
ministers write articles for publication, give
speeches, and engage in interfaith, commu­
nity, civic, educational, and recreational ac­
tivities sponsored by or related to the inter­
ests of the church. Some ministers teach in
seminaries, colleges, and universities.
The services that ministers conduct dif­
fer among Protestant denominations and
also among congregations within a denomi­
nation. In many denominations, ministers
follow a traditional order of worship; in
others, they adapt the services to the needs
of youth and other groups within the con­
gregation. Most services include Bible
reading, hymn singing, prayers, and a ser­
mon. In some denominations, Bible read­
ing by a member of the congregation and
individual testimonials may constitute a
large part of the service.
Ministers serving small congregations gen­
erally work on a personal basis with their
parishioners. Those serving large congrega­
tions have greater administrative respon­
sibilities and spend considerable time work­
ing with committees, church officers, and
staff, besides performing their other duties.
They may have one or more associates or
assistants who share specific aspects of the
ministry, such as a minister of education who
assists in educational programs for different
age groups, or a minister of music.

W orking Conditions

Minister conducting worship services.

Ministers are “on call” for any serious
troubles or emergencies that involve or affect
members of their churches. They also may
work long and irregular hours in administra­
tive, educational, and community service ac­

Many of the ministers’ duties are sedentary
in nature, such as reading or researching in
a study or a library while preparing sermons
or writing articles.
In denominations such as the Methodist
Church, ministers are subject to reassign­
ment by a central body to a new pastorate
every few years.

P laces o f Employment
In 1978, most of the 190,000 Protestant
ministers served individual congregations.
Some also worked in closely related fields
such as chaplains in hospitals and the Armed
Forces. The greatest number of clergy are
affiliated with the five largest groups of
churches—Baptist, United Methodist, Luth­
eran, Presbyterian, and Episcopal.

ence in church work under the supervision of
a faculty member or experienced minister.
Some institutions offer doctor of ministry de­
grees to students who have completed 1 year
or more of additional study after serving at
least a year as minister. Scholarships and
loans are available for students of theological
In general, each large denomination has its
own school or schools of theology that reflect
its particular doctrine, interests, and needs.
However, many of these schools are open to
students from other denominations. Several
interdenominational schools associated with
universities give both undergraduate and
graduate training covering a wide range of
theological points of view.
Persons who have denominational qualifi­
cations for the ministry usually are ordained
after graduation from a seminary. In denomi­
nations that do not require seminary train­
ing, clergy are ordained at various appointed
times. For example, the Evangelical minister
may be ordained with only a high school edu­

All cities and most towns in the United
States have at least one Protestant church
with a full-time minister. Some churches em­
ploy part-time ministers; many part-time
clergy are seminary students, ministers
retired from full-time pastoral responsibili­
ties, or those who also have secular jobs. Al­
though most ministers are located in urban
areas, many live in less densely populated
areas where they may serve two or more con­

Men and women entering the clergy often
begin their careers as pastors of small congre­
gations or as assistant pastors in large

Training and Other Q ualifications

Employment O utlook

Educational requirements for entry into
the Protestant ministry vary greatly. Some
denominations have no formal educational
requirements, and others ordain persons hav­
ing varying amounts and types of training in
Bible colleges, Bible institutes, or liberal arts

The anticipated slow growth in church
membership combined with pressures of ris­
ing costs and inadequate financial support
are expected to result in only limited growth
in requirements for ministers. However, the
number of persons being ordained has been
increasing and is likely to continue to do so.
As a result, new graduates of theological
schools are expected to face increasing com­
petition in finding positions and more ex­
perienced ministers will face competition in
their efforts to move to large congregations
with greater responsibility and more remu­
neration. The supply-demand situation will
vary among denominations, with more favor­
able prospects for ministers in Evangelical
churches. Most of the openings for clergy
that are expected through the 1980’s will
therefore result from the need to replace
those in existing positions who retire, die, or
leave the ministry.

In 1978, there were 146 American theo­
logical institutes accredited by the Associa­
tion of Theological Schools in the United
States and Canada. These admit only stu­
dents who have received a bachelor’s degree
or its equivalent with a liberal arts major
from an accredited college. Many denomi­
nations require a 3-year course of profes­
sional study in one of these accredited
schools or seminaries after college gradua­
tion. The degree of master of divinity is
awarded upon completion.
Recommended preseminary or under­
graduate college courses include English, his­
tory, philosophy, the natural sciences, social
sciences, the fine arts, music, religion, and
foreign languages. These courses provide a
knowledge of modem social, cultural, and
scientific institutions and problems. How­
ever, students considering theological study
should contact, at the earliest possible date,
the schools to which they intend to apply, to
learn how to prepare for the program they
expect to enter.
The standard curriculum for accredited
theological schools consists of four major cat­
egories: Biblical, historical, theological, and
practical. Courses of a practical nature such
as psychology, religious education, and ad­
ministration are emphasized. Many accred­
ited schools require that students gain experi­


Newly ordained Protestant ministers who
do not have a parish have these alternatives:
Working in youth counseling, family rela­
tions, and welfare organizations; teaching in
religious educational institutions; and serv­
ing as chaplains in the Armed Forces, hospi­
tals, universities, and correctional institu­

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Salaries of Protestant clergy vary substan­
tially, depending on age, experience, denomi­
nation, size and wealth of congregation, and
geographic location. The estimated median
annual income of Protestant ministers, in­
cluding housing allowance, was about $13,000 in 1978.

Sources o f Additional Information
Persons who are interested in entering the
Protestant ministry should seek the counsel
of a minister or church guidance worker.
Each theological school can supply informa­
tion on admission requirements. Prospective
ministers also should contact the ordination
supervision body of their particular denomi­
nation for information on special require­
ments for ordination.

(D.O.T. 120.007-010)

Nature o f the W ork
Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of their
congregations and teachers and interpreters
of Jewish law and tradition. They conduct
religious services and deliver sermons on
the Sabbath and on Jewish holidays. Like
other clergy, rabbis conduct weddings and
funeral services, visit the sick, help the
poor, comfort the bereaved, supervise reli­
gious education programs, engage in inter­
faith activities, and involve themselves in
community affairs.
Rabbis serving large congregations may
spend considerable time in administrative
duties, working with their staffs and commit­
tees. Large congregations frequently have an
associate or assistant rabbi. Many assistant
rabbis serve as educational directors.
Nearly all rabbis serve Orthodox, Con­
servative, or Reform congregations. Re­
gardless^ of their particular point of view,
all Jewish congregations preserve the sub­
stance of Jewish religious worship. Congre­
gations differ in the extent to which they
follow the traditional form of worship—for
example, in the wearing of head coverings,
the use of Hebrew as the language of
prayer, or the use of music or a choir. The
format of the worship service and, there­
fore, the ritual that the rabbis use may
vary even among congregations belonging
to the same branch of Judaism.
Rabbis also may write for religious and lay
publications, and teach in theological semi­
naries, colleges, and universities.

W orking Conditions
Rabbis work long hours and are “on call”
to visit the sick, comfort the bereaved, and
provide counseling to those who need it.
Community and educational activities may
also require long or irregular hours.
Some of their duties are intellectual and
sedentary, such as study of religious texts and
researching and writing sermons and articles
for publication.
Rabbis have a good deal of independent
authority, since there is no formal hierarchy
among them. They are responsible only to
the Board of Trustees of the congregations
they serve.

ers of small congregations, assistants to ex­
perienced rabbis, directors of Hillel Founda­
tions on college campuses, teachers in
seminaries and other educational institu­
tions, or chaplains in the Armed Forces. As
a rule, the pulpits of large and well-estab­
lished Jewish congregations are filled by ex­
perienced rabbis.

Employment O utlook
The employment outlook for rabbis varies
among the three major branches of Judaism.
Reform rabbis may face competition for
available positions. As a result, the Hebrew
Union College—Jewish Institute of Religion,
the only seminary that trains rabbis for the
Reform branch of Judaism, has begun to
limit enrollments by raising admission stan­

Rabbi telling Bible stories to nursery school children in his congregation.

Places o f Employment
About 4,000 persons were employed as
rabbis in 1978; approximately 1,550 were Or­
thodox rabbis, 1,350 were Conservative, and
1,200 Reform. Some work as chaplains in the
military services, in hospitals and other insti­
tutions, or in one of the many Jewish commu­
nity service agencies. Others are employed in
colleges and universities as teachers in Jewish
Studies programs.
Although rabbis serve Jewish communities
throughout the Nation, they are concen­
trated in those States that have large Jewish
populations, particularly New York, Califor­
nia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Florida, Illi­
nois, Massachusetts, Maryland including the
Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, and

Training and Other Q ualifications
To become eligible for ordination as a
rabbi, a student must complete a course of
study in a seminary. Entrance requirements
and the curriculum depend upon the branch
of Judaism with which the seminary is as­
About 30 seminaries train Orthodox rab­
bis. The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological
Seminary and the Hebrew Teachers College
of Skokie are the two seminaries in the
United States that have formal 3-year ordina­
tion programs and require a bachelor’s de­
gree for entry. Most Orthodox rabbis, how­
ever, are ordained informally in seminaries
with programs of varying length, depending
on the individual student. There are no for­
mal requirements for admission to these
seminaries, nor are any degrees granted.
When students have become sufficiently
learned in the Talmud, the Bible, and other
religious studies, they may be ordained with
approval of three authorized rabbis.

The Hebrew Union College—Jewish In­
stitute of Religion is the official seminary
that trains rabbis for the Reform branch of
Judaism. It is the only major branch that
has approved the training and ordination of
women as rabbis. In 1978, about 20 percent
of the 200 Reform seminarians were
The Jewish Theological Seminary of
America is the official seminary that trains
rabbis for the Conservative branch of Juda­
ism. Both seminaries require the completion
of a 4-year college course, as well as earlier
preparation in Jewish studies, for admission
to the rabbinic program leading to ordina­
tion. Normally 5 years of study are required
to complete the rabbinic course at the Re­
form seminary, including 1 year of prepara­
tory study in Jerusalem. Exceptionally wellprepared students can shorten this 5-year
period to a minimum of 3 years. A student
having a strong background in Jewish studies
can complete the course at the Conservative
seminary in 4 years; for other enrollees, the
course may take as long as 6 years.
In general, the curriculums of Jewish theo­
logical seminaries provide students with a
comprehensive knowledge of the Bible, Tal­
mud, Rabbinic literature, Jewish history, the­
ology, and courses in education, pastoral psy­
chology, and public speaking. Students of the
Reform seminary get extensive practical
training in dealing with the social and politi­
cal problems in the community. Training for
alternatives to the pulpit, such as leadership
in community services and religious educa­
tion, increasingly is stressed.
Some seminaries grant advanced academic
degrees in fields such as Biblical and Tal­
mudic research. All Jewish theological semi­
naries make scholarships and loans available.
Newly ordained rabbis usually begin as lead­

Orthodox clergy already encounter keen
competition, attributable in large part to the
informal ordination process. More Orthodox
rabbis have been involved in teaching in reli­
gious schools at various levels than in pulpit
work, and this is expected to continue. Many
will also have to seek employment in secular
Rabbis in the Conservative branch of Ju­
daism, on the other hand, will have very good
employment opportunities, if present trends

Incomes vary depending on the size and
financial status of the congregation, as well as
its denominational branch and geographic lo­
cation. Rabbis usually earn additional in­
come from gifts or fees for officiating at cere­
monies such as weddings.
In 1978, the annual earnings of rabbis gen­
erally ranged from $15,000 to $35,000, in­
cluding housing allowance. Earnings of Or­
thodox rabbis tend to be at the lower end of
the scale; earnings of Conservative and Re­
form rabbis tend to be at the upper end of the
scale. Some senior rabbis in large congrega­
tions earn upward of $50,000 a year.

Sources of Additional Information
Persons who are interested in becoming
rabbis should discuss their plans for a voca­
tion with a practicing rabbi. Information on
the work of rabbis and allied occupations can
be obtained from:
The Jewish Theological Seminary of America,
(Conservative), 3080 Broadway, New York, N.Y.
The Rabbi Issac Elchanan Theological Seminary,
an affiliate of Yeshiva University, (Orthodox),
2540 Amsterdam Ave., New York, N.Y. 10033.
Hebrew Union College—Jewish Institute of Reli­
gion, (Reform), whose three campuses are located
at 1 W. 4th St., New York, N.Y. 10012; at 3101
Clifton Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio 45220; and at 3077
University Mall, Los Angeles, Calif. 90007;
Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, 2308 N.
Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19132.

Roman Catholic
(D.O.T. 120.007-010)

Nature o f the Work
Roman Catholic priests attend to the
spiritual, pastoral, moral, and educational
needs of the members of their church. Their
duties involve delivering sermons; adminis­
tering the sacraments of marriage and of pen­
ance, and presiding at liturgical functions,
such as funeral services. They also comfort
the sick, console and counsel those in need of
guidance, and assist the poor.
Their day usually begins with morning
meditation and Mass, and may end with the
hearing of confessions or an evening visit to
a hospital or a home. Many priests direct and
serve on church committees, work in civic
and charitable organizations, and assist in
community projects.
There are two main classifications of
priests—diocesan (secular) and religious.
Both types have the same powers acquired
through ordination by a bishop. The differ­
ences lie in their way of life, the type of
work to which they are assigned, and the
church authority to whom they are immedi­
ately subject. Diocesan priests generally
work as individuals in parishes assigned to
them by the bishop of their diocese. Reli­
gious priests generally work as part of a reli­
gious order, such as the Jesuits, Domini­
cans, or Franciscans. They may engage in
specialized activities, such as teaching or
missionary work, assigned to them by su­
periors of their order.
Both religious and diocesan priests hold
teaching and administrative posts in Catholic
seminaries, colleges and universities, and
high schools. Priests attached to religious or­
ders staff a large proportion of the church’s
institutions of higher education and many
high schools, whereas diocesan priests are
usually concerned with the parochial schools
attached to parish churches and with dioce­
san high schools. The members of religious
orders do most of the missionary work con­
ducted by the Catholic Church in this coun­
try and abroad.

Roman Catholic Priests attend to spiritual needs of members of their church.

W orking Conditions

emergency situations. They also have many
intellectual duties including study of the
scriptures and keeping up with current reli­
gious and secular events in order to prepare
sermons. Diocesan priests are responsible to
the bishop in the diocese.

Priests spend long and irregular hours
working for the church and the community.

Places of Employment

Religious priests are assigned duties by
their superiors in their particular orders.
Some religious priests serve as missionaries in
foreign countries where they may live under
difficult and primitive conditions. Some reli­
gious priests live a communal life in monaste­
ries where they devote themselves to prayer,
study, and assigned work.
Diocesan priests ordinarily serve church
members in parishes and they are “on call”
at all hours to serve their parishioners in

There were approximately 58,000 priests
in 1978. There are priests in nearly every city
and town and in many rural communities.
The majority are in metropolitan areas,
where most Catholics reside. Catholics are
concentrated in the Northeast and Great
Lakes regions, with smaller concentrations in
California, Texas, and Louisiana. Large
numbers of priests are located in communi­
ties near Catholic educational and other in­

Training and Other Q ualifications
Preparation for the priesthood generally
requires 8 years of study beyond high
school. There are over 450 seminaries
where students receive training for the
priesthood. Preparatory study may begin in
the first year of high school, at the college
level, or in theological seminaries after col­
lege graduation.
High school seminaries provide a college
preparatory program that emphasizes En­
glish grammar, speech, literature, and social
studies. Some study of Latin is required and
the study of modern language is encouraged.
The seminary college offers a liberal arts pro­
gram, stressing philosophy and religion; the
study of man through the behavioral sciences
and history; and the natural sciences and
mathematics. In many college seminaries, a

student may concentrate in any of these
The remaining 4 years of preparation in­
clude sacred scripture; dogmatic, moral, and
pastoral theology; homiletics (art of preach­
ing); church history; liturgy (Mass); and
canon law. Fieldwork experience usually is
also required; in recent years, this aspect of
a priest’s training has been emphasized. Di­
ocesan and religious priests attend different
major seminaries, where slight variations in
the training reflect the differences in the type
of work expected of them as priests. Priests
commit themselves not to marry.
Postgraduate work in theology is offered at
a number of American Catholic universities
or at ecclesiastical universities around the
world, particularly in Rome. Also, many
priests do graduate work in fields unrelated
to theology. Priests are encouraged by the
Catholic Church to continue their studies, at
least informally, after ordination. In recent
years, continuing education for ordained
priests has stressed social sciences, such as
sociology and psychology.
Young men never are denied entry into
seminaries because of lack of funds. In semi­
naries for secular priests, scholarships or
loans are available. Those in religious semi­
naries are financed by contributions of bene­
The first assignment of a newly ordained
secular priest is usually that of assistant pas­
tor or curate. Newly ordained priests of reli­
gious orders are assigned to the specialized
duties for which they are trained. Depending
on the talents, interests, and experience of the
individual, many opportunities for greater re­
sponsibility exist within the church.

000 a year. The diocesan priest also may re­
ceive a car allowance of $25 to $50 a month,
free room and board in the parish rectory,
and fringe benefits such as group insurance
and retirement benefits in the diocese.
Religious priests take a vow of poverty and
are supported by their religious order.
Priests who do special work related to the
church, such as teaching, usually receive a
partial salary which is less than a lay person
in the same position would receive. The dif­
ference between the usual salary for these
jobs and the salary that the priest receives is
called “contributed service.” In some of these
situations, housing and related expenses may
be provided; in other cases, the priest must
make his own arrangements. Some priests
doing special work may receive the same
compensation that a lay person would re­

Sources o f Additional Information
Young men interested in entering the
priesthood should seek the guidance and
counsel of their parish priests. For informa­
tion regarding the different religious orders
and the secular priesthood, as well as a list of
the seminaries which prepare students for the
priesthood, contact the diocesan Directors of
Vocations through the office of the local pas­
tor or bishop.

College Student
Personnel Workers
(D.O.T. 045.107-010, -018, -026, -038; 090.107 through
.167 exc. 117-022; 129.107-018; 166.167-014)

Employment O utlook
More priests will be needed in the years
ahead to provide for the spiritual, educa­
tional, and social needs of the increasing
number of Catholics. During the past decade,
the number of ordained priests has been in­
sufficient to fill the needs of newly estab­
lished parishes and other Catholic institu­
tions, and to replace priests who retire or die.
This situation is likely to persist and perhaps
worsen, if the sharp drop in seminary enroll­
ment continues.
In response to the shortage of priests, cer­
tain functions within the church, tradition­
ally performed by priests are now being per­
formed by lay deacons, and this trend is
expected to increase in the future. Priests will
continue to offer Mass, administer the sacra­
ments, and hear confession, but probably will
be less involved in teaching, administrative,
and community work. An increasing number
of lay deacons are being ordained to preach
and perform liturgical functions such as dis­
tributing holy communion and reading the
gospel at the Mass.

Diocesan priests’ salaries vary from dio­
cese to diocese and range from $2,000 to $6,

Nature o f the W ork
A student’s choice of a particular institu­
tion of higher education is influenced by
many factors. Availability of a specific edu­
cational program, quality of the school, cost,
and location all may play important roles.
For many students, however, an equally
important factor is the institution’s ability to
provide for their housing, social, cultural,
and recreational needs. Developing and ad­
ministering these services are the tasks of col­
lege student personnel workers. The admis­
sions officer, the registrar, the dean of
students, and the career planning and place­
ment counselor are probably the best known
among these. Other workers who make up
this broad occupational field include student
activities and college union personnel, stu­
dent housing officers, counselors in the col­
lege counseling center, financial aid officers,
and foreign student advisers.
Titles of student personnel workers vary
from institution to institution, from program
to program within a single school, and with
the level of responsibility within a student
personnel program. The more common titles
include dean, director, officer, associate
dean, assistant director, and counselor.

The dean o f students, or the vice president
for student affairs, heads the student person­
nel program at a school. Among his or her
duties are evaluating the changing needs of
the students and helping the president of the
college develop institutional policies. For ex­
ample, to meet the needs of an increasing
number of older, part-time students, colleges
and universities have been changing their
policies concerning areas such as student
housing and student participation in deci­
sions on graduation requirements and course
offerings. In addition, the dean of students
generally coordinates a staff of associate or
assistant deans who are in charge of specific
programs that deal directly with the stu­
Admissions counselors interview and eval­
uate prospective students and process their
applications. They may travel extensively to
recruit high school, junior college, and older
students and to acquaint them with oppor­
tunities available at their college. They work
closely with faculty, administrators, financial
aid personnel, and public relations staffs to
determine policies for recruiting and admit­
ting students.
Personnel in the office of the registrar
maintain the academic records of students
and provide current enrollment statistics to
those who require them both within the col­
lege and in the community.
Student financial aid personnel help stu­
dents obtain financial support for their edu­
cation. Workers in this field must keep well
informed about the sources and management
of all forms of financial aid—scholarships,
grants, loans, employment, fellowships, and
teaching and research assistantships. They
work closely with administrators and the ad­
missions, counseling, business, and academic
office staffs.
Career planning and placement counse­
lors, sometimes called college placement of­
ficers, assist students in career selections and
also may help them get part-time and sum­
mer jobs. On many campuses, they arrange
for prospective employers to visit the school
to discuss their personnel needs and to inter­
view applicants. For further information on
this field, see the chapter on college career
planning and placement counselors.
The student personnel staff in charge of
student activities work with members of pro­
posed and established student organizations,
especially with student government. They
help the student groups to plan, implement,
and evaluate their activities. Often, the stu­
dent activities staff will assist in the orienta­
tion of new students.
College union staff members work with
students to provide intellectual, cultural, and
recreational programs. Many college union
staff members direct the operation of the
physical facilities and services of the college
union building, such as food and recreational
services, building maintenance, fiscal plan­
ning, and conference facilities.
Student housing officers sometimes live in

Other specialized training also may be re­
quired for some student personnel occupa­
tions. A master’s degree in clinical or coun­
seling psychology usually is required for
work as a college counselor. This degree also
is helpful in other student personnel fields
such as career planning and placement. Fa­
miliarity with data processing is an asset, es­
pecially for work in admissions, records, or
financial aid.
Previous experience in college administra­
tion is desirable. Many graduate students ob­
tain this experience by working part time in
residence halls or in financial aid or admis­
sions offices, sometimes as part of a work/study program. Participation in student gov­
ernment as an undergraduate also provides
useful exposure.

Financial aid personnel must be well informed about all sources of financial aid.

the dormitories and, in general, help the stu­
dents to live together in harmony. They may
serve as counselors to individual students
with personal problems. Housing officers
also may be involved in managing the fiscal,
food service, and housekeeping operations of
student residences.
Counselors help students with personal,
educational, and vocational problems. Stu­
dents may come to the counselors on their
own or be referred by a faculty member, a
residence hall counselor, or a friend. Coun­
seling needs may arise from lack of self-confi­
dence or motivation on the part of the stu­
dent, failure in academic work, desire to
leave college or transfer to another college,
inability to get along with others, loneliness,
drug abuse, or marriage problems. In addi­
tion, there is a growing trend for counselors
to try to reach more students by establishing
group sensitivity sessions and telephone
“hotlines.” Counselors often administer tests
that indicate aptitudes and interests to stu­
dents having trouble understanding them­
selves. Some also teach in the college or assist
with admissions, orientation, and training of
residence hall staff. For further information
on this field, see the chapter on psychologists
that appears elsewhere in the Handbook.
Foreign student advisers administer and
coordinate many of the services that help to
insure a successful academic and social expe­
rience for students from other countries.
They usually assist with foreign student ad­
missions, orientation, financial aid, housing,
English as a foreign language, academic and
personal counseling, student-community re­
lationships, job placement, and alumni rela­
tions. In addition, they may work as an ad­
viser for international associations and
nationality groups and for U.S. students in­
terested in study, educational travel, work, or
service projects abroad.

W orking Conditions
Students are not always available for con­
sultation or meetings during the day, so eve­
ning and weekend work is common. And
since the workflow at a college may be irregu­
lar, college student personnel workers some­
times face hectic periods where they work
more than 40 hours a week. Registrars, for
example, are especially busy during the
weeks immediately preceding and including
registration, while admissions counselors at
private institutions may work long hours in
early spring, as the deadline for determining
next year’s student body approaches.

P laces o f Employment
An estimated 55,000 college student per­
sonnel workers were employed in 1978.
Every college and university, whether a 2year or a 4-year school, has a staff perform­
ing student personnel functions. They are
not always organized as a unified program.
Large colleges and universities generally
have specialized staffs for each personnel
function. In many small colleges, a few per­
sons may carry out the entire student per­
sonnel program.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
Because of the diversity in duties, the edu­
cation and backgrounds of college student
personnel workers vary considerably. Gener­
ally, however, a master’s degree is preferred
and a doctoral degree may be necessary for
advancement to toplevel positions. Schools
often prefer persons who have a bachelor’s
degree in a social science, such as economics
or history, and a master’s degree in student
personnel work. In 1978, over 100 colleges
and universities offered graduate programs in
this area.

College student personnel workers must be
interested in, and able to work with, people
of all backgrounds and ages. They must have
the patience to cope with conflicting view­
points of students, faculty, and parents. Peo­
ple in this field often deal with the unex­
pected and the unusual; therefore, emotional
stability and the ability to function while
under pressure are necessities.
Entry level positions usually are those of
student activities advisers, admissions
counselors, financial aid counselors, resi­
dence hall directors, and assistants to deans.
Persons who do not have graduate degrees
may find advancement opportunities limited.
A doctorate usually is necessary for the top
student personnel positions.

Employment O utlook
The employment outlook for college stu­
dent personnel workers is likely to be some­
what competitive through the 1980’s. Tight­
ening budgets in both public and private
colleges and universities are expected to limit
growth in employment. Student personnel
positions least likely to be affected if some
reduction becomes necessary are those in ad­
missions and financial aid. Most openings
will result from the need to replace personnel
who transfer to other positions, retire, or
leave the field for other reasons.
Any employment growth that does occur
is expected to be in junior and community
colleges. Enrollment at this level of education
has been rising and many new schools have
opened. If this trend continues, some addi­
tional student personnel workers will be
needed in 2-year institutions.

In 1978, annual salaries averaged $37,800
for presidents and chancellors, $28,100 for
deans, $20,600 for counseling directors, $20,300 for admissions directors, $18,000 for reg­
istrars, $17,900 for placement directors, $16,800 for financial aid directors, and $16,700
for housing directors, according to a survey
by the National Center for Education Statis­
tics. Salaries vary greatly, however, depend­
ing on geographic location and the size of the

Employment in these occupations usually
is on a 12-month basis. In many schools, col­
lege student personnel workers are entitled to
retirement, group medical and life insurance,
and sabbatical and other benefits.

Related Occupations
Secondary and elementary schools also
need a variety of administrative workers to
operate effectively. Included in this group are
superintendents, principals, deans, guidance
counselors, and school psychologists.

Extension Service
(D.O.T. 096.121, .127, .161, and .167)

Nature o f the W ork
Cooperative Extension Service workers, or
extension agents as they are often called, con­
duct educational programs for rural residents
in areas such as agriculture, home econom­
ics, youth activities, and community resource
development. Extension agents generally spe­
cialize in one of these areas and have titles
that match their specialties, such as extension
agent for youth activities or extension agent
for agriculture science and horticulture.
They are employed jointly by State landgrant universities and the U.S. Department
of Agriculture.

Many extension agents specialize in developing programs for young people.

In addition to group work, agents also do
fieldwork with individuals. If a farmer is hav­
ing a problem with crops, an extension agent
will visit the farm, examine the problem, and
suggest remedies. Likewise, home economics
extension agents occasionally visit homemak­
ers to give personal help in solving problems.

Extension agents usually work with groups
of people. For example, the extension agent
for youth activities leads meetings of local
4-H clubs, and during the summer, may plan
and organize day camps to provide recrea­
tional activities for young people. Agents
who work in home economics set up commu­
nity meetings and programs on subjects of
interest to homemakers. For example, they
may discuss the benefits of good nutrition
and offer advice on how to plan meals and
buy and prepare food. Agriculture science
extension agents conduct meetings on topics
of special interest to area farmers. In a county
which has much dairy farming, extension
agents arrange seminars on subjects such as
dairy herd health or the raising of forage
crops. During these seminars, agents teach
farmers how to selectthe proper feeds to meet
cows’ nutritional needs and raise their output
of milk, and how to recognize and combat
health hazards,including perhaps establish­
ing a herd-inspection program. They also
may help local farmers market their pro­

An important part of each extension
worker’s job is to provide information that is
important to people in the community. Many
extension agents write articles dealing with
their areas of specialization for local newspa­
pers. Often these are regular feature columns
that appear once a week. Other agents appear
on local radio and television shows to give
marketing reports for agricultural products
important to the area, or present Saturday
morning programs for young people. A few
extension service workers produce documen­
tary films on topics in which they have spe­
cial training for broadcast on local television
stations. Also, extension workers at some
land-grant universities produce and broad­
cast programs on university-owned UHF and
cable television stations.

Extension agents for community resource
development meet with community leaders
to plan and provide for economic develop­
ment of the community. They also assist
community leaders in developing recrea­
tional programs and facilities and in planning
other public projects, such as water supply
and sewage systems, libraries, and schools.

In addition to the extension service work­
ers at the county level, State extension spe­
cialists at land-grant universities coordinate
the efforts of county agents. State extension
agents keep abreast of the latest research in
their fields of study and develop ways of
using the research in extension work at the
county level. Some State extension workers

may be on a split assignment and teach at the
university. Also, about 200 agricultural ex­
tension specialists are employed by the Ex­
tension Service of the U.S. Department of
Agriculture in Washington, D.C.

W orking Conditions
Cooperative Extension Service workers
generally have very favorable working envi­
ronments. The job has variety. Agents do
much of their paperwork and planning in
offices, but they also spend considerable time
in the field. Agricultural extension agents, for
example, may not go into the office at all on
some days. Instead, they may visit farmers
and help them develop more productive
farming methods. They also may go to local
radio stations to tape their weekly radio
shows, or they may go to the State university
to attend seminars on recent developments.
Extension work is not a 9 to 5 job, how­
ever. Farmers, for example, often are not able
to attend meetings during the busy daylight
hours, so extension agents often must con­
duct informational meetings during the even­
ings. During these meetings, they may dis­
cuss new farming methods or how new laws
will affect farmers.
The job offers numerous opportunities for
personal satisfaction. Helping a farmer be­
come more productive or helping a family
develop better nutritional habits, can be re­

warding. Many extension agents also enjoy
being asked their opinions on a variety of

have a bachelor’s degree in their subject-mat­
ter field. In addition, training in educational
techniques and in a communications field,
such as journalism, is extremely helpful.

relay advances in farming practices from re­
searchers to farmers.

Often, they receive specific instruction in
extension work in a pre-induction training
program, and can improve their skills
through regular in-service training programs
P laces o f Employm ent
that cover both educational techniques and
the subject matter for which they are respon­
More than four-fifths of the approximately sible. Besides being proficient in their subject
16,000 Cooperative Extension Service agents matter, extension workers must like to work
in 1978 were employed by counties through­
with people and to help them.
out the United States. Almost all of the more
than 3,000 counties have county staffs. De­
In most States, specialists and agents as­
pending on the population of the county, signed to multicounty and State staff jobs are
staffs range in size from one agent, who required to have at least one advanced de­
serves a wide variety of interests, to a dozen gree, and, in many, they must have a Ph. D.
or more agents, each serving a highly special­
ized need. Most of the remaining extension Em ploym ent O utlook
agents are employed by State extension ser­
The employment of Cooperative Exten­
vices located on the campuses of land-grant
universities. A few work for regional staffs sion Service workers is expected to increase
serving multicounty areas, and a small num­ more slowly than the average for all occupa­
ber are employed by the Extension Service of tions through the 1980’s. Nevertheless, as ag­
the U.S. Department of Agriculture. In addi­ ricultural technology becomes more compli­
tion, a few work in urban areas, mostly or­ cated, more extension workers trained in
education and communications will be
ganizing 4-H activities for youth.
needed to disseminate information concern­
Training, Other Q ualifications, and ing advances in agricultural research and
technology to the farm population. Also,
modern farmers often are college educated
Cooperative Extension Service agents are and, thus, more likely to use innovative farm­
required to be proficient in disciplines related ing practices. This may increase the demand
to the needs of their clientele. They must for extension agents since extension agents

According to the limited data available,
county extension agents had average annual
earnings of just over $17,000 in 1978. Earn­
ings vary, however, by State, amount of edu­
cation, and experience. Earnings also vary
somewhat by area of specialization. Agricul­
tural extension agents and community re­
source development specialists, for example,
had the highest average annual earnings, al­
most $19,000, while home economics agents
and 4-H club agents each had average annual
earnings of under $16,000 in 1978.

Most extension service offices are located
in small towns. As a result, extension work
may be an ideal career for persons who wish
to live outside the city.


R elated O ccupations
Extension workers spend most of their
time working directly with others, passing on
new ideas and helping farmers implement
them. Other occupations that involve helping
people to help themselves include counselors,
dieticians, home economists, homemakers,
teachers, social workers, and agricultural
chemical salesworkers.

Sources o f Additional Information
Additional information is available from
County Extension offices, the State Director
of the Cooperative Extension Service located
at each land-grant university, or the Exten­
sion Service, U.S. Department of Agricul­
ture, Hyattsville, Md. 20782.

Counseling Occupations
At some point in their lives, most people
seek advice or assistance for personal, educa­
tional, or vocational problems. These prob­
lems may be relatively minor, such as a con­
flict in a student’s class schedule, or may
involve serious emotional or physical
disabilities. Regardless of the problem,
counselors often are the ones to whom people
turn for help.
Counselors may specialize in a specific
area and work setting. Some deal primarily
with school children, while others work only
with adults. Some counselors are trained to
assist in educational or vocational planning;
others help people deal with their day to day
problems. Whatever the area of specializa­
tion, counselors help people understand
themselves—their capabilities and potential
—so that they can make and carry out deci­
sions and plans for a satisfying and produc­
tive life.
This chapter covers four counseling spe­
cialties: School counseling, rehabilitation
Digitized60/ FRASER

counseling, employment counseling, and col­
lege career planning and placement.
School counselors are the largest counsel­
ing group. They are primarily concerned
with the personal, social, and educational de­
velopment of students.
Rehabilitation counselors help persons
with physical, mental, or social handicaps to
become more productive individuals.
Employment counselors advise people—
the unemployed or unskilled, for example—
who cannot find a job or have problems in
career choice and planning.
College career planning and placement
counselors help college students examine
their own interests, abilities, and goals; ex­
plore career alternatives; and make and fol­
low through with a career choice.
Persons who want to enter the counseling
field must be interested in helping people and
have an ability to understand their behavior.
A pleasant but strong personality that instills

confidence in clients is desirable. Counselors
also must be patient, sensitive to the needs of
others, and able to communicate orally as
well as in writing.
In addition, many psychologists, social
workers, and college student personnel work­
ers also do counseling. These and other fields
which entail some counseling, such as teach­
ing, health, law, religion, and personnel, are
described elsewhere in the Handbook.

School Counselors
(D.O.T. 045.107-010)

N ature o f the W ork
Uncertainty about a career choice, dif­
ficulty with a particular class, or an unhappy
home life are examples of problems that
many students face. Usually these problems
cannot be solved by the student alone; profes-

elementary school counselors spend much
time consulting with teachers and parents.
They also work closely with other staff mem­
bers of the school, including psychologists
and social workers.
Some school counselors, particularly in
secondary schools, teach classes in occupa­
tional information, social studies, or other
subjects. They also may supervise school
clubs or other extracurricular activities, often
after regular school hours.

W orking Conditions
Most school counselors work the tradi­
tional 10-month school year with a 2-month
vacation. They work closely with school ad­
ministrators, teachers, and parents as well as
students. Helping students solve specific
problems can be emotionally exhausting.

P laces o f Employment

School counselors help students gain a better understanding of their interests, abilities,
and personality characteristics.

sional assistance often is needed. Most
schools hire counselors to give individual at­
tention to students’ educational, career, and
social development.
The counselor’s role is to help students
understand themselves better—their abili­
ties, talents, personality characteristics, and
career options, for example. To accomplish
this, counselors may use tests and individual
or group counseling; sometimes they develop
specialized methods or seek the assistance of
community resource persons.
When helping students in career choices,
counselors often administer and evaluate
tests. Some counselors also have responsibil­
ity for a career information center and the
school’s career education program. The
counselor may, for example, suggest ways in
which a math teacher can incorporate into a
lesson information on occupations that re­
quire mathematics. Or the counselor may ar­
range field trips to factories and business
firms or show films which provide a view of
real work settings. The desired result is a
student who is more aware of careers that
match his or her talents, likes, and abilities
and who can, with the assistance of the coun­
selor, develop an educational and career
School counselors must keep up-to-date on
opportunities for educational and vocational
training beyond high school to counsel stu­
dents who want this information. They must
keep informed about training programs in 2and 4-year colleges; in trade, technical, and
business schools; apprenticeship programs;
and available federally supported programs.
Counselors also advise students about educa­
tional requirements for entry level jobs, job
changes caused by technological advances,
college entrance requirements, and places of

Counselors in junior high and high schools
often help students find part-time jobs, either
to enable them to stay in school or to help
them prepare for their vocation. They may
help both graduates and dropouts to find jobs
or may direct them to community employ­
ment services. They also may conduct sur­
veys to learn more about hiring experiences
of recent graduates and dropouts, local job
opportunities, or the effectiveness of the edu­
cational and guidance programs.
Counselors work with problems affecting
the school as a whole as well as those affect­
ing only one or two individuals. If drug abuse
is a problem, counselors may, for example,
initiate group counseling sessions to discuss
the dangers of taking drugs. Or they may
speak individually with students and their
Counselors work closely with other staff
members of the school, members of the com­
munity, and parents. Often, teachers and
counselors confer about problems affecting a
student or group of students. A teacher may
refer a student who appears to have problems
dealing with classmates to a counselor who
will attempt to find the cause. Counselors
may arrange meetings with parents or com­
munity agencies, such as mental health or­
ganizations, if a student’s problems are seri­
Elementary school counselors help chil­
dren to make the best use of their abilities by
identifying these and other basic aspects of
the child’s makeup at an early age, and by
evaluating any learning problems. Methods
used in counseling grade school children dif­
fer in many ways from those used with older
students. Observations of classroom and play
activity furnish clues about children in the
lower grades. To better understand children,

About 45,000 people worked full time as
public school counselors during 1978. Most
counselors work in large schools. An increas­
ing number of school districts, however, pro­
vide guidance services to their small schools
by assigning more than one school to a coun­

Training, O ther Q ualifications, and
Most States require school counselors to
have counseling and teaching certificates.
However, a growing number of States no
longer require teacher certification. Depend­
ing on the State, a master’s degree in counsel­
ing and from 1 to 5 years of teaching experi­
ence usually are required for a counseling
certificate. People who plan to become
counselors should learn the requirements of
the State in which they plan to work since
requirements vary among States and change
College students interested in becoming
school counselors usually take the regular
program of teacher education, with addi­
tional courses in psychology and sociology.
In States where teaching experience is not a
requirement, it is possible to major in a lib­
eral arts program. A few States substitute a
counseling internship for teaching experi­
ence. In some States, teachers who have
completed part of the courses required for
the master’s degree in counseling are eligible
for provisional certification and may work as
counselors under supervision while they take
additional courses.
Counselor education programs at the grad­
uate level are available in more than 450 col­
leges and universities, usually in the depart­
ments of education or psychology. One to
two years of graduate study are necessary for
a master’s degree. Most programs provide
supervised field experience.
Subject areas of required graduate level
courses usually include appraisal of the indi­
vidual student, individual counseling proce­
dures, group guidance, information service

for career development, professional rela­
tions and ethics, and statistics and research.
The ability to help young people accept
responsibility for their own lives is important
for school counselors. They must be able to
coordinate the activity of others and work as
part of the team which forms the educational
School counselors may advance by moving
to a larger school; becoming director or su­
pervisor of counseling or guidance; or, with
further graduate education, becoming a col­
lege counselor, educational psychologist,
school psychologist, or school administrator.
Usually college counselors and educational
psychologists must have the Ph. D. degree.

Employm ent O utlook
Employment of school counselors is likely
to grow more slowly than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s as declining
school enrollments coupled with financial
constraints limit demand. Future growth in
counselor employment will depend largely on
the amount of funds that the Federal Gov­
ernment provides to the States, particularly
funding for career education.

According to a recent survey, the average
salary of school counselors in 1978 was
around $17,700. However, salaries varied by
size, grade level, and locality of the school.
Average salaries of school counselors ranged
from around $9,200 to about $30,500. School
counselors generally earn more than teachers
at the same school. (See statements on kin­
dergarten and elementary school teachers
and secondary school teachers.)
In most school systems, counselors receive
regular salary increments as they obtain ad­
ditional education and experience. Some
counselors supplement their income by parttime consulting or other work with private or
public counseling centers, government agen­
cies, or private industry.

R elated Occupations
School counselors help students gain a bet­
ter understanding of their interests, abilities,
and personality characteristics, and also help
them deal with personal, social, academic,
and vocational problems. Other occupations
involved in helping people in similar ways
include caseworkers, clinical psychologists,
elementary school teachers, parole officers,
probation officers, social workers, secondary
school teachers, and vocational rehabilitation

Sources o f Additional Information
State departments of education can supply
information on colleges and universities that
offer training in guidance and counseling as
well as on the State certification require­
Additional information on this field of
work is available from:


American School Counselor Association, 22 Sky­
line Place, Suite 400, 5203 Leesburg Pike, Falls
Church, Va. 22041.

(D.O.T. 045.107-010 and -018)

Nature o f the W ork
All too often, people look for jobs before
they develop realistic career goals, acquire
the proper training, or learn enough about
the job market. They run the risk of becom­
ing dissatisfied with their work or failing to
find a job at all. Employment counselors
(sometimes called vocational counselors)
provide people with career information and
other kinds of help in getting a job.

ordinary workday. Some clients have skills to
start work immediately; others who have not
completed school or lack marketable skills
need assistance such as remedial education,
job training, or advice about interviewing
and filling out application forms. People with
job market disadvantages often need exten­
sive counseling. They may need help to re­
solve emotional, family, or other fundamen­
tal problems that prevent their securing and
holding a job.
In recent years, the employment problems
of many special groups have come into
sharper focus. Veterans, school dropouts,
handicapped people, older workers, women,
and minorities sometimes need special help
to turn talents and abilities into marketable
skills. Employment counselors who work
with these clients increasingly use group
counseling, and follow-up counseling for cli­
ents who have begun working.

Most employment counselors work in
State employment service offices or in com­
munity agencies. Community agencies,
which may be either public or private, in­
clude career planning and placement pro­
grams for special groups such as women and
minorities; social service agencies that coun­
sel school dropouts, drug abusers, or ex­
offenders; and neighborhood organizations
that help direct young people towards mean­
ingful roles in society.

W orking Conditions

Counselors interview jobseekers to learn
about their interests, training, work experi­
ence, work attitudes, physical capacities, and
personal traits. If necessary, they may ar­
range for aptitude and achievement tests. To
learn more about the jobseeker’s aptitudes,
skills, and interests, they may contact a for­
mer employer or school principal. The coun­
selor then describes a number of suitable oc­
cupations and discusses the client’s
employment prospects in each field.

P laces o f Employment

Often, employment counselors refer clients
to other agencies for additional help. For ex­
ample, if a person stutters, the employment
counselor might suggest speech therapy at a
local health facility. A counselor might refer
a client with outdated job skills to a training
program, arrange an equivalency exam for
someone who has not finished high school, or
suggest child care that would fit a working
parent’s schedule. Proper referral requires
that employment counselors be thoroughly
familiar with community resources and that
they keep in touch with other social service
and health professionals.
Counselors may suggest specific employers
and appropriate ways of applying for work.
In some cases, counselors may contact em­
ployers about jobs for applicants, although
placement specialists often handle this work
in State employment service agencies. After
job placement or entrance into training,
counselors may follow up to determine if the
applicant needs additional assistance.
The unemployed and graduates looking
for their first job are typical clients that an
employment counselor might see during an

Counselors usually work about 40 hours a
week, but some in community agencies may
have evening appointments to counsel clients
already employed.
Working space is often limited, but offices
are designed to be free from noise and dis­
tractions to allow for confidential discussions
with clients.

In 1978 about 3,100 persons worked in em­
ployment counseling or related technical and
supervisory positions in State employment
service offices in every large city and many
smaller towns. In addition, about 3,000 em­
ployment counselors worked for various pri­
vate or community agencies, primarily in
larger cities. Some worked in institutions
such as prisons, training schools for delin­
quent youths, and mental hospitals. Some
counselors teach in graduate training pro­
grams or conduct research.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
All States require counselors in public em­
ployment offices to meet State civil service or
merit system requirements. However, these
minimum educational and experience stan­
dards vary by State. Some require a master’s
degree in counseling or a related field; others
require only a high school diploma. Experi­
ence in counseling, interviewing, and job
placement also may be required, particularly
for those without advanced degrees.
Applicants with graduate degrees and ad­
ditional experience may enter at higher levels
on the counselor career ladder. In many
States, individuals with extensive experience
in the employment service may enter the
counselor career ladder, take the prescribed
university course, and gain the necessary ex­
perience to move upward.
Although minimum entrance require­
ments are not standardized among private

Salaries of employment counselors in State
employment services vary considerably from
State to State. In 1978, salaries ranged from
about $7,000 for entry level positions to $21,000 for experienced counselors. The average
starting salary for beginning workers was
$10,506, while experienced counselors ave­
raged $13,814.
According to the limited data available,
the average starting salary for counselors in
private, nonprofit organizations in 1978 was
$12,500. The average for experienced work­
ers was $18,000. In general, salaries of em­
ployment counselors are about one and onehalf times as high as average earnings for all
nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
Counselors generally receive benefits such
as vacations, sick leave, pension plans, and
insurance coverage.

Related Occupations
Other professionals interview people, dis­
cuss their problems, and suggest useful solu­
tions. Among them are school psychologists,
guidance counselors, parole officers, proba­
tion officers, and social workers.

Sources o f Additional Information
For general information on employment
or vocational counseling, contact:
Counselors often administer aptitude and achievement tests.

and community agencies, most prefer, and
some require, a master’s degree in vocational
counseling or in a related field such as psy­
chology, personnel administration, counsel­
ing, guidance education, or public adminis­
tration. Many private agencies prefer to have
at least one staff member who has a doctorate
in counseling psychology or a related field.
For those lacking an advanced degree, em­
ployers usually emphasize experience in
closely related work such as rehabilitation

colleges and universities, mainly in depart­
ments of education or psychology. To obtain
a master’s degree, students must complete 1
to 2 years of graduate study including actual
supervised experience in counseling.
Persons aspiring to be employment
counselors should have a strong interest in
helping others make and carry out vocational
decisions. They should be able to work inde­
pendently and to keep detailed records.

c o u n se lin g , e m p lo y m e n t in te r v ie w in g , sc h o o l

W e ll-q u a lifie d c o u n se lo r s w ith ex p erien ce

or college counseling, teaching, social work,
or psychology.

may advance to supervisory or administra­
tive positions as directors of agencies, area
supervisors of guidance programs, consult­
ants, or counseling professors.

In each State, the public employment ser­
vice offices provide in-service training pro­
grams for their new counselors or trainees. In
addition, both their new and experienced
counselors often enroll for training at col­
leges and universities during the regular aca­
demic year or at institutes or summer ses­
sions. Private and community agencies also
often provide in-service training opportuni­
College students who wish to become em­
ployment counselors should study psychol­
ogy and basic sociology. Graduate level
courses include techniques of counseling,
psychological principles and psychology of
careers, assessment and appraisal, cultures
and environment, and occupational informa­
tion. Counselor education programs at the
graduate level are available in more than 450

Employment O utlook
Qualified applicants are expected to face
competition for jobs as employment counse­
lors through the 1980’s. Employment in this
small occupation depends largely on Federal
funding for the State, local, and community
agencies that provide job counseling. In re­
cent years, the number of counselors in State
offices has changed very little, but some new
jobs have opened up in community agencies
funded under the Comprehensive Employ­
ment and Training Act (CETA).
In addition to new jobs, some openings for
employment counselors will result from the
need to replace those who die, retire, or trans­
fer to other fields.

American Personnel and Guidance Association, 2
Skyline Place, Suite 400, 5203 Leesburg Pike, Falls
Church, Va. 22041.

The administrative office for each State’s
employment security agency can supply spe­
cific information about local job opportuni­
ties, salaries, and entrance requirements for
positions in public employment service of­
fices. For information, contact the nearest
local office of your public employment ser­
vice under State Government listings in your
local telephone directory. A list of all public
employment service offices may be obtained
by writing to:
U.S. Department o f Labor, Employment and
Training Administration, U.S. Employment Ser­
vice, 601 D St. N W „ W ashington, D.C. 20213.

(D.O.T. 045.107-042)

Nature o f the W ork
Each year more mentally, physically, and
emotionally disabled persons become selfsufficient and productive citizens. They find
employment in a wide variety of occupations
previously thought too complex or physically
demanding for them to handle. A growing
number are studying in colleges and techni­
cal schools throughout the United States.
One member of the team of professionals

who help disabled individuals leave a shel­
tered environment to lead as normal a life as
possible is the rehabilitation counselor.
Rehabilitation counselors begin their work
by learning about their client. They may read
school reports, confer with medical person­
nel, and talk with family members to deter­
mine the exact nature of the disability. They
also discuss with physicians, psychologists,
and occupational therapists the types of skills
the client can learn. At that point, the coun­
selor begins a series of discussions with the
client to explore training and career options.
The counselor then uses this information to
develop a rehabilitation plan.
A rehabilitation program generally in­
cludes specific job training, as well as other
specialized training the disabled person may
need. When working with a blind individual,
for example, the counselor may arrange for
training with seeing-eye dogs. The disabled
person then may spend a few months learn­
ing to cross streets and ride public transpor­
tation systems. Throughout this period, the
counselor and disabled client meet regularly
to discuss progress in the rehabilitation pro­
gram and any problems that may arise.
Counselors also must find jobs for disabled
persons and often make followup checks to
insure that placement has been successful. If
the new employee has a specific problem on
the job, the counselor may suggest adapta­
tions to the employer.
Because job placement is such an impor­
tant aspect of a counselor’s work, he or she
must keep in touch with members of the busi­
ness community to learn the type of jobs
available and training required. They also try
to alleviate any fears on the part of employers
about the suitability of hiring handicapped
individuals. As a result, counselors may
spend time publicizing the rehabilitation pro­
gram to business and community associa­

An increasing number of counselors spe­
cialize in a particular area of rehabilitation;
some may work almost exclusively with blind
people, deaf people, alcoholics, drug addicts,
the mentally ill, or retarded persons. Others
may work almost entirely with persons living
in poverty areas.
The amount of time spent counseling each
client varies with the severity of the disabled
person’s problems as well as with the size of
the counselor’s caseload. Some rehabilitation
counselors are responsible for many persons
in various stages of rehabilitation; on the
other hand, less experienced counselors, or
those working with the severely disabled,
may work with relatively few cases at a time.

W orking Conditions
Rehabilitation counselors generally work a
40-hour week or less, with some overtime
work required to attend community and civic
meetings in the evening. They may spend
only part of their time in their offices coun­
seling and performing necessary paperwork.
The remainder of their time is spent away


from the office, working with prospective
employers, training agencies, and the dis­
abled person’s family. The ability to drive a
car often is necessary for this work.
Rehabilitation counselors must maintain
close contact with handicapped clients and
their families over many months or even
years. The counselor often has the satisfac­
tion of watching day-by-day progress in the
disabled person’s fight for independence. At
other times, however, the counselor may ex­
perience the disappointment of a client’s fail­

P laces o f Employment
About 19,000 persons worked as rehabili­
tation counselors in 1978. About 70 percent
worked in State and local rehabilitation agen­
cies financed cooperatively with Federal and
State funds. Some vocational rehabilitation
specialists and counseling psychologists
worked in the Veterans Administration’s vo­
cational rehabilitation program. Rehabilita­
tion centers, sheltered workshops, hospitals,
mental health centers, labor unions, insur­
ance companies, special schools, centers for
independent living, and other public and pri­
vate agencies with rehabilitation programs
and job placement services for the disabled
employ the rest.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree with courses in coun­
seling, psychology, and related fields is the
minimum educational requirement for
rehabilitation counselors. However, employ­
ers are placing increasing emphasis on the
master’s degree in rehabilitation counseling
or vocational counseling, or in related sub­
jects such as psychology, education, and so­
cial work. Work experience in fields such as

vocational counseling and placement, psy­
chology, education, and social work is an
asset for securing employment as a rehabili­
tation counselor. Most agencies have workstudy programs whereby employed counse­
lors can earn graduate degrees in the field.
In 1978, 84 colleges and universities ac­
credited by the Council on Rehabilitation
Education offered graduate programs in
rehabilitation counseling. Usually, 1 1/2 to 2
years of study are required for the master’s
degree. Included is a period of actual work
experience as a rehabilitation counselor
under the close supervision of an instructor.
Besides a basic foundation in psychology,
courses generally included in master’s degree
programs are counseling theory and tech­
niques, occupational and educational infor­
mation, and community resources. Other re­
quirements may include courses in placement
and followup, tests and measurements, psy­
chosocial effects of disability, and medical
and legislative aspects of rehabilitation.
To earn the doctorate in rehabilitation
counseling or in counseling psychology may
take a total of 4 to 6 years of graduate study.
Intensive training in psychology and other
social sciences, as well as in research meth­
ods, is required.
Many States require that rehabilitation
counselors be hired in accordance with State
civil service and merit system rules. In most
cases, these regulations require applicants to
pass a competitive written test, sometimes
supplemented by an interview and evaluation
by a board of examiners. In addition, some
private organizations require rehabilitation
counselors to be certified. To become certi­
fied, counselors must pass exams adminis­
tered by the Commission on Rehabilitation
Counselor Certification.
Because rehabilitation counselors deal

with the welfare of individuals, the ability to
accept responsibility is important. It also is
essential that they be able to work indepen­
dently and be able to motivate and guide the
activity of others. Counselors who work with
the severely disabled need unusual emotional
stability. They must be very patient in deal­
ing with clients who often are discouraged,
angry, or otherwise difficult to handle.
Counselors who have limited experience
usually are assigned the less difficult cases.
As they gain experience, their caseloads are
increased and they are assigned clients with
more complex rehabilitation problems. After
obtaining considerable experience and more
graduate education, rehabilitation counselors
may advance to supervisory positions or top
administrative jobs.

Employm ent O utlook
Because most State and private rehabilita­
tion agencies are funded primarily by the
Federal Government, the extent of employ­
ment will depend largely on the level of gov­
ernment spending. Additional positions,
however, are expected to become available in
private companies, such as manufacturing
and service firms, for rehabilitation counse­
lors to help in equal employment opportunity
efforts. Colleges and universities that employ
coordinators of services to handicapped stu­
dents are another source of increasing em­
ployment opportunities for rehabilitation
counselors. In addition to growth needs,
many counselors will be required annually to
replace those who die, retire, or leave the
field for other reasons.

The average minimum salary of rehabilita­
tion counselors in State agencies was about
$11,500 in 1978; the average maximum sal­
ary was $15,200.
The Veteran’s Administration paid coun­
seling psychologists with a 2-year master’s
degree and 1 year of subsequent experience
—and those with a Ph. D.—starting salaries
of $19,263 in early 1979. Those with a Ph.
D. and a year of experience, and those with
a 2-year master’s degree and much experi­
ence, started at $23,087. In addition, the
Veteran’s Administration employed a num­
ber of vocational rehabilitation specialists—
generally with master’s degrees—at starting
salaries of $13,014 to $19,263. The average
salary of vocational rehabilitation counse­
lors in the Federal Government was $20,100
in 1978.

Related O ccupations
Rehabilitation counselors help mentally,
physically, and emotionally disabled in­
dividuals become self-sufficient and pro­
ductive citizens. Related occupations in­
ologists, school counselors, employment
counselors, parole officers, probation offic­
ers, social workers, and occupational thera­

Sources o f Additional Information
For information about rehabilitation coun­
seling as a career, contact:
American Psychological Association, Inc., 1200
17th St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Rehabilitation Counseling Association,
2 Skyline Place, 5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite 400,
Falls Church, Va. 22041.
National Rehabilitation Counseling Association,
1522 K St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20005.

A list of educational institutions offering
training in rehabilitation counseling can be
obtained from:
Division of Manpower Development, Rehabilitaton Services Administration, Department of Edu­
cation, Room 3321, Mary E. Switzer Building, 330
C St. SW„ Washington, D.C. 20201.

Information on certification requirements
and procedures is available from:
Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certifi­
cation, 8 South Michigan Ave., Suite 3301, Chi­
cago, 111. 60603.

College Career
Planning and
(D.O.T. 166.167-014 and .267-010)

Nature o f the W ork
Choosing a career is a decision all college
students face. Identifying a field of work that
matches one’s likes, dislikes, personal quali­
ties, and talents can be difficult and time con­
suming. Once a career choice has been made,
the job search begins in earnest—Writing
resumes, searching out prospective employ­
ers, and requesting interviews. Looking for a
job can be an anxiety-producing and dis­
couraging experience.
Career planning and placement counselors
help bridge the gap between education and
work by assisting students in all phases of
career decisionmaking and planning. These
counselors, sometimes called college place­
ment officers, provide a variety of services to
college students and alumni. They encourage
students to examine their interests, abilities,
and goals, and then help them explore career
alternatives. They may help students test ca­
reer interests by arranging internships, field
placements, or part-time or summer employ­
ment. Counselors discuss the kinds of jobs
open to college graduates with a particular
major and help students evaluate the pros
and cons of further training.
Because a liberal arts curriculum is not
specifically career oriented, these students in
particular can benefit from the knowledge
and experience of college career planning and
placement counselors. Even in areas like ac­
counting or engineering, where the correla­
tion between college major and career is quite

direct, students benefit from counseling as­
sistance in deciding where and how to look
for a job.
Career planning and placement counselors
also arrange for job recruiters to visit the
campus to discuss their firms’ personnel
needs and to interview applicants. They pro­
vide employers with information about stu­
dents and inform students about business op­
erations and personnel needs in industry. A
counselor may, for example, explain to stu­
dents that workers in certain industries are
subject to layoffs. In order to counsel stu­
dents adequately, counselors must keep
abreast of labor market information, includ­
ing wages, hours, training, and employment
prospects. This means reading career and
counseling literature and maintaining con­
tact with industry and government recruit­
Some career planning and placement
counselors, especially those in community
and junior colleges, advise school administra­
tors on curriculum and course content. They
may consult employers and then suggest
courses that would prepare students more
adequately for local jobs. In addition, some
placement directors and counselors, espe­
cially those working in small schools, also
teach. All counselors maintain a library of
career guidance and recruitment informa­
Placement counselors may specialize in
areas such as law, education, or part-time
and summer work. However, the extent of
specialization usually depends upon the size
and type of college as well as the size of the
placement staff.

W orking Conditions
Working as they do with students, alumni,
faculty, and employers, college career plan­
ning and placement counselors have peopleoriented jobs. Their work entails a great deal
of contact with others—in counseling ses­
sions, meetings, public appearances, and tele­
phone calls. This work can be deeply gratify­
ing because counselors share in the growth
and development of students. In addition,
they are constantly exposed to new ideas and
developments in the working world. Many
persons pursue careers as college counselors
because of the intellectual stimulation and
other intangible benefits of an academic envi­

P laces o f Employm ent
Nearly all 4-year colleges and universities
and many community and junior colleges
provide career planning and placement ser­
vices to their students and alumni. Large col­
leges and junior colleges may employ several
counselors working under a director of career
planning and placement activities. In many
institutions, however, a combination of
placement functions is performed by one di­
rector aided by a clerical staff. In small col­
leges and junior colleges, the functions of ca­
reer counselors may be performed on a

self-worth and capacity for growth, is impor­
tant in this field. Counselors must be able to
communicate with and gain the confidence of
students, faculty, and employers in order to
work effectively with them. Intellectual curi­
osity and openmindedness are important, for
counselors need to develop and maintain an
understanding of the personal, economic,
and environmental forces that affect career
decisions. People in this field should be ener­
getic and able to work under pressure be­
cause they must organize and administer a
wide variety of activities.
Advancement for career planning and
placement professionals usually is through
promotion to an assistant or associate posi­
tion, director of career planning and place­
ment, director of student personnel services,
or some other higher level administrative po­
sition. A doctoral degree may be helpful for
such advancement. However, the extent of
such opportunity usually depends upon the
type of college or university and the size of
the staff.

Employm ent O utlook
Employment of college career planning
and placement counselors is not expected to
increase significantly through the 1980’s.
Budgetary constraints in many institutions of
higher education will limit expansion of
counseling and placement services. Slight in­
creases may occur in community and junior
colleges where there are no career planning
and placement programs at present. While
colleges and universities increasingly empha­
size career planning and placement services
for students at all levels including special
groups—adults seeking a midcareer change
as well as minority, low-income, and handi­
capped students—schools will tend to utilize
existing staff rather than hire additional per­

Helping students select courses is an interesting and challenging part of the job.

part-time basis by members of the faculty or
administrative staff. Universities frequently
have placement officers for each major
branch or campus.
About 5,000 persons worked as career
planning and placement counselors in 2- and
4-year colleges and universities in 1978.

Training, O ther Q ualifications, and
Although no specific educational program
exists to prepare persons for career planning
and placement work, colleges and universi­
ties increasingly seek applicants with a mas­
ter’s degree in counseling, college student
personnel work, or a behavioral science. One
or two years of work experience in business
or industry are invaluable preparation for
this occupation.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

In 1978, over 100 colleges and universities
offered graduate programs in college student
personnel work. Graduate courses that are
helpful for career planning and placement
counseling include counseling theory and
techniques, vocational testing, theory of
group dynamics, personnel management, or­
ganizational behavior, and industrial rela­
Some people enter the career planning and
placement field after gaining a broad back­
ground of experience in business, industry,
government, or educational organizations.
An internship in a career planning and place­
ment office also is helpful.
Like other counselors, college career plan­
ning and placement counselors need certain
personal traits. A respect and concern for the
individual, based on a belief in the student’s

As with other academic jobs, applicants
for college career planning and placement
positions will face keen competition. Those
with a master’s degree in counseling or a
related field and experience in business
or industry may have the best job pros­

According to a survey of colleges and uni­
versities, the median salary of student place­
ment directors was around $18,100 a year in
1978. Salaries generally were higher in public
than in private institutions, and higher in
major universities and 4-year institutions
than in 2-year schools.
Career planning and placement counselors
frequently work more than a 40-hour week;
irregular hours and overtime often are neces­
sary, particularly during the “recruiting sea­
son.” Most counselors are employed on a 12month basis. They are paid for holidays and
vacations and usually receive the same bene­
fits as other professional personnel employed
by colleges and universities.

Related O ccupations
College career planning and placement
counselors help students attain career goals.
Others who help people attain goals and
solve personal problems include school
counselors, employment counselors, rehabili­
tation counselors, personnel and labor rela­
tions workers, social workers, psychologists,
members of the clergy, teachers, and college
student personnel workers.

tion clerks, collection workers, bookkeepers,
and secretaries.

A pamphlet on college career planning and
placement is available from:

In small companies that handle a limited
number of accounts, credit managers may do
much of the work of granting credit them­
selves. They may interview applicants, ana­
lyze the information gained in the interview,
and make the final approval. They frequently
must contact customers who are unable or
refuse to pay their debts. They do this
through writing, telephoning, or personal
contact. If these attempts at collection fail,
credit managers may refer the account to a
collection agency or assign an attorney to
take legal action.

The College Placement Council, Inc., P.O. Box
2263, Bethlehem, Pa. 18001.

W orking Conditions

Sources o f Additional Information

Credit Managers
(D.O.T. 168.167-054)

Nature o f the W ork
Over the years, buying on credit has be­
come a customary way of doing business.
Consumers use credit extensively to buy
houses, cars, refrigerators, and many other
goods and services. The vast majority of busi­
ness purchases, such as raw materials used in
manufacturing and merchandise to be sold in
retail stores, also are bought on credit so that
businesses do not have to tie up their cash in
For most forms of credit, a credit manager
has final authority to accept or reject a credit
application. In extending credit to a business
(commercial credit), the credit manager or
an assistant analyzes detailed financial re­
ports submitted by the applicant, interviews
a representative of the company about its
management, and reviews credit agency re­
ports to determine the firm’s record in repay­
ing debts. The manager also checks at banks
where the company has deposits or previ­
ously was granted credit. In extending credit
to individuals (consumer credit), detailed fi­
nancial reports usually are not available. The
credit manager must rely more on personal
interviews, credit bureaus, and banks to pro­
vide information about the person applying
for credit.
Particularly in large organizations, execu­
tive level credit managers work with other
top managers to formulate a credit policy.
They establish financial standards to be met
by applicants and thereby determine the
amount of risk that their company will ac­
cept when offering its products or services for
sale on credit. Managers must cooperate with
the sales department in developing a credit
policy liberal enough to allow the company’s
sales to increase and yet strict enough to deny
credit to customers whose ability to repay
their debts is questionable. Many credit
managers establish office procedures and su­
pervise workers who gather information, an­
alyze facts, and perform general office duties
in a credit department; they include applica­

Credit managers normally work the stan­
dard 35-40 hour workweek, but some may
work longer hours. In wholesale and retail
trade, for example, a seasonal increase in
credit sales can produce a greater work vol­
Credit managers usually spend most of
their time in the office. However, they may
travel occasionally. Some credit managers,
for example, attend conferences sponsored by
industry and professional organizations in
which they develop and discuss new tech­
niques for credit department management.

P laces o f Employm ent
About 49,000 persons worked as credit
managers in 1978. About one-half were em­
ployed in wholesale and retail trade, but
many others, about 40 percent of the total,
worked for manufacturing firms and finan­
cial institutions.
Although credit is granted throughout the
United States, most credit managers work in
urban areas where many financial and busi­
ness establishments are located.

Training, O ther Q ualifications, and
A college degree is becoming increasingly
important for entry level jobs in credit man­
agement. Employers usually seek persons
who have a degree in business administra­
tion, but they may also hire graduates hold­
ing liberal arts degrees. Courses in account­
programing, statistics, and psychology all are
valuable in preparing for a career in credit
management. Some employers may promote
high school graduates to credit manager posi­
tions if they have experience in credit collec­
tion or processing credit information.
Newly hired workers normally begin as
management trainees and work under the
guidance of more experienced personnel in
the credit department. Here they gain a
thorough understanding of the company’s
credit procedures and policies. They may
analyze previous credit transactions to learn
how to recognize which applicants should
prove to be good customers. Trainees also
learn to deal with credit bureaus, banks, and
other businesses that can provide informa-

Credit managers must be able to analyze de­
tailed information in order to make a sound deci­
sion on granting credit.

tion on the past credit dealings of their cus­
Many formal training programs are availa­
ble through the educational branches of the
associations that service the credit and fi­
nance field. This training includes home
study, college and university programs, and
special instruction to improve beginners’
skills and keep experienced credit managers
aware of new developments in their field.
A person interested in a career as a credit
manager should be able to analyze detailed
information and draw valid conclusions
based on this analysis. Because it is necessary
to maintain good customer relationships, a
pleasant personality and the ability to speak
and write effectively also are characteristics
of the successful credit manager.
The work performed by credit managers
allows them to become familiar with almost
every phase of their company’s business.
Highly qualified and experienced managers
can advance to top-level executive positions.
However, in small and medium-sized compa­
nies, such opportunities are limited.

Employm ent O utlook
Employment of credit managers is ex­
pected to grow more slowly than the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s. De­
spite this relatively slow growth, many jobs
will become available each year due to the
need to replace persons who leave the occu­
pation. Although there will be opportunities
throughout the country, employment pros­
pects should continue to be best for wellqualified jobseekers in metropolitan areas.
The volume of credit extended rose very
rapidly during the past decade. In the years
ahead, businesses can be expected to require
increasing amounts of credit to secure raw
materials for production and obtain finished

goods for eventual resale. It is in the area of
business credit where demand for credit
managers will be strongest.
Consumers, whose personal incomes have
risen, are expected to finance greater num­
bers of high-priced items. In addition, the use
of credit for everyday purchases is expected
to grow as demand increases for recreation
and household goods as well as for consumer
services. Despite increases in consumer debt,
the use of computers for storing and retriev­
ing information will enable this greater vol­
ume of information to be processed more effi­
ciently. The use of telecommunications
networks enables retail outlets to have imme­
diate access to a central credit office, regard­
less of distance.
Another factor that is expected to slow the
growth in the number of credit managers is
the increased use of bank credit cards for
consumer purchases. As stores substitute
bank credit cards for their own charge ac­
counts, retail store credit departments may
be reduced or eliminated.

In 1978, credit manager trainees who had
a college degree earned annual salaries that
ranged from about $11,000 to $12,000, de­
pending on the type of employer and the geo­
graphic location of the job.
Assistant credit managers averaged about
$13,000 to $16,000 a year and credit manag­
ers had average earnings of about $20,000.
Individuals in top-level positions often earn
over $40,000 a year.

Related Occupations

story, or they may be purely physical expres­
sions of rhythm and sound. Professional
dancers may perform in classical ballet or
modern dance, in dance adaptations for mu­
sical shows, in folk, ethnic and jazz dances,
and in other popular kinds of dancing. In
addition to being an important art form for
its own sake, dance also is used to comple­
ment other types of entertainment, such as
opera, musical comedy, and television.
In dance productions, performers most
often work as a group, although a few top
artists do solo work. Many dancers combine
stage work with teaching, where their duties
may include instruction in dance history, the­
ory, and the practice of dance notation, as
well as explaining and demonstrating dance
techniques and choreographing and directing
stage performances. Some dancers become
choreographers, who create original dances,
teach them to performers, and sometimes di­
rect and stage the presentations of their
work. Others become dance directors who
train dancers in new productions. A few
dancers with college backgrounds go on to
receive graduate level training in dance ther­
apy. Dance therapists focus on the healing
properties of movement, posture, breathing,
and interaction in their work with the elderly
and the mentally and physically handi­

W orking Conditions
Dancing is strenuous, and for this reason
young dancers have an advantage over older
dancers in competing for jobs. Rehearsals re­
quire very long hours, often on weekends and
holidays. For shows on the road, weekend
travel often is required. Most stage perfor­
mances take place in the evening. Many
dancers retire in their thirties or transfer to
related fields such as teaching dance. How­
ever, some skillful dancers continue perform­
ing beyond the age of 50. Those who become
choreographers or dance directors can con­
tinue to work as long as persons in other

Agility, coordination, grace, a sense of rhythm,
and a feeling for music are important qualities
for aspiring dancers.

eluding major dance companies, include
Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Salt Lake
City, Cincinnati, Miami, San Francisco,
Hartford, Pittsburgh, Minneapolis, Seattle,
Boston, and Philadelphia. Dance teachers
are located chiefly in large cities, but many
smaller cities and towns have dance
schools as well.

Training and Other Q ualifications

International Consumer Credit Association, 243
North Lindbergh Blvd., St Louis, Mo. 63141.

Unemployment rates for dancers are
higher than the average for all occupations.
Many qualified people cannot obtain yearround work as dancers, and are forced to
supplement their incomes by other types of

National Consumer Finance Association, 1000
16th St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

P laces o f Employment

Serious training for a career in dancing
traditionally begins by age 12 or earlier. Bal­
let training is particularly disciplined, and
persons who wish to become ballet dancers
should begin taking lessons at the age of 7 or
8. Early and intense training also is impor­
tant for the modern dancer. Most dancers
have their professional auditions by age 17 or
18, but training and practice never end. For
example, professional ballet dancers take
from 10 to 12 lessons a week for 11 or 12
months of the year, and must spend many
additional hours practicing and rehearsing.
The early training a dancer receives is crucial
to the later skill of the dancer, and therefore
the selection of a professional dance school is
very important.

Nature o f the W ork

About 8,000 dancers performed on the
stage, screen, and television in 1978. Many
others were available for such work. The
shortage of performance jobs caused some
dancers to take jobs in other fields. Many
taught dance in secondary schools, in junior
colleges as well as four-year colleges and uni­
versities, in dance schools, and in private stu­
dios. Some dancers, trained in dance therapy,
worked in mental hospitals, community men­
tal health centers, correctional facilities, or
special schools.

Because of the strenuous training required,
a dancer’s general education may be mini­
mal. However, the importance of a broad
general education is becoming increasingly
recognized by experts in the field. In particu­
lar, a dancer should study music, literature,
and history along with the arts to help in the
interpretation of dramatic episodes, ideas,
and feelings. In addition, dancers should
have an understanding of the structure of the
human body and how it moves, of dance no­
tation, and of historical dance styles.

Dancing is an ancient and worldwide art
that has many different forms. Dance move­
ments may be used to interpret an idea or a

New York City is the hub for perform­
ing dancers. Other large cities that have
promising employment opportunities, in-

Over 130 colleges and universities confer
bachelor’s or higher degrees in dance. Col­
lege or university dance degrees are generally

Other managerial occupations in banks,
investment companies, and credit agencies
include loan officers, credit card operations
managers, credit union managers, risk and
insurance managers, controllers, financial in­
stitution managers, letter of credit negotia­
tors, and dealer accounts credit officers.

Sources o f Additional Information
Information about a career in consumer
credit may be obtained from:

For information about training programs
available in commercial credit, write:
National Association of Credit Management, 475
Park Ave. South, New York, N.Y. 10016.

(D.O.T. 151.047-010)


offered through the departments of physical
education, music, theater, or fine arts.
A college education is not essential to ob­
taining employment as a professional dancer.
In fact, ballet dancers who postpone their
first audition until graduation may compete
at a disadvantage with younger dancers. On
the other hand, a college degree can be help­
ful for the dance/ who retires at an early age,
as often happens, and wishes to enter another
field of work. Many modem dancers are col­
lege graduates.
Although a college education is an advan­
tage in obtaining employment as a dance
teacher in a college or university, it is not
necessary for one who teaches professional
dance or choreography in a studio situation.
Professional schools usually require teachers
to have experience as performers; colleges
and conservatories generally require gradu­
ate degrees, but performance experience
often may be substituted. Maturity and a
broad educational background also are im­
The dancer’s life is one of rigorous practice
and self- discipline; therefore patience, perseverence, and a devotion to dance are essen­
tial. Good health and physical stamina are
necessary, both to keep in good condition and
to follow the rugged travel schedule which is
often required.
Seldom does a dancer perform unaccom­
panied. Therefore, young persons who con­
sider dancing as a career should be able to
function as part of a team. They also should
be prepared to face the anxiety of unstable
working conditions brought on by show clos­
ings and audition failures.
Body height and build should not vary
much from the average. Good feet and nor­
mal arches also are required. Above all, one
must have agility, coordination, grace, a
sense of rhythm, and a feeling for music, as
well as a creative ability to express oneself
through dance.

Employment O utlook
Employment of dancers is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupa­
tions. However, the number of dancers seek­
ing professional careers will continue to ex­
ceed the number of available positions, and
competition will be keen. Most employment
opportunities will result from replacement
Employment opportunities in stage pro­
ductions are limited, and competition for
such positions is great. Television is partly
responsible for the reduction in stage produc­
tions, yet at the same time this medium offers
new outlets for dance. New professional
dance companies formed by civic and com­
munity groups offer additional employment
opportunities. Dance groups affiliated with
colleges and universities are another source
of employment. The increased general popu­
larity of dance in recent years has resulted in
increased employment opportunities in
teaching dance.


Sources O f Additional Information

Professional dancers who perform may be
members of one of the unions affiliated with
the Associated Actors and Artistes of Amer­
ica (AFL-CIO). Dancers in opera ballet, clas­
sical ballet, and the modem dance belong to
the American Guild of Musical Artists, Inc.;
those on live or videotaped television belong
to the American Federation of Television
and Radio Artists; those who perform in
films and TV belong to the Screen Actors
Guild or the Screen Extras Guild; and those
in musical comedies join Actors’ Equity As­
sociation. Other dancers may be members of
other unions, depending upon the fields in
which they perform. The unions and produc­
ers sign basic agreements specifying mini­
mum salary rates, hours of work, and other
conditions of employment. However, the sep­
arate contract signed by each dancer with the
producer of the show may be more favorable
than the basic agreement regarding salary,
hours of work, and working conditions.
Many dancers employed by professional bal­
let or modern dance companies do not belong
to unions, however.

A list of colleges and universities that
teach dance, including details on the types of
courses offered, is available from:

In 1978, the minimum salary for dancers
in opera and other stage productions was
about $300 a week. The single performance
rate for ballet dancers was $110. Dancers on
tour received an allowance of $35 a day in
1978 for room and board, with the employer
paying the cost of transportation. Minimum
performance rates for dancers on television
ranged from $340.50 to $360.25 for a 1-hour
show, depending on the number of dancers in
the group. The performance rate covers 18
hours of rehearsal over a 3-day period, in
addition to the performance.
Salaries of dance teachers vary with the
location and the prestige of the school in
which they teach. Dance instructors in col­
leges and universities are paid on the same
basis as other faculty members. (For more
information, see the Handbook statement on
College and University teachers.)
The normal workweek is 30 hours (6 hours
per day maximum) spent in rehearsals and
matinee and evening performances. Extra
compensation is paid for additional hours
Dancers are entitled to some paid sick
leave and various health and welfare benefits
provided by their unions, to which the em­
ployers contribute. Dance instructors in
schools receive benefits comparable to those
of other teachers.

National Dance Association, a Division of the
American Alliance for Health, Physical Educa­
tion, Recreation, and Dance, 1201 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

For information on all aspects of dance,
including job listings, contact:
American Dance Guild, 152 W. 42nd St. Room
828, New York, N.Y. 10036. Enclose a stamped,
self-addressed envelope.

Information about the field of dance ther­
apy, along wih a list of schools that offer
degrees in the field, is available from:
American Dance Therapy Association, Suite 230,
2000 Century Plaza, Columbia, Md. 21044.

Dental Hygienists
(D.O.T. 078.361-010)

Nature o f the W ork
Dental hygienists are oral health clinicians
and educators who help the public develop
and maintain good oral health. As members
of the dental health team, dental hygienists
may perform preventive and therapeutic ser­
vices under the supervision of the dentist.
Specific responsibilities of the hygienist vary,
depending on the law of the State where the
hygienist is employed, but may include
removing deposits and stains from patients’
teeth; providing instructions for patient selfcare and nutritional counseling; and applying
topical fluoride to prevent tooth decay. They
take medical and dental histories, expose and
develop dental X-ray films, make impres­
sions of teeth for study models, and prepare
other diagnostic aids for use by the dentist.
Pain control and restorative procedures also
may be performed by dental hygienists in
some States.
Dental hygienists who work in school sys­
tems serve in several capacities. Clinical
functions include examining children’s teeth,
assisting the dentist in determining the dental
treatment needed, and reporting the findings
to parents. They also scale and polish teeth
and give oral hygiene instructions. In addi­
tion, they develop and deliver classroom and
assembly programs on oral health.
A few dental hygienists assist in research
projects. Those having advanced training
may teach in schools of dental hygiene.

Related O ccupations
W orking Conditions
Dancers express ideas and emotions
through their body movements. They need
grace, rhythm, body control, and the creative
ability to express themselves through dance.
Some related occupations include acrobats,
choreographers, dance critics, dance instruc­
tors, dance notators, dance therapists, and
recreation workers.

Dental hygienists usually work in clean,
well-lighted offices. Important health safe­
guards for persons in this occupation are reg­
ular medical checkups and strict adherence
to established procedures for using X-ray
equipment. Dental hygienists must have
manual dexterity because they use various

dental instruments with little room for error
within a patients’ mouth. They also must em­
pathize with patients who often are under

P laces o f Employment
About 35,000 persons worked as dental
hygienists in 1978. Many are employed part
time. Most work in private dental offices;
some may contract their services to several
dentists or dental offices. Public health agen­
cies, school systems, industrial plants, clinics,
hospitals, dental hygiene schools, and the
Federal Government are other sources of em­
ployment for dental hygienists. Some gradu­
ates of bachelor’s degree programs are com­
missioned officers in the Armed Forces.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
Dental hygienists must be licensed. To ob­
tain a license, a candidate must graduate
from an accredited dental hygiene school and
pass both a written and a clinical examina­
tion. For the clinical examination, the appli­
cant is required to perform dental hygiene
procedures, such as removing deposits and
stains from a patient’s teeth. In 1978, candi­
dates in 48 States and the District of Co­
lumbia could complete part of the State lic­
ensing requirements by passing a written
examination given by the National Board of
Dental Examiners. Few States permit dental
hygienists licensed in other States to practice
in their jurisdictions without further exami­
In 1978, 197 schools of dental hygiene in
the United States were accredited by the
Commission on Accreditation of Dental and
Dental Auxiliary Educational Programs.

Most programs grant an associate degree;
others lead to a bachelor’s degree. A few in­
stitutions offer both types of programs. Six
schools offer master’s degree programs in
dental hygiene.
Completion of an associate degree pro­
gram usually is sufficient for the dental hy­
gienist who wants to practice in a private
dental office. To do research, teach, and
work in public or school health programs, at
least a bachelor’s degree usually is required.
Dental hygienists with a master’s degree
work as teachers or administrators in dental
hygiene and dental assisting training pro­
grams, public health agencies, and in as­
sociated research.
Competition is keen for admission to den­
tal hygiene schools. The minimum require­
ment for admission to a school of dental hy­
giene is graduation from high school. Several
schools that offer the bachelor’s degree admit
students to the dental hygiene program only
after they have completed 2 years of college.
Many schools also require that applicants
take an aptitude test given by the American
Dental Hygienists’ Association. Dental hy­
giene training given in the Armed Forces
usually does not fully prepare one to pass the
licensing exam, but credit for that training
may be granted to those who seek admission
to accredited dental hygiene programs.
The curriculum in a dental hygiene pro­
gram consists of courses in the basic sciences,
dental sciences, clinical sciences, and liberal
arts. These schools offer laboratory, clinical,
and classroom instruction in subjects such as
anatomy, physiology, chemistry, phar­
macology, nutrition, histology (the study of
tissue structure), periodontology (the study
of gum diseases), dental materials, and clini­
cal dental hygiene.
People who want to become dental hygie­

nists should enjoy working with others. The
ability to put patients at ease is helpful. Per­
sonal neatness and cleanliness, manual dex­
terity, and good health also are important
qualities. Among the courses recommended
for high school students interested in careers
in this occupation are biology, health, chem­
istry, speech, and mathematics.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for dental hy­
gienists are expected to be very good through
the 1980’s. Despite an anticipated rise in the
number of graduates from schools of dental
hygiene, the demand is expected to be greater
than the supply if recent trends in enroll­
ments continue. There also should be very
good opportunities for those desiring parttime employment and for those willing to
work in rural areas.
Employment of dental hygienists is ex­
pected to grow much faster than the average
for all occupations because of an expanding
population and the growing awareness of the
importance of regular dental care. Increased
participation in dental prepayment plans and
more group practice among dentists should
result in new jobs for dental hygienists. Den­
tal care programs for children also may lead
to more employment opportunities in this

Earnings of dental hygienists are affected
by the type of employer, education and expe­
rience of the individual hygienist, and the
geographic location. Dental hygienists who
work in private dental offices usually are sal­
aried employees, although some are paid a
commission for work performed, or a combi­
nation of salary and commission.
Dental hygienists working full time in pri­
vate offices earned between $12,000 and $13,500 a year in 1978, according to the limited
data available. In 1979, the Federal Govern­
ment paid dental hygienists with no experi­
ence starting salaries of about $9,400 a year.
Experienced dental hygienists working for
the Federal Government earned average an­
nual salaries of about $12,100.
Dental hygienists employed full time in
private offices usually work between 35 and
40 hours a week. They may work on Satur­
days or during evening hours. Some hygie­
nists work for two dentists or more.
Dental hygienists who work for school sys­
tems, health agencies, the Federal Govern­
ment, or State agencies have the same hours,
vacation, sick leave, retirement, and health
insurance benefits as other workers in these

R elated Occupations

Dental hygienists who work in school systems examine, scale, and polish children’s teeth and
instruct them in proper mouth care.


Dental hygienists relieve dentists from
many routine tasks. Other occupations per­
forming similar duties for dentists and physi­
cians include dental assistant, dental labora­

technician, general duty nurse, nurse anes­
thetist, and radiologic technologist.

Sources o f Additional Information
For information about accredited pro­
grams and the educational requirements to
enter this occupation, contact:
Division of Professional Development, American
Dental Hygienists’ Association, Suite 3400, 444 N.
Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 60611.
The State Board of Dental Examiners in
each State, or the National Board of Dental
Examiners, 211 E. Chicago Ave., Chicago,
111. 60611, can supply information on licens­
ing requirements.

work fewer hours as they grow older, and a
considerable number continue in part-time
practice well beyond the usual retirement

P laces o f Employment
About 120,000 individuals practiced den­
tistry in the United States in 1978—9 of every
10 were in private practice. About 5,000
served as commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces, and about 1,700 worked in
other types of Federal Government positions
—chiefly in the hospitals and clinics of the
Veterans Administration and the Public
Health Service.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and

(D.O.T. 072)

Nature o f the W ork
Dentists examine teeth and other tissues of
the mouth to diagnose diseases or abnormali­
ties. They take X-rays, fill cavities, straighten
teeth, and treat gum diseases. Dentists ex­
tract teeth and substitute artificial dentures
designed for the individual patient. They also
perform corrective surgery of the gums and
supporting bones. In addition, they may
clean teeth.
Dentists spend most of their time with pa­
tients, but may devote some time to labora­
tory work such as making dentures and in­
lays. Most dentists, however—particularly
those in large cities—send their laboratory
work to commercial firms. Some dentists also
employ dental hygienists to clean patients’
teeth and provide instruction for patient selfcare. (See statement on dental hygienists.)
Other assistants perform office work, assist in
“chairside” duties, and provide therapeutic
services under the supervision of the dentist.
Most dentists are general practitioners
who provide many types of dental care; about
10 percent are specialists. The largest group
of specialists are orthodontists, who
straighten teeth. The next largest group, oral
surgeons, operate on the mouth and jaws.
The remainder specialize in pedodontics
(dentistry for children); periodontics (treat­
ing the gums); prosthodontics (making artifi­
cial teeth or dentures); endodontics (root
canal therapy); public health dentistry; and
oral pathology (diseases of the mouth).
About 5 percent of all dentists teach in
dental schools, do research, or administer
dental health programs on a full-time basis.
Many dentists in private practice do this
work on a part-time basis.

W orking Conditions
Most dental offices are open 5 days a week,
and some dentists have evening hours. Den­
tists usually work between 40 and 45 hours a
week, although many spend more than 50
hours a week in the office. Dentists often

A license to practice dentistry is required
in all States and the District of Columbia. To
qualify for a license in most States, a candi­
date must graduate from a dental school ap­
proved by the American Dental Association
and pass written and practical examinations.
In 1978, candidates in 48 States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia could fulfill part of the
State licensing requirements by passing a
written examination given by the National
Board of Dental Examiners. Most State li­
censes permit dentists to engage in both gen­
eral and specialized practice. In 14 States,
however, a dentist cannot be licensed as a
“specialist” without having 2 or 3 years of
graduate education and, in some cases, pass­
ing a special State examination. In the other
36 States, the extra education also is neces­
sary, but a specialist’s practice is regulated by
the dental profession, not the State licensing
authority. To practice in a different State, a
licensed dentist usually must pass the State’s
examination. However, at least 21 States
grant licenses without further examination to
dentists already licensed in other States on
the basis of their credentials. Dentists who
want to teach or do research usually spend an
additional 2 to 4 years in advanced dental
training in programs operated by dental
schools, hospitals, and other institutions of
higher education.
Dental colleges require from 2 to 4 years of
predental education. However, about fourfifths of the students entering dental school in
1978 had a baccalaureate or master’s degree.
Predental education must include courses in
the sciences and humanities.
Competition is keen for admission to den­
tal schools. In selecting students, schools give
considerable weight to college grades and the
amount of college education. In addition, all
dental schools participate in a nationwide ad­
mission testing program, and scores earned
on these tests are considered along with in­
formation gathered about the applicant
through recommendations and interviews.
Many State-supported dental schools also
give preference to residents of their particular
Dental school training generally lasts 4 ac­
ademic years although several institutions

condense this into 3 calendar years. Studies
begin with an emphasis on classroom instruc­
tion and laboratory work in basic sciences
such as anatomy, microbiology, biochemis­
try, and physiology. Courses in clinical
sciences and preclinical technique also are
provided at this time. The last 2 years are
spent chiefly in a dental clinic, treating pa­
The degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery
(D.D.S.) is awarded by most dental colleges.
An equivalent degree, Doctor of Dental
Medicine (D.M.D.), is conferred by 19
Dental education is very costly because of
the length of time required to earn the dental
degree. However, Federal funds provide a
limited number of loans for dental students,
and a limited number of scholarships are
available for qualifying students who agree to
a minimum of 2 years’ Federal service.
Dentistry requires both manual skills and
a high level of diagnostic ability. Dentists
should have good visual memory, excellent
judgment of space and shape, and a high de­
gree of manual dexterity, as well as scientific
ability. Good business sense, self-discipline,
and the ability to instill confidence are help­
ful for success in private practice. High
school students who want to become dentists
are advised to take courses in biology, chem­
istry, health, and mathematics.
Most dental graduates open their own of­
fices or purchase established practices. Some
gain experience with established dentists, and
save money to equip an office; others may
enter residency training programs in ap­
proved hospitals. Dentists who enter the
Armed Forces are commissioned as captains
in the Army and Air Force and as lieutenants
in the Navy. Graduates of recognized dental
schools are eligible for Federal Civil Service
positions and for commissions (equivalent to
lieutenants in the Navy) in the U.S. Public
Health Service.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for dentists are
expected to be very good through the 1980’s.
Dental school enrollments have grown in re­
cent years because of federally assisted con­
struction of additional training facilities.
However, the number of new entrants to the
field through 1985 is expected to fall short of
the number needed to fill openings created by
growth of the occupation and by death or
retirement from the profession. By 1990,
however, the supply of new dentists is ex­
pected to be adequate to meet the demand for
dental services.
Employment of dentists is expected to
grow about as fast as the average for all occu­
pations due to population growth, increased
awareness that regular dental care helps pre­
vent and control dental diseases, and the ex­
pansion of prepayment arrangements, which
make it easier for people to afford dental ser­
vices. Fluoridation of community water sup­
plies and improved dental hygiene may pre/71

ing the income of dentists who open their
own offices. For example, in high-income
urban areas, dental services are in great de­
mand; however, a practice can be developed
most quickly in small towns, where new den­
tists easily become known and where they
may face less competition from established
practitioners. Although the income from
practice in small towns may rise rapidly at
first, over the long run the level of earnings,
like the cost of living, may be lower than it
is in larger communities.

R elated Occupations
Dentists examine, diagnose, and treat
various oral diseases and abnormalities.
Other professions which provide health
services and which entail similar long and
extensive training include clinical psycholo­
gist, ophthalmologist, physician, and veter­

Sources o f Additional Information
Persons who wish to practice in a given
State should obtain the requirements for li­
censure from the board of dental examiners
of that State. Lists of State boards and of
accredited dental schools, as well as informa­
tion on dentistry as a career, are available
American Dental Association, Council on Dental
Education, 211 East Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111.
American Association of Dental Schools, 1625
Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.

Students should contact the director of
student financial aid at the school they attend
for information about Federal or other loans
and scholarships.

(D.O.T. 077.061 through .167)

Nature o f the W ork
Filling a tooth requires a lot of manual dexterity.

vent some tooth and gum disorders, and pre­
serve teeth that might otherwise be extracted.
However, since the preserved teeth will need
care in the future, these measures may in­
crease rather than decrease the demand for
dental care. Similarly, while new techniques,
equipment, and drugs, as well as the ex­
panded use of dental hygienists, assistants,
and laboratory technicians should enable in­
dividual dentists to care for more patients,
these developments are not expected to offset
the need for more dentists.
There will continue to be a need for den­
tists to administer dental public health pro­
grams and teach in dental colleges. Also,
many dentists will continue to serve in the
Armed Forces.


During the first year or two of practice,
dentists often earn little more than the mini­
mum needed to cover expenses, but their
earnings usually rise rapidly as their practice
develops. Specialists generally earn consider­
ably more than general practitioners. The av­
erage income of dentists in 1978 was about
$50,000 a year, according to the limited in­
formation available. In the Federal Govern­
ment, new graduates of dental schools could
expect to start at $19,300 a year in 1979.
Experienced dentists working for the Federal
Government in 1979 earned average annual
salaries of $39,500, with some earning as
much as $47,500 a year.
Location is one of the major factors affect­

Dietitians plan nutritious and appetizing
meals to help people maintain or recover
good health. They also supervise the food
service personnel who prepare and serve the
meals, manage dietetic purchasing and ac­
counting, and give advice on good eating
habits. Clinical dietitians form the largest
group in this occupation; the others are ad­
ministrative, teaching, and research dieti­
tians. Nutritionists also are included in this
Administrative dietitians apply the princi­
ples of nutrition and sound management to
large-scale meal planning and preparation,
such as that done in hospitals, universities,
schools, and other institutions. They super­
vise the planning, preparation, and service
of meals; select, train, and direct food ser­
vice supervisors and workers; budget for
and purchase food, equipment, and supplies;
enforce sanitary and safety regulations; and

prepare records and reports. Dietitians who
are directors of dietetic departments also de­
cide on departmental policy; coordinate die­
tetic services with the activities of other de­
partments; and are responsible for the
dietetic department budget, which in large
organizations may amount to millions of
dollars annually.
Clinical dietitians, sometimes called thera­
peutic dietitians, plan diets and supervise the
service of meals to meet the nutritional needs
of patients in hospitals, nursing homes, or
clinics. Clinical dietitians confer with doctors
and other members of the health care team
about patients’ nutritional care, instruct pa­
tients and their families on the requirements
and importance of their diets, and suggest
ways to maintain these diets after leaving the
hospital or clinic. In a small institution, a
dietitian may perform both administrative
and clinical duties.
Research dietitians seek ways to improve
the nutrition of both healthy and sick people.
They may study nutrition science and educa­
tion, food management, food service systems
and equipment, or how the body uses food.
Other research projects may investigate the
nutritional needs of the aging, persons who
have chronic diseases, or space travelers. Re­
search dietitians usually are employed in
medical centers or educational facilities, but
they also may work in community health
programs. (See the statement on food tech­
nologists elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Dietetic educators teach dietetics to mem­
bers of the health care team in medical and
educational institutions.
Nutritionists may counsel individuals and
groups on sound nutrition practices to main­
tain and improve health, or they may engage
in teaching and research. This work covers
such areas as special diets, meal planning and
preparation, and food budgeting and pur­
chasing. Nutritionists in community health
programs may be responsible for the nutri­
tion components of preventive health and
medical care services. This includes plan­
ning, developing, coordinating, and adminis­
tering a nutrition program or a nutrition
component within the community health
program. Nutritionists work in such diverse
areas as food industries, educational and
health facilities, and agricultural and welfare
agencies, both public and private.
An increasing number of dietitians work as
consultants to hospitals and to health-related
facilities. Others act as consultants to com­
mercial enterprises, including food proces­
sors and equipment manufacturers.

W orking Conditions
Although most dietitians work 40 hours a
week, dietitians in hospitals may sometimes
work on weekends, and those in commercial
food services have somewhat irregular hours.
Dietitians spend much of their time in clean,
well-lighted, and well-ventilated areas, such
as research laboratories, classrooms, or of­
fices near food preparation areas. However,

Dietitian verifies dietary needs of each patient before food tray leaves the kitchen.

they do spend time in kitchens and serving
areas that often are hot and steamy.

P laces o f Employment
About 35,000 persons worked as dietitians
in 1978. More than one-half work in hospi­
tals, nursing homes, and clinics, including
about 1,100 in the Veterans Administration
and the U.S. Public Health Service. Colleges,
universities, and school systems employ a
large number of dietitians to teach or to work
in their food service systems. Most of the rest
work for health-related agencies, restaurants
or cafeterias, and large companies that pro­
vide food service for their employees. Some
dietitians are employed in the Armed Forces.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree, with a major in foods
and nutrition or institution management, is
the basic educational requirement for dieti­
tians. This degree can be earned in about 240
colleges and universities, usually in depart­
ments of home economics. The college
courses that usually are required include
food and nutrition, institution management,
chemistry, bacteriology, and physiology.
Other courses that also are important are
mathematics, data processing, psychology,
sociology, and economics.
To qualify for professional recognition, the
American Dietetic Association (ADA)
recommends that graduates complete an ap­
proved dietetic internship or individual
traineeship program. The internship lasts 6
to 12 months and the traineeship program 1
to 2 years. Both programs combine clinical
experience under a qualified dietitian with
some classroom work. In 1978, 68 internship
programs were approved by the ADA. A
growing number of coordinated undergradu­

ate programs have been developed that en­
able students to complete their clinical expe­
rience requirement while obtaining their
bachelor’s degree. In 1978, there were about
70 of these programs offered by medical
schools and allied health and home econom­
ics departments of colleges and universities.
These programs also are approved by the
ADA. Persons meeting the qualifications es­
tablished by the ADA’s Commission on Die­
tetic Registration can become Registered
Dietitians (R.D.’s).
Experienced dietitians may advance to as­
sistant or associate director or director of a
dietetic department. Advancement to higher
level positions in teaching and research usu­
ally requires graduate education; public
health nutritionists must earn a graduate de­
gree. Graduate study in institutional or busi­
ness administration is valuable to those inter­
ested in administrative dietetics.
Persons who plan to become a dietitian
should have organizational and administra­
tive ability, as well as high scientific aptitude,
and should be able to work well with a vari­
ety of people. Among the courses recom­
mended for high school students interested in
careers as dietitians are home economics,
business administration, biology, health,
mathematics, and chemistry.

Employment O utlook
Employment of dietitians is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s to meet the nutrition
and food management needs of hospitals and
extended care facilities, industrial plants, and
restaurants. Dietitians also will be needed to
staff community health programs and to con­
duct research in food and nutrition. In addi­
tion to new jobs, many others will open each
year to replace those who die, retire, or leave

the profession for other reasons. Opportuni­
ties should remain favorable for dietitians
who wish to work part time.
In recent years, employers have used die­
tetic assistants trained in vocational and tech­
nical schools and dietetic technicians edu­
cated in junior colleges to help meet the
demand for dietetic services. Because this sit­
uation is likely to persist, employment oppor­
tunities also should continue to be favorable
for graduates of these programs.

Entry-level salaries of hospital dietitians
averaged $12,600 a year in 1978, according to
a national survey conducted by the Univer­
sity of Texas Medical Branch. Experienced
dietitians received annual salaries ranging
from $15,000 to $30,000 according to the
American Dietetic Association. The median
salary paid by colleges and universities to
dietitians with a bachelor’s degree was $16,600 a year in 1978. The median salary for
those with a bachelor’s degree working in
commercial or industrial establishments was
$15,500 a year; for those in public and volun­
tary health agencies, $15,800. For selfemployed dietitians with a bachelor’s degree,
the median salary was over $20,000 a year in
The entrance salary in the Federal Gov­
ernment for those completing an approved
internship was about $13,000 in 1979. Begin­
ning dietitians with a master’s degree who
had completed an internship earned about
$15,900. In 1978, the Federal Government
paid experienced dietitians average salaries of
about $19,600 a year.

(D.O.T. 001.261-010 and -014; 002.261-010;
003.281- 010 and 014; 005.281-010 and -014;
007.261-010, -014, -018, -022, and .281-010;
010.281- 010, -014, -018; 014.281-010; and -017)

Nature o f the W ork
When building a satellite, television set, or
bridge, workers follow drawings that show
the exact dimensions and specifications of the
entire object and each of its parts. Workers
who draw these plans are drafters.
Drafters prepare detailed drawings based
on rough sketches, specifications, and calcu­
lations made by scientists, engineers, ar­
chitects, and designers. They also calculate
the strength, quality, quantity, and cost of
materials. Final drawings contain a detailed
view of the object from all sides as well as
specifications for materials to be used, proce­
dures followed, and other information to
carry out the job.
In preparing drawings, drafters use com­
passes, dividers, protractors, triangles, and
other drafting devices. They also use techni­
cal handbooks, tables, and calculators to help
solve problems.
Drafters are classified according to the
work they do or their level of responsibility.
Senior drafters translate an engineer’s or ar­
chitect’s preliminary plans into design “lay­

outs” (scale drawings of the object to be
built). Detailers draw each part shown on the
layout, and give dimensions, materials, and
other information to make the drawing clear
and complete. Checkers carefully examine
drawings for errors in computing or record­
ing dimensions and specifications. Under the
supervision of experienced drafters, tracers
make minor corrections and trace drawings
for reproduction on paper or plastic film.
Drafters usually specialize in a particular
field of work, such as mechanical, electrical,
electronic, aeronautical, structural, or ar­
chitectural drafting.

W orking Conditions
Although drafters usually work in welllighted and well-ventilated rooms, they often
must sit and do very detailed work for long
periods of time. This work may cause eye

P laces o f Employm ent
About 296,000 persons worked as drafters
in 1978—more than 9 out of 10 worked in
private industry. Engineering and architec­
tural firms were the single largest employers
of drafters. Other major employers included
the fabricated metals, electrical equipment,
machinery, and construction industries.
About 20,000 drafters worked for Federal,
State, and local governments in 1978. Most

Dietitians usually receive benefits such as
paid vacations, holidays, health -insurance,
and retirement benefits. In addition, some
hospitals provide free laundry service.

Related O ccupations
Dietitians apply the principles of nutrition
in a variety of situations. Other workers with
similar duties include food technologists,
home economists, executive chefs, and food
service managers.

Sources o f Additional Information
For information on approved dietetic in­
ternship programs, scholarships, employ­
ment opportunities, registration, and a list of
colleges providing training for a professional
career in dietetics, contact:
The American Dietetic Association, 430 North
Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 60611.

The U.S. Office of Personnel Management,
Washington, D.C. 20415, will send informa­
tion on the requirements for dietetic interns
and dietitians in Federal Government hospi­
tals and for public health nutritionists and
dietitians in the Public Health Service, U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Wel­
fare; and the District of Columbia govern­
ment programs.


In preparing drawings, drafters use rulers, triangles, and other drafting devices.

drafters in the Federal Government worked
for the Defense Department; those in State
and local governments were mainly in high­
way and public works departments. Some
drafters worked for colleges and universities
and nonprofit organizations.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
Persons interested in becoming drafters
can acquire the necessary training in techni­
cal institutes, junior and community colleges,
extension divisions of universities, and voca­
tional and technical high schools. Some per­
sons receive training and experience in the
Armed Forces. Others qualify through onthe-job training programs combined with
part-time schooling or 3- to 4-year appren­
ticeship programs.
Training for a career in drafting, whether
in a high school or post-high school program,
should include courses in mathematics, phys­
ical sciences, mechanical drawing, and draft­
ing. Shop practices and shop skills also are
helpful since most higher level drafting jobs
require knowledge of manufacturing or con­
struction methods. Many technical schools
offer courses in structural design, architec­
tural drawing, and engineering or industrial
Those planning careers in drafting should
be able to do freehand drawings of threedimensional objects and also detailed work
requiring a high degree of accuracy. They
should have good eyesight and manual dex­
terity. In addition, they should be able to
function as part of a team since they work
directly with engineers, architects, and craft
workers. Artistic ability is helpful in some
specialized fields.
High school graduates usually start out as
tracers. Those having post-high school tech­
nical training may begin as junior drafters.
After gaining experience, they may advance
to checkers, detailers, senior drafters, or
supervisors. Some may become independent
designers. Courses in engineering and mathe­
matics sometimes enable drafters to transfer
to engineering positions.

Employm ent O utlook
Employment of drafters is expected to in­
crease about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s because of
industrial growth and the increasingly com­
plex design problems of products and pro­
cesses. Openings also will result from the
need to replace drafters who retire, die, or
move into other fields of work.
Holders of an associate (2-year) degree in
drafting will have the best prospects. Many
large employers already require post-second­
ary technical education, though well-quali­
fied high school graduates who have studied
drafting may find opportunities in some
types of jobs. Photoreproduction of drawings
and the expanding use of electronic drafting
equipment and computers, however, will re­
duce the need for less skilled drafters.

In private industry, tracers averaged about
$9,800 a year in 1978, while more ex­
perienced drafters averaged between $11,200
and $13,700 a year. Senior drafters averaged
about $16,900 a year in 1978.
The Federal Government paid drafters
having an associate degree starting salaries of
$9,391 a year in 1979. Those with less educa­
tion or experience generally started at $8,366.
The average Federal Government salary for
all drafters was about $12,200 a year in 1978.

Related Occupations
Other occupations in which workers are
required to prepare or understand detailed
drawings, make accurate and precise calcu­
lations and measurements, and use various
measuring devices include architects, engi­
neering technicians, engineers, landscape
architects, photogrammetrists, and survey­

Sources o f Additional Information
General information on careers for draft­
ers is available from:
American Institute for Design and Drafting, 3119
Price Rd., Bartlesville, Okla. 74003.
International Federation of Professional and Tech­
nical Engineers, 1126 16th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.
See Sources of Additional Information in
the statement on engineering and science
technicians elsewhere in the Handbook.

(D.O.T. 050 and 090.227-010)

Nature o f the W ork
Economists study the way a society uses
scarce resources such as land, labor, raw
materials, and machinery to provide goods
and services. They plan and conduct re­
search, then compile and analyze the results,
in order to determine the costs and benefits
of making, distributing, and using resources
in a particular way. Their research might
focus on such topics as energy costs, infla­
tion, business cycles, unemployment, tax pol­
icy, or farm prices.
Some economists are primarily theoreti­
cians. They may develop theories to explain
the causes of inflation, for example, through
the use of mathematical models. Most econo­
mists, however, are concerned with practical
applications of economic policy in a particu­
lar area, such as finance, labor, agriculture,
transportation, energy, or health. They use
their understanding of economic relation­
ships to advise business firms, insurance
companies, banks, securities firms, industry
associations, labor unions, and others.
Depending on the topic they’re studying,
economists may have to devise methods and
procedures for obtaining the data they need.

Sampling techniques may be used in conduct­
ing a survey, for example, and econometric
modeling techniques may be used to develop
projections. Preparing reports usually is an
important part of the economist’s job. He or
she may be called upon to review and analyze
all the relevant data, prepare tables and
charts, and write up the results in clear, con­
cise language.
Being able to present economic and statis­
tical concepts in a meaningful way is particu­
larly important for economists whose re­
search is policy directed. Economists who
work for business firms may be asked to pro­
vide management with information to make
decisions on marketing and pricing of com­
pany products; to look at the advisability of
adding new lines of merchandise, opening
new branches, or diversifying the company’s
operations; to analyze the effect of changes in
the tax laws; or to prepare economic and
business forecasts. Business economists
working for firms that carry on operations
abroad may be asked to prepare forecasts of
foreign economic conditions.
Economists who work for government
agencies assess economic conditions in the
United States and abroad and predict the
economic impact of specific changes in leg­
islation or public policy. They study such
questions as the effect on youth unemploy­
ment of changes in minimum wage legisla­
tion, for example. Most government econo­
mists are in the fields of agriculture,
business, finance, labor, transportation, or
international trade. For example, econo­
mists in the U.S. Department of Commerce
study domestic production, distribution,
and consumption of commodities or ser­
vices; those in the Federal Trade Commis­
sion prepare industry analyses to assist in
enforcing Federal statutes designed to elimi­
nate unfair, deceptive, or monopolistic prac­
tices in interstate commerce; and those in
the Bureau of Labor Statistics plan surveys
and analyze data on prices, wages, employ­
ment, and productivity.
Economists in colleges and universities
teach the theories, principles, and methods of
economics. In addition, economics faculty
members conduct research, write, and en­
gage in other nonteaching activities. They
frequently are asked to serve as consultants
to business firms, government agencies, and
individuals. (For more information on jobs in
colleges and universities, see the Handbook
statement on college and university faculty.)

W orking Conditions
Economists employed by colleges and uni­
versities have flexible work schedules, divid­
ing their time among teaching, research, and
administrative responsibilities. Economists
working for government agencies and private
firms, on the other hand, have much more
structured work schedules. They often work
alone with only books, statistical charts,
computers, and calculators for company. Or
they may be an integral part of a research
team on some assigned projects. Most econo/75

many beginning jobs for economists in gov­
ernment and business involve the collection
and compilation of data, a thorough knowl­
edge of basic statistical procedures is re­
quired. In addition to courses in macroeco­
nomics, microeconomics, econometrics, and
business and economic statistics, training in
computer science is highly recommended.
At the undergraduate level, courses in the
following subjects also are valuable: Business
cycles; economic and business history; eco­
nomic development of selected areas; money
and banking; international economics; public
finance; industrial organization; labor eco­
nomics; comparative economic systems; eco­
nomics of national planning; urban economic
problems and policies; marketing principles
and organization; consumer analysis; organi­
zational behavior; and business law.

Economists examining a chart on business activity in the United States during 1972.

mists work under pressure of deadlines, tight
schedules, and heavy workloads, and some­
times must work overtime. Their routine
may be interrupted by telephone calls, letters,
special requests for data, meetings, or confer­
ences. Travel may be necessary to collect
data or attend conferences.

P laces o f Employment
Economics is the largest social science
field. About 130,000 persons worked as
economists in 1978. About 3 out of 4 of these
jobs are in private industry, including manu­
facturing firms, banks, insurance companies,
securities and investment companies, eco­
nomic research firms, and management con­
sulting firms. Colleges and universities and
government agencies at all levels employ
most other economists. Some, however, run
their own consulting businesses. A number of


economists combine a full-time job in govern­
ment, business, or an academic institution
with part-time or consulting work in another
Economists work in all large cities and uni­
versity towns. The largest number are in the
New York City and the Washington, D.C.,
metropolitan areas. Some work abroad for
companies with major international opera­
tions; for the Departments of State, Com­
merce, Agriculture, and other U.S. Govern­
ment agencies; and for international

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
Economists must have a thorough under­
standing of economic theory and of mathe­
matical methods of economic analysis. Since

A bachelor’s degree with a major in eco­
nomics is sufficient for many beginning re­
search, administrative, management trainee,
and business sales jobs. However, graduate
training increasingly is required for advance­
ment to more responsible positions as econo­
mists. Areas of specialization at the graduate
level include advanced economic theory,
comparative economic systems and planning,
econometrics, economic development, eco­
nomic history, environmental and natural re­
source economics, history of economic
thought, industrial oganization, institutional
economics, international economics, labor
economics, monetary economics, public fi­
nance, regional and urban economics, and
social policy. Students should select graduate
schools strong in specialties in which they are
interested. Some schools help graduate stu­
dents find internships or part-time employ­
ment in government agencies or economic
research firms. The work experience and
contacts can be useful in testing career pref­
erences and learning how the job market for
economists really works.
In the Federal Government, candidates for
entrance positions generally need a college
degree with a minimum of 21 semester hours
of economics and 3 hours of statistics, ac­
counting, or calculus. However, because
competition for Federal jobs is keen, addi­
tional education or experience may be re­
A master’s degree generally is the mini­
mum requirement for a job as a college in­
structor in many junior colleges and small
4-year schools. In some colleges and universi­
ties, however, a Ph. D. degree is necessary for
appointment as a teaching assistant or in­
structor. The Ph. D. degree is required for a
professorship and is necessary to gain tenure,
which is becoming increasingly difficult to
In government, industry, research organi­
zations, and consulting firms, economists
who have a graduate degree usually can qual­
ify for more responsible research and ad­
ministrative positions. A Ph. D. may be nec­
essary for top positions in some
organizations. Experienced business econo­
mists may advance to managerial or execu­

tive positions in banks, industrial concerns,
trade associations, and other organizations
where they formulate practical business and
administrative policy.
About 1,500 colleges and universities offer
bachelor’s degree programs in economics;
about 260, master’s; and about 120, doctoral
Persons who consider careers as econo­
mists should be able to work accurately with
detail since much time is spent on data analy­
sis. Patience and persistence are necessary
because economists may spend long hours on
independent study and problem solving. So­
ciability enables economists to work easily
with others. Economists must be objective
and systematic in their work and must be
able to express themselves effectively both
orally and in writing. Creativity and intellec­
tual curiosity are essential to success in this
field, just as they are in other areas of scien­
tific endeavor.

Employment O utlook
Employment of economists is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s. However, about as
many openings will result from deaths, retire­
ments, and other separations from the labor
force as from employment growth.
Business and industry, research organiza­
tions, and consulting firms will continue to
provide the largest number of employment
opportunities for economists, reflecting the
complexity of the domestic and international
economies and increased reliance on quan­
titative methods of analyzing business trends,
forecasting sales, and planning purchases and
production operations. Employers will ac­
cordingly seek economists well trained in
econometrics and statistics.
The continued need for economic analyses
on the part of lawyers, accountants, engi­
neers, health administrators, urban planners,
and others will also contribute to an increase
in the number of jobs for economists. Em­
ployment of economists in State and local
government agencies is expected to increase
in response to the heavy responsibilities of
local authorities in such areas as housing,
transportation, environment and natural re­
sources, health, and employment develop­
ment and training. Employment of econo­
mists in the Federal Government is expected
to rise slowly—in line with the rate of growth
projected for the Federal work force as a
whole. Little or no employment growth is
expected in colleges and universities, the tra­
ditional employer of many highly qualified
economists. As a result, many such econo­
mists are expected to enter nonacademic po­
Persons who graduate with a bachelor’s
degree in economics through the 1980’s are
likely to face keen competition for jobs as
economists. However, many of these degree
holders will find employment in government,
industry, and business as management or
sales trainees, or as research or administra­

tive assistants. Those with strong back­
grounds in mathematics, statistics, and com­
puter science may be hired by private firms
for marketing research work. Candidates
who hold master’s degrees in economics face
very strong competition for teaching posi­
tions in colleges and universities, although
some may gain positions in junior and com­
munity colleges. However, they should find
good opportunities for administrative, re­
search, and planning positions in private in­
dustry and government. Those with a strong
background in marketing and finance may
have the best prospects in business. Ph. D.’s
are likely to face competition for academic
positions, although those graduating from
high-ranking universities may have an ad­
vantage. Generalists with a strong back­
ground in mathematics and statistics who
can teach an applied area are in greatest de­
mand. Ph. D.’s should have favorable oppor­
tunities in government, industry, research or­
ganizations, and consulting firms.
Generally, a strong background in eco­
nomic theory and econometrics provides the
tools for acquiring any specialty within the
field. Those skilled in quantitative techniques
and their application to economic modeling
and forecasting are likely to have the best job

salaries by consulting, teaching, and re­
search activities.
The Federal Government recognizes edu­
cation and experience in certifying applicants
for entry level positions. In general, the en­
trance salary for economists having a bache­
lor’s degree was was $10,507 a year in 1979;
however, those with superior academic rec­
ords could begin at $13,014. Those having a
master’s degree could qualify for positions at
an annual salary of $15,920, while those with
a Ph. D. could begin at $19,263. Economists
in the Federal Government averaged around
$27,700 in 1978. Economists work in many
government agencies, primarily in the De­
partments of State; Treasury; Army; Inte­
rior; Agriculture; Commerce; Labor; Health,
Education, and Welfare; Housing and Urban
Development; and Transportation.
Based on a 1978 State government salary
survey, average salaries for economists (posi­
tions requiring a bachelor’s degree) ranged
from about $12,200 to $16,200; for principal
economists (positions requiring a master’s
degree and experience), from $17,000 to $22,700; and for chiefs of economic research (po­
sitions requiring a master’s degree and exten­
experience), from $21,600 to $28,200.

R elated O ccupations
According to the 1977-78 College Place­
ment Council Salary Survey, bachelor’s de­
gree candidates in economics received offers
averaging around $12,200 a year; master’s
degree candidates in the social sciences,
around $13,200; bachelor’s degree candidates
offered positions in the field of finance and
economics, around $12,100.
According to an American Economic As­
sociation survey, average salaries of econo­
mists employed in college and university de­
partments that offered the Ph. D. degree for
the academic year 1977-78 were as follows:
For professors, about $29,500; for associate
professors, about $21,500; for assistant
professors, about $17,100; and for instruc­
tors, about $13,300. Average salaries were
lower in departments that offered only the
master’s or bachelor’s degree.
The median base salary of business econo­
mists in 1978 was $33,000, according to a
National Association of Business Economists
survey. About one-half of the respondents
reported additional compensation from their
primary employment while about one-third
reported income from secondary employ­
ment. Economists in general administration
and economic advisors commanded the high­
est salaries while statisticians, econometri­
cians, and teachers had the lowest base sala­
ries. By industry, the highest paid business
economists were in the securities and invest­
ment, mining, or consulting fields.
Those with a Ph. D. reported the high­
est salaries while there was relatively little
salary difference between master’s and
bachelor’s degree holders. A substantial
number of economists supplement their

Economists are concerned with under­
standing and interpreting financial matters.
Others with jobs in this area include financial
analysts, bank officers, accountants, under­
writers, actuaries, securities sales workers,
appraisers, credit analysts, loan officers, and
budget officers.

Sources o f Additional Information
For information on job openings for
economists with graduate degrees and on
schools offering graduate training in econom­
ics, contact:
American Economic Association, 1313 21st Ave­
nue South, Nashville, Tenn. 37212.

For additional information on careers in
business economics, contact:
National Association of Business Economists,
28349 Chagrin Blvd., Suite 201, Cleveland, Ohio

Engineering and
Science Technicians
Nature o f the W ork
Knowledge of science, mathematics, in­
dustrial machinery, and technical processes
enables engineering and science technicians
to work in all phases of business and govern­
ment, from research and design to manufac­
turing, sales, and customer service. Although
their jobs are more limited in scope and more
practically oriented than those of engineers
or scientists, technicians often apply the the­
oretical knowledge developed by engineers

and scientists to actual situations. Techni­
cians frequently use complex electronic and
mechanical instruments, experimental labo­
ratory equipment, and drafting instruments.
Almost all technicians described in this state­
ment must be able to use technical hand­
books and calculators, and some must work
with computers.
In research and development, one of the
largest areas of employment, technicians set
up experiments and calculate the results,
sometimes with the aid of computers. They
also assist engineers and scientists in develop­
ing experimental equipment and models by
making drawings and sketches and, fre­
quently, by doing routine design work.
In production, technicians usually follow
the plans and general directions of engineers
and scientists, but often without close super­
vision. They may prepare specifications for
materials, devise tests to insure product qual­
ity, or study ways to improve the efficiency
of an operation. They often supervise produc­
tion workers to make sure they follow pre­
scribed plans and procedures. As a product is
built, technicians check to see that specifica­
tions are followed, keep engineers and scien­
tists informed on progress, and investigate
production problems.
As sales workers or field representatives
for manufacturers, technicians give advice on
installation and maintenance of complex ma­
chinery, and may write specifications and
technical manuals. (See statement on techni­
cal writers elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Technicians may work in engineering,
physical science, or life science. Within these
general fields, job titles may describe the level
(biological aide or biological technician), du­
ties (quality control technician or time study
analyst), or area of work (mechanical, electri­
cal, or chemical).
An engineering technician might work in
any of the following areas:
Aeronautical Technology. Technicians in this
area work with engineers and scientists to
design and produce aircraft, rockets, guided
missiles, and spacecraft. Many aid engineers
in preparing design layouts and models of
structures, control systems, or equipment in­
stallations by collecting information, making
computations, and performing laboratory
tests. For example, a technician might esti­
mate weight factors, centers of gravity, and
other items affecting load capacity of an air­
plane or missile. Other technicians prepare or
check drawings for technical accuracy, prac­
ticability, and economy.
Aeronautical technicians frequently work
as manufacturers’ field service representa­
tives, serving as the link between their com­
pany and the military services, commerical
airlines, and other customers. Technicians
also prepare technical information for in­
struction manuals, bulletins, catalogs, and
other literature. (See statements on aerospace
engineers, airplane mechanics, and occupa­
tions in aircraft, missile, and spacecraft
manufacturing elsewhere in the Handbook.)


Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration
Technology. Air-conditioning, heating, and
refrigeration technicians design, manufac­
ture, sell, and service equipment to regulate
interior temperatures. Technicians in this
field often specialize in one area, such as re­
frigeration, and sometimes in a particular
type of activity, such as research and devel­
When working for firms that manufacture
temperature-controlling equipment, techni­
cians generally work in research and engi­
neering departments, where they assist engi­
neers and scientists in the design and testing
of new equipment or production methods.
For example, a technician may construct an
experimental model to test its durability and
operating characteristics. Technicians also
work as sales workers for equipment manu­
facturers or dealers, and must be able to sup­
ply engineering firms and other contractors
that design and install systems with informa­
tion on installation, maintenance, operating
costs, and the performance specifications of
the equipment. Other technicians work for
contractors, where they help design and pre­
pare installation instructions for air-condi­
tioning, heating, or refrigeration systems.
Still others, in customer service, are responsi­
ble for supervising the installation and main­
tenance of equipment. (See statement on re­
frigeration and air-conditioning mechanics
elswhere in the Handbook.)
Civil Engineering Technology. Technicians in
this area assist civil engineers in planning,
designing, and constructing highways,
bridges, dams, and other structures. They
often specialize in one area, such as highway
or structural technology. During the plan­
ning stage, they estimate cost, prepare
specifications for materials, or participate in
surveying, drafting, or designing. Once con­
struction begins, they assist the contractor or
superintendent in scheduling construction
activities or inspecting the work to assure
conformance to blueprints and specifications.
(See statements on civil engineers, drafters,
and surveyors elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Electronics Technology. Technicians in this
field develop, manufacture, and service elec­
tronic equipment and systems. The types of
equipment range from radio, radar, sonar,
and television to industrial and medical mea­
suring or control devices, navigational equip­
ment, and computers. Because the field is so
broad, technicans often specialize in one
area, such as automatic control devices or
electronic amplifiers. Furthermore, techno­
logical advancement is constantly opening up
new areas of work such as integrated circuit
When working in design, production, or
customer service, electronic technicians use
sophisticated measuring and diagnostic de­
vices to test, adjust, and repair equipment. In
many cases, they must understand the field in
which the electronic device is being used. To
design equipment for space exploration, for
example, they must consider the need for

minimum weight and volume and maximum
resistance to shock, extreme temperature,
and pressure. Some electronics technicians
also work in technical sales, while others
work in the radio and television broadcasting
industry. (See statements on broadcast tech­
nicians and occupations in radio and tele­
vision broadcasting elsewhere in the Hand­
Industrial Production Technology. Techni­
cians in this area, usually called industrial or
production technicians, assist industrial engi­
neers on problems involving the efficient use
of personnel, materials, and machines to pro­
duce goods and services. They prepare lay­
outs of machinery and equipment, plan the
flow of work, make statistical studies, and
analyze production costs. Industrial techni­
cians also conduct time and motion studies
(analyze the time and movements a worker
needs to accomplish a task) to improve the
production methods and procedures in
manufacturing plants.
Many industrial technicians acquire expe­
rience that enables them to qualify for other
jobs. For example, those specializing in ma­
chinery and production methods may move
into industrial safety. Others, in job analysis,
may set job standards and interview, test,
hire, and train personnel. Still others may
move into production supervision. (See state­
ments on personnel workers and industrial
engineers elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Mechanical Technology. Mechanical tech­
nology is a broad term that covers a large
number of specialized fields including auto­
motive, diesel, and production technology
and tool and machine design.
Technicians assist engineers in design and
development work by making freehand
sketches and rough layouts of proposed ma­
chinery and other equipment and parts. This
work requires knowledge of mechanical prin­
ciples involving tolerance, stress, strain, fric­
tion, and vibration factors. Technicians also
analyze the costs and practical value of de­
In planning and testing experimental ma­
chines and equipment for performance, dura­
bility, and efficiency, technicians record data,
make computations, plot graphs, analyze re­
sults, and write reports. They sometimes rec­
ommend design changes to improve perform­
ance. Their job often requires skill in the use
of complex instruments, test equipment, and
gauges, as well as in the preparation and in­
terpretation of drawings.
When a product is ready for production,
technicians help prepare layouts and draw­
ings of the assembly process and of parts to
be manufactured. They frequently help esti­
mate labor costs, equipment life, and plant
space. Some mechanical technicians test and
inspect machines and equipment in manufac­
turing departments or work with engineers to
eliminate production problems. Others are
technical sales workers.
Tool designers are among the better

ments, assist in field evaluations of earth­
quake damage and surface displacement, or
assist geologists in earthquake prediction re­
search. In petroleum and mineral explora­
tion, they help conduct tests and record
sound wave data to determine the likelihood
of successful drilling, or use radiation detec­
tion instruments and collect core samples to
help geologists evaluate the economic pos­
sibilities of mining a given resource.
Hydrologic technicians gather data to
help hydrologists predict river stages and
water quality levels. They monitor instru­
ments that measure water flow, water table
levels, or water quality, and record and ana­
lyze the data obtained. (See statement on
environmental scientists elsewhere in the
Technicians in the life sciences generally
are classified in either of two broad catego­

An electronics technician works on solid-state components in the production of TV parts.

known specialists in mechanical engineering
technology. Tool designers prepare sketches
of designs for cutting tools, jigs, dies, special
fixtures, and other devices used in mass pro­
duction. Frequently, they redesign existing
tools to improve their efficiency. They also
make, or supervise others who make detailed
drawings of tools and fixtures.
Machine drafting with some designing, an­
other major area often grouped under me­
chanical technology, is described in the state­
ment on drafters. (Also see statements on
mechanical engineers, automobile mechan­
ics, and manufacturers’ sales workers else­
where in the Handbook.)
Instrumentation Technology. Automated
manufacturing and industrial processes,
oceanographic and space exploration,
weather forecasting, satellite communication
systems, environmental protection, and med­
ical research have helped to make instrumen­
tation technology a fast-growing field. Tech­
nicians help develop and design complex
measuring and control devices such as those
in a spacecraft that sense and measure
changes in heat or pressure, automatically
record data, and make necessary adjust­
ments. These technicians have extensive
knowledge of physical sciences as well as
electrical-electronic and mechanical engi­
Several areas of opportunity exist in the
physical sciences: Chemical technicians work
with chemists and chemical engineers to de­
velop, sell, and utilize chemical and related
products and equipment.
Most chemical technicians do research and
development, testing, or other laboratory
work. They often set up and conduct tests on
processes and products being developed or
improved. For example, a technician may ex­

amine steel for carbon, phosphorus, and sul­
fur content or test a lubricating oil by subject­
ing it to changing temperatures. The
technician measures reactions, analyzes the
results of experiments, and records data that
will be the basis for decisions and future re­
Chemical technicians in production gener­
ally put into commerical operation those pro­
ducts or processes developed in research
laboratories. They assist in making the final
design, installing equipment, and training
and supervising operators on the production
line. Technicians in quality control test
materials, production processes, and final
products to insure that they meet the manu­
facturer’s specifications and quality stan­
dards. Many also sell chemicals or chemical
products as technical sales personnel.
Many chemical technicians use computers
and instruments, such as a dilatometer
(which measures the expansion of a sub­
stance.) Because the field of chemistry is so
broad, chemical technicians frequently spe­
cialize in a particular industry, such as food
processing or pharmaceuticals. (See state­
ments on chemists, chemical engineers, and
occupations in the industrial chemical indus­
try elsewhere in the Handbook.)
meteorologists in the study of atmospheric
conditions. Technicians calibrate instru­
ments, observe, record, and report meteoro­
logical occurrences, and assist in research
projects and the development of scientific in­
Geological technicians assist geologists in
evaluating earth processes. Currently much
research is being conducted in seismology,
petroleum and mineral exploration, and ecol­
ogy. These technicians install and record
measurements from seismographic instru­

Agricultural technicians work with agri­
cultural scientists in food production and
processing. Plant technicians conduct tests
and experiments to improve the yield and
quality of crops, or to increase resistance to
disease, insects, or other hazards. Techni­
cians in soil science analyze the chemical
and physical properties of various soils to
help determine the best uses for these soils.
Animal husbandry technicians work mainly
with the breeding and nutrition of animals.
Other agricultural technicians are employed
in the food industry as food processing tech­
nicians. In quality control or in food science
research they help scientists develop better
and more efficient ways of processing food
material for human consumption. (See state­
ment on food technologists elsewhere in the
Biological technicians work primarily in
laboratories where they perform tests and ex­
periments under controlled conditions. Mi­
crobiological technicians study microscopic
organisms and may be involved in im­
munology or parasitology research. Labora­
tory animal technicians study and report on
the reaction of laboratory animals to certain
physical and chemical stimuli. They also
study and conduct research to help biologists
develop cures for human diseases. By con­
ducting experiments and reporting the re­
sults to a biochemist, technicians assist in
analyzing biological substances (blood, other
body fluids, foods, and drugs). A biological
technician also might work with insects to
study insect control, develop new insecti­
cides, or determine how to use insects to con­
trol other insects or undesirable plants. (See
statements on life scientists elsewhere in the
Technicians also specialize in fields such as
metallurgical (metal), electrical, and optical
technology. In the atomic energy field, tech­
nicians work with scientists and engineers on
problems of radiation safety, inspection, and
decontamination. (See statement on occupa­
tions in the atomic energy field elswhere in
the Handbook.) New areas of work include
environmental protection, where technicians

study the problems of air and water pollu­
tion, and industrial safety.

W orking Conditions
Technicians work under a wide variety of
conditions. Most work regular hours in
laboratories and industrial plants. Others
work part or all of their time outdoors. Some
occasionally are exposed to safety or health
hazards from equipment or materials.

P laces o f Employment
Over 600,000 persons worked as engineer­
ing and science technicians in 1978. About
two-thirds of all technicians worked in pri­
vate industry. In the manufacturing sector,
the largest employers were the electrical
equipment, chemical, machinery, and aero­
space industries. In nonmanufacturing, large
numbers worked in wholesale and retail
trade, communications, and in engineering
and architectural firms.
In 1978, the Federal Government em­
ployed about 90,000 technicians, chiefly as
engineering and electronics technicians, bio­
logical technicians, cartographic (mapmak­
ing) technicians, meteorological technicians,
and physical science technicians. The largest
number worked for the Department of De­
fense; most of the others worked for the De­
partments of Transportation, Agriculture,
Interior, and Commerce.
State government agencies employed
nearly 50,000 engineering and science techni­
cians, and local governments about 11,500.
The remainder worked for colleges and uni­
versities and nonprofit organizations.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
Although persons can qualify for techni­
cian jobs through many combinations of
work experience and education, most em­
ployers prefer applicants who have had some
specialized technical training. Specialized
training is available at technical institutes,
junior and community colleges, area voca­
tional-technical schools, extension divisions
of colleges and universities, and vocationaltechnical high schools. Some engineering and
science students who have not completed the
bachelor’s degree and others who have de­
grees in science and mathematics also are
able to qualify for technician positions.
Persons also can qualify for technician jobs
by less formal methods. Workers may learn
through on-the-job training, apprenticeship
programs, or correspondence schools. Some
qualify on the basis of experience gained in
the Armed Forces. However, postsecondary
training is becoming increasingly necessary
for advancement to more responsible jobs.
Some of the types of postsecondary and
other schools that provide technical training
are discussed in the following paragraphs:
Technical Institutes. Technical institutes
offer training to qualify students for a job


immediately after graduation with a mini­
mum of on-the-job training. In general, stu­
dents receive intensive technical training but
less theory and general education than in en­
gineering schools or liberal arts colleges. A
few technical institutes and community col­
leges offer cooperative programs in which
students spend part of the time in school and
part in paid employment related to their
Some technical institutes operate as regu­
lar or extension divisions of colleges and uni­
versities. Other institutions are operated by
States and municipalities, or by private or­
Junior and Community Colleges. Curriculums in junior and community colleges
which prepare students for technician occu­
pations are similar to those in technical insti­
tutes but emphasize theory and liberal arts.
After completing the 2-year programs, some
graduates qualify for technician jobs while
others continue their education at 4-year col­
Area Vocational-Technical Schools. These
postsecondary public institutions serve stu­
dents from surrounding areas and emphasize
training in skills needed by employers in the
local area. Most require a high school degree
or its equivalent for admission.
Other Training. Some large corporations
conduct training programs and operate pri­
vate schools to meet the needs of technically
trained personnel in specific jobs; such train­
ing rarely includes general studies. Training
for some technician occupations, for instance
tool designers and electronic technicians, is
available through formal 2- to 4-year appren­
ticeship programs. The apprentice gets onthe-job training under the close supervision
of an experienced technician and related
technical knowledge in classes, usually after
working hours.
The Armed Forces have trained many
technicians, especially in electronics. Al­
though military job requirements generally
differ from those in the civilian economy,
military technicians often find employment
with only minimal additional training.

independently and to deal effectively with
Engineering and science technicians usu­
ally begin work as trainees in routine posi­
tions under the direct supervision of an ex­
perienced technician, scientist, or engineer.
As they gain experience, they receive more
responsibility and carry out a particular as­
signment under only general supervision.
Technicians may eventually move into super­
visory positions. Those who have the ability
and obtain additional education occasionally
may be promoted to positions as scientists or

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for engineering
and science technicians are expected to be
favorable through the 1980’s. Opportunities
will be best for graduates of postsecondary
school technician training programs. Besides
openings resulting from the slightly faster
than average growth expected in this field,
additional technicians will be needed to re­
place those who die, retire, or leave the occu­
Industrial expansion and the increasing
complexity of modern technology underlie
the anticipated increase in demand for tech­
nicians. Many will be needed to work with
the growing number of engineers and scien­
tists in developing, producing, and distribut­
ing new and technically advanced products.
Automation of industrial processes and con­
tinued growth of new areas of work such as
environmental protection and energy devel­
opment will add to the demand for technical
The anticipated growth of research and de­
velopment expenditures in industry and gov­
ernment also should increase requirements
for technicians.


Many private technical and correspon­
dence schools often specialze in a single field
of technical training such as electronics.
Some of these schools are owned and ope­
rated by large corporations that have the re­
sources to provide up-to-date training in a
technical field.

In private industry in 1977, technicians
who completed a 2-year post-high school
program earned starting salaries of about
$10,500 a year, according to a survey by the
Engineering Manpower Commission; those
who did not complete a 2-year program
started at about $9,000 a year. Graduates of
2-year programs with 5 years’ experience
earned about $12,800 a year in 1977, while
nongraduates with some experience earned
about $11,100. Senior technicians averaged
about $18,700 a year in 1978, according to a
Department of Labor survey.

Those interested in a career as a technician
should have an aptitude for mathematics and
science and enjoy technical work. An ability
to do detailed work with a high degree of
accuracy is necessary; for design work, crea­
tive talent also is desirable. Technicians are
part of a scientific team, and often work
closely with engineers and scientists as well
as other technicians and skilled workers.
Some technicans, such as repair and mainte­
nance technicians, should be able to work

Starting salaries for all technicians in the
Federal Government were fairly uniform in
1979. A high school graduate with no experi­
ence could expect $8,366 annually to start.
With an associate degree, the starting salary
was $9,391, and with a bachelor’s, $10,507 or
$13,014. With more experience, however,
earnings are significantly higher. The average
annual salary for all engineering technicians
employed by the Federal Government in
1978 was $19,617; for physical science tech­

nicians, $15,935; and for life science techni­
cians, about $11,375.

tal laboratory technicians, and medical tech­
nologists and technicians.

Related Occupations

Sources o f Additional Information

Engineering and science technicians apply
scientific principles in their work. Other oc­
cupations whose work activities involve the
application of scientific principles include
foresters, forestry technicians, range manag­
ers, soil conservationists, engineers, environ­
mental, life, and physical scientists, broad­
cast technicians,
television and radio service technicians, den­

For information on careers in engineering
and technology contact:
Engineers Council for Professional Develop­
ment, 345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.

Information on schools offering technician
programs is available from:
National Association of Trade and Technical

Schools, 2021 K St. N.W., Washington, D.C.

State departments of education also have
information about approved technical insti­
tutes, junior colleges, and other educational
institutions within the State offering posthigh school training for specific technical oc­
cupations. Other sources include:
American Association of Community and Junior
Colleges, One Dupont Circle, Suite 410, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.
National Home Study Council, 1601 18th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20009.

The work of engineers affects our lives in
thousands of ways. Their accomplishments
have enabled us to drive safer automobiles,
reach the moon, and prolong life through
special machinery. Future accomplishments
could help increase energy supplies, develop
more pollution-free powerplants, and aid
medical science’s fight against disease.
In 1978, about 1.1 million persons were
employed as engineers. Engineering is the
second largest professional occupation, ex­
ceeded only by teaching. Most engineers spe­
cialize in 1 of the more than 25 specialties
recognized by professional societies. Within
the major branches are over 85 subdivisions.
Structural, environmental, hydraulic, and
highway engineering, for example, are sub­
divisions of civil engineering. Engineers also
may specialize in the engineering problems of
one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in a

particular field of technology, such as pro­
pulsion or guidance systems. This section,
which contains an overall discussion of engi­
neering, is followed by separate statements
on 12 branches of the profession—aerospace,
agricultural, biomedical, ceramic, chemical,
civil, electrical, industrial, mechanical,
metallurgical, mining, and petroleum engi­

Nature o f the W ork
Engineers apply the theories and principles
of science and mathematics to practical tech­
nical problems. The challenge of solving
technical problems is a source of satisfaction
to many engineers. Often their work is the
link between a scientific discovery and its
useful application. Engineers design machin­
ery, products, systems, and processes for effi­
cient and economical performance. They de­

About three-quarters of all engineers are electrical,
industrial, mechanical, or civil engineers
Employment in selected engineering specialties, 1978 (thousands)










--------------------------------- 1





Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics


velop electric power, water supply, and waste
disposal systems to meet the problems of
urban living. They design industrial machin­
ery and equipment used to manufacture
goods, and heating, air-conditioning, and
ventilation equipment for more comfortable
living. Engineers also develop scientific
equipment to probe outer space and the
ocean depths, design defense and weapons
systems for the Armed Forces, and design,
plan, and supervise the construction of build­
ings, highways, and rapid transit systems.
They design and develop consumer products
such as automobiles, television sets, and re­
frigerators, and systems for control and auto­
mation of manufacturing, business, and man­
agement processes.
Engineers must consider many factors in
developing a new product. For example, in
developing new devices to reduce automobile
exhaust emissions, engineers must determine
the general way the device will work, design
and test all components, and fit them to­
gether in an integrated plan. They must then
evaluate the overall effectiveness of the new
device, as well as its cost and reliability. This
design process applies to most products, in­
cluding those as different as medical equip­
ment, electronic computers, and industrial
In addition to design and development,
many engineers work in testing, production,
operation, or maintenance. They supervise
the operation of production processes, deter­
mine the causes of breakdowns, and perform
tests on newly manufactured products to en­
sure that quality standards are maintained.
They also estimate the time and the cost
needed to complete engineering projects. Still
others work in administrative and manage­
ment jobs where an engineering background
is necessary, or in sales jobs where they dis­
cuss the technical aspects of a product and
assist in planning its installation or use. (See
statement on manufacturers’ sales workers
elsewhere in the Handbook.) Engineers with

considerable education or experience some­
times work as consultants. Some with ad­
vanced degrees teach in the engineering
schools of colleges and universities.
Engineers within each of the branches
apply their specialized knowledge to many
fields. Electrical engineers, for example,
work in the medical, computer, missile guid­
ance, or electric power distribution fields. Be­
cause engineering problems are usually com­
plex, the work in some fields cuts across the
traditional branches. Using a team approach
to solve problems, engineers in one field often
work closely with specialists in other scien­
tific, engineering, and business occupations.
Engineers often use calculators or comput­
ers to solve mathematical equations that help
specify what is needed for a device or struc­
ture to function in the most efficient manner.
Engineers also spend a great deal of time
writing reports of their findings and consult­
ing with other engineers. Because of the com­
plexity of most of the projects on which they
are involved, many engineers work with only
a small portion of the total project. Some are
responsible for an entire project and may su­
pervise other engineers.

W orking Conditions
Most engineers spend a great deal of their
time in offices; some are at a desk almost all
of the time. But some engineers work in re­
search laboratories or in industrial plants.
Engineers in specialties such as civil engi­
neering may work outdoors part of the time.
Although not typical, some engineers travel
extensively to their firm’s or client’s plants or
construction sites. Some may put in consider­
able overtime to meet deadlines, often with­
out additional compensation.

P laces o f Employment


Almost half of all engineers work in manu­
facturing industries—mostly in the electrical
and electronic equipment, aircraft and parts,
machinery, chemicals, scientific instruments,
primary metals, fabricated metal products,
and motor vehicle industries. About 400,000
were employed in nonmanufacturing indus­
tries in 1978, primarily in construction, pub­
lic utilities, engineering and architectural ser­
vices, and business and management
consulting services.
Federal, State, and local governments em­
ployed about 150,000 engineers. Over half of
these worked for the Federal Government,
mainly in the Departments of Defense, Inte­
rior, Energy, Agriculture, and Transporta­
tion, and in the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration. Most engineers in
State and local government agencies worked
in highway and public works departments.

trated in particular industries and geographic
areas, as discussed in the statements later in
this chapter.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree in engineering is the
generally accepted educational requirement
for beginning engineering jobs. College grad­
uates trained in one of the natural sciences or
mathematics also may qualify for some be­
ginning jobs. Experienced technicians with
some engineering education are occasionally
able to advance to some types of engineering
Many colleges have 2- or 4-year programs
leading to degrees in engineering technology.
These programs prepare students for practi­
cal design and production work rather than
for jobs that require more theoretical scien­
tific and mathematical knowledge. Gradu­
ates of 4-year engineering technology pro­
grams may get jobs similar to those obtained
by engineering bachelor’s degree graduates.
However, some employers regard them as
having skills somewhere between those of a
technician and an engineer.
Graduate training is essential for most be­
ginning teaching and research positions but is
not needed for the majority of other entry
level engineering jobs. Many engineers obtain
master’s degrees, however, because an ad­
vanced degree often is desirable for promo­
tion or is needed to keep up with new tech­
nology. Some specialties, such as nuclear or
biomedical engineering, are taught mainly at
the graduate level.
About 240 colleges and universities offer a
bachelor’s degree in engineering, and almost
70 colleges offer a bachelor’s degree in engi­
neering technology. Although programs in
the larger branches of engineering are offered
in most of these institutions, some small spe­
cialties are taught in only a very few. There­
fore, students desiring specialized training
should investigate curriculums before select­
ing a college. Admissions requirements for
undergraduate engineering schools usually
include high school courses in advanced
mathematics and the physical sciences.
In a typical 4-year curriculum, the first 2
years are spent studying basic sciences—
mathematics, physics, chemistry, and intro­
ductory engineering—and the humanities,
social sciences, and English. The last 2 years
are devoted, for the most part, to specialized
engineering courses. Some programs offer a
general engineering curriculum, permitting
the student to choose a specialty in graduate
school or acquire it on the job.

Some engineering curriculums require
more than 4 years to complete. A number of
colleges and universities now offer 5-year
Colleges and universities employed almost master’s degree programs. In addition, sev­
50,000 engineers in research and teaching eral engineering schools have formal arrange­
jobs, and a small number worked for non­ ments with liberal arts colleges whereby a
profit research organizations.
student spends 3 years in a liberal arts college
Engineers are employed in every State, in studying preengineering subjects and 2 years
small and large cities, and in rural areas. in an engineering school and receives a bach­
Some branches of engineering are concen­ elor’s degree from each.


Some schools have 5- or even 6-year coop­
erative plans where students coordinate
classroom study and practical work experi­
ence. In addition to gaining useful experi­
ence, students can thereby finance part of
their education. Because of the need to keep
up with rapid advances in technology, engi­
neers often continue their education through­
out their careers.
All 50 States and the District of Columbia
require licensing for engineers whose work
may affect life, health, or property, or who
offer their services to the public. In 1978,
there were over 300,000 registered engineers.
Generally, registration requirements include
a degree from an accredited engineering
school, 4 years of relevant work experience,
and the passing of a State examination.
Engineering graduates usually begin work
under the supervision of experienced engi­
neers. Some companies have programs to ac­
quaint new engineers with special industrial
practices and to determine the specialties for
which they are best suited. Experienced engi­
neers may advance to positions of greater re­
sponsibility, and some move to management
or administrative positions after several years
of engineering. Some engineers obtain gradu­
ate degrees in business administration to im­
prove their advancement opportunities,
while still others obtain law degrees and be­
come patent attorneys. Many high level ex­
ecutives in private industry began their ca­
reers as engineers.
Engineers should be able to work as part of
a team and should have creativity, an analyti­
cal mind, and a capacity for detail. In addi­
tion to technical skills, it is important that
engineers be able to express themselves well
—both orally and in writing.

Employm ent O utlook
Employment opportunities for those with
degrees in engineering are expected to be
good through the 1980’s. In addition there
may be some opportunities for college gradu­
ates from related fields in certain engineering
Employment of engineers is expected to
increase slightly faster than the average for
all occupations through the 1980’s. In additon to job openings created by growth, many
openings are expected to result from the need
to replace engineers who will die, retire, or
transfer to management, sales, and other pro­
fessional jobs.
Much of the expected growth in require­
ments of engineers will stem from industrial
expansion to meet the demand for more
goods and services. More engineers will be
needed in the design and construction of fac­
tories, utility systems, office buildings, and
transportation systems, as well as in the de­
velopment and manufacture of defenserelated products, scientific instruments, in­
dustrial machinery, chemical products, and
motor vehicles.
Engineers will be required in energyrelated activities developing sources of en-

Table 1. Average starting salaries for engineers by branch, 1978


According to an Engineering Manpower
Commission survey, the average salary for
engineers with 20 years of experience was
$30,500 in 1978. Some in management posi­
tions had much higher earnings.

Petroleum engineering...................................................................................................................... $19,836
Chemical engineering...................................................................................................................
Mining en g in ee rin g ......................................................................................................................
Related Occupations
Metallurgical engineering.............................................................................................................
Mechanical engineering................................................................................................................
Engineering is the largest scientific and
Electrical engineering...................................................................................................................
technical occupation. Other occupations
Industrial engineering...................................................................................................................... 16,380 whose work involves related areas of science
Aeronautical engineering........................................................................................................
or technology include environmental scien­
Civil engineering...............................................................................................................................

tists, life scientists, physical scientists, math­
ematicians, engineering and science techni­
cians, and architects.

SOURCE: College Placement Council.

ergy as well as designing energy-saving sys­
tems for automobiles, homes, and other
buildings. Engineers also will be needed to
solve environmental problems.
Since the number of degrees expected to be
granted in engineering in the 1980’s is subs­
tantially higher than the number granted re­
cently, some graduates may experience com­
petition for engineering employment if the
economy enters a recession or if research and
development expenditures do not increase as
expected. Further, if the demand for their
specialty declines, engineers may lose their
jobs. This can be a particular problem for
older engineers, who may face difficulties in
finding other engineering jobs. These difficul­
ties can be minimized by selection of a career
in one of the more stable industries and engi­
neering specialties, and by continuing educa­
tion to keep up on the latest technological

1978, faculty members with 5 years’ experi­
ence beyond the bachelor’s degree received
about $15,150; those with 18 to 20 years ex­
perience beyond the bachelor’s degree re­
ceived about $21,150. (See statement on col­
lege and university faculty elsewhere in the

Sources o f Additional Information
General information on engineering ca­
reers—including engineering school require­
ments, courses of study, and salaries—is
available from:

Despite these problems, over the long run
the number of people seeking jobs as engi­
neers is expected to be in balance with the
number of job openings.
(The outlook for various branches is dis­
cussed in the separate statements later in this

According to the College Placement
Council, engineering graduates with a bache­
lor’s degree and no experience were offered
average starting salaries of $16,800 a year in
private industry in 1978; those with a mas­
ter’s degree and no experience, $18,700 a
year; and those with a Ph. D., over $24,000.
Starting offers for those with the bachelor’s
degree vary by branch as shown in the ac­
companying table.
In the Federal Government in early 1979,
engineers with a bachelor’s degree and no
experience could start at $13,657 or $16,920
a year, depending on their college records.
Those with a master’s degree could start at
$18,044, and those having a Ph. D. degree
could begin at $19,263. Mining and petro­
leum engineers could begin at higher salaries,
and certain other specialties in some geo­
graphic areas also were offered higher sala­
ries. The average salary for experienced engi­
neers in the Federal Government was about
$27,700 in 1979.
For a 9-month academic college year in

Aerospace engineers testing spacecraft components.


Engineers’ Council for Professional Development,
345 E. 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
Engineering Manpower Commission of Engineers
Joint Council, 345 E. 47th St., New York, N.Y.
National Society of Professional Engineers, 2029
K St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20006.
Society of Women Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

• Societies representing the individual
branches of the engineering profession are
listed later in this chapter. Each can provide
information about careers in the particular

Aerospace Engineers
(D.O.T. 002.061 except -030, and 002.167)

Nature o f the W ork
Aerospace engineers design, develop, test,
and help produce commercial and military
aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. They play
an important role in advancing the state of
technology in commercial aviation, defense
systems, and space exploration.
Aerospace engineers often specialize in an
area of work like structural design, naviga­
tional guidance and control, instrumentation
and communication, or production methods.

They also may specialize in one type of aero­
space product, such as passenger planes, heli­
copters, satellites, or rockets.

P laces o f Employment
About 60,000 aerospace engineers were
employed in 1978, mainly in the aircraft and
parts industry. Some worked for Federal
Government agencies, primarily the Na­
tional Aeronautics and Space Administra­
tion and the Department of Defense. A few
worked for commercial airlines, consulting
firms, and colleges and universities.

Employment O utlook
Employment of aerospace engineers,
which is largely determined by the level of
Federal expenditures on defense and space
programs, is expected to grow about as fast
as the average for all occupations through the
1980’s. Expenditures for the space program
are expected to increase only slightly between
1978 and 1990, while defense spending will
probably increase moderately. In addition to
the jobs that will be created by employment
growth, many workers will be required to fill
openings created by deaths, retirements, and
transfers of workers to other occupations.
(See introductory section of this chapter for
discussion of training requirements and earn­
ings. See also statement on aircraft, missile,
and spacecraft manufacturing elsewhere in
the Handbook.)

Sources o f Additional Information
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronau­
tics, Inc., 1290 Avenue of the Americas, New
York, N.Y. 10019.

(D.O.T. 013.061)

N ature of the W ork
Agricultural engineers design agricultural
machinery and equipment and develop meth­
ods that will improve the production, proc­
essing, and distribution of food and other ag­
ricultural products. They also are concerned
with the conservation and management of
energy, soil, and water resources. Agricul­
tural engineers work in research and develop­
ment, production, sales, or management.

P laces o f Employment
Most of the 14,000 agricultural engineers
employed in 1978 worked for manufacturers
of farm equipment, electric utility compa­
nies, and distributors of farm equipment and
supplies. Some worked as engineering con­
sultants who supply services to farmers and
farm-related industries; others were special­
ists with agricultural organizations, or
managers of agricultural processing plants.
About 450 agricultural engineers were em­
ployed in the Federal Government in 1978,
mostly in the Department of Agriculture;
some were on the faculty of colleges and uni­
versities; and a few worked in State and local

Employm ent O utlook
Employment of agricultural engineers is
expected to grow faster than the average for
all occupations through the 1980’s. Increas­
ing demand for agricultural products, mod­
ernization of farm operations, increasing em­
phasis on conservation of resources, and the
use of agricultural products and wastes as
industrial raw materials and energy sources
should provide additional opportunities for
engineers. (See introductory part of this sec­
tion for information on training requirements
and earnings. See also statement on agricul­
ture elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Sources o f Additional Information
American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2950
Niles Rd., St. Joseph, Mich. 49085.

Biomedical Engineers
(D.O.T. 019.061-010)

Nature o f the W ork
Biomedical engineers use engineering prin­
ciples to solve medical and health-related

Ceramic Engineers
(D.O.T. 006.061)

Nature o f the W ork
Ceramic engineers develop new ceramic
materials and methods for making ceramic
materials into useful products. Although to
some, the word ceramics means pottery,
ceramics actually include all nonmetallic,
inorganic materials which require the use of
high temperature in their processing. Thus,
ceramic engineers work on products as di­
verse as glassware, heat-resistant materials
for furnaces, electronic components, and nu­
clear reactors. They also design the equip­
ment to manufacture these products.

Some biomedical engineers design and develop medical instruments.

problems. Many do research, along with life
scientists, chemists, and members of the med­
ical profession, on the engineering aspects of
the biological systems of man and animals.
Some design and develop medical instru­
ments and devices, including artificial hearts
and kidneys, lasers for surgery, and pace­
makers that regulate the heartbeat. Other bi­
omedical engineers adapt computers to medi­
cal science and design and build systems to
modernize laboratory, hospital, and clinical
procedures. Most engineers in this field re­
quire a sound background in one of the major
engineering disciplines (mechanical, electri­
cal, industrial, or chemical) in addition to
specialized biomedical training.

part of this chapter for information on train­
ing requirements and earnings.)

Sources o f Additional Information
Alliance for Engineering in Medicine and Biology,
Suite 404, 4405 East-West Highway, Bethesda,
Md. 20014.
Biomedical Engineering Society, P.O. Box 2399,
Culver City, Calif. 90230.

Ceramic engineers often specialize in one
type of ceramic product—for example, pro­
ducts of refractories (fire- and heat-resistant
materials such as firebrick); whitewares (por­
celain and china dinnerware or high voltage
electrical insulators); structural materials
(such as bricks and tile); electronic ceramics
(the materials used in the integrated circuits
that have made small calculators and com­
puters possible); protective and refractory
coatings for metals; glass; abrasives; cement
technology; or fuel elements for atomic en­

Places o f Employment
About 14,000 ceramic engineers were em­
ployed in 1978, mostly in the stone, clay, and
glass industry. Others work in industries that
produce or use ceramic products, such as the
iron and steel, electrical equipment, aero­
space, and chemicals industries. Some are in
colleges and universities, independent re­
search organizations, and the Federal Gov­

Places o f Employment
There were about 4,000 biomedical engi­
neers in 1978. Many teach and do research in
colleges and universities. Some work for the
Federal Government, primarily in the Na­
tional Aeronautics and Space Administra­
tion, or in State agencies. An increasing num­
ber work in private industry or in hospitals
developing new devices, techniques, and sys­
tems for improving health care. Some work
in sales positions.

Employment O utlook
Employment of biomedical engineers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s, but the ac­
tual number of openings in this small profes­
sion is not likely to be very large. Those who
have advanced degrees will be in demand to
teach and to fill jobs resulting from increased
expenditures for medical research. Increased
research funds could also create new posi­
tions in instrumentation and systems for the
delivery of health services. (See introductory

Ceramic engineers often specialize in one area of ceramics, such as glass or ceramics used in
electronic components.


Employment O utlook
Employment of ceramic engineers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. Programs
related to nuclear energy, electronics, de­
fense, and medical science will provide job
opportunities for ceramic engineers. Addi­
tional ceramic engineers will be required to
improve and adapt traditional ceramic pro­
ducts, such as whitewares and abrasives, to
new uses. The development of filters and cat­
alytic surfaces to reduce pollution, and the
development of ceramic materials for energy
conversion and conservation, should create
additional openings. (See introductory part
of this section for information on training
requirements and earnings.)

and chemical plants as well as determine
methods of manufacturing the product.
Often, they design and operate pilot plants to
test their work and develop chemical pro­
cesses such as those to remove chemical con­
taminants from waste materials. Because the
duties of chemical engineers cut across many
fields, these professionals must have a knowl­
edge of chemistry, physics, and mechanical
and electrical engineering.
This branch of engineering is so diversified
and complex that chemical engineers fre­
quently specialize in a particular operation
such as oxidation or polymerization. Others
specialize in a particular area such as pollu­
tion control or the production of a specific
product like plastics or rubber.

Sources o f Additional Information

P laces o f Employment

American Ceramic Society, 65 Ceramic Dr., Co­
lumbus, Ohio 43214.

Most of the 50,000 chemical engineers
working in 1978 were in manufacturing in­
dustries, primarily those producing chemi­
cals, petroleum, and related products. Some
worked in government agencies or taught
and did research in colleges and universities.
A small number worked for independent re­
search institutes and engineering consulting
firms, or as independent consultants.

Chemical Engineers
(D.O.T. 008.061 and .167-010)

for all occupations through the 1980’s. A
major factor underlying this growth is indus­
try expansion—the chemicals industry in
The growing complexity and automation
of chemical processes will require addi­
tional chemical engineers to design, build,
and maintain the necessary plants and
equipment. Chemical engineers also will be
needed to solve problems dealing with en­
vironmental protection, development of
synthetic fuels, and the design and devel­
opment of nuclear reactors. In addition,
development of new chemicals used in the
manufacture of consumer goods, such as
plastics and synthetic fibers, probably will
create additional openings. (See introduc­
tory part of this section for information on
training requirements and earnings. See
also the statement on chemists and the in­
dustrial chemical industry elsewhere in the

Sources o f Additional Information
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345
East 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
American Chemical Society, 1155 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Nature o f the Work
Chemical engineers are involved in many
phases of the production of chemicals and
chemical products. They design equipment

Employment O utlook
Employment of chemical engineers is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the average

Civil Engineers
(D.O.T. 005.061 and .167)

Nature o f the W ork
Civil engineers, who work in the oldest
branch of the engineering profession, design
and supervise the construction of roads,
harbors, airports, tunnels, bridges, water
supply and sewage systems, and buildings.
Major specialties within civil engineering
are structural, hydraulic, environmental
(sanitary), transportation (including high­
ways and railways), urban planning, and
soil mechanics.
Many civil engineers are in supervisory or
administrative positions ranging from super­
visor of a construction site to city engineer to
top-level executive. Others teach in colleges
and universities or work as consultants.

P laces o f Employment
About 155,000 civil engineers were em­
ployed in 1978. Most work for Federal,
State, and local government agencies or in
the construction industry. Many work for
consulting engineering and architectural
firms or as independent consulting engi­
neers. Others work for public utilities, rail­
roads, educational institutions, and manu­
facturing industries.
Civil engineers work in all parts of the
country, usually in or near major industrial
and commercial centers. They often work at
construction sites, sometimes in remote areas
or in foreign countries. In some jobs, they
must often move from place to place to work
on different projects.

ing, communications, or power distributing
equipment—or in a subdivision of these areas
—microwave communication or aviation
electronic systems, for example. Electrical
engineers design new products, specify their
uses, and write performance requirements
and maintenance schedules. They also test
equipment, solve operating problems, and es­
timate the time and cost of engineering pro­
jects. Besides employment in research, devel­
opment, and design, many are in
manufacturing, administration and manage­
ment, technical sales, or teaching.

Places o f Employment

Civil engineer inspect construction projects to insure that plans are followed.

Employment O utlook
Employment of civil engineers is expected
to increase about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. Job oppor­
tunities will result from the growing needs
for housing, industrial buildings, electric
power generating plants, and transportation
systems created by a growing population and
an expanding economy. Work related to solv­
ing problems of environmental pollution and
energy self-sufficiency will also require addi­
tional civil engineers.

sign and operate facilities for generating and
distributing electric power.
Electrical engineers generally specialize in
a major area—such as integrated circuits,
computers, electrical equipment manufactur­

Electrical engineering is the largest branch
of the profession. About 300,000 electrical
engineers were employed in 1978, mainly by
manufacturers of electrical and electronic
equipment, aircraft and parts, business ma­
chines, and professional and scientific equip­
ment. Many work for telephone, telegraph,
and electric light and power companies.
Large numbers are employed by government
agencies and by colleges and universites.
Others work for construction firms, for engi­
neering consultants, or as independent con­
sulting engineers.

Employment O utlook
Employment of electrical engineers is ex­
pected to increase about as fast as the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s. Al-

Many civil engineers also will be needed
each year to replace those who retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations. (See introduc­
tory part of this section for information on
training requirements and earnings.)

Sources o f Additional Information
American Society o f Civil Engineers, 345 E. 47th
St., New York, N .Y . 10017.

Electrical Engineers
(D.O.T. 003.061, .167, and .187)

Nature o f the W ork
Electrical engineers design, develop, test,
and supervise the manufacture of electrical
and electronic equipment. Electrical engi­
neers who work with electronic equipment
often are called electronic engineers. Electri­
cal equipment includes power generating and
transmission equipment used by electric utili­
ties, electric motors, machinery controls, and
lighting and wiring in buildings, automobiles,
and aircraft. Electronic equipment includes
radar, computers, communications equip­
ment, and consumer goods such as television
and stereo sets. Electrical engineers also de­

Electrical engineer using an oscilloscope to test electronic circuits in computer equipment.


nation of sources of raw materials, transpor­
tation, and taxes, and develop wage and sal­
ary administration systems and job
evaluation programs. Many industrial engi­
neers move into management positions be­
cause the work is closely related.

P laces o f Employment
About 185,000 industrial engineers were
employed in 1978; more than two-thirds
worked in manufacturing industries. Because
their skills can be used in almost any type of
company, they are more widely distributed
among industries than are those in other
branches of engineering. For example, some
work for insurance companies, banks, con­
struction and mining firms, and public utili­
ties. Hospitals, retail organizations, and
other large business firms employ industrial
engineers to improve operating efficiency.
Still others work for government agencies
and colleges and universities. A few are inde­
pendent consulting engineers.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Industrial engineers developing a data processing system.

though increased demand for computers,
communications, and military electronics is
expected to be the major contributor to this
growth, demand for electrical and electronic
consumer goods, along with increased re­
search and development in new types of
power generation, should create additional
jobs. Many retire, die, or transfer to other
fields of work.

tion planning and control systems to coordi­
nate activities and control product quality,
and design or improve systems for the physi­
cal distribution of goods and services. Indus­
trial engineers also conduct plant location
surveys, where they look for the best combi­

Employment of industrial engineers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. The increas­
ing complexity of industrial operations and
the expansion of automated processes, along
with industry growth, are factors contribut­
ing to employment growth. Increased recog­
nition of the importance of scientific manage-

(See introductory part of this section for
information on training requirements and
earnings. See also statement on electronics
manufacturing elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Sources o f Additional Information
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers/
United States Activities Board, 1111 19th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Industrial Engineers
(D.O.T. 012.061, .067-010, .167 except -066, and .187)

N ature o f the W ork
Industrial engineers determine the most ef­
fective ways for an organization to use the
basic factors of production—people, ma­
chines, and materials. They are more con­
cerned with people and methods of business
organization than are engineers in other spe­
cialties, who generally are concerned more
with particular products or processes, such as
metals, power, or mechanics.
To solve organizational, production, and
related problems most efficiently, industrial
engineers design data processing systems and
apply mathematical concepts (operations re­
search techniques). They also develop man­
agement control systems to aid in financial
planning and cost analysis, design produc­


Many mechanical engineers work in maintenance and production operations.

ment and safety engineering in reducing costs
and increasing productivity should create ad­
ditional opportunities.
Additional numbers of industrial engi­
neers will be required each year to replace
those who retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations. (See introductory part of this
section for information on training require­
ments and earnings.)

Sources o f Additional Information
American Institute of Industrial Engineers, Inc.,
25 Technology Park/Atlanta, Norcross, Ga.

(D.O.T. 007.061 except -026 and -030, 007.161-022 and
-034, and 007.167-014)

Nature o f the W ork
Mechanical engineers are concerned with
the production, transmission, and use of
power. They design and develop power-pro­
ducing machines such as internal combustion
engines, steam and gas turbines, and jet and
rocket engines. They also design and develop
power-using machines such as refrigeration
and air-conditioning equipment, elevators,
machine tools, printing presses, and steel
rolling mills.
The work of mechanical engineers varies
by industry and function since many special­
ties have developed within the field. These
specialties include motor vehicles; marine
equipment; energy conversion systems; heat­
ing, ventilating, and air-conditioning; in­
strumentation; and machines for specialized
industries, such as petroleum, rubber and
plastics, and construction.
Large numbers of mechanical engineers do
research, test, and design work. Many are
administrators or managers, while others
work in maintenance, technical sales, and
production operations. Some teach in col­
leges and universities or work as consultants.

P laces o f Employment
About 200,000 mechanical engineers were
employed in 1978. Almost three-fourths were
employed in manufacturing—mainly in the
primary and fabricated metals, machinery,
transportation equipment, and electrical
equipment industries. Others worked for
government agencies, educational institu­
tions, and consulting engineering firms.

Metallurgical engineers study the physical properties of metals.

creased employment opportunities. Mechan­
ical engineers will be needed to develop new
energy systems and to help solve environ­
mental pollution problems.
Large numbers of mechanical engineers
also will be required each year to replace
those who retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations. (See introductory part of this
section for information on training require­
ments and earnings. See also statement on
occupations in the atomic energy field else­
where in the Handbook.)

Sources o f Additional Information
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
345 E. 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

P laces o f Employment

(D.O.T. 011.061 except -010, and .161.010)

Employm ent O utlook

N ature o f the W ork

Employment of mechanical engineers is
expected to increase about as fast as the aver­
age for all occupations through the 1980’s.
The growing demand for industrial machin­
ery and machine tools and the increasing
complexity of industrial machinery and pro­
cesses will be major factors supporting in­

Metallurgical engineers develop new types
of metal with characteristics that are tailored
to meet specific requirements, such as heat
resistance, high strength but light weight, or
high malleability. They also develop methods
to process and convert metals into useful pro­
ducts. Most of these engineers generally

work in one of the three main branches of
metallurgy—extractive or chemical, physi­
cal, and mechanical. Extractive metallurgists
are concerned with extracting metals from
ores, and refining and alloying them to obtain
useful metal. Physical metallurgists deal with
the nature, structure, and physical properties
of metals and their alloys, and with methods
of converting refined metals into final pro­
ducts. Mechanical metallurgists develop
methods to work and shape metals such as
casting, forging, rolling, and drawing. Scien­
tists working in this field are known as metal­
lurgists or materials scientists, but the dis­
tinction between scientists and engineers in
this field is small.

The metalworking industries—primarily
the iron and steel and nonferrous metals in­
dustries—employed over one-half of the es­
timated 16,000 metallurgical and materials
engineers in 1978. Metallurgical engineers
also work in industries that manufacture ma­
chinery, electrical equipment, and aircraft
and parts, and in the mining industry. Some
work for government agencies and colleges
and universities.

Employm ent O utlook
Employment of metallurgical and materi­
als engineers is expected to grow faster than
the average for all occupations through the

1980’s. An increasing number of these engi­
neers will be needed by the metalworking
industries to develop new metals and alloys
as well as to adapt current ones to new needs.
For example, communications equipment,
computers, and spacecraft require light­
weight metals of high purity. As the supply
of high-grade ores diminishes, more metal­
lurgical engineers will be required to develop
new ways of recycling solid waste materials
in addition to processing low-grade ores now
regarded as unprofitable to mine. Metallurgi­
cal engineers also will be needed to solve
problems associated with the efficient use of
nuclear energy. (See introductory part of this
section for information on training require­
ments and earnings. Also see statement on
the iron and steel industry elsewhere in the

Sources o f Additional Information
The Metallurgical Society of AIME, P.O. Box 430,
Warrendale, Pa. 15086.
American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio

Mining Engineers
(D.O.T. 010.061 except -018)

Nature o f the W ork
Mining engineers find, extract, and pre­
pare minerals for manufacturing industries
to use. They design open pit and under­
ground mines, supervise the construction of
mine shafts and tunnels in underground op­
erations, and devise methods for transporting
minerals to processing plants. Mining engi­
neers are responsible for the economical and
efficient operation of mines and mine safety,
including ventilation, water supply, power,
communications, and equipment mainte­
nance. Some mining engineers work with
geologists and metallurgical engineers to lo­
cate and appraise new ore deposits. Others
develop new mining equipment or direct
mineral processing operations, which involve
separating minerals from the dirt, rock, and
other materials they are mixed with. Mining
engineers frequently specialize in the mining
of one specific mineral such as coal or cop­
With increased emphasis on protecting the
environment, many mining engineers have
been working to solve problems related to
mined-land reclamation and water and air

P laces o f Employment
About 6,000 mining engineers were em­
ployed in 1978. Most work in the mining
industry. Some work for firms that produce
equipment for the mining industry, while
others work in colleges and universities, in
government agencies, or as independent con­


Mining engineers are usually employed at the location of mineral deposits.

Mining engineers are usually employed at
the location of mineral deposits, often near
small communities. However, those in re­
search, teaching, management, consulting, or
sales often are located in metropolitan areas.

See also statement on mining elsewhere in the

Sources o f Additional Information
The Society of Mining Engineers of AIME, Caller
Number D, Littleton, Colo. 80123.

Employm ent O utlook
Employment of mining engineers is ex­
pected to increase much faster than the aver­
age for all occupations through the 1980’s.
Efforts to attain energy self-sufficiency
should spur the demand for coal, and there­
fore for mining engineers in the coal industry.
The increase in demand for coal will depend,
to a great extent, on the availability and price
of other energy sources such as petroleum,
natural gas, and nuclear energy. More tech­
nologically advanced mining systems and
further enforcement of mine health and
safety regulations also will increase the need
for mining engineers. In addition, explora­
tion for all other minerals is also increasing.
Easily mined deposits are being depleted,
creating a need for engineers to devise more
efficient methods for mining low-grade ores.
Employment opportunities also will arise as
new alloys and new uses for metals increase
the demand for less widely used ores. Recov­
ery of metals from the sea and the develop­
ment of oil shale deposits could present
major challenges to the mining engineer. (See
introductory part of this section for informa­
tion on training requirements and earnings.

Petroleum Engineers
(D.O.T. 010.061 except -014 and -026, .131-010,
.161-010 and -014, .167, and .261-010)

N ature o f the W ork
Petroleum engineers are mainly involved
in exploring and drilling for oil and gas. They
work to achieve the maximum profitable re­
covery of oil and gas from a petroleum reser­
voir by determining and developing the best
and most efficient production methods.
Since only a small proportion of the oil and
gas in a reservoir will flow out under natural
forces, petroleum engineers develop and use
various artificial recovery methods, such as
flooding the oil field with water to force the
oil to the surface. Even when using the best
recovery methods, about half the oil is still
left in the ground. Petroleum engineers’ re­
search and development efforts to increase
the proportion of oil recovered in each reser­
voir can make a significant contribution to
increasing available energy resources.

those with specialized training usually work
on cases related to their background. Agents
with an accounting background, for example,
may investigate white-collar crimes such as
bank embezzlements or fraudulent bankrupt­
cies or land deals.
Because the FBI is a fact-gathering
agency, its special agents function strictly as
investigators, collecting evidence in cases in
which the U.S. Government is or may be an
interested party. In their casework, special
agents conduct interviews, examine records,
observe the activities of suspects, and partici­
pate in raids. Because the FBI’s work is
highly confidential, special agents may not
disclose any of the information gathered in
the course of their official duties to unauthor­
ized persons, including members of their
families. Frequently agents must testify in
court about cases that they investigate.
Although they work alone on most assign­
ments, agents communicate with their super­
visors by radio or telephone as the circum­
stances dictate. In performing potentially
dangerous duties, such as arrests and raids,
two agents or more are assigned to work to­

W orking Conditions

Petroleum engineers evaluating the oil and gas potential of a newly drilled well.

P laces o f Employment
About 17,000 petroleum engineers were
employed in 1978, mostly in the petroleum
industry and closely allied fields. Their em­
ployers include not only the major oil compa­
nies, but also the hundreds of smaller inde­
pendent oil exploration and production
companies. They also work for companies
that produce drilling equipment and sup­
plies. Some petroleum engineers work for
banks and other financial institutions which
need their knowledge of the economic value
of oil and gas properties. A small number
work for engineering consulting firms or as
independent consulting engineers, and for
Federal and State governments.
The petroleum engineer’s work is concen­
trated in places where oil and gas are found.
Almost three-fourths of all petroleum engi­
neers are employed in the oil-producing
States of Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and
California. There are many American petro­
leum engineers working overseas in oil-pro­
ducing countries.

Employment O utlook
The employment of petroleum engineers is
expected to grow faster than the average for
all occupations through the 1980’s. Eco­
nomic expansion will require increasing sup­
plies of petroleum and natural gas, even with
energy conservation measures. With efforts

to attain energy self-sufficiency and with
high petroleum prices, increasingly sophis­
ticated and expensive recovery methods will
be used. New sources of oil, such as oil shale
and new offshore oil sources, may be devel­
oped. Also, new drilling techniques will be
needed in developing geothermal energy. All
of these factors will contribute to increasing
demand for petroleum engineers. (See intro­
ductory part of this section for information
on training requirements and earnings.)

Sources o f Additional Information
Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, 6200
North Central Expressway, Dallas, Tex. 75206.

FBI Special Agents
(D.O.T. 375.167-042)

Nature o f the Work
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) spe­
cial agents investigate violations of Federal
laws in connection with bank robberies, kid­
nappings, white-collar crime, thefts of Gov­
ernment property, organized crime, espio­
nage, and sabotage. The FBI, which is part of
the U.S. Department of Justice, has jurisdic­
tion over many different Federal investiga­
tive matters. Special agents, therefore, may
be assigned to any type of case, although

Although FBI special agents work out of
clean, well lighted offices, they spend a great
deal of their time away from their desks con­
ducting investigations. They may visit
homes, offices, or industrial plants and inter­
view persons from all walks of life. Their
work requires use of automobiles and fire­
arms and occasionally involves some risk of
personal injury.
Special agents are subject to call 24 hours
a day and must be available for duty at all
times. Their duties require some travel, and
occasionally they may be transferred to an­
other location.

P laces o f Employm ent
About 8,000 persons were special agents in
1978. Most agents were assigned to the FBI’s
59 field offices located throughout the Na­
tion. They worked in cities where field office
headquarters are located or in resident agen­
cies (suboffices) established under field office
supervision to provide prompt and efficient
handling of investigative matters arising
throughout the field office territory. Some
agents are assigned to the Bureau headquar­
ters in Washington, D.C., which supervises
all FBI activities.

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
To be considered for appointment as an
FBI special agent, an applicant usually must
be a graduate of a State-accredited law school
or a college graduate with a major in ac­
counting. The law school training must have
been preceded by at least 2 years of under­
graduate college work.
From time to time, as the need arises, the

Sources o f Additional Information
The Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Depart­
ment of Justice, Washington, D.C. 20535.

Flight Attendants
(D.O.T. 352.367-010)

N ature o f the W ork
Flight attendants (also called stewardesses
and stewards) are aboard almost all commer­
cial passenger planes to help make the pass­
engers’ flight safe, comfortable, and enjoy­
Before each flight, attendants see that the
passenger cabin is in order. They check that
supplies, such as food, beverages, blankets,
and reading material, are adequate, and that
first aid kits and other emergency equipment
are aboard. As passengers come aboard, at­
tendants greet them, check their tickets, and
assist them by hanging up coats and stowing
small pieces of luggage under the seats.
Newly appointed FBI special agents receive intensive training in the use of firearms.

FBI accepts applications from persons who
have a 4-year college degree with a physical
science major or fluency in a foreign lan­
guage, or who have 3 years of professional,
executive, complex investigative, or other
specialized experience.
Applicants for the position of FBI special
agent must be citizens of the United States,
be at least 23 years old, but less than 35 be­
fore they begin duty, and be willing to serve
anywhere in the United States or Puerto
Rico. They must be capable of strenuous
physical exertion, and have excellent hearing
and vision, normal color perception, and no
physical defects that would prevent their
using firearms or participating in dangerous
assignments. All applicants must pass a rigid
physical examination, as well as written and
oral examinations testing their aptitude for
meeting the public and conducting investi­
gations. All of the tests except the physical
examinations are given by the FBI at its
facilities. Background and character investi­
gations are made of all applicants. Appoint­
ments are made on a probationary basis and
become permanent after 1 year of satisfactory
Each newly appointed special agent is
given about 15 weeks of training at the FBI
Academy at the U.S. Marine Corps Base in
Quantico, Va., before assignment to a field
office. During this period, agents receive in­
tensive training in defensive tactics and the
use of firearms. In addition, they are
thoroughly schooled in Federal criminal law
and procedures, FBI rules and regulations,
fingerprinting, and investigative work. After
assignment to a field office, the new agent
usually works closely with an experienced
agent for about 2 weeks before handling any
assignments independently.
All administrative and supervisory jobs are


filled from within the ranks by selecting those
FBI special agents who have demonstrated
the ability to assume more responsibility.

Em ploym ent O utlook
The jurisdiction of the FBI has expanded
greatly over the years. Although it is impossi­
ble to forecast special agent personnel re­
quirements, employment may be expected to
increase with growing FBI responsibilities.
The FBI provides a career service and its
rate of turnover is traditionally low. Never­
theless, the FBI is always interested in ap­
plications from qualified persons.

The entrance salary for FBI special agents
was $17,532 in late 1978. Special agents are
not appointed under Federal Civil Service
regulations, but, like other Federal em­
ployees, they receive periodic within-grade
salary raises if their work performance is sat­
isfactory; they can advance in grade as they
gain experience. Salaries of supervisory
agents start at $32,442 a year.
Agents frequently work longer than the
customary 40-hour week and, under specified
conditions, receive overtime pay up to $4,400
a year. Agents are required to retire at age 55
if they have served at least 20 years.

R elated Occupations
FBI special agents conduct investigations
and apprehend lawbreakers. Other related in­
vestigative and law enforcement occupations
include: Detectives, private investigators, po­
lice officers, deputy sheriffs, Secret Service
agents, Internal Revenue Service Agents,
Border Patrol agents, fire marshals, and fish
and game wardens.

Before the plane takes off, attendants use
the public address system to instruct passen­
gers in the use of emergency equipment and
check to see that all passengers have their
seat belts fastened. In the air, they answer
questions about the flight, distribute maga­
zines and pillows, and help care for small
children, elderly persons, and handicapped
persons. Attendants also serve cocktails and
other refreshments. On many flights, they
heat and distribute precooked meals.
One of the most important functions of
attendants is to assist passengers in the rare
event of an emergency. These range from a
disabled engine, where passengers must be
reassured, to emergency landings, where at­
tendants evacuate the plane, opening doors
and inflating emergency slides. Attendants
also must be prepared to administer first aid
to passengers who become ill during the

W orking Conditions
Since airlines operate around the clock 365
days a year, attendants may work at night, on
holidays, and on weekends. They usually fly
no more than 80 hours a month, but they
may devote up to 35 hours a month to the
ground duties involved in preparing their
planes for flights. As a result of variations in
scheduling and limitations on flying time,
many attendants have 15 days or more off
each month. Attendants may be away from
their home bases about one-third of the time
or more. When they are away from home, the
airlines provide hotel accommodations and
an allowance for meal expenses.
Flight attendants have the opportunity to
meet interesting people and see new places.
The combination of free time and discount
air fares provides substantial opportunity for
travel. However, the work can be strenuous
and trying. Many short flights require speedy
service if all passengers are to be served. Poor

these assignments also are based on seniority,
the most experienced attendants usually get
their choice of base and flights.
Opportunities for advancement are lim­
ited. However, some attendants may advance
to flight service instructor, customer service
director, instructor, or recruiting representa­

Employm ent O utlook
Employment of flight attendants is ex­
pected to grow much faster than the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s. In
addition to growth, openings will occur be­
cause of the need to replace experienced at­
tendants who retire, die, or transfer to other
Increases in population and income are ex­
pected to increase the number of airline pass­
engers. To deal with this growth, airlines
usually enlarge their capacity by increasing
the number and size of planes in operation.
Since the Federal Aviation Administration
safety rules require one attendant for every
50 seats, more flight attendants will be
needed. Job opportunities may vary from
year to year, however, because air travel is
sensitive to ups and downs in the economy.

Flight attendants help make the passengers’ flight safe, comfortable and enjoyable.

weather can make it difficult to serve drinks
and meals. Attendants stand during much of
the flight and must remain pleasant and effi­
cient regardless of how tired they may be.

P laces o f Employm ent
About 48,400 flight attendants worked for
the airlines in 1978. Most attendants are sta­
tioned in major cities at the airlines’ main
bases; nearly three-fifths work near Chicago,
Dallas, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and
San Francisco. Airliners generally carry 1 to
10 flight attendants, depending on the num­
ber of seats on the plane and the proportion
of economy to first-class passengers. Large
aircraft like the Boeing 747 may have as
many as 16 flight attendants.

Training, O ther Q ualifications, and
The airlines place great stress on the hiring
of poised, tactful, and resourceful people. In
particular, applicants should be able to talk
comfortably with strangers. As a rule, appli­
cants must be at least 19 years old. They must
be in excellent health and have good vision.
Vision may be corrected with contact lenses
or, on most airlines, with glasses. Applicants
also must speak clearly.
Applicants must be high school graduates.
Those having several years of college or expe­
rience in dealing with the public are pre­

ferred. Flight attendants for international
airlines generally must be able to speak an
appropriate foreign language fluently.
Most large airlines give newly hired flight
attendants about 5 weeks of training in their
own schools. Transportation to the training
centers and an allowance while in training
may be provided. Trainees are taught how to
react to emergencies, including instruction
on evacuating an airplane, operating an oxy­
gen system, and giving first aid. Attendants
also are taught flight regulations and duties,
and company operations and policies. Addi­
tional courses in passport and customs regu­
lations are given to trainees for the interna­
tional routes. Towards the end of their
training, students go on practice flights. The
few airlines that do not operate schools gen­
erally send new employees to the school of
another airline.
After completing their training, flight at­
tendants are assigned to one of their airline’s
main bases. New attendants are placed on
reserve and either fill in on extra flights or
replace attendants who are sick or on vaca­
tion. They usually remain on reserve for at
least 1 year; at some cities it may take as long
as 5 years to advance from reserve status.
When reserve attendants are on duty, they
must leave word where they can be reached
and be available for work at short notice.
More senior attendants who no longer are on
reserve bid for regular assignments. Because

Because the job is attractive and offers a
chance to travel, many people are interested
in becoming flight attendants. Applicants
can expect keen competition for the available
jobs because the number of applicants is ex­
pected to exceed the number of openings.
Applicants with 2 years of college and experi­
ence in dealing with the public have the best
chance of being hired.

Average monthly earnings of all flight at­
tendants were $1,200 in 1978. According to
a number of union contracts, salaries of most
beginning flight attendants on domestic
flights ranged from $700 to $800 a month,
while those on international flights earned
from $850 to $950. As an additional benefit,
flight attendants and their immediate fami­
lies are entitled to reduced fare transporta­
tion on their own and most other airlines.
Most flight attendants are members of ei­
ther the Transport Workers Union of Amer­
ica or the Association of Flight Attendants.

Related Occupations
Other jobs that involve helping people and
require the ability to be pleasant even under
trying circumstances include tour guide, gate
agent (air transportation), ground host/hostess (air transportation), and social director.

Sources o f Additional Information
Information about job opportunities in a
particular airline and the qualifications re­
quired may be obtained by writing to the
personnel manager of the company. Ad­
dresses of companies are available from:
Air Transport Association of America, 1709 New
York Ave. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20006.

Food Technologists
(D.O.T. 041.081-010)

Nature o f the W ork
In the past, consumers processed most
food in the home, but today industry pro­
cesses almost all foods. A key worker in­
volved in the development and processing of
the large variety of foods, available today is
the food technologist.
Food technologists investigate the chemi­
cal, physical, and biological nature of food
and apply this knowledge to processing,
preserving, packaging, distribution, and
storing an adequate, nutritious, wholesome,
and economical food supply. Over one-third
of all food technologists work in research
and development. Others work in quality
assurance laboratories or in production or
processing areas of food plants. Some teach
or do basic research in colleges and univer­
sities, and others work in sales or manage­
ment positions.
Food technologists in basic research study
the structure and composition of food and
the changes it undergoes in storage and proc­
essing. For example, they may develop new
sources of proteins, study the effects of proc­
essing on micro-organisms, or search for fac­
tors that affect the flavor, texture, or appear­
ance of foods. Food technologists who work
in applied research and development create
new foods and develop new processing meth­
ods. The also work to improve existing foods
by making them more nutritious and enhanc­
ing their flavor, color, and texture.
Food technologists seek to have each prod­
uct retain its characteristics and nutritive,
value during processing and storage. They
also conduct chemical and microbiological
tests to see that products meet industry and
government standards, and they may deter­
mine the nutritive contents of products in
order to comply with Federal nutritional la­
beling requirements.

supervise sanitation operations, including the
efficient and economical disposal of wastes.
To increase efficiency, they advise manage­
ment on the purchase of equipment and rec­
ommend new sources of materials.
Some food technologists apply their
knowledge in areas such as market research,
advertising, and technical sales. Others teach
in colleges and universities.

W orking Conditions
Food technologists work under a variety
of conditions. Most work regular hours in
offices, laboratories, or classrooms. Food
technologists who work in production or
quality control positions work in or near
food processing areas, sometimes under
noisy, hot, or cold conditions, but they
usually do not encounter unhealthy or un­
safe conditions.

P laces o f Employment
An estimated 15,000 persons worked as
food technologists in 1978. Food technolo­
gists work in all sectors of the food industry
and in every State. The types of products and
processes with which they work may depend
on the locality. For example, in Maine and
Idaho, they work with potato processing; in
the Midwest, with cereal products and meat­
packing; and in Florida and California, with
citrus fruits and vegetables.
Some food technologists do research for
Federal agencies such as the Food and Drug
Administration and the Departments of Ag­
riculture and Defense; others work in State
regulatory agencies. A few work for private
consulting firms and international organiza­
tions such as the United Nations. Some teach
or do research in colleges and universities.
(See statement on college and university fac­
ulty elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree with a major in food
technology or in one of the physical or life
sciences, such as chemistry or biology, is the
usual minimum requirement for beginning
jobs in food techology. An advanced degree
is necessary for many jobs, particularly re­
search and college teaching and for some
management jobs in industry.
Over 60 colleges and universities offered
programs leading to the bachelor’s degree in
food technology in 1978. Undergraduate stu­
dents majoring in food technology usually
take courses in physics, chemistry, mathe­
matics, biology, the social sciences and
humanities, and business administration, as
well as a variety of food technology courses.
Food technology courses cover areas such as
preservation, processing, sanitation, and
marketing of foods.
Most of the colleges and universities that
provide undergraduate food technology pro­
grams also offer advanced degrees. Graduate
students usually specialize in a particular
area of food technology. Requirements for
the master’s or doctor’s degree vary by insti­
tution, but usually include extensive re­
search. A thesis, which is a report of original
research findings, is required for the doctor’s
degree and, in some institutions, for the mas­
ter’s degree.
People planning careers as food technolo­
gists should have analytical minds and like
details and technical work. Food technolo­
gists must be able to express their ideas
clearly to others.
Food technologists with a bachelor’s de­
gree might start work as quality assurance
chemists or as assistant production manag­
ers. After gaining experience, they can ad-

In quality control laboratories, food
technologists check raw ingredients for
freshness, maturity, or suitability for proc­
essing. They may use machines that test
for tenderness by finding the amount of
force necessary to puncture the item. Peri­
odically, they inspect processing line opera­
tions to insure conformance with govern­
ment and industry standards. For example,
they test processed foods for Sugar, starch,
protein, fat, vitamin, and mineral content.
They make sure that, after processing, var­
ious enzymes are inactive and microbial
levels are adequately low so that the food
will not spoil during storage or present a
safety hazard. Other food technologists are
involved in developing and improving
packaging and storage methods.
Food technologists in processing plants
prepare production specifications, schedule
processing operations, maintain proper tem­
perature and humidity in storage areas, and


Many food technologists work in quality control laboratories.

vance to more responsible management jobs.
A food technologist might also begin as a
junior food chemist in a research and devel­
opment laboratory of a food company, and be
promoted to section head or another research
management position.
People who have master’s degrees may
begin as food chemists in a research and de­
velopment laboratory. Those who have the
Ph. D. degree usually begin their careers
doing basic research or teaching.

food technologists in the Federal Govern­
ment was about $26,600 a year in 1978.

Related Occupations
Food technology is closely related to
chemistry and, to a lesser extent, to biology.
Other occupations in which the work is
related to food technology are life and envi­
ronmental scientists, engineers, and engi­
neering and science technicians.

Sources o f Additional Information
Employment O utlook
Employment of food technologists is ex­
pected to grow more slowly than the aver­
age for all occupations through the 1980’s.
Most openings will result from the need to
replace those who die, retire, or transfer to
other fields, although some openings will
arise from growth in demand for these
Employment is expected to grow some­
what as the food industry responds to the
challenge of providing wholesome and eco­
nomical foods that can meet changing con­
sumer preferences and food standards. In ad­
dition, both private households and food
service institutions that supply customers
such as airlines and restaurants will demand
a greater quantity of processed convenience
foods. However, the expected slow growth of
the food processing industry will result in the
slower than average growth in employment
of food technologists.
An increasing number of food technolo­
gists are expected to find jobs in research and
product development. In recent years, expen­
ditures for research and development in the
food industry have increased moderately and
probably will continue to rise. Through re­
search, new foods are being produced from
modifications of wheat, com, rice, and soy­
beans. For example, food scientists are work­
ing to improve “meat” products made from
vegetable proteins. There will be an increased
need for food scientists in quality control and
production because of the complexity of pro­
ducts and processes and the application of
higher processing standards and new govern­
ment regulations.

Food technologists had relatively high
earnings in 1978, about twice the average for
all nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming. According to a survey of
the Institute of Food Technologists in 1977,
food technologists with the bachelor’s degree
had average starting salaries of about $12,000
a year. Those with a master’s degree started
at about $15,000, and those with the Ph. D.
degree at about $18,000.
In the Federal Government in 1978, food
technologists with a bachelor’s degree could
start at $10,507 or $13,014 a year, depending
on their college grades. Those with a master’s
degree could start at $13,014 or $15,920, and
those with a Ph. D. could begin at $19,263 or
$23,087. The average salary for experienced

For information on careers in food tech­
nology contact:
Institute of Food Technologists, Suite 2120, 221
North LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 60601.

(D.O.T 040.061-034)

Nature o f the W ork
Forests are one of our most important nat­
ural resources. We use their products—trees
—for building materials, paper, fuel, and a
variety of other uses. The forests help clean
the air we breathe, and protect our water
supplies and wildlife, as well as provide re­
creational opportunities for people. With all
of these multiple demands made upon them,
forests must be managed, developed, and
protected, or they will simply not be available
for use by future generations. Foresters are
the trained professionals who help manage,
develop, and protect our vital forest re­
Foresters plan and supervise the growing,
protection and utilization of trees. They
make maps of forest areas, estimate the
amount of standing timber and future
growth, and manage timber sales. All of these
things involve working with other people.
Managing timber sales, for example, involves
dealing with landowners and supervising the
work of loggers. Foresters also protect the
trees from fire, harmful insects, and disease.
Some foresters may be responsible for
other duties ranging from wildlife protection
and watershed management to the develop­
ment and supervision of camps, parks, and
grazing lands. Other foresters do research,
provide information to forest owners and to
the general public (called extension work),
and teach at colleges and universities.
Foresters often specialize in one area of
work, such as timber management, outdoor
recreation, or forest economics. Some of
these areas are recognized as distinct profes­

W orking Conditions
Working conditions for foresters vary con­
siderably, according to the type of work they
perform. The old image of foresters as soli­
tary horseback riders, singlehandedly pro­
tecting large areas of land far from civiliza­

tion, however, no longer holds true. Modem
foresters spend a great deal of time working
with people. They must deal constantly with
landowners, loggers, forestry aides, and a
wide variety of other people.
The work still can be physically demand­
ing, though. Beginning foresters often spend
considerable time outdoors in all kinds of
weather, sometimes in remote areas. To get
to these areas, they use airplanes, helicopters,
and four-wheel drive vehicles. Foresters also
may have to work long hours on emergency
duty, as in firefighting or search and rescue
Many experienced foresters advance to
jobs in the office where they use maps and
computers to plan and organize the activities
of the staff.

P laces o f Employment
Over 25,000 persons worked as foresters in
1978. Nearly 2 out .of 5 worked in private
industry, mainly for pulp and paper, lumber,
logging, and milling companies. About onefourth worked for the Federal Government,
primarily in the Forest Service of the Depart­
ment of Agriculture. The remainder worked
for State and local governments, colleges and
universities or consulting firms, or were selfemployed either as consultants or forest own­

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree with a major in for­
estry is the minimum educational require­
ment for persons desiring professional ca­
reers in forestry. However, due to keen job
competition and the increasingly complex
nature of the forester’s work, many employ­
ers prefer graduates who hold advanced de­
grees. Certain jobs such as teaching and re­
search require advanced degrees.
To qualify for college work, high school
students who are considering careers in for­
estry should get as broad an educational
background as they can. Students should,
however, take as many science courses as
possible, including courses in chemistry,
physics, mathematics, and the biological
sciences. Courses in English literature and
public speaking also are helpful.
Education in forestry leading to a bache­
lor’s or higher degree was offered in 1978 by
50 colleges and universities, of which 43 were
accredited by the Society of American For­
esters. Curriculums stress the liberal arts and
communications skills as well as technical
forestry subjects. Courses in forest economics
and business administration supplement the
student’s scientific and technical knowledge.
Many colleges require students to spend one
summer in a field camp operated by the col­
lege. All schools encourage summer jobs that
give firsthand experience in forest or conser­
vation work.
In addition to meeting the intellectual de­
mands of forestry, foresters must enjoy work/95

about $10,600 in 1978, and State median sal­
aries were $17,000 per year. College profes­
sors generally started at about $14,000 annu­
ally in 1978, while their median salary was
over $22,000 per year. Many faculty foresters
supplement their regular salaries with in­
come from lecturing, consulting, and writing.

Related O ccupations
Foresters are not the only workers con­
cerned with managing, developing, and pro­
tecting our natural resources. Other workers
with similar responsibilities include agrono­
mists, farmers, farm managers, ranchers,
range managers, fish hatchery managers, soil
conservationists, and wildlife managers.

Sources o f Additional Information
General information about the forestry
profession, lists of reading materials, and lists
of schools offering education in forestry are
available from:
Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor
Lane, Washington, D.C. 20014.
Foresters take core samples from trees to assess the age and growth rate of timber stands.

ing outdoors, be physically hardy, and be
willing to move, often to remote places. For­
esters should also work well with people and
express themselves clearly.

using the entire forest crop, to develop meth­
ods of growing superior trees in a shorter
period of time, and to do research in the fields
of plant genetics and fertilization.

Forestry graduates usually work under the
supervision of experienced foresters. After
gaining experience, they may advance to
more responsible positions. In the Federal
Government, an experienced forester may
supervise an entire forest area, and may ad­
vance to regional forest supervisor or to a top
administrative position. In private industry,
foresters start by learning the practical and
administrative aspects of the business. Many
foresters work their way up to top
managerial positions within their companies.

Employment of foresters will probably
continue to grow faster in private industry
than in the Federal Government where bud­
get limitations may restrain growth. State
government agencies will probably hire more
foresters through Federal-State cooperative
programs for fire control, protection against
insects and disease, recreation, and technical
assistance to owners of forest lands.

Employment O utlook
Employment of foresters is expected to
grow about as fast as the average for all occu­
pations through the 1980’s. In recent years,
however, the number of persons earning de­
grees in forestry has exceeded the number of
openings in the field. If the number of degrees
granted each year remains at present levels,
competition is expected to persist throughout
the period. Opportunities will be better for
persons who can offer an employer either an
advanced degree or several years’ experience.
The country will need more foresters to
ensure an increasing output of forest pro­
ducts. Employment also may increase as we
become more aware of the need to conserve
and replenish our forest resources, and to
improve the environmental quality of our
forest lands.
Private owners of timberland may well em­
ploy more foresters as they recognize the
need for—and the higher profitability of—
improved forestry and logging practices. The
forest products industry will require addi­
tional foresters to apply new techniques for


The expected rapid increase in the employ­
ment of technicians for routine tasks will en­
able the forester to spend more time in super­
vising and managing the forest.

National Forest Products Association, 1619 Mas­
sachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

General career information also is availa­
ble from:
American Forest Institute, 1619 Massachusetts
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Forestry Association, 1319 18th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

For details on forestry careers in the For­
est Service, contact:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Washington, D.C. 20250.

(D.O.T. 018.131-010, .261, .262-010, and .281-010;
029.067 and .167-010; and 090.227-010)

Nature o f the Work
According to the limited data available,
the average starting salary for foresters in
1978 was about $12,000 a year, while ex­
perienced foresters averaged over $20,000.
In private industry, starting foresters ave­
raged $12,000 a year in 1978 and the overall
average salary was $21,000.
Graduates entering the Federal Govern­
ment as foresters in early 1979 with just a
bachelor’s degree started at $10,507 a year.
However, because of keen competition, most
foresters hired by the Federal Government
either held a master’s degree or had some
experience, and generally started at $13,014
a year. Ph. D.’s generally started at $15,920
or $19,263 a year. The median annual salary
in 1979 for federally employed foresters ex­
ceeded $22,000.
In local government, foresters generally
began at over $10,000 a year in 1978, while
their median annual salary was $16,000.
Starting salaries in State governments were

Geographers do research on a wide range
of social, economic, and environmental is­
sues. They study the spatial distribution and
location of various characteristics of the
earth’s surface. Such studies help to explain
changing patterns of human settlement—
where people live, why they are located there,
and how they earn a living.
Geographers are involved in a variety of
activities. Most are college or university
teachers and, like other faculty members, do
research and consulting in addition to teach­
ing. (For more information, see the Hand­
book statement on college and university fac­
ulty.) Other geographers are primarily
researchers or analysts. They prepare reports
and recommendations and may work for
consulting firms, research organizations,
business and industrial firms, or government
agencies. Some geographers use their special­
ized knowledge and research skills in plan­
ning or administrative jobs in such fields as
economic development or environmental re­
source management.

community development, population policy,
housing, transportation, and industrial devel­
The physical characteristics of the earth
are the focus of physical geographers. They
are concerned with the impact of the con­
figuration of the earth’s surface on human
activities and study the earth’s relief,
drainage, vegetation patterns, wildlife dis­
tribution, and climates. They also study
the effect of physical characteristics on
navigation and other activities. Typically,
they specialize in a particular branch of
physical geography such as geomorphology
—the study of landforms—or hydrology—
the study of water. Geographers specializ­
ing in climatology use atmospheric data to
describe overall climatic conditions and to
do research into the causes of climatic
change. They may determine the signifi­
cance of climatic conditons for defense,
conservation, agriculture, health, transpor­
tation, marketing, and other activities.
These geographers are making use of mapping
and statistical techniques in their study of forms.

Depending on their training and field of
interest—or on a client’s needs—a geogra­
pher might examine the distribution of landforms; study variations in climate, soils, or
vegetation; or analyze such resources as
water and minerals. Like other social scien­
tists, geographers are concerned with human
resources, and frequently their research over­
laps that of other disciplines. Thus, a geogra­
pher might study political organizations,
transportation systems, marketing systems,
patterns of industrial development, housing,
or public health.

Regional geographers study the physical,
climatic, economic, political, and cultural
characteristics of a particular region or area,
which may range in size from a river basin to
a State, a country, or even a continent. In
addition to an understanding of the geogra­
phy of a region, some knowledge of its his­
tory, customs, and languages may be neces­
Cartographers compile and interpret data
and design and construct maps and charts.
They also conduct research in surveying and
mapping techniques and procedures.
Medical geographers study the effect of the
environment on health and take into account
such factors as climate, vegetation, mineral
traces in water, and atmospheric pollution.
They work with public health officials, bio­
statisticians, and others to determine how
our health is influenced by our physical sur­
roundings—including access to health-care

Research techniques depend on the topic
under study. However, field study, including
interviews and the use of surveying and
meteorological instruments, is a standard
technique. In addition, geographers analyze
maps, aerial photographs, and data transmit­
ted by remote sensing equipment on satel­
lites. Some geographers construct maps,
graphs, and diagrams in the course of their
research. Geographers typically make use of
advanced statistical techniques and mathe­
matical models—and, frequently, a computer
—when they analyze or map the data they
have obtained.

Geographers may specialize even further
in other subfields, including agricultural ge­
ography, biogeography, conservation, cul­
tural geography, geographical methods and
techniques, historical geography, location
theory, population geography, remote sens­
ing, rural geography, social geography, and

Geographers specialize, as a rule. Eco­
nomic geographers deal with the geographic
distribution of an area’s economic activities
—manufacturing, mining, forestry, agricul­
ture, trade, and communications. Their re­
search might be used for feasibility studies, to
determine the costs and benefits of putting
resources to use in a particular way. Political
geographers are concerned with the relation­
ship of geography to politics. They might be
asked to help define and describe political
boundaries, including those of cities, coun­
ties, and administrative subdivisions, as well
as offshore areas. Urban geographers study
cities. They provide background information
and make recommendations in such areas as

Formal training in geography provides the
background for a wide range of jobs requiring
expertise in environmental resources, re­
gional planning, and social science research.
Examples of such jobs are aerial photo inter­
preter, climatologist, community develop­
ment specialist, ecologist, intelligence ana­
lyst, map analyst, land economist, marketing
analyst, regional planner, research analyst,
site researcher, and transportation planner.
Jobs such as these generally require knowl­
edge not only of geography, but of other dis­
ciplines as well. Particularly useful are com­
binations of geography with economics,
political science, sociology, anthropology, ge­
ology, or urban planning.

W orking Conditions
Geographers employed by colleges and
universities have flexible work schedules, di­
viding their time among teaching, research,
and administrative responsibilities. Geogra­
phers working for government agencies and
private firms, on the other hand, have much
more structured work schedules. They often
work alone behind a desk or a drafting table,
reading and writing reports on their research
or constructing maps and charts. Many expe­
rience the pressures of deadlines and tight
schedules and sometimes must work over­
time. Their routine may be interrupted by
telephone calls, letters, special requests for
information, meetings, or conferences.
Increasingly, geographers conduct re­
search and surveying operations in the field.
Under these circumstances, they are an inte­
gral part of a research team. Fieldwork may
require traveling to remote areas, working
under severe weather conditions, living in
primitive housing, and adjusting to different
cultural environments. Physical stamina also
is important because fieldwork requires long
working hours, occasionally under adverse

P laces o f Employment
About 10,000 persons worked as geogra­
phers in 1978. Colleges and universities em­
ploy over half of all geographers. The Federal
Government also is an important employer
of geographers, and many work in the Wash­
ington, D.C. area. For these geographers,
employed mostly by mapping and intelli­
gence agencies, skills in cartography, photogrammetry, and remote sensing data inter­
pretation are important.
The principal Federal employers are the
Departments of Defense, Interior, Com­
merce, and Agriculture. Other agencies in­
clude the Departments of State; Transporta­
tion; Education, and Health and Human
Services; and Energy; the Environmental
Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA); and the Central Intelligence
Agency (CIA).
Geographers employed by State and local
governments work mostly in the fields of
urban and regional planning, economic de­
velopment, and community development.
Private industry employs some geogra­
phers as researchers and planners; often, they
specialize in location analysis. Geographers
work for textbook and map publishers, travel
agencies, manufacturing firms, real estate de­
velopment corporations, insurance compa­
nies, communications and transportation
firms, and chainstores. Some work for scien­
tific foundations and research organizations
or run their own research or consulting busi­

Training, Other Q ualifications, and
The minimum educational requirement for
beginning positions in geography in govern­

ment, industry, or secondary schools usually
is a bachelor’s degree with a major in the
field. However, a master’s degree increas­
ingly is required for many entry level posi­
tions. Applicants to entry level jobs would
find it helpful to have training in a specialty
such as cartography, photogrammetry, re­
mote sensing data interpretation, statistical
analysis including computer science, or envi­
ronmental analysis.
A master’s degree is the minimum require­
ment for the position of college instructor in
junior colleges and some 4-year schools, and
is important for advancement in business and
government. However, a Ph. D. or advance­
ment into doctoral candidacy is required for
a first appointment at some institutions of
higher education. A Ph. D. degree and a re­
cord of significant published research is re­
quired for a professorship and is necessary to
gain tenure. The Ph. D. degree also is neces­
sary for many senior level planning, research,
and administrative positions in government,
industry, research organizations, and con­
sulting firms.
In the Federal Government, geographers
generally must have a college degree with a
minimum of 24 semester hours in geography
or related fields. Cartographers need a col­
lege degree including at least 18 hours in one
or a combination of the following: Cartogra­
phy, photogrammetry, geodesy, or plane sur­
veying. However, because competition for
Federal jobs is keen, additional education or
experience may be required.
About 340 colleges and universities offered
programs in geography in 1978. Some de­
partments of geography are combined with
other disciplines such as urban planning or
geology. To further illustrate the interdisci­
plinary nature of the field, courses in remote
sensing and photogrammetry often are of­
fered in departments of geography as well as
geology, forestry, or engineering. Under­
graduate study provides a general introduc­
tion to the field of geography and often in­
cludes field study. Research methods and
writing skills also are taught. Typical courses
offered are physical geography, cultural ge­
ography, climatology and meteorology, eco­
nomic geography, political geography, urban
geography, and quantitative methods in ge­
ography. Courses in cartography, photo­
grammetry, remote sensing, historical geog­
raphy, ecology, natural resource planning,
social geography, geography of transporta­
tion, geographic aspects of pollution, and ge­
ography of various regions also are offered.
Geography majors should take appropriate
electives in other departments. For example,
courses in economics, architecture, urban
planning, and urban and rural sociology are
important for planners; courses in drawing,
design, computer science, and mathematics
are important for cartographers; and courses
in physics, botany, and geology are impor­
tant for physical geographers.
In 1978, about 140 institutions offered
master’s degree programs; 56 offered Ph. D.
programs. Applicants for advanced degrees


are required to have a bachelor’s degree in
one of the social or physical sciences with a
substantial background in geography. The
program of graduate study includes field and
laboratory work as well as course work in
geography and a thesis. Graduate schools
also require course work in advanced mathe­
matics, statistics, and computer science be­
cause of the increasing importance of quan­
titative research methods. A language may be
required for those students who plan to spe­
cialize in foreign regional geography. In rec­
ognition of the increasing importance of ap­
plied research, academic programs are
putting more emphasis on preparing in­
dividuals to apply their knowledge to the so­
lution of practical problems.
Students should select graduate schools
that offer appropriate areas of specialization
and good research opportunities in nearby
libraries, archives, laboratories, and field sta­
tions. Internships or part-time employment
for graduate students often may be available
in government agencies or research, scien­
tific, or industrial firms.
Persons who want to become geographers
should enjoy reading, studying, and research­
ing because they must keep abreast of devel­
opments in the field. Creativity and intellec­
tual curiosity are important because
geographers work with abstract ideas and
theories as well as doing practical studies.
Patience and persistence help, because geog­
raphers spend long hours on independent
study and problem solving. They also must
be objective and systematic in their work.
The ability to communicate ideas effectively,
both orally and in writing, is important in
this field, as it is in any research-oriented job.
The ability to work well with others is often
important. Geographers who handle preci­
sion drafting tools need manual dexterity.

expected to expand, particularly in health
planning; conservation; environmental qual­
ity; highway planning; and city, community,
and regional planning and development. Pri­
vate industry is expected to hire increasing
numbers of geographers for market research
and location analysis.
The employment outlook for geographers
with the Ph. D. is expected to be favorable
through the 1980’s for research and adminis­
trative positions in government, industry, re­
search organizations, and environmental and
other consulting firms. Ph. D.’s may face
competition for academic positions, although
those graduating from high-ranking universi­
ties may have an advantage. Some are likely
to accept temporary assignments with little
or no hope of acquiring tenure. Those with
the master’s degree are likely to face competi­
tion for academic positions, although some
may continue to find jobs in junior and com­
munity colleges. Graduates with a master’s
degree who have training in applied areas
should have good opportunities for planning
and marketing positions in government and
industry; others may face competition.
Graduates with a bachelor’s degree are ex­
pected to face strong competition for jobs as
geographers. Those with quantitative skills
and training in cartography, remote sensing,
or planning should have the best prospects.
Many of these degree holders may find em­
ployment in government and industry as
management or sales trainees, research as­
sistants, or administrative assistants. Others
may obtain employment as research or teach­
ing assistants in educational institutions
while studying for advanced degrees. Some
bachelor’s degree holders teach at the high
school level, although in some States the
master’s degree is becoming essential for high
school teaching positions. Others earn library
science degrees and become map librarians.

Em ploym ent O utlook
Employment of geographers is expected to
grow about as fast as the average for all occu­
pations through the 1980’s. Most openings
are likely to result from deaths, retirements,
and other separations from the labor force.
Little or no employment growth is an­
ticipated in colleges and universities, the tra­
ditional employer of many highly qualified
geographers; as a result, many such geogra­
phers are expected to seek nonacademic posi­
tions. Many opportunities are becoming
available in urban and environmental man­
agement and planning, including such areas
as location analysis, land and water resources
planning, and health planning. Those with
strong backgrounds in urban, economic, and
physical geography and in quantitative tech­
niques should be in particular demand. Sig­
nificant demand also is expected for gradu­
ates with knowledge of remote sensing,
photogrammetry, and cartography. The Fed­
eral Government will need additional person­
nel to work in programs such as health plan­
ning, regional development, environmental
quality, and intelligence. Employment of
geographers in State and local government is

According to the 1977-78 College Place­
ment Council Salary Survey, bachelor’s de­
gree candidates in the social sciences received
offers averaging around $10,700 a year; mas­
ter’s degree candidates in the social sciences,
around $13,200.
According to an Association of American
Geographers survey, starting salaries for Ph.
D.’s with no teaching experience averaged
around $14,000 for the academic year 197778, while the average salary of geographers
employed in colleges and universities was
about $21,000. Salaries of geographers in
planning positions in business and industry
are comparable to those in the Federal Gov­
Geographers in educational institutions
usually have an opportunity to earn income
from other sources, such as consulting work,
special research, and publication of books
and articles.
The Federal Government recognizes edu­
cation and experience in certifying applicants
for entry level positions. In general, geogra-

phers in the Federal Government with the
bachelor’s degree and no experience started
at $10,507 or $13,014 a year in 1979, depend­
ing on their college achievement. Those with
a master’s degree started at $15,920 a year,
and those with the Ph. D. at $19,263. Geog­
raphers in the Federal Government averaged
around $23,200 a year in 1978; cartogra­
phers, around $22,800.

Related Occupations
Knowledge of physical and environmental
science is important to geographers. Others
whose work requires training in these fields
include engineers, geologists, geophysicists,
meteorologists, oceanographers, astronom­
ers, chemists, physicists, surveyors, and

Sources o f Additional Information
For additional information on careers and
job openings for geographers, and on schools
offering various programs in geography, con­
Association of American Geographers, 1710 16th
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20009.

For additional information on careers in
cartography, surveying, and geodesy, con­
American Congress on Surveying and Mapping,
210 Little Falls St., Falls Church, Va. 22046.

For more information on careers and a list
of schools that offer courses in photogrammetry and remote sensing, contact:
American Society of Photogrammetry, 105 North
Virginia Ave., Falls Church, Va. 22046.

(D.O.T. 024.081 -018, -022, -038, -046, and -054)

Nature o f the W ork
Geologists study the structure, composi­
tion, and history of the earth’s crust. By ex­
amining surface rocks and drilling to recover
rock cores, they determine the types and dis­
tribution of rocks beneath the earth’s surface.
They also identify rocks and minerals, con­
duct geological surveys, draw maps, take
measurements, and record data. Geological
research helps to determine the structure and
history of the earth and may result in signifi­
cant advances, such as the ability to predict
earthquakes. An important application of
geologists’ work is locating oil and other min­
Geologists use many tools and instruments
such as hammers, chisels, levels, transits
(mounted telescopes used to measure angles),
gravity meters, cameras, compasses, and seis­
mographs (instruments that record the inten­
sity and duration of earthquakes and earth
tremors). They may evaluate information
from photographs taken from aircraft and
satellites and use computers to record and
analyze data.

Geologist collects rock samples at the edge of an open-pit mine.

Geologists also examine chemical and
physical properties of specimens in laborato­
ries under controlled temperature and pres­
sure. They may study fossil remains of ani­
mal and plant life or experiment with the
flow of water and oil through rocks. Labora­
tory equipment used by geologists includes
complex instruments, such as the X-ray dif­
fractometer, which determines the structure
of minerals, and the petrographic micro­
scope, used for close study of rock forma­
Besides locating resources and working in
laboratories, geologists also advise construc­
tion companies and governmental agencies
on the suitability of certain locations for con­
structing buildings, dams, or highways. Some
geologists administer and manage research
and exploration programs. Others teach and
work on research projects in colleges and uni­
Geologists usually specialize in one or a
combination of three general areas—earth
materials, earth processes, and earth history.
Economic geologists locate earth materials
such as minerals and solid fuels. Petroleum
geologists attempt to locate oil and natural
gas deposits below the earth’s surface. Some
petroleum geologists work on specific dril­
ling projects, while others develop pe­
troleum-related geologic information for en­
tire regions. Engineering geologists determine
suitable sites for the construction of roads,
airfields, tunnels, dams, and other structures.
They decide, for example, whether under­
ground rocks will bear the weight of a build­
ing or whether a proposed structure may be
in an earthquake-prone area. Mineralogists
analyze and classify minerals and precious
stones according to composition and struc­
ture. Geochemists study the chemical compo­
sition and changes in minerals and rocks to

understand the distribution and migration of
elements in the earth’s crust.
Geologists concerned with earth pro­
cesses study landforms and their rock
masses, sedimentary deposits (matter depos­
ited by water or wind), and eruptive forces,
such as volcanoes. Volcanologists study ac­
tive and inactive volcanoes, lava flows and
other eruptive activity. Geomorphologists
examine landforms and those forces, such as
erosion and glaciation, which cause them to
Other geologists are primarily concerned
with earth history. Paleontologists study
plant and animal fossils found in geological
formations to trace the evolution and de­
velopment of past life. Geochronologists de­
termine the age of rocks and landforms by
the radioactive decay of their elements.
Stratigraphers study the distribution and
arrangement of sedimentary rock layers
by examining their fossil and mineral con­
Many geologists specialize in new fields
that require knowledge of another science as
well. Astrogeologist study geological condi­
tions on other plants. Geologial oceanogra­
phers study the sedimentary and other rock
on the ocean floor and continental shelf. (See
statements on oceanographers and mining
elsewhere in the Handbook .)

W orking Conditions
Conditions of work vary. Exploration
geologists often work overseas. Geologists
often travel to remote sites by helicopter or
jeep and cover large areas by foot, often
working in teams. Geologists in mining
sometimes work underground. When not
working outdoors, geologists are in comfort­
able, well-lighted, well-ventilated offices and

P laces o f Employm ent
About 31,000 people worked as geologists
in 1978. More than three-fifths of all geolo­
gists work in private industry. Most indus­
trial geologists work for petroleum compa­
nies; geologists also work for mining and
quarrying companies. (See the statements on
the mining and petroleum industries else­
where in the Handbook.) Some are employed
by construction firms. Others are indepen­
dent consultants to industry and govern­

geology. The employment of geologists is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. This growth
will create many new openings each year.
Many additional openings will be created
each year by geologists who retire, die, or
leave the occupation.

Training, O ther Q ualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree in geology or a related
field is adequate for entry into some geology
jobs. An advanced degree is helpful for pro­
motion in most types of work and is essential
for college teaching and many research posi­
About 350 colleges and universities offer a
bachelor’s degree in geology. Undergraduate
students devote about one-fourth of their
time to geology courses, including physical,
structural, and historical geology, mineral­
ogy, petrology, and invertebrate paleon­
tology; about one-third of their time to
courses in mathematics, related sciences—
such as physics and chemistry—and engi­
neering; and the remainder to general aca­
demic subjects.
More than 150 universities award ad­
vanced degrees in geology. Graduate stu­
dents take advanced courses in geology and
specialize in one branch of the science.
Students planning careers in exploration
geology should like the outdoors and must
have physical stamina.

Geologists have relatively high salaries,
with average earnings over twice those of
nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
According to a survey done by the College
Placement Council in early 1979, graduates
with bachelor’s degrees in other physical and
earth sciences received average starting offers
of $15,400 a year. Graduates with master’s
degrees in geology and related geological
sciences received average starting offers of
$19,000 per year.
In the Federal Government in 1979, geolo­
gists having a bachelor’s degree could begin
at $10,507 or $13,014 a year, depending on
their college records. Those having a master’s
degree could start at $13,014 or $15,920 a
year; those having the Ph. D. degree, at $19,263 or $23,087. In 1978, the average salary
for geologists employed in the Federal Gov­
ernment was about $26,500 a year.

R elated Occupaions
Over one-half of all nonacademic geolo­
gists work in the petroleum and natural gas
industry. This industry also employs many
other workers who are involved in the scien­
tific and technical aspects of petroleum and
natural gas exploration and extraction, in­
cluding drafters, engineering technicians,
geophysicists, laboratory assistants (petro­
leum production), petroleum engineers, and

Geologists usually begin their careers in
field exploration or as research assistants in
laboratories. With experience, they can be
promoted to project leader, program man­
ager, or other management and research po­

General information on training and ca­
reer opportunities for geologists is available

Employm ent O utlook

American Geological Institute, 5205 Leesburg
Pike, Falls Church, Va. 22041.

Employment opportunities in geology are
expected to be
 good for those with degrees in
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

(D.O.T. 024.061-030)

Increased prices for petroleum and the ne­
cessity to locate new sources of minerals, as
older sources become exhausted, will stimu­
late domestic exploration activities and re­
quire many additional geologists. Additional
geologists also will be needed to discover new
The Federal Government employed over resources and their potential uses. For exam­
2,000 geologists in 1978. Two-thirds worked ple, geologists will help determine the feasi­
for the Department of the Interior in the U.S. bility of using geothermal energy (steam
Geological Survey, the Bureau of Mines, and from the earth’s interior) to generate electric­
the Bureau of Reclamation. State agencies ity. Geologists are needed to devise tech­
also employ geologists, some working on sur­ niques for exploring deeper within the earth’s
veys in cooperation with the U.S. Geological crust and to develop more efficient methods
of mining resources. They also are needed to
Colleges and universities employed about develop adequate water supplies and waste
10,400 geologists. Some worked for nonprofit disposal methods, and to do site evaluation
for construction activities.
research institutions and museums.
Employment of geologists is concentrated
in those States with large oil and mineral
deposits. Almost two-thirds work in five
Colorado, and Oklahoma. Some are em­
ployed by American firms overseas for vary­
ing periods of time.

U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

Sources o f Additional Information

For information on Federal Government
careers, contact:

N ature o f the W ork
Geophysicists study the composition and
physical aspects of the earth and its electric,
magnetic, and gravitational fields. Geophysi­
cists use highly complex instruments such as
the magnetometer which measures variations
in the earth’s magnetic field, and the gravim­
eter which measures minute variations in
gravitational attraction. They often use satel­
lites to conduct tests from outer space and
computers to collect and analyze data.
Geophysicists usually specialize in 1 of 3
general phases of the science—solid earth,
fluid earth, and upper atmosphere. Some
may also study other planets.
Solid earth geophysicists search for oil and
mineral deposits, map the earth’s surface,
and study earthquakes. Exploration geophysi­
cists use seismic prospecting techniques to
locate oil and mineral deposits. They send
sound waves into the earth and record the
echoes bouncing off the rock layers below to
determine if conditions are favorable for the
accumulation of oil.
Seismologists study the earth’s interior and
vibrations caused by earthquakes and man­
made explosions. They explore for oil and
minerals, study how to detect underground
nuclear explosions, and provide information
for constructing bridges, dams, and build­
ings. For example, in selecting a site for a
dam, seismologists determine where bedrock
(solid rock beneath the soil) is closest to the
surface. They use explosives or other meth­
ods to create sound waves that reflect off
bedrock; the time it takes for the shock wave
to return to the surface indicates the depth of
bedrock. Seismologists also seek to under­
stand the causes of earthquakes so that one
day they might be predicted.
Geodesists study the size, shape, and gravi­
tational field of the earth and other planets.
Their principal task is to make the precise
measurements necessary for accurate map­
ping of the earth’s surface. With the aid of
satellites, geodesists determine the positions,
elevations, and distances between points on
the earth, and measure the intensity and di­
rection of gravitational attraction.
Hydrologists study the distribution, circu­
lation, and physical properties of under­
ground and surface waters, including rivers,
glaciers, snow, and permafrost. They also
may study rainfall, its rate of infiltration into
soil, and its return to the ocean. Some are
concerned with water supplies, irrigation,
flood control, and soil erosion. (See the state­
ment on oceanographers, sometimes classi­
fied as geophysical scientists, elsewhere in the

They should be curious, analytical, and able
to communicate effectively.
Most new geophysicists begin their careers
doing field mapping or exploration. Some as­
sist senior geophysicists in research laborato­
ries. With experience, geophysicists can ad­
vance to jobs such as project leader or
program manager, or other management and
research jobs.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities are expected to
be very good for graduates with a degree in
geophysics or a related field. Although few
openings are expected in this relatively small
field, the number of qualified people may fall
short of requirements if the present trend in
the number obtaining geophysics training

Geophysicists also study the atmosphere,
investigate the earth’s magnetic and electric
fields, and compare its outer atmosphere
with those of other planets. Geomagneticians
study the earth’s magnetic field. Paleomagneticians learn about past magnetic fields
from rocks or lava flows. Planetologists study
the composition and atmosphere of the
moon, planets, and other bodies in the solar
system. They gather data from geophysical
instruments placed on interplanetary space
probes or from equipment used by astronauts
during the Apollo missions. Meteorologists
sometimes are classified as geophysical scien­
tists. (See the statement on meteorologists
elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Working Conditions
Many geophysicists work outdoors and
travel for extended periods of time. Some
work at research stations in remote areas, or
aboard ships and aircraft equipped with so­
phisticated geophysical equipment. When
not in the field, geophysicists work in mod­
ern, well-equipped, well-lighted laboratories
and offices.

Places of Employment
About 11,000 people worked as geophysi­
cists in 1978. Most work in private industry,
chiefly for petroleum and natural gas compa­
nies. (See the chapter on the mining and pe­
troleum industry elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Others are in mining companies, exploration
and consulting firms, and research institutes.
A few are independent consultants and some
do geophysical prospecting on a fee or con­
tract basis.
Geophysicists are employed in many
southwestern and western States, and on the
Gulf Coast, where large oil and natural gas

fields are located. Some geophysicists are em­
ployed by American firms overseas for vary­
ing periods of time.
Over 2,500 geophysicists, geodesists, and
hydrologists worked for Federal Govern­
ment agencies in 1978, mainly the U.S. Geo­
logical Survey, the National Oceanic and At­
mospheric Administration (NOAA), and the
Defense Department. Other geophysicists
work for colleges and universities, State gov­
ernments, and nonprofit research institu­

Training, Other Qualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree in geophysics or a geo­
physical specialty is sufficient for most begin­
ning jobs in geophysics. A bachelor’s degree
in a related field of science or engineering
also is adequate preparation, if the person has
courses in geophysics, physics, geology,
mathematics, chemistry, and engineering.
Geophysicists doing research or supervis­
ing exploration activities should have gradu­
ate training in geophysics or a related sci­
ence. Those planning to teach in colleges or
do basic research should acquire a Ph. D.
About 40 colleges and universities award
the bachelor’s degree in geophysics. Other
programs offering training for beginning geo­
physicists include geophysical technology,
geophysical engineering, engineering geol­
ogy, petroleum geology, and geodesy.
About 30 universities grant the master’s
and Ph. D. degree in geophysics. Candidates
with a bachelor’s degree which includes
courses in geology, mathematics, physics, en­
gineering, or a combination of these subjects
can be admitted.
Geophysicists often work as part of a team.

Employment of geophysicists is expected
to grow faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the 1980’s. As known depos­
its of petroleum and other minerals are de­
pleted, petroleum and mining companies will
need increasing numbers of geophysicists
who can use sophisticated electronic tech­
niques to find less accessible fuel and mineral
In addition, geophysicists with advanced
training will be needed to do research on
radioactivity and cosmic and solar radiation
and to investigate the use of geothermal
power (steam from the earth’s interior) as a
source of energy to generate electricity.
Federal agencies are expected to hire more
geophysicists for new and expanding pro­
grams. Through the 1980’s, jobs will depend
heavily on funds for research and develop­
ment in earth sciences as the Government
supports energy research in both established
and alternative sources. The Government
also may fund research to locate more natu­
ral resources and to prevent environmental
damage through better land use.

Geophysicists have relatively high salaries,
with average earnings more than twice those
of nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming.
According to a survey done by the College
Placement Council in early 1979, graduates
with bachelor’s degrees in other physical and
earth sciences received average starting offers
of $15,400 a year. Graduates with master’s
degrees in geology and related geological
sciences received average starting offers of
$19,000 per year.
In the Federal Government in 1979, geo­
physicists having a bachelor’s degree could
begin at $10,507 or $13,014 a year, depend­
ing on their college records. Geophysicists
having a master’s degree could start at $13,014 or $15,920 a year; those having a Ph. D.
degree, at $19,263 or $23,087. In 1978, the
average salary for geophysicists employed by
the Federal Government was about $27,600
a year.

Related Occupations
Geophysicists investigate and use basic
scientific principles about the nature and
composition of the earth. Other scientists en­
gaged in similar activities are chemists,
geologists, meteorologists, and oceanogra­

Sources of Additional Information
General information on career opportuni­
ties, training, and earnings for geophysicists
is available from:
American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20009.
Society of Exploration Geophysicists, P.O. Box
3098, Tulsa, Okla. 74101.

For information on Federal Government
careers, contact:
U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20415.

Health and
(D.O.T. 168.167-010, -022, and -062; .264-010; .267-018
and -022; .267-042 through -066, -074, and -078; and

food inspection—agricultural


Most consumer safety inspectors specialize
in one area of inspection such as food, feeds
and pesticides, weights and measures, or
drugs and cosmetics. Some, especially those
who work for the Federal Government, may
be proficient in several of these areas. Work­
ing individually or in teams under the direc­
tion of a senior or supervisory inspector, they
periodically check firms that produce, han­
dle, store, and market food, drugs, and cos­
metics. They look for evidence of inaccurate
product labeling, decomposition, chemical or
bacteriological contamination, and other fac­
tors that could result in a product becoming
harmful to health. They assemble evidence of
violations, using portable scales, cameras, ul­
traviolet lights, container sampling devices,
thermometers, chemical testing kits, and
other types of equipment.
Product samples collected as part of their
examinations are sent to laboratories for
analysis. After completing their inspection,
inspectors discuss their observations with the
management of the plant and point out any
areas where corrective measures are needed.
They prepare written reports of their find­
ings, and, when necessary, compile evidence
that may be used in court if legal actions
must be taken to effect compliance with the

Federal and State laws empower food in­
spectors to inspect meat, poultry, and their
byproducts to insure that they are whole­
some and safe for public consumption.
Working as part of a constant onsite team
under the general supervision of a veterinar­
ian, they inspect meat and poultry slaughter­
ing, processing, and packaging operations.
They also check to see that products are la­
beled correctly and that proper sanitation is
maintained in slaughtering and processing
Agricultural quarantine inspectors protect
American agricultural products from the in­
troduction and spread of foreign plant pests
and animal diseases. To safeguard crops, for­
ests, and gardens, they inspect ships, aircraft,
railroad cars, and motor vehicles entering the
United States for the presence of restricted or
prohibited plant or animal materials.
Environmental health inspectors, or
sanitarians, work primarily for State and
local governments. These inspectors perform
a variety of inspection duties to help insure
that food water, and air meet government
standards. They check the cleanliness and
safety of food and beverages produced in dai­
ries and processing plants, or served in res­
taurants, hospitals, and other institutions.
They often examine the handling, processing,
and serving of food for compliance with sani­
tation rules and regulations.

Nature of the Work
Protecting the public from health and
safety hazards, prohibiting unfair trade and
employment practices, and raising revenue
are included in the wide range of responsibili­
ties of government. Health and regulatory
inspectors help insure observance of the laws
and regulations that govern these respon­
sibilities. For discussion of a third type of
inspector, see the statement on construction
inspectors (Government) elsewhere in the
The duties, titles, and responsibilities of
Federal, State, and local health and regula­
tory inspectors vary widely. Some types of
inspectors work only for the Federal Govern­
ment while others also are employed by State
and local governments. Many accountants,
agricultural cooperative extension service
workers, and other agricultural professionals
also have inspection duties.
Health Inspectors. Health inspectors work
with engineers, chemists, microbiologists,
and health workers to insure compliance
with public health and safety regulations gov­
erning food, drugs, and various other con­
sumer products. They also administer regula­
tions that govern the quarantine of persons
and products entering the United States from
foreign countries. The major types of health
inspectors are: consumer safety, food, agri­
cultural quarantine, and environmental
health inspectors. In addition, some inspec­
tors work in a field that is closely related to


Consumer safety inspectors check food for evidence of inaccurate labeling,
decom position, or contam ination.

Environmental health inspectors con­
cerned with waste control oversee the treat­
ment and disposal of sewage, refuse, and gar­
bage. They examine places where pollution is
a danger, perform tests to detect pollutants,
and collect air or water samples for analysis.
They determine the nature and cause of the
pollution, then initiate action to stop it.
In large local and State health or agricul­
ture departments, environmental health in­
spectors may specialize in areas of work such
as milk and dairy products, food sanitation,
waste control, air pollution, institutional san­
itation, and occupational health. In rural
areas and small cities, they may be responsi­
ble for a wide range of environmental health
Agricultural commodity graders apply
quality standards to various commodities to
insure that retailers and consumers receive
good and reliable products. They generally
specialize in an area such as eggs and egg
products, processed or fresh fruits and vege­
tables, grain, or dairy products. They inspect
samples of a particular product to determine
its quality and grade, and issue official grad­
ing certificates. Graders also may inspect the
plant and equipment to insure that adequate
sanitation standards are maintained.
Regulatory Inspectors. Regulatory inspec­
tors insure compliance with various laws and
regulations that protect the public welfare.
Important types of regulatory inspectors are:
Immigration; customs; air safety; mine;
wage-hour compliance; and alcohol, tobacco,
and firearms inspectors.
Immigration inspectors interview and ex­
amine people seeking admission, readmis­
sion, or the privileges of passing through or
residing in the United States. They inspect
the passports of those seeking to enter the
United States to determine whether they are
legally eligible to enter and to verify their
citizenship, status, and identity. Immigration
inspectors also prepare reports, maintain rec­
ords, and process applications and petitions
by aliens for privileges such as im m igrating
to or living temporarily in the United States.
Customs inspectors enforce the laws gov­
erning U.S. imports and exports. Stationed at
airports, seaports, and border crossing
points, they count, weigh, gauge, measure,
and sample commercial cargoes entering and
leaving the United States to determine the
amount of tax that must be paid. They also
inspect baggage and articles worn or carried
by the passengers and crew of ships, aircraft,
and motor vehicles to insure that all mer­
chandise being brought through ports of
entry is declared and the proper taxes paid.
Air safety inspectors insure that Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations
that govern the quality and safety of aircraft
equipment and personnel are maintained. Air
safety inspectors may inspect aircraft manu­
facturing, maintenance, or operations proce­
dures. They usually specialize in inspecting
either commercial or general aviation air­
craft. They are responsible for the inspection

of aircraft manufacturing and of major re­
pairs. They also certify aircraft pilots and
schools, pilot examiners, flight instructors,
and instructional materials.
Mine inspectors work to insure the health
and safety of miners and to promote good
mining practices. To insure compliance with
safety laws and regulations, mine inspectors
visit mines and related facilities to obtain in­
formation on health and safety conditions.
Mine inspectors discuss their findings with
the management of the mine, prepare written
reports that incorporate their findings and
decisions, and issue notices of findings that
describe violations and hazards that must be
corrected. They also investigate and prepare
reports on mine accidents and direct rescue
and firefighting operations when fires or ex­
plosions occur.
Wage-hour compliance inspectors inspect
the employer’s time, payroll, and personnel
records to insure compliance with the provi­
sions of various Federal laws on minimum
wages, overtime, pay, employment of minors,
and equal employment opportunity. They
often interview employees to verify the em­
ployer’s records and to check for any com­
Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors
insure that the industries which manufacture
these products comply with the provisions of
revenue laws and other regulations on oper­
ating procedures, unfair competition, and
trade practices. They spend most of their
time inspecting distilleries, wineries, and
breweries; cigar and cigarette manufacturing
plants; wholesale liquor dealers and import­
ers; firearms and explosives manufacturers,
dealers, and users; and other regulated facili­
ties. They periodically audit these establish­
ments to determine that appropriate taxes are
correctly determined and paid.

Working Conditions
Most health and regulatory inspectors live
an active life, meeting many people and
working in a variety of environments. Many
travel frequently and are usually furnished
with an automobile or reimbursed for travel
At times, inspectors have unfavorable
working conditions. For example, food, and
alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors fre­
quently come in contact with strong, un­
pleasant odors. Mine inspectors often spend
a great deal of time in mines where they are
exposed to the same hazards as miners. Many
inspectors work long and often irregular

Places of Employment
About 100,000 persons worked as health
and regulatory inspectors in 1978. Nearly
two-thirds of all health and regulatory in­
spectors work for the Federal Government,
although State and local governments also
employ large numbers. The largest single
employer of consumer safety inspectors is
the U.S. Food and Drug Administration,

but the majority work for State govern­
ments. Food inspectors and agricultural
commodity graders who work in processing
plants are employed mainly by the U.S. De­
partment of Agriculture. Agricultural quar­
antine inspectors work either for the U.S.
Public Health Service or the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture. Environmental health
inspectors work primarily for State and
local governments.
Regulatory inspectors work for various
agencies within the Federal Government,
mainly in regional and district offices
throughout the United States. Air safety in­
spectors work for the Federal Aviation Ad­
ministration; wage-hour compliance officers
and mine inspectors, for the Department of
Labor; and alcohol, tobacco, and firearms in­
spectors, for the Treasury Department. Im­
migration, customs, and agricultural quaran­
tine inspectors work at U.S. airports,
seaports, border crossing points, and at for­
eign airports and seaports. They are em­
ployed by the Justice and Treasury Depart­

Training, Advancement, and Other
Because inspectors perform such a wide
range of duties, qualifications for employ­
ment vary greatly. The Federal Government
requires a passing score on the Professional
and Administrative Career Examination
(PACE) for several inspector occupations,
including immigration; customs; wage-hour
compliance; alcohol, tobacco, and firearms;
occupational safety; and consumer safety in­
spectors. To take this examination, a bache­
lor’s degree or 3 years of responsible work
experience, or a combination of the two, are
required. In most cases, agencies will give
preference to an applicant whose course
work or experience is related to the field of
Food inspectors must pass an examination
based on specialized knowledge, in addition
to having experience in related fields.
Air safety inspectors must have considera­
ble experience in aviation maintenance, and
an FAA Air Frame and Power Plant certifi­
cate. In addition, various pilot certificates
and considerable flight experience are re­
quired, with the type dependent on the in­
spection duties. Many air safety inspectors
receive both flight training and mechanical
training in the Armed Forces. No written
examination is required.
Applicants for mine safety inspector posi­
tions generally must have specialized work
experience in mine safety, management, or
supervision, or possess a skill such as electri­
cal engineering (for mine electrical inspec­
tors). In some cases, a general aptitude test
may be required.
Some Civil Service registers, including
those for agricultural quarantine inspectors
and agricultural commodity graders, rate ap­
plicants solely on their experience and educa­
tion and require no written examination.

Most health and regulatory Inspectors are employed by
the Federal Government
Employment, 1978 (thousands)





State governments started at about $1,500
less. Experienced environmental health in­
spectors working for State governments
earned between $12,700 and $16,800 but
those in top supervisory and administrative
positions had salaries between $18,200 and
$24,300 in 1978.

Related Occupations

Health and regulatory inspectors are re­
sponsible for seeing that government laws
and regulations are obeyed. Related occupa­
tions with similar law enforcement respon­
sibilities include bank examiners, revenue
agents, construction inspectors, State and
local police officers, and fish and game ward­

* i i

Sources of Additional Information

1, . j | '
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Qualifications for inspectors at the State
and local level usually are similar to those for
Federal employees. However, this may vary
among government employers, particularly
at the local level. Environmental health in­
spectors, called sanitarians in many States,
usually must have a bachelor’s degree in envi­
ronmental health or the physical or biologi­
cal sciences. In 35 States, they are licensed
and their qualifications regulated by examin­
ing boards.
All inspectors are trained in the laws and
inspection procedures related to their specific
field through a combination of classroom and
on-the-job training. In general, people who
want to become health and regulatory inspec­
tors should be able to accept responsibility
and like detailed work. They should be neat
and personable and able to express them­
selves well orally and in writing.
All Federal Government inspectors are
promoted on a Civil Service “career ladder.”
This means that, assuming satisfactory work
performance, workers will advance automat­
ically, usually at 1-year intervals, to a speci­
fied maximum level. Above this level (usually
supervisory positions), advancement is com­
petitive, based on needs of the agency and
individual merit.

Employment Outlook
Employment of health and regulatory in­
spectors as a group is expected to increase
about as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s. The growth in em­
ployment of health and regulatory inspectors
is expected to be rapid at the Federal and
local levels. In addition to job opportunities
stemming from growth in the need for in­
spectors, many inspectors will be needed
each year to replace those who die, retire, or
transfer to other occupations.
Increased food consumption caused by
population growth and greater public con­


cern over potential health hazards should
create additional jobs for food, consumer
safety, and environment health inspectors, as
well as for agricultural commodity graders.
Public concern for improved quality and
safety of consumer products also may result
in new legislation in these areas, requiring
additional inspectors to insure compliance.
Aviation industry growth, increased inter­
national travel, and increases in the volume
of U.S. imports and exports should continue
to create new openings for air safety, agricul­
tural quarantine and immigration inspectors,
and customs inspectors. Increasing coal min­
ing activity and concern over mine safety
should create additional mine inspector jobs.
Continued public pressure for equal employ­
ment rights should cause a growing need for
wage-hour compliance officers.

With the exception of mine inspectors and
aviation safety officers, the Federal Govern­
ment paid health and regulatory inspectors
and graders starting salaries of $10,507 or
$13,014 a year in 1979, depending on the type
of position and the qualifications of the appli­
cant. Aviation safety officers and mining in­
spectors usually received starting salaries of
Salaries of experienced food inspectors, ag­
ricultural guarantine inspectors, alcohol, to­
bacco, and firearms inspectors, and customs
and immigration inspectors were over $16,000 a year in 1979. Experienced consumer
safety inspectors, mine inspectors, and wagehour compliance officers usually received sal­
aries of more than $20,000 from the Federal
Government in 1979. Experienced aviation
safety officers averaged over $23,000 a year.
Nonsupervisory environmental health in­
spectors working for selected U.S. cities and
counties received average starting salaries of
about $12,500 in 1978; those working for

Information on inspector careers in the
Federal Government is available from State
employment service offices or from U.S. Of­
fice of Personnel Management area offices or
Federal Job Information Centers located in
various large cities throughout the country.
For information on a career as a specific type
of inspector, the Federal department or
agency that employs them may also be con­
tacted directly.
Information about career opportunities as
inspectors in State and local governments is
available from State civil service commis­
sions, usually located in each State capital, or
from local government offices.

Health Services
(D.O.T. 169.167-010; 187.117-010, -018, -050;
187.167-034, -090; 188.117-082)

Nature of the Work
Medical and health care is provided by or­
ganizations that vary from large teaching
hospitals to small walk-in clinics. To function
properly, each of these requires effective
management which health administrators
provide under the general supervision of a
board of directors or other governing body.
Administrators direct the various func­
tions and activities that make a health organi­
zation work. They may do this personally,
where the organization is small, or direct a
staff of assistant administrators in larger or­
ganizations. Health administrators make
many kinds of management decisions. For
example, they may review budget proposals,
make personnel decisions, and negotiate for
the expansion of facilities.
Some health services administrators, in­
cluding those who manage hospitals or nurs­
ing homes, oversee nursing, food services,
and in-service training programs. Assistant
administrators usually direct the daily opera­
tions of these departments; however, the
chief executive keeps informed through for-

mal and informal meetings with the assist­
ants, the medical staff, and others. In addi­
tion to these management activities, many
health administrators help carry out fun­
draising drives and promote public participa­
tion in health programs. This phase of the
administrator’s job often includes speaking
before civic groups, arranging publicity, and
coordinating the activities of the organiza­
tion with those of government or community

Working Conditions
Health administrators often work long
hours. Health facilities such as nursing
homes and hospitals operate around the
clock, and administrators may be called at all
hours to settle emergency problems. Also,
some may travel to meetings or, for these
who oversee several facilities, to make inspec­

Places of Employment
About 180,000 persons worked in some
phase of health administrationin 1978. Most
administrators work in health facilities, in­
cluding hospitals (which employed about
half of all administrators), nursing and per­
sonal care homes, and health management
firms that provide administrative services for
a fee.
Some health administrators work for gov­
ernment agencies, including State and local
health departments and the U.S. Public
Health Service. In addition, the Federal Gov­
ernment hires administrators in Veterans
Administration and Armed Forces hospitals
and clinics. Others work for voluntary health
agencies that support research, provide care
and treatment for victims of particular dis­
eases or impairments and conduct profes­

sional and public education and communitee
service programs.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Educational requirements for health ser­
vices administrators vary according to the
position’s level of responsibility and the size
of the organization. Generally, larger organi­
zations with a more complicated administra­
tive structure require higher credentials than
smaller ones.
Applicants with master’s degrees in health
or hospital administration may be hired as
associate or assistant administrators in hospi­
tals, while those with master’s degrees in
public health often find work as program
analysts or program representatives in public
health departments. Very few master’s de­
gree recipients take entry positions in nursing
or personal care homes, although many nurs­
ing home administrators pursue graduate ed­
ucation while employed. New master’s de­
gree graduates from programs in related
disciplines such as public administration or
management are sometimes hired for ad­
ministrative jobs. Master of business ad­
ministration (MBA) graduates, for example,
are sometimes hired by public health depart­
ments as program analysts.
Bachelor’s degree recipients usually begin
their careers as administrative assistants or
department heads in hospitals, or as assistant
administrators in nursing homes. Graduates
of 2-year, associate degree programs gener­
ally are hired as unit directors or assistant
department heads in hospitals, or as assist­
ants to program representatives in public
health departments. Some associate degree
holders find assistant administrator jobs in
small nursing homes.
The Ph. D. degree usually is required for

positions in teaching or research, and is an
asset for those seeking administrative jobs in
larger, more prestigious health organiza­
tions. Although some public health depart­
ments still require chief administrators to be
physicians, the trend is away from this.
Administrators in Armed Forces hospitals
usually are career military personnel.
In 1978, about 60 bachelor degree pro­
grams in health services administration were
offered. In addition, there were over 75 mas­
ter’s degree, programs in hospital or health
services administration that led to the mas­
ter’s degree, and 22 master’s degree programs
in schools of public health.
To enter graduate programs, applicants
must have a bachelor’s degree, with courses
in natural sciences, psychology, sociology,
statistics, accounting, and economics. Com­
petition for entry to these programs is keen,
and applicants need above- average grades to
gain admission. The programs generally last
about 2 years and may include some super­
vised administrative experience in hospitals,
clinics, or health agencies. Programs may in­
clude courses such as hospital organization
and management, accounting and budget
control, personnel administration, public
health administration, and the economics of
health care.
All States and the District of Columbia
require that the administrator of a nursing or
personal care home be licensed. Require­
ments are not uniform, but they generally
specify a level of education, such as a bache­
lor’s degree, plus some amount of experience
in the field.
Personal qualifications needed for suc­
cess as a health administrator include ini­
tiative and an interest in helping the sick,
injured and handicapped. Administrators
should be able to work with and motivate
people, and to organize and direct largescale activities. They also should enjoy
public speaking.
Health administrators advance in the pro­
fession by taking increasingly more responsi­
ble positions. Most frequently, the first job is
in a large institution in a position that is
somewhat narrow in scope—for example, as
department head in charge of purchasing.
Advancement is then to successively more
responsible jobs such as assistant or associate
administrator and finally the chief adminis­
trator. Less commonly, hospital administra­
tors begin their careers in small hospitals in
positions with broad responsiblities, such as
assistant administrator. Regardless of the
path of advancement chosen, the ultimate oc­
cupational goal in hospitals and nursing
homes is chief executive or chief administra­
tive officer.

Employment Outlook

Some health services adm inistrators work in nursing homes.

The number of graduate programs in
health administration has increased rapidly
in recent years; in addition, administative
specialists with graduate degrees in other
fields have entered the profession. Conse­

quently, it may become more difficult for
those with less than a graduate education to
enter health administration in top manage­
ment positions. In addition, some adminis­
trative jobs will continue to be filled by regis­
tered nurses, physicians, and members of
religious communities.
Employment of health services administra­
tors is expected to grow much faster than the
average for all occupations through the
1980’s as the quantity of patient services in­
creases and health services management
becomes more complex. The demand for ad­
ministrators will be stimulated by the forma­
tion of more group medical practices and
health maintenance organizations (facilities
that offer subscribers a broad range of medi­
cal services for a set fee). Administrators also
will be needed in nursing and convalescent
homes to handle the increasing amount of
administrative work expected as these facili­
ties expand in size.

Salaries of hospital administrators depend
on factors such as the level of job responsibil­
ity; the size, type, and location of the hospi­
tal; and the size of its administrative staff and
Chief administrators in hospitals with 100
to 150 beds earned an average of $36,000 a
year in 1978. Some, in larger hospitals,
earned over $55,000. Recent recipients of
master’s degrees in health administration
starting work in Veterans’ Administration
(VA) hospitals earned $15,920 a year in 1979.
The average salary paid administrators of
Federal hospitals was $32,100.
Commissioned officers in the Armed
Forces who work as hospital administrators
hold ranks ranging from second lieutenant to
colonel or from ensign to captain. Comman­
ding officers of large Armed Forces hospitals
are generally physicians, who may hold
higher ranks. Hospital administrators in the
U.S. Public Health Service are commissioned
officers holding ranks equivalent to those of
lieutenant (junior grade) through captain in
the Navy.
Administrators of nursing and personal
care homes usually earn lower salaries than
those paid hospital administrators in facili­
ties having similar numbers of beds. Average
annual earnings of nursing home administra­
tors in 1978 were about $21,500. Most ad­
ministrators employed by voluntary health
agencies earned between $20,000 and $30,000 a year in 1978.

Related Occupations
Health services administrators plan pro­
grams, set policies, and make decisions for
a health service agency or institution.
Other administrators with similar respon­
sibilities include social welfare administra­
tors, business enterprise officers, commu­
nity organization directors, curators,


college or university department heads,
medical-record administrators, recreation

Sources of Additional Information
Information about health administration
and the academic programs in this field of­
fered by universities, colleges, and commu­
nity colleges is available from:
American College of Hospital Administration, 840
North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 60611.
Association of University Programs in Health Ad­
ministration, One Dupont Circle, NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.
National Health Council, Health Careers Pro­
gram, 1740 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10019.
American College of Nursing Home Administra­
tors, 4650 East-West Hwy., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 052; 090.227-010; 101; 102.017-010; and

Nature of the Work
History is the record of past events, institu­
tions, ideas, and people. Historians describe
and analyze the past through writing, teach­
ing, and research. They use standard tech­
niques to locate and evaluate historical evi­
dence. Historians do not accept documents,
records, or spoken accounts at face value;
they study each piece of evidence carefully to
determine whether it is reliable or genuine.
Once they have established the validity of
historical evidence, historians try to deter­
mine the significance of their findings. Some­
times they develop theories to explain the
importance of facts and their interrelation­
ships. They may, for example, relate their
knowledge of the past to current events in an
effort to explain the present.
Historians almost always specialize. Some
concentrate on the history of a country or a
region; others study a particular period of
time—the 20th century, for example. In this
country, while many historians specialize in
the social or political history of the United
States or modern Europe, a growing number
concern themselves with African, Latin
American, Asian, or Middle Eastern history.
Some specialize in the history of a field, such
as economics, medicine, philosophy, religion,
science, technology, music, art, military af­
fairs, women, or the labor movement. Other
fields of specialization are genealogy, biogra­
phy, rare books and documents, and historic
Most historians are teachers in colleges or
universities. Like other faculty members,
they may also lecture, write, and do consult­
ing work. Some historians employed by col­
leges and universities engage only in re­
search; often, they are leading authorities in
their fields. (For more information on these
jobs, see the Handbook statement on college
and university faculty.)

A growing number of historians do many
things besides teach, however. Archivists and
curators work for museums, special libraries,
or historical societies, where they typically
identify, classify, and preserve historical
documents, treasures, and other material.
They may also administer historical activities
—helping scholars use manuscripts and ar­
tifacts and educating the public through ex­
hibits and publications. Many do an exten­
sive amount of scholarly research and
Biographers write about the lives of in­
dividuals, using diaries, news accounts, per­
sonal correspondence, interviews with rela­
tives and business associates of their subjects,
and other sources of information. Genealo­
gists trace family history, using birth, death,
and marriage certificates, court records,
wills, records of real estate transactions, and
other evidence.
A growing number of historians are con­
cerned with the protection and preservation
of historic buildings and sites. Their goal is to
identify and interpret our historical heritage,
which includes houses, public buildings, fac­
tories, churches, forts, public markets, farms,
and battlefields. Some historians are em­
ployed to manage, interpret, and write about
restored communities and other places of his­
toric interest. Historic preservationists also
work to save city neighborhoods and old
business districts and maintain their unique
historic and architectural qualities. This usu­
ally means a joint effort with architects, law­
yers, urban planners, business and commu­
nity leaders, and city officials.
Some historians serve as consultants to
editors, publishers, and producers of materi­
als for radio, television, and motion pictures.
Others are employed as researchers by gov­
ernment agencies, social science research
firms, and other organizations. They might
be asked, for example, to assist in the prepa­
ration of an environmental impact statement
or to provide information for a community
development plan.

Working Conditions
Historians employed in colleges and uni­
versities have flexible work schedules, divid­
ing their time among teaching, research, and
administrative responsibilities. Historians
working in government agencies and private
firms, on the other hand, have much more
structured schedules. They often work alone
behind a desk, reading and writing reports on
their research. Many experience the pres­
sures of deadlines and tight schedules, and
sometimes must work overtime. Their rou­
tine may be interrupted by telephone calls,
letters, special requests for information,
meetings, or conferences. Travel may be nec­
essary to collect information or attend meet­

Places of Employment
An estimated 23,000 persons worked as
professional historians in 1978. Colleges and

Most historians and art historians with doctoral
degrees are employed in colleges and universl
Percent employed, 1977


Federal Government

Training for historians is available in many
colleges and universities. Over 800 schools
offer programs for the bachelor’s degree;
about 320, the master’s; and about 150, the


1.3 Museum/historical society 8.7


.4 State/local government


.3 Research library/archives




Art historians

Source: National Research Council

universities employed most of them. Histori­
ans also work in archives, libraries, mu­
seums, research and educational organiza­
tions, historical societies, publishing firms,
large corporations, and government agencies.
Historians, archivists, and museum curators
employed in the Federal Government work
principally in the National Archives, Smith­
sonian Institution, General Services Ad­
ministration, or in the Departments of De­
fense, Interior, and State. Other Federal
employers include the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration, Central Intelli­
gence Agency, National Security Agency,
and the Departments of Agriculture, Com­
merce, Education, Energy, and Transporta­
tion. A number work for State and local gov­

in history is sufficient training for some be­
ginning jobs in government—either Federal,
State, or local—advancement opportunities
may be limited for persons without at least a
master’s and preferably a Ph. D. degree in
history. Since beginning jobs are likely to be
concerned with the collection and preserva­
tion of historical data, a knowledge of ar­
chival work is helpful.

However, because competition for Federal
jobs is keen, additional education or experi­
ence may be required. Most historians in the
Federal Government and in nonprofit organ­
izations have Ph. D. degrees or their equiva­
lent in training and experience.
Although a bachelor’s degree with a major

History curriculums in the Nation’s col­
leges and universities are varied; however,
each basically provides training in research
methods, writing, and speaking. These are
the basic skills essential for historians in all
positions. Quantitative methods of analysis,
including statistical and computer tech­
niques, are increasingly important for histori­
ans; most graduate history departments in­
clude them. Most doctoral candidates must
exhibit competence in at least one foreign
A greater emphasis on preparing history
students for nonacademic careers is appar­
ent. History departments are offering more
courses and programs designed to prepare
graduates for museum jobs, archival manage­
ment, historic editing, historic preservation,

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Graduate education usually is necessary
for a job in this field. A master’s degree in
history is the minimum requirement for the
position of college instructor. However, a Ph.
D. degree is required for a first appointment
at some institutions of higher education and
for many other entry level positions. A Ph.
D. is required for a professorship or a top
administrative position, and is necessary to
gain tenure. However, tenure is becoming in­
creasingly difficult to acquire.
While historians in the Federal Govern­
ment generally must have a college degree
with 24 semester hours in history, require­
ments may vary for certain specialists. For
example, archivists need a college degree
with 18 semester hours in American history
or government and 12 additional hours of
history, American civilization, economics,
political science, or related fields; museum
curators need a college degree in museum
studies or in an appropriate subject field such
as art history or the history of technology.

Historians must be thorough in their research before reaching any conclusions.

and applied research. Courses in other ap­
plied fields such as public administration or
business administration also greatly enhance
one’s opportunities for nonacademic employ­
Historians spend a great deal of time doing
research, writing papers and reports, and giv­
ing lectures and presentations. They must
possess strong analytical skills in order to
evaluate historical evidence and work effec­
tively with abstractions and theories. They
must be systematic and objective in their
work, since they must consider all relevant
facts before reaching a conclusion. Patience
and persistence are necessary, because his­
torians spend long hours in independent
study. As in other fields of scientific en­
deavor, the qualities of intellectual curiosity
and creativity are essential.
Presenting the results of their research is
an important part of a historian’s job, so the
ability to communicate effectively—both
orally and in writing—is a “must.” The abil­
ity to work with others on joint research pro­
jects can be important.

Employment Outlook
Overall, little if any growth is expected in
the employment of historians through the
1980’s. Replacement needs accordingly will
constitute the principal source of jobs. Open­
ings in colleges and universities, museums,
research firms, government agencies, and
other organizations will occur as workers die,
retire, or leave the occupation for other rea­
sons. Persons with computer backgrounds
and training in quantitative methods in his­
torical research are expected to have the most
favorable job opportunities in business, in­
dustry, government, and research firms. His­
torians with strong backgrounds in historic
preservation or other applied disciplines such
as public administration or business adminis­
tration also may be in a relatively favorable
position. Of those seeking college faculty
jobs, applicants who are qualified to teach
several areas of history, such as American
history combined with African or Latin
American history, should have the best op­
The oversupply of history graduates is ex­
pected to continue; throughout the 1980’s,
the number of persons seeking to enter the
occupation will greatly exceed available posi­
tions. As a result, historians with a Ph. D. are
expected to face very keen competition for
positions. Those graduating from prestigious
universities may have some advantage in this
highly competitive situation. Since academic
institutions are the traditional employers of
many highly qualified historians and compe­
tition for these jobs is expected to be particu­
larly keen, some Ph. D.’s are expected to
accept part-time, temporary assignments as
instructors with little or no hope of gaining
tenure. An increasing number of Ph. D.’s will
take research or administrative positions in
government, industry, research firms, and
other nonacademic institutions.


Persons with the master’s degree in history
will encounter even more severe competition
for jobs as historians. Some may find teach­
ing positions in junior and community col­
leges, while others may find jobs in govern­
ment and industry. Those who meet State
certification requirements may become sec­
ondary school teachers.
People with a bachelor’s degree in history
are likely to find very limited opportunities
for employment as professional historians.
However, an undergraduate major in history
provides an excellent background for jobs in
a number of fields including international re­
lations and journalism, and for continuing
education in law, business administration,
and related disciplines. Many graduates will
find jobs in secondary schools or in govern­
ment, business, and industry as management
or sales trainees, or as research or adminis­
trative assistants.

According to the 1977-78 College Place­
ment Council Survey, bachelor’s degree can­
didates in the social sciences received offers
averaging around $10,700 a year; master’s
degree candidates in the social sciences,
around $13,200.
According to information from the Ameri­
can Historical Association, colleges and uni­
versities offered new Ph. D.’s starting salaries
ranging from about $12,000 to $14,000 for
the academic year 1977-78. Full professors
and top administrators earn substantially
The American Association for State and
Local History conducted a survey of salaries
in historical agencies, including museums
and other organizations. In 1978, agency
heads averaged $20,256; assistant agency
heads, $15,912; division heads, $15,864; ad­
vanced professionals, $14,496; and beginning
professionals, $11,412.
According to a survey by the National Re­
search Council, the 1977 median annual sal­
ary of full-time employed Ph. D.’s in history
was $21,400; in educational institutions,
$21,500. The median annual salary of Ph.
D.’s in art history was $19,900; in educa­
tional institutions, $19,900; in museums or
historical societies, $18,800.
The Federal Government recognizes ed­
ucation and experience in certifying appli­
cants for entry level positions. In general,
historians having a bachelor’s degree could
start at $10,507 or $13,014 a year in 1979,
depending upon the applicant’s academic
record. The starting salary for those hav­
ing a master’s degree was $15,920 a year,
and for those having a Ph. D., $19,263.
Historians in the Federal Government ave­
raged around $25,800 a year in 1978; mu­
seum curators, around $24,800; and archi­
vists, around $22,900.
Many historians, particularly those in col­
lege teaching, supplement their income by
teaching summer classes, writing books or
articles, or giving lectures.

Related Occupations
Historians study past events, institutions,
and ideas. Their concern with understanding
how societies operate is shared by other
workers, including writers, journalists, politi­
cal scientists, economists, sociologists, an­
thropologists, geographers, planners, and
marketing research workers.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on careers and job
openings for historians, and on schools offer­
ing various programs in history, is available
American Historical Association, 400 A St. SE.,
Washington, D.C. 20003.

For information on careers and schools of­
fering degree programs and courses in his­
toric preservation, contact:
National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1789
Massachusetts Ave.NW., Washington, D.C.

General information on careers for histori­
ans is available from:
Organization of American Historians, Indiana
University, 112 North Bryan St., Bloomington,
Ind. 47401.

For additional information on careers for
historians, send a self-addressed, stamped en­
velope to:
American Association for State and Local History,
1400 Eighth Avenue South, Nashville, Tenn.

For information on museum careers and
museum studies programs, contact:
Office of Museum Programs, Arts and Industries
Building, Room 2235, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C. 20560.

For information on training for museum
careers, contact:
American Association of Museums, 1055 Thomas
Jefferson St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20007.

Hotel Managers and
(D.O.T. 163.117-018; 187.117-038, .167-078, -110, -122,

Nature of the Work
Hotel managers are responsible for oper­
ating their establishments profitably and
satisfying guests. They determine room
rates and credit policy, direct the operation
of the foodservice operation, and manage
the housekeeping, accounting, security, and
maintenance departments of the hotel.
Handling problems and coping with
the unexpected are important parts of the
A small hotel or motel requires only a lim­
ited staff, and the manager may have to fulfill
various front office duties, such as taking
reservations and assigning rooms. When
management is combined with ownership,

these activities may expand to include all as­
pects of the business.
General managers of large hotels usually
have several assistants or department heads
who manage various parts of the operation.
Because the hotel restaurant and cocktail
lounge are important to the success of the
entire establishment, they almost always are
operated by managers with experience in the
restaurant field. Other areas that usually are
handled separately are advertising, rental of
banquet and meeting facilities, marketing
and sales, personnel, and accounting.
Large hotel and motel chains often central­
ize some activities, such as purchasing and
advertising, so that individual hotels in the
chain may not need managers for these de­
partments. Managers who work for chains
may be assigned to organize a newly built or
purchased hotel or to reorganize an existing
hotel or motel that is not operating success­
About 168,000 hotel and motel managers
worked in 1978. More than a third were selfemployed.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Experience generally is the most important
consideration in selecting managers. How­
ever, employers increasingly are emphasizing
college education. A bachelor’s degree in

hotel and restaurant administration provides
particularly strong preparation for a career in
hotel management. In 1979, about 50 col­
leges and universities offered 4-year pro­
grams in this field. Applicants to these pro­
grams may face increasing competition in the
coming years, however. Many junior col­
leges, technical institutes, and the Educa­
tional Institute of the American Hotel &
Motel Association also have courses in hotel
work that provide a good background.
Included in many college programs in
hotel management are courses in hotel ad­
ministration, accounting, economics, data
processing, housekeeping, food service man­
agement and catering, and hotel maintenance
engineering. Part-time or summer work in
hotels and restaurants is encouraged because
the experience gained and the contacts with
employers may benefit students when seeking
a job after graduation.
Managers should have initiative, self-disci­
pline, and the ability to organize and direct
the work of others. They must be able to
solve problems and concentrate on details.
Sometimes large hotels sponsor special­
ized, on-the-job management training pro­
grams which enable trainees to rotate among
various departments and receive a thorough
knowledge of the hotel’s operation. Other ho­
tels may help finance outstanding employees
in acquiring the necessary training in hotel

Most hotels promote employees who have
proven their ability, usually front office
clerks, to assistant manager and eventually to
general manager. Newly built hotels, particu­
larly those without well-established on-thejob training programs, often prefer ex­
perienced personnel for managerial positions.
Hotel and motel chains may offer better opportunites for advancement than indepen­
dent properties, because employees can
transfer to another hotel or motel in the
chain or to the central office if an opening

Employment Outlook
Employment of hotel managers is expected
to grow more slowly than the average for all
occupations through the 1980's. Some job
openings will occur as additional hotels and
motels are built and chain and franchise op­
erations spread. However, most openings will
occur as experienced managers die, retire, or
leave the occupation. Applicants who have
college degrees in hotel administration will
have an advantage in seeking entry positions
and later advancement.

Related Occupations
Hotel managers and assistants are not the
only workers concerned with organizing and
directing a business where pleasing people is
very important. Other workers with similar
responsibilities include apartment managers,
food service managers, department manag­
ers, office managers, and sales managers.

Sources of Additional Information
See the chapter on the hotel industry else­
where in the Handbook for information on
earnings and working conditions, sources of
additional information, and more informa­
tion on employment outlook.

Industrial Designers
(D.O.T. 142.061-026)

Nature of the Work
When people buy a product, whether it’s a
home appliance, a new car, or a ballpoint
pen, they want it to be as attractive, safe, and
easy to use as possible. Industrial designers
combine artistic talent with knowledge of
marketing, materials, and methods of pro­
duction to improve the appearance and func­
tional design of products so that they com­
pete favorably with similar goods on the

In small hotels, managers may have to fulfill various front office duties.

As the first step in their work, industrial
designers gather information on how the
product compares with competing products,
the needs of the user of the product, fashion
trends, and effects of the product on its envi­
ronment. After the initial research, industrial
designers sketch different designs and con­
sult with managers, engineers, production
specialists, and sales and market research

personnel about the feasibility of each idea.
This development team considers such fac­
tors as visual appeal, convenience, utility,
safety, maintenance, and cost to the manu­
facturer, distributor, and consumer.

their designs are rejected. Independent con­
sultants, who are paid by the assignment, are
sometimes under pressure to find new clients
if their workload diminishes.

After company officials select the most
suitable design, the industrial designer or a
professional modeler makes a model, often of
clay so that it can be easily modified. After
any necessary revisions, a final or working
model is made, usually of the material to be
used in the finished product. The approved
model then is put into production.

Places of Employment

Although most industrial designers are
product designers, many others are involved
in different facets of design. To create favor­
able public images for companies and for
government services, some designers develop
trademarks or symbols that appear on the
firm’s product, advertising, brochures, and
stationery. Some design containers and pack­
ages that both protect and promote their con­
tents. Others prepare small display exhibits
or the entire layout for industrial fairs. Some
design the interior layout of special purpose
commercial buildings such as restaurants
and supermarkets.
Corporate designers usually work only on
products made by their employer. This may
involve filling day-to-day design needs of the
company or long-range planning of new pro­
ducts. Independent consultants who serve
more than one industrial firm often plan and
design a great variety of products.

Working Conditions
Industrial designers generally work in
clean, well-lighted, and well-ventilated
rooms. They normally work 5 days, 35-40
hours a week, but occasionally, they work
overtime to meet deadlines.
Designers may be frustrated at times when

About 13,000 persons were employed as
industrial designers in 1978. Most worked for
large manufacturing companies designing ei­
ther consumer or industrial products or for
design consulting firms. Others did freelance
work, or were on the staffs of architectural
and interior design firms. A few taught in­
dustrial design in colleges, universities, and
art schools.
Industrial design consultants work mainly
in large cities such as New York, Chicago,
Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Designers
with industrial firms usually work in or near
the manufacturing plants of their companies,
often in small and medium-sized cities.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Completing a course of study in industrial
design in an art school, in a university, or in
a techncial college is the usual requirement
for entering this field of work. Persons major­
ing in engineering, architecture, and fine arts
may qualify as industrial designers if they
have appropriate experience and artistic tal­
ent. Most large manufacturing firms hire
only industrial deisgners who have a bache­
lor’s degree in the field.
In 1978, 33 colleges and art schools offered
programs in industrial design that were ei­
ther accredited by the National Association
of Schools of Art or recognized by the Indus­
trial Designers Society of America. Most of
these schools award a bachelor’s degree in
industrial design or art. A few also offer a

master’s degree in industrial design. Indus­
trial design programs vary among schools,
but most bachelor degree programs take 4 or
5 years. Many schools do not allow formal
entry into the program until a student has
successfully finished a year of basic art and
design courses. Applicants may be required
to submit sketches and other examples of
their artistic ability.
Most college and university programs
maintain a balance between science, humani­
ties, and art; art schools generally stress a
strong foundation in art. In most programs,
students spend much time in the lab design­
ing objects in three dimensions. In studio
courses, students make models with clay,
wood, plaster, and other easily worked
materials. In schools that have the necessary
machinery, students make models of their de­
signs while learning to use metalworking and
woodworking machinery. Students also take
courses in drawing, drafting, and other visual
communications skills.
Many industrial design programs, particu­
larly in a liberal arts college or university,
also include courses in basic engineering, in
the physical and natural sciences, in the be­
havioral sciences, and in marketing and busi­
ness administration.
Industrial designers must have creative tal­
ent, drawing skills, and the ability to trans­
late abstract ideas into tangible designs. They
must understand and meet the needs and
tastes of the public, rather than design only
to suit their own artistic sensitivity. Design­
ers should not be discouraged when their
ideas are rejected—often designs must be
resubmitted many times before one is ac­
cepted. Since industrial designers must coop­
erate with engineers and other staff members,
the ability to work and communicate with
others is essential. A sound understanding of
marketing, sales work, and other business
practices also is important.
Applicants for jobs should assemble a
“portfolio” of drawings and sketches to dem­
onstrate their creativity and ability to com­
municate ideas.
Beginning industrial designers frequently
do simple assignments. As they gain experi­
ence, they work on their own, and may be­
come supervisors with major responsibility
for the design of a product or a group of
products. Those who have an established rep­
utation and the necessary funds may start
their own consulting firms.

Employment Outlook
Employment in this relatively small occu­
pation is expected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations through the
1980’s. Although the trend in recent years
has been away from frequent redesign of
household products, automobiles, and indus­
trial equipment, continued emphasis on is­
sues such as ecology and product safety
should increase demand for industrial de­
industrial designers often consult with engineers when designing new products.

110 /

Demand for industrial designers may flue-

tuate over short-run periods. During eco­
nomic downturns when the market for new
products is dampened, the need for these
workers also tends to decline.
Employment opportunities are expected to
be best for college graduates with degrees in
industrial design. In addition to openings re­
sulting from increased demand for industrial
designers, some employment opportunities
will arise each year as designers die, retire, or
transfer to other fields.

Salaries for inexperienced industrial de­
signers with a bachelor’s degree generally
ranged from $10,000 to $14,000 a year in
1978, according to limited data. After several
years’ experience, it is possible to earn $15,000 to $20,000 a year. Salaries of those with
many years of experience averaged more
than $30,000 a year in 1978, but varied ac­
cording to individual talent and the size and
type of firm.
Earnings of industrial designers who own
their consulting firms fluctuate greatly, but
in general tend to be higher than the average
earnings of corporate industrial designers.

can be designed to provide retirement in­
come, funds for the education of children, or
other benefits. Casualty insurance agents sell
policies that protect individual policyholders
from financial losses as a result of automobile
accidents, fire or theft, or other losses. They
also sell industrial or commercial lines, such
as workers’ compensation, product liability,
or medical malpractice insurance. Health in­
surance policies offer protection against the
costs of hospital and medical care or loss of
income due to illness or injury, and many life
and casualty agents offer health insurance in
addition to other lines. Many agents also
offer securities, such as mutual fund shares or
variable annuities.
An insurance agent may be either an in­
surance company employee or a broker—
an independent business person authorized
to represent one insurance company or
more. Brokers iare not under exclusive con­
tract with any single company; instead,
they place policies directly with the com­
pany that best meets a client’s needs. Oth­
erwise, agents and brokers do much the
same kind of work.

Workers in other occupations who design
or arrange objects and materials to optimize
their appearance, function, and value include
architects, clothes designers, commercial art­
ists, display designers, floral designers, inte­
rior designers, and set designers.

They spend most of their time discussing
insurance needs with prospective and exist­
ing customers. Some time must be spent in
office work to prepare reports, maintain rec­
ords, plan insurance programs that are tail­
ored to prospects’ needs, and draw up lists of
prospective customers. Specialists in group
policies may help an employer’s accountants
set up a system of payroll deductions for em­
ployees covered by the policy.

Sources of Additional Information

Working Conditions

A brochure about careers and a list of
schools offering courses and degrees in indus­
trial design are available for 50 cents from:

Agents must do a considerable amount of
traveling to meet with clients. They generally
arrange their own hours of work, and often
schedule evening and weekends appoint­

Related Occupations

Industrial Designers Society of America, 1717 N
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

ments for the convenience of clients. Some
agents work more than 40 hours a week.

Places of Employment
About 540,000 agents and brokers sold in­
surance in 1978, thousands of whom worked
part time. About half of the agents and
brokers specialized in life insurance; the rest,
in some type of property/liability insurance.
A growing number of agents (called multiline agents) offer both life and property-lia­
bility policies to their customers.
Agents and brokers are employed in cities
and towns throughout the country, but most
work near large population centers.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Although many employers prefer college
graduates for jobs selling insurance, most will
hire high school graduates with potential or
proven sales ability. Many colleges and uni­
versities offer courses in insurance subjects
and some schools offer a bachelor’s degree in
insurance. College courses in subjects such as
economics, business law, government, and
business administration enable the insurance
agent to relate insurance to other personal
finance problems and to constantly changing
economic conditions. Courses in psychology
and sociology can prove useful in improving
sales techniques. College training may help
the agent grasp the fundamentals and proce­
dures of insurance selling more quickly.
All agents and most brokers must obtain a
license in the State where they plan to sell
insurance. In most States, licenses are issued
only to applicants who pass written examina­
tions covering insurance fundamentals and
the State insurance laws. Agents who plan to
sell mutual fund shares and other securities
also must be licensed by the State. New

Insurance Agents and
(D.O.T. 250.257-010)

Nature of the Work
Insurance agents and brokers sell policies
that protect individuals and businesses
against future losses and financial pressures.
They may help plan financial protection to
meet the special needs of a customer’s family;
advise about insurance protection for an au­
tomobile, home, business, or other property;
or help a policyholder obtain settlement of an
insurance claim.
Agents and brokers usually sell one or
more of the three basic types of insurance:
Life, property-liability (casualty), and health.
Life insurance agents, sometimes called life
underwriters, offer policies that pay survi­
vors when a policyholder dies. Depending on
the policyholder’s circumstances, a life policy

Agents spend much of their tim e contacting custom ers by telephone.


agents usually receive training at the agencies
where they will work and frequently also at
the insurance company’s home office. Begin­
ners sometimes attend company-sponsored
classes to prepare for examinations. Others
study on their own and accompany ex­
perienced sales workers when they call on
prospective clients.
Agents and brokers can broaden their
knowledge of the insurance business by tak­
ing courses at colleges and universities and
attending institutes, conferences, and semi­
nars sponsored by insurance organizations.
The Life Underwriter Training Council
(LUTC) awards a diploma in life insurance
marketing to agents who successfully com­
plete the Council’s 2-year life program. There
is also a course in health insurance. As agents
or brokers gain experience and knowledge,
they can qualify for the Chartered Life Un­
derwriter (CLU) designation by passing a se­
ries of examinations given by the American
College of Bryn Mawr, Pa. In much the same
way, a property-liability agent can qualify for
the Chartered Property Casualty Under­
writer (CPCU) designation by passing a se­
ries of examinations given by the American
Institute for Property and Liability Under­
writers. The CLU and CPCU designations
are recognized marks of achievement in their
respective fields.
Agents and brokers should be enthusiastic,
self-confident, and able to communicate ef­
fectively. Many employers will give personal­
ity tests to prospective employees because
personality attributes are important in sales
work. Since agents usually work without
supervision, they need initiative to locate new
prospects. For this reason, many employers
seek people who have been successful in other
Insurance agents who show unusual sales
ability and leadership may become a sales
manager in a local office or assume a
managerial job in a home office. A few agents
may advance to top positions as agency su­
perintendents or company vice-presidents.
Many who have built up a good clientele pre­
fer to remain in sales work. Some, particu­
larly in the property-liability field, eventually
establish their own independent agencies or
brokerage firms.

Employment Outlook
Employment of insurance agents and
brokers is expected to grow about as fast as
the average for all occupations through the
1980’s as the volume of insurance sales con­
tinues to expand. Many additional jobs will
open as agents and brokers die, retire, or
leave their jobs to seek other work. Due to
the highly competitive nature of insurance
selling, many beginners leave the field be­
cause they are unable to establish a suffi­
ciently large clientele. Therefore, opportuni­
ties should be quite favorable for ambitious
people who enjoy sales work.
Future demand for agents and brokers de­
pends on the volume of insurance sales. Vol­


ume should increase rapidly over the next
decade as a larger proportion of the popula­
tion enters the period of peak earnings and
family responsibilities. Life insurance sales
should grow as more families select policies
designed to provide educational funds for
their children and retirement income. Rising
incomes also may stimulate the sales of eq­
uity products such as mutual funds, variable
annuities, and other investments. Sales of
property-liability insurance should rise as
more consumer purchases are insured and as
complex types of commercial coverage, such
as product liability and workers’ compensa­
tion, are expanded.
However, employment of agents and
brokers will not keep pace with the rising
level of insurance sales because more policies
will be sold to groups and by mail. In addi­
tion, each agent should be able to handle
more business as computers take over some
of the time-consuming clerical tasks. The
trend toward multiline agents also will cause
employment to rise more slowly than the vol­
ume of insurance sales.

Beginners in this occupation often are gua­
ranteed a moderate salary while they are
learning the business and building a clientele.
In many large companies, new agents receive
about $900 a month during this training pe­
riod, which can last up to 6 months or longer.
Thereafter, most agents are paid on a com­
mission basis. The size of the commission
depends on the type and amount of insurance
sold, and whether the transaction is a new
policy or a renewal. After several years, an
agent’s commissions on new policies and
renewals may range from $12,000 to $25,000
annually. There is virtually no limit on what
an agent can earn, however. Thousands of
established agents and brokers earn more
than $40,000 a year, and m any high ly suc­
cessful ones earn more than $100,000 a year.
Agents and brokers generally pay their
own automobile and traveling expenses. In
addition, those who own and operate inde­
pendent businesses must pay office rent, cler­
ical salaries, and other operating expenses
out of their earnings.
Although insurance agents usually are free
to arrange their own hours of work, they
often schedule appointments during evenings
and weekends for the convenience of clients.
Some agents work more than the customary
40 hours a week. Most agents and brokers
enjoy excellent fringe benefits such as paid
vacations, group insurance plans, and retire­
ment pensions. The size of most pensions is
dependent on how much insurance an agent
sells. (See the statement on the insurance in­
dustry for more information about working
conditions in life and property-liability com­

Related Occupations
Other workers who have technical sales
responsiblities include real estate agents and

brokers, securities workers, and manufactur­
ing company representatives.

Sources of Additional Information
General occupational information about
insurance agents and brokers is available
from the home office of many life and proper­
ty-liability insurance companies. Informa­
tion on State licensing requirements may be
obtained from the department of insurance at
any State capital.
Information about a career as a life insur­
ance agent also is available from:
American Council of Life Insurance, 1850 K St.
NW., Washington, D.C., 20006.
The National Association of Life Underwriters,
1922 F St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

For career information on property/liability agents, contact:
Insurance Information Institute, 110 William St.,
New York, N.Y. 10038.
National Association of Insurance Agents, Inc., 85
John St., New York, N.Y. 10038.
American Alliance of Insurance, 20 N. Wacker
Dr., Chicago, 111. 60606.
The National Association of Independent Insurers,
Public Relations Department, 2600 River Rd., Des
Plaines, 111. 60018.

Interior Designers
(D.O.T. 142.051)

Nature of the Work
The creative work of interior designers
helps make our living, working, and playing
areas more attractive and useful. Interior de­
signers plan and supervise the design and ar­
rangement of building interiors and furnish­
ings. They may work on either private homes
or commercial buildings.
When planning any space, designers first
consider the purpose of the area, the needs of
the occupants, and the client’s budget and
taste. For instance, a very expensive couch
that is easily soiled would not suit a family’s
needs for their recreation room, nor would it
be appropriate for the reception area of a
doctor’s office.
The next step of the designer’s job involves
preparing sketches and detailed plans. These
will show all the furniture and accessories the
designer is considering as well as any changes
in the structure itself. Changes may vary
from planning a new wall to separate the
dining and living rooms to creating a work
cubicle in an office. Sometimes the clients do
not approve the plans, in which case the de­
signer will revise them.
Once the client approves both the plans
and the cost, the designer may order the fur­
nishings, supervise the work of painters, floor
finishers, carpet layers, and other craft work­
ers, if they are needed, and make sure the
furnishings are installed and arranged ac­
cording to the approved plan.

Designers who work in large department
and furniture stores that have separate design
departments advise customers on decorating
and design plans. Although their principal
function is to help sell the store’s merchan­
dise, they may suggest furnishings from other
sources when essential to the customer’s
plans. Department store designers also fre­
quently advise the store’s buyers and execu­
tives about style and color trends in interior
Interior designers who specialize in nonresidential structures often work for clients
on large design projects such as the interiors
of entire office buildings, hospitals, and li­
braries. Generally, they plan the complete
layout of rooms without changes to the struc­
ture of the building. They also may redesign
or renovate the interiors of old buildings. In
these cases, an architect checks the plans to
make sure that they comply with building
requirements. Some interior designers also
design the furniture and accessories to be
used in various structures, and then arrange
for their manufacture. A few design the in­
teriors of ships and aircraft or stage sets used
for motion pictures or television.
Regardless of where they are working, de­
signers must deal with paperwork; they must
place orders, figure estimates, and maintain
records of where to purchase hundreds of
different types of furnishings. Handling busi­
ness matters such as these requires close at­
tention to detail and accuracy.

Working Conditions
Designers’ work hours are sometimes long
and irregular. They usually adjust their
workday to suit the needs of their clients,
meeting with them during the evening or on
weekends when necessary. They may trans­
act business in clients’ homes or offices, in

their own offices, or in a variety of other
Each assignment offers a challenge to solve
the client’s problems with creativity and
imagination. Designers generally work at
their own pace in a quiet atmosphere, but
sometimes the work is hectic. Most design
jobs require coordinating the activities of
building trades workers and suppliers, which
is not an easy task when deadlines are tight
and delivery problems crop up. The ability to
handle details, even under pressure, is very

Places of Employment
About 79,000 persons worked as interior
designers in 1978, primarily in large cities.
Most designers work for design firms.
They work independently with the firm’s cli­
ents or serve as assistants to senior designers.
Others work as members of design teams.
Some interior designers advise customers
in large department or furniture stores. Oth­
ers work for hotel and restaurant chains,
builders, government agencies, and other or­
ganizations that do a great deal of building or
renovation. Some work for architects, furni­
ture suppliers, antique dealers, furniture and
textile manufacturers, or other manufactur­
ers in the interior furnishings field. Interior
designers also work for magazines that fea­
ture articles on home furnishings.
Some experienced interior designers run
their own firms, either alone or in partner­
ship with other designers.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Formal training in interior design is in­
creasingly important for entry into this field.
Most architectural firms, well-established de­

sign firms, department and furniture stores,
and other major employers accept only pro­
fessionally trained people for beginning jobs.
The types of training available include 3-year
programs in a professional school of interior
design, 4-year college or university programs
that grant a bachelor’s degree, or postgradu­
ate programs leading to a graduate degree.
The curriculum usually includes principles of
design, history of art, freehand and mechani­
cal drawing or architectural drafting, paint­
ing, study of the essentials of architecture as
they relate to interiors, design of furniture
and exhibitions, and study of various materi­
als, such as woods, plastics, metals, and fab­
rics. A knowledge of furnishings, art pieces,
and antiques is important. In addition,
courses in sales and business techniques and
management are valuable.
Membership in the American Society of
Interior Design or in the Institute of Business
Designers is a recognized mark of achieve­
ment in this profession. Membership usually
requires the completion of 3 or 4 years of post
high school education in design and several
years of practical experience in the field, in­
cluding supervisory work. In addition, satis­
factory completion of a factual and designproblem examination is necessary for
professional membership.
Persons starting in interior design usually
serve a training period with a design firm,
department store, or furniture store. They
may act as receptionists, as shoppers with the
task of matching materials or finding acces­
sories, or as stockroom assistants, salesper­
sons, assistant decorators, or junior design­
ers. In most instances, from 1 to 5 years of
on-the-job training are required before a
trainee becomes eligible for advancement to
designer. Beginners who do not get trainee
jobs often sell fabric, lamps, or other interior
furnishings in department or furniture stores
to gain experience in dealing with customers
and to become familiar with the merchan­
dise. There is no guarantee, however, that
this experience will result in a job in design,
although it could lead to a career in merchan­
After considerable experience, designers
may advance to design department head or to
other supervisory positions in department
stores or in large design firms. If they have
the necessary funds and aptitude for busi­
ness, they may open their own firms.
Artistic talent is crucial for interior design­
ers. People in this field also need a strong
color sense, an eye for detail, and a sense of
balance and proportion. An esthetic sense, or
sensitivity to beauty, is absolutely essential.
Because styles and tastes in art and fashion
change quickly, people in this field need to be
versatile and alert to new ideas and trends.

Interior designers coordinating wall and floor coverings.

A successful designer must also be well
organized and good at handling details. The
ability to work well with people is very im­
portant, for a designer must be able to deal
effectively with clients, suppliers, and work­
/ 113

Employment Outlook
Persons seeking beginning jobs in interior
design are expected to face competition
through the 1980’s. Interior design is a com­
petitive field that requires talent, training,
and business ability, and many applicants vie
for the better jobs. Talented college graduates
who major in interior design and graduates of
professional schools of interior design will
find the best opportunities for employment.
Those with less talent or without formal
training will find it increasingly difficult to
enter this field.
Employment of interior designers is ex­
pected to increase about as fast as the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s.
Growth in population, personal incomes, ex­
penditures for home and office furnishings,
and the increasing use of design services in
both homes and commercial establishments
should contribute to a greater demand for
these workers. In addition to new jobs, some
openings will be created by the need to re­
place designers who die, retire, or leave the
Department and furniture stores are ex­
pected to employ an increasing number of
designers as their share in the growing vol­
ume of design work for commercial establish­
ments and public buildings increases. Inte­
rior design firms also are expected to
continue to expand.
Employment of interior designers, how­
ever, is sensitive to changes in general eco­
nomic conditions because people often forego
design services when the economy slows

Beginners usually are paid a straight salary
plus a small commission. Starting salaries
can range from the minimum wage plus a
small commission to a fixed salary of $150 a
week or higher. Firms in large metropolitan
areas usually pay the highest salaries.
Some experienced interior designers are
paid straight salaries, some receive salaries
plus commissions based on the value of their
sales, while others work entirely on commis­
Incomes of experienced designers vary
greatly. Many persons earn from $12,000 to
$50,000 a year, and highly successful design­
ers can earn much more. A small number of
nationally recognized professionals earn well
over $50,000 annually.
The earnings of self-employed designers
vary widely, depending on the volume of
business, their professional reputation, the
economic level of their clients, and their own
business competence.

Related Occupations
Interior designers must have artistic talent,
be creative, and have good color sense and
good taste. Other occupations that require
similar skills include exhibit designers, fabric


designers, display workers, and floral design­

Sources of Additional Information
For information about careers in interior
design and a list of schools offering programs
in this field, contact:
American Society of Interior Design, 730 Fifth
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10019.

Career information is also available from:
Institute of Business Designers, National Head­
quarters, 1155 Merchandise Mart, Chicago, 111.

Landscape Architects
(D.O.T. 001.061-018)

Nature of the Work
Everyone enjoys attractively designed resi­
dential areas, public parks, and commercial
zones. Landscape architects design outdoor
areas that are functional as well as esthetically pleasing. Resource conservation is an­
other important concern, one that requires a
knowledge of scientific as well as artistic
Landscape architects are hired by many
types of organizations—from real estate
firms starting new developments to
municipalities constructing airports or parks.
They usually plan the arrangement of vegeta­
tion, walkways, and other natural features of
open spaces. They may also design areas
where constructed materials predominate—
as on streets that have been modified to im­
prove pedestrian access and limit automobile
traffic. They sometimes supervise the con­
struction stages of outdoor projects.
Landscape architects first consider the na­
ture and purpose of the project, the funds
available, and the proposed elements in plan­
ning a site. Next, they study the site and map
features such as the slope of the land and the
position of existing buildings, roads, walk­
ways, and trees. They also observe the sunny
parts of the site at different times of the day,
soil texture, existing utilities, and many other
landscape features. Then, working some­
times as the leader of a design team or some­
times in consultation with the project archi­
tect or engineer, they draw up plans to
develop the site. If the plans are approved,
landscape architects prepare working draw­
ings showing all existing and proposed fea­
tures. Landscape architects outline in detail
the methods of constructing features and
draw up lists of building materials. They then
may invite landscape contractors to bid for
the work.
Some landscape architects specialize in
certain types of projects such as parks and
playgrounds, hotels and resorts, shopping
centers, or public housing. Still others spe­
cialize in services such as regional planning
and resource management, feasibility and
cost studies, or site construction.

Working Conditions
Landscape architects spend a substantial
amount of time in their offices preparing
working drawings, cost estimates, and mod­
els, and also making presentations to clients.
But this time indoors is balanced by the time
they spend outdoors, studying and planning
sites, and supervising actual landscape pro­

Places of Employment
About 14,000 persons worked as landscape
architects in 1978. Most had their own busi­
nesses or worked for architectural, landscape
architectural, or engineering firms. Others
were employed by government agencies con­
cerned with forest management, water stor­
age, public housing, city planning, urban
renewal, highways, parks, and recreation.
The Federal Government employed over 600
landscape architects, mainly in the Depart­
ments of Agriculture, Defense, and Interior.
Some landscape architects were employed by
landscape contractors, and a few taught in
colleges and universities.
Employment of landscape architects is
concentrated around large metropolitan
areas, primarily on the East and West Coasts.
However, employment opportunities have
recently been growing in the Southwest.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree in landscape archi­
tecture, which takes 4 or 5 years, is usually
the minimum educational requirement for
entering the profession. The American Soci­
ety of Landscape Architects accredits about
40 colleges and universities that offer such
programs. About 60 other schools also offer
programs or courses in landscape architec­
A person interested in landscape architec­
ture should take high school courses in me­
chanical or geometrical drawing, art, botany,
and more mathematics than the minimum
required for college entrance. Written and
spoken English is important, too, since land­
scape architects must be able to communi­
cate their ideas to their clients and make pre­
sentations before large groups.
College courses in this field include techni­
cal subjects such as surveying, landscape con­
struction, sketching, design communications,
and city planning. Other courses include hor­
ticulture and botany as well as English, sci­
ence, mathematics, and the social sciences.
Most college programs also include field trips
to view and study examples of landscape ar­
Thirty-eight States require a license, based
on the results of a uniform national licensing
examination, for independent practice of
landscape architecture. Admission to the lic­
ensing examination usually requires a degree
from an accredited school of landscape archi­
tecture plus 2 to 4 years of experience.
Lengthy apprenticeship training (6-8 years)

$15,900 a year. Landscape architects in the
Federal Government averaged $24,456 a
year in 1978.
Salaried employees both in government
and in landscape archetectural firms usually
work regular hours, although employees of
private firms may also work overtime during
seasonal rush periods to meet a deadline.
Self-employed persons often work long

Related Occupations
A sensitivity to beauty is essential in com­
bining the elements of design and nature to
develop a composite landscape project. Oth­
ers whose work requires design skills include
architects, ornamental horticulturists, envi­
ronmental planners, urban planners, and
land-use planners.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information, including a list of
colleges and universities offering accredited
courses of study in landscape architecture, is
available from:
Landscape architects need a creative imagination and an appreciation for nature.

under an experienced landscape architect
sometimes may be substituted for college
Persons planning careers in landscape ar­
chitecture should have an appreciation for
nature. Creativity and artistic talent are nec­
essary, too, for landscape architects are pri­
marily concerned with design. They employ
lines, colors, textures, spaces, and light to
create an esthetically pleasing land use plan.
These elements of design are carried out in a
project with trees, plants, stones, terrain,
flower gardens, and other natural features as
well as with constructed materials common
to architecture and engineering that go into
such outdoor features as plazas, fountains,
kiosks, and rest areas.
Self-employed landscape architects must
understand business practices. Working for
landscape architects or landscape contrac­
tors during summer vacations helps a person
understand the practical problems of the pro­
fession and may be helpful in obtaining em­
ployment after graduation.
New graduates usually begin as junior
drafters, tracing drawings and doing other
simple drafting work. After gaining experi­
ence, they help prepare specifications and
construction details and handle other as­
pects of project design. After 2 or 3 years,
they can usually carry a design through all
stages of development. Highly qualified
landscape architects may become associates
in private firms; landscape architects who
progress this far, however, often open their
own offices.

Employment Outlook
Employment of landscape architects is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. Addition­
ally, new entrants will be needed as replace­

ments for landscape architects who retire or
The level of new construction plays a
major role in determining demand for land­
scape architects, and anticipated growth in
new construction is expected to spur demand
over the long run. However, the cyclical na­
ture of construction activity may cause em­
ployment to fluctuate from year to year.
Another factor underlying the increased
demand for landscape architects is the grow­
ing interest in city and regional environmen­
tal planning. Metropolitan areas will require
landscape architects to plan efficient and safe
land use for growing populations. Legislation
to promote environmental protection may
spur demand for landscape architects to par­
ticipate in planning and designing transpor­
tation systems, outdoor recreation areas, and
land reclamation projects, as well as to en­
sure safe industrial growth. Recently enacted
legislation in the areas of historic preserva­
tion and coastal zone management is also
expected to affect employment in this field.

Newly graduated landscape architects gen­
erally earned from $10,000 to $15,000 a year
in 1978. Most experienced landscape ar­
chitects earned between $15,000 and $25,000
a year, although some highly skilled persons
earned salaries of over $30,000 a year. Earn­
ings of self-employed landscape architects
ranged from $10,000 a year to well over $25,000 a year, depending on the individual’s
educational background, experience, and ge­
ographic location.
The Federal Government, in 1979, paid
new graduates with a bachelor’s degree an­
nual salaries of $10,500 or $13,000, depend­
ing their qualifications. Those with an ad­
vanced degree had a starting salary of about

American Society of Landscape Architecture, Inc.,
1900 M St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.

For information on a career as a landscape
architect in the Forest Service, write to:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
Washington, D.C. 20250.

(D.O.T. 110 and 090.227-010)

Laws permeate every aspect of our society.
They regulate the entire spectrum of relation­
ships among individuals, groups, businesses,
and governments. They define rights as well
as restrictions, covering such diverse human
activities as judging and punishing criminals,
granting patents, drawing up business con­
tracts, paying taxes, settling labor disputes,
constructing buildings, and administering
Because social needs and attitudes are con­
tinually changing, the legal system that regu­
lates our social, political, and economic rela­
tionships also change. Keeping the law
responsive to human needs is the work of
lawyers. Also called attorneys, lawyers link
the legal system and society. To perform this
role, they must understand the world around
them and be sensitive to the numerous as­
pects of society that the law touches. They
must comprehend not only the words of a
particular statute, but the human circum­
stances it addresses as well.
As our laws grow more complex, the work
of lawyers takes on broader significance.
Laws affect our lives in new ways as the legal
system takes on regulatory tasks in areas
such as transportation, energy conservation,
consumer protection, and social welfare.
Lawyers interpret these laws, rulings, and
regulations for individuals and businesses.
/ 115

Nature of the Work
Certain activities are common to nearly
every attorney’s work. Probably the most
fundamental is interpretation of the law.
Every attorney, whether representing the de­
fendant in a murder trial or the plaintiff
(suing party) in a lawsuit, combines an un­
derstanding of the relevant laws with knowl­
edge of the facts in the case to determine how
the first affects the second. Based on this de­
termination, the attorney decides what action
would best serve the interests of the client.
To interpret the law, lawyers do research.
They must stay abreast of their field, in both
legal and nonlegal matters. An attorney
representing electronics manufacturers, for
example, must follow trade journals and the
latest Federal regulations affecting his or her
clients. Attorneys in the State Department
must remain well versed in current events
and international law, while divorce lawyers
read about the changing role of the family in
modern society.
A lawyer consults with clients to deter­
mine the details of problems, advise them of
the law, and suggest action that might be
taken. To be effective, a lawyer must deal
with people in a courteous, efficient manner
and not disclose personal matters. Lawyers
serve as models for conduct and their prac­
tice is governed by strict rules of ethics.
Finally, most lawyers write reports or
briefs which must be communicated clearly
and precisely. The more detailed aspects of a
lawyer’s job depend upon his or her field and
A significant number specialize in one
branch of law, such as corporate, criminal,
labor, patent, real estate, tax, admiralty, pro­
bate, or international law. Communications
lawyers, for example, may represent radio

and television stations in their dealings with
the Federal Communications Commission
(FCC). They help established stations pre­
pare and file license renewal applications,
employment reports, and other documents
required by the FCC on a regular basis. They
also keep their clients informed of changes in
FCC regulations. Communications lawyers
help individuals or corporations buy or sell a
station or establish a new one.
Other lawyers representing public utilities
before the Federal Power Commission (FPC)
and other regulatory agencies handle matters
involving utility rates. They develop strategy,
arguments, and testimony; prepare cases for
presentation; and argue the case. These law­
yers also inform clients about changes in
regulations and give advice about the legality
of their actions.
Still other lawyers advise insurance com­
panies about the legality of insurance tran­
sactions. They write insurance policies to
conform with the law and to protect compa­
nies from unwarranted claims. They review
claims filed against insurance companies and
represent companies in court.
Private practitioners specializing in other
areas deal with wills, trusts, contracts, mort­
gages, titles, and leases. Some manage a per­
son’s property as trustee or see that provi­
sions of a client’s will are carried out as
executor. A small number of lawyers work
entirely in the courtroom. An increasing
number handle only public interest cases—
civil or criminal—which have a potential im­
pact extending well beyond the individual cli­
ent. Attorneys hope to use these cases as a
vehicle for legal and social reform.
A single client may employ a lawyer full
time. Known as house counsel, this lawyer
usually advises a company about legal ques­
tions that arise from business activities. Such

questions might involve patents, government
regulations, a business contract with another
company, or a collective bargaining agree­
ment with a union.
Attorneys employed at the various levels
of government constitute still another cate­
gory. Criminal lawyers may work for the
State attorney general, a prosecutor or public
defender, or the court itself. At the Federal
level, attorneys may investigate cases for the
Justice Department or other agencies. Law­
yers at every government level help develop
laws and programs; draft legislation; estab­
lish enforcement procedures; and argue
Other lawyers work for legal aid societies
—private, nonprofit corporations established
to serve poor people in particular areas.
These lawyers generally handle civil rather
than criminal cases.
A relatively small number of attorneys
work in law schools. Most specialize in one
or more subjects, while others serve as ad­
ministrators. Some work full time in nonaca­
demic settings and teach part time. (For ad­
ditional information, see the Handbook
statement on college and university faculty.)
Some attorneys use their legal background
in administrative or managerial positions in
various departments of large corporations. A
transfer from a corporation’s legal depart­
ment to another department often is viewed
as a way to gain administrative experience
and rise in the ranks of management.
People may use their legal background as
journalists, management consultants, finan­
cial analysts, insurance claim adjusters, real
estate appraisers, lobbyists, tax collectors,
probation officers, and credit investigators. A
legal background also is an asset to office

Working Conditions
Lawyers do most of their work in offices
and courtrooms. They sometimes meet in cli­
ents’ homes or places of business and, when
necessary, in hospitals or prison cells. They
frequently travel to attend meetings, to
gather evidence, and to appear before courts,
legislative bodies, and other authorities.
Salaried lawyers in government and pri­
vate firms generally have structured work
schedules. Law teachers, on the other hand,
whose schedules are more flexible, divide
their time among teaching, research, and ad­
ministrative responsibilities. Independent
lawyers may work irregular hours while con­
ducting research, conferring with clients, or
preparing briefs during nonoffice hours.
Lawyers generally work long hours and are
under particularly heavy pressure when a
case is being tried. Preparation for court in­
cludes keeping abreast of the latest laws and
judicial decisions.

Painstaking research is an integral part of a trial attorney’s job.


Although work generally is not seasonal,
the work of tax lawyers may be an exception.
Since lawyers in private practice can deter­
mine their own workload, many stay in prac­
tice well beyond the usual retirement age.

Places of Employment
Over 480,000 persons worked as lawyers in
1978. About 70 percent of them practiced
privately. Many worked in law firms; others
had solo practices. Most of the remaining 30
percent held positions in Federal, State, and
local government. Others were employed as
house counsel by public utilities, transporta­
tion firms, banks, insurance companies, real
estate agencies, manufacturing firms, welfare
and religious organizations, and other busi­
ness firms and nonprofit organizations.
About 8,000 lawyers taught full or part time
in law schools. Some salaried lawyers also
have independent practices; others do legal
work part time while in another occupation.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
To practice law in the courts of any State,
a person must be admitted to its bar. Appli­
cants for admission to the bar must pass a
written examination; however, a few States
drop this requirement for graduates of their
own law schools. Lawyers who have been
admitted to the bar in one State occasionally
may be admitted in another without taking
an examination if they meet that State’s stan­
dards of good moral character and have a
specified period of legal experience. Federal
courts and agencies set their own qualifica­
tions for those practicing before them.
To qualify ftfr the bar examination in most
States, an applicant must complete at least 3
years of college and graduate from a law
school approved by the American Bar Asso­
ciation (ABA) or the proper State authori­
ties. (ABA approval signifies that the law
school meets certain standards developed by
the Association to promote quality legal edu­
cation. With certain exceptions, graduates of
nonapproved schools generally are restricted
to taking the bar examination and practicing
in the State in which the school is located.)
A few States accept the study of law in a law
office or in combination with study in a law
school; only California accepts the study of
law by correspondence as qualification for
taking the bar exam. Several States require
registration and approval of students by the
State Board of Examiners, either before they
enter law school or during the early years of
legal study.
Although there is no nationwide bar exam,
43 States and the District of Columbia partic­
ipate in the Multistate Bar Examination
(MBE). The MBE, covering issues of broad
interest since the early 1970’s, is given in ad­
dition to the State bar exam. States vary in
their treatment of MBE scores.
The required college and law school educa­
tion usually takes 7 years of full-time study
after high school—4 years of undergraduate
study followed by 3 years in law school. Al­
though some law schools accept a very small
number of students after 3 years of college,
an increasing number require applicants to
have a bachelor’s degree. To meet the needs
of students who can attend only part time, a

number of law schools have night or parttime divisions which usually require 4 years
of study. In 1977 about one-seventh of all
graduates of ABA-approved schools were
part-time students.
Competition for admission to law school
has become intense in recent years. Enroll­
ments have risen very rapidly, with appli­
cants outnumbering available seats by about
2 to 1. Competition is even stiffer in more
prestigious law schools. Although the in­
crease in enrollments may slow during the
1980’s, admission to law school will remain
the first of several hurdles for prospective
Preparation for a career as a lawyer really
begins in college. Although there is no such
thing as a “prelaw major, ” the undergradu­
ate program almost always makes a differ­
ence. Certain courses and activities are desir­
able because they give the student the skills
needed to succeed both in law school and in
the profession. Essential skills—the ability to
write, to read and analyze, to think logically,
and to communicate verbally—are learned
during high school and college. An under­
graduate program that cultivates these skills
while broadening the student’s view of the
world is best. Majors in the social sciences,
natural sciences, and humanities all are suit­
able, as long as the student does not special­
ize too narrowly. Regardless of one’s major,
English, foreign language (particularly
Latin), public speaking, government, philos­
ophy, history, economics, and mathematics,
among others, are highly recommended.
Students interested in a particular aspect
of law may find related courses helpful; for
example, engineering and science courses for
the prospective patent attorney, and account­
ing for the future tax lawyer. In addition,
typing is advisable simply for convenience in
law school.
Acceptance by most law schools depends
on the applicant’s ability to demonstrate an
aptitude for the study of law, usually through
good grades and the Law School Admission
Test (LSAT), administered by the Educa­
tional Testing Service. In 1978, the American
Bar Association approved 167 law schools.
Others were approved by State authorities
During the first year or year and a half of
law school, students generally study funda­
mental courses such as constitutional law,
contracts, property law, and judicial proce­
dures. In the remaining time, they may elect
specialized courses in fields such as tax,
labor, or corporation law. Practical experi­
ence often is acquired by participation in
school-sponsored legal aid or legal clinic ac­
tivities, in the school’s moot court where stu­
dents conduct practice trials under the super­
vision of experienced lawyers and judges, and
through writing on legal issues for the
school’s law journal.
A number of law schools have clinical pro­
grams where students gain legal experience
in “lawyering” through practice trials and
law school projects under the supervision of

practicing lawyers and law school faculty.
Law school clinical programs might include
work in legal aid clinics, for example, or on
the staff of legislative committees. Part-time
or summer clerkships also provide experi­
ence that can be extremely valuable later on.
Such training can provide references or lead
directly to a job after graduation, and can
help students decide what kind of practice
best suits them. Clerkships also may be an
important source of financial aid.
Graduates receive the degree ofjuris doctor
(J.D.) or bachelor o f law (LL.B.) as the first
professional degree. Advanced study is desir­
able for those planning to specialize, do re­
search, or teach. Some law students pursue
joint degree programs, which generally re­
quire an additional year or more. Joint de­
gree programs are offered in a number of
areas, including law and business administra­
tion; law and public administration; and law
and social work.
The practice of law involves a great deal of
responsibility. Persons planning careers in
law should like to work with people and be
able to win the respect and confidence of
their clients, associates, and the public. Integ­
rity and honesty are vital personal qualities.
Intellectual capacity and reasoning ability
are essential to analyze complex cases and
reach sound conclusions.
Most beginning lawyers start in salaried
positions. Newly hired salaried attorneys
usually act as research assistants (law clerks)
to experienced lawyers or judges. After sev­
eral years of progressively responsible sala­
ried employment, many lawyers go into prac­
tice for themselves. Some lawyers, after years
of practice, become judges.

Employment Outlook
Employment of lawyers grew very rapidly
during the late 1970’s. Faster-than-average
growth is expected to continue through the
1980’s as increased population, business ac­
tivity, and government regulation help sus­
tain the strong demand for attorneys. Em­
ployment growth also will be spurred by
Supreme Court decisions extending the right
to counsel for all persons accused of crimes,
an increase in publicly funded legal services
for low-income persons, the growth of legal
action in such areas as consumer protection,
the environment, and safety, and an an­
ticipated increase in the use of legal services
by middle-income groups through prepaid
legal service programs. As colleges and uni­
versities add law courses to their liberal arts,
business, and other curriculums, additional
lawyers may be needed to teach part time.
Most jobs, however, will be created by the
need to replace lawyers who die, retire, or
leave the occupation for other reasons.
Despite very strong employment growth in
this occupation, the sizable number of law
school graduates entering the job market
each year has created keen competition for
jobs. While the number of graduates is ex­
pected to level off during the 1980’s, competi­
tion for jobs will remain intense.
/ 117

Employers will continue to be selective in
hiring new lawyers. Graduates of prestigious
law schools and those who rank high in their
classes should find salaried positions with
law firms, on the legal staffs of corporations
and government agencies, and as law clerks
for judges. Graduates of less prominent
schools and those with lower scholastic rat­
ings will experience some difficulty in finding
salaried jobs. An increasing proportion will
enter fields where legal training is an asset
but not normally a requirement. For exam­
ple, banks, insurance firms, real estate com­
panies, government agencies, and other or­
ganizations seek law graduates to fill many
administrative, managerial, and business po­
With increasing competition for jobs, a law
graduate’s geographic mobility and experi­
ence assume greater importance. The willing­
ness and ability to relocate may be an advan­
tage in getting a job. In addition, employers
increasingly seek graduates who have train­
ing and experience in a particular field such
as tax, patent, or admiralty law.
Establishing a new practice probably will
continue to be best in small towns and ex­
panding suburban areas, as long as an active
market for legal services already exists. In
such communities, competition is likely to be
less than in big cities and new lawyers may
find it easier to become known to potential
clients; also, rent and other business costs are
somewhat lower. Nevertheless, starting a
new practice will remain an expensive and
risky proposition that should be weighed
carefully. Salaried positions will continue
largely in urban areas where government
agencies, law firms, and big corporations are

Starting salaries offered to 1978 law school
graduates varied from a low of $8,000 a year
offered by small firms to a high of $29,000
offered by a large corporation. Beginning at­
torneys in private industry averaged around
$18,000. In the Federal Government, annual
starting salaries for attorneys in early 1979
were $15,920 or $19,263, depending upon ac­
ademic and personal qualifications. Factors
affecting the salaries offered to new gradu­
ates include: Academic record; type, size,
and location of employers; and the desired
specialized educational background. The
field of law makes a difference, too. Patent
lawyers, for example, generally are among
the highest paid attorneys.
Salaries of experienced attorneys also vary
widely according to the type, size, and loca­
tion of the employers. The average salary of
the most experienced lawyers in private in­
dustry in 1978 was over $50,000. The median
annual salary of nonsupervisory lawyers em­
ployed by business corporations in 1977 ex­
ceeded $31,000, while some heads of law de­
partments earned over $70,000. General
attorneys in the Federal Government ave­
raged around $30,400 a year in 1978; the
relatively small number of patent attorneys


averaged around $37,400. Although lawyers
are concentrated in the Departments of Jus­
tice, Defense, and Treasury, significant num­
bers work in many other Federal agencies.
Lawyers starting their own practice may
need to work part time in other occupations
during the first years. Lawyers on salary re­
ceive increases as they assume greater re­
sponsibility. Incomes of lawyers in private
practice usually grow as their practices de­
velop. Private practitioners who are partners
in law firms generally earn more than those
who practice alone.

Related Occupations
Legal training is invaluable in many other
occupations. Some of these are abstractors,
arbitrators, conciliators, hearing officers,
patent agents, title examiners, legislative as­
sistants, and FBI special agents.

Sources of Additional Information
Persons considering law as a career will
find information on law schools and prelaw
study in the Prelaw Handbook, published an­
nually (Law School Admission Services, Box
944, Princeton, N J. 08540). Copies may be
available in public or school libraries. In ad­
dition, many colleges and universities have a
prelaw advisor who counsels undergraduates
about their course work, the LSAT, law
school applications, and other matters.
Information on law schools, financial aid
for law students, and law as a career is availa­
ble from:
American Bar Association, Information Services,
1155 East 60th St., Chicago, 111. 60637. (There may
be a slight charge for publications.)

For information on the placement of law
graduates and the legal profession in general,
National Association for Law Placement, 3200
Fifth Avenue, Sacramento, California 95817.

Information on legal education is available
Association of American Law Schools, 1 Dupont
Circle NW., Suite 370, Washington, D.C. 20036.

For advice on financial aid, contact a law
school financial aid officer.
The specific requirements for admission to
the bar in a particular State may be obtained
at the State capital from the clerk of the Su­
preme Court or the Secretary of the Board of
Bar Examiners.


Library work is divided into two areas:
user services and technical services. Librari­
ans in user services—for example, reference
and children’s librarians—work directly with
the public helping them find the information
they need. Librarians in technical services—
such as acquisitions librarians—are primar­
ily concerned with acquiring and preparing
materials for use and deal less frequently
with the public.
The size of the library affects the scope of
a librarian’s job. In small libraries, librarians
generally handle both user and technical ser­
vices. They select, purchase, and process li­
brary materials; publicize services; provide
reference help to groups and individuals; su­
pervise the support staff; prepare the budget;
and oversee other administrative matters. In
large libraries, librarians work in a single
area, such as acquisitions, cataloging, bibli­
ography, reference, circulation, or adminis­
tration. Or they may handle special collec­
Building and maintaining a strong collec­
tion is essential in any library, large or small.
Acquisitions librarians (D.O.T. 100.267-010)
select and order books, periodicals, films, and
other materials that suit users’ needs. To
keep abreast of current literature, they read
book reviews, look over publishers’ an­
nouncements and catalogs, confer with book­
sellers, and seek advice from library users. A
knowledge of book publishing and business
acumen are important, for these librarians
are under pressure to get as much for their
money as possible.
After library materials have been received,
other librarians prepare them for use. Clas­
sifiers (D.O.T. 100.367-014) classify library
materials by subject matter. They may skim
through a book quickly to be sure what it is
about, then assign a classification number.
Catalogers (D.O.T. 100.387-010) then super­
vise assistants who prepare cards that indi­
cate the book’s title, author, subject, pub­
lisher, and date of publication. The cards are
then filed in the card catalog.
Bibliographers (D.O.T. 100.367-010), who
usually work in research libraries, compile
lists of books, periodicals, articles, and audio­
visual materials on particular subjects. They
also recommend materials to be acquired in
subject areas with which they are familiar.
Special collections librarians (D.O.T. 100.267-014) collect and organize books, pam­
phlets, manuscripts, and other materials in a
specific field, such as rare books, genealogy,
or music. From time to time, they may pre­
pare reports to inform scholars about impor­
tant additions to the collection.

Nature of the Work

Librarians are also classified according to
the type of library in which they work: Public
libraries, school library media centers, aca­
demic libraries, and special libraries.

Librarians make information available to
people. They serve as a link between the pub­
lic and the millions of sources of information
by selecting and organizing materials and
making them accessible.

Public librarians serve people of all ages
and from all walks of life. Increasingly, pub­
lic librarians provide special materials and
services to culturally and educationally de­
prived persons, arid to persons who, because

(D.O.T. 100 except 100.367-018)

Almost half of all librarians, but only one-sixth of all
technicians and assistants, work in school
library media centers
Employment, 1978


Special libraries








Technicians and assistants

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

of physical handicaps, cannot use conven­
tional print.
The professional staff of a large public li­
brary system may include the chief librarian,
an assistant chief, and division heads who
plan and coordinate the work of the entire
system. The system also may include librari­
ans who supervise branch libraries and spe­
cialists in areas such as acquisitions, catalog­
ing, and special collectons.
Some public librarians work with specific
groups of readers. Children's librarians
(D.O.T. 100.167-018) serve young people by
finding books they will enjoy and showing
them how to use the library. They may plan
and conduct special programs such as story
hours or film programs. In serving children
they often work with school and community
organizations. Adult services librarians sug­
gest materials suited to the needs and inter­
ests of adults. They may cooperate in plan­
ning and conducting education programs,
such as community development, public af­
fairs, creative arts, problems of the aging, and
home and family. Young adult librarians
(D.O.T. 100.167-034) help junior and senior
high school students select and use books and
other materials. They may organize pro­
grams of interest to young adults, such as
book or film discussions or concerts of re­
corded music. They also may coordinate the
library’s work with school programs. Com­
munity outreach librarians and bookmobile
librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-014) develop li­
brary services to meet the needs of special
groups within the community. They might
arrange for books to be brought to a migrant
labor camp, an inner city housing project, or
a nursing home, for example.
School librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-030)
teach students how to use the school library
media center and help them choose from its
collection of print and nonprint materials.
Working with teachers and supervisors,
school librarians familiarize students with

the library’s resources. They prepare lists of
materials on certain subjects and help select
materials for school programs. They also se­
lect, order, and organize the library’s materi­
als. Increasingly, the school library media
center is viewed as an integral part of the
school’s overall instructional program, and
many school librarians work closely with
classroom teachers. They assist teachers in
developing units of study or independent
study programs and participate in team
Very large high schools may employ sev­
eral school librarians, each responsible for a
particular aspect of the library program or
for a special subject area. Media specialists
and audiovisual librarians, for example, de­

velop audiovisual programs to be included in
or to supplement the curriculum. They also
may develop materials and work with teach­
ers on curriculum.
Academic librarians serve students, faculty
members, and researchers in colleges and
universities. They work closely with mem­
bers of the faculty to ensure that the general
collection includes reference materials re­
quired for the hundreds of courses that might
be offered during a particular academic year.
They also maintain the quality of the collec­
tion in research areas for which the institu­
tion is noted.
Special librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-026)
work in libraries maintained by government
agencies and by commercial and industrial
firms, such as pharmaceutical companies,
banks, law firms, advertising agencies, medi­
cal centers, and research laboratories. They
provide materials and services covering sub­
jects of special interest to the organization.
They build and arrange the organization’s
information resources to suit the needs of the
library users. Special librarians assist users
and may conduct literature searches, compile
bibliographies, or prepare abstracts. In scien­
tific and technical libraries in particular,
computerized data bases are an important
and much-used part of the collection. Main­
taining these, and assisting users in retrieving
information that has been stored in a com­
puter’s memory, are increasingly important
parts of the special librarian’s job.
The staff of a technical library or docu­
mentation center may also include informa­
tion science specialists. Although they work
closely with special librarians, information
science specialists must possess a more exten­
sive technical and scientific background and
a knowledge of various techniques for han­
dling information. They abstract compli­
cated information into condensed, readable

Children’s librarians often conduct special programs such as story hours for youngsters.
/1 19

form, and interpret and analyze data for a
highly specialized clientele. Among other du­
ties, they develop classification systems, pre­
pare coding and programing techniques for
computerized information storage and retrie­
val systems, design information networks,
and develop microfilm technology.

Working Conditions
Librarians should enjoy working with data
as well as people. To make decisions about
library matters without supervision, they
need to be responsible and thoughtful. Physi­
cally, the job may require much standing,
stooping, bending, and reaching.
Librarians typically work a 5-day, 35-40
hour week. Public and college librarians may
work some weekends and evenings. School
librarians generally have the same workday
schedule as classroom teachers. A 40-hour
week during normal business hours is com­
mon for government and other special li­

Places of Employment
An estimated 142,000 professional librari­
ans were employed in 1978. School librarians
accounted for more than two-fifths of all li­
brarians. Public librarians accounted for al­
most one-fourth of the total, while colleges
and universities employed about one-sixth.
Another sixth worked in special libraries, in­
cluding those in private industry, in govern­
ment agencies, and in institutions such as
hospitals and correctional facilities. A small
number served as consultants, as State and
Federal Government administrators, and as
faculty in schools of library science. In late
1977, the Federal Government employed
about 3,300 professional librarians.
Most librarians work in cities and towns.
Those attached to bookmobile units serve
widely scattered population groups.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
In most cases, a master’s degree in library
science is necessary to obtain a job as a librar­
ian. Although about 120 schools offered such
degrees in 1977, most employers prefer grad­
uates from one of the 67 library schools ac­
credited by the American Library Associa­
tion. Public school libraries in the State in
which the librarian has received training may
be an exception, since most States have their
own certification requirements for public
school librarians.
Most graduate schools of library science
require graduation from an accredited 4-year
college or university and a good undergradu­
ate record. In addition, some schools require
a reading knowledge of at least one foreign
language. Some schools also require intro­
ductory undergraduate courses in library sci­
ence. Many prefer a liberal arts background
with a major in an area such as the social
sciences, the arts, or literature. Some schools
require entrance examinations.
A typical graduate program in library sci­


ence includes basic courses in information
storage and retrieval, reference tools and
serving the user, materials selection, and the
foundations of librarianship. Also included
are advanced courses in resources, including
resources for special groups such as children
or young adults; in the administrative aspects
of librarianship; in technical areas such as
cataloging, indexing, and abstracting; and in
library automation. As automation becomes
increasingly important, many library schools
encourage students to take courses in com­
puter and information science.
Although the master’s of library science
(M.L.S.) program represents a general, all­
round preparation for library work, some
people specialize in a particular area such as
archives, media, or children’s literature. A
few M.L.S. degree holders return to school to
receive a certificate of advanced study. For
those interested in the special libraries field,
a master’s degree or doctorate in the library’s
specialization is highly desirable.
Most States require that public school li­
brarians be certified and trained both as
teachers and librarians. They also may re­
quire that media specialists, for example, spe­
cialize in media within the M.L.S. program.
Some States require certification of public li­
brarians employed in areas such as munici­
pal, county, or regional library systems. The
specific education and experience necessary
for certification vary according to State and
the school district. The local superintendent
of schools and the State department of educa­
tion can provide information about specific
requirements in an area.
In the Federal Government, beginning po­
sitions require completion of a 4-year college
course and a master’s degree in library sci­
ence, or demonstration of the equivalent in
experience and education by a passing grade
on an examination.
Under cooperative work-study programs,
library schools combine the academic pro­
gram with practical work experience in a li­
brary. Scholarships for training in library sci­
ence are available under certain State and
Federal programs, from library schools, and
from a number of the large libraries and li­
brary associations. Loans, assistantships, and
financial aid also are available.

Employment Outlook

Many employers now require several
years’ experience for what used to be entry
level positions. Graduates who have par­
ticipated in internship programs and workstudy programs or who have worked part
time may have an employment advantage
over other new graduates.

Starting salaries of graduates of library
school master’s degree programs accredited
by the American Library Association ave­
raged $11,894 a year in 1977, and ranged
from $10,929 in public libraries to $12,194 in
school libraries. The median salary for li­
brarians in college and university libraries
was $16,930 in 1978. Average salaries ranged
from $12,871 a year for those with less than
5 years of experience to over $38,700 for di­
rectors of libraries. In general, librarians
earned twice as much as the average for all
nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming. Librarians in the Federal
Government averaged about $21,900 in

Experienced librarians, primarily those
who have specialized or completed graduate
training in a library school, may advance to
administrative positions or to specialized
work. A second master’s degree in business
or public administration may help to obtain
such positions. A Ph.D. degree in library sci­
ence is advantageous for a teaching career in
library schools or for a top administrative
post, particularly in a college or university
library or in a large library system.

The employment outlook for librarians is
expected to remain very competitive through
the 1980’s. Although library school enroll­
ments are expected to decline, the number of
new graduates and labor force reentrants
seeking jobs probably will exceed openings.
Most job openings in libraries during the
1980’s will result from replacement needs.
Employment growth in public libraries is
likely to be slower than it has been during the
last two decades. Faced with escalating
materials costs and tighter operating budg­
ets, many libraries are expected to increase
their use of support staff and volunteers,
which will slow employment growth for li­
Virtually no growth is foreseen for aca­
demic librarians, a reflection of the overall
decline in college enrollments expected dur­
ing the 1980’s. The situation will vary from
institution to institution, however.
In school libraries, a large sector, very
modest growth is foreseen. Elementary and
secondary enrollments are expected to re­
main relatively stable through the 1980’s.
Opportunities will be best for librarians
with scientific and technical backgrounds,
particularly in private libraries in the health
sciences. The expanding use of computers to
store information and to handle routine oper­
ations such as ordering and cataloging will
sustain the demand for information and auto­
mation specialists.
The development of new information han­
dling jobs outside the traditional library set­
ting is also expected to offer employment op­
portunities for imaginative librarians who
can persuade prospective employers in gov­
ernment and private industry of the need for
their services.
Persons who are geographically mobile
will face better employment prospects than
those limited to one area.

Salaries of librarians vary by type of li­
brary, the individual’s qualifications, and the
size and geographical location of the library.

The usual paid vacation after a year’s ser­
vice is 3 to 4 weeks. Vacations may be longer

in school libraries and somewhat shorter in
those operated by business and industry.
Many librarians are covered by sick leave;
life, health, and accident insurance; and pen­
sion plans.

Related Occupations
Librarians play an important role in the
communication of ideas by providing people
with access to the information they need and
want. Jobs requiring similar analytical, or­
ganizational, and communicative skills in­
clude archivists, information scientists, mu­
seum curators, publisher’s representatives,
research analysts, information brokers, book
critics, and records managers.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on librarianship,
including a listing of accredited education
programs and information on scholarships or
loans, may be obtained from:
American Library Association, 50 East Huron St.,
Chicago, 111. 60611.

For information on a career as a special
librarian, write to:
Special Libraries Association, 235 Park Ave.,
South, New York, N.Y. 10003.

Information on Federal assistance for
graduate school library training under the
Higher Education Act of 1965 is available
Office o f Libraries and Learning Resources, Office
of Education, U.S. Department of Education,
Washington, D.C. 20202.

Those interested in a career in Federal li­
braries should write to:
Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20415.

Material about a career in information sci­
ence may be obtained from:
American Society for Information Science, 1110
16th St., NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

Information on graduate schools of library
and information science can also be obtained
Association of American Library Schools, 471
Park Lane, State College, Pa. 16801.

Individual State library agencies can fur­
nish information on scholarships available
through their offices, requirements for cer­
tification, and general information about ca­
reer prospects in their regions. State boards
of education can furnish information on cer­
tification requirements and job opportunities
for school librarians.

Life Scientists
(D.O.T. 040.061, except -034, -046, -054 and -058;
041.061 except -026; and 041.261-010)

Nature of the Work
Life scientists, who study all aspects of liv­
ing organisms, emphasize the relationship

of animals and plants to their environ­

(birds), entomologists (insects), and mammalogists (mammals).
Animal scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-014) do
About one-third of all life scientists are
primarily involved in research and develop­ research on the breeding, feeding, and dis­
ment. Many conduct basic research to in­ eases of domestic farm animals. Veterinari­
crease our knowledge of living organisms ans (D.O.T. 073-061) study diseases and ab­
which can be applied in medicine, in increas­ normal functioning in animals. (See
ing crop yields, and in improving the natural statement on veterinarians elsewhere in the
environment. When working in laboratories, Handbook.)
life scientists must be familiar with research
Anatomists (D.O.T. 041.061-010) study
techniques and laboratory equipment such as the structure of organisms, from cell struc­
electron microscopes. Knowledge of comput­ ture to the formation of tissues and organs.
ers also is useful in conducting experiments. Many specialize in human anatomy. Re­
Not all research, however, is performed in search methods may entail dissections or the
laboratories. For example, a botanist who ex­ use of electron microscopes.
plores the volcanic Alaskan valleys to see
Some life scientists apply their specialized
what plants grow there also is doing research.
knowledge across a number of areas, and
More than one-fifth of all life scientists may be classified by the functions performed.
work in management or administration rang­ Ecologists, for example, study.the relation­
ing from planning and administering pro­ ship between organisms and their environ­
grams for testing foods and drugs to directing ments, particularly the effects of environ­
activities at zoos or botanical gardens. About mental influences such as rainfall,
one-fifth teach in colleges or universities; temperature, and altitude on organisms. For
many also do independent research. Some life example, ecologists extract samples of plank­
scientists work as consultants to business ton (microscopic plants and animals) from
firms or to government in their areas of spe­ bodies of water to determine the effects of
cialization. Others write for technical publi­ pollution, and measure the radioactive con­
cations or test and inspect foods, drugs, and tent of fish.
other products. Some work in technical sales
Embryologists study the development of an
and services jobs for industrial companies animal from a fertilized egg through the
where, for example, they demonstrate the hatching process or gestation period. They
proper use of new chemicals or technical pro­ investigate the causes of healthy and abnor­
mal development in animals.
Scientists in many life science areas often
Microbiologists (D.O.T. 041.061-058) are
call themselves biologists (D.O.T. 041.061- life scientists who investigate the growth and
030). However, the majority are classified by characteristics of microscopic organisms
the type of organism they study or by the such as bacteria, viruses, and molds. They
specific activity they perform.
isolate and grow organisms for close exami­
nation under a microscope. Medical microbi­
Botanists (D.O.T. 041.061-038) deal pri­
ologists are concerned with the relationship
marily with plants and their environment.
between bacteria and disease or the effect of
Some study all aspects of plant life, while
antibiotics on bacteria. Other microbiologists
others work in specific areas such as identify­
may specialize in soil bacteriology (effect of
ing and classifying plants or studying the
microorganisms on soil fertility), virology
structure of plants and plant cells. Other
(viruses), or immunology (mechanisms that
botanists concentrate on causes and cures of
fight infections).
plant diseases.
Physiologists (D.O.T. 041.061-078) study
Agronomists (D.O.T. 040.061-010), who h ow the various life functions o f plants and
are concerned with the mass development of animals work under normal and abnormal
plants, improve the quality and yield of conditions. Physiologists may specialize in
crops, such as corn, wheat, and cotton, by functions such as growth, reproduction, res­
developing new growth methods or by con­ piration, or movement, or in the physiology
trolling diseases, pests, and weeds. They also of a certain body area or system.
analyze soils to determine ways to increase
Pharmacologists (D.O.T. 041.061-074)
acreage yields and decrease soil erosion. Hor­
ticulturists (D.O.T. 040.061-038) work with and toxicologists conduct tests on animals
orchard and garden plants such as fruit and such as rats, guinea pigs, and monkeys to
nut trees, vegetables, and flowers. They seek determine the effects of drugs, gases, poisons,
to improve plant culture methods for the dusts, and other substances on the function­
beautification of communities, homes, parks, ing of tissues and organs. Pharmacologists
and other areas as well as for increasing crop may develop new or improved drugs and
quality and yields.
Pathologists specialize in the effects of dis­
Zoologists (D.O.T. 041.061-090) study
various aspects of animal life—its origin, be­ eases, parasites, and insects on human cells,
havior, and life processes. Some conduct ex­ tissues, and organs. Others may investigate
perimental studies with live animals in con­ genetic variations caused by drugs.
trolled or natural surroundings while others
Biochemists and biological oceanogra­
dissect animals to study the structure of their phers, who are also life scientists, are in­
parts. Zoologists are usually identified by the cluded in separate statements elsewhere in
studied—ornithologists the Handbook.

Working Conditions
Life scientists generally work regular
hours in offices, laboratories, or classrooms
and usually are not exposed to unsafe or un­
healthy conditions. Some life scientists such
as botanists, ecologists, and zoologists may
take field trips which may involve strenuous
physical labor and primitive living condi­

Places of Employment
An estimated 215,000 persons worked as
life scientists in 1978. Almost 40,000 were
agricultural scientists, over 110,000 were bio­
logical scientists, and about 65,000 were
medical scientists.
Colleges and universities employ nearly
three-fifths of all life scientists, in both teach­
ing and research jobs. Medical schools and
hospitals also employ large numbers of medi­
cal investigators. Sizable numbers of special­
ists in agronomy, horticulture, animal hus­
bandry, entomology, and related areas work
for State agricultural colleges and agricul­
tural experiment stations.
About 15,000 life scientists worked for the
Federal Government in 1978. Of these, al­
most half worked for the Department of Ag­
riculture, with large numbers also in the De­
partment of the Interior and in the National
Institutes of Health. State and local govern­
ments combined employed about 22,000 life
Approximately 40,000 life scientists
worked in private industry, mostly in the
pharmaceutical, industrial chemical, and
food processing industries in 1978. About 6,000 worked for nonprofit research organiza­
tions and foundations; a few were selfemployed.
Life scientists are distributed fairly
evenly throughout the United States, but
employment is concentrated in some met­
ropolitan areas—for example, nearly 6 per­
cent of all agricultural and biological scien­
tists work in the Washington, D.C.,
metropolitan area. Life science teachers are
concentrated in communities with large

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Persons seeking a career in the life
sciences should plan to obtain an advanced
degree. The Ph. D. degree generally is re­
quired for college teaching, for indepen­
dent research, and for many administrative
jobs. A master’s degree is sufficient for
some jobs in applied research and college
teaching. A health science degree is neces­
sary for some jobs in medical research.
(See section on health occupations else­
where in the Handbook.)
The bachelor’s degree is adequate prepara­
tion for some beginning jobs, but promotions
often are limited for those who hold no
higher degree. New graduates with a bache­
lor’s degree can start their careers in testing


Life scientists study living organisms and their life processes.

and inspecting jobs, or become technical sales
and service representatives. They also may
become advanced technicians, particularly in
medical research or, with courses in educa­
tion, a high school biology teacher. (See
statement on secondary school teachers else­
where in the Handbook.)
Most colleges and universities offer life
science curriculums. However, different
schools may emphasize only certain areas
of life science. For example, liberal arts
colleges may emphasize the biological
sciences, while many State universities and
land-grant colleges offer programs in agri­
cultural science.
Students seeking careers in the life sciences
should obtain the broadest possible under­
graduate background in biology and other
sciences. Courses taken should include biol­
ogy, chemistry, physics, and mathematics.
Many colleges and universities confer
advanced degrees in the life sciences. Re­
quirements for advanced degrees usually
include field work and laboratory research
as well as classroom studies and prepara­
tion of a thesis.
Prospective life scientists should be able to
work independently or as part of a team and
must be able to communicate their findings
in clear and concise language, both orally and
in writing. Some life scientists, such as those
conducting field research in remote areas,
must have stamina.

advanced degrees through the 1980’s, but
those with lesser degrees may experience
competition for available jobs. However, a
life science degree also is useful for entry to
occupations related to life science such as
laboratory technology and the health care
occupations. Employment in the life
sciences is expected to increase faster than
the average for all occupations over this pe­
riod. In addition, job openings will occur as
life scientists retire, die, or transfer to other
Employment in the life sciences is expected
to grow as a result of increased attention to
preserving the natural environment and a
continuing interest in medical research. Em­
ployment opportunities in industry and gov­
ernment should grow as environmental re­
search and development increase and new
laws and standards protecting the environ­
ment are enacted. The Toxic Substances
Control Act is creating many new openings
for toxicologists and other life scientists who
are skilled in testing for cancer-causing sub­
stances. Additional life science teachers will
be needed if college and university enroll­
ments increase as expected.

Life scientists receive relatively high sala­
ries; their average earnings are more than
twice those of nonsupervisory workers in pri­
vate industry, except farming.

Employment Outlook

According to the College Placement
Council surveys, beginning salary offers in
private industry in 1978 averaged $11,500
a year for bachelor’s degree recipients in
agricultural science and $12,400 a year for
bachelor’s degree recipients in biological

Employment opportunities for life scien­
tists are expected to be good for those with

In the Federal Government in 1979, life
scientists having a bachelor’s degree could

Life scientists who have advanced degrees
usually begin in research or teaching jobs.
With experience, they may advance to jobs
such as supervisors of research programs.

begin at $10,507 or $13,014 a year, depend­
ing on their college records. Life scientists
having the master’s degree could start at
$13,014 or $15,920, depending on their aca­
demic records or work experience. Those
having the Ph. D. degree could begin at $19,263 or $23,087 a year. Agricultural and bio­
logical scientists in the Federal Government
averaged $23,800 a year.
Salaries paid to college and university life
science teachers are comparable to those paid
to other faculty members. (See statement on
college and university faculty elsewhere in
the Handbook.) Life scientists who have the
M.D. degree generally earn more than other
life scientists but less than physicians in pri­
vate practice.

Related Occupations
Many occupations are related in some way
to life science since they deal with living or­
ganisms. These occupations include the con­
servation occupations of forester, forestry
technician, range mananger and soil conser­
vationist, as well as biochemist, soil scientist,
oceanographer, and life science technician.
The wide array of health occupations are all
related to life science, as are occupations
dealing with raising plants and animals such
as farmer and farm worker, florist, and nur­
sery worker.

about the special requirements of their cus­
tomers. When sales workers visit firms in
their territory, they use an approach adapted
to the particular line of merchandise. A sales
worker who handles crackers or cookies, for
example, emphasizes the wholesomeness, at­
tractive packaging, and variety of these pro­
ducts. Sometimes sales workers promote
their products by displays in hotels and con­
ferences with wholesalers and other custom­
Sales workers who deal in highly techni­
cal products, such as electronic equipment,
often are called sales engineers or industrial
sales workers. In addition to having a thor­
ough knowledge of their firms’ products,
they must be able to help prospective buyers
with technical problems. For example, they
may try to determine the proper materials
and equipment for a firm’s manufacturing
process. They then present this information
to company officials and try to negotiate a
sale, which may take many months. Often,
sales engineers work with the research-anddevelopment departments of their own com­
panies to devise ways to adapt products to a
customer’s specialized needs. Sales workers
who handle technical products sometimes
train their customers’ employees in the op­
eration and maintenance of new equipment,
and make frequent return visits to be certain
that it is giving the desired service.

American Society for Horticultural Science, 70
North Saint Asaph St., Alexandria, Va. 22314.

Although manufacturers’ sales workers
spend most of their time visiting prospective
customers, they also do paperwork, includ­
ing reports on sales prospects or customers’
credit ratings. In addition, they must plan
their work schedules, draw up lists of pros­
pects, make appointments, handle some cor­
respondence, and study literature relating to
their products.

American Physiological Society, Education Office,
9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Md. 20014.

Working Conditions

Sources of Additional Information
General information on careers in the life
sciences is available from:
American Institute of Biological Sciences, 1401
Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Va. 22209.

Information on Federal job opportunities
is available from State Employment Service
offices or from U.S. Office of Personnel Man­
agement area offices or Federal Job Informa­
tion Centers located in various large cities
throughout the country.

Some manufacturers’ sales workers have
large territories and do considerable travel­
ing. Others usually work in the neighborhood
of their “home base.” When on business
trips, sales workers are reimbursed for ex­
penses such as transportation and hotels.
Some companies provide a car or pay a mile­
age allowance to sales workers who use their
own cars.

Manufacturers’ Sales

Manufacturers’ sales workers call at the
time most convenient to customers and may
have to travel at night or on weekends. Fre­
quently, they spend evenings writing reports.
However, some plan their schedules for time
off when they want it. Most sales workers
who are not paid a straight commission re­
ceive 2 to 4 weeks’ paid vacation, depending
on their length of service. They usually share
in company benefits, including life insurance,
pensions, and hospital, surgical, and medical

(D.O.T. 260 through 279.357)

Nature of the Work
Practically all manufacturers—whether
they make computers or can openers—em­
ploy sales workers. Manufacturers’ sales
workers sell mainly to other businesses—fac­
tories, railroads, banks, wholesalers, and re­
tailers. They also sell to hospitals, schools,
libraries, and other institutions.
Most manufacturers’ sales workers sell
nontechnical products. They must be well in­
formed about their firms’ products and also

Places of Employment
Over 400,000 people were manufacturers’
sales workers in 1978. About 16,000 of them
were sales engineers. Some work out of their

M anufacturers’ sales workers must be well in­
form ed about their firm s’ products.

company’s home office, often located at a
manufacturing plant. The majority, however,
work out of branch offices, usually in big
cities near prospective customers.
More sales workers are employed by com­
panies that produce food products than by
any other industry. Large numbers also work
in the printing and publishing, chemical, fab­
ricated metal products, and electrical and
other machinery industries. Most sales engi­
neers work for companies that produce heavy
machinery, transportation equipment, fab­
ricated metal products, and professional and
scientific instruments.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Although a college degree is increasingly
desirable, the type and level of education a
sales worker needs depend largely on the
product and its market.
Manufacturers of nontechnical products
often hire college graduates who have a de­
gree in liberal arts or business administra­
tion. Some positions, however, require spe­
cialized training. Drug sales workers, also
known as pharmaceutical detailers, usually
need training at a college of pharmacy.
Manufacturers of electrical equipment,
heavy machinery, and some types of chemi­
cals prefer to hire people who have studied
engineering or chemistry. (Information on
chemists, engineers, and others with the tech­
nical training suitable for work as manufac­
turers’ sales workers is given elsewhere in the
Beginning sales workers may take special­
ized training before they start on the job.
Some companies, especially those that manu­
facture complex technical products, have for­
mal training programs that last 2 years or
longer. In some of these programs, trainees
rotate among jobs in several departments of

the plant and office to learn all phases of
production, installation, and distribution of
the product. Other trainees take formal class
instruction at the plant, followed by on-thejob training in a branch office under the
supervision of a field sales manager.
A pleasant personality and appearance,
and the ability to meet and get along well
with many types of people are important. Be­
cause sales workers may have to walk or
stand for long periods or carry product sam­
ples, some physical stamina is necessary. As
in most selling jobs, arithmetic skills are an
Sales representatives who have good sales
records and leadership ability may advance
to sales supervisors, branch managers, or dis­
trict managers. Those with managerial abil­
ity eventually may advance to sales manager
or other executive, positions; many top execu­
tive jobs in industry are filled by people who
started as sales workers.

pending upon the firm and its product. The
highest paid sales workers sometimes earned
upwards of $49,500 and $57,200.
Some manufacturing concerns pay ex­
perienced sales workers a straight commis­
sion, based on the dollar amount of their sales
(as in the case of independent representa­
tives); others pay a fixed salary. The major­
ity, however, use a combination of salary and
commission, salary and bonus, or salary,
commission, and bonus. Commissions vary
according to the sales workers’ efforts and
ability, the commission rate, the location of
their sales territory, and the type of product
sold. Bonus payments may depend on indi­
vidual performance, on performance of all
sales workers in the group or district, or on
the company’s sales. Some firms pay annual
bonuses; others offer bonuses as incentive
payments on a quarterly or monthly basis.

Related Occupations

Because of frequent contact with business
people in other firms, sales workers often are
able to transfer to other jobs. Some go into
business for themselves as independent repre­
sentatives. Other experienced sales workers
find opportunities in advertising and market­
ing research.

Sales workers must have a knowledge of
sales techniques and a specific knowledge of
the products they sell. Some related occupa­
tions that employ these same skills are buy­
ers, comparison shoppers, field-contact tech­
nicians, and wholesale trade sales workers.

Employment Outlook

For more information on the occupation of
manufacturers’ sales worker, write:

Employment in^this field is expected to
grow about as fast as the average for all oc­
cupations through the 1980’s because of the
rising demand for technical products and
the resulting need for trained sales workers.
In addition, industrial firms, chainstores,
and institutions that purchase large quanti­
ties of goods at one time frequently buy di­
rectly from the manufacturer. The need for
sales workers will increase as manufacturers
emphasize sales activities to compete for the
growing number of these valuable accounts.
In addition to the jobs that will be created
by growth, many openings will occur each
year because of the need to replace workers
who die, retire, or leave the occupation. As is
the case in other sales jobs, turnover is fairly
high. Each year, a number of new manufac­
turers’ sales workers discover that they are
not cut out for selling and leave the occupa­

Sources of Additional Information

Sales and Marketing Executives International, Ca­
reer Education Division, 380 Lexington Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10017.
Manufacturers’ Agents National Association, P.O.
Box 16878, Irvine, Calif. 92713.

Marketing Research
(D.O.T. 050.067-014)

Nature of the Work


If a business is to be successful, it must
provide a product or service people will buy.
Yet, persuading people to spend their money
requires more than simply offering a useful
or desirable item. People try a product for
many reasons in addition to basic utility.
They consider price, of course, as well as
convenience, appearance, and a trusted
name. For some products, reliability and ease
of maintenance are most important. Very
often, it is the product’s image—created by
advertisements, sales promotion, and the
type of store in which it is sold—that influ­
ences people.

According to the limited information
available, salaries for inexperienced sales
workers ranged from $15,400 to over $22,500
a year in 1978. The highest starting salaries
generally were paid by manufacturers of tex­
tile mill products, printing and allied pro­
ducts, and apparel and finished products.
The average experienced sales worker earned
between $19,200 and $38,500 in 1978, de­

Business executives have to make decisions
concerning all these areas when they put a
product or service on the market. Other or­
ganizations, whether they are asking the pub­
lic to volunteer their time, contribute to a
charity, or even spend a vacation in their
State, must make similar decisions. Market­
ing research workers analyze the buying pub­
lic and its wants and needs, thus providing

Overall, opportunities are expected to be
good for persons with appropriate product
knowledge or technical expertise, plus the
personal traits necessary for successful sell­


the information on which these marketing
decisions can be based.
Most marketing research starts with a col­
lection of data and information about pro­
ducts or services and the people who are
likely to buy the product or service. For ex­
ample, if the researcher’s task is to find out
why a company’s frozen foods are not selling
well in a certain city, he or she may start by
studying the company’s current marketing
strategy to see if it matches consumers’
needs. Is the company shipping foods that
suit the tastes of most people in the city? Is
the price reasonable for the income of most
people in the area? Does the distributor de­
liver the food to the stores in good condition?
Is the company advertising its products and
are the ads seen by the people most likely to
buy them? Is the company’s sales force well
trained and actively promoting the product
to the stores? Are the stores providing good
shelf space or are the boxes of food in a cor­
ner of the freezer where they may be over­
looked? By investigating these and other is­
sues, marketing research workers determine
what actions should be taken. They may con­
clude, for example, that sales would improve
substantially with an increased newspaper
advertising campaign, or perhaps that the
company should pull out completely and
concentrate its efforts in other sections of the
country where the product is more success­
Since the goal of marketing is to satisfy the
consumer, research workers often are con­
cerned with finding out customers’ opinions
and tastes. They conduct telephone, per­
sonal, or mail surveys, and sometimes offer
samples of a product to find out whether po­
tential customers are pleased with the design
and satisfied with the price.
Marketing researchers employed by large
organizations often work with statisticians
who help them select a group of people to be
interviewed who will accurately represent
prospective customers, and “motivational re­
search” specialists who design survey ques­
tions that produce in depth reliable informa­
tion. Trained interviewers then conduct the
survey, and office workers tabulate the re­
sults under the direction of marketing re­
search workers.
In contrast to surveys for consumer goods,
researchers for business and industrial firms
often conduct the interviews themselves to
gather opinions of the products. They also
may speak to company officials about new
uses for it. Therefore, they must have a thor­
ough knowledge of both marketing tech­
niques and the industrial uses of the product.

Working Conditions
Marketing research workers usually work
in modern, centrally located offices. Some,
especially those employed by independent re­
search firms, may travel for their work. Also,
they may have to work long hours, including
nights and weekends, when working to meet

ments in business firms or advertising agen­
Bachelor’s programs in marketing and
related fields, including courses in statistics,
English composition, communications, psy­
chology, sociology, and economics, are valu­
able preparation for work in marketing re­
search. Some marketing research positions
require specialized skills such as engineering,
or substantial sales experience and a thor­
ough knowledge of the company’s products.
Knowledge of data processing is helpful for
sales forecasting, distribution, and cost anal­
College graduates may find their first job
in any of a number of places: The market
research department of a large company, a
research firm, an advertising agency, a gov­
ernment planning agency, or even a univer­
sity marketing department.
Trainees usually start as research assist­
ants or junior analysts. At first, they may do
considerable clerical work, such as copying
data from published sources, editing and cod­
ing questionnaires, and tabulating survey re­
turns. They also learn to conduct interviews
and write reports on survey findings. As they
gain experience, assistants and junior ana­
lysts may assume responsibility for specific
marketing research projects, or advance to
supervisory positions. An exceptionally able
worker may become marketing research di­
rector or vice president for marketing or
Either alone or as part of a team, market­
ing research workers must be able to analyze
problems objectively and apply various tech­
niques to their solution. As advisers to man­
agement, they should be able to write clear
reports informing company officials of their
findi ts .

Employment Outlook

Marketing research workers use all kinds of media to determ ine custom er preference.

Places of Employment
About 24,000 full-time marketing research
workers were employed in 1978. Most jobs for
marketing research workers are found in
manufacturing companies, advertising agen­
cies, and independent research organizations.
Large numbers are employed by stores, radio
and television firms, and newspapers; others
work for university research centers and gov­
ernment agencies. Marketing research organ­
izations range in size from one-person enter­
prises to firms with a hundred employees or
A large number of marketing research
workers are employed in New York City
where major advertising agencies, indepen­
dent marketing organizations, and central
offices of large manufacturers are located.
Chicago has another large concentration.

However, marketing research workers are
employed in many other cities as well—
wherever there are central offices of large
manufacturing and sales organizations.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Although a bachelor’s degree usually is
sufficient for trainees, graduate education is
necessary for many specialized positions in
marketing research. Graduate study usually
is required for advancement, and a sizable
number of market researchers have a mas­
ter’s degree in business administration or
other graduate degree in addition to a bache­
lor’s degree in marketing. Some people qual­
ify for jobs through previous experience in
other types of research; university professors
of marketing or statistics, for example, may
be hired to head marketing research depart­

Opportunities should be best for applicants
with graduate training in marketing research
or statistics. The growing complexity of mar­
keting research techniques also may expand
opportunities in this field for psychologists,
economists, and other social scientists.
Marketing research employment rises as
new products and services are developed,
particularly when business activity and per­
sonal incomes are expanding rapidly. In peri­
ods of slow economic growth, however, the
reduced demand for marketing services may
limit the hiring of research workers.
Over the long run, population growth and
the increased variety of goods and services
that businesses and individuals will require
are expected to stimulate a high level of mar­
keting activity. As a result, employment of
marketing reserch workers is expected to
grow much faster than the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s.
Competition among manufacturers of both
consumer and industrial products will make
the appraising of marketing situations in­
creasingly important. As techniques improve

and statistical data accumulate, company of­
ficials are likely to turn more often to market­
ing research workers for information and ad­

Salaries of beginning marketing research­
ers were about $14,000 a year in 1978, ac­
cording to the limited information available.
Persons with master’s degrees in business
administration and related fields usually
started with salaries of about $18,000 a
year. Starting salaries varied according to
the type, size, and location of the firm as
well as the exact nature of the position.
Generally, though, starting salaries were
somewhat higher but promotion somewhat
slower than in other occupations requiring
similar training.
Experienced workers such as senior ana­
lysts received salaries of over $24,000 a year.
Earnings were highest, however, for workers
in management positions of great responsibil­
ity. Directors of marketing research earned
well over $35,000 a year in 1978.

Related Occupations
Besides marketing research workers, many
others are involved in social research—in­
cluding the planning, implementation, and
analysis of surveys to learn more about peo­
ple’s wants and needs. Some of these workers
include economists, employment research
and planning directors, social welfare re­
search workers, political scientists, urban
planners, sociologists, developmental psy­
chologists, and experimental pyschologists.

Sources of Additional Information
A pamphlet, “Careers in Marketing”
(Monograph Series No. 4), rray be obtained
American Marketing Association, 222 South Riv­
erside Plaza, Chicago, 111. 60606.

(D.O.T. 020.067-014)

Nature of the Work
Mathematicians work in one of the oldest
and most vital of all sciences. Mathemati­
cians today are engaged in a wide variety of
activities, ranging from the creation of new
theories to the translation of scientific and
managerial problems into mathematical
Mathematical work falls into two broad
classes: Theoretical (pure) mathematics; and
applied mathematics. However, these classes
are not sharply defined and often overlap.
Theoretical mathematicians
mathematical science by developing new
principles and new relationships between ex­
isting principles of mathematics. Although
they seek to increase basic knowledge with­

out necessarily considering its practical use,
this pure and abstract knowledge has been
instrumental in producing many scientific
and engineering achievements. For example,
in 1854 Bernard Riemann invented a seem­
ingly impractical non-Euclidian geometry
that was to become part of Albert Einstein’s
theory of relativity. Years later, this theory
contributed to the creation of atomic power.
Applied mathematicians use mathematics
to develop theories, techniques, and ap­
proaches to solve practical problems in busi­
ness, government, engineering, and the natu­
ral and social sciences. Their work ranges
from analysis of the mathematical aspects of
launching Earth satellites to studies of the
effects of new drugs on disease.
Much work in applied mathematics, how­
ever, is carried on by persons other than
mathematicians. In fact, the number of work­
ers who depend upon mathematical expertise
is many times greater than the number actu­
ally designated as mathematicians.

Working Conditions
Mathematicians work almost exclusively
in offices and classrooms. Most work regular
hours and travel infrequently.

Places of Employment
About 33,000 persons worked as math­
ematicians in 1978. Roughly three-fourths of
all mathematicians worked in colleges and
universities. Most were teachers; some
worked mainly in research and development
with few or no teaching duties.
Most other mathematicians worked in pri­
vate industry and government. In the private
sector, major employers were the aerospace,
communications, machinery, and electrical
equipment industries. The Department of
Defense and the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration employed most of the
mathematicians working in the Federal Gov­
Mathematicians work in all States, but are
concentrated in those with large industrial
areas and large college and university enroll­

Training, Other Qualifications, and
An advanced degree is the basic require­
ment for beginning teaching jobs, as well as
for most research positions. In most colleges
and universities, the Ph. D. degree is neces­
sary for full faculty status.
Although the bachelor’s degree may be ad­
equate preparation for some jobs in private
industry and government, employers usually
require an advanced degree. Those bachelor’s
degree holders who find jobs usually assist
senior mathematicians by performing com­
putations and solving less advanced problems
in applied mathematics. However, advance­
ment often depends on achieving an ad­
vanced degree. Other bachelor’s degree hold­
ers work as research or teaching assistants in

colleges and universities while studying for
an advanced degree. Many bachelor’s degree
holders work in related fields.
The bachelor’s degree in mathematics is
offered by most colleges and universities.
Mathematics courses usually required for a
degree are analytical geometry, calculus, dif­
ferential equations, probability and statistics,
mathematical analysis, and modem algebra.
Many colleges and universities urge or even
require students majoring in mathematics to
take several courses in a field closely related
to mathematics, such as computer science,
operations research, a physical science, or
economics. A prospective college mathemat­
ics student should take as many mathematics
courses as possible while still enrolled in high
More than 400 colleges and universities
have programs leading to the master’s degree
in mathematics; about 150 also offer the Ph.
D. In graduate school, students build upon
the basic knowledge acquired in earlier stud­
ies. They usually concentrate on a specific
field of mathematics, such as algebra, mathe­
matical analysis, or geometry, by conducting
research and taking advanced courses.
For work in applied mathematics, training
in the field in which the mathematics will be
used is very important. Fields in which ap­
plied mathematics is used extensively include
physics, engineering, and operations re­
search; of increasing importance are business
and industrial management, economics, sta­
tistics, chemistry and life sciences, and the
behavioral sciences.
Mathematicians should have a good
knowledge of computer programming since
most complex mathematical computation is
done by computer.
Mathematicians need good reasoning abil­
ity, persistence, and the ability to apply basic
principles to new types of problems. They
must be able to communicate well with oth­
ers since they often must listen to a nonmath­
ematician describe a problem in general
terms, and check and recheck to make sure
they understand the mathematical solution
that is needed.

Employment Outlook
Employment of mathematicians is ex­
pected to increase more slowly than the aver­
age for all occupations through the 1980’s
because the majority of mathematicians work
in colleges and universities where little em­
ployment growth is expected. Although the
number of degrees granted in mathematics
each year is expected to decline, the number
of people seeking employment is expected to
exceed job openings. As a result, persons
seeking employment as mathematicians are
likely to face keen competition throughout
the period. Individuals with Ph. D. degrees
will have better prospects than those with
bachelor’s or master’s degrees, but some Ph.
D.’s may have to seek employment in other
than the traditional academic areas.
Theoretical mathematicians, who have

and no experience could start at either $10,507 or $13,014 a year, depending on their
college records. Those with the master’s de­
gree could start at $15,920 or $19,263; and
persons having the Ph. D. degree could begin
at either $19,263 or $23,087. The average
salary for all mathematicians in the Federal
Government was about $25,900 in early
Salaries paid to college and university
mathematics teachers are comparable to
those for other faculty members. (See state­
ment on college and university faculty else­
where in the Handbook.)

Related Occupations
The occupations of actuary, statistician,
computer programmer, systems analyst, and
operations research analyst are closely
related to mathematics. In addition, workers
in many fields such as natural and social sci­
ence, engineering, and finance use mathemat­
ics extensively.

Sources of Additional Information
Several brochures are available that give
facts about the field of mathematics, includ­
ing career opportunities, professional train­
ing, and colleges and universities with degree
Seeking Employment in the Mathematical
Sciences is available for 50 cents from:
American Mathematical Society, P.O. Box 6248,
Providence, R.I. 02940.

About three-fourths of all mathematicians work in colleges and universities.

traditionally found jobs in colleges and uni­
versities, are expected to experience the
most difficulty in finding employment be­
cause colleges and universities are not ex­
pected to increase their employment of
mathematicians much, if any, beyond pre­
sent levels. Mathematicians hired by col­
leges and universities may find it increas­
ingly difficult to acquire tenure because
large proportions of many faculties already
have this status but are years from retire­
ment age. Those who do not attain tenure
usually will not advance and in some
schools may be forced to resign.

grees in mathematics should find their back­
ground helpful for careers in other areas.
Many jobs rely heavily on the application of
mathematical theories and methods. Mathe­
matics majors are likely to find openings as
statisticians, actuaries, computer program­
mers, systems analysts, economists, engi­
neers, and physical and life scientists. Em­
ployment opportunities in these fields will
probably be best for those who combine a
major in mathematics with a minor in one of
these subjects.
New graduates may also find openings as
high school mathematics teachers after com­
pleting professional education courses and
other requirements for a State teaching cer­
tificate. (See statement on secondary school
teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Holders of advanced degrees in applied
mathematics should have the least difficulty
in finding satisfactory employment. Al­
though some limited opportunities may be
available to theoretical mathematicians in
nonacademic areas, most nonacademic em­
ployers will seek applied mathematicians
who are capable of applying their special
mathematical skills to practical problems.
Private industry and governmental agencies
will need applied mathematicians for work in
operations research, numerical analysis,
computer systems programming, applied
mathematical physics, market research, and
commercial surveys, and as consultants in
industrial laboratories.

In 1978, mathematicians earned about
twice the average for nonsupervisory workers
in private industry, except farming. Starting
salaries for mathematicians with a bachelor’s
degree averaged about $14,800 a year. Those
with a master’s degree could start at about
$17,000 annually. Salaries for new graduates
having the Ph. D., most of whom had some
experience, averaged over $22,500.

Although mathematician jobs may be dif­
ficult to obtain, college graduates with de­

In the Federal Government in early 1979,
mathematicians having the bachelor’s degree


Professional Opportunities in Mathematics
is available for $1.50 from:
Mathematical Association of America, 1225 Con­
necticut Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

For specific information on careers in ap­
plied mathematics, contact:
Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics,
33 S. 17th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19103.

Information on Federal job opportunities
is available from State employment service
offices or from U.S. Office of Personnel Man­
agement area offices or Federal Job Informa­
tion Centers located in various large cities
throughout the country.

Medical Laboratory
(D.O.T. 078.121, .161, .261, .281, and .361 except -010
and -018, .381, and .687)

Nature of the Work
Laboratory tests play an important part
in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment
of many diseases. Medical laboratory
workers, often called clinical laboratory
workers, include three levels: Medical tech­
nologists, technicians, and assistants. They
perform tests under the general direction

of pathologists (physicians who diagnose
the causes and nature of disease) and other
physicians, or scientists who specialize in
clinical chemistry, microbiology, or the
other biological sciences. Medical labora­
tory workers analyze blood, tissues, and
fluids in the human body by using preci­
sion instruments such as microscopes and
automatic analyzers.
Medical technologists, who usually have 4
years of postsecondary school training, per­
form complicated chemical, biological, mi­
croscopic, and bacteriological tests. These
may include chemical tests to determine, for
example, the blood cholesterol level, or mi­
croscopic examination of the blood to detect
the presence of diseases such as leukemia.
Technologists microscopically examine other
body fluids; make cultures of body fluid or
tissue samples to determine the presence of
bacteria, parasites, or other microorganisms;
and analyze the samples for chemical content
or reaction. They also may type and cross
match blood samples.
Technologists in small laboratories often
perform many types of tests. Those in large
laboratories usually specialize in one area
such as microbiology (the study of blood
Most medical technologists conduct tests
related to the examination and treatment of
patients. Others do research, develop labora­
tory techniques, teach, or perform adminis­
trative duties.
Medical laboratory technicians, who gen­
erally require 2 years of postsecondary school
trining, perform a wide range of tests and
laboratory procedures that require a high
level of skill but not the in-depth knowledge
of highly trained technologists. Like tech­
nologists, they may work in several areas or
specialize in one field.

Medical laboratory assistants, who gener­
ally have a year of formal training, assist
medical technologists and technicians in rou­
tine tests and related work that can be
learned in a relatively short time. In large
laboratories, they may specialize in one area
of work. For example, they may identify ab­
normal blood cells on slides. In addition to
performing routine tests, assistants may store
and label plasma; clean and sterilize labora­
tory equipment, glassware, and instruments;
prepare solutions following standard labora­
tory formulas and procedures; keep records
of tests; and identify specimens.

Working Conditions
Medical laboratory personnel generally
work a 40-hour week. Those working in a
hospital can expect some evening and week­
end duty. Laboratory workers may spend a
great deal of time on their feet.
Laboratories generally are well lighted and
clean. Although unpleasant odors and speci­
mens of diseased tissue often are present, few
hazards exist if proper methods of steriliza­
tion and handling of specimens, materials,
and equipment are used.

Places of Employment
About 210,000 persons worked as medical
laboratory workers in 1978. Most medical
laboratory personnel work in hospitals. Oth­
ers work in independent laboratories, physi­
cians’ offices, clinics, public health agencies,
pharmaceutical firms, and research institu­
tions. Laboratory facilities generally are con­
centrated in metropolitan areas.
In 1978, Veterans Administration hospi­
tals and laboratories employed about 2,800
medical technologists and about 2,000 medi­
cal laboratory technicians. Others worked for

M edical laboratory w orkers conduct a wide range of tests and analyses.


the Armed Forces and the U.S. Public
Health Service.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
The minimum educational requirement for
a beginning job as a medical technologist is 4
years of college training including comple­
tion of a specialized training program in
medical technology.
Undergraduate work includes courses in
chemistry, biological sciences, and mathe­
matics. These studies give the technologist a
broad understanding of the scientific princi­
ples underlying laboratory work. Special­
ized training usually requires 12 months of
study and includes extensive laboratory
work. In 1978, about 670 hospitals and
schools offered programs accredited by the
Committee on Allied Health Education and
Accreditation (CAHEA) of the American
Medical Association. These programs were
affiliated with colleges and universities; a
bachelor’s degree is awarded upon comple­
tion. A few programs require a bachelor’s
degree for entry.
Many universities also offer advanced
degrees in medical technology and related
subjects for technologists who plan to spe­
cialize in a certain area of laboratory work
or in teaching, administration, or research.
Medical laboratory technicians acquire
their training in a variety of educational set­
tings. Many attend junior or 4-year colleges
and universities for 2 years. Some are trained
in the Armed Forces. Other technicians re­
ceive training in private or nonprofit voca­
tional and technical schools. In 1978, the
CAHEA accredited 72 of these programs,
and the Accrediting Bureau of Health Edu­
cation Schools accredited 31.
Most medical laboratory assistants are
trained on the job. In recent years, how­
ever, an increasing number have studied in
1-year training programs conducted by
hospitals, junior colleges in cooperation
with hospitals, or vocational schools. In
1978, the CAHEA accredited 109 training
programs for medical laboratory assistants.
Applicants to these programs should be
high school graduates or have an equiva­
lency diploma with courses in science and
mathematics. The programs include class­
room instruction and practical training in
the laboratory. They often begin with a
general orientation to the clinical labora­
tory followed by courses in bacteriology,
serology, parasitology, hematology, clinical
chemistry, blood banking, and urinalysis.
After they pass the appropriate examina­
tions, medical technologists may be certi­
fied as Medical Technologists, MT
(ASCP), by the Board of Registry of the
American Society of Clinical Pathologists;
Medical Technologists, MT, by the Ameri­
can Medical Technologists; or Registered
Medical Technologoists, RMT, by the In­
ternational Society of Clinical Laboratory
Technology. These organizations also cer­

tify technicians. Certified Laboratory Tech­
nicians, CLT, are certified by the National
Certification Agency for Medical Labora­
tory Personnel. Laboratory assistants are
certified by the Board of Registry of the
American Society of Clinical Pathologists.
Medical technologists must be licensed in
California, Florida, Hawaii, Nevada,
Tennessee, and New York City. Require­
ments for licensure include a written exami­
nation in some States.
Accuracy, dependability, and the ability to
work under pressure are important personal
characteristics for a medical laboratory
worker. Manual dexterity and normal color
vision are highly desirable.
Persons interested in a medical laboratory
career should use considerable care in select­
ing a training program. They should get in­
formation about the kinds of jobs obtained by
graduates, educational costs, the accredita­
tion of the school, the length of time the
training program has been in operation, in­
structional facilities, and faculty qualifica­
Technologists may advance to supervi­
sory positions in certain areas of laboratory
work, or, after several years’ experience, to
administrative medical technologist in a
large hospital. Graduate education in one of
the biological sciences, chemistry, manage­
ment, or education usually speeds advance­
ment. Technicians can advance to technolo­
gists by getting additional education and
experience. Similarly, assistants can become
technicians by acquiring more education
and experience.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for medical
laboratory workers are expected to be favor­
able through the 1980’s. Employment of
these workers is expected to expand faster
than the average for all occupations as physi­
cians make wider use of laboratory tests in
routine physical checkups and in the diagno­
sis and treatment of disease. Indirectly in­
fluencing growth of the field are population
growth, greater health consciousness, and ex­
pansion of prepayment programs for medical
care that make it easier for people to pay for
The use of automated laboratory test
equipment is expected to lead to an increase
in the number of medical laboratory techni­
cians and assistants relative to technologists.
Through technological advances, technicians
and assistants can operate equipment to per­
form tests that previously required the skill of
a technologist.
Technologists will be needed to fill su­
pervisory positions in all laboratories. In
addition to openings resulting from in­
creased demand for these workers many
jobs will become available each year be­
cause of the need to replace medical work­
ers who die, retire, or leave the field for
other reasons.


International Society for Clinical Laboratory
Technology, 818 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo. 63101.

Salaries of medical laboratory workers
vary depending on the employer and geo­
graphic location. In general, medical labora­
tory workers employed in large cities re­
ceived the highest salaries.

For a list of training programs for medical
technologists, technicians, and assistants that
are approved by the American Medical Asso­
ciation, write:

Starting salaries for medical technologists
in hospitals averaged about $12,400 a year in
1978, according to a survey conducted by the
University of Texas Medical Branch. Begin­
ning salaries for medical laboratory techni­
cians averaged about $10,600 a year in 1978;
for certified laboratory assistants, about $9,100. According to the same survey, ex­
perienced medical technologists employed in
hospitals averaged about $15,700 a year in
1978. Similarly, medical laboratory techni­
cians with experience averaged about $13,500 a year, and certified laboratory assistants
about $11,400 annually.
The Federal Government paid newly
graduated medical technologists with a
bachelor’s degree a starting salary of about
$10,500 a year in 1979. Those having expe­
rience, superior academic achievement, or a
year of graduate study entered at about
$13,000. The Federal Government paid
medical laboratory assistants and techni­
cians starting salaries ranging from about
$6,600 to $10,500 a year in 1979, depending
on the amount and type of education and
experience. Medical technologists in the
Federal Government averaged about $15,300 a year, and medical technicians, about
$12,700 a year in 1978.
Medical laboratory workers normally re­
ceive vacation and sick leave benefits; some
have retirement plans.

Related Occupations
Medical laboratory workers perform a
wide variety of tests to help physicians diag­
nose and treat disease. Their principal activ­
ity is the analysis and identification of sub­
stances. Workers in other occupations who
perform laboratory tests include biological
aides, chemistry technologists, criminalists,
and food testers.

Sources of Additional Information
Information about education and training
for medical technologists, technicians, and
laboratory assistants meeting standards
recognized by the American Medical Associ­
ation, the U.S. Office of Education, or both,
as well as career information on these fields
is available from:
American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Board
of Registry, P.O. Box 11270, Chicago, 111. 60612.
American Society for Medical Technology, 5555
W. Loop South, Bellaire, Tex. 77401.
American Medical Technologists, 710 Higgins
Rd„ Park Ridge, 111. 60068.
Accrediting Bureau of Health Education Schools,
Oak Manor Office, 29089 U.S. 20 West, Elkhart,
Ind. 46514.

For information about other technician
training programs, contact:

Department of Allied Health Evaluation, Ameri­
can Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn St.,
Chicago, 111. 60610.

For a list of training programs for medical
laboratory technicians accredited by the Ac­
crediting Bureau of Health Education
Schools, write:
Secretary-ABHES, 29089 U.S. 20 West, Elkhart,
Ind. 46514.

Information about employment oppor­
tunities in Veterans Administration hospitals
is available from the Office of Personnel
(054E), Veterans Administration, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20420.
Information about clinical and research
employment opportunities with the National
Institutes of Health is available from the
Clinical Center, National Institutes of
Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20205.

Medical Record
(D.O.T. 079.167-014)

Nature of the Work
All health care institutions keep records
that contain medical information on each
patient, including case histories of illnesses
or injuries, reports on physical examina­
tions, X-rays and laboratory tests, doctors’
orders and notes, and nurses’ notes. These
records are necessary for correct and
prompt diagnosis and treatment of illnesses
and injuries. They also are used for re­
search, insurance claims, legal actions, eval­
uation of treatment and medications pre­
scribed, and in the training of medical
personnel. Medical information in hospitals
also is used to evaluate patient care pro­
vided in the hospital and as a basis for
health care planning for the community.
Medical record administrators direct the
activities of the medical record department
and develop systems for documenting, stor­
ing, and retrieving medical information.
They supervise the medical record staff,
which processes and analyzes records and
reports on patients’ illnesses and treatment.
They train members of the medical record
staff for specialized jobs, compile medical
statistics required by State or national
health agencies, and assist the medical staff
in evaluations of patient care or research
studies. Medical record administrators serv­
ing as department heads are a part of the
hospital management staff and participate
fully in management activities. As the ad­
ministrators responsible for the medical in7129

formation system, they may be required to
testify in court about records and record

ties hire medical record administrators as

The size and type of institution affect the
duties and amount of responsibility assigned
to medical record administrators. In large
hospitals, chief medical record administra­
tors supervise other medical record adminis­
trators, technicians, and clerks. Smaller hos­
pitals may employ only two or three persons
in the medical record department; in nursing
homes usually one person keeps the medical
records. In these cases, a consulting medical
record administrator usually advises techni­
cal and clerical personnel performing medi­
cal record functions.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Working Conditions
Medical record adminstrators generally
work a standard 40-hour week in clean, welllighted surroundings. Because the record de­
partment seldom is involved in emergency
situations, the work environment may be a
relaxed one. However, accuracy and atten­
tion to detail are essential, and this can be
very tiring.

Places of Employment
Most of the 12,500 medical record ad­
ministrators employed in 1978 worked in
hospitals. The remainder worked in clinics,
nursing homes, State and local public
health departments, and medical research
centers. Some health insurance companies
also employ medical record administrators
to help determine liability for payment of
their clients’ medical fees. Other medical
record administrators work for firms that
manufacture equipment for recording and
processing medical data and develop and
print health insurance and medical forms.
In addition, many small health care facili­

Preparation for a career as a medical re­
cord administrator is offered in specialized
programs in colleges and universities. Most
programs last 4 years and lead to a bachelor’s
degree in medical record administration.
However, concentration in medical record
administration begins in the third or fourth
year of study, making transfer from a junior
college possible. One-year certificate pro­
grams also are available for those who al­
ready have a bachelor’s degree and required
courses in the liberal arts and biological
sciences. In 1978, there were 44 programs in
medical record administration approved by
the Council on Medical Education and Ac­
creditation of the American Medical Associ­
ation and the American Medical Record As­
sociation (AMRA). High school courses that
provide a good background include health,
business administration, mathematics, and
Training for medical record administra­
tors includes both classroom instruction and
practical experience. Anatomy, physiology,
fundamentals of medical science, medical ter­
minology, and medical record science are
among the required scientific courses. In ad­
dition, management courses such as hospital
organization and administration, health law,
statistics, data processing, and computer sci­
ence are part of the curriculum. Experience
in the medical record departments of hospi­
tals provides students with a practical back­
ground in applying standardized medical re­
cord practices, compiling statistical reports,
analyzing data, and organizing medical re­
cord systems.

Graduates of approved schools in medical
record administration are eligible for the na­
tional registration examination given by
AMRA. Passing this examination gives pro­
fessional recognition as a Registered Record
Administrator (RRA). According to the
AMRA, there were about 6,500 employed
RRA’s in 1978.
Medical record administrators must be ac­
curate and interested in detail, and must be
able to speak and write clearly. Because med­
ical records are confidential, medical record
administrators must be discreet in processing
and releasing information. Supervisors must
be able to organize, analyze, and direct work
procedures and be able to work effectively
with other hospital personnel.
Medical record administrators with some
experience in smaller health facilities may ad­
vance to positions as department heads in
large hospitals or to higher level positions in
hospital administration. Some coordinate the
medical record departments of several small
hospitals. Others move on to medical record
positions in health agencies. Many teach in
the expanding programs for medical record
personnel in 2- and 4-year colleges and uni­

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for graduates
of approved medical record administrator
programs are expected to be good through
the 1980’s. Employment is expected to grow
about as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions, with the increasing use of health facili­
ties as more and more people are covered by
health insurance. The detailed information
required by third-party payers, such as insur­
ance companies and government agencies,
also will cause growth in the occupatior.
More consultants will be needed to standard­
ize health records in outpatient clinics, com­
munity health centers, nursing homes, and
home care programs. The importance of
medical records in research and the growing
use of computers to store and retrieve medi­
cal information also should increase the de­
mand for qualified medical record adminis­
trators to develop new medical information
systems. Part-time employment opportuni­
ties also should be available in teaching, re­
search, and consulting work for health care


M edical record a d m in is tra to rs o fte n w ork clo se ly w ith physicia n s.


The salaries of medical record administra­
tors are influenced by the location, size, and
type of the employing institution, as well as
by the duties and responsibilities of the posi­
tion. The average starting salary for medical
record administrators in hospitals was about
$14,500 a year in 1978, according to a na­
tional survey conducted by the University of
Texas Medical Branch. Salaries for ex­
perienced record administrators in hosptials
averaged about $18,000 a year, with some
earning well over $30,000.

Newly graduated medical record adminis­
trators employed by the Federal Government
generally started at about $10,500 a year in
1979; those having good academic records
were eligible to begin at about $13,000. In
1978, the Federal Government paid ex­
perienced medical record administrators av­
erage salaries of about $16,000 a year.

Related Occupations
Medical record administrators work al­
most exclusively in hospitals and, as a
member of the health care team, assume
responsibility for a large volume of medical
records. They train and supervise workers
who verify, transcribe, code, and maintain
files on patients’ medical history. Workers
in other occupations who provide similar
administrative services in related fields in­
clude: Emergency medical service coor­
dinators, hospital-insurance representatives,
library directors, and public health educa­

Sources of Additional Information
Information about approved schools and
employment opportunites is available from:
American Medical Record Association, John Han­
cock Center, Suite 1850, 875 N. Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60611.

Merchant Marine
Nature of the Work
Every ship has jobs of such importance
to its safe operation that the persons doing
them are identified as having special re­
sponsibilities. These persons are the ship’s
In command of every oceangoing vessel
is the captain or master (D.O.T. 167-010),
who is the shipowner’s sole representative.
The captain has complete authority and re­
sponsibility for the ship’s operation and the
safety of the crew, passengers, cargo, and
In port, the captain may serve as the
shipowner’s agent in conferring with custom
officials and, in some cases, may act as
paymaster for the ship. Although not tech­
nically a member of a specific department
the captain usually has been promoted from
the deck department and generally is as­
sociated with it.
Deck Department. Deck officers or “mates,”
as they are traditionally called, direct naviga­
tion of the ship and supervise the cleaning
and maintenance of the deck and hull. They
maintain the authorized speed and course;
plot the vessel’s position; post lookouts for
other ships; record information in the “log”
of the voyage; and immediately notify the

Captain plotting vessel’s course.

captain of any unusual occurrences. To com­
ply with coast guard regulations for ensuring
the safe and efficient operation of ships, deck
officers must be familiar with modern navi­
gational equipment, such as sonar, radar, and
radio directional finders.
The chief mate (D.O.T. 197.133-022), also
known as the first mate or chief officer, is the
captain’s key assistant in assigning duties to
the deck crew and maintaining order and dis­
cipline. The chief mate also plans and super­
vises the loading and unloading of cargo, and
assists the captain in taking the ship in and
out of port. On some ships, the chief mate
also may be in charge of first-aid treatment.
By tradition, the second mate (D.O.T.
197.133-022) is the navigation officer. The
second mate sees that the ship is provided
with the necessary navigation charts and that
navigation equipment is maintained prop­
Third mates (D.O.T. 197.133-022), the
most junior-rated deck officers, act as signal
officers and are in charge of all signaling
equipment. They also assist in the supervi­
sion of cargo loading and unloading. The
third mate frequently inspects lifesaving
equipment to be sure it is ready for use in fire,
shipwreck, or other emergencies.
Engine Department. Marine engineers oper­
ate all engines aboard ship. They also inspect

the engines and other equipment and ensure
that required repairs are made. The chief en­
gineer (D.O.T. 197.130-010) supervises the
engine department, and is responsible for the
efficient operation of engines and other me­
chanical equipment. The chief engineer over­
sees the operation of the main powerplant
and auxiliary equipment performance and
fuel consumption.
The first assistant engineer (D.O.T. 197.130-010) supervises engineroom personnel
and directs operations such as starting, stop­
ping, and controlling the speed of the main
engines. The first assistant engineer also
oversees and inspects the lubrication of en­
gines, pumps, generators, and other machin­
ery and, with the aid of the chief engineer,
directs all types of repairs.
The second assistant engineer (D.O.T.
197.130-010) has charge of the boiler and
associated equipment such as the water-feed
system and pumps. The second assistant en­
gineer also makes sure proper steam pressure
and oil and water temperatures are main­
tained and supervises the cleaning of boilers.
The third assistant engineer (D.O.T. 197.130-010) supervises the operation and main­
tenance of the lubrication system and a vari­
ety of other engineroom equipment. Some
third assistant engineers are responsible for
the electrical and refrigeration systems
aboard ships.
/ 131

Other officers. A ship keeps contact with
the shore and other vessels through its radio
officer (D.O.T. 193.282-022), who also
maintains radio equipment. These officers
send and receive messages by voice or
Morse code and monitor the emergency fre­
quency for distress calls. They periodically
receive and record time signals, weather re­
ports, position reports, and other informa­
tion. Radio officers also may maintain
depth recording equipment and electronic
navigation equipment.

appropriate sea experience or graduate from
an approved training program. Deck officer
candidates must pass Coast Guard examina­
tions that require extensive knowledge of
navigation, cargo handling, and deck depart­
ment operations. Marine engineering officer
candidates must demonstrate in depth
knowledge of propulsion systems, electricity,
plumbing and steam fitting, metal shaping
and assembly, and ship structure. To advance
to higher ratings, officers must pass progres­
sively more difficult examinations.

them for shoreside jobs such as marine super­
intendents, operating managers, design engi­
neers, naval architects, or shipping execu­

Some freighters and all passenger vessels
carry pursers (D.O.T. 197.167-014). The
purser or staff officer does the extensive
paperwork that is required before a ship en­
ters or leaves a port. They prepare payrolls
and assist passengers as required. To improve
the medical care aboard freighters and tank­
ers and facilitate U.S. Public Health Service
clearance when a ship arrives in port, some
pursers have been trained as physician’s as­
sistants by the Staff Officers Association. On
passenger ships these duties are performed by
doctors and nurses.

For a Coast Guard license as a radio of­
ficer, applicants must have a first- or secondclass radiotelegraph operator’s license issued
by the Federal Communications Commis­
sion. For a license to serve as the sole radio
operator aboard a cargo vessel, the Coast
Guard also requires 6 months of radio experi­
ence at sea.

A number of trade unions in the maritime
industry provide officer training. However,
the number of qualified ships’ officers gradu­
ating from union-sponsored schools has been
reduced significantly since the end of the Vi­
etnam War. Of the several training schools
created during the 1960’s, all but the Na­
tional Marine Engineers’ Benefical Associa­
tion (MEBA)-operated Calhoon Engineering
School in Baltimore, Md., have restricted
training programs to upgrading officers al­
ready licensed. The Calhoon School grants a
third assistant engineer’s license to about 90
graduates each year. The program consists of
both classroom instruction and sea experi­
ence. Two of the three years are spent at the
school in Baltimore and one is spent aboard
various merchant ships. Students are pro­
vided with free room, board, medical care,
and text books in addition to a monthly
grant. Trainees must agree to serve at least 3
years in the merchant marine after the 3-year
training period.

Working Conditions
An officer working in the engine room
must be able to withstand high temperatures
while a deck officer must adapt to both bitter
cold and the hot sun.
The accommodations for officers aboard
U.S. vessels are generally excellent. However,
some officers find being confined to a ship for
long periods of time boring.

Places of Employment
About 13,500 officers were employed
aboard U.S. oceangoing vessels during 1978.
Deck officers and engineering officers ac­
counted for more than four-fifths of the total,
and radio officers made up most of the re­
mainder. Due to long vacations and other
breaks in service such as those resulting from
illness, about two officers are employed for
every job on a ship.
Nearly three-fifths of all officers were
aboard freighters and most of the remainder
were aboard tankers. Only a small percentage
were on combination freighter-passenger ves­

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Applicants for an officer’s license in the
deck or engineering departments of oceango­
ing vessels must meet certain legal require­
ments. Captains, chief and second mates, and
chief and first assistant engineers must be at
least 21 years old. The minimum age for third
mates, third assistant engineers, and radio
operators is 19. In addition, applicants must
present proof of U.S. ciitzenship and obtain
a U.S. Public Health Service certificate at­
testing to their vision, color perception, and
general physical condition.
Besides legal and medical requirements,
candidates must also have at least 3 years of


Unlike most professions, no education re­
quirements have been established for officers.
A sailor with 3 years’ experience in the deck
or engine department may apply for either a
third mate’s license or for a third assistant
engineer’s license. However, because of the
complex machinery and navigational and
electronic equipment on modem ships, for­
mal training usually is needed to pass the
Coast Guard’s examination for these li­
The fastest and surest way to become a
well-trained officer is through an established
training program. Such programs are availa­
ble at the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy at
Kings Point, N.Y., and at six State merchant
marine academies: California Maritime
Academy, Vallejo, Calif.; Great Lakes Mari­
time Academy Traverse City, Mich. Maine
Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine; Massa­
chusetts Maritime Academy, Buzzards Bay,
Mass.; Texas Maritime Academy, Galveston,
Tex.; and State University of New York Mar­
itime College, Fort Schuyler, New York,
N.Y. About 500 students graduate each year
from these schools; about one-half are
trained as deck officers and one-half as ma­
rine engineers. Admission to the U.S. Mer­
chant Marine Academy is through nomina­
tion by a member of Congress, whereas
entrance to the other academies is made
through written application directly to the
Most of the academies offer 4-year pro­
grams in nautical science or marine engineer­
ing, which include courses such as naviga­
tion, mathematics, electronics, propulsion
systems, electrical engineering, naval archi­
tecture, languages, history, and shipping
management, as well as practical experience
at sea. After Coast Guard examinations are
passed, licenses are issued for either third
mate or third assistant engineer. In addition,
graduates may receive commissions as en­
signs in the U.S. Naval Reserve.
Because of their thorough grounding in
theory and its practical application, academy
graduates are in the best position to move up
to master and chief engineer ratings. Their
well-rounded education also helps qualify

The U.S. Merchant Marine Academy now
selects about 10 percent of the approximately
250 persons who enter the academy each year
to be trained as “omnicompetent” officers.
They are taught both navigational and tech­
nical skills so they can work in either the
deck or engine department.

Some unions sponsor self-study programs
for unlicensed sailors to obtain either a third
mate’s license or a third assistant engineer’s
Advancement for deck and engine officers
is along well- defined lines and depends pri­
marily upon specified sea experience, passing
a Coast Guard examination, and leadership
ability. Deck officers start as third mates.
After 1 year’s sea service they are eligible to
take a second mate examination. A second
mate may apply for a chief mate’s license
after 1 year of sea service. Officers in the
engine department start as third assistant en­
gineers. After 1 year of service, they may
apply for a second assistant’s license and fi­
nally a chief engineer’s license.

Employment Outlook
Little change in the employment of ships’
officers is expected through the 1980’s.
From the end of World War II up through
the mid-1970’s, the number of vessels in our
merchant marine declined steadily as owners
of American ships found it economically
benefical to register them outside the coun­
try. In recent years, however, the size of our
fleet has stabilized and is expected to remain
fairly constant through the 1980’s because
the Federal Government has taken steps to
ensure that ships registered in the United
States and operated by American crews are
available to transport essential cargo. To
maintain this capability, the Government
sometimes pays the difference in wages if

U.S. crews are used, and helps pay for the
construction of ships.
Some job openings will occur as a result of
the need to replace experienced workers who
retire, die, or take shoreside employment.
Replacement needs are relatively high be­
cause ships’ officers are somewhat older, on
the average, than workers in other occupa­
tions and the liberal pension plans offered by
the merchant marine industry encourage
early retirement. Also, some officers find
they prefer the stability of shoreside employ­
Job opportunities are expected to be favor­
able through the 1980’s because the demand
for officers is expected to exceed the number
of graduates from officer training schools.
Job opportunities for merchant marine of­
ficers are expected to be excellent in related
maritime fields. For example, the expanded
interest in offshore mineral and oil explora­
tion should generate a greater need for
trained officers to work on oceanographic re­
search and oil exploration vessels.
Should the Government mandate that a
fixed proportion of imported oil or exported
grains be carried in American ships—a move
that would require American crews—em­
ployment opportunities could increase sig­

Earnings of officers depend upon their
rank and the type of ship. Wages are highest
on large ships. The accompanying tabulation
shows monthly base wages for officers
aboard an average freighter in 1978. Addi­
tional payments for overtime or for assuming
extra responsibilities generally average about
50 percent of base pay. For example, a second
mate with a monthly base pay of $1,438 may
regularly earn about $2,157 each month.
Officers and their dependents enjoy sub­
stantial pension and welfare benefits. Vaca­
tions range from 16 to 30 days for each 30
days of employment. Officers with 20 years
of service have the option of a monthly pen­
sion of $325 or 37 1/2 percent of their
monthly rate of pay. Those who have 25
years of service are eligible for $425 a month
or 50 percent of their monthly rate. Officers
forced to retire prematurely due to a perma­
nent disability receive partial pensions. Com­
prehensive medical care and hospitalization
are provided for officers and their families
through employer or union programs.
The workweek aboard ship is considerably
different from the workweek on shore. At
sea, most officers are required to work 7 days
a week. Generally, they work two 4-hour
watches (shifts) during every 24-hour period
and have 8 hours off between each watch.
Some officers work 8 hours a day, Monday
through Friday. All officers are paid over­
time for work over 40 hours a week. When
the ship is in port, the basic workweek is 40
hours for all crewmembers.
Almost 90 percent of all officers belong to
maritime unions. The two largest are the In­

Table 1. Monthly base wages for merchant marine officers, June 1978

Base pay1

C a p ta in .......................................................................................................................................................$4,159
Chief e n g in e e r ......................................................................................................................................... 3,779
First assistant e n g in e e r ......................................................................................................................... 2,259
First m ate................................................................................................................................................... 2,259
Radio o ffic e r ............................................................................................................................................. 1,920
Second assistant engineer................................................................................................................... 1,602
Second m a t e ............................................................................................................................................
Third assistant engineer......................................................................................................................... 1,438
Third m a t e ................................................................................................................................................ 1,438
P urser.......................................................................................................................................................... 1,217
'East Coast wages aboard a single-screw ship of 12,000-17,000 power-tons.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Maritime Administration.

ternational Organization of Masters, Mates
and Pilots, representing deck officers, and the
National Marine Engineers’ Beneficial Asso­
ciation, representing engineering officers.
The Brotherhood of Marine Officers repre­
sents deck and engine officers on some ships.
The Staff Officers Association and the Ma­
rine Staff Officers Association represent
pursers aboard certain freighters. Radio of­
ficers are represented by the American Radio
Association and the Radio Officers Union. In
addition, a number of independent unions or­
ganize officers on tankers. Many officers’ un­
ions require initiation fees which range from
$1,000 to $5,000.

Related Occupations
Occupations having responsibilities and
duties similar to merchant marine officers in­
clude fishing vessel captains, yacht masters,
ship pilots, tugboat captains and mates,
dredge captains and mates, ferryboat cap­
tains, passenger barge masters, riverboat
masters, quartermasters, and barge captains.

Sources of Additional Information
For general information about merchant
marine officers’ jobs, write to:
Office of Maritime Manpower, Maritime Adminis­
tration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20230.

Information about job openings, qualifica­
tions for employment, wage scales, and other
particulars is available from local maritime
officers’ unions. If no maritime union is listed
in the local telephone directory, contact:
International Organization of Masters, Mates and
Pilots, 39 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10006.
National Marine Engineers’ Beneficial Associa­
tion, 444 North Capitol St., Washington, D.C.


(D.O.T. 025.062-010)

Nature of the Work
Meteorology is the study of the atmo­
sphere, which is the air that surrounds the
earth. Meteorologists try to understand the
atmosphere’s physical characteristics, mo­

tions, and processes, and determine the way
the atmosphere affects the rest of our physi­
cal environment. The best known application
of this knowledge is in understanding and
forecasting the weather. Meteorological re­
search also is applied in many other areas not
directly related to weather forecasting such
as understanding and solving air pollution
problems and studying trends in the earth’s
Meteorologists who specialize in forecast­
ing the weather, known professionally as
synoptic meteorologists, are the largest group
of specialists. They study current weather in­
formation, such as air pressure, temperature,
humidity, and wind velocity, in order to
make short-range and long-range predic­
tions. Their data come from weather satel­
lites and observers in many parts of the
world. Although some forecasters still pre­
pare and analyze weather maps, most data
now are plotted and analyzed by computers.
Some meteorologists are engaged in basic
and applied research. For example, physical
meteorologists study the chemical and electri­
cal properties of the atmosphere. They do
research on the effect of the atmosphere on
transmission of light, sound, and radio
waves, as well as study factors affecting for­
mation of clouds, rain, snow, and other
weather phenomena. Other meteorologists,
known as climatologists, study trends in cli­
mate and analyze past records on wind, rain­
fall, sunshine, and temperature to determine
the general pattern of weather that makes up
an area’s climate. These studies are used to
plan heating and cooling systems, design
buildings, and aid in effective land utiliza­
Other meteorologists study the relation­
ship between weather and specific human ac­
tivities, biological processes, and agricultural
and industrial operations. For example, they
may make weather forecasts for individual
companies, or work on problems such as
smoke control and air pollution.
Some meteorologists teach or do research
—frequently combining both activities—in
colleges and universities. In colleges without
separate departments of meteorology, they
may teach geography, mathematics, physics,
chemistry, or geology, as well as

Working Conditions
Jobs in weather stations, which operate
around the clock 7 days a week, often involve
nightwork and rotating shifts. Most stations
are at airports or in or near cities; some are
in isolated and remote areas. Meteorologists
in smaller weather stations generally work
alone; in larger ones, they work as part of a

Places of Employment
About 7,300 persons worked as meteorolo­
gists in 1978. In addition to civilian
meteorologists, thousands of members of the
Armed Forces did forecasting and other
meteorological work.
The largest employer of civilian
meteorologists was the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),
where over 1,800 worked at stations in all
parts of the United States and in a small num­
ber of foreign areas. The Department of De­
fense employed over 200 civilian meteorolo­
Over 3,000 meteorologists worked for pri­
vate industry. Commercial airlines employed
several hundred to forecast weather along
flight routes and to brief pilots on atmo­
spheric conditions. Others worked for pri­
vate weather consulting firms, for companies
that design and manufacture meteorological
instruments, and for firms in aerospace, in­
surance, engineering, utilities, radio and tele­
vision, and other industries.
Colleges and universities employed over
1,300 meteorologists in research and teach­
ing. A few worked for State and local govern­
ments and for nonprofit organizations.
Although meteorologists are employed in
all parts of the country, almost one-seventh
work in the Washington, D.C., area.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree with a major in
meteorology is the usual minimum require­
ment for beginning jobs in weather forecast­
ing. However, a bachelor’s degree in a related
science or engineering, along with some
courses in meteorology, is acceptable for
some jobs. For example, the Federal Govern­
ment’s minimum requirement for beginning
jobs is a bachelor’s degree with at least 20
semester hours of study in meteorology and
courses in physics and mathematics, includ­
ing calculus. However, employers prefer to
hire those with an advanced degree, and an
advanced degree is increasingly necessary for
For research and college teaching and for
many top-level positions in other meteoro­
logical activities, an advanced degree, prefer­
ably in meteorology, is essential. However,
people with graduate degrees in other
sciences also may qualify if they have ad­
vanced courses in meteorology, physics,
mathematics, and chemistry.
In 1978, 36 colleges and universities of­
fered a bachelor’s degree in meteorology or
atmospheric science; 39 schools offered ad­
vanced degrees. Many other institutions of­
fered some courses in meteorology.
The Armed Forces give and support
meteorological training, both undergraduate
education for enlisted personnel and ad­
vanced study for officers.
NOAA has a program under which some
of its meteorologists attend college for ad­
vanced or specialized training. College stu­
dents can obtain summer jobs with this
agency or enroll in its cooperative education
program in which they work at NOAA part
of the year and attend school part of the year.

Com mercial airlines em ploy m eteorologists to forecast weather along flight routes.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

In addition to helping students finance their
education, this program gives them experi­
ence valuable for finding a job when they
Beginning meteorologists often start in
jobs involving routine data collection, com­
meteorologists may advance in academic
rank or to various supervisory or administra­
tive jobs. A few very well qualified
meteorologists with a background in science,
engineering, and business administration
may establish their own weather consulting

Employment Outlook
Meteorologists with advanced degrees in
meteorology are expected to have favorable
job opportunities through the 1980’s. Persons'
without an advanced degree are expected to
face some competition for jobs.
Employment in this small field, as a whole,
is expected to increase about as fast as the
average for all occupations. Employment of
meteorologists is expected to grow as private
industry realizes their importance in under­
standing and preventing air pollution. Many
companies also recognize the value of having
their own weather forecasting and meteoro­
logical services. Openings should develop in
radio and television as stations increasingly
rely on their own meteorologists for weather
reports. Colleges and universities will offer
some job opportunities, especially for those
with advanced degrees. The Federal Govern­
ment is not expected to increase its employ­
ment of civilian meteorologists significantly,
although there will be openings created by
replacement needs.

Meteorologists have relatively high earn­
ings; their salaries are about twice the aver­
age for nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming.
In 1979, meteorologists in the Federal
Government with a bachelor’s degree and no
experience received starting salaries of $10,507 or $13,014 a year, depending on their
college grades. Those with a master’s degree
could start at $13,014 or $15,920, and those
with the Ph. D. degree at $19,263 or $23,087.
The average salary for meteorologists em­
ployed by the Federal Government was $27,600 in 1978.
In 1978, beginning meteorologists with
commercial airlines earned between $17,000
and $25,000 a year, while experienced airline
meteorologists earned between $25,000 and
$31,000 a year. (See the statement on occupa­
tions in civil aviation elsewhere in the Hand­

Related Occupations
Workers in other occupations concerned
with the environment include forest ecolo­
gists, foresters, geologists, geophysicists,
oceanographers, range managers, and soil

Sources of Additional Information
General information on career opportuni­
ties in meteorology is available from:
American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St.,
Boston, Mass. 02108.
American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave.
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20009.

For facts about job opportunities with the
NOAA National Weather Service, contact:
National Weather Service, Manpower Utilization
Staff, Gramax Bldg., 8060 13th St., Silver Spring,
Md. 20910.

styles for which they were not originally
A few musicians specialize in library sci­
ence for work in music libraries. Some re­
ceive training in music therapy to enable
them to use music in treating persons with
physical and mental disabilities. Others
work as orchestra conductors or band direc­
tors, whose duties include selecting the
music to be performed, auditioning and se­
lecting members of the performing group,
and directing the group at rehearsals and
performances to achieve the desired musical

Most performing musicians work in cities
where entertainment and recording activities
are concentrated, such as New York City,
Chicago, Los Angeles, Nashville, Miami
Beach, and New Orleans. Many perform
with one of the 31 major symphony groups,
the 76 metropolitan orchestras, or the hun­
dreds of community orchestras. Many com­
munities have orchestras and dance bands
which offer at least part-time work. The vari­
ous branches of the Armed Forces also offer
career opportunities in a number of different
musical organizations.

Training and Other Qualifications
Working Conditions

(D.O.T. 152.041-010)

Nature of the Work
The important role that music plays in
most people’s lives makes it difficult to imag­
ine a world without musicians. Professional
musicians are those whose livelihoods de­
pend upon performing for the enjoyment of
others. These professionals—whether they
play in a symphony orchestra, dance band,
rock group, or jazz combo—generally have
behind them many years of formal or infor­
mal study and practice. As a rule, musicians
specialize in either popular or classical
music; only a few play both types profession­
Musicians who specialize in popular music
usually play the trumpet, trombone, clarinet,
saxophone, organ, or one of the “rhythm”
instruments—the piano, string bass, drums,
or guitar. Dance bands play in nightclubs,
restaurants, and at special parties. The best
known bands, jazz groups, rock groups, and
solo performers sometimes perform on televi­

Musicians generally work at night and
on weekends, and they must spend consid­
erable time in practice and rehearsal.
These long and irregular hours can be very
exhausting. Performances often require
travel. Many people cannot obtain yearround work as musicians, and are forced
to supplement their incomes by other types
of work.

Places of Employment
About 127,000 persons worked as perform­
ing musicians in 1978. Many thousands more
taught in elementary and secondary schools
and in colleges and universities. (See the
statements on teachers elsewhere in the
Handbook.) Almost every town and city has
at least one private music teacher. Some
musicians with training in music therapy
work in psychiatric hospitals, centers for the
mentally retarded, hospitals and schools,
community mental health centers, day care
centers, nursing homes, and special service

Most people who become professional
musicians begin studying an instrument at an
early age. To acquire great technical skill, a
thorough knowledge of music, and the ability
to interpret music, young people need inten­
sive training. This training may be obtained
through private study with an accomplished
musician, in a college or university which has
a strong music program, or in a conservatory
of music. For advanced study in one of these
institutions, an audition frequently is neces­
sary. Many teachers in these schools are ac­
complished artists who will train only prom­
ising young musicians.
About 540 colleges, universities, and
music conservatories offer bachelor’s and/
or higher degrees in musical performance,
composition, and theory. In addition, about
750 conservatories and colleges and universi­
ties offer a bachelor’s degree in music educa­
tion to qualify graduates for the State certifi­
cate for elementary and secondary school
teaching positions. College teaching posi­
tions usually require advanced degrees, but
exceptions may be made for well-qualified

Classical musicians play in symphonies,
opera, ballet, and theater orchestras, and
for other groups that require orchestral ac­
companiments. These musicians play
string, brass, woodwind, or percussion in­
struments. Some form small groups—usu­
ally a string quartet or a trio—to give con­
certs of chamber music. Many pianists
accompany vocal or instrumental soloists,
choral groups, or provide background
music in restaurants or other places. Most
organists play in churches; often they di­
rect the choir.
A few exceptional musicians give
own concerts and appear as soloists
symphony orchestras. Both classical
popular musicians make individual
group recordings.


In addition to performing, many musi­
cians teach instrumental and vocal music
in schools and colleges, or give private les­
sons in their own studios or in pupils’
homes. Others combine careers as perform­
ers with work as composers. Some work as
arrangers, adapting musical compositions
to different types of instruments or to

The thrill of performing goes hand in hand with long and irregular hours and much traveling, which
can be exhausting.


Musicians who play popular music must
have an understanding of and feeling for that
style of music, but classical training may ex­
pand their employment opportunities. As a
rule, they take lessons with private teachers
when young, and seize every opportunity to
play in amateur or professional perfor­
mances. Establishing a reputation with other
musicians is very important in getting started
in a career in popular music. Some young
people form small dance bands or rock
groups. As they gain experience and become
known, they may audition for other local
bands, and still later, for the better known
bands and orchestras.
Young persons who consider careers in
music should have musical talent, versatil­
ity, creative ability, and poise and stage
presence to face large audiences. Since
quality performance requires constant
study and practice, self-discipline is vital.
Moreover, musicians who do concert and
nightclub engagements must have physical
stamina because of frequent traveling and
schedules that often include night perfor­

Employment Outlook
Employment of musicians is expected to
grow faster than the average through the
1980’s, but competition for jobs will be keen.
Opportunities for concerts and recitals are
not numerous enough to provide adequate
employment for all the pianists, violinists,
and other instrumentalists qualified as con­
cert artists. Competition usually is keen for
positions that offer stable employment, such
as jobs with major orchestras, with the
Armed Forces, and in teaching positions. Be­
cause of the ease with which a musician can
enter private music teaching, the number of
music teachers has been more than sufficient
and probably will continue to be. Although
many opportunities are expected for single
and short-term engagements to play popular
music in nightclubs and theaters, the supply
of qualified musicians who seek such jobs is
likely to exceed demand. On the other hand,
first-class, experienced accompanists and
outstanding players of stringed instruments
are likely to remain relatively scarce.

The major symphony orchestras have sea­
sons ranging from 45 to 52 weeks. None of
the metropolitan or community orchestras
have seasons of 50 to 52 weeks, however.

American Federation of Musicians (AFL-CIO),
1500 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10036.

Musicians in large metropolitan areas who
had steady engagement contracts to play at
dances, clubs, variety shows, ballets, musical
comedies, concerts, and industrial shows
generally earned minimums ranging from
$6.50 to $10.50 per hour, depending on the
length and type of engagement. Wages for
the same types of engagements tended to be
less in smaller cities and towns. Musicians
employed in motion picture recording earned
a minimum of about $108 for a 3-hour ses­
sion; those employed in television commer­
cials earned a minimum of $54 each for 2 to
5 musicians and $50 each for more than 5
musicians for a 1-hour session. Musicians
employed by recording companies were paid
a minimum of about $127 for a 3-hour ses­

American Guild of Organists, 630 Fifth Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10020.

Music teachers in public schools earn sala­
ries comparable to those of other teachers.
(See statements on elementary and secondary
school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Many teachers give private music lessons to
supplement their earnings. However, earn­
ings often are uncertain and vary according
to the musician’s reputation, the number of
teachers and students in the locality, and the
economic status of the community.

National Association of Schools of Music, 11250
Roger Bacon Dr., Reston, Va. 22090.

Many musicians, primarily those em­
ployed by symphony orchestras, work under
master wage agreements, which guarantee a
season’s work up to 52 weeks. Musicians in
other areas, however, may face relatively
long periods of unemployment between jobs.
Thus, their earnings generally are lower than
those in many other occupations. Moreover,
since they may not work steadily for one em­
ployer, some performers cannot qualify for
unemployment compensation, and few have
either sick leave or vacations with pay. For
these reasons, many musicians take other
types of jobs to supplement their earnings as
Most professional musicians belong to the
American Federation of Musicians (AFLCIO). Concert soloists also belong to the
American Guild of Musical Artists, Inc.

The amount received for a performance
by either classical or popular musicians de­
pends on their geographic location as well
as on their professional reputation. Mini­
mum salaries for musicians in the 31 major
symphony orchestras in the United States in
1978 ranged from $232 to $490 a week, ac­
cording to the American Symphony Orches­
tra League. Minimum salaries for musicians
in the 28 regional symphony orchestras
ranged from $90 to $270 a week. Minimum
wages for musicians in metropolitan sym­
phony orchestras were generally between
$20 and $40 per concert. Some musicians
earned substantially more than the mini­
mums, however.


Related Occupations
Performing musicians express ideas and
emotions through the music they play. Other
occupations in the music field include ar­
rangers, composers, copyists, music critics,
music directors, music librarians, music
teachers, music therapists, orchestra conduc­
tors, orchestrators, instrument repairers,
music or instrument sales people, and radio
music producers.

Sources of Additional Information
For information about wages, hours of
work, and working conditions for profes­
sional musicians, contact:

The requirements for certification of or­
ganists and choir masters are available from:

For information about a career in music
therapy, contact:
National Association for Music Therapy, Inc.,
P.O. Box 610, Lawrence, Kans. 66044.

For programs in music teacher education,
Music Educators National Conference, 1902 Asso­
ciation Dr., Reston, Va. 22091.

Information about certification of private
music teachers is available from:
Music Teachers National Association, 2113 Carew
Tower, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202.

A list of accredited schools of music is also
available for $3.25 from:

A brochure entitled Careers in Music is
available from any of the last three organiza­
tions listed above.

Newspaper Reporters
(D.O.T. 131.067-010, 018, and 022; 131.267-014 and

Nature of the Work
A free press is one of the most important
institutions in a democratic society. Newspa­
pers inform us about local, State, national,
and international events; present differing
points of view on current issues; and monitor
the actions of public officials and others who
exercise power. Newspaper reporters, there­
fore, play a vital role in American society.
They gather information on current events
and use it to write stories for daily or weekly
newspapers. In covering events, they may in­
terview people, review public records, and do
research. As a rule, reporters take notes or
use tape recorders while out of the office col­
lecting facts and write their stories upon re­
turning to the office. Sometimes, to meet
deadlines, they telephone their information
or stories to rewriters who write or transcribe
the stories for them.
Large dailies frequently assign teams of re­
porters to investigate social, economic, or po­
litical conditions and some reporters to
“beats,” such as police stations or the courts,
to gather news originating in these places.
General assignment reporters write up local
news, such as a story about a school board
meeting or an obituary of a community
leader. Specialized reporters with a back­
ground or interest in a particular subject in­
terpret and analyze the news in fields such as
medicine, politics, foreign affairs, sports,
fashion, art, theater, consumer affairs, travel,
finance, social events, science, education,
business, labor, and religion. Critics review

literary, artistic, and musical works and per­
formances while editorial writers present
viewpoints on topics of public interest.
Reporters on small newspapers cover all
aspects of local news, and also may take
photographs, write headlines, lay out pages,
and write editorials. On some small weeklies,
they also may solicit advertisements, sell sub­
scriptions, and perform general office work.

Working Conditions
The work of newspaper reporters is usually
hectic. Reporters are under pressure to meet
deadlines and work under the most trying
conditions—the continuous disturbance of
noisy typewriters and loud conversation and
the confusion of people constantly on the go.
Some assignments covering wars, political
uprisings, fires, floods, and other events may
be dangerous.
Reporters working for morning papers
often work from late afternoon until mid­
night. Employees of afternoon or evening pa­
pers generally work from early in the morn­
ing until early or midafternoon. However,
reporters must be prepared to gather news
whenever it occurs. Their work may demand
long hours, irregular schedules, and some
travel. Foreign correspondents often work
late at night to send news to papers in time
for printing.

Places of Employment
About 45,000 persons worked as newspa­
per reporters in 1978. Many worked for
urban daily newspapers; others worked for
suburban, community, or smalltown weekly
papers and national press services.
Reporters work in cities and towns of all
sizes, but the great majority of the approxi­

mately 1,760 daily and 7,670 weekly newspa­
pers in existence in 1978 were in medium­
sized towns. However, most reporters work
in big cities, since big city dailies employ
many reporters, whereas a smalltown paper
generally employs only a few.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Most newspapers consider only applicants
who have a college education. Graduate
work is increasingly important. Most editors
prefer graduates who have a degree in jour­
nalism, which includes training in the liberal
arts along with professional training in jour­
nalism. Some editors consider a liberal arts
degree sufficient. Others prefer applicants
who have a bachelor’s degree in liberal arts
and a master’s degree in journalism. High
school courses that are important include
English, journalism, social studies, and typ­
In 1978, the majority of journalism gradu­
ates who landed jobs on daily newspapers
prepared specifically for news work while
they were in college by majoring in newseditorial journalism. News-editorial majors
generally found news jobs more easily than
journalism graduates majoring in other spe­
cialties—advertising, public relations, or
Bachelor’s degree programs in journalism
are available in about 240 colleges. About
three-fourths of the courses in a typical un­
dergraduate journalism curriculum are in lib­
eral arts. Required journalism courses in­
clude introductory mass media, basic
reporting and copy editing, history of jour­
nalism, and press law and ethics. Other jour­
nalism courses are elected in the student’s
specific area of interest.
About 350 community and junior colleges

offer journalism courses or programs. Credit
earned may be transferable to 4-year college
programs in journalism. Some junior colleges
also offer programs especially designed to
prepare the student directly for employment
as a general assignment reporter on a small
weekly or daily newspaper. However, such
graduates find it increasingly difficult to
compete with graduates of 4-year programs.
The Armed Forces also provide some train­
ing in journalism.
A master’s, degree in journalism was of­
fered by about 70 schools in 1978; about 20
schools offered the Ph. D. degree. Some grad­
uate programs are intended primarily as
preparation for news careers, while others
concentrate on preparing journalism teach­
ers, researchers and theorists, and advertis­
ing and public relations workers.
Liberal arts courses useful to persons pre­
paring for newspaper work include English
courses with an emphasis on writing, sociol­
ogy, political science, economics, history,
psychology, computer science, business, and
speech. The ability to read and speak a for­
eign language is desirable. Those who aspire
to reporting in a specialized field—science or
finance, for example—should concentrate on
course work in their subject area.
Skill in typing is essential because report­
ers type their own news stories. Also, famil­
iarity with a typewriter keyboard is impor­
tant because a growing number of reporters
work in newsrooms where computerized
word-processing equipment is used for writ­
ing and editing stories. The ability to take
shorthand also is useful. On small papers,
knowledge of news photography is valuable.
The Newspaper Fund and individual
newspapers offer summer internships that
provide college students with an opportunity
to practice the rudiments of reporting or edit­
ing. Experience acquired through such in­
ternships helps immeasurably in job place­
ment after graduation. In addition, more
than 3,000 journalism scholarships, fellow­
ships, and assistantships were awarded to
college journalism students by universities,
newspapers, foundations, and professional
organizations in 1978.
News reporting involves a great deal of
responsibility, since what a reporter writes
frequently influences the opinion of the read­
ing public. Reporters should be dedicated to
serving the public’s need for accurate and
impartial news. Although reporters work as
part of a team, they have an opportunity for
self-expression. The ability to express facts
and opinions clearly and succinctly is, of
course, essential for success in this field. Ac­
curacy and objectivity are equally important,
because untrue or libelous statements could
involve newspapers in costly lawsuits.
Important personal characteristics include
a “nose for news,” curiosity, persistence, ini­
tiative, poise, resourcefulness, an accurate
memory, and the physical stamina and emo­
tional stability to deal with pressing dead­
lines, irregular hours, and sometimes danger­

ous assignments. Because some assignments
lead reporters to unfamiliar places, they must
be able to adapt to strange surroundings and
feel at ease around different kinds of people.
Some who compete for full-time reporter
jobs find it is helpful to have had experience
as a newspaper “stringer”—a part-time re­
porter who covers the news in a particular
area of the community and is paid on the
basis of the stories printed. High school and
college newspapers, and church or commu­
nity newsletters, also provide writing and ed­
iting experience that may be helpful in get­
ting a job.
Most beginners start on weekly or on small
daily newspapers as general assignment re­
porters or copy editors. A few outstanding
journalism graduates are hired by large city
papers, but this is the exception rather than
the rule. Large dailies generally require sev­
eral years of reporting experience, which usu­
ally is acquired on smaller newspapers.
Beginning reporters are assigned duties
such as reporting on civic and club meet­
ings, summarizing speeches, writing obi­
tuaries, interviewing important visitors to
the community, and covering police court
proceedings. As they gain experience, they
may report more important events, cover
an assigned “beat,” or specialize in a par­
ticular field.
Newspaper reporters may advance to re­
porting for larger papers or press services.
However, competition for such positions is
fierce and news executives are flooded with
applications from highly qualified reporters
every year. Some experienced reporters be­
come columnists, correspondents, editorial
writers, editors, or top executives; these posi­
tions represent the top of the field and com­
petition for them is extremely keen. Other
reporters transfer to related fields such as
public relations, writing for magazines, or
preparing copy for radio and television news

Employment Outlook
Employment of newspaper reporters is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s. This
growth will come about because of an in­
crease in the number of smalltown and sub­
urban daily and weekly newspapers, for the
most part; little or no increase is anticipated
in the number of big city dailies, although
some of them may increase the size of their
reporting staffs. In addition to the openings
that result from employment growth, open­
ings will arise from the need to replace news­
paper reporters who die, retire, transfer to
other fields of work, or leave the profession
for other reasons.
Overall, journalism graduates who have
taken the news-editorial sequence and comp­
leted a newspaper internship while in school
should have the best prospects for newspaper
reporting jobs. Most editors prefer to hire the
top graduates of accredited programs. Tal­
ented writers who are able to handle news


about highly specialized scientific or techni­
cal subjects will be at an advantage on the job
market. Small papers often look for begin­
ning reporters who are acquainted with the
community and who can help with photogra­
phy and other aspects of newspaper produc­
tion. Persons without at least a bachelor’s
degree in journalism will face increasingly
stiff competition for entry level positions.
Weekly or daily newspapers located in
small towns and suburban areas are expected
to continue to offer the best opportunities for
beginning reporters. Journalism graduates
who are willing to relocate and start at rela­
tively low salaries are likely to find reporting
jobs on these newspapers. Openings arise on
small papers as reporters gain experience and
move up to editorial positions, or transfer to
reporting jobs on larger newspapers.
Competition for reporting jobs on large
metropolitan newspapers will be keen. Most
big city dailies require experience and do not
ordinarily hire new graduates. Sometimes,
however, new graduates find newsroom jobs
on major dailies because they have creden­
tials in an area for which the paper has a
pressing need. Occasionally, the experience
and contacts gained through an internship
program or summer job lead to a reporting
job directly after graduation.
Because enrollments in journalism educa­
tion programs are expected to rise through
the 1980’s, college teaching opportunities are
expected to be good for qualified applicants
—generally, Ph. D.’s with practical reporting
experience. Some highly qualified reporters
with a master’s degree will find teaching posi­
tions in journalism departments of colleges
and junior colleges. This favorable outlook
for journalism educators contrasts with the
generally bleak prospect for college faculty in
many other academic disciplines.
In addition to newspaper reporting, col­
lege graduates who have majored in journal­
ism have the background for work in such
closely related fields as advertising, public
relations, trade and technical publishing,
magazine publishing, and radio and televi­
sion broadcasting. Every year, a substantial
number of journalism graduates take media
jobs in fields such as these. For example,
journalism graduates with strong back­
grounds in science or mathematics are well
suited for jobs on scientific and industrial
publications. Other graduates accept sales,
managerial, and other nonmedia positions,
while still others continue their training in
fields such as law, business, public adminis­
tration, and politics.


contracts averaged about $370 a week in
early 1979. Virtually all experienced report­
ers earned over $250 a week while the top
contractual salary was $560 a week. A num­
ber of top reporters on big city dailies earned
even more, on the basis of merit. The mini­
mum salaries of experienced reporters work­
ing for the two national wire services were
around $410 and $430 a week. In general,
earnings of newspaper reporters are above
average earnings of nonsupervisory workers
in private industry, except farming.
Most newspaper reporters generally work
a 5-day, 35- or 40-hour week and receive
extra pay for overtime work. Benefits may
vary widely according to length of service
and the size and location of the newspapers.
Most reporters, however, receive benefits
such as paid vacations, group insurance, and
pension plans.

Related Occupations
Newspaper reporters must write clearly
and effectively to succeed in their profession.
Others for whom writing ability is essential
include technical writers, translators, adver­
tising copy writers, public relations workers,
educational writers, humorists, fiction writ­
ers, biographers, screen writers, and editors.

Sources of Additional Information
Career information, including a pamphlet
entitled, “Your Future in Daily Newspa­
pers,” is available from:
American Newspaper Publishers Association
Foundation, The Newspaper Center, Box 17407,
Dulles International Airport, Washington, D.C.

A pamphlet entitled, “Facts About News­
papers,” is available from:
American Newspaper Publishers Association, The
Newspaper Center, Box 17407, Dulles Interna­
tional Airport, Washington, D.C. 20041.

Information on careers in journalism, col­
leges and universities that offer degree pro­
grams in journalism or communications, and
journalism scholarships and internships may
be obtained from:
The Newspaper Fund, Inc., P.O. Box 300, Prince­
ton, N.J. 08540.

For a list of junior and community colleges
offering programs in journalism, contact:
National Community College Journalism Associa­
tion, San Antonio College, 1300 San Pedro Ave­
nue, San Antonio, Texas 78284.

Information on union wage rates is availa­
ble from:
The Newspaper Guild, Research and Information
Department, 1125 15th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005.

Reporters working for daily newspapers
having contracts negotiated by the Newspa­
per Guild had starting salaries ranging from
about $135 to about $460 a week in early
1979. The majority earned between $200 and
$275 a week.

For a list of schools with accredited se­
quences in their journalism departments,
send a stamped, self-addressed envelope to:

Reporters having 4 or 5 years of experience
who worked for daily newspapers with Guild

For general information about careers in
journalism, contact:

American Council on Education for Journalism,
School of Journalism, University of Missouri, Co­
lumbia, Mo. 65205.

Association For Education in Journalism, 102
Reavis Hall, Northern Illinois University, Dekalb,
111. 60115.
The Society of Professional Journalists, Sigma
Delta Chi, 35 East Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111.

Information on opportunities for women
in newspaper reporting and other communi­
cations fields is available from:
Women In Communications, Inc., P.O. Box 9561,
Austin, Tex. 78766.

Names and locations of newspapers and a
list of schools and departments of journalism
are published in the Editor and Publisher In­
ternational Year Book, available in most pub­
lic libraries and newspaper offices.

(D.O.T. 076.121-010)

Nature of the Work
O ccupational therapist helps patient regain his hand-eye coordination.

Occupational therapists plan and direct
educational, vocational, and recreational ac­
tivities designed to help mentally, physically,
or emotionally disabled patients become selfsufficient. They evaluate the capacities and
skills of patients, set goals, and plan a therapy
program together with the client and mem­
bers of a medical team that may include
physicians, physical therapists, vocational
counselors, nurses, social workers, and other
About 2 therapists out of 5 work with men­
tally or emotionally handicapped patients,
and the rest work with physically disabled
persons. These clients represent all age
groups and degrees of disability. Patients par­
ticipate in occupational therapy to determine
the extent of abilities and limitations; to re­
gain physical, mental, or emotional stability;
to relearn daily routines such as eating, dress­
ing, writing, and using a telephone; and,
eventually, to prepare for employment.
Occupational therapists teach manual and
creative skills, such as weaving and leather­
working, and business and industrial skills,
such as typing and the use of power tools.
These skills are taught to restore the patient’s
mobility, coordination,and confidence. Ther­
apists also plan and direct games and other
activities, especially for children. They may
design and make special equipment or de­
vices to help disabled patients.
Besides working with patients, occupa­
tional therapists supervise student therapists,
occupational therapy assistants, volunteers,
and auxiliary nursing workers. The chief oc­
cupational therapist in a hospital may teach
medical and nursing students the principles
of occupational therapy. Many therapists su­
pervise occupational therapy departments,
coordinate patient activities, or are consult­
ants to local and State health departments
and mental health agencies. Some teach in
colleges and universities.

Working Conditions
Although occupational therapists gener­
ally work a standard 40 hour week, they may
occasionally have to work evenings or week­
ends. Their work environment varies accord­
ing to the setting and available facilities. In a
large rehabilitation center, for example, the
therapist may work in a spacious room
equipped with machines, handtools, and
other devices that can generate noise. In a
nursing home, the therapist might work in a
kitchen, using food preparation as therapy.
In a hospital, the only tools may be building
blocks or paints used on small tables placed
around the room. Wherever they work and
whatever tools they use,they generally have
adequate lighting and ventilation. The job
can be physically tiring because therapists are
on their feet much of the time.

Places of Employment
About 15,000 occupational therapists were
employed in 1978. About 3 out of 10 occupa­
tional therapists work in hospitals. Rehabili­
tation centers, nursing homes, schools, out­
patient clinics, community mental health
centers, and research centers employ most of
the others. Some work in special sanitariums
or camps for handicapped children, others in
State health departments. Still others work in
home-care programs for patients unable to
attend clinics or workshops. Some are mem­
bers of the Armed Forces. Many occupa­
tional therapists work part time.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
A degree and certification in occupational
therapy is required to enter the profession. In
1978, 53 colleges and universities offered pro­
grams in occupational therapy that were ac­
credited by the Council on Allied Health and

Education Accreditation of the American
Medical Association and the American Oc­
cupational Therapy Association. All of these
schools offer a bachelor’s degree program.
Some have a 2-year program and accept stu­
dents who have completed 2 years of college.
Some also offer shorter programs, leading to
a certificate or a master’s degree in occupa­
tional therapy for students who have a bache­
lor’s degree in another field. A graduate de­
gree often is required for teaching, research,
or administrative work.
Course work in occupational therapy pro­
grams includes physical, biological, and be­
havioral sciences and the application of occu­
pational therapy theory and skills. These
programs also require students to work for 6
to 9 months in hospitals or health agencies to
gain experience in clinical practice. Gradu­
ates of accredited educational programs are
eligible to take the American Occupational
Therapy Association certification examina­
tion to become a registered occupational
therapist (OTR). Occupational therapy as­
sistants who are certified by the association
(COTA’s) and have 4 years of approved work
experience also are eligible to take the exami­
nation to become registered occupational
therapists. Those COTA’s considering this
path of entry to the occupation should con­
tact the Director of Certification of the
American Occupational Therapy Associa­
tion to identify the types of experience re­
quired to qualify for the examination and to
determine the availability of suitable work
Entry to educational programs is keenly
competitive and applicants are screened care­
fully to select those most likely to complete
their studies successfully. Persons considering this profession, therefore, should have
above average academic performance and
consistent grades of “B” or better in science
/1 39

courses, including biology and chemistry. In
addition to biology and chemistry, high
school students interested in careers as occu­
pational therapists are advised to take
courses in health, crafts, and the social
sciences. College students who consider
transferring from another academic disci­
pline to an occupational therapy program in
their sophomore or junior year need superior
grades because competition for entrance to
programs is more intense after the freshman
Personal qualifications needed in the pro­
fession include a sympathetic but objective
approach to illness and disability, maturity,
patience, imagination, manual skills, and the
ability to teach.
Newly graduated occupational therapists
generally begin as staff therapists. Advance­
ment is chiefly to supervisory or administra­
tive positions; some therapists pursue ad­
vanced education and teach or conduct
medical research.

therapists, prosthetists, and speech patholo­
gists and audiologists.

Sources of Additional Information
For more information on occupational
therapy as a career, write to:
American Occupational Therapy Association,
6000 Executive Blvd., Rockville, Md. 20852.

Those COTA’s interested in qualifying for
the examination to become a registered occu­
pational therapist (OTR) through acquired
work experience should contact the Director
of Certification at the above address.

Occupational Safety
and Health Workers
(D.O.T. 010.061-026; 012.061-014, .167-022, -026, -034,
and -058, and .261-010; .079.021-010 and .161-010;
168.167-078, .264-014, and .267-074; 373.167-018 and
.367-010; and 821.367-014)

Employment Outlook

Nature of the Work

Employment opportunities for occupa­
tional therapists are expected to be favorable
through the 1980’s. The increasing number
of graduates is expected to be roughly in bal­
ance with openings expected from future
need for these workers and replacement of
workers who die, retire, or leave the field for
other reasons.

People in the occupational safety and
health field have the challenging job of insur­
ing a safe and healthful environment for
workers and safe products for consumers.
Safety and health workers in a number of
different occupations strive to control occu­
pational accidents and diseases, property
losses, and injuries from unsafe products.
Workers employed in safety and health occu­
pations peculiar to government are discussed
in the statement on health and regulatory
inspectors elsewhere in the Handbook.

Employment in this occupation is expected
to grow much faster than the average for all
occupations due to public interest in the
rehabilitation of disabled persons and the
success of established occupational therapy
programs. Many therapists will be needed to
staff hospital rehabilitation departments,
community health centers, extended care
facilities, psychiatric centers, schools for chil­
dren with developmental and learning
disabilities, and community home health pro­

Beginning salaries for new graduates of oc­
cupational therapy programs working in hos­
pitals averaged about $13,000 a year in 1978,
according to a national survey conducted by
the University of Texas Medical Branch.
Some experienced therapists earned as much
as $22,000, and some administrators as much
as $25,000 to $30,000.
In 1979, beginning therapists employed by
the Veterans Administration (VA) earned
starting salaries of about $11,700 a year. The
average salary paid occupational therapists
working for the VA was about $17,100 in

Related Occupations
Occcupational therapists use specialized
knowledge to help patients prepare to return
to work and generally aid them to adjust to
their disability. Other workers performing
similar duties include orthotists, physical


The largest group of safety workers is
safety engineers. Although all of them are
concerned with preventing accidents, their
specific tasks depend on where they work.
For example, the safety engineer working in
a large manufacturing plant (D.O.T. 012.061-014) may develop a comprehensive
safety program covering several thousand
employees. This usually entails detailed anal­
ysis of each job in the plant to identify poten­
tial hazards so that preventive measures can
be taken. When accidents do occur, safety
engineers in manufacturing plants investigate
to determine the cause. If poor design, im­
proper maintenance, or mechanical failure is
involved, they use their technical skills to
correct the situation and prevent its recur­
rence. When human error is the cause of an
accident, safety engineers may establish
training courses for plant workers and super­
visors or reemphasize existing ones.
Safety engineers who work for trucking
companies (D.O.T. 909.127-010) study
schedules, routes, loads, and speeds to deter­
mine their influence on trucking accidents.
They also inspect heavy rigs, such as trucks
and trailers, to suggest ways of safer opera­
tion. In the mining industry, safety engineers
(D.O.T. 010.061-026) may inspect under­
ground or open-pit areas to insure compli­
ance with State and Federal laws, design pro­
tective equipment and safety devices for mine

machinery, or lead rescue activities during
Many safety engineers are directly con­
cerned with the safety of their company’s
product. They work closely with design engi­
neers to develop models that meet all safety
standards, and they monitor the manufactur­
ing process to insure the safety of the finished
Safeguarding life and property against
loss from fire, explosion, and related haz­
ards is the job of the fire protection engineer
(D.O.T. 012.167-026). Those who specialize
in research investigate problems such as
fires in high-rise buildings or the manufac­
ture, handling, and storage of flammable
materials. Fire protection engineers in the
field use these research findings to identify
hazards and devise ways to correct them.
For example, new findings concerning flash­
points (the temperatures at which different
materials will ignite) are valuable to the en­
gineer designing storage facilities in a chem­
ical plant.
Like safety engineers, fire protection engi­
neers may have different job duties depend­
ing on where they work. One who works for
a fire equipment manufacturing company
may design new fire protection devices, while
engineers in consulting firms work with ar­
chitects and others to insure that fire safety
is built into new structures. In contrast, fire
protection engineers working for insurance
rating bureaus (organizations that calculate
basic costs of insurance coverage in particu­
lar areas) inspect private, commercial, and
industrial properties to evaluate the ade­
quacy of fire protection for the entire area.
Many fire protection engineers have special
expertise in one area or more of fire protec­
tion, such as sprinkler or fire detection sys­
Losses in the workplace cannot be reduced
without measures to eliminate hazards to
workers’ health. Designing and maintaining
a healthful work environment are the respon­
sibilities of industrial hygienists (D.O.T.
079.161-010). These health professionals are
concerned with how noise, dust, vapors, and
other hazards common to the industrial set­
ting affect workers’ health. After a problem
is detected, perhaps by analyzing employee
medical records, the industrial hygienist at
the job site may take air samples, monitor
noise levels, or measure radioactivity levels in
the areas under investigation.
Other industrial hygienists work in private
laboratories or in those maintained by large
insurance companies or industrial firms.
Laboratory hygienists analyze air samples,
do research on the reliability of health equip­
ment such as respirators, or investigate the
effects of exposure to chemicals or radiation.
Some hygienists specialize in problems of air
and water pollution. For example, these
health professionals may work with govern­
ment officials, environmental groups, labor
organizations, and plant management to de­
velop a system to screen harmful substances
before they enter and pollute a river.

abreast of changing technologies, new ideas,
and emerging trends. Many insurance com­
panies offer training seminars and correspon­
dence courses for their staffs. The Occupa­
tional Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) conducts courses for safety and
health workers on topics such as occupa­
tional injury investigation and radiological
health hazards. The recognized marks of
achievement in the field are the designations
Certified Safety Professional; Certified In­
dustrial Hygienist; and Member, Society of
Fire Protection Engineers. Certification is
conferred by the Board of Certified Safety
Professionals and the American Board of In­
dustrial Hygiene, after the candidate com­
pletes the required experience and passes an
examination. A small number of States re­
quire that occupational safety and health
professionals be licensed.

Safety engineers inspect plant m achinery for potential hazards.

Loss control and occupational health con­
sultants (D.O.T. 168.167-078) in propertyliability insurance companies perform many
services for their clients. These range from
correcting a single hazard in a small business
to devising a program to eliminate or reduce
all losses arising out of a large firm’s opera­
tion. When dealing with a new account, the
consultant makes a thorough inspection of
the plant and then confers with management
to formulate a program that meets the com­
pany’s needs. The consultant may, for exam­
ple, help set up plant health programs and
medical services, assist plant personnel to in­
sure that a new facility meets all safety re­
quirements, or train plant safety people.
Safety and health consultants also help their
company’s underwriters determine whether a
risk is acceptable and the amount of premium
to charge.

Working Conditions
Although occupational safety and health
workers are based in offices, much of their
time is spent at work sites inspecting or
studying safety hazards, talking to workers,
or taking air or dust samples. Safety and
health workers may have to travel a great
deal if they don’t work exclusively at a single
plant. The amount of travel required depends
upon job specialty and geographic location.
For example, the plant safety engineer may
travel only to seminars and conferences,
while the insurance consultant may spend
about half the time traveling between work­
sites. Usually, a car is furnished or workers
are reimbursed for the expenses of using their
own vehicles.

Places of Employment
An estimated 80,000 persons were engaged
in occupational safety and health work in
1978. About half of them were safety engi­

neers, and most of the rest were fire protec­
tion engineers, industrial hygienists, or work­
ers who divided their time between two or
more of these areas. A relatively small num­
ber of occupational safety and health workers
were employed as technicians.
The largest numbers of occupational safety
and health workers were employed by manu­
facturing firms, although they were em­
ployed by firms in most other industries as
well. Property and liability insurance compa­
nies employ many safety and health workers
to provide engineering, consulting, and in­
spection services to their clients. Others
worked for a variety of industrial, manufac­
turing, and commercial concerns.
Occupational safety and health workers
are generally employed in population and in­
dustrial centers. Insurance consultants gen­
erally have their headquarters in a region’s
major city and travel to and from the sites
they visit.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Entry level safety and health professionals
generally need at least a bachelor’s degree in
engineering or science. A more specialized
degree, such as one in safety management,
industrial safety, mechanical or chemical en­
gineering, or fire protection engineering,
often is helpful in getting a good job. Many
employers prefer applicants with a graduate
degree in areas such as industrial hygiene,
public health, safety engineering, or occupa­
tional safety and health engineering, or those
with prior industrial work experience. Some
employers will hire graduates of 2-year col­
lege curriculums as technicians, particularly
if they have work experience related to the
Continuing education is necessary to stay

In addition to possessing technical compe­
tence, safety and health workers must be able
to communicate well and motivate others.
They should be able to adapt quickly to dif­
ferent situations, being equally at ease with a
representative of a local union, a supervisor
in the welding shop, or a corporate executive.
Because physical activity is basic to the job,
good physical condition is necessary.
In the insurance industry, safety and
health workers can be promoted to depart­
ment manager in a small branch office, move
up to larger branch offices, and finally take
an executive position in the home office. In
industrial firms, they can advance to plant
safety and health manager or corporate man­
ager over several plants. Although extensive
experience is required, technicians can ad­
vance to professional safety and health posi­

Employment Outlook
Employment of safety and health workers
is expected to increase faster than the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s as con­
cern grows for occupational safety and health
and consumer safety. Many openings will
arise also to replace workers who die, retire,
or leave their jobs for other reasons.
Much of the employment growth is ex­
pected to occur in industrial and manufactur­
ing firms. Many firms now without a safety
and health program are expected to establish
one, and others will upgrade and expand ex­
isting programs in response to government
requirements, union interest, and rising in­
surance costs. The number of safety and
health workers in casualty insurance compa­
nies also will increase as more small employ­
ers request the services of their insurer’s engi­
neering or loss control department. Prospects
should be best for graduates of occupational
safety or health curriculums and persons
with graduate degrees in related areas.

Occupational safety and health workers
had median salaries of $27,000 a year in
1978, more than twice the average earnings
/ 141

for nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming. Safety and health work­
ers were paid average starting salaries of
$14,500 a year in 1978. Those with a gradu­
ate degree usually received higher starting
salaries, and technicians somewhat lower
ones. Many safety and health workers with
supervisory responsibilities earned more than
$30,000 a year.

and techniques of natural science, mathemat­
ics, and engineering to study oceans—their
movements, physical properties, and plant
and animal life. Their research not only ex­
tends basic scientific knowledge, but also
helps develop practical methods for forecast­
ing weather, developing fisheries, mining
ocean resources, and improving national de­

Related Occupations

Most oceanographers test their ideas about
the ocean by making observations and con­
ducting experiments at sea. They may study
and collect data on ocean tides, currents, and
other phenomena. They may study undersea
mountain ranges and valleys, oceanic in­
teractions with the atmosphere, and layers of
sediment on and beneath the ocean floor.

Occupational safety and health workers
are responsible for seeing that industrial
production is carried out in a manner that
is safe for workers. Related occupations
also concerned with the technology of pro­
duction include mechanical, chemical,
product safety, industrial, and pollutioncontrol engineers.

Sources of Additional Information
For general information about safety ca­
reers, write to:
American Society of Safety Engineers, 850 Busse
Hwy., Park Ridge, 111. 60068.

Information is also available from the Soci­
ety on colleges and universities offering de­
gree programs in the occupational safety and
health field.
Information concerning a career in indus­
trial hygiene is available from:
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 475
Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Ohio 44311.

Career information concerning fire protec­
tion engineering may be obtained from:
Society of Fire Protection Engineers, 60 Batterymarch St., Boston, Mass. 02110.

Career information on insurance loss con­
trol consulting is available from the home
offices of many property-liability insurance
The National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health of the U.S. Public Health
Service provides general information on re­
quirements for various careers in the occupa­
tional safety and health field, as well as lists
of college and universities that award degrees
in the various occupational safety and health
disciplines. This information is available
Division of Training and Manpower Development,
National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Co­
lumbia Pkwy., Cincinnati, Ohio 45226.

(D.O.T. 024.061-018, -030, and 041.061-022)

Nature of the Work
Oceans cover more than two-thirds of the
earth’s surface and are a valuable source of
food, fossil fuels, and minerals. They also in­
fluence the weather, serve as a “highway” for
transportation, and offer many kinds of rec­
reation. Oceanographers use the principles
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Many oceanographers work primarily in
laboratories on land where, for example, they
measure, dissect, and photograph fish. They
also study sea specimens and plankton (float­
ing microscopic plants and animals). Much
of their work entails identifying, cataloging,
and analyzing different kinds of sea life and
minerals. At other laboratories, oceanogra­
phers plot maps or use computers to test
theories about the ocean. For example, they
may study and test the theory of continental
drift, which states that the continents were
once joined together, have drifted to new po­
sitions, and continue to drift, causing the sea
floor to spread in places. To present the re­
sults of their studies, oceanographers prepare

charts, tabulations, and reports, and write
papers for scientific journals.
Oceanographers use surface ships, aircraft,
satellites, and various types of underwater
craft to explore and study the ocean. They
use specialized instruments to measure and
record the findings of their explorations and
studies; special cameras equipped with strong
lights to photograph marine life and the
ocean floor; and sounding devices to mea­
sure, map, and locate ocean materials.
Research facilities equipped with large
water tanks enable some oceanographers to
simulate and study oceanic phenomena such
as waves and tides.
Most oceanographers specialize in one
branch of the science. Biological oceanogra­
phers (marine biologists) study plant and ani­
mal life in the ocean. The biological oceanog­
rapher’s research has practical applications
in improving and controlling commercial
and sport fishing and in determining the ef­
fects of pollution on marine life. Physical
oceanographers (physicists and geophysi­
cists) study the physical properties of the
ocean such as waves, tides, and currents.
Their research on the relationships between
the sea and the atmosphere may lead to more
accurate prediction of the weather. Geologi­
cal oceanographers (marine geologists) study
the ocean’s underwater mountain ranges,
rocks, and sediments; some use the knowl­
edge obtained to find valuable minerals, oil,

and gas beneath the ocean floor. Chemical
oceanographers investigate the chemical
composition of ocean water and sediments as
well as chemical reactions in the sea. Oceano­
graphic engineers design and build instru­
ments for oceanographic research and opera­
tions. They also lay cables and supervise
underwater construction.
Many other scientists also work on prob­
lems related to oceans, but are counted in
other scientific fields such as biology, chemis­
try, or geology. Scientists who specialize in
the study of fresh water aquatic life are called

Working Conditions
When conducting research in land-based
laboratories, oceanographers work in clean
and comfortable surroundings. Research on
ocean expeditions requires oceanographers to
be away from home for weeks or months at
a time. Working and living areas on small
research ships are sometimes cramped. Some
oceanographers use scuba gear, submersible
craft, and other equipment ,to work under

Places of Employment
About 3,600 persons worked as oceanogra­
phers in 1978. Over one-half worked in col­
leges and universities, and about one-fifth for
the Federal Government. Federal agencies
employing substantial numbers of oceanogra­
phers include the Navy and the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA). Some oceanographers work in pri­
vate industry; a few work for fishery
laboratories of State and local governments.
Although some oceanographers are em­
ployed in almost every State, most work in
States that border on the ocean. Nearly onefifth of all oceanographers work in the Wash­
ington, D.C., metropolitan area.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
The minimum requirement for beginning
professional jobs in oceanography is a bache­
lor’s degree with a major in oceanography,
biology, earth or physical sciences, mathe­
matics, or engineering. However, most other
jobs in research and teaching require gradu­
ate training in oceanography or a basic sci­
ence. For many high-level positions a doc­
toral degree is preferred, and sometimes
About 65 colleges and universities offered
undergraduate degrees in oceanography or
marine sciences in 1978. However, under­
graduate training in a basic science and a
strong interest in oceanography may be ade­
quate preparation for some beginning jobs
and is the preferred background for graduate
training in oceanography.
College courses needed to prepare for
graduate study in oceanography include
mathematics, physics, chemistry, geophysics,
geology, meteorology, and biology. In gen­

eral, students should specialize in the partic­
ular science that is closest to their area of
oceanographic interest. For example, stu­
dents interested in chemical oceanography
should obtain a degree in chemistry.
In 1978, about 55 colleges offered ad­
vanced degrees in oceanography and marine
sciences. In graduate schools, students take
advanced courses in oceanography and in
basic sciences.
Graduate students usually do research
part-time aboard-ship to become familiar
with the sea and with techniques used to ob­
tain oceanographic information. Universities
having oceanographic research facilities offer
summer courses for both graduate and un­
dergraduate students.
Beginning oceanographers with the bache­
lor’s degree usually start as research or labo­
ratory assistants, or in jobs involving routine
data collection, computation, or analysis.
Depending on their background and needs,
most beginning oceanographers receive onthe-job training.
Experienced oceanographers often direct
surveys and research programs or advance to
administrative or supervisory jobs in re­
search laboratories.

Employment Outlook
Persons seeking jobs in oceanography may
face competition through the 1980’s. Those
with a Ph. D. degree should have the best
opportunities; those with less education may
find limited opportunities as research assist­
ants or technicians; and those who combine
a scientific background with oceanography
should have better prospects than others
whose knowledge is limited to oceanography.
Employment of oceanographers is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the average
for all occupations as awareness increases of
the need for ocean research to understand
and control pollution and to recover offshore
oil and other resources. However, this small
field may not grow fast enough to create
openings for all those expected to seek entry.
Since the Federal Government finances most
oceanographic research, a large increase in
Federal spending in oceanography could im­
prove employment prospects.

The salaries of oceanographers were more
than twice the average received by nonsupervisory workers in private industry, except
In 1979, oceanographers in the Federal
Government with a bachelor’s degree re­
ceived starting salaries of $10,507 or $13,014
a year, depending on their college grades.
Those with a master’s degree could start at
$15,920 or $19,263; and those with a Ph. D.
degree at $19,263 or $23,087. The average
salary for experienced oceanographers in the
Federal Government in 1978 was about $25,900 a year.
Oceanographers in educational institu­

tions generally receive the same salaries as
other faculty members. (See statement on
college and university faculty elsewhere in
the Handbook.) In addition to regular sala­
ries, many earn extra income from consult­
ing, lecturing, and writing.

Related Occupations
Other occupations in which workers apply
mathematical and scientific laws and princi­
ples to specific problems and situations in­
clude astronomers, chemists, geographers,
geologists, geophysicists, mathematicians,
meteorologists, and physicists.

Sources of Additional Information
For information about careers in oceanog­
raphy, contact:
Dr. C. Schelske, Secretary, American Society of
Limnology and Oceanography, I.S.T. Bldg., Great
Lakes Research Division, University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, Mich. 48109.

Federal Government career information is
available from any local office of the Federal
Job Information Center or from:
U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Washing­
ton Area Office, 1900 E St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20415.

The booklet, Training and Careers in Ma­
rine Science, is available for 50 cents from:
International Oceanographic Foundation, 3979
Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, Fla. 33149.

Some information on oceanographic spe­
cialties is available from professional soci­
eties listed elsewhere in the Handbook. (See
statements on geologists, geophysicists, life
scientists, meteorologists, and chemists.)

(D.O.T. 079.101-018)

Nature of the Work
About 1 out of every 2 persons in the
United States wears corrective lenses. Op­
tometrists provide most of this care. They
examine people’s eyes for vision problems,
disease, and other abnormal conditions and
test for proper depth and color perception
and the ability to focus and coordinate the
eyes. When necessary, they prescribe lenses
and treatment. Where evidence of disease is
present, the optometrist refers the patient to
the appropriate medical practitioner. Most
optometrists supply the prescribed eyeglasses
and fit and adjust contact lenses. Optome­
trists also prescribe vision therapy or other
treatment not requiring surgery.
Although most optometrists are in general
practice, some specialize in work with the
aged or with children. Others work only with
persons having partial sight who can be
helped with microscopic or telescopic lenses.
Still others are concerned with the visual
safety of industrial workers. Some optome­
trists teach or do research.

a minimum of 6 or 7 years of college consist­
ing of a 4-year professional degree program
preceded by at least 2 or 3 years of preoptometric study at an accredited university, col­
lege, or junior college. In 1979, there were 13
U.S. schools and colleges of optometry ac­
credited by the Council on Optometric Edu­
cation of the American Optometric Associa­
tion. Requirements for admission to these
schools usually include courses in English,
mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biol­
ogy or zoology. Some schools also require
courses in psychology, social studies, litera­
ture, philosophy, and foreign languages. Ad­
mission to optometry schools is competitive.
Each year, qualified applicants exceed availa­
ble places, so serious applicants need superior
grades in their preoptometric college courses
to enhance their chances for acceptance.
Because most optometrists are selfemployed, business ability, self-discipline,
and the ability to deal with patients tactfully
are necessary for success.
Many beginning optometrists enter into
associate practice with an optometrist or
other health professional. Others purchase an
established practice or set up a new practice.
Some take salaried positions to obtain experi­
ence and the necessary funds to enter their
own practice.

About 1 out of every 2 persons in the United States wears corrective lenses.

Optometrists should not be confused with
either ophthalmologists, sometimes referred
to as oculists, or dispensing opticians. Oph­
thalmologists are physicians who specialize
in medical eye care, eye diseases, and injuries;
perform eye surgery; and prescribe drugs or
other eye treatment, as well as lenses. Dis­
pensing opticians fit and adjust eyeglasses ac­
cording to prescriptions written by ophthal­
mologists or optometrists; they do not
examine eyes or prescribe treatment. (See
statements on physicians and dispensing op­

Working Conditions
Optometrists work in places—usually
their own offices—that are clean, well
lighted, and comfortable. The work requires
a lot of attention to detail. Because the work
is not physically strenuous, optometrists
often can continue to practice after the nor­
mal retirement age.

Places of Employment
In 1978, there were about 21,000 practic­
ing optometrists. The majority of optome­
trists are in solo practice. Others are in part­
nership or group practice with other
optometrists or doctors as part of a profes­
sional health care team.
Some optometrists work in specialized
hospitals and eye clinics or teach in schools
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

of optometry. Others work for the Veterans
Administration, public and private health
agencies, and industrial health insurance
companies. About 500 optometrists serve as
commissioned officers in the Armed Forces.
Optometrists also act as consultants to engi­
neers specializing in safety or lighting, con­
sultants to educators in remedial reading, or
participants on health advisory committees
to Federal, State, and local governments.
About 2 optometrists out of 5 practice in
towns of under 25,000 inhabitants.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
All States and the District of Columbia
require that optometrists be licensed. Appli­
cants for a license must have a Doctor of
Optometry degree from an accredited optometric school or college and pass a State
board examination. In some States, appli­
cants are permitted to substitute the exami­
nation of the National Board of Examiners in
Optometry, given in the second, third and
fourth years of optometric school, for part or
all of the written State examination. Some
States allow applicants to be licensed without
lengthy examination if they have a license in
another State. In 44 States, optometrists are
required to continue their education in op­
tometry to retain their licenses.
The Doctor of Optometry degree requires

Optometrists wishing to advance in a spe­
cialized field may study for a master’s or Ph.
D. degree in physiological optics, neuro­
physiology, public health administration,
health information and communication, or
health education. Optometrists who enter the
Armed Forces as career officers have the op­
portunity to work toward advanced degrees
and to do vision research.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for optome­
trists are expected to be favorable through
the 1980’s. The number of new graduates
from schools of optometry is expected to be
adequate to fill the positions made available
by employment growth and the need to re­
place optometrists who die or retire.
Employment of optometrists is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupa­
tions. An increase in the total population,
especially in the group most likely to need
glasses—older people—is a major factor con­
tributing to the expected growth in the occu­
pation. Greater recognition of the impor­
tance of good vision and the likelihood that
more persons will have health insurance to
cover optometric services also should in­
crease the demand for optometric services.

In 1978, net earnings of new optometry
graduates in their first full year of practice
averaged about $16,900. Experienced op­
tometrists averaged about $40,000 annually.
Optometrists working for the Federal Gov­
ernment earned an average of $22,700 a year
in 1978. Incomes vary greatly, depending
upon location, specialization, and other fac­

tors. Optometrists who start out by working
in commercial settings tend to earn more
money initially than optometrists who set up
their own solo practice. However, in the long
run, those with their own private practice
have the potential to earn more than those
employed in commercial settings.
Independent practitioners can set their
own work schedule. Some work over 40
hours a week, including Saturday.

Related Occupations
Other occupations in which the main ac­
tivity consists of applying logical thinking
and scientific knowledge to diagnose and
treat disease, disorders, or injuries in humans
or animals are chiropractors, dentists, physi­
cians, osteopathic physicians, podiatrists,
and veterinarians.

Sources of Additional Information
Information on optometry as a career and
a list of scholarships and loan funds offered
by various State associations, societies, and
institutions are available from:
American Optometric Association, 243 North
Lindbergh Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 63141.

Career guidance information for persons
considering becoming optometrists can be
obtained by writing to:
Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry,
Suite 210, 1730 M St. NW„ Washington, D.C.

Federal Health Professions Loans are
available for optometric students who meet
certain criteria of financial need. For infor­
mation on this financial aid, on the availabil­
ity of Federal scholarships, and on required
preoptometry courses, contact individual op­
tometry schools. The Board of Optometry in
the capital of each State can supply a list of
optometry schools approved by that State, as
well as licensing requirements.

hospitals. Some doctors of osteopathy teach,
do research, or write and edit scientific books
and journals.

cialists, however, practice mainly in large cit­

In recent years, specialization has in­
creased. In 1978, about 25 percent of all os­
teopathic physicians were practicing in spe­
including internal
neurology and psychiatry, ophthalmology,
pediatrics, anesthesiology, physical medicine
and rehabilitation, dermatology, obstetrics
and gynecology, pathology, proctology, radi­
ology, and surgery.

Training and Other Qualifications

Working Conditions
Many osteopathic physicians work more
than 50 or 60 hours a week. Those in general
practice usually work longer and more ir­
regular hours than specialists. As osteopathic
physicians grow older, they may accept fewer
new patients and tend to work shorter hours.
However, many continue to practice well be­
yond 70 years of age.

Places of Employment
About 17,000 osteopathic physicians prac­
ticed in the United States in 1978. Almost 85
percent of the active osteopathic physicians
were in private practice. A small number
were full time staff or faculty members of
osteopathic hospitals and colleges, private in­
dustry, or government agencies.
Osteopathic physicians are located chiefly
in those States that have osteopathic hospital
facilities. In 1978, three-fifths of all os­
teopathic physicians were in Florida, Michi­
gan, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, Texas,
and Missouri. Twenty-one States and the
District of Columbia each had fewer than 50
osteopathic physicians. More than half of all
general practitioners are located in towns and
cities having fewer than 50,000 people; spe­

All 50 States and the District of Columbia
require a license to practice osteopathic med­
icine. To obtain a license, a candidate must be
a graduate of an approved school of os­
teopathic medicine and pass a State board
examination. In four States, candidates must
pass an examination in the basic sciences be­
fore they are eligible to take the professional
examination; 38 States and the District of
Columbia also require a period of internship
in an approved hospital after graduation
from an osteopathic school. The National
Board of Osteopathic Examiners also gives
an examination which is accepted by most
States as a substitute for State examination.
Most States grant licenses without further
examination to osteopathic physicians al­
ready licensed by another State.
The minimum educational requirement for
entry to one of the schools of osteopathic
medicine is 3 years of college work, but in
practice almost all osteopathic students have
a bachelor’s degree. Preosteopathic educa­
tion must include courses in chemistry, phys­
ics, biology, and English. Osteopathic col­
leges require successful completion of 3 to 4
years of professional study for the degree of
Doctor of Osteopathy (D.O.). During the
first half of professional training, emphasis is
placed on basic sciences, such as anatomy,
physiology, and pathology, and on the princi­
ples of osteopathy; the remainder of the time
is devoted largely to experience with patients
in hospitals and clinics.
After graduation, nearly all doctors of os­
teopathic medicine serve a 12-month intern­
ship at 1 of the 90 osteopathic hospitals ap-

(D.O.T. 071.101-010)

Nature of the Work
Osteopathic physicians (D.O.s) diagnose
and treat diseases or maladies of the
human body. They place special emphasis
on the musculo-skeletal system of the body
—bones, muscles, ligaments, and nerves.
One of the basic treatments or therapies
used by osteopathic physicians centers on
manipulating this system with the hands.
Osteopathic physicians also use surgery,
drugs, and all other accepted methods of
medical care.
Most osteopathic physicians are “family
doctors” who engage in general practice.
These physicians usually see patients in their
offices, make house calls, and treat patients
in osteopathic and other private and public

O steopathic physicians are particularly concerned about problem s
involving the m uscles and bones.


proved by the American Osteopathic Associ­
ation for intern or residency training. Those
who wish to specialize must have 2 to 5 years
of additional training.
The osteopathic physician’s lengthy train­
ing is very costly. Federal and private loans
are available to help students meet these
costs. In addition, scholarships are available
to qualified applicants who agree to a mini­
mum of 2 years’ Federal service after gradua­
In 1979, there were 14 schools of os­
teopathic medicine. Schools admit students
on the basis of their college grades, scores on
the required New Medical College Admis­
sions Test, and recommendations from
premedical college counselors. The appli­
cant’s desire to serve as an osteopathic physi­
cian rather than as a doctor trained in other
fields of medicine is a very important qualifi­
cation. Colleges also give considerable weight
to a favorable recommendation by an os­
teopathic physician familiar with the appli­
cant’s background.
Newly qualified doctors of osteopathic
medicine usually establish their own practice,
although a growing number enter group
practice. Some work as assistants to ex­
perienced physicians or join the staff of os­
teopathic or allopathic (M.D.) hospitals. In
view of the variation in State laws, persons
who wish to become osteopathic physicians
carefully should study the professional and
legal requirements of the State in which they
plan to practice. The availability of os­
teopathic hospitals and clinical facilities also
should be considered.
Persons who wish to become osteopathic
physicians must have a strong desire to pur­
sue this career above all others. They must be
willing to study a great deal throughout their
career in order to keep up with the latest
advances in osteopathic medicine. They
should exhibit leadership, emotional stabiliy,
and self-confidence. A pleasant personality,
friendliness, patience, and the ability to deal
with people also are important.

Employment Outlook
Opportunities for osteopathic physicians
are expected to be favorable through 1980’s.
Many localities are without medical practi­
tioners of any kind; many more have few or
no osteopathic physicians. In addition, many
new osteopaths will be needed to replace
those who retire or die. The greatest demand
probably will continue to be in States where
osteopathic medicine is a widely known and
accepted method of treatment, such as Penn­
sylvania, Florida, and several Midwestern
States. Generally, prospects for beginning a
successful practice are likely to be best in
rural areas, small towns, and city suburbs,
where young doctors of osteopathy may es­
tablish their professional reputations more
easily than in the large cities.
The osteopathic profession is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s because of general


population growth and the rising proportion
of elderly persons, the establishment of addi­
tional osteopathic hospital facilities, and the
extension of prepayment programs for hospi­
talization and medical care including Medi­
care and Medicaid.

helping employees to find satisfaction in their
jobs and working conditions. Although some
jobs in this field require only limited contact
with people outside the office, most involve
frequent contact with others. Dealing with
people is an essential part of the job.


Personnel workers and labor relations
workers concentrate on different aspects of
employer-employee relations. Personnel
workers interview, select, and recommend
applicants to fill job openings. They handle
wage and salary administration, training and
career development, and employee benefits.
“Labor relations” usually means union-man­
agement relations, and people who specialize
in this field work mostly in unionized busi­
nesses and government agencies. They help
officials prepare for collective bargaining ses­
sions, participate in contract negotiations
with the union, and handle labor relations
matters that come up every day.

In osteopathic medicine, as in many of the
other health professions, incomes usually rise
markedly after the first few years of practice.
Earnings of individual practitioners are de­
termined mainly by ability, experience, geo­
graphic location, and the income level of the
community served. Graduates who had
completed an approved 3-year residency but
had no other experience received a starting
salary at a Veterans Administration hospital
of about $32,500 a year in 1979. In addition,
those who worked full time received up to
$7,000 in other cash benefits or “special”
payments. In general, the income earned by
D.O.s compares favorably with other profes­
sions. Specialists usually earn higher incomes
than general practitioners.

Related Occupations
Osteopathic physicians work to prevent,
diagnose, and treat diseases, disorders, and
injuries. Other occupations that require the
exercise of similar critical judgments include:
Audiologist, chiropractor, dentist, optome­
trist, physician, podiatrist, speech patholo­
gist, and veterinarian.

Sources of Additional Information
People who wish to practice in a given
State should find out about the requirements
for licensure directly from the board of exam­
iners of that State. Information on Federal
scholarships and loans is available from the
director of student financial aid at the indi­
vidual schools of osteopathy. For a list of
State boards, as well as general information
on osteopathy as a career, contact:
American Osteopathic Association, Department of
Public Relations, 212 East Ohio St., Chicago, 111.
American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic
Medicine, 4720 Montgomery Lane, Washington,
D.C. 20014.

Personnel and Labor
Relations Workers
(D.O.T. 166 and 169.207-010)

Nature of the Work
Attracting the best employees available
and matching them to the jobs they can do
best is important for the success of any orga­
nization. Today, many enterprises have be­
come too large to permit close contact be­
tween management and employees. Instead,
personnel and labor relations workers pro­
vide this link—assisting management to
make effective use of employees’ skills, and

In a small company, personnel work con­
sists mostly of interviewing and hiring, and
one person usually can handle it all. By con­
trast, a large organization needs an entire
staff, which might include recruiters, inter­
viewers, counselors, job analysts, wage and
salary analysts, education and training spe­
cialists, and labor relations specialists, as well
as technical and clerical workers.
Personnel work often begins with the per­
sonnel recruiter or employment interviewer
(D.O.T. 166.267-010), who travels around
the country, often to college campuses, in the
search for promising job applicants. These
workers talk to applicants, and select and
recommend those who appear qualified to fill
vacancies. They often administer tests to ap­
plicants and interpret the results. Hiring and
placement specialists need to be thoroughly
familiar with the organization and its person­
nel policies, for they must be prepared to
discuss wages, working conditions, and pro­
motional opportunities with prospective and
newly hired employees. They also need to
keep informed about equal employment op­
portunity (EEO) and affirmative action
guidelines. Special EEO counselors or coor­
dinators handle this complex and sensitive
area in some large organizations. The work
of employment counselors, which is similar
in a number of ways, is described in a sepa­
rate chapter of the Handbook.
Job analysts (D.O.T. 166.067-010) and sal­
ary and wage administrators (D.O.T. 166.167-022) do very exacting work. Job analysts
collect and examine detailed information on
jobs, including job qualifications and worker
characteristics, in order to prepare job de­
scriptions. These descriptions, sometimes
called position classifications, explain the du­
ties, training, and skills each job requires.
Whenever a government agency or large
business firm introduces a new job or evalu­
ates existing ones, it calls upon the expert
knowledge of the job analyst. Accurate infor­
mation about job duties also is required when
a firm evaluates its pay system and considers
changes in wages and salaries. Establishing
and maintaining pay systems is the principal

including arbitration decisions, and main­
taining continuing liaison with union offi­
Personnel workers in government agencies
generally do the same kind of work as those
in large business firms. There are some differ­
ences, however. Public personnel workers
deal with employees whose jobs are governed
by civil service regulations. Civil service jobs
are strictly classified as to duties, training,
and pay. This requires a great deal of empha­
sis on job analysis and wage and salary clas­
sification; many people in public personnel
work spend their time classifying and evalu­
ating jobs, or devising, administering, and
scoring competitive examinations given to
job applicants.
Knowledge of rules and regulations per­
taining to affirmative action and equal oppor­
tunity programs is important in public per­
sonnel work. In 1972, the U.S. Civil Service
Commission—now the Office of Personnel
Management—established a specialization
for Federal personnel workers concerned
with promoting equal opportunity in hiring,
training, and advancement. Similar emphasis
is evident in State and local government

Personnel w orkers interview and select applicants to fill job openings.

job of wage administrators. They devise ways
to ensure that pay rates within the firm are
fair and equitable, and conduct surveys to see
how their pay rates compare with others.
Being certain that the firm’s pay system com­
plies with laws and regulations is another
part of the job, one that requires knowledge
of compensation structures and labor law.

tions specialist, if the union has a safety rep­
resentative. Increasingly, however, there is a
separate safety department under the direc­
tion of a safety and health professional, gen­
erally a safety engineer or industrial hygien­
ist. (The work of occupational safety and
health workers is discussed in another chap­
ter of the Handbook.)

Training specialists supervise or conduct
training sessions, prepare manuals and other
materials for these courses, and look into new
methods of training. They also counsel em­
ployees on training opportunities, which may
include on-the-job, apprentice, supervisory,
or management training.

Labor relations specialists (D.O.T. 166.167-034) advise management on all aspects of
union-management relations. When a com­
pany’s contract is up for negotiation, they
provide background information and techni­
cal support, a job that requires extensive
knowledge of economics, labor law, and col­
lective bargaining trends. Actual negotiation
of the agreement is conducted at the top
level, with the director of labor relations or
another top-ranking official serving as the
employer’s representative, but members of
the company’s labor relations staff play an
important role throughout the negotiations.

Employee-benefits supervisors and other
personnel specialists handle the employer’s
benefits program, which often includes
health insurance, life insurance, disability in­
surance, and pension plans. These workers
also coordinate a wide range of employee ser­
vices, including cafeterias and snack bars,
health rooms, recreational facilities, newslet­
ters and communications, and counseling for
work-related personal problems. Counseling
employees who are approaching retirement
age is a particularly important part of the job.
Occupational safety and health programs
are handled in various ways. In small compa­
nies especially, accident prevention and in­
dustrial safety are the responsibility of the

personnel department—or of the labor rela­

Much of the everyday work of the labor
relations staff concerns interpretation and
administration of the contract, the grievance
procedures in particular. Members of the
labor relations staff might work with the
union on seniority rights under the layoff
procedure set forth in the contract, for exam­
ple. Later in the day, they might meet with
the union steward about a worker’s griev­
ance. Doing the job well means staying
abreast of current developments in labor law,

Labor relations is an increasingly impor­
tant specialty in public personnel administra­
tion. Labor relations in this field have
changed considerably in recent years, as
union strength among government workers
has grown. This has created a need for more
and better trained workers to handle negotia­
tions, grievances, and arbitration cases on be­
half of Federal, State, and local government

Working Conditions
Since personnel offices generally are
located where outside visitors and prospec­
tive employees gain an initial impression of
the organization, they tend to be modern and
pleasant places to work. Personnel employees
usually work a standard 35 to 40 hour work­
week. Labor relations workers, however,
may work longer hours—particularly when
contract agreements are being prepared and
Although most of their time is spent in the
office, personnel workers may be required to
do some traveling. They may attend profes­
sional conferences, for example, or visit a
university to recruit prospective employees.

Places of Employment
In 1978, about 405,000 people were per­
sonnel and labor relations workers. Nearly 3
out of 4 worked in private industry, for
manufacturers, banks, insurance companies,
airlines, department stores, and other busi­
ness concerns. Some worked for private em­
ployment agencies, including executive jobsearch agencies, “office temporaries”
agencies, and others.
A large number of personnel and labor re­
lations workers, over 100,000 in 1978,
worked for Federal, State, and local govern­

ment agencies. Most of these were in person­
nel administration; they handled recruit­
ment, interviewing, testing, job classification,
training, and other personnel matters for the
Nation’s 15 million public employees. Some
were on the staff of the U.S. Employment
Service and State employment agencies. Still
others worked for agencies that oversee com­
pliance with labor laws. Some, for example,
were wage-hour compliance officers; their
work is described in another part of the
Handbook, in the section on health and
regulatory inspectors (Government). Other
public employees in this field'carried out re­
search in economics, labor law, personnel
practices, and related subjects, and sought
new ways of ensuring that workers’ rights
under the law are understood and protected.
Compared with private industry, labor un­
ions employ few professionally trained labor
relations workers. An elected union official
generally handles labor relations matters at
the company level. At national and interna­
tional union headquarters, however, the re­
search and education staff usually includes
specialists with a degree in industrial and
labor relations, economics, or law.
A few personnel and labor relations work­
ers are in business for themselves as manage­
ment consultants or labor-management rela­
tions experts. In addition, some teach college
or university courses in personnel adminis­
tration, industrial relations, and related sub­
Most jobs for personnel and labor relations
workers are located in the highly industrial­
ized sections of the country.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Most beginning positions in personnel and
labor relations are filled by with college grad­
uates. Some employers look for graduates
who have majored in personnel administra­
tion or industrial and labor relations, while
others prefer college graduates with a general
business background. Still other employers
feel that a well-rounded liberal arts education
is the best preparation. A college major in
personnel administration, political science,
or public administration can be an asset in
looking for a job with a government agency.
Approximately 200 colleges and universi­
ties offer undergraduate courses in personnel
or labor relations. In addition, 30 schools
offer a master’s degree in labor or industrial
relations. (While personnel administration is
widely taught, the number of programs that
focus primarily on labor relations is quite
small.) In addition, many schools offer
course work in closely related fields. An in­
terdisciplinary background is appropriate for
work in this area, and a combination of
courses in the social sciences, behavioral
sciences, business, and economics is useful.
Prospective personnel workers might in­
clude courses in personnel management,
business administration, public administra­
Digitized for psychology, sociology, political science,
tion, FRASER
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

economics, and statistics. Courses in labor
law, collective bargaining, labor economics,
labor history, and industrial psychology pro­
vide valuable backgound for the prospective
labor relations worker.
Graduate study in industrial or labor rela­
tions is often required for work in labor rela­
tions. Although a law degree seldom is re­
quired for entry level jobs, most of the people
who are responsible for contract negotiations
are lawyers, and a combination of industrial
relations courses and a law degree is becom­
ing highly desirable.
A college education, though highly impor­
tant, is not the only way to enter personnel
work. Some clerks advance to professional
positions through experience. However, parttime college courses are useful.
New personnel workers usually enter for­
mal or on-the-job training programs to learn
how to classify jobs, interview applicants, or
administer employee benefits. Next, new
workers are assigned to specific areas in the
employee relations department, to gain expe­
rience. Later, they may advance within their
own company, transfer to another employer,
or move from personnel to labor relations
A growing number of people enter the
labor relations field directly, as trainees.
They usually are graduates of master’s degree
programs in industrial relations, or may have
a law degree. Quite a few people, however,
begin in personnel work, gain experience in
that area, and subsequently move into a labor
relations job.
Workers in the middle ranks of a large
organization often transfer to a top job in a
smaller one. Employees with exceptional
ability may be promoted to executive posi­
tions, such as director of personnel or direc­
tor of labor relations.
Personnel and labor relations workers
should speak and write effectively and be able
to work with people of all levels of education
and experience. They also must be able to see
both the employee’s and the employer’s
points of view. In addition, they should be
able to work as part of a team. They need
supervisory abilities and must be able to ac­
cept responsibility. Integrity, fairmindedness, and a persuasive, congenial personality
are all important qualities.

Employment Outlook
The number of personnel and labor rela­
tions workers is expected to grow faster than
the average for all occupations through the
1980’s, as employers, increasingly aware of
the benefits to be derived from good labormanagement relations, continue to support
sound, capably staffed employee relations
programs. In addition to new jobs created by
growth of the occupation, many openings
will occur as workers die, retire, or leave their
jobs for other reasons.
Legislation setting standards for employ­
ment practices in areas of occupational safety

and health, equal employment opportunity,
and pensions has stimulated demand for per­
sonnel and labor relations workers. Con­
tinued growth is foreseen, as employers
throughout the country review existing pro­
grams in each of these areas and, in many
cases, establish entirely new ones. This has
created job opportunities for people who
have appropriate expertise. The effort to end
discriminatory employment practices, for ex­
ample, has led to scrutiny of the testing, se­
lection, placement, and promotion proce­
dures in many companies and government
agencies. The findings are causing a number
of employers to modify these procedures, and
to take steps to raise the level of professional­
ism in their personnel departments.
Substantial employment growth is fore­
seen in public personnel administraton. Op­
portunities probably will be best in State and
local government. By contrast, Federal em­
ployment will grow slowly. Moreover, as
union strength among public employees con­
tinues to grow, State and local agencies will
need many more workers qualified to deal
with labor relations. Enactment of collective
bargaining legislation for State and local gov­
ernment employees could greatly stimulate
demand for labor relations workers know­
ledgeable about public sector negotiations.
Although the number of jobs in both per­
sonnel and labor relations is projected to in­
crease over the next decade, competition for
these jobs also is increasing. Particularly
keen competition is anticipated for jobs in
labor relations. A small field, labor relations
traditionally has been difficult to break into,
and opportunities are best for applicants with
a master’s degree or a strong undergraduate
major in industrial relations, economics, or
business. A law degree is an asset.

Beginning job analysts in private industry
started at about $12,000 a year in 1978, ac­
cording to a Bureau of Labor Statistics sur­
vey. Experienced job analysts earned $22,600, about twice the average for all
nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming. Wage and salary administra­
tors earned about $22,100 and personnel
managers averaged $23,600, according to a
survey conducted by the Administrative
Management Society. Top personnel and
labor relations executives in large corpora­
tions earned considerably more.
Average salaries for personnel specialists
employed by State governments ranged from
$11,000 to $14,500 a year in 1978, according
to a survey conducted by the U.S. Office of
Personnel Management. Personnel special­
ists who had supervisory responsibilities ave­
raged from $16,200 to $21,600 and State di­
rectors of personnel earned average salaries
ranging from $31,000 to $36,000.
In the Federal Government, new gradu­
ates with a bachelor’s degree generally
started at about $10,000 a year in 1978.
Those with a master’s degree started at about

hours a week, often as a consultant to a nurs­
ing home or other facility. Pharmacies often
are open in the evenings and on weekends,
Annualsalary all States require a registered pharmacist
to be in attendance during pharmacy hours.
M e d ia to r .................................................................................................................................... $33,892
Self-employed pharmacists often work more
Personnel management specialist.............................................................................................
hours than those in salaried positions.
Employee development s p e c ia lis t..........................................................................................

Table 1. Average salaries of Federal personnel and labor relations workers in selected
specialties, 1978

Position classifier...........................................................................................................................
Occupational analyst....................................................................................................................
Salary and wage adm inistrator................................................................................................
Staffing specialist...........................................................................................................................


SOURCE: U.S. Office o f Personnel Management.

$15,300. Average salaries of Federal em­
ployees in several different areas of personnel
and labor relations work ranged from about
$21,400 to $33,800 in 1978, as shown in the
accompanying table.

to form powders, tablets, capsules, oint­
ments, and solutions—is now only a small
part of pharmacists’ practice, since most
medicines are produced by manufacturers in
the form used by the patient.

Related Occupations

Many pharmacists employed in commu­
nity pharmacies also have other duties. Be­
sides dispensing medicines, some pharma­
cists buy and sell nonpharmaceutical
merchandise, hire and supervise personnel,
and oversee the general operation of the
pharmacy. Other pharmacists, however, op­
erate prescription pharmacies that dispense
only medicines, medical supplies, and health

All of the personnel and labor relations
occupations are, of course, closely related to
each other. Other workers who help people
find satisfactory jobs or help to make the
work environment safe and pleasant include
health and regulatory inspectors, occupa­
tional safety and health workers, lawyers,
counselors, college career planning and
placement counselors, industrial engineers,
psychologists, and sociologists. All of these
occupations are described in other chapters
of the Handbook.

Sources of Additional Information
For general information on careers in per­
sonnel and labor relations work, write to:
American Society for Personnel Administration,
30 Park Dr., Berea, Ohio 44017.

For information concerning a career in
employee training and development, contact:
American Society for Training and Development,
P.O. Box 5307, Madison, Wis. 53705.

A brochure describing a career in labormanagement relations as a field examiner is
available from:
Director of Personnel, National Labor Relations
Board, 1717 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C., 20570.

(D.O.T. 074.161)

Nature of the Work
Pharmacists dispense drugs and medicines
prescribed by medical and dental practition­
ers and supply and advise people on the use
of many medicines that can be obtained with
and without prescriptions. Pharmacists must
understand the use, composition, and effect
of drugs and often test them for purity and
strength. They may maintain patient medica­
tion profiles and advise physicians on the
proper selection and use of medicines. Com­
pounding—the actual mixing of ingredients

Pharmacists in hospitals and clinics dis­
pense prescriptions and advise the medical
staff on the selection and effects of drugs;
they also make sterile solutions, buy medical
supplies, teach in schools of nursing and al­
lied health professions, and perform adminis­
trative duties. In addition, pharmacists work
as consultants to the medical team in matters
related to daily patient care in hospitals,
nursing homes, and other health care facili­
ties. Their role is crucial to safe, efficient, and
proper therapeutic care.
Some pharmacists, employed as sales or
medical service representatives by drug
manufacturers and wholesalers, sell medi­
cines to retail pharmacies and to hospitals,
and inform health personnel about new
drugs. Others teach in colleges of pharmacy,
supervise the manufacture of pharmaceuti­
cals, or are involved in research and the de­
velopment of new medicines. Some pharma­
cists edit or write technical articles for
pharmaceutical journals, or do administra­
tive work. Some combine pharmaceutical
and legal training in jobs as patent lawyers or
consultants on pharmaceutical and drug

Working Conditions
Pharmacists usually work in a clean, welllighted, and well-ventilated area that resem­
bles a small laboratory. Shelves are lined with
hundreds of different medicines and drugs.
In addition, some items are refrigerated and
all controlled substances are kept under lock
and key.
According to a recent survey, pharmacists
average 44 hours a week in their primary
work setting. Many pharmacists work in a
secondary setting where they average 15

Places of Employment
About 135,000 persons worked as licensed
pharmacists in 1978. About 100,000 pharma­
cists worked in community pharmacies. Of
these, about one-third owned their own phar­
macies; the others were salaried employees.
Most of the remaining pharmacists worked
for hospitals, pharmaceutical manufacturers,
wholesalers, and government and educa­
tional institutions. Quite a few community
and hospital pharmacists do consulting work
for nursing homes and other health facilities
in addition to their primary jobs. As a rule,
pharmacy services in nursing homes are pro­
vided by consultants rather than by salaried
Some pharmacists are civilian employees
of the Federal Government who work chiefly
in hospitals and clinics of the Veterans Ad­
ministration and the U.S. Public Health Ser­
vice. Additional Federal agencies employing
pharmacists include the Department of De­
fense, the Food and Drug Administration
and other branches of the Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare, and the
Drug Enforcement Administration. Other
pharmacists serve in the Armed Forces or
teach in colleges of pharmacy. State and local
health agencies and pharmaceutical and
other professional associations also employ
Most towns have at least one pharmacy
with one pharmacist or more in attendance.
Most pharmacists, however, practice in or
near cities and in those States that have the
largest populations.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
A license to practice pharmacy is required
in all States and the District of Columbia. To
obtain a license, one must graduate from an
accredited pharmacy degree program, pass a
State board examination and—in all States—
have a specified amount of practical experi­
ence or internship under the supervision of a
licensed pharmacist. Internships generally
are served in a community or hospital phar­
macy. In 1978, all States except California,
Florida, and Hawaii granted a license with­
out reexamination to qualified pharmacists
already licensed by another State. Many
pharmacists are licensed to practice in more
than one State.
At least 5 years of study beyond high
school are required to graduate from one of
the degree programs accredited by the
American Council on Pharmaceutical Edu­
cation in the 72 colleges of pharmacy. Most
graduates receive a Bachelor of Science (B.S.)
or a Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm.) de7149

A limited number of Federal scholarships
and loans are available for students studying
full time toward a degree in pharmacy. In
addition, scholarships are awarded annually
by drug manufacturers, chain drugstores,
corporations, State and national pharmacy
associations, colleges of pharmacy, and other
Since many pharmacists are selfemployed, prospective pharmacists inter­
ested in this type of practice should have
some business capability, interest in medical
science, and the ability to gain the confidence
of clients. Honesty, integrity, and orderliness
are important attributes for the profession. In
addition, accuracy is needed to compound
and dispense medicines as well as keep rec­
ords required by law.
Pharmacists often begin as employees in
community pharmacies. After they gain ex­
perience and obtain the necessary funds, they
may become owners or part owners of phar­
macies. A pharmacist who gains experience
in a chain drugstore may advance to a
managerial position, and later to a higher
executive position within the company. Hos­
pital pharmacists who have the necessary
training and experience may advance to di­
rector of pharmacy service or to other ad­
ministrative positions. Pharmacists in indus­
try often have opportunities for advancement
in management, sales, research, quality con­
trol, advertising, production, packaging, and
other areas.

Employment Outlook

Pharmacist fills prescription.

gree. About one-third of the colleges of phar­
macy also offer advanced professional degree
programs leading to a Doctor of Pharmacy
(Pharm. D.) degree; three of the schools offer
only the Pharm. D. degree. The Pharm. D.
degree as well as the B.S. and B. Pharm.
degrees may serve as the entry degree for
licensure as a pharmacist.
Admission requirements vary. A few col­
leges admit students directly from high
school. Most colleges of pharmacy, however,
require entrants to have completed 1 or 2
years of prepharmacy education in an accred­
ited junior college, college, or university. A
prepharmacy curriculum usually emphasizes
mathematics and basic sciences, such as
chemistry, biology, and physics, but also in­
cludes courses in the humanities and social
sciences. Because entry requirements vary
among colleges of pharmacy, prepharmacy
students should inquire about and follow the
curriculum required by colleges they plan to
The bachelor’s degree in pharmacy is the
minimum educational qualification for most
positions in the profession. An increasing
number of students are enrolled in advanced
professional programs leading to the Pharm.
D. degree. A master’s or Ph. D. degree in
pharmacy or a related field usually is re­
quired for research work and a Pharm. D.,
master’s, or Ph. D. usually is necessary for
administrative work or college teaching. Al­


though a number of pharmacy graduates in­
terested in further training pursue an ad­
vanced degree in pharmacy, there are other
options. Some enter medical, dental, or law
school, and others pursue graduate degrees in
science or engineering.
Areas of special study include phar­
maceutics and pharmaceutical chemistry
(physical and chemical properties of drugs
and dosage forms), pharmacology (effects of
drugs on the body), pharmacognosy (drugs
derived from plant or animal sources), hospi­
tal pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, and phar­
macy administration. Clinical pharmacy is
the synthesis of the basic science education
and the application of this knowledge to drug
management problems in the care of patients.
Courses in pharmacy administration are par­
ticularly helpful to pharmacists who become
executives or managers.
All colleges of pharmacy offer courses in
pharmacy practice, designed to educate stu­
dents in the skilled processes required for
compounding and dispensing prescriptions,
and to give students an appreciation for the
profession and an understanding of the re­
sponsibilities pharmacists have in their rela­
tionships with physicians and patients. Many
college programs of pharmacy increasingly
are emphasizing direct patient care as well as
consultative services to other health profes­

The employment outlook for pharmacists
is expected to be favorable through the
1980’s. However, if the number of pharmacy
graduates continues to rise as rapidly as it has
in recent years, graduates may experience
competition for jobs. Employment growth is
expected to be faster than the average for all
occupations. Additional openings will result
from deaths, retirements, and other separa­
tions from the labor force.
Employment will grow as new pharmacies
are established in large residential areas,
small towns, and rural locations. Many com­
munity pharmacies are expected to hire addi­
tional pharmacists because of a trend to­
wards shorter working hours. Demand for
pharmacists also will be generated by such
factors as population growth; increased life
expectancy; greater demand for drugs, par­
ticularly among the elderly; availability of a
wider range of drug products for preventive
and therapeutic uses; the rising standard of
health care; and the growth of public and
private health insurance programs that pro­
vide payment for prescription drugs.
Employment of pharmacists in hospitals
and other health facilities is expected to rise
faster than in other work settings. Pharma­
cists increasingly provide direct patient care
and consultative services to physicians and
other professionals in health facilities. Phar­
macists with advanced training will be
needed for college teaching and top adminis­
trative posts.

Salaries of pharmacists are generally in­
fluenced by the location, size, and type of
employer, as well as the duties and respon­
sibilities of the position. The average starting
salary for pharmacists working in hospitals
was about $17,000 a year in 1978, according
to a national survey conducted by the Uni­
versity of Texas Medical Branch; ex­
perienced hospital pharmacists averaged
about $21,000 a year. Pharmacists who do
consulting work in addition to their primary
job may have total earnings considerably
higher than this. Experienced pharmacists,
particularly owners or managers of pharma­
cies, often earn considerably more.
The minimum entrance salary in the Fed­
eral Government for a new graduate with a
bachelor’s degree from an approved phar­
macy degree program was about $13,000 a
year in 1979. However, most graduates quali­
fied for a beginning salary of about $15,900
a year; those with 2 years of graduate work,
about $19,300 a year. Pharmacists with addi­
tional years of experience may start at a
higher salary. The average salary for all fed­
erally employed pharmacists was about $20,800 in 1978.
According to a survey conducted by the
American Association of Colleges of Phar­
macy, average annual salaries of full-time
personnel in colleges of pharmacy during
1978 were as follows: deans, about $42,000;
assistant and associate deans, about $32,000;
full professors, around $33,000; associate
professors, around $26,000; and assistant
professors, about $22,000.

Related Occupations
Pharmacists fill the prescriptions of physi­
cians, dentists, and other health practitioners
and are responsible for selecting, compound­
ing, dispensing, and preserving drugs and
medicines. Workers in other professions re­
quiring similar educational training and who
work with pharmaceutical compounds or
perform related duties include pharmaceuti­
cal bacteriologists, pharmaceutical chemists,
pharmaceutical-compounding supervisors,
and pharmacologists.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on pharmacy as a
career, preprofessional and professional re­
quirements, programs offered by colleges of
pharmacy, and student financial aid is availa­
ble from:
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy,
Office of Student Affairs, 4630 Montgomery Ave.,
Suite 201, Bethesda, Md. 20014.

General information on pharmacy is avail­
able from:
American Pharmaceutical Association, 2215 Con­
stitution Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20037.

Information about chain drugstores is
available from:
National Association of Chain Drug Stores, 1911
Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, Va. 22202.

General information on retail pharmacies
is available from:
National Association of Retail Druggists, 1750 K
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

For a list of accredited colleges of phar­
macy, contact:
American Council on Pharmaceutical Education,
One East Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111. 60601.

Information on requirements for licensure
in a particular State is available from the
Board of Pharmacy of that State or from:
National Association of Boards of Pharmacy, One
East Wacker Dr., Suite 2210, Chicago, 111. 60601.

Information on college entrance require­
ments, curriculums, and financial aid is avail­
able from the dean of any college of phar­

(D.O.T. 143.062-014, -022, -026, -030, and -034;
143.362-010 and -014; and 143.457-010)

Nature of the Work
Photographers use their cameras and film
to portray people, places, and events much as
a writer uses words. Those who are skillful
can capture the personality of individuals or
the mood of scenes which they photograph.
Some photographers specialize in scientific,
medical, or engineering photography, and
their pictures enable thousands of persons to
see a world normally hidden from view.
Although their subject matter varies
widely, all photographers use the same basic
equipment. The most important piece, of
course, is the camera, and most photogra­
phers own several. Unlike snapshot cameras,
which have a lens permanently attached to
the camera body, professional cameras are
generally constructed to use a variety of
lenses designed for close-up, medium-range,
or distance photography.
Besides cameras and lenses, photographers
use a variety of film and colored filters to
obtain the desired effect under different light­
ing conditions. When taking pictures indoors
or after dark, they may use electronic flash
units, floodlights, reflectors, and other spe­
cial lighting equipment.
Some photographers develop and print
their own photographs in the darkroom and
may enlarge or otherwise alter the basic
image. Many photographers send their work
to laboratories for processing.
Because the procedures involved in still
photography are quite different from those in
motion picture photography, many photog­
raphers specialize in one or the other. How­
ever, the demand is growing for photogra­
phers who have training in both areas.
In addition to knowing how to use equip­
ment and materials, photographers must be
able to compose the subjects of their photo­
graphs and recognize a potentially good pho­

Many photographers specialize in a partic­
ular type of photography, such as portrait,
commercial, or industrial work. Portrait pho­
tographers (D.O.T. 143.062-030) take pic­
tures of individuals or groups of persons and
often work in their own studios. For special
events, such as weddings or christenings,
however, they take photographs in churches
and homes. Portrait photographers in small
studios frequently do all the operations, in­
cluding scheduling appointments and setting
up and adjusting equipment before taking the
pictures, as well as developing and retouch­
ing negatives, developing proofs, and mount­
ing and framing pictures. They also may col­
lect payments and keep records, and
therefore must be good business persons.
Commercial photographers (D.O.T. 143.062-030) photograph a wide range of subjects
including livestock, manufactured articles,
buildings, and large groups of people. They
frequently do photography for catalogs.
Those in advertising take pictures to promote
items such as clothing, furniture, automo­
biles, and food, and may specialize in one
such area. Advertising photographers must
know how to use many different photo­
graphic techniques.
Industrial photographers (D.O.T. 143.062030) are involved in a wide variety of activity.
Companies use their work in publications to
report to stockholders or to advertise com­
pany products or services. Industrial photog­
raphers also photograph groups of people for
employee news magazines or take motion
pictures of workers operating equipment and
machinery for management’s use in analyz­
ing production or work methods. They may
also use special photographic techniques as
research tools. For example, medical re­
searchers often use ultraviolet and infrared
photography, fluorescence, and X-rays to ob­
tain information not visible under normal
conditions. Time-lapse photography (where
time is stretched or condensed), photomi­
crography (where the subject of the photog­
raphy may be magnified 50 or 70 times or
more), and photogrammetry (surveying an
area using aerial photography) are other spe­
cial techniques.
Photojournalists (D.O.T. 143.062-034)
photograph newsworthy events, places, peo­
ple, and things for publications such as news­
papers and magazines or for television news
shows. They may also prepare educational
slides, filmstrips, and movies for use in the

Working Conditions
Working conditions for photographers
vary. Those who have salaried jobs usually
work a 5-day, 35-40 hour week. Photogra­
phers in business for themselves usually work
longer hours. Depending upon the employ­
ment, working hours for freelance photogra­
phers vary.
Freelance, press, and commercial photog­
raphers travel frequently and may work in
uncomfortable surroundings. Sometimes the
/ 151

and color vision, artistic ability, and manual
dexterity. They also should be patient and
accurate and enjoy working with detail.
Some knowledge of mathematics, physics,
and chemistry is helpful for understanding
the use of various lenses, films, light sources,
and development processes.
Some photographic specialties require ad­
ditional qualities. Commercial or freelance
photographers must be imaginative and orig­
inal in their thinking. Those who specialize in
photographing news stories must recognize a
potentially good photograph and act quickly;
otherwise, an opportunity to capture an im­
portant event on film may be lost. Writing
ability sometimes is important for photojour­
nalists, who may write captions and accom­
panying articles for their photographs.Photographers who specialize in portrait
photography need the ability to help people
relax in front of the camera.

Com mercial photographers use many different techniques and types of equipment.

work can be dangerous, especially for photo­
journalists assigned to cover stories on natu­
ral disasters or military conflicts.
Many photographers work under pressure.
Deadlines and demanding customers must be
satisfied. Freelance photographers may find
soliciting new clients frustrating and tedious.

Places of Employment
About 93,000 photographers were em­
ployed in 1978. The greatest proportion
worked in commercial studios; many others
worked for newspapers and magazines. Gov­
ernment agencies, photographic equipment
suppliers and dealers, and industrial firms
also employed large numbers of photogra­
phers. In addition, some taught in colleges
and universities, or made films. Still others
worked freelance, taking pictures to sell to
advertisers, magazines, and other customers.
About one-third of all photographers were
Jobs for photographers are found in all
parts of the country—both small towns and
large cities—but are concentrated in the
more populated areas.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Although a high school education is desir­
able, photography has no set entry require­
ments for formal education or training. Em­
ployers usually seek applicants who have a
broad technical understanding of photogra­
phy as well as other photographic talents,
such as imagination, creativity, and a good
sense of timing. Technical expertise can be
obtained through practical experience, post­
secondary training, or some combination of
the two. Some jobs do require that applicants
specialize areas outside of photography.


Photographic training is available in col­
leges, universities, junior colleges, and art
schools. About 75 colleges and universities
offer 4-year curriculums leading to a bache­
lor’s degree in photography. Some colleges
and universities grant master’s degrees in
specialized areas, such as photojournalism.
In addition, some colleges have 2-year cur­
riculums leading to a certificate or an associ­
ate degree in photography. A formal educa­
tion in photography gives a solid
fundamental background in a variety of
equipment, processes, and techniques. Art
schools offer useful training in design and
composition, but not the technical training
needed for professional photographic work.
The Armed Forces also train many young
people in photographic skills.
People may prepare for work as photogra­
phers in a commercial studio through 2 or 3
years of on-the-job training as a photogra­
pher’s assistant. Trainees generally start in
the darkroom where they learn to mix chemi­
cals, develop film, and do photoprinting and
enlarging. Later they may set up lights and
cameras or help an experienced photogra­
pher take pictures.
Amateur experience is helpful in getting an
entry job with a commercial studio, but posthigh school education and training usually
are needed for industrial or scientific photog­
raphy. Here success in photography depends
on being more than just a competent photog­
rapher, and adequate career preparation re­
quires some knowledge of the field in which
the photography is used. For example, work
in scientific, medical, and engineering re­
search, such as photographing microscopic
organisms, requires a background in the par­
ticular science or engineering specialty as
well as skill in photography.
Photographers must have good eyesight

Newly hired photographers are given rela­
tively routine assignments that do not require
split-second camera adjustments or decisions
on what subject matter to photograph. News
photographers, for example, may be assigned
to cover civic meetings or photograph snow
storms. After gaining experience they ad­
vance to more demanding assignments, and
some may move to staff positions on national
news magazines. Photographers with excep­
tional ability may gain national recognition
for their work and exhibit their photographs
in art and photographic galleries, or publish
them in books. A few industrial or scientific
photographers may be promoted to supervi­
sory positions. Magazine and news photogra­
phers may eventually become heads of
graphic arts departments or photography

Employment Outlook
Employment of photographers is expected
to grow about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s. In addition
to openings resulting from increased demand
for photographers, others will occur each
year as workers die, retire, or transfer to
other occupations.
Employment may grow as business and in­
dustry place greater importance upon visual
aids in meetings, stockholders’ reports, sales
campaigns, and public relations work. Video
and motion picture photography are becom­
ing increasingly important in industry. Pho­
tography also is becoming an increasingly
important part of law enforcement work, as
well as scientific and medical research, where
opportunities are expected to be good for
those possessing a highly specialized back­
The employment of portrait and commer­
cial photographers is expected to grow
slowly, and competition for jobs as portrait
and commercial photographers and photog­
raphers’ assistants is expected to be keen.
These fields are relatively crowded since pho­
tographers can go into business for them­
selves with a modest financial investment, or

work part time while holding another job.
Increased use of self-processing cameras in
commercial photography also has con­
tributed to crowding in this field, since little
training is required for such work.

pists revise the therapeutic procedures and
treatments. They help disabled persons ac­
cept their physical handicaps and adjust to
them. They also teach patients and their
families how to continue treatments at home.


Therapeutic procedures include exercises
for increasing strength, endurance, coordina­
tion, and range of motion; electrical stimula­
tion to activate paralyzed muscles; instruc­
tion in carrying out everyday activities and in
the use of helping devices; and the applica­
tion of massage, heat, cold, light, water, or
electricity to relieve pain or improve the con­
dition of muscles and skin.

Beginning photographers who worked for
newspapers that have contracts with The
Newspaper Guild had weekly earnings be­
tween $135 and $457 in early 1979, with the
majority earning between $200 and $275.
Newspaper photographers with some experi­
ence (usually 4 or 5 years) averaged about
$368 a week in early 1979. Almost all ex­
perienced newspaper photographers earned
over $250; the topsalary was $560 a week.
Photographers in the Federal Government
earned an average of $16,500 a year in 1978.
Depending on their level of experience, newly
hired photographers in the Federal Govern­
ment earned from $9,390 to $13,010 a year.
Most experienced photographers earned be­
tween $13,010 and $19,260 a year.
Experienced photographers generally earn
salaries that are above the average for nonsupervisory workers in private industry, ex­
cept farming. Although self-employed and
freelance photographers often earn more
than salaried workers, their earnings are af­
fected greatly by general business conditions
and the type and size of their community and

Related Occupations
Besides photographers, other workers who
rely on their visual arts talents in their jobs
include commercial artists, floral designers,
illustrators, industrial designers, painters,
and sculptors.

Sources of Additional Information
Career information on photography is
available from:
Professional Photographers of America, Inc., 1090
Executive Way, Des Plaines, 111. 60018.

Physical Therapists
(D.O.T. 076.121-014)

Nature of the Work
Physical therapists help persons with mus­
cle, nerve, joint, and bone diseases or injuries
to overcome their disabilities. Their patients
include accident victims, handicapped chil­
dren, and disabled older persons. Physical
therapists perform and interpret tests and
measurements for muscle strength, motor de­
velopment, functional capacity, and respira­
tory and circulatory efficiency to develop
programs for treatment in cooperation with
the patient’s physician. They evaluate the ef­
fectiveness of the treatment and discuss pa­
tient’s progress with physicians, psycholo­
gists, occupational therapists, and other
specialists. When advisable, physical thera­

Most physical therapists provide direct
care to patients as staff members, supervi­
sors, or self-employed practitioners. Physical
therapists usually perform their own evalua­
tions of patients; in large hospitals and nurs­
ing homes, however, the director or assistant
director of the physical therapy department
may handle this work, which requires exten­
sive training and experience. Therapists may
treat patients with a wide variety of prob­
lems, or they may specialize in pediatrics,
geriatrics, orthopaedics, sports medicine,
neurology, or cardiopulmonary diseases.
Others teach or are consultants.

Working Conditions
Physical therapists generally work in
pleasant surroundings. Evening and weekend
hours may be required, especially for those in
private practice who must be available at
times convenient for their patients. The job
can be physically exhausting. In addition to
standing for long periods, therapists must
move equipment and help patients turn,
stand, or walk.

Places of Employment
About 30,000 persons worked as licensed
physical therapists in 1978. The largest
number work in hospitals. Nursing homes
employ a growing number of physical thera­
pists and also contract for the services of
self-employed therapists. Other therapists
work in rehabilitation centers or schools for
handicapped children. Some who work for
public health agencies treat chronically sick
patients in their own homes. Still others
work in physicians’ offices or clinics, teach
in physical therapy educational programs,
or work for research organizations. A few
serve as consultants in government and vol­
untary agencies or are members of the
Armed Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
All States, the District of Columbia, and
the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico require a
license to practice physical therapy. Appli­
cants for a license must have a degree or
certificate from an accredited physical ther­
apy educational program and, to qualify,
must pass a State licensure examination. Ap­
plicants may prepare for State licensure ex­
aminations in physical therapy through one

of three types of programs, depending upon
previous academic study. High school gradu­
ates can earn a 4-year bachelor’s degree in
physical therapy at a college or university.
Students who already hold a bachelor’s de­
gree in another field, such as biology or phys­
ical education, can earn a second bachelor’s
degree, or a certificate, or an entry level mas­
ter’s degree in physical therapy.
In 1979, 13 certificate programs, 74 bache­
lor’s degree programs and 9 master’s degree
programs were accredited by the American
Physical Therapy Association and the
American Medical Association to provide
entry level training. There were also 19 other
master’s degree programs and 4 doctoral de­
gree programs that provided advanced train­
ing to those already in the field. One of the
master’s degree programs is sponsored
jointly by the U.S. Army and Baylor Univer­
sity; graduates are commissioned as officers
in the Army.
The physical therapy curriculum includes
science courses such as anatomy, physiology,
neuroanatomy, and neurophysiology; it also
includes specialized courses such as biome­
chanics of motion, human growth and devel­
opment, and manifestations of disease and
trauma. Besides receiving classroom instruc­
tion, students get supervised clinical experi­
ence administering physical therapy to pa­
tients in hospitals and other treatment
Competition for entry to all physical ther­
apy programs is keen. Institutions offering a
physical therapy program each year receive
many more applications than the number of
existing places. Consequently, students seri­
ously interested in attending a physical ther­
apy program must attain superior grades in
their earlier studies, especially in science
courses. High school courses that are useful
include health, biology, chemistry, social sci­
ence, mathematics, and physics.
Personal traits that physical therapists
need include patience, tact, resourcefulness,
and emotional stability to help patients and
their families understand the treatments and
adjust to their handicaps. Physical therapists
also should have manual dexterity and physi­
cal stamina. Many persons who want to de­
termine whether they have the personal
qualities needed for this occupation volun­
teer for summer or part-time work in the
physical therapy department of a hospital or
A graduate degree combined \yith clinical
experience increases opportunities for ad­
vancement, especially to teaching, research,
and administrative positions.

Employment Outlook
Employment of physical therapists is ex­
pected to grow much faster than the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s be­
cause of increased public recognition of the
importance of rehabilitation. As programs to
aid handicapped children and other rehabili­
tation activities expand, and as growth takes

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on a career as a
physical therapist and a list of accredited
educational programs in physical therapy are
available from:
American Physical Therapy Association, 1156
15th St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20005.

(D.O.T. 070.061-010 through .107-014)

Nature of the Work
Physicians perform medical examina­
tions, diagnose diseases, and treat people
who are suffering from injury or disease.
They also advise patients on how to pre­
vent disease and keep fit through proper
diet and exercise. Physicians generally
work in their own offices and in hospitals,
but they also may visit patients in their
homes or in nursing homes.
A decreasing percentage of the physicians
who provide patient care are general practi­
tioners (about 15 percent in 1978); most spe­
cialize in 1 of about 40 fields for which there
is postgraduate training. The largest special­
ties are internal medicine, general surgery,
obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, pedia­
trics, radiology, anesthesiology, ophthal­
mology, pathology, and orthopedic surgery.
The most rapidly growing specialties are in
the primary care area—family practice, in­
ternal medicine, obstetrics-gynecology, and
Some physicians combine the practice of
medicine with research or teaching in medi­
cal schools. Others hold full-time research or
teaching positions or perform administrative
work in hospitals, professional associations,
and other organizations. A few are primarily
engaged in writing and editing medical books
and magazines.

Working Conditions
A physical therapist’s work can often be very rewarding.

place in nursing homes and other facilities for
the elderly, many new positions for physical
therapists are likely to be created.
Persons seeking physical therapy postions
may face some competition, however. If re­
cent trends continue, the number of new
graduates is expected to exceed the number
of openings that will result each year from
expansion in this field and from replacement
of those who die or retire. Opportunities
should be best in suburban and rural areas.
Many part-time positions should continue to
be available.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Starting salaries for new physical therapy
graduates averaged about $13,000 a year in
1978, according to a national survey con­
ducted by the University of Texas Medical
Branch. Earnings of experienced physical


therapists averaged about $ 16,000, with some
earning as much as $27,000 a year.
Beginning therapists employed by the Vet­
erans Administration (VA) earned starting
salaries of $11,700 a year in 1979. The aver­
age salary paid therapists employed by the
VA in 1978 was about $17,200 annually; su­
pervisory therapists may earn over $23,000.

Related Occupations
Physical therapists are concerned with the
treatment and rehabilitation of persons with
physical or mental disabilities or disorders.
They may use exercise, massage, heat, water,
electricity, and various therapeutic devices to
help their patients gain independence. Other
workers who perform similar duties include
occupational therapists, speech pathologists
and audiologists, orthotists, prosthetists, and
respiratory therapists.

Many physicians have long working days
and irregular hours. Most specialists work
fewer hours each week than general practi­
tioners. As doctors grow older, they may ac­
cept fewer new patients and tend to work
shorter hours. However, many continue in
practice well beyond 70 years of age.

Place of Employment
About 385,000 physicians were profession­
ally active in the United States in 1978—
almost 9 out of 10 providing patient care ser­
vices. About 220,000 of these had office prac­
tices; more than 105,000 others worked as
residents or full-time staff member in hospi­
tals. The remaining physicians—more than
32,000—taught or performed administrative
or research duties.
In 1978, 10,000 graduates of foreign medi­
cal schools served as hospital residents in this
country. To be appointed to approved resi-

Specialists outnumber general practitioners by 5 to 1

Medicine is a popular field of study, and
competition for entry to medical school is
intense. In 1978, there were about 40,500 ap­
plicants for only 16,000 positions. Almost all
of those accepted had premedical college
grades averaging “B” or better. Other factors
considered by medical schools in admitting
students include their scores on the New
Medical College Admission Test, which is
taken by almost all applicants. Consideration
also is given to the applicant’s character, per­
sonality, and leadership qualities, as shown
by personal interviews, letters of recommen­
dation, and extracurricular activities in col­
lege. Many State-supported medical schools
give preference to residents of their particular
State and, sometimes, those of nearby States.

Percent of physicians by specialty group, 1978

dencies in U.S. hospitals, alien graduates of
foreign medical schools must pass the Visa
Qualifying Examination offered by the Edu­
cational Commission for Foreign Medical
The Northeastern States have the highest
ratio of physicians to population and the
Southern States the lowest. Because physi­
cians have tended to locate in urban areas,
close to hospital and educational centers,
many rural areas have been underserved by
medical personnel. Currently, more medical
students are being exposed to practice in
rural communities with the direct support of
educational centers and hospitals in more
populous areas. In addition, some rural areas
offer physicians guaranteed minimum in­
comes to offset the relatively low earnings
typical in rural medical practice.

sciences to acquire a broad general educa­

begin the study of medicine. Of these, 123
awarded the degree of Doctor of Medicine
(M.D.); 1 school offered a 2-year program in
the basic medical sciences to students who
could then transfer to another medical school
for the last semesters of study.
The minimum educational requirement for
entry to a medical school is 3 years of college;
some schools require 4 years. A few medical
schools allow selected students who have ex­
ceptional qualifications to begin their profes­
sional study after 2 years of college. Most
students who enter medical schools have a
bachelor’s degree.
Required premedical study includes un­
dergraduate work in English, physics, biol­
ogy, and inorganic and organic chemistry.
Students also should take courses in the
humanities, mathematics, and the social

Most medical students take 4 years to
complete the curriculum for the M.D. de­
gree. Some schools, however, allow students
who have demonstrated outstanding ability
to follow a shortened curriculum, generally
lasting 3 years. A few schools offer the M.D.
degree within 6 years of high school gradua­
The first semesters of medical school are
spent primarily in laboratories and class­
rooms, learning basic medical sciences such
as anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, phar­
macology, microbiology, and pathology. Ad­
ditionally, students gain some clinical experi­
ence with patients during the first 2 years of
study, earning to take case histories, perform
examinations, and recognize diseases. Dur­
ing the last semesters, students spend the ma­
jority of their time in hospitals and clinics
under the supervision of clinical faculty,
where they become experienced in the diag­
nosis and treatment of illness.
After graduating from medical school, al­
most all M.D.’s serve a 1- or 2-year resi­
dency. Those planning to work in general

Training and Other Qualifications
All States, the District of Columbia, and
Puerto Rico require a license to practice
medicine. Requirements for licensure include
graduation from an accredited medical
school, successful completion of a licensing
examination, and, in most States, a period of
1 or 2 years in an accredited graduate medi­
cal education program (residency). The lic­
ensing examination taken by most graduates
of U.S. medical schools is the National Board
of Medical Examiners (NBME) test that is
accepted by all States except Texas. Gradu­
ates of foreign medical schools as well as
graduates of U.S. medical schools who have
not taken the NBME test must take the Fed­
eration Licensure Examination (FLEX) that
is accepted by all jurisdictions. Although
physicians licensed in one State usually can
get a license to practice in another without
further examination, some States limit this
In 1978, there were 124 accredited schools
in the United States in which students could

In a reversal of earlier patterns, more new medical
graduates now enter residencies in primary care than
in the highly specialized areas of medicine
Percent of first-year residencies
1 Primary care
includes family
practice, internal
medicine, obstetrics,
and pediatrics




Source: American Medical Association


for physicians’ care will increase because of
greater ability to pay, resulting from exten­
sion of prepayment programs for hospitali­
zation and medical care, including Medicare
and Medicaid, and continued Federal Gov­
ernment provision of medical care for mem­
bers of the Armed Forces, their families,
and veterans. In addition, more physicians
will be needed for medical research and for
the growing fields of public health, rehabili­
tation, industrial medicine, and mental
To some extent, the rise in the demand for
physicians’ services will be offset by develop­
ments that will enable physicians to care for
more patients. For example, increasing num­
bers of medical technicians are assisting
physicians; new drugs and new medical tech­
niques are shortening illnesses; and growing
numbers of physicians are using their time
more effectively by engaging in group prac­
tice. The use of physicians’ assistants and
nurse practitioners also may increase the pro­
ductivity of physicians.
Although the expected increase in the
number of phyisians and in the productivity
is likely to result in greater availability of
medical care, new physicians should have lit­
tle difficulty establishing a practice.


O ne of the fastest growing m edical specialties is fam ily practice.

practice often spend an additional year in a
hospital residency. Those seeking certifica­
tion in a specialty spend from 2 to 4 years—
depending on the specialty—in advanced res­
idency training, followed by 2 years of prac­
tice or more in the specialty. Then they must
pass the specialty board examinations. Some
physicians who want to teach or do research
take graduate work leading to a master’s or
Ph. D. degree in a field such as biochemistry
or microbiology.

group practices. Those who have completed
1 year of graduate medical education (a 1year residency) and enter active military duty
initially serve as captains in the Army or Air
Force or as lieutenants in the Navy. Gradu­
ates of medical schools are eligible for com­
missions as senior assistant surgeons in the
U.S. Public Health Service, with a salary
equivalent to that of an Army captain. Grad­
uates also qualify for Federal Civil Service
professional medical positions.

Medical training is very costly because of
the long time required to earn the medical
degree. However, financial assistance in the
form of loans and scholarships is available
primarily from the Federal Government, and
to a lesser extent from State and local govern­
ment and private sources. Some of this aid
requires the student to commit a minimum of
2 years’ time to Federal service upon gradua­
tion and/or to establish financial need.

Employment Outlook

Persons who wish to become physicians
must have a strong desire to serve the sick
and injured. They must be willing to study a
great deal in order to keep up with the latest
advances in medical science. Sincerity and a
pleasant personality are assets that help
physicians gain the confidence of patients.
Physicians also should be emotionally stable
and able to make decisions in emergencies.
The majority of newly qualified physicians
open their own offices or join associate or


The employment outlook for physicians is
expected to be favorable through the 1980’s.
However, medical school enrollments in­
creased dramatically during the 1970’s, and
these graduates, combined with foreign med­
ical graduates seeking to practice here, will
greatly improve the supply of physicians.
Moreover, a greater percentage of new medi­
cal graduates are entering the primary care
specialties, and this may help alleviate a criti­
cal shortage in many localities. With more
physicians in primary care there may be an
increasing movement of physicians into rural
and other areas that have experienced short­
ages in the past.
Growth in population will create much of
the need for more physicians, and a larger
percentage of the population will be in the
age group over 65, which uses more physi­
cians’ services. Also, the effective demand

Stipends of medical school graduates serv­
ing as residents in hospitals vary according to
the type of residency, geographic area, and
size of the hospital, but allowances of $13,000
to $14,000 a year are common. Many hospi­
tals also provide full or partial room, board,
and other maintenance allowances to their
Graduates who had completed approved
3-year residencies but had no other medical
experience, received a starting salary at Vet­
erans’ Administration hospitals of about
$32,500 a year in 1979. In addition, those
working full time received up to $7,000 in
other cash benefits or “special” payments.
Newly qualified physicians who establish
their own practice must make a sizable finan­
cial investment to equip a modern office.
During the first year cjr two of independent
practice, physicians probably earn little more
than the minimum needed to pay expenses.
As a rule, however, their earnings rise rapidly
as their practices develop.
Physicians have the highest average an­
nual earnings of any occupational group. A
survey of private, offide-based M.D.’s, con­
ducted by Medical Economics magazine, re­
ported a median net income of $65,400 in
1977. Historically, most specialists, such as
radiologists and surgepns, have earned much
more than family or general practitioners.
However, earnings of family practitioners in
recent years have risen sharply. The average
of family practitioners’ incomes was 90 per­
cent of that for general surgeons in 1977.
Earnings of physicians depend on factors
such as the region of the country in which
they practice; the patients’ income levels; and

the physicians’ skills, personality, and profes­
sional reputation, as well as the length of
experience. Self-employed physicians usually
earn more than those in salaried positions.

Related Occupations
Physicians work to prevent, diagnose, and
treat diseases, disorders, and injuries. Other
occupations that require similar kinds of skill
and critical judgment include audiologists,
chiropractors, dentists, optometrists, os­
teopathic phsyicians, podiatrists, speech pa­
thologists, and veterinarians.

Sources of Additional Information
Persons who wish to practice in a State
should find out about the requirements for
licensure directly from the board of medical
examiners of that State. Information on Fed­
eral scholarships and loans is available from
the directors of student financial aid at medi­
cal schools. For a list of approved medical
schools, as well as general information on
premedical education, financial aid, and
medicine as a career, contact:
Council on Medical Education, American Medical
Association, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago 111.
Association of American Medical Colleges, Suite
200, One Dupont Circle, NW., Washington, D.C.

tense light beam) are utilized in surgery; mi­
crowave devices are used for ovens; and mea­
surement techniques and instruments can
detect and measure the kind and number of
cells in blood or the amount of mercury or
lead in foods.
Some engineering-oriented physicists do
applied research and help develop new pro­
ducts. For instance, their knowledge of solidstate physics led to the development of tran­
sistors and microcircuits used in electronic
equipment that ranges from hearing aids to
missile guidance systems.
Many physicists teach and do research in
colleges and universities. A small number
work in inspection, quality control, and other
production-related jobs in industry. Some do
consulting work.
Most physicists specialize in one branch or
more of the science—elementary-particle
physics; nuclear physics; atomic, electron,
and molecular physics; physics of condensed
matter; optics, acoustics, and plasma physics;
and the physics of fluids. Some specialize in
a subdivision of one of these branches. For
example, solid-state physics subdivisions in­
clude ceramics, crystallography, and semi­
conductors. However, since all physics in­
volves the same fundamental principles,
several specialties may overlap.
Growing numbers of physicists are special­
izing in fields that combine physics and a
related science—such as astrophysics, bio­
physics, chemical physics, and geophysics.
Furthermore, the practical applications of
physicists’ work increasingly have merged
with engineering.

physicists do not encounter unusual hazards
in their work.

Places of Employment
Over 40,000 people worked as physicists in
1978. Private industry employed over onehalf of all physicists, primarily in companies
manufacturing chemicals, electrical equip­
ment, and aircraft and missiles. Many others
worked in hospitals, commercial laborato­
ries, and independent research organizations.
Almost one-half of all physicists taught or
did research in colleges and universities;
some did both. About 5,000 physicists were
employed by the Federal Government in
1978, mostly in the Departments of Defense
and Commerce.
Although physicists are employed in all
parts of the country, their employment is
greatest in areas that have heavy industrial
concentrations and large college and univer­
sity enrollments. Nearly one-fourth of all
physicists work in four metropolitan areas—
Washington, D.C.; Boston, Mass.; New
York, N.Y.; and Los Angeles-Long Beach,
Calif., and more than one-third are concen­
trated in three States—California, New
York, and Massachusetts.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Nature of the Work

Working Conditions

Graduate training in physics or a closely
related field is almost essential for most entry
level jobs in physics and for advancement in
all types of work. The doctorate usually is
required for full faculty status at colleges and
universities and for industrial or government
jobs administering research and development

The flight of astronauts through space, the
probing of ocean depths, and even the safety
of the family car depend on research by
physicists. Through systematic observation
and experimentation, physicists describe in
mathematical terms the structure of the uni­
verse and interaction of matter and energy.
Physicists develop theories that describe the
fundamental forces and laws of nature. De­
termining the basic laws governing
phenomena such as gravity, electromagnet­
ism, and nuclear interaction leads to discov­
eries and innovations. For instance, the de­
velopment of irradiation therapy equipment
which destroys harmful growths in humans
without damaging other tissues resulted from
what physicists know about nuclear radia­
tion. Physicists have contributed to scientific
progress in recent years in areas such as nu­
clear energy, electronics, communications,
aerospace, and medical instrumentation.

Physicists generally work regular hours in
laboratories, classrooms, and offices. Most

Those having master’s degrees qualify for
many research jobs in private industry and in

(D.O.T. 023.061-014 and .067-010)

The majority of all physicists work in re­
search and development. Some do basic re­
search to increase scientific knowledge. For
example, they investigate the structure of the
atom or the nature of gravity. The equipment
that physicists design for their basic research
can often be applied to other areas. For ex­
ample, lasers (devices that amplify light and
emit electromagnetic waves in a narrow, in­


the Federal Government. In colleges and uni­
versities, some teach and assist in research
while studying for their Ph. D.
Those having bachelor’s degrees may qual­
ify for some applied research and develop­
ment jobs in private industry and in the Fed­
eral Government. Some are employed as
research assistants in colleges and universi­
ties while studying for advanced degrees.
Many work in engineering and other scien­
tific fields. (See statements on engineers, geo­
physicists, programmers, and systems ana­
lysts elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Over 800 colleges and universities offer a
bachelor’s degree in physics. In addition,
many engineering schools offer a physics
major as part of the general curriculum. The
undergraduate program provides a broad
background in the science and serves as a
base for later specialization either in graduate
school or on the job. Some typical physics
courses are mechanics, electricity and mag­
netism, optics, thermodynamics, and atomic
and molecular physics. Students also take
courses in chemistry and many courses in
About 275 colleges and universities offer
advanced degrees in physics. In graduate
school, the student, with faculty guidance,
usually works in a specific field. The gradu­
ate student, especially the candidate for the
Ph. D. degree, spends a large portion of his
or her time in research.
Students planning a career in physics
should have an inquisitive mind, mathemati­
cal ability, and imagination. They should be
able to work on their own, since physicists,
particularly in basic research, often receive
only limited supervision.
Physicists often begin their careers doing
routine laboratory tasks. After some experi­
ence, they are assigned more complex tasks
and may advance to work as project leaders
or research directors. Some work in top man­
agement jobs. Physicists who develop new
products sometimes form their own compa­
nies or join new firms to exploit their own

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities in physics are
expected to be favorable through the 1980’s
for persons with graduate degrees in physics.
Although employment of physicists is pro­
jected to grow more slowly than the average
for all occupations over the period, fewer
physics graduates are expected to enter the
labor force than in the past. The number of
graduate degrees awarded annually in phys­
ics has been declining since 1970, and may
remain at about the current level through
1990. Most job openings will arise as physi­
cists retire, die, or transfer to other occupa­
Many physicists work in research and de­
velopment (R&D). The anticipated increase
in R&D expenditures through the 1980’s
should result in increased requirements for
physicists. If actual R&D expenditure levels


and patterns differ significantly from those
assumed, however, the outlook would be al­

(D.O.T. 079.101-022)

Some physicists with advanced degrees
will be needed to teach in colleges and univer­
sities, but competition for these jobs is ex­
pected to be keen. Since employment growth
is not anticipated in this area, most openings
will occur to replace physicists who retire,
die, or transfer to other occupations.
Persons with only a bachelor’s degree in
physics are expected to face keen competition
for physicist jobs through the 1980’s. Some
new graduates will find employment as engi­
neers or technicians. Others will find oppor­
tunities as high school physics teachers after
completing the required educational courses
and obtaining a State teaching certificate.
However, they are usually regarded as teach­
ers rather than as physicists. (See statement
on secondary school teachers elsewhere in
the Handbook.)

Physicists have relatively high salaries,
with average earnings more than twice those
of nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming. According to an Ameri­
can Institute of Physics Survey in 1978, start­
ing salaries for physicists in manufacturing
industries averaged about $17,400 for those
with a master’s degree and $23,000 for those
with a Ph. D.
Depending on their college records, physi­
cists with a bachelor’s degree could start in
the Federal Government in 1977 at either
$10,507 or $13,014 a year. Beginning physi­
cists having a master’s degree could start at
$13,014 or $15,920, and those having the Ph.
D. degree could begin at $19,263 or $23,087.
Average earnings for all physicists in the
Federal Government in 1978 were $30,200 a
Starting salaries on college and university
faculties for physicists having a master’s de­
gree averaged $12,900 in 1978, and for those
having the Ph. D., $13,900, according to the
American Institute of Physics. (See state­
ment on college and university faculty else­
where in the Handbook.) Many faculty
physicists supplement their regular incomes
by working as consultants and taking on spe­
cial research projects.

Related Occupations
Physics is closely related to astronomy and
other scientific occupations such as chemists,
geologists, and geophysicists. Engineers and
engineering and science technicians also use
a knowledge of the principles of physics in
their work.

Sources of Additional Information
General information on career opportuni­
ties in physics is available from:
American Institute of Physics, 335 East 45th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.

Nature of the Work
Podiatrists diagnose and treat diseases and
deformities of the foot. They perform sur­
gery, fit corrective devices, and prescribe
drugs, physical therapy, and proper shoes.
To help in diagnoses, they take X-rays and
perform or prescribe blood and other patho­
logical tests. Podiatrists treat a variety of foot
conditions, including corns, bunions, cal­
luses, ingrown toenails, skin and nail dis­
eases, deformed toes, and arch disabilities.
Whenever podiatrists find symptoms of a
medical disorder affecting other parts of the
body—arthritis, diabetes, or heart disease,
for example—they refer the patient to a phy­
sician while continuing to treat the foot prob­
Some podiatrists specialize in foot surgery,
orthopedics (bone, muscle, and joint disord­
ers), podopediatrics (children’s foot ail­
ments), or podogeriatrics (foot problems of
the elderly). However, more than four of
every five are generalists, who provide all
types of foot care.

Working Conditions
Podiatrists usually work independently in
their own offices. Their workweek is gener­
ally 40 hours, and they may set their hours
to suit their practice.

Places of Employment
Of the 8,100 podiatrists active in 1978, the
majority were located in large cities. Those
who had full-time salaried positions worked
mainly in hospitals, podiatric medical col­
leges, or for other podiatrists. The Veterans’
Administration and public health depart­
ments employ podiatrists on either a full- or
part-time basis. Others serve as commis­
sioned officers in the Armed Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
All States and the District of Columbia
require a license for the practice of podiatry.
To qualify for a license, an applicant must
graduate from an accredited college of podia­
tric medicine and pass a written and oral
State board proficiency examination. Four
States—Georgia, Michigan, New Jersey, and
Rhode Island—also require applicants to
serve a 1-year residency in a hospital or clinic
after graduation. Three-fourths of the States
grant licenses without further examination to
podiatrists licensed by another State.
The five colleges of podiatric medicine are
located in California, Illinois, New York,
Pennsylvania, and Ohio. Minimum entrance
requirements at these schools include 3 years
of college work with courses in English,
chemistry, biology or zoology, physics, and
mathematics. Competition for entry to these
schools is strong, however, and most entrants

Police Officers
(D.O.T. 375 except .167-026, -042, .263-018, and
.363-010; and 377 except 377.667-010)

Nature of the Work
The security of our Nation’s cities and
towns greatly depends on the work of local
police officers and sheriffs’ deputies whose
jobs range from controlling traffic to pre­
venting and investigating crimes. Whether
on or off duty, these officers are expected
to exercise their authority whenever neces­

P o d ia tris ts d ia g n o s e and tre a t fo o t p ro b le m s.

surpass the minimum requirements. About
90 percent of the class entering in 1978 held
at least a bachelor’s degree, and the average
enrollee had an overall grade point average
of ‘B’ or better. All colleges of podiatric
medicine require applicants to take the New
Medical College Admissions Test. Of the 4
years in podiatry school, the first 2 are
spent in classroom instruction and
laboratory work in anatomy, bacteriology,
chemistry, pathology, physiology, phar­
macology, and other basic sciences. During
the final 2 years, students obtain clinical ex­
perience while continuing their academic
studies. The degree of Doctor of Podiatric
Medicine (D.P.M) is awarded upon gradua­
tion. Additional education and experience
generally are necessary to practice in a
specialty. Federal, State, and private loans
are available for needy students to pursue
full-time study leading to a degree in
podiatric medicine.
Persons planning a career in podiatry
should have scientific aptitude and manual
dexterity, and like detailed work. A good
business sense and congeniality also are as­
sets in the profession.
Most newly licensed podiatrists set up
their own practices. Some purchase estab­
lished practices, or obtain salaried positions
to gain the experience and money they need
to begin their own.

Employment Outlook
Opportunities for graduates to establish
new practices, as well as to enter salaried
positions, should be favorable through the
Employment of podiatrists is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupa­
tions as podiatry gains recognition as a heal­
ing art and as an expanding population de­
mands more health services. The growing

number of older people who need foot care
and who are entitled to certain podiatrists’
services under Medicare also is expected to
spur demand.

Newly licensed podiatrists build their
practices over a number of years. Income
during the first several years is low but gener­
ally rises significantly as the practice grows.
A net income of over $40,000 a year is com­
mon for established podiatrists. Newly li­
censed podiatrists hired by Veterans’ Ad­
ministration hospitals earned starting
salaries between $ 19,263 and $25,041 in

Related Occupations
Podiatrists work to prevent, diagnose, and
treat human foot diseases, disorders, and in­
juries. Other occupations that require similar
skills include audiologists, chiropractors,
dentists, optometrists, osteopathic physi­
cians, physicians, speech pathologists, and

Sources of Additional Information
Information on license requirements in a
particular State is available from that State’s
board of examiners in the State capital.
Information on colleges of podiatric medi­
cine, entrance requirements, curriculums,
and student financial aid is available from:
American Association of Colleges of Podiatric
Medicine, 20 Chevy Chase Circle, NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20015.

For additional information on podiatry as
a career, contact:
American Podiatry Association, 20 Chevy Chase
Circle, NW., Washington, D.C. 20015.

Police officers and sheriffs’ deputies who
work in small communities and rural areas
have many duties. In the course of a day’s
work, they may direct traffic at the scene of
a fire, investigate a housebreaking, and give
first aid to an accident victim. In a large po­
lice department, by contrast, officers usually
are assigned to a specific type of duty. Most
officers are detailed either to patrol or to traf­
fic duty; smaller numbers are assigned to spe­
cial work such as accident prevention or op­
eration of communications systems. Others
work as detectives (plainclothes officers) as­
signed to criminal investigation; still others,
as experts in chemical and microscopic anal­
ysis, firearms identification, and handwriting
and fingerprint identification. In very large
cities, a few officers may work with special
units such as mounted and motorcycle po­
lice, harbor patrols, helicopter patrols, ca­
nine corps, mobile rescue teams, and youth
aid services.
Most new recruits begin on patrol duty.
Recruits may be assigned to such varied areas
as congested business districts or outlying
residential areas. They may cover their beats
alone or with other officers. They may ride in
a police vehicle or walk on “foot” patrol. In
any case, they become thoroughly familiar
with conditions throughout their area and,
while on patrol, remain alert for anything
unusual. They note suspicious circum­
stances, such as open windows or lights in
vacant buildings, as well as hazards to public
safety such as burned-out street lights or
fallen trees. Officers also watch for stolen au­
tomobiles and enforce traffic regulations. At
regular intervals, they report to police head­
quarters through call boxes, by radio, or by
walkie-talkie. They prepare reports about
their activities and may be called on to testify
in court when cases result in legal action.

Working Conditions
The scheduled workweek for police offic­
ers usually is 40 hours. Because police protec­
tion must be provided around the clock in all
but the smallest communities, some officers
are on duty over weekends, on holidays, and
at night. Police officers are subject to call any
time their services are needed and may work
overtime in emergencies.
Police officers may have to work outdoors
for long periods in all kinds of weather. The
injury rate is higher than in many occupa/159

In a large department, promotion may
allow an officer to specialize in one type of
police work such as laboratory work, traffic
control, communications, or work with
juveniles. Promotions to the rank of ser­
geant, lieutenant, and captain usually are
made according to a candidate’s position on
a promotion list, as determined by scores on
a written examination and on-the-job per­
Many types of training help police officers
improve their performance on the job and
prepare for advancement. Through training
given at police department academies and
colleges, officers keep abreast of crowd-con­
trol techniques, civil defense, legal develop­
ments that affect their work, and advances in
law enforcement equipment. Many police de­
partments encourage officers to work toward
college degrees, and some pay all or part of
the tuition.

Employment Outlook

Police officers on traffic duty investigate accidents and enforce traffic regulations.

tions and reflects the risks officers take in
pursuing speeding motorists, capturing law­
breakers, and dealing with public disorder.

Places of Employment
About 450,000 full-time officers worked
for local police departments in 1978. Some
cities have very large police forces. For exam­
ple, New York has about 25,000 police offic­
ers and Chicago has nearly 13,000. Hundreds
of small communities employ fewer than 25
officers each.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Local civil service regulations govern the
appointment of police officers in practically
all large cities and in many small ones. Can­
didates must be U.S. citizens, usually at least
21 years of age, and must meet certain height
and weight standards. Eligibility for appoint­
ment depends on performance in competitive
examinations as well as on education and ex­
perience. The physical examinations often in­
clude tests of strength and agility.
Because personal characteristics such as
honesty, good judgment, and a sense of re­
sponsibility are especially important in police
work, candidates are interviewed by a senior
officer at police headquarters, and their char­
acter traits and background are investigated.
In some police departments, candidates also
may be interviewed by a psychiatrist or a
pyschologist, or be given a personality test.
Although police officers work independently,
they must perform their duties in line with
laws and departmental rules. They should
enjoy working with people and serving the
In large police departments, where most
jobs are found, applicants usually must have
a high school education. A few cities require


some college training and some hire law en­
forcement students as police interns. A few
police departments accept applicants who
have less than a high school education as
recruits, particularly if they have worked in
a field related to law enforcement.
More and more, police departments are
encouraging applicants to take post-high
school training in sociology and psychology.
In 1978, more than 800 junior colleges, col­
leges, and universities offered programs in
law enforcement or criminal justice. Other
courses helpful in preparing for a police ca­
reer include English, American history, civ­
ics and government, business law, and phys­
ics. Physical education and sports are
especially helpful in developing the stamina
and agility needed for police work.
In some large cities, young persons who
have completed high school can enter police
work as police cadets, or trainees, while still
in their teens. As paid civilian employees of
the police department, they attend classes to
learn police skills and do clerical work. They
may be appointed to the regular force at age
21 if they have all the necessary qualifica­
Before their first assignments, officers usu­
ally go through a period of training. In small
communities, recruits learn by working for a
short time with experienced officers. Train­
ing provided in large city police departments
is more formal and may last several weeks or
a few months. This training includes class­
room instruction in constitutional law and
civil rights; in State laws and local ordi­
nances; and in accident investigation, patrol,
and traffic control. Recruits learn how to use
a gun, defend themselves from attack, admin­
ister first aid, and deal with emergencies.
Police officers usually become eligible for
promotion after a specified length of service.

Employment of police officers is expected
to grow about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the 1980’s as the Na­
tion’s population and police protection
needs increase. Employment growth will be
tempered by increased use of civilian police
department employees in traffic control,
parking enforcement, administration, and
other routine, nonhazardous areas of police
Police work is attractive to many. The job
frequently is challenging and involves much
responsibility. Furthermore, layoffs are rare.
Although the written examinations and strict
physical requirements always eliminate
many applicants, competition is expected to
be keen for job openings through the 1980’s.
The outlook should be good for persons hav­
ing some college training in law enforcement.

In early 1978, entry level salaries for police
officers employed in medium-and large-sized
cities averaged nearly $13,200 a year, al­
though they varied widely from city to city.
In some smaller communities, officers
started at less than $9,000 a year, while some
major cities offered over $15,000 a year to
new employees. Most officers receive regular
salary increases during the first few years of
employment until they reach a set maximum
for their rank. Maximum earnings averaged
$16,650 a year in early 1978, and exceeded
$18,000 a year in some areas. Promotion to
a higher ra