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Occupational Outlook for
College Graduates, 1976-77 Edition

Occupational Outlook for
College Graduates, 1976-77 Edition
U.S. Department of Labor
W. J. Usery, Jr., Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

Bulletin 1878

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $3.30
Stock Number 029-001-01407-4/ Catalog No. L2.3:1878


Career planning is becoming increasingly essential to college graduates who seek a rewarding
career. Changing economic conditions, the emergence of new occupations, and an expected
oversupply of graduates in some fields will affect the number and kinds of job opportunities that
will be available.
The Occupational Outlookfor College Graduates is a guide to career opportunities in a broad range
of occupations for which a college degree is, or is becoming, the usual background for
employment. It contains a brief summary of the expected changes in the economy, in addition to
an analysis of the overall supply and demand situation for college graduates through the mid1980’s. Each occupational statement presents information on the nature of the work, places of
employment, education and training required, employment outlook, earnings, and working
conditions. This volume can be an important aid to career planning for students attending or
expecting to attend college, as well as their counselors, teachers, and parents.




I. How this book is organized........................ 1
Tomorrow’s jobs for college graduates.... 11
III. Occupations................................................. 21
OFFICE OCCUPATIONS......................... 21
Administrative and related occupations.....
Advertising workers............................
Bank officers........................................
City managers......................................
College student personnel workers.....
Credit managers...................................
Hotel managers and assistants.............
Industrial traffic managers...................
Marketing research workers................
Personnel and labor relations workers
Public relations workers......................
Purchasing agents................................
Urban planners.....................................
Computer and related occupations..............
Systems analysts..................................
Insurance occupations.................................
Claim representatives ...........................


SERVICE OCCUPATIONS....................... 66
FBI special agents............................... 66
Police officers...................................... 67
State police officers............................... 70
Health and regulatory inspectors
(Government)................................... 71
Occupational safety and health work­
PATIONS ................................................ 78
Kindergarten and elementary school


Secondary school teachers................... 80
College and university teachers........... 82
SALES OCCUPATIONS............................ 88
Insurance agents and brokers..............
Manufacturers’ salesworkers...............
Real estate salesworkers and brokers ..
Securities salesworkers.........................


TION A CTIV ITIES............................... 97
Air traffic controllers........................... 97
Airplane pilots..................................... 98
Merchant marine officers......................101
CUPATIONS ........................................... 105
Conservation occupations............................ 105
Foresters................................................ 106
Range managers.................................... 107
Soil conservationists..............................109
Engineers...................................................... I ll
Aerospace.............................................. 113
Agricultural........................................... 114
Biomedical............................................. 114
Ceram ic................................................. 115
Chemical................................................ 115
C ivil.......................................................116
Electrical................................................ 117
Industrial............................................... 118
Mechanical............................................. 119
Metallurgical......................................... 120
M ining................................................... 121
Petroleum.............................................. 121
Environmental scientists...............................123

Contents— Continued

Life scientists................................................. 132
Biochemists........................................... 132
Life scientists........................................ 134
Soil scientists......................................... 137
Mathematics occupations ............................ 139
Physical scientists.........................................143
Chemists............................................... 145
Food scientists......................................147
Physicists.............................................. 149
Other scientific and technical occupations 152
Broadcast technicians...........................152
D rafters................................................ 153
Engineering and science technicians ..155
Surveyors............................................. 160
HEALTH OCCUPATIONS......................163
Medical and dental practitioners................ 164
Dentists................................................. 165
Osteopathic physicians......................... 169
Other health occupations............................177
Dental hygienists..................................177
Health services administrators............. 181
Medical laboratory workers................183
Medical record administrators............ 185
Occupational therapists........................187
Physical therapists.................................191
Registered nurses................................. 193
Respiratory therapy workers...............195
Speech pathologists and audiologists.. 197
SOCIAL SCIENTISTS..............................200


Geographers.......................................... 203
Historians.............................................. 206
Political scientists................................. 207
Psychologists........................................ 209
Sociologists........................................... 211
School counselors..................................214
Employment counselors........................ 216
Rehabilitation counselors...................... 218
College career planning and place­
ment counselors..................................220
Clergy............................................................ 223
Protestant ministers............................... 223
Rabbis..................................................... 225
Roman Catholic priests.........................226
Other social service occupations.................228
Cooperative extension service workers 228
Home economists................................. 229
Recreation workers.............................. 231
Social w orkers...................................... 234

Performing artists..........................................238
Actors and actresses..............................238
D ancers................................................. 240
Musicians............................................... 242
Singers.................................................... 244
Design occupations........................................247
Architects.............................................. 247
Commercial artists................................ 249
Industrial designers................................251
Interior designers.................................. 253
Landscape architects.............................255
Communications—related occupations.......258
Interpreters............................................ 258
Newspaper reporters............................ 260
Radio and television announcers.........262
Technical writers.................................. 264



This chapter describes the con­
tents and organizations of the Oc­
cupational Outlook for College
Graduates. The first section tells
how the information was assem­
bled and discusses a number of
points that need to be kept in mind
while interpreting the occupational
statements that make up the main
body of the book. The second sec­
tion of this chapter gives sugges­
tions regarding supplementary
sources of occupational informa­
tion and tells how you can keep up
to date on developments affecting
the employment outlook in differ­
ent occupations. The third section
provides information on the
sources and methods used to ana­
lyze the occupational outlook in
different fields of work.
The second introductory chapter
describes some of the most important
occupational and industrial employ­
ment trends—and their relationship
to college graduates—to provide a
background for interpreting the re­
ports on individual occupations.

The occupational statements that
follow the two introductory chap­
ters are reprinted from the 1976-77
edition of the Occupational Out­
look Handbook. These reports are
grouped into 10 “clusters” of occu­
pations: Office occupations; service
occupations; education and related
occupations; sales occupations; oc­
cupations in transportation activi­
ties; scientific and technical
occupations; health occupations; so­
cial science occupations; social ser­



vice occupations; and art, design,
and communications related occupa­
tions. These career clusters help re­
late outlook materials to college
curriculums and occupational train­
ing programs, career ladders and
lattices, and fields of interest for
college or potential college students
engaged in career exploration and
planning. The clusters are based on a
concept of related activities. Physi­
cians, for example, are in the same
cluster as hospital administrators and
all other health employees. Within
some of these career clusters, occu­
pations are further grouped into re­
lated subfields. For example, within
the office occupation cluster, there
are groups for administrative and
related occupations, computer and
related occupations, and insurance
The occupations discussed in
this volume generally are those of
greatest interest to college students
and graduates, and include those
for which a college education is
required, is becoming increasingly
necessary, or is the usual educa­
tional background for employment.
workers in professional and related
occupations, sales occupations,
managerial and administrative oc­
cupations, and service occupations.
The statements in this publication
account for about 90 percent of all
workers in professional and related
occupations, and for smaller pro­
portions of workers in other major
groups. More than three-fifths of
all college graduates work in pro­
fessional and related occupations;
smaller proportions are in other
major occupational groups.

Points to Bear in Mind in
Using Occupational Statements

A detailed list of the occupation­
al reports by field of work is pro­
vided in the table of contents at
the front of the book.
Once you have chosen an occu­
pation you’d like to learn more
about—you can use the Occupa­
tional Outlook for College G radu­
ates to find out what the job is
like, what education and training is
necessary, and what the advance­
ment possibilities, earnings, and
employment outlook are likely to
be. Each section of the book fol­
lows a standard format, making it
easier to compare different jobs
with one another.
It is important to bear in mind
that the information in the Occupa­
tional Outlook for College Gradu­
ates is designed for career guid­
ance purposes. In the effort to pre­
sent a meaningful overview of
each of the many occupations stud­
ied, details are omitted, and some
distinctions are glossed over.
Moreover, each statement has its
own limitations, mostly because of
imperfect data sources and limits
on length. What follows is a de­
scription of the type of information
presented in each statement, with a
few words of explanation.
The numbers in parentheses
which appear just below the title
of most statements are D.O.T.
code numbers. D.O.T. stands for
Dictionary o f Occupational Titles,
now in its third edition, a U.S. De­
partment of Labor publication
which “defines” each of about
35,O X jobs according to a system
which uses code numbers to classi­

fy each job in terms of the type of
work performed, training required,
physical demands, and working
conditions. Revision of the D.O.T.
is underway, and the fourth edition
is scheduled to appear in 1976. It
will include thousands of new jobs
which have emerged as a result of
technological and other changes in
the past 10 years. D.O.T. numbers
are used primarily by public em­
ployment service agencies for clas­
sifying applicants and job open­
ings, and for reporting and other
operating purposes. They are in­
cluded in the Occupational Outlook
for College Graduates since career
information centers and libraries
frequently use them for filing oc­
cupational information.
The Nature of the Work section
describes the major duties of work­
ers in the occupation. It tells what
workers do on the job and how
they do it. Although each job de­
scription is typical of the occupa­
tion, duties are likely to vary by
employer and size of employing
organization, geographic location,
and other factors. In some occupa­
tions, individual workers specialize
in certain tasks. In others they per­
form the entire range of work in
the occupation. Of course, job du­
ties continually change as technol­
ogy advances, new industrial pro­
cesses are developed, and products
or services change. In preparing
the Occupational Outlook for Col­
lege Graduates every effort is made
to include the most recent informa­
tion available, but because of the
rapid rate of change in some fields,
this is not always possible.
The Places of Employment sec­
tion provides information on the
number of workers in an occupa­
tion and tells whether they are
concentrated in certain industries
or geographic areas. Whether an
occupation is large or small is im­
portant to a jobseeker because
large occupations, even those

growing slowly, offer more open­
ings than small ones because of the
many workers who retire or die
each year.
Some occupations are concen­
trated in particular industries. Most
aerospace engineers, for example,
are employed in the aircraft and
parts industry while accountants
are widely dispersed throughout
all industries. If an occupation is
found primarily in certain indus­
tries, this section lists them.
A few occupations are concen­
trated in certain parts of the coun­
try. Actors and actresses, for ex­
ample, usually work in California
and New York. This information is
included for the benefit of people
who have strong preferences about
where they live—because they do
not wish to be separated from their
families and friends, for example.
For most occupations, however,
employment is widely scattered
and generally follows the same
pattern as the distribution of the
In addition, the proportion of
women employed is mentioned in a
number of statements. Information
on part-time employment is includ­
ed because it is important to stu­
dents, homemakers, retired per­
sons, and others who may want to
work part time. Knowing which
occupations offer good opportuni­
ties for part-time work can be a
valuable lead.
The Training, Other Qualifica­
tions, and Advancement section
should be read carefully because it
often is necessary to start early in
planning toward your career goal.
It’s a good idea to look closely at
the college courses or major fields
of study that are regarded as useful
preparation for the career you
have in mind. Nearly all statements
provide this information.
The Training, Other Qualifica­
tions, and Advancement section
generally presents the minimum

level and type of education re­
quired for the various occupations
and the preferred background for
entry. In many cases, alternative
ways of attaining training are listed
as well. It is worth remembering
that the level at which you enter
an occupation and the speed with
which you advance often are de­
termined by the amount of training
you have.
In an effort to protect the pub­
lic, all States have certification or
licensing requirements for some
occupations to assure that workers
are properly qualified. Physicians
and nurses, and elementary and
secondary schoolteachers are ex­
amples of occupations that are li­
censed. If you are considering oc­
cupations that require State licens­
ing, be sure to check the require­
ments in the State which you plan
to work.
An important factor in career
choice is the extent to which a
particular job suits your personal­
ity. Although it is often difficult
for people to assess themselves,
your counselor undoubtedly is
familar with tests that can help.
Each statement provides informa­
tion which allows you to match
your own unique personal charac­
teristics—your likes and dislikes—
with the characteristics of the job.
For a particular job, you may need
the ability to:
make responsible decisions,
motivate others,
direct and supervise others,
work under close supervision,
work in a highly competitive
enjoy working with ideas and solv­
ing problems.
enjoy working with people,
enjoy working with things—good
coordination and manual dexterity
are necessary.
work independently— initiative and
self-discipline are necessary,
work as part of a team,
enjoy working with detail, either

numbers or technical written material,
enjoy helping people,
use creative talents and ideas and en­
joy having an opportunity for selfexpression.
derive satisfaction from seeing the
physical results of your work,
work in a confined area,
perform repetitious work,
enjoy working outside, regardless of
the weather.

When you decide on an occupa­
tion, the “continuing education”
that will be required in order to
reach the desired level in the occu­
pation is as important a consider­
ation as the initial education re­
quirements. If for example, you see
yourself as a college president and
begin working as an assistant to
the registrar after receiving your
bachelor’s degree, you should be
prepared to spend several years in
graduate school. Once the require­
ments necessary to advance to the
desired level of the chosen occupa­
tion are determined, you should
decide whether you have the natu­
ral talents and personal qualities
needed, and whether you are will­
ing to put in the time and effort to
meet those requirements. If a formal
education is involved, will your em­
ployer pay for it, and if not, can you
afford the cost? Also, you must de­
cide whether you have the academic
ability to complete the education.
The Employment Outlook section
discusses prospective job opportu­
nities. Knowing whether or not
the job market is likely to be fa­
vorable is quite important in decid­
ing whether to pursue a specific
career. While your interests, your
abilities, and your career goals are
extremely important, you also need
to know something about the
availability of jobs in the fields that
interest you most.
The employment outlook section
of most statements in the Occupa­
tional Outlook for College Gradu­
ates begins with a sentence about
 employment growth

through 1985. The occupation is climate. It helps to bear in mind
described as likely to grow about that employment in many—but not
as fast as the average for all occu­ all—occupations and industries is
pations; faster than the average; or directly affected by an economic
slower than the average (figure I). downturn. A sharp improvement
Job opportunities in a particular oc­ in the outlook for these occupa­
cupation usually are favorable if em­ tions and industries is likely as the
ployment increases at least as rapidly economy picks up. However, other
as the economy as a whole. Occupa­ occupations and industries are less
tions in which employment stays vulnerable to changes in the busi­
about the same or declines generally ness cycle. Other factors influence
offer less favorable job prospects than their well-being. These matters are
in a number
growing occupations, because the explored
only openings are those due to statements.
For some occupations, it is pos­
Some statements take note of the sible to observe trends in the num­
effect of fluctuations in the busi­ ber of people pursuing relevant
ness cycle. This information is types of education or training and
valuable to people looking into subsequently entering the profes­
long-range career possibilities at a sion. When supply as well as de­
time when the economy is in a re­ mand information is available, the
cession. Young people understand­ Occupational Outlook for College
ably wonder: What will the econo­ Graduates describes prospective
my be like when I enter the labor job opportunities in terms of the
market? Will it be harder to find a anticipated demand-supply rela­
job 5 to 10 years from now than it tionship. the prospective job situa­
is today? The Occupational Outlook tion is termed “excellent” when
for College Graduates gives infor­ demand is likely to greatly exceed
mation, wherever feasible, on oc­ supply; “keenly competitive” when
cupations and industries whose lev­ supply is likely to exceed demand.
els of employment fluctuate in re­ Other terms used are shown in
sponse to shifts in the economic figure II.

Figure I

Projected 1974-85
change in employment

Much faster than the average for all occupations.............
Faster than the average for all occupations.......................
About as fast as the average for all occupations * ............
Slower than the average for all occupations...............................
Little change is expected......................................................
Expected to decline...............................................................

50.0 percent or greater
25.0 to 49.9 percent
15.0 to 24.9 percent
to 14.9 percen
3.9 to —3.9 percent
- 4 .0 percent or greater

1The average increase projected for all occupations for the 1974-85 period is 20.3

Figure II

Job opportunities
Very good
Good or favorable
May face competition
Keen competition

Prospective demand-supply relationship
Demand much greater than supply
Demand greater than supply
Rough balance between demand and supply
Likelihood of more supply than demand
Supply greater than demand

The information in this section
should be used carefully, however.
The prospect of relatively few
openings, or of strong competition,
in a field that interests you should
make you take a second look at
your career choice. But this infor­
mation alone should not prevent
you from pursuing a particular ca­
reer if you feel that your aptitudes
and interests justify your goal.
Getting a job may be difficult if
the field is so small that openings
are few (actuaries and range man­
agers are examples) or so popular
that it attracts many more jobseek­
ers than there are jobs (radio and
television broadcasting, journalism,
and the performing arts). Getting a
job also can be difficult in occupa­
tions and industries in which em­
ployment is declining (merchant
marine), although this is not al­
ways the case.
Remember, even occupations
which are small or overcrowded
provide some jobs. So do occupa­
tions in which employment is
growing very slowly or even de­
clining, for there always is a need
to replace workers who leave the
occupation. If the occupation is
large, the number of job openings
due to turnover can be quite sub­
stantial. Accountants and real es­
tate salesworkers and brokers are
examples of large occupations
which provide a significant num­
ber of job openings each year be­
cause of turnover. On the average,
openings resulting from replace­
ment needs account for 70 percent
of all job openings.
In other words, don't rule out a
potentially rewarding career sim­
ply because the prospective out­
look in an occupation is not favor­
able. Do discuss your abilities and
aptitudes with your counselor.
Checking further is a good idea,
too. Suggestions for additional in­
formation on the job market are
given in the following section,

How reliable is the information
on the outlook for employment
over the next 10 years? No one
can predict future labor market
conditions with perfect accuracy.
In every occupation and industry
the number of jobseekers and the
number of job openings constantly
changes. A rise or fall in the de­
mand for a product or service af­
fects the number of workers need­
ed to produce it. New inventions
and technological innovations cre­
ate some jobs and eliminate others.
Changes in the size or age distribu­
tion of the population, work atti­
tudes, training opportunities, or re­
tirement programs determine the
number of workers available. As
these forces interact in the labor
market, some occupations experi­
ence a shortage, some a surplus,
some a balance between jobseekers
and openings. Methods used by
economists to develop information
on future occupational prospects
differ, and judgments which go
into any assessment of the future
also differ. Therefore, it is impor­
tant to understand what underlies
each statment on outlook.
For every occupation and indus­
try covered in the Occupational
Outlook for College Graduates, an
estimate of future employment
needs is developed. These esti­
mates are consistent with a set of
assumptions about the future of the
economy and the country. For
more detail, see the section enti­
tled, Assumptions and Methods
Used In Preparing the Employ­
ment Projections.
Finally, you should remember
that job prospects in your commu­
nity or State may not correspond
to the description of employment
outlook in the Occupational Out­
look for College Graduates. For the
particular job you are interested in,
the outlook in your area may be

better, or worse. This publication
does not discuss the outlook in lo­
cal areas because the analysis is far
too much for a centralized staff to
handle. Such information has been
developed, however, by many
States and localities. The local of­
fice of your State Employment
Service is the best place to ask
about local-area employment pro­
jections. Be sure to check with
your parents and counselors, too.
The Earnings section helps an­
swer many of the questions that
you may ask when choosing a ca­
reer. Will the income be high
enough to maintain the standard of
living I want and justify my train­
ing costs? How much will my
earnings increase as I gain experi­
ence? Do some areas of the coun­
try or some industries offer better
pay than others for the same type
of work?
Like most people, you probably
think of earnings as money. But
money is only one type of financial
reward for work. Paid vacations,
health insurance, uniforms, and dis­
counts on clothing or other mer­
chandise also are part of the total
earnings package.
About 9 out of 10 workers re­
ceive money income in the form of
a wage or salary. A wage usually is
an hourly or daily rate of pay,
while a salary is a weekly, month­
ly, or yearly rate. Most craft work­
ers, operatives, and laborers are
wage earners, while most profes­
sional, technical, and clerical
workers are salary earners.
In addition to their regular pay,
wage and salary workers may re­
ceive extra money for working
overtime, more than their usual
number of hours, or on a night
shift or irregular schedule. In some
occupations, workers also may re­
ceive tips or be paid a commission
based on the amount of sales or
services they provide to customers.
Factory workers are sometimes

paid a piece rate which is an extra
payment for each item they pro­
duce. For many workers, these
types of pay amount to a large part
of their total earnings.
The remaining 10 percent of all
workers are in business for them­
selves and earn self-employment
income instead of wages or sala­
ries. This group includes workers
in a wide variety of occupations:
Physicians, shopkeepers, barbers,
writers, photographers, and farm­
ers, are examples of workers who
frequently are self-employed.
Workers in some occupations
earn self-employment income in ad­
dition to their wages or salaries.
For example, electricians and car­
penters often do small repair or re­
modeling jobs during evenings or
weekends, and college professors
frequently are paid for publishing
articles based on independent re­
Besides money income, most
wage and salary workers receive a
variety of fringe benefits as part of
their earnings on the job. Several
are required by Federal and State
law, including Social Security,
Worker’s Compensation, and Un­
benefits provide income to persons
who are not working because of
old age, work-related injury or dis­
ability, or lack of suitable jobs.
Among the most common fringe
benefits are paid vacations, holi­
days, and sick leave. In addition,
many workers are covered by life,
health, and accident insurance; par­
ticipate in retirement plans; and
are entitled to supplemental unem­
ployment benefits. All of these
benefits are provided—in part or in
full—through their employers.
Some employers also offer stock
options and profit-sharing plans,
savings plans, and bonuses.
Workers in many occupations
receive part of their earnings in the
form of goods and services, or pay­

ments in kind. Salesworkers in de­
partment stores, for example, often
receive discounts on merchandise.
Workers in other jobs may receive
free meals, housing, business ex­
pense accounts, or free transporta­
tion on company-owned planes.
Which jobs pay the most? This
is a difficult question to answer be­
cause good information is available
for only one type of earnings—
wages and salaries—and for some
occupations even this is unavail­
able. Nevertheless, the Occupation­
al Outlook for College Graduates
does include some comparisons of
earnings among occupations. Most
statements indicate whether earn­
ings in an occupation are greater
than or less than the average earn­
ings of workers who are not super­
visors and work in private indus­
try, but not in farming. This group
represented more than 80 percent
of all workers in 1974 and had the
most reliable earnings data current­
ly available for comparison pur­
Besides differences among occu­
pations, many levels of pay exist
within each occupation. Beginning
workers almost always earn less
than those who have been on the
job for some time because pay
rates increase as workers gain ex­
perience or do more responsible

Earnings in an occupation also
vary by geographic location. The
average weekly earnings of begin­
ning computer programmers, for
example, vary considerably from
city to city. (See table 1.) The
highest earnings of the 10 cities
listed, occurred in Detroit, Michi­
gan and the lowest in Little Rock,
Ark. Although it is generally true
that earnings are higher in the
North Central and Northeast re­
gions than in the West and South,
there are exceptions. You should
also remember that those cities
which offer the highest earnings
are often those in which it is most
expensive to live.
In addition, workers in the same
occupation may have different
earnings depending on the industry
in which they work. For example,
senior drafters in 1973-74 averaged
$250 a week in public utilities,
$245.50 a week in manufacturing,
$238 a week in services, and $218
a week in wholesale trade.
Salaries also vary by the type of
work a person performs. The sala­
ries of Ph.D. chemists, for exam­
ple, vary considerably depending
on the specific nature of the job, as
shown in table 2. In 1974, chemists
in management jobs earned $4,000
a year more than those in market­
ing and production. Chemists in re­
search and development, however,

Table 1. Average weekly earnings of beginning computer programmers, 1973-74,
by selected city

Average weekly earnings

D etroit..................................................................................................
N ew ark................................................................................................
Washington, D .C .................................................................................
Chattanooga......................................... ...............................................
Little Rock...........................................................................................


SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2.

and that seem to suit you. If so,
you probably have located appro­
priate occupational outlook state­
Annual salaries
ments and given some thought to
the information they contain—ei­
ther on your own or with the help
of your counselor. If you want
more information on the job itself,
on places in your own locality to
look for this kind of work, or on
schools which offer appropriate
training—or, if instead, you simply
such as hunting, fishing, or garden­ want to explore the file a little
more—you’re ready to go beyond
the Occupational Outlook for Col­
Environment. Work settings vary
lege Graduates.
from clean, air-conditioned offices
A great deal of career informa­
to places that are dirty, greasy, or
tion is available in the form of
poorly ventilated. By knowing the
books, pamphlets and brochures,
setting of jobs you find interesting,
magazine articles, filmstrips, tapes,
you can avoid an environment that
and cassettes. Computer-assisted
you may find particularly unpleas­ occupational information systems
have been installed in some schools
and career information centers.
Outdoor work. Persons who work
Most occupational reports in this
outdoors are exposed to all types publication suggest organizations
of weather. This may be preferred
you can write to for additional ca­
to indoor work, however, by those reer information. This is a good
who consider outdoor work more
way to begin. Then investigate
other sources of information, many
of which you’ll find close to home:
Hazards. In some jobs employees schools, libraries, business estab­
are subject to possible burns, cuts,
lishments, trade unions, employer
falls, and other injuries and must associations, professional societies,
be careful to follow safety precau­ private employment agencies, and
State Employment Services.
College libraries and placement
Physical demands. Some jobs re­
offices usually have extensive col­
quire standing, stooping, or heavy
lections of career information. In
lifting. You should be sure that
addition, college career planning
you have the physical strength and
stamina required before seeking and placement counselors general­
ly know of any special information
one of these jobs.
assembled on job opportunities in
Considering working conditions
your locality. Professors of special
when you make up your mind
subjects such as art, drama, or mu­
about a career can help you
sic often can give information
choose a job that brings you satis­
about occupations related to the
faction and enjoyment.
subjects they teach.
Public libraries have books,
Where to Go for More
pamphlets, and magazine articles
with occupational information.
By now, you may have some The librarian can help you a great
ideas about jobs that interest you deal in directing you to the infor­

Average annual salaries of chemists, with Ph.D. degrees, by type of work,

Type of work

SOURCE: American Chemical Society.

earned $1,500 less than those in
marketing and production, but
$4,700 more than chemistry profes­
Because of these variations in
earnings, you should check with
your counselor or with local em­
ployers if you are interested in spe­
cific earnings information for occu­
pations in your area.
The Working Conditions section
provides information that can af­
fect job satisfaction because prefer­
ences for working conditions vary
considerably among individuals.
Some people, for example, prefer
outdoor work while others prefer
working in an office. Some people
like the variety of shift work, and
others want the steadiness of a 9to-5 job. Following is a list of sev­
eral different types of working
conditions that apply to some of
the occupations in the Occupational
Outlook for College Graduates.
Overtime work. When overtime is
required on a job, employees must
give up some of their free time and
need to be flexible in their personal
lives. Overtime, however, does
provide the opportunity to increase
earning power.
Shift work. Evening or night work
is part of the regular work sched­
ule in some jobs. Employees who
work on these shifts usually are
working while most other people
are off. Some persons prefer shift
work, however, because they can
pursue certain daytime activities,

mation best suited to your needs.
Business establishments are often
willing to supply information about
the work they perform, the types
of jobs they have available, and
the qualifications needed. The
names of local firms can be found
in the classified section of your
telephone directory or can be ob­
tained from your local chamber of
commerce. If the firm is a large
one, it’s a good idea to contact the
director of personnel.
Trade unions, employers* associtions, and professional societies
frequently have local branches. Of­
ten, staff members can supply ca­
reer information for the occupa­
tions or industries with which they
are concerned.
Private employment agencies
can provide a great deal of infor­
mation and assistance to jobseek­
ers. These agencies, which ordi­
narily charge a fee for their ser­
vices, employ counselors to assist
clients with their career planning
and placement. Because they are
located in cities and towns
throughout the country, private
employment agencies can be an ex­
cellent source of information about
job opportunities in local areas.
They are listed in local telephone
directories, and advertise in news­
papers and magazines.
State Employment Service of­
fices are in particularly good posi­
tion to provide information about
jobs, hiring standards, and wages
in your locality. Public Employ­
ment Service agencies in each
State are affiliated with the U.S.
Employment Service of the U.S.
Department of Labor, and provide
their services without charge. Op­
erating through a network of local
offices, State agencies help job­
seekers find employment and help
employers find qualified workers.
Whether you are looking for a
job right now, or exploring career
possibilities for the future, your lo­

cal Employment Service office can
help. Depending on your particu­
lar needs, you can obtain informa­
tion on jobs in your local area, em­
ployment counseling, referral to
training programs, and placement
services, as follows:
Information on local job opportu­
nities can be obtained from the Job
Information Service (JIS). These
special units have been set up in
many local offices of the Employ­
ment Service. They permit job­
seekers to select jobs from a com­
puterized listing of opportunities in
the area. These listings, which are
updated daily, provide information
from employers on specific open­
ings. The JIS also furnishes general
trends, industrial developments,
job opportunities in State and Fed­
eral government, and promotional
materials from associations and
unions. Information on jobs in oth­
er parts of the country is available
as well.
Employment counseling is avail­
able from trained Employment
Service counselors to assist young
people starting their careers, as
well as experienced workers inter­
ested in changing jobs. Counselors
help people determine their actual
and potential abilities, interests,
and personal traits, to help them
make the best use of their capaci­
ties in the light of available jobs.
Most counselors in Employment
Service offices make use of USES
aptitude tests when appraising an
individual’s aptitudes, interests, and
clerical and literary skills.
Referral to training programs is
another service. When individuals
seek work for which they are not
qualified, the Employment Service
may suggest programs that provide
a specific skill.
Placement services also are avail­
able. Placing workers in jobs is a
primary objective of the public
Employment Service, and regis­

tered applicants are directed to em­
ployers who have vacancies to fill.
Requests are received from em­
ployers for many different kinds of
workers. As a result, registered ap­
plicants have access to knowledge
of a variety of vacancies, just as
the employer has access to many
Certain groups of jobseekers are
given special consideration by pub­
lic employment offices. These in­
clude veterans legally entitled to
priority in all services, with prefer­
ential treatment for disabled veter­
ans over others. In addition, the
Vietnam Era Veterans Readjust­
ment Assistance Act requires that
some specific form of assistance,
designed to enhance employment
prospects, be given to each veteran
who applies to the Employment
Service. Each local office has a
Veterans’ employment representa­
tive assigned the responsibility of
seeing that these priority services
are provided by all local office
The Employment Service also
maintains a year-round program of
services for youth, including coun­
seling, job development, place­
ment, training, and referral to oth­
er agencies. Special efforts include
the Summer Employment Pro­
gram, in which the Employment
Service tries to develop as many
jobs as possible for disadvantaged
youth. Another special program
provides placement services to
graduating seniors, school drop­
outs, and potential dropouts who
want to work.
Other groups facing special diffi­
culties in obtaining suitable em­
ployment are given special consid­
eration by the Employment Serv­
ice too. This may include referral
for supportive services, such as
provision of child care to enable
the parent to work, or health ex­
aminations or referral to training
which will help develop the job­

seeker’s employability. For individ­
uals with mental or physical dis­
abilities, assistance in making real­
istic job choices and overcoming
problems related to getting and
holding jobs is available. For mid­
dle-aged and older workers place­
ment efforts which take into ac­
count their particular problems
have been developed. Similar at­
tention, is given to the unique em­
ployment problems of minority
group members, and to the diffi­
culties encountered by disadvan­
taged jobseekers.

Although the discussions of fu­
ture job prospects contained in this
publication are written in qualita­
tive terms, the analyses upon
which they are based begin with
quantitative estimates of projected
employment, replacement open­
ings, and—in a few cases—supply.
These projections were devel­
oped using data on population, in­
dustry and occupational employ­
ment, productivity, consumer ex­
penditures, technological innova­
tion, and other factors expected to
affect employment growth. The
Bureau’s other research programs
provided much of this data, but
many other agencies of the Federal
Government were important con­
tributors, including the Bureau of
Apprenticeship and Training and
the U.S. Employment Service,
Employment and Training Admin­
istration, Department of Labor; the
Bureau of the Census, Department
of Commerce; the Office of Educa­
tion and the Rehabilitation Ser­
vices Administration, Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare;
the Veterans Administration; the
Civil Service Commission; the In­

terstate Commerce Commission;
the Civil Aeronautics Board; the
Federal Communications Commis­
sion; the Department of Transpor­
tation; and the National Science
In addition, experts in industry,
unions, professional societies, and
trade associations furnished data
and supplied information through
interviews. Many of these individ­
uals also reviewed preliminary
drafts of the statements. The infor­
mation presented in each statement
thus reflects the knowledge and
judgement not only of the Bureau
of Labor Statistics staff, but also of
leaders in the fields discussed, al­
though the Bureau, of course takes
full responsibility.
After the information from these
sources was compiled, it was ana­
lyzed in conjunction with the Bu­
reau’s model of the economy in
1985. Like other models used in
economic forecasting, it encom­
passes the major facets of the
economy and represents a compre­
hensive view of its projected struc­
ture. The Bureau’s model is com­
prised of internally consistent pro­
jections of gross national product
(GNP) and its components—con­
sumer expenditures, investment,
government expenditures, and net
exports; industrial output and pro­
ductivity; labor force; average
weekly hours of work; and em­
ployment for detailed industry
groups and occupations. The meth­
ods used to develop the employ­
ment projections in this publication
are the same as those used in other
Bureau of Labor Statistics studies
of the economy. A detailed de­
scription of these methods appears
in The U.S. Economy in 1985,
BLS Bulletin 1809.

the U.S. economy will not change
Current social, technological,
and scientific trends will continue,
including values placed on work,
education, income, and leisure.
The economy will gradually re­
cover from the high unemploy­
ment levels of the mid-1970’s and
reach full employment (defined as
4 percent unemployment) in the
No major event such as wide­
spread or long-lasting energy
shortages or war will significantly
alter the industrial structure or the
rate of economic growth.
Trends in the occupational struc­
ture of industries will not be al­
tered radically by changes in rela­
tive wages, technological changes,
or other factors.

Methods. Beginning with popula­
tion projections by sex, and race
developed by the Bureau of the
Census, a projection of the total
labor force is derived using expect­
ed labor force participation rates
for each of these groups. In devel­
oping the participation rates, the
Bureau takes into account a variety
of factors that affect a person’s de­
cision to enter the labor market,
such as school attendance, retire­
ment practices, and family respon­
The labor force projection is
then translated into the level of
GNP that would be produced by a
fully employed labor force. Unem­
ployed persons are subtracted from
the labor force estimate and the
result is multiplied by a projection
of output per worker. The esti­
mates of future output per worker
are based on analysis of trends in
productivity growth among indus­
tries and changes in the average
Assumptions. The Bureau’s projec­ weekly hours of work.
tions to 1985 are based on the fol­
Next, the projection of GNP is
lowing general assumptions:
divided among its major compo­
The institutional framework of nents: Consumer expenditures,

business investment, government
expenditures—Federal, State, and
local—and net exports. Each of
these components is broken down
by producing industry. Thus, con­
sumer expenditures, for example, is
divided among industries produc­
ing goods and services such as
housing, food, automobiles, medi­
cal care, and education.
Once estimates are developed
for these products and services,
they are translated into detailed
projections of industry output, not
only for the industries producing
the final product, but also for the
intermediate and basic industries
which provide the raw materials,
electric power, transportation, and
other inputs required in the pro­
duction process. To facilitate this
translation, the Department of
Commerce has developed inputoutput tables which indicate the
amount of output produced by
each industry—steel, glass, plastics,
etc.—that is required to produce a
final product, automobiles for ex­
By using estimates of future out­
put per man-hour based on studies
of productivity and technological
trends, for each industry, it is pos­
sible to derive industry employ­
ment projections from the output
These projections are then com­
pared with employment projec­
tions derived using regression anal­
ysis. This analysis develops equa­
tions that relate employment by in­
dustry to combinations of econom­
ic variables, such as population and
income, that are considered deter­
minants of long-run changes in em­
ployment. By comparing projec­
tions resulting, input-output and re­
gression analysis, it is possible to
identify areas where one method

produces a projection inconsistent
with past trends or the Bureau’s
economic model, and adjust the
projection accordingly.
Occupational employment projec­
tions. Projections of industry em­
ployment are translated into occu­
pational employment projections
from using an industry occupation
matrix. This matrix, which is divid­
ed into 200 industry sectors and
400 occupation sectors, describes
the current and expected occupa­
tional structure of each industry.
By applying the projected patterns
of occupational structure for each
industry to the industry employ­
ment projection and aggregating
the resulting estimates, employ­
ment projections for each of the
400 occupations contained in the
matrix can be obtained.
In some cases employment is re­
lated directly to one of the compo­
nents of the Bureau’s model—for
example, the number of cosmetolo­
gists is related to consumers expen­
ditures for beauty shop services. In
others, employment is related to an
independent variable not explicitly
projected in the model, but be­
lieved to be a primary determinant
of employment in that occupation.
The projection of automobile me­
chanics, for example, is based on
the expected stock of motor vehi­
cles. Projections that are devel­
oped independently are compared
with those in the matrix and re­
vised, if necessary, to assure con­
Replacement needs. In addition to
developing an estimate of project­
ed employment for each occupa­
tion, a projection is made of the
number of workers who will be
needed as replacements. Separa­
tions constitute a significant source

of openings. In most occupations,
more workers are needed to re­
place those who retire, die, or
leave the occupation that are need­
ed to fill jobs created by growth.
occupations offer employment
To estimate replacement open­
ings, the Bureau has developed ta­
bles of working life based on actu­
arial experience for deaths and on
decennial census data on general
patterns of labor force participa­
tion by age and sex. Withdrawals
from each occupation are calculat­
ed separately for men and women
by age group and used to compute
an overall separation rate for the
occupation. These rates are used to
estimate average annual replace­
ment needs for each occupation
over the projection period.
The effects of interoccupational
transfers are not taken into account
needs because little information is
as yet available on this type of
Supply. Supply estimates used in
analysis of many of the occupa­
tions presented in this publication
represent the numbers of workers
who are likely to enter a particular
occupation if past trends of entry
to the occupation continue. These
estimates are developed indepen­
dently of the demand estimates.
Thus, supply and demand are not
discussed in the usual economic
sense in which wages play a major
role in equating supply and de­
mand. Statistics on college enroll­
ments and graduations by field are
the chief sources of information on
the potential supply of personnel in
professional, technical, and other
occupations requiring extensive
formal education.


Selecting what courses to take in
college implicitly entails the task
of preparing to meet the challenges
of working life. Many potholes and
detours can be encountered on the
road from college to work if ca­
reer planning is done haphazardly.
The task of preparing for a future
career is made more difficult if un­
certainty exists about tomorrow’s
jobs and alternative occupational
choices that will be available.
Many questions are important to
young persons as they attempt to
match their abilities and interests
with the variety of occupational
choices. What fields look promis­
ing for employment opportunities?
What jobs does a college education
prepare one for? Would additional
graduate education greatly en­
hance career prospects in a par­
ticular occupation? How do earn­
ings in certain occupations com­
pare with earnings in others requir­
ing similar training? What types of
employers provide which kinds of
jobs? Does employment in a par­
ticular job mean steady, yearround work or is the job seasonal
or affected by minor swings in
economic activity?
The answers to these questions
change as our economy grows.
New goods, services, and im­
proved methods of production, as
well as changes in living standards,
life styles, and government policy
constantly alter the fvpes of jobs
that become available, lid s chap­
ter explores how changes in our
industrial and economic framework

affect the outlook for employment
in specific occupations. It also dis­
cusses briefly the implications of
these changes for employment op­
portunities for college graduates.
No one can forecast the future
with certainty. Nevertheless, by
using the wealth of information
available, and economic and statis­
tical analysis, the work future can
be broadly sketched. Of course,
some aspects of the future can be
predicted more accurately than
others. For example, the popula­
tion in 1985 can be estimated with
a high degree of accuracy because
changes in the rate of population
growth occur very slowly. On the
other hand, forecasting employ­
ment in a specific occupation is
quite difficult. The demand for sci­
entists, for example, would change
quite rapidly if a major research
and development program were
But before projecting the de­
mand for workers in the economy,
a number of basic assumptions
must be made about broad national
policy and social, technological,
and business conditions. The em­
ployment outlook pictured in this
publication is drawn within the fol­
lowing fundamental assumptions:

1970’s and reach full employment (4
percent unemployment) in the mid-1980’s.
—No major event such as widespread or
long-lasting shortages or war will
significantly alter the industrial structure
of the economy or alter the rate of
economic growth.
—Trends in the occupational structure of
industries will not be altered radically by
changes in relative wages, technological
changes, or other factors.

The following assessment of in­
dustrial and occupational outlook
begins with a projection of the total
labor force. By 1985, approximately
109.7 million persons will be in the
labor force. About 2.1 million will be
members of the Armed Forces; the
remainder makes up the civilian la­
bor force—107.6 million. This repre­
sents a projected 18 percent increase
in the civilian labor force over the
1974-85 period.
The growth of individual indus­
tries and occupations will differ,
however, from that of the total labor
force. The following sections discuss
the projected growth of industries
and occupations, and describe the
effect of this growth on tomorrow’s


—The institutional framework of the U.S.
economy will not change radically.




scientific trends will continue including
values place on work, education, income,
and leisure.
—The economy will gradually recover from
the high unemployment levels of the mid-

To help understand the Nation’s
industrial composition, industries
may be viewed as either goodsproducing or service-producing.
They may be further grouped into
nine major divisions according to
product or service. (See chart 1.)

Most of the Nation’s workers are
in industries that produce services—
in activities such as education, health
care, trade, repair and maintenance,
government, transportation, bank­
ing, and insurance. The production
of goods—raising food crops, build­
ing, extracting minerals, and manu­
facturing—requires only about onethird of the country’s work force.
(See chart 2.) In general, job growth
through the mid-1980’s is expected to
continue to be faster in the serviceproducing industries than in the
goods-producing industries. How­
ever, among industry divisions with­
in both the goods-producing and
growth patterns will continue to
vary. (See chart 3.)

Service-producing industries

In 1974, about 53.7 million work­
ers, almost 20 million more than in
1960, were on the payroll of serviceproducing industries—trade; gov­
ernment; services and miscellaneous;
transportation and other utilities; and
finance, insurance, and real estate.

The major factors underlying this workers by 1985, an increase of
rapid growth were (1) population about 33 percent over the 1974 level.
growth, (2) increasing urbanization
In 1974, nearly 20 percent of all
with its accompanying need for more workers in service-producing indus­
city services, and (3) rising incomes tries, or about 10.5 million, were
and living standards accompanying a college graduates. Through the mid
demand for improved services, such 1980’s, employment of college grad­
as health and education. These fac­ uates is expected to increase more
tors are expected to continue to rapidly than other groups in the
result in rapid growth of service service-producing industries.
industries as a group, and they are
Trade, the largest division within
expected to employ 71.5 million the service-producing industries, has
expanded sharply since 1960. Whole­
sale and retail outlets have multiplied
in large and small cities to satisfy the
need of our highly urban society.
Employment in trade was about 17
million in 1974, about 49 percent
above the 1960 level. Nearly 1.1
million workers, 6.2 percent of all
employment in trade in 1974, were
college graduates.
Employment in trade is expected
to grow by about 22 percent between
1974 and 1985. Although an everincreasing volume of merchandise
will be distributed as a result of
increases in population and consum­
er expenditures, the rate of increase
in manpower needs will be slowed by
laborsaving technology such as the
greater use of electronic data pro­
cessing equipment and automated

warehousing equipment, and by
growth in the number of self-service
stores, and vending machines. Tech­
nological advances and upgrading
the educational requirements for
many trade jobs should produce rap­
id growth in the employment of
college-educated workers in whole­
sale and retail trade.
Government employment has
grown faster than employment in
any other industry division, in­
creasing between 1960 and 1974 by
about 70 percent from 8.4 million
to 14.3 million. Growth has been
mostly at the State and local lev­
els, which together expanded by
90 percent. Employment growth
has been greatest in agencies pro­
viding education, health, sanitation,
welfare, and protective services.
Federal Government employment
increased about 20 percent be­
tween 1960 and 1974.
Government is a major area of
employment for college-educated
workers. Nearly a third of all gov­
ernment employees, 4.6 million in
1974, were college graduates. Gov­
ernment will continue to be a ma­
jor source of new jobs through the
mid-1980’s for both college gradu­

ates and persons with less educa­
tion. Employment in government
is expected to grow faster than the
average for other industries, rising
about 35 percent over the 1974 to­
tal. Most of the growth is pro­
jected to occur in state and local
agencies; at the Federal level, em­
ployment is expected to grow
more slowly than the average for
all industries.
Service and miscellaneous indus­
tries have increased rapidly as a
result of growing needs for health
services, maintenance and repair
services, advertising, and domestic
help. From 1960 to 1974, total em­
ployment in this industry division
rose over 80 percent, from 7.4 mil­
lion to about 13.5 million. About
3.6 million, more than one-fourth
of those employed in these indus­
tries in 1974, were college gradu­
Service and miscellaneous indus­
tries are projected to continue to
be among the fastest-growing in­
dustries through the mid-1980’s.
More than half again as many
workers are expected to be em­
ployed in this industry division in
1985 as in 1974, and requirements

Through the Mid-fj|80's Employment Growth
Will Vary Widely, by Industry
-4 0

-3 0

Finance, insurance and real estate
Contract construction
Transportation and public utilities
Source: Bureau of Labor StaBfctics










should increase substantially. Em­
ployment requirements in health
services are expected to grow rap­
idly due to population growth and
the increasing ability of persons to
pay for health care. Business serv­
ices, including accounting, data
processing, and maintenance ser­
vices, also are expected to grow
Transportation and public utility
employment of 4.7 million in 1974
was about 17 percent higher than
in 1960. Different parts of this in­
dustry, however, have experienced
different growth trends. For exam­
ple, employment increased rapidly
in air transportation, but declined
in the railroad industry. In 1974,
7.4 percent, or 340,000, were col­
lege graduates.
The number of jobs in transpor­
tation and public utilities as a
whole is expected to increase 11
percent by 1985, less than the aver­
age for other industries. Widely
differing employment trends will
continue to be experienced among
individual industries within the di­
vision. A continued increase in em­
ployment is expected in air trans­
portation but a decline is expected
to continue in railroad employ­
ment. A slight decline also is ex­
pected in water transportation.
Finance, insurance, and real es­
tate, smallest of the service-pro­
ducing industry divisions, grew 56
percent from 1960, to more than
4.1 million in 1974. Employment
has grown especially rapidly in
banks, in credit agencies, and
among security and commodity
brokers, dealers, exchanges, and
services. In 1974, college graduates
comprised 21 percent of the work­
ers in these industries, or 880,000
Job growth in finance, insur­
ance, and real estate is expected to
outpace the overall increases in

nonfarm employment through the
mid-1980’s. Employment is project­
ed to be about 35 percent higher
than in 1974.
Goods-Producing Industries

Employment in the goods-producing
manufacturing, construction, and
mining—which totaled more than
28.1 million in 1974, has increased
slowly in recent years. Significant
gains in productivity resulting
from automation and other techno­
logical developments as well as the
growing skills of work force have
permitted large increases in output
without corresponding increases in
employment. In 1974, 8.2 percent
of workers employed in goods-producing industries, 2.3 million per­
sons, were college graduates.
Overall, employment in goodsproducing industries is expected to
increase more slowly than the
average for other industries. How­
ever, widely different patterns of
employment change have occurred
and will continue among the indus­
try divisions in the goods-producing sector.
Agriculture, which until the late
1800’s employed more than half of
all workers in the economy, em­
ployed about 4 percent, in 1974, or
3.5 million workers. The more
than 200,000 college graduates
comprised only 5.9 percent of all
agricultural workers. Increases in
the average size of farms, rapid
mechanization, and improved fer­
tilizers, feeds, and pesticides have
created large increases in output
even though employment has fal­
len sharply.
The worldwide demand for food
is increasingly rapidly. Although
farm employment in 1985 is ex­
pected to be below the 1974 level,
the rate of decline will probably be
slower than during the 1960’s. Col­
Digitized foreducated workers are expect­

ed to comprise an increasing pro­
portion of agricultural employ­
ment, however, as a result of con­
tinuing technological advances and
increasingly sophisticated manage­
ment techniques.
Mining employed about 672,000
workers in 1974, nearly 12 percent
of them college graduates. Mining
employment has declined nearly 6
percent since 1960, primarily be­
cause of labor-saving technological
changes. The overall trend is ex­
pected to change, and mining em­
ployment in 1985 should be about
17 percent higher than in 1974.
Coal mining is expected to provide
many new jobs as the cost of other
fuels continues to rise and efficient
ways are found to minimize the
environmental impact of mining.
Contract construction employ­
ment, about 4 million in 1974, has
increased about 38 percent since
1960 as a result of the Nation’s
growing needs for homes, apart­
ments, offices, stores, highways,
and other structures. In 1974, 5.9
percent of all persons employed in
contract construction were college
graduates—more than 200,000
Between 1974 and 1985, employ­
ment in contract construction is
expected to grow about as fast as
the average for other industries,
rising by 26 percent.
Manufacturing, the largest divi­
sion within the goods-producing
sector, employed about 20 million
workers in 1974, an increase of
about 19 percent over 1960. Of all
those employed in manufacturing
in 1974, 1.8 million workers, or 9
percent, were college graduates.
New products for industrial and
consumer markets and the rapid
growth of government expendi­
tures for defense and space pro­
grams spearheaded growth during
the 1960’s.
Manufacturing employment is
expected to increase more slowly

than the average for other indus­
tries through the mid-1980’s and to
reach about 22.2 million in 1985.
Employment in durable goods
manufacturing is projected to in­
crease at a slightly faster rate than
total manufacturing, and nondura­
ble goods, somewhat slower; how­
ever, the rate of growth will vary
among the individual manufactur­
ing industries.

As industries continue to grow,
changes will take place in the Na­
tion’s occupational structure. Jobs
will become more complex and
specialized, offering an even great­
er number of occupational choices
to persons planning a career. By
first studying the outlook for broad
occupational groups, the task can
be made more manageable. (See
chart 4.)
Among the broad occupational
groups, white-collar jobs have
grown most rapidly over the past
decade. In 1974, white-collar
workers—professional, managerial,
clerical, and sales—outnumbered
blue-collar workers—craftworkers,
operatives,, and laborers by almost
12 million. (See chart 5.)
Through the mid-1980’s, we can
expect a continuation of the rapid
growth of service and white-collar
occupations, a slower-than-average
growth of blue-collar occupations,
and a further decline of farm
workers. The rapid growth expect­
ed for service workers and whitecollar workers reflects continuous
expansion of the service-producing
industries, which employ large
numbers of these workers. The
growing demand for workers to
perform research and develop­
ment, to provide education and
health services, and process the in­
creasing amount of paperwork
throughout all types of enterprises,
also will be significant in the

Em ploym ent H a s Shifted T ow ard
W h ite -C o lla r O ccupations
WORKERS On millions)

5 0 ------



o i—







Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

growth of service and white-collar
jobs. The slower-than-average
growth of blue-collar and farm
workers reflects the expanding use
of labor saving equipment in our
Nation’s industries and the relative­
ly slow growth of the goodsproducing industries that employ
large proportions of blue-collar
workers. (See chart 6.)
The following sections describe
in greater detail the changes that
are expected to occur among the
broad occupational groups through
the mid-1980’s.
White-Collar Workers

White-collar workers, who num­
bered 41.7 million in 1974, includ­
ed about 11 out of every 12 em­
ployed college graduates. More
than one quarter, or 12.1 million,
of all white-collar jobs were filled
by college graduates in 1974. By
the mid-1980’s, college graduates
are expected to hold about onethird, or 17.5 million, of the 53.2
million white-collar jobs. Although
the number of college graduates in
white-collar jobs is expected to
grow about 45 percent, their em­
ployment in some white-collar oc­

cupations will increase more rapid­
ly. (See chart 5.) The employment
outlook varies greatly for college
graduates among the major whitecollar occupational groups of pro­
fessional and technical workers,
managers and administrators, salesworkers, and clerical workers.
Professional and technical work­
ers were the third largest occupa­
tional group in 1974, but contained
the largest proportion of college
graduates. (See chart 6.) Among

the 12.3 million professional and
technical workers were more than
7.7 million college graduates—over
60 percent of the total. They in­
clude such highly trained person­
nel as teachers, dentists, accoun­
tants, and engineers.
Professional and technical occu­
pations are expected to grow by
about 30 percent by 1985, while
requirements for college graduates
in this field are expected to in­
crease 40 percent and reach 10.9
million in 1985. Workers in this
area will be in great demand as the
Nation makes greater efforts in
transportation, energy production,
rebuilding the cities, and enhancing
the beauty of the land. The quest
for scientific and technical knowl­
edge is bound to grow, raising the
demand for workers in scientific
and technical specialties. The late
1970’s and early 1980’s should see
a continuing emphasis on the social
sciences and medical services.
Managers and administrators to­
taled about 8.9 million in 1974;
more than one-quarter of them, or
2.5 million, were college graduates.
Overall, the number of managers is
projected to increase about as fast
as the average for other occupa-



Faster Than A ve rage Em ploym ent G row th is
Expected for C ollege Graduates

-7 5
Professional and technical
Managers and administrcdors

-------------------- Sales workers
Clerical workers
Nonfarm laborers


Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

' 1 .-■

College G rad u ate s W o rk Prim arily in
Professional and Technical Jo b s
WORKERS 1974 (in millions)


Source: Bureau of Labor Statictics.


were college graduates. Many new
clerical positions are expected to
open up as industries employing
large numbers of clerical workers
continue to expand. The demand
should be strong for those qualified
to handle jobs created by electron­
ic data processing operations. The
need for clerical workers as a
group is expected to increase by
about 34 percent—faster than any
other occupational group—be­
tween 1974 and 1985. Because no
developments which would require
a college education are expected,
the proportion of college graduates
in this group is not expected to
Blue-Collar Workers

tions between 1974 and 1985. Re­
quirements for college graduates in
managerial and administrative jobs,
primarily salaried positions, are ex­
pected to increase 60 percent over
the period. As in the past, require­
ments for salaried managers are
likely to continue to increase rap­
idly because of the growing depen­
dence of business organizations and
government agencies on manage­
ment specialists. On the other
hand, the number of self-employed
managers is expected to continue
to decline as the trend toward
larger businesses continues to re­
strict growth of the total number
of firms, and as supermarkets con­
tinue to replace small groceries
and general stores.
Salesworkers, accounting for
about 5.4 million workers in 1974,
are found primarily in retail stores,
firms, insurance companies, and
real estate agencies, as well as of­
fering goods door-to-door. In 1974,
the nearly 900,000 college gradu­
ates employed comprised about 16
percent of all salesworkers.
Salesworkers are expected to in­
crease about 16 percent between
1974 and 1985. Salesworker em­

ployment will grow as population
Workers employed in skilled
growth and business expansion in­
crease the demand for a wide craft jobs, semiskilled machine and
vehicle operative jobs, and laborer
range of goods and services.
jobs totaled 29.8 million in 1974—
Employment of college gradu­
ates in sales jobs is expected to 35 percent of the employed labor
grow more than 50 percent by the force. The 620,000 college gradu­
mid-1980’s. Over 21 percent, or 1.35 ates employed, however, com­
million, of the 6.3 million sales­ prised only about 2 percent of all
workers expected to be employed blue-collar workers.
Blue-collar employment is ex­
in 1985 will be college graduates.
pected to increase through the
The rising number of college grad­
uates expected in sales positions re­ mid-1980’s, though at a slower rate
flects to some extent the trend for than the average for all occupa­
employers to hire persons with the tions. By 1985, blue-collar workers
highest educational qualifications. are expected to comprise 32 per­
An increase in the proportion of cent of all employed, or 33.7 mil­
salesworkers who are college grad­ lion workers. Industrial growth
uates, however, also reflects the and increasing business activity are
changing nature of sales occupa­ generally expected to produce
tions. Sales personnel are increas­ growth of blue-collar occupations.
ingly required to have technical Technological development en­
knowledge of the product or serv­ abling greater automation of pro­
ice being sold, especially in the duction, however, are expected to
manufacturing and computer fields. repress employment of blue-collar
Clerical workers, numbering 15 workers while raising their pro­
million in 1974, include workers ductivity. About 720,000 college
who operate computers and office graduates are expected to occupy
machines, keep records, take dicta­ blue-collar jobs in 1985.
tion, and type. Clerical workers
Service Workers
made up the largest group of
workers in 1974, but only 6.5 per­
Service workers include men
cent of them, or 1 million workers, and women who assist professional

nurses in hospitals, give haircuts expected to require persons who requirements. Two out of every
and beauty treatments, serve food, have completed 4 years or more of three growth openings are expect­
clean and care for homes, and pro­ college. College graduates are ex­ ed to arise in professional and
vide protective services. This di­ pected to fill one-third of all white- technical occupations, reflecting
verse group, which totaled 11.4 collar job openings. Nearly 3 out of 4 the expectation of continued
million in 1974, is expected to in­ openings in professional and techni­ growth of occupations which pres­
crease 28 percent by 1985. Factors cal occupations, and almost half of ently employ substantial numbers
expected to increase requirements the job openings in managerial and of college graduates.
More than half of the require­
for service workers to 14.6 million administrative occupations, are ex­
by 1985 include rising demand for pected to require workers who have ments for college graduates over
hospital and other medical care; earned their college degrees. (See the 1974 to 1985 period are expect­
greater need for protective serv­ chart 7.) The increasing require­ ed to result from the need to re­
ices as urbanization continues and ments for college graduates reflect a place college graduates who die,
cities become more crowded; and continuing trend. The proportion of retire or otherwise leave the labor
more frequent use of restaurants, all employed persons who were col­ force. The bulk of the replacement
beauty parlors, and other services lege graduates grew from 10 percent openings are also expected to arise
as income levels rise and an in­ in 1959 to 15.5 percent in 1974; the in professional and technical occu­
creasing number of homemakers expectation is that this proportion pations.
will keep increasing, reaching almost
About 18 percent of the require­
take jobs outside of the home.
In 1974, less than 3 percent of 19 percent by the mid-1980’s. (See ments for college graduates are ex­
pected to come from increasing
all service workers, or 330,000, table 1.)
Job openings for college-educat­ education prerequisites in jobs not
were college graduates. This pro­
portion is expected to increase ed workers will stem from three previously requiring a college de­
slightly between 1974 and 1985. sources: employment growth, re­ gree. “Educational upgrading,” or
Expected growth of college gradu­ placement needs, and educational rising entry requirements, results
ate employment in service jobs upgrading. Over the 1974 to 1985 primarily from the changing nature
will stem from increasingly sophis­ period, requirements for college or content of existing jobs. College
ticated techniques used in law en­ graduates from these three sources graduates will be sought for some
are expected to total 12.1 million. jobs traditionally held by less edu­
forcement and other services.
Growth of employment in jobs tra­ cated workers due to the increas­
ditionally held by college gradu­ ingly complex skills required for
Farm Workers
ates is expected to require 3.5 mil­ those jobs. For example, as com­
Farm workers—including farm­
lion graduates, 29 percent of total puters and other technical aders, farm managers, and laborers
numbered 3.0 million in 1974. Al­
most 5 percent, or about 140,000
farm workers, were college gradu­
M o s t Jo b O p e n in g s for C olle ge G raduates
ates in 1974. Employment require­
T h ro u gh the M id - 1 9 8 0 s W ill Be in
ments for farm workers are expect­
W h ite -C ollar J o b s
ed to decline to 1.9 million in 1985
OPENINGS, 19 7 4 -8 5 PROJECTED {in millions)
in response to continued improve­
ments in farm technology. And
although the proportion of college
Professional and technical
graduates is expected to increase
N College graduates
M anagers and administrators
substantially between 1974 and
1985, employment of college grad­
Sales workers
Less than 4 years of college
uates in farm jobs is not expected
Clerical workers
to grow significantly.

More than one-fifth of all job
openings between 1974 and 1985 are

' Despite a projected overati rapid decline in employment, about 2 8 ,0 0 0 openings are expected for college graduates in farming occupations.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 1.
Percent of workers in major occupational groups having 4 years or more of college education, selected years,
1959-74, and projected 1985


Projected 1985..................


Profes­ Managers,
technical strators















NOTE: Data for 1960, 1961, 1963 and 1967 not available.
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics

vances continue to effect an everbroadening range of jobs, collegeeducated workers will be needed
to use their capabilities efficiently.
For other jobs, an understanding
of complex legal and regulatory
constraints imposed on business
and industry is becoming increas­
ingly essential.
Educational upgrading in a wide
range of managerial and adminis­
trative jobs, as well as professional
and technical jobs, is anticipated.
For example, increasing reliance
by business and government on sal­
aried management specialists and
the historical decline in the number
of self-employed managers both
suggest continued educational up­
grading in managerial occupations.
Upgrading of many sales jobs also
is expected as sales workers are in­
creasingly required to have techni­
cal knowledge in order to better
demonstrate and adequately ex­
plain the product or service they
are selling. Professional and techni­
cal jobs will continue to be up­
graded as certification and licens­
ing requirements become more
widespread in many occupations,
and increasing numbers of new
college curriculums will be devel­

oped to meet the specialized edu­
cational needs of occupations.
What might be considered edu­
cational upgrading, however, may
simply be a reflection of employ­
ers’ response to the greater avail­
ability of college graduates in the
labor market. Many employers
have long preferred to hire college
graduates for various jobs, but
were not able to hire them in the
1960’s when supply-demand condi­
tions favored the college gradu­
ates. However, as a surplus of col­
lege graduates began to appear in
the early 1970’s employers have
hired college graduates to fill an
increasing number of positions tra­
ditionally not requiring a college
The projection of 12.1 million
openings for college graduates, dis­
cussed above, is based on the as­
sumption that the percent of col­
lege graduates in clerical and bluecollar occupations will remain at
1974 levels through 1985. Propor­
tions for other groups are expected
to increase as they have done in
the past. (See table 1.)
The supply of college graduates
in the labor force is expected to
continue to increase by record

numbers each year through the
1970’s as increasing number of col­
lege degrees are awarded. By 1985,
college degrees awarded each year
are expected to have increased by
15 percent over the number award­
ed in 1974.
Between 1974 and 1985, 16.1
million college degrees are expect­
ed to be awarded: 11.4 million
bachelor’s, 3.6 million master’s,
440,000 doctor’s, and 690,000 first
professional degrees such as law,
medicine, or theology. Although
these expected college graduates
represent potential new entrants to
the labor force, not all can be con­
sidered part of the effective new
supply of college educated work­
ers. For example, most master’s
and doctor’s degree recipients are
employed before receiving their
advanced degrees and are already
considered part of the supply of
college graduates in the labor
force. Many other degree recipi­
ents, especially those holding bach­
elor’s degrees, delay entry into the
civilian labor force to continue
their education, enter the Armed
Forces, or become full-time home­
The supply of college graduates
expected to actually enter the ci-

vilian labor force from 1974 to
1985 will total 13.1 million. (See
chart 8.) On the basis of past pat­
terns of entry into the labor force
by college graduates, 8 out of 10
of the entrants are expected to
come directly from college. Ex­
pected are 9.1 million bachelor’s
degree recipients, more than 1.2
million master’s degree recipients,
15.000 doctor’s degree recipients,
and 540,000 holders of first profes­
sional degrees. In addition, 2.25
million college graduates are ex­
pected to enter or re-enter the ci­
vilian labor force from sources
other than the Nation’s colleges
and universities. They include re­
entrants to the labor force, persons
separating from the Armed Forces,
and immigrants and persons return­
ing to the United States after living
in a foreign country.
Based on this analysis, the num­
ber of persons with college degrees
entering the labor force over the
1974-85 period would be about
950.000 above the number of pro­
jected job openings. This does not
necessarily mean that college grad­
uates will experience significant
levels of unemployment. The un­
employment rate of college gradu­

ates has always been lower than
that of workers with less educa­
tion. (See chart 9.) Instead, prob­
lems for college graduates will
center on underemployment and
job dissatisfaction which will likely
result in increasing movement
among occupations rather than un­
employment. Many individuals
may be forced to take jobs for
which a college degree is not re­
quired—jobs in which their train­
ing is not fully utilized.
In fact, a “spillover” of college
graduates into non-traditional fields
has already become apparent. For
example, between 1970 and 1974,
the proportion of workers having
four or more years of college edu­
cation has increased by more than
60 percent in clerical, service and
which have traditionally had very
small proportions of college gradu­
ates. Although the proportions
have remained relatively small,
more than one-half of all workers
are employed in these three major
groups. Consequently, the numeri­
cal effect of these increases has
been great; the estimated number
of college graduates currently em­
ployed in these occupations is

More Than 13 Million College Graduates are
Expected to Enter the Civilian Labor Force
Between 1974 and 1985 _________________

ST Other
First professional degree recipients
5 4 0 ,0 0 0

2.22 million


Doctor’s degree recipients
1 5,000

Bachelor’s degree
9.07 million

Master's degree recipients
1.26 million

il Indudes reentrants and persons separating from military services.
Source: Bureau Of Labor Statistics.


about 750,000 higher than would
have been expected had trends
during the 1960’s continued.
It is likely that some spillover
has even occurred in major groups
which have characteristically em­
ployed larger proportions of col­
lege graduates. Growth since 1970
in the proportions of college grad­
uates in the professional-technical,
managerial and sales groups has
been substantially faster than it was
through the 1960’s, indicating per­
haps that some occupations in
these groups have helped to absorb
a surplus of college graduates.
“spillover” has been
caused—at least in part—by gener­
ally poor economic conditions dur­
ing the 1970-75 period. Aerospace
cutbacks and the recession of
1970-71, followed by an oil embar­
go in 1973-74 and recession in
1974-75 have dramatically slowed
the economy’s growth during the
first half of this decade. As a re­
sult, employers’ hiring needs have
been significantly reduced.
Just as job offers to new college
graduates have suffered a general
decline, the number of college
graduates entering the labor force
each year (including re-entrants)
has increased rapidly, nearly dou­
bling since 1970. Some persons
with college degrees, having lost
their jobs because of economic
conditions, have begun to seek al­
ternative employment. Moreover,
in addition to the ever increasing
number of new college graduates
seeking jobs, many persons have
entered the labor force who in bet­
ter times would not have looked
for work. For example, an increas­
ing number of graduate students
have likely been forced to supple­
ment educational grants and loans
with at least part-time employ­
ment. Economic necessity has also
helped to draw many homemakers
into the labor force—a significant
number of whom hold college de-

U nem ploym ent R ate s Are Low e st for
C ollege-Educated W o rk e rs

grees and would be expected to
compete directly with new college
graduates for the best jobs.
The oversupply also is likely to
have an adverse effect on those
with less education. In the future,
workers without college degrees
are expected to have fewer oppor­
tunities to advance to professional
positions in fields such as engineer­
ing and accounting, as well as to
higher level managerial, sales, and

service jobs. Thus, while college
graduates are expected to face
competition for jobs, those without
a college education are likely to
encounter even greater competi­
tion for the better jobs.
On the other hand, in some oc­
cupations, graduates of four-year
colleges are likely to face unprec­
edented competition from commu­
nity and junior college graduates.
Community colleges and other

post-secondary institutions have
shown that they can train students
for many occupations in 2 years or
even less, and the number of stu­
dents completing career education
programs in these institutions is in­
creasing rapidly.
The remainder of this publica­
tion discusses the outlook for var­
ious occupations requiring a col­
lege degree for entry. Although an
oversupply of college graduates is
generally expected, the outlook for
individual occupations varies a
great deal. For example, shortages
of graduates with the education re­
quired to become engineers is ex­
pected, if past trends continue. On
the other hand, a surplus of gradu­
ates in teaching and the biological
sciences is expected. This high­
lights the importance of careful ca­
reer planning while in high school
and college. By selecting courses
of study in light of what the future
world of work will be like, stu­
dents can graduate from college
with the most marketable types of
education and training. The Occu­
pational Outlook for College Grad­
uates and career guidance counsel­
ors can provide valuable assistance
in this regard.


(D.O.T. 160.188)

Office workers perform a wide
range of tasks that are needed to
keep business and other organiza­
tions running on a day to day basis.
Clerical workers, such as secreta­
ries and typists, maintain files, type,
and operate office machines.
Professional and technical em­
ployees give legal advice, prepare
and analyze financial reports,
design computer systems, and ar­
range bank loans.
Opportunities in office work exist
for people with widely different
educational backgrounds. Some
jobs can be entered with only a high
school education; many others,
however, require at least a college
Many clerical employees work
with things and often do detailed,
repetitive tasks. Most professional
office workers, on the other hand,
work with ideas; they apply their
skills to solving problems and devis­
ing ways to provide better services
to those who depend on them.
Besides the technical skills required
to do their jobs, office workers need
judgment and the ability to commu­
nicate their ideas to others.
This section describes a number of
administrative occupations, including
city managers, accountants, credit of­
ficials, and personnel workers.


Nature of the Work

Managers must have up-to-date
financial information to make im­
portant decisions. Accountants
Most administrative workers are prepare and analyze financial re­
professional office employees who ports that furnish this kind of infor­
run, or help run, business and other mation.
organizations. Some are managers,
Three major accounting fields
who supervise, plan operations and are public, management, and
make company policy. Others pro­ government accounting. Public ac­
vide assistance to management, countants have their own busi­
such as personnel workers who nesses or work for accounting
recruit and hire staff members and firms. Management accountants,
handle employee problems. The also called industrial or private ac­
success or failure of an organization countants, handle the financial
depends heavily on the way ad­ records of the company they work
ministrative workers do their jobs.
for. Government accountants ex­
Nearly all administrative jobs amine the records of government
require a college degree, although agencies and audit private busi­
employers vary in the specific area nesses and individuals whose
of study they prefer. Some seek dealings are subject to government
business administration or liberal regulations.
arts graduates; others want a
Accountants often concentrate
background in technical area such on one particular phase of account­
as engineering or science.
ing. For example, many public ac­
Many administrative workers countants specialize in auditing
solve problems and make decisions, (r e v ie w in g a client’s financial
using numbers and technical data. records and reports to judge their
In addition, these workers must be reliability). Others specialize in tax
tactful and able to get along with matters, such as preparing income
others. They must be able to handle tax forms and advising their clients
the uneven flow of work in offices.
of the advantages and disad­
This section describes several ad­ vantages of certain business deci­
ministrative occupations including sions. Still others become spe­
Accountants, cialists in management consulting
Credit Officials, and Personnel and and give advice on a variety of mat­
Labor Relations workers.
ters. They might develop or revise
an accounting system to serve the

number teach in colleges and
universities. Opportunities are plen­
tiful for part-time work in account­
ing, particularly in smaller firms.
Accountants are found in all
business, industrial, and govern­
ment organizations. Most, however,
work in large urban areas where
many public accounting firms and
central offices of large businesses
are concentrated. For example,
over 20 percent of all accountants

are employed in just four major cit­
ies: Chicago, Los Angeles; New
York; and Washington, D.C.

needs of clients more effectively or
give advice about different types of
accounting equipment.
Management accountants pro­
vide the financial information ex­
ecutives need to make sound busi­
ness decisions. They may choose to
work in areas such as taxation,
budgeting, or investments. Internal
auditing is an area of specialization
within management accounting
which is rapidly growing in im­
portance. Accountants who work as
internal auditors examine and eval­
uate their firm’s financial systems
procedures to ensure efficient and
economical operation.
Many accountants in the Federal
Government work as Internal
Revenue agents, investigators, and
bank examiners; other government
accountants have regular account­
ing positions.

Places of Employment
About 805,000 people worked as
accountants in 1974; almost 20 per­
cent were Certified Public Accoun­
tants (CPA’s). About 4 percent of
CPA’s and nearly 24 percent of all
accountants are women. Since the
early 1960’s, employment of
women accountants has increased
more rapidly than that of men, and
there is every indication that
women will continue to play an in­
creasingly active role in the occupa­
About 60 percent of all account­
ants do management accounting
work; one-fifth of these work as in­
ternal auditors. An additional 20
percent are engaged in public ac­
counting as proprietors, partners,
or employees of independent ac­
counting firms. Other accountants
work for Federal, State, and local
government agencies, and a small

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Training in accounting is availa­
ble at colleges and universities, ac­
counting and business schools, and
correspondence schools. Although
many graduates of business and
correspondence schools are suc­
cessful in small firms, most large
public accounting and business
firms require applicants to have at
least a bachelor’s degree in ac­
counting or a closely related field.
Many employers prefer those with
the master’s degree in accounting.
A strict accounting background
usually is not required for starting
jobs as internal a u d ito rs; h o w e v e r ,
training in business management,
industrial relations, business law,
and mathematics is helpful. A grow­
ing number of large employers
prefer applicants who are familiar
with computer technology for both
accounting and internal auditor
positions. For beginning accounting
positions, the Federal Government
requires 4 years of college training
(including 24 semester hours in ac­
counting or related subjects) or an
equivalent combination of educa­
tion and experience. For teaching
positions, most colleges and univer­
sities require at least the master’s
degree or the Certified Public Ac­
countancy Certificate.
Previous work experience in ac­
counting can help an applicant get a
job. Many colleges offer students an
opportunity to gain experience

through internship programs con­
ducted by public accounting or
business firms.
Anyone working as a “certified
public accountant” must hold a cer­
tificate issued by the State board of
accountancy. All states use the
CPA examination, administered by
the American Institute of Certified
Public Accountants, to establish
certification. Most successful can­
didates have college degrees, and
three-fourths of the States require
CPA candidates to be college grad­
uates. Nearly all States require ap­
plicants to have at least 2 years of
public accounting experience for a
CPA certificate.
Requirements vary, but more
than half the States restrict the title
“public accountant” to those who
are licensed or registered. Some
States require only a high school
diploma while others require 2
years of college or more. Informa­
tion on requirements may be ob­
tained directly from individual
State boards of accountancy or
from the National Society of Public
The recognized mark of com­
petence and experience in the field
of internal auditing is the designa­
tion, Certified Internal Auditor
(CIA). The Institute of Internal Au­
ditors, Inc. confers this designation
completed 3 years’ experience in
internal auditing and who have
passed a 4-part examination.
Beginning in 1978, a bachelor’s
degree from an accredited college
or university also will be required.
Persons planning a career in ac­
counting should have an aptitude
for mathematics. Neatness and ac­
curacy also are necessary. Em­
ployers seek applicants who can
handle responsibility and work with
little supervision.
To get to the top in the profes­
sion, accountants usually must con­
tinue their study of accounting even
though they already have college
degrees or professional certificates.

They may participate in seminars
sponsored by various professional
associations or take courses offered
by their employers. A growing
number of States require both
CPA’s and licensed public accoun­
tants to complete a certain number
of hours of continuing education
courses before their licenses can be
renewed. An increasing number of
accountants study computer opera­
tion and programming to adapt ac­
counting procedures to new data
capable accountants should ad­
vance rapidly, those having in­
adequate academic preparation
may be assigned routine jobs and
find promotion difficult.
Junior public accountants usually
start by assisting with auditing work
for several clients. They may ad­
vance to intermediate positions
with more responsibility in 1 or 2
years and to senior positions within
another few years. In larger firms,
those who deal successfully with
top industry executives often
become supervisors, managers, or
partners, or transfer to executive
positions in private firms. Some
open their own public accounting
Beginning management account­
ants often start as ledger account­
ants, junior internal auditors, or as
trainees for technical accounting
positions. They may advance to
jobs such as chief plant accountant,
chief cost accountant, budget
director, or manager of internal au­
diting. Some become controllers,
sidents, or corporation presidents.
In the Federal Government, begin­
ners are hired as trainees and
usually are promoted in a year or
so. In college and university
teaching, those having minimum
training and experience may
receive the rank of instructor
without tenure; advancement and
permanent faculty status depend
further education
teaching experience.

Employment Outlook
Employment is expected to in­
crease about as fast as the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s as businesses and govern­
ment agencies continue to expand
in size and complexity. In addition
to jobs resulting from growth, many
thousands of openings will result
each year when workers die, retire,
or leave the occupation.
Demand for skilled accountants
will rise as managers rely more on
accounting information to make
business decisions. For example, of­
ficers of large corporations base
proposals such as plant expansion,
mergers, or foreign investments on
information about the financial
condition of the firm, tax implica­
tions of the proposed action, and
other considerations. On a smaller
scale, owners of small businesses
are expected to rely more and more
on the expertise of public account­
ants in planning their operations.
Government legislation to monitor
business activity also is expected to
add to the demand for accountants.
An example is the Pension Reform
Act of 1974, which establishes
minimum standards for private pen­
sion plans. This and other legisla­
tion should create many new jobs
for management accountants to
maintain new systems and public
accountants to audit them.
Because of the growing complex­
ity of business, college graduates
will be in greater demand than ap­
plicants who lack this training.
Many employers prefer graduates
who have worked part time in a
business or accounting firm while in
school. Those who have been
trained in a specific phase of ac­
counting should find ample oppor­
As data processing systems con­
tinue to replace manual preparation
of accounting records and state­
ments, the need for some accoun­
tants to perform routine tasks, par­
ticularly in large firms, may be

reduced. However, many opportu­
nities will arise for accountants
without a college degree, mainly in
small businesses and public ac­
counting firms.

for their clients. The majority, how­
ever, work in one office between 35
and 40 hours a week, under the
same general conditions as fellow
office workers.

Earnings and Working

Sources of Additional

Starting salaries of beginning ac­
countants in private industry were
$9,700 a year in 1974, according to
a survey in urban areas. Earnings of
experienced accountants ranged
between $13,300 and $19,600, de­
pending on their level of responsi­
bility and the complexity of the ac­
counting system. In general, ex­
perienced accountants earn about
twice as much as nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Chief accountants who
direct the accounting program of a
company or one of its establish­
ments earned between $17,600 and
$29,000, depending upon the scope
of their authority and size of profes­
sional staff.
According to the same survey,
$10,400 a year, while experienced
auditors’ earnings ranged between
$14,400 and $17,500.
Salaries generally are higher for
accountants who travel a great deal
or who hold a graduate degree or a
CPA certificate.
In the Federal Civil Service, the
entrance salary for junior accoun­
tants and auditors was about
$10,200 in late 1974. Candidates
who had superior academic records
received a starting salary of about
$ 11,200. Applicants with a master’s
degree or 2 years’ professional ex­
perience began at about $12,800.
Accountants in the Federal
$23,000 a year in 1974.
Accountants who specialize in in­
come tax preparation often work
long hours under heavy pressure
during the tax season; those em­
ployed by national accounting firms
may travel extensively to conduct
audits and perform other services

Information about CPA’s and
about aptitude tests in high schools,
colleges, and public accounting
firms may be obtained from:

American Institute o f Certified Public Ac­
countants, 666 Fifth Ave., New York,
N .Y .10019.

Further information on special­
ized fields of accounting is available
National Association of Accountants, 919
Third Ave., New York, N.Y. 10022.
National Society of Public Accountants,
1717 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, DC. 20006.
Institute of Internal Auditors, 5500 Diplomat
Circle, Orlando, Fla. 32810.

(D.O.T. 050.088; 132.088;
141.081 and .168; 162.158; and
164.068 through .168)
Nature of the Work

Almost every business does some
form of advertising to pursuade
people to buy its products or use its
services. A wide variety of workers
in many industries create and
produce advertisements, or make
arrangements for them to be broad­
cast on radio and television or
published in newspapers and
magazines. The following occupa­
tions are those most commonly as­
sociated with advertising.
Advertising managers direct the
advertising program of the busi­
nesses for which they work. They
determine the size of the advertis­
ing budget, the type of ads and
media to be used, and the advertis­
ing agency, if any, that will be em­
ployed. Managers who decide to

employ an agency work closely with
the account executives assigned to
their firms. They also may supervise
the preparation of pamphlets,
brochures, or other materials
developed to promote the firm’s
products or services. Advertising
managers working for newspapers,
radio stations, and other communi­
cations media have somewhat dif­
ferent duties. They are responsible
for selling advertising time or space,
and their work is similar to that of
sales managers in other businesses.
Account executives are employed
by advertising agencies to develop
advertising programs for clients.
They study the client’s sales, public
image, and advertising problems
and create a program that meets the
client’s approval. In most agencies,
the actual artwork and slogans are
developed by artists and copy­
writers, but in some small agencies,
account executives are responsible
for this aspect of the job. Account
executives may be supervised by ac­
count supervisors; usually, how­
ever, they report directly to agency
Research directors and their
assistants study the market for the
product or service being sold. They
review its possible uses, advantages
or disadvantages compared to those
of competitors, and ways of
reaching potential buyers. These
workers may survey buying habits
and motives of customers, or try out
sample advertisements to find the
selling theme or medium that best
sells the product. (See the state­
ment on Marketing Research Work­
ers for more information on this
Advertising copywriters develop
the slogans and text to be used in
the ads. By studying information
about the product and its potential
customers, they are able to write
copy aimed at the particular group
of customers the advertiser seeks to
attract. They may specialize in writ­
ing copy for certain groups, such as
business managers, teenagers, or
sports lovers, or for a class of

products, such as cars or computer
equipment. Copywriters usually
work closely with account execu­
tives. In some agencies they may be
supervised by copy chiefs.
Artists and layout workers create
the visual impact of an advertise­
ment by selecting photographs,
drawing symbols or figures, and
selecting the size or type of print to
be used in a magazine or newspaper
ad. When television commercials
are planned, they usually sketch
sample scenes for the client to con­
sider. (See the statements on Com­
mercial Artists and Photographers
for more information on this type of
Media directors (or space buyers
and time buyers ) negotiate con­
tracts for advertising space or air
time. They determine, for example,
the day and time when a television
commercial would reach the largest
group of prospective buyers at the
least cost. To select the best medi­
um for the advertiser, they must
know the costs of using various
media and the characteristics of the
audience that would be reached by
specific publications or television
Production managers and their
assistants arrange to have the ad
printed for publication or filmed for
television use. They must know
which firms or freelance workers
will be able to produce the best ad
for the least cost.
Places of Employment

In 1974, about 170,000 people
worked in jobs requiring considera­
ble knowledge of advertising. More
than one-third were employed in
advertising agencies, largely con­
centrated in New York City and
The rest worked for a variety of
firms and industries. Many advertis­
ing workers are employed directly
by organizations with products or
services to sell, such as manufac­
turers and retail stores. Others work
for television or radio stations,
newspapers, and magazines and sell

air time or space to advertisers.
Some work for printers, art studios,
and package design firms that help
advertisers create their ads.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Most employers prefer college
graduates who have liberal arts
training or majors in advertising,
marketing, journalism, or business
administration. No particular edu­
cational background, however, is
equated with success in advertising.
Preparing or selling ads for school
publications or a summer job with a
marketing research service can be
helpful experience.
Some large organizations recruit
outstanding college graduates for
training programs that cover all
aspects of advertising work. Some
beginners start as research or
production assistants or as space or
time buyers. A few begin as junior

Many advertising jobs require
imagination, creativity, and a flair
for language. Persons interested in
becoming advertising managers, ac­
count executives, media buyers,
and production managers must be
able to get along well with people
and be able to sell their ideas.
Research directors and their
assistants must have an understand­
ing of human behavior. Creativity is
especially important to artists,
layout workers, and account execu­
tives. Advertising workers must be
able to accept criticism of their
work and be able to function as part
of a team.
Copywriters and account execu­
tives may advance to more respon­
sible work in their specialties, or to
managerial jobs, if they demon­
strate ability in dealing with clients.
Some who are especially capable
may become partners in an existing
agency, or establish their own.

Employment Outlook
Employment of advertising work­
ers is expected to increase about
as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1980’s, as the
growing number of consumer goods
and increasing competition in some
product or service markets cause
advertising expenditures to rise.
Employment in these occupations is
strongly affected by general busi­
ness conditions because firms ex­
pand or contract their advertising
budgets according to their financial
success. Although opportunities
should be favorable for highly
qualified applicants, others seeking
entry jobs will face keen competi­
tion because many persons are at­
tracted to the field. Most openings
will result from the need to replace
workers who die, retire, or leave the
occupation for other reasons.
Earnings and Working

ecutives, copywriters, and layout
workers may become frustrated by
a client’s inability to define the type
of ad he or she wants for a product.
Advertising can be a satisfying
career for persons who enjoy
variety, excitement, creative chal­
lenges, and competition. Unlike
workers in many other occupations,
advertising workers experience the
satisfaction of having their work in
print, on television, or on radio,
even though they remain unknown
to the public at large.
Sources of Additional
Information on advertising agen­
cies and the careers they offer is
available from:
A m e r i c a n A s s o c ia t io n o f A d v e r t is in g A g e n ­
cie s, 2 0 0

P a rk A v e . N e w Y o rk , N .Y .

For a list of schools that provide
training in advertising, contact:
A m e ric a n
A d v e r t is in g
C o n n e c t ic u t A v e .

F e d e ra t io n ,
N W . , W a s h in g t o n ,

D . C . 20036.
According to the limited infor­
mation available, annual salaries for
beginning advertising workers with
bachelor’s degrees ranged from
$8,000 to $10,000 in 1974. The
(D.O.T. 186.118, .138, .168, and
higher starting salaries generally .288; 161.118, 189.1 18 and .168)
were paid by the largest firms or ad­
vertising agencies to outstanding
Nature of the Work
Practically every bank has a pres­
Salaries of experienced advertis­
ing workers employed by agencies ident who directs operations; one
varied by size of firm and type of or more vice presidents who act as
job. For example, account execu­ general managers or who are in
tives averaged $18,000 to $25,000 charge of bank departments such as
a year and media directors, trust or credit; and a comptroller or
$20,000, according to limited infor­ cashier who, unlike cashiers in
salaries stores and other businesses, is an
ranged from $15,000 for beginners executive officer generally respon­
to as much as $50,000 for those sible for all bank property. Large
having print and television ex­ banks also may have treasurers and
other senior officers, as well as jun­
People in advertising work under ior officers, to supervise the vari­
great pressure. They are expected ous sections within different depart­
to produce quality ads in as short a ments. Banks employed almost
time as possible. Sometimes they 240,000 officers in 1974; women
must work long or irregular hours in were about one-fifth of the total.
Bank officers make decisions
order to meet deadlines or make
last-minute changes. Account ex­ within a framework of policy set by

the board of directors and existing
laws and regulations. They must
have a broad knowledge of business
activities to relate to the operations
of their department. For example,
loan officers evaluate the credit and
collateral of individuals and busi­
nesses applying for a loan.
Similarly, trust officers must un­
derstand each account before they
invest funds to support families,
send young people to college, or
pay retirement pensions. Besides
supervising financial services, of­
ficers advise individuals and busi­
nesses and participate in communi­
ty projects.

Because banks offer many serv­
ices, a wide choice of careers is
available to workers who specialize.
Loan officers may handle install­
ment, commercial, real estate, or
agricultural loans. To evaluate loan
applications properly, officers need
to be familiar with economics,
production, distribution, merchan­
dising, and commercial law. Also,
they need to know business opera­
tions and should be able to analyze
financial statements.
Bank officers in the field of trust
management require knowledge of
financial planning and investment
for purposes of investment research
and for estate and trust administra­
Operations officers plan, coor­
dinate, and control the work flow,
update systems, and strive for ad­
ministrative efficiency. Careers in
bank operations include electronic
data processing manager and other
positions involving internal and
customer services.
A correspondent bank officer is
responsible for relations with other
banks; a branch manager, for all
functions of a branch office; and an
international officer, for advising
customers with financial dealings
abroad. A working knowledge of a
foreign country’s financial system,
trade relations, and economic con­
ditions is beneficial to those in­
terested in international banking.

Other career fields for bank of­
ficers are auditing, economics, per­
sonnel administration, public rela­
tions, and operations research.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Bank officer positions are filled
by management trainees or by
promoting outstanding bank clerks
or tellers. College graduation
usually is required for management
trainees. A business administration
major in finance or a liberal arts
curriculum including accounting,
economics, commercial law, politi­
cal science, and statistics serves as
excellent preparation for officer
trainee positions. Valuable ex­
perience may be gained through
summer employment programs.
Many banks have well-organized

officer-training programs usually
ranging from 6 months to 1 year.
Trainees may start as credit or in­
vestment analysts or may rotate
among bank departments to get the
“feel” of banking; bank officials
then can determine the position for
which each employee is best suited.
Persons planning to become bank
officers should like to work inde­
pendently and analyze detailed in­
formation. They also need tact and
good judgment in order to counsel
Advancement to officer may
come slowly in small banks where
the number of positions is limited.
In large banks that have special
training programs, promotions may
come more quickly. For a senior of­
ficer position, however, an em­
ployee usually needs many years of

Although experience, ability, and
leadership are emphasized for
promotion, advancement also may
be accelerated by special study.
Courses in every phase of banking
are offered by the American In­
stitute of Banking, a longestablished,
Employment Outlook
Through the mid-1980’s, employ­
ment of bank officers is expected to
increase faster than the average for
all occupations. The increasing de­
pendence on computers and an ex­
pansion in the services offered by
banks will require growing numbers
of officers to provide sound
management and effective quality
control. Opportunities also will
arise as experienced officers leave
their jobs. College graduates who
meet the standards for management
trainees should find good opportu­
nities for entry positions. However,
many senior officer positions will be
filled by promoting people already
experienced in banking. Competi­
tion for these promotions, particu­
larly in large banks, is likely to be
Large banks, insurance compa­
nies, and other financial institutions
paid executive trainees who were
college graduates starting salaries
ranging from about $730 to $930 a
month in 1974, according to the
limited information available.
Salaries of senior bank officers
may be several times as great as
these starting salaries. For officers,
as well as for other bank employees,
earnings are likely to be lower in
small towns than in big cities.

(D.O.T. 162.158 and 185.168)
Nature of the Work
Buyers determine which products
are on display in retail stores.
Although all buyers seek to satisfy
their stores’ customers and sell at a
profit, the kind and variety of goods
they purchase depend on the store
where they work. A buyer for a
small clothing store, for example,
may purchase its complete stock of
merchandise from sportswear to
formal evening clothes. Buyers who
work for larger retail businesses
often handle one or a few related
lines of goods, such as men’s wear,
ladies’ sportswear, or children’s
toys. Some, known as f o r e ig n
b u y e r s , purchase merchandise out­
side the United States.
In order to purchase the best
selection of goods for their stores,
buyers must be familiar with the
manufacturers and distributors who
handle the merchandise they need.
They also must keep informed
about changes in existing products
and the development of new ones.
To learn about merchandise, buyers
attend fashion and trade shows and
visit manufacturers’ showrooms.
They usually order goods during
buying trips, and also place orders
with wholesale and manufacturers’
salesworkers who call on them to
display their merchandise.
Buyers must be able to assess the
resale value of goods after a brief
inspection and make a purchase
decision quickly. They are aware of
their stores’ profit margins and try
to select merchandise that will sell
quickly at well above the original
cost. Since most buyers work within
a limited budget, they must plan
their purchases to keep needed
items always in stock but also allow
for unexpected purchases when a
“good buy” presents itself.
merchandise for their firms to resell
(unlike purchasing agents who buy

goods for direct use by the firm—
see the statement on Purchasing
Agents elsewhere in this book),
they must know what motivates
customers to buy. Before ordering a
particular line of merchandise,
buyers study market research re­
ports and analyze past sales records
to determine what products are cur­
rently in demand. They also confer
with assistant buyers and sales
clerks whose daily contact with
customers furnishes information
about consumer likes and dislikes.
In addition, buyers read fashion and
trade magazines to keep abreast of
style and manufacturing trends; fol­
low ads in newspapers and other
media to check retail competitors’
sales activities; and watch general
economic conditions to anticipate
consumer buying patterns.
M e r c h a n d is e m a n a g e r s (D.O.T.
185.168) plan and coordinate buy­
ing and selling activities for large
and medium-sized stores. They di­
vide the budget among buyers, de­
cide how much merchandise to
stock, and assign each buyer to
purchase certain goods. Merchan­
dise managers may review buying
decisions to insure that needed
categories of goods are in stock,
managers usually have very busy
schedules and deal with many dif­
ferent people in the course of a day.
and help buyers to set general pric­
ing guidelines.
Buyers and merchandise managers
usually have very busy schedules and
deal with many different people in the
course of a day. They work with
manufacturers' represenatives, other
store personnel including store execu­
tives and salesworkers, and custom­
ers. Assisting with sales promotions
and creating enthusiasm among sales
personnel are part of the buyer's job,
and he or she may be asked to provide
information such as dress sizes and
product descriptions to the advertis­
ing department for a sales promotion,
or to meet with floor salesworkers be­
fore a new line of merchandise is in­
troduced. Some buyers direct assis­
tants who handle routine aspects of
purchasing such as verifying ship­
ments; others supervise department

Some buyers represent large
stores or chains in cities where
many manufacturers are located.
The duties of these “market
representatives” vary by employer;
some purchase goods, while others
supply information and arrange for
store buyers to meet with manufac­
turers when they are in town.
Places of Employment
In 1974, almost 110,000 buyers
and merchandise managers worked

Linen buyer in a large department store
d iscu sse s special order with a c u s­

for retail firms—half of them for
clothing and general department
About 2 out of every 5 people in
the occupation were women.
Although jobs for buyers are
found in all parts of the country,
most jobs are in major metropolitan
areas were retail stores are concen­
Market representatives
work for buying offices in major
market areas such as New York,
Chicago, and Dallas.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A job which traditionally has at­
tracted career-minded people, buy­
ing offers good opportunities to

begin a career in merchandising.
Most retail stores prefer college
or junior college graduates for buy­
ing jobs. Courses in merchandising
or marketing may help in getting a
first job, but most employers accept
graduates in any field of study and
train them on the job. Promising
salesworkers sometimes are con­
sidered for promotion to jobs at the
management level, and begin as
assistant buyers.
Many stores have formal training
programs for all management or ex­
ecutive trainees, including buyers.
These programs usually last from 6
to 8 months and combine classroom
instruction in merchandising and
purchasing with short rotations to
various jobs in the store. This train­
ing introduces the new worker to
store operations and policies, and
provides the fundamentals of
merchandising and management as
The trainee’s first job is likely to
be that of assistant buyer. The du­
ties include supervising saleswork­
ers, checking invoices on material
received, and keeping account of
stock on hand. Assistant buyers
responsibilities, depending upon
their individual abilities and the size
of the department where they work.
Training as an assistant buyer
usually lasts about a year. After
about 5 years of working as a buyer,
those who show exceptional ability
may advance to merchandise
manager. A few find further promo­
tion to top executive jobs such as
general merchandise manager for a
retail store or chain. The length of
time it takes to reach any of these
levels depends not just on the in­
dividual’s ability but on the store’s
need for management personnel.
The faster growing the company,
the more opportunity there is for a
worker to acquire responsibility.
Buyers should be good at
planning and decisionmaking and
have an interest in merchandising.
They need leadership ability and
communications skills to supervise

salesworkers and assistant buyers
and to deal effectively with manu­
facturers’ representatives and store
executives. Because of the fast pace
and constant pressure of their work,
buyers need physical stamina and
emotional stability.
Employment Outlook

Earnings, which frequently in­
clude a bonus in addition to regular
salary, vary according to the sales
volume of the store and the type of
merchandise purchased. Buyers in
single-store companies with yearly
sales of $5-15 million earned about
$10,500 in 1974; merchandise
managers in these stores averaged
nearly $24,000.
Buyers for discount department
stores and other mass merchandis­
ing firms are among the most highly
paid in the industry. Those working
for mass merchandising firms with
annual sales of $40-400 million
earned over $21,000 in 1974, while
managers earned
about $36,000. A 1972 survey con­
ducted by the Mass Retailing In­
stitute shows that in firms with an­
nual sales of $4 million or more,
average earnings for buyers ranged
from about $16,000 to $24,000, de­
pending on the type of merchandise
purchased; most buyers earned
between $19,000 and $21,000.
Merchandise managers made con­
siderably more.
Buyers regulate their own hours,
and often work more than 40 hours
a week because of sales, con­
ferences, and travel. The amount of
traveling a buyer does varies with
the type of merchandise bought and
the location of suppliers, but most
spend 4 or 5 days a month on the
road. Merchandise managers also
travel frequently, averaging several
trips a month in many cases.

Employment of buyers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s, as retail stores seek
to promote sales by offering their
customers a broader selection of
goods. In addition to opportunities
created by this growth, many job
openings will arise each year from
the need to replace workers who
leave the occupation. Competition
for these jobs is expected to be
keen, for merchandising attracts
large numbers of college graduates
every year. Prospects are likely to
be best for qualified applicants who
enjoy the competitive nature of
retailing, and work best in a de­
manding, fast-paced job.
Employment of buyers will grow
as retailers put greater emphasis on
the selection, display, and promo­
tion of the goods they have for sale.
This is likely to spur demand for
buyers with the professional exper­
tise to discover new sources of
merchandise and select goods that
will appeal to customers and make
a profit for the retailer. The de­
mand for astute buyers and
merchandise managers will grow
even though chain stores and other
Sources of Additional
large firms are centralizing their
purchasing functions and turning to
General information about a
the computer for routine buying
career in retailing is available from:
and for compiling and tabulating
N a t io n a l R e t a il M e r c h a n t s A s s o c ia t io n , 1 0 0
data on past sales.
W e s t 3 1st St., N e w Y o r k , N . Y . 1 0 0 0 1 .

Earnings and Working
Newly hired buyers who were
college graduates started at $8,300
to $9,000 a year in 1974. Some who
showed unusual promise started at
annual salaries of $ 12,000 or more.

M a s s R e t a ilin g In stitu te , 5 7 0 S e v e n t h A v e .,
N ew Y o rk , N .Y . 10018.

(D.O.T. 188.118)
Nature of the Work
Population growth and industrial
expansion place increasing pressure
on housing, transportation, and
other facilities of cities. Problems
associated with growing modern
communities, such as air and water
pollution and rising crime rates,
also demand attention. To cope ef­
fectively with these problems, many
communities hire a specialist in
management techniques—the city
A city manager is responsible to
the community’s elected officials
who appoint him. Although duties
vary by city size, city managers
generally administer and coor­
dinate the day-to-day operations of
the city. They are responsible for
functions such as tax collection and
disbursement, law enforcement,
and public works; hire department
heads and their staffs; and prepare
the annual budget to be approved
by elected officials. They also study
current problems, such as traffic
crime, or urban
renewal, and report their findings to reports, receive visitors, answer
the elected council.
correspondence, and generally help
City managers must plan for fu­ to keep the city functioning
ture growth and development of cit­ smoothly. Assistant city managers
ies and surrounding areas. To pro­ organize and coordinate city pro­
vide for an expansion of public serv­ grams, supervise city employees,
ices, they frequently appear at and act for the city manager in their
civic meetings to advocate certain absence. They also may assume
programs or to inform citizens of responsibility for some projects,
current government operations.
such as the development of a
City managers work closely with preliminary annual budget. Depart­
planning departments to coordinate ment head assistants generally are
new and existing programs. In responsible for one activity, such as
smaller cities that have no per­ personnel, finance, or law, but also
manent planning staff, coordination may assist in other areas. Adminis­
may be assumed entirely by the trative assistants, also called execu­
tive assistants or assistants to the
Many cities employ assistant city city manager, usually do adminis­
head trative and staff work in all depart­
administrative ments under the city manager. For
assistants to aid city managers. instance, they may compile operat­
Under the manager’s direction, ing statistics, or review and analyze
they administer programs, prepare work procedures.

Places of Employment
About 2,900 city managers were
employed in 1974. Although nearly
all of them were men, in recent
years a growing number of women
have entered the occupation. In ad­
dition, several thousand persons
worked as administrative assistants,
department head assistants, and
assistant city managers. Most city
managers worked for cities and
counties having a council-manager
form of government, in which the
council appoints a manager who is
responsible for the day-to-day
operation of the government as well
as for the hiring and firing of
assistants, department heads, and
other staff. Most of the remainder
worked in municipalities having
other forms of government, such as

which the mayor appoints the city
manager as his administrative
assistant or chief administrative of­
ficer. A few city managers also
worked for metropolitan or re­
gional planning organizations and
councils of governments.
Although over three-quarters of
all city managers work for small cit­
ies having 25,000 or less inhabit­
ants, many larger cities also em­
ploy a city manager. About half of
the cities having a population of
between 10,000 and 500,000 have
city managers. City managers work
in all States, but one-half are con­
centrated in the eastern part of the
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A master’s degree, generally in
public or business administration, is
becoming increasingly important
for those seeking a career in city
management. Although some appli­
cants with only a bachelor’s degree
may find employment, strong com­
petition for positions, even among
master’s recipients, will make the
graduate degree a requirement for
most entry level jobs. In some cases,
employers may hire a person with
training in a field related to public
administration, such as engineering,
recreation, social work, or political
s c ie n c e .

In 1974, over 150 colleges and
universities offered graduate degree
programs in public or municipal ad­
ministration. Degree requirements
in some schools include successful
completion of an internship pro­
gram in a city manager’s office.
During this internship period,
which may last from 6 months to a
year, the degree candidate observes
local government operations and
does research under the direct su­
pervision of the city manager.
Most new graduates work as ad­
ministrative assistants to city
managers for several years and gain
in solving
problems, coordinating public serv­

ices, and management techniques.
Others work in an area of govern­
ment operations such as finance,
public works, or public planning.
They may acquire supervisory skills
and additional experience by work­
ing as assistant city manager or de­
partment head assistant in opera­
tions. City managers often are first
employed in small cities, but during
their careers, they may work in
several cities of increasing size.
Young persons who plan a career
in city management should like to
work with detail and as part of a
team. They must have sound
judgment, self-confidence, and be
able to perform well under stress.
To handle emergency situations,
city managers must quickly isolate
problems, identify their causes, and
provide alternate solutions. City
managers should be tactful and able
to communicate with and work well
with people.
City managers also must be
dedicated to public service since
they often put in long, hard hours in
times of crises.
Employment Outlook
This small occupation is expected
to expand faster than the average
for all occupations to the mid1980’s as problems of our growing
cities become more complex. Ex­
amples of more sophisticated ways
of dealing with these problems in­
clude computerized data collection
of police information, advances in
technology of traffic control, and
the application of systems analysis
to urban problems. The demand for
city managers also will increase as
cities convert to the councilmanager form of government, cur­
rently the fastest growing form of
city government. Furthermore, city
managers will be needed in places
having other forms of government
to help elected officials cope with
day-to-day operations of govern­
Persons who seek beginning city
management jobs as administra­

tive assistants, department head
assistants, or assistant city man­
agers may face strong competi­
tion through the mid-1980’s, espe­
cially if they do not have a graduate
degree in public administration or
related management experience.
However, many of those unable to
find employment in this area should
find jobs in other fields of public ad­
ministration. Competition should
be keen among the growing number
of administrative assistants, depart­
ment head assistants, and assistant
city managers for the relatively few
city manager positions.
Earnings and Working
Salaries of city managers and
their assistants vary according to
their education and experience as
well as job responsibility and size of
city. Generally, city managers’
earnings are very high relative to
the average earnings for nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming. In 1974, annual
salaries of city managers ranged
from about $12,000 in cities of
5,000 to more than $40,000 in cit­
ies of over 250,000, according to
the International City Management
Association. The average annual
salary for all city managers is al­
most $20,000. City managers in
cities not having council-manager
governments received slightly less.
managers and department head
assistants ranged from about
$ 10,000 in small cities to more than
$25,000 in large ones. They were
generally paid about three-fourths
the salaries paid city managers. Ad­
ministrative assistant salaries typi­
cally ranged from $8,500 to
$ 10,000, annually.
City managers often work more
than 40 hours a week. Emergency
problems may require evening and
weekend work and meetings with
individuals and citizen’s groups
consume additional time.
Fringe benefits usually include

health and life insurance programs,
pension plans, sick leave, vacation
time, and often a car for official
business. Managers generally are
reimbursed for expenses incurred
meetings and seminars.
Sources of Additional
For information on a career in
city management, contact:
In t e r n a t io n a l C it y M a n a g e m e n t A s s o c ia t io n ,
1 1 4 0 C o n n e c t ic u t A v e . N W . , W a s h i n g ­
to n , D C . 2 0 0 3 6 .

For further information on the
council manager form of govern­
ment, contact:
N a t io n a l M u n ic ip a l L e a g u e , 4 7 E . 6 8 t h St.,
N e w Y o rk , N .Y . 10021.

(D.O.T. 045.108, 090.118,
090.168, 129.108, and 166.168)
Nature of the Work
A student’s choice of a particular
institution of higher education for
further study is influenced by many
factors. Availability of a specific
educational program, quality of the
school, and cost, as well as proximi­
ty to home, may all play important
For many students, an equally
important factor is the institution’s
ability to provide for their housing,
social, cultural, and recreational
needs. Development and adminis­
tration of these services, including
educational and similar programs,
provide a wide variety of jobs for
college student personnel workers.
The admissions officer, registrar,
the dean of students, and the career
planning and placement counselor
are probably the best known among
these. Some other types of workers
that may make up this broad occu­
pational field are student activities
and college union personnel, stu­

employment, fellowships, teaching
dent housing officers, counselors in
and research assistantships. They
the college counseling center,
work closely with administrators
financial aid officers, and foreign
and with the admissions, counsel­
student advisers.
ing, business, and academic office
Titles of student personnel work­
ers vary from institution to institu­
Career planning and placement
tion and from program to program
counselors, sometimes called col­
within a single school. Titles also
lege placement officers, assist stu­
vary with the level of responsibility
dents in making long-range career
within a certain student personnel
selections and may also help stu­
program. The more common titles
dents get part-time and summer
include dean, director, officer, as­
jobs. On many campuses, they ar­
sociate dean, assistant director, and
range for prospective employers to
visit the school to discuss their
The dean o f students, or the vice
firm’s personnel needs and to inter­
president for student affairs, heads
view applicants. (For further infor­
the student personnel program at a
mation on this field, see statement
school. Among his or her duties is
on College Career Planning and
evaluating the changing needs of
Placement Counselors.)
the students and helping the pre­
sident of the college develop in­
The student personnel staff in
stitutional policies. The dean of stu­ charge of student activities work
dents generally coordinates a staff with members of proposed and
of associate or assistant deans; established student organizations,
these are in charge of the specific
especially with student government.
programs that deal directly with the They help the student groups to
plan, implement, and evaluate their
At some schools, the admissions activities. Often, the student activi­
office and the records office are ties staff will assist in the orienta­
separate. Admissions counselors in­ tion of new students.
terview and evaluate prospective
College union staff members work
students and process their applica­ with students to provide intellec­
tions. They may travel extensively tual, cultural, and recreational pro­
to recruit high school, junior col­ grams. Many college union staff
lege, and older students and to members are responsible for direct­
acquaint them with opportunities ing the operation of the physical
available at their college. They facilities and services of the build­
work closely with faculty, adminis­ ing, such as food and recreational
trators, financial aid personnel, and services, building maintenance,
public relations staff to determine fiscal planning, conference facili­
policies for recruiting and admitting ties, and employee supervision.
students. Personnel in the office of
Student housing officers some­
the registrar maintain the academic times live in the dormitories and, in
records of students, and provide general, help the students to live
current enrollment statistics for together in harmony. They may
communication both within the col­ serve as counselors to individual
lege and between the college and students with personal problems.
the community.
Housing officers also may be in­
Student financial aid personnel volved in managing the fiscal, food
assist students in obtaining financial service, and housekeeping opera­
support to pay for their education. tions of student residences.
Workers in this field must keep well
Counselors help students with
informed about sources of financial personal, educational, and voca­
aid, funding, and about manage­ tional problems. Students may
ment of all forms of financial aid— come to the counselors on their
scholarships, grants, loans, student own or be referred by a faculty

international associations and na­
tionality groups and for U.S. stu­
dents interested in study, educa­
tional travel, work, or service pro­
jects abroad.
Places of Employment

member, a residence hall coun­
selor, or a friend. Counseling needs
may arise from lack of self-con­
fidence or motivation on the part of
the student, failure in academic
work, desire to leave college or
transfer to another college, inability
to get along with others, loneliness,
drug abuse, or marriage problems.
In addition, there is a growing trend
for counselors to try to reach more
students by establishing group sen­
sitivity sessions and telephone
“hotlines.” Counselors often ad­
minister tests that indicate ap­
titudes and interests to students
having trouble understanding them­
se lv e s . Some a lso te a c h in th e col­
lege or assist with admissions,
orientation, and training of res­
idence hall staff. (For further in­
formation on this field, see state­
ment on Psychologists.)
F o r e ig n
s tu d e n t
a d v is e r s
minister and coordinate many of
the services which are crucial in in­
suring a successful academic and
social experience for students from
other countries. They usually assist
with foreign student admissions,
orientation, financial aid, housing,
English as a foreign language,
academic and personal counseling,
student-community relationships,
placement, and alumni relations. In
addition they may be an adviser for

An estimated 50,000 college stu­
dent personnel workers, roughly
one-third of them women, were em­
ployed in 1974. Every college and
university, whether a 2-year or a 4year school, has a staff performing
student personnel functions. They
are not always organized as a
unified program. Large colleges
and universities generally have spe­
cialized staffs for each personnel
function. However, in many small
colleges a few persons may carry
out the entire student personnel
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Because of the diversity in duties,
the education and backgrounds of
college student personnel workers
vary considerably. A bachelor’s
degree is the minimum require­
ment; however, for some student
personnel programs it is necessary
to have a master’s degree, and
others in the field have doctoral
In 1974, more than 100 colleges
and universities offered graduate
programs in student personnel
work. However, many employers
prefer instead a graduate degree in
a specific academic field added to
some courses in student personnel
work. A master’s degree in clinical
or counseling psychology is usually
required for work as a college coun­
selor. This degree also is helpful in
other student personnel fields such
as career planning and placement.
Business administration also is help­
ful, especially for those who wish to
go into the admissions, records, col­
lege union, financial aid, or student
housing fields. Familiarity with data
processing is an asset especially for

work in admissions, records, or
financial aid. Social science and
recreation degrees also are useful,
as is work experience in business,
government, or educational as­
sociations. The majority, however,
have degrees in education or the so­
cial sciences.
College student personnel work­
ers must be interested in, and able
to work with, people of all
backgrounds and ages. They must
have the patience to cope with con­
flicting viewpoints of students,
faculty, and parents. People in this
field often deal with the unexpected
and the unusual; therefore emo­
tional stability and the ability to
function while under pressure are
Entry level positions are usually
those of student activities advisers,
admissions counselors, financial aid
counselors, residence hall directors,
and assistants to deans. Persons
without graduate degrees may find
advancement opportunities limited.
A doctorate is usually necessary for
the top student personnel positions.
Employment Outlook
The employment outlook of col­
lege student personnel workers is
likely to be somewhat competitive
through 1985. Employment is ex­
pected to remain relatively stable.
Tightening budgets, in both public
and private colleges and universi­
ties, is the chief factor underlying
this expected lack of growth in em­
ployment. Student personnel posi­
tions least likely to be affected if
some reduction in number becomes
necessary are those most closely
tied to the academic function of the
school—admissions, financial aid,
and records. Over the short run,
until colleges and universities
resolve their financial difficulties,
most openings each year will result
from the need to replace personnel
who transfer to other positions,
retire, or leave the field for other
During the early 1980’s, how­

ever, employment of student per­
sonnel workers is expected to in­
crease as colleges provide more
services for students, especially the
growing number from low-income
and minority families who often
require special counseling and
assistance. The increasing number
of college students, in junior and
community colleges, is a factor
which also could contribute to
some growth in the student person­
nel occupations, especially if finan­
cial problems should ease. Twoyear public colleges, for the most
part, have less serious financial
problems because, unlike most 4year institutions, their enrollments
are growing and their operating
costs are moderate.
Earnings and Working
Median salaries of c h i e f s t u d e n t
ranged from $ 13,700
in small private colleges to $29,900
in large public universities in 1974,
according to a National Education
Association survey of public and
private colleges and universities.
Median salaries of d e a n s o f a d m i s ­
s io n s ranged from $12,700 to
$22,300; for r e g is tr a r s , from $9,400
to $20,400. D ir e c t o r s o f s t u d e n t
te s tin g a n d c o u n s e lin g had median
salaries of $ 11,400 to $22,800. The
median salaries of the other student
personnel workers were somewhat
lower. New entrants to the field
received about $8,500 in 1974.
College student personnel work­
ers frequently work more than a
40-hour week; often irregular hours
and overtime work are necessary.
Employment in these occupations is
usually on a 12-month basis. In
many schools, they are entitled to
retirement, group medical and life
insurance, and sabbatical and other
a ff a ir s o f f ic e r s

Sources of Additional
A pamphlet,

C a r e e r s in

H ig h e r

by the applicant, interviews a
representative of the company
T h e A m e r i c a n P e r s o n n e l a n d G u id a n c e A s ­
about its management, and reviews
s o c ia tio n , 1 6 0 7 N e w H a m p s h ir e A v e .
credit agency reports to determine
N W . , W a s h in g t o n , D C . 2 0 0 0 9 .
the firm’s record in repaying debts.
The manager also checks at banks
where the company has deposits or
previously was granted credit. In
extending credit to individuals
(consumer credit), detailed finan­
(D.O.T. 168.168)
cial reports usually are not availa­
ble. The credit manager must rely
Nature of the Work
more on personal interviews, credit
Both businesses and individuals bureaus, and banks to provide in­
may require credit to meet their formation about the person apply­
daily needs for a variety of goods ing for credit.
Particularly in large organiza­
and services. In most forms of
credit granting, a credit manager tions,
has final authority over the decision managers are responsible for for­
to accept or reject a credit applica­ mulating a credit policy. They must
establish financial standards to be
In extending credit to a business met by applicants and thereby
(commercial credit), the credit determine the amount of risk that
manager, or an assistant, analyzes their company will accept when of­
detailed financial reports submitted fering its products or services for
E d u c a ti o n ,

is available from:

sale on credit. Managers usually
cooperate with the sales depart­
ment in developing a credit policy
liberal enough to allow the com­
pany’s sales to increase and yet
strict enough to deny credit to
customers whose ability to repay
their debts is questionable. Many
credit managers establish office
procedures and supervise workers
who gather information, analyze
facts, and perform general office
duties in a credit department; they
include application clerks, collec­
tion workers, bookkeepers, and
In smaller companies that handle
a limited number of accounts,
credit managers may do much of
the work of granting credit them­
selves. They may interview appli­
cants, analyze the information
gained in the interview, and make
the final lending decision. They
frequently must contact customers
who are unable or refuse to pay
their debts. They do this through
writing, telephoning, or personal
contact. If these attempts at collec­
tion fail, credit managers may refer
the account to a collection agency
or assign an attorney to take legal
Places of Employment
About 66,000 persons, nearly a
third of them women, worked as
credit managers in 1974. About
one-half were employed in whole­
sale and retail trade, but many
others, almost one-third of the
total, worked for manufacturing
firms and financial institutions.
Although goods and services are
sold on credit, and cash loans
granted, throughout the United
States, most credit managers work
in urban areas where many finan­
cial and business establishments are
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A college degree is becoming in­

creasingly important for entry level
jobs in credit management. Em­
ployers usually seek persons who
have majored in business adminis­
tration, economics, or accounting,
but may also hire graduates holding
liberal arts degrees. Some em­
ployers promote high school gradu­
ates to credit manager positions if
they have experience in credit col­
lection or processing credit infor­
Newly hired workers normally
begin as management trainees and
work under the guidance of more
experienced personnel in the credit
department. Here they gain a
thorough understanding of the
company’s credit procedures and
policies. They may analyze previous
credit transactions to learn how to
recognize which applicants should
prove to be good customers.
Trainees also learn to deal with
credit bureaus, banks, and other
businesses that can provide infor­
mation on the past credit dealings
of their customers.
Many formal training programs
are available through the educa­
tional branches of the associations
that serve the credit and finance
field. This training includes home
study, college and university pro­
grams, and special instruction to
improve beginners’ skills and keep
experienced credit managers aware
of new developments in their field.
A person interested in a career as
a credit manager should be able to
analyze detailed information and
draw valid conclusions based on
this analysis. Because it is necessary
to maintain good customer relation­
ships, a pleasant personality and the
ability to speak and write effective­
ly also are characteristics of the
successful credit manager.
The work performed by credit
managers allows them to become
familiar with almost every phase of
their company’s business. Highly
managers can advance to top-level
executive positions. However, in

small and medium-sized companies,
Employment Outlook
Credit management is an expand­
ing field. Through the mid-1980’s
employment is expected to grow
faster than the average for all occu­
pations. In addition to opportunities
created by this growth, many jobs
will open each year from the need
to replace persons who leave the
occupation. Although there will be
employment opportunities through­
out the country, prospects should
continue to be best for wellqualified jobseekers in metropolitan
The volume of credit extended
rose very rapidly during the past
decade. In the years ahead, busi­
nesses can be expected to require
increasing amounts of credit to
secure raw materials for production
and obtain finished goods for even­
tual resale. Consumers, whose per­
sonal incomes have risen, are ex­
pected to finance greater numbers
of high-priced items. In addition,
the use of credit for everyday
purchases is expected to grow as
demand increases for recreation
and household goods as well as a
wide range of consumer services.
Although the increasing use of
computers for storing and retriev­
ing information will allow in­
dividual credit managers to serve
more customers, this should not
slow the growth of the occupation.
As companies handle greater num­
bers of credit transactions, credit
managers will spend more time
managing and supervising the credit
handling process in their firms.
Moreover, many duties of credit
managers, such as customer coun­
seling and interviewing applicants,
demand the tact and good judgment
only personal contact can provide.
In addition, attractive credit
terms are a major tool for increas­
ing the sales volume of almost any
business. As firms strive to max­
imize their sales in the face of com­
petition, there will be a greater de­

mand for skilled credit managers
who can establish credit policies
strict enough to minimize bad debt


Earnings and Working

Nature of the Work
Hotel managers are responsible
for operating their establishments
profitably and satisfying guests.
They determine room rates and
credit policy, direct the operation
of the kitchen and dining rooms,
and manage the housekeeping, ac­
counting, and maintenance depart­
ments of the hotel. They also are
problems that may arise.
Managers who work in small
hotels may do much of the front of­
fice clerical work, such as taking
room reservations and assigning
rooms. In some small hotels and
many motels, the manager is also
the owner and may be responsible
for all aspects of the business.
General managers of large hotels
usually have several assistants who
manage various parts of the opera­
tion. Because the hotel restaurant
and cocktail lounge are important
to the success of the entire
establishment, they almost always
are operated by managers with ex­
perience in the restaurant field.
Other areas that usually are han­
dled separately are advertising,
rental of banquet and meeting
facilities, personnel, and account­
Large hotel and motel chains
often centralize some activities,
such as purchasing and advertising,
so that individual hotels in the chain
may not need managers for these
departments. Managers who work
for chains may be assigned to or­
ganize a newly built or purchased
hotel or to reorganize an existing
hotel or motel that is not operating
About 120,000 hotel and motel
managers, one-third of them
women, were employed in 1974.
More than a third were self-em­

In 1974, beginning credit man­
agers earned annual salaries that
ranged from about $7,500 to over
$10,000, depending on the type of
employer and the geographic loca­
tion of the job.
As credit managers gain ex­
perience and reach middle manage­
ment positions, their earnings
usually range from $10,000 to
$20,000 a year; with the largest em­
ployers, earnings may be as high as
$25,000 or more. Some individuals
in top-level positions earned sala­
ries well over $40,000 a year.
Credit managers normally work
the standard workweek of their
company—35-40 hours, but some
work longer hours. In wholesale
and retail trade, for example, a
seasonal increase in credit sales can
produce a greater work volume. In
addition, some credit managers at­
tend conferences sponsored by in­
dustry and professional organiza­
tions where managers meet to
develop and discuss new techniques
for the management of a credit de­
Sources of Additional
Information about training pro­
grams available in consumer credit
may be obtained from:
S o c ie t y o f C e r t ifie d C o n s u m e r C r e d it E x e c u ­
tive s, 7 4 0 5

U n iv e r s it y

D r., St. L o u is ,

M o . 63130.

For information about training
programs available in commercial
credit, write:
C r e d it R e s e a r c h F o u n d a t io n , 3 0 0 0 M a r c u s
A v e ., L a k e Su c ce ss, N . Y . 11040.

(D.O.T. 163.118 and 187.118,

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although experience is generally
the most important consideration in
selecting managers, employers in­
creasingly emphasize college edu­
cation. Many believe that acquiring
a 4-year college degree in hotel and
restaurant administration is the best
educational preparation. The cours­
es in hotel work that are available
in a few junior colleges and through
the American Hotel and Motel As­
sociation also are considered help­
A college program in hotel
management usually includes cours­
es in hotel administration, ac­
counting, economics, food service
management and catering, and
hotel maintenance engineering.
Students are encouraged to work in
hotels or
restaurants during
summer vacations because the ex­
perience gained and the contacts
made with employers may help
them to get better hotel jobs after
Managers should have initiative,
self-discipline, and the ability to or­
ganize work and direct the work of
others. They must be able to con­
c e n tr a te
on details and solve
Some large hotels have special
on-the-job management trainee
programs in which trainees rotate
among various departments to
acquire a thorough knowledge of
the hotel’s operation. Outstanding
employees who have not had col­
lege training may receive financial
assistance to help them acquire a
Most hotels promote employees
with proven ability, usually front of­
fice clerks, to assistant manager and
eventually to general manager.
Hotel chains may offer better opportunites for advancement than in­
dependent hotels, because em­
ployees can transfer to another
hotel in the chain or to the central
office if an opening occurs.

Hotel manager personally greets an association representative who is considering
his hotel as a convention site.

Employment Outlook
Employment of hotel managers is
expected to grow about as fast as
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s as addi­
tional hotels and motels are built
and chain and franchise operations
spread. Many openings also will
occur as experienced managers die,
retire, or transfer to other jobs. Ap­
plicants having college degrees in
hotel administration will have an
advantage in seeking entry posi­
tions and later advancement.

(D.O.T. 184.168)
Nature of the Work
Industrial firms want to receive
customers’ goods promptly, safely,
and with minimum cost. Arranging

the transportation of materials and
finished products is the job of an in­
dustrial traffic manager. Industrial
traffic managers analyze various
transportation possibilities and
choose the most efficient type for
their companies’ needs—rail, air,
road, water, pipeline, or some com­
bination. Then they select the route
and the particular carrier. To make
their decisions, m a n a g e r s c o n s id e r
factors such as freight classifica­
schedules, size of shipments, and
loss and damage rates. (This state­
ment does not cover traffic
managers who sell transportation
services for railroads, airlines,
trucking firms, and other freight
Activities of industrial traffic
managers range from checking
freight bills to deciding whether the
company should buy its own fleet of
trucks or contract for services.
They route and trace shipments, ar­
range with carriers for transporta­
tion services, prepare bills of lading

and other shipping documents, and
handle claims for lost or damaged
goods. Traffic managers keep
records of shipments, freight rates,
commodity classifications, and ap­
plicable government regulations.
They also must stay informed about
changing transportation technolo­
gy, such as containerization (the
use of containers packed with many
individual items). Some traffic
managers (called physical distribu­
tion managers) are responsible for
packaging shipments and maintain­
ing warehouse facilities and trans­
portation equipment.
Traffic managers often consult
with other company officials about
the firm’s transportation needs.
They may, for example, work with
production department personnel
to plan shipping schedules, or with
members of the purchasing depart­
ment to determine what quantities
of goods can be transported most
Since many aspects of transporta­
tion are subject to Federal, State,
and local government regulations,
traffic managers must know about
these and any other legal matters
that apply to their companies’
shipping operations. High level traf­
fic managers represent their com­
panies before ratemaking and regu­
latory bodies such as the Interstate
Commerce Commission,
commissions, and local traffic bu­
Places of Employment
More than 20,000 persons were
industrial traffic managers in 1974.
Although most jobs are found in
manufacturing firms, some traffic
managers work for large stores. A
few are self-employed consultants,
or work for firms that handle trans­
portation problems for clients.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although high school graduates
with experience in traffic depart­
ments sometimes are hired as traffic

managers, a college education is in­
creasingly important in this field.
For some kinds of work, college
training is required. To argue cases
before the Interstate Commerce
Commission, for example, a traffic
manager must meet standards that
include at least 2 years of college.
Although some employers prefer
graduates who have a degree in
traffic management, others seek
liberal arts majors who have had
courses in transportation, manage­
ment, economics, statistics, market­
ing, or commercial law.
Industrial traffic training is
available through colleges and
universities, traffic management
schools, and seminars sponsored by
private organizations. More than
100 colleges, universities, and ju­
nior colleges offer a degree in traf­
fic management.
Industrial traffic managers should
be able to analyze numerical and
technical data such as freight rates
and classifications to solve trans­
portation problems. The job also
requires the ability to work inde­
pendently and to present facts and
figures in a convincing manner.
Newly hired traffic specialists
often complete shipping forms and
calculate freight charges. After
gaining experience, they do more
technical work such as analyzing
transportation statistics. A com­
petent worker may advance to a su­
pervisory job such as supervisor of
rates and routes; a few are
promoted to assistant general traf­
fic manager and eventually to
general traffic manager. Industrial
traffic managers can sometimes
help their chances for advancement
by participating in company-spon­
sored training programs or taking
advanced courses in traffic manage­
Employment Outlook
Industrial traffic management is a
relatively small occupation and is
expected to grow more slowly than
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. A few

openings will become available
each year as new jobs are created,
and as traffic managers die, retire,
or leave the field for other reasons.
College graduates with a major in
traffic management or transporta­
tion can expect first consideration
for the available jobs.
Growth in the occupation will
stem from an increasing emphasis
on reducing the cost of receiving
raw materials and distributing
finished products. As the distance
between markets becomes greater
and rate schedules and regulations
governing transportation more
complex, manufacturers increas­
ingly will require traffic specialists
with the expertise to obtain the
lowest possible freight rates.

in 1974, according to the limited in­
earnings of experienced traffic
managers vary, in general they are
much higher than the average for
all nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
Some traffic executives earned
$40,000 a year or more.
Although industrial traffic man­
agers usually have a standard
workweek, some of them have to
spend time outside regular working
hours preparing reports, attending
meetings, and traveling to hearings
before State and Federal regulatory

Earnings and Working

Information on education and
technical training is available from:

Industrial traffic managers’ sala­
ries started at about $ 15,000 a year

A m e r i c a n S o c ie t y o f T r a f f ic a n d T r a n s p o r t a ­
tio n , In c ., 5 4 7 W e s t J a c k s o n B lv d .,
C h i c a g o , III. 6 0 6 0 6 .

Sources of Additional

investigators, or claim examiners. A
legal background also is an asset to
those seeking or holding public of­
Places of Employment
Over 340,000 persons worked as
lawyers in 1974. Although the
majority were men, increasing num­
bers of women are choosing careers
in law. In 1974, for example, about
1 of every 5 students in American
Bar Association (ABA) approved
law schools was a woman.
Most lawyers are in private prac­
tice, either self-employed (alone or
in partnerships) or working for
other lawyers or law firms. In addi­
tion, about 22,000 lawyers worked
for the Federal Government,
chiefly in the Justice, Defense, and
Treasury Departments, and the
Veterans Administration; another
32,000 were employed by State and
local governments. Others worked
for private companies or taught in
law schools. Some salaried lawyers
also have independent practices;
others do legal work part time while
in another occupation.

(D.O.T. 110.108, .118, and
1 19.168)
Nature of the Work
At some time in our life, each of
us may need a lawyer for advice
about our rights and responsibilities
when we buy property, make a will,
or settle an estate. In addition,
lawyers, also called attorneys,
negotiate the settlement of legal
problems out of court or, when
necessary, represent clients in court
or before government agencies.
Most lawyers are engaged in
general practice and handle all
kinds of legal work for clients.
However, a significant number spe­
cialize in one branch of law, such
as corporation, criminal, labor,
patent, real estate, tax, or interna­
tional law. Some attorneys devote
themselves entirely to trying cases

in the courts. Others never appear
in court but instead draw up wills,
trusts, contracts, mortgages, and
other legal documents; conduct
out-of-court negotiations; and do
investigative and other legal work
to prepare for trials. Some may act
as trustees by managing a person’s
property and funds, or as executors
by seeing that the provisions of
their client’s will are carried out.
Still others teach, do research or
write, or perform administrative
work. Government attorneys help
develop Federal and State laws and
programs; they prepare drafts of
proposed legislation, establish law
enforcement procedures, and argue
Many people who have legal
training do not work as lawyers but
use their knowledge of law in other
occupations. They may, for exam­
ple, be insurance adjusters, tax col­
lectors, probation officers, credit

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
In order to practice law in the
courts of any State, a person must
be admitted to its bar. Applicants
for admission to the bar must pass a
written examination; however, a
few States drop this requirement for
graduates of their own law schools.
Lawyers who have been admitted to
the bar in one State usually can be
admitted in another without taking
an examination provided they meet
that State’s standards of good moral
character and have a specified
period of legal experience. Each
Federal court or agency sets its own
qualifications for those practicing
before it.
To qualify for the bar examina­
tion in most States, an applicant
must have completed 3 years of col­
lege and have graduated from a law

school approved by the American
Bar Association or the proper State
authorities. A few States accept the
study of law wholly in a law office
or in combination with study in a
law school; only California accepts
the study of law by correspondence
as qualification for taking the bar
exam. Several States require regis­
tration and approval of students by
the State Board of Examiners,
either before they enter law school,
or during the early years of legal
study. In a few States, candidates
must complete clerkships before
they are admitted to the bar.
The required college and law
school work usually takes 7 years of
full-time study after high school—4
years of college followed by 3 years
in law school. Although a number
of law schools accept students after
3 years of college, an increasing
number require applicants to have a
bachelor’s degree. To meet the
needs of students who can attend
only part time, a number of law
schools have night or part-time divi­
sions which usually require 4 years
of study. In 1974, about one-fifth of
all law students in ABA-approved
schools were enrolled in evening
Law schools seldom specify col­
lege subjects that must be included
in students’ prelegal education.
sciences, logic, and public speaking
are important for prospective
lawyers. Students interested in a
particular aspect of the law may
find it helpful to take related cours­
es; for example, engineering and
science courses for the prospective
patent attorney, and accounting for
the future tax lawyer. Acceptance
by most law schools depends on the
applicant’s ability to demonstrate
an aptitude for the study of law,
usually through the “Law School
Admissions Test.” In 1974, 156 law
schools were approved by the
Others—chiefly night schools—
were approved by State authorities

should find salaried positions with
law firms, on the legal staffs of cor­
porations and government agen­
cies, and as law clerks for judges.
Graduates of less prominent
schools and those with lower
scholastic ratings will experience
some difficulty in finding salaried
jobs. However, many will find op­
portunities in fields where legal
training is an asset but not normally
a requirement.
The employment of lawyers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the
average for other occupations
through the mid-1980’s as in­
creased business activity and popu­
lation create a demand for attor­
neys to deal with a growing number
of legal questions. Supreme Court
decisions extending the right to
counsel for persons accused of
lesser crimes, the growth of legal
action in the areas of consumer pro­
tection, the environment, and
safety, and an expected increase in
the use of legal services by middle
income groups through prepaid
legal service programs also should
provide employment opportunities.
Other jobs will be created by the
need to replace lawyers who retire
or leave the occupation for other
Prospects for establishing a new
practice probably will continue to
be best in small towns and expand­
ing suburban areas. In such commu­
nities competition is likely to be less
than in big cities and new lawyers
may find it easier to become known
to potential clients; also, rent and
other business costs are somewhat
lower. Salaried positions, on the
Employment Outlook
other hand, will be limited largely
to urban areas where the chief em­
A rapid increase in the number of
ployers of legal talent—government
law school graduates has created
agencies, law firms, and big cor­
keen competition for the available porations—are concentrated.
jobs. In the years ahead, the
number of graduates is expected to
Earnings and Working
increase further and intensify this
Lawyers entering practice in
Employers will be very selective
in hiring new lawyers. Graduates of 1974 earned starting salaries rang­
well-known law schools and those ing from about $10,000 to $12,000
who rank high in their classes a year. Factors affecting the salaries

The first year or year and a half
of law school generally are devoted
to fundamental courses such as
constitutional law, contracts, pro­
perty law, and judicial procedure.
In the third year, students may elect
specialized courses in fields such as
tax, labor, or corporation law. Prac­
tical experience is often acquired
by participation in school-spon­
sored legal aid activities, in the
school’s practice court where stu­
dents conduct trials under the su­
pervision of experienced lawyers,
and through writing on legal issues
for the school’s law journal. Gradu­
ates receive the degree of j u r i s d o c ­
to r (J.D.) from most schools as the
first professional degree. Advanced
study is often desirable for those
planning to specialize, do research,
or teach in law schools.
The practice of law involves a
great deal of responsibility. Persons
planning careers in law should like
to work with people and ideas, and
be able to win the confidence of
their clients.
Most beginning lawyers start in
salaried positions, although some
go into independent practice im­
mediately after passing the bar ex­
amination. Newly hired salaried at­
torneys usually act as research
assistants (law clerks) to ex­
perienced lawyers or judges. After
several years of progressively
responsible salaried employment,
many lawyers go into practice for
themselves. Some lawyers, after
years of practice, become judges.

offered to new graduates include:
Their academic records; types,
sizes, and locations of their em­
ployers; and whether the new
lawyer has any specialized educa­
tional background that the em­
ployer requires. Lawyers with at
least a year’s experience working in
manufacturing and business firms
earned about $16,000 a year; those
with a few years of experience
earned over $20,000 annually. In
the Federal Government, annual
starting salaries for attorneys were
$12,841 or $15,481 in late 1974,
depending upon their academic and
personal qualifications. Those with
a few years of experience earned
$21,816 a year. On the average,
lawyers earn over three times as
much as nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
Beginning lawyers engaged in
legal aid work usually receive the
lowest starting salaries. New
lawyers starting their own practices
may earn little more than expenses
during the first few years and may
need to work part time in other oc­
Lawyers on salary receive in­
creases as they assume greater
responsibility. In 1974, those in
charge of legal staffs in private in­
dustry averaged more than $37,200
a year. Incomes of lawyers in
private practice usually grow as
their practices develop. Private
practitioners who are partners in
law firms generally earn more than
those who practice alone.
Lawyers often work long hours
and are under considerable pres­
sure when a case is being tried. In
addition, they must keep abreast of
the latest laws and court decisions.
However, since lawyers in private
practice can determine their own
hours and workload, many stay in
practice well past the usual retire­
ment age.
Sources of Additional
The specific requirements for ad­
mission to the bar in a particular

State may be obtained at the State help decide on the design and price
capital from the clerk of the of a new line of television sets, mar­
Supreme Court or the secretary of keting research workers may survey
consumers to find out what styles
the Board of Bar Examiners.
Information on law as a career is and price ranges are most popular.
This type of survey usually is super­
available from:
vised by marketing researchers who
In fo r m a t io n S e rv ic e , T h e A m e r i c a n B a r A s ­
specialize in consumer goods; that
s o c ia t io n , 1 1 5 5 E a s t 6 0 t h St., C h ic a g o ,
III. 6 0 6 3 7 .
is, merchandise sold to the general
Information on financial aid and public. They may be helped by
law school accreditation is available statisticians who select a group (or
sample) to be interviewed and
A s s o c ia t io n o f A m e r i c a n L a w S c h o o ls , S u it e
“motivational research” specialists
3 7 0 , 1 D u p o n t C ir c le N W . , W a s h in g t o n ,
who phrase questions to produce
D C. 20036.
reliable information. Once the in­
vestigation is underway, the mar­
keting research worker may super­
vise the interviewers as well as
MARKETING RESEARCH direct the office workers who tabu­
late and analyze the information
(D.O.T. 050.088)
Marketing surveys on products
used by business and industrial
Nature of the Work
firms may be conducted somewhat
Businesses require a great deal of differently from consumer goods
information to make sound deci­ surveys. Marketing researchers
sions on how to market their often conduct the interviews them­
products. Marketing research work­ selves to gather opinions of the
ers provide much of this informa­ product. They also may speak to
tion by analyzing data on products company officials about new uses
and sales, making surveys, and con­ for it. They must therefore have
ducting interviews. They prepare specialized knowledge of both mar­
sales forecasts and make recom­ keting techniques and the industrial
mendations on product design and uses of the product.
Most marketing research starts
Places of Employment
with the collection of facts from
About 25,000 full-time market­
sources such as company records,
published materials, and experts on ing research workers were em­
the subject under investigation. For ployed in 1974. Most jobs for mar­
example, marketing research work­ keting research workers are found
ers making sales forecasts may in manufacturing companies, ad­
begin by studying the growth of vertising agencies, and independent
sales volume in several different research organizations. Large num­
cities. This growth may then be bers are employed by stores, radio
traced to increases in population, and
size of the company’s sales force, or newspapers; others work for univer­
amount of money spent on advertis­ sity research centers and govern­
ing. Other marketing research ment agencies. Marketing research
workers may study changes in the organizations range in size from
quantity of company goods on one-person enterprises to firms with
store shelves or make door-to-door a hundred employees or more.
New York City has the largest
surveys to obtain information on
number of marketing research
company products.
Marketing research workers are workers. Many major advertising
often concerned with customers’ agencies, independent marketing
opinions and tastes. For example, to organizations, and central offices of

large manufacturers are located
there. The second largest concen­
tration is in Chicago. However,
marketing research workers are
employed in many other cities as
well—wherever there are central
offices of large manufacturing and
sales organizations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although a bachelor’s degree is
required for marketing research
trainees, graduate training is neces­
sary for many specialized positions
and for advancement to higher level
positions. Many graduates qualify
for jobs through previous ex­
perience in other types of research,
while employers may hire university
teachers of marketing or statistics
to head new marketing research de­
College courses considered to be
valuable preparation for work in
marketing research are statistics,
psychology, and economics. Some
require skill in specialized areas,
Either alone or as part of a team, when business activity and personal
such as engineering, or substantial
sales experience and a thorough marketing research workers must incomes are rapidly expanding. In
knowledge of the company’s be resourceful as they analyze periods of slow economic growth,
and apply various however, the demand for marketing
products. Knowledge of data problems
techniques to their solution. As ad­ services may be reduced and limit
processing is helpful because of the
growing use of computers in sales visers to management, they should the hiring of research workers.
Over the long run, our growing
forecasting, distribution, and cost be able to write clear reports in­
forming company officials of their population and the increased
variety of goods and services that
Trainees usually start as research findings.
businesses and individuals will
assistants or junior analysts. At first,
Employment Outlook
require is expected to stimulate a
they may do considerable clerical
Opportunities should be best for high level of marketing activity. As
work, such as copying data from
published sources, editing and cod­ applicants with graduate training in a result, employment of marketing
ing questionnaires, and tabulating marketing research or statistics. research workers is expected to
survey returns. They also learn to The growing complexity of market­ grow much faster than the average
conduct interviews and write re­ ing research techniques also will ex­ for other occupations through the
ports on survey findings. As they pand opportunities in this field for mid-1980’s.
The competition among manu­
gain experience, assistants and jun­ psychologists, economists, and
facturers of both consumer and in­
ior analysts may assume responsi­ other social scientists.
Marketing research employment dustrial products will make it in­
bility for specific
research projects, or advance to su­ rises as new products and services creasingly important to appraise
pervisory positions. An excep­ are developed requiring informa­ marketing situations. As techniques
tionally able worker may become tion to identify potential buyers. improve and more statistical data
marketing research director or vice The demand for new products and accumulate, company officials are
services will grow most quickly likely to turn more often to market­
president for marketing and sales.

ing research workers for informa­
tion and advice.
Earnings and Working
Starting salaries for marketing
research trainees were about
$10,000 a year in 1974, according
to the limited information available.
Persons with master’s degrees in
business administration and related
fields usually started with somewhat
higher salaries.
Experienced workers such as
senior analysts received salaries
over $16,000 a year. Earnings were
highest, however, for workers in
management positions of great
responsibility. Vice presidents of
marketing research earned well
over $25,000 a year in 1974.
Marketing research workers
usually work in modern, centrally
located offices. Some, especially
those employed by independent
research firms, do a considerable
amount of traveling in connection
with their work. Also, they may
frequently work under pressure and
for long hours to meet deadlines.
Sources of Additional
careers in marketing research is
available from:
A m e r i c a n M a r k e t i n g A s s o c ia t io n , 2 2 2 S o u t h
R iv e r s id e P la z a , C h ic a g o , III. 6 0 6 0 6 .

(D.O.T. 166.088 through .268;
Nature of the Work
Attracting the best employees
available and matching them to the
jobs they can do best is important
for the success of any organization.

Today, most businesses are much
too large for close contact between
owners and their employees. In­
stead, personnel and labor relations
workers provide the link between
management and employees—
assisting management to make ef­
fective use of employees’ skills, and
helping employees to find satisfac­
tion in their jobs and working con­
ditions. Although some jobs require
only limited contact with people
outside the office, most jobs in this
field involve frequent contact with
other people. Dealing with people is
an essential part of the job.
Personnel workers and labor
relations workers concentrate on
different aspects of employer-em­
ployee relations. Personnel workers
interview, select, and recommend
applicants to fill job openings. They
handle wage and salary administra­
tion, training and career develop­
ment, and employee benefits.
“Labor relations” usually means
union-management relations, and
people who specialize in this field
work for the most part in unionized
establishments. They help company
officials prepare for collective bar­
gaining sessions, participate in con­
tract negotiations with the union,
and handle labor relations matters
that come up everyday.
In a small company, personnel
work consists mostly of interview­
ing and hiring, and one person
usually can handle it all. By con­
trast, a large organization needs an
entire staff, which might include
recruiters, interviewers, counselors,
job analysts, wage and salary
analysts, education and training
specialists, and labor relations spe­
cialists, as well as technical and
clerical workers.
Personnel work often begins with
the p e r s o n n e l r e c r u ite r or e m p l o y ­
m e n t i n t e r v i e w e r (D.O.T. 166.268),
who works on a person-to-person
basis with present and prospective
around the country, often to college
campuses, in the search for promis­

ing job applicants. Interviewers talk
to applicants, and select and recom­
mend those who appear qualified to
fill vacancies. They often ad­
minister tests to applicants and in­
terpret the results. Hiring and
placement specialists need to be
thoroughly familiar with the or­
ganization and its personnel poli­
cies, for they must be prepared to
discuss wages, working conditions,
and promotional opportunities with
prospective and newly hired em­
ployees. They also need to keep in­
formed about equal employment
opportunity and affirmative action
guidelines. Equal employment op­
portunity is a complex and sensitive
area of personnel work which in
some large organizations is handled
by special EEO counselors or coor­
dinators. The work of Employment
Counselors, which is similar in a
number of ways, is described in a
separate statement elsewhere in this
J o b a n a ly s ts (D.O.T. 166.068)
and s a la r y a n d w a g e a d m i n is tr a t o r s
(D.O.T. 169.118) do very exacting
work. Job analysts collect and
analyze detailed information on
jobs, job qualifications, and worker
characteristics in order to prepare
job descriptions, sometimes called
position classifications. Job descrip­
tions tell applicants, interviewers,
supervisors, and others basically
what the duties of a job are and
what training and skills it requires.
Whenever a government agency or
large business firm introduces a
new job or evaluates existing ones,
it calls upon the expert knowledge
of the job analyst. Accurate infor­
mation about job duties also is
required when a firm evaluates its
pay system and considers changes
in wages and salaries. Establishing
and maintaining pay systems is the
principal job of wage administra­
tors. They devise ways of making
sure that pay rates within the firm
are fair and equitable, and conduct
surveys to see how their pay rates
compare with those elsewhere.

Being sure that the firm’s pay
system complies with laws and
regulations is another part of the
job, one which requires knowledge
of compensation structures and
labor law.
Training specialists supervise or
conduct training sessions, prepare
manuals and other materials for
these courses, and look into new
methods of training. They also
counsel employees on training op­
portunities, which may include onthe-job, apprentice, supervisory, or
management training.
and other personnel specialists han­
dle the employer’s benefits pro­
gram, which often includes health
insurance, life insurance, disability,
and pension plans. These workers
also coordinate a wide range of em­
ployee services, including cafeterias
and snack bars, health rooms,
recreational facilities, newsletters
and communications, and counsel­
ing for work-related personal
problems. Counseling employees
who are approaching retirement
age is a particularly important job
of these workers.
Occupational safety and health
programs are handled in various
ways. Quite often, in small compa­
nies especially, accident prevention
and industrial safety are the respon­
sibility of the personnel depart­
ment—or of the labor relations spe­
cialist, if the union has a safety
representative. Increasingly, how­
ever, there is a separate safety de­
partment under the direction of a
safety and health professional,
generally a safety engineer or indus­
trial hygienist. (The work of Occu­
pational Safety and Health Workers
is discussed elsewhere in this book.)

r e la tio n s

cluding arbitration decisions, and
maintaining continuing liaison with
union officials.
Personnel workers in government
agencies generally do the same kind
of work as those in large business
firms. There are some differences,
however. Public personnel workers
deal with employees whose jobs are
governed by civil service regula­
tions. Civil service jobs are strictly
classified as to duties, training, and
pay. This requires a great deal of
emphasis on job analysis and wage
and salary classification; many peo­
ple in public personnel work spend
their time classifying and evaluating
jobs, or devising, administering, and
scoring competitive examinations
given to job applicants.
Knowledge of rules and regula­
tions pertaining to affirmative ac­
tion and equal opportunity pro-

s p e c ia lis ts

(D.O.T. 169.118) advise manage­
ment on all aspects of unionmanagement relations. When the
contract is up for negotiation, they
provide background information
and technical support, a job that
requires extensive knowledge of
economics, labor law, and collec­

tive bargaining trends. Actual
negotiation of the agreement is con­
ducted at the top level, with the
director of labor relations or other
top-ranking official serving as the
employer’s representative,
members of the company’s labor
relations staff play an important
role throughout the negotiations.
Much of the everyday work of
the labor relations staff concerns in­
terpretation and administration of
procedures in particular. Members
of the labor relations staff would
work with the union on seniority
rights under the layoff procedure
set forth in the contract, for exam­
ple. Later in the day, they might
meet with the union steward about
a worker’s grievance. Doing the job
well means staying abreast of cur­
rent developments in labor law, in­

Job analyst reviews new job descriptions with a company official.

grams is important in public person­
nel work. In 1972, the U.S. Civil
Service Commission established a
specialization for Federal personnel
workers concerned with promoting
equal opportunity in hiring, train­
ing, and advancement. Similar at­
tention to equal employment op­
portunity, accompanied by a need
for qualified staff, is evident in State
and local government agencies.
Labor relations is an increasingly
important specialty in public per­
sonnel administration. Labor rela­
tions in this field have changed con­
siderably in recent years, as union
strength among government wor­
kers has grown. This has created a
need for more and better trained
workers to handle negotiations,
grievances, and arbitration cases on
behalf of Federal, State, and local
government agencies.
Places of Employment
In 1974, over 320,000 people
were personnel and labor relations
workers. Three out of four worked
in private industry, for manufac­
turers, banks, insurance companies,
stores, and other business concerns.
Some worked for private employ­
ment agencies, including executive
job-search agencies, “office tem­
poraries” agencies, and others.
A large number of personnel and
labor relations workers, over
80,000 in 1974, worked for Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies. Most of these were in person­
nel administration, and handled
recruitment, interviewing, testing,
job classification, training, and
other personnel matters for the Na­
tion’s 14.5 million public em­
ployees. Some were on the staff of
the U.S. Employment Service and
State employment agencies. Still
others worked for agencies which
oversee compliance with labor
laws. Some, for example, were
wage-hour compliance officers;
their work is described in another

part of this book, in the statement on
Health and Regulatory Inspectors
(Government). Other public employ­
ees in this field carried out research
in economics, labor law, personnel
practices, and related subjects, and
sought new ways of ensuring that
workers' rights under the law are
understood and protected.
In comparison with private indus­
try, labor unions do not employ a
large number of professionally
trained labor relations workers. An
elected union official generally han­
dles labor relations matters at the
company level. At national and in­
ternational union headquarters,
however, the research and educa­
tion staff usually includes specialists
with degrees in industrial and labor
relations, economics, or law.
A few personnel and labor rela­
tions workers are in business for
themselves as management con­
sultants or labor-management rela­
tions experts. In addition, some
people in the field teach college or
university courses in personnel ad­
ministration, industrial relations,
and related subjects.
Most jobs for personnel and labor
relations workers are located in the
highly industrialized sections of the
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Many employers seek to fill
beginning positions in personnel
and labor relations with college
graduates who have the potential to
move into management jobs. Some
employers look for graduates who
have majored in personnel adminis­
tration or industrial and labor rela­
tions, while others prefer college
graduates with a general business
background. Still other employers
feel that a well-rounded liberal arts
education is the best preparation
for personnel work. A college
major in personnel administration,
political science, or public adminis­
tration can be an asset in looking
for a job with a government agency.

At least 200 colleges and univer­
sities have programs leading to a
degree in the field of personnel and
labor relations. (While personnel
administration is widely taught, the
number of programs which focus
primarily on labor relations is quite
small.) In addition, many schools
offer course work in closely related
background is appropriate for work
in this area, and a combination of
courses in the social sciences,
behavioral sciences, business, and
economics is useful.
Prospective personnel workers
might include courses in personnel
management, business administra­
psychology, sociology, political
science, economics, and statistics.
Courses in labor law, collective bar­
gaining, labor economics, labor his­
tory, and industrial psychology pro­
vide valuable backgound for the
prospective labor relations worker.
Graduate study in industrial rela­
tions, economics, business, or law
provides sound preparation for
work in labor relations. While the
law degree seldom is required for
jobs at the entry level, most of the
people with responsibility for con­
tract negotiations are lawyers, and
the industrial relations plus law
degree combination is becoming
highly desirable.
A college education is important,
but it is not the only way to enter
personnel work. Some people enter
the field at the clerical level, and
advance to professional positions
on the basis of experience. They
often find it helpful to take college
courses part time, however.
New personnel workers usually
enter formal or on-the-job training
programs to learn how to classify
jobs, interview applicants, or ad­
minister employee benefits. After
the training period, new workers
are assigned to specific areas in the
company’s employee relations de­
partment. After gaining experience,
they usually can advance within

their own company or transfer to
Recent legislation setting stand­
another employer. At this point, ards for employment practices in
some people move from personnel the areas of occupational safety and
to labor relations work.
health, equal employment opportu­
Some people enter the labor rela­ nity, and pensions has stimulated
tions field directly, as trainees. demand for personnel and labor
They are usually graduates of relations
master’s degree programs in indus­ growth is foreseen, as employers
trial relations, or may have a law throughout the country review ex­
degree. Quite a few people, how­ isting programs in each of these
ever, begin in personnel work, gain areas and, in many cases, establish
experience in that area, and sub­ entirely new ones. This has created
sequently move into a labor rela­ job opportunities for people with
appropriate expertise. The effort to
tions job.
end discriminatory employment
Workers in the middle ranks of a
large organization often transfer to practices, for example, has led to
a top job in a smaller one. Em­ scrutiny of the testing, selection,
ployees with exceptional ability placement,
procedures in many companies and
may be promoted to executive posi­
tions, such as director of personnel government agencies. The findings
are causing a number of employers
or director of labor relations.
to modify these procedures, and to
Personnel and labor relations take steps to raise the level of
workers should speak and write ef­ professionalism in their personnel
fectively and be able to work with departments.
people of all levels of education and
Substantial employment growth
experience. They also must be able is foreseen in the area of public per­
to see both the employee’s and the sonnel administration. Opportuni­
employer’s points of view. In addi­ ties probably will be best in State
tion, they should be able to work as and local government, areas which
part of a team. They need super­ are expected to experience strong
visory abilities and must be able to employment growth over the next
accept responsibility. Integrity and decade. By contrast, Federal em­
fairmindedness are important quali­ ployment
ties for people in personnel and Moreover, as union strength among
labor relations work. A persuasive, public employees continues to
congenial personality can be a great grow, State and local agencies will
need many more workers qualified
to deal with labor relations. Enact­
Employment Outlook
ment of collective bargaining
The number of personnel and legislation for State and local
labor relations workers is expected government
to grow faster than the average greatly stimulate demand for labor
for all occupations through 1985, as relations workers knowlegeable
employers, increasingly aware of about public sector negotiations.
Although the number of jobs in
the benefits to be derived from
good labor-management relations, both personnel and labor relations
continue to support sound, capably is projected to increase over the
staffed employee relations pro­ next decade, competition for these
grams. In addition to new jobs jobs also is increasing. Particularly
created by growth of the occupa­ keen competition is anticipated for
tion, many openings will become jobs in labor relations. A small field,
available each year because of the labor relations traditionally has
need to replace workers who die, been difficult to break into, and op­
retire, or leave their jobs for other portunities are best for applicants
with a master’s degree or a strong

undergraduate major in industrial
relations, economics, or business. A
law degree is an asset.
Earnings and Working
Beginning job analysts in private
industry started at $9,800 a year in
1974, according to a Bureau of
Labor Statistics
perienced job analysts earned
$17,300 a year, about twice the
average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Directors of personnel
earned between $15,600 and
$27,300 a year; top labor relations
executives in large corporations
earned considerably more.
Beginning job analysts employed
by State governments had starting
salaries ranging from $8,000 to
$10,000 in 1974, according to a
survey of public service pay con­
ducted by the International Person­
nel Management Association. In
the Federal Government, new grad­
uates with a bachelor’s degree
generally started at $8,500 a year in
late 1974. Those with a master’s
degree started at about $10,500 a
year, or in some cases, at $12,800 a
Average salaries of Federal em­
ployees in several different areas of
personnel work ranged from about
$19,000 to $22,500 in late 1974, as
Staffing specialists........................... $19,100
Position classifiers........................... 20,300
Personnel management
specialists...................................... 21,500
Employee development
specialists...................................... 21,500
Salary and wage administrators... 22,500

Federal employees in the field of
labor relations had generally com­
parable salaries. Labor-manage­
ment and employee relations spe­
cialists and labor-management rela­
tions officers averaged $21,500 a
year in late 1974. Federal media­
tors’ salaries were higher: about
$30,000 a year, on the average.

Employees in personnel offices
generally work 35 to 40 hours a
week. As a rule, they are paid for
holidays and vacations, and share in
retirement plans, life and health in­
surance plans, and other benefits
available to all professional workers
in their organizations.
Sources of Additional
For general information on
careers in personnel and labor rela­
tions work, write to:
A m e r i c a n S o c ie t y fo r P e r s o n n e l A d m in is t r a ­
tio n , 19 C h u r c h St., B e re a , O h i o 4 4 0 1 7 .

Information about careers in
public personnel administration is
available from:
In t e r n a t io n a l P e r s o n n e l M a n a g e m e n t A s ­
s o c ia t io n , 1 3 1 3 E. 6 0 t h St., C h i c a g o , ill.

A brochure describing a career in
labor-management relations as a
field examiner is available from:

tions, and workers must tailor their
programs to an employer’s particu­
lar needs. A public relations
director for a college or university,
for example, may devote most of his
or her energies to attracting addi­
tional students, while one in a large
corporation may handle the em­
ployer’s relations with stockhold­
ers, government agencies, and
community groups.
Public relations workers put
together information that keeps the
public aware of their employer’s ac­
tivities and accomplishments. After
preparing the information, they
contact people in the media who
might be interested in publicizing
their material. Many television
commercials or special reports,
newspaper items, and magazine ar­
ticles start at public relations work­
ers’ desks. Sometimes the subject

is a company and its policies
towards its employees or its role in
the community. Often the subject is
a public issue, such as health, nutri­
tion, energy, or the environment.
Public relations workers also ar­
range and conduct programs in
which company representatives will
have direct contact with the public.
Such work includes setting up
speaking engagements for company
officials and writing speeches for
them. These workers often serve as
an employer’s representative during
community projects and occa­
sionally show films at school assem­
blies, plan conventions, or manage
fund-raising campaigns.
Public relations staffs in very
large firms may number 200 or
more, but in most firms the staff is
much smaller. The director of
public relations may develop

D ir e c t o r o f P e r s o n n e l, N a t io n a l L a b o r R e l a ­
t io n s B o a r d , 1 7 1 7 P e n n s y lv a n ia
N W „ W a s h in g t o n , D C ., 2 0 5 7 0 .


(D.O.T. 165.068)
Nature of the Work
How successfully an organization
presents itself may affect its public
acceptance and influence. Public
relations workers help organiza­
tions build and maintain positive
public images. Public relations is
more than telling the employer’s
“story,” however. Understanding
the attitudes and concerns of
customers, employees, and various
other “publics”—and communicat­
ing this information to manage­
ment—is an important part of the
Public relations departments are
found in many different organiza­

Public relations worker reviews copy for new stockholders report with company

overall plans and policies with a top
management executive having the
authority to make final decisions. In
addition, large public relations de­
partments employ writers, research
workers, and other specialists who
prepare material for the different
media or write reports sent to
Workers who handle publicity for
an individual or direct public rela­
tions for a university or small busi­
ness may handle all aspects of the
job. They make contacts with peo­
ple outside the organization, do the
necessary planning and research,
and prepare material for publica­
tion. These workers may combine
public relations duties with adver­
tising or sales promotion work;
some are top-level officials and
others have lower level positions.
The most skilled public relations
work of making overall plans and
maintaining contacts usually is
done by the department director
and highly experienced staff mem­
Places of Employment
More than 100,000 persons—
about 30 percent of them women—
were public relations workers in
1974. Manufacturing firms, public
utilities and transportation compa­
nies, insurance companies, and
trade and professional associations
employ the majority of public rela­
tions workers. However, a sizeable
number work for government agen­
cies, or for schools, colleges, muse­
ums, and many other kinds of edu­
cational, religious, and welfare or­
ganizations. The rapidly expanding
health field also offers opportuni­
ties for public relations work, in
hospitals, pharmaceutical compa­
nies, and medical associations, for
example. A number of public rela­
tions workers are employed by con­
sulting firms, which furnish public
relations services to clients for a
Public relations workers are con­
centrated in large cities where press
services and other communications

facilities are readily available, and
where many businesses and trade
associations have their headquar­
ters. More than half of the esti­
mated 1,700 public relations con­
sulting firms in the United States
are in New York, Los Angeles,
Chicago, and Washington, D.C.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

enthusiasm necessary to motivate
people. Public relations workers
need a highly developed sense of
competitiveness and the ability to
function as part of a team.
those with large public relations
staffs—have formal training pro­
grams for new workers. In other
firms, new employees learn by
working under the guidance of ex­
perienced staff members. Beginners
often maintain files of material
about company activities, scan
newspapers and magazines for ap­
propriate articles to clip, and as­
semble information for speeches
and pamphlets. After gaining ex­
perience, they work on more dif­
ficult assignments, such as writing
press releases, speeches, and arti­
cles for publication.
Promotion to supervisory jobs
may come as workers show they
can handle more demanding and
creative assignments. Some ex­
perienced public relations workers
start their own consulting firms.

A college education combined
with journalism experience is an ex­
cellent preparation for public rela­
tions work. Although most begin­
ners have a college degree in jour­
nalism, English, or public relations,
background in a field related to the
firm’s business—science or en­
gineering, for example. Some firms
want college graduates with at least
1 year’s experience working for the
news media.
In 1974, over 80 colleges and
more than 30 graduate schools of­
fered degree programs or special
curriculums in public relations. In
addition, nearly 200 colleges of­
Employment Outlook
fered at least one course in this
Employment of public relations
Courses in journalism, business workers is expected to increase
administration, psychology, and about as fast as the average for all
public speaking help in preparing occupations through the midfor a public relations career. Ex­ 1980’s. In addition to new jobs
tracurricular activities such as writ­ created by this growth, openings
ing for a school publication provide will occur every year because of the
valuable experience. Part-time or need to replace workers who leave
summer jobs in public relations pro­ the field.
vide training that can help in com­
Demand for public relations wor­
peting for entry positions.
kers may be affected by economic
Creativity, initiative, and the conditions, slackening as employers
ability to express thoughts clearly delay expansion or impose staff cuts
and simply are important to the during business slowdowns. Over
public relations worker. Fresh ideas the long run, however, public rela­
are so vital in public relations that tions spending is expected to in­
some experts spend all their time crease substantially. Corporations,
developing new ideas, leaving the associations, and other large or­
job of carrying out programs to ganizations are likely to expand
their public relations efforts to gain
People who choose public rela­ public support and approval.
tions work as a career need an out­
Competition for beginning jobs is
going personality, self-confidence, keen, for public relations work has
and an understanding of human an aura of glamour and excitement
psychology. They should have the which attracts large numbers of job­

seekers. Prospects for a career in
public relations are best for enthu­
siastic people with sound academic
preparation and some media ex­

Salary data and other statistics
are available from:
P R R e p o r t e r , M e r id e n , N . H . 0 3 7 7 0 .

Earnings and Working

Starting salaries for college grad­
uates beginning in public relations
(D.O.T. 162.158, 180.118,
work ranged from $7,500 to $9,000
191.118, and 252.358)
a year in 1974, according to the
limited data available.
Nature of the Work
The salaries of experienced work­
If materials, supplies, or equip­
ers generally are highest in large
organizations with extensive public ment are not on hand when needed,
relations programs. Directors of an organization’s work may be in­
public relations for medium-sized terrupted or halted. Maintaining an
firms earned $15,000 to $30,000 a adequate supply of items a firm
year; those at large companies had needs to operate is the purchasing
salaries in the $20,000 to $50,000 agent’s job.
range. Salaries for some officials,
Purchasing agents, also called in­
such as vice-presidents in charge of dustrial buyers, and their assistants
public relations, can range from obtain goods and services of the
$25,000 to $75,000 a year or more.
required quality at the lowest possi­
The median salary for directors ble cost, and see that adequate sup­
of public relations was about plies are kept on hand. Agents who
$23,000 in 1974. Public relations work for manufacturing firms buy
consulting firms often pay higher machinery, raw materials, and
salaries than organizations with product components; those work­
their own public relations depart­ ing for government agencies may
ments. In social welfare agencies, purchase office supplies, furniture,
nonprofit organizations, hospitals, and business machines. Informa­
and universities, salaries generally tion on retail buyers, who purchase
are lower.
merchandise for resale in its
Although the workweek for original form, is presented in the
public r e la tio n s sta ffs u su a lly is 35 statement on B u y e r s elsewhere in
to 40 hours, overtime may be this book.
necessary to prepare or deliver
Purchasing agents buy when
speeches, attend meetings and com­ stocks on hand reach a predeter­
munity activities, or travel out of mined reorder point, or when a de­
town. Occasionally, the nature of partment in the organization
their regular assignments or special requisitions items it needs. Because
events requires public relations agents often can purchase from
workers to be on call around the many sources, their main job is
selecting the seller who offers the
best value.
Sources of Additional
Purchasing agents use a variety of
means to select among suppliers.
For career information and a list They compare listings in catalogs
of schools offering degrees and and trade journals and telephone
courses in the field, write:
suppliers to get information. They
also meet with salespersons to ex­
C a r e e r In fo r m a t io n , P u b lic R e la t io n s S o c ie t y
o f A m e r ic a , In c., 8 4 5 T h ir d A v e ., N e w
amine samples, watch demonstra­
Y o rk , N .Y . 10022.
tions of equipment, and discuss

items to be purchased. Sometimes
agents invite suppliers to bid on
large orders; then they select the
lowest bidder among those who
meet requirements for quality of
goods and delivery date.
In some cases, however, purchas­
ing agents must deal directly with a
manufacturer to obtain specially
designed items made exclusively for
their company. These agents must
have a high degree of technical ex­
pertise to insure that all product
specifications are met.
It is important that purchasing
agents develop good business rela­
tions with their suppliers. This can
result in savings on purchases,
favorable terms of payment, and
quick delivery on rush orders or
materials in short supply. They also
work closely with personnel in vari­
ous departments of their own or­
ganization. For example, they may
discuss product design with com­
or shipment
problems with workers in the
shipping and receiving or traffic de­
Once an order has been placed
with a supplier, the purchasing
agent makes periodic checks to in­
sure that it will be delivered on
time. This is necessary to prevent
work flow interruptions due to lack
of materials. After an order has
been received and inspected, the
purchasing agent authorizes pay­
ment to the shipper.
Because of its importance,
purchasing usually is designated as
a separate responsibility within a
firm. In a large firm, the purchasing
manager directs the work of a staff
which includes purchasing agents,
purchasing assistants, and clerical
workers. In such a firm, purchasing
agents usually are responsible for
buying one or more specific items—
for example, steel, lumber, cotton,
or petroleum products. In smaller
firms, agents generally are assigned
certain categories of goods, such as
all raw materials or all office sup­
plies, furniture, and business

Places of Employment
Nearly 190,000 persons—18 per­
cent of them women—worked as
purchasing agents in 1974. Over
half worked in manufacturing in­
dustries. Large numbers also were
employed by government agencies,
construction companies, hospitals,
and schools. Since the early 1960’s,
employment of women purchasing
agents has increased much faster
than that of men. Particularly im­
pressive employment gains have
been made by women with college
degrees, and every indication points
toward continuing job opportuni­
ties for women.
About half of all purchasing
agents work in organizations that
have fewer than five employees in
the purchasing department. Many
business firms and government
agencies, however, have much

larger purchasing departments;
some employ as many as 100 spe­
cialized buyers or more.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most large employers seek col­
lege graduates for entry positions as
assistant purchasing agents. A
growing number of large companies
look for applicants who have done
graduate work in purchasing
management or related fields.
Although companies that manufac­
ture complex machinery or chemi­
cals may prefer a background in en­
gineering or science, other compa­
nies hire business administration or
liberal arts majors for trainee jobs.
Courses in accounting, economics,
Familiarity with the computer and
its uses also is.desirable. Some small

firms prefer experience with the
company, and select purchasing
workers from among their own per­
sonnel, whether or not they have a
college education. For advance­
ment to management positions,
however, a college degree is
becoming increasingly important.
Regardless of previous training,
beginning purchasing assistants
must spend considerable time
learning about their company’s
procedures. They may be assigned
to the storekeeper’s section to learn
about purchasing forms, inventory
records, and storage facilities. Next
they may work with experienced
buyers to learn about types of goods
purchased, prices, and suppliers.
Following the initial training
period, assistant purchasing agents
are given responsibility for purchas­
ing standard catalog items. As they
gain experience and demonstrate
good judgment in performing vari­
ous purchasing tasks, they may be
promoted to purchasing agent.
Purchasing agents with proven
ability can move into a job as
manager of a purchasing depart­
ment; some advance to executive
positions as corporate director of
p u r c h a sin g an d m a te r ia l manage­
The purchasing agent must be
able to analyze numbers and techni­
cal data in order to make buying
decisions and take responsibility for
spending large amounts of company
money. The job requires the ability
to work independently and a good
memory for details. In addition, a
purchasing agent must be tactful in
dealing with salespersons and able
to motivate others.
Employment Outlook
agents is expected to increase much
faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the mid-1980’s.
Several thousand jobs will be open
every year due to growth of the oc­
cupation and the need to replace

those who die, retire, or transfer to beginning purchasing agents who
other work.
had college degrees earned $8,500
Growth in demand for industrial or $10,500 in late 1974, depending
machinery, including engines and on scholastic achievement and rele­
computer vant work experience. The average
equipment, and communications salary for all purchasing agents in
equipment, will increase employ­ the Federal Service was $18,600.
ment opportunities. For example, Salary levels vary widely among
purchasing agents will be needed to State
develop reliable new sources of average earnings range from $9,000
supply for materials which are in to $ 11,700 for purchasers of stand­
short supply. In addition, the grow­ ard items, $11,900 to $15,600 for
ing specialization of manufacturing senior buyers purchasing highly
processes will spur demand for complex items, and $18,000 to
purchasing agents with a technical $21,900 for State purchasing
background and those who have directors.
completed graduate level courses in
purchasing management.
Sources of Additional
Many opportunities also should
occur in firms providing personal,
Further information about a
business, and professional services.
Strong growth is expected for this career in purchasing is available
sector of the economy, and a grow­ from:
ing number of employers are recog­ N a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n o f P u r c h a s in g M a n a g e ­
m en t, 11 P a rk P la c e , N e w Y o r k , N . Y .
nizing the importance of profes­
sional purchasers in relatively small
N a t io n a l In stitu te o f G o v e r n m e n t a l P u r c h a s ­
in g,
C o n n e c t ic u t
W a s h in g t o n , D C . 2 0 0 3 6 .

Earnings and Working
College graduates hired as as­
sistant purchasing agents in large
firms earned about $8,500 a year in
1974, according to the limited data
Experienced agents purchasing
stan d ard

ite m s



$10,000 a year; buyers purchasing
or technical
averaged between $12,100 and
$14,700. Those responsible for the
purchase of highly complex and
specialized items earned about
$17,400 in 1974. Managers of
purchasing departments earned
substantially more and many top
purchasing executives earned over
$50,000 a year. Salaries generally
are lower in small companies. In
1974, earnings of purchasing agents
were about one and one-half times
as much as the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming.
In the Federal Government,


N W .,

(D.O.T. 199.168)
Nature of the Work
Urban planners, often called
community or regional planners,
develop programs to provide for fu­
ture growth and revitalization of
urban, suburban and rural commu­
nities. They help local officials
make decisions to solve social,
Planners examine community
facilities such as health clinics and
schools to be sure these facilities
can meet the demands placed upon
them. They also keep abreast of the
legal issues involved in community
development or redevelopment and
any changes in housing and building

codes. Because suburban growth
has increased the need for better
ways of traveling to the urban
center, the planner’s job often in­
cludes designing new transportation
and parking facilities.
Urban planners prepare for situa­
tions or needs that are likely to
develop as a result of population
growth or social and economic
change. They estimate, for exam­
ple, the community’s long-range
needs for housing, transportation,
and business and industrial sites.
Working within a framework set by
the community government, they
analyze and propose alternative
ways to achieve more efficient and
attractive urban areas.
Before preparing plans for longrange community development,
urban planners prepare detailed
studies that show the current use of
land for residential, business, and
community purposes. These reports
present information such as the ar­
rangement of streets, highways, and
water and sewer lines, and the loca­
tion of schools, libraries, and
playgrounds. They also provide in­
formation on the types of industries
in the community, characteristics of
the population, and employment
and economic trends. With this in­
formation, urban planners propose
ways of using undeveloped land and
design the layout of recommended
buildings and other facilities such as
subways. They also prepare materi­
als that show how their programs
can be carried out and the approxi­
mate costs.
Urban planners often confer with
private land developers, civic
leaders, and officials of public agen­
cies that do specialized planning.
They may prepare materials for
community relations programs,
speak at civic meetings, and appear
before legislative committees to ex­
plain and defend their proposals.
In small organizations, urban
planners must be able to do several
kinds of work. In large organiza­
tions, planners usually specialize in

areas such as physical design, com­
munity relations, or the reconstruc­
tion of run-down business districts.
Places of Employment
About 13,000 persons—about 10
percent of them women—were
urban planners in 1974. Most work
for city, county, or regional
planning agencies. A growing
number are employed by States or
by the Federal Government in
agencies dealing with housing,
transportation, or environmental
Many planners do consulting
work, either part time in addition to
a regular job, or full time working
for a firm that provides services to
private developers or government
agencies. Urban planners also work
for large land developers or
research organizations and teach in
colleges and universities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Employers often seek workers
who have advanced training in
urban planning. Two years of grad­
uate study in city planning, or the
equivalent in work experience, are
required for most entry jobs in
Federal, State, and local govern­
ment agencies. Although the
master’s degree in planning is the
usual requirement at the entry
level, some people who have a
bachelor’s degree in city planning,
architecture, landscape architec­
ture, or engineering may qualify for
beginning positions.
In 1974, over 60 colleges and
universities gave a master’s degree
in urban planning. Although stu­
dents holding a bachelor’s degree in
architecture or engineering may
earn a master’s degree after 1 year,
most graduate programs in urban

planning require 2 or 3 years to
complete. Graduate students spend
considerable time in workshops or
laboratory courses learning to
analyze and solve urban planning
problems. Students often are
required to work in a planning of­
fice part time or during the summer
while they are earning the graduate
Candidates for jobs in Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies usually must pass civil service
examinations to become eligible for
Planners must be able to think in
terms of spatial relationships and to
visualize the effects of their plans
and designs. They should be flexible
in their approaches to problems and
be able to cooperate with others
and reconcile different viewpoints
to achieve constructive policy
After a few years’ experience,
urban planners may advance to as­
signments requiring a high degree
of independent judgment, such as
outlining proposed studies, design­
ing the physical layout of a large
development, or recommending
policy, program, and budget op­
tions. Some are promoted to jobs as
planning directors, and spend a
great deal of time meeting with offi­
cials in other organizations, speak­
ing to civic groups, and supervising
other professionals. Further ad­
vancement is more difficult at this
level and often occurs through a
transfer to a large city, where the
problems are more complex and the
responsibilities greater.
Employment Outlook
Employment of urban planners is
expected to grow faster than the
average for other occupations
through the mid-1980’s. In addition
to opportunities created by future
growth of this relatively small occu­
pation, some jobs will open up
because of the need to replace plan­
ners who leave their jobs.

The number of persons enrolled
in graduate planning programs has
risen rapidly in recent years. If this
trend continues, the number of ap­
plicants may begin to outstrip
available openings, leading to in­
creased competition for jobs in this
field. However, well qualified appli­
cants should continue to find good
employment prospects.
Future growth of the occupation
will depend on the availability of
money for the development of new
communities and the restoration of
older urban areas. Funding for
these projects can be affected by
shortages of mortgage money and
higher costs for land, building
materials, and necessary communi­
ty services such as education and
police and fire protection. Further,
government programs to aid the
planning are subject to frequent
review. Future levels of Federal
spending will greatly influence the

growth of urban planning projects.
Over the long run, however, the
Nation’s need for good quality
housing, transportation systems,
health care, and other social ser­
vices is expected to spur the de­
mand for additional urban planners.
Earnings and Working
Starting salaries for urban plan­
ners were about $ 1 1,000 a year in
1974. Planners with a master’s
degree were hired by the Federal
Government at $12,841 a year in
late 1974. In some cases, persons
having less than 2 years of graduate
work could enter Federal service as
interns at yearly salaries of either
$8,500 or $10,520.
The salaries of directors of
planning depend largely on the size
of the city where they work. In
1974, for example, the median
earnings of planning directors in the
Nation’s largest cities were well

over $30,000 a year. In smaller
towns, earnings may be less than
half as large. Consultants earn fees
that vary according to their reputa­
tion and previous experience.
Most planners have sick leave
and vacation benefits and are
covered by retirement and health
plans. Although most city planners
have a scheduled workweek of 40
hours, they sometimes work in the
evenings and on weekends to attend
meetings with citizens’ groups.
Sources of Additional
Facts about careers in planning
and a list of schools offering train­
ing are available from:
A m e r i c a n In stitu te o f P la n n e r s, 1 7 7 6 M a s ­
s a c h u s e t ts A v e . N W . , W a s h in g t o n , D C .
A m e r i c a n S o c ie t y o f P la n n in g O f f ic ia ls ,
1 3 1 3 E a s t 6 0 t h St., C h ic a g o , III. 6 0 6 3 7 .

Since 1951, when the first com­
puter was installed for commercial
use, computer systems have
become an increasingly important
part of everyday life. Today these
machines bill customers, pay em­
ployees, record airline and hotel
reservations, and monitor factory
production processes. Scientific
and engineering research relies on
computer systems to solve complex
equations as well as to collect,
store, and sort vast amounts of data.
Workers in computer and related
occupations design data processing
systems, write instructions and
translate data into machine-reada­
ble language, and operate compu­
ters and peripheral equipment.
Most computer careers require
some type of specialized training.
Although not a universal require­
ment, a college degree is increas­
ingly important for systems analysts
and programmers—especially for
those who work in scientific and
For all computer occupations, em­
ployers stress the importance of
learning on the job.
In addition to technical knowledge
and skills, computer personnel must
be able to concentrate on their work
and should enjoy working with de­
tails. Programmers and systems ana­
lysts must be abe to think logically
and enjoy solving problems.
This section describes two com­
puter occupations: Programmers and
Systems Analysts.

Programmers sometimes use a terminal to enter data and instructions directly into
the computer.

(D OT. 020.188)
Nature of the Work
Computers can process masses of
information rapidly and accurately,
but only if they are given step-bystep instructions to follow. Because
the machines cannot think for
themselves, computer programmers
must write detailed instructions
called programs that list in a logical
order the steps the machine must
follow to solve a problem.
When a new problem is to be
given to a computer, an ex­
perienced programmer first care­
fully examines the problem and
determines the steps necessary to
reach a solution. Programmers
whose work includes a considerable
amount of this preliminary analysis

are sometimes called program
analysts. Once this part of the job is
finished, an applications pro­
grammer writes detailed instruc­
tions for processing the data, using
one of the languages developed
especially for computers.
Programs vary with the type of
problem to be solved because the
mathematical calculations involved
in payroll accounting procedures,
for example, are different from
those required to determine the
flight path of a space probe. A busi­
developing instructions for billing
customers would first decide what
company records the computer
would need and then draw a flow
chart or diagram showing the steps
the computer must follow to obtain
old balances, add new charges, cal­
culate finance charges, and deduct

payments before determining a
customer’s bill. Using the flow
chart, the programmer writes the
actual instructions the computer
will follow.
The programmer then checks the
operation of the program to be sure
the instructions are correct and will
produce the desired information.
This check is called “debugging.'’
The programmer tries a sample of
the data with the program and
reviews the results to see if any er­
rors are made. If errors occur, the
program must be changed and
rechecked until it produces the cor­
rect results.
Finally, an instruction sheet is
prepared for the computer operator
who will run the program.
Although simple programs can be
written in a few days, programs
which use complex mathematical
formulas or many data files may
require more than a year of work.
In such cases, several programmers
often work together under an ex­
perienced programmer’s supervi­
Programmers usually specialize
in either business or scientific
operations because they require dif­
backgrounds. Some programmers
who have had training in systems
analysis specialize in writing in­
structions for an entire operating
system and are called systems pro­
grammers. These workers write
programs that tell the computer
how to schedule the jobs it has been
given and when to switch from one
to another. They also develop new
computer languages.

Places of Employment
In 1974, about 200,000 per­
sons—about three-fourths of them
men—worked as computer pro­
grammers. Most were employed by
manufacturing firms, banks and
processing service organizations,
and government agencies.

Programmers usually work in
large firms that need and can afford
extensive computer systems. Small
firms generally require computers
only for payroll or billing purposes
and frequently pay data processing
service organizations to do this
work. Systems programmers usually
work in research organizations and
computer manufacturing firms.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
There are no universal training
because employers’ needs vary.
Some programmers are college
graduates; others have taken spe­
cial courses in computer work to
supplement their experience in
fields such as accounting or inven­
tory control.
Employers using computers for
scientific or engineering applica­
tions prefer college graduates with
degrees in the physical sciences,
mathematics, engineering, or com­
puter science. Graduate degrees are
required for some jobs. Very few
scientific organizations are in­
terested in applicants with no col­
lege training.
Although many employers who
use computers for business applica­
tions do not require college
degrees, they prefer applicants who
have had college courses in data
processing, accounting, and busi­
ness administration. Occasionally,
workers who are experienced in
machine tabulation or payroll ac­
counting but have no college train­
ing are promoted to programming
jobs; however, they need additional
data processing courses to become
fully qualified programmers.
Computer programming is taught
at a growing number of technical
schools, colleges, and universities.
Instruction ranges from introducto­
ry home study courses to advanced
courses at the graduate level. High
schools in many parts of the
country also offer courses in com­
puter programming.

In hiring programmers, em­
ployers look for people who can
think logically and are capable of
exacting analytical work. The job
also calls for patience, persistence,
and the ability to work with ex­
treme accuracy even under pres­
sure. Ingenuity and imagination are
particularly important when pro­
grammers must find new ways to
solve a problem.
Beginning programmers usually
spend their first weeks on the job
attending training classes. After this
initial instruction, they work on
simple assignments while complet­
ing further specialized training pro­
grams. Programmers generally must
spend at least a year working under
close supervision before they can
handle all aspects of their job. Once
skills have been acquired, however,
the prospects for further advance­
ment are good. In large organiza­
tions, they may be promoted to lead
programmers or systems analysts
and have supervisory responsibili­

Employment Outlook
Employment of programmers is
expected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s as computer usage
expands, particularly in medical,
educational, and data processing
services. In addition to job openings
resulting from growth of the occu­
pation, several thousand openings
will arise each year from the need
to replace workers who leave the
occupation. Because many pro­
grammers are relatively young, few
openings will result from deaths or
The demand for applications pro­
grammers will increase as many
processes once done by hand are
automated, but employment will
not grow as rapidly as in the past for
several reasons. Improved pro­
gramming languages that can be
used by other than data processing
personnel will simplify or eliminate

some programming tasks. Also,
many programs for business opera­
tions have been standardized and
are sold to computer users by
“software” companies that special­
ize in writing programs. Job oppor­
tunities will be best for systems pro­
grammers and applications pro­
grammers who have had some
training in systems analysis.

Earnings and Working

Sources of Additional
Additional information about the
occupation of programmer is
available from:
A m e r ic a n

F e d e ra t io n


In f o r m a t io n

P r o c e s s in g S o c ie tie s , 2 1 0 S u m m it A v e . ,
M o n t v a le , N.J. 0 7 6 4 5 .


and handling the results. Analysts
begin an assignment by discussing
the data processing problem with
managers or specialists in the area
concerned. If a new inventory
system is desired, for example,
analysts must determine what new
data need to be collected, the
equipment needed for processing,
and the procedure to be followed in
using the information.
Analysts use various techniques,
such as cost accounting, sampling,
and mathematical model building
to analyze the problem and devise a
new system. Once a system has
been developed, they prepare
charts and diagrams that describe
its operation in terms that managers
or customers can understand.
If the system is accepted, analysts
prepare instructions for program­
mers and test the operation of the
The problems systems analysts
must solve range from monitoring

(D.O.T. 003.187, 012.168,
Average weekly earnings of
020.081 and 020.088)
beginning programmers in private
industry ranged from $170 to $240
in 1974, according to surveys con­
ducted in urban areas by the Bu­
Nature of the Work
reau of Labor Statistics and firms
engaged in research on data
Many essential business functions
Ex­ and scientific research projects de­
perienced workers earned from pend on systems analysts to plan ef­
$260 to $335 weekly, and lead pro­ ficient methods of processing data
grammers earned from $295 to
$360. Earnings of applications pro­
grammers are generally at the lower
end of the scale, systems program­
mers at the higher end.
Salaries in the Federal Govern­
ment are comparable to those in
private industry.
working in the North and West
earned somewhat more than those
working in the South. Those work­
ing for data processing services and
manufacturing firms had higher
earnings than programmers em­
ployed in banks, advertising, or
educational institutions. Overall,
programmers earned about twice as
much as the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming.
Programmers work about 40
hours a week, but their hours are
not always from 9 to 5. Once or
twice a week a programmer may re­
port early or work late to use the
computer when it is available. Oc­
casionally, they work on weekends
or are telephoned to advise com­
puter operators working a second Systems analyst checks results of a sales forecasting program with data processing
or third shift.

nuclear fission in a powerplant to
forecasting sales for an appliance
manufacturing firm. Because the
work is so varied and complex,
most analysts specialize in either
business or scientific and engineer­
ing applications.
Some analysts improve systems
already in use by developing better
procedures or adapting the system
to handle additional types of data.
Others do research, called ad­
vanced systems design, to devise
new methods of systems analysis.
Places of Employment
About 115,000 persons— 10 per­
cent of them women—worked as
systems analysts in 1974. Most
worked in urban areas for manufac­
turing firms, wholesale and retail
businesses, and data processing ser­
vice organizations. In addition,
large numbers worked for banks,
insurance companies, and educa­
tional institutions.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
There is no universally accepta­
ble way of preparing for a job as a
systems analyst because employers’
preferences depend on the work
being done. Employers usually want
analysts with backgrounds in ac­
counting, business, or economics
for work in finance, while persons
with backgrounds in the physical
sciences, mathematics, computer
preferred for work in scientifically
oriented organizations. Some em­
ployers prefer applicants who have
a bachelor’s degree and work ex­
perience in one of these fields.
Others stress a graduate degree.
Applicants also may qualify on the
basis of professional experience as a
programmer or computer operator.
Most employers prefer people
who have had some experience in
computer programming. Beginning
analysts without this experience can

learn to use electronic data
processing equipment on the job, or
can take special courses offered by
their employers, computer manu­
facturers, or colleges. In the
Federal Government and many in­
dustries, systems analysts begin
their careers as programmers and
are promoted to analyst trainees
after gaining some experience and
acquiring additional training. Later
they are promoted to systems
Systems analysts must be able to
think logically and should like
working with ideas. Although most
systems analysts work independ­
ently, they sometimes work in
teams on large projects. The ability
to concentrate and pay close atten­
tion to details also is important.
In large data processing depart­
ments, persons who begin as junior
systems analysts may be promoted
to senior or lead systems analysts
after several years of experience.
Systems analysts who show leader­
ship ability also can advance to jobs
as managers of systems analysis or
data processing departments.

Employment Outlook
Employment of systems analysts
is expected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s as computer usage
expands, particularly in medical,
educational, and data processing
services. In addition to opportuni­
ties that will result from growth,
some openings will occur as systems
analysts advance to managerial
positions or enter other occupa­
tions. Because many of these work­

ers are relatively young, few posi­
tions will result from retirement or
The demand for systems analysts
is expected to increase as users
become more familiar with com­
puter capabilities and expect
greater efficiency and performance
from their data processing systems.
Advances in hardware and com­

puter programs will result in ex­
panded computer applications in
manufacturing and small busi­
nesses, and this, too, will contribute
to employment growth.
Earnings and Working
Average weekly earnings for
beginning systems analysts in
private industry ranged from $230
to $250 in 1974, according to sur­
veys conducted in urban areas by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics and
private firms engaged in research
on computer occupations. Ex­
perienced workers earned from
$300 to $335, and lead systems
analysts earned from $335 to $360
weekly. Earnings in the Federal
Government were comparable to
those in private industry.
Systems analysts working in the
North and West earned somewhat
more than those in the South and
generally their earnings were
greater in data processing or manu­
facturing firms than in banks or
educational institutions. Overall,
systems analysts earn more than
twice as much as the average for all
nonsupervisory workers in private
industry, except farming.
Systems analysts usually work
about 40 hours a week—the same
as other professional and office
workers. Unlike many computer
operators, systems analysts are not
assigned to evening or night shifts.
Occasionally, however, evening or
weekend work may be necessary to
complete emergency projects.

Sources of Additional
Further information about the
occupation of systems analyst is
available from:
A m e ric a n
F e d e ra t io n
In f o r m a t io n
P r o c e s s in g S o c ie t ie s , 2 1 0 S u m m it A v e . ,
M o n t v a l e , N .J. 0 7 6 4 5 .


(D.O.T. 020.188)
Nature of the Work

Insurance protection is an integral
part of the American way of life. It
frees policyholders and their ben­
eficiaries from worry and financial
burdens that may result from death,
illness, or other losses beyond their
control. Businesses could not oper­
ate, nor could most people buy homes
or other major items, without the as­
surance of protection from sudden
disaster. Insurance workers adapt
policies to meet changing needs, de­
cide which applications can be ac­
cepted and establish premium rates on
the policies, and investigate and settle
A college degree is increasingly im­
portant for professional, technical,
and managerial jobs in insurance, al­
though some positions are open to
high school graduates who have ap­
propriate experience. Regardless of
their previous training, insurance
workers must continually learn while
on the job. Many professional associ­
ations sponsor courses in all phases of
insurance work; employees are en­
couraged to participate to prepare
themselves for more responsible jobs.
This section describes three insur­
ance occupations: Actuaries, Claim
Representatives, and Underwriters.

Why do young persons pay more
for automobile insurance than older
persons? How much should an in­
surance policy cost? Answers to
these and similar questions are pro­
vided by actuaries who design in­
surance and pension plans that can
be maintained on a sound financial
basis. They assemble and analyze
statistics to calculate probabilities
of death, sickness, injury, disability,
unemployment, retirement, and
property loss from accident, theft,
fire, and other potential hazards.
Actuaries use this information to
determine the expected insured
loss. For example, they may calcu­
late how many persons who are 21
years old today can be expected to
live to age 65—the probability that
an insured person might die during
this period is a risk to the company.
They then calculate a price for as­
suming this risk that will be profita­
ble to the company yet be competi­
tive with other insurance compa­
nies. Finally, they must make sure
that the price charged for the in­
surance will enable the company to
pay all claims and expenses as they
occur. In the same manner, the ac­
tuary calculates premium rates and
policy contract provisions for each
type of insurance offered. Most ac­
tuaries specialize in either life and
health insurance or in property and
liability (casualty) insurance.
To perform their duties effective­
ly, actuaries must keep informed
about general economic and social
trends, and legislative, health, and
other developments that may affect
insurance practices. Because of
their broad knowledge of in­
surance, actuaries may work on
problems arising in the company’s
investment, group underwriting, or
pension planning departments. Ac­
tuaries in executive positions help
determine general company policy.
In that role, they may be called
upon to explain complex technical

matters to company executives,
government officials, and the
public. They may testify before
public agencies on proposed legisla­
tion affecting the insurance busi­
ness, for example, or explain in­
tended changes in premium rates or
contract provisions.
Actuaries who work for the
Federal Government usually deal
with a particular insurance or pen­
sion program, such as social securi­
ty or life insurance for veterans and
members of the Armed Forces. Ac­
tuaries in State government posi­
tions regulate insurance companies,
supervise the operations of State
retirement or pension systems, and
work on problems connected with
unemployment insurance or work­
ers’ compensation. Consulting ac­
tuaries set up pension and welfare
plans and make periodic evalua­
tions of these plans for private com­
panies, unions, and government
Places of Employment

Approximately 10,700 persons
worked as actuaries in 1974. Four
of every 10 actuaries worked in five
major cities—New York, Hartford,
Chicago, Philadelphia, and Boston.
About two-thirds of all actuaries
worked for private insurance com­
panies. Almost 90 percent of them
worked for life insurance compa­
nies; the rest worked for property
and liability (casualty) companies.
The number of actuaries employed
by an insurance company depends
on the volume of its business and
the number and types of insurance
policies it offers. Large companies
may employ over 100 actuaries on
their staffs or rely instead on rating
bureaus or consulting firms.
Consulting firms and rating bu­
reaus (associations that supply ac­
tuarial data to member companies)
employed about one-fifth of all ac­
tuaries. Other actuaries work for
private organizations administering
independent pension and welfare
plans or for Federal and State
government agencies. A few teach
in colleges and universities.

cover general mathematics, special­
ized actuarial mathematics, and all
phases of the insurance business.
The minimum requirement for Those considering an actuarial
beginning jobs in large life or career should take at least the
casualty companies is a bachelor’s beginning examination covering
degree with a major in mathematics general mathematics while still in
or statistics. Some companies will college. Success in passing the first
hire applicants with a major in two examinations helps beginners
economics or business administra­ to evaluate their potential as actu­
tion who demonstrate a thorough aries. Those who pass these exami­
foundation in calculus, probability, nations usually have better oppor­
and statistics (20-25 hours). Other tunities for employment and receive
desirable courses are insurance law, a higher starting salary. Advanced
accounting. examinations, usually taken by
Although only 17 colleges and those in junior actuarial positions,
universities offer training specifi­ require extensive home study and
cally designed for actuarial careers, experience in insurance work.
several hundred schools offer some
The Society of Actuaries gives 10
of the necessary courses.
actuarial examinations for the life
It usually takes from 5 to 10 years insurance and pension field; the
after beginning an actuarial career Casualty Actuarial Society also
to complete the entire series of ex­ gives 10 for the property and liabili­
aminations required for full profes­ ty field. Since the first parts of the
sional status. These examinations examination series of either society
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Actuaries discussing a problem.

are the same, students may defer
the selection of their insurance spe­
cialty until they become more
familiar with the field. Persons who
complete five examinations in the
life insurance series or six in the
“associate” membership in their
respective society. Those who have
passed an entire series receive full
membership and the title “fellow.”
Beginning actuaries often rotate
among different jobs to learn vari­
ous actuarial operations and to
become familiar with different
phases of insurance work. At first,
their work may be rather routine,
such as preparing calculations or
tabulations for actuarial tables or
reports. As they gain experience,
they may supervise actuarial clerks,
prepare correspondence and re­
ports, and do research.
Advancement to more responsi­
ble work as assistant, associate, and
chief actuary depends largely on
job performance and the number of
actuarial examinations passed.
Many actuaries, because of their
broad knowledge of insurance and
related fields, are selected for ad­
ministrative positions in other com­
pany activities, particularly in un­
derwriting, accounting, or data
processing departments. Many ac­
tuaries advance to top executive
Employment Outlook
Employment of actuaries is ex­
pected to rise faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. In addition to job
openings resulting from this growth,
several hundred actuaries will be
needed each year to replace those
who retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations. Job opportunities will
be best for new college graduates
who have passed at least one ac­
tuarial examination while still in
school and have a strong mathe­
matical and statistical background.
However, because of the large
number of persons expected to
receive degrees in mathematics,

and the large number of students
taking actuarial examinations, com­
petition for beginning jobs should
remain keen.
Employment in this occupation is
influenced by the volume of in­
surance sales, which will continue
to grow over the next decade. Shifts
in the age distribution of the popu­
lation over the next decade will
result in many more people with
established careers and family
responsibilities. This is the group
traditionally responsible for the
bulk of private insurance sales.
Increased sales, however, are
only one determinant of demand.
Changes in existing insurance prac­
tices are creating a need for more
actuarial services. For example,
passage of a “no-fault” automobile
insurance plan would require com­
panies writing automobile in­
surance to reevaluate their pricing
structures in light of no-fault
requirements. It is uncertain at this
time whether Federal no-fault
legislation will be enacted; how­
ever, the growing number of States
enacting their own plans indicates
continued strong demand for actu­
aries to make these analyses. The
Pension Reform Act of 1974 is like­
ly to stimulate employment of ac­
tuaries, particularly in consulting
firms. As more States pass competi­
tive rating laws, companies which
previously relied on rating bureaus
for actuarial data will expand exist­
ing actuarial departments or create
new ones.
Changes in the way medical mal­
practice insurance is handled also
may generate additional demand
for actuaries.
Earnings and Working
In 1974, actuaries had average
salaries over twice as high as the
average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. New college graduates en­
tering the life insurance field
without having passed any actuarial

exams averaged $9,800 in 1974, ac­
cording to a survey of U.S. compa­
nies by the Life Office Management
Association (LOMA). Applicants
who had successfully completed the
first exam received $10,400 and
those who had passed two exams
averaged $11,100. Salaries for ac­
tuaries in casualty companies
generally are comparable to those
offered by life companies.
In the Federal Government, new
graduates with the bachelor’s
degree could start at $8,500 a year
in late 1974. Applicants with either
1 year of graduate study or relevant
work experience were hired at
$10,500, and those with the
master’s degree started at $12,800
a year. Actuaries in the Federal
Government averaged $22,800 a
year in late 1974.
Beginning actuaries can look for­
ward to a marked increase in
earnings as they gain professional
experience and successfully ad­
vance in either society’s examina­
tion program. Insurance companies
usually give merit increases averag­
ing from $400 to $800 to their ac­
tuaries as they pass each successive
examination leading to membership
in either society.
averaged $16,400 a year in 1974;
salaries for actuaries who were
awarded full fellowship during that
year averaged $22,700. Fellows
with additional years of experience
earned substantially more, and
many top actuarial executives were
paid over $35,000.

(D.O.T. 168.288, 191.268,
241.168, and 249.268)
Nature of the Work

Fast and fair settlement of all
claims is essential to any insurance
company if it is to meet its commit­
ments to policyholders and also
protect its own financial well-being.
The people who investigate claims,
negotiate settlement with policy­
holders, and authorize payment are
known as claim representatives—a
group which includes claim ad­
justers and claim examiners.
receives a claim, the c la im a d ju s te r
determines the amount of the loss
and whether the policy covers it.
Adjusters use reports, physical
evidence, and testimony of wit­
nesses in investigating a claim.
When their company is liable, they
negotiate with the claimant and set­
tle the case.
Adjusters must make sure that
settlements are in line with the real
extent of the loss. They must pro­
tect their company from false or in­
flated claims but, at the same time,
settle valid claims fairly and
promptly. Some adjusters are al­
lowed to issue checks on company
funds; most, however, submit their
findings to claim examiners who
review them to insure that proper
procedures have been followed and
then authorize payment.
Sources of Additional
Some adjusters work with all
lines of insurance. Others specialize
For facts about actuarial oppor­ in claims from property damage by
fire, marine loss, automobile
tunities and qualifications, contact:
damage, workers’ compensation
Casualty Actuarial Society, 200 East 42nd
loss, or bodily injury. Several States
St , New York, N.Y. 10017.
have “no-fault” automobile in­
Society of Actuaries, 208 South LaSalle St.,
surance plans that relieve the ad­
Chicago, 1 1 60604.
juster from determining responsi­
bility for a loss. Adjusters in these
States still must decide the amount
of loss, however. A growing number
of casualty companies employ spe-

Adjuster determines extent of auto body

cial claims people to settle small
claims, usually minor automobile or
homeowner damage claims. These
claim workers, generally called
“inside adjusters” or “telephone
adjusters,” contact claimants by
telephone or mail and have the pol­
icyholder send repair costs, medical
bills, and other statements to the
company. Many companies central­
ize this operation in a drive-in
claims center where the cost of
repair is determined and a check is
issued on the spot.
Adjusters work away from the of­
fice most of the time. They may be
called to the site of an accident or
to the location of a fire or burglary.
Adjusters make their own schedules
of the activities needed to dispose
of a claim properly. They also keep
written or taped records of informa­
tion obtained from witnesses and
other sources and prepare reports
of their findings.
In life insurance companies, the
counterpart of the claim adjuster is
the c la im e x a m i n e r , who in­
vestigates the details surrounding
questionable claims or those ex­
ceeding a specified amount. They
may check claim applications for
completeness and accuracy, inter­
view medical specialists, consult

policy files to verify information on
a claim, or calculate benefit pay­
ments. Generally, examiners are
authorized to investigate and ap­
prove payment on all claims up to a
certain limit; larger claims are
referred to a senior examiner.
Examiners checking incorrect or
questionable claims may cor­
respond with investigating compa­
nies, field managers, agents, or the
family of the insured. Claim ex­
aminers occasionally travel to ob­
tain information by personal inter­
view, or contact State insurance de­
partments and other insurance
companies. In addition to verifying
claims and approving payment, ex­
aminers also maintain records of
settled claims and prepare reports
to be submitted to their company’s
data processing department. Some
experienced examiners serve on
committees, conduct surveys of

claim practices within their com­
pany, and help devise more effi­
cient ways to process claims. They
sometimes testify in court on con­
tested claims.
Places of Employment
About 125,000 persons worked
as claim representatives in 1974.
The majority of claim adjusters
worked for insurance companies
that sell property and liability
coverage. Some were employed by
independent adjusting firms that
contract their services for a fee.
These independents range from na­
tional companies employing hun­
dreds of adjusting specialists to
small 3- or 4-person operations. A
relatively small number of adjusters
represent the insured rather than
the insurance company. These
‘public adjusters1 usually are
retained by banks, financial or-

Claim examiner calculates benefit payment.

ganizations, and other business
firms to handle fire and other losses
to property. They negotiate claims
against insurance companies and
deal with adjusters for such compa­
Most claim examiners worked for
life insurance companies in large ci­
ties such as New York, Hartford,
Chicago, San Francisco, and Dallas,
where most home offices are
Adjusters may travel to almost
any area of the United States, since
claims must be settled locally. Oc­
casionally, the adjuster may travel
to the scene of a disaster, such as a
hurricane or a riot, to work with
local personnel. Some cases result
in travel outside the United States.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although a growing number of
insurance companies prefer claim
representatives to have a college
degree, many hire those without
college training, particularly if they
have specialized experience. For
example, persons experienced in
automobile repair work may qualify
as auto adjusters, and those with
clerical work experience might be
hired as inside adjusters.
No specific field of college study
is recommended. Although courses
in insurance, economics, or other
business subjects are helpful, a
major in almost any college field is
adequate preparation. An adjuster
who has a business or accounting
background might specialize in loss
from business interruption or
damage to merchandise. Those with
college training in engineering will
find their education helpful in ad­
justing industrial claims.
Most large insurance companies
provide beginning claim adjusters
and examiners on-the-job training
and home study courses. Claim
representatives are encouraged to
take courses designed to enhance
their professional skills. For exam­
ple, the Insurance Institute of

America offers a 6-semester study
program leading to a diploma in in­
surance loss and claim adjusting
upon successful completion of six
prepare for these examinations by
independent home study or through
company or public classes. A
professional Certificate in In­
surance Adjusting also is available
from the College of Insurance in
New York City.
The Life Office Management As­
sociation (LOMA) in cooperation
with the International Claim As­
sociation offers a claims education
program for life and health ex­
aminers. The program is part of the
LOMA Institute Insurance Educa­
tion Program leading to the profes­
sional designation, FLMI (Fellow,
Life Management Institute) upon
successful completion of eight writ­
ten examinations.
About three-fourths of the States
require adjusters to be licensed.
Despite wide variation in State
licensing requirements, applicants
usually must comply with one or
more of the following: Pass a writ­
ten examination covering the fun­
damentals of adjusting; furnish
character references; be 20 or 21
years of a g e an d a r e sid e n t of th e
State; offer proof that they have
completed an approved course in
insurance or loss adjusting; and file
a surety bond.
Because they often work closely
with claimants, witnesses, and other
insurance professionals, representa­
tives must be able to adapt to many
different persons and situations.
They should be able to commu­
nicate effectively and gain the
respect and cooperation of people
from different backgrounds. For ex­
ample, when adjusters’ evaluations
of claims differ from those of the
persons who have suffered the loss,
they should be able to explain their
conclusions tactfully. Examiners
need to be familiar with medical
and legal terms and practices and
Federal and State insurance laws
and regulations. Because they may

have to check premium payments,
policy values, and other numerical
items in processing a claim, ex­
aminers should be adept at making
mathematical calculations. Both
adjusters and examiners should
have a good memory and enjoy
working with details.
Beginning adjusters and ex­
aminers work on small claims under
the supervision of an experienced
worker. As they learn more about
claim investigation and settlement,
they are assigned claims that are
higher in loss value and more dif­
ficult. Trainees are promoted as
they demonstrate competence in
handling assignments and progress
in the courses they take. Because of
the complexity of insurance regula­
tions and claims procedures, work­
ers who lack formal academic
training may advance more slowly
than those with 2 years or more of
college. Employees who show
unusual competence in claims work
or outstanding administrative skills
may be promoted to department su­
pervisor in a field office or to a
managerial position in the home of­
fice. Qualified adjusters and ex­
aminers can transfer to other de­
partments, such as underwriting or
data processing.
Employment Outlook
Employment of claim representa­
tives is expected to grow about as
fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1980’s as the
number of insurance claims con­
tinues to increase. In addition to
jobs created by growth of the occu­
pation, many others will result from
the need to replace workers who
die, retire, or transfer to other jobs.
Several factors point to a growing
volume of insurance and a resulting
need for claim adjusters. Shifts in
population patterns over the next
decade will insure a steadily rising
number of workers entering their
most productive years. These work­
ers and their families are likely to
seek insurance protection as they

purchase homes, automobiles, and car or are reimbursed for use of career as a claim examiner or ad­
other consumer durables. Expand­ their own vehicles for business pur­ juster is available from the home of­
ing business will need protection for poses. Salaries of claim adjusters fices of many life and property and
new plants and equipment and for are about one and one-half times liability insurance companies.
insurance covering workers’ com­ the average earnings for all nonsupensation and product liability. As pervisory workers in private indus­ requirements for claim adjusters
more people live and work in try, except farming; salaries of in­ may be obtained from the depart­
densely populated areas, the in­ side adjusters are slightly above this ment of insurance in each State.
Information about career oppor­
creased risk of automobile acci­ average.
A survey of life insurance compa­ tunities in these occupations also
dent, fire, or theft should result in a
nies by the Life Office Management may be obtained from:
greater number of claims.
Growth of this occupation may Association revealed that claim ex­ Insurance Information Institute, 1 10 William
be slower than in recent years as aminers earned average salaries of
St., New York, N.Y. 10038.
no-fault automobile insurance plans $11,200 a year in 1974. According
For information about public in­
enable adjusters to handle more to the survey of property and liabili­ surance adjusting, contact:
cases. The growing emphasis on ty companies, casualty claim ex­ National Association of Public Adjusters,
drive-in claim centers and claim aminers averaged $13,300. Claim
1613 Munsey Building, Baltimore, Md.
21202 .
handling by telephone also should supervisors in casualty companies
Career information on life in­
reduce the demand for automobile and life companies averaged
adjusters while it stimulates de­ between $14,000 and $15,000 and surance claim examining is availa­
mand for inside adjusters. Indepen­ many earned more than $20,000 a ble from:
dent adjusters who specialize in au­ year. Claim examiners earn nearly Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park Ave.,
tomobile damage claims should twice as much as the average for all
New York, N.Y. 10017.
continue to suffer some loss of busi­ nonsupervisory workers in private
ness. Prospects are expected to be industry, except farming.
quite good for adjusters who spe­
Claim adjusting is not a desk job.
cialize in other types of claims or It requires that a person be physi­
those who can move into other lines cally fit because much of the day
(D.O.T. 169.188)
of adjusting.
may be spent in traveling from one
Prospects are much less favora­ place to another, walking about
Nature of the Work
ble for claim examiners. Employ­ outdoors, and climbing stairs. Ad­
Insurance companies assume mil­
ment of examiners in casualty com­ justers may have to work evenings
panies should rise about as fast as or weekends in order to interview lions of dollars in risks each year, by
for adjusters; however, much witnesses and claimants when they transferring chance of loss from
slower growth is expected for life are available. Since most compa­ their policyholders to themselves.
insurance examiners as increased nies provide 24-hour claim service Underwriters appraise and select
use of computers enables them to to their policyholders, some ad­ the risks their company will insure.
process more claims, especially justers always must be on call. (See (The term u n d e r w r ite r s o m e tim e s is
routine ones and those that arise the statement on the Insurance In­ used in referring to insurance
under group policies.
dustry for additional information on agents; see the statement on In­
working conditions and employee surance Agents and Brokers else­
Earnings and Working
where in this book for a discussion of
that occupation.)
Claim examiners have desk jobs
Underwriters decide whether
According to an American In­
that require no unusual physical ac­
surance Association-American Mu­ tivity. Although the average work­ their companies will accept risks
tual Insurance Alliance-National week for examiners is 35 to 40 after analyzing information in in­
Association of Independent In­ hours, they may work longer at surance applications, reports from
surers survey of property and lia­ times of peak claim loads or when loss control consultants, medical re­
bility companies, claim adjusters quarterly and annual statements are ports, and actuarial studies (reports
averaged about $ 11,900 a year in prepared. They also may need to that describe the probability of in­
sured loss). Some routine applica­
1974; inside adjusters earned travel occasionally.
tions that require very little inde­
average salaries of about $8,300.
pendent judgment are handled by
Most public adjusters are paid a
Sources of Additional
computers. Generally, however, un­
percentage of the amount of the
derwriters use considerable per­
settlement—generally 10 percent.
sonal judgment in making deci­
General information about a
Adjusters are furnished a company

sions. Because these decisions are
seldom reviewed at a higher level,
underwriters have great responsi­
bility. Their companies may lose
business to competitors if they ap­
praise risks too conservatively or
have to pay many future claims if
their underwriting actions are too
When deciding that a policy is an
acceptable risk, an underwriter may
outline the terms of the contract,
including the amount of the premi­
um. Underwriters frequently cor­
respond with policyholders, agents,
and managers about policy cancel­
lations or requests for information.
In addition, they sometimes accom­
pany salespeople on appointments
with prospective customers.
Most underwriters specialize in
one of three major categories of in­
surance: life, property and liability,
or health. Life insurance un­
derwriters may further specialize in
one type of life insurance or more,
such as group or individual policies.
The property and liability un­
derwriter specializes by type of risk
insured, such as fire, automobile,
marine, or workers’ compensation.
Some underwriters, called commer­
cial account underwriters, handle
business insurance exclusively.
They often must evaluate a firm’s
entire operation in appraising its in­
surance application.
A standard group insurance pol­
icy insures all persons in a specified
group through a single contract at
uniform premium rates; this type of
group policy generally provides life
or health insurance protection. The
group underwriter analyzes the
overall composition of the group to
be sure that total risk is not exces­
sive. A different type of group pol­
icy finding increasing acceptance is
the policy that provides the mem­
bers of a group—a labor union, for
example—with an individual policy
geared to their own circumstances.
These policies generally are in the
casualty field, covering automo­
biles, pleasure boats, and homes.
The casualty underwriter analyzes

Underwriter analyzes information pre­
sented on policy application.

the application of each group
member and makes individual ap­
praisals. Some group underwriters
attend meetings with union or em­
ployer representatives to discuss
the types of policies available to
their groups.
Places of Employment
An estimated 20,000 persons
worked as insurance underwriters
in 1974. Over three-fourths were
property and liability underwriters
working in regional or home offices
throughout the United States; most
life insurance underwriters are in
home offices in a few large cities,
such as Hartford, New York,
Chicago, Dallas, and Los Angeles.

graduates who begin as underwrit­
ing clerks may be trained as un­
derwriters after they demonstrate
an aptitude for the work.
College graduates usually start as
trainees or junior underwriters.
They study claim files to learn the
factors associated with certain
types of losses, and carry out their
work assignments under an ex­
perienced risk appraiser. Many sup­
plement on-the-job training with
courses and instruction at home of­
fice schools or local colleges and
universities. Many firms pay tuition
and the cost of books for those who
satisfactorily complete underwrit­
ing courses. Some companies offer
salary increases as an incentive. In­
dependent study programs are
available through the American In­
stitute of Property and Liability Un­
derwriters, the American College of
Life Underwriters, the Home Office
Life Underwriters Association, the
Institute of Home Office Un­
derwriters, and the Life Office
Management Association.
Underwriting can be a satisfying
career for persons who like working
with details and enjoy relating and
evaluating information. In addition
to analyzing problems, underwriters
must make prompt decisions and be
able to communicate their ideas to
others. They must also be imagina­
tive and aggressive, especially when
they have to get additional informa­
tion from outside sources.
Experienced underwriters who
complete study courses may ad­
vance to chief underwriter or un­
derwriting manager. Some un­
derwriting managers are promoted
to senior managerial jobs after
several years.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employment Outlook

For beginning underwriting jobs,
most insurance companies seek col­
lege graduates who have degrees in
liberal arts or business administra­
tion, but a major in almost any field
background. Some high school

Employment of underwriters is
expected to rise about as fast as the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s as insurance sales
continue to expand. Each year
many jobs will become available as
the occupation grows and as those

who die, retire, or transfer to other
work are replaced.
Several factors underlie the ex­
pected growth in the volume of in­
surance and the resulting need for
underwriters. Over the next decade,
a much larger portion of our popu­
lation will enter their most produc­
tive years. As this traditional mar­
ket for life insurance expands, the
volume of insurance sales also
should rise. This will occur as more
individuals purchase life insurance
to protect their families’ standard of
living, finance their childrens’ edu­
cation, or provide retirement in­
come. Property and liability in­
surance sales also should expand as
purchases of automobiles, pleasure
boats, and other consumer durables
increase. Both spending for new
home construction and the Amer­
ican public’s growing security con­
sciousness should contribute to de­
mand for more extensive insurance
protection. Expanding businesses
will need protection for new plants
and equipment and insurance for
product liability. Heightened com­
petition among insurance compa­
nies and changes in regulations af­
fecting investment profits also are
expected to increase the insurance
industry’s need for competent un­

Earnings and Working
Underwriters in life insurance
averaged $12,500 a year in 1974,
according to a Life Office Manage­
ment Association (LOMA) survey.
Senior life underwriters (those with
5 years’ experience) averaged
$14,300, while senior group un­
derwriters earned average salaries
of $14,800. Supervisors of un­
derwriting in life insurance compa­
nies averaged $15,000 to $20,000.
In most cases, underwriters in
larger companies earned higher
An American Insurance Association-American Mutual Insurance
Alliance-National Association of
Independent Insurers survey of
companies that sell property and
liability insurance showed that ex­
perienced underwriters averaged
$11,300 a year in 1974. Earnings
varied substantially by underwriting
specialty; senior commercial lines
underwriters averaged $13,100,
while personal lines underwriters
earned average salaries of $10,900.
Experienced underwriters earn
over 1 1/2 times the average
earnings of nonsupervisory workers
in private industry, except farming.
Underwriting supervisors in proper­
ty and liability companies averaged

$15,100 a year in 1974; many
earned over $ 17,500.
Most underwriters have desk jobs
that require no unusual physical ac­
tivity. Although the average week is
37 hours, underwriters sometimes
work overtime. Most insurance
companies have liberal vacation
policies and other employee
benefits. (See the statement on the
Insurance Industry for additional
information on working conditions
and employee benefits.)
Sources of Additional
General information about a
career as an insurance underwriter
is available from the home offices
of many life insurance and property
and liability insurance companies.
Information about career opportu­
nities as an underwriter also may be
obtained from:
Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.
Insurance Information Institute, 110 William
St., New York, N.Y. 10038.
American Mutual Insurance Alliance, 20 N.
Wacker Dr., Chicago, 11 . 60606.

where field office headquarters are
located or in resident agencies
(suboffices) established under field
office supervision to provide
prompt and efficient handling of in­
radio or telephone as the circum­ vestigative
throughout the field office territory.
stances dictate. In performing
potentially dangerous duties, such Some agents are assigned to the Bu­
as arrests and raids, two or more reau headquarters in Washington,
agents are assigned to work D.C., which supervises all FBI ac­


(D.O.T. 375.168)
Nature of the Work
Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI) Special Agents investigate
violations of Federal laws such as
bank robberies, kidnappings, frauds
against the Government, thefts of
Government property, espionage,
and sabotage. The FBI, which is
part of the U.S. Department of
Justice, has jurisdiction over many
different Federal investigative mat­
ters. Special Agents, therefore, may
be assigned to any type of case,
although those with specialized
training usually work on cases re­
lated to their background. Agents
with an accounting background, for
example, may investigate bank em­
bezzlements or fraudulent bank­
Because the FBI is a fact-gather­
ing agency, its Special Agents func­
tion strictly as investigators, collect­
ing evidence in cases in which the
United States is or may be an in­
terested party. (The FBI does not
give personal protection to in­
dividuals or do police work to in­
sure that the law is obeyed. Such
matters are handled by local and
State law enforcement agencies.) In
their casework, Special Agents may
interview people, observe the ac­
tivities of suspects, and participate
in raids. Because the FBI’s work is
highly confidential, Special Agents
may not disclose any of the infor­
mation gathered in the course of
their official duties to unauthorized
persons, including members of their
families. At times, agents have to
testify in court about cases which
they investigate.
Although they work alone on
most assignments, agents commu­
nicate with their supervisors by

Places of Employment
About 8,600 persons were Spe­
cial Agents in 1974. The FBI has
been accepting applications from
women since 1972, and 30 women
now work as Special Agents.
Most agents were assigned to the
FBI’s 59 field offices located
throughout the Nation and in Puer­
to Rico. They worked in cities

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
To be considered for appoint­
ment as an FBI Special Agent, an
applicant usually must be a gradu­
ate of a State-accredited law school
or a college graduate with a major
in accounting. The law school train­
ing must have been preceded by at
least 2 years of undergraduate col-

FBI special agent photographs a weapon.

lege work. Accounting graduates
must have at least 1 year of ex­
perience in accounting, auditing, or
a combination of both.
From time to time, as the need
arises, the FBI accepts applications
from persons who have a 4-year
college degree with a physical
science major or fluency in a
foreign language, and also from
persons who have 3 years of profes­
sional, executive, complex in­
vestigative, or other specialized ex­
Applicants for the position of FBI
Special Agent must be citizens of
the United States, at least 23 and
not more than 35 years old, and
willing to serve anywhere in the
United States or Puerto Rico. They
must be capable of strenuous physi­
cal exertion, and have excellent
hearing and vision, normal color
perception, and no physical defects
which would prevent their using
firearms or participating in dan­
gerous assignments. All applicants
must pass a rigid physical examina­
tion, as well as written and oral ex­
aminations testing their knowledge
of law or accounting and their ap­
titude for meeting the public and
conducting investigations. All of
the tests except the physical ex­
aminations are given by the FBI at
its facilities. Background and
character investigations are made
of all applicants. Appointments are
made on a probationary basis and
become permanent after 1 year of
satisfactory service.
Each newly appointed Special
Agent is given about 14 weeks of
training at the FBI Academy at the
U.S. Marine Corps Base in Quantico, Va. before assignment to a
field office. During this period,
agents receive intensive training in
defensive tactics and the use of
firearms. In addition, they are
thoroughly schooled in Federal
criminal law and procedures, FBI
rules and regulations, fingerprint­
ing, and investigative work. After
assignment to a field office, the new

agent usually works closely with an
experienced agent for about 2
weeks before handling any assign­
ments independently.
All administrative and superviso­
ry jobs are filled from within the
ranks by selecting those FBI Special
Agents who have demonstrated the
ability to assume more responsibili­

Sources of Additional
The Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S.
Department of Justice, Washington,
D.C. 20535.

Employment Outlook
The jurisdiction of the FBI has
expanded greatly over the years.
Although it is impossible to forecast
Special Agent personnel require­
ments, employment may be ex­
pected to increase with growing FBI
The FBI provides a career service
and its rate of turnover is tradi­
tionally low. Nevertheless, the FBI
is always interested in applications
from qualified persons who would
like to be considered for the posi­
tion of Special Agent.

Earnings and Working
The entrance salary for FBI Spe­
cial Agents was $13,379 in late
1974. Special Agents are not ap­
pointed under Federal Civil Service
r e g u la tio n s, b u t, lik e o th e r F e d e r a l

employees, they receive periodic
within-grade salary raises if their
work performance is satisfactory;
they can advance in grade as they
gain experience.
Special Agents are subject to call
24 hours a day and must be availa­
ble for assignment at all times.
Their duties call for some travel, for
they are assigned wherever they are
needed in the United States or Puerto
Rico. They frequently work longer than
the customary 40-hour week and, under
specified conditions, receive overtime
pay up to about $3,350 a year. They are
granted paid vacations, sick leave, and
annuities on retirement.

(D.O.T. 375.1 18 through .868
and 377.868)
Nature of the Work
The security of our Nation’s cit­
ies and towns greatly depends on
the work of local police officers
whose jobs range from controlling
traffic to preventing and investigat­
ing crimes. Whether on or off duty,
these officers are expected to exer­
cise their authority whenever
Police officers who work in a
small community have many duties.
In the course of a day’s work, they
may direct traffic at the scene of a
fire, investigate a housebreaking,
and give first aid to an accident vic­
tim. In a large police department,
by contrast, officers usually are as­
signed to a specific type of duty.
Most officers are detailed either to
patrol or traffic duty; smaller num­
bers are assigned to special work
such as accident prevention or
systems. Others work as detectives
(plain-clothes officers) assigned to
criminal investigation; still others,
as experts in chemical and micro­
scopic analysis, firearms identifica­
tion, and handwriting and finger­
print identification. In very large
cities, a few officers may work with
special units such as mounted and
motorcycle police, harbor patrols,
helicopter patrols, canine corps,
mobile rescue teams, and youth aid
Most newly recruited police of­
ficers begin on patrol duty. Recruits

may be assigned to such varied
areas as congested business districts
or outlying residential areas. They
may cover their beats alone or with
other officers, and they may ride in
a police vehicle or walk on “foot”
patrol. In any case, they become
thoroughly familiar with conditions
throughout their area and, while on
patrol, remain alert for anything
unusual. They note suspicious cir­
cumstances, such as open windows
or lights in vacant buildings, as well
as hazards to public safety such as
burned-out street lights or fallen
trees. Officers also watch for stolen
automobiles and enforce traffic
regulations. At regular intervals,
they report to police headquarters
through call boxes, by radio, or by
walkie-talkie. They prepare reports
about their activities and may be
called on to testify in court when
cases result in legal action.
Places of Employment
About 480,000 full-time officers
worked for local police depart­
ments in 1974. Although most were
men, an increasing number of
women are employed in police
Some cities have very large po­
lice forces. For example, New York
has over 30,000 police officers and
Chicago over 13,000. Hundreds of
small communities employ fewer
than 25 each. Women police of­
ficers work mainly in large cities.

Because personal characteristics
such as honesty, good judgment,
and a sense of responsibility are
especially important in police work,
candidates are interviewed by a
senior officer at police headquar­
ters, and their character traits and
background are investigated. In
some police departments, can­
didates also may be interviewed by
a psychiatrist or a pyschologist, or
Training, Other Qualifications,
be given a personality test.
and Advancement
Although police officers work inde­
Local civil service regulations pendently, they must perform their
govern the appointment of police duties in line with laws and depart­
officers in practically all large cities mental rules. They should enjoy
and in many small ones. Candidates working with people, and should
must be U.S. citizens, usually at want to serve the public.
least 21 years of age, and must meet
In large police departments,
certain height and weight stand­ where most jobs are found, appli­
ards. Eligibility for appointment cants usually must have a high
depends on performance in com­ school education. A few cities
petitive examinations as well as on require some college training and
education and experience. The some hire law enforcement students
physical examinations often include as police interns. A few police de­
tests of strength and agility.
partments accept applicants who

have less than a high school educa­
tion as recruits, particularly if they
have worked in a field related to
law enforcement.
More and more, police depart­
ments are encouraging applicants
to take post-high school training in
sociology and psychology. As a
result, more than 500 junior col­
leges, colleges, and universities now
offer programs in law enforcement.
Other courses helpful in preparing
for a police career include English,
American history, civics and
government, business law, and
physics. Physical education and
sports are especially helpful in
developing the stamina and agility
needed for police work.
completed high school can enter
police work in some large cities as
police cadets, or trainees, while still
in their teens. As paid civilian em­
ployees of the police department,
they attend classes to learn police

skills and do clerical work. They
may be appointed to the regular
force at age 21 if they have all the
necessary qualifications.
Before their first assignments, of­
ficers usually go through a period of
training. In small communities,
recruits learn by working for a short
time with experienced officers.
Training provided in large city po­
lice departments is more formal and
may last several weeks or a few
months. This training includes
classroom instruction in constitu­
tional law and civil rights; in State
laws and local ordinances; and in
accident investigation, patrol, and
traffic control. Recruits learn how
to use a gun, defend themselves
from attack, administer first aid,
and deal with emergencies.
Police officers usually become
eligible for promotion after a
specified length of service. In a
large department, promotion may
allow an officer to specialize in one
type of police work such as labora­
tory work, traffic control, commu­
nications, or work with juveniles.
Promotions to the rank of sergeant,
lieutenant, and captain usually are
made according to a candidate’s
position on a promotion list, as
determined by scores on a written
examination and on-the-job per­
Many types of training help po­
lice officers improve their per­
formance on the job and prepare
for advancement. Through training
given at police department acade­
mies and colleges, officers keep
techniques, civil defense, legal
developments that affect their
work, and advances in law enforce­
ment equipment. Many police de­
partments encourage officers to
work toward college degrees, and
some pay all or part of the tuition.
Employment Outlook
Police work is attractive to many.
The job frequently is challenging
and involves much responsibility.

Furthermore, layoffs are rare. In
periods of relatively high unem­
ployment, the number of persons
seeking police employment may be
greater than the number of
openings. However, the written ex­
aminations and strict physical
requirements always eliminate
many applicants. The outlook
should be good for persons having
some college training in law en­
forcement. Opportunities should
also be available for women and
minority applicants as many depart­
ments recruit these workers to
make police departments more
representative of the populations
they serve.
Law enforcement is complex and
requires an approach tailored to the
particular problems of each city.
The police department of a city
with a large mobile population is
likely to emphasize traffic control,
preventive patrol, and cooperation
with police agencies in the sur­
rounding areas. In smaller cities, or
those with well established commu­
nities and fewer employment and
recreation centers, police work may
be less specialized. In either case,
however, the usual way of increas­
ing police protection is to provide
more officers for duty.
The number of officers employed
will depend on the amount of
money made available by local
governments. Because of the essen­
tial nature of police work, it is likely
that funding for law enforcement
will have high priority and that the
employment of city police officers
will rise faster than the average for
other occupations through the mid1980’s.
Earnings and Working
In 1974, entry level salaries for
police officers varied widely from
city to city. In some smaller com­
munities, officers earned less than
$600 a month, while some major cit­
ies offered over $ 1,000 a month to
new employees. Most officers
receive regular salary increases dur­

ing the first few years of employ­
ment until they reach a set max­
imum for their rank. Maximum
earnings ranged from about $800 to
over $ 1,200 a month in 1974.
Promotion to a higher rank
brings a higher basic salary. Serge­
ants, for example, started at a salary
as high as $1,300 a month in 1974
and in the largest cities, lieutenants
began at over $1,400 a month. In
general, police officers are paid
about one and one-half times as
much as nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
Police departments usually pro­
vide officers with special al­
lowances for uniforms and furnish
revolvers, night sticks, handcuffs,
and other required equipment.
The scheduled workweek for po­
lice officers usually is 40 hours.
Because police protection must be
provided around the clock, in all
but the smallest communities some
officers are on duty over weekends,
on holidays, and at night. Police of­
ficers are subject to call any time
their services are needed and may
work overtime in emergencies. In
some departments, overtime is paid
at straight time or time and onehalf; in others, officers may be
given an equal amount of time off
on another day of the week.
Police officers generally are
covered by liberal pension plans,
enabling many to retire at half pay
by the time they reach age 55. In
addition, paid vacations, sick leave,
and health and life insurance plans
frequently are provided.
Police officers may have to work
outdoors for long periods in all
kinds of weather. The injury rate is
higher than in many occupations
and reflects the risks officers take in
pursuing speeding motorists, cap­
turing lawbreakers, and dealing
with public disorder.
Sources of Additional
requirements may be obtained from

local civil service commissions or
police departments.
Additional information describ­
ing careers as police officers is
available from:
International Association of Chiefs of Police,
11 Firstfield Rd., Gaithersburg, Md.
Fraternal Order of Police, National
Headquarters, 3094 Bertha St., Flint,
Mich. 48504.

(D.O.T. 375.118, .138, .168,
.228, .268, and .388)

not have a police force. They some­
times help city or county police
catch lawbreakers and control civil
disturbances. State highway patrols,
however, normally are restricted to
vehicle and traffic matters.
Some police officers work with
special State police units such as
the mounted police, canine corps,
and marine patrols. Others instruct
trainees in State police schools,
pilot police aircraft, or specialize in
fingerprint classification or chemi­
cal and microscopic analysis of
criminal evidence.
State police officers also write re­
ports and maintain police records.
Some officers, including division or

Nature of the Work
The laws and regulations that
govern the use of our Nation’s road­
ways are designed to insure the
safety of all citizens. State police of­
ficers (sometimes called State
troopers) patrol our highways and
enforce these laws.
State police officers issue traffic
tickets to motorists who violate the
law. At the scene of an accident,
they direct traffic, give first aid, call
for emergency equipment including
ambulances, and write reports to be
used in determining the cause of the
In addition, State police officers
provide services to motorists on the
highways. For example, they radio
for road service for drivers in
mechanical trouble, direct tourists
to their destination, or give infor­
mation about lodging, restaurants,
and tourist attractions.
State police officers also provide
traffic assistance and control during
road repairs, fires, and other emer­
gencies, as well as for special occur­
rences such as parades and sports
events. They sometimes check the
weight of commercial vehicles, con­
duct driver examinations, and give
information on highway safety to
the public.
In addition to highway responsi­
bilities, State police may investigate
crimes, particularly in areas that do

bureau chiefs responsible for train­
ing or investigation and those who
command police operations in an
assigned area, have administrative
Places of Employment
About 45,500 State police of­
ficers were employed in 1974.
Although almost all were men, posi­
tions for women are expected to in­
crease in the future.
The size of State police forces va­
ries considerably. The largest force
(in California) has over 5,000 of­
ficers; the smallest (in North
Dakota) has fewer than 100. One

State (Hawaii) does not maintain a
police force.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
State civil service regulations
govern the appointment of State
police officers. All candidates must
be citizens of the United States.
Other entry requirements vary, but
most States require that applicants
have a high school education or an
equivalent combination of educa­
tion and experience and be at least
21 years old.
Officers must pass a competitive
examination and meet physical and
personal qualifications. Physical
requirements include standards of
height, weight, and eyesight. Tests
of strength and agility often are
required. Because honesty and a
sense of responsibility are impor­
tant in police work, an applicant’s
character and background are in­
Although State police officers
work independently, they must per­
form their duties in line with de­
partment rules. They should want
to serve the public and be willing to
work outdoors in all types of
In all States, recruits enter a for­
mal training program for several
months. They receive classroom in­
struction in State laws and jurisdic­
tions, and they study procedures for
accident investigation, patrol, and
traffic control. Recruits learn to use
guns, defend themselves from at­
tack, handle an automobile at high
speeds, and give first aid. After
gaining experience, some officers
take advanced training in police
science, administration, law en­
forcement, or criminology. Classes
are held at junior colleges, colleges
and universities, or special police
institutions such as the National
Academy of the Federal Bureau of
High school and college courses
in English, government, psycholo­
gy, sociology, American history,

and physics help in preparing for a
police career. Physical education
and sports are useful for developing
stamina and agility. Completion of
a driver education course and train­
ing received in military police
schools also are assets.
Police officer recruits serve a
probationary period ranging from 6
months to 3 years. After a specified
length of time, officers become
eligible for promotion. Most States
have merit promotion systems that
require officers to pass a competi­
tive examination to qualify for the
next highest rank. Although the or­
ganization of police forces varies by
State, the typical avenue of ad­
vancement is from private to cor­
poral, to sergeant, to first sergeant,
to lieutenant, and then to captain.
Police officers who show adminis­
trative ability may be promoted to
higher level jobs such as commis­
sioner or director.
In some States, high school grad­
uates may enter State police work
as cadets. These paid civilian em­
ployees of the police organization
attend classes to learn various
aspects of police work and are as­
signed nonenforcement duties.
Cadets who qualify may be ap­
pointed to the State police force at
age 21.

This is the result of a growing, more
mobile population. In ever increas­
ing numbers, Americans are using
the motor vehicle as a source of
recreation. Motorcycles, campers,
and other recreational vehicles will
continue to add to the Nation’s traf­
fic flow and require additional of­
ficers to insure the safety of
highway users.
Because law enforcement work is
becoming more complex, spe­
cialists will be needed in crime
laboratories and electronic data
processing centers to develop ad­
ministrative and criminal informa­
tion systems. However, in many de­
partments, these jobs will be filled
by civilian employees rather than
uniformed officers.

Earnings and Working

In 1974, beginning salaries for
State police officers ranged from al­
most $600 to about $1,000 a
month. The most common entry
rates ranged from $600 to $700 a
month. Although starting salaries
are normally higher in the West and
lower in the South, State police of­
ficers on the average earn about 1
1/2 times as much as nonsupervisory workers in private industry, ex­
cept farming.
Employment Outlook
State police generally receive
State police employment is ex­ regular increases, based on ex­
pected to grow much faster than the perience and performance, until a
average for other occupations. specified maximum is reached. In
Although most jobs will result from 1974, maximum rates ranged from
this growth, some openings will be about $750 to over $ 1,200 a month;
created as officers retire, die, or maximum rates were most com­
leave the occupation for other monly between $900 and $ 1,000 a
reasons. As job openings are filled month. Earnings increase with
from the ranks of available appli­ promotions to higher ranks. The
cants, the increased interest of most common maximum salaries
women in police work will result in for State police sergeants in 1974
greater employment of women for were between $1,000 and $1,200.
Lieutenants earned more, often
patrol duties.
Although some State police will between $1,200 and $1,300 a
be needed in criminal investigation month.
and other nonhighway functions,
State police agencies usually pro­
the greatest demand will be for of­ vide
ficers to work in highway patrol. firearms, and other necessary

equipment, or give special al­
lowances for their purchase.
In many States, the scheduled
workweek for police officers is 40
hours. Although the workweek is
longer in some States, hours over
40 are being reduced. Since police
protection must be provided
around the clock, some officers are
on duty over weekends, on
holidays, and at night. Police of­
ficers also are subject to emergency
calls at any time.
State police usually are covered
by liberal pension plans. Paid vaca­
tions, sick leave, and medical and
life insurance plans frequently are
The work of State police officers
is sometimes dangerous. They al­
ways run the risk of an automobile
accident while pursuing speeding
motorists or fleeing criminals. Of­
ficers also face the risk of injury
while apprehending criminals or
controlling disorders.
Sources of Additional
Information about specific en­
trance requirements may be ob­
tained from State civil service com­
missions or State police headquar­
ters, usually located in each State

(D.O.T. 168.168, and .287)
Nature of the Work
Protecting the public from health
and safety hazards, prohibiting un­
fair trade and employment prac­
tices, and raising revenue are in­
cluded in the wide range of respon­
sibilities of government. Health and
regulatory inspectors help insure
observance of the laws and regula­
tions that govern these responsibili­

The duties, titles, and responsi­
bilities of Federal, State, and local
health and regulatory inspectors
vary widely. Some types of inspec­
tors work only for the Federal
Government while others also are
employed by State and local
governments. Many other workers
employed as accountants, agricul­
tural cooperative extension service
workers, and other agricultural
professionals also have inspection

Health Inspectors. Health inspec­
tors work with engineers, chemists,
microbiologists, and health workers
to insure compliance with public
health and safety regulations
governing food, drugs, and various
other consumer products. They also
administer regulations that govern
the quarantine of persons and
products entering the United States
from foreign countries. The major
types of health inspectors are: food
and drug, meat and poultry, agricul­
tural quarantine inspectors, and
sanitarians. In addition, some in­
spectors work in a field which is
closely related to food inspection—
agricultural commodity grading.
Most f o o d a n d d r u g in s p e c to r s
specialize in one area of inspection
such as food, feeds and pesticides,
weights and measures, or drugs and
cosmetics. Some, especially those
who work for the Federal Govern­
ment, may be proficient in several
of these areas. Working individually
or in teams under the direction of a
senior or supervisory inspector they
travel throughout a geographical
area to check periodically firms
that produce, handle, store, and
market food, drugs, and cosmetics.
They look for evidence of inaccu­
rate product labeling, decomposi­
tion, chemical or bacteriological
contamination, and other factors
that could result in a product
becoming harmful to consumer
health. They assemble evidence of
violations, using portable scales,
cameras, ultraviolet lights, con­
tainer sampling devices, thermome­

ters, chemical testing kits, and
other types of equipment.
Product samples collected as part
of their examinations are sent to
laboratories for analysis. After
completing their inspection, inspec­
tors discuss their observations with
the management of the plant and
point out any areas where cor­
rective measures are needed. They
prepare written reports of their
findings, and, when necessary, com­
pile evidence that may be used in
court if legal actions must be taken
to effect compliance with the law.
Federal and State laws empower
m e a t a n d p o u lt r y in s p e c to r s to in­
spect meat, poultry, and their
byproducts to insure that they are
wholesome and safe for public con­
sumption. Working as part of a con­
stant onsite team under the general
supervision of a veterinarian, they
inspect meat and poultry slaughter­
ing, processing, and packaging
operations. They also check to see
that products are labeled correctly
and that proper sanitation is main­
processing operations.
A g r ic u ltu r a l q u a r a n t in e in s p e c to r s

products from the introduction and
spread of foreign plant pests and
animal diseases. To safeguard the
health of crops, forests, and
gardens, they inspect ships, aircraft,
railroad cars, and motor vehicles
entering the United States for the
presence of restricted or prohibited
plant or animal materials.
S a n ita r ia n s , working primarily
for State and local governments,
perform a variety of inspection du­
ties to help insure that the food peo­
ple eat, the water they drink, and
the air they breathe meet govern­
ment standards. They check the
cleanliness and safety of food and
beverages produced in dairies and
processing plants, or served in
restaurants, hospitals, and other in­
stitutions. They often examine the
handling, processing, and serving of
food for compliance with sanitation
rules and regulations.

Sanitarians concerned with waste
control oversee the treatment and
disposal of sewage, refuse, and gar­
bage. They examine places where
pollution is a danger, perform tests
to detect pollutants, and collect air
or water samples for analysis.
Sanitarians determine the nature
and cause of the pollution, then
initiate action to stop it.
In large local and State health or
agriculture departments, sanitari­
ans may specialize in areas of work
such as milk and dairy products,
food sanitation, waste control, air
pollution, institutional sanitation,
and occupational health. In rural
areas and small cities, they may be
responsible for a wide range of en­
vironmental health activities.
A g r ic u ltu r a l

c o m m o d ity

g ra d ers

apply quality standards to various
commodities to insure that retailers
and consumers receive good and re­
liable products. They generally spe­
cialize in an area such as egg
products, processed or fresh fruits
and vegetables, grain, or dairy
products. They inspect samples of a
particular product to determine its
quality and grade, and issue official
grading certificates. Graders also
may inspect the plant and equip­
ment to insure that adequate sanita­
tion standards are maintained.

Regulatory Inspectors. Regulatory
inspectors insure compliance with
various laws and regulations that
protect the public welfare. Impor­

tant types of regulatory inspectors
are: immigration; customs; aviation
safety; mine; wage-hour com­
pliance; alcohol, tobacco, and
firearms; and occupational safety
I m m i g r a ti o n in s p e c to r s interview
and examine people seeking admis­
sion, readmission, or the privileges
of passing through or residing in the
United States. They inspect the
passports of those seeking to enter
the United States to determine
whether they are legally eligible to
enter and to verify their citizenship,
status, and identity. Immigration in­
spectors also prepare reports, main­
tain records, and process applica­
tions and petitions by aliens for
privileges such as immigrating to or
living temporarily in the United
C u s to m s in s p e c to r s enforce the
laws governing U.S. imports and ex­
seaports, and border crossing
points, they count, weigh, gauge,
measure, and sample commercial
cargoes entering and leaving the
United States to determine the
amount of tax that must be paid.
They also inspect baggage and arti­
cles worn or carried by the passen­
gers and crew of ships, aircraft, and
motor vehicles to insure that all
merchandise being brought through
ports of entry is declared and the
proper taxes paid.
A v ia t io n s a f e t y o f f ic e r s insure that
Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) regulations that govern the
quality and safety of aircraft equip­
ment and personnel are maintained.
Aviation safety officers may inspect
tenance, or operations procedures.
They usually specialize in inspect­
ing either commercial or general
aviation aircraft. They are responsi­
ble for the inspection of aircraft
manufacturing and of major
repairs. They also certify aircraft
pilots and schools, pilot examiners,
flight instructors, and instructional
M in e in s p e c to r s work to enhance

the health and safety of miners and
to promote good mining practices.
To insure compliance with safety
laws and regulations, mine inspec­
tors visit mines and related facilities
to obtain information on health and
safety conditions.
Mine inspectors discuss their
findings with the management of
the mine, prepare written reports
that incorporate their findings and
decisions, and issue notices of
findings that describe violations and
hazards that must be corrected.
They also investigate and prepare
reports on mine accidents and
direct rescue and firefighting opera­
tions when fires or explosions
W a g e -h o u r c o m p lia n c e o ffic e r s in­
spect the employer’s time, payroll,
and personnel records to insure
compliance with the provisions of
various Federal laws on minimum
wages, overtime, pay, employment
of minors, and equal employment
opportunity. They often interview
employees to verify the employer’s
records and to check for any com­
A lc o h o l, to b a c c o , a n d f i r e a r m s i n ­
s p e c to r s insure that the industries

which manufacture these products
comply with the provisions of
revenue laws and other regulations
on operating procedures, unfair
competition, and trade practices.
They spend most of their time in­
specting distilleries, wineries, and
breweries; cigar and cigarette
manufacturing plants; wholesale
liquor dealers and importers;
firearms and explosives manufac­
turers, dealers, and users; and other
regulated facilities. They periodi­
cally audit these establishments to
determine that appropriate taxes
are correctly determined and paid.
Places of Employment
Over 110,000 people, 5 percent
of them women, worked as health
and regulatory inspectors in 1974.
The largest single employer of food
and drug inspectors is the U.S.

Food and Drug Administration, but
the majority work for State govern­
ments. Meat and poultry inspectors
and commodity graders who work
in processing plants are employed
mainly by the U.S. Department of
Agriculture. Agricultural quaran­
tine inspectors work either for the
U.S. Public Health Service or the
U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Sanitarians work primarily for State
and local governments.
Regulatory inspectors work for
various agencies within the Federal
Government, mainly in regional
and district offices distributed
throughout the United States. For
example, aviation safety officers
work for the Federal Aviation Ad­
pliance officers, for the Department
of Labor; mine inspectors, the De­
partment of the Interior; and al­
cohol, tobacco, and firearms in­
spectors, the Treasury Department.
Immigration, customs, and agricul­
tural quarantine inspectors work at
U.S. airports, seaports, border
crossing points, and at foreign air­
ports and seaports. They are em­
ployed by the Justice and Treasury
Training, Advancement, and
Other Qualifications
Because inspectors perform such
wide ra n g e of duties, qualifica­
tions for employment in these posi­
tions vary greatly. The Federal
Government requires a passing
score on the Professional and Ad­
ministrative Career Examination
(PACE) for several inspector occu­
pations, including immigration;
customs; wage and hour com­
pliance; alcohol, tobacco, and
firearms; occupational safety; and
consumer safety (food and drug).
To take this examination, a
bachelor’s degree or 3 years of
responsible work experience, or a
combination of the two, are
required. In some cases, agencies
will give preference to an applicant
whose course work or work ex­

perience is related to the field of
Other Federal inspectors must
pass an examination based on spe­
cialized knowledge, in addition to
having work experience in related
fields. These include commodity in­
spectors such as those in meat,
Air safety inspectors must have
considerable experience in aviation
maintenance, and an FAA Air
Frame and Power Plant certificate.
In addition, various pilot cer­
tificates and considerable flight ex­
perience are required, with the type
dependent on the inspection duties.
Many air safety inspectors receive
both their flight training and
mechanical training in the Armed
Forces. No written examination is
Applicants for mine safety in­
spector positions generally must
have specialized work experience in
mine management or supervision,
or possess a skill such as electrical
engineering (for mine electrical in­
spectors). In some cases, a general
aptitude test may be required. Ad­
vancement to a supervisory position
is competitive.
Some Civil Service registers in­
cluding those for agricultural
quarantine inspectors and fruit and
vegetable graders, rate applicants
solely on their experience and edu­
cation and require no written ex­
Qualifications for inspectors at
the State and local level are usually
similar to those for Federal em­
ployees. However, this may vary
among government employers, par­
ticularly at the local level.
All inspectors are trained in the
laws and inspection procedures re­
lated to their specific field through
a combination of classroom and onthe-job training. In general, people
who want to become health and
regulatory inspectors should be
able to accept responsibility and
like detailed work. They should be
neat and personable and able to ex­

press themselves well orally and in
All Federal Government inspec­
tors are promoted on a Civil Service
“career ladder.” This means that,
assuming satisfactory work per­
formance, workers will advance au­
tomatically, usually at 1-year inter­
vals, to a specified maximum level.
Above this level (usually superviso­
ry positions), advancement is com­
petitive, based on needs of the
agency and individual merit.
Employment Outlook
Employment of health and regu­
latory inspectors as a group is ex­
pected to increase faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. The growth in em­
ployment of health inspectors is ex­
pected to be more rapid than that of
regulatory inspectors. In addition to
job opportunities stemming from
growth, many inspectors will be
needed each year to replace those
who die, retire, or transfer to other
Increased food consumption
caused by population growth and
greater public concern over poten­
tial health hazards, should create
additional jobs for food and drug,
meat and poultry, and other com­
modity inspectors and graders.
Public concerns for improved quali­
ty and safety of consumer products
also should result in new legislation
in these areas, requiring additional
inspectors to insure compliance.
Aviation industry growth, in­
creased international travel, and in­
creases in the volume of U.S. im­
ports and exports should continue
to create new openings for aviation
safety officers, quarantine and im­
migration inspectors, and customs
inspectors. Increasing coal mining
activity and concern over mine
safety should create additional
mine inspector jobs. Continued
public pressure for equal employ­
ment rights should cause a growing
need for wage-hour compliance of­

Earnings and Working
With the exception of mine in­
spectors and aviation safety of­
ficers, the Federal Government
paid health and regulatory inspec­
tors and graders starting salaries of
$8,500 or $10,520 a year in late
1974, depending on the type of
position and the qualifications of
the applicant. Aviation safety of­
ficers and mining inspectors usually
Salaries of experienced meat and
poultry inspectors, egg product in­
spectors, agricultural quarantine in­
spectors, alcohol, tobacco, and
firearms inspectors, and customs
and immigration inspectors were al­
most $13,000 a year in late 1974.
Experienced food and drug inspec­
tors (consumer safety officers),
agricultural quarantine inspectors,
and wage-hour compliance officers
usually received salaries of about
$15,500 from the Federal Govern­
ment in late 1974. Mine inspector
and aviation safety officers earned
between $18,500 and $22,000.
Nonsupervisory sanitarians had
average starting salaries of almost
$10,000 in late 1974, according to
a survey by the International Per­
sonnel Management Association in
selected U.S. cities and counties.
Those working for State govern­
ments earned about $ 1,000 less.
Most health and regulatory in­
spectors live an active life, meeting
many people and working in a
variety of environments. Many
travel frequently and are usually
furnished with an automobile or
reimbursed for travel expenses.
At times inspectors must work
under unfavorable working condi­
tions. For example, meat and
poultry, and alcohol, tobacco, and
come in contact with strong, un­
pleasant odors; mine inspectors
often spend a great deal of time in
mines where they are exposed to
the same hazards as miners. Many

inspectors work long and often ir­ cerned with preventing acci­ manufacture, handling, and storage
regular hours.
dents, their specific tasks de­ of flammable materials. Fire pro­
pend on where they work. For tection engineers in the field use
Sources of Additional
example, the safety engineer these research findings to identify
working in a large manufacturing hazards and devise ways to correct
plant (D.O.T. 012.081) may them. For example, new findings
For facts about inspector careers
develop a comprehensive safety concerning flashpoints (the tem­
in the Federal Government, con­
program covering several thousand perature at which different materi­
employees. This usually entails als will ignite) are valuable to the
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service Ex­ detailed analysis of each job in the engineer designing storage facilities
aminers for Washington, D.C., 1900 E
plant to identify potential hazards in a chemical plant.
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20415.
Like safety engineers, fire protec­
so that preventive measures can be
More detailed information on taken. When accidents do occur, tion engineers may have different
qualifications for Federal jobs is safety engineers in manufacturing job duties depending on where they
available from local Civil Service plants investigate to determine the work. One who works for a fire
Commission offices or from in­ cause. If poor design, improper equipment manufacturing company
dividual Federal agencies.
maintenance, or mechanical failure may design new fire protection
Information about career oppor­ is involved, they use their technical devices, while engineers in consult­
tunities as inspectors in State and skills to correct the situation and ing firms work with architects and
local governments is available from prevent its recurrence. When others to insure that fire safety is
State civil service commissions, human error is the cause of an ac­ built into new structures. In con­
usually located in each State cident, safety engineers may trast, fire protection engineers
capital, or from local government establish training courses for plant- working for insurance rating bu­
workers and supervisors or re­ reaus (organizations that calculate
basic costs of insurance coverage in
emphasize existing ones.
Safety engineers who work for particular areas) inspect private,
(D.O.T. commercial, and industrial proper­
AND HEALTH WORKERS 909.128) study schedules, routes, ties to evaluate the adequacy of fire
loads, and speeds to determine their protection for the entire area. Many
(D.O.T. 010.081; 012.081 and
fire protection engineers have spe­
.188; 079.188; 168.168, .268, and influence on trucking accidents.
They also inspect heavy rigs, such cial expertise in one area or more of
.284; 379.387; 821.387; and
as trucks and trailers, to suggest fire protection, such as sprinkler or
ways of safer operation. In the min­ fire detection systems.
ing industry, safety engineers
Losses in the workplace cannot
Nature of the Work
(D.O.T. 010.081) may inspect un­ be reduced without measures to
People in the occupational safety derground or open-pit areas to in­ eliminate hazards to workers’
and health field have the challeng­ sure compliance with State and health. Designing and maintaining a
ing job of insuring a safe and Federal laws, design protective healthful work environment is the
healthful environment for workers equipment and safety devices for job of the in d u s tr i a l h y g ie n i s t
and safe products for consumers. mine machinery, or lead rescue ac­ (D.O.T. 079.188). These health
Safety and health workers in a tivities during emergencies.
professionals are concerned with
Many safety engineers are how noise, dust, vapors, and other
number of different occupations
strive to control occupational ac­ directly concerned with the safety hazards common to the industrial
cidents and diseases, property of their company’s product. They setting affect workers’ health. After
losses, and injuries from unsafe work closely with design engineers a problem is detected, perhaps by
products. This statement discusses to develop models which meet all analyzing
both professional and paraprofes- safety standards and they monitor records, the industrial hygienist at
sional occupations in private indus­ the manufacturing process to insure the jobsite may take air samples,
monitor noise levels, or measure
try; for a discussion of related occu­ the safety of the finished product.
pations in government, see the
Safeguarding life and property radioactivity levels in the areas
statement on Health and Regula­ against loss from fire, explosion, under investigation.
tory Inspectors elsewhere in the and related hazards is the job of the
Other industrial hygienists work
in private laboratories or in those
f i r e p r o t e c ti o n e n g in e e r (D.O.T.
The largest number of safety 012.188). Those who specialize in maintained by large insurance com­
workers are s a f e t y e n g in e e r s .
research investigate problems such panies or industrial firms. Labora­
Although all of them are con­ as fires in high-rise buildings or the tory hygienists analyze air samples,

the professional designation, Cer­
tified Safety Professional, Certified
Industrial Hygienist, or Member,
Society of Fire Protection En­
gineers. Many others who are not
certified performed professional
level work, while a relatively small
number were employed in the occu­
pational safety and health field as
technicians and inspectors. Proper­
ty and liability insurance companies
employ many occupational safety
and health workers to provide en­
gineering, consulting, and inspec­
tion services to their clients. Others
worked for a variety of industrial,
manufacturing, and commercial
These workers are needed wher­
ever large numbers of people are
development occurs. Insurance
consultants generally have their
headquarters in a region’s major
city and travel to and from the sites
they visit.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Industrial hygienist taking an air sample.

do research on the reliability of
health equipment such as respira­
tors, or investigate the effects of ex­
posure to chemicals or radiation.
Some hygienists specialize in
problems of air and water pollution.
For example, these health profes­
sionals may work with government
officials, environmental groups, or­
ganized labor, and plant manage­
ment to develop a system to screen
harmful substances before they
enter and pollute a river.
L o s s c o n tr o l and o c c u p a tio n a l
h e a lth
c o n s u l ta n t s
168.168) in property-liability in­
surance companies perform many
services for their clients. These
range from correcting a single
hazard in a small business to devis­
ing a program to eliminate or
reduce all losses arising out of a
large firm’s operation. When deal­

ing with a new account, the con­
sultant makes a thorough inspec­
tion of the plant and then confers
with management to formulate a
program that meets the company’s
needs. The consultant may, for ex­
ample, help set up plant health pro­
grams and medical services, assist
plant personnel to insure that a new
facility meets all safety require­
ments, or train plant safety people.
Safety and health consultants also
help their company’s underwriters
determine whether a risk is ac­
ceptable and the amount of premi­
um to charge.
Places of Employment

estimated 25,000 persons
engaged in occupational
and health work in 1974.
one-quarter of these carried

Entry level safety and health
professionals generally need at least
a bachelor’s degree in engineering
or a science. A more specialized
degree, such as one in safety
management, industrial safety, or
fire protection engineering, often is
helpful in getting a good job. Many
employers prefer applicants with a
graduate degree in areas such as in­
dustrial hygiene, safety engineering,
or occupational safety and health
engineering, or those with prior in­
dustrial work experience. Some em­
ployers will hire graduates of 2-year
college curriculums as technicians,
particularly if they have work ex­
perience related to the job.
Continuing education is necessa­
ry to stay abreast of changing
technologies, new ideas, and
emerging trends. Many insurance
companies offer training seminars
and correspondence courses for
their staffs. The Occupational
Safety and Health Administration

(OSHA) conducts courses for
safety and health workers on topics
such as occupational injury in­
vestigation and radiological health
hazards. The recognized marks of
achievement in the field are the
Professional; Certified Industrial
Hygienist; and Member, Society of
Fire Protection Engineers. Certifi­
cation is conferred by the Board of
Certified Safety Professionals, the
American Board of Industrial Hy­
giene, or the Society of Fire Protec­
tion Engineers after the candidate
completes the required experience
and passes an examination.
In addition to technical com­
petence, safety and health workers
must be able to communicate well
and motivate others. They should
be able to adapt quickly to different
situations, being equally at ease
with a representative of a local
union, a supervisor in the welding
shop, or a corporate executive.
Because physical activity is basic to
the job, good physical condition is
Workers with proven ability will
find much room for advancement.
In the insurance business, safety
and health workers can be
promoted to department manager
in a small branch office, move up to
larger branch offices, and finally
take an executive position in the
home office. In industrial firms,
they can advance to plant safety
and health manager or corporate
manager over several plants.
Although extensive experience is
required, technicians can advance
to professional safety and health
Employment Outlook
Employment of safety and health
workers is expected to increase

faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the mid-1980’s as
growing concern for occupational
safety and health and consumer
safety continues to generate pro­
grams and jobs. Many openings will
arise also to replace workers who
die, retire, or leave their jobs for
other reasons.
Much of the employment growth
is expected to occur in industrial
and manufacturing firms. Many
firms now without a safety and
health program are expected to
establish one, and others will up­
grade and expand existing programs
in response to government require­
ments, union interest, and rising in­
surance costs. The number of safety
and health workers in casualty in­
surance companies also will in­
crease as more small employers
request the services of their in­
surer’s engineering or loss control
department. Prospects should be
best for graduates of occupational
safety or health curriculums.
Earnings and Working
Salariesof safety and health
workers vary widely accord­
ing to education, experience,
and specialty. In manufacturing
firms, persons with a bachelor’s
degree generally started at about
$10,000 a year in 1974, accord­
ing to the limited data available.
Those with a graduate degree
salaries, and technicians somewhat
lower ones. Safety and health
workers with several years’
to $20,000, and corporate man­
agers well over $20,000 a year.
their loss consultant trainees
at about $9,000; senior con­
sultants earned $12,000 to $16,-

000; and department managers
were paid over $20,000 in 1974.
The amount of travel required
depends upon job specialty and
geographic location. For example,
the plant safety engineer may travel
only to seminars and conferences,
while the insurance consultant may
spend about half the time traveling
between worksites. Usually, a car is
furnished or safety professionals are
reimbursed for the expenses of
using their own vehicles.
Sources of Additional
For general information about
professional safety careers, write to:
American Society of Safety Engineers, 850
Busse Highway, Park Ridge, 111. 60068.

Also available from the Society is
a booklet which lists colleges and
universities offering degree pro­
grams in the occupational safety
and health field.
Information concerning a career
in industrial hygiene is available
American Industrial Hygiene Association,
665 Miller Rd., Akron, Ohio 44313.

Career information concerning
fire protection engineering may be
obtained from:
Society of Fire Protection Engineers, 60 Batterymarch St., Boston, Mass. 02110.

Career information on insurance
loss control consulting is available
from the home offices of many
property-liability insurance com­

More and more people are going
to school for a greater portion of
their lives than ever before, as in­
creasingly complex and specialized
skills and knowledge are called for
in our growing economy. In addi­
tion, people of all ages are seeking
to use their leisure time for personal
growth and development. Teachers
and librarians play vital roles in the
educational process; their occupa­
tions are discussed in the following

(D.O.T. 092.228)
Nature of the Work
Kindergarten and elementary
school teachers introduce children
to numbers, language, science and
social studies, and develop stu­
dents’ capabilities in these subject
areas. Their primary job is to pro­
vide a good learning environment
and to plan and present programs of
instruction using materials and
methods designed to suit the stu­
dents’ needs.
Most elementary school teachers
instruct a single group of 25 to 30
children in several subjects. In some
schools two teachers or more “team
teach” and are jointly responsible
for a group of students or for a par­
ticular subject. A recent survey in­
dicates that about 1 public elemen­
tary school teacher in 6 is a member
of a teaching team
An increasing number of elemen­
tary school teachers specialize in
one or two subjects and teach these
subjects to several classes; 1
teacher in every 5 teaches on this
departmentalized basis. Some teach

special subjects such as music, art,
or physical education, while others
teach basic subjects such as
English, mathematics, or social
Besides the actual student in­
struction, teachers participate in
many activities outside the class­
room. They generally must attend
meetings and may serve on faculty
committees. They must prepare les­
sons and evaluate student per­
formance. They also work with stu­
dents who require special help and
confer with parents and other
school staff. To stay up-to-date on
educational materials and teaching
techniques, they participate in
workshops and other inservice ac­
New forms of instructional media
give teachers more opportunities to
work with students. Also, about 4
out of every 10 public elementary
school teachers have aides who
generally do secretarial work and
playground activities. Thus, grow­
ing numbers of teachers are freed
from routine duties and can give
more individual attention to stu­
Places of Employment
About 1.3 million people—85
percent of them women—worked
as elementary school teachers in
1974. An increasing number of
men, concentrated heavily in the
upper grades, teach at the elemen­
tary level.
Most teachers work in public ele­
mentary schools that have six
grades; however, some teach in
middle schools—schools that cover
the 3 or 4 years between the lower
elementary grades and 4 years of
high school. Only about 12 percent
of elementary school teachers work
in nonpublic schools.

More than one-third of all public
elementary teachers teach in urban
areas; about one-fifth in cities of
250,000 or more; one-eighth in
rural areas; and the remainder in
small towns or suburban areas.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All 50 States and the District of
Columbia require public elementa­
ry school teachers to be certified by
the department of education in the
State in which they work. Some
States also require certification of
teachers in private and parochial
To qualify for certification, a
teacher must study 4 years at an in­
stitution with an approved teacher
education program. Besides a
bachelor’s degree which provides
background, States require that
prospective teachers have student­
teaching and education courses.
In 1974, 13 States required
teachers to get supplementary post­
graduate education—usually a
master’s degree or a fifth year of
study—within a certain period after
their initial certification. Some
States required U.S. citizenship;
some an oath of allegiance; and
several a health certificate.
Local school systems sometimes
have additional requirements for
employment. Students should write
to the local superintendent of
schools and to the State department
of education for information on
specific requirements in the area in
which they want to teach.
In addition to educational and
teacher should be dependable, have
good judgment, and should have
the desire and ability to work with
children. Enthusiasm for teaching
and the competence to handle
classroom situations also are impor­
Opportunities for advancement
in elementary teaching come prin­
cipally with experience. Teachers

vey, they expect to continue having
smaller families than were common
10 years ago.
Teachers will be needed to fill
new positions created by larger en­
rollments; to replace those who are
not now certified; to meet the ex­
pected pressure for an improved
pupil-teacher ratio; and to fill posi­
tions vacated by teachers who
retire, die, or leave the profession
for other reasons.
While the outlook based on past
trends points to a competitive em­
ployment situation through the
mid-1980’s, several factors could
influence the demand for teachers.
Increased emphasis on early child­
hood education, on special pro­
grams for disadvantaged children,
and on individual instruction may
result in larger enrollments, smaller
student-teacher ratios, and con­
sequently an increased need for
teachers. However, possible budget
restraints for educational services
might limit expansion.
Earnings and Working
may advance within a school system
or transfer to another which recog­
nizes experience and has a higher
salary scale. Some teachers may ad­
vance to supervisory, administra­
tive, or specialized positions. Ad­
vancement for most teachers con­
sists of higher pay rather than more
responsibility or a higher position,
Employment Outlook
Kindergarten and elementary
school teachers are expected to
face competition for jobs through
the mid-1980’s. If patterns of entry
and reentry to the profession con­
tinue in line with past trends, the
number of persons qualified to
teach in elementary schools will ex­
ceed the number of openings.
The basic sources of teacher
supply are recent college graduates
qualified to teach at the elementary
level and teachers seeking reentry

to the profession. Reentrants,
although more experienced, will
face increasing competition from
new graduates who command lower
salaries and have more recent train­
Pupil enrollment is the basic fac­
tor underlying the need for
teachers. Because of fewer births in
the 1960’s, elementary enrollments
have been on the decline since they
peaked at nearly 32 million in 1967.
The National Center of Education
Statistics projects that by 1979 the
downward enrollment trend will
halt at a level of 27 million, and en­
rollments again will advance to
nearly 29 million by 1985.
However, a decline in the pro­
jected number of children born
over the next decade could lessen
the demand for teachers. While the
trend has not been clearly
established, since 1970 women
have continued to have fewer chil­
dren, and according to a recent sur­

According to the National Edu­
cation Association, public elemen­
tary school teachers in 1974-75
averaged $11,234 a year. Average
earnings in 1974 were over one and
one-third times as much as the
average earnings for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming. In the five highest
paying States (Alaska, New York,
Hawaii, California, and Illinois),
teachers’ salaries averaged more
than $12,600; in the 10 States hav­
ing the lowest salaries (Mississippi,
Arkansas, Vermont, South Dakota,
Dakota, South Carolina, West Vir­
averaged less than $9,200.
Public schools systems enrolling
6,000 or more pupils paid teachers
with a bachelor’s degree average
starting salaries of $7,720 a year in
1973-74; those with a master’s
degree earned a starting average of

teachers worked an average of
about 36-1/2 hours a week in 1974.
Additional time spent preparing les­
sons, grading papers, making re­
ports, attending meetings, and su­
pervising extra-curricular activities
increased the total number of hours
to about 46.
The elementary school teacher
usually works 9 months and
averages 181 days in the classroom
and 4 workdays on nonteaching ac­
tivities. In addition, many teach
summer sessions, and others take
courses for professional growth or
work at other jobs during the
summer months.
Employment in teaching is
steady, and business conditions
usually do not affect the market for
teachers. In 1974, 38 States and the
District of Columbia had tenure
laws that insured the jobs of
teachers who had successfully
taught for a certain number of
Collective bargaining agreements
cover an increasingly large number
of teachers. In 1974, 31 States had
enacted laws which required collec­
tive bargaining in the teacher con­
tract negotiation process. Most
public school systems that enroll
1,000 students or more bargain
with teacher organizations over
wages, hours, and the terms and
conditions of employment.

Sources of Additional
Information on schools and cer­
tification requirements is available
from local school systems and State
departments of education.
Information on the Teacher
Corps, internships, graduate fellow­
ships, and other information on
teaching may be obtained from:
U S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, National Center for Education
Statistics, Washington, D C. 20202.

Other sources of general infor­
mation are:

American Federation of Teachers, 1012
14th St. NW„ Washington, D C. 20005.
National Education Association, 1201 16th
St. NW„ Washington, D C. 20036.

(D O T. 091.228)
Nature of the Work

school personnel. Often they work
with student groups outside of class.
Teachers also participate in activi­
ties, such as workshops and college
classes, to keep up-to-date on their
subject specialty and on current
trends in education.
Increasingly, in recent years,
teachers have been able to devote
more time towards improved in­
struction due to the increased
availability of teacher aides who
perform secretarial work, grade
papers, and do other routine tasks.
technology also have provided
teachers with instructional media
and other new materials and
techniques to improve student

Secondary school teachers help
prepare their students for future
roles as citizens and jobholders.
They introduce students to subjects
ranging from world history and ele­
mentary algebra to anthropology
and computer mathematics.
Places of Employment
usually specialize in a particular
field. English, mathematics, social
More than 1 million teachers
studies, and science are the subjects
worked in secondary schools in
most commonly taught. Other spe­
1974. Of these, about one-half were
cialties include health and physical
education, business education,
According to a recent survey,
home economics, foreign lan­
slightly more than one-half of all
guages, and music. Increasingly,
public secondary teachers work in
teachers are developing courses
senior high schools; about one-third
which deal with particular areas
teach at the junior high level. About
within the broad subjects so stu­
one-tenth teach in junior-senior
dents may acquire in-depth as well
high schools, and a very small
as general knowledge of a field.
number are elementary-secondary
combination teachers.
usually conduct classes in their spe­
Of those in public schools, about
cialty for five groups of students a
1 teacher in 5 works in a city with a
day. The average daily pupil load
population of 250,000 or more—1
for public shool teachers is 136 stu­
in 8 in a city of less than 250,000.
Over one-half teach in small-town
Teachers design their classroom
or suburban schools; and about 1 in
presentation to meet the demands
7 in a rural location. Only about 1
of balanced curriculum and to suit
teacher in 14 works in a nonpublic
the individual student’s needs.
Secondary school teachers instruct
students at a single grade level or
Training, Other Qualifications,
from different grades. They must
and Advancement
consider instructional methods and
materials that best meet the stu­
All 50 States and the District of
dent’s needs, as well as the subject Columbia require the certification
Secondary school teachers also teachers. Many States also require
and certification of secondary teachers
homerooms, prepare lessons, grade in private and parochial schools.
papers, evaluate students, and at­
In every State, the minimum edu­
tend meetings with parents and cational requirement for certifica-

tion is a bachelor’s degree.
Moreover, 14 States have specified
that a secondary school teacher
must get additional education,
usually a fifth year of study or a
master’s degree, within a certain
period after beginning employment.
In 1974, the District of Columbia
was the only jurisdiction requiring a
master’s degree for initial certifica­
tion as a senior high school teacher.
However, according to a recent na­
tional survey, 2 out of every 5
public secondary school teachers
had a master’s or higher degree.
The educational qualifications
for secondary school teachers vary
by State and by school system. Ap­
proved colleges and universities in
every State offer programs which
include the education courses and
require. They also offer the
academic courses which qualify
teachers in subject specialties
taught at the secondary level.
States and local jurisdictions
often have general teacher require­
ments, such as the recommendation
of the college, a certificate of
health, and citizenship. Prospective
teachers may get complete informa­
tion on such educational and
general requirements from each
State department of education and
from the superintendent of schools
in each community.
Personal qualifications which a
secondary teacher must have in­

clude a desire to work with young
people, an interest in a special sub­
ject, and the ability to motivate stu­
dents and to relate knowledge to
For secondary teachers, educa­
tion and experience provide the pri­
mary bases for advancement. Ad­
vancement to supervisory and ad­
requires at least 1 year of profes­
sional education beyond the
bachelor’s degree and several years
of successful classroom teaching.
Some experienced teachers with
special preparation may work as
special school service personnel,
such as school psychologists, read­
ing specialists, or guidance coun­
selors. Often these jobs require spe­
cial certification as well as special

the need to replace teachers who
die, retire, or leave the profession
for other reasons. As a result, an in­
creasing proportion of prospective
teachers will have to consider alter­
to secondary
teaching. However, pressures for an
improved pupil-teacher ratio and
teachers could create additional
Although the overall outlook for
secondary teachers indicates a
highly competitive market, employ­
ment conditions may be more
favorable in certain fields. Accord­
ing to a recent survey, teacher
supply was least adequate in mathe­
matics, natural and physical
sciences, industrial arts, special
education, and some vocationaltechnical subjects.

Employment Outlook

Earnings and Working

The supply of secondary school
teachers through the mid-1980’s
will greatly exceed anticipated
requirements if past trends of entry
into the profession continue. As a
result, prospective teachers are
likely to face keen competition for
The prime sources of teacher
supply are recent college graduates
qualified to teach secondary school
and teachers seeking to reenter the
profession. Although reentrants
have experience in their favor,
many schools may prefer to hire
new graduates who command lower
salaries and whose training is more
Pupil enrollment is the basic fac­
tor underlying the demand for
teachers. The National Center for
Education Statistics’ projections in­
dicate that enrollments in seconda­
ry schools will begin to decline in
the mid-1970’s after continuous
growth through the 1960’s and into
the early 1970’s. This decline in en­
rollments is expected to reduce the
demand for teachers. As a result,
over the 1974-85 period, nearly all
teaching positions will stem from

According to the National Edu­
cation Association, public seconda­
ry school teachers in 1974-75
averaged $11,826. This is one and
one-half times the average for nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming. In the five
highest paying States (New York,
California, Alaska, Illinois, and
averaged more than $13,000; in the
five States having the lowest sala­
ries (Arkansas, Kentucky, Missis­
Oklahoma), they averaged under
$9,300 a year.
Beginning teachers with a
bachelor’s degree in school systems
with enrollments of 6,000 or more
earned average salaries of $7,720 in
the school year 1973-74. New
teachers with a master’s degree
started at $8,586 a year. Beginning
teachers could expect regular salary
increases as they gained experience
and additional education.
A recent survey of public school
teachers indicated that the average
required school week for those in
secondary schools was 37 hours.

However, when all teaching duties,
including meetings, lesson prepara­
tion, and other necessary tasks are
taken into consideration, the total
number of hours spent working
each week was slightly more than
In some schools, teachers receive
supplementary pay for certain
school-related activities such as
coaching students in sports and
working with students in extracur­
ricular activities, in music, dra­
matics, or school publications.
About one-fourth of the public
secondary teachers receive pay for
extra duties, such as supervising ex­
tracurricular activities, and onethird supplement their incomes
with earnings from additional
school work.
One-sixth of public school
teachers also work in their school
systems during the summer. More
than one-fourth hold summer jobs
outside the school system. In all,
about three-fifths of public secon­
dary school teachers have extra
earnings from summer work, addi­
tional school-year work, or a com­
bination of the two.
During the school year, teachers
work an average of 181 days. They
average 26 teaching periods and 5
unassigned periods a week. Laws in
38 States and the District of Colum­
bia ensure the employment of those
who have achieved tenure status.
Laws requiring collective bargain­
ing of wages, hours, and the terms
and conditions of employment
cover increasing numbers of

Sources of Additional
Information on schools and cer­
tification requirements is available
from local school systems and State
departments of education.
Information on the Teacher
Corps, internships, graduate fellow­
ships, and other information on
teaching may be obtained from:

U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, National Center for Education
Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20202.

Other sources of general infor­
mation are:
American Federation of Teachers, 1012
14th St. NW., Washington, D C. 20005.
National Education Association, 1201 16th
St. NW., Washington, D C. 20036.

(D O T. 090.168 through .999)
Nature of the Work
About 30 percent of all persons
in the United States between the
ages of 18 and 21 attended college
in 1974. To meet the demand of
students for higher education, col­
leges and universities hire teachers
to provide instruction in many
fields. The most common subjects
include social sciences, teacher
education, the physical sciences,
health professions, fine and applied
sciences, mathematics, foreign lan­
guages, and business and com­
Slightly more than one-half of all
college and university teachers in­
struct undergraduates; another onethird teach both graduates and un­
dergraduates; and about one-tenth
work only with graduate students.
Most teachers lecture and con­
duct classroom discussions to
present subject matter effectively.
Many work with students in labora­
tories. Some teachers provide in­
dividual instruction or supervise in­
dependent study. Nearly one-third
of the faculty in universities have
teaching assistants. Some college
and university teachers use closedcircuit television. In 2-year colleges
especially, instruction is frequently
To be effective, college teachers
must keep up with developments in
their field by reading current
material, participating in profes­
sional activities, and conducting

research. Some publish books and
research and publication varies
from one institutional level to
another. In universities, about 70
percent of the faculty have
published professional articles com­
pared to 25 percent of 2-year col­
lege faculty. Also, in certain fields
such as engineering and the physi­
cal sciences, the demand for
research is strong.
In addition to time spent on
evaluation, college and university
teachers participate in faculty ac­
tivities; work with student organiza­
tions and individual students out­
side of classes; work with the col­
lege administration; and in other
ways serve the institution and the
community. Some are department
heads and have supervisory duties.
Places of Employment
In 1974, about 622,000 teachers
worked in more than 2,600 colleges
and universities. About one-fourth
of all college and university
teachers are women. An estimated
399,000—nearly two-thirds—were
full-time senior staff. Of the
remainder, about 112,000 were
part-time senior staff, and nearly
16,000 were full-time junior in­
structors; the rest generally worked
as part-time assistant instructors,
assistants, or laboratory assistants.
Of full-time faculty, about onethird teach in universities; nearly
one-half work in 4-year colleges;
and about one-seventh teach in 2year colleges. About two-thirds of
the faculty in universities and 4year colleges teach in public institu­
tions; nearly nine-tenths of the
faculty in 2-year institutions work
in public junior and community col­
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement




faculty are classified in four
professors, and full professors.
About 75 percent of all faculty are
assistant, associate, or full profes­
sors, with the three ranks equally
distributed. Ten percent are in­
To get an initial appointment, in­
structors generally must have a
master’s degree. For advancement
to higher ranks, they need further
academic training plus experience.
Assistant professors usually need a
year of graduate study beyond the
master’s degree and at least a year
or two of experience as an instruc­
tor. Appointments as associate
professors frequently demand the
doctoral degree and an additional 3
years or more of college teaching
experience. For a full professorship,
the doctorate
and extensive
teaching experience are essential.
In addition to advanced study
and college-level teaching ex­
perience, outstanding academic,
administrative, and professional
contributions influence advance­
ment. Research, publication, and
work experience in a subject area
may hasten advancement.
The ranks of college and univer­
sity teachers and their educational
backgrounds differ by institutional
level. In universities, more than 50
percent of the faculty have doctoral
degrees compared with about 10
percent in 2-year colleges. Cor­
respondingly, more than 50 percent
of the faculty in universities are
either professors or associate
professors, while in 2-year colleges,
only 1 teacher in 4 is within these
upper ranks. Conversely, in com­
munity and junior colleges, where
the master’s is the highest degree
held by nearly three-fourths of the
faculty, instructors constitute a
relatively large faculty segment.
Employment Outlook
College and university teaching
candidates are expected to face

keen competition through the mid1980’s. The demand for college and
university teachers is expected to
fall. However, the principal source
of teacher supply—master’s and Ph.
D. degree recipients—is expected
to continue to grow. Consequently,
a smaller proportion of each year’s
degree recipients will be needed for
college teaching. An increasing
proportion of prospective college
teachers, therefore, will have to
seek nonacademic jobs. Govern­
ment and private industry should
provide some positions, but some
persons holding graduate degrees
may find it necessary to enter occu­
pations that have not traditionally
required advanced study.
The basic factor underlying the
demand for teachers is college en­
rollment. During the 1960’s and
early 1970’s, teacher employment
expanded due to growth in both the
number of college-age persons and

the proportion of 18- to 21-yearolds enrolled in college. The
number of college-age persons will
decline after 1978, and by the early
1980’s, enrollment will taper off
and begin to fall. As a result, the
total number of college teachers
needed over the 1974-85 period
will decline, as compared with an
80-percent increase over the previ­
ous 11-year period.
The type and level of the institu­
tion and the extent to which it
wishes to upgrade its faculty also
will influence the demand for
teachers. Although enrollments in
the 1970’s are expected to stabilize
in 4-year colleges and universities,
many institutions, including junior
and community colleges, may hire
additional Ph. D.’s to upgrade their
faculties. Master’s degree holders
also will continue to find jobs in 2year colleges. Public institutions are
expected to continue to attract an

systems. Of the full-time teachers
employed in these institutions, over
one-half are tenured. Under a
tenure system, a teacher usually
receives 1-year contracts during a
probationary period ranging from 3
Earnings and Working
to 7 years; some universities award
2- or 3-year contracts. After the
In 1974-75, full-time college and probationary period, institutions
university faculty on 9-10 month consider teachers for tenure (the
contracts averaged $16,704, or assurance of continuing employ­
twice the average earnings for all ment with freedom from dismissal
nonsupervisory workers in private without cause).
industry, except farming. Salaries
The working hours and environ­
varied, however, by teacher rank ment of college teachers generally
and by institutional level. Average
are favorable. Classrooms, office
salaries were:
facilities, and laboratories usually
Instructors..................................... $12,825
are well-equipped and teachers
Assistant professors....................
have access to library facilities and
Associate professors...................
clerical assistance.
College teachers usually have
In general, larger institutions paid flexible teaching schedules. Ac­
higher salaries. Salaries of teachers cording to a recent survey, the un­
in 4-year colleges tended to be dergraduate faculty in 4-year col­
higher than those in 2-year colleges; leges and universities normally
university teachers averaged the teach 12 hours a week and seldom
more than 14 or 15 hours. Graduate
College and university teachers’ faculty have a teaching load of
salaries also vary by geographic re­ about 10 hours a week. In addition
gion. According to a recent survey to time spent in the classroom, col­
of 4-year colleges and universities, lege and university teachers devote
schools in the Mideast, New Eng­ much time to preparation and other
land, and Pacific regions paid the duties. Overall, full-time faculty
spend about 40 hours a week on
highest full-time faculty salaries.
Since about 2 out of 3 college school-related activities. For facul­
teachers have 9 to 10-month con­ ty in junior and community col­
tracts, many have additional leges, the normal teaching load is
summer earnings from research, slightly heavier, but the total
writing for publication, or other number of hours on the job are
employment. Royalties and fees for fewer.
speaking engagements may provide
additional earnings. Some teachers
Sources of Additional
also undertake additional teaching
or research projects or work as con­
Information on college teaching
as a career is available from:
College and university teachers
also may enjoy certain benefits, in­ U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, National Center for Education
cluding tuition waivers for depen­
Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20202.
dents, housing allowances, travel al­
lowances, and leaves of absence. American Council on Education, 1 Dupont
Circle NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Colleges typically
American Federation of Teachers, 1012
semester’s leave after 6 or 7 years
14th St. N W , Washington, D.C. 20065.
of employment.
Professional societies in the vari­
About 85 percent of all college
and university teachers work in in­ ous subject fields will generally pro­
stitutions which have tenure vide information on teaching
increasing proportion of total col­
lege enrollment. Thus, opportuni­
ties in public colleges will be
greater than in private institutions.

requirements and employment op­
portunities in their particular fields.
Names and addresses of societies
are given in the statements on
specific professions elsewhere in
this book.

(D.O.T. 100.118 through .388)
Nature of the Work
Making information available to
people is the job of librarians. They
select and organize collections of
books, pamphlets, manuscripts,
periodicals, clippings, and reports,
and assist readers in their use. In
many libraries, they also provide
phonograph records, maps, slides,
pictures, tapes, films, paintings,
microfilms, and computer tapes.

User services and technical
services are the two principal
kinds of library work. Librarians
in user services—
for example,
reference and children’s librar­
ians—work directly with the
public. Librarians in technical
for example, catalogers
and acquisitions librarians —
less frequently with the public;
they order, classify, catalog, and
in other ways prepare the materials
for use.
The size of the library determines
to a large extent the scope of a
librarian’s job. In small libraries, the
job may include both user and
technical services. The librarian
may select and organize materials,
publicize services, do research, and
give reference help to groups and
individuals. In large libraries,
librarians usually specialize in
either user or technical services.
They may specialize further in cer­
tain areas, such as science, busi­
ness, the arts, or medicine. Their
work may involve reviewing and ab­
stracting published materials and
preparing bibliographies in their

Librarians generally are classified
according to the type of library in
which they work: public libraries,
school media centers, college and
university libraries, and special
P u b lic lib r a r ia n s serve all kinds of
research workers, teachers, and
others. Increasingly, public librari­
ans are providing special materials
and services to culturally and edu­
cationally deprived persons, and to
persons who because of physical
handicaps cannot use conventional
The professional staff of a large
public library system may include
the chief librarian, an assistant
chief, and several division heads
who plan and coordinate the work
of the entire library system. The
system also may include librarians
who supervise branch libraries and
specialists in certain areas of library

users find what they are looking for.
R e f e r e n c e lib r a r ia n s answer specific
questions and suggest sources of in­
formation that may be useful.
Some librarians work with
specific groups of readers. C h il­
d r e n 's lib r a r ia n s serve the special
needs of young people by finding
books they will enjoy and showing
them how to use the library. They
may plan and conduct special pro­
grams such as story hours or film
programs. Their work in serving
children often includes working
with school and community or­
ganizations. A d u lt s e r v ic e s lib r a r ia n s
suggest materials suited to the
needs and interests of adults. They
may cooperate in planning and con­
ducting education programs, such
as community development, public
affairs, creative arts, problems of
the aging, and home and family.
Y o u n g a d u lt s e r v ic e s lib r a r ia n s help
junior and senior high school stu­
dents select and use books and
other materials. They may organize
programs of interest to young
adults, such as book or film discus­
sions or concerts of recorded popu­
lar and classical music. They also
may coordinate the library’s work
with school programs. E x te n s io n o r
o u tr e a c h lib r a r ia n s w o r k in g in b o o k ­
m o b ile s offer library services to

work. The duties of some of these
specialists are briefly described in
the following paragraphs.
A c q u is itio n lib r a r ia n s purchase
books and other materials and
maintain a well-balanced library
that meets the needs and interests
of the public. C a ta lo g e r s classify
these materials by subject and
otherwise describe them to help

people not adequately served by a
public library such as those in inner
city neighborhoods, migrant camps,
rural communities, and institutions,
including hospitals and homes for
the aged.
S c h o o l lib r a r ia n s instruct students
in the use of the school library and
help them choose from the media
center’s collection of print and non­
print materials items that are re­
lated to their interests and to class­
room subjects. Working with
teachers and supervisors, school
librarians familiarize students with
the library’s resources. They
prepare lists of materials on certain
subjects and help select materials
for school programs. They also
select, order, and organize the
library’s materials. In some schools,

they may work with teachers to
develop units of study and indepen­
dent study programs, or they may
participate in team teaching. Very
large high schools may employ
several school librarians, each
responsible for a particular function
of the library program or for a spe­
cial subject area.
C o lle g e a n d u n iv e r s it y lib r a r ia n s

serve students, faculty members,
and research workers in institutions
of higher education. They may pro­
vide general reference service or
may work in a particular subject
field, such as law, medicine,
economics, or music. Those work­
ing on university research projects
operate documentation centers that
use computers and other modern
devices to record, store, and
retrieve specialized information.
College and university librarians
may teach classes in the use of the
S p e c ia l lib r a r ia n s work in libraries
maintained by government agencies
and by commercial and industrial
firms, such as pharmaceutical com­
panies, banks, advertising agencies,
and research laboratories. They
provide materials and services
covering subjects of special interest
to the organization. They build and
arrange the organization’s informa­
tion resources to suit the needs of
the library users. Special librarians
assist users and may conduct litera­
ture searches, compile bibliogra­
phies, and in other ways provide in­
formation on a particular subject.
Others called in f o r m a t io n s c ie n c e
s p e c i a li s ts , like special librarians,
work in technical libraries or infor­
mation centers of commercial and
industrial firms, government agen­
Although they perform many duties
of special librarians, they must pos­
sess a more extensive technical and
background and a
knowledge of new techniques for
handling information. Information
science specialists abstract com­
plicated information into con­
densed, readable form, and in­

terpret and analyze data for a highly
specialized clientele. Among other
duties, they develop classification
systems, prepare coding and pro­
gramming techniques for compu­
terized information storage and
retrieval systems, design informa­
microfilm technology.
Places of Employment
Of the estimated 125,000 profes­
sional librarians employed in 1974,
school librarians accounted for
nearly one-half; public libraries and
colleges and universities each em­
ployed about one-fifth. An esti­
mated one-seventh worked in spe­
cial libraries, including libraries in
government agencies. Some librari­
ans worked in correctional institu­
tions, hospitals, and State institu­
tions, while a small number served
as consultants, and State and
Federal Government administrators
and faculty in schools of library
science. The Federal Government
employed about 3,200 professional
More than 85 percent of all
librarians are women. In college
and university libraries, however,
men make up about 35 percent of
the total professional staff. Men
also are relatively numerous in law
libraries and in special libraries
concerned with science
Most librarians work in cities and
towns. Those attached to bookmo­
bile units serve widely scattered
population groups.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A professional librarian ordinari­
ly must complete a 1-year master’s
degree program in library science.
A Ph. D. degree is an advantage to
those who plan a teaching career in
library schools or who aspire to a
top administrative post, particularly
in a college or university library or
in a large library system. For those

who are interested in the special
libraries field, a master’s degree or
doctorate in the subject of the libra­
ry's specialization is highly desira­
In 1974, 53 library schools in the
United States were accredited by
the American Library Association
and offered a master’s degree in
library science (M.L.S.). In addi­
tion, many other colleges offer
graduate programs or courses
within 4-year undergraduate pro­
Most graduate schools of library
science require graduation from an
accredited 4-year college or univer­
sity, a good undergraduate record,
and a reading knowledge of at least
one foreign language. Some schools
also require introductory un­
dergraduate courses in library
science. Most prefer a liberal arts
background with a major in an area
such as the social sciences, the arts,
or literature. Some schools require
entrance examinations.
Special librarians and informa­
tion science specialists must have
extensive knowledge of their sub­
ject matter as well as training in
library science. In libraries devoted
to scientific information, librarians
should be proficient in one foreign
language or more. They also must
be well informed about compu­
terized methods for storing and
retrieving technical information.
Most States require that public
school librarians be certified and
trained both as teachers and librari­
ans. The specific education and ex­
perience necessary for certification
vary according to State and the
school district. The local superin­
tendent of schools and the State de­
partment of education can provide
information about specific require­
ments in an area.
In the Federal Government,
beginning positions require comple­
tion of a 4-year college course and a
master’s degree in library science,
or demonstration of the equivalent
in experience and education by a
passing grade on an examination.

Many students attend library
schools under cooperative workstudy programs that combine the
academic program with practical
work experience in a library.
Scholarships for training in library
science are available under certain
State and Federal programs and
from library schools, as well as from
a number of the large libraries and
assistantships, and financial aid also
are available.
Librarians should be intellec­
tually curious and able to express
themselves verbally, and should
have the desire and ability to help
others use library materials.
Experienced librarians may ad­
vance to administrative positions or
to specialized work. Promotion to
these positions, however, is limited
primarily to those who have
completed graduate training in a
library school, or to those who have
specialized training.
Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for
librarians is expected to be
somewhat competitive through the
mid-1980’s. Although employment
in the field is expected to grow over
the period, the supply of persons
qualified for librarianship is likely
to expand as an increasing number
of new graduates and labor force
reentrants seek jobs as librarians.
The anticipated increase in de­
mand for librarians in the late
1970’s and early 1980’s will not be
nearly as great as it was in the
1960’s. Then, school enrollments
were rising rapidly and Federal ex­
penditures supported a variety of
library programs.
Fewer births during the 1960’s
will result in a slight decline in ele­
mentary and secondary school en­
rollments through the remainder of
the 1970’s and early 1980’s. The ef­
fect of birth rates in the 1960’s will
begin to be manifested in colleges
and universities in the early 1980’s,
when total degree-credit enroll­

ment is expected to level off. In
both the schools and the colleges
and universities, as a result, the de­
mand for librarians will increase at
a slower pace than in the past.
On the other hand, requirements
for public librarians are expected to
increase through 1985. The growth
of a better educated population will
necessitate an increased number of
librarians to serve the public. The

educationally disadvantaged, hand­
icapped, and various minority
groups also will need qualified
librarians to provide special serv­
ices. Also, the expanding use of
computers to store and retrieve in­
formation will contribute to the in­
creased demand for information
specialists and library automation
specialists in all types of libraries.
In addition to openings from
growth, replacements will be
needed each year for librarians who
retire, die, transfer to other types of
work, or leave the labor force.
Employment opportunities will
vary not only by type of library but
also by the librarian’s educational
qualifications and area of spe­
cialization. Although the overall
employment outlook is competi­
tive, persons who are willing to seek
positions in other geographical
areas and in different types of libra­
ries will have better opportunities.
New graduates having more recent
training may have an employment
advantage over reentrants, delayed
entrants, or transfers to the profes­
sion. Their lower beginning salaries,
compared to more experienced
workers, may also be an employ­
ment advantage.
Earnings and Working
Salaries of librarians vary by type

of library, the individual’s qualifica­
tions, and the size and geographical
location of the library.
Starting salaries of graduates of
library school master’s degree pro­
grams accredited by the American
$9,423 a year in 1974, ranging from
$8,956 in public libraries to $9,864
in special libraries. The average an­
nual salary for special librarians was
$13,900 in 1974. For librarians in
college and university libraries,
average salaries ranged from
$8,700 a year for those with limited
experience working in private 4year colleges to over $13,000 for
university librarians with more ex­
tensive experience. Salaries for
heads in college libraries earned
between $10,000 and $14,000 a
year. In general, librarians earned
about one and one-half times as
much as the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming.
In the Federal Government, the
entrance salary for librarians with a
master’s degree in library science
was $12,841 a year in late 1974.
The average salary for all librarians
in the Federal Government was
The typical workweek for librari­
ans is 5 days, ranging from 35 to 40
hours. The work schedule of public
and college librarians may include
some weekend and evening work.
School librarians generally have the
same workday schedule as class­
room teachers. A 40-hour week
during normal business hours is
common for government and other
special librarians.
The usual paid vacation after a
year’s service is 3 to 4 weeks. Vaca­
tions may be longer in school libra­

ries, and somewhat shorter in those
operated by business and industry.
Many librarians are covered by sick
leave; life, health, and accident in­
surance; and pension plans.
Sources of Additional
Additional information, particu­
larly on accredited programs and
scholarships or loans, may be ob­
tained from:
American Library Association, 50 East
Huron St., Chicago, III. 60611.

For information on requirements
for special librarians, write to:
Special Libraries Association, 235 Park
Ave., South, New York, N Y. 10003.

assistance for library training under
the Higher Education Act of 1965
is available from:
Office of Libraries and Learning Resources,
Office of Education, U.S. Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Washington, D.C. 20202.

Those interested in a career in
Federal libraries should write to:
Secretariat, Federal Library Committee,
Room 310, Library of Congress,
Washington, D.C. 20540.

Material on information science
specialists may be obtained from:
American Society for Information Science,
1140 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D .C .20036.

Individual State library agencies
can furnish information on scholar­
ships available through their of­
fices, on requirements for certifica­
tion, and general information about
career prospects in their regions.
State boards of education can
furnish information on certification
requirements and job opportunities
for school librarians.

Saleswork offers career opportu­
nities for people who have
completed high school as well as for
college graduates, for those who
want to travel and those who do
not, and for salaried workers as well
as for men and women who wish to
run their own businesses.
Workers in these jobs may sell for
wholesalers, or retailers. In 1974,
over 5.4 million people were in
sales occupations; almost 30 per­
cent worked part time.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
saleswork are as varied as the work
itself. Salesworkers who sell stan­
dardized merchandise such as
magazines, candy, cigarettes, and
cosmetics usually are trained on the
job by experienced salesclerks; in
some large stores, they may attend
salesworker who sells complex
products or services, such as elec­
tronic equipment or liability in­
surance, needs more education and
training than most retail salesclerks.
For some positions, salesworkers
must be college graduates with
majors in a field such as engineer­
ing. Others get the necessary
technical knowledge from universi­
ty or manufacturers’ courses. Still
others learn through years of onthe-job experience, often supple­
mented by home study. Thus, a real
estate agent may take university ex­
tension courses; a department store
beauty counselor may participate in
an industry-sponsored training pro­
gram; or a jewelry salesworker may
learn through years of observation
and study on the job.
Salesworkers must understand
the needs and viewpoints of their
customers and be poised and at
ease with strangers. Other impor­
tant attributes for selling are ener­

gy, self-confidence, imagination,
self-discipline, and the ability to
communicate. Arithmetic skills are
an asset. In almost all saleswork ex­
cept retail trade, salesworkers need
initiative to locate prospective
customers and to plan work
schedules. Four sales occupations in
which college graduates are increas­
ingly employed are discussed in this

(D.O.T. 250.258)
Nature of the Work

tection against the costs of hospital
and medical care or loss of income
due to illness or injury, and most
life agents and casualty agents offer
this type of insurance to their
customers. Many agents also offer
securites, such as mutual fund
shares or variable annuities.
An insurance agent may be either
an insurance company employee or
an independent business person
authorized to represent one or
more insurance companies. Brokers
are not under exclusive contract
with any single company; instead,
they place policies directly with the
company that best meets a client’s
needs. Otherwise, agents and
brokers do much the same kind of
They spend most of their time
discussing insurance policies with
prospective and existing customers.
Some time must be spent in officework to prepare reports, main­
tain records, plan insurance pro­
grams that are tailored to prospects’
needs, and draw up lists of prospec­
tive customers. Specialists in group
policies may help an employer’s ac­
countants set up a system of payroll
deductions for employees covered
by the policy.

Insurance agents and brokers sell
policies that protect individuals and
businesses against future losses and
financial pressures. They may help
plan financial protection to meet
the special needs of a customer’s
family; advise about insurance pro­
tection for an automobile, home,
business, or other property; or help
a policyholder obtain settlement of
an insurance claim.
Places of Employment
Agents and brokers usually sell
one or more of the three basic types
As many as 450,000 agents and
of insurance: life, property-liability
brokers sold insurance full time in
(casualty), and health. Life in­
1974. In addition, thousands of
surance agents, sometimes called
others worked part time. About half
life underwriters, offer policies that
pay survivors when a policyholder of the agents and brokers special­
dies. Depending on the pol­ ized in life insurance; the rest, in
circum­ some type of property/liability in­
stances, a life policy can be surance. A growing number of
designed to provide retirement in­ agents offer both life and propertycome, funds for the education of liability policies to their customers.
Agents and brokers are employed
children, or other benefits. Casualty
in cities and towns throughout the
agents sell policies that protect in­
country, but most work near large
dividual policyholders from finan­
population centers.
cial losses as a result of automobile
accidents, fire or theft, or other
Training, Other Qualifications,
losses. They also sell industrial or
and Advancement
commercial lines, such as workers’
compensation, product liability, or
Although many employers prefer
medical malpractice insurance. college graduates for jobs selling in­
Health insurance policies offer pro­ surance, most will hire high school

given by the American Institute for
derwriters, Inc. The CLU and
CPCU designations are recognized
marks of achievement in their
respective fields.
Agents and brokers should be
enthusiastic, self-confident, and
able to communicate effectively.
Because agents usually work
without supervision, they need in­
itiative to locate new prospects. For
this reason, many employers seek
people who have been successful in
other jobs.
Insurance agents who show
unusual sales ability and leadership
may become a sales manager in a
district office or assume a
managerial job in a home office. A
few agents may advance to top posi­
tions as agency superintendents or
company vice-presidents. Many
who have built up a good clientele
prefer to remain in saleswork.
Some, particularly in the propertyliability field, eventually establish
their own independent agencies or
brokerage firms.
graduates with work experience.
College training may help the agent
grasp the
fundamentals and
procedures of insurance selling
more quickly. Courses in account­
ing, economics, finance, business
law, and insurance subjects are
All agents and most brokers must
be licensed in the State where they
plan to sell insurance. In most
States, licenses are issued only to
applicants who pass written ex­
aminations covering insurance fun­
damentals and the State insurance
laws. Agents who plan to sell mu­
tual fund shares and other securities
also must be licensed by the State.
New agents usually receive training
at insurance company home offices
or at the agencies where they will
work. Beginners sometimes attend
prepare for examinations. Others
study on their own and accompany
experienced salesworkers when

they call on prospective clients.
Agents and brokers can broaden
their knowledge of the insurance
business by taking courses at col­
leges and universities and attending
seminars sponsored by insurance
(LUTC) awards a diploma in life in­
surance marketing to agents who
successfully complete the Council’s
2-year life program. They also offer
courses in health insurance and
equity products. As agents or
brokers gain experience and
knowledge, they can qualify for the
Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU)
designation by passing a series of
examinations given by the Amer­
ican College of Life Underwriters.
In much the same way, a propertyliability agent can qualify for the
Chartered Property Casualty Un­
derwriter (CPCU) designation by
passing a series of examinations

Employment Outlook
Employment of insurance agents
and brokers is expected to grow
about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the mid1980’s as the volume of insurance
sales continues to expand. Many
additional jobs will open as agents
and brokers die, retire, or leave
their jobs to seek other work. Due
to the competitive nature of in­
surance selling, beginners often
leave their jobs because they have
been unable to establish a suffi­
ciently large clientele. Therefore,
opportunities should be quite
favorable for ambitious people who
enjoy saleswork.
Future demand for agents and
brokers depends on the volume of
insurance sales. Volume should in­
crease rapidly over the next decade
as a larger proportion of the popu­
lation enters the period of peak
earnings and family responsibilities.
Life insurance sales should grow as

more families select policies work more than the customary 40 line of merchandise. A salesworker
who handles crackers or cookies,
designed to provide educational hours a week.
for example, emphasizes the
funds for their children and retire­
Sources of Additional
wholesomeness, attractive packag­
ment income. Rising incomes also
ing, and variety of these products.
should stimulate the sale of equity
Sometimes salesworkers promote
products such as mutual funds, vari­
General occupational informa­
their products by displays in hotels
able annuities, and other invest­
tion about insurance agents and
ments. Sales of property-liability in­ brokers is available from the home and conferences with wholesalers
surance should rise as more con­ office of many life and property-lia­ and other customers.
Salesworkers who deal in highly
sumer purchases are insured and as bility insurance companies. Infor­
commercial coverages, such as mation on State licensing require­ technical products, such as elec­
product liability and workers’ com­ ments may be obtained from the de­ tronic equipment, often are called
sales engineers or industrial
pensation, are expanded.
partment of insurance at any State
salesworkers. In addition to having
However, employment of agents capital.
a thorough knowledge of their
and brokers will not keep pace with
Information about a career as a
the rising level of insurance sales life insurance agent also is available firms’ products, they must be able
to help prospective buyers with
because more policies will be sold from:
technical problems. For example,
to groups and by mail. Also, agents
should be able to handle more busi­ Institute of LifeN.Y. 10017. 227 Park Ave., they may try to determine the
New York,
proper materials and equipment for
ness as computers relieve them of
Life Insurance Marketing and Research As­ a firm’s manufacturing process.
time-consuming clerical tasks.
sociation, 170 Sigourney St., Hart­
They then present this information
ford, Conn. 06105.
The National Association of Life Under­ to company officials and try to
Earnings and Working
writers, 1922 F St., NW„ Washington,
negotiate a sale. Often, sales en­
D.C. 20006.
gineers work with the research-andFor career information on pro- development departments of their
Beginners in this occupation perty/liability agents, contact:
often are guaranteed moderate Insurance Information Institute, 1 10 William own companies to devise ways to
adapt products to a customer’s spe­
salaries or advances on commis­
St., New York, N.Y. 10038.
sions while they are learning the National Association of Insurance Agents, cialized needs. Salesworkers who
handle technical products some­
business and building a clientele.
Inc., 85 John St., New York, N.Y.
times train their customers’ em­
Thereafter, most agents are paid a
ployees in the operation and main­
commission. The size of the com­
tenance of new equipment, and
mission depends on the type and
make frequent return visits to be
amount of insurance sold, and
certain that it is giving the desired
whether the transaction is a new
policy or a renewal. After a few
years, an agent’s commissions on
(D O T. 260. through 298.458)
salesworkers spend most of their
new policies and renewals may
time visiting prospective customers,
Nature of the Work
range from $10,000 to $20,000 an­
they also do paperwork including
Practically all manufacturers— reports on sales prospects or
nually. A number of established and
highly successful
agents and whether they make computers or customers’ credit ratings. In addi­
brokers earn more than $30,000 a can openers—employ salesworkers. tion, they must plan their work
Manufacturers’ salesworkers sell schedules, draw up lists ot
Agents and brokers generally pay mainly to other businesses—facto­
prospects, make appointments,
their own automobile and traveling ries, railroads, banks, wholesalers,
handle some correspondence, and
expenses. In addition, those who and retailers. They also sell to
study literature relating to their
own and operate independent busi­ hospitals, schools, libraries, and products.
nesses must pay office rent, clerical other institutions.
Most manufacturers’ saleswork­
salaries, and other operating expen­
Places of Employment
ers sell nontechnical products.
ses out of their earnings.
Almost 380,000 people—10 per­
agents They must be well informed about
usually are free to arrange their their firms’ products and also about cent of them women—were manu­
own hours of work, they often the special requirements of their facturers’ salesworkers in 1974.
appointments during customers. When salesworkers visit About 21,000 were sales engineers.
evenings and weekends for the con­ firms in their territory, they use an Some work out of home offices,
venience of clients. Some agents approach adapted to the particular often located at manufacturing

specialized training. Drug Sales­
workers usually need training
at a college of pharmacy. Man­
ufacturers of electrical equip­
ment, heavy machinery, and
some types of chemicals prefer
to hire college-trained engineers
or chemists. (Information on
chemists, engineers, and others
with the technical training suitable
for work as manufacturers’ sales­
workers is given elsewhere in this
Beginning salesworkers take spe­
cialized training before they start
on the job. Some companies, espe­
cially those that manufacture com­
plex technical products, have for­
mal training programs that last 2
Training, Other Qualifications,
years or longer. In some of these
and Advancement
programs, trainees rotate among
Although high school graduates jobs in several departments of the
can be successful manufacturers’ plant and office to learn all phases
salesworkers, college graduates are of production, installation, and dis­
preferred as trainees.
tribution of the product. Other
Manufacturers of nontechnical trainees take formal class instruc­
products often hire college gradu­ tion at the plant, followed by onates who have a degree in liberal the-job training in a branch office
arts or business administration. under the supervision of field sales
Some positions, however, require managers.
plants. The majority, however,
work out of branch offices, usually
in big cities near prospective
More salesworkers are employed
by companies that produce food
products than by any other indus­
try. Large numbers also work in the
printing and publishing, chemicals,
fabricated metal products, and
electrical and other machinery in­
dustries. Most sales engineers work
for companies that produce heavy
machinery, transportation equip­
ment, fabricated metal products,
and professional and scientific in­

A pleasant personality and ap­
pearance, and the ability to meet
and get along well with many types
of people are important. Because
salesworkers may have to walk or
stand for long periods or carry
product samples, some physical
stamina is necessary. As in most
selling jobs, arithmetic skills are an
Sales representatives who have
good sales records and leadership
ability may advance to sales super­
visors, branch managers, or district
managers. Those with managerial
ability eventually may advance to
sales manager or other executive
positions; many top executive jobs
in industry are filled by people who
started as salesworkers.
Because of frequent contact with
business people in other firms,
salesworkers often transfer to other
jobs. Some go into business for
agents selling similar products of
several manufacturers. Other ex­
perienced salesworkers find oppor­
tunities in advertising and market­
ing research.
Employment Outlook
Persons with sales ability should
find the best opportunities for jobs
as manufacturers salesworkers over
the next 10 years. Although
thousands of sales openings will
arise each year because of employ­
ment growth and the need to
replace experienced workers who
leave their jobs, manufacturers are
expected to be selective in hiring.
They will look for ambitious people
who are well trained and tempera­
mentally suited for the job.
Employment growth in this field
is expected to be slower than the
average for all occupations, chiefly
because of the trend toward
growth will occur, however,
because of the rising demand for
technical products and the resulting
need for trained salesworkers. In
addition, industrial firms, chain

purchase large quantities of goods
at one time frequently buy directly
from the manufacturer. The need
for salesworkers will increase as
manufacturers emphasize sales ac­
tivities to compete for the growing
number of these valuable accounts.
Earnings and Working
According to the limited infor­
mation available, salaries for
beginning salesworkers averaged
about $9,000 a year in 1974, exclu­
sive of commissions and bonuses.
The highest starting salaries
generally were paid by manufac­
turers of electrical and electronic
equipment, construction materials,
hardware and tools, and scientific
and precision instruments.
Some manufacturing concerns
pay experienced salesworkers a
straight commission, based on their
dollar amount of sales; others pay a
fixed salary. The majority, however,
use a combination of salary and
commission, salary and bonus, or
salary, commission, and bonus.
Commissions vary according to the
salesworkers’ efforts and ability, the
commission rate, location of their
sales territory, and the type of
product sold. Bonus payments may
depend on individual performance,
on performance of all salesworkers
in the group or district, or on the
company’s sales. Some firms pay
annual bonuses; others offer
bonuses as incentive payments on a
quarterly or monthly basis. In
general, the earnings of manufac­
turers’ salesworkers are higher than
the average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Some manufacturers’ saleswork­
ers have large territories and do
usually work in the neighborhood
of their “home base.” When on
business trips, salesworkers are
reimbursed for expenses such as
transportation and hotels. Some
companies provide a car or pay a
mileage allowance to salesworkers

who use their own cars.
Manufacturers’ salesworkers call
at the time most convenient to
customers and may have to travel at
night or on weekends. Frequently,
they spend evenings writing reports.
However, some plan their schedules
for time off when they want it. Most
salesworkers who are not paid a
straight commission receive 2 to 4
weeks’ paid vacation, depending on
their length of service. They usually
share in company benefits, includ­
ing life insurance, pensions, and
hospital, surgical, and medical
Sources of Additional
For more information on the occu­
pation of manufacturers’ salesworker,
Sales and Marketing Executives Interna­
tional, Student Education Division, 380
Lexington Ave., New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 250.358)
Nature of the Work
Real estate salesworkers and
brokers represent property owners
in selling or renting their properties.
They also are called real estate
agents or, if they are members of
the National Association of Real­
tors, “realtors” or “realtor as­
Brokers are independent business
people who not only sell real estate,
but also rent and manage proper­
ties, make appraisals, and develop
new building projects. In closing
sales, brokers usually arrange for
loans to finance the purchases, for
title searches, and for meetings
between buyers and sellers, when
details of the transaction are agreed

upon and the new owners take pos­
session. Brokers also must manage
their own offices, advertise the pro­
perties they list, and handle other
business operations. Some combine
other types of work such as selling
insurance or practicing law with
their real estate business.
Salesworkers or agents work for
brokers. They show and sell real
estate, handle rental properties, and
obtain “listings” (owner agree­
ments to place properties for sale
with the firm). Because obtaining
listings is an important job duty,
salesworkers may spend much time
on the telephone exploring leads
gathered from advertisements and
personal contacts. They also answer
inquiries about properties over the
A worker who sells real estate or
handles rental properties often
must leave the office to call on
prospects and drive them to inspect
properties for sale. When a number
of houses are for sale in a new
development, the agent may
operate from a model home.
Most real estate salesworkers and
brokers sell residential property. A
few, usually in large firms, special­
ize in commercial, industrial, or
other types of real estate. Each spe­
cialty requires knowledge of that
particular type of property. Selling
or leasing business property, for ex­
ample, requires an understanding of

leasing practices, business trends,
and location needs. Agents who sell
or lease industrial properties must
know about transportation, utilities,
and labor supply. To sell residential
properties, the agent must know the
location of schools, churches,
shopping facilities, and public
transportation. Familiarity with tax
rates and insurance coverages also
is important.
Places of Employment
Nearly 400,000 persons sold real
estate full time in 1974; many
others sold on a part-time basis.
The number of people licensed to
sell totaled about 1.4 million in
1974, according to the National As­
sociation of Real Estate License
Law Officials.
Most real estate salesworkers
work for small establishments;
some, particularly in urban areas,
work for large firms with several of­
fices. A few sales agents are em­
ployed by builders to sell new
homes in a particular development.
Real estate is sold in all areas, but
employment is concentrated in
large urban areas and in smaller but
rapidly growing communities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Real estate salesworkers and
brokers must be licensed in every
State and in the District of Colum­
bia. All States require prospective
agents to pass written tests. The ex­
amination—more comprehensive
for brokers than for salesworkers—
includes questions on basic real
estate transactions and on laws af­
fecting the sale of property. A
majority of States require can­
didates for a broker’s license to
have a specified amount of ex­
perience in selling real estate or the
equivalent in related experience or
education (generally 1 to 3 years).
State licenses usually can be
renewed annually without reex­

Employers prefer applicants with open their own offices. Training
at least a high school education. As and experience in estimating pro­
real estate transactions have perty value can lead to work as a
become more complex, many of the real estate appraiser, and people
large firms have turned to college familiar with operating and main­
graduates to fill sales positions. taining rental properties may spe­
Most agents have some college cialize in property management.
training and the number of college Those who gain general experience
graduates has risen substantially in in real estate, and a thorough
recent years. However, many em­ knowledge of business conditions
ployers consider personality traits and property values in their locali­
as important as academic training. ties, may enter mortgage financing
They look for applicants who pos­ or real estate counseling.
sess such positive characteristics as
a pleasant personality, honesty, and
Employment Outlook
a neat appearance. Maturity, tact,
Employment of real estate
and enthusiasm for the job are
required in order to motivate salesworkers and brokers is ex­
prospective customers in this pected to rise about as fast as the
keenly competitive field. Agents average for all occupations in order
also should have a good memory for to satisfy a growing demand for
names and faces and business housing and other properties. In ad­
details such as taxes, zoning regula­ dition to opportunities that result
from this growth, several thousand
tions, and local land-use laws.
Young men and women in­ openings will occur each year as
terested in beginning jobs as real employees die, retire, or leave for
estate salesworkers often apply in other reasons. Replacement needs
their own communities, where their are high, because a relatively large
knowledge of local neighborhoods number of people retire from the
is an advantage. The beginner real estate business every year.
usually learns the practical aspects Moreover, many beginners transfer
of the job under the direction of an to other work after a short time
selling real estate.
experienced agent.
The favorable outlook for em­
Many firms offer formal training
programs for both beginners and ployment in this field will stem
experienced salesworkers. About primarily from increased demand
360 universities, colleges, and jun­ for home purchases and rental
ior colleges offer courses in real units. Shifts in the age distribution
estate. At some, a student can earn of the population over the next
an associate’s or bachelor’s degree decade will result in a larger
with a major in real estate; several number of young adults with
offer advanced degrees. Many local careers and family responsibilities.
real estate boards that are members This is the group that traditionally
of the National Association of Real­ makes the bulk of home purchases.
tors sponsor courses covering the As their incomes rise, these families
fundamentals and legal aspects of also can be expected to purchase
the field. Advanced courses in ap­ larger homes and vacation proper­
praisal, mortgage financing, and ties. During periods of declining
property development and manage­ economic activity and tight credit,
ment also are available through the volume of sales and the result­
various National Association af­ ing demand for salesworkers
usually declines. During these
experienced periods, the number of persons
salesworkers can advance in many seeking sales positions may out­
large firms to sales or general number openings. Over the long
manager. Licensed brokers may run, however, the outlook for

salespeople is favorable.
Many job opportunities should
occur for both college graduates
and mature workers transferring
from other kinds of saleswork. This
field is likely to remain highly com­
petitive and prospects will be best
for well-trained, ambitious people
who enjoy selling. The proportion
of part-time real estate salesworkers may decline, however, as State
licensing requirements change and
agents need more specialized
knowledge to handle real estate
Earnings and Working
Commissions on sales are the
main source of earnings—very few
real estate agents work for a salary.
The rate of commission varies ac­
cording to the type of property and
its value; the percentage paid on the
sale of farm and commercial pro­
perties or unimproved land usually
is higher than that paid for selling a
Commissions may be divided
among several salespersons in a real
estate firm. The person who obtains
the listing often receives a part
when the property is sold; the
broker who makes the sale either
gets the rest of the commission, or
else shares it with the agent who
handles the transaction. Although
an agent’s share varies greatly from
one firm to another, often it is
about half of the total amount
received by the firm.
Earnings of full-time real estate
agents generally range between
$12,000 and $20,000 a year, ac­
cording to the limited data availa­
ble. Beginners usually earn less.
Many experienced real estate
salesworkers earn $30,000 or more
a year. Full-time agents and brokers
earn nearly three times as much as
average earnings for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
Income usually increases as an
agent gains experience, but in­

dividual ability, economic condi­
tions, and the type and location of
the property also affect earnings.
Salesworkers who are active in
community organizations and local
real estate boards can broaden their
earnings. A beginner’s earnings
often are irregular because a few
weeks or even months may go by
without a sale. Although some
brokers allow a salesworker a draw­
ing account against future earnings,
this practice is not usual with new
employees. The beginner, there­
fore, should have enough money to
live on until commissions increase.
Brokers provide office space, but
salesworkers generally furnish their
own automobiles. Agents and
brokers often work in the evenings
and during weekends to suit the
convenience of customers. Some
firms, especially the large ones,
furnish group life, health, and ac­
cident insurance.
Sources of Additional
Details on licensing requirements
for real estate salesworkers and
brokers are available from most
local real estate organizations or
from the real estate commission or
board located in each State capital.
Many States can furnish manuals
helpful to applicants who are
preparing for the required written
For more information about op­
portunities in real estate work, as
well as a list of colleges and univer­
sities offering courses in this field,
National Association of Realtors, 155 E. Su­
perior St., Chicago, 1 1 60611.

(D.O.T. 251.258)
Nature of the Work
When investors buy or sell
stocks, bonds, or shares in mutual
funds, they call on securities
salesworkers to put the “market
machinery” into operation. Both
the individual who invests a few
hundred dollars and the large in­
stitution with millions to invest
need such services. Often these
workers are called r e g is te r e d
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s ,
t i v e s ,or c u s t o m e r s ' b r o k e r s .
In initiating buy or sell transac­
tions, securities salesworkers relay
orders through their firms’ offices
to the floor of a securities
exchange. When the trade takes
place in the over-the-counter mar­
ket instead, they send the order to
the firm’s trading department. In
either case,
the salesworker
promptly notifies the customer of
the completed transaction and the
final price.
In addition, they provide many
related services for their customers.
They may explain to new investors
the meaning of stock market terms
and trading practices; offer the
client complete financial counsel­
ing; devise an individual financial
portfolio including securities, life
insurance, and other investments
for the customer; and advise on the
purchase or sale of a particular
security. Some individuals may
designed for either capital growth
or income over the years; others
might want to make short-term in­
vestments which seem likely to rise
salesworkers furnish information
about the advantages and disad­
vantages of each type of investment
based on each person’s objectives.
They also supply the latest stock
and bond quotations on any securi­
ty in which the investor is in­
terested, as well as information on

the activities and financial positions
of the corporations these securities
Securities salesworkers may
serve all types of customers or they
may specialize in one type only,
such as institutional investors. They
also may specialize in handling only
certain kinds of securities such as
mutual funds. Some handle the sale
of “new issues,” such as corpora­
tion securities issued for plant ex­
pansion funds.
Beginning securities salesworkers
spend much of their time searching
for customers. Once they have
established a clientele, however,
they put more effort into servicing
existing accounts and less into seek­
ing new ones.
Places of Employment
About 100,000 persons—about
10 percent of them women—sold
securities full time in 1974. It is esti­
mated that an additional 100,000
persons sold securities less than full
time. These include partners and
branch office managers in securities
firms, insurance agents and brokers
customers, and part-time mutual
fund representatives.
Securities salesworkers are em­
ployed by brokerage firms, invest­
ment bankers, and mutual funds in
all parts of the country. Many of
these firms are very small. Most
salesworkers, however, work for a
small number of large firms with
main offices in big cities (especially
in New York) or the approximately
6,000 branch offices in other areas.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Because a securities salesworker
must be well informed about
economic conditions and trends, a
college education is increasingly
important, especially in the larger
securities firms. This is not true,
however, for part-time work selling
mutual funds. Although employers

seldom require specialized training,
courses in business administration,
economics, and finance are helpful.
Almost all States require persons
who sell securities to be licensed.
State licensing requirements may
include passing an examination and
furnishing a personal bond. In addi­
tion, salesworkers usually must
register as representatives of their
firms according to regulations of
the securities exchanges where they
do business or the National As­
sociation of Securities Dealers, Inc.
(NASD). Before beginners can
qualify as registered representa­
tives, they must pass the Securities
(SEC’s) General Securities Ex­
prepared by the exchanges or the
NASD. These tests measure the
knowledge of the securities busi­
ness. Character investigations also
are required. Before securities
salesworkers can sell insurance,
they must be licensed by the State

in which they live.
Most employers provide training
to help salesworkers meet the
requirements for registration. In
member firms of all major
exchanges the training period is at
least 4 months. Trainees in large
firms may receive classroom in­
struction in security analysis and ef­
fective speaking, take courses of­
fered by schools of business and
other institutions and associations,
and undergo a period of on-the-job
training. In small firms, and in mu­
tual funds and insurance compa­
nies, training programs may be brief
and informal. Beginners read as­
signed materials and watch other
salesworkers transact business.
Many employers consider per­
sonality traits as important as
academic training. Employers seek
applicants who are well groomed,
able to motivate people, and ambi­
tious. Because maturity and the
ability to work independently also
are important, many emexployers
prefer to hire those who have

achieved success in other jobs. Suc­
cessful sales or managerial ex­
perience is very helpful to an appli­
The principal form of advance­
ment for securities salesworkers is
an increase in the number and the
size of the accounts they handle.
Although beginners usually service
the accounts of individual investors,
eventually they may handle very
large accounts such as those of
banks and pension funds. Some ex­
perienced salesworkers advance to
managers, who supervise the work
of other salesworkers while execut­
ing “buy” and “sell” orders for
their own customers. A few
representatives may become part­
ners in their firms or do administra­
tive work.
Employment Outlook
number of
salesworkers is expected to grow
faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the mid-1980’s as
investment in securities continues
to increase. In addition to jobs
resulting from growth, several
thousand salesworkers will be
needed annually to replace those
who die, retire, or transfer to other
jobs. Replacement needs are rela­
tively large, due to the competitive
nature of the occupation. Many
salesworkers leave their jobs each
year because they are unable to
establish a successful clientele.
salesworkers is expected to expand
as economic growth and rising per­
sonal incomes increase the funds
available for investment. The for­
mation of investment clubs, which
enable small investors to make
toward the purchase of securities,
also will contribute to the demand
for securities salesworkers. Growth
in the number of institutional in­
vestors will be particularly strong as

more people purchase insurance;
participate in pension plans; con­
tribute to the endowment funds of
colleges and other nonprofit institu­
tions; and deposit their savings in
banks. In addition, more workers
will be needed to sell securities is­
sued by new and expanding cor­
porations and by State and local
governments financing public im­
The demand for securities
salesworkers fluctuates as the
economy expands and contracts.
Thus, in an economic downturn,
the number of persons seeking jobs
may exceed the number of
openings—sometimes by a great
deal. Over the long-run, however,
job opportunities for securities
salesworkers are expected to be
favorable. During severe slumps in
market activity, job prospects and
income stability will be greater for
salesworkers who are qualified to
provide their clients with complete
financial services than those who
rely strictly on commissions from
stock transactions.
Mature individuals with success­
ful work experience should find
many job opportunities. Demand
will be strongest for well-rounded
persons who are willing to learn all
aspects of the securities business.
Those seeking part-time work will
be limited to selling shares in mu­
tual funds.
Earnings and Working
Trainees usually are paid a salary
until they meet licensing and regis­
tration requirements. After regis­
tration, a few firms continue to pay
a salary until the new representa­
tive’s commissions increase to a
stated amount. The salaries paid
during training usually range from
$800 to $1,000 a month; those
working for large securities firms
may receive higher salaries.
After candidates are licensed and

registered, their earnings depend on
commissions from the sale or
purchase of stocks and bonds, life
insurance, or other securities for
customers. Commission earnings
are likely to be high when there is
much buying and selling, and lower
when there is a slump in market ac­
tivity. Most firms provide sales­
workers with a steady income by
paying a “draw against com­
mission” —that is, a minimum
salary based on the commissions
which then can be expected to
earn. A few firms pay salesworkers
only salary and bonuses, that
usually are determined by the
volume of company business.
of full-time,
perienced securities salesworkers
averaged about $21,000 a year in
1974, according to the limited data
available. Many earned more than
$30,000 a year. Full-time securities
salesworkers earn about three times
as much as average earnings for
nonsupervisory workers in private
industry, except farming.
Securities salesworkers usually
work in offices where there is much
activity. In large offices, for exam­
ple, rows of salesworkers sit at
desks in front of “quote boards”
which continually flash information
on the prices of securities transac­
salesworkers usually work the same
hours as others in the business com­
munity, beginners who are seeking
customers may work longer. Some
customers by meeting with them in
the evenings or on weekends.
Sources of Additional
Further information concerning a
career as a securities salesworker
may be obtained from the person­
nel departments of individual secu­
rities firms.

Transportation offers a wide range
of career opportunities. Jobs in air,
rail, highway, and water transporta­
tion vary from those that require
many workers who have at least a
college degree.
Although this field includes a vari­
ety of jobs, most workers drive
trucks and buses, fly for airlines,
operate trains and ships, or keep this
equipment in good working condition.
As our economy expands and popu­
lation grows, demand for freight and
passenger service will rise, and more
transportation workers will be
needed. Employment trends, how­
ever, will vary by type of business.
Employment in most air and highway
transportation jobs will increase,
while employment in the merchant
marine and many jobs on railroads
will decline. Even in most declining
occupations, however, new workers
will be hired to replace those who
retire, die, or transfer to other fields.
Transportation offers excellent op­
portunities for persons with a college
education. Working conditions are
generally good and the pay is fairly
high. Many employees do a lot of
traveling on the job and meet new
and interesting people.

(D.O.T. 193.168)
Nature of the Work
Air traffic controllers are the
guardians of the airways. They
coordinate flights to prevent ac­
cidents and minimize delays in
takeoffs and landings. Some regu­
late airport traffic; others regulate
flights between airports.
Airport traffic controllers work
in a tower near the runway to keep
track of planes that are on the
ground and in the air nearby. They
radio pilots to give them permission
to taxi, take off, or land. To assure
safe conditions, they must consider
many factors including weather,
and the number, size, and speed of
the planes in the area. They also
must keep track of positions of
planes both on the ground and in
the air to control several aircraft
After a plane takes off, airport
traffic controllers notify enroute
controllers to take charge. Route
pilots by radio and use radar and
other electronic equipment to help
keep planes on course. They also
warn pilots about nearby planes and
other possible hazards. Each en­
route controller is assigned a cer­
tain amount of airspace. One, for
example, might be responsible for
all planes that are 30 to 100 miles
north of the airport and flying
between 6,000 and 18,000 feet. As
the flight progresses, the controller
responsible for the aircraft notifies
the controller who next will be
responsible. Through this coordina­
tion, one enroute controller after
another takes charge until the plane
has safely arrived at its destination

and airport traffic controllers are
again in charge.
Places of Employment
About 22,000 persons worked as
air traffic controllers for the
Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) in 1974. Almost all worked
at major airports and air route traf­
fic control centers located near
large cities. A few were assigned to
control towers and centers outside
the United States.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Air traffic controller trainees are
selected through the competitive
Federal Civil Service System. Ap­
plicants must be less than 31 years
old and must pass a written test that
measures their ability to learn and
perform the controller’s duties. In
addition, applicants must have 3
years of progressively responsible
work experience that demonstrates
potential for learning and perform­
ing air traffic control work, or 4
years of college, or a combination
of both. Applicants must be in ex­
cellent health, have vision correcta­
ble to 20/20, and must be able to
speak clearly and precisely.
Successful applicants receive a
combination of on-the-job and for­
mal training to learn the fundamen­
tals of the airway system, Federal
aviation regulations, controller
equipment, and aircraft per­
receive intensive training in simula­
tors at the FAA Academy in
Oklahoma City. It usually takes 2 to
3 years to become a fully qualified
controller. Each year, controllers
must pass a physical examination
each year; they must pass a job per­
formance examination twice each
Controllers can transfer to jobs at
different locations and advance to
the job of chief controller. Some
advance to more responsible
management jobs in air traffic con-

service, they receive 13 to 26 days
of paid vacation and 13 days of paid
sick leave each year, life insurance,
health benefits, and a more liberal
retirement program than other
Federal employees.
Controllers work a basic 40-hour
week; however, they may work ad­
ditional hours for which they
receive overtime pay or equal time
off. Because control towers and
centers must be operated 24 hours
a day, 7 days a week, controllers are
assigned to night shifts on a rotating
Air traffic controllers work under
great stress. They must keep track
of several planes at the same time
and make certain all pilots receive
correct instructions.
Many controllers belong to the
Professional Air Traffic Controllers
Sources of Additional

Air traffic controllers use radar to follow planes in flight.

trol and a few to top administrative
jobs in the FAA.
Employment Outlook
Employment of air traffic con­
trollers is expected to increase at
about the same rate as the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s. In addition to openings
resulting from growth, many others
will arise as experienced controllers
retire, die, or transfer to other jobs.
Competition for jobs should be
keen because the number of
qualified applicants is expected to
be much greater than the number of
As the number of aircraft in­
creases, the skyways will become
more congested. To prevent colli­
sions, the FAA has created spaces,
near certain airports and above cer­

tain altitudes which require all
pilots to receive directions from air
traffic controllers. If, as expected,
the number and size of these spaces
are expanded, more controllers will
be needed despite the greater use of
new, automated control equipment.
College graduates who have
civilian or military experience as
controllers, pilots, or navigators,
will have the best employment op­
Earnings and Working
In 1974 controller trainees
earned $7,700 or $9,500 a year; the
average earnings for all controllers
was $21,800 a year, or over twice
the average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Depending on length of

A pamphlet providing general in­
formation about controllers and in­
structions for submitting applica­
tions is available from any U.S.
Civil Service Commission Job In­
formation Center. Look under U.S.
Government, Civil Service Com­
mission, in your telephone book to
obtain a local Job Information
Center telephone number and call
for a copy of Announcement 418. If
there is no listing in your telephone
book, dial the toll-free number 800555-1212 and request the toll-free
number of the U.S. Civil Service
Center for your location.

(D.O.T. 196.168, .228, .268, and
Nature of the Work
Pilots are skilled, highly trained
professionals who have been care-

fully selected for their ability to fly
safely. They transport passengers
and cargo, and perform other tasks
such as crop dusting and inspecting
power lines. The pilot in command
(called captain by the airlines) is in
charge of the plane and supervises
any other crew members. On larger
planes, a copilot assists the pilot in
air-to-ground communications, in
monitoring flight and engine instru­
ments, and in operating the plane’s
controls. Most large airliners have a
third pilot serving as flight engineer.
The flight engineer makes sure the
many mechanical and electrical
devices aboard the plane work
Pilots must do a great deal of
planning before a flight. They
confer with a weather forecaster
and choose a route, speed, and al­
titude that will give a safe, smooth
flight. The pilot in command then

coordinates the route with air traf­
fic control personnel.
Before takeoff, pilots check the
engines, controls, instruments, and
other components to make sure
everything is working properly. If
any faulty equipment is located, a
mechanic is called to make the
repairs. During the flight, they radio
to ground control stations to report
their plane’s altitude, air speed,
weather conditions, or other flight
details. Pilots steer the plane to
each point on the flight plan and
change altitude and speed as neces­
sary. In addition, pilots frequently
look at instruments to check the
amount of fuel and condition of the
If visibility during the flight is
poor, pilots must rely completely on
instruments. For example, they use
the altimeter to fly safely above any
mountains or other obstacles. A

special navigation radio gives pilots
information which, with the help of
special maps, tells them exactly
where the plane is. During landings
in bad weather, airline pilots may
use sophisticated landing equip­
ment which provides directions to a
point just above the runway. After
landing and parking the plane, they
go to the airline office and
complete flight records required by
the company or the Federal Avia­
tion Administration (FAA).
Some specially trained airline
pilots are “evaluators” or “check
pilots.” They fly with each captain
at least twice a year to make sure
FAA and company regulations are
obeyed. Other pilots are instructors
and spend much of their time giving
flying lessons.
Although pilots employed by
businesses usually fly smaller planes
than airline pilots, their duties are
much alike. These pilots, however,
may perform minor maintenance
and repair work on their planes.
Places of Employment
About 79,000 civilian pilots
worked full-time in 1974. About
one-half worked for airline compa­
nies; most of the remainder trained
student pilots or worked for large
corporations that use their own air­
planes to transport company execu­
tives. Others performed a variety of
services for many different em­
ployers throughout the country
such as flying air taxis or crop dust­
ing planes, inspecting pipelines, or
Federal, State, and local govern­
ments also employed pilots.
Most pilots work at major air­
ports close to cities. Over one-third
of all pilots work near Los Angeles,
San Francisco, New York, DallasFort Worth, Chicago, Miami, and
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Before take-off pilots make sure all equipment is working properly.

All pilots who are paid to trans­
port passengers or cargo must have

at least a commercial airplane
pilot’s license from the FAA. To
qualify for a commercial pilot’s
license, applicants must be at least
18 years old and have at least 250
hours of flight experience. They
also must pass a strict physical ex­
amination to make sure they have
20/20 vision with or without
glasses, good hearing, and no physi­
cal handicaps that prevent quick
reactions. Applicants then must
pass a written test covering subjects
such as the principles of safe flight,
navigation techniques, and FAA
regulations. As the final step in
getting a commercial license, appli­
cants must demonstrate their flying
ability to examiners.
In addition to a commercial
license, pilots who fly in bad
weather must be licensed by the
FAA to fly by instruments. Pilots
may qualify for this license after
practicing flying by instruments for
as least 40 hours, passing a written
examination on instrument flying
procedures and FAA regulations,
and demonstrating their ability to
fly by instruments to an examiner.
Licensing requirements for air­
line captains are different from
those for other pilots. Captains
must have an airline transport
pilot’s license as well as an instru­
ment license from the FAA. Appli­
cants must be at least 23 years old
and have a minimum of 1,500 hours
of flying experience during the
previous 8 years, including night
and instrument flying.
All licenses remain in effect as
long as the pilot can pass the
required physical examinations and
the periodic tests of flying skills
required by government regula­
tions. The airline transport license,
however, is not issued to pilots
when they reach age 60.
Flying can be learned in military
or civilian flying schools. Either
kind of training satisfies the flight
licensing, but those trained in the
armed services may have the added
opportunity to gain experience on
large aircraft similar to airliners.

Pilots hired by airlines must be
high school graduates; however,
most airlines require 2 years of col­
lege and prefer to hire college grad­
uates. Airline companies use
psychological tests to determine an
applicant’s ability to make quick
decisions and accurate judgments
under pressure.
New airline pilots usually start as
flight engineers. In the past, flight
engineers were not required to be
pilots. However, since the introduc­
tion of jet aircraft, union contracts
require all new engineers to be
qualified pilots.
Pilots working as flight engineers
must obtain a flight engineer’s
license from the FAA. After several
weeks of instruction in simulators
and classrooms, they must pass
FAA written and flight examina­
tions to qualify for the license.
Although airlines favor applicants
who already have a flight engineer’s
license and a commercial pilot’s
license, they may train those who
have only the commercial license.
Companies other than airlines
generally require less total flying
experience than airlines. However,
a commercial pilot’s license is
usually required and companies
prefer applicants with experience in
the type of plane they will be flying.
New employees generally start as
copilots if the planes are less com­
plex than airliners and do not
require flight engineers.
Advancement for all new pilots is
generally limited to other flying
jobs. In the airlines, advancement
opportunities usually depend on
seniority provisions established by
union contracts. After 5 to 10
years, flight engineers advance on
the basis of seniority, to co-pilot
and, after 10 to 20 years, to captain.
In other than airline jobs, copilots
may advance to pilot and, in large
companies, to chief pilot who is in
charge of aircraft scheduling, main­
tenance, and flight procedures.
Employment Outlook
Employment of pilots is expected

to increase faster than the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s. In addition to the jobs from
employment growth, openings will
result as experienced pilots retire,
die, or change occupations. How­
ever, competition for job openings
should be keen because the number
of qualified pilots seeking jobs is ex­
pected to exceed the number of
More than half the jobs will occur
outside the airlines. Companies are
expected to increase the number of
planes they operate and the number
of pilots they employ to transport
executives and cargo to places
without scheduled airline service.
Additional jobs will result from the
need for more flight instructors to
train new pilots and to insure that
qualified pilots meet FAA profi­
ciency standards.
The expected growth in airline
passenger and cargo traffic will
create a need for more airliners and
more pilots to fly them. However,
for the next few years airlines will
be able to transport more people by
buying bigger planes rather than
more planes. Because the number
of planes is not expected to increase
immediately, opportunities should
be limited until the late 1970’s
when airlines begin increasing the
number of planes in operation.
Recent college graduates who
have experience flying large, mul­
tiengine aircraft and who possess a
commercial pilot’s license and a
flight engineer’s license can expect
first consideration for jobs with the
major airlines. Other companies
generally have fewer formal educa­
tion and experience requirements
than airlines. However, these com­
panies prefer applicants with flying
experience in the type of plane they
will be flying on the job.
Earnings and Working
Earnings of pilots and copilots
are among the highest in the Na­
tion. In 1974, the average salary for

all airline pilots was $38,200 a year. make decisions quickly.
Starting salaries for flight engineers
Most airline pilots are members
ranged from $8,000 to $10,000 a of the Air Line Pilots Association,
year, while some senior captains on International. Those employed by
the largest aircraft earned more one major airline are members of
than $70,000. Based on limited in­ the Allied Pilots Association.
formation, earnings of pilots in
other than airline companies
Sources of Additional
ranged from $10,000 for copilots
on small planes to $40,000 for chief
Information about job opportuni­
pilots of companies with large jets.
ties in a particular airline and the
Earnings depend on factors such
qualifications required may be ob­
as the type, size, and speed of the
tained by writing to the personnel
planes, and the number of hours
manager of the company. Ad­
and miles flown. Extra pay is given
dresses of companies are available
for night and international flights.
in the booklet T h e P e o p le o f th e A ir ­
As an additional benefit, pilots and
lin e s . For a copy, write to:
their immediate families usually are
entitled to a limited amount of Public Relations Department, Air Transport
Association of America, 1709 New
reduced fare transportation on their
York Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
own and other airlines.
Airlines operate flights at all
For information about the duties,
hours of the day and night, so work
as well as the physical and educa­
schedules are often irregular.
tional requirements for airline
Under FAA rules airline pilots can­ pilots contact:
not fly more than 85 hours a month.
Most actually fly only about 70 Air Line Pilots Association, Ave. NW.,
hours a month, and, as a result, they
Washington, D.C. 20036.
have many work-free days. How­
For information about job oppor­
ever, airline pilots may be away tunities in companies other than
from their home bases about one- airlines, consult the classified sec­
third of the time or more. When tion of aviation trade magazines
they are away from home, the com­ and apply to companies which
pany provides hotel accommoda­ operate aircraft at local airports.
tions and an allowance for expen­
To obtain information about jobs
with the Federal Aviation Adminis­
Although pilots employed out­ tration, telephone the Federal Job
side the airlines are prohibited by Information Center listed in your
FAA regulations from flying more local phone book under United
than 100 hours a month, their States Government, Civil Service
schedules are irregular and some fly Commission. If no center is listed,
30 hours while others may fly 90 dial the toll-free number 800-555hours per month. These pilots 1212 and request the toll-free
frequently are responsible for main­ number of the center that serves
taining records or scheduling your area.
flights, and do not have as much
free time as airline pilots. They also
may work irregular hours. Instruc­
tors for example, may give lessons
on weekends or at night. However,
with the exception of pilots who
transport executives, most do not
remain away from home overnight.
Nature of the Work
Although flying does not involve
In command of every ocean­
much physical effort, the pilot often
is subject to mental stress and must going vessel is the c a p ta in (D.O.T.
be constantly alert and prepared to 197.168) or m a s t e r who is the

shipowner’s sole representative.
The captain has complete authority
and responsibility for the ship’s
operation, including discipline and
order, and the safety of the crew,
passengers, cargo, and vessel.
While in port, the captain may
serve as the shipowner’s agent in
conferring with custom officials,
and in some cases, act as paymaster
for the ship. Although not techni­
cally members of a specific depart­
ment, captains generally are as­
sociated with the deck department,
from whose ranks they have been

Deck Department. Deck officers or
“mates,” as they are traditionally
called, direct the navigation of the
ship and the maintenance of the
deck and hull. They maintain the
authorized speed and course; plot
the vessel’s position at frequent in­
tervals; post lookouts; record infor­
mation in the “log” of the voyage;
and immediately notify the captain
of any unusual occurrences. Deck
officers must be familiar with
modern navigational devices, such
as sonar and radio directional fin­
ders, to operate ships safely and ef­
c h ie f
m a te
197.133), also known as the first
mate or chief officer, is the cap­
tain’s key assistant in assigning du­
ties to the deck crew and maintain­
ing order and discipline. The chief
mate also plans and supervises the
loading and unloading of cargo, and
assists the captain in taking the ship
in and out of port. On some ships,
the chief mate also may be in
charge of first-aid treatment.
By tradition, the s e c o n d m a t e
(D.O.T. 197.133) is the navigation
officer. The second mate sees that
the ship is provided with the neces­
sary navigation charts and that
navigating equipment is maintained
T h ir d m a t e s (D.O.T. 197.133),
the most junior-rated deck officers,
are responsible for the care and the
maintenance of the navigating
bridge and the chartroom. They act

Captain plots vessel’s course.

as the signal officer and are in
charge of all signaling equipment.
They also assist in the supervision
of cargo loading and unloading.
The third mate frequently inspects
lifesaving equipment to be sure it is
ready for use in fire, shipwreck, or
other emergencies.

Engine Department. Marine en­
gineers operate and maintain all en­
gines and machinery aboard ship.
c h ie f
e n g in e e r
197.130) supervises the engine de­
partment, and is responsible for the
efficient operation of engines and
other mechanical equipment. The
chief engineer oversees the opera­
tion of the main powerplant and
auxiliary equipment while the ves­
sel is underway and keeps records
of equipment performance and fuel

The f i r s t a s s is t a n t e n g in e e r
(D.O.T. 197.130) supervises en­
gineroom personnel and directs
stopping, and controlling the speed
of the main engines. The first
assistant engineer also oversees and
inspects the lubrication of engines,
pumps, generators, and other
machinery and, with the aid of the
chief engineer, directs all types of
The s e c o n d a s s is t a n t e n g in e e r
(D.O.T. 197.130) has charge of the
boiler and associated equipment
such as the water-feed system and
pumps. The second assistant en­
gineer also makes sure proper
steam pressure and oil and water
temperatures are maintained and
supervises the cleaning of boilers.
The th ir d a s s is t a n t e n g in e e r
(D.O.T. 197.130) supervises the

operation and maintenance of the
lubrication system and a variety of
Some third assistant engineers are
responsible for the electrical and
refrigeration systems aboard ships.
O th e r o ff ic e r s . A ship keeps con­
tact with the shore and other vessels
through its r a d io o f f ic e r (D.O.T.
193.282), who also maintains radio
equipment. A passenger ship car­
ries three to six radio officers; the
average cargo vessel employs one.
These officers send and receive
messages by voice or Morse code.
They periodically receive and
record time signals, weather re­
ports, position reports, and other
information. Radio officers also
may maintain depth recording
equipment and electronic naviga­
tion equipment.
Some freighters and all passenger
vessels carry p u r s e r s (D.O.T.
197.168). The purser or staff of­
ficer does the extensive paperwork
that is required before a ship enters
or leaves a port. They prepare
payrolls and assist passengers as
required. In recent years, the Staff
Officers Association has established
a program to train pursers to act
also as pharmacists’ mates. This in­
struction is designed to improve the
medical care aboard freighters and
tankers and facilitate U.S. Public
Health Service clearance when a
ship arrives in port. All passenger
ships must carry licensed doctors
and nurses.

Places of Employment
Nearly 7,500 officers were em­
ployed aboard U.S. oceangoing ves­
sels in late 1974. Deck officers and
engineering officers accounted for
more than four-fifths of the total,
and radio officers made up most of
the remainder.
About one-thirds of the officers
were aboard freighters and most of
the remainder were aboard tankers.
Only a small percentage were on
passenger vessels.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Applicants for an officer’s license
in the deck or engineering depart­
ments of oceangoing vessels must
meet certain legal requirements.
Captains, chief and second mates,
and chief and first assistant en­
gineers must be at least 21 years
old. The minimum age for third
mates, third assistant engineers, and
radio operators is 19. In addition,
applicants must present proof of
U.S. citizenship and obtain a U.S.
Public Health Service certificate at­
testing to their vision, color percep­
tion, and general physical condi­
Besides legal and medical
requirements, candidates must also
have at least 3 years of appropriate
sea experience or be a graduate of
an approved training program.
Deck officer candidates must pass
Coast Guard examinations that
require extensive knowledge of
navigation, cargo handling, and
Marine engineering officer can­
didates must demonstrate in-depth
knowledge of propulsion systems,
electricity, plumbing and steam
fitting, metal shaping and assembly,
and ship structure. To advance to
higher ratings, officers must pass
progressively more difficult ex­
For a Coast Guard license as a
radio officer, applicants must have
a first or second-class radiotele­
graph operator’s license issued by
the Federal Communications Com­
mission. For a license to serve as
the sole radio operator aboard a
cargo vessel, the Coast Guard also
requires 6 months of radio ex­
perience at sea.
Unlike most professions, no edu­
cation requirements have been
established for officers. A sailor
with 3 years’ experience in the deck
or engine department may apply for
either a third mate’s license or for a
third assistant engineer’s license.
However, because of the complex

machinery, and navigational and
electronic equipment on modern
ships, formal training usually is
needed to pass the Coast Guard’s
examination for these licenses.
The fastest and surest way to
become a well-trained officer is
through an established training pro­
gram. Such programs are available
at the U.S. Merchant Marine
Academy at Kings Point, N.Y., and
at five State merchant marine
academies: California Maritime
Academy, Vallejo, Calif.; Maine
Maine; Massachusetts Maritime
Academy, Hyannis, Mass.; Texas
Maritime Academy, Galveston,
Tex.; and New York Maritime Col­
lege, Fort Schuyler, New York,
N.Y. About 550 students graduate
each year from these schools; about
one-half are trained as deck officers
and one-half as marine engineers.
Admission to the Federal academy
is through nomination by a member
of Congress, whereas entrance to
the other academies is made
through written application directly
to the school.
Most of the academies offer 4year programs in nautical science
or marine engineering, which in­
clude courses such as navigation,
mathematics, electronics, propul­
sion systems, electric il engineering,
languages, history, and shipping
management, as we 1 as practical
experience at sea. After Coast
Guard examination: are passed,
licenses are issued f :> either third
mate or third assistant engineer. In
addition, graduates may receive
commissions as ensigns in the U.S.
Naval Reserve.
Because of thoir thorough
grounding in theory and its practi­
cal application, academy graduates
are in the best positi }n to move up
to master and c lief engineer
ratings. Their well-rounded educa­
tion also helps qu< lify them for
shoreside jobs such as marine su­
perintendent, opera :ing manager,
or shipping executive.
Graduates of the J.S. Merchant

Marine Academy have an obliga­
tion to serve a minimum of 3 years
as officers in the merchant marine
or in a uniform, of the United
A number of trade unions in the
maritime industry provide officer
training. These unions include the
Masters, Mates and Pilots; the
Seafarers’ International Union of
North America; the Brotherhood of
Marine Officers; and the National
Marine Engineers’ Beneficial As­
sociation. Most union programs are
designed to upgrade experienced
sailors to officer ratings, although
some programs accept inex­
perienced young persons. For ex­
ample, the National Marine En­
gineers’ Beneficial Association
(MEBA) operates the Calhoon
MEBA Engineering School in Bal­
timore, Md., which offers high
school graduates a 3-year ap­
prenticeship training program in
preparation for a third assistant en­
gineer’s license. The program con­
sists of both classroom instruction
and sea experience and provides
free room, board, medical care, and
text books in addition to a monthly
grant. Trainees must agree to serve
at least 3 years in the U.S.
Merchant Marine after the 3-year
training period.
The U.S. Merchant Marine
Academy now selects about 10 per­
cent of the approximately 300 per­
sons who enter the academy each
“omnicompetent” officers. They
are taught both navigational and
technical skills so they can work in
either the deck or engine depart­
Advancement for deck and en­
gine officers is along well-defined
lines and depends primarily upon
specified sea experience, passing a
Coast Guard examination, and
leadership ability. Deck officers
start as third mates. After 1 year’s
service they are eligible to take a
second mate examination. A
second mate may apply for a cap­

tain’s license after 1 year of service.
Officers in the engine department
start as third assistant engineers.
After 1 year of service, they may
apply for a second assistant’s
license and finally a chief engineer’s
Employment Outlook
Little change in the employment
of ships’ officers is anticipated
through the mid-1980’s because the
number of ships in our merchant
fleet is not expected to increase sig­
nificantly. (See introduction on
merchant marine occupations.)
Nevertheless, many job openings
will arise due to the need to replace
experienced officers who retire,
die, or take shoreside employment.
Replacement needs are relatively
high because ships’ officers are
somewhat older, on the average,
than workers in other occupations
and the liberal pension plans of­
fered by the merchant marine in­
dustry encourage early retirement.
Employment opportunities will
be best for graduates of maritime
academies, particularly the U.S.
Merchant Marine Academy. Grad­
uates who cannot find jobs on
merchant ships may find jobs in re­
lated fields. For example, trained
officers are needed on oceano­
graphic research vessels, on vessels
that carry supplies to offshore oil
drilling rigs, and on dredges
operated by the Army Corps of En­
Earnings and Working
Earnings of officers depend upon
their rank and the type of ship.
Wages are highest on large ships.
shows monthly base wages for of­
ficers aboard an average freighter
in 1974. Additional payments for
overtime or for assuming extra
responsibilities generally average

about 50 percent of base pay. For
example, a second mate with a
monthly base pay of $1,159 may
regularly earn about $1,739 each
B ase p a y '

Chief engineer..................................
First assistant engineer...................
First mate..........................................
Radio officer.....................................
Second assistant engineer..............
Second mate.....................................
Third assistant engineer.................
Third mate........................................


1 East Coast wages in September, 1974
aboard a 12,000-17.000 power ton single
screw ship.

Officers and their dependents
enjoy substantial pension and wel­
fare benefits. Vacations range from
90 to 180 days a year. Officers with
20 years of service have the option
of a monthly pension of $325 or 37
1/2 percent of their monthly rate of
pay. Those who have 25 years of
service are eligible for $425 a
month or 50 percent of their
monthly rate. Officers forced to
retire prematurely due to a per­
manent disability receive partial
pensions. Comprehensive medical
care and hospitalization are pro­
vided for officers and their families
through union programs.
The workweek aboard ship is
considerably different from the
workweek on shore. At sea, most
officers are required to stand
watch. Watchstanders work 7 days
a week. Generally, they work two 4hour watches (shifts) during every
24-hour period and have 8 hours off
between each watch. Some officers
are day workers. They work 8 hours
a day, Monday through Friday.
Both watchstanders and dayworkers are paid overtime for work
over 40 hours a week. When the
ship is in port, the basic workweek
is 40 hours for all crewmembers.

The duties aboard ship are
hazardous compared to other in­
dustries. At sea, there is always the
possibility of injuries from falls or
the danger of fire, collision, or sink­
A number of labor organizations
represent merchant marine officers.
The two largest are the Interna­
tional Organization of Masters,
Mates and Pilots, representing deck
officers, and the National Marine
Engineers’ Beneficial Association,
representing engineering officers.
The Brotherhood of Marine Of­
ficers represents deck and engine
officers on some ships. The Staff
Officers Association and the
Marine Staff Officers Association
represents pursers aboard certain
freighters. Radio officers are
represented by the American Radio
Association and the Radio Officers
Union. In addition, a number of in­
dependent unions organize officers
on tankers. Officers’ unions may
require initiation fees as high as

1, 0 0 0 .

Sources of Additional
For general information about
merchant marine officer’s jobs,
write to:
Office of Maritime Manpower, Maritime Ad­
ministration, U.S. Department of Com­
merce, Washington, D C. 20235.

Information about job openings,
qualifications for employment,
wage scales, and other particulars is
available from local maritime of­
ficers’ unions. If no maritime union
is listed in the local telephone
directory, contact:
International Organization of Masters, Mates
and Pilots, 39 Broadway, New York,
N .Y .10006.
National Marine Engineers’ Beneficial As­
sociation, 17 Battery PI., New York,
N .Y .10004.

Progress in every facet of Amer­
ican life depends to some degree on
our scientific and technical work
force. An increased standard of liv­
ing, greater defense capabilities, ex­
ploration of outer space, and ad­
vancement in atomic energy,
health, and communications are
just some of the results of the work
done by scientists, engineers, and
About 2.5 million people or
nearly one-quarter of all profes­
sional workers were engineers,
scientists, or other scientific and
technical workers in 1974. Employ­
ment in these occupations increased
much more rapidly than did total
employment over the past 25 years;
the number of scientists and engi­
neers, for example, almost tripled,
while the total number of workers in
the United States grew by less than
half. The growth of our scientific and
technical work force resulted from
many factors, including overall eco­
nomic growth, increased research and
development (R&D) expenditures;
growth of college and university fa­
culties; the race to put a man on the
moon; and the development of so­
phisticated defense systems. Many
technological innovations, such as the
widespread use of computers, also
contributed to this growth.

A bachelor’s degree is usually
needed to enter scientific and en­
gineering jobs. However, increasing
emphasis is being placed on ad­
vanced degrees in some fields, espe­
cially in mathematics, physics, and
the life sciences. For some occupa­
tions, such as astronomers, a doc­
torate is required for full profes­
sional status. A bachelor’s degree is

sufficient for entry into most en­
gineering jobs, however, and some
senior engineering technicians with
less than a bachelor’s degree are
promoted to engineerir g jobs.
scientists and engineers includes
courses in their major field and in
related science areas, including
mathematics. Courses in statistics
and computer programming are
becoming more important. Stu­
dents are usually required to take
courses in English and a foreign lan­
guage, as well.
In graduate school, students
usually take several courses in their
major area of study. Requirements
for the master’s or doctor’s degree
vary by institution, but usually in­
clude a thesis based or independent
research. Students who want to spe­
cialize in a particular area of study
should select their schools care­
fully. For example, those who plan
to become biomedic al engineers
and biochemists ar d work in
medicine should study at a universi­
ty affiliated with a hospital. Those
who want to be agricultural
scientists can get the most practical
training at State universities that
have agricultural experiment sta­
Technicians acquire training in
many ways. Some complete on-thejob training programs, take formal
courses part time while working, or
obtain training in the Armed
Forces. Many employers, however,
seek graduates of spe :ialized train­
ing programs. One- to four-year
training programs aie offered in
post-secondary scho< >ls—technical
institutes, junior and community
colleges, area vocational technical
schools, and colleges and universi­

Opportunities in scientific and
technical occupations are expected
to expand through the mid-1980’s,
based on the assumption that addi­
tional numbers of engineers,
scientists, and technicians will be
needed to carry out research and
development (R&D) work. In the
past, growth in these occupations
has been related to increased R&D
expenditures, especially by the
Federal Government. R&D expen­
ditures of government and industry
are expected to continue to in­
crease through the mid-1980’s,
although more slowly than during
the 1960’s. If actual R&D levels
and patterns differ significantly
from those assumed, the outlook in
many occupations would be al­
Scientists, engineers, and other
scientific and technical workers will
be needed to develop new
technologies and better products.
In- addition, many technically
trained people will be required to
solve urgent problems such as air,
water, and noise pollution, to
develop new sources of energy, and
to combat disease.
The following sections provide de­
tailed information for 3 conservation
occupations, 12 engineering special­
ties, 13 scientific occupations includ­
ing life, physical, environmental, and
mathematical scientists, and 4 related
scientific and technical occupations.

Forests, rangelands, wildlife, soil,
and water are important natural
resources. Conservationists protect,
resources to assure that future
needs will be met.
A young person interested in a

career in conservation must have
specialized training or experience.
Foresters, range managers, and soil
conservationists generally need
bachelor’s degrees in their fields.
Technical school or on-the-job
training is usually required for other
conservation occupations. In addition
to technical knowledge and skills,
conservationists must have a sincere
interest in the environment and the
desire to protect it. They should
enjoy dealing with others and like
public service, since they often work
with people in the community. Flexi­
bility is also important, since a con­
servationist may work in a remote
camping area one week, speak to a
community group the next, and fight
a forest or brush fire the next.
This section describes three con­
servation occupations—forester,
range manager, and soil conservation­

Places of Employment
About 24,000 persons—most of
them men—worked as foresters in
1974. Over one-third worked in
private industry, mainly for pulp
and paper, lumber, logging, and
milling companies. About onefourth worked for the Federal
Government, primarily in the
Forest Service of the Department of
Agriculture. The remainder worked
for State and local governments,
colleges and universities, or con­
sulting firms or were self-employed,
either as consultants or forest
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major
in forestry is the minimum educa­
tional requirement for those desir­
ing professional careers in forestry.

An advanced degree is usually
required for teaching and research
Education in forestry leading to a
bachelor’s or higher degree was of­
fered in 1974 by 51 colleges and
universities, of which 40 were ac­
credited by the Society of Amer­
ican Foresters. Curriculums stress
the liberal arts and communications
skills as well as technical forestry
subjects. Most programs also in­
clude courses in forest economics
and business administration to sup­
plement the student’s scientific and
technical knowledge. Many col­
leges require students to spend one
summer in a field camp operated by
the college. All schools encourage
summer jobs that give firsthand ex­
perience in forest or conservation
Forestry graduates often work
under the supervision of ex­
perienced foresters before advanc­
ing to more responsible positions in

(D.O.T. 040.081)
Nature of the Work
Forests are a vital resource. They
can be used repeatedly without
managed. The condition of our en­
vironment has become a major na­
tional concern, and foresters play
an important role in protecting that
environment by ensuring that our
forests are properly used. They
manage, develop, and protect these
lands and their resources—timber,
water, wildlife, forage, and recrea­
tional areas.
Foresters also do research, pro­
vide forestry information to forest
owners and to the general public
(called extension work), and teach
at colleges and universities.
Foresters often specialize in one
area of work, such as timber
management, outdoor recreation,
or forest economics. Some of these
areas are recognized as distinct

Forester instructs forest crew in core sampling procedure.

forest management or research.
In addition to meeting the intel­
lectual demands of forestry work,
foresters must have enthusiasm for
outdoor work and be physically
Employment Outlook
As in the past, employment
requirements for foresters are ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. In recent years,
however, the number of degrees in
forestry has exceeded occupational
requirements, creating competition
for jobs. If the number of degrees
granted each year remains at
present levels, competition is ex­
pected to persist throughout the
period. Opportunities will be better
for those who can offer an em­
ployer either an advanced degree or
several years’ experience.
The country will need more
foresters in the future to ensure an
products. Employment also may in­
crease as we become more aware of
the need to conserve and replenish
our forest resources, and to im­
prove the environmental quality of
our forest lands.
Private owners of timberland
may well employ more foresters as
they recognize the need for—and
the higher profitability of—im­
proved forestry and logging prac­
tices. The forest products industry
will require additional foresters to
apply new techniques for using the
entire forest crop, to develop
methods of growing superior trees
in a shorter period of time, and to
do research in the fields of plant
genetics and fertilization.
Employment of foresters will
probably continue to grow faster in
private industry than in the Federal
Government where budget limita­
tions may restrain growth. State
government agencies will probably
hire more foresters through
Federal-State cooperative pro­
grams for fire control, protection

against insects and disease, recrea­
tion, and technical assistance to
owners of forest lands.
The expected rapid increase in
the employment of ferest techni­
cians will reduce the amount of
time spent by professic nal foresters
in performing routine lasks, but the
forester will have to ievote more
and more time to supervisory work
and to the general management of
the forest.
Earnings and Working
Condition s
Foresters starting in private in­
dustry in 1974 earned about $9,500
per year, while the median annual
salary in private industry was over
Graduates entering the Federal
Government as fores ers in 1974
with just a bachelor’s degree started
at $8,500 a year. However, because
of keen competition, most foresters
hired by the Federal Government
either held a master’s degree or had
some experience, and generally
started at $10,500 a jear. Ph. D.’s
generally started at $12,841 or
$15,481 a year. The nredian annual
salary in 1974 for f;derally em­
ployed foresters exceeded $ 18,000.
In local government, foresters
generally began at abaut $9,200 a
year, while their medi m annual sa­
lary was $13,750. State govern­
ments paid about $8,600 annually
to start, and State median salaries
were $13,200 per >ear. College
professors generally started at
about $9,300 annually, while their
median salary was ove r $ 18,000 per
year. Many faculty forssters supple­
ment their regular salaries with in­
come from lecturing, consulting,
and writing.
beginning jobs—spends considera­
ble time outdoors in all kinds of
weather, sometimes in remote
areas. Foresters ma i also work
extra hours on emergency duty, as
in firefighting or search and rescue

Sources of Additional
General information about the
forestry profession, lists of reading
materials, and lists of schools offer­
ing education in forestry are availa­
ble from:
Society of American Foresters, 1010 16th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
National Forest Products Association, 1619
Massachusetts Ave., NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

General career information is
also available from:
American Forest Institute, 1619 Mas­
sachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
American Forestry Association, 1319 18th
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

For information on forestry
careers in the Forest Service, con­
U .S.

D e p a rtm e n t


A g r ic u lt u r e ,


S e r v ic e , W a s h in g t o n , D . C . 2 0 2 5 0 .

(D.O.T. 040.081)
Nature of Work
Rangelands cover more than 1
billion acres of the United States,
mostly in the Western States and
Alaska. They contain many natural
resources: grass and shrubs for
watersheds, facilities for water
sports and other kinds of recrea­
tion, valuable minerals and energy
resources, and areas for scientific
study of the environment. These
resources can yield their full poten­
tial only if properly managed.
Range managers, sometimes
called r a n g e c o n s e r v a tio n i s t s , r a n g e
s c ie n tis ts ,
or r a n g e e c o lo g is ts ,
manage, improve, and protect
range resources. They determine
the number and kind of animals to
be grazed, the grazing system to be
used, and the best season for graz­
ing in order to yield a high produc­
tion of livestock. At the same time,

they must conserve soil and vegeta­
tion for other uses such as wildlife
grazing, outdoor recreation, and
managers restore or improve rangelands through techniques such as
controlled burning, reseeding, and
mechanical control of undesirable
plants. For example, rangelands
with natural sagebrush vegetation
may be plowed up and reseeded
with a more productive grass. They
also determine and carry out range
conservation and development
needs such as providing for animal
watering facilities, erosion control,
and fire prevention.
Because of the multiple use of
rangelands, range managers often
work in such closely related fields
as wildlife and watershed manage­
ment, forest management, and
recreation. Some also work on the
ecological restoration of areas for­
merly devoted to mineral extrac­
tion. Some range managers teach,
conduct research in range manage­
ment and improvement, and give
technical assistance to holders of
privately owned grazing lands.
Range manager reviews grazing permit with rancher.

Places of Employment
About 2,500 persons worked as
range managers in 1974. Additional
numbers were involved in jobs
closely allied to range management.
The majority worked for Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies. In the Federal Government,
most worked in the Forest Service
and the Soil Conservation Service
of the Department of Agriculture
and the Bureau of Land Manage­
ment of the Department of the In­
terior. Range managers in State
governments are employed in game
and fish departments, State land
agencies, and extension services.
An increasing number of range
managers are working with coal and
oil companies to help restore an
ecological balance to mined out
areas. Some range managers are

employed by private ranches, while
others work as appraisers for banks
and real estate firms.
A few range managers teach and
do research at colleges and univer­
sities. Others work overseas with
United States and United Nations
agencies and with foreign govern­
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major
in range management or range con­
servation is the usual minimum edu­
cational requirement for range
managers. In the Federal Govern­
ment, a degree in a closely related
field, such as agronomy or forestry,
including courses in range manage­
ment and range conservation, may
also be accepted. Graduate degrees
are generally required for teaching

and research, and may be helpful
for advancement in other jobs.
In 1974, 34 colleges and universi­
ties belonged to the Range Science
Education Council. About half
these schools offered full programs
leading to degrees in range manage­
ment or range science. The rest
generally offered supplementary
range science courses.
A degree in range management
requires a basic knowledge of biolo­
gy, chemistry, physics, mathe­
matics, and communication skills.
Specialized courses combine plant,
animal, and soil sciences with prin­
ciples of ecology and resource
management. Desirable electives
science, forestry, wildlife, and
Federal Government agencies,
primarily the Forest Service, the
Soil Conservation Service, and the

Bureau of Land Management, hire
some college juniors and seniors for
summer jobs in range management.
This experience may help them
qualify for jobs when they graduate.
Besides having a love for the out­
doors, range managers should be
able to write and speak effectively
and work with others.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
range managers are expected to be
good through the mid-1980’s. In­
creasing pressures for an abundant
supply of meat and other rangeland
animal products should stimulate
demand for range managers. Since
the amount of rangeland is
generally fixed, range managers will
be needed to increase the output of
rangelands while protecting their
ecological balance.
As oil and coal exploration ac­
celerates, and with the exploitation
of oil shale fields; private industry
will probably require many more
range specialists to rehabilitate
ecologically disturbed areas.
The use of rangelands for other
purposes such as wildlife protection
and recreation could create addi­
tional needs for range managers.
Federal hiring, however, depends
heavily upon legislation designed to
protect, control, and manage range
Earnings and Working
In the Federal Government,
range managers with the bachelor’s
degree start at either $8,500 or
$10,520, depending on their col­
lege grades. Those having 1 or 2
years of graduate work begin at
$10,520 or $12,841; persons with
Ph. D. degrees start at either
$15,481 or $18,463 a year.
Starting salaries for range
managers who work for State
governments are about the same as
those paid by the Federal Govern­
ment and private corporations. Ac­

eroded and depleted soils, and sta­
bilizing runoff and sedimentproducing areas. They also help im­
prove cover on lands devoted to
raising crops, and maintaining
forest, pasture, and range land and
the wildlife these lands support.
They help plan water handling, con­
serving water for farm and ranch
use, reducing damage from flood
water and sediment, and draining or
irrigating farms or ranches as
The types of technical services
provided by soil conservationists
are many. They prepare maps
which present inventories of soil,
Sources of Additional
water, vegetation, and other details
Informat on
essential in conservation planning
Information about a career as a and application. They develop in­
range manager as wsll as a list of formation
schools offering training is available methods of land utilization depend­
ing on the planned use of the land,
Society for Range Man, gement, 2120 S. for areas varying from field or par­
Birch St., Denver, Colo. 80222.
tial farm or ranch through groups of
For information about career op­ farms or ranches to entire
portunities in the Federal Govern­ watersheds. They help estimate
ment, contact:
relative costs and expected returns
of various alternatives of land use
Bureau of Land Managem:nt, Denver Serv­
ice Center, Federal Center Building
and treatment.
50, Denver, Col. 802 55.
After the landowner or operator
Forest Service, U S. Department of Agricul­ decides which conservation pro­
ture, 1621 N. Kent :>t., Arlington, Va.
gram to use, the conservationist
records the relevant facts as part of
Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department
a plan. This, together with the maps
of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
and other supplemental informa­
tion, constitutes a plan of action for
conservation farming or ranching.
The soil conservationist then gives
guidance in applying and maintain­
ing these conservation practices.
cording to limited data, those who
work on private ranches earn
somewhat lower salaries than per­
sons who work fo* government
agencies. In colleges and universi­
ties, Ph. D.’s general y start around
$14,000 a year. Range managers in
educational institutions sometimes
supplement their rtgular salaries
with income from part-time con­
sulting and lecturing and from writ­
ing books and article;.
Range managers it ay spend con­
siderable time awa;/ from home
working outdoors in i emote parts of
the range.

(D.O.T. 040.081)
Nature of the Work
Soil conservationists provide far­
mers, ranchers, and others with
technical assistance in the conser­
vation of soil and water. Farmers
and other land managers use this
technical assistant in adjusting
land use, protecting land against

Where Employed
An estimated 8,500 soil conser­
vationists were employed in 1974,
mostly by the Federal Government
in the U.S. Department of Agricul­
ture’s Soil Conservation Service
and the Department of the Interi­
or’s Bureau of Indian Affairs. Some
are employed by colleges and State
and local governments, and others
by banks and public utilities.

Training and Advancement
A bachelor of science degree
with a major in soil conservation or
one of the closely related agricul­
tural or natural resource sciences,
such as agronomy, forestry, wildlife
biology, regional planning, agricul­
tural education, or agricultural en­
gineering. Study must include 30semester hours or the equivalent in
natural resources or agricultural
fields, including the equivalent of 3semester hours in soils.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
well-trained soil conservationists
are good. Opportunities in the
profession will expand because

public utility companies, banks, and
other organizations are becoming
interested in conservation and are
adding conservationists to their
staffs. Some new openings will
occur in college teaching at the un­
dergraduate level. In addition, some
openings will result because of the
normal turnover in personnel.

Earnings of well-qualified Federal
soil conservationists with several
years’ experience range from
$15,481 to $25,581 a year.
Sources of Additional
Additional information on em­
ployment as a soil conservationist
may be obtained from the U.S. Civil
Service Commission, Washington,
D.C. 20415; Employment Division,
Office of Personnel, U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture, Washington,
D.C. 20250; or any office of the

Soil conservationists having a
bachelor’s degree and employed by
the Federal Government received
$8,500 a year in late 1974. Ad­
vancement to $10,520 could be ex­ Department’s Soil Conservation
pected after 1 year of satisfactory
service. Further advancement de­
pends upon the individual’s ability
to accept greater responsibility.

Nature of the Work

The work of engineers affects our
lives in thousands of different ways.
Their past accomplishments have
enabled us to drive safer automo­
biles, reach the moon, and even
through special
machinery. Future accomplish­
ments could help us obtain energy
self-sufficiency, develop more pol­
lution-free powerplants and aid
medical science’s fight against dis­
In 1974, more than 1.1 million
persons were employed as en­
gineers, the second largest profes­
sional occupation exceeded only by
teachers. About 1 percent of all en­
gineers were women. The number
of women engineers is expected to
increase in the future, since enroll­
ments of women in engineering pro­
grams have increased sharply over
the past several years.
Most engineers specialize in one
of the more than 25 specialties
recognized by professional socie­
ties. Within the major branches are
over 85 subdivisions. Structural, en­
highway engineering, for example,
are subdivisions of civil engineer­
ing. Engineers may also specialize
in the engineering problems of one
industry, such as motor vehicles, or
in a particular field of technology,
such as propulsion or guidance
systems. Since knowledge of basic
engineering principles is required
for all areas of engineering, it is
possible for engineers to shift from
one branch or field of specialization
to another, especially during the
early stages of their careers. This
section, which contains an overall
discussion of engineering, is fol­
lowed by separate statements on 12
branches of the professionaerospace, agricultural, biomedical,
ceramic, chemical, civil, electrical,
industrial, mechanical, metallurgi­
cal, mining, and petroleum en­

power, water supply, and waste
disposal systems to meet the
problems of urbar living. They
design machines ard artificial or­
gans which save coi ntless numbers
of lives. They design industrial
machinery and equ pment used to
manufacture goods, and heating,
air-conditioning, and ventilation
equipment for mo e comfortable
living. Engineers also develop
scientific equipmeni to probe outer
space and the oce in depths, and
design, plan, and supervise the con­
struction of buildings, highways,
and rapid transit systems. They
design and develop consumer
products such a: automobiles,
television sets, an i refrigerators,
and systems for control and auto­
mation of manufacturing, business,
and management processes.
Engineers must consider many
factors in developing a new
product. For example, in develop­
ing new devices to educe automo­
bile exhaust emissions, engineers
must determine the general nature
of the device, calculate and test all
components, and f i: them together
in an integrated plan. They must
then evaluate the o erall effective­
ness of the new devi :e, as well as its
cost and reliability These factors
are applicable to me st products, in­
cluding those as different as artifi­
cial hearts, electro lie computers,
or industrial machin ;ry.
In addition tc design and
development, engi leers work in
testing, production, or operation
and maintenance. S:ill others are in
administrative and management
background is nece sary, or in sales
where they discus; the technical
aspects of a product and assist in
planning its installation of use. (See
Salesworkers elsewhi re in this book.)
Engineers with con: iderable experi­
ence sometimes wor < as consultants
or teach in the engin :ering schools of

colleges and universities.
Engineers within each of the
branches may apply their special­
ized knowledge to many fields.
Electrical engineers, for example,
work in medicine, computers, mis­
sile guidance, or electric power dis­
Because engineering
problems are usually complex, the
work in some fields cuts across the
traditional branches. Using a team
approach to solve problems, en­
gineers in one field often work
closely with specialists in other
scientific, engineering, and business
Places of Employment
More than half of all engineers
work in manufacturing industries—
mostly in the electrical equipment,
aircraft and parts, machinery,
chemicals, scientific instruments,
primary metals, fabricated metal
products, and motor vehicle indus­
tries. Over 330,000 were employed
in nonmanufacturing industries in
1974, primarily in construction,
public utilities, engineering and
architectural services, and business
and management consulting ser­
Federal, State, and local govern­
engineers. Over half
worked for the Federal Govern­
ment, mainly in the Departments of
Interior, Agriculture,
Transportation, and in the National
Aeronautics and Space Administra­
tion. Most engineers in State and
local government agencies worked
in highway and public works de­
Colleges and universities em­
ployed about 43,000 engineers in
research and teaching jobs, and a
small number worked for nonprofit
research organizations.
Engineers are employed in every
State, in small and large cities and
in rural areas. However, about twothirds of all engineers in private in­
dustry are employed in 10 States,
and of these almost one-third are in
California, New York, and Pennsyl­

vania. Some branches of engineer­
ing are concentrated in particular
industries, as discussed in the state­
ments later in this chapter.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree in engineer­
ing is the generally accepted educa­
tional requirement for beginning
engineering jobs. College graduates
trained in one of the natural
sciences or mathematics also may
qualify for some beginning jobs. Ex­
perienced technicians with some
engineering education are some­
times able to advance to engineer­
ing jobs.
Graduate training is being
emphasized for an increasing
number of jobs; it is essential for
most beginning teaching and
research positions, and desirable
for advancement. Some specialties,
such as nuclear engineering, are
taught mainly at the graduate level.
About 280 colleges and universi­
ties offer a bachelor’s degree in en­
gineering. Although programs in
the larger branches of engineering
are offered in most of these institu­
tions, some small specialties are
taught in only a very few. There­
fore, students desiring specialized
training should investigate curriculums before selecting a college. Ad­
missions requirements for un­
dergraduate engineering schools
usually include high school courses
in advanced mathematics and the
physical sciences.
In a typical 4-year curriculum,
the first 2 years are spent studying
physics, chemistry, introductory en­
gineering—and the humanities, so­
cial sciences, and English. The last
2 years are devoted, for the most
part, to specialized engineering
courses. Some programs offer a
general engineering curriculum,
permitting the student to choose a
specialty in graduate school or
acquire it on the job.

Some engineering curriculums
require more than 4 years to
complete. A number of colleges
and universities now offer 5-year
master’s degree programs. In addi­
tion, several engineering schools
have formal arrangements with
liberal arts colleges whereby a stu­
dent spends 3 years in liberal arts
and 2 years in engineering and
receives a bachelor’s degree from
Some schools have 5- or even 6year cooperative plans where stu­
dents coordinate classroom study
and practical work experience. In
addition to gaining useful ex­
perience, students can finance part
of their education. Because of the
need to keep up with rapid ad­
vances in technology, engineers
often continue their education
throughout their careers in pro­
grams sponsored by employers, or
in colleges and universities after
working hours.
All 50 States and the District of
Columbia require licensing for en­
gineers whose work may affect life,
health, or property, or who offer
their services to the public. In 1974,
about 350,000 engineers were re­
gistered. Generally, registration
requirements include a degree from
an accredited engineering school, 4
years of relevant work experience,
and the passing of a State examina­
Engineering graduates usually
begin work under the supervision of
experienced engineers. Many com­
panies have special programs to
acquaint new engineers with special
industrial practices and to deter­
mine the specialties for which they
are best suited. Experienced en­
gineers may advance to positions of
greater responsibility; those with
proven ability often become ad­
ministrators and increasingly larger
numbers are being promoted to top
executive jobs. Some engineers ob­
tain graduate degrees in business
administration to improve their ad­
vancement opportunities, while still
others obtain law degrees and
become patent attorneys.

Engineers should be able to work
as part of a team and have creativi­
ty, an analytical mind, and a capaci­
ty for detail. They should be able to
express their ideas well orally and in
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
engineers are expected to be good
through the mid-1980’s. Opportuni­
ties for recent graduates of en­
gineering schools are expected to
be very good since the number of
new graduates is expected to fall
short of the number needed to fill
the thousands of openings created
by employment growth, and the
need to replace those who die,
retire, or transfer to other occupa­
tions. Because of the expected
shortage, many openings will be
filled by upgraded technicians and
college graduates from related
Employment requirements for
engineers are expected to grow
faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the mid-1980’s.
Much of this growth will stem from
industrial expansion to meet the de­
mand for more goods and services.
More engineers will be needed in
the design and construction of fac­
tories, electric powerplants, office
systems, as well as in the develop­
ment and manufacture of more ad­
vanced computers, scientific instru­
ments, industrial machinery, chemi­
cal products, and motor vehicles.
Many engineers will be required
in energy-related activities develop­
ing new sources of energy as well as
designing energy-saving systems for
automobiles, homes, and other
buildings. Engineers also will be
needed to solve environmental pol­
lution problems.
Defense spending will also affect
the outlook for engineers, since a
large number work in defense-re­
lated activities. The long-range out­
look for engineers given here is
based on the assumption that
defense spending will increase from

its 1974 level by the mid-1980’s,
but will still be somewhat lower
than the peak levels of the 1960’s.
If, however, defense activity differs
substantially from the level as­
sumed, the demand for engineers
will differ from that now expected.
Since so many factors affect
overall employment requirements,
opportunities for engineers fluctu­
ate periodically. In the short run,
the available engineering jobs can
either exceed or fall short of the
number of persons looking for jobs,
but over the long run, engineers can
look forward to good job opportu­
branches is discussed in the
separate statements later in this sec­

Earnings and Working
New engineering graduates with
a bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience were offered average
starting salaries of $ 11,940 a year in
private industry in 1974, according
to the College Placement Council.
Master’s degree graduates with no
$13,700 a year; Ph. D. graduates
averaged about $18,000. Starting
offers for those with the bachelor’s
degree vary by branch as shown in
the accompanying table.

college records. Those with a
master’s degree could start at
$10,520 or $12,841. Those having
a Ph. D. degree coi Id begin at
$15,481 or $18,463. The average
salary for experienced engineers in
the Federal Government varied by
engineering branch, ranging from
$20,300 for agricultural engineers
to $26,900 for nuclear engineers.
In colleges and universities in
1974, engineers start ;d at about
$10,550 a year as instructors, or
$13,050 a year as assistant profes­
sors for a 9- or 10- month academic
year. (See statement on College
and University Teachers elsewhere
in this book.
Engineers can expec t an increase
in earnings as they gain experience.
According to an Engineering Man­
power Commission Survey, the
average salary for engineers with 21
to 23 years of experience was
$22,900 in 1974. Some in top-level
executive positions had much
higher earnings.
Many engineers wore under quiet
conditions in modern offices and
research laboratories. Others, how­
ever, spend time in more active
work—in a factory or mine, at a
construction site, or some other
outdoor location.

A e r o n a u t ic a l e n g in e e r in g .......

$ 1 1 ,5 0 0
1 2 ,5 0 0

C i v i l e n g in e e r in g ....................

1 1 .6 0 0

E le c t r ic a l e n g in e e r in g ............

1 1 .8 0 0

In d u s t r ia l e n g in e e r in g ............

1 1 ,7 0 0

M e c h a n ic a l e n g in e e r in g ..........

1 2 ,0 0 0

M e t a llu r g ic a l e n g in e e r in g ......

1 2 ,0 0 0

In the Federal Government in
late 1974, engineers with a
bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience could start at $8,500 or
$10,520 a year, depending on their

E n g in e e r s ’
C o u n c il
D e v e lo p m e n t , 3 4 5
Y o rk , N .Y . 10017.
E n g in e e r in g

M anpow er

fo r
P r o f e s s io n a l
4 7 t h St., N e w

C o m m is s io n ,

A m e ric a n

S o c ie t y fo r E n g in e e r in g E d u c a ­

tio n , O n e D u p o n t C ir c le ,
W a s h in g t o n , D . C . 2 0 0 3 6 .

S u it e


Societies representing the in­
dividual branches of the engineer­
ing profession are listed later in this
chapter. Each can provide informa­
tion about careers in the particular
branch. Many other engineering or­
ganizations are listed in the follow­
ing publications available in most
libraries or from the publisher:
D ir e c t o r y


E n g in e e r i n g

S o c ie t ie s ,

p u b lis h e d b y E n g in e e r s J o in t C o u n c il,
3 4 5 E . 4 7 t h St., N e w Y o r k , N . Y . 1 0 0 1 7 .
S c ie n tif ic


T e c h n ic a l

S o c ie tie s


th e

U n ite d S ta t e s a n d C a n a d a , p u b lis h e d b y
the N a t io n a l A c a d e m y o f S c ie n c e s , N a ­
t io n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c il.

Some engineers are members of
labor unions. Information on en­
gineering unions is available from:
In t e r n a t io n a l F e d e r a t io n o f P r o f e s s io n a l a n d
T e c h n ic a l E n g in e e r s , 1 1 2 6 1 6 th St.
N W . , W a s h in g t o n , D . C . 2 0 0 3 6 .

(D.O.T. 002.081)
Nature of the Work

Sources of Additional

General information on engineer­
ing careers—including
Starting salaries for engineers, by branch,
selection and guidance, profes­
1 9 7 3 -7 4
sional training, and salaries—is
A verage starting
available from:
C h e m i c a l e n g in e e r in g ............

For information about graduate
study, contact:


g in e e r s J o in t C o u n c il, 3 4 5 E . 4 7 t h St.,
N e w Y o rk . 10017.
N a t io n a l S o c ie t y o f P r o f e s s io n a l E n g in e e r s ,
2 0 2 9 K St. N W . , W a s h in g t o n , D . C .

Information on registration of en­
gineers may be obtain2 d from:
N a t io n a l C o u n c il o f E n g in e e r in g E x a m in e r s ,
P .O . B o x 7 5 2 , C le m s o n , S .C . 2 9 6 1 3 .

Aerospace engineers play a vital
role in America’s defense and space
activities. They work on all types of
aircraft and spacecraft including
missiles, rockets, and military and
commercial planes. They develop
aerospace products from initial
planning and design to final as­
sembly and testing.
Aerospace engineers generally
specialize in an area of work like
guidance and control, instrumenta­
tion and communication, or
production methods. They also may
specialize in one type of aerospace
product such as passenger planes,
launch vehicles, satellites, manned
space capsules, or landing modules.

Places of Employment
About 52,000 aerospace en­
gineers were employed in 1974,
mainly in the aircraft and parts in­
dustry. Some worked for Federal
Government agencies, primarily the
National Aeronautics and Space
Administration and the Department
of Defense. A few worked for com­
mercial airlines, consulting firms,
and colleges and universities.
Employment Outlook
Employment of aerospace en­
gineers is expected to rise above
recent levels by the mid-1980’s.
Employment of aerospace en­
gineers is largely determined by the
level of Federal expenditures on
defense and space programs: in the
past, rapid changes in spending
levels have usually been accom­
panied by sharp employment fluc­
tuations. Expenditures for the space
program are expected to increase
only slightly from 1974 to the mid1980’s, while defense spending will
increase moderately.
Although neither defense nor space
expenditures are expected to reach
their peak levels of the 1960’s,
many additional workers will be
required to fill openings created by
growth of the aerospace industry
and by deaths, retirements, and
transfers. (See introductory section
of this chapter for discussion of
training requirements and earnings.)
Sources of Additional
A m e r i c a n In s titu te o f A e r o n a u t ic s a n d A s ­
tro n a u tic s , In c ., 1 2 9 0 A v e n u e o f the
A m e r ic a s , N e w Y o r k , N . Y . 1 0 0 1 9 .

(D.O.T. 013.081)
Nature of the Work
Agricultural engineers develop
methods to improve efficiency in
the production, processing, and dis­
tribution of food and other agricul­
tural products. They design farm
machinery, equipment, and struc­
tures, and develop methods for
utilizing electrical energy on farms
and in food and feed processing
plants. Agricultural engineers also
are concerned with the conserva­
tion and management of soil and
water resources. They work in
research and development, produc­
tion, sales, or management.

Places of Employment
Most of the 12,000 agricultural
engineers employed in
worked for manufacturers of farm
and household equipment, electric
utility companies, and distributors
of farm equipment and supplies.
Some worked for engineering con­
sultants who supply services to far­
mers and farm-related industries;
others were independent con­
The Federal Government em­
ploys about 600 agricultural en­
gineers in the Soil Conservation
Service and Agricultural Research
Service of the Department of
Agriculture. Some are employed by
colleges and universities, and a few
are employed by State and local
Employment Outlook
Employment of agricultural en­
gineers is expected to grow faster
than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. Increasing
demand for agricultural products,
modernization of farm operations,
increasing emphasis on conserva­

tion of resources, and the use of
agricultural products and wastes as
industrial raw materials should pro­
vide opportunities for additional
engineers. (See introductory part of
this section for information on
training requirements and earnings.)
Sources of Additional
A m e r i c a n S o c ie t y o f A g r ic u lt u r a l E n g in e e r s ,
2 9 5 0 N ile s R d . , St. J o se p h , M ic h .

Nature of the Work
Biomedical engineers use en­
gineering principles to solve medi­
cal and health-related problems.
Many do research, along with life
scientists, chemists, and members
of the medical profession, on the
engineering aspects of the biologi­
cal systems of man and animals.
Some design and develop medical
instruments and devices including
artificial hearts and kidneys, lasers
for surgery, and pacemakers that
regulate the heartbeat. Other
biomedical engineers adapt compu­
ters to medical science, and design
and build systems to modernize
laboratory, hospital, and clinical
procedures. Most engineers in this
field require a sound background in
one of the major engineering
disciplines (mechanical, electrical
or chemical) in addition to special­
ized biomedical training.
Places of Employment
There were 3,000 biomedical en­
gineers in 1974. Most teach and do
research in colleges and universi­
ties. Some work for the Federal
Government, primarily in the Na­
tional Aeronautics and Space Ad­
ministration, or in State agencies.
An increasing number work in
private industry developing new
devices, techniques, and systems

for improving health care. Some
work in sales positions.
Employment Outlook
Employment of biomedical en­
gineers is expected to grow faster
than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s, but the ac­
tual number of openings is not like­
ly to be very large. Those who have
master’s and Ph. D. degrees will be
in strong demand to teach and to fill
jobs resulting from increased ex­
penditures for medical research. In­
creased research funds could also
create new positions in instrumen­
tation and systems for the delivery
of health services. (See introducto­
ry part of this chapter for informa­
tion on training requirements and
Sources of Additional
Alliance for Engineering in Medicine and
Biology, 3900 Wisconsin Ave. NW.,
Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20016.
Biomedical Engineering Society, P.O. Box
2399, Culver City, Calif. 90230.
Foundation for Medical Technology, Mt.
Sinai Medical Center, 100 St., 5th Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10029.

nuclear reactors. They also design
and supervise the construction of
plants and equipment lo manufac­
ture these products.
Ceramic engineers generally spe­
cialize in one or more products—
for example, products of refracto­
ries (fire-and heat-resistant materi­
als such as firebrick); white wares
(porcelain and china di inerware or
high voltage electrical insulators);
structural materials (such as brick
tile, and terra cotta) electronic
ceramics (ferrites fcr memory
systems and microwa\e devices);
protective and refractory coatings
for metals; glass; abrasives; cements
technology; or fuel e ements for
atomic energy.
Places of Employment
About 12,000 ceramic engineers
were employed in 1974, mostly in
the stone, clay, and glass industries.
Others work in industries that
produce or use ceramic products
such as the iron and ste;l, electrical
equipment, aerospace, and chemi­
cals industries. Some ars in colleges
research organizations., and the
Federal Government.
Employment Outlook

(D.O.T. 006.081)
Nature of the Work
methods for processing ceramic
materials into useful products.
Although to some, the word ceram­
ics means pottery, ceramics ac­
tually include a wide range of
products with thousands of uses.
Ceramics include all non-metallic,
inorganic materials which require
the use of high temperature in their
processing. Thus, ceramic en­
gineers work on diverse products
such as glassware, heat-resisting
materials for missile nose cones,
electronic components and materi­
als used in medical devices, and

Employment of ceramic en­
gineers is expected to grow faster
than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s.
Programs related to nuclear ener­
gy, electronics, defense, and medi­
cal science will provide job oppor­
tunities for ceramic engineers. Ad­
ditional ceramic engineers will be
required to improve and adapt
traditional ceramic products, such
as white wares and abrasives, to new
uses. The developmer t of filters
and catalytic surfaces to reduce
pollution, and the development of
ceramic materials for jnergy con­
version and conserva.ion should
create additional openings for
ceramic engineers. (See introducto­
ry part of this section l or informa­
tion on training requirements and

Sources of Additional
American Ceramic Society, 65 Ceramic Dr.,
Columbus, Ohio 43214.

(D.O.T. 008.081)
Nature of the Work
Chemical engineers are involved
in many phases of the production of
chemicals and chemical products.
They design equipment and chemi­
cal plants as well as determine
methods of manufacturing the
product. Often, they design and
operate pilot plants to test their
and develop
processes such as those for remov­
ing chemical contaminants from
waste materials. Because the duties
of chemical engineers cut across
many fields, these professionals
must have a working knowledge of
chemistry, physics, and mechanical
and electrical engineering.
This branch of engineering is so
diversified and complex that chemi­
cal engineers frequently specialize
in a particular operation such as ox­
idation or polymerization. Others
specialize in a particular area such
as environmental control or in the
production of a specific product
like plastics or rubber.
Places of Employment
Most of the 50,000 chemical en­
gineers working in 1974 were in
manufacturing industries, primarily
those producing chemicals, petrole­
um, and related products. Some
worked in government agencies or
taught and did research in colleges
and universities. A small number
worked for independent research
institutes and engineering consult­
ing firms, or as independent con­
sulting engineers.

(D.O.T. 005.081)
Nature of the Work
Civil engineering is one of the ol­
dest branches of the profession.
Civil engineers design and supervise
the construction of roads, harbors,
airports, tunnels, bridges, water
supply and sewage systems, and
buildings. Major specialties within
civil engineering are structural,
hydraulic, environmental (sanitary),
transportation (including highways
and railways), geotechnical and soil
Many civil engineers are in super­
visory or administrative positions
ranging from site supervisor of a
construction project or city en­
gineer to top-level executive.
Others teach in colleges and univer­
sities or work as consultants.

Places of Employment

Sources of Additional

Nearly 170,000 civil engineers
were employed in 1974. Most work
for Federal, State, and local govern­
ment agencies or in the construc­
tion industry. Many work for con­
sulting engineering and architec­
tural firms or as independent con­
sulting engineers. Others work for
public utilities, railroads, educa­
tional institutions, and manufactur­
ing industries.
Civil engineers work in all parts
of the country, usually in or near
major industrial and commercial
centers. They often work at con­
struction sites, sometimes in remote
areas or in foreign countries. In
some jobs, they must often move
from place to place to work on dif­
ferent projects.

American Institute of Chemical Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.

Employment Outlook

Chemical engineer checks production instructions on chemical plant.

Employment Outlook
Employment of chemical en­
gineers is expected to grow faster
than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. A major
factor underlying this growth is in­
dustry expansion—the chemicals
industry in particular.
The growing complexity and au­
tomation of chemical processes will
require additional chemical en­
gineers to design, build, and main­
tain the necessary plants and equip­
ment. Chemical engineers also will
be needed in solving problems of
environmental protection, synthetic
food processing, and in the design
and development of nuclear reac­
tors. In addition, development of

new chemicals used in the manufac­
ture of consumer goods, such as
plastics and man-made fibers,
probably will create additional
openings. (See introductory part of
this section for information on
training requirements and earnings.
See also the statement on Chemists
elsewhere in this book.)

Employment of civil engineers is
expected to increase faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. Job opportunities

instrumentation, radar, computers,
and missile guidance
systems; and electrical appliances
of all kinds. They also design and
operate facilities for generating and
distributing electric power.
Electrical engineers generally
specialize in a major area of work
such as electronics, computers,
electrical equipment manufactur­
ing, communications, or power.
Others specialize in subdivisions of
these broad areas like microwaves
or missile guidance and tracking
systems. Many are engaged in
research, development, and design
activities. Some are in administra­
tive and management jobs; others
work in manufacturing operations,
in technical sales, or in college
Places of Employment

Civil engineers design a variety of projects such as roads, bridges, a id air fields.

will result from the growing needs
for housing, industrial buildings,
electric power generating plants,
and transportation systems created
by an increasing population and an
expanding economy. Work related
to solving problems of environmen­
tal pollution and energy self-suffi­
ciency will also require additional
civil engineers. Increasing develop­
ment of offshore drilling facilities
will create additional openings for
civil engineers in this specialized
Many civil engineers also will be
needed each year to replace those
who retire or die. (See introductory
part of this section for information
on training requirements and

Sources of Additional
American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 E.
47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

Electrical engineering is the larg­
est branch of the profession. Near­
ly 290,000 electrical engineers
were employed in 1974, mainly by
manufacturers of electrical and
electronic equipment, aircraft and
parts, business machines, and
professional and scientific equip­
ment. Many work for telephone,
telegraph, and electric light and
power companies. Large numbers
are employed by government agen­
cies and by colleges and universi­
ties. Others work for construction
firms, for engineering consultants,
or as independent consulting en­

(D.O.T. 003.081, .151 and .187)

Employment Outlook

Nature of the V/ork

Employment of electrical en­
gineers is expected to increase
faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the mid-1980’s. In­
creased demand for products such
as computers, communications and
electric power generating equip­
ment, and military electronics is ex­
pected to be the major factor con­
tributing to this growth. The de-

develop, and supervise the manu­
facture of electrical and electronic
equipment. These include electric
motors and generators communi­
pacemakers, pollution measuring

mand for electrical and electronic
consumer goods, along with in­
creased research and development
in nuclear power generation, should
create additional jobs for electrical
engineers. Many electrical en­
gineers also will be needed to
replace personnel who retire, die,
or transfer to other fields of work.
The long-range outlook for elec­
trical engineers is based on the as­
sumption that defense spending in
the mid-1980’s will increase from
the 1974 level, but will still be
somewhat lower than the peak level
of the late 1960’s. If defense activi­
ty should differ substantially from
the projected level, the demand for
electrical engineers will differ from
that now expected.
(See introductory part of this sec­
tion for information on training
requirements and earnings.)

Sources of Additional
Institute of Electrical and Electronic En­
gineers, 345 East 47th St., New York,
N Y . 10017.

(D.O.T. 012.081, .168, and .188)
Nature of the Work
Industrial engineers determine
the most effective ways for an
organization to use the basic
factors of production—personnel,
machines, and materials. They are
more concerned with people and
methods of business organization,

than are engineers in other special­
ties who generally are concerned
more with particular products or
processes, such as metals, or power
and mechanics.
systems for data processing and
production, and related problems.
They also develop management
control systems to aid in financial
planning and cost analysis, design
production planning and control
systems to coordinate activities and
control product quality, and design
or improve systems for the physical
distribution of goods and services.
Other activities include plant loca­
tion surveys, where they must con­
sider sources of raw materials,
transportation, and taxes, and the
development of wage and salary ad­
ministration concepts and job
evaluation programs.
Places of Employment
About 180,000 industrial en­
gineers were employed in 1974;
more than two-thirds worked in
manufacturing industries. Because
their skills can be used in almost
any type of company, they are more
widely distributed among industries
than are those in other branches of
engineering. For example, some
work for insurance companies,
banks, construction and mining
firms, and public utilities. Hospitals,
retail organizations, and other large
business firms employ industrial en­
gineers to improve operating effi­
ciency. Still others work for govern­
ment agencies and colleges and
universities. A few are independent
consulting engineers.
Employment Outlook

Industrial engineer reviews film of production process to check for problems.

Employment of industrial en­
gineers is expected to grow faster
than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. The in­
creasing complexity of industrial
operations and the expansion of au-

tomated processes, along with in­
dustry growth, are factors con­
tributing to employment growth. In­
creased recognition of the im­
portance of scientific management
and safety engineering in reducing
costs and increasing productivity,
and the need to solve problems of
environmental pollution, should
create additional opportunities.
Additional numbers of industrial
engineers will be required each year
to replace those who retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations. (See
introductory part of this section for
information on training require­
ments and earnings.)
Sources of Additional
American Institute of Industrial Engineers,
Inc., 25 Technology Park, Atlanta, Norcross, Ga. 30071.

(D.O.T. 007.081, .151, .168, and
Nature of the Work
Mechanical engineers are con­
cerned with the production, trans­
mission, and use of power. They
design and develop machines that
produce power, such as internal
combustion engines, steam and gas
turbines, jet and rocket engines,
and nuclear reactors. They also
design and develop a great variety
of machines that use power—
refrigeration and air-conditioning
equipment, elevators, machine
tools, printing presses, steel rolling
mills, and many others.
Many specialized areas of work
have developed within this field
and, since mechanical engineers are
employed in nearly all industries,
their work varies with the industry
and the function performed.
Among these specialties are motor

Mechanical engineers test a mockup of equipment.

vehicles, marine equipment, steampower, heating, ventilating and airconditioning, instrumentation, and
machines for specialize! 1 industries,
such as petroleum, rubber and
plastics, and construction.
Large numbers of mechanical en­
gineers do research, test, and design
work. Many are admir istrators or
managers, while others work in
maintenance, technical sales, and
production operations. Some teach
in colleges and universities or work
as consultants.
Places of Employment
About 185,000 mechanical en­
gineers were employed in 1974. Al­
most three-fourths werj employed
in manufacturing—ma nly in the
primary and fabricated metals,
machinery, transportal ion equip­

ment, and electrical equipment in­
dustries. Others work for govern­
ment agencies, educational institu­
tions, and consulting engineering
Employment Outlook
Employment of mechanical en­
gineers is expected to increase
faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the mid-1980’s.
The growing demand for industrial
machinery and machine tools and
the increasing complexity of indus­
trial machinery and processes will
be major factors supporting in­
creased employment opportunities.
Growing demand for nuclear
power, as well as the need to solve
environmental pollution problems,
will also contribute to employment

Large numbers of mechanical en­
gineers also will be required each
year to replace those who retire,
die, or transfer to other occupa­
tions. (See introductory part of this
section for information on training
requirements and earnings.)

Sources of Additional
The American Society of Mechanical En­
gineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York,
N .Y .10017.

(D.O.T. 011.081)
Nature of the Work
Metallurgical engineers, increas­
ingly referred to as materials en­
gineers, develop methods to
process and convert metals into
useful products. These engineers
generally work in one of the three
main branches of metallurgy—ex­
tractive or chemical, physical, and
mechanical. Extractive metallur­
gists are concerned with extracting
metals from ores, and refining and
alloying them to obtain useful
metal. Physical metallurgists deal
with the nature, structure, and
physical properties of metals and
their alloys, and with methods of
converting refined metals into final
products. Mechanical metallurgists
develop methods to work and shape
metals such as casting, forging,
rolling, and drawing. Scientists
working in this field are known as
metallurgists or materials scientists,
scientists and engineers is small.
Places of Employment
The metalworking industries—
primarily the iron and steel and
nonferrous metals industries—em­
ployed over one-half of the esti­
mated 17,000 metallurgical and

materials engineers in 1974. Metal­
lurgical engineers also work in in­
dustries that manufacture machin­
ery, electrical equipment, and air­
craft and parts, and in the mining
industry. Some work for govern­
ment agencies and colleges and
Employment Outlook
Employment of metallurgical and
materials engineers is expected to
grow about as fast as the average for
all occupations through the mid1980’s. An increasing number of
these engineers will be needed by
the metalworking industries to
develop new metals and alloys as
well as to adapt current ones to new
needs. For example, communica­
tions equipment, computers, and
metals of high purity. Metallurgical
engineers also will be needed to

solve problems associated with the
efficient use of nuclear energy. As
the supply of high-grade ores
diminishes, more metallurgical en­
gineers will be required to develop
new ways of recycling solid waste
materials in addition to processing
low-grade ores now regarded as un­
profitable to mine. (See introducto­
ry part of this section for informa­
tion on training requirements and
Sources of Additional
The Metallurgical Society of the American
Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and
Petroleum Engineers, 345 E. 47th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.
American Society for Metals, Metals Park,
Ohio 44073.

(D.O.T. 010.081 and .187)
Nature of the Work
Mining engineers find, extract,
and prepare minerals for manufac­
turing industries to use. They design
the layouts of mines, supervise the
construction of mine shafts and tun­
nels in underground operations,
and devise methods for transporting
minerals to processing plants. Min­
ing engineers are responsible for
the efficient operation of mines and
mine safety, including ventilation,
water supply, power, communica­
tions, and equipment maintenance.
Some mining engineers work with
geologists and metallurgical en­
gineers to locate and appraise new
ore deposits. Others develop new
mining equipment and devise im­
proved methods to process ex­
tracted minerals. Mining engineers
frequently specialize in the extrac­
tion of specific metal ores, coal, and
other nonmetallic minerals.
With increased emphasis on pro­
tecting the environment, many min­
ing engineers have been working to
solve problems related to minedland reclamation and water and air

is expected to increase through the
mid-1980’s. Efforts to attain energy
self-sufficiency should spur the de­
mand for coal, and therefore for
mining engineers in the coal indus­
try. The increase in demand for
coal will depend, to a j'reat extent,
Places of Employment
on the availability and price of
About 5,000 mining engineers other domestic energy sources such
were employed in 1974. Most work as petroleum, natural gas, and
in the mining industry. Some work nuclear energy. More technologi­
for firms that produce equipment cally advanced mining systems and
for the mining industry, while further enforcement of mine health
others work in colleges and univer­ and safety regulations will also in­
sities, in government agencies, or as crease the need for mining en­
independent consultants.
gineers. In addition, exploration for
Mining engineers are usually em­ all other minerals is alsD increasing.
ployed at the location of mineral Easily mined deposits are being
deposits, often near small commu­ depleted, creating a r eed for en­
nities. However, those in research, gineers to devise more efficient
teaching, management, consulting, methods for mining low-grade ores.
or sales are often located in large Employment opportunities also will
metropolitan areas.
arise as new alloys and new uses for
metals increase the demand for less
widely used ores. P ecovery of
Employment Outlook
metals from the sea and the
Employment of mining engineers development of recentl / discovered

oil shale deposits could present
major challenges to the mining en­
gineer. (See introductory part of
this section for information on
training requirements and earnings.)
Sources of Additional
The Society of Mining Engineers of the
American Institute of Mining, Metallur­
gical, and Petroleum Engineers, 345 E.
47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

(D.O.T. 010.081)
Nature of the Work
Petroleum engineers are mainly
involved in drilling for and produc­
ing oil and gas. They work to
achieve the maximum profitable

suiting engineers, and for Federal
and State governments.
The petroleum engineer’s work is
concentrated in places where oil
and gas is found. Almost threefourths of all petroleum engineers
are employed in the oil producing
States of Texas, Oklahoma, Loui­
siana, and California. There are
many American petroleum en­
gineers working overseas in oil
producing countries.
Employment Outlook

Petroleum engineer examines a cross section plot of a petroleum reservoir.

recovery of oil and gas from a
petroleum reservoir by determining
and developing the best and most
efficient drilling methods.
Since only a small proportion of
the oil and gas in a reservoir will
flow out under natural forces,
petroleum engineers develop and
use various artificial recovery
methods such as flooding the oil
field with water to force the oil to
the surface. Even when using the
best recovery methods, about half
the oil is still left in the ground.
Petroleum engineers’ research and
development efforts to increase the
proportion of oil recovered in each
reservoir can make a significant
contribution to increasing available
energy resources.

Places of Employment
Over 12,000 petroleum engineers
were employed in 1974, mostly in
the petroleum industry and closely
allied fields. Their employers in­
clude not only the major oil compa­
nies, but also the thousands of
smaller independent oil exploration
and production companies. They
also work for companies that
produce drilling equipment and
supplies. Some petroleum engineers
work in banks and other financial
institutions, which need their
knowledge of the economic value
of oil and gas properties. A small
number work for engineering con­
sulting firms or as independent con-

The employment of petroleum
engineers is expected to grow faster
than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. Economic
expansion will require increasing
supplies of petroleum and natural
gas, even with energy conservation
measures. With efforts to attain
energy self-sufficiency, and high
petroleum prices, increasingly so­
phisticated and expensive recovery
methods will be used. Also, new
sources of oil such as oil shale and
new offshore oil sources may be
developed. All of these factors will
contribute to increasing demand for
petroleum engineers. (See in­
troductory part of this section for
information on training require­
ments and earnings.)
Sources of Additional
Society of Petroleum Engineers of A1ME,
6200 North Central Expressway, Dallas,
Tex. 75206.

Environmental scientists help us
understand our physical environ­
ment. They play an important role
in solving environmental pollution
problems. These scientists, some­
times known as earth scientists, are
concerned with the history, com­
position, and characteristics of the
earth’s surface, interior, and at­
mosphere. Some do basic research
to increase scientific knowledge,
while others do applied research
and use knowledge gained from
basic research to help solve practi­
cal problems. Geologists, for exam­
ple, explore for new sources of oil,
other fuels, and ores. Most
scientists teach in colleges and
This chapter discusses four en­
vironmental science occupations—

geologists, geophyscists, meteor­
ologists, and oceanographers.

(D.O.T. 024.081)
Nature of the Work
Geologists study the structure,
composition, and history of the
earth’s crust in order to locate natu­
ral resources, give warnings of natu­
ral disasters, and insure that
buildings are constructed on firm
foundations. By examining surface
rocks and drilling to recover rock
cores, they determine the distribu­
tion, thickness, and slope of the
rocks beneath the earth’s surface.
They also identify rocks and
minerals, conduct geological sur­
veys, draw maps, take measure­
ments, and record data.
Geologists use many tools and in­
struments such as hammers, chisels,
levels, transits (mounted telescopes
used to measure angles), gravity

meters, cameras, compasses, and
seismographs (instruments that
record the intensity an i duration of
earthquakes and ear h tremors).
They may evaluate information
from photographs taksn from air­
craft and satellites anc use compu­
ters to record and analyze data.
Geologists may aho work in
laboratories where they examine
the chemical and phys ical proper­
ties of specimens under controlled
temperature and pressure. They
may study fossil remai is of animal
and vegetable life or experiment
with the flow of water and oil
through rocks. Laboratory equip­
ment used by geologists includes
complex instruments si ch as the Xray diffractometer, uhich deter­
mines the structure of minerals, and
the petrographic microscope for
close study of rock formations.
Besides locating re sources and
working in laboratories, geologists
are also called on to advise con­
struction companies and govern­
mental agencies on the suitability of
certain locations for constructing
buildings, dams, or higl sways. Some
geologists administer md manage
research and exploration programs.
Others teach and work on research
projects in colleges and universities.
Geologists usually specialize in
one or a combinaticn of three
general areas—earth materials,
earth processes, and earth history.
E c o n o m ic g e o lo g i s t s locate earth
materials such as minerals and solid
fuels. P e tr o le u m g e o lo g is ts search
for and recover oil and natural gas.
Some petroleum geologists work
near drilling sites and others corre­
late petroleum related geologic in­
formation for entire regions. E n ­
g in e e r in g g e o lo g is ts determine suita­
ble sites for the construction of
roads, airfields, tunnels, dams, and
other structures. They decide, for
example, whether underground
rocks will bear the weight of a
building or whether a proposed
structure may be in an ^earthquake
prone-area. M in e r a lo g is ts analyze
and classify minerals and precious
stones according to composition

and structure. G e o c h e m is ts study
the chemical composition and
changes in minerals and rocks to
understand the distribution and
migration of elements in the earth’s
Geologists concerned with earth
processes study landforms and their
rock masses, sedimentary deposits
(matter deposited by water or
wind) and eruptive forces such as
volcanoes. V o lc a n o lo g is ts study ac­
tive and inactive volcanoes, and
lava flows and other eruptive activi­
ty. G e o m o r p h o l o g is t s examine landforms and those forces, such as ero­
sion and glaciation, which cause
them to change.
Other geologists are primarily
concerned with earth history.
P a le o n t o lo g i s ts
study plant and
animal fossils to trace the evolution
and development of past life.
G e o c h r o n o lo g is ts determine the age
of rocks and landforms by the
radioactive decay of their elements.
S tr a ti g r a p h e r s study the distribution
and arrangement of sedimentary
rock layers by examining their fossil
and mineral content.
Many geologists specialize in new
fields that require knowledge of
another science as well. A s tr o g e o lo g i s t s study geological conditions on
other planets. G e o lo g ic a l o c e a n o g ­
r a p h e r s study the sedimentary and
other rock on the ocean floor and
continental shelf. (See statements
on Oceanographers and Mining
elsewhere in this book.)
Places of Employment
More than 23,000 people worked
as geologists in 1974, approximate­
ly 10 percent of them women. Al­
most three-fifths of all geologists
work in private industry. Most in­
dustrial geologists work for petrole­
um companies. Geologists also
work for mining and quarrying
companies. Some are employed by
construction firms. Others are inde­
pendent consultants to industry and
The Federal Government em­
ploys over 1,600 geologists. Two-

thirds work for the Department of
the Interior in the U.S. Geological
Survey, the Bureau of Mines, and
the Bureau of Reclamation. State
agencies also employ geologists,
some working on surveys in
cooperation with the U.S. Geologi­
cal Survey.
Colleges and universities employ
almost 7,500 geologists. Some work
for nonprofit research institutions
and museums.
Employment of geologists is con­
centrated in those States with large
oil and mineral deposits. Almost
two-thirds work in five States:
Colorado, and Oklahoma. Some are
employed by American firms over­
seas for varying periods of time.

research assistants in laboratories.
With experience, they can be
promoted to project leader, pro­
gram manager, or other manage­
ment and research positions.
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities in
geology are expected to be good for
those with a bachelor’s degree in
geology or in a related science with
courses in geology; they are ex­
pected to be very good for those
with advanced degrees in geology
or a related science. The employ­
ment of geologists is expected to
grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the mid1980’s, creating several hundred
new openings each year. In addi­

tion, a thousand or so openings will
be created each year by geologists
who retire, die, or transfer to other
Consumer and industrial demand
for petroleum and minerals will
continue to rise and efforts to attain
energy self-sufficiency will mean
that increased supply will come
from domestic rather than foreign
sources. Geologists will be required
to locate and recover new deposits
to fill this increased demand. Addi­
tional geologists will be needed to
discover new resources and their
potential uses. For example, geolo­
gists will help determine the feasi­
bility of using geothermal energy
(steam from the earth’s interior) to
generate electricity. Geologists are

Training, Qualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree in geology or
a related field is adequate for entry
into many geology jobs. An ad­
vanced degree is helpful for ad­
vancement in most types of work,
and is essential for college teaching
and some research positions.
About 300 colleges and universi­
ties offer a bachelor’s degree in
geology. Undergraduate students
devote about one-fourth of their
time to geology courses, including
historical geology, structural geolo­
gy, mineralogy, petrology, and in­
vertebrate paleontology. Students
spend about one-third of their time
sciences—such as physics and
chemistry—and engineering; they
spend the remainder on general
academic subjects.
More than 160 universities award
advanced degrees in geology. Grad­
uate students take advanced cours­
es in geology and specialize in one
branch of the science.
Students planning careers in ex­
ploration geology should like the
outdoors, and must have physical
Geologists usually begin their
careers in field exploration or as

Geologists sometimes work in remote places such as this offshore oil rig.

needed to devise techniques for ex­
ploring deeper within the earth’s
crust and to develop more efficient
methods of mining resources. They
also are needed to develop
adequate water supplies and waste
disposal methods, and to do site
evaluation for construction activi­
Demand for geologists in Federal
agencies will continue to grow, par­
ticularly in the U.S. Geological Sur­
vey. Growth in college and universi­
ty employment will be at a slower
rate than in the past, however.

Earnings and Working
Geologists have relatively high
salaries, with average earnings over
twice those of nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Starting salaries for new gradu­
ates in private industry averaged
$10,500 a year in 1974 for those
a bachelor’s degree,
$ 12,200 for those having a master’s
degree, and $16,000 for those hav­
ing a doctorate, according to the
American Geological Institute.
In the Federal Government in
late 1974, geologists having a
bachelor’s degree could begin at
$8,500 or $10,520 a year, depend­
ing on their college records. Those
having a master’s degree could start
at $ 10,520 or $ 12,841 a year; those
having the Ph. D. degree at $ 15,481
or $18,463. In late 1974, the
average salary for geologists em­
ployed in the Federal Government
was almost $24,000 a year.
Conditions of work vary. Ex­
ploration geologists often work
overseas. Geologists travel to
remote sites by helicopter and jeep,
and cover large areas by foot, often
working in teams. Geologists in
mining sometimes work un­
derground. When not working out­
doors, they are in comfortable,
well-lighted, well-ventilated offices
and laboratories.

tion of nuclear explosions, and pro­
vide information for use in con­
structing bridges, dams, and
General information on career buildings. For example, in con­
and structing a dam, seismologists
earnings for geologists is available determine where bedrock (solid
rock beneath Lhe soil) is closest to
5205 the surface so the best dam site can
Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Va. be selected. They use explosives to
create sound waves which reflect
For information on Federal off bedrock; the time it takes for the
Government careers, contact:
shock wave to return to the surface
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service Ex­ indicates the depth of bedrock.
aminers for Washington, D.C., 1900 E
G e o d e s is ts study the size, shape,
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.
and gravitational field of the earth
and other planets. Their principal
task is mapping the earth’s surface.
With the aid of satellites, geodesists
(D.O.T. 024.081)
determine the positions, elevations,
and distances between points on the
Nature of the Work
earth, and measure the intensity
Geophysicists study the composi­ and direction of gravitational at­
tion and physical aspects of the traction.
H y d r o lo g is ts are concerned with
earth and its electric, magnetic, and
gravitational fields. Geophysicists the fluid earth. They may study the
use highly complex instruments distribution, circulation, and physi­
such as the magnetometer which cal properties of underground and
measures variations in the earth’s surface waters, including glaciers,
magnetic field, and the gravimeter snow, and permafrost. They may
which measures minute variations also study rainfall and its rate of in­
in gravitational attraction. They filtration into soil. Some are con­
often use satellites to conduct tests cerned with water supplies, irriga­
in outer space and computers to tion, flood control, and soil erosion.
(See statement on Oceanographers,
collect and analyze data
Geophysicists usually specialize sometimes classified as geophysical
in 1 of 3 general phases of the scientists, elsewhere in this book.)
science—solid earth, lluid earth,
Geophysicists study the at­
and upper atmosphere. Some may mosphere, investigate the earth’s
also study other planets.
magnetic and electric fields, and
S o lid e a r th g e o p h y s i c is t s search
compare its outer atmosphere with
for oil and mineral deposits, map those of other planets. G e o m a g n e ti the earth’s surface, and study c ia n s study the earth’s magnetic
earthquakes. E x p l o r a t i o n g e o p h y s ­ field. P a le o m a g n e tic ia n s learn about
i c i s t s use seismic prospecting tech­
past magnetic fields from rocks or
niques to locate oil and mineral lava flows. P la n e to lo g is ts study the
deposits. They send scund waves composition and atmosphere of the
into the earth and *ecord the moon, planets, and other bodies in
echoes bouncing off the rock layers the solar system. They gather data
below to determine if conditions from
are favorable for the ac emulation placed on interplanetary space
of oil.
probes or from equipment used by
S e is m o lo g is ts study the earth’s in­
astronauts during the Apollo mis­
terior and earth vibratians caused sions. M e t e o r o lo g i s t s are sometimes
by earthquakes and manmade ex­ classified as geophysical scientists.
plosions. They explore for oil and (See statement on Meteorologists
minerals, study underground detec­ elsewhere in this book.)
Sources of Adcitional

Geophysicist prepares a portable seismograph for field operation.

Places of Employment
About 8,200 people worked as
geophysicists in 1974. Most work in
private industry, chiefly for petrole­
um and natural gas companies. Oth­
ers are in mining companies, explora­
tion and consulting firms, and re­
search institutes. A few are inde­
pendent consultants and some do
geophysical prospecting on a fee or
contract basis.

Geophysicists are employed in
many southwestern and western
States, including those on the Gulf
Coast, where large oil and natural
gas fields are located. Some
geophysicists are employed by
American firms overseas for vary­
ing periods of time.
geodesists, and hydrologists worked
for Federal Government agencies in

1974, mainly the U.S. Geological
Survey; the National Oceanic and
(NOAA); the Army Map Service;
and the Naval Oceanographic Of­
fice. Other geophysicists work for
colleges and universities, State
research institutions.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
geophysics or a geophysical special­
ty is sufficient for most beginning
jobs in geophysics. A bachelor’s
degree in a related field of science
or engineering also is adequate
preparation, provided the person
has courses in geophysics, physics,
geology, mathematics, chemistry,
and engineering.
Geophysicists doing research or

supervising exploration activities
should have graduate training in
geophysics or a related science.
Those planning to teach in colleges
or do basic research should acquire
a Ph. D. degree.
About 50 colleges and universi­
ties award the bachelor’s degree in
geophysics. Other programs offer­
geophysicists include geophysical
technology, geophysical engineer, engineering geology, petroleum
geology, and geodesy.
More than 60 universities grant
the master’s and Ph. D. degree in
geophysics. Candidates with a
bachelor’s degree which includes
courses in geology, mathematics,
physics, engineering, or a combina­
tion of these subjects can be ad­
Geophysicists generally work as
part of a team. They should be per­
sons with curious and analytical
minds and be able to communicate
Most new geophysicists begin
their careers doing field mapping or
exploration. Some assist senior
geophysicists in research laborato­
ries. With experience, geophysicists
can advance to such jobs as project
leader or program manager, or
other management and research
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities are
expected to be excellent for gradu­
ates with a degree in geophysics, as
well as for those with a degree in a
related field and courses in this spe­
cialty. Combined openings, from
both occupational growth and
replacement needs, are not ex­
pected to be numerous in any one
year. Nevertheless, new entrants to
the field will fall short of require­
ments if present trends in the
number obtaining suitable degrees
Employment of geophysicists is
expected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations through

the mid-1980’s. Petroleum and
mining companies will
geophysicists for exploration activi­
ties, expected to increase over the
next decade. As the need for fuel
geophysicists will be needed, using
sophisticated electronic techniques,
to find the less accessible fuel and
mineral deposits.
In addition, geophysicists with
advanced training will be needed to
do research on radioactivity and
cosmic and solar radiation and to
investigate the use of geothermal
power (steam from the earth’s in­
terior) as a source of energy to
generate electricity.
Federal Government agencies
are expected to hire more
geophysicists for new or expanding
programs. Jobs for geophysicists in
the Federal Government are heavi­
ly dependent on funds for research
and development in the earth
sciences, which are expected to in­
crease through the mid-1980’s. The
Government is expected to support
established and alternative sources.
The Government also may fund
research to locate more natural
resources as well as to prevent en­
vironmental damage through better
land use.
Earnings and Working
Geophysicists have relatively
high salaries, with average earnings
more than twice those of nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
Starting salaries in 1974 for
geophysics graduates averaged
$10,500 a year in private industry
for those having a bachelor’s
degree, $12,200 for those having a
master’s degree and $16,000 for
those having a doctorate, according
to the American Geological In­
In the Federal Government in
late 1974, geophysicists having a
bachelor’s degree could begin at
$8,500 or $10,520 a year, depend­

ing on their college records.
Geophysicists having a master’s
degree could start at $10,520 or
$12,841 a year; those having a Ph.
D. degree, at $ 15,481 oi $ 18,463. In
late 1974, the average salary for
geophysicists employed by the
Federal Government was almost
$24,000 a year.
Many geophysicists work out­
doors and must be will ng to travel
for extended periods of time. Some
of them work at research stations in
remote areas, or aboard ships and
aircraft equipped with sophisticated
geophysical equipment. When not
in the field, geophysicists work in
welllighted laboratories and offices.
Sources of Additional
General informatior on career
earnings for geophysicists is availa­
ble from:
American Geophysical Unicn, 1909 K St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20006
Society of Exploration Geophysicists, P.O.
Box 3098, Tulsa, Okla. 74 101

For information cn Federal
Government careers, contact:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service Ex­
aminers for Washington, D.C., 1900 E
St., NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 025.088)
Nature of the Work
Meteorology is the study of the
atmosphere, which is the air that
surrounds the earth. Meteorologists
describe and try to understand the
atmosphere’s physical composition,
motions, and processes and deter­
mine the way these elements affect
the rest of our physical environ­
ment. This knowledge is applied in
understanding and forecasting the
weather and climate to help solve
many practical problems in agricul­
ture, transportation, communica­
tions, health, and national defense.

Meteorologists who specialize in
forecasting the weather, known
s y n o p t ic
m e t e o r o l o g is t s , are the largest group
of specialists. They study current
weather information, such as air
pressure, temperature, humidity,
and wind velocity, in order to make
short- and long-range predictions.
Their data come from weather
satellites and observers in many
parts of the world. Although some
forecasters still prepare and analyze
weather maps, most data now are
plotted and analyzed by computers.
Meteorology however, involves
many activities other than weather
forecasting. Some meteorologists
are engaged in basic and applied
research. For example, p h y s i c a l
m e t e o r o l o g is t s study the chemical
and electrical properties of the at­
mosphere. They do research on the
effect of the atmosphere on trans­
mission of light, sound, and radio
waves, as well as study factors af­
fecting formation of clouds, rain,
phenomena. Other meteorologists,
known as c li m a t o lo g i s ts , study cli­
matic trends and analyze past
records on wind, rainfall, sunshine,
and temperature to determine the
general pattern of weather that
makes up an area’s climate. These
studies are useful in planning heat­
ing and cooling systems, designing
buildings, and aiding in effective
land utilization.
Other meteorologists apply their
knowledge in the study of the rela­
tionship between weather and
specific human activities, biological
processes, and agricultural and in­
dustrial operations. For example,
they may make weather forecasts
for individual companies, or may
work on problems such as smoke
control and air pollution abate­
About one-third of all civilian
meteorologists work primarily in
weather forecasting, and another
one-third work in research and
development. Almost one-fifth of
all civilian meteorologists are in ad­

ministrative or management posi­
Some meteorologists teach or do
both activities—in colleges and
universities. In colleges without
separate departments of meteorolo­
gy, they may teach geography,
mathematics, physics, chemistry, or
geology, as well as meteorology.
Places of Employment
About 5,600 persons—10 per­
cent of them women—worked as
meteorologists in 1974. In addition
to these civilian meteorologists,
about 2,000 officers and 7,000 en­
listed members of the Armed
Forces did forecasting and other
meteorological work.
The largest employer of civil­
ians was the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA), where over
meteorologists worked at stations in
all parts of the United States and in
a small number of foreign areas.
The Department of Defense em­
ployed over 200 civilian meteorolo­
Almost 2,000 meteorologists
worked for private industry. Com­
mercial airlines employed several
hundred to forecast weather along
flight routes and to brief pilots on
atmospheric conditions. Others
worked for private weather consult­
ing firms, for companies that design
and manufacture meteorological in­
struments, and for firms in
aerospace, insurance, engineering,
utilities, radio and television, and
other industries.
Colleges and universities em­
ployed over 1,100 meteorologists in
research and teaching. A few
worked for State and local govern­
ments and for nonprofit organiza­
Although meteorologists work in
all parts of the country, nearly onefifth live in just two States—Califor­
nia and Maryland. Almost onetenth of all meteorologists work in
the Washington, D.C. area.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major
in meteorology is the usual
beginning jobs in weather forecast­
ing. However, a bachelor’s degree
in a related science or engineering,
along with some courses in
meteorology, is acceptable for
some jobs. For example, the
Federal Government’s minimum
requirement for beginning jobs is a
bachelor’s degree with at least 20
semester hours of study in
meteorology and additional training
in physics and mathematics, includ­
ing calculus. However, an advanced
degree is increasingly necessary for
For research and college teach­
ing and for many top-level positions
in other meteorological activities,
an advanced degree is essential,
preferably in meteorology. How­
ever, people with graduate degrees
in other sciences also may qualify
if they have advanced courses in

meteorology, physics, mathemat­
ics, and chemistry.
In 1974, 44 colleges and universi­
ties offered a bachelor’s degree in
meteorology; 59 schools offered ad­
vanced degrees in atmospheric
science. Many other institutions of­
fered some courses in meteorology.
The Armed Services give and
support meteorological training,
both undergraduate education for
enlisted personnel and advanced
study for officers.
NOAA has a program under
which some of its meteorologists
may attend college for advanced or
specialized training. College stu­
dents can obtain summer jobs with
this agency or enroll in its coopera­
tive education program in which
they work at NOAA part of the year
and attend school part of the year.
In addition to helping students
finance their education, this pro­
gram gives them valuable ex­
perience for finding a job when they
Meteorologists in the Federal

Government usually start in 2-year
training positions at weather sta­
tions. They observe weather condi­
tions, receive training in forecast­
ing, and release weather informa­
tion to the public, agriculture, in­
dustry, airlines, and other users.
They may advance to assistant
forecaster and forecaster.
somewhat limited opportunities for
advancement. However, after con­
siderable work experience, they
may advance to flight dispatcher or
to various supervisory or adminis­
trative jobs. A few very well
qualified meteorologists with a
background in science, engineer­
ing, and business administration
may establish their own weather
consulting services.
Employment Outlook
Job opportunities for meteorolo­
gists should be favorable through
the mid-1980’s. Although the
number of openings created by
growth in the occupation and
replacement needs is not expected
to be large in any one year, the
number of persons obtaining
degrees in meteorology also is
small. If trends in the number of
degrees granted continue, entrants
to the field will about equal require­
Employment in the field, as a
w h o le ,


e x p e c te d


in c r e a se

about as fast as the average for all
meteorologists in industry and in
weather consulting firms is ex­
pected to grow as private industry
realizes the importance of meteor­
ology to understanding and pre­
venting air pollution. Many compa­
nies are also recognizing the value
of having their own weather fore­
casting and meteorological serv­
ices which can be tailored to fit
their needs. There also should be
some openings in radio and televi­
sion as stations increasingly rely on
their own meteorologists to prepare
and deliver their weather reports.
State and local government em­

ployment of meteorologists should
also grow, and colleges and univer­
sities will offer some job opportuni­
ties, especially for those with ad­
vanced degrees. The employment
of civilian meteorologists by the
Federal Government is not ex­
pected to grow significantly,
although there will be openings
created by replacement needs.

Personnel Division AD 41, National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration, 6010
Executive Blvd., Rockville, Md. 20852.

meteorological training programs
are available from any Air Force
recruiting office or from:
Air Weather Service, Information Office,
Scott Air Force Base, III. 62225.

Earnings and Working
Meteorologists have relatively
high earnings; their salaries are
about twice the average for nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming.
In early 1974, meteorologists in
the Federal Government with a
bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience received starting salaries
of $8,500 or $10,520 a year, de­
pending on their college grades.
Those with a master’s degree could
start at $10,520 or $12,841, and
those with the Ph. D. degree at
$15,481 or $18,463.
Airline meteorologists had aver­
age starting salaries of about
$14,400 a year in 1974, and ex­
perienced airline meteorologists
could receive up to $21,600 a year.
Jobs in weather stations, which
are operated around the clock 7
days a week, often involve
nightwork and rotating shifts. Most
stations are at airports or in or near
cities; some are in isolated and
remote areas. Meteorologists in
smaller weather stations generally
work alone; in larger ones, they
work as part of a team.
Sources of Additional
General information on career
opportunities and schools offering
education in meteorology is availa­
ble from:
American Meteorological Society,
Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 02108.

with the NOAA National Weather
Service and its student cooperative
education program, contact:


American Geophysical Union, 1909 K St.
NW„ Washington, D C. 20006.

For facts about job opportunities

(D.O.T. 024.081 and 041.081)
Nature of the Work
Oceans cover more than twothirds of the earth’s surface and
provide people with valuable foods,
fossil fuels, and minerals. They also
influence the weather, serve as a
“highway” for transportation, and
offer many kinds of recreation.
Oceanographers use the principles
and techniques of natural science,
mathematics, and engineering to
study oceans—their movements,
physical properties, and plant and
animal life. Their research not only
extends basic scientific knowledge,
but also helps develop practical
methods for forecasting weather,
developing fisheries, mining ocean
resources, and improving national
Some oceanographers make tests
and observations and conduct ex­
periments from ships or stationary
platforms in the sea. They may
study and collect data on ocean
phenomena. Some study undersea
mountain ranges and valleys,
oceanic interaction with the at­
mosphere, and layers of sediment
on and beneath the ocean floor.
Oceanographers also work in
laboratories on land where, for ex­
ample, they measure, dissect, and
photograph fish. They also study

exotic sea specimens and plankton
(floating microscopic plants and
animals). Much of their work en­
tails identifying, cataloging, and
analyzing different kinds of sea life
and minerals. At other laboratories,
oceanographers plot maps or use
computers to test theories about the
ocean. For example, they may study
and test the theory of continental
drift, which states that the con­
tinents were once joined together,
have drifted apart, and continue to
drift apart causing the sea floor to
spread. To present the results of
prepare charts, tabulations, and re­
ports, and write papers for scientific
Oceanographers explore and
study the ocean with aircraft, sur­
face ships, and various types of un­
derwater craft. They use specialized
instruments to measure and record
the findings of their explorations
and studies. Special cameras
equipped with strong lights are used
to photograph marine life and the
ocean floor. Sounding devices are
used to measure, map, and locate
ocean materials.
Most oceanographers specialize
in one branch of the science.
B io lo g ic a l o c e a n o g r a p h e r s (marine
biologists) study plant and animal
life in the ocean. They search for
ways to extract drugs from marine
plants or animals, investigate life
processes of marine animals, and
determine the effects of radioactivi­
ty and pollution on marine life.
P h y s ic a l o c e a n o g r a p h e r s (physicists
and geophysicists) study the physi­
cal properties of the ocean. Their
research on the relationships
between the sea and the at­
mosphere may lead to more accu­
rate prediction of the weather.
G e o lo g ic a l o c e a n o g r a p h e r s (marine
geologists) study the ocean’s moun­
tain ranges, rocks, and sediments.
Locating regions where minerals,
oil, and gas might be found under
the ocean floor is an application of
their work. C h e m ic a l o c e a n o g ­
r a p h e r s investigate the chemical
composition of ocean water and

Oceanographers collect samples of sea life.

sediments as well as chemical reac­
tions in the sea. O c e a n o g r a p h ic e n ­
g in e e r s and e le c tr o n ic s p e c ia lis ts
design and build instruments for
oceanographic research and opera­
tions. They also lay cables and su­
pervise underwater construction.
Most oceanographers work in
States that border on the ocean,
although there are some oceanog­
raphers employed in almost every
State. Four out of ten oceanog­
raphers work in just three States—
California, Maryland, and Virginia.
Places of Employment
About 2,500 persons—about 5
percent of them women—worked
as oceanographers in 1974. About
one-half worked in colleges and
universities, and more than one-

fourth for the Federal Government.
Federal agencies employing sub­
stantial numbers of oceanographers
include the Navy and the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis­
tration (NOAA). Some oceanog­
raphers work in private industry; a
few work for fishery laboratories of
State and local governments.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The minimum requirement for
beginning professional jobs in
oceanography is a bachelor’s
degree with a major in oceanog­
raphy, biology, earth or physical
sciences, mathematics, or engineer­
ing. Professional jobs in research,
teaching, and high-level positions in
most other types of work require

graduate training in oceanography
or a basic science.
Only 35 colleges and universities
offered undergraduate degrees in
oceanography or marine sciences in
1974. However, since oceanog­
raphy is an interdisciplinary
science, undergraduate training in a
basic science and a strong interest
in oceanography may be adequate
preparation for some beginning
jobs and would be a good
background for graduate training in
Important college courses for
graduate study in oceanography
include mathem atics, physics,
chemistry, geophysics, geology,
meteorology, and biology. In
general, students should specialize
in the particular science that is
closest to their area of oceano­
graphic interest. For example, stu­
dents interested in chemical
oceanography could obtain a
degree in chemistry.
In 1974, about 65 colleges of­
fered advanced degrees in oceanog­
raphy and marine sciences. In grad­
uate schools, students take ad­
vanced courses in oceanography
and in a basic science.
Graduate students usually work
part of the time aboard ship, where
they do oceanographic research
and become familiar with the
sea and with techniques used to
obtain oceanographic information.
Universities having oceanographic
research facilities along our coasts
offer summer courses for both grad­
uates and undergraduate students,
which are especially beneficial for
students from inland universities.
Oceanographers should have the
curiosity needed to do new research
and the patience to collect data and
conduct experiments.
Beginning oceanographers with
the bachelor’s degree usually start
as research or laboratory assistants,
or in jobs involving routine data
collection, computation, or analy­
sis. Most beginning oceanographers
receive on-the-job training. The ex­
tent of the training varies with the

background and needs of the in­
Experienced oceanographers
often direct surveys and research
programs or advance to administra­
tive or supervisory jobs in research

Employment Outlook
Persons seeking jobs in oceanog­
raphy may face competition
through the mid-1980’s. Those with
a Ph. D. degree should have more
favorable employment opportuni­
ties than others, while those with
less education may find opportuni­
ties limited to routine analytical
work as research assistants or
Employment of oceanographers
is expected to grow about as fast as
the average for all occupations.
This growth will result from in­
creased awareness of the need for
ocean research for understanding
and controlling pollution, for
recovering natural resources, and
for national defense. However,
growth in employment may not be
rapid enough to create enough
openings for all those expected to
seek entry into this relatively small
field. Since the Federal Govern­
ment finances most oceanographic
research, a large increase in Federal
spending in oceanography could
improve employment prospects.

Earnings and Working
Oceanographers have relatively
high earnings. Their average sala­
ries were more than twice the
average received by nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
In late 1974, oceanographers in
the Federal Government with the
bachelor’s degree received starting
salaries of $8,500 or $10,520 a
year, depending on their college
grades. Those with the master’s
degree could start at $10,520 or
$12,841; and those with the Ph. D.
degree at $15,481 or $18,463. The

average salary for experienced
oceanographers in the Federal
Government in late 1974 was about
$21,800 a year.
Beginning oceanographers in
educational institutions generally
receive the same salaries as other
faculty members. (See statement on
College and University Teachers
elsewhere in this book.) In addition
to regular salaries, many experienced
oceanographers earn extra income
from consulting, lecturing, and writ­
research that requires sea voyages
are frequently away from home for
weeks or months at a time. Some­
times they live and work in
cramped quarters. People who like
the sea and oceanographic research
often find these voyages satisfying
and do not consider the time spent
at sea a disadvantage of their work.

Sources of Additional
For information about careers in
oceanography, contact:
Office of Sea Grant, National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration, Rockville,
Md. 20852.
Dr. George W. Saunders, Secretary, Amer­
ican Society of Limnology and
Oceanography, P.O. Box 85 3 ,Gaithers­
burg, Md. 20760.

Federal Government career in­
formation is available from any re­
gional office of the U.S. Civil
Service Commission or from:
U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washington
Area Office, 1900 E St. NW„ Washing­
ton, D C. 20415.

The booklet, Training and
Careers in Marine Science, is availa­
ble for a small charge from:
International Oceanographic Foundation, 10
Rickenbacker Causeway, Virginia Key,
Miami, Fla. 33149.

Some information on oceano­
graphic specialties is available from
professional societies listed else­
where in this book. (See statements
on Geologists, Geophysicists, Life
Scientists, Meteorologists, and

Life scientists study living organ­
isms and their life processes. They
are concerned with the origin and
preservation of life, from the largest
animal to the smallest living cell.
The number and variety of plants
and animals is so large, and their
processes so varied and complex,
that life scientists usually work in
one of the three broad areas—
agriculture, biology, or medicine.
Life scientists teach, perform
basic research
knowledge of living things, and
apply knowledge gained from
research to the solution of practical
problems. New drugs, special varie­
ties of plants, and a cleaner en­
vironment result from the work of
life scientists.
This section discusses life scientists
as a group. It also contains separate
statements on biochemists and soil

(D.O.T. 041.081)

Nature of the Work
Biochemists study the chemical
behavior and chemical nature of
living things. Since life is based on
complex chemical combinations
and reactions, the work of
biochemists is vital for an un­
derstanding of the basic functions
of living things such as reproduc­
tion and growth. As part of their
study of the chemistry of living
things, biochemists may also in­
vestigate the effects of substances
such as food, hormones, or drugs on
various organisms.
The methods and techniques of
biochemistry are applied in areas
such as medicine and agriculture.
For instance, biochemists develop
diagnostic procedures or find cures
for diseases or identify the nutrients
necessary to maintain good health.

More than 3 out of 4 biochemists
work in basic and applied research
activities. The distinction between
basic and applied research is often
one of degree and biochemists may
do both types. Most, however, are
in basic research. The few doing
strictly applied research use the
results of basic research for practi­
cal uses. For example, the
knowledge of how an organism
forms a hormone is used to develop
a process for synthesizing the hor­
mone and producing it on a mass
Laboratory research involves
weighing, filtering, distilling, dry­
ing, and culturing (growing micro­
organisms). Some experiments also
require sophisticated tasks such as
designing and constructing labora­
tory apparatus or performing tests
Biochemists use a variety of instru­
microscopes, and may devise new
instruments and techniques as
needed. They usually report the
results of their research in scientific
journals or before scientific groups.
research with teaching in colleges
and universities. A few work in in­
dustrial production and testing ac­

Places of Employment
About 12,400 biochemists were
employed in the United States in
1974. Although the exact number
of women working in the profession
is not known, nearly one-fourth of
those receiving advanced degrees in
biochemistry in recent years have
been women.
More than half of all biochemists
are employed in colleges and
universities, and most of these do
basic and applied research and
development in university-operated
laboratories and hospitals. Almost
one-quarter of all biochemists work
in private industry, primarily in
companies manufacturing drugs, in­
secticides, and cosmetics. Non­

profit research institutes and foun­
dations employ some biochemists
and some also work for Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies. Most government biochemists
do research for Federal agencies
concerned with health and agricul­
tural problems. There are a few
self-employed biochemists who are
consultants to industry and govern­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
minimum educational
requirement for many beginning
jobs as a professional biochemist,
especially in research or teaching, is
an advanced degree. A Ph. D.
degree is a virtual necessity for per­
sons who hope to make significant
research and for advancement to
many management and administra­
tive jobs. A bachelor’s degree with
a major in biochemistry or chemis­
try, or with a major in biology and a
minor in chemistry, may qualify
some persons for entry jobs as
research assistants or technicians.
More than 50 schools award the
bachelor’s degree in biochemistry,
and nearly all colleges and universi­
ties offer a major in biology or
chemistry. Regardless of their col­
lege major, future biochemists
should take undergraduate courses
in chemistry, biology, biochemistry,
mathematics, and physics.
About 200 colleges and universi­
ties offer graduate degrees in
biochemistry. Graduate students
generally are required to have a
bachelor’s degree in biochemistry,
biology, or chemistry. Many gradu­
ate schools offer programs that
emphasize some fields or specialties
of biochemistry
over others
because of the influence of the type
of research being done at the
school. Therefore, students wishing
to specialize should select their
schools carefully. Graduate training
requires actual research in addition
to advanced science courses. For
the doctoral degree, the student

specializes in one
field of
biochemistry by doing intensive
research and writing a thesis.
Young people planning careers
as biochemists should be able to
work independently or as part of a
team. Precision, keen powers of ob­
servation, and mechanical aptitude
also are important. Biochemists
should have analytical abilities and
curious minds, as well as the pa­
tience and perseverance needed to
complete the hundreds of experi­
ments that may be necessary to
solve one problem.
Graduates with advanced degrees
may begin their careers as teachers
or researchers in colleges or univer­
sities. In private industry, most
begin in research jobs and with ex­
perience may advance to positions
in which they plan and supervise
New graduates with a bachelor’s
degree usually start work as
research assistants or technicians.
These jobs in private industry often
involve testing and analysis. In the
research assistants analyze the in­
gredients of a product to verify and
maintain its purity or quality.
Biochemist builds a model of a complex molecule.

Employment Outlook

1960’s. If actual research and
development expenditures differ
significantly from those assumed,
the outlook for biochemists would
be altered.

Earnings and Working

Job opportunities for biochemists
Biochemists have relatively high
with advanced degrees should be
salaries; average earnings were
favorable through the mid-1980’s.
about twice the average for all nonThe employment of biochemists is
supervisory workers in private in­
expected to grow faster than the
The anticipated growth in this dustry, except farming. According
average for all occupations during field should result from the effort to to a 1974 survey by the American
this period, creating hundreds of find cures for cancer, heart disease, Chemical Society, salaries for ex­
job openings each year. There also and other diseases, and from public perienced biochemists averaged
will be many openings each year concern with environmental pro­ $15,000 for those with a bachelor’s
resulting from biochemists who tection. Biochemists will also be degree; $15,100 for those with a mas­
retire, die, or transfer to other oc­ needed in the drug and other indus­ ter's degree; and $21,500 for those
for tries and in hospitals and health with a Ph. D.
biochemists is based on the assump­ centers. There will also be some
Starting salaries paid to biochemists
tion that research and development teaching opportunities in colleges employed by colleges and universities
expenditures in biochemistry and and universities, but the recent are comparable to those for other fa­
related sciences, primarily by the slowdown in the growth in college culty members. Biochemists in educa­
Federal Government, will increase enrollments may mean fewer tional institutions often supplement
through the mid-1980’s, although at teaching opportunities than in the their incomes by engaging in outside
a slower rate than during the past.
research or consulting work.

Sources of Additional
For general information on
careers in biochemistry, contact:
American Society of Biological Chemists,
9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Md.

(D.O.T. 040.081,041.081,

Nature of the Work
Life scientists study all aspects of
living organisms, emphasizing the
relationship of animals and plants
to their environments.
Almost one-half of all life
scientists are in research and
development. Many work in labora­
tories conducting basic research
aimed at adding to our knowledge
of living organisms. Knowledge
gained from this research is applied
in medicine, in improvement of
crop yields, and to the betterment
of the natural environment. When
working in laboratories,
scientists must be familiar with
research techniques and complex
laboratory equipment such as elec­
tron microscopes. Knowledge of
computers also is useful in conduct­
ing some experiments. Not all
research, however, is performed in
laboratories. For example, a
botanist who explores the volcanic
Alaskan valleys to see what plants
grow there also is doing research.
Teaching in a college or universi­
ty is the major area of work for
more than one-fourth of all life
scientists, many of whom also do in­
dependent research. Almost onefifth are in some type of manage­
ment and administrative work that
ranges from planning and ad­
ministering programs for testing
foods and drugs to directing activi­
ties at zoos or botanical gardens.
Some life scientists work as con­

sultants to business firms or to
government in their areas of spe­
cialization. Others write for techni­
cal publications or test and inspect
foods, drugs, and other products.
Some work in technical sales and
services jobs for industrial compa­
nies where, for example, they
demonstrate the proper use of new
chemicals or technical products.
Scientists working in many areas
of the life sciences often call them­
selves biologists. However, the
majority are classified by the type
of organism they study or by the
specific activity performed.
Life scientists dealing primarily
with plants are botanists. Some
study all aspects of plant life, while
others work in specific areas such
as identifying and classifying plants
or studying the structure of plants
and plant cells. Some botanists con­
centrate on the cause and cure of

plant diseases.
Some life scientists are con­
cerned with the mass development
of plants. Agronomists improve the
quality and yield of crops by
developing new growth methods or
by controlling disease, pests, and
weeds. They also analyze soils to
determine ways of increasing acre­
age yields and decreasing soil ero­
sion. Horticulturists work with
orchard and garden plants such as
fruit and nut trees, vegetables, and
flowers. They seek to improve plant
culture methods for the purposes of
beautification of communities,
homes, parks, and other areas as
well as for increasing crop quality
and yields.
Zoologists concentrate on animal
life—its origin, behavior, and life
processes. Some conduct experi­
mental studies with live animals and
others examine dissected animals in

Life scientist examines animal tissue.

laboratories. Zoologists are usually
identified by the animal group stu­
died—ornithologists (birds), en­
tomologists (insects), and mammalogists (mammals).
Animal husbandry specialists do
research on the breeding, feeding,
and diseases of domestic farm
animals. Veterinarians study dis­
eases and abnormal functioning in
Veterinarians elsewhere in this
Life scientists who investigate the
growth and characteristics of
microscopic organisms such as bac­
teria, viruses, and molds are called
microbiologists. They isolate organ­
isms and grow them for close ex­
amination under a microscope.
Medical microbiologists are con­
cerned with problems such as the
relationship between bacteria and
disease or the effect of antibiotics
on bacteria. Other microbiologists
may specialize in soil bacteriology
(effect of micro-organisms on soil
fertility), virology (viruses), or im­
munology (mechanisms that fight
Anatomists study the structure of
organisms, from cell structure to
the formation of tissues and organs.
Many specialize in human anatomy.
Research methods may entail dis­
sections or the use of electron
Some life scientists apply their
specialized knowledge across a
number of areas, and may be clas­
sified by the functions performed.
Ecologists, for example, study the
mutual relationship among organ­
isms and their environments. They
are interested in the effects of en­
vironmental influences such as rain­
fall, temperature, and altitude on
organisms. For example, ecologists
extract samples of plankton
(microscopic plants and animals)
from bodies of water to determine
the effects of pollution, and meas­
ure the radioactive content of fish.
Embryologists study the develop­
ment of an organism from a fertil­
ized egg through the hatching

process or gestation period. They
investigate the causes of healthy
and abnormal development in or­
Nutritionists examine the bodily
processes through which food is
utilized and transformed into ener­
gy. They learn how vitamins,
minerals, proteins, and other
nutrients build and repair tissues.
Pharmacologists conduct tests on
animals such as rats, guinea pigs,
and monkeys to determine the ef­
fects of drugs, gases, poisons, dusts,
and other substances on the func­
tioning of tissues and organs. They
may develop new or improved
drugs and medicines.
Pathologists specialize in the ef­
fects of diseases, parasites, and in­
sects on human cells, tissues, and
organs. Others may investigate
genetic variations caused by drugs.
oceanographers, who are also life
scientists, are included in separate
statements elsewhere in this book.

Places of Employment
An estimated 190,000 persons
worked as life scientists in 1974. Al­
most 50,000 were agricultural
scientists, about 75,000 were
biological scientists, and almost
65,000 were medical scientists.
About one-fifth of all biological and
agricultural scientists were women.
Colleges and universities employ
nearly three-fifths of all life
scientists, in both teaching and
research jobs. Medical schools and
hospitals also employ large num­
bers of medical investigators. Siza­
ble numbers of agronomists, hor­
ticulturists, animal husbandry spe­
cialists, entomologists, and other
agriculture-related specialists work
for State agricultural colleges and
agricultural experiment stations.
About 25,000 life scientists
worked for the Federal Govern­
ment in 1974. Of these, almost half
worked for the Department of
Agriculture, with large numbers

also in the Department of the Interi­
or, and in the National Institutes of
Health. State and local govern­
ments combined employed 21,000
life scientists.
scientists work in private industry,
mostly in the pharmaceutical, in­
processing industries. More than
4,000 work for nonprofit research
organizations and foundations and
a few are self-employed.
Life scientists are fairly evenly
distributed across the United
States, but there are employment
metropolitan areas—for example,
nearly 6 percent of all agricultural
and biological scientists work in the
Washington, D.C. metropolitan
area. Life science teachers are con­
centrated in communities with large

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Young people seeking a career in
the life sciences should plan to ob­
tain an advanced degree. The Ph.
D. degree generally is required for
college teaching and for indepen­
dent research. It is also necessary
for many jobs administering
research programs. A master’s
degree is sufficient for some jobs in
applied research and college
teaching. A professional health
degree is necessary for some jobs in
medical research (See section on
Health Occupations elsewhere in
this book.)
adequate preparation for some
beginning jobs, but promotions
often are limited for those who hold
no higher degree. New graduates
with a bachelor’s degree can start
their careers in testing and inspect­
ing jobs, or become technical sales
and service representatives. They
also may become advanced techni­
cians, particularly in medical
research or, with courses in educa­
tion, a high school biology teacher.
(See statement on Secondary

School Teachers elsewhere in this
Most colleges and universities
offer life science curriculums. How­
ever, courses differ from one col­
lege to another. For example,
liberal arts colleges may emphasize
the biological sciences, while many
State universities and land grant
colleges offer good programs in
agricultural science.
Young people seeking careers in
the life sciences should obtain the
broadest possible undergraduate
background in biology and other
sciences. Courses taken should in­
clude biology, chemistry, physics,
and mathematics.
Many colleges and universities
confer advanced degrees in the life
sciences. Requirements for ad­
vanced degrees usually include field
work and laboratory research as
well as classroom studies and
preparation of a thesis.
Young people planning careers
as life scientists should be able to
work independently or as part of a
team and must be able to commu­
nicate well. Physical stamina is
necessary for those interested in
research in remote places.
Life scientists who have ad­
vanced degrees usually begin in
research or teaching jobs. With ex­
perience, they may advance to jobs
such as supervisors of research pro­

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
life scientists are expected to be
good for those with advanced
degrees through the mid-1980’s,
but those with lesser degrees may
experience competition for availa­
ble jobs. However, a degree in life
science is also useful for entry to
occupations related to life science
such as research assistant, laborato­
ry technologist, and the health care
occupations. Employment in the
life sciences is expected to increase
faster than the average for all occu­
pations over this period, creating

Life scientist measures the sensitivity of an instrument designed to detect the
presence of life in the upper atmosphere.

many new jobs. In addition, some
openings will occur as life scientists
retire, die, or transfer to other oc­
The growth in employment in the
life sciences will be influenced by
the increased interest in preserving
the natural environment and by a
continuing interest in medical
research. Employment opportuni­
ties in industry and government
should increase because of a need
for research and development in
environmentally related areas and
to administer new laws and stand­
ards for environmental protection.
Greater interest in the environment
on the part of college, junior col­
lege, and high school students could
result in some increased opportuni­
ties for life science teachers in these
schools. While employment in col­
leges and universities is expected to
increase, it will grow at a slower

rate than in the past, primarily
because of the anticipated slower
overall rate of growth in college and
university enrollments.

Earnings and Working
Life scientists receive relatively
high salaries; their average earnings
are more than twice those of nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming.
Beginning salary offers in private
industry in 1974 averaged $9,420 a
recipients in agricultural science
and $8,640 a year for bachelor’s
degree recipients in biological
In the Federal Government in
late 1974, life scientists having a
bachelor’s degree could begin at
$8,500 or $10,520 a year, depend­

ing on their college records. Life
scientists having the master’s
degree could start at $10,520 or
$12,841, depending on their
academic records or previous work
experience. Those having the Ph.
D. degree could begin at $ 15,481 or
$18,463. Agricultural and biologi­
cal scientists in the Federal Govern­
ment averaged $20,300 a year.
scientists averaged about $ 18,500 a
year in 1974. Life scientists who
have the M.D. degree generally
earn more than other life scientists
but less than physicians in private
Most life scientists work in welllighted, well-ventilated, and clean
laboratories. Some jobs, however,
require working outdoors under ex­
treme weather conditions, doing
strenuous physical work.

(D.O.T. 040.081)

Nature of the Work

Soil scientists study the physical,
chemical, and biological charac­
teristics and behavior of soils. They
investigate soils both in the field
and in the laboratory and classify
them according to a national system
of soil classification. From their
research, scientists can classify soil
questions concerning its capability
to produce crops, grasses, and
trees, and its suitability for the
buildings and other structures. Soil
scientists prepare maps, usually
based on aerial photographs, on
which they plot the individual kinds
of soil and other landscape features
significant to soil type and manage­
Sources of Additional
ment in relation to land ownership
lines, field boundaries, roads, and
General information on careers other conspicuous features.
Soil scientists also conduct
in the life sciences is available from:
research to determine the physical
American Institute of Biological Sciences, and chemical properties of soils to
1401 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Va. understand their behavior and
origin. They predict the yields of
American Society for Horticultural Science, cultivated crops, grasses, and trees,
National Center for American Horticul­ under alternative combinations of
ture, Mt. Vernon, Va. 22121.
management practices.
American Physiological Society, Education
Soil science offers opportunities
Office, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda,
for those who wish to specialize in
Md. 20014.
soil classification and mapping, soil
Dr. J. Frank McCormick, Director, Gradu­
ate Program in Ecology, University of geography, soil chemistry, soil
physics, soil microbiology, and soil
Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. 37916.
Special information on Federal management. Training and ex­
perience in soil science also will
Government careers is available prepare persons for positions as
farm managers, land appraisers,
U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washington and many other professional posi­
Area Office, 1900 E St. NW., Washing­ tions.
ton, D.C. 20415.

Places of Employment
An estimated 3,500 soil scientists
were employed in 1974. Most soil
scientists are employed by agencies
of the Federal Government, State
experiment stations, and colleges of
agriculture. However, many are
employed in a wide range of other

public and private institutions, in­
private research laboratories, in­
surance companies, banks and
other lending agencies, real estate
firms, land appraisal boards, State
conservation departments, and
farm management agencies. A few
are independent consultants, and
others work for consulting firms.
An increasing number are em­
ployed in foreign countries as
research leaders, consultants, and
agricultural managers.

Training and Advancement
Training in a college or university
of recognized standing is important
in obtaining employment as a soil
scientist. For Federal employment,
the minimum qualification for en­
trance is a bachelor’s degree with a
major in soil science or in a closely
related field of study, and with 30semester hours of course work in
the biological, physical, and earth
sciences, including a minimum of
15 semester hours in soils. In the
case of soils research, those having
graduate training—especially those
with the doctorate—can be ex­
pected to advance into a responsi­
ble and high paying position. Soil
scientists who are qualified for
work with both field and laboratory
data have a special advantage.
Many colleges and universities
offer fellowships and assistantships
for graduate training, or employ
graduate students for part-time
teaching or research.

Employment Outlook
The demand is increasing for soil
scientists to help complete the
scientific classification and evalua­
tion of the soil resources in the
United States. One of the major
program objectives of the Soil Con­
servation Service of the U.S. De­
partment of Agriculture is to
complete the soil survey of all rural
lands in the United States. This pro­
gram includes soil classification and
soil interpretation for use by

agriculturists, engineers, and landuse planners.
Also, demand is increasing for
both basic and applied research to
increase the efficiency of soil use.

The incomes of soil scientists de­
pend upon their education, profes­
sional experience, and individual
abilities. The entrance salary in the
Federal service for graduates hav­
ing a B.S. degree was $8,500 in late
1974. They may expect advance­

ment to $10,520 after 1 year of
satisfactory performance. Further
promotion depends upon the in­
dividual’s ability to do high quality
work and to accept responsibility.
Earnings of well-qualified Federal
soil scientists with several years of
experience range from $15,481 to
$25,581 a year.

Sources of Additional
Additional information may be
obtained from the U.S. Civil Serv­

ice Commission, Washington, D.C.
20415; Office of Personnel, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20250; any office of
the Department’s Soil Conserva­
tion Service; any college of agricul­
ture; or the American Society of
Agronomy, 677 S. Segoe Rd.,
Madison, Wis. 5371 1.
See also statements on Chemists
and Life Scientists.

Mathematics is both a science
and a tool essential for many kinds
of work. As a tool, mathematics is
necessary for understanding and ex­
pressing ideas in science, engineer­
ing, and, increasingly, in human af­
fairs. The application of mathemati­
cal techniques in these fields has in­
creased greatly because of the
widespread use of computers,
which enable mathematicians to do
complex problems rapidly and effi­
ciently. As a result, employment
opportunities for persons trained in
mathematics have expanded rapidly
in recent years.
careers in mathematics should be
able to concentrate for long periods
of time. They should enjoy working
independently with ideas and solv­
ing problems, and must be able to
present their findings in written re­
This section describes two
occupations— mathematician and
statistician. A statement on ac­
tuaries, a closely related mathema­
tics occupation, is discussed in the
section on Insurance Occupations.
Entrance into any of these fields re­
quires college training in mathema­
tics. For many types of work,
graduate education is necessary.
Many other workers in the natu­
ral and social sciences and in data
processing use mathematics exten­
sively, although they are not pri­
marily mathematicians. These oc­
cupations are discussed elsewhere
in this book, as are jobs for high
school mathematics teachers, covered
in the statement on Secondary
School Teachers.

(D.O.T. 020.088)

Nature of the Work
Mathematicians today are en­
gaged in a wide variety of activities,
ranging from the creation of new
theories to the translation of scien­
tific and managerial problems into
mathematical terms.
There are two broad classes of
mathematical work: pure (theoreti­
cal) mathematics; and applied
mathematics, which includes solv­
ing numerical problems. Theoretical
mathematicians advance mathemat­
ical science by developing new
principles and new relationships be­
tween existing principles of
mathematics. They seek to increase
basic knowledge without necessar­
ily considering its practical use.
Yet, this pure and abstract know­
ledge has been instrumental in pro­
ducing many scientific and engineer­
ing achievements. For example, in
1854 Bernard Riemann invented
a seem ingly impractical nonEuclidian geometry that was to be­
come part of the theory of relativity

developed by Albert Einstein more
than a half-century later.
Mathematicians in applied work
use mathematics to develop theo­
ries, techniques, and approaches to
solve problems in natural science,
social science, management, and
engineering. Their work ranges
from analysis of the reliability of
space vehicle systems to studies of
the effects of new drugs on disease.
Much work in applied mathe­
matics, however, is carried on by
persons other than mathematicians.
In fact, the number of workers who
depend to a greater or lesser extent
upon mathematical expertise is
many times greater than the
number actually designated as

Places of Employment
About 40,000 persons worked as
mathematicians in 1974, about onefifth of them women.
Roughly three-fourths of all
mathematicians worked in colleges
teachers; some worked mainly in
research and development with few
or no teaching duties.

Mathematician considers technical problem as explained by engineer.

worked in private industry and
government. In the private sector,
machinery, and electrical equip­
ment industries. The Department of
Defense employed most of the
mathematicians working in the
Federal Government.
Mathematicians work in all
States, but are concentrated in
those with large industrial areas and
large college and university enroll­
ments. Nearly half of the total are
employed in seven States—Califor­
nia, New York, Massachusetts,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maryland,
and New Jersey. Of the total, onefourth live in three metropolitan
areas—New York City; Washing­
ton, D.C.; and Los Angeles-Long
Beach, California.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
An advanced degree is the basic
requirement for beginning teaching
jobs, as well as for most research
positions. In most colleges and
universities, the Ph. D. degree is
necessary for full faculty status.
Advanced degrees are also
required for an increasing number
of jobs in industry and government,
in research, and in many areas of
applied mathematics. However, the
bachelor’s degree is adequate
preparation for many positions in
private industry and the Federal
Some new graduates having a
bachelor’s degree assist senior
mathematicians by performing
computations "and solving less ad­
problems in applied
research. Others work as research
or teaching assistants in colleges
and universities while studying for
an advanced degree.
The bachelor’s degree in mathe­
matics is offered by most col­
leges and universities. Mathematics
courses usually required for a de­
gree are analytical geometry, cal­
culus, differential equations, prob­

ability and statistics, mathematical
analysis, and modem algebra. A
prospective college mathematics
student should take as many math­
ematics courses as possible while
still enrolled in high school.
More than 400 colleges and
universities have programs leading
to the master’s degree in mathe­
matics; about 150 also offer the Ph.
D. In graduate school, students
build upon the basic knowledge
acquired in earlier studies. They
usually concentrate on a specific
field of mathematics, such as al­
gebra, mathematical analysis, or
statistics, by conducting research
and taking advanced courses.
For work in applied mathematics,
training in the field in which the
mathematics will be used is very im­
portant. Fields in which applied
mathematics is used extensively in­
clude physics, engineering, and
operations research; of increasing
importance are business and indus­
statistics, chemistry and life
sciences, and the behavioral
sciences. Training in numerical
analysis and programming is espe­
cially desirable for mathematicians
working with computers.
reasoning ability, persistence, and
the ability to apply basic principles
to new types of problems. They
must be able to communicate well
with others since they often must
listen to a non-mathematician
describe a problem in general
terms, and check and recheck to
make sure they understand the
mathematical solution that is

Employment Outlook
Although employment of mathe­
maticians is expected to increase
about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the mid1980’s, this rate of growth is slower
than occurred in the past. Even if
the number of degrees granted in
mathematics each year remains at
its present level, the number of peo­

ple seeking employment is expected
to exceed job openings. As a result,
persons seeking employment as
mathematicians are expected to
face keen competition throughout
the period.
Theoretical mathematicians are
expected to have the most difficulty
in finding employment. They have
traditionally worked in colleges and
universities, where employment
growth is now expected to be
Holders of advanced degrees in
applied mathematics should have
the least difficulty in finding
satisfactory employment. Private
industry and governmental agencies
will need applied mathematicians
for work in operations research, nu­
merical analysis, computer systems
programming, applied mathemati­
cal physics, market research and
commercial surveys, and as con­
sultants in industrial laboratories.
Work in applied mathematics
requires both a high degree of
mathematical competence and a
knowledge of the field of applica­
College graduates with degrees in
mathematics should be able to find
jobs in other fields, because the
education necessary for a degree in
mathematics is also a good
background for other jobs that rely
heavily on the application of mathe­
matical theories and methods.
Mathematics majors are likely to
find openings in statistics, actuarial
work, computer programming,
systems analysis, economics, en­
gineering, and physical and life
sciences. Employment opportuni­
ties in these fields will probably be
best for those who combine a major
in mathematics with a minor in one
of these subjects.
New graduates will also find
openings as high school mathe­
matics teachers after completing
professional education courses and
other requirements for a State
teaching certificate. (See section on
Secondary School teachers elsewhere
in this book.)

Earnings and Working

Mathematical Sciences is available
for 25 cents from:

In 1974, mathematicians earned
average salaries over twice as high
as the average for nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. Starting salaries for mathe­
maticians with a bachelor’s degree
averaged about $10,300 a year.
Those with a master’s degree could
start at about $12,500 annually.
Salaries for new graduates having
the Ph. D., most of whom had some
experience, averaged over $ 16,000.
In the Federal Government in
1974, mathematicians having the
bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience could start at either
$8,500 or $10,520 a year, depend­
ing on their college records. Those
with the master’s degree could start
at $12,841 or $15,481; and persons
having the Ph. D. degree could
begin at either $15,481 or $18,463.
The average salary for all mathe­
maticians in the Federal Govern­
ment was about $21,500 in 1974.
Salaries paid to college and
university teachers vary greatly de­
pending both on the quality and lo­
cation of the school and the ability
and experience of the individual.
According to the American Mathe­
matical Society, college and univer­
sity teachers generally earned from
as low as $8,000 a year
(instructors) to as high as $25,000 a
year (professors)in 1974. Some
were paid over $30,000 annually.
Mathematicians on college and
university staffs often supplement
their regular salaries with income
from summer teaching, special
research projects, consulting, and

American Mathematical Society, P.O. Box
6248, Providence, R.l. 02940.

Sources of Additional
Several brochures are available
that give facts about the field of
mathematics, including career op­
portunities, professional training,
and colleges and universities with
degree programs.
Seeking Employment in the

Professional Opportunities in
Mathematics (50 cents) and Guide
Book to Departments in the Mathe­
matical Sciences (75 cents) are pro­
vided by:
Mathematical Association of America, 1225
Connecticut Ave. NW„ Washington,
D C. 20036.

For specific information on
careers in applied mathematics,
Society for Industrial and Applied Mathe­
matics, 33 S. 17th St., Philadelphia, Pa.

For Federal Government career
information, contact any regional
office of the U.S. Civil Service
Commission or:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service Ex­
aminers, 1900 E St. NW„ Washington,
D C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 020.188)

Nature of the Work
Statistics are numbers that help
describe the characteristics of the
world and its inhabitants. Statisti­
cians devise, carry out and analyze
surveys and experiments, and in­
terpret their numerical results. In
doing so, they apply their
knowledge of statistical methods to
a particular subject area, such as
economics, human behavior, natu­
ral science, or engineering. They
may use statistical techniques to
predict population growth or
quality control tests for manufac­
tured products, or help business
managers and government officials
make decisions and evaluate the
results of new programs.
Often statisticians are able to ob­
tain accurate information about a
group of people or things by survey­
ing a sample, rather than the whole
group. For example, television rat-

Statistician assembles data for market
research project.

ing services ask only a few thousand
families, rather than all viewers,
what programs they watch. Statisti­
cians decide where to get the data,
determine the type and size of the
sample group, and develop the sur­
vey questionnaire or reporting
form. They also prepare instruc­
tions for workers who will tabulate
the returns. Statisticians who design
experiments prepare mathematical
models to test a particular theory.
Those in analytical work interpret
collected data and summarize their
findings in tables, charts, and writ­
ten reports. Some statisticians,
called mathematical statisticians,
use mathematical theory to design
and improve statistical methods.
Because the field of statistics has
such a wide application, it is some­
times difficult to distinguish statisti­
cians from specialists in other fields
who use statistics. For example, a
statistician working with data on
economic conditions may have the
title of economist.

Places of Employment
Approximately 24,000 persons—
about one-third of them women—
worked as statisticians in 1974.

About 2 out of 3 statisticians were
in private industry, primarily in
manufacturing, public utilities,
finance, and insurance companies.
Roughly one-eighth worked for the
Federal Government, primarily in
the Departments of Commerce;
Agriculture; Defense; and Health,
Education, and Welfare. Others
worked in State and local govern­
ment and colleges and universities.
Although statisticians work in all
parts of the country, most are in
metropolitan areas, and about onefourth lived in three areas—New
York City; Washington, D.C.; and
Los Angeles-Long Beach, Califor­

economics and business administra­
tion are helpful.
Over 100 colleges and universi­
ties offered graduate degrees in
statistics in 1974, and many other
schools offered one or two graduate
level statistics courses. The usual
requirement for entering a graduate
program is a bachelor’s degree with
a good background in mathematics.
Beginning statisticians who have
only the bachelor’s degree often
spend much of their time perform­
ing routine work under the supervi­
sion of an experienced statistician.
Through experience, they may ad­
vance to positions of greater techni­
cal and supervisory responsibility.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employment Outlook

A bachelor’s degree with a major
in statistics or mathematics is the
minimum educational requirement
for many beginning jobs in
statistics. For other beginning
however, a
bachelor’s degree with a major in
an applied field such as economics
or natural science and a minor in
statistics is preferable. A graduate
degree in mathematics or statistics
is essential for college and universi­
ty teaching and helpful for promo­
tion to top administrative and con­
sulting jobs.
About 120 colleges and universi­
ties offered statistics as a concen­
tration for a bachelor’s degree in
1974. Schools offer either a degree
in mathematics or a sufficient
number of courses in statistics to
qualify graduates for beginning
positions. Required subjects for
statistics majors include mathe­
matics through differential and in­
tegral calculus, statistical methods,
and probability theory. Courses in
computer uses and techniques are
useful for many jobs. For quality
control positions, training in en­
gineering or a physical or biological
science and in the application of
statistical methods to manufactur­
ing processes is desirable. For many
market research, business analysis,
and forecasting jobs, courses in

Employment opportunities for
persons who combine training in
statistics with knowledge of a field
of application are expected to be
favorable through the mid-1980’s.
Besides the faster than average
growth expected in this field, addi­
tional statisticians will be needed to
replace those who die, retire, or
transfer to other occupations.
Private industry will require in­
creasing numbers of statisticians for
quality control in manufacturing.
Statisticians with a knowledge of
engineering and the physical
sciences will find jobs working with
scientists and engineers in research
and development. Business firms
will rely more heavily than in the
past on statisticians to forecast
sales, analyze business conditions,
modernize accounting procedures,
and help solve
Government agencies will need
statisticians for existing and new
programs in fields such as social
security, health, education, and
economics. Colleges and universi­
ties will employ others to teach a
growing number of students, as the
broader use of statistical methods
makes such courses increasingly
important to persons majoring in
fields other than mathematics and

Earnings and Working
In 1974, the average salary of
statisticians exceeded $21,000 a
year, much higher than the average
for all nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
New college graduates averaged
about $10,000 a year, according to
the limited information available.
Those with the master’s degree
could start at about $ 12,500 a year,
while Ph. D. recipients could start
at around $ 16,000.
In the Federal Government in
1974, statisticians who had the
bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience could start at either
$8,500 or $10,520 a year, depend­
ing on their college grades.
Beginning statisticians with the
master’s degree could start at
$12,841 or $ 15,481. Those with the
Ph. D. could begin at $15,481 or
Statisticians employed by col­
leges and universities generally
receive salaries comparable to
those paid other faculty members.
(See statement on College and
University Teachers.) In addition to
their regular salaries, statisticians in
educational institutions sometimes
earn extra income from outside
research projects, consulting, and

Sources of Additional
For information about career op­
portunities in statistics, contact:
American Statistical Association, 806 15th
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.

Facts on Federal Government
jobs are available from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service Ex­
aminers for Washington, D.C., 1900 E
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20414. For
information on a career as a mathemati­
cal statistician, contact:
Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 1367
Laurel St., San Carlos, Calif. 94070.

Physical scientists deal with the
basic principles of science. Many
do basic research to increase man’s
knowledge of the properties of
matter and energy. Others do basic
and applied research, and develop
new products and processes. For
example, chemists in applied
research use their knowledge of the
interactions of various chemicals to
improve the quality of products.
Besides research and development,
many physical scientists, particu­
larly chemists and food scientists,
work in production and sales-related activities in industry.
This section describes four physi­
cal science occupations—chemists,
physicists, astronomers, and food
scientists. Engineers, life scientists,
and environmental scientists also
require a background in the physi­
cal sciences; these occupations are
described in separate sections else­
where in this book.


Nature of the Work
Astronomers seek answers to
questions about the fundamental
nature of the universe, such as its
origin and history and the evolution
of our solar system. Astronomers—
sometimes called astrophysicists—
use the principles of physics and
mathematics to study and deter­
mine the behavior of matter and
energy in distant galaxies. One ap­
plication of the information they
gain is to prove or disprove theories
of the nature of matter and energy
such as Einstein’s theory of relativi­
tyTo make observations of the
universe, astronomers use large
telescopes, radiotelescopes, and
other instruments which can detect

electromagnetic radiation from
distant sources. Astronomers of
today spend little time visually ob­
serving stars through telescopes
because photographic and elec­
tronic light detecting equipment is
more effective with dim or distant
stars and galaxies. By using spec­
troscopes to analyze light from stars
astronomers can determine their
tronomers also use radiotelescopes
and other electronic means to ob­
serve radio waves, X-rays, and
cosmic rays. Electronic computers
are used to analyze data and to
solve complex mathematical equa­
tions that astronomers develop to
represent various theories. Compu­
ters also are useful for processing
astronomical data to calculate or­
bits of asteroids or comets, guide
spacecraft, and work out tables for
navigational handbooks.
Astronomers usually specialize in
one of the many branches of the
science such as instruments and
techniques, the sun, the solar
system, and the evolution and in­
teriors of stars.
Astronomers who work on obser­
vational programs begin their stu­
dies by deciding what stars or other
objects to observe and the methods
and instruments to use. They may
need to design optical measuring
devices to attach to the telescope to
make the required measurements.
After completing their observa­
tions, they analyze the results,
present them in precise numerical
form, and explain them on the basis
of some theory. Astromomers
usually spend relatively little time in
actual observation and relatively
more time in analyzing the large
quantities of data that observatory
facilities collect.
Some astronomers concentrate
on theoretical problems and seldom
visit observatories. They formulate
theories or mathematical models to
explain observations made earlier
by other astronomers. These as­
tronomers develop mathematical
equations using the laws of physics
to compute, for example, theoreti­

cal models of how stars change as
their nuclear energy sources
become exhausted.
Almost all astronomers do
research or teach; those in colleges
and universities often do both. In
schools that do not have separate
departments of astronomy or only
small enrollments in the subject,
they often teach courses in mathe­
matics or physics as well as astrono­
my. Some astronomers administer
research programs, develop and
design astronomical instruments,
and do consulting work.

Places of Employment
Astronomy is the smallest physi­
cal science; only 2,000 persons,
roughly 7 percent of them women,
worked as astronomers in 1974.
Most astronomers work in colleges
and universities. Some work in ob­
servatories operated by universities,
nonprofit organizations, or the
Federal Government.
The Federal Government em­
ployed almost 600 astronomers in
1974. Most worked for the National
Aeronautics and Space Administra­
tion. Others worked for the Depart­
ment of Defense, mainly at the U.S.
Naval Observatory and the U.S.
Naval Research Laboratory. A few
astronomers worked for firms in the
aerospace field, or in museums and

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The usual requirement for a job
in astronomy is a Ph.D. degree. Per­
sons with less education may quali­
fy for some jobs; however, highlevel positions in teaching and
research and advancement in most
areas are open only to those with
the doctorate.
Many students who undertake
graduate study in astronomy have a
bachelor’s degree in astronomy. In
1974, about 50 colleges and univer­
sities had programs leading to the
bachelor’s degree in astronomy.
However, most students with a

Employment Outlook
Persons seeking positions as as­
tronomers will face keen competi­
tion for the few available openings
expected through the mid-1980’s.
Employment of astronomers is ex­
pected to grow slowly, if at all,
because the funds available for
basic research in astronomy, which
come mainly from the Federal
Government, are not expected to
increase enough to create many
new positions. Most openings will
occur as replacements for those
who die or retire. Since astronomy
is such a small profession, there will
be few openings needed for
replacements. There will be a large
number of people competing to fill
these openings because the number
of degrees granted in astronomy
probably will continue to exceed
available openings.

Earnings and Working

bachelor’s degree in physics, or in
mathematics with a physics minor,
can usually qualify for graduate
programs in astronomy. Students
planning to become astronomers
usually study physics, mathematics,
and chemistry. Courses in statistics,
computer science, optics, and elec­
tronics also are useful. In schools
with astronomy departments, stu­
dents also take introductory cours­
es in astronomy and astrophysics,
and in astronomical techniques and
About 55 universities offer the
Ph. D. degree in astronomy. These
programs include advanced courses
in astronomy, physics, and mathe­
matics. Some schools require that
graduate students spend several
months working at an observatory.
In most institutions, the work pro­
gram leading to the doctorate is

flexible and allows students to take
courses in their own particular area
of interest.
Persons planning careers in as­
tronomy should have imagination
and an inquisitive mind. Per­
severance and the ability to concen­
trate on detail and to work indepen­
dently also are important.
New graduates with a bachelor’s
or master’s degree in astronomy
usually begin as assistants in ob­
servatories, planetariums, large de­
partments of astronomy in colleges
and universities, Government agen­
cies, or industry. Some work as
research assistants while studying
toward advanced degrees. New
graduates with the doctorate can
qualify for teaching and research
jobs in colleges and universities and
for research jobs in Government
and industry.

Astronomers have relatively high
salaries, with average earnings
much higher than the average for
nonsupervisory workers in private
industry, except farming.
In the Federal Government in
late 1974, astronomers holding the
Ph. D. degree could begin at
$15,481 or $18,463, depending on
their college record. Those having
the bachelor’s degree could start at
$8,500 or $10,520; with the
master’s degree at $10,520 or
$ 12,841. The average annual salary
for astronomers and space scientists
in the Federal Government was
about $27,600 in late 1974. As­
tronomers teaching in colleges and
equivalent to those of other faculty
members. (See statement on Col­
lege and University Teachers else­
where in this book.)
Most astronomers spend most of
their time working in offices or
classrooms, although astronomers
who make observations may need
to travel to the observing facility
and may occasionally work at night.

Sources of Additional

They may develop, for example,
materials to use in solid state elec­
chemists study energy transforma­
tions to find new and better energy
sources. Increasingly, however,
chemists consider themselves mem­
bers of new specialties which in­
clude two of the preceding fields or
more. Biochemists, often con­
sidered as either chemists or life
scientists, are discussed elsewhere
in this book. Some chemists special­
ize in the chemistry of foods. (See
statement on Food Scientists else­
where in this book.)

For information on careers in as­
tronomy and on schools offering
training in the field, contact:
American Astronomical Society, 211 FitzRandolph Rd.. Princeton, N.J. 08540.

(D.O.T. 022.081, .168, .181,

Nature of the Work
The clothes we wear, the foods
we eat, the houses in which we
live—in fact most things that help
make our lives better, from medical
care to a cleaner environment—
result, in part, from the work done
by chemists.
Chemists search for and put into
practical use new knowledge about
substances. They develop new com­
pounds, such as rocket fuel; im­
prove foods; and create clothing
that is chemically treated against
flammability, soil, and wrinkles.
Over one-half of all chemists
work in research and development.
In basic research, chemists in­
vestigate the properties and com­
position of matter and the laws that
govern the combination of ele­
ments. Basic research often has
practical uses. For example,
synthetic rubber and plastics have
resulted from research on small
molecules uniting to form larger
ones (polymerization). In research
and development, new products are
created or improved. The process
of developing a product begins with
descriptions of needed items. If
similar products exist, chemists test
samples to determine their in­
gredients. If no such product exists,
experimentation with various sub­
stances yields a product with the
required specifications.
Nearly one-fifth of all chemists
work in production and inspection.
In production, chemists prepare in-

Chemists study model of ethylene dinitramine.

Places of Employment

structions (batch sheets) for plant
Nearly 135,000 persons worked
workers which specify the kind and as chemists in 1974; about 10 per­
amount of ingredients to use and cent were women. Nearly threethe exact mixing time for each stage fourths of all chemists work in
in the process. At each step, sam­ private industry; almost one-half
ples are tested for quality control to are in the chemicals manufacturing
meet industry and government industry. Most others work for
standards. Records and reports companies manufacturing food,
scientific instruments, petroleum,
show results of tests.
Others work as marketing or paper, and electrical equipment.
sales representatives to obtain
Colleges and universities em­
technical knowledge of products ployed 25,000 chemists. Smaller
sold. A number of chemists teach in numbers worked for nonprofit
colleges and universities. Some research organizations; and State
chemists are consultants to private and local governments, primarily in
industry and government agencies.
health and agriculture; Federal
Chemists often specialize in one agencies, chiefly the Departments
of the subfields of chemistry. of Defense; Health, Education, and
Analytical chemists determine the Welfare; Agriculture; and Interior.
Chemists are employed in all
structure, composition, and nature
of substances, and develop new parts of the country, but they are
techniques. An outstanding exam­ concentrated in large industrial
ple was the analysis of moon rocks areas. Nearly one-fifth of all
by an international team of analyti­ chemists were located in four
cal chemists. Organic chemists metropolitan areas—New York,
originally studied the chemistry of Chicago,
living things, but this area has been Newark. About half of the total
broadened to include all carbon worked in six States—New York,
compounds. When combined with New Jersey, California, Pennsyl­
other elements, carbon forms an in­ vania, Ohio, and Illinois.
credible variety of substances.
Training, Other Qualifications,
products, including plastics and
and Advancement
other synthetics, have resulted from
this work. Inorganic chemists study
A bachelor’s degree with a major
compounds other than carbon. in chemistry or a related discipline

is sufficient for many beginning jobs
as a chemist. However, graduate
training is required for many
research and college teaching posi­
tions. Beginning chemists should
have a broad background in
chemistry, with good laboratory
Over 1,100 colleges and universi­
ties offer a bachelor’s degree in
chemistry. In addition to required
courses in analytical, inorganic, or­
ganic, and physical chemistry, un­
dergraduates usually study mathe­
matics and physics.
More than 350 colleges and
degrees in chemistry. In graduate
school, students generally special­
ize in a particular subfield of
chemistry. Requirements for the
master’s and doctor’s degree
usually include a thesis based on in­
dependent research.
Students planning careers as
chemists should enjoy studying
science and mathematics, and
should like working with their
hands building scientific apparatus
and performing experiments. Per­
severance and the ability to concen­
trate on detail and work indepen­
dently are essential. Other desirable
assets include an inquisitive mind,
and imagination. Chemists also
should have good eyesight and eyehand coordination.
Graduates with the bachelor’s
degree generally begin their careers
in government or industry by
analyzing or testing products, work­
ing in technical sales or service, or
assisting senior chemists in research
and development laboratories.
Many employers have special train­
ing and orientation programs which
are concerned with the special
knowledge needed for the em­
ployer’s type of work. Candidates
for an advanced degree often teach
or do research in colleges and
universities while working toward
advanced degrees.
Beginning chemists with the
master’s degree can usually go into
applied research in government or
private industry. They also may

qualify for teaching positions in 2year colleges, and some universi­
The Ph. D. generally is required
for basic research, for teaching in
colleges and universities, and for
advancement to many administra­
tive positions.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities in
chemistry are expected to be good
for graduates at all degree levels
through the mid-1980’s. The em­
ployment of chemists is expected to
grow faster than the average for all
occupations during this period;
thousands of new jobs will be
created each year. In addition,
several thousand openings will
result each year as chemists retire,
die, or transfer to other occupa­
The outlook for chemists is based
on the assumption that research
and development expenditures of
government and industry will in­
crease through the mid-1980’s,
although at a slower rate than dur­
ing the 1960’s. If actual R&D ex­
penditures levels differ significantly
from those assumed, the outlook
for chemists would be altered.

Approximately three-fourths of
total employment is expected to be
in private industry to develop new
products. In addition, industrial
companies and government agen­
cies will need chemists to help solve
shortages, pollution control, and
health care. Some also will work in
Federal, State, and local crime
Growth in college and university
employment is expected to be much
slower than in the past; competition
for teaching positions will be keen.
(See statement on College and
University Teachers elsewhere in
this book.)
New graduates also will find
openings in high school teaching
after completing professional edu­
cation courses and other require­
ments for a State teaching cer­
tificate. However, they usually are
then regarded as teachers rather
than chemists. (See statement on
Secondary School Teachers else­
where in this book.)

Earnings and Working
Chemists averaged more than

Chemist regulates the pressure of a gas used in an experiment.

twice as much as nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. According to the Amer­
ican Chemical Society, experienced
chemists having a bachelor’s degree
averaged $17,500 a year in 1974;
for those with a master’s degree,
$18,400; and for those with a Ph.
D., $21,700.
Private industry paid chemists
with the bachelor’s degree starting
salaries averaging $ 10,200 a year in
1974; those with the master’s
degree, $12,000; and those with the
Ph. D., $16,800.
In colleges and universities, the
median salary of those with the
master’s degree was $ 13,300 and of
those with the Ph. D., $17,200. In
chemists in educational institutions
supplement their regular salaries
with income from consulting, lec­
turing, and writing.
Depending on college records,
the annual starting salary in the
Federal Government in late 1974
for an inexperienced chemist with a
bachelor’s degree was either $8,500
or $10,520. Those who had 2 years
of graduate study could begin at
$12,841 a year. Chemists having
the Ph. D. degree could start at
$15,841 or $18,463. The average
salary for all chemists in the Federal
Government in late 1974 was
$21,500 a year.
modern, well-equipped, and welllighted laboratories, offices, or
classrooms. Hazards involve han­
dling potentially explosive or highly
caustic chemicals. However, when
safety regulations are followed,
health hazards are negligible.

Sources of Additional
General information on career
opportunities and earnings for
chemists is available from:
American Chemical Society, 1155 16th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Manufacturing Chemists Association, Inc.,
1825 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D .C .20009.

For specific information on
Federal Government careers, con­
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service Ex­
aminers for Washington, D.C., 1900 E
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

For additional sources of informa­
tion, see statements on Biochemists
and Chemical Engineers. Information
on chemical technicians may be
found in the statement on Engineer­
ing and Science Technicians.

(D.O.T. 022.081, 040.081, and

Nature of the Work

pearance of foods. Food scientists
who work in applied research and
development create new foods and
develop new processing methods.
They also seek to improve existing
foods by making them more nutri­
tious and enhancing their flavor,
color, and texture.
Food scientists insure that each
product will retain its charac­
teristics and nutritive value during
storage. They also conduct chemi­
cal and microbiological tests to see
that products meet industry and
government standards, and they
may determine the nutritive con­
tents of products in order to comply
with Federal nutritional labeling
In quality control laboratories,
food scientists check raw in­
gredients for freshness, maturity, or
suitability for processing. They may
use machines that test for ten­
derness by finding the amount of
force necessary to puncture the
item. Periodically, they inspect
processing line operations to insure
conformance with government and
industry standards. For example,
scientists test canned goods for
sugar, starch, protein, fat, vitamin,
and mineral content. In frozen food
plants, they make sure that, after
processing, various enzymes are in-

In the past, consumers processed
most food in the home, but today,
industry processes almost all foods.
A keyworker involved in the
development and processing of the
large variety of foods available
today is the food scientist or food
Food scientists investigate the
chemical, physical, and biological
nature of food and apply this
knowledge to processing, preserv­
ing, packaging, distributing, and
storing an adequate, nutritious,
wholesome, and economical food
supply. About three-fifths of all
scientists in food processing work in
research and development. Others
work in quality assurance laborato­
ries or in production or processing
areas of food plants. Some teach or
do basic research in colleges and
Food scientists in basic research
study the structure and composition
of food and the changes it un­
dergoes in storage and processing.
For example, they may develop new
sources of proteins, study the ef­
fects of processing on microorgan­
isms, or search for factors that af­ Food scientist does research to develop
fect the flavor, texture, or ap­
new food product.

active so that the food will not spoil
scientists are involved in developing
and improving packaging and
canning methods.
Food scientists in production
prepare production specifications,
schedule processing operations,
maintain proper temperature and
humidity in storage areas, and su­
pervise sanitation operations, in­
cluding the efficient and economi­
cal disposal of wastes. To increase
efficiency, they advise management
on the purchase of equipment and
recommend new sources of materi­
Some food scientists apply their
knowledge in areas such as market
research, advertising, and technical
sales. Others teach in colleges and

in food science, or in one of the
physical or life sciences such as
chemistry and biology, is the usual
beginning jobs in food science. An
advanced degree is necessary for
many jobs, particularly research
and college teaching, and for some
management level jobs in industry.
About 60 colleges and universi­
ties offered programs leading to the
bachelor’s degree in food science in
1974; the Institute of Food
Technologists approved over 40 of
Undergraduate students
majoring in food science usually
take courses in physics, chemistry,
mathematics, biology, the social
sciences and humanities, and busi­
ness administration, as well as a
variety of food science courses.
Food science courses cover areas
such as preservation, processing,
sanitation, and marketing of foods.
Places of Employment
Most of the colleges and universi­
About 7,200 persons—more than ties that provide undergraduate
10 percent of them women— food science programs also offer
worked as food scientists in 1974. advanced degrees. Graduate stu­
Food scientists work in all sectors dents usually specialize in a particu­
of the food industry and in every lar area of food science. Require­
State. The types of products on ments for the master’s or doctor’s
which they work may depend on degree vary by institution, but
the locality: for example, in Maine usually include laboratory work and
and Idaho they work with potato a th e s is .
processing; in the Midwest, with
Young people planning careers
cereal products and meatpacking; as food scientists should have
and in Florida and California, with analytical minds and like details
orange juice concentrates.
and technical work. Food scientists
Some food scientists do research must be able to express their ideas
for Federal agencies such as the clearly to others.
Food and Drug Administration and
Food scientists with a bachelor’s
the Departments of Agriculture and degree might start work as quality
Defense; others work in State regu­ assurance chemists or as assistant
latory agencies. A few work for production managers. After gaining
private consulting firms and inter­ experience, they can advance to
national organizations such as the more responsible management jobs.
United Nations. Some teach or do A food scientist might also begin as
research in colleges and universi­ a junior food chemist in a research
ties. (See statement on College and and development laboratory of a
University Teachers elsewhere in food company, and be promoted to
this book.)
section head or another research
management position.
People who have master’s
Training, Other Qualifications,
degrees may begin as senior food
and Advancement
chemists in a research and develop­
A bachelor’s degree with a major ment laboratory. Those who have

the Ph. D. degree usually begin
their careers doing basic research
or teaching.

Employment Outlook
Employment of food scientists is
expected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. In addition to
openings resulting from this growth,
some jobs will open each year
because of the need to replace
those who die, retire, or transfer to
other fields.
Employment is expected to grow
as the food industry responds to the
challenge of providing wholesome
and economical foods that can
preferences and food standards. In
addition, both private households
and food service institutions that
supply outlets such as airlines and
restaurants will demand a greater
quantity of quality convenience
Food scientists with advanced
degrees are expected to have more
favorable opportunities than those
with only the bachelor’s degree.
Also, those with degrees in food
science may have better opportuni­
ties than those with degrees in re­
lated fields such as chemistry or
An increasing number of food
scientists are expected to find jobs
in research and product develop­
ment. In recent years, expenditures
for research and development in
the food industry have increased
moderately and probably will con­
tinue to rise. Through research,
new foods are being produced from
modifications of wheat, corn, rice,
and soybeans. For example, food
scientists are working to improve
“meat” products made from
vegetable proteins. There will be an
increased need for food scientists in
quality control and production
because of the complexity of
products and processes and the ap­
plication of higher processing stand­

ards and new government regula­

describe the fundamental forces
and laws of nature. Determining
Earnings and Working
phenomena such as gravity, elec­
tromagnetism, and nuclear interac­
Food scientists had relatively tion leads to discoveries and in­
For instance, the
high earnings in 1974, much higher
development of irradiation therapy
than the average for all nonsuperequipment which destroys harmful
visory workers in private industry,
growths in humans without damag­
except farming. Food scientists with
ing other tissues resulted from what
the bachelor’s degree had average
physicists know about nuclear
starting salaries of about $10,000 a
radiation. Physicists have con­
year in 1974. Those with a master’s
tributed to scientific progress in
degree started at about $12,000,
recent years in areas such as
and those with the Ph. D. degree at
nuclear energy, electronics, com­
about $15,200.
munications, aerospace, and medi­
In the Federal Government in
cal instrumentation.
late 1974, food scientists with a
Two-thirds of all physicists work
bachelor’s degree could start at
in research and development. Some
$8,500 or $10,520 a year, depend­
do basic research to increase scien­
ing on their college grades. Those tific knowledge. For example, they
with a master’s degree could start at investigate the fundamentals of
$ 10,520 or $ 12,841, and those with nuclear structure and the forces
the Ph. D. degree could begin at between nucleons (nuclear dynam­
$15,481 or $18,463. The average ics). The equipment that physicists
for experienced
food develop for their basic research can
scientists in the Federal Govern­ often be applied to other areas. For
ment was about $22,500 a year in example, lasers (devices which am­
late 1974.
plify light and emit electromagnetic
waves in a narrow, intense light
Sources of Additional
beam) are utilized in surgery;
microwave devices are used for
For information on careers in ovens;
food science, contact:
developed by physicists can detect
Institute of Food Technologists, Suite 2120, and measure the kind and number
221 North LaSalle St., Chicago, 1 1
of cells in blood or the amount of
mercury or lead in foods.
physicists do applied research and
help develop new products. For in­
stance, their knowledge of solidstate physics led to the develop­
(D.O.T. 023.081 and.088)
ment of transistors and microcir­
cuits used in electronic equipment
Nature of the Work
that ranges from hearing aids to
The flight of astronauts through missile guidance systems.
Many physicists teach in colleges
space, the probing of ocean depths,
or even the safety of the family car and universities. A small number
depend on research by physicists. work in inspection, quality control,
Through systematic observation and other production-related jobs
and experimentation, physicists in industry. Some do consulting
describe in mathematical terms the work.
Most physicists specialize in one
structure of the universe and in­
teraction of matter and energy. or more branches of the science—
Physicists develop theories that elementary-particle

nuclear physics; atomic, electron,
and molecular physics; physics of
acoustics, and plasma physics; and
the physics of fluids. Some special­
ize in a subdivision of one of these
branches. For example, within
solid-state physics subdivisions in­
clude ceramics, crystallography,
and semiconductors. However,
since all physics specialties rest on
the same fundamental principles, a
physicist’s work usually overlaps
many specialties.
Growing numbers of physicists
are specializing in fields combining
physics and a related science—such
as astrophysics, biophysics, chemi­
physics, and geophysics.
Furthermore, the practical applica­
tions of physicists’ work have in­
creasingly merged with engineer­

Places of Employment
About 48,000 people worked as
physicists in 1974; about 4 percent
were women. Private industry em­
ployed over 19,000; almost twofifths of these were in companies
manufacturing chemicals, electrical
equipment, and ordnance products.
Commercial laboratories and inde­
pendent research organizations em­
ploy more than one-fourth of the
physicists in private industry.
Nearly 21,000 physicists taught
or did research in colleges and
universities; some did both. About
6,200 physicists were in the Federal
Government in 1974, mostly in the
Departments of Defense and Com­
merce. About 1,300 physicists
worked in nonprofit organizations.
Although physicists are em­
ployed in all parts of the country,
their employment is greatest in
areas that have heavy industrial
concentrations and large college
and university enrollments. Nearly
one-fourth of all physicists work in
four metropolitan areas—Washing­
ton, D.C.; Boston, Mass.; New
York, N.Y.; and Los Angeles-Long
Beach, Calif., and more than onethird are concentrated in three

Physicists develop equipment used in cancer research.

States—California, New York, and

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Graduate training in physics or a
closely related field is almost essen­
tial for most entry level jobs in
physics and for advancement in all
types of work. The doctorate is
usually required for full faculty
status at colleges and universities
and for industrial or government
jobs administering research and
development programs.
Those having master’s degrees
qualify for many research jobs in
private industry and in the Federal
Government. Some work in col­
leges and universities, instructing
and assisting in research while
studying for their Ph.D.

Those having bachelor’s degrees
qualify for some applied research
and development jobs in private in­
dustry and in the Federal Govern­
ment. Some are employed as
research assistants in colleges and
universities while studying for ad­
vanced degrees. Many with a
bachelor’s degree in physics apply
their physics training in jobs in
other scientific fields and in en­
gineering. (See statements on En­
gineers, Geophysicists, Program­
mers, and Systems Analysts else­
where in this book.)
About 900 colleges and universi­
ties offer a bachelor’s degree in
physics. In addition, many en­
gineering schools offer a physics
major as part of the general curricu­
lum. The undergraduate program in
background in the science and

serves as a base for later specializa­
tion either in graduate school or on
the job. Some typical physics cours­
es are mechanics, electricity and
magnetism, optics, thermodynam­
ics, and atomic and molecular
physics. Students also take courses
in chemistry and mathematics.
Almost 300 colleges and univer­
sities offer advanced degrees in
physics. In graduate school, the stu­
dent, with faculty guidance, usually
works in a specific field. The gradu­
ate student, especially the can­
didate for the Ph. D. degree, spends
a large portion of his time in
Students planning a career in
physics should have an inquisitive
mind, mathematical ability, and
imagination. They should be able to
work on their own, since physicists,
particularly in basic research, often
receive only limited supervision.
Young physicists often begin
their careers doing routine labora­
tory tasks. After some experience,
they are assigned more complex
tasks and may advance to work as
directors. Some work in top
management jobs. Physicists who
develop new products frequently
form their own companies or join
new firms to exploit their own

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities in
physics are expected to be good
through the mid-1980’s. The em­
ployment of physicists is expected
to grow faster than the average for
all occupations over this period,
creating more than a thousand new
openings each year. In addition,
some openings will result as
physicists retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.
Some of the past growth in em­
ployment of physicists resulted
from increases in Federal research
and development (R&D) expendi­
tures. Through the mid-1980’s,
government R&D expenditures are
expected to increase, although at a

slower rate than during the 1960’s.
On this basis, more physicists will
continue to be required. However,
if actual R&D expenditure levels
and patterns were to differ signifi­
cantly from those assumed, the out­
look for physicists would be altered.
Some physicists with advanced
degrees will be needed to teach in
colleges and universities, but com­
petition for these jobs is expected to
be keen.
New graduates also will find op­
portunities as high school physics
teachers after completing the
required educational courses and
obtaining a State teaching cer­
tificate. However, they are usually
regarded as teachers rather than as
physicists. (See statement on
Secondary School Teachers ,else­
where in this book.)

Earnings and Working
Physicists have relatively high

salaries, with average earnings
more than twice those of nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming. Starting salaries for
physicists who had a bachelor’s
degree averaged about $10,700 a
year in manufacturing industries in
1974; a master’s degree, $12,800;
andaPh. D.,$ 17,800.
Depending on their college
records, physicists with a bachelor’s
degree could start in the Federal
Government in late 1974 at either
$8,500 or $10,520 a year.
Beginning physicists having a
master’s degree could start at
$10,520 or $12,841, and those hav­
ing the Ph. D. degree could begin at
$15,481 or $18,463. Average
earnings for all physicists in the
Federal Government in 1974 were
$24,700 a year.
Starting salaries on college and
university faculties for physicists
having a master’s degree averaged
$9,600 in 1973, and for those hav­

ing the Ph. D., $12,000. (See state­
ment on College and University
Teachers elsewhere in this book.)
Many faculty physicists supplement
their regular incomes by working as
consultants and taking on special re­
search projects.

Sources of Additional
General information on career
opportunities in physics is available
American Institute of Physics, 335 East 45th
St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

For information on Federal
Government careers, contact:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service Ex­
aminers for Washington, D C., 1900 E
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20415.


(D.O.T. 194.168, .281, .282, and
782; 957.282; and 963.168
through .887)

Nature of the Work
Broadcast technicians operate
and maintain the electronic equip­
ment used to record and transmit
radio and television programs. They
work with microphones, sound
recorders, light and sound effects,
television cameras, video tape
recorders, and other equipment.
In the control room, broadcast
technicians operate equipment that
regulates the quality of sounds and
pictures being recorded or broad­
cast. They also operate controls
that switch broadcasts from one
camera or studio to another, from
film to live programming, or from
network to local programs. By
means of hand signals and, in televi­
sion, by use of telephone headsets,
they give technical directions to
personnel in the studio.
When events outside the studios
are to be broadcast, technicians
may go to the site and set up, test,
and operate the equipment. After
the broadcast, they dismantle the
equipment and return it to the sta­
As a rule, broadcast technicians
in small stations perform a variety
of duties. In large stations and in
networks, on the other hand,
technicians are more specialized,
although specific job assignments
may change from day to day. Trans­
mitter technicians monitor and log
outgoing signals and are responsible

for transmitter operation. Main­
tenance technicians set up, main­
tain, and repair electronic broad­
casting equipment. Audio control
technicians regulate sound pickup,
transmission, and switching and
video control technicians regulate
the quality, brightness, and contrast
of television pictures. The lighting
of television programs is directed
by lighting technicians. For pro­
grams originating outside the stu­
dio, field technicians set up and
operate broadcasting equipment.
Recording technicians operate and
maintain sound recording equip­
ment; video recording technicians
operate and maintain video tape
recording equipment. Sometimes
the term “engineer” is substituted
for “technician.”














Broadcast technician gives technical
assistance to studio personnel.

(FCC). Federal law requires that
anyone who operates broadcast
Places of Employment
transmitters in television and radio
stations must hold such a license.
About 22,000 broadcast techni­
cians were employed in radio and The FCC also issues a Third Class
television stations in 1974. Most Operator License which is all that is
radio stations employ fewer than 4 needed to operate a radio broadcast
technicians, although a few large transmitter. Some stations require
ones have more than 10. Nearly all all their broadcast technicians, in­
television stations employ at least cluding those who do not operate
transmitters, to have one of these
10 broadcast technicians, and those
licenses. In addition, the chief en­
in large metropolitan areas average
gineer of each broadcasting station
about 30. In addition to the techni­
must have an FCC Radiotelephone
cians, some supervisory personnel,
First Class Operator License. Ap­
with job titles such as chief engineer
plicants for these licenses must pass
or director of engineering, work in
a series of written examinations.
technical departments.
These cover construction and
Although broadcast technicians operation of transmission and
are employed in every State, most receiving
are located in large metropolitan
teristics of electromagnetic waves;
areas. The highest paying and most and regulations and practices, both
specialized jobs are concentrated in Federal Government and interna­
New York, Los Angeles, and tional, which govern broadcasting.
Washington, D.C.—the originating
Among high school courses, al­
centers for most of the network gebra, trigonometry, physics, elec­
tronics, and other sciences provide
valuable background for persons
anticipating careers in this occupa­
Training, Other Qualifications,
tion. Building and operating an
and Advancement
amateur radio station also is good
A person interested in becoming training. Taking an electronics
a broadcast technician should plan course in a technical school is still
to get a Radiotelephone First Class another good way to acquire the
Operator License from the Federal
knowledge for becoming a broad­
Commission cast technician. Some persons gain

work experience as temporary em­
Earnings and Working
ployees while filling in for regular
broadcast technicians who are on
Salaries of beginning technicians
Many schools give courses espe­ in commerical radio and television
cially designed to prepare the stu­ ranged from about $135 to $185 a
dent for the FCC’s first-class license week in 1974 and those of ex­
test. Technical school or college perienced technicians from about
training is an advantage for those $170 to $350, according to the
who hope to advance to supervisory limited information available. As a
positions or to the more specialized rule, technicians’ wages are highest
jobs in large stations and in the net­ in large cities and in large stations.
Technicians employed by television
Persons with FCC first-class stations usually are paid more than
licenses who get entry jobs are in­ those who work for radio stations
structed and advised by the chief because television work is generally
engineer or by other experienced more complex. Technicians em­
technicians concerning the work ployed by educational broadcasting
procedures of the station. In small stations generally earn less than
stations, they may start by operat­ those who work for commercial sta­
ing the transmitter and handling tions.
Most technicians in large stations
other technical duties, after a brief
work a 40-hour week with overtime
instruction period. As they acquire
more experience and skill they are pay for additional hours. Some
assigned to more responsible jobs. broadcast technicians in the larger
Those who demonstrate above- cities work a 37-hour week. In small
average ability may move into top- stations, many technicians work 4
level technical positions, such as su­ to 12 hours of overtime each week.
pervisory technician or chief en­ Evening, night, and weekend work
gineer. A college degree in en­ frequently is necessary since many
gineering is becoming increasingly stations are on the air as many as 24
important for advancement to su­ hours a day, 7 days a week. Net­
work technicians may occasionally
pervisory and executive positions.
have to work continuously for many
hours and under great pressure in
Employment Outlook
order to meet broadcast deadlines.
Technicians generally work in­
The number of broadcast techni­
doors in pleasant surroundings. The
cians is expected to increase about
as fast as the average for all occupa­ work is interesting, and the duties
tions through the mid-1980’s. Most are varied. When remote pickups
job openings will result from the are made, however, technicians
need to replace experienced techni­ may work out of doors at some
cians who retire, die, or transfer to distance from the studios, under
less favorable conditions.
other occupations.
Some new job opportunities for
technicians will be provided as new
radio and television stations go on
Sources of Additional
the air. Demand for broadcast
technicians also will increase as
For information about radio­
cable television stations broadcast
telephone operator’s examinations,
more of their own programs. How­
ever, laborsaving technical ad­ and guides to study for them, write
vances, such as automatic pro­ to:
gramming, automatic operation Federal Communications Commission.
Washington, D.C. 20036.
logging, and remote control of
For information on careers for
transmitters will limit the demand
broadcast technicians, write to:
for technicians.

National Association of Broadcasters, 1771
N St. NW„ Washington, D C. 20036.
Corporation for Public Broadcasting, 888
16th St. NW„ Washington, D C. 20006.

(D O T. 001.281,002.281,, 007.281,, and 017.)

Nature of the Work
When making a space capsule,
television set, building, or bridge,
workers follow drawings that show
the exact dimensions and specifica­
tions of the entire object and each
of its parts. Workers who draw
these plans are drafters.
drawings based on rough sketches,
made by engineers, architects, and
designers. They also calculate the
strength, quality, quantity, and cost
of materials. Final drawings contain
a detailed view of the object as well
as specifications for materials to be
used, procedures followed, and
other information to carry out the
In preparing drawings, drafters
use compasses, dividers, protrac­
tors, triangles, and machines that
combine the functions of several
devices. They also use engineering
handbooks, tables, and slide rules
to help solve technical problems.
Drafters are classified according
to the work they do or their level of
responsibility. Senior drafters trans­
late an engineer’s or architect’s
preliminary plans into design
“layouts” (scale drawings of the ob­
ject to be built). Detailers draw
each part shown on the layout, and
give dimensions, materials, and
other information to make the
complete. Checkers carefully ex­
amine drawings for errors in com­
puting or recording dimensions and
specifications. Under the supervi­
sion of drafters, tracers make minor

corrections and trace drawings for
reproduction on paper or plastic
Drafters may specialize in a par­
ticular field of work, such as
mechanical, electrical, electronic,
architectural drafting.

mainly in highway and public works
thousand drafters worked for col­
leges and universities and nonprofit

Places of Employment

Persons interested in becoming
drafters can acquire the necessary
training in technical institutes, jun­
ior and community colleges, ex­
tension divisions of universities, and
vocational and technical high
schools. It is also possible to qualify
through on-the-job training pro­
grams combined with part-time
schooling or 3- to 4-year ap­
prenticeship programs.
Training for a career in drafting,
whether in a high school or posthigh school program, should in­
clude courses in mathematics,
drawing, and drafting. Shop prac­
tices and shop skills also are helpful

About 313,000 persons—8 per­
cent of them women—worked as
drafters in 1974. More than 9 out of
10 drafters worked in private indus­
try, with engineering and architec­
tural firms employing almost 30
percent of all drafters. Other major
employers included the fabricated
metals, electrical equipment, and
construction industries.
About 20,000 drafters worked
for Federal, State, and local govern­
ments in 1974. Most drafters in the
Federal Government worked for
the Defense Department; those in
State and local governments were

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

since many higher level drafting
jobs require knowledge of manufac­
turing or construction methods.
Many technical schools offer cours­
es in structural design, strength of
materials, and metal technology.
Those planning careers in draft­
ing should be able to do detailed
work requiring a high degree of ac­
curacy; have good eyesight and eyehand coordination because most of
their work is done at the drawing
board; be able to function as part of
a team since they work directly with
engineers, architects, and skilled
workers; and be able to do freehand
drawings of three-dimensional ob­
jects. Artistic ability is helpful in
some specialized fields.
High school graduates usually
start out as tracers. Those having
post-high school technical training
usually qualify as junior drafters.
After gaining experience, they may
advance to checkers, detailers,
senior drafters, or supervisors.
Some may become independent
designers. Courses in engineering
and mathematics sometimes enable
drafters to transfer to engineering

Employment Outlook

Drafter prepares final specifications for highway project

Employment of drafters is ex­
pected to increase faster than the
average for all occupations. This
growth, along with the need to
replace those who retire, die, or
move into other fields of work,
should provide favorable job oppor­
tunities through the mid-1980’s.
Holders of an associate (2-year)
degree in drafting will have the best
prospects. Many large employers
already require post-secondary
technical education, though wellqualified high school graduates who
have studied drafting will find op­
portunities in some types of jobs.
Employment of drafters is ex­
pected to rise rapidly as a result of
the increasingly complex design
problems of modern products and
processes. In addition, more draft­
ers will be needed as supporting
personnel for engineering and

of production,
Pho­ phases
toreproduction of drawings and ex­ research and design to manufactur­
panding use of electronic drafting ing, sales, and customer service.
equipment and computers, how­ Although their jobs are more
ever, will reduce the need for less limited in scope and more practi­
cally oriented than those of en­
skilled drafters.
gineers or scientists, technicians
often do work that engineers or
scientists might otherwise have to
do. Technicians frequently use
In private industry, beginning
drafters earned between $560 and complex electronic and mechanical
$740 a month in 1974; more ex­ instruments, experimental laborato­
perienced drafters earned from ry equipment, and drafting instru­
$700 to $900 a month. Senior draft­ ments. Almost all technicians
ers averaged roughly $1,000 a described in this statement must be
month, about one and one-half able to use engineering handbooks
times as much as the average and computing devices such as slide
earnings of nonsupervisory workers rules and calculating machines.
in private industry, except farming.
In research and development
The Federal Government paid (R&D), one of the largest areas of
drafters having an associate degree employment, technicians set up,
starting salaries of $7,596 a year in calibrate, and operate complex in­
late 1974. Those with less educa­ struments, analyze data, and con­
tion and experience generally duct tests. They also assist en­
started at $6,764. The average gineers and scientists in developing
Federal Government salary for all experimental
models by making drawings and
drafters was $10,400 a year.
sketches; and under an engineer’s
direction they frequently do routine
Sources of Additional
design work.
usually follow the plans and general
General information on careers
for drafters is available from:
scientists, but often without close
American Institute for Design and Drafting,
3119 Price Rd., Bartlesville, Okla. supervision. They may prepare
specifications for materials, devise
International Federation of Professional and tests to insure product quality, or
Technical Engineers, 1126 16th St. study ways to improve the efficien­
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.
cy of an operation. They often su­
See Sources of Additional Infor­ pervise production workers to
mation in the statement on En­ make sure they follow prescribed
gineering and Science Technicians plans and procedures. As a product
is built, technicians check to see
elsewhere in this book.)
that specifications are followed,
keep engineers and scientists in­
formed as to progress, and in­
vestigate production problems.
As sales workers or field
representatives for manufacturers,
(D.O.T. 002. through 029.)
technicians give advice on installa­
tion and maintenance problems of
Nature of the Work
complex machinery, and may write
Knowledge of science, mathe­ specifications
matics, industrial machinery, and manuals. (See statement on Techni­
processes enables engineering and cal Writers elsewhere in this book.)
Technicians may work in the en­
science technicians to work in all

gineering field, in physical science,
or in life science. Within these
general fields, job titles may
describe the level (biological aid or
(quality control technician or time
study analyst), or area of work
(mechanical, electrical, or chemi­
As an engineering technician,
one might work in any of the fol­
lowing areas:
Aeronautical Technology. Tech­
nicians in this area work with en­
gineers and scientists to design
and produce aircraft, rockets,
guided missiles, and spacecraft.
Many aid engineers in preparing
design layouts and models of
structures, control systems, or
equipment installations by col­
lecting information, making com­
putations, and performing labora­
tory tests. For example, under
the direction of an engineer, a
technician might estimate weight
factors, centers of gravity, and
other items affecting load capacity
of an airplane or missile. Other
technicians prepare or check
drawings for technical accuracy,
practicability, and economy.
frequently work as manufacturers’
field service representatives, serv­
ing as the link between their com­
pany and the military services, com­
prepare technical information for
catalogs, and other literature. (See
statement on Aerospace Engineers
and Airplane Mechanics elsewhere in
this book.)
Air-Conditioning, Heating, and
Refrigeration Technology. Air
conditioning, heating, and refriger­
ation technicians design, manu­
facture, sell, and service equipment
to regulate interior temperatures.
Technicians in this field often
specialize in one area, such as
refrigeration, and sometimes in
a particular type of activity, such

as research and development.
When working for firms that
manufacture temperature con­
trolling equipment, technicians
generally work in research and en­
gineering departments, where they
assist engineers and scientists in the
design and testing of new equip­
ment or production methods. For
example, a technician may con­
struct an experimental model to test
its durability and operating charac­
teristics. Technicians also work as
field salesworkers for equipment
manufacturers or dealers, and must
be able to supply engineering firms
and other contractors that design
and install systems with information
operating costs, and the per­
formance specifications of the
equipment. Other technicians work
for contractors, where they help
design and prepare installation in­
structions for air-conditioning,
heating, or refrigeration systems.
Still others work in customer serv­
ice, and are responsible for super­
vising the installation and main­
tenance of equipment.
Civil Engineering Technology.
Technicians in this area assist
civil engineers in planning, design­
ing, and constructing highways,
bridges, dams, and other structures.
During the planning stage, they
help estimate costs, prepare specifi­
cations for materials, or participate
in surveying, drafting, or designing.
Once construction begins, they
assist the contractor or super­
intendent in scheduling construc­
tion activities or inspecting the
work to assure conformance to
blueprints and specifications. (See
statements on Civil Engineers,
Drafters, and Surveyors else­
where in this book.)
Electronics Technology. Techni­
cians in this field develop, manufac­
ture, and service a wide range of
electronic equipment and systems.
They may work with radio, radar,
sonar, television, and other commu­
nication equipment, industrial and
medical measuring or control

Physics technician adjusts spark chamber during research experiment.

devices, navigational equipment,
electronic computers, and many
other types of electronic equip­
ment. Because the field is so broad,
technicians often specialize in one
area such as automatic control
devices or electronic amplifiers.
Furthermore, technological ad­
vancement is constantly opening up
new areas of work. For example,
the development of printed circuits
stimulated the growth of miniatu­
rized electronic systems.
When working in design, produc­
tion, or customer service, elec­
tronic technicians use sophisticated
measuring and diagnostic devices to
analyze and test equipment. In
many cases, they must understand
the requirements of the field in
which the electronic device is being
used. In designing equipment for
space exploration, for example,
they must consider the need for
minimum weight and volume and

maximum resistance to shock, ex­
treme temperature, and pressure.
Some electronics technicians also
work in technical sales, while others
work in the radio and television
broadcasting industry. (See state­
ment on Broadcast Technicians else­
where in this book.)
Industrial Production Technology.
Technicians in this area, usually
called industrial or production
technicians, assist industrial engi­
neers on problems involving the
efficient use of personnel, materials,
and machines to produce goods
and services. They prepare layouts
of machinery and equipment, plan
the flow of work, make statistical
studies, and analyze production
costs. Industrial technicians also
conduct time and motion studies
(analyze the time and move­
ments a worker needs to accom­
plish a task) to improve the effi­
ciency of an operation.

acquire work experience which
enables them to qualify for other
jobs. For example, those specializ­
ing in machinery and production
methods may move into industrial
safety. Others, in job analysis, may
set job standards and interview,
test, hire, and train personnel. Still
others may move into production
supervision. (See statements on
Personnel Workers and Industrial
Engineers elsewhere in this book.)
Mechanical Technology. Mechani­
cal technology is a broad term
which covers a large number
of specialized fields including au­
technology, tool design, machine
design, and production technology.
Technicians assist engineers in
design and development work by
making freehand sketches and
rough layouts of proposed machin­
ery and other equipment and parts.
This work requires knowledge of
mechanical principles involving
tolerance, stress, strain, friction,
and vibration factors. Technicians
also analyze the costs and practical
value of designs.
In planning and testing experi­
mental machines and equipment for
performance, durability, and effi­
ciency, technicians record data,
make computations, plot graphs,
analyze results, and write reports.
They sometimes recommend design
changes to improve performance.
Their job often requires skill in the
use of instruments, test equipment
and gauges, as well as in the
preparation and interpretation of
When a product is ready for
prepare layouts and drawings of the
assembly process and of parts to be
manufactured. They frequently
help estimate labor costs, equip­
ment life, and plant space. Some
mechanical technicians test and in­
spect machines and equipment in
manufacturing departments or
work with engineers to eliminate

production problems. Others are
technical salesworkers.
Tool designers are among the
mechanical engineering technolo­
gy. Tool designers design tools and
devices for mass production, and
frequently redesign existing tools to
improve their efficiency. They
prepare sketches of the designs for
cutting tools, jigs, dies, special fix­
tures, and other attachments used
in machine operations. They also
make or supervise others in making
detailed drawings of tools and fix­
Machine drafting, with some
designing, is another major area
often grouped under mechanical
technology and is described in the
statement on Drafters. (Also see
statements on Mechanical En­
gineers, and Manufacturers’ Sales­
workers elsewhere in this book.)
Instrumentation Technology. Au­
tomated manufacturing and indus­
trial processes, oceanographic
and space exploration, weather
forecasting, satellite communi­
cation systems, environmental
protection, and medical research
have helped to make instrumenta­
tion technology a fastgrowing
field for technicians. They help
develop and design complex
measuring and control devices such
as those in a spacecraft that sense
and measure changes in heat or
pressure, automatically record
data, and make necessary adjust­
ments. These technicians have ex­
tensive knowledge of physical
sciences as well as electrical-elec­
tronic and mechanical engineering.
Several areas of opportunity exist
in the physical sciences:
Chemical technicians work with
chemists and chemical engineers
to develop, sell, and utilize chemi­
cal and related products and equip­
Most chemical technicians do
research and development, testing,
or other laboratory work. They
often set up and conduct tests on

processes and products being
developed or improved. For exam­
ple, a technician may examine steel
for carbon, phosphorous, and sulfur
content or test a lubricating oil by
subjecting it to changing tempera­
tures. The technician measures
reactions, analyzes the results of ex­
periments, and records data which
will be the basis for decisions and
future research.
Chemical technicians in produc­
tion generally put into commercial
products or
processes developed in research
laboratories. They assist in making
the final design, installing equip­
ment, and training and supervising
operators on the production line.
Technicians in quality control test
materials, production processes,
and final products to insure that
they meet the manufacturer’s
specifications and quality stand­
ards. Many also work as technical
sales personnel, selling chemicals or
chemical products.
Many chemical technicians use
computers and instruments, such as
a dilatometer (which measures the
expansion of a substance). Because
the field of chemistry is so broad,
chemical technicians frequently
specialize in a particular industry
such as food processing or phar­
maceuticals. (See statements on
Chemists and Chemical Engineers,
elsewhere in this book.)
Meteorological technicians sup­
port meteorologists in the study of
atmospheric conditions. Techni­
cians calibrate instruments, ob­
meteorological occurrences, and
assist in research projects and the
development of scientific instru­
geologists in evaluating earth
Drocesses. Currently much research
is being conducted in seismology,
petroleum and mineral exploration,
and ecology. These technicians in­
stall seismographic instruments,
record measurements from these
instruments, assist in field evalua­

tion of earthquake damage and sur­
face displacement, or assist geolo­
gists in earthquake prediction
research. In petroleum and mineral
exploration, they help conduct tests
and record sound wave data to
determine the likelihood of success­
ful drilling, or use radiation detec­
tion instruments and collect core
samples to help geologists evaluate
the economic possibilities of mining
a given resource.
Hydrologic technicians gather
data to help professional hydrolo­
gists predict river stages and water
quality levels. They monitor instru­
ments which measure water flow,
water table levels, or water quality,
they analyze these data and report
their findings to the hydrologist.
(See statement on Environmental
Scientists elsewhere in this book.)
Technician positions in the life
sciences are generally included in
two categories: Agricultural techni­
cians work with agricultural
scientists in the areas of food
production and processing. Plant
technicians conduct tests and ex­
periments to improve the yield and
quality of crops, or to increase re­
sistance to disease, insects, or other
hazards. Technicians in soil science
analyse the chemical and physical
properties of various soils to help
determine the best uses for these
soils. Animal husbandry technicians
concern themselves mainly with the
breeding and nutrition of animals.
In addition, several thousand
technicians work in the food indus­
try as food processing technicians.
They work in quality control or in
food science research, helping food
scientists develop better and more
efficient ways of processing food
material for human consumption.
(See statement on Food Scientists
elsewhere in this book.)
primarily in laboratories where they
perform tests and experiments
Microbiological technicians study
microscopic organisms and may be

parasitology research. Laboratory
Places of Employment
animal technicians study and report
Over 560,000 persons worked as
on the reaction of laboratory
animals to certain physical and engineering and science technicians
chemical stimuli. They also study in 1974. Almost 390,000 worked in
and conduct research to help biolo­ engineering fields, about 125,000 in
gists develop cures which may be the physical science occupations,
and about 50,000 in the life
applied to human diseases.
sciences. About 13 percent of all
Biochemical technicians assist
biochemists in the chemical analy­ engineering and science technicians
sis of biological substances (blood, were women. The proportion of
other body fluids, foods, drugs). women technicians, by field, was 30
Most of their work involves con­ percent in life science; 15 percent
ducting experiments and reporting in physical science; and 5 percent in
their results to a biochemist. As a engineering.
More than 375,000 (about 2 out
biological technician, one might
also work primarily with insects, of 3) technicians worked in private
studying insect control, developing industry. In the manufacturing sec­
new insecticides, or determining tor, the largest employers were the
how to use insects to control other electrical equipment, chemicals,
insects or undesirable plants. (See machinery, and aerospace indus­
statements on Life Scientists else­ tries. In nonmanufacturing, large
numbers worked in wholesale and
where in this book.)
Technicians also specialize in retail trade, communications, and
fields such as metallurgical (metal), in engineering and architectural
electrical, and optical technology. firms.
In 1974, the Federal Government
In the atomic energy field, techni­
cians work with scientists and en­ employed about 87,000 techni­
gineers on problems of radiation cians, chiefly as engineering aids
safety, inspection, and decon­ and technicians, equipment spe­
tamination. New areas of work in­ cialists, biological technicians, car­
tographic technicians (mapmaking),
clude environmental protection,
meteorological technicians, and
where technicians study the problems
physical science technicians. The
of air and water pollution, as well as
largest number worked for the De­
the field of industrial safety.
partment of Defense; most of the
others worked for the Departments
of Transportation, Agriculture, In­
terior, and Commerce.
State government agencies em­
ployed nearly 50,000 engineering
and science technicians, and local
governments about 11,000. The
remainder worked for colleges and
universities and nonprofit organiza­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Agricultural technician extracts grain
sample for lab test.

Persons can qualify for techni­
cian jobs through many combina­
tions of work experience and edu­
cation because employers tradi­
tionally have been flexible in their
hiring standards. However, most

employers prefer applicants who students for technician occupations
have had some specialized techni­ are similar to those in the freshman
cal training. Specialized training is and sophomore years of 4-year col­
available at technical institutes, leges. After completing the 2-year
junior and community colleges, program, graduates can transfer to
area vocational-technical schools, 4-year colleges or qualify for some
extension divisions of colleges and technician jobs. Most large commu­
universities, and vocational-techni­ nity colleges offer 2-year technical
cal high schools. Engineering and programs, and many employers
science students who have not prefer graduates having more spe­
completed the bachelor’s degree cialized training.
and others who have degrees in Area Vocational-Technical Schools.
science and mathematics also are These post-secondary public institu­
able to qualify for technician posi­ tions serve students from surround­
ing areas and train them for jobs in
Persons can also qualify for the local area. Most of these schools
technician jobs by less formal require a high school degree or its
methods. Workers may learn equivalent for admission.
through on-the-job training pro­
grams or courses in post-secondary Other Training. Some large cor­
or correspondence schools. Some porations conduct training programs
qualify on the basis of experience and operate private schools to
gained in the Armed Forces. How­ meet their needs for technically
ever, post-secondary training is in­ trained personnel in specific
creasingly necessary for advance­ jobs; such training rarely includes
general studies. Training for some
ment to more responsible jobs.
Some of the types of post-secon­ technician occupations,for instance
dary and other schools which pro­ tool designers and electronic tech­
are nicians, is available through for­
discussed in the following para­ mal 2- to 4-year apprenticeship
programs. The apprentice gets
on-the-job training under the close
Technical Institutes. Technical
supervision of an experienced
institutes offer training to qualify technician and related technical
students for a job immediately knowledge in classes, usually
after graduation with a minimum after working hours.
of on-the-job training. In general,
The Armed Forces have trained
students receive intensive technical many technicians, especially in
training but less theory and general electronics. However, military job
education than in engineering requirements are generally dif­
schools or liberal arts colleges. ferent from those in the civilian
A few technical institutes and economy. Thus, military technician
community colleges offer coopera­ training may not be adequate for
tive programs; students spend part civilian technician work, and addi­
of the time in school and part in tional training may be necessary for
paid employment related to their employment.
Technician training also is availa­
Some technical institutes operate ble from many private technical
as regular or extension divisions of and correspondence schools that
colleges and universities. Other in­ often specialize in a single field
stitutions are operated by States such as electronics. Some of these
and municipalities, or by private or­ schools are owned and operated by
large corporations that have the
resources to provide very up-toJunior and Community Colleges. date training in a technical field.
Curriculums in junior and com­
Those interested in a career as a
munity colleges which prepare technician should have an aptitude

for mathematics and science, and
enjoy technical work. An ability to
do detailed work with a high degree
of accuracy is necessary; for design
work, creative talent also is desira­
ble. Since technicians are part of a
scientific team, they sometimes
must work under the close supervi­
sion of engineers and scientists as
well as with other technicians and
skilled workers.
Engineering and science techni­
cians usually begin work as trainees
in routine positions under the direct
supervision of an experienced
technician, scientist, or engineer.
As they gain experience, they
receive more responsibility and
carry out a particular assignment
under only general supervision.
Technicians may eventually move
into supervisory positions. Those
who have the ability and obtain ad­
ditional education are sometimes
upgraded to professional science or
engineering positions.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
engineering and science technicians
are expected to be favorable
through the mid-1980’s. Opportuni­
ties will be best for graduates of
post-secondary school technician
training programs. Besides the
openings resulting from faster than
average growth expected in this
field, additional technicians will be
needed to replace those who die,
retire, or leave the occupation.
Industrial expansion and the in­
creasing complexity of modern
technology underlie the anticipated
increase in demand for technicians.
Many will be needed to work with
the growing number of engineers
and scientists in developing,
producing, and distributing new
and technically advanced products.
Automation of industrial processes
and growth of new work areas such
as environmental protection and
urban development will add to the
demand for technical personnel.
The anticipated growth of
research and development (R&D)

expenditures in industry and
government should increase de­
mand for technicians. However,
this growth is expected to be slower
than in the past.
Because space and defense pro­
grams are major factors in the em­
ployment of technical personnel,
expenditures in these areas affect
the demand for technicians. The
outlook for technicians is based on
the assumption that defense spend­
ing will increase from the 1974 level
by the mid-1980’s, but will still be
slightly lower than the levels of the
late 1960’s. If defense spending
should differ substantially from this
level, the demand for technicians
would be affected accordingly.

In general, technicians’ earnings
depend on their education and
technical specialty, as well as their
ability and work experience, and
the industry in which they work.
In private industry in 1974,
average starting salaries for 2-year
graduates ranged from about
$8,200 to $9,800 a year, while non­
graduates earned average starting
salaries from just over $6,000 to
about $8,500. Starting salaries for
averaged over $10,000 a year. Ac­
cording to a 1974 Bureau of Labor
Statistics survey, experienced en­
gineering technicians in private in­
dustry earned average salaries of
about $ 13,500 a year.
Starting salaries for all techni­
cians in the Federal Government
were fairly uniform in late 1974. A
high school graduate with no ex­
perience could expect $5,996 an­
nually to start. With an associate
degree, the starting salary was
$7,596, and if a bachelor’s degree
were held, the annual salary might
be $8,500 or $10,520 (depending
on the type of job vacancy and the
applicant’s education and other
qualifications). At higher ex­
perience levels, however, dif­
ferences in earnings are significant.
The average annual salary for all

Surveyors often work as party
chiefs; that is, they are in charge of
a field party that determines the
precise measurements and loca­
tions of elevations, points, lines,
and contours on the earth’s surface,
$ 11 , 0 0 0 .
and distances between points. Sur­
Sources of Additional
veyors are directly responsible for
the field party’s activity and the ac­
For information on careers for curacy of its work. They plan the
engineering and science technicians field work, select survey reference
points, and determine the precise
and engineering and technology
location of natural and man-made
programs, contact:
features of the survey region. They
Engineers Council for Professional Develop­
record the information disclosed by
ment, 345 East 47th St., New York,
N .Y .10017.
the survey, verify the accuracy of
Information on schools offering the survey data, and prepare
technician programs is available sketches, maps, and reports.
A typical field party is made up of
the party chief and three to six
National Association of Trade and Technical
Schools, Accrediting Commission, 2021
assistants and helpers. Instrument
L St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
workers (D.O .T. 018.188) adjust
U S. Department of Health, Education, and
and operate surveying instruments
Welfare, Office of Education, Washing­
such as the theodolite (used to
ton, D C . 20202.
measure altitude). Chain workers
State departments of education
(D.O.T. 018.687) use a steel tape
also have information about ap­ or surveyor’s chain to measure
proved technical institutes, junior distances between surveying points.
colleges, and other educational in­
Generally chain workers operate in
stitutions within the State offering
pairs, one holding the tape at the
post-high school training for
last established point, and the other
specific technical occupations.
marking an advanced measuring
Other sources include:
point. Chain workers also may
American Association of Community and
mark measured points with painted
Junior Colleges, Suite 410, 1 Dupont
stakes. R od workers (D .O .T .
Circle, Washington, D.C. 20036.
018.587) use a level rod, range
National Home Study Council, 1601 18th St.
pole, or other equipment to assist
NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.
instrument workers in determining
directions. They hold and move the
range pole according to hand or
verbal signals of the instrument
(D.O.T. 018.188)
worker to help establish the exact
point of measurement. Rod workers
Nature of the Work
also may clear brush from the sur­
Before engineers can plan high­ vey line.
ways or other construction proj­
Surveyors often specialize in a
ects, they need complete and accu­ particular type of survey. Besides
rate information about boundaries, doing highway surveys, many per­
land features, and other physical form land surveys and locate boun­
characteristics of the construction daries of a particular tract of land.
site. Surveyors measure construc­ They then prepare maps and legal
tion sites, help establish official descriptions for deeds, leases, and
land boundaries, assist in setting other documents. Surveyors doing
land valuations, and collect infor­ topographic surveys
elevations, depressions, and con­
mation for maps and charts.
engineering technicians employed
by the Federal Government in late
1974 was $16,000; for physical
science technicians, $15,000; and
for life science technicians, about

tours of an area, and indicate the lo­
cation of distinguishing surface fea­
tures such as farms, buildings,
forests, roads, and rivers.
Several closely related occupa­
tions are geodesy and photogrammetry. Geodesists measure im­
mense areas of land, sea, or space
by taking into account the earth’s
curvature and its geophysical
characteristics. (See statement on
Geophysicists elsewhere in this
book.) Photogrammetrists measure
and interpret natural or man-made
features of an area. They make topo­
graphic and thematic maps by apply­
ing analytical processes and mathe­
matical techniques to photographs
obtained from aerial, space, and
ground surveys. Control surveys on
the ground are made to determine the
accuracy of maps derived from photogrammatic techniques.

ploy about one-third of all sur­
veyors. Among the Federal Govern­
ment agencies employing these
workers are the U.S. Geological
Survey, the Bureau of Land
Management, the Army Corps of
Engineers, and the Forest Service.
Most surveyors in State and local
government agencies work for
highway departments and urban
planning and redevelopment agen­
A large number of surveyors
work for construction companies
and for engineering and architec­
tural consulting firms. A sizable
number either work for or own
firms that conduct surveys for a fee.
Significant numbers of surveyors
also work for crude petroleum and
natural gas companies, and for
public utilities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Surveyor checks topography at con'
struction site.

Places of Employment
About 55,000 people worked as
surveyors in 1974; less than 5 per­
cent were women. Federal, State,
and local government agencies em­

A combination of post-secondary
school courses in surveying and ex­
tensive on-the-job training is the
most common method of entering
surveying work. Junior colleges,
technical institutes, and vocational
schools offer 1-, 2-, and 3-year pro­
grams in surveying. A few 4-year
colleges offer bachelor’s degrees
specifically in surveying, while
many offer several courses in the
field. Most surveying programs
admit only high school graduates,
preferably those who have studied
algebra, geometry, trigonometry,
calculus, drafting, and mechanical
drawing. With some post-secondary
school courses in surveying, begin­
ners can generally start as instru­
ment workers. After gaining ex­
perience, they usually advance to
party chief, and may later seek to
become a registered surveyor. In
many instances, promotions to
higher level positions are based on
written examinations as well as ex­
High school graduates with no
formal training in surveying usually
start as rod workers. After several

years of on-the-job experience and
some formal training in surveying, it
is possible to advance to chain
worker, instrument worker, and
finally to party chief.
For those interested in a profes­
sional career in photogrammetry, a
bachelor’s degree in engineering or
the physical sciences is usually
All 50 States require licensing or
registration of land surveyors
responsible for locating and
describing land boundaries. Regis­
tration requirements are generally
quite strict, because once re­
gistered, surveyors can be held
legally responsible for their work.
In some States, applicants for licen­
ses need to know other types of sur­
veying in addition to land survey­
ing. Requirements vary among the
States but in general they include a
combination of 4 to 8 years’ ex­
perience in surveying and passing
an examination. Most States reduce
the experience needed to take the
licensing examination if the appli­
cant has taken post-secondary
courses in surveying.
In 1974, about 20,000 land sur­
veyors were registered. In addition,
about 13,000 engineers were re­
gistered to do land surveying,
primarily as part of their civil en­
gineering duties; however, these
workers are considered engineers
rather than surveyors. (See state­
ment on Civil Engineers elsewhere
in this book.)
Qualifications for success as a
surveyor include ability to visualize
objects, distances, sizes, and other
abstract forms and to make mathe­
matical calculations quickly and ac­
curately. Leadership qualities also
are important as surveyors must su­
pervise the work of others.
Members of a survey party must
be strong and healthy in order to
work outdoors and carry equipment
over difficult terrain. They also
need good eyesight, coordination,
and hearing in order to commu­
nicate over great distances by hand
signals or voice calls.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
surveyors are expected to be
favorable through the mid-1980’s,
especially for those with postsecon­
dary school training. Employment
of surveyors is expected to grow
much faster than the average for all
occupations through the mid1980’s. In addition to the openings
resulting from growth, many will
result from the need to replace
those who die, retire, or transfer to
other fields of work.
The rapid development of urban
areas and increased land values
should create jobs for surveyors to
locate boundaries for property
records. Others will be needed to
lay out streets, shopping centers,
schools, and recreation areas. Con­
struction and improvement of the
Nation’s roads and highways also
will require many new surveyors.

Earnings and Working
In the Federal Government in
late 1974, high school graduates

with little or no training or ex­
perience started as rod workers or
chain workers with an annual salary
of $5,996. Those with 1 year of re­
earned $6,764. Those with an as­
sociate degree which included
courses in surveying generally
started as instrument workers with
an annual salary of $7,596. The
majority of surveyors who worked
as party chiefs in the Federal
$9,500 and $13,000 per year and
some surveyors in high-level posi­
tions earned more than $ 15,000 per
Although salaries in private in­
dustry vary by geographic area,
limited data indicate that salaries
are generally comparable to those
in Federal service and are above the
average earnings of nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Surveyors usually work an 8hour, 5-day week. However, they
sometimes work longer hours dur­
ing the summer months when
weather conditions are most suita­
ble for surveying. The work of sur­

veyors is active and sometimes
strenuous. They often stand for
long periods and walk long
distances or climb mountains with
heavy packs of instruments and
equipment. Because most work is
out-of-doors, surveyors are exposed
to all types of weather. Some duties,
such as planning surveys, preparing
reports and computations, and
drawing maps, usually are done in
an office.

Sources of Additional
Information about training and
career opportunities in surveying is
available from:
American Congress on Surveying and
Mapping, Woodward Building, 733 15th
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.

General information on careers
in photogrammetry is available
American Society of Photogrammetry, 150
North Virginia Ave., Falls Church, Va.


When people are sick or injured,
having health services readily
available becomes very important
to them. The availability of these
services depends, not only on the
number of people employed in
health occupations, but also on
their geographic distribution. Num­
bers employed have grown very
rapidly in recent years. How to im­
prove their distribution remains a
problem which is being attacked on
the national, State, and local levels.
About 3.9 million people worked
in health-related occupations in
1974. Besides doctors, nurses,
dentists, and therapists, these in­
technologists, technicians, adminis­
trators, and assistants.
Registered nurses, physicians,
pharmacists, and dentists constitute
the largest professional health oc­
cupations. In 1974 employment in
these occupations ranged from
105,000 for dentists to 855,000 for
health occupations also include
osteopathic physicians, chiroprac­
tors, optometrists, podiatrists, and
veterinarians. Therapists (physical
therapists, occupational therapists,
and speech pathologists and au­
(health services administrators and
medical record administrators) also
are professional health workers, as
are dietitians.
Other health service workers in­
clude technicians of various types,
such as medical technologist, dental
hygienist, and respiratory therapist.
Hospitals employ about half of all
workers in the health field. Others
work in clinics, laboratories, phar­
macies, nursing homes, public
health agencies, mental health cen­
ters, private offices, and patients’
homes. Health workers are concen­
trated in the more heavily popu­

lated and prosperous areas of the

The educational and other
requirements for work in the health
field are as diverse as the health oc­
cupations themselves. For example,
professional health workers—physi­
cians, dentists, pharmacists, and
others —must complete a number
of years of preprofessional and
professional college education and
pass a State licensing examination.
On the other hand, some health ser­
vice occupations can be entered
with little specialized training.
Many community and junior col­
leges offer courses to prepare stu­
dents for various health occupa­
tions. In most of the occupations for
which on-the-job training has been
the usual means of preparation, em­
ployers now prefer persons who
have completed one of these formal

People in health occupations that
require graduation from college earn
from one-and-a-quarter times to twice
these average earnings. Among the
occupations for which average yearly
earnings are reported in this book,
the top 15 include 8 of the profes­
sional health occupations, including
all 6 medical practitioners.

Overall employment in the health
field is expected to grow much
faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the mid-1980’s,
although the rates of growth will
differ considerably among in­
Among the factors that are ex­
pected to contribute to an increase

in the demand for health care are
population growth and the public’s
increasing health consciousness.
Expansion of coverage under
prepayment programs that make it
easier for persons to pay for
hospitalization and medical care
also will contribute to growth in this
field. Other openings will be
created each year by the increasing
expenditures by Federal, State, and
local governments for health care
and services.
In addition to jobs created by em­
ployment growth, many new wor­
kers will be needed each year to
replace those who retire, die, or
leave the field for other reasons.
Recent expansion of training pro­
grams in most of the occupations
will add to the supply of trained
health service personnel. The em­
ployment outlook in the various oc­
cupations ranges from excellent to
competitive, depending on the
balance between supply of workers
and expected openings. See the in­
dividual statements for the outlook
for each occupation.


does not include the use of drugs or

Places of Employment
About 18,000 persons, 6 percent
chiropractors are in private prac­
tice. Some are salaried assistants of
established practitioners or work
for chiropractic clinics and industri­
al firms. Others teach or conduct
research at chiropractic colleges.
More than two-fifths of all
chiropractors are located
California, Michigan, Missouri,
New York, Pennsylvania, and

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

(D.O.T. 079.108)

Nature of the Work
Chiropractic is a system of treat­
ment based on the principle that a
person’s health is determined large­
ly by the nervous system, and that
interference with this system im­
pairs normal functions and lowers
resistance to disease. Chiropractors
treat patients primarily by manual
manipulation of parts of the body,
especially the spinal column.
Because of the emphasis on the
spine and its position, most
chiropractors use X-rays extensive­
ly to aid in locating the source of
patients’ difficulties. In addition to
manipulation, some chiropractors
use such supplementary measures
as water, light, and heat therapy,
and prescribe diet, exercise, and
rest. Most State laws restrict the
type of supplementary treatment
Chiropractic as a system for healing

All 50 States and the District of
Columbia regulate the practice of
chiropractic and grant licenses to
chiropractors who meet certain
educational requirements and pass
Although the type of practice per­
mitted and the educational require­
ments for a license vary con­
siderably from one State to another,
most States require successful
completion of a 4-year chiropractic
course following 2 years of
preprofessional college work. In ad­
dition, several States require that
chiropractors pass a basic science
licensed in one State may obtain a
license in most other States by
In 1974, there were 12 chiroprac­
tic colleges. All require 2 years of
college before entrance, and some
require that specific courses be
taken during these 2 years. Most
chiropractic colleges emphasize
courses in manipulation and spinal
adjustments. Others offer a broader
curriculum, including subjects such
as physiotherapy and nutrition. In
most chiropractic colleges, the first
2 years of the curriculum are
devoted chiefly to classroom and
laboratory work in subjects such as

biochemistry. During the last 2
years, students obtain practical ex­
perience in college clinics. The
degree of Doctor of Chiropractic
(D.C.) is awarded to students
completing 4 years of chiropractic
Chiropractic requires considera­
ble hand dexterity but not unusual
strength or endurance. Persons
desiring to become chiropractors
should be able to work indepen­
dently and handle responsibility.
The ability to work with detail is im­
portant. Sympathy and understand­
ing are among personal qualities
considered desirable in dealing ef­
fectively with patients.
Most newly licensed chiroprac­
tors either set up a new practice or
purchase an established one. Some
start as salaried chiropractors to
acquire experience and funds
needed to establish their own prac­
tice. A moderate financial invest­
ment is usually necessary to open
and equip an office.

Employment Outlook
The number of chiropractors is
expected to increase faster than the
average for all occupations to the
mid-1980’s as public acceptance of
chiropractic healing continues to
grow. In addition to openings that
will result from increasing demand,
an even greater number of
chiropractors will be needed to
replace those who die, retire, or
leave the occupation for other
The supply of chiropractors,
however, also has begun to expand
rapidly. Enrollments in chiropractic
colleges are growing dramatically,
in apparent response to the broader
public acceptance of the profes­
sion. As more students graduate
and the number of active practi­
tioners swells, new chiropractors
may find it increasingly difficult to
establish a practice in those areas
where other practitioners already
are located. The best opportunities
for new chiropractors may be in

form corrective surgery of the gums
and supporting bones. In addition,
they may clean teeth.
Dentists spend most of their time
Earnings and Working
with patients, but may devote some
time to laboratory work such as
In chiropractic, as in other types making dentures and inlays. Most
of independent practice, earnings dentists, however—particularly in
are relatively low in the beginning, large cities—send their laboratory
but rise after the first few years. In­ work to commercial firms. Some
comes of chiropractors vary widely. dentists also employ dental hy­
Earnings for beginning chiroprac­ gienists to clean patients’ teeth and
tors were between $12,000 and provide instruction for patient self$15,000 a year in 1974. Ex­ care. They also may employ other as­
perienced chiropractors earned an sistants who perform office work, as­
average of about $28,000, accord­ sist in “chairside” duties, and provide
ing to limited data available, therapeutic services under the super­
although many earn considerably vision of the dentist.
Most dentists are general practi­
tioners who provide many types of
Sources of Additional
dental care; about 10 percent are
specialists. The largest group of
The State board of licensing in specialists are orthodontists, who
the capital of each State can supply straighten teeth. The next largest
information on State licensing group, oral surgeons, operate on
the mouth and jaws. The remainder
on specialize in pedodontics (dentistry
chiropractic as a career and a list of for children); periodontics (treating
schools of chiropractic are availa­ the gums); prosthodontics (making
artificial teeth or dentures); en­
ble from:
dodontics (root canal therapy);
areas with comparatively
established practitioners.


American Chiropractic Association, 2200
Grand Ave., Des Moines, Iowa 50312.
International Chiropractors Association, 741
Brady St., Davenport, Iowa 52808.

For information on requirements
for admission to a specific
chiropractic college, contact the
admissions office of that school.

(D.O.T. 072.108)

Nature of the Work
Dentists examine teeth and other
tissues of the mouth to diagnose dis­
eases or abnormalities. They take
X-rays, fill cavities, straighten
teeth, and treat gum diseases.
Dentists extract teeth and substitute
artificial dentures designed for the
individual patient. They also per­

public health dentistry; and oral
pathology (diseases of the mouth).
About 4 percent of all dentists
teach in dental schools, do
research, or administer dental
health programs on a full-time
basis. Many dentists in private prac­
tice do this work on a part-time

Places of Employment
Over 105,000 dentists were at
work in the United States in 1974—
9 of every 10 were in private prac­
tice. About 6,500 served as com­
missioned officers in the Armed
Forces, and about 1,100 had other
types of Federal Government posi­
tions—chiefly in the hospitals and
clinics of the Veterans Administra­
tion and the Public Health Service.
Women dentists represent only
about 2 percent of the profession,
but their number is increasing.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A license to practice dentistry is

required in all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia. To qualify for a
license, a candidate must be a grad­
uate of an approved dental school
and pass a State board examination.
In 1974, 49 States and the District
of Columbia recognized the ex­
amination given by the National
Board of Dental Examiners as a
substitute for the written part of the
Delaware also requires new gradu­
ates to serve 1 year of hospital in­
ternship, in addition to passing the
written examination. Most State
licenses permit dentists to engage in
both general and specialized prac­
tice. In 13 States, however, a dentist
cannot be licensed as a “specialist”
without 2 or 3 years of graduate
education and passing a special
State examination. Few States per­
mit dentists licensed in other States
to practice in their jurisdictions
without further examination.
Dental colleges require from 2 to
4 years of predental education.
However, of those students entering
dental school in 1974, 76 percent
had a baccalaureate or master’s
degree. Predental education must
include courses in the sciences and
Competition is keen for admis­
sion to dental schools. In selecting
students, schools give considerable
weight to college grades and
amount of college education. In ad­
dition, all dental schools participate
in a nationwide admission testing
program, and scores earned on
these tests are considered along
with information gathered about
the applicant through recommen­
dations and interviews. Many Statesupported dental schools also give
preference to residents of their par­
ticular States.
Dental school training generally
lasts 4 academic years although
some institutions condense this into
3 calendar years. Studies begin with
an emphasis on classroom instruc­
tion and laboratory work in basic
microbiology, biochemistry, and

physiology. Courses in clinical
sciences and preclinical technique
also are provided at this time. The
last 2 years are spent chiefly in a
dental clinic, treating patients.
The degree of Doctor of Dental
Surgery (D.D.S.) is awarded by
most dental colleges. An equivalent
degree, Doctor of Dental Medicine
(D .M .D .), is conferred by 18
Dentists who want to do
research, teach, or become spe­
cialists must spend an additional 2
to 4 years in advanced dental train­
ing in programs operated by dental
schools, hospitals, and other institu­
tions of higher education.
Dental education is very costly
because of the time required to earn
the dental degree. However, Federal
funds provide a limited number of
loans for dental students, and
scholarships are available for
qualifying students who agree to a
minimum of 2 years' Federal serv­
The profession of dentistry
requires both manual skills and a
high level of intelligence. Dentists
should have good visual memory,
excellent judgment of space and
shape, delicacy of touch, and a high
degree of manual dexterity, as well
as scientific ability. Good business
sense, self-discipline, and the ability
to instill confidence are helpful for
success in private practice. High
school students who want to
become dentists are advised to take
courses in biology, chemistry,
health, and mathematics.
Most dental graduates open their
own offices or purchase established
practices. Some start in practice
with established dentists, to gain ex­
perience and to save the money
required to equip an office; others
may enter residency or internship
training programs in approved
hospitals. Dentists who enter the
Armed Forces are commissioned as
captains in the Army and Air Force
and as lieutenants in the Navy.
Graduates of recognized dental
schools are eligible for Federal Civil

Service positions and for commis­
sions (equivalent to lieutenants in
the Navy) in the U.S. Public Health

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
dentists are expected to be excel­
lent through the mid-1980’s. Dental
school enrollments have grown in
recent years because of federally
assisted construction of additional
training facilities. However, unless
schools expand beyond present
levels, the number of new entrants
to the field is expected to fall short
of the number needed to fill
openings created by growth of the
occupation and by those who die or
retire from the profession.
Employment of dentists is ex­
pected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations due to
awareness that regular dental care
helps prevent and control dental
diseases, and the expansion of
prepayment arrangements which
make it easier for people to afford
dental services. In addition, dental
public health programs will need
qualified administrators and dental
colleges will need additional faculty
members. Many dentists will con­
tinue to serve in the Armed Forces.
Fluoridation of community water
supplies and improved dental hy­
giene may prevent some tooth and
gum disorders, and preserve teeth
that might otherwise be extracted.
However, since the preserved teeth
will need care in the future, these
measures may increase rather than
decrease the demand for dental
care. New techniques, equipment,
and drugs, as well as the expanded
use of dental hygienists, assistants,
and laboratory technicians should
enable individual dentists to care
for more patients. However, these
developments are not expected to
offset the need for more dentists.

Earnings and Working

American Dental Association, Council on
Dental Education, 211 East Chicago
Ave., Chicago, 1 1 6061 1.

During the first year or two of
practice, dentists often earn little
more than the minimum needed to
cover expenses, but their earnings
usually rise rapidly as their practice
develops. Specialists generally earn
considerably more than general
practitioners. The average income
of dentists in 1974 was about
$38,000 a year, according to the
limited information available. In the
Federal Government, new gradu­
ates of dental schools could expect
to start at $15,481 a year in late
Location is one of the major fac­
tors affecting the income of dentists
who open their own offices. For ex­
ample, in high-income urban areas,
dental services are in great demand;
however, a practice can be
developed most quickly in small
towns, where new dentists easily
become known and where they may
established practitioners. Although
the income from practice in small
towns may rise rapidly at first, over
the long run the level of earnings,
like the cost of living, may be lower
than it is in larger communities.
Most dental offices are open 5
days a week and some dentists have
evening hours. Dentists usually
work between 40 and 45 hours a
week, although many spend more
than 50 hours a week in the office.
Dentists often work fewer hours as
they grow older, and a considerable
number continue in part-time prac­
tice well beyond the usual retire­
ment age.

American Association of Dental Schools,
Washington, D C. 20036.

Sources of Additional
Persons who wish to practice in a
given State should obtain the
requirements for licensure from the
board of dental examiners of that
State. Lists of State boards and of
accredited dental schools, as well as
information on dentistry as a
career, is available from:

Students should contact the
director of student financial aid at
the school they attend to get infor­
mation about Federal loans and

mologists are physicians who spe­
cialize in medical eye care, eye dis­
eases and injuries, perform eye sur­
gery, and prescribe drugs or other
eye treatment, as well as lenses.
Dispensing opticians fit and adjust
eyeglasses according to prescrip­
tions written by ophthalmologists or
optometrists; they do not examine
eyes or prescribe treatment. (See
statement on Dispensing Opti­

Places of Employment
In 1974, there were about 19,000
practicing optometrists. Although
women currently make up only 3
percent of the profession, the pro­
(D.O.T. 079.108)
portion of women enrolled in op­
tometry schools has been increasing
Nature of the Work
in recent years.
Most optometrists are in solo
About 1 out of every 2 persons in
the United States needs eye care. practice. Others are in partnerships
Optometrists provide most of this or group practice with other op­
care. They examine people’s eyes tometrists or doctors as part of a
for vision problems, disease, and professional health care team.
Some optometrists work in spe­
other abnormal conditions, and test
for proper depth and color percep­ cialized hospitals and eye clinics or
tion and the ability to focus and teach in schools of optometry.
coordinate the eyes. When necessa­ Others work for the Veterans Ad­
ry, they prescribe lenses and treat­ ministration, public and private
ment. Where evidence of disease is health agencies, and industrial
present, the optometrist refers the health insurance companies. About
patient to the appropriate medical 500 optometrists serve as commis­
practitioner. Most optometrists sioned officers in the Armed
supply the prescribed eyeglasses Forces. Optometrists also may act
and fit and adjust contact lenses. as consultants to engineers spe­
Optometrists also prescribe cor­ cializing in safety or lighting, educa­
rective eye exercises or other treat­ tors in remedial reading, or serve as
ment not requiring drugs or sur­ members of health advisory com­
mittees to Federal, State, and local
Although most optometrists are governments.
According to a recent survey,
in general practice, some specialize
in work with the aged or with chil­ about 2 optometrists out of 5 prac­
dren. Others work only with per­ tice in towns of under 25,000 in­
sons having partial sight who can be habitants.
helped with microscopic or tele­
scopic lenses. Still others are con­
Training, Other Qualifications,
cerned with the visual safety of in­
and Advancement
dustrial workers. A few op­
All States and the District of
tometrists teach or do research.
Optometrists should not be con­ Columbia require that optometrists
fused with either ophthalmologists, be licensed. Applicants for a license
sometimes referred to as oculists, or must have a Doctor of Optometry
with dispensing opticians. Ophthal­ degree from an accredited op-

tometric school and pass a State
board examination. In some States,
applicants are permitted to sub­
stitute the National Board of Op­
tometry examination, given in the
third and fourth year of optometric
school, for part or all of the written
State examination. Several States
allow applicants to be licensed
without lengthy examination if they
have a license in another State.
The Doctor of Optometry degree
requires a minimum of 6 years of
college consisting of a 4-year
preceded by at least 2 years of
preoptometric study at an ac­
credited university, college, or ju­
nior college. In 1974, there were 12
schools and colleges of optometry
approved by the Council on Op­
tometric Education of the Amer­
Requirements for admission to
these schools usually include cour­
ses in English, mathematics,
physics, chemistry, and biology, or
zoology. Some schools also require
courses in psychology, social stu­
dies, literature, philosophy, and
foreign languages.
Since most optometrists are selfemployed, business ability, selfdiscipline, and the ability to deal
with patients tactfully are necessary
for success.
Many beginning optometrists
enter into associate practice with an
optometrist or other health profes­
sional. Others either purchase an
established practice or set up a new
practice. Some take salaried posi­
tions to obtain experience and the
necessary funds to enter their own
Optometrists wishing to advance
in a specialized field may study for a
Master’s or Doctor of Philosophy
degree in physiological optics, neu­
rophysiology, public health ad­
ministration, health information
and communication, or health edu­
cation. Optometrists who enter the
Armed Forces as career officers
have the opportunity to work

toward advanced degrees and to do
vision research, requirements.

mand for optometric services.

Earnings and Working
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
optometrists are expected to be
favorable through the mid-1980’s.
The number of new graduates from
schools of optometry is expected to
be adequate to fill the positions
made available by employment
growth and the need to replace op­
tometrists who die and retire.
Employment of optometrists is
expected to grow about as fast as
the average for all occupations. An
increase in the total population,
especially in the groups most likely
to need glasses—older people and
white-collar workers—is the main
factor contributing to the expected
growth in the occupation. Greater
recognition of the importance of
good vision for efficiency at school
and work, and the possibility that
more persons will have health in­
surance to cover optometric ser­
vices, also should increase the de­

In 1974, net earnings of new op­
tometry graduates averaged about
$13,500, while experienced op­
tometrists averaged about $30,000
annually. Optometrists working for
the Federal Government earned an
average of $17,500 a year in late
1974. Incomes vary greatly, de­
pending upon location, specializa­
tion, and other factors. Op­
tometrists entering solo practice
begin at approximately the same in­
come level as those entering associateship or group practice. How­
ever, after several years, op­
tometrists in associateship or part­
nership practice may earn substan­
tially more than their solo practi­
tioner counterparts.
Independent practitioners can set
their own work schedule. Some
work over 40 hours a week, includ­
ing Saturday. Since the work is not
physically strenuous, optometrists
often can continue to practice after
the normal retirement age.

Sources of Additional
Information on optometry as a
career and a list of scholarships and
loan funds offered by various State
associations, societies, and institu­
tions are available from:
American Optometric Association, 7000
Chippewa St., St. Louis, Mo. 63119.

eluding internal medicine, neurolo­
gy and psychiatry, ophthalmology,
pediatrics, anesthesiology, physical
medicine and rehabilitation, derma­
tology, obstetrics and gynecology,
pathology, proctology, radiology,
and surgery.

Places of Employment

About 14,500 osteopathic physi­
cians were practicing in the United
States in 1974; nearly 9 percent
were women. Nearly all osteopathic
physicians were in private practice.
Less than 5 percent had full-time
salaried positions in osteopathic
hospitals and colleges, private in­
dustry, or government agencies.
located chiefly in those States that
have osteopathic hospital facilities.
In 1974, almost half of all
osteopathic physicians were in
Michigan, Pennsylvania, New Jer­
sey, Ohio, and Missouri. Twentythree States and the District of
Columbia each had fewer than 50
(D.O.T. 071.108)
osteopathic physicians. More than
half of all general practitioners are
Nature of the Work
located in towns and cities having
fewer than 50,000 people; spe­
Osteopathic physicians diagnose
and treat diseases or maladies of the cialists, however, practice mainly in
human body. They are particularly large cities.
concerned about problems involv­
Training and Other
ing the muscles or bones. One of
the basic treatments or therapies
used by osteopathic physicians cen­
A license to practice as an
ters on manipulating these systems
with the hands. Osteopathic physi­
cians also use surgery, drugs, and all
other accepted methods of medical
Most osteopathic physicians are
“family doctors” who engage in
general practice. These physicians
usually see patients in their offices,
make house calls, and treat patients
in osteopathic and some city and
county hospitals. Some doctors of
osteopathy teach, do research, or
write and edit scientific books and
In recent years, specialization has
increased. In 1974, about 25 per­
cent were practicing specialties in­
Federal Health Professions Loans
are available for optometric stu­
dents who meet certain financial
needs requirements. For informa­
tion on this financial aid and on
required preoptometry courses,
schools. The Board of Optometry in
the capital of each State can supply
a list of optometry schools ap­
proved by that State, as well as
licensing requirements.

osteopathic physician is required in
all States. To obtain a license, a
candidate must be a graduate of an
approved school of osteopathy and
pass a State board examination. In
13 States and the District of Colum­
bia, candidates must pass an ex­
amination in the basic sciences be­
fore they are eligible to take the
professional examination; 35 States
and the District of Columbia also
require a period of internship in an
approved hospital after graduation
from an osteopathic school. The
National Board of Osteopathic Ex­
aminers also gives an examination
which is accepted by some States as
a substitute for state examination.
All States except Alaska and
California grant licenses without
further examination to properly
qualified osteopathic physicians al­
ready licensed by another State.
preosteopathic college work is the
minimum entrance requirement for
schools of osteopathy, almost all
bachelor’s degree. Preosteopathic
education must include courses in
chemistry, physics, biology, and En­
glish. Osteopathic colleges require
successful completion of 3 to 4
years of professional study for the
degree of Doctor of Osteopathy
(D.O.). During the first half of
professional training, emphasis is
placed on basic sciences such as
anatomy, physiology, pathology,
and on the principles of osteopathy;
the remainder of the study is
devoted largely to work with pa­
tients in hospitals and clinics.
After graduation, nearly all doc­
tors of osteopathic medicine serve a
12-month internship at 1 of the 73
osteopathic hospitals that the
American Osteopathic Association
has approved for intern training.
Those who wish to become spe­
cialists must have 2 to 5 years of ad­
ditional training, followed by 2
years of supervised practice in the
training is very costly because of

the length of time it takes to earn
the D.O. degree. However, Federal
funds provide a limited number of
loans for students of osteopathy, and
scholarships are available to those
who qualify and agree to a minimum
of 2 years’ Federal service.
The seven schools of osteopathy
admit students on the basis of
grades received in college, scores
on the required Medical College
Admissions Test, and the amount of
completed. The applicant’s desire
to serve as an osteopathic physician
rather than as a doctor trained in
other fields of medicine is a very
important qualification. The col­
leges also give considerable weight
to a favorable recommendation by
an osteopathic physician familiar
with the applicant’s background.
Newly qualified doctors of
establish their own practice,
although a growing number are en­
tering group practice. A few work
as assistants to experienced physi­
cians or become associated with
osteopathic hospitals. In view of the
variation in State laws, persons who
wish to become osteopathic physi­
cians should study carefully the
professional and legal requirements
of the State in which they plan to
The availability of
osteopathic hospitals and clinical
facilities also should be considered.
Persons who wish to become
osteopathic physicians must have a
osteopathic principles of healing.
They must be willing to study a
great deal throughout their career
to keep up with the latest advances
in osteopathic medicine. They
should have a keen sense of touch,
emotional stability, and self-con­
fidence. A pleasant personality,
friendliness, patience, and the abili­
ty to deal with people also are im­

Employment Outlook



physicians are expected to be very
good through 1980. With the
planned expansion of schools of
osteopathic medicine, by 1985 the
number of osteopathic physicians
available is expected to be in rough
balance with the openings created
by growth in the occupation and by
those who die or retire from the
probably will continue to be in
States where osteopathic medicine
is a widely accepted method of
treatment, such as Pennsylvania
and a number of Midwestern States.
Generally, prospects for beginning
a successful practice are likely to be
best in rural areas, small towns, and
city suburbs, where young doctors
of osteopathy may establish their
professional reputations more easi­
ly than in the centers of large cities.
The osteopathic profession is ex­
pected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s because of the ex­
tension of prepayment programs for
hospitalization and medical care in­
cluding Medicare and Medicaid,
osteopathic hospital facilities.

Earnings and Working
In osteopathic medicine, as in
many of the other health profes­
sions, incomes usually rise mar­
kedly after the first few years of
practice. Earnings of individual
practitioners are determined mainly
by ability, experience, geographic
location, and the income level of
the community served. In 1974, the
average income of general practi­
tioners after business expenses was
about $31,000, according to the
limited data available. This income
is very high in comparison with
usually had higher incomes than
general practitioners.
Many osteopathic physicians
work more than 50 or 60 hours a
week. Those in general practice

work longer and more irregular
hours than specialists.

Sources of Additional
People who wish to practice in a
given State should find out about
the requirements for licensure
directly from the board of ex­
aminers of that State. Information
on Federal scholarships and loans is
available from the Director of Stu­
dent Financial Aid at the individual
schools of osteopathy. For a list of
State boards, as well as general in­
formation on osteopathy as a
career, contact:
American Osteopathic Association, Office of
Osteopathic Education, 212 East Ohio
St., Chicago, 1 1 60611.
American Association of Colleges of
Osteopathic Medicine, 4720 Mont­
gomery Lane, Washington, D.C. 20014.

(D.O.T. 070.101 and .108)

Nature of the Work
People in the United States visit a
physician on the average of about 5
times a year either for treatment of
an illness or injury or else for a rou­
tine checkup. Physicians diagnose
diseases and treat people who are
suffering from injury or disease.
They also try to prevent illness by
advising patients on self-care re­
lated to diet and exercise. Physi­
cians generally examine and treat
patients in their own offices and in
hospitals, but they also may visit pa­
tients at home.
A decreasing percentage of the
physicians who provide patient care
(about one-fifth in 1974) are
general practitioners; the others
specialize in one of the 52 fields for
which there is graduate training.
The largest specialties are internal
medicine, general surgery, ob­
stetrics and gynecology, psychiatry,
pediatrics, radiology, anesthesiolo­
gy, ophthalmology, pathology, and
orthopedic surgery.
Some physicians combine the
practice of medicine with research

or teaching in medical schools.
Others hold full-time research or
teaching positions or perform ad­
ministrative work in hospitals,
professional associations, and other
organizations. A few are primarily
engaged in writing and editing
m e d ic a l b o o k s a n d m a g a z in e s .

Places of Employment
About 335,000 physicians were
professionally active in the United
States in 1974; about 7 percent of
them were women. The recent in­
crease in female enrollment in
medical schools points to a larger
number of women doctors in the fu­
About 9 out of 10 physicians pro­
vided patient care services. Nearly
200,000 of these had office prac­
tices; more than 91,000 others
worked as residents or full-time
staff in hospitals. The remaining
physicians—about 29,000—taught

license, a candidate must be a grad­
uate of an approved medical
school, pass a licensing examina­
tion, and in 34 States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia serve a 1-year
hospital residency. Eleven States
require candidates to pass a special
examination in the basic sciences to
become eligible for the licensing ex­
Licensing examinations are given
by State boards. The National
Board of Medical Examiners also
gives an examination which is ac­
cepted by 48 States and the District
of Columbia as a substitute for
physicians licensed in one State
usually can get a license to practice
in another without further examina­
tion, some States limit this
In 1974, there were 114 ap­
proved schools in the United States
in which students could begin the
study of medicine. Of these, 103
awarded the degree of Doctor of
Medicine (M.D.); one school of­
fered a 2-year program in the basic
medical sciences to students who
or performed administrative or could then transfer to regular medi­
cal schools for the last semesters of
research duties.
In 1975, 19,000 graduates of study.
Most medical schools require ap­
foreign medical schools served as
plicants to have completed at least
hospital residents in this country.
To be appointed to approved re­ 3 years of college education; some
sidencies in U.S. hospitals, these require 4 years. A few medical
schools allow selected students who
g r a d u a t e s , except in special in­
stances, must obtain a certificate have exceptional qualifications to
after passing an examination given begin their professional study after
by the Educational Commission for 2 years of college. Most students
who enter medical schools have a
Foreign Medical Graduates.
The Northeastern States have the bachelor’s degree.
Courses necessary for premedical
highest ratio of physicians to popu­
study include undergraduate work
lation and the Southern States the
lowest. General practitioners are in English, physics, biology, and in­
much more widely spread geo­ organic and organic chemistry. Stu­
graphically than specialists, who dents should take courses in the hu­
tend to be concentrated in large ci­ manities, mathematics, and the so­
cial sciences to acquire a broad
general education. Other factors
Training and Other
considered by medical schools in
admitting students include their
All States and the District of college records and their scores on
Columbia require a license to prac­ the Medical College Admission
tice medicine. To qualify for a Test, which is taken by almost all

applicants. Consideration also is
given to the applicant’s character,
personality, and leadership quali­
ties, as shown by personal inter­
views, letters of recommendation,
and extracurricular activities in col­
lege. Many State-supported medi­
cal schools give preference to re­
sidents of their particular States and
sometimes, those of nearby States.
The traditional 4-year course of
study leading to the M.D. degree is
offered by 50 medical schools. In
the remaining schools, students
with demonstrated ability may be
allowed to pursue a shortened cur­
riculum. Most of these last 3 years,
but a few schools offer the M.D.
degree within 6 years of high school
The first semesters of medical
school training are spent primarily
in laboratories and classrooms,
learning basic medical sciences
such as anatomy, biochemistry,
microbiology, and pathology. Dur­
ing the last semesters, students
spend most of their time in hospitals
and clinics under the supervision of
experienced physicians. They learn
to take case histories, perform ex­
aminations, and recognize diseases.
Many new physicians acquire
training beyond the 1-year hospital
residency. Those who plan to be
general practitioners often spend an
additional year or two as hospital
residents. To become certified spe­
cialists, physicians must pass spe­
cialty board examinations. To
qualify for these examinations, they
must spend from 2 to 4 years—de­
pending on the specialty—in ad­
vanced hospital training as re­
sidents, followed by 2 years or more
of practice in the specialty. Some
doctors who want to teach or do
research take graduate work lead­
ing to the master’s or Ph. D. degree
in a field such as biochemistry or
Medical training is very costly
because of the long time required to
earn the medical degree. However,
many private scholarships and loans

are available for medical education.
In addition, Federal funds provide
scholarships and loans for students
a limited number of loans for stu­
dents, and scholarships are availa­
ble to those who qualify and agree
to a minimum of 2 years’ Federal
Persons who wish to become
physicians must have a strong
desire to serve the sick and injured.
They must be willing to study a
great deal to keep up with the latest
advances in medical science. Sin­
cerity and a pleasant personality are
assets that help physicians gain the
confidence of patients. Prospective
physicians should be emotionally
stable and able to make decisions in
The majority of newly qualified
physicians open their own offices or
join associate or group practices.
Those who have completed 1 year
of graduate medical education (a 1year residency) and enter active
military duty initially serve as cap­
tains in the Army or Air Force or as
lieutenants in the Navy. Graduates
of medical schools are eligible for
commissions as senior assistant sur­
geons (equivalent to lieutenants in
the Navy) in the U.S. Public Health
Service, as well as for Federal Civil
Service professional medical posi­

Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for
physicians is expected to be very
good through the mid-1980’s. How­
ever, anticipated increases in the
numbers of graduates of existing
and developing U.S. medical
schools, combined with foreign
medical graduate entrants point to
a greatly improved supply situation.
This may result in an increasing
movement of physicians into rural
and other areas which have ex­
perienced shortage conditions in
the past. Also, some specialties will
have sufficient numbers of practi­
tioners by 1980 or 1985 so that new
graduates will be encouraged to
specialize in one of the primary

care areas such as family practice,
pediatrics, or internal medicine.
Foreign medical graduates are a
large part of the new supply of
physicians each year. In 1974, 2
new physicians out of 5 were
foreign medical graduates.
Even though the number of medi­
cal schools has increased in the last
few years, the competition for firstyear places in medical school is in­
tense. In 1974, there were about
40,000 applicants for 14,000 posi­
Growth in population will create
much of the need for more physi­
cians, and a larger percentage of
the population will be in the age
group over 65, which uses in­
creased physicians’ services. Also,
the effective demand for physi­
cians’ care will increase because of
greater ability to pay, resulting from
extension of prepayment programs
for hospitalization and medical
care, including Medicare and
Medicaid, and continued Federal
Government provision of medical
care for members of the Armed
Forces, their families, and veterans.
More physicians will be needed, in
addition, for medical research,
teaching in medical schools, and
the continuing growth in the fields
of public health, rehabilitation, in­
dustrial medicine, and mental
Recent concern over the distribu­
tion of physicians between special­
ties and general practice has
resulted in creation of Federal
funds for promotion of programs in
family medicine. The new specialty
of family practice has grown very
rapidly since 1971, in keeping with
the need for more M.D.’s who treat
a variety of the more common ill­
To some extent, the rise in the
demand for physicians’ services will
be offset by developments that will
enable physicians to care for more
patients. For example, increasing
numbers of medical technicians are
assisting physicians; new drugs and
new medical techniques are shor­

tening illnesses; and growing num­
bers of physicians are using their
time more effectively by engaging
in group practice or treating pa­
tients in physicians’ offices or
hospitals, rather than making house
The extent to which the develop­
ing health occupations, such as
those of physicians’ assistants and
nurse practitioners, will enable
each physician to treat more pa­
tients is as yet unknown. It is possi­
ble that these new health personnel
will decrease the physicians’ work
significantly. In addition, legislation
was passed in 1972 authorizing the
Veterans Administration to assist
States in the establishment of up to
eight new medical schools. As of
early 1975, plans were under way
for two of these schools to enroll
their first students in 1976. Either a
large increase in the number of
physicians or the ability of each
practitioner to treat more patients
could force more physicians to
establish their practice in sections
of the country which have few doc­
tors and to choose general practice
or family medicine instead of one of
the other specialties.

Earnings and Working
In 1974, medical school gradu­
ates serving as residents earned
average annual salaries of $ 1 1,249
in hospitals affiliated with medical
schools, and $12,015 in nonaffiliated hospitals, according to the
American Medical Association.
Many hospitals also provided full or
partial room, board, and other
maintenance allowances to their
Graduates employed by the
Federal Government in late 1974
earned an annual starting salary of
about $15,500 if they had
completed a 1-year post-medical
residency, and about
$18,500 if they had completed 2
years of residency.
Newly qualified physicians who
establish their own practice must

make a sizable financial investment
to equip a modern office. During
the first year or two of independent
practice, physicians probably earn
little more than the minimum
needed to pay expenses. As a rule,
however, their earnings rise rapidly
as their practice develops.
Physicians have the highest
average annual earnings of any oc­
cupational group. The net income
of physicians who provided patient
care services averaged about
$49,500 in 1974, according to the
Earnings of physicians depend on
factors such as the region of the
country in which they practice; the
patients’ income levels; and the
physician’s skill, personality, and
professional reputation, as well as
the length of experience. Self-em­
ployed physicians usually earn
more than those in salaried posi­
tions, and specialists usually earn
considerably more than general
practitioners. Many physicians have
long working days and irregular
hours. Most specialists work fewer
hours each week than general prac­
titioners. As doctors grow older,
they may accept fewer new patients
and tend to work shorter hours.
However, many continue in prac­
tice well beyond 70 years of age.

Sources of Additional
Persons who wish to practice in a
given State should find out about
the requirements for licensure
directly from the board of medical
examiners of that State. Informa­
tion on Federal scholarships and
loans is available from the director
of student financial aid at the in­
dividual medical schools. For a list
of approved medical schools, as
well as general information on
premedical education, financial aid,
and medicine as a career, contact:
Council on Medical Education, American
Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn
St., Chicago, 111. 60610.
Association of American Medical Colleges,
Suite 200, One Dupont Circle, NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D O T. 079.108)

Nature of the Work
Podiatrists diagnose and treat
foot diseases and deformities. They
perform surgery, fit corrective
devices, and prescribe drugs, physi­
cal therapy, and proper shoes. To
help in diagnoses, they take X-rays
and perform or prescribe blood and
other pathological tests. Among the
conditions podiatrists treat are
corns, bunions, calluses, ingrown
toenails, skin and nail diseases,
deformed toes, and arch disabili­
ties. They refer patients to medical
doctors whenever the feet show
symptoms of medical disorders af­
fecting other parts of the body—
such as arthritis, diabetes, or heart
Some podiatrists specialize in
foot surgery, orthopedics (bone,
muscle, and joint disorders),
podopediatrics (children’s foot ail­
ments), or podogeriatrics (foot
problems of the elderly). However,
most provide all types of foot care.

Places of Employment
About 7,500 persons practiced
podiatry in 1974, 6 percent of them
women. Most podiatrists practice in
large cities. Those who had full-

time salaried positions worked
mainly in hospitals, podiatric col­
leges, or for other podiatrists. The
Veterans Administration and public
podiatrists on either a full- or parttime basis. Others serve as commis­
sioned officers in the Armed

sense, congeniality, and a sense of
responsibility are additional assets
in the profession.
Most newly licensed podiatrists
set up their own practices. Some
purchase established practices, or
obtain salaried positions to gain the
experience and money needed to
begin their own.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Employment Outlook

All States and the District of
Columbia require a license for the
practice of podiatry. To qualify for
a license, an applicant must gradu­
ate from an accredited program in a
college of podiatric medicine and
pass a State board examination.
Three States—Michigan, New Jer­
sey, and Rhode Island—also require
applicants to serve a 1-year intern­
ship in a hospital or clinic after
graduation. Three-fourths of the
States grant licenses without further
examination to podiatrists licensed
by another State.
Applicants to the six colleges of
podiatric medicine must have
completed at least 2 years of col­
lege including courses in English,
chemistry, biology or zoology,
physics, and mathematics. About
90 percent of all applicants have a
bachelor’s degree.
The first 2 years in podiatry
school include classroom instruc­
tion and laboratory work in basic
sciences such as anatomy, bac­
teriology, chemistry, pathology,
physiology, and pharmacology.
During the final 2 years, students
obtain clinical experience. The
degree of Doctor of Podiatric
Medicine (D.P.M.) is awarded
upon graduation. Additional educa­
tion and experience are generally
necessary to practice in a specialty.
A limited number of Federal loans
are available for needy students to
pursue full-time study leading to a
degree in podiatry.
Young people planning a career
in podiatry should have scientific
aptitude and manual dexterity, and
like detailed work. A good business

Opportunities for graduates to
establish new practices, as well as to
enter salaried positions, should be
favorable through the 1970’s.
Through the mid-1980’s, employ­
ment of podiatrists is expected to
grow about as fast as the average
for all occupations as a result of
greater demand for health services
by an expanding population, par­
ticularly the growing number of
older people. This age group, the
one needing the most foot care, is
entitled to certain podiatrists’ ser­
vices under Medicare. Further­
more, the trend toward providing
preventive foot care for children is
increasing. More podiatrists also
will be needed to furnish services in
hospitals, extended care facilities,
and public health programs.

Earnings and Working
Experience and the income level
and location of the community
served have a great effect on
earnings of individual podiatrists.
Those in practice between 1 and 3
years earned an average net income
of about $20,000 in 1974, accord­
ing to the limited available informa­
tion. Net incomes of podiatrists
with from 3 to 6 years of practice
averaged about $35,000.
The workweek is generally 40
hours, and they may set their hours
to suit their practice.

Sources of Additional
Information on license require­
ments in a particular State is availa­

ble from the State board of ex­
aminers in the State capital.
Information on colleges of
requirements, curriculums, and
scholarships is available from:
American Association of Colleges of
Podiatric Medicine, 20 Chevy Chase
Circle, NW., Washington, D.C. 20015.

For additional information on
podiatry as a career, contact:
American Podiatry Association, 20 Chevy
Chase Circle, NW., Washington, DC.

(D.O.T. 073.081 through .281)

Nature of the Work
Veterinarians (doctors of veteri­
nary medicine) diagnose, treat, and
control diseases and injuries among
animals. Their work is important
for the Nation’s food production. It
is also important for public health,
because it helps to prevent the out­
break and spread of animal dis­
eases, many of which can be trans­
mitted to human beings.
Veterinarians treat animals in
hospitals and clinics or on the farm
and ranch. They perform surgery
on sick and injured animals and
prescribe and administer drugs,
medicines, and vaccines.
About one-third of all veterinari­
ans treat small animals or pets ex­
clusively. About the same number
treat a mix of both large and small
animals. A large number specialize
in the health and breeding of cattle,
poultry, sheep, swine, or horses.
Many veterinarians inspect meat,
poultry, and other foods as part of
Federal and State public health pro­
grams. Others teach in veterinary
colleges. Some do research related
to animal diseases, foods and drugs,
or work as part of a medical
research team to seek knowledge
about prevention and treatment of
human disease.

Places of Employment
veterinarians active in 1974—3 per­
cent of them women. About 7 out
of 10 veterinarians were in private
practice. The Federal Government
employed about 2,500 veterinari­
ans, chiefly in the U.S. Department
of Agriculture and the U.S. Public
Health Service. About 800 more
were commissioned officers in the
veterinary services of the Army and
Air Force. Other employers of
veterinarians are State and local
government agencies, international
health agencies, colleges of veteri­
nary medicine, medical schools,
research and development labora­
tories, large livestock farms, animal
food companies, and pharmaceuti­
cal companies that manufacture
drugs for animals.

perience under the supervision of a
licensed veterinarian. Some States
issue licenses without further ex­
amination to veterinarians already
licensed by another State.
For positions in research and
teaching, an additional master’s or
Ph. D. degree usually is required in
a field such as pathology, physiolo­
gy, or bacteriology.
Minimum requirements for the
D.V.M. or V.M.D. degree are 2
years of preveterinary college work
that emphasize the physical and
biological sciences, followed by 4
years of study in a college of veteri­
nary medicine. However, two
professional schools require 3 years
of preveterinary study. Most veteri­
nary school
applicants have
completed 3 to 4 years of college
before entering the professional
program. Veterinary college train­
ing includes considerable practical
experience in diagnosing and treat­
ing animal diseases and performing
surgery, and laboratory work in
anatomy, biochemistry, and other
scientific and medical subjects.
There were 19 colleges of veteri­
nary medicine in the United States
in 1974. When selecting students
for admission, these colleges con­
located in all parts of the country, sidered primarily the applicants’
scholastic records and the amount
the type of practice generally varies
and character of their preveterinary
according to geographic setting.
Veterinarians in rural areas chiefly training. Residents of the State in
treat farm animals; those in small which each college is located
towns usually engage in general usually are given preference by that
practice; those in cities and subur­ college since these schools are lar­
ban areas often limit their practice gely State supported. In the South
and West, regional educational
to pets.
plans permit cooperating States
without veterinary schools to send
Training, Other Qualifications, students to designated regional
and Advancement
schools. In other areas, colleges
which accept a certain number of
Veterinarians must be licensed to
practice in all States and the Dis­ students from other States usually
trict of Columbia. To obtain a give priority to applicants from
license, applicants must have a nearby States that do not have
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine veterinary schools.
(D.V.M. or V.M.D.) degree and
Federal funds provide a limited
pass a State board examination. A number of loans for needy students
few States also require that appli­ pursuing full-time study leading to
cants have some practical ex­ a degree in veterinary medicine.

Most veterinarians begin as em­
ployees or partners in established
practices. A few start their own
practices with a modest financial in­
vestment in drugs, instruments, and
an automobile. With a more sub­
stantial investment, one may open
an animal hospital or purchase an
qualified veterinarians may enter
the Army and Air Force as commis­
sioned officers, or qualify for
Federal positions as meat and
poultry inspectors, disease-control
workers, epidemiologists, research
assistants, or commissioned officers
in the U.S. Public Health Service.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
veterinarians are expected to be
favorable through the mid-1980’s.
Veterinary employment is expected
to grow faster than the average for
all occupations through the mid1980’s, primarily because of growth
in the pet population, an increase in
the numbers of livestock and
poultry needed to feed an expand­
ing population, and an increase in
veterinary research. Emphasis on
scientific methods of raising and
breeding livestock and poultry and
growth in public health and disease

control programs also will con­
tribute to the demand for

Earnings and Working
Newly graduated veterinarians
employed by the Federal Govern­
ment started at $13,697 a year in
late 1974. Salaries of experienced
veterinarians employed by the De­
partment of Agriculture ranged
between $17,500 and $35,000 a
year. The incomes of veterinarians
in private practice vary con­
siderably, depending on such fac­
tors as location, type of practice,
and years of experience, but usually
are higher than those of other
veterinarians, according to the
limited data available.
Veterinarians sometimes may be
exposed to danger of injury, dis­
ease, and infection. Those in
private practice often have long and
irregular working hours. Veterinari­
ans in rural areas may have to spend
much time traveling to and from
farms and may have to work out­
doors in all kinds of weather.
Because they are self-employed,
veterinarians in private practice
usually can continue working well
beyond normal retirement age.

Sources of Additional
A pamphlet entitled Today's
Veterinarian presents additional in­
formation on veterinary medicine
as a career, as well as a list of col­
leges of veterinary medicine. A free
copy may be obtained by sub­
mitting a request, together with a
self-addressed stamped business
size envelope, to:
American Veterinary Medical Association,
930 N. Meacham Rd., Schaumburg, III.

Information on opportunities for
veterinarians in the U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture is available
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture, Hyattsville, Md.
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,
Personnel Division, 12th and Indepen­
dence Ave. SW., Washington, DC.
Agricultural Marketing Service, Personnel
Division, 12th and Independence Ave.
SW., Washington, D C. 20250.

Students seeking loan or scholar­
ship assistance should send inqui­
ries to the schools in which they are

Many other highly skilled workers
provide important health services in
addition to medical practitioners. For
many of these occupations at least a
bachelor’s degree is required, and for
others college education is becoming
increasingly essential. Some provide
specialized types of health care, but
others perform a broad range of
The following occupations are dis­
cussed in this section: Dental hygien­
ists, dietitians, health service admin­
istrators, medical laboratory workers,
medical record administrators, occu­
pational therapists, pharmacists,
physical therapists, registered nurses,
respiratory therapists, and speech pa­
thologists and audiologists.

take medical and dental histories,
expose and develop dental X-ray
films, make model impressions for
study, and prepare other diagnostic
aids for use by the dentist. Pain con­
trol and restorative procedures also
are handled often by dental hy­
Dental hygienists who work in
school systems examine children’s
teeth, assist dentists in determining
the dental treatment needed, and
report their findings to parents.
They also clean teeth and give in­
struction on correct mouth care.
Some help to develop classroom or
assembly programs on oral health.
Dental hygienists employed by
health agencies work in dental
clinics. A few assist in research pro­
jects. Those having advanced train­
ing may teach in schools of dental

Places of Employment

(D.O.T. 078.368)

Nature of the Work
Dental hygienists are oral health
clinicians and educators who aid
the public in developing and main­
taining good oral health. As mem­
bers of the dental health team,
dental hygienists may perform
preventive and therapeutic services
under the supervision of the dentist.
Specific responsibilities of the hy­
gienist vary, depending on the law
of the State where the hygienist is
employed, but may include: remov­
ing deposits and stains from pa­
tients’ teeth; providing instructions
for patient self-care, and dietetic
and nutritional counseling; and the
application of medicine for the
prevention of tooth decay. They

Nearly 23,000 persons, most of
them women, worked as dental hy­
gienists in 1974. Many work part
time. Most work in private dental
offices. Public health agencies,
school systems, industrial plants,
clinics, hospitals, dental hygiene
schools, and the Federal Govern­
ment are other sources of employ­
ment for dental hygienists. Some
who are graduates of bachelor’s
degree programs are commissioned
officers in the Armed Forces.

Training and Other
hygienists must be
licensed. To get a license, a can­
didate must be a graduate of an ac­
credited dental hygiene school, ex­
cept in Alabama, and pass both a
written and clinical examination. In
1974, candidates in 49 States and
the District of Columbia could
complete part of the State licensing
requirements by passing a written
examination given by the National
Board of Dental Examiners.

In order to practice in a different
State, a licensed dental hygienist
must pass the State’s examination.
However, at least 19 States grant
licenses, without further examina­
tion, to dental hygienists already
licensed in certain other States.
In 1975, 163 schools of dental
hygiene in the United States were
accredited by the American Dental
Association. Most programs grant a
certificate or an associate degree;
others lead to a bachelor’s degree.
Some institutions offer both types
of programs. Twelve schools offer
master’s degree programs.
Completion of an associate
degree program is sufficient for
dental hygienists who want to prac­
tice in a private dental office. In
order to do research, teach, and
work in public or school health pro­
grams, a baccalaureate degree
usually is required.
The minimum requirement for
admission to a school of dental hy­
giene is graduation from high
school. Several schools which offer
the bachelor’s degree admit stu­
dents to the dental hygiene program
only after they have completed 2
years of college. Many schools also
require that applicants take an ap­
titude test given by the American
Dental Hygienists Association.
The curriculum in a dental hy­
giene program consists of courses in
the basic sciences, dental sciences,
and liberal arts. These schools offer
laboratory work, clinical ex­
perience, and classroom instruction
in subjects such as anatomy,
chemistry, histology, periodontology, pharmacology, and nutrition.
People who want to become
dental hygienists should be those
who enjoy working with others. The
ability to put patients at ease in an
uncomfortable situation is helpful.
Personal neatness and cleanliness,
manual dexterity, and good health
also are important qualities. Among
the courses recommended for high
school students interested in
careers in this occupation are biolo­
gy, health, chemistry, and speech.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
dental hygienists are expected to be
very good through the mid-1980’s.
Despite an anticipated rise in the
number of graduates from schools
of dental hygiene, the demand is ex­
pected to be greater than the
number available for employment if
current trends in enrollments con­
tinue. There also should be very
good opportunities for those desir­
ing part-time employment, and for
those willing to work in rural areas.
Employment of dental hygienists
is expected to grow much faster
than the average for all occupa­
tions, because of an expanding
population and the growing aware­
ness of the importance of regular
dental care. Increased participation
in dental prepayment plans and
more group practice among dentists
will result in new jobs for dental hy­
gienists. Dental care programs for
children also may lead to more em­
ployment opportunities in this field.

Earnings and Working
Earnings of dental hygienists are
affected by the type of employer,
education and experience of the in­
dividual hygienist, and the geo­
graphic location. Dental hygienists
who work in private dental offices
usually are salaried employees,
although some are paid a commis­
sion for work performed, or a com­
bination of salary and commission.
Dental hygienists working full
time earned average salaries of
about $10,400 a year in 1974, ac­
cording to the limited data availa­
ble. This salary was slightly above
the average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. In late 1974, the Federal
Government paid dental hygienists
with no experience starting salaries
of $7,596 a year.
Dental hygienists employed full
time in private offices usually
worked between 35 and 40 hours a

Dental hygienists teach the techniques of mouth care.

week. They may work on Saturdays
or during evening hours. Some hy­
gienists work for two dentists or
Dental hygienists usually work in
clean, well-lighted offices. Impor­
tant health protections for persons
in this occupation are regular medi­
cal checkups and strict adherence
to established procedures for using
X-ray equipment and for disinfec­
Dental hygienists who work for
school systems, health agencies,
and the Federal or State govern­
ments have the same hours, vaca­
tion, sick leave, retirement, and
health insurance benefits as other
workers in these organizations.

Sources of Additional
For information about accredited
programs and the educational
requirements needed to enter this
occupation, contact:
Office of Education, American Dental Hy­
gienists Association, 211 E. Chicago
Ave., Chicago, III. 60611.

Other material on opportunities
for dental hygienists is available
Division of Dentistry, Public Health Service,
U.S. Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare, 9000 Rockville Pike,
Bethesda, Md. 20014.

The State Board of Dental Ex­
aminers in each State, or the Na­

tional Board of Dental Examiners,
211 E. Chicago Ave., Chicago, 1 1
60611, can supply information on
licensing requirements.

(D O T. 077.081 through .168)

Nature of the Work
Dietitians plan nutritious and ap­
petizing meals to help people main­
tain or recover good health. They
also supervise the food service work­
ers who prepare and serve the
meals, manage purchases and keep
the accounts, and give advice on
good eating habits. Administrative
dietitians form the largest group in
this occupation; the others are clini­
cal, teaching, and research dieti­
tians. Nutritionists also are included
in this field.
Administrative dietitians apply
the principles of nutrition and
sound management to large-scale
meal planning and preparation,
such as that done in hospitals,
universities, schools, and other in­
stitutions. They supervise the
planning, preparation, and service
of meals; select, train, and direct
food-service supervisors and work­
ers; budget for and purchase food,
equipment, and supplies; enforce
sanitary and safety regulations; and
prepare records and reports. Dieti­
tians who are directors of a dietetic
department also decide on depart­
mental policy; coordinate dietetic
service with the activities of other
departments; and are responsible
for the development and manage­
ment of the dietetic department
budget, which in large organiza­
tions may amount to millions of dol­
lars annually.
Clinical dietitians, sometimes
called therapeutic dietitians, plan
diets and supervise the service of
meals to meet the nutritional needs
of patients in hospitals, nursing

homes, or clinics. Among their du­
ties, clinical dietitians confer with
doctors and other members of the
health care team about patients’
nutritional care, instruct patients
and their families on the require­
ments and importance of their
diets, and suggest ways to help them
stay on these diets after leaving the
hospital or clinic. In a small institu­
tion, one person may be both the
administrative and clinical dietitian.
Research dietitians conduct, eval­
uate, and interpret research to im­
prove the nutrition of both healthy
and sick people. This research may
be in nutrition science and educa­
tion, food management, or food
service systems and equipment.
They conduct studies and make
surveys of food intake, food
acceptance, and food utilization.
Research projects may relate to
subjects such as nutritional needs
of the aging, persons with a chronic
disease, or space travelers. Re­
search dietitians usually are em­
ployed in medical centers or educa­
tion facilities, but also may work
in community health programs.
(See statement on Food Scientists
elsewhere in this book.)
Dietetic educators teach nutrition
to dietetic, medical, dental, and
nursing students and to interns, re­
sidents, and other members of the
health care team. This may be in
medical and educational institu­
Nutritionists counsel people of all
ages, as individuals or in groups, on
sound nutrition practices to main­
tain and improve health. This in­
cludes special diets, meal planning
and preparation, and food budget­
ing and purchasing. Nutritionists in
the public health field are responsi­
ble for planning, developing, ad­
ministering, and coordinating nutri­
tion programs and services as part
of public health programs. Nutri­
tionists work in such diverse areas
as food industries, educational and
health facilities, and agricultural
and welfare agencies, both public
and private.

An increasing number of dieti­
tians work as consultants to
hospitals and to health-related
facilities. Others act as consultants
to commercial enterprises, includ­
ing food processors and equipment

Places of Employment
About 33,000 persons, most of
them women, worked as dietitians
in 1974. More than two-fifths work
in hospitals, nursing homes, and
clinics, including about 1,000 in the
Veterans Administration and the
U.S. Public Health Service. Col­
leges, universities, and school
systems employ a large number of
dietitians as teachers or in food ser­
vice systems. Most of the rest work
for health-related agencies, restau­
rants or cafeterias, and large com­
panies that provide food service for
their employees. Some dietitians
are commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree, preferably
with a major in foods and nutrition
or institution management, is the
basic educational requirement for
dietitians. This degree can be
earned in more than 250 colleges
and universities, usually in depart­
ments of home economics. College
courses usually required are in food
and nutrition, institution manage­
ment, chemistry, bacteriology,
physiology, and related courses
processing, psychology, sociology,
and economics.
For a dietitian to qualify for
professional recognition, the
American Dietetic Association
(ADA) recommends the completion
after graduation of an approved
dietetic internship or an approved
individual traineeship program.
The internship lasts 6 to 12 months
and the traineeship program 1 to 2
vears. Both programs combine clin-

dietetic services. Since this situa­
tion is likely to persist, employment
opportunities also should continue
to be favorable for graduates of
these programs.
Employment of dietitians is ex­
pected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s to meet the nutri­
tion and food management needs of
hospitals and extended care facili­
ties, industrial plants, and restau­
rants. Dietitians also will be needed
to staff community health programs
and to conduct research in food and
nutrition. In addition to new dieti­
tians needed because of occupa­
tional growth, many others will be
required each year to replace those
who die, retire, or leave the profes­
sion for other reasons.

Earnings and Working

ical experience under a qualified
dietitian with some classroom work.
In 1974, 71 internship programs
were approved by the American
Dietetic Association. A growing
number of coordinated under­
graduate programs, located in
schools of medicine and in allied
health and home economics de­
partments of both colleges and uni­
versities, enable students to com­
plete both the requirements for a
bachelor’s degree and the clinical
experience requirement in 4 years.
Experienced dietitians may ad­
vance to assistant or associate
director or director of a dietetic de­
partment. Advancement to higher
level positions in teaching and
research usually requires graduate
education; public health nutri­
tionists must earn a graduate degree
in this field. Graduate study in in­
stitutional or business administra­
tion is valuable to those interested

Starting salaries of hospital dieti­
tians averaged $9,900 a year in
1974, according to a national sur­
vey conducted by the University of
perienced dietitians received an­
in administrative dietetics.
nual salaries ranging from $12,100
Persons who plan to become
to $22,000, according to the Amer­
dietitians should have organiza­ ican Dietetic Association. Colleges
tional and administrative ability, as and universities paid dietitians with
well as high scientific aptitude, and bachelor’s degrees median salaries
should be able to work well with a of $12,100 a year in 1974. Those
variety of people. Among the cour­ with bachelor’s degrees working in
ses recommended for high school commercial or industrial establish­
students interested in careers as ments received median salaries of
dietitians are home economics, $12,500 a year; those in public and
business administration, biology, voluntary health agencies, $10,800.
health, mathematics, and chemis­ Self-employed dietitians with a
bachelor’s degree earned median
salaries over $14,000 a year, in
Employment Outlook
The entrance salary in the
Employment opportunities for Federal Government for those
qualified dietitians on both a full­ completing an approved internship
time and part-time basis are ex­ was $10,520 in late
pected to be good through the mid- Beginning dietitians with a master’s
1980’s. In recent years, employers degree who had completed an in­
increasingly have utilized dietetic ternship earned $12,841. In late
assistants trained in vocational and 1974, the Federal Government paid
technical schools and dietetic experienced dietitians average sala­
technicians educated in junior col­ ries of $ 17,414 a year.
leges to help meet demands for
Most dietitians work 40 hours a

week; however, dietitians in work. They may do this personally,
hospitals may sometimes work on where the organization is small, or
weekends, and those in commercial through a staff of assistant adminis­
food service have somewhat irregu­ trators in larger organizations. They
lar hours. Some hospitals provide make management decisions on
laundry service and meals in addi­ matters such as the need for addi­
tion to salary. Dietitians usually tional personnel and equipment,
receive paid vacations, holidays, current and future space require­
and health insurance and retire­ ments, and the budget.
ment benefits.
Some health services administra­
tors, including those who manage
Sources of Additional
hospitals or nursing homes, oversee
nursing and food services, and inservice
For information on approved
Although assistant administrators
scholarships, and employment op­ usually direct the daily operations
portunities, and a list of colleges of these departments, the chief ex­
providing training for a professional ecutive remains informed through
formal and informal meetings with
career in dietetics, contact:
assistants, the medical staff, and
The American Dietetic Association, 430 others. In addition to these manage­
North Michigan Ave., 10th floor,
ment activities, many health ad­
Chicago, 1 1 6061 1.
ministrators help to carry out fun­
The U.S. Civil Service Commis­
draising ,drives and promote the
sion, Washington, D.C. 20415, will
public’s participation in health pro­
send information on the require­
grams. This phase of the adminis­
ments for dietetic interns and dieti­
tians in Federal Government
hospitals and for public health
nutritionists in the Indian Health
Service of the Public Health Service
and in the District of Columbia

(D O T. 169.168, 187.118, and

Nature of the Work
Medical and health care is pro­
vided by organizations that vary
from large teaching hospitals to
small walk-in clinics. Each of these
requires effective management to
function properly. Health adminis­
trators, under the general supervi­
sion of boards of directors or other
governing bodies, provide this
Administrators coordinate the
various functions and activities that
combine to make an organization

trator’s job often includes speaking
before civic groups, arranging
publicity, and coordinating the ac­
tivities of the organization with
those of government or community

Places of Employment
About 150,000 persons worked
as health services administrators in
1974—nearly half of them were
women. Most administrators work
for health facilities, including
hospitals (which employed 4 out of
every 10 administrators), nursing
and personal care homes, and
health management firms that pro­
vide administrative services to
health facilities at a specified con­
tract price.
Some health administrators work
for government agencies, including
State and local health departments
and the U.S. Public Health Service.
In addition, the Federal Govern-

ment hires administrators in
Armed Forces hospitals and clinics.
Others work for voluntary health
agencies that conduct research and
provide care and treatment for vic­
tims of particular diseases or physi­
cal impairments.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Educational requirements for
health services administrators vary
according to the position’s level of
responsibility and the size of the or­
ganization. Generally, larger or­
ganizations with more complicated
administrative structures require
higher credentials than smaller
Applicants with a master’s degree
in health or hospital administration
may be hired as associate or
assistant administrators in hospitals,
while those with master’s degrees in
public health often find work as
program analysts or program
representatives in public health de­
partments. Very few master’s
degree recipients find entry posi­
tions in nursing or personal care
homes, although many nursing
home administrators pursue gradu­
ate education while employed.
Bachelor’s degree recipients
usually begin their careers as ad­
ministrative assistants or depart­
ment heads in hospitals, or as
assistant administrators in nursing
homes. Graduates of 2-year, as­
sociate degree programs generally
are hired as unit directors or
assistant department heads in
hospitals, or as assistants to pro­
gram representatives in public
health departments. Some associate
degree holders find assistant ad­
ministrator jobs in small nursing
The Ph. D. degree usually is
required for positions in teaching or
research, and the doctorate is an
asset for those seeking administra­
tive jobs in the larger, more presti­
Although some public health de­

partments still require chief ad­
ministrators to be physicians, the
trend is away from this.
Administrators in Armed Forces
hospitals are career military person­
In 1974, about 40 bachelor and
associate degree programs in health
services administration were of­
fered—the majority were 4-year
curriculums. In addition, about 40
programs in hospital or health ser­
vices administration led to the
master’s degree, and 17 schools of
public health offered programs
toward a master’s degree in public
To enter graduate programs, ap­
plicants must have a bachelor’s
degree, with courses in natural
sciences, psychology, sociology,
economics. The programs generally
last about 2 years and include some
perience in hospitals, clinics, or
health agencies. Programs may in­
clude courses such as hospital or­
ganization and management, ac­
counting and budget control, per­
sonnel adminstration, public health
administration, and the economics
of health care.
In all 50 States and the District of
Columbia, the administrator of a
nursing or personal care home must
be licensed. Requirements are not
uniform, but they generally specify
a level of education, such as a
bachelor’s degree, plus some
amount of experience in the field.
Personal qualifications needed
for success as a health administra­
tor include initiative and an interest
in helping the sick. Administrators
should be able to work with and
motivate people, and organize and
direct large-scale activities. They
also should enjoy public speaking.
Health administrators advance in
the profession by taking increas­
ingly more responsible positions.
For example, some hospital ad­
ministrators begin their careers in
small hospitals in positions with
broad responsibilities, such as

assistant administrator. They ad­
vance by moving to jobs as as­
sociate or chief administrator in
larger hospitals. More commonly,
they start in a large institution in a
position that is somewhat narrow in
scope; for example, as department
head in charge of purchasing. Re­
gardless of the path of advancement
chosen, the ultimate occupational
goal in hospitals and nursing homes
is the job of chief executive or chief
administrative officer.

Employment Outlook
The number of graduate pro­
grams in health administration has
increased rapidly in recent years
and administative specialists with
graduate degrees in other fields also
have entered the profession. Con­
sequently, it may become increas­
ingly difficult for those with less
than graduate education to enter
health administration in top
management positions. In addition,
some administrative jobs will con­
tinue to be filled by physicians,
registered nurses, and members of
religious communities.
Employment of health services
administrators is expected to grow
much faster than the average for all
occupations to 1985 as the quality
and quantity of patient services
increase and hospital management
becomes more complex. The de­
mand for administrators will be
stimulated by the formation of
more group medical practices and
tions (facilities that offer sub­
scribers a broad range of medical
services for a monthly fee paid in
advance). Administrators also will
be needed in nursing and convales­
cent homes to handle the increas­
ing amount of administrative work
expected as these facilities expand
in size.

Earnings and Working
Salaries of hospital administra­

tors depend on factors such as the
level of job responsibility and the
size, type, and location of the
hospital, and the size of its adminis­
trative staff and budget. The
average starting salary of adminis­
trative assistants in hospitals was
about $10,500 in 1974, according
to the limited information available.
Chief administrators in hospitals
with 100 or fewer beds earned from
about $16,500 to $20,000 a year in
1974. Some, in larger hospitals,
earned over $40,000. Recent
recipients of master’s degrees in
health administration starting work
in Veterans Administration (VA)
hospitals earned $12,167 a year in
1974. The average salary paid ad­
ministrators of Federal hospitals
was $23,000.
Commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces who work as hospital
administrators hold ranks ranging
from second lieutenant to colonel
or from ensign to captain. Com­
manding officers of large Armed
Forces hospitals are physicians,
who may hold higher ranks.
Hospital administrators in the U.S.
Public Health Service are commis­
sioned officers holding ranks rang­
ing from lieutenant (junior grade)
to captain in the Navy.
Administrators of nursing and
personal care homes usually earn
lower salaries than those paid
hospital administrators in facilities
having similar numbers of beds.
Most administrators employed by
voluntary health agencies earned
between $15,000 and $30,000 a
year in 1974.
Health administrators often work
long hours. Because health facilities
such as nursing homes and hospitals
operate around the clock, adminis­
trators in these institutions may be
called at all hours to settle emer­
gency problems. Also, some travel
may be required to attend meetings
or, in the case of State public health
department and voluntary health
agency administrators, to inspect
facilities in the field.

Sources of Additional
Information about health ad­
ministration and the academic pro­
grams in this field offered by
universities, colleges, and commu­
nity colleges is available from:
American College of Hospital Administra­
tion, 840 North Lake Shore Drive,
Chicago, Illinois 60604.
Association of University Programs in
Health Administration, One Dupont
Circle, NW„ Washington, D C. 20036.
American Public Health Association, Divi­
sion of Program Services, 1015 18th St.,
NW„ Washington, D.C. 20036.
National Health Council, Health Careers
Program, 1740 Broadway, New York,
N .Y .10019.

(D O T. 078.128, .168, .281, and

Nature of the Work
Laboratory tests play an impor­
tant part in the detection, diagnosis,
and treatment of many diseases.
Medical laboratory workers, often
called clinical laboratory workers,
include three levels: medical
technologists, technicians, and
assistants. They perform tests under
the direction of pathologists
(physicians who diagnose the
causes and nature of disease) and
other physicians, or scientists who
specialize in clinical chemistry,
microbiology, or the other biologi­
cal sciences. Medical laboratory
workers analyze the blood, tissues,
and fluids in the human body by
using precision instruments such as
require 4 years of postsecondary

chemical, microscopic, and bac­
teriological tests. These tests may
include chemical tests to deter­
mine, for example, the blood
cholesterol level, or microscopic
examination of the blood to detect
the presence of diseases such as leu­
kemia. Technologists microscopi­
cally examine other body fluids;
make cultures of body fluid or tis­
sue samples to determine the
presence of bacteria, parasites, or
other micro-organisms; and analyze
the samples for chemical content or
reaction. They also may type and
cross-match blood samples.
Technologists in small laborato­
ries often perform many types of
tests. Those in large laboratories
usually specialize in areas such as
biochemistry, blood banking, he­
matology (the study of blood cells),
and nuclear medical technology
(the use of radioactive isotopes to
help detect diseases).
Most medical technologists con­
duct tests related to the examina­
tion and treatment of patients and
may be called on to display inde­
pendent judgment. Some do
techniques, teach, or perform ad­
ministrative duties.
Medical laboratory technicians,
who generally require 2 years of
postsecondary training, perform a
wide range of tests and laboratory
procedures that require a high level
of skill but not the technical
knowledge of the highly trained
technologists. Like technologists,
they may work in several areas or
specialize in one field.
Medical laboratory assistants,
who generally have a year or less of
formal training, assist medical
technologists and technicians in
routine tests and related work that
can be learned in a relatively short
time. In large laboratories, they
may concentrate in one area of
work. For example, they may
identify slides with abnormal blood
cells. In addition to performing rou­

tine tests, assistants may store and
label plasma; clean and sterilize
laboratory equipment, glassware,
and instruments; prepare solutions
following standard laboratory for­
mulas and procedures; keep
records of tests; and identify

Places of Employment
About 175,000 people worked as
medical laboratory workers in
1974. About 80 percent of all medi­
cal laboratory workers were
women; however, the number of
men in the field has been increasing
in recent years.
Most medical laboratory person­
nel work in hospitals. Others work
in independent laboratories, physi­
cians’ offices, clinics, public health
agencies, pharmaceutical firms, and
research institutions. These places
are concentrated in larger cities and
populous States.
In 1974, Veterans Administra­
tion hospitals and laboratories em­
ployed about
technologists and about 1,900
medical laboratory technicians and
assistants. Others worked for the
Armed Forces and the U.S. Public
Health Service.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
requirement for a beginning job as a
medical technologist usually is 4
years of college training including
completion of a specialized training
program in medical technology.
Undergraduate work includes
courses in chemistry, biological
science, and mathematics. These
studies give the technologist a
broad understanding of the scien­
tific principles underlying laborato­
ry work. Specialized training
usually requires 12 months of study
and includes extensive laboratory
work. In 1974, about 730 hospitals
and schools offered programs ap­
proved by the American Medical

Association. These programs were
affiliated with colleges and universi­
ties; a bachelor’s degree is usually
awarded upon completion. A few
schools require a bachelor’s degree
for entry into the program.
Many universities also offer ad­
technology and related subjects for
technologists who plan to specialize
in laboratory work or in teaching,
administration, or research.
Medical laboratory technicians
employed in 1974 got their training
in a variety of educational settings.
Many attended junior or 4-year col­
leges and universities for 1 year or
more. Others were trained in the
Armed Forces. Some technicians
received training in private and
nonprofit vocational and technical
assistants employed in 1974 were
trained on the job. In recent years,
however, an increasing number
have studied in 1-year training pro­
grams conducted by hospitals, ju­
nior colleges in cooperation with
hospitals, or vocational schools.
Hospitals offer the greatest number

of training programs. Applicants to
these programs should be high
school graduates with courses in
science and mathematics. The pro­
grams include classroom instruc­
tion and practical training in the
laboratory. They often begin with a
general orientation to the clinical
laboratory followed by courses in
bacteriology, serology, parasitolo­
gy, hematology, clinical chemistry,
blood banking, and urinalysis.
Certification or registration is
considered important in this field
because it indicates that the persons
certified have met educational stan­
dards recognized by the certifying
body. After the successful comple­
tion of the appropriate examina­
tions, medical technologists may be
certified as Medical Technologists,
MT (ASCP), by the Board of Regis­
try of the American Society of
Technologists, MT, by the Amer­
ican Medical Technologists; or Re­
gistered Medical Technologists ,
RMT, by the International Society
of Clinical Laboratory Technology.
These organizations also certify
technician-level workers. Laborato­
ry assistants are certified by the
American Society of Clinical
technicians must be licensed in
Alabama, California, Florida, Geor­
gia, Hawaii, Illinois, Nevada,
Pennsylvania, Tennessee, New
York City, and Puerto Rico.
Requirements for licensure include
a written examination in some
Accuracy, dependability, and the
ability to work under pressure are
important personal characteristics
for a medical laboratory worker.
Manual dexterity and normal color
vision are highly desirable.
Persons interested in medical
laboratory careers should use con­
siderable care in selecting a training
program. They should get informa­
tion about the kinds of jobs ob­
tained by graduates, educational
costs, the accreditation of the

school, the length of time the train­
ing program has been in operation,
instructional facilities, and faculty
Technologists may advance to su­
pervisory positions in certain areas
of laboratory work, or, after several
years’ experience, to chief medical
technologist in a large hospital.
Graduate education in one of the
biological sciences or chemistry
Technicians can
technologists by getting additional
education and experience.

Employment Outlook
Employment of medical labora­
tory workers is expected to expand
faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the mid-1980’s, as
physicians make wider use of
laboratory tests in routine physical
checkups and in the diagnosis and
treatment of disease. Indirectly in­
fluencing growth in the field are
population growth, greater health
consciousness, and expansion of
prepayment programs for medical
care that make it easier for people
to pay for services.
The use of automated laboratory
test equipment is expected to lead
to an increase in the number of
medical laboratory technicians and
assistants relative to technologists.
Through technological advances,
technicians and assistants can
operate equipment to perform tests
which previously required the skill
of a technologist.
Technologists will be needed to
fill supervisory positions in all
laboratories. Also, some will be
needed in laboratories where they
are required by State licensing
authorities or third party health in­
surance regulations, and in labora­
tories not using the new automated
Despite an anticipated strong de­
mand for medical laboratory wor­
kers through the mid-1980’s, the
number seeking to enter the field is
expected to exceed the number of
openings from growth and replace­

ment needs. Consequently, job­
seekers in this field may face com­
petition for positions of their cho­

Earnings and Working
Salaries of medical laboratory
workers vary by employer and geo­
graphic location. In general, medi­
cal laboratory workers employed
on the west coast and in large cities
received the highest salaries.
Starting salaries for medical
technologists in hospitals and medi­
cal centers averaged about $9,200
in 1974, according to a survey con­
ducted by the University of Texas
Medical Branch. Beginning salaries
for laboratory assistants averaged
about $6,900. Technicians earn
salaries that range between those
paid technologists and assistants.
The Federal Government paid
newly graduated medical technolo­
gists with bachelor’s degrees start­
ing salaries of $8,500 a year in late
1974. Those having experience, su­
perior academic achievement, or a
year of graduate study entered at
$10,520. The Federal Government
paid medical laboratory assistants
and technicians starting salaries
ranging from $5,294 to $8,500 a
year in late 1974, depending on the
amount and type of education and
experience. Medical technologists
in the
averaged $13,300 a year and medi­
cal technicians, $11,400 a year, in
late 1974.
Medical laboratory personnel
generally work a 40-hour week. In
hospitals, they can expect some
night and weekend duty. Hospitals
normally provide vacation and sick
leave benefits; some have retire­
ment plans.
Laboratories generally are welllighted and clean. Although un­
pleasant odors and specimens of
many kinds of diseased tissue often
are present, few hazards exist if
proper methods of sterilization and
handling of specimens, materials,
and equipment are used.

Sources of Additional
Information about education and
training for medical technologists,
assistants meeting standards recog­
nized by the American Medical As­
sociation, the U.S. Office of Educa­
tion, or both, as well as career infor­
mation on these fields of work, is
available from:
American Society of Clinical Pathologists,
Board of Registry, 2100 W. Harrison
St., Chicago, 1 1 6061 2.
American Society for Medical Technology,
5555 W. Loop South, Bellaire, Tex.
American Medical Technologists, 710 Hig­
gins Rd., Park Ridge, 1 1 60068.
Accrediting Bureau of Medical Laboratory
Schools, Oak Manor Office, 3038 W.
Lexington Ave., Elkhart, Indiana

For information about other
technician training programs, con­
International Society for Clinical Laboratory
Technology, 805 Ambassador Building.
411 N. Seventh St., St. Louis, Mo.

Information about employment
opportunities in Veterans Adminis­
tration hospitals is available from
the Office of Personnel (054E ),
Veterans Administration, Washing­
ton, D C. 20420.
Information about clinical and
research employment opportunities
with the National Institutes of
Health is available from ihe Clinical

( D O T. 100.388)

Nature of the Work
All health care instituiions keep
records that contain medical infor­
mation on each patient, including

case histories of illnesses or injuries,
reports on physical examinations,
X-rays and laboratory tests, doc­
tors’ orders and notes, and nurses’
notes. These records are necessary
for correct and prompt diagnosis
and treatment of illnesses and inju­
ries. They also are used for
research, insurance claims, legal ac­
tions, evaluation of treatment and
medications prescribed, and in the
training of medical personnel.
Medical information in hospitals is
also used to evaluate patient care
provided in the hospital and as a
basis for health care planning for
the community.
Medical record administrators,
formerly known as medical record
librarians, direct the activities of
the medical record department and
develop systems for documenting,
storing, and retrieving medical in­
formation. They supervise the
processes and analyzes records and
reports on patients’ illnesses and
treatment. They train members of
the medical record staff for special­
ized jobs, compile medical statistics
required by State or National health
agencies, and assist the medical
staff in evaluations of patient care
or research studies. Medical record
administrators serving as depart­
ment heads are a part of the
hospital management staff and par­
ticipate fully in management activi­
ties. As the administrators responsi­
ble for the medical information
system, they may be required to tes­
tify in court about records and
record procedures.
The size and type of institution
affect the duties and amount of
responsibility assigned to medical
record administrators. In large
hospitals, chief medical record ad­
ministrators supervise other medi­
cal record administrators, techni­
cians, and clerks. Smaller hospitals
may employ only two or three per­
sons in the medical record depart­
ment and in nursing homes usually
one person keeps the medical
records. In these cases a consulting

administrator record administrators as con­
usually advises technical and cleri­ sultants. Although most medical
cal personnel performing medical record administrators are women,
record functions.
the number of men in the occupa­
tion is growing.

Places of Employment
Most of the nearly 12,000 medi­
cal record administrators employed
in 1974 worked in hospitals. The
remainder worked in clinics,
nursing homes, State and local
public health departments, and
medical research centers. Some
health insurance companies also
employ medical record administra­
tors to help determine liability for
payment of their clients’ medical
fees. Some medical record adminis­
trators work for firms that manufac­
ture equipment for recording and
processing medical data and
develop and print health insurance
and medical forms. Many small
health care facilities hire medical

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Preparation for a career as a
medical record administrator is of­
fered in specialized programs in
colleges and universities. Most pro­
grams last 4 years and lead to a
bachelor’s degree in medical record
administration. However, concen­
tration in medical record adminis­
tration begins in the third or fourth
year of study, making transfer from
a junior college possible. One-year
certificate programs also are availa­
ble for those who already have a
bachelor’s degree and required
courses in the liberal arts and
biological sciences. In 1974, there

were 40 programs in medical
record administration approved by
the Council on Medical Education
of the American Medical Associa­
tion and the American Medical
Record Association (AMRA). High
school courses that are useful in­
clude health, business administra­
tion, mathematics, and biology.
Training for medical record ad­
ministrators includes both class­
room instruction and practical ex­
perience. Anatomy, physiology,
fundamentals of medical science,
medical terminology, and medical
record science are among the
required scientific courses. In addi­
tion, management courses such as
hospital organization and adminis­
tration, health law, statistics, and
data processing are part of the cur­
riculum. Experience in the medical
record departments of hospitals
provides students with a practical
background in applying stan­
dardized medical record practices,
analyzing data, and organizing
medical record systems.
Graduates of approved schools in
medical record administration are
eligible for the national registration
examination given by AMRA.
Passing this examination gives
professional recognition as a Re­
gistered Record Administrator
(RRA). There were about 5,000
employed RRA’s in 1974, accord­
ing to AMRA.
Medical record administrators
must be accurate and interested in
detail. They also must be able to
communicate clearly in speech and
writing. Because medical records
are confidential, medical record ad­
ministrators must be discreet in
processing and releasing informa­
tion. Supervisors must be able to or­
procedures and to work effectively
with other hospital personnel.
Medical record administrators
with some experience in smaller
health facilities may advance to
positions as department heads in
large hospitals or to higher level
positions in hospital administration.

Some coordinate the medical
record departments of several small
hospitals. Others move on to medi­
cal record positions in health agen­
cies. Many teach in the expanding
programs for medical record per­
sonnel in 2- and 4-year colleges and

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
graduates of approved medical
record administrator programs are
expected to be very good through
the mid-1980’s. Employment is ex­
pected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations, with
the increasing use of hospitals and
other health facilities as more and
more people are covered by health
insurance. The detailed information
required by third-party payers such
as insurance companies and
Medicare also will cause some
growth in the occupation. More
consultants will be needed to stand­
ardize health records in outpatient
clinics, community health centers,
nursing homes, and home care pro­
grams. The importance of medical
records in research and the growing
use of computers to store and
retrieve medical information also
should increase the demand for
qualified medical record adminis­
trators to develop new medical in­
formation systems. Part-time em­
ployment opportunities also should
be available in teaching, in
research, and in consulting work for
health care facilities.

Earnings and Working
The salaries of medical record
administrators are influenced by
the location, size, and type of em­
ploying institution, as well as by the
duties and responsibilities of the
position. The average starting sal­
ary for medical record administra­
tors in 1974 was $10,368 a year, ac­
cording to a national survey con­
ducted by the University of Texas
Medical Branch at Galveston. Top

salaries averaged $12,840 a year,
with some earning as much as
Newly graduated medical record
administrators employed by the
Federal Government generally
started at $8,500 a year in late
1974; those having bachelor’s
degrees and good academic records
were eligible to begin at $10,520.
Some experienced medical record
administrators employed by the
Federal Government earned as
much as $23,998 annually.
Medical record administrators
usually work a regular 36- to 40hour week and receive paid
holidays and vacations.

Sources of Additional
Information about approved
schools and employment opportu­
nities is available from:
The American Medical Record Association,
875 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 1850, John
Hancock Center, Chicago, 1 1 60611.

(D.O.T. 079.128)

Nature of the Work
Occupational therapists plan and
direct educational, vocational, and
recreational activities designed to
help mentally and physically disa­
bled patients become self-suffi­
cient. They evaluate the capacities
and skills of clients, set goals, and
plan a therapy program together
with the client and members of a
medical team which may include
physicians, physical therapists, vo­
cational counselors, nurses, social
workers, and other specialists.
About 2 therapists out of 5 works
with emotionally handicapped pa­
tients, and the rest work with physi­
cally disabled persons. These
clients represent all age groups and

degrees of illness. Patients par­
ticipate in occupational therapy to
determine the extent of abilities and
limitations; to regain physical, men­
tal, or emotional stability; to relearn
daily routines such as eating,
dressing, writing, and using a
telephone; and eventually, to
prepare for employment.
Occupational therapists teach
manual and creative skills such as
weaving and leather working, and
business and industrial skills such as
typing and the use of power tools.
They also plan and direct activities,
especially for children. Therapists
may design and make special equip­
ment or splints to help disabled pa­
Besides working with patients,
occupational therapists supervise
student therapists, occupational
therapy assistants, volunteers, and
auxiliary nursing workers. The chief
occupational therapist in hospitals
may teach medical and nursing stu­
dents the principles of occupational
therapy. Many therapists ad­
minister occupational therapy pro­
grams, coordinate patient activities,
or are consultants to local and State
health departments and mental
health agencies. Some teach in col­
leges and universities.

Places of Employment
About 9,400 people, more than 9
out of 10 of them women, worked
as occupational therapists in 1974.
Almost half of all occupational
therapists work in hospitals. Reha­
bilitation centers, nursing homes,
schools, outpatient clinics, commu­
nity mental health centers, and
research centers employ most of
the others. Some work in special
sanitariums or camps for han­
dicapped children, others in State
health departments. Still others
work in home-care programs for
patients unable to attend clinics or
workshops. Some are members of
the Armed Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A degree or certification in occu­
pational therapy is required to enter
the profession. In 1974, 40 colleges
and universities offered programs in
occupational therapy which were
accredited by the American Medi­
cal Association and the American
Occupational Therapy Association.
All of these schools offer bachelor’s
degree programs. Some schools
have 2-year programs and accept
students who have completed 2
years of college. Some also offer
shorter programs, leading to a cer­
tificate or a master’s degree in oc­
cupational therapy for students who
have a bachelor’s degree in another
field. A graduate degree often is
required for teaching, research, or
administrative work.
Course work in occupational
therapy programs includes physical,
biological, and behavioral sciences
and the application of occupational
therapy theory and skills. Students
also work in hospitals or health
agencies to gain clinical experience.
After students complete the 6- to 9month clinical practice period and
graduate from their programs, they
are eligible for the American Occu­
pational Therapy Association ex­
amination to become registered oc­

cupational therapists (O.T.R.). Oc­
cupational therapy assistants who
are certified by the association and
have 4 years of approved work ex­
perience also are eligible to take the
examination to become registered
occupational therapists.
Personal qualifications needed in
this profession include a sym­
pathetic but objective approach to
illness and disability. Occupational
therapists also need maturity, pa­
tience, imagination, manual skills,
and the ability to teach. High school
students interested in careers as oc­
cupational therapists are advised to
take courses in health, biology,
crafts, and the social sciences.
Newly graduated occupational
therapists generally begin as staff
therapists. After several years on
the job, they may qualify as senior
therapists or specialized practi­
tioners. Some advance to superviso­
ry or administrative jobs in occupa­
tional therapy programs; others
teach or do research.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
occupational therapists are ex­
pected to be favorable through the
mid-1980’s. The increasing number
of graduates is expected to be
roughly in balance with new
openings that are expected to result
from growth of the occupation and
replacement for those who will die,
retire, or leave the field for other
Employment in this occupation is
expected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations due to
public interest in the rehabilitation
of disabled persons and the success
of established occupational therapy
programs. Many therapists will be
needed to staff hospital rehabilita­
health centers, extended care facili­
ties, psychiatric centers, schools for
children with developmental and
learning disabilities, and communi­
ty home health programs.

Earnings and Working
Beginning salaries for new gradu­
ates of occupational therapy pro­
grams averaged about $9,500 a
year in 1974, according to a na­
tional survey conducted by the
University of Texas Medical
School. Experienced occupational
therapists earned an average salary
of about $12,500 a year; some
earned as much as $14,800, and
some administrators as high as
$25,000 to $30,000. In 1974, the
average salary of experienced occu­
pational therapists was one and a
half times the average earnings for
all nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
In late 1974, beginning therapists
employed by the Veterans Adminis­
tration earned starting salaries of
$9,473 a year. Most experienced,
therapists earned about $12,850
Many part-time positions are
require evening work.

Sources of Additional
For more information on occupa­
tional therapy as a career, write to:
American Occupational Therapy Associa­
tion, 6000 Executive Blvd., Rockville,
Md. 20852.

(D.O.T. 074.181)

Nature of the Work
Pharmacists dispense drugs and
medicines prescribed by medical
practitioners and supply and advise
people on the use of many
medicines that can be obtained with
and without prescriptions. Phar­
macists must understand the use,
composition, and effect of drugs

and be able to test them for purity
and strength. They also advise
physicians on the proper selection
and use of medicines. Compound­
ing—the actual mixing of in­
gredients to form powders, tablets,
capsules, ointments, and solu­
tions—is now only a small part of
pharmacists’ practice, since most
medicines are produced by manu­
facturers in the form used by the
Many pharmacists employed in
community pharmacies also have
other duties. Besides dispensing
medicines, some pharmacists buy
and sell nonpharmaceutical mer­
chandise, hire and supervise per­
sonnel, and oversee the general
operation of the pharmacy. Other
pharmacists, however, operate pre­
scription pharmacies that dispense
only medicines, medical supplies,
and health accessories.
Pharmacists in hospitals and
clinics dispense prescriptions and

advise the medical staff on the
selection and effects of drugs; they
also make sterile solutions, buy
medical supplies, teach in schools
of nursing and allied health profes­
sions, and perform administrative
duties. An increasing number of
hospital pharmacists work as con­
sultants to the medical team in mat­
ters related to daily patient care.
Some pharmacists, employed as
medical sales representatives by
wholesalers, sell medicines to retail
pharmacies and to hospitals, and in­
form health personnel about new
drugs. Others teach in pharmacy
colleges, supervise the manufacture
of pharmaceuticals, or develop new
medicines. Some pharmacists also
edit or write articles for phar­
maceutical journals, or do adminis­
trative work.

Places of Employment
About 117,000 persons worked

as licensed pharmacists in 1974;
more than 10 percent were women.
About 96,000 pharmacists worked
in community pharmacies. Of these
community pharmacists, more than
two-fifths owned their own pharma­
cies; the others were salaried em­
ployees. Most of the remaining
salaried pharmacists worked for
hospitals, pharmaceutical manufac­
turers, and wholesalers. Some were
civilian employees of the Federal
Government, working chiefly in
hospitals and clinics of the Veterans
Administration and the U.S. Public
Health Service. Others served as
pharmacists in the Armed Forces,
taught in colleges of pharmacy, or
worked for State and local govern­
ment agencies.
Most towns have at least one
pharmacy with one pharmacist or
more in attendance. Most phar­
macists, however, practice in or
near cities, and in those States
which have the largest populations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A license to practice pharmacy is
required in all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia. To obtain a
license, one must be a graduate of
an accredited pharmacy college,
pass a State board examination
and—in nearly all States—have a
specified amount of practical ex­
perience or internship under the su­
pervision of a registered phar­
macist. All States except California,
Florida, and Hawaii grant a license
without examination to qualified
pharmacists already licensed by
another State.
At least 5 years of study beyond
high school are required to gradu­
ate from one of the 73 accredited
colleges of pharmacy and receive a
Bachelor of Science (B.S.) or a
Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm.)
degree. A few colleges that require
6 years award a Doctor of Pharma­
cy (Pharm. D.) degree at the
completion of the program. A few
colleges admit students directly
from high school and offer all the

education necessary for graduation.
Most colleges provide 3 or 4 years
of professional instruction and
require all entrants to have
completed their prepharmacy edu­
cation in an accredited junior col­
lege, college, or university.
usually emphasizes mathematics
and basic sciences, such as chemis­
try and biology, but also includes
courses in the humanities and social
sciences. Because entry require­
ments vary among colleges of phar­
macy, prepharmacy students should
inquire about and follow the cur­
riculum required by colleges they
plan to attend.
The bachelor’s degree in pharma­
cy is the minimum educational
qualification for most positions in
the profession. However, a master’s
or doctor’s degree in pharmacy or a
related field usually is required for
research work or college teaching.
Areas of special study include phar­
maceutics, pharmaceutical chemis­
try, pharmacology (study of the ef­
fects of drugs on the body), phar­
macognosy (study of the drugs
derived from plant or animal
sources), clinical pharmacy, and
pharmacy administration.
A limited number of Federal
loans are available for students
studying full-time toward a degree in
pharmacy. Several scholarships also
are awarded annually by drug man­
ufacturers, chain drugstores, corpo­
rations, State and national phar­
macy associations, and the colleges
of pharmacy.
Since many pharmacists are selfemployed, prospective pharmacists
should have some business ability,
as well as an interest in medical
science and the ability to gain the
confidence of customers. Honesty,
integrity, and orderliness are impor­
tant attributes for the profession. In
addition, accuracy is needed to
compound and dispense medicines
as well as keep records required by
Pharmacists often begin as em­
ployees in community pharmacies.

After they gain experience and ob­
tain the necessary funds they may
become owners or part-owners of
pharmacies. A pharmacist who
gains experience in a chain drug­
store may advance to a managerial
position, and later to a higher ex­
ecutive position within the com­
pany. Hospital pharmacists who
have the necessary training and ex­
perience may advance to director
of pharmacy service or to other ad­
ministrative positions.

Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for
pharmacists is expected to be very
good through the mid-1980’s.
Growth of the occupation is ex­
pected to be about as fast as the
average for all occupations. Most
openings, however, will result from
the death and retirement of persons
already in the profession. Overall,
job openings are expected to ex­
ceed the number of graduates of
pharmacy schools.
Employment in the occupation
will grow as new pharmacies are
established, particularly in re­
shopping centers. Many community
pharmacies, also, are expected to
because of a trend towards shorter
working hours. Population growth,
the rising standard of medical care,
and the growth of Medicaid and
other insurance programs that pro­
vide payment for prescription drugs
also will generate demand for phar­
probably will rise with the more ex­
tensive use of pharmacists for
hospital and clinic work. Continued
expansion in the manufacture of
pharmaceutical products and in
research are expected to provide
more opportunities for pharmacists
in production, research, distribu­
tion, and sales. Pharmacists with
advanced training will be needed
for college teaching and laboratory

Earnings and Working

General information on pharma­
cy is available from:

Earnings of pharmacists em­
ployed in chain drugstores averaged
about $17,000 in 1974, according
to a survey conducted by the Na­
tional Association of Chain Drug
Stores. Pharmacists who are owners
or managers of pharmacies often
earn more. The minimum entrance
salary in the Federal Government
for new graduates was about
$ 12,800 a year, in late 1974. With a
master’s degree or 2 years of gradu­
ate studies, the beginning salary was
about $15,500. The average salary
for all federally employed phar­
macists was $18,061.
Annual starting salaries for
hospital pharmacists were about
$13,150 in 1974, according to a
survey conducted by the University
of Texas Medical School. Top sala­
ries for experienced hospital phar­
macists averaged $15,700, and
some were as high as $22,900.
Community pharmacists gener­
ally work more than the standard
40-hour workweek. Pharmacies
often are open in the evenings and
on weekends, and all States require
a registered pharmacist to be in at­
tendance during store hours. De­
spite the general trend toward shor­
ter hours, 44 hours is still the basic
workweek for many salaried phar­
macists, and some work 50 hours or
more. Self-employed pharmacists
often work more hours than those in
salaried positions. Those who teach
or work for industry, government
agencies, or hospitals have shorter

American Pharmaceutical Association, 2215
Constitution Ave. NW„ Washington,
D .C .20037.

Sources of Additional
A free packet giving information
on pharmacy as a career, preprofes­
sional requirements, and student
financial aid is available from:
American Association of Colleges of Phar­
macy, Office of Student Affairs, 4630
Montgomery Ave., Suite 201, Bethesda,
Md. 20014.

Information about chain drug­
stores is available from:
National Association of Chain Drug Stores,
1911 Jefferson Highway, Arlington, Va.

For information about
pharmacies, contact:


American Council on Pharmaceutical Edu­
cation, 77 W. Washington St., Chicago,
1 1 60602.

Information on requirements for
licensure in a particular State is
available from the Board of Phar­
macy of that State or from:
National Association of Boards of Pharmacy,
77 W. Washington St., Chicago, 1 1

Information on college entrance
requirements, curriculums, and
financial aid is available from the
dean of any college of pharmacy.

( D.O.T. 079.378)

Nature of the Work
Physical therapists help persons
with muscle, nerve, joint, and bone
diseases or injuries to overcome
their disabilities. Their patients in­
clude accident victims, crippled
children, and disabled older per­
sons. Physical therapists perform
and interpret tests and measure­
ments for muscle strength, motor
development, functional capacity,
and respiratory and circulatory effi­
ciency to develop programs for
treatment. They evaluate the effec­
tiveness of the treatment and
discuss the patients’ progress with
physicians, psychologists, occupa­
tional therapists, and other spe­
cialists. When advisable, physical
therapists revise the therapeutic
procedures and treatments. They
help disabled persons to accept
their physical handicaps and adjust
to them. They show members of the

patients’ families how to continue
treatments at home.
Therapeutic procedures include
exercises for increasing strength,
endurance, coordination, and range
of motion; stimuli to make motor
activity and learning easier; instruc­
tion in carrying out everyday activi­
ties and in the use of helping
devices; and the application of
massage, heat and cold, light,
water, or electricity to relieve pain
or improve the condition of
Most physical therapists provide
direct care to patients as staff mem­
bers, supervisors, or self-employed
practitioners. These therapists may
treat many categories of patients or
may specialize in pediatrics,
geriatrics, amputations, arthritis, or
paralysis. Others administer physi­
cal therapy programs, teach, or are

Places of Employment
About 20,000 persons—3 out of
4 of them women—worked as
licensed physical therapists in 1974.
About three-fourths of all physical
therapists work in hospitals or
nursing homes; others, in rehabilita­
tion centers or schools for crippled
children. Some who work for public
health agencies treat chronically
sick patients in their own homes.
Still others work in physicians’ of­
fices or clinics, teach in schools of
physical therapy, or work for
research organizations. A few serve
as consultants in government and
voluntary agencies or are members
of the Armed Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

by the American Medical Associa­
tion and the American Physical
Therapy Association.
Most of the approved schools of
physical therapy offer bachelor’s
degree programs. A number of
schools accept those who already
have a bachelor’s degree and give a
12- to 16-month course leading to a
certificate in physical therapy.
Some schools offer both a
bachelor’s degree and a certificate
The physical therapy curriculum
includes science courses such as
anatomy, physiology, neuroanato­
my, and neurophysiology; also
biomechanics of motion, human
growth and development, and
manifestations of disease and trau­
ma. Besides receiving classroom in­
struction, students get supervised
practical experience administering
physical therapy to patients in a
hospital or treatment center.
Several universities offer the
master’s degree in physical therapy.
A graduate degree, combined with
clinical experience, increases the
opportunities for advancement,
especially to teaching, research,
and administrative positions.
Therapists must have patience,
tact, resourcefulness, and emo­
tional stability in order to help pa­
tients and their families understand
the treatments and adjust to their
handicaps. Physical therapists also
should have manual dexterity and
physical stamina. Many persons
who want to determine whether
they have the personal qualities
needed for this occupation volun­
teer for summer or part-time work
in the physical therapy department
of a hospital or clinic. High school
courses that are useful include
health, biology, social science,
mathematics, and physical educa­

All States and the District of
Columbia require a license to prac­
tice physical therapy. Applicants
for a license must have a degree or
certificate from a school of physical
Employment Outlook
therapy and to qualify must pass a
State board examination. In 1974,
Employment opportunities for
there were 66 schools of physical physical therapists are expected to
therapy which had been approved be favorable through the mid-

1980’s. The rapidly growing num­
ber of new graduates is expected
to be in rough balance with the
average number of openings that
will result each year from growth
in the occupation and from re­
placement of those who will die
or retire. Employment opportuni­
ties will be best in suburban and
rural areas.
Employment of physical thera­
pists is expected to grow much
faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the mid-1980’s
because of increased public recog­
nition of the importance of reha­
bilitation. As programs to aid crip­
pled children and other rehabilita­
tion activities expand, and as
growth takes place in nursing
homes and other facilities for the el­
derly, many new positions for physi­
cal therapists are likely to be
created. Many part-time positions
should continue to be available.

Earnings and Working
Starting salaries for new physical
therapy graduates averaged about
$9,600 a year in 1974, according to
a national survey conducted by the
University of Texas Medical School
at Galveston. Earnings of ex­
averaged $ 11,500; some earned as
much as $16,000.
Beginning therapists employed
by the Veterans Administration
(VA) earned starting salaries of
$9,473 a year in late 1974. Most ex­
perienced nonsupervisory physical
therapists in the VA earned
$12,841 annually; those who were
supervisors, about $ 18,463.

Sources of Additional
Additional information and loca­
tions of institutions offering ap­
proved programs in physical
therapy are available from:
American Physical Therapy Association,
1156 15th St. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 075.1 18 through .378)

Nature of the Work
Nursing plays a major role in
health care. As important members
of the medical care team, registered
nurses perform a wide variety of
functions. They observe, evaluate,
and record symptoms, reactions,
and progress of patients; administer
medications; assist in the rehabilita­
tion of patients; and help maintain a
physical and emotional environ­
ment that promotes recovery.
Some registered nurses provide
hospital care. Others perform
research activities or instruct stu­
dents. The setting usually deter­
mines the scope of the nurse’s
Hospital nurses constitute the lar­
gest group of nurses. Most are staff
nurses who provide skilled bedside
nursing care and carry out the

and other community settings. They
instruct patients and families in
proper care and give periodic care
as prescribed by a physician. They
may also instruct groups of patients
in proper diet and arrange for im­
munizations. These nurses work
with community leaders, teachers,
parents, and physicians in commu­
nity health education. Some public
health nurses work in schools.
Nurse educators teach students
the principles and skills of nursing,
both in the classroom and in direct
patient care. They also conduct
continuing education courses for
registered nurses, practical nurses,
and nursing assistants.
Occupational health or industrial
nurses provide nursing care to em­
ployees in industry and government
and, along with physicians promote
employee health. As prescribed by
a doctor, they treat minor injuries
and illnesses occurring at the place
of employment, provide for the
needed nursing care, arrange for
further medical care if necessary,
and offer health counseling. They
also may assist with health examina­
tions and inoculations.

medical treatment plans prescribed
by physicians. They may also super­
vise practical nurses, aides, and or­
Places of Employment
derlies. Hospital nurses usually
work with groups of patients that
Nearly 860,000 persons—all but
require similar nursing care. For in­
1 percent of them women—worked
stance, some nurses work with pa­
as registered nurses in 1974. About
tients who have had surgery; others
one-third worked on a part-time
care for children, the elderly, or the
mentally ill. Some are administra­ basis.
About three-quarters of all re­
tors of nursing services.
gistered nurses worked in hospitals,
Private duty nurses give in­ nursing homes, and related institu­
dividual care to patients who need tions. About 50,000 were office
constant attention. The private duty nurses and about 40,000 were
nurse may sometimes care for
private duty nurses who cared for
several hospital patients who
patients in hospitals and private
require special care, but not full­
homes. Public health nurses in
time attention.
government agencies, schools, visit­
Office nurses assist physicians, ing nurse associations, and clinics
dental surgeons, and occasionally numbered about 55,000; nurse edu­
dentists in private practice or cators in nursing schools accounted
clinics. Sometimes they perform for about 30,000; and occupational
routine laboratory and office work health nurses in industry, about
in addition to their nursing duties.
20,000. Most of the others were
Public health nurses care for pa­ staff members of professional nurse
tients in clinics, homes, schools, and other organizations, State

boards of nursing, or working for
Programs of nursing include
research organizations.
classroom instruction and super­
vised nursing practice in hospitals
and health facilities. Students take
Training, Other Qualifications,
courses in anatomy, physiology,
and Advancement
microbiology, nutrition, psycholo­
A license is required to practice gy, and nursing. They also get su­
professional nursing in all States pervised clinical experience in the
and in the District of Columbia. To care of patients who have different
obtain a license, a nurse must be a types of health problems. Students
graduate of a school approved by in bachelor’s degree programs as
the State board of nursing and pass well as in some of the other pro­
the State board examination. Nur­ grams are assigned to community
ses may be licensed in more than agencies to learn how to care for
one State, either by examination or patients in clinics and in the pa­
endorsement of a license issued by tients’ homes. General education is
combined with nursing education in
another State.
Three types of educational pro­ baccalaureate and associate degree
baccalaureate, programs and in some diploma pro­
and associate degree—offer the grams.
Qualified students who need
education required for basic
careers in registered nursing. All financial aid may be able to get a
three programs prepare candidates federally
for licensure; however, the bac­ scholarship or a low-interest loan.
Young persons who want to pur­
calaureate program is preferred for
those who aspire to administrative sue a nursing career should have a
or management positions, and those sincere desire to serve humanity
planning to work in research, con­ and be sympathetic to the needs of
sultation, teaching, or clinical spe­ others. Nurses must be able to fol­
cialization, which require education low orders precisely and to use
at the master’s level. Graduation good judgment in emergencies;
from high school is required for ad­ they also should be able to accept
responsibility and direct or super­
mission to all schools of nursing.
Diploma programs are conducted vise the activity of others. Good
by hospital and independent mental health is needed in order to
schools and usually require 3 years cope with human suffering and
of training. Bachelor’s degree pro­ frequent emergency situations.
grams usually require 4 years of Staff nurses need physical stamina
study in a college or university, because of the amount of time
although a few require 5 years. As­ spent walking and standing.
From staff positions in hospitals,
sociate degree programs in junior
and community colleges require ap­ experienced nurses may advance to
proximately 2 years of nursing edu­ head nurse, assistant director, and
cation. In addition, several pro­ director of nursing services. A
grams provide licensed practical master’s degree, however, often is
nurses with the training necessary required for supervisory and ad­
to upgrade themselves to registered ministrative positions, as well as for
nurses while they continue to work positions in nursing education,
programs clinical
generally offer an associate of arts research. In public health agencies,
degree. In early 1974, about 1,430 advancement is usually difficult for
programs (associate, diploma, and nurses who do not have degrees in
baccalaureate) were offered in the public health nursing.
United States. In addition, there
A growing movement in nursing,
were 94 master’s and doctoral generally referred to as the “nurse
degree programs in nursing.
practitioner program” is opening

new career possibilities. Nurses
who wish to take the extra training
are preparing for highly indepen­
dent roles in the clinical care and
teaching of patients. They are prac­
ticing in primary roles which in­
clude pediatrics, geriatrics, commu­
nity health, mental health, and
medical-surgical nursing.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
registered nurses are expected to be
favorable through the mid-1980’s.
However,if trends in the number of
persons enrolling in schools of
nursing continue, some competition
for more desirable, higher paying
jobs may develop during the latter
part of this period. Opportunities
for full- or part-time work in
present shortage areas such as some
southern States and many inner-city
locations are expected to be very
favorable through 1985. For nurses
who have had graduate education,
the outlook is excellent for obtain­
ing positions as administrators,
teachers, clinical specialists, and
public health nurses.
Growth in employment of re­
gistered nurses is expected to be
much faster than the average for all
occupations because of extension
of prepayment programs for
hospitalization and medical care,
expansion of medical services as a
result of new medical techniques
and drugs, and increased interest in
preventive medicine and rehabilita­
tion of the handicapped. In addition
to the need to fill new positions,
large numbers of nurses will be
required to replace those who leave
the field each year.

Earnings and Working
Registered nurses who worked in
hospitals in 1974 received average
starting salaries of $9,100 a year,
according to a national survey con­
ducted by the University of Texas
Medical Branch. This was above
the average for nonsupervisory

workers in private industry, except
farming. Registered nurses in
nursing homes can expect to earn
slightly less than those in hospitals.
Salaries of industrial
averaged $192 a week in early
1974, according to a survey con­
ducted by the Bureau of Labor
In early 1975, the Veterans Ad­
ministration paid inexperienced
nurses who had a diploma or an as­
sociate degree starting salaries of
$9,473 a year; those with baccalau­
reate degrees, $11,070. Nurses em­
ployed in all Federal Government
agencies earned an average of
$14,700 in 1974.
Most hospital and nursing home
nurses receive extra pay for work
on evening or night shifts. Nearly all
receive from 5 to 13 paid holidays a
year, at least 2 weeks of paid vaca­
tion after 1 year of service, and also
some type of health and retirement

Sources of Additional
For information on approved
schools of nursing, nursing careers,
loans, scholarships, salaries, work­
ing conditions, and employment op­
portunities, contact:
ANA Committee on Nursing Careers, Amer­
ican Nurses’ Association, 2420 Pershing
Rd., Kansas City, Mo. 64108.

Information about employment
opportunities in the Veterans Ad­
ministration is available from:
Department of Medicine and Surgery,
Veterans Administration, Washington,
D C. 20420.

(D.O.T. 079.368)

Nature of the Work
Respiratory therapy workers,

therapy workers, treat patients with
cardiorespiratory problems. This
treatment may range from giving
temporary relief to patients with
chronic asthma or emphysema to
giving emergency care in cases of
heart failure, stroke, drowning, and
shock. Respiratory therapy workers
also are among the first medical
specialists called for emergency
treatment of acute respiratory con­
ditions arising from head injury or
drug poisoning. Since a patient can
safely cease to breathe for only a
short span of time, the therapy
worker has a highly responsible
role. If breathing has stopped for
longer than 3 to 5 minutes, there is
little chance that the patient can
recover without brain damage, and
if oxygen is unavailable for more
than 9 minutes, death results.
Respiratory therapy workers fol­
low doctors’ orders and use special

equipment such as respirators and
machines to administer gas therapy,
aerosol therapy, and other treat­
ments involving respiration. They
also show patients and their families
how to use the equipment at home.
Other duties include keeping
records of the cost of materials and
charges to patients, and maintain­
ing and making minor repairs to
There are three levels of workers
within the field of respiratory
therapy: therapists, technicians,
and assistants. Therapists and
technicians perform essentially the
same duties. However, the therapist
is expected to have a higher level of
expertise and may be expected to
assume some teaching and super­
visory duties. Respiratory therapy
assistants have little contact with
patients and spend most of their

time taking care of the equipment.
Many are new to the job and are
training to advance to the techni­
cian or therapist level.

for Respiratory Therapy (NBRT).
The registry examination consists of
two tests, a written and an oral. Ap­
plicants must pass both to be
awarded the American Registered
Respiratory Therapist (ARRT) cre­
Places of Employment
dential. In 1974, about 2,500
About 38,000 persons worked as therapists had been registered. A
respiratory therapists, technicians, registered respiratory therapist
or assistants in 1974—about one- often can advance faster and obtain
a more responsible position than
half were women.
Most work in hospitals, in one who is not registered. An in­
respiratory therapy, anesthesiology, creasing number of employers
as an
or pulmonary medicine depart­ recognize
ments. Others work for oxygen acknowledgment of a therapist’s
equipment rental companies, am­ professional competence.
Individuals who complete an
bulance services, nursing homes,
AMA-approved technician training
and universities.
program and have 1 year of ex­
perience in respiratory therapy may
Training, Other Qualifications,
apply to the NBRT for examination
and Advancement
for the Certified Respiratory
has Therapy Technician (CRTT) cre­
become increasingly complex in dential. The CRTT examination is
recent years and, although a few
less comprehensive than the regis­
respiratory therapy workers are
try examination and consists of a
trained on the job, formal training is
single written test. Approximately
now stressed as the requisite for
8,000 respiratory therapy techni­
entry to the field.
cians had been certified in 1974.
In 1974, about 125 institutions
In contrast to therapists and
offered educational programs in
technicians, there are no general
respiratory therapy approved by the
requirements for the position of
Council on Medical Education of
respiratory therapy assistant. The
the American Medical Association.
only requirements are those set by
High school graduation is required
the head of the hospital department
for entry. Courses vary in length
that is hiring workers. For example,
between 18 months and 4 years and
some require a high school
include both theory and clinical
Respiratory therapists can ad­
work. A bachelor’s degree is
vance to positions as assistant chief,
awarded for completion of a 4-year
chief therapist, or, with graduate
program and lesser degrees are
education, instructor of respiratory
awarded for shorter courses. Areas
therapy at the college level.
of study include human anatomy
Respiratory therapy technicians
and physiology, chemistry, physics,
and assistants can advance to the
microbiology, and mathematics.
therapist level by taking the ap­
Technical courses offered deal with
propriate training courses.
procedures, equipment, and clinical
People who want to enter the
respiratory therapy field should
Respiratory therapists who have
enjoy working with patients and
a certificate of graduation from an
should understand their physical
AMA-approved therapist training
program, 62 semester hours of col­
and psychological needs. Respirato­
lege credit, and 1 year of ex­
ry therapy workers must be able to
perience following completion of
pay attention to detail, follow in­
structions, and work as part of a
the program are eligible to apply for
registration by the National Board
team. Operating the complicated

respiratory therapy equipment also
requires mechanical ability and
manual dexterity. High school stu­
dents interested in a career in this
field are encouraged to take cour­
ses in health, biology, mathematics,
physics, and bookkeeping.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
respiratory therapy workers are ex­
pected to be good through the mid1980’s. Those with advanced train­
ing in respiratory therapy will be in
demand to fill teaching and super­
visory positions.
The employment of respiratory
therapy workers is expected to
grow much faster than the average
for all occupations, owing to new
uses for respiratory therapy, in­
creased acceptance of its use, and
the growth in health services in
general. Many specialists in respira­
tory therapy will be hired to release
nurses and other personnel from
respiratory therapy work to return
to their primary duties. Many other
openings will arise from the need to
replace those who retire, die, or
leave the occupation for other

Earnings and Working
The starting salary of respiratory
therapists employed in hospitals
and medical centers averaged about
$8,064 a year in 1974, according to
a survey conducted by the Universi­
ty of Texas Medical Branch. Top
salaries of experienced respiratory
therapists in hospitals ranged as
high as $13,980 a year. Salaries of
respiratory therapy technicians and
assistants are lower than those of
respiratory therapists.
The Federal Government paid
respiratory therapists starting sala­
ries of $6,764 a year in late 1974 if
they had 1 year of post-secondary
training, and $7,596 for those with
2 years of training. Some therapists
employed by the Federal Govern-

ment in late 1974 earned as much
as $ 13,679 a year.
Respiratory therapy workers in
hospitals receive the same benefits
as other hospital personnel, includ­
ing hospitalization, paid vacations,
and sick leave. Some institutions
provide tuition assistance or free
uniforms, and parking.
Respiratory therapy workers
generally have a 40-hour week.
After-hours and weekend duty is
generally required since most
hospitals have 24-hour coverage
throughout the week. Adherence to
safety precautions and regular test­
ing of equipment minimize the
potential hazard of fire to workers
and patients.

Sources of Additional
Information concerning educa­
tion programs is available from:
American Association for Respiratory
Therapy, 741 1 Hines Place, Dallas, Tex.

Information on the accrediting of
respiratory therapists and respirato­
ry therapy technicians can be ob­
tained from:

National Board for Respiratory
Therapy, Inc., 1900 West 47th St., Suite
124, Westwood, Kansas 66205.

On-the-job training information
can be obtained at local hospitals.

(D OT. 079.108)

Nature of the Work
About 1 out of 10 Americans is
unable to speak or hear clearly.
Children who have trouble speak­
ing or hearing cannot participate
fully with other children in play or
in normal classroom activities.
Adults having speech or hearing im­
pairments often have problems in
job adjustment. Speech pathologists
and audiologists provide direct ser­

vices to these people by evaluating
their speech or hearing disorders
and then providing treatment.
The speech pathologist works
with children and adults who have
speech, language, and voice disor­
ders resulting from causes such as
total or partial hearing loss, brain
injury, cleft palate, mental retarda­
tion, emotional problems, or
foreign dialect. The audiologist
primarily assesses and treats hear­
ing problems. Speech and hearing,
however, are so interrelated that to
be competent in one of these fields,
one must be familiar with both.
The duties of speech pathologists
and audiologists vary with educa­
tion experience, and place of em­
ployment. In clinics, either in
schools or other locations, they use
diagnostic procedures to identify
and evaluate speech and hearing
disorders. Then, in cooperation
with physicians,
physical therapists, and counselors,
they develop and implement an or­
ganized program of therapy. Some
speech pathologists and audiolo­
gists conduct research such as in­
vestigating the causes of commu­
nicative disorders and improving
methods for clinical services.
Others supervise clinical activities
or do other administrative work.
Speech pathologists and audiolo­
gists in colleges and universities in­
struct in the principles of communi­
cation, communication disorders,
and clinical techniques; participate
in educational programs with physi­
cians, nurses, and teachers; and
work in university clinics and
research centers. Most speech
pathologists and audiologists have
some administrative responsibili­
ties. However, directors of speech
and hearing clinics, and coordina­
tors of speech and hearing in
schools, health departments, or
government agencies, may be
totally involved in administration.

Places of Employment




fourths of them women, worked as
speech pathologists and audiolo­
gists in 1974. Over one-half worked
in public schools. Colleges and
universities employed many in
classrooms, clinics, and research
centers. The rest worked in
hospitals, speech and hearing cen­
ters, government agencies, indus­
try, and private practice.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
An increasing number of States
require a master’s degree or its
equivalent for speech pathologists
and audiologists. In addition, many
Medicare and Medicaid, require
participating speech pathologists
and audiologists to have a master’s
degree. Some States require a
teaching certificate to work in the
public schools.
Undergraduate courses in speech
pathology and audiology include
physics, linguistics, semantics, and
phonetics. Courses in speech and
hearing as well as in child psycholo­
gy and psychology of the excep­
tional child are also helpful. This
training is usually available at col­
leges that offer a broad liberal arts
In early 1975, about 225 colleges
and universities offered graduate
education in speech pathology and
audiology. Courses at the graduate
level include advanced anatomy
and physiology of the areas in­
volved in hearing and speech,
aspects of communication. Training
also is given in the analysis of
speech production, language abili­
ties, and auditory processes. Gradu­
ate students gain a familiarity with
research methods used to study
speech and hearing.
Scholarships, fellowships, assistantships, and traineeships are
available in this field. Teaching and
training grants to colleges and
universities that have programs in

speech and hearing are given by the
U.S. Rehabilitation Services Administration, the Maternal and
Child Health Service, the U.S. Office of Education, and the National
Institutes of Health. In addition,
some Federal agencies distribute
money to colleges to aid graduate
students in speech and hearing programs. A large number of private
organizations and foundations also
provide financial assistance for education in this field.
Meeting the American Speech
and Hearing Association’s (ASHA)
requirements for a Certificate of
Clinical Competence usually is
necessary in order to advance
professionally and to earn a higher
salary. To earn the CCC, a person
must have a master’s degree or its
equivalent and complete a 1-year
internship approved by the Association. Passing a national written examination also is required.
Speech pathologists and audiolo-

gists should be able to approach
problems objectively and have a
concern for the needs of others.
They sould also have considerable
a client’s
progress often is slow. A person
who desires a career in speech
pathology and audiology should be
able to accept responsibility, work
independently, and direct others,
The ability to work with detail is important. Speech pathologists and
audiologists receive satisfaction
from seeing the results of their
Employment Outlook
The employment of speech
pathologists and audiologists is expected to increase much faster than
the average for all other occupations through the mid-1980’s. However, temporary reductions in
government spending on speech
and hearing programs may decrease

the number of new positions availa­
ble at any one time. Although some
jobs will be available for those hav­
ing only a bachelor’s degree, the in­
creasing emphasis placed on the
master’s degree by State govern­
ments, school systems, and Federal
agencies will limit opportunities at
the bachelor’s degree level.
Although employment opportu­
nities for those with a master’s
degree should generally be favora­
ble, the large number of graduates
entering this field may cause some
competition. Many openings will
occur outside of the large
metropolitan areas and some gradu­
ates will have to relocate in order to
Find employment. Competition for
teaching positions in colleges and
universities will be very strong
throughout the period.
Population growth, which will in­
crease the number of persons hav­
ing speech and hearing problems, is
one of the factors underlying the
expected expansion in employment
of speech pathologists and audiolo­
gists through the mid-1980’s. In ad­
dition, there is a trend toward earli­
er recognition and treatment of
hearing and language problems in
children. Many school-age chil­
dren, thought to have learning disa­
bilities, actually have language or
hearing disorders which speech
pathologists and audiologists can
Other factors expected to in­
crease demand for speech patholo­
gists and audiologists are expansion
in expenditures
research and the growing public in­
terest in speech and hearing disor­
ders. These are illustrated by State
and Federal laws, which provide for
the education of handicapped chil­
dren, and expanded speech and
hearing services available under
Federal programs such as Medicare
and Medicaid.

Earnings and Working




pathologists and audiologists with a
master’s degree averaged over
$10,200 a year in early 1975. Sala­
ries for persons with considerable
experience (6-10 years) averaged
about $13,300. Those with a doc­
toral degree earned average salaries
of between $17,000 and $25,000,
depending on the job setting and
geographic region. Salaries tend to
be higher in areas having large
urban populations. Many speech
pathologists and audiologists, par­
ticularly those in colleges and
universities, supplement their in­

comes acting as consultants, engag­
ing in research projects, and writing
books and articles.
In early 1975, the annual starting
salary in the Federal Government
for speech pathologists and au­
diologists with a master’s degree
was $12,841. Those having a doc­
toral degree were eligible to start at
Many speech pathologists and
audiologists work over 40 hours a
week. Almost all receive fringe
benefits such as paid vacations, sick
leave, and retirement programs.

Sources of Additional
State departments of education
can supply information on certifica­
tion requirements for those who
wish to work in public schools.
A list of college and university
programs and a booklet on student
financial aid as well as general
career information are available
American Speech and Hearing Association,
9030 Old Georgetown Rd., Washington,
D .C .20014.

Social scientists study all aspects
of human society—from the origins
of man to the latest election
returns. However, they generally
specialize in one major field of
human relationships. Anthropolo­
gists study primitive tribes, recon­
struct civilizations of the past, and
analyze the physical characteristics,
cultures and languages of all peo­
ples, past and present. Economists
study the allocation of land, labor,
and capital. Geographers study the
distribution of people throughout
the world, types of land and water
masses, and natural resources.
Historians describe and interpret
the people and events of the past
and present. Political scientists
study the theories, objectives, and
organizations of all types of govern­
ment. Psychologists study the
normal and abnormal behavior of
individuals and groups in order to
understand and explain their ac­
tions. Sociologists analyze the be­
havior and relationships of
groups—such as the family, the
community, and minorities—to the
individual or to society as a whole.
Besides these basic social science
occupations, a number of closely re­
lated fields are covered in separate
statements elsewhere in this book.
(See statements on Statisticians, and
Social Workers.)
The basic social science occupa­
tions provided employment for
about 135,000 persons in 1974;
over 10 percent of them were
women. Overlapping among the
basic social science fields and the
sometimes hazy distinction between
these and related fields such as
business administration, foreign
service work, and high school
teaching, make it difficult to deter­
mine the exact size of each profes­
sion. Economists, however, are the
largest social science group, and
anthropologists the smallest.
About one-half of all social
scientists work in colleges and

universities. A large number work
for the Federal Government and
private industry. The trend in some
industries is to hire increasing num­
bers of social science majors as
trainees for administrative and ex­
ecutive positions. Research coun­
cils and other nonprofit organiza­
tions provide an important source
of employment for economists,
political scientists, and sociologists.
Overall employment in the social
sciences is expected to grow faster
than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. Economics
is expected to be the fastest growing
social science field. Teaching in
colleges and universities will remain
the major area of employment. Em­
ployment of social scientists in
government, private industry, and
nonprofit organizations is expected
to rise also. Despite this anticipated
growth, the number of persons
seeking to enter the social science
field is likely to exceed available job
openings. The following statements
present more detailed information
about the prospective outlook in
the individual occupations.

(D.O.T. 055.088 and 059.088)

Nature of the Work
Anthropologists study man—his
origins, physical characteristics,
and culture. These areas include a
study of the people’s traditions, be­
liefs, customs, languages, material
possessions, social relationships,
and value systems. Although
anthropologists generally specialize
in one of these four areas—cultural
guistics, and physical anthropolo­
gy—they are expected to have a
general knowledge of all of them.
Most anthropologists specialize

in cultural anthropology, some­
times called ethnology. Ethnologists
may spend long periods living with
tribal groups or in other communi­
ties to learn about their ways of life.
The ethnologist takes detailed and
comprehensive notes that describe
the social customs, beliefs, and
material possessions of the people.
They usually learn the native lan­
guage in the process. They also
make comparative studies of the
cultures and societies of various
groups. In recent years, investiga­
tions have included complex urban
Archeologists excavate places
where people of past civilizations
lived. They study the remains of
homes, tools, clothing, ornaments,
and other evidences of human life
and activity to reconstruct the in­
habitants’ history and customs. For
example, in a desert in New Mex­
ico, archeologists uncovered an an­
cient kiva, an Indian religious
chamber. In a cave by the Dead
Sea, some have found pieces of an­
cient scrolls 2,000 years old. In the
moors of England, other archeolo­
gists have continued to study the
Stonehenge, a mysterious circle of
huge stones. During the past few
years, student archeological teams

prehistoric communities along the
Illinois River.
Some anthropologists specialize
in linguistics, the scientific study of
the sounds and structures of lan­
guages and of the historical rela­
tionships among languages. They
study the relationship between the
language and the behavior of peo­
ple and assist in reconstructing the
prehistory of mankind.
Physical anthropologists studying
human evolution compare the
physical characteristics of different
races or groups of people as in­
fluenced by heredity and environ­
ment. This work requires extensive
training in human anatomy and
biology. A knowledge of body
anthropologists to work occa­
sionally as consultants on projects
such as the design of cockpits for
airplanes and spaceships, and the
sizing of clothing. They are con­
sulted on criminal cases and on pro­
jects to improve the environment.
Increasingly, they are employed in
medical schools.
Closely related to the four basic
subfields is applied anthropology, an
emerging specialty which uses the
findings of other anthropologists in
a practical manner. Applied cul­
tural anthropologists may, for ex­
ample, provide technical guidelines
to ease the transition of nonindus­
trial societies to a more complex
level of socioeconomic organiza­
Applied linguistic anthropolo­
gists may produce technical and
practical language information to
encourage the advance of literacy
in societies with unwritten lan­
guages. Another related specialty
area is urban anthropology, which is
the study of urban life, urbaniza­
tion, rural-urban migration, and the
influence of city life.
Most anthropologists teach in
colleges and universities. They
often combine teaching with
research. Some anthropologists
specialize in museum work, which
generally combines managerial and

administrative duties with fieldwork
and research on anthropological
collections. A few work as con­
sultants or engage in nontechnical

Places of Employment
About 3,800 persons—about
one-fifth of them women—worked
as anthropologists in 1974. About
three-fourths of all anthropologists
work in colleges and universities.
Several hundred work in private in­
dustry and nonprofit organizations.
The Federal Government employs a
small number, chiefly in museums,
national parks, in the Bureau of In­
dian Affairs, and in technical aid
programs. State and local govern­
anthropologists, usually for muse­
um work or health research.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Students who want to become
anthropologists should obtain the
Ph. D. degree. College graduates
with bachelor’s degrees often get
temporary positions and assistantships in graduate departments
where they are working for ad­
vanced degrees. A master’s degree,
plus field experience, is sufficient
for many beginning professional
positions, but promotion to top
positions generally is reserved for
individuals who have a Ph. D.
degree. Many colleges and universi­
ties require a Ph. D. degree for per­
manent teaching appointments.
Mathematics is helpful, since
statistical and computer methods
are becoming more widely used for
research in this field. Undergradu­
ates may begin their field training in
archeology by arranging, through
their university departments, to ac­
company expeditions as laborers or
to attend field schools established
for training. They may later become
supervisors in charge of the digging
or collection of material and finally
may direct a portion of the work of
the expedition. Ethnologists and

linguists usually do their fieldwork
independently. Most anthropolo­
gists base their doctoral disserta­
tions on data collected through
field research; they are, therefore,
experienced fieldworkers by the
time they earn the Ph. D. degree.
Nearly 300 colleges and universi­
ties have bachelor’s degree pro­
grams in anthropology; some 130
offer master’s degree programs and
about 80, doctoral programs. The
choice of a graduate school is very
important. Students interested in
museum work should select a
school which is associated with a
museum that has anthropological
collections. Similarly, those in­
terested in archeology should
choose either a university that of­
fers opportunities for summer ex­
perience in archeological field­
work, or attend an archeological
field school elsewhere during
summer vacations.
Anthropologists should have spe­
cial interest in natural history and
social studies and enjoy reading,
research, and writing. Traveling to
remote areas and working under
difficulties are sometimes necessary
for success.
Anthropologists work with ideas
and have the opportunity for selfexpression. They should be able to
work independently and with detail.

Employment Outlook
The majority of new jobs are ex­
pected to be in private industry and
in mental and public health and
urban planning. College and univer­
sity teaching, which will remain the
largest area of employment for
anthropologists, is likely to have lit­
tle growth.
anthropologists seeking to enter the
field will likely exceed available
positions. As a result, doctorate
holders may face keen competition
through the mid-1980’s, particu­
larly for jobs in colleges and univer­
bachelor’s and master’s degrees are

expected to face very keen com­
petition. Some teaching positions
may be available in junior colleges
or some high schools for those who
meet state certification require­
ments. In addition, the government
and other organizations may hire
personnel with social science train­
ing as a general background.

Earnings and Working
Starting salaries for anthropolo­
gists with a Ph. D. degree were
generally about $13,000 a year in
1974. Experienced anthropologists
earned median salaries of $ 17,500 a
year, according to limited data
available. They may, however, earn
well over $20,000 a year. In
general, salaries of experienced
anthropologists are higher than the
average for all nonsupervisory wor­
kers in private industry, except
In the Federal Government,
anthropologists having a bachelor’s
degree could begin as trainees at
$8,500 or $10,520 a year in 1974,
depending upon the applicant’s
academic record. Starting salaries
for those having a master’s degree
were $12,841 a year, and for those
having a Ph. D., $15,481.
Anthropologists in the Federal
$25,400 in late 1974.
Many anthropologists in colleges
and universities supplement their
regular salaries with earnings from
other sources such as summer
teaching and research grants.
Anthropologists sometimes are
required to do fieldwork under ad­
verse weather conditions. They also
must adapt themselves to cultural
environments which are materially
and socially different.

Sources of Additional
For information about employ­
ment opportunities and schools that
anthropology, contact:

The American Anthropological Association,
1703 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20009.
The Archeological Institute of America, 260
W. Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10013.

(D.O.T. 050.088 and .118)

Nature of the Work
Economists are concerned with
how to utilize scarce resources such
as land, raw materials, and human
resources to provide goods and ser­
vices for society. Economists
analyze the relationship between
the supply of goods and services on
the one hand, and demand for them
on the other, and how goods and
services are produced, distributed,
and consumed. Some economists
are concerned with specific fields
such as farm, wage, tax, and tariff
problems and policies. Others
develop theories to explain the
causes of employment and unem­
or inflation.
economists analyze and interpret a
wide variety of economic data in
the course of their work.
Economists who work in colleges
and universities teach the theories,
economics and conduct or direct
research. They frequently write,
and act as consultants.
Economists in government col­
lect and analyze data and prepare
studies used to assess economic
conditions and the need for changes
in government policy. Most govern­
ment economists are in the fields of
labor, or international trade and
Economists who work for busi­
ness firms provide management
with information to make decisions
on marketing and pricing of com­
pany products; the effect of govern­
ment policies on business or inter­
national trade; or the advisability of
adding new lines of merchandise,

opening new branch operations, or
otherwise expanding the company’s

Places of Employment
Economics is the largest social
science field. More than 71,000
persons, about 10 percent of them
women, worked as economists in
1974. Private industry and business
employ nearly three-fourths; col­
leges and universities about onefifth. Others work for government
agencies—mainly Federal—or for
private research organizations.
Some are self-employed.
Economists work in all large ci­
ties and university towns. The lar­
gest number are in the New York
City and the Washington, D.C.
metropolitan areas. Some work
overseas, mainly for the U.S. De­
partment of State including the
Agency for International Develop­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
economic theory and of mathemati­
cal methods of economic analysis.
Since many beginning jobs for
economists in government and busi­
ness involve the collection and

compilation of data, a thorough
knowledge of basic statistical
procedures is required. In addition
to courses in macroeconomics,
and statistics, training in computer
science also is highly recom­
Although a bachelor’s degree
with a major in economics is suffi­
cient for many beginning research
jobs, graduate training often is
required for advancement to more
responsible positions. In 1974,
about one-half of those working as
economists held either a master’s or
a Ph. D. degree. Students interested
in graduate training in economics
should select schools that provide
good research facilities.
In the Federal Government, can­
didates for entrance positions must
have a minimum of 21 semester
hours of economics and 3 hours of
statistics, accounting, or calculus.
A master’s degree generally is
required to get a job as a college in­
structor in many junior colleges and
small 4-year schools. In many large
colleges and universities, comple­
tion of all the requirements for a
Ph. D. degree, except the disserta­
tion, is necessary for appointment
as a teaching assistant. In govern­
economists who have a master’s
degree usually can qualify for more
responsible research positions.
The Ph. D. degree is required for
a professorship in a highranking
college or university and is an asset
when competing for other responsi­
ble positions in government, busi­
ness, or private research organiza­
About 750 colleges and universi­
ties offer bachelor’s degree pro­
grams in economics; 200, master’s;
and over 100, doctoral programs.
Persons who consider careers as
economists should be able to work
accurately and in detail since much
time is spent on research.
Frequently, the ability to work as
part of a team is required.
Economists must be objective in

their work and be able to express
themselves effectively orally and in

Employment Outlook
The number of persons who will
graduate with bachelor’s degrees in
economics through the mid-1980’s
is likely to exceed available posi­
tions. Although many of these
degree holders may find employ­
ment in government, industry, and
business as trainees or management
interns, competition may be keen.
Candidates who hold graduate
degrees also may face strong com­
petition for positions in colleges
and universities, although they
should find good opportunities in
private industry and government.
Economists with training in com­
puter applications should be in par­
ticular demand as well as Ph. D.’s
working on tax, pollution, and
government policy problems of
business and industry.
Private industry and business will
continue to provide the largest
number of employment opportuni­
ties for economists because of in­
creased reliance on quantitative
methods of analyzing business
trends, forecasting sales, and
planning purchases and production
operations. The next largest area of
economists will be in colleges and
universities, although a projected
decrease in enrollments is likely to
affect growth in faculty size. Em­
ployment of economists in State
and local government agencies is
expected to increase rapidly
because of the growing responsibili­
ties of local governments in areas
such as housing, mass transporta­
tion, and manpower development
and training. Employment of
economists in the Federal Govern­
ment is expected to rise slowly—in
line with the rate of growth pro­
jected for the Federal work force as
a whole.

Starting salaries for economists
with a Ph. D. were about $13,000 a
year in 1974, according to limited
information. Salaries of economists
employed by colleges and universi­
ties in 1974 averaged about
$22,000, and for those in business,
industry, and nonprofit organiza­
tions, about $24,000. Economists
who have a Ph. D. are paid higher
salaries than those who have lesser
degrees and similar experience. A
substantial number of economists
supplement their basic salaries by
consulting, teaching, and other
research activities. In general, sala­
ries of experienced economists are
much higher than the average for
all nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except farming.
In the Federal Government, the
entrance salary for beginning
economists having a bachelor’s
degree was $8,500 a year in 1974;
however, those with superior
academic records could begin at
$10,520. Those having a master’s
degree could qualify for positions at
an annual salary of $12,841, while
those with a Ph. D. could begin at
$15,481. Economists in the Federal
$24,700 in late 1974.

Sources of Additional
Additional information on a
career as an economist is available
American Economic Association, 1313 21st
Avenue South, Nashville, Tenn. 37212.

(D.O.T. 017.281, 029.088, and

Nature of the Work
Geographers study the spatial
characteristics of the earth—and all
that is found on it. Such studies help

to explain changing patterns of
human settlement—where people
live, why they are located there,
and how they earn a living.
Most geographers are college or
university teachers; some combine
teaching and research. Their
research includes the study and
analysis of the distribution of land
forms, climate, soils, vegetation,
resources. They also analyze the
distribution and structure of politi­
cal organizations, transportation
systems, marketing systems, urban
systems, agriculture, and industry.
Many geographers spend con­
siderable time in field study, and in
analyzing maps, aerial photographs,
and observational data collected.
Sometimes they use surveying and
meteorological instruments. Photo­
graphs and other data from remote
sensors on satellites are used in­

creasingly as are modern statistical phers study the physical, economic,
techniques. Other geographers con­ political, and cultural characteristics
of a particular region or area, which
struct maps, graphs, and diagrams.
Most geographers specialize in may range in size from a river basin
one branch or more of geography. or an island, to a State, a country, or
Economic geographers deal with the even a continent. Cartographers
of compile data and design and con­
activities—including struct maps.
Many geographers have job titles
manufacturing, mining, farming,
trade, and communications. Politi­ such as cartographer, map analyst,
cal geographers study the relation­ or regional planner, that describe
ship of geographic conditions to their specialization. Others have ti­
political processes. Urban geog­ tles that relate to the subject matter
raphers study cities and their of their study such as photo-intel­
problems and make decisions about ligence specialist or climatological
city development and community analyst. Still others have titles such
planning. (See statement on Urban as community or environmental
Planners elsewhere in this book.) planner, or market or business
Physical geographers study the phys­ analyst.
ical characteristics and processes af­
Places of Employment
fecting the earth. They typically
specialize in a particular branch of
About 9,000 persons worked as
physical geography such as hydrology geographers in 1974; about 15 per­
or geomorphology. Regional geogra­ cent were women.
Colleges and universities employ
more than two-thirds of all geog­
raphers. The Federal Government
employs a large number, mostly in
the Washington, D.C. area. Among
Federal agencies, the Department
of Defense employs the largest
number in such agencies as the
Defense Mapping Agency, Naval
Intelligence, and the Defense Intel­
ligence Agency. The Commerce
Department employs geographers
in such agencies as the Bureau of
the Census, Office of Regional
Commissions, National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration
and National Weather Service.
Geographers employed by the In­
terior Department work in such
agencies as the Bureau of Indian
Affairs, Bureau of Outdoor Recrea­
tion, and Bureau of Land Manage­
ment and Geological Survey. Other
Government agencies that employ
geographers include the Central In­
telligence Agency (CIA), Office of
Emergency Preparedness, National
Aeronautical and Space Adminis­
tration (NASA), and the Library of
State and local governments also
employ small numbers of geog­

raphers, mostly on city and State
planning and development commis­
A small but growing number of
geographers work in private indus­
try. Most work in research divisions
of textbook and map publishers,
travel agencies, manufacturing
firms, or chain stores. Others work
for scientific foundations and
research institutes.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The educational requirement for
beginning positions in geography is
usually a bachelor’s degree with a
major in the field. Bachelor’s
degree holders would find it helpful
to have training in a specialty such
as cartography or economic geog­
A master’s degree is usually
required for the position of college
instructor. In many colleges and
universities, however, a Ph. D.
degree is essential for high-level
teaching, research, and administra­
tive positions.
About 400 colleges and universi­
ties offered degree training in geog­
raphy in 1974. Undergraduate
study provides a general introduc­
tion to geographic knowledge and
research methods and often in­
cludes some field studies. Typical
courses offered are physical and
cultural geography, weather and
political geography, urban geog­
raphy and quantitative methods in
geography. Courses in cartography
and in the interpretation of maps
and aerial and satellite photographs
also are offered.
In 1974, 115 institutions offered
master’s degree programs; 54 of­
fered Ph. D. programs. Applicants
are required to have a bachelor’s
degree in any of the social or physi­
cal sciences with some background
in geography. Requirements for ad­
vanced degrees include field and
laboratory work as well as ad­
vanced classroom studies in geog­
raphy and thesis preparation. Many

graduate schools also require
course work in advanced mathe­
matics and computer science
because of the increasing emphasis
on these areas in the field. A lan­
guage is required for those students
who plan to enter the field of
foreign regional geography.
Persons who want to become
geographers should enjoy reading,
studying, and research because they
must keep abreast of developments
in the field. Geographers must work
with abstract ideas and theories as
well as do practical studies. They
also must be able to work indepen­
dently and communicate their ideas
orally and in writing.

Employment Outlook
Employment of geographers is
expected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. However, growth in
college and university teaching,
which will remain the largest area
of employment for geographers, is
likely to be slow. Many opportuni­
ties are becoming available in the
field of environmental management
and planning. The Federal Govern­
ment will need additional personnel
to work in programs such as re­
gional development, environmental
quality, and intelligence. Employ­
ment of geographers in State and
local g o v e r n m e n t is expected to ex­
pand, particularly in areas such as
conservation, environmental quali­
ty, highway planning, and city,
community, and regional planning
and development. Private industry
also is expected to employ increas­
ing numbers of geographers for
market research and location analy­
The employment outlook for
geographers with the Ph. D. is ex­
pected to be favorable through the
mid-1980’s for positions in research
and teaching in colleges and univer­
sities and for research jobs in indus­
try and government. Those with the
master’s degree are likely to face
competition for choice academic

geography programs in junior col­
leges should provide some jobs.
Graduates who have only the
bachelor’s degree in geography may
find positions connected with mak­
ing, interpreting, or analyzing maps;
or in research either working for
government or industry. Others
may obtain employment as research
or teaching assistants in educational
institutions while studying for ad­
vanced degrees. Some bachelor’s
degree holders do teach at the high
school level, although in some
States, the master’s degree is
becoming essential for high school
teaching positions. Others earn
library science degrees and become
map librarians.

Earnings and Working
Salaries of geographers in col­
leges and universities depend on
their teaching rank and experience.
Assistant professors entering the
field with a Ph. D. and no ex­
started at between
$11,000 and $12,000 in 1974, ac­
cording to limited information.
Nearly three-fourths of all geog­
raphers earned between $12,000
and $24,000 a year, according to a
recent survey conducted by the As­
sociation of American Geog­
raphers. About one-fourth earned
between $22,000 and $27,000, and
a few, more than $27,000. Geog­
raphers in educational institutions
usually have an opportunity to earn
income from other sources, such as
consulting work, special research,
and publication of books and arti­
Geographers in the Federal
Government with the bachelor’s
degree and no experience started at
$8,500 or $10,520 a year in 1974,
depending on their college records.
Those with a master’s degree
started at $ 12,841 a year, and those
with the Ph. D. at $15,481. Geog­
raphers in the Federal Government
averaged around $22,200 in late

In general, salaries of ex­
perienced geographers are higher
than the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.

Historians in other types of employ­
ment usually work in localities hav­
ing museums or libraries with col­
lections adequate for historical

Sources of Additional

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Additional information on a
career as a geographer is available

Graduate education usually is
necessary for employment as a
historian. A master’s degree in his­
tory is the minimum requirement
for the position of college instruc­
tor. In many colleges and universi­
ties, however, a Ph. D. degree is es­
sential for high-level teaching,
research, and administrative posi­
tions. Most historians in the Federal
Government and in nonprofit or­
ganizations have Ph. D. degrees, or
their equivalent in training and ex­
Although the combination of the
bachelor’s degree and a major in
history is sufficient training for
some beginning jobs in govern­
ment— either Federal, State, or
local—people in such jobs may face
limited advancement opportunities.
A knowledge of archival work is
helpful, since beginning jobs are
likely to be concerned with collec­
tion and preservation of historical
data. For some jobs in international
relations and journalism an un­
dergraduate major in history is con­
sidered helpful.
Training for historians is availa­
ble in many colleges and universi­
ties. Over 1,100 schools offer pro­
grams for the bachelor’s degree;
about 380, the master’s; and about
130, doctorates.
History curriculums in the Na­
tion’s colleges and universities are
varied; however, each basically pro­
vides, in addition to history topics,
training in research methods, writ­
ing, and speaking. These are the
basic skills essential for historians in
all positions. Quantitative methods
of analysis, including computer
techniques, are increasingly impor­
tant for historians; many college
programs include them.

Association of American Geographers, 1710
16th St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.

(D O T. 052.038 and .088)

Nature of the Work
History is the record of past
events, institutions, ideas, and peo­
ple. Historians describe and analyze
the past through writing, teaching,
and research. They relate their
knowledge of the past to current
events in an effort to explain the
Historians may specialize in the
history of a specific country or area,
or in a particular period of time—
ancient, medieval, or modern. They
also may specialize in the history of
a field, such as economics, culture,
military affairs, the labor move­
ment, art, or architecture.
The number of specialties in his­
tory is constantly growing. Newer
specialties are concerned with busi­
ness archives, quantitative analysis,
and the relationship between
technological and other aspects of
historical development. In this
country, most historians specialize
in the social or political history of
either the United States or modern
Europe; however, a growing
number now specialize in African,
Latin American, Asian, or Near
Eastern history. Some historians
specialize in phases of a larger
historical field, such as the Amer­
ican Civil War.
Most historians are college

teachers who, outside the class­
room, lecture, write, and do
research. Some are specialists
called archivists, who are associated
with museums, special libraries, and
historical societies. A few serve as
consultants to editors, publishers,
and producers of materials for
radio, television, and motion pic­
tures. Some historians are adminis­
researchers who prepare studies,
articles, and books on their

Places of Employment
About 26,000 people worked as
professional historians in 1974;
more than 13 percent were women.
Colleges and universities employ
about two-thirds of all historians.
Historians also work in archives,
libraries, museums, junior colleges,
secondary schools, research and
editing organizations, and Govern­
ment. Historians employed in the
Federal Government work prin­
cipally in the National Archives, or
in the Departments of Defense, In­
terior, and State. A small but grow­
ing number work for State and local
Since history is taught in all U.S.
institutions of higher education,
many historians are found in col­
lege communities. Many historians
in the Federal Government are em­
ployed in Washington, D. C.

Historians spend a great deal of
time studying, doing research, writ­
ing papers and reports, and giving
lectures and presentations. In order
to do these things well, they must be
capable of communicating their
ideas effectively, orally and in writ­
ing. The ability to work both inde­
pendently and as part of a group is

Employment Outlook

having a doctorate averaged around
$13,000 a year in 1974, according
to limited information; master’s
degree holders had average starting
salaries of around $ 11,000 a year.
Salaries of historians in educa­
tional institutions averaged over
$18,000 in 1974; in State and local
governments, over $14,000; in non­
$18,000; and in private industry,
nearly $20,000 a year. The annual
median salary for historians was
around $15,500 in 1974. In general,
salaries of experienced historians
are higher than the average for all
nonsupervisory workers in private
industry, except farming.
In the Federal Government,
historians having a bachelor’s
degree could start at $8,500 or
$10,520 a year in 1974, depending
upon the applicant’s academic
record. Starting salaries for those
having a master’s degree were
$12,841 a year, and for those hav­
ing a Ph. D., $15,481. Historians in
the Federal Government averaged
around $22,800 a year in late 1974.
Many historians, particularly
those in college teaching, supple­
ment their income by summer
teaching or writing books or arti­
cles. A few earn additional income
from lectures.

Employment of historians is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. Historians will be
needed to fill positions in colleges
and universities, junior colleges,
libraries, archives, museums, secon­
dary schools, research and editorial
organizations, and government. De­
mand also will be strong for people
with training in historical specialties
such as business history, as well as
those who use quantitative methods
in their research. In addition to jobs
created by growth of the field, an
even larger number of openings for
historians each year over the pro­
jected period is expected to result
from the need to replace those who
retire, die, or leave the profession.
Although information is limited
on patterns of entry to the field, the
number of persons seeking to enter
the occupation will probably ex­
Sources of Additional
ceed available positions. As a
result, historians who have a Ph. D.
Additional information on em­
are expected to face keen competi­
tion for the more desirable posi­ ployment opportunities for histori­
tions through the mid-i 980’s, espe­ ans is available from:
cially for jobs in the academic com­ American Historical Association, 400 A St.
SE., Washington, D.C. 20003.
munity. Historians having only the
master’s degree will encounter very
keen competition for jobs, but some
teaching positions may be available
in junior colleges or some high
(D.O.T. 051.088)
schools for those who meet State
certification requirements. People
Nature of the Work
having only a bachelor’s degree in
history may find limited opportuni­
Political scientists study the func­
ties as professional historians.
tions and workings of governments.
Many of them specialize in a
general area of political science in­
Starting salaries for historians cluding political theory, U.S. politi­

cal institutions and processes, com­
parative political institutions and
processes, or international relations
and organizations. Some specialize
in a particular type of political in­
stitution or in the politics of a
specific era.
Most political scientists teach in
colleges and universities where they
combine research, consultation, or
administrative duties with teaching.
Some are primarily researchers who
survey public opinion on political
questions for private research or­
ganizations, or study proposed
legislation for Federal, State, and
municipal governments, legislative
reference bureaus or congressional
committees. Others analyze the
operations of government agencies,
specialize in foreign affairs, or do
research for either government or
Some administer government pro­

Places of Employment
About 11,500 persons worked as
political scientists in 1974; 10 per­
cent were women. About four-fifths
work in colleges and universities.
Most of the remainder work in
government, research bureaus,
civic and taxpayers associations,
and large business firms.
Political scientists can be found
in nearly every college or university
town since courses in government
and political science are taught in
almost all institutions of higher edu­
Some work overseas
primarily for agencies of the U.S.
Department of State, such as the
Foreign Service, and the U.S. Agen­
cy for International Development.
They also work for the U.S. Infor­
mation Agency.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Graduate training generally is
required for employment as a politi­
cal scientist. Completion of the
requirements for the Ph. D. degree,
except the doctoral dissertation, is

political scientists should like to
work with details. They must be ob­
jective and able to work independ­
ently or as part of a team. Ability
to express themselves clearly, orally
and in writing, is important to
political scientists.

Employment Outlook

A political scientist explains the results of a public opinion survey.

the usual prerequisite for appoint­
ment as a college instructor. A
Ph. D. degree is required for ad­
vancement to the position of assist­
ant professor. The Ph. D. also is
helpful for advancement in nonacademic areas.
College graduates having a
master’s degree can qualify for vari­
ous administrative and research
positions in government and in non­
profit research or civic organiza­
tions. A master’s degree in interna­
tional relations, foreign service, or
area study (for example, Soviet
Government) is helpful in obtaining
positions in Federal Government
agencies concerned with foreign af­
People with only a bachelor’s
degree in political science may
qualify as trainees in public rela­
tions, research, budget analysis,
personnel, or investigation fields.
Many students with bachelor’s
degrees in political science go on to

study law or some specialized or re­
lated branch of political science,
such as public administration and
international relations.
In 1974, about 760 colleges and
universities offered a bachelor’s
degree in political science, 270 had
master’s programs, and 113 had
doctoral programs. Many colleges
and universities offer field training
and internships to gain experience
in government work.
political science vary throughout
the Nation. A typical undergradu­
ate curriculum in political science
includes introductory politics, State
and urban politics, comparative stu­
dies, political theory, foreign pol­
icy, and public administration. An
increasing number have courses in
quantitative and statistical methods
including the use of computers
because of increased research
emphasis in the field.
Persons planning careers as

The number of persons who will
graduate with advanced degrees in
political science is likely to exceed
available job openings. Those hav­
ing a Ph. D. may face stiff competi­
tion finding choice academic posi­
tions. Master’s degree holders may
face very keen competition finding
positions as college and university
instructors, but those having spe­
cialized training in areas such as
policy analysis or public administra­
tion should have some opportuni­
ties in Federal, State and local
government, research bureaus,
political organizations and welfare
agencies. New graduates having
only the bachelor’s degree are ex­
pected to find very limited opportu­
nities. However, for those planning
to continue their studies in law,
foreign affairs, journalism, and
other related fields, a political
science background is very helpful.
Some who meet State certification
requirements will be able to enter
high school teaching.
scientists is expected to increase
about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the mid1980's. The largest area of employ­
ment will continue to be in college
and university teaching. In addition
to those required to staff new posi­
tions, political scientists will be
needed to fill positions vacated due
to retirements, death or transfers.

The median annual salaries of
political scientists employed in edu­
cational institutions in 1973-74
were: $19,500 for full professors;
$15,000 for associate professors;
$12,500 for assistant professors;

and $10,500 for instructors. In
general, salaries of experienced
political scientists are higher than
the average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
In the Federal Government, the
entrance salary for those having a
bachelor’s degree was $8,500 or
$10,520 a year in late 1974, de­
pending upon the applicant’s
academic record. Starting salaries
for those having a master’s degree
were $12,841 a year, and for those
having a Ph. D., $15,481. Political
scientists in the Federal Govern­
ment averaged around $26,200 in
late 1974.
Some political scientists, particu­
larly those in college teaching, sup­
plement their income by teaching
summer courses or consulting.

theories, or administer psychology
programs in hospitals, clinics, or
psychologists combine several of
these activities.
Psychologists gather information
about the capacities, interests, and
behavior of people in various ways.
They interview individuals, develop
and administer tests and rating
scales, study personal histories, and
conduct controlled experiments.
Also, psychologists often design
and conduct surveys.
of specialization
psychology include experimental
psychology—in which behavior
processes are studied in the labora­
tory; developmental psychology—
the study of the causes of
behavioral changes as people
progress through life; personality—

the study of the processes by which
a person becomes a unique in­
social psychology—in
which people’s interactions with
others and with the social environ­
ment are examined; educational and
school psychology—which are con­
cerned with the psychological fac­
tors related to the process of educa­
tion; comparative psychology—in
which the behavior of different
animals, including man, is com­
pared; physiological psychology—
the study of the relationship of
behavior to the biological functions
of the body; and psychometrics—
the development and application of
psychological variables.
Psychologists often combine
several areas of psychology in their
specialty. Clinical psychologists are

Sources of Additional
Additional information on em­
ployment opportunities in political
science and public administration is
available from:
American Political Science
1527 New Hampshire
Washington, D C. 20036.

Ave. NW„

(D.O.T. 045.088 and .108)

Nature of the Work
Psychologists study the normal
and abnormal behavior of in­
dividuals and groups in order to un­
derstand and explain their actions.
In the course of their work, they
may be concerned with the
problems of emotional stress and
abnormal behavior, the causes of
low morale, or the effective per­
formance of an astronaut. Some
teach in colleges and universities;
others provide counseling services,
plan and conduct training programs
for workers, conduct research, ad­
vise on psychological methods and

A psychologist (right) observes an infant with its mother as part of a psychological

the largest group of specialists.
They generally work in mental
hospitals or clinics, and are in­
volved mainly with problems of
mentally or emotionally disturbed
people. Clinical psychologists may
also deal with the emotional impact
of injury or disease, helping the
client to readjust to life with altered
physical capabilities. They inter­
view patients, give diagnostic tests,
provide individual, family, and
group psychotherapy, and design
and carry through behavior modifi­
psychologists help people with im­
portant problems of everyday liv­
ing. In their work, they may use any
of a number of counseling
techniques. Other combined fields
are industrial and organizational
psychology where problems of
motivation and morale in work
situations are studied; engineering
psychology, the development and
of man-machine
systems; consumer psychology, the
study of the psychological factors
that determine an individual’s
behavior as a consumer of goods
and services; and environmental
between individuals and their en­

Places of Employment
About 75,000 people, two-fifths
of them women, worked as
psychologists in 1974. More than
40 percent of the total work in col­
leges and universities, either as
teachers, researchers, or coun­
selors. The second largest group of
psychologists work for Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies. Federal agencies that employ
the most psychologists are the
Veterans Administration, the De­
partment of Defense, and the
Public Health Service.
Many psychologists work in
public schools, clinics, hospitals,
medical schools, and for business or
industry. Some are in independent
practice, and others serve as com­

missioned officers in the Armed
Forces and the Public Health

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Generally, a master’s degree in
psychology is the minimum educa­
tional requirement for professional
employment in the field. People
who have this degree can qualify for
positions where they administer and
interpret psychological tests, col­
lect and analyze statistical data,
conduct research experiments, and
perform administrative duties. They
also may teach in colleges, counsel
students or handicapped persons,
or—if they have had previous
school psychologists or counselors.
(See statements on School Coun­
selors and Rehabilitation Coun­
A Ph. D. degree is needed for
many entrance positions and is
becoming increasingly important
for advancement. People who have
doctorates in psychology qualify for
the more responsible research,
clinical, and counseling positions,
as well as for the higher level posi­
tions in colleges and universities
and in Federal and State programs.
At least 1 year of full-time gradu­
ate study is needed to earn a
master’s degree in psychology. An
additional 3 to 5 years of graduate
work usually are required for a
Ph. D. In clinical or counseling
psychology, the requirements for
the Ph. D. degree generally include
an additional year of internship or
supervised experience.
Some universities require appli­
cants for graduate work in
psychology to have had an un­
dergraduate major in that field.
Others prefer broader educational
backgrounds that include not only
some basic psychology but also
courses in the biological, physical,
and social sciences, statistics, and
mathematics. Competition for ac­

ceptance into graduate psychology
programs is expected to be strong.
Only the most highly qualified ap­
plicants can expect to be admitted
to graduate study.
Many graduate students receive
financial help in the form of fellow­
ships, scholarships, or part-time
employment from universities and
other sources. Several Federal
agencies provide funds to graduate
students, generally through the col­
lege or university that provides the
training. The Veterans Administra­
tion offers a number of predoctoral
traineeships which provide pay­
ments to students while they gain
supervised experience in VA
hospitals and clinics. The National
Science Foundation, the U.S. Of­
fice of Education, the Public Health
Service, the Rehabilitation Services
Administration, and the National
Institute of Mental Health also pro­
vide fellowships, grants, and loans
for advanced training in psycholo­
gy. However, the present trend at
the Federal level is toward provid­
ing low-interest loans rather than
fellowships and grants.
The American Board of Profes­
sional Psychology awards diplomas
in clinical, counseling, industrial,
and school psychology to those who
records and experience and who
pass the required examinations.
Psychologists who want to enter
independent practice must meet
certification or licensing require­
ments in an increasing number of
States. In 1974, 47 States and the
District of Columbia had these
People pursuing a career in
psychology must be emotionally
stable, mature, and able to deal ef­
fectively with people. Sensitivity,
patience, and a genuine interest in
others are particularly important
for work in clinical and counseling
psychology. Research psychologists
should be able to do detailed and
independent work; verbal and writ­
ing skills are necessary to commu­
nicate research findings.


Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
psychologists are expected to be
generally favorable through the
mid-1980’s. Opportunities should
be very good for Ph. D.’s and for
some master’s degree holders, espe­
cially those specializing in clinical
or counseling psychology. How­
ever, as more and more people
become trained in psychology,
competition for jobs will grow. A
doctorate degree will become in­
creasingly important for those wish­
ing to enter the field.
Employment of clinical, counsel­
ing, and social psychologists in
mental hospitals, correctional in­
stitutions, mental hygiene clinics,
and community health centers is ex­
pected to expand rapidly. Many
openings for psychologists also are
anticipated in the Federal Govern­
ment, primarily in the Veterans Ad­
ministration and the Department of
Psychologists may find strong
competition for job openings in
large colleges and universities,
which are preferred locations for
many specialties in psychology.
However, those willing to work in
the relatively smaller and newer
should have better employment
prospects. The growth in enroll­
ment in 2-year colleges also will
create new teaching positions for
Several other factors should help
maintain a strong demand for
psychologists. Growing awareness
of the need for testing and counsel­
ing children is expected to increase
the need for psychologists in
schools. Increased public concern
for the development of human
resources will further increase the
psychological services in any na­
tional health insurance legislation
also should improve employment
prospects. Other openings may
occur as psychologists move into
new fields of employment where
their services are beginning to be

recognized as useful. Government
agencies are also making increased
use of the services which psycholo­
gists can provide. Also, many
vacancies will occur each year as a
result of retirements and deaths.

work with individual students or
groups. Clinical and counseling
psychologists often work in the
evenings since their patients some­
times are unable to leave their jobs
or school during the day.

Earnings and Working

Sources of Additional

In 1974, starting salaries for
psychologists holding a master’s
degree averaged about $ 11,000 a
year, according to the American
Psychological Association. Begin­
ning salaries for those holding
a doctorate averaged $ 13,000.
Median salaries of psychologists
teaching in graduate departments
ranged from about $13,000 for
assistant professors to $21,600 for
full professors during the academic
year 1974-75 (9-10 months), ac­
cording to a survey conducted by
the American Psychological As­
In the Federal Government,
psychologists having a Ph. D.
degree and 1 year of internship
started at $15,481 a year in late
1974. With 1 year of experience,
Ph. D.’s earned $ 18,463, and with 2
years, $21,816. The average salary
for Ph. D. psychologists in the
Veterans Administration was about
$24,700 a year. The median salary
for a Ph. D. psychologist working in
a clinic or hospital was about
$19,000. Ph. D. psychologists in
private practice generally have con­
siderably higher earnings than those
in other settings. Median annual in­
come for those psychologists
(working full time) is over $32,000.
In general, psychologists earn over
twice as much as the average nonsupervisory worker in private indus­
try, except farming.
Working conditions for psycholo­
gists who teach in colleges and
universities are the same as for
other faculty members. Most col­
leges provide for sabbatical leaves
of absence, life and health in­
surance, and retirement plans.
Working hours are generally flexi­
ble, but often entail some evening

For general information on
career opportunities, certification
or licensure requirements, and edu­
cational facilities and financial
assistance for graduate students in
psychology, contact:
American Psychological Association, 1200
17th St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

Information on traineeships and
fellowships is available from col­
leges and universities that have
graduate psychology departments.

(D.O.T. 054.088)

Nature of the Work
Sociologists study the groups that
man forms in his association with
others. These groups include fami­
lies, tribes, communities, and
governments, along with a variety
of social, religious, political, busi­
ness, and other organizations. They
study their behavior and interac­
tion; trace their origin and growth;
and analyze the influence of group
activities on individual members.
Some sociologists concern them­
selves primarily with the charac­
teristics of social groups and institu­
tions. Others are more interested in
the ways individuals are affected by
groups to which they belong.
Many sociologists specialize in
psychology, or rural sociology.
Others specialize in intergroup rela­
tions, family problems, social ef­
fects of urban living, population
studies, or analyses of public
opinion. Some conduct surveys or
concentrate on research methods.

sociologists may be found in nearly
all college communities. They are
most heavily concentrated, how­
ever, in large colleges and universi­
ties which offer graduate training in
sociology and opportunities for

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Sociologists frequently collaborate on research.

Growing numbers apply sociologi­
cal knowledge and methods in
penology and correction, educa­
tion, public relations in industry,
and regional and community
planning. A few specialize in medi­
cal sociology—the study of social
factors that affect mental and
public health.
Most sociologists are college and
university teachers whose duties in­
clude both teaching and research.
Sociological research involves the
collection of information, prepara­
tion of case studies, testing, and the
conduct of statistical surveys and
laboratory experiments.
research projects or the operation
of social agencies such as family
and marriage clinics. Others, acting
as consultants, advise on diverse
problems such as the management
of hospitals for the mentally ill, the
rehabilitation of juvenile delin­

quents, or the development of ef­
fective advertising programs to
promote public interest in particu­
lar products such as television sets
or cars.

Places of Employment
About 14,000 persons worked as
sociologists in 1974-one-fifth of
them women.
Colleges and universities employ
over four-fifths of all sociologists. A
number work for Federal, State,
local, or international government
agencies, in private industry, or in
welfare or other nonprofit organiza­
tions, or else are self-employed.
Others work in positions that
require training in this field but are
not classified as professional
sociologists. These fields include
social, recreation, and public health
Since sociology is taught in most
institutions of higher learning,

A master’s degree and a major in
sociology usually is the minimum
requirement for employment as a
sociologist. The Ph. D. degree is es­
sential for attaining a professorship
in most colleges or universities. It
also is commonly required for
directors of jnajor research proj­
positions, or consultants.
degrees, who are trained in
research and statistical and com­
puter methods, can qualify for
many administrative and research
positions. Advancement to super­
visory positions in both public and
private agencies is gained through
experience. Sociologists having a
master’s degree may qualify for
some college instructorships. Most
colleges, however, appoint as in­
structors only people who have
training beyond the master’s level—
frequently the completion of all
requirements for the Ph. D. degree
except the doctoral dissertation.
Outstanding graduate students
often get teaching or research
assistantships which provide both
financial aid and valuable ex­
Bachelor’s degree holders in
sociology may get jobs as inter­
viewers or as research assistants.
Many work as caseworkers, coun­
selors, recreation workers, or ad­
ministrative assistants in public and
private welfare agencies. Sociology
majors who have sufficient training
in statistics may get positions as
beginning statisticians. Those who
meet State certification require­
ments can teach at a high school.
About 900 colleges and universities

vanced statistics, and the use of
computers will have the widest
choice of jobs. Demand is expected
to be strong for research personnel
to work in the areas of rural soci­
ology, community development,
population analysis, public opinion
research, medical sociology, and ju­
venile delinquency and education.
Employment of sociologists is ex­
pected to increase about as fast as
the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s. Some
openings will result from the grow­
ing trend to include sociology
courses in the curriculums of other
professions, such as medicine, law,
and education. Demand in the non­
teaching area will center around
public and private programs dealing
with the development of human
designed to cope with social and
welfare problems. In addition to
growth needs, several hundred
Employment Outlook
openings will occur each year to
The number of persons who will replace sociologists who die, retire,
graduate with advanced degrees in or leave the field for other reasons.
sociology is likely to exceed availa­
ble job openings. Those having a
Earnings and Working
Ph. D. may face competition find­
ing choice academic positions.
Those having only a master’s
In 1974, sociologists working in
degree will probably continue to educational institutions on a calen­
face considerable competition for dar year basis averaged about
academic positions, but some jobs $18,000. Those working in non­
will be available in government and profit organizations and private in­
private industry. Sociologists well dustry averaged around $17,500
trained in research methods, ad­ and $20,000 a year, respectively. In

offer bachelor degree programs in
sociology; more than 200 offer
master’s degrees, and about 110
have doctoral programs.
The choice of a graduate school
is important for people who want to
become sociologists. Students in­
terested in research should select
schools that emphasize training in
research, statistical, and computer
methods. Opportunities to gain
practical experience in research
work also may be available. Profes­
sors and heads of sociology depart­
ments frequently aid in the place­
ment of graduates.
Sociologists spend a great deal of
their time in study and research.
They must be able to communicate
effectively, both orally and in writ­
ing. The ability to work as part of a
group as well as independently is

general, salaries of experienced
sociologists are higher than the
average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, ex­
cept farming.
In the Federal Government, the
entrance salary for those having a
bachelor’s degree was $8,500 or
$10,520 a year in 1974, depending
upon the applicant’s academic
record. Starting salaries for those
having a master’s degree were
$12,841 a year, and for those hav­
ing a Ph. D., $15,481. Sociologists
averaged around $23,300 in late
In general, sociologists having the
Ph. D. degree earn substantially
higher salaries than those having
master’s degrees. Many sociolo­
gists, particularly those employed
by colleges and universities for the
academic year (September to
June), are likely to supplement
their regular salaries with earnings
from other sources, such as summer
teaching and consulting work.

Sources of Additional
sociologists is available from:


The American Sociological Association,
1722 N St., NW„ Washington, D.C.


(D OT. 045.108)

Workers in the social service oc­
cupations help to improve the lives
of the population they serve by
providing a wide range of informa­
tion and services. Depending on
their specific occupation, they may
advise consumers on how to get the
most for their money; help han­
satisfactory lifestyles; provide reli­
gious services; counsel people hav­
ing problems in their job, home,
school, or social relationships; or
treat people having emotional
Although social services are pro­
vided in many different settings,
people in these occupations require
many of the same skills. In general,
a knowledge of the field is gained
through formal education, and the
ability to apply this knowledge is
improved and refined through work
A genuine concern for people
and a desire to help them to im­
prove their lives are important for
anyone considering a career in the
social service field. Patience, tact,
sensitivity, and compassion are
necessary personal qualities.

in the uniqueness and worth of each
Nature of the Work
individual, in his right to make and
accept responsibility for his own
School counselors are concerned
decisions, and in his potential for about the educational, career, and
social development of students.
This section covers four counsel­ They work with students, both in­
ing specialties: school; rehabilita­ dividually and in groups, as well as
tion; employment; and college with teachers, other school person­
career planning and placement.
nel, parents, and community agen­
School counselors are the largest cies.
counseling group. Their main con­
Counselors use the results of in­
cern is the personal and social terest, achievement, and intel­
development of students and help­ ligence tests as well as school and
ing them plan and achieve their other records to help students eval­
educational and vocational goals.
uate themselves. Then, with each
Rehabilitation counselors work student and sometimes with the
with persons who are physically, parents, they help develop an edu­
mentally, or socially handicapped.
cational plan that fits the student’s
Their counseling is generally job- abilities, interests, and career
oriented, but also involves personal aspirations.
School counselors often maintain
are a small library containing occupa­
mainly concerned with career tional literature so that students
planning and adjustment of young,
may find descriptions of work that
old, disabled, and other persons.
they have heard about or in which
College career planning and place­ they have an interest. Information
ment counselors help college stu­ on training requirements, earnings,
dents examine their own interests,
and employment outlook often is
abilities, and goals; explore career
included with these job descrip­
alternatives; and make and follow
tions. Computers that students can
through with a career choice.
use to look up this information
Persons who want to enter the
themselves are being tried in some
counseling field must be interested
in helping people and have an abili­
Counselors sometimes arrange
ty to understand their behavior. A
trips to factories and business firms,
pleasant but strong personality that and show vocational films to pro­
instills confidence in clients is vide a view of real work settings. To
desirable. Counselors also must be bring the workplace into the school,
patient, sensitive to the needs of the counselor may conduct “career
others, and able to communicate day” programs.
orally as well as in writing.
School counselors must keep upMany psychologists, social work­ to-date on opportunities for educa­
ers, and college student personnel
tional and vocational training
Counselors help people to un­ workers also do counseling. These beyond high school to counsel stu­
derstand themselves and their op­ and other fields which entail some dents who want this information.
portunities so that they can make counseling such as teaching, health, They must keep informed about
and carry out decisions and plans law, religion, and personnel, are de­ training programs in 2-and 4-year
for a satisfying and productive life. scribed elsewhere in this book.)
colleges; in trade, technical, and
Whatever the area of counselingbusiness schools; apprenticeship
personal, educational, or voca­
programs; and available federally
tional—counselors must combine
supported programs. Counselors
objectivity with genuine concern
also advise students about educa­
for each client. They must believe
tional requirements for entry level

Places of Employment
About 44,000 people worked full
time as public school counselors
during 1974. Most counselors work
in large schools. An increasing
number of school districts, how­
ever, provide guidance services to
their small schools by assigning
more than one school to a coun­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

jobs, job changes caused by
technological advances, college en­
trance requirements, and places of
Counselors in high schools often
help students find part-time jobs,
either to enable them to stay in
school or to help them prepare for
their vocation. They may help both
graduates and dropouts to find jobs
or may direct them to community
employment services. They also
may conduct surveys to learn more
about hiring experiences of recent
graduates and dropouts, local job
opportunities, or the effectiveness
of the educational and guidance
programs. Many help students in­
dividually with personal and social
problems or lead group counseling
sessions and discussion groups on
topics related to student interests
and problems.
Elementary school counselors
help children to make the best use

Most States require school coun­
selors to have counseling and
teaching certificates. However, a
growing number of States no longer
require teacher certification. (See
statements on Elementary and
Secondary School Teachers for cer­
tificate requirements.) Depending
on the State, graduate work and
from 1 to 5 years of teaching ex­
perience usually are required for a
counseling certificate. People who
plan to become counselors should
learn the requirements of the State
in which they plan to work since
requirements vary among States
and change rapidly.
College students interested in
of their abilities by identifying these becoming school counselors usually
and other basic aspects of the take the regular program of teacher
child’s makeup at an early age, and education, with additional courses
learning in psychology and sociology. In
problems. Methods used in counsel­ States where teaching experience is
ing grade school children differ in not a requirement, it is possible to
many ways from those used with major in a liberal arts program. A
older students. Observations of few States substitute counseling in­
classroom and play activity furnish ternship for teaching experience. In
clues about children in the lower some States teachers who have
grades. To better understand chil­ completed part of the courses
dren, elementary school counselors required for the master’s degree are
spend much time consulting with eligible for provisional certification
teachers and parents. They also and may work as counselors under
work closely with other staff mem­ supervision while they take addi­
bers of the school, including tional courses.
psychologists and social workers.
Counselor education programs at
Some school counselors, particu­ the graduate level are available in
larly in secondary schools, teach more than 440 colleges and univer­
classes in occupational information, sities, most frequently in the depart­
social studies, or other subjects. ments of education or psychology.
They also may supervise school One to two years of graduate study
clubs or other extracurricular ac­ are necessary for a master’s degree.
tivities, often after regular school Most programs provide supervised
field experience.

Subject areas of required gradu­
ate level courses usually include ap­
praisal of the individual student, in­
dividual counseling procedures,
group guidance, information serv­
ice for career development, pro­
fessional relations and ethics, and
statistics and research.
The ability to help others accept
responsibility for their own lives is
important for school counselors
because their work concerns the
development of young people. They
must be able to coordinate the ac­
tivity of others and work as part of
the team which forms the educa­
tional system.
School counselors may advance
by moving to a larger school;
becoming director or supervisor of
counseling or guidance; or, with
further graduate education, becom­
ing a college counselor, educational
psychologist, or school psycholo­

Employment Outlook
Employment of school coun­
selors is likely to grow more slowly
than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s as the
decline in school enrollments con­
tinues during the remainder of this
decade. However, some positions
will continue to be available in ele­
mentary schools. An expected up­
swing in enrollments beginning in
the early 1980’s should stimulate
some expansion in employment,
and additional counselors will be
required each year to replace those
who leave the profession.
In 1974, the average ratio of
counselors to students as a whole
was still well below generally ac­
cepted standards, despite Federal
aid to the States for support and ex­
pansion of counseling programs.
Some school systems were forced to
eliminate some counselor positions
due to local financial problems.
Over the long run, demand for
school counselors will depend in
large part on the Federal Govern­
ment’s Career Education Program.
This program is designed to inform

children about the world of work
early in their education, so that by
the time they leave the formal edu­
(D O T. 045.108)
cational system they are prepared
for a suitable and available career.
Nature of the Work
The extent of future growth in
counselor employment will depend
largely on the amount of funds (sometimes called vocational coun­
which the Federal Government pro­ selors) help jobseekers evaluate
vides to the States.
their abilities and interests so that
they can choose, prepare for, and
Earnings and Working
adjust to a satisfactory field of
work. The extent of counseling
School counselors holding bach­ services given by employment
elor’s degrees earned average counselors varies, depending on the
annual salaries ranging from $9,000 job-seeker and the type of agency.
to $13,000 during 1974, according Job-seekers may include veterans,
to the limited data available. For youth with little or no work ex­
those having master’s degrees, perience, the handicapped, older
average yearly salaries were from workers, and individuals displaced
$10,400 to $15,500. School coun­ by automation and industry shifts or
selors with doctorates had an unhappy with their present occupa­
average maximum salary of almost tional fields. Sometimes jobseekers
$18,200 per year. School coun­ are skilled in specific occupations
selors generally earn more than and ready for immediate job place­
teachers at the same school. (See ment, while those who have little
statements on Kindergarten and education and lack marketable
Elementary School Teachers and skills need intensive training to
prepare for jobs. In State employ­
Secondary School Teachers.)
In most school systems, coun­ ment services, the counselor is also
selors receive regular salary incre­ concerned with helping those who
ments as they obtain additional are least employable, such as wel­
education and experience. Some fare recipients, prison releasees,
counselors supplement their in­ and the educationally and culturally
come by part-time consulting or deprived.
Counselors interview jobseekers
other work with private or public
counseling centers, government to learn employment-related facts
about their interests, training, work
agencies, or private industry.
experience, work attitudes, physical
capacities, and personal traits. If
necessary, they may get additional
data by arranging for aptitude and
Sources of Additional
achievement tests and interest in­
ventories, so that more objective
State departments of education help may be given. They may get
can supply information on colleges additional
and universities that offer training sources such as former employers
in guidance and counseling as well and schools.
as on the State certification require­
background—the person’s limita­
Additional information on this tions and abilities—has been
field of work is available from:
thoroughly reviewed, the employ­
ment counselor discusses occupa­
American School Counselor Association,
1607 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
tional requirements and job oppor­
Washington, D.C. 20009.
tunities in different fields within the
potential of the jobseeker. Then,
the counselor and the client

graduate training programs or con­
duct research.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

assistance is needed.
The expanding responsibility of
public employment service coun­
selors for improving the employa­
bility of disadvantaged persons has
increased their contacts with these
persons during training and on the
job. Also, it has led to group coun­
seling and the stationing of coun­
selors in neighborhood and commu­
In many cases, employment nity centers.
counselors refer jobseekers to other
agencies for physical rehabilitation
Places of Employment
or psychological or other services
before or during counseling. Coun­
In 1974, about 3,500 persons,
selors must be familiar with the half of th e m women, worked as em­
available community services so ployment counselors in State em­
that they can select those most like­ ployment service offices, located in
ly to benefit a particular jobseeker.
every large city and many smaller
Counselors may help jobseekers towns. In addition, about 3,500 em­
by suggesting employment sources ployment counselors worked for
and appropriate ways of applying various private or community agen­
for work. In many cases when cies, primarily in the larger cities.
further support and assistance are Some worked in institutions such as
needed, counselors may contact prisons,
training schools for
employers to develop jobs for coun­ delinquent youths, and mental
seled applicants, although job­ hospitals.
seekers usually are sent to place­ Government employed a limited
ment interviewers after counseling. number of employment counselors,
After job placement or entrance chiefly in the Veterans Administra­
into training, counselors may follow tion and in the Bureau of Indian Af­
up to determine if additional fairs. Some counselors teach in

develop a vocational plan. This plan
may specify a series of steps involv­
ing remedial education, job train­
ing, work experience, or other serv­
ices needed to enhance the per­
son’s employability. Often, in
developing this plan, the employ­
ment counselor works with a team
of specialists.

The national qualification stand­
ard for first level employment
counselors in State employment
service offices calls for 30 graduate
semester hours of counseling
courses beyond a bachelor’s degree.
However, 1 year of counseling-re­
lated experience may be substituted
for 15 graduate semester hours.
All States require counselors in
their public employment offices to
meet State civil service or merit
system requirements that include
minimum educational and ex­
perience standards.
degrees and additional qualifying
experience may enter at higher
levels on the counselor career
ladder. Many States also make
provision for individuals with exten­
sive experience in the employment
service, whether or not they have
college degrees, to enter the coun­
selor career ladder and move up­
ward by acquiring the prescribed
university coursework and qualify­
ing experience for each level.
Although minimum entrance
requirements are not standardized
among private and community
agencies, most prefer, and some
require, a master’s degree in voca­
tional counseling or in a related
field such as psychology, personnel
guidance education, or public ad­
ministration. Many private agencies
prefer to have at least one staff
member who has a doctorate in
counseling psychology or a related
field. For those lacking an ad­
vanced degree, employers usually
emphasize experience in closely re­
lated work such as rehabilitation
counseling, employment interview­
ing, school or college counseling,
teaching, social work, or psycholo­

In each State, the public employ­
ment service offices provide some

in-service training programs for
their new counselors or trainees. In
addition, both their new and ex­
perienced counselors are often
given part-time training at colleges
and universities during the regular
academic year or at institutes or
summer sessions. Private and com­
munity agencies also often provide
in-service training opportunities.
College students who wish to
become employment counselors
should enroll in courses in
psychology and basic sociology. At
the graduate level, requirements for
this field usually include courses in
psychology of careers, assessment
and appraisal, cultures and environ­
ment, and occupational informa­
tion. Counselor education pro­
grams at the graduate level are
available in about 370 colleges and
universities, mainly in departments
of education or psychology. To ob­
tain a master’s degree, students
must complete 1 to 2 years of grad­
uate study.
Young people aspiring to be em­
ployment counselors should have a
strong interest in helping others
make vocational plans and carry
them out. They should be able to
work independently and to keep
detailed records.
Well-qualified counselors with
experience may advance to super­
visory or administrative positions in
their own or other organizations.
Some may become directors of
agencies or of other counseling
services, or area supervisors of
guidance programs; some may
become consultants; and others
may become professors in the coun­
seling field.

Employment Outlook
Employment counselors with
master’s degrees or experience in
related fields are expected to face
some competition in both public
and community employment agen­

cies through the mid-1980’s. Some
growth in the number of employ­
ment counselors is expected as their
role becomes more important in
programs dealing with the training
and retraining of unemployed work­
ers, particularly those who are un­
skilled or whose jobs have been dis­
placed by technological or industri­
al shifts. Expansion of these pro­
grams and consequently the extent
of growth in employment of coun­
selors will depend in large part on
the level of funding by the Federal
Government, as well as on the dis­
tribution of revenue sharing money
allocated to these programs by the
individual States. Some openings
for employment counselors will
result from the need to replace
those who die, retire, or transfer to
other occupations.

Earnings and Working
Salaries of employment coun­
selors in State employment services
vary considerably by State. In 1974,
minimum salaries ranged from
about $7,200 to $14,700 a year,
with an average of $9,100. Max­
imum salaries ranged from $9,700
to $19,100, with an average of
$11,900. M o r e th a n t h r e e - q u a r t e r s
of the States listed maximum sala­
ries of $11,900 or more. Trainees
for counseling positions in some
voluntary agencies in large cities
were being hired at about $8,500 a
year. Salaries of some employment
counselors in private and communi­
ty agencies were as high as $20,000
although the average was about
$12,000 annually. In general, sala­
ries of employment counselors are
about 1 1/2 times as high as average
earnings for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
Most counselors work about 40
hours a week and have various
benefits, including vacations, sick
leave, pension plans, and insurance
coverage. Counselors employed in
community agencies may work

Sources of Additional
For general information on em­
ployment or vocational counseling,
National Employment Counselors Associa­
tion, 1607 New Hampshire Ave. NW„
Washington, D.C. 20009.
National Vocational Guidance Association,
Inc., 1607 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
Washington D.C. 20009.
U.S. Department of Labor, Manpower Ad­
ministration, USES, Division of Coun­
seling and Testing, Washington, D.C.
20210 .

The administrative office for
each State’s employment security
agency, bureau, division, or com­
mission can supply specific infor­
mation about local job opportuni­
ties, salaries, and entrance require­
ments for positions in public em­
ployment service offices.

(D.O.T. 045.108)

Nature of the Work
Rehabilitation counselors help
people with physical, mental, or so­
cial disabilities to adjust their voca­
tional plans and personal lives.
Counselors learn about clients’ in­
terests, abilities, and limitations.
They then use this information,
along with available medical and
psychological data, to help disabled
persons evaluate themselves for the
purpose of pairing their physical
and mental capacity and interests
with suitable work.
Together, the counselor and
client develop a plan of rehabilita­
tion, with the aid of other specialists
responsible for the medical care
and occupational training of the
handicapped person. As the plan is
put into effect, the counselor meets
regularly with the disabled person
to discuss his progress in the reha­
bilitation program and help resolve
any problems that have been en­

countered. When the client is ready
to begin work, the counselor helps
him find a suitable job, and usually
makes followup checks to insure
that the placement has been suc­
Rehabilitation counselors must
maintain close contact with the
families of their handicapped
clients, other professionals who
work with handicapped people,
agencies and civic groups, and
private employers who hire the dis­
abled. Counselors in this field often
perform related activities, such as
informing employers of the abilities
of the handicapped and arranging
for publicizing the rehabilitation
program in the community.
An increasing number of coun­
selors specialize in a particular area
of rehabilitation; some may work
almost exclusively with blind peo­
ple, alcoholics or drug addicts, the
mentally ill, or retarded persons.
Others may work almost entirely
with persons living in poverty areas.
The amount of time spent in
counseling each client varies with
the severity of the disabled person’s
problems as well as with the size of
the counselor’s caseload. Some
responsible for many persons in
various stages of rehabilitation; on
the other hand, less experienced
counselors or those working with
the severely disabled may work
with relatively few cases at a time.

Places of Employment
About 19,000 persons, one-third
of them women, worked as reha­
bilitation counselors in 1974.
About 70 percent worked in State
and local rehabilitation agencies
Federal and State funds. Some
rehabilitation counselors and coun­
seling psychologists worked for the
Veterans Administration. Reha­
workshops, hospitals, labor unions,
insurance companies,
schools, and other public and

Rehabilitation counselor assisting blind
person in use of cassette tape re­

private agenices with rehabilitation
programs and job placement serv­
ices for the disabled employ the

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with courses
in counseling, psychology, and re­
lated fields is the minimum educa­
tional requirement for rehabilita­
tion counselors. However, em­
ployers are placing increasing
emphasis on the master’s degree in
vocational counseling or rehabilita­
tion counseling, or in related sub­
jects such as psychology, education,
and social work. Work experience
in fields such as vocational counsel­
ing and placement, psychology,
education, and social work is an
asset for securing employment as a
agencies have work-study programs
whereby employed counselors can
earn graduate degrees in the field.
Usually, 2 years of study are
required for the master’s degree in
the fields preferred for rehabilita­
tion counseling. Included is a
semester of actual work experience
as a rehabilitation counselor under
the close supervision of an instruc­
tor. Besides a basic foundation in
psychology, courses generally in­

cluded in master’s degree programs
techniques, occupational and edu­
cational information, and commu­
nity resources. Other requirements
may include courses in placement
and followup, tests and measure­
ments, cultural and psychological
effects of disability, and medical
and legislative aspects of therapy
and rehabilitation. About 85
schools offered graduate training in
rehabilitation counseling in 1974.
To earn the doctorate in reha­
bilitation counseling or in counsel­
ing psychology may require a total
of 4 to 6 years of graduate study. In­
tensive training in psychology and
other social sciences, as well as in
research methods, is required.
Many States require that reha­
bilitation counselors be hired in ac­
cordance with State civil service
and merit system rules. In most
cases, these regulations require ap­
plicants to pass a competitive writ­
ten test, sometimes supplemented
by an individual interview and
evaluation by a board of examiners.
Since rehabilitation counselors
deal with the welfare of individuals,
the ability to accept responsibility is
important. It also is essential that
they be able to work independently
and be able to motivate and guide
the activity of others.
Counselors who have limited ex­
perience usually are assigned the
less difficult cases. As they gain ex­
perience, their caseloads are in­
creased and they are assigned
clients with more complex reha­
bilitation problems. After obtaining
considerable experience and more
graduate education, rehabilitation
counselors may advance to super­
visory positions or top administra­
tive jobs.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
rehabilitation counselors are ex­
pected to be favorable through the
mid-1980’s. Persons who have
graduate work in rehabilitation

counseling or in related fields are
expected to have the best employ­
ment prospects.
Contributing to the long-run de­
mand for rehabilitation counselors
will be population growth and the
extension of service to a greater
number of the severely disabled,
together with increased public
awareness that the vocational reha­
bilitation approach helps the disa­
bled to become self-supporting.
The extent of growth in employ­
ment of counselors, however, will
depend largely on levels of govern­
ment funding for vocational reha­
bilitation. In addition to growth
needs, many counselors will be
required annually to replace those
who die, retire, or leave the field for
other reasons.

Earnings and Working
Salaries of beginning rehabilita­
tion counselors in State agencies
averaged $9,300 a year in 1974. Ex­
average salaries of $12,200 a year;
the range was $9,800 to $16,400
among the States.
The Veterans Administration
paid counseling psychologists with
a 2-year master’s degree and 1 year
of subsequent experience—and
those with a Ph. D.—starting sala­
ries of $15,481 in late 1974. Those
with a Ph. D. and a year of ex­
perience, and those with a 2-year
master’s degree and much ex­
perience, started at $18,463. Some
rehabilitation counselors with a
bachelor’s degree were hired at
starting salaries of $10,520 and
$12,841. In general, salaries of
rehabilitation counselors are above
the average earnings for all nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming.
Counselors may spend only part
of their time in their offices coun­
seling and performing necessary
paperwork. The remainder of their
time is spent in the field, working
with prospective employers, train­

possible career alternatives and to
choose an occupational area that is
best suited to their individual needs.
They advise students considering
dropping out of college of the op­
portunities open to them. They also
help students to get part-time and
summer jobs.
Career planning and placement
recruiters to visit the campus to
discuss their firm’s personnel needs
and to interview applicants. They
Sources of Additional
provide employers with information
about students and help in apprais­
For information about rehabilita­ ing students’ qualifications. They
tion counseling as a career, contact: must keep abreast of information
American Psychological Association, Inc., concerning job market develop­
1200 i 7th St. NW„ Washington, DC. ments in order to contact prospec­
tive employers, help students
American Rehabilitation Counseling As­ prepare for promising fields, and
sociation, 1607 New Hampshire Ave. encourage the faculty and college
NW„ Washington, D C. 20009.
administration to provide pertinent
National Rehabilitation Counseling Associa­ courses. Most career counselors
tion, 1522 K St. NW„ Washington, D.C.
also assemble and maintain a libra­
ry of career guidance information
and recruitment literature.
Placement counselors may spe­
cialize in areas such as law, educa­
tion, or part-time and summer
work. However, the extent of spe­
cialization usually depends upon
the size and type of college as well
as the size of the placement staff.

ing agencies, and the disabled per­
son’s family. The ability to drive a
car often is necessary for fieldwork.
generally work a 40-hour week or
less, with some overtime work
required to attend community and
civic meetings in the evening. They
usually are covered by sick and an­
nual leave benefits, and pension
and health plans.

(D.O.T. 166.268)

Nature of the Work
Choosing a career and deciding
whether or not to go to graduate
school are among the difficult deci­
sions faced by many college stu­
dents. Career planning and place­
ment counselors are employed by
colleges to offer encouragement
and assistance in these decisions.
Career planning and placement
counselors, sometimes called col­
lege placement officers, provide a
variety of services to college stu­
dents and alumni. They assist stu­
dents in making career selections
by encouraging them to examine
their interests, abilities, and goals,
and then helping them to explore

Places of Employment
Nearly all 4-year colleges and
universities and many of the in­
creasing number of junior colleges
provide career planning and place­
ment services to their students and
alumni. Large colleges may employ
several counselors working under a
director of career planning and
placement activities; in many in­
stitutions, however, a combination
of placement functions is per­
formed by one director aided by a
clerical staff. In some colleges,
especially the smaller ones, the
functions of career counselors may
be performed on a part-time basis
by members of the faculty or ad­
frequently have placement officers
for each major branch or campus.

About 4,100 persons, one-half of
them women, worked as career
planning and placement counselors
in colleges and universities in 1974.
Most were employed on a full-time
basis. An additional 1,200 worked
in junior colleges; about two-thirds
worked part time.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although no specific educational
program exists to prepare persons
for career planning and placement
preferably in a behavioral science
such as psychology or sociology, is
customary for entry into the field,
and a master’s degree is increas­
ingly being stressed.
In 1974, more than 100 colleges
and universities offered graduate

programs in college student person­
nel work. Graduate courses that are
helpful for career planning and
counseling theory and techniques,
vocational testing, theory of group
research and employment trends.
Some people enter the career
planning and placement field after
gaining a broad background of ex­
perience in business, industry,
government, or educational or­
ganizations. An internship in a
career planning and placement of­
fice also is helpful.
College career planning and
placement counselors must have an
interest in people. They must be
able to communicate with and gain
the confidence of students, faculty,
and employers in order to develop
insight into the employment needs

of both employers and students.
People in this field should be ener­
getic and able to work under pres­
sure, since they must organize and
administer a wide variety of activi­
planning and placement profes­
sionals usually is through promo­
tion to an assistant or associate
planning and placement, director of
student personnel services, or some
other higher level administrative
position. However, the extent of
such opportunity usually depends
upon the type of college or universi­
ty and the size of the staff.

Employment Outlook
The overall employment outlook
for well-qualified college career
planning and placement counselors
is expected to be favorable through
growth in the field is expected to be
about as fast as the average for all
occupations as college enrollments
continue to increase through the
early 1980’s. Demand will be
greatest for persons with special­
ized training in career counseling in
junior and community colleges,
where, in many cases, there are no
career planning and placement pro­
grams at present. Also contributing

Counselor discusses career alternatives with college student.

th e

dem and

w ill


e x p e cte d

continued expansion in services to
students from minority and low-in­
come groups, who require special
counseling in choosing careers and
assistance in finding part-time jobs
to help pay for their education.
Growth is also expected in services
to the handicapped and to adults
participating in continuing educa­
However, many institutions of
higher education faced financial
problems in 1974. If this situation
persists, colleges and universities
may be forced to limit expansion of
counseling and placement services,
resulting in competition for availa­
ble positions during this period.

Earnings and Working

The average salary of college
career planning and placement
directors was more than $17,000 a
year in 1974, according to limited
information. Average salaries for
directors in large public universities
were $19,300; in small private col­
leges, about $10,700. Salaries for
college career planning and place­

ment counselors ranged from
Sources of Additional
$7,000 to $ 15,000 a year.
Career planning and placement
A list of schools that offer courses
counselors frequently work more
than a 40-hour week; irregular in career counseling and place­
hours and overtime often are neces­ ment and a booklet on the college
sary, particularly during the student personnel professions, as
“recruiting season.” Most coun­ well as other information on career
selors are employed on a 12-month counseling and placement, are
basis. They are paid for holidays available from:
and vacations and usually receive
College Placement Council, Inc.,
the same benefits as other profes­ The Box 2263, Bethlehem, Pa. 18001. P.O.
sional personnel employed by col­
leges and universities.

Deciding on a career in the clergy
involves considerations different
from those involved in other career
choices. When young persons
choose to enter the ministry,
priesthood, or rabbinate, they do so
primarily because they possess a
strong religious faith and a desire to
help others. Nevertheless, it is im­
portant for young people to know
as much as possible about the
profession and how to prepare for
it, the kind of life it offers, and its
needs for personnel.
The number of clergy needed de­
pends largely on the number of peo­
ple who participate in organized
religious groups. This affects the
synagogues established and pulpits
to be filled. In addition to the clergy
who serve congregations, many
others teach or act as administra­
tors in seminaries and in other edu­
cational institutions; still others
serve as chaplains in the Armed
Forces, industry, correctional in­
stitutions, hospitals or on college
campuses; or render service as mis­
sionaries or in social welfare agen­
Persons considering a career in
the clergy should seek the counsel
of a religious leader of their faith to
aid in evaluating their qualifica­
tions. The most important of these
are a deep religious belief and a
desire to serve the spiritual needs of
others. The priest, minister, or
rabbi also is expected to be a model
of moral and ethical conduct. A
person considering one of these
fields must realize that the civic, so­
cial, and recreational activities of a
member of the clergy often are in­
fluenced and restricted by the
customs and attitudes of the com­
The clergy should be sensitive to
the needs of others and able to help
them deal with these needs. The job
demands an ability to speak and
write effectively, to organize, and to

supervise others. The person enter­ other groups within the congrega­
ing this field also must enjoy study­ tion. Most services include Bible
ing because the ministry is an occu­ reading, hymn singing, prayers, and
pation which requires continuous a sermon. In some denominations,
learning. In addition, the ministry Bible reading by a member of the
demands considerable initiative and congregation
testimonials may constitute a large
More detailed information on the part of the service.
clergy in the three largest faiths in
Ministers serving small congrega­
United States—Protestant, tions generally work on a personal
Roman Catholic, and Jewish—is basis with their parishioners. Those
given in the following statements, serving large congregations have
prepared in cooperation with greater administrative responsibili­
leaders of these faiths. Information ties, and spend considerable time
on the clergy in other faiths may be working with committees, church
obtained directly from leaders of officers, and staff, besides perform­
the respective groups.
ing their other duties. They may
have one or more associates or
assistants who share specific
aspects of the ministry, such as a
PROTESTANT MINISTERS minister of education who assists in
educational programs for different
( DOT . 120.108)
age groups, or a minister of music.

Nature of the Work
Places of Employment
Protestant ministers lead their
congregations in worship services
and administer the rites of baptism,
ministers—about 3 percent of them
confirmation, and Holy Commu­
nion. They prepare and deliver ser­
Protestants. Most ministers serve
mons and give religious instruction
individual congregations. In addi­
to persons who are to become new
thousands of
members of the church. They also
ministers were in closely related
perform marriages; conduct fu­
fields such as chaplains in hospitals
nerals; counsel individuals who
and the Armed Forces. The greatest
seek guidance; visit the sick, aged,
number of clergy are affiliated with
and handicapped at home and in
the hospital; comfort the bereaved;
churches —Baptist, United Metho­
and serve church members in other
ways. Many Protestant ministers dist, Lutheran, Presbyterian, and
write articles for publication, give Episcopal.
All cities and most towns in the
speeches, and engage in interfaith,
United States have at least one
community, civic, educational, and
Protestant church with a full-time
recreational activities sponsored by
minister. Although the majority of
or related to the interests of the
ministers are located in urban
church. Some ministers teach in
areas, many live in less densely
seminaries, colleges, and universi­
populated areas where they may
serve two or more congregations.
The services that ministers con­
duct differ among Protestant
Training and Other
denominations and also among con­
gregations within a denomination.
In many denominations, ministers
Educational requirements for
follow a traditional order of wor­ entry into the Protestant ministry
ship; in others they adapt the serv­ vary greatly. Some denominations
ices to the needs of youth and have no formal educational require-

ments, and others ordain persons
having varying amounts and types
of training in Bible colleges, Bible
institutes, or liberal arts colleges. A
large number of denominations
require a 3-year course of profes­
sional study in a theological school
or seminary following college
graduation. A degree of bachelor or
master of divinity is awarded upon
In 1974, there were 132 theologi­
cal institutes accredited by the
American Association of Theologi­
cal Schools. These admit only stu­
dents who have received a
bachelor’s degree or its equivalent
from an accredited college.
courses include English, history,
philosophy, the natural sciences,
social sciences, the fine arts, music,
religion, and foreign languages.
However, students considering
theological study should contact, at
the earliest possible date, the school
or schools to which they intend to
apply, in order to learn what will
best prepare them for the program
they expect to enter.
The standard curriculum recom­
mended for accredited theological
schools consists of four major types
of courses: biblical, historical,
theological, and practical. In recent

years, greater emphasis has been
placed on courses of a practical na­
ture such as psychology, religious
education, and administration.
Many accredited schools require
that students gain experience in
church work under the supervision
of a faculty member or experienced
minister. Some institutions offer
master of theology and doctor of
theology degrees to students
completing 1 year or more of addi­
tional study. Scholarships and loans
are available for students of
theological institutions.
In general, each large denomina­
tion has its own school or schools of
theology that reflect its particular
doctrine, interests, and needs. How­
ever, many of these schools are
open to students from other
denominational schools associated
with universities give both un­
dergraduate and graduate training
covering a wide range of theologi­
cal points of view.
Persons who have denomina­
tional qualifications for the ministry
usually are ordained following
graduation from a seminary. In
denominations that do not require
seminary training, clergy are or­
dained a t v a r io u s a p p o in t e d tim e s .
Men and women entering the clergy
often begin their careers as pastors
of small congregations or as
assistant pastors in large churches.

Employment Outlook
The trend toward merger and
unity among denominations, com­
bined with the closing of smaller
parishes and the downturn in finan­
cial support, has reduced demand
for Protestant ministers in recent
years. As a result, new graduates of
theological schools will face in­
creasing competition in finding
positions. The supply-demand situ­
ation will vary among denomina­
tions and the chance of obtaining
employment will depend, in part,
on the length of the candidate’s
formal preparation. Most of the

openings for clergy that are
expected through the mid-1980’s
will therefore result from the need
to replace those in existing posi­
tions who retire, die, or leave the
Although fewer opportunities
may arise for Protestant ministers
to serve individual congregations,
newly ordained ministers may find
work in youth, family relations, and
welfare organizations; religious
education; on the campus; and as
chaplains in the Armed Forces,
hospitals, universities, and cor­
rectional institutions.

Earnings and Working
Salaries of Protestant clergy vary
substantially, depending on age, ex­
perience, education, denomination,
size and wealth of congregation,
type of community, and geographic
location. According to a study by
the National Council of Churches
of Christ, median salaries for
Protestant ministers in 1973 were
about $ 10,500 plus $ 1,200 in fringe
benefits. However, on the average,
ministers had to pay over $1,100
out of their own monies for profes­
sionally related expenses, particu­
larly travel. Annual vacations
average 3 weeks and there is often
opportunity for time off.
Because of the wide range of
service that the minister provides,
he or she may work long or ir­
regular hours, often involving
considerable travel.

Sources of Additional
Persons who are interested in the
Protestant ministry should seek the
counsel of a minister or church
guidance worker. Additional infor­
mation is available from many
theological school can supply infor­
mation on admission requirements.

( DO T . 120.108)

Nature of the Work
Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of
their congregations and teachers
and interpreters of Jewish law and
tradition. They conduct religious
services and deliver sermons at
services on the Sabbath and on
Jewish holidays. Rabbis custom­
arily are available at all times to
counsel members of their congrega­
tion, other followers ofJudaism,and
the community at large. Like other
clergy, rabbis conduct weddings
and funeral services, visit the sick,
help the poor, comfort the be­
reaved, supervise religious educa­
tion programs, engage in interfaith
activities, and involve themselves in
community affairs.
Rabbis serving large congrega­
tions may spend considerable time
in administrative duties, working
with their staffs and committees.
Large congregations frequently
have an associate or assistant rabbi.
Many assistant rabbis serve as edu­
cational directors.
Rabbis serve either Orthodox,
Conservative, or Reform congrega­
tions. Regardless of their particular
point of view, all Jewish congrega­
tions preserve the substance of
Jewish religious worship. The con­
gregations differ in the extent to
which they follow the traditional
form of worship—for example, in
the wearing of head coverings, the
use of Hebrew as the language of
prayer, or the use of music or a
choir. The format of the worship
service and, therefore, the ritual
that the rabbis use may vary even
among congregations belonging to
the same branch of Judaism.
Rabbis also may write for reli­
gious and lay publications, and
teach in theological seminaries, col­
leges, and universities.

Places of Employment
About 4,000 rabbis served over 6

complete the requirements for the
bachelor’s degree while pursuing
Orthodox seminaries do not require
a college degree to qualify for or­
dination, although students who
qualify usually have completed 4
years of college.
The Hebrew Union College—
Jewish Institute of Religion is the
official seminary that trains rabbis
for the Reform branch of Judaism.
It is the only branch that has ap­
proved the training and ordination
of women as rabbis. The Jewish
Theological Seminary of America is
the official seminary that trains rab­
bis for the Conservative branch of
Judaism. Both seminaries require
the completion of a 4-year college
course, as well as earlier prepara­
tion in Jewish studies, for admission
to the rabbinic program leading to
Training and Other
ordination. Normally 5 years of
study are required to complete the
To become eligible for ordination rabbinic course at the Reform semi­
as a rabbi, a student must complete nary, including 1 year of preparato­
a prescribed course of study in a ry study in Jerusalem. Excep­
seminary. Entrance requirements tionally well-prepared students can
and the curriculum depend upon shorten this 5-year period to a
the branch of Judaism with which minimum of 3 years. A student hav­
the seminary is associated.
ing a strong background in Jewish
Nearly 30 seminaries train studies can complete the course at
Orthodox rabbis in programs of the Conservative seminary in 4
varying lengths. The required years; for other enrollees, the
course of study to prepare for or­ course may take as long as 6.
dination is usually 3 or 4 years.
In general, the curriculums of
However, students who are not col­ Jewish theological seminaries pro­
lege graduates may spend a longer vide students with a comprehensive
period at these seminaries and knowledge of the Bible, Talmud,
Rabbinic literature, Jewish history,
theology, and courses in education,
pastoral psychology, and public
speaking. The Reform seminary
places less emphasis on the study of
Talmud and Rabbinic literature; it
offers, instead, a broad course of
study that includes subjects such as
human relations and community or­
Some seminaries grant advanced
academic degrees in fields such as
Biblical and Talmudic research. All
Jewish theological seminaries make
scholarships and loans available.
Newly ordained rabbis usually

million followers of the Jewish faith
in this country in 1974; approxi­
mately 1,550 were Orthodox rab­
bis, 1,350 were Conservative, and
1,100 Reform. Others work as
chaplains in the military services, in
hospitals and other institutions, or
in one of the many Jewish commu­
nity service agencies. A growing
number are employed in colleges
and universities as teachers in
Jewish Studies programs.
Although rabbis serve Jewish
communities throughout the Na­
tion, they are concentrated in those
States that have large Jewish popu­
lations, particularly New York,
California, Pennsylvania, New Jer­
sey, Illinois, Massachusetts, Florida,
Maryland, and the Washington,
D.C. metropolitan area.

and religious. Both types have the
same powers acquired through or­
dination by a bishop. The dif­
ferences lie in their way of life, the
type of work to which they are as­
signed, and the church authority to
whom they are immediately sub­
ject. Diocesan priests generally
Sources of Additional
work as individuals in parishes as­
signed to them by the bishop of
Young people who are interested their diocese. Religious priests
in entering the rabbinate should generally work as part of a religious
Employment Outlook
seek the guidance of a rabbi. Infor­ order, such as the Jesuits,
The demand for Rabbis has mation on the work of a rabbi and Dominicans, or Franciscans. They
declined in recent years because occupations allied to it is also engage in specialized activities such
some established congregations available from many of the local as teaching or missionary work as­
have closed and fewer new ones are Boards of Rabbis in large communi­ signed to them by superiors of their
being formed. As a result, many ties. Each Jewish theological semi­ order.
newly ordained Rabbis will take nary can supply information on its
Both religious and diocesan
positions in smaller Jewish commu­ admission requirements.
priests hold teaching and adminis­
nities and as assistant Rabbis in
trative posts in Catholic seminaries,
larger Jewish congregations. Op­
colleges and universities, and high
portunities still exist for Rabbis to
schools. Priests attached to reli­
teach in colleges and universities, to
gious orders staff a large proportion
serve as chaplains in the Armed
of the institutions of higher educa­
Forces, and to work in hospitals and
(D.O.T. 120.108)
tion and many high schools,
other institutions or in one of the
whereas diocesan priests are usually
many Jewish social service agen­
Nature of the Work
concerned with the parochial
cies. Openings in established con­
Roman Catholic priests attend to schools attached to parish churches
gregations will come largely from a
the spiritual, pastoral, moral, and and with diocesan high schools. The
need to replace those Rabbis who
educational needs of the members members of religious orders do
retire or die.
of their church. Their duties in­ most of the missionary work con­
clude presiding at liturgical func­ ducted by the Catholic Church in
Earnings and Working
tions; offering religious enlighten­ this country and abroad.
ment in the form of a sermon; hear­
Places of Employment
In 1974, newly ordained Rabbis ing confessions; administering the
averaged about $17,000-$ 18,000 a Sacraments, (including the sacra­
Approximately 57,000 priests
year in salary and other benefits, in­ ments of Marriage and Penance);
cluding housing, pension, etc. Most and conducting funeral services.
established Rabbis earned between They also comfort the sick, console
$20,000 and $35,000 a year, with relatives and friends of the dead,
some earning as much as $50,000- counsel those in need of guidance,
$60,000. Incomes vary depending and assist the poor.
on the size and financial status of
Priests spend long hours working
the congregation, as well as its for the church and the community.
denominational branch and geo­ Their day usually begins with morn­
graphic location. Rabbis usually ing meditation and Mass, and may
earn additional income from gifts or end with the hearing of confessions
fees for officiating at ceremonies or an evening visit to a hospital or a
such as weddings.
home. Many priests direct and
Rabbis’ working hours are deter­ serve on church committees, work
mined by their role in the congrega­ in civic and charitable organiza­
tion. Besides conducting regular tions, and assist in community
religious services, they may also projects.
spend considerable time in adminis­
There are two main classifica­
trative, educational, and communi­ tions of priests—diocesan (secular)
begin as leaders of small congrega­
tions, assistants to experienced rab­
bis, directors of Hillel Foundations
on college campuses, teachers in
seminaries and other educational
institutions, or chaplains in the
Armed Forces. As a rule, the pul­
pits of large and well established
Jewish congregations are filled by
experienced rabbis.

ty service functions, as well as
presiding over various ceremonial
services. Rabbis must also be
available to serve the emergency
needs of their congregation mem­

served nearly 49 million Catholics
in the United States in 1974. There
are priests in nearly every city and
town and in many rural communi­
metropolitan areas, where most
Catholics reside. Catholics are con­
centrated in the Northeast and
Great Lakes regions, with smaller
concentrations in California, Texas,
and Louisiana. Large numbers of
priests are located in communities
near Catholic educational and
other institutions.

Training and Other
Preparation for the priesthood
generally requires 8 years of study
beyond high school. There are al­
most 400 seminaries offering posthigh school education. Preparatory
study may begin in the first year of
high school, at the college level, or
in theological seminaries after col­
lege graduation.
High school seminaries provide a
college preparatory program that
speech, literature, and social stu­
dies. Two years of Latin are
required and the study of modern
language is encouraged. The semi­
nary college offers a liberal arts
program, stressing philosophy and
religion; the study of man through
the behavioral sciences and history;
and the natural sciences and mathe­
matics. In many college seminaries,
a student may concentrate in any of
these fields.
The remaining 4 years of
preparation include sacred scrip­
ture; apologetics (the branch of
theology concerning the defense
and proofs of Christianity); dog­
matic, moral, and pastoral theolo­
gy; homeletics (art of preaching);
church history; liturgy (Mass); and
canon law. Field work experience is
usually required in addition to
classroom study. Diocesan and reli­
gious priests attend different major
seminaries, where slight variations
in the training reflect the dif­
ferences in the type of work ex­

pected of them as priests. Priests
are not permitted to marry.
Postgraduate work in theology is
offered at a number of American
Catholic universities or at eccle­
siastical universities around the
world, mostly in Rome. Also, many
priests do graduate work at other
universities in fields unrelated to
theology. Priests are commanded
by the law of the Catholic Church
to continue their studies, at least in­
formally, after ordination.
Young men are never denied
entry into seminaries because of
lack of funds. In seminaries for
secular priests, the church authori­
ties may make arrangements for
student scholarships or loans.
Those in religious seminaries are
financed by contributions of
The first assignment of a newly
ordained secular priest is usually
that of assistant pastor or curate.
Newly ordained priests of religious
orders are assigned to the special­
ized duties for which they are
trained. Many opportunities for
greater responsibility exist within
the church, depending on the
talents, interests, and experience of
the individual.

radio, newspaper, and television
mediation. They also have been
serving in foreign posts as missiona­
ries, particularly in countries that
have a shortage of priests.

Earnings and Working

Diocesan priests usually receive a
stipend of between $2,000 and
$6,000 a year as well as main­
tenance provisions (room and
board, housekeeping, etc.). Reli­
gious priests are generally sup­
ported by their religious order.
Priests who do special work re­
lated to the church, such as
teaching, usually receive a partial
salary which is less than a lay per­
son in the same position would
receive. The difference between the
usual salary for these jobs and the
salary that the priest receives is
called “contributed service.” In
some of these situations, housing
and related expenses may be pro­
vided; in other cases, the priest
must make his own arrangements.
Some priests doing special work
may receive the same compensa­
tion that a lay person would
receive. These may include priests
Employment Outlook
working as lawyers, counselors,
A growing number of priests will consultants, etc.
Due to the wide range of duties
be needed in the years ahead to
provide for the spiritual, educa­ which most clergy have, the priest
tional, and social needs of the in­ often must work long and irregular
creasing number of Catholics in the hours. His working conditions vary
Nation. The number of ordained widely with the type and area of as­
priests has been insufficient to fill signment.
the needs of newly established
Sources of Additional
parishes and other Catholic institu­
tions, and to replace priests who
Young men interested in entering
retire or die. This situation is likely the priesthood should seek the
to persist. However, some of the du­ guidance and counsel of their
ties of priests are being assigned to parish priest. For information re­
lay deacons. Although priests garding the different religious or­
usually continue to work longer ders and the secular priesthood, as
than persons in other professions, well as a list of the seminaries which
the varied demands and long hours prepare students for the priesthood,
create a need for young priests to contact the diocesan Directors of
assist the older ones. Also, an in­ Vocations through the office of the
creasing number of priests have local pastor or bishop.
been acting in many diverse areas
of service—in social work; religious


(D.O.T. 096.128)

Nature of the Work
Extension service workers are en­
gaged with the rural area popula­
tion in educational work in fields
economics, youth activities, and
community resource development.
They are employed jointly by State
land-grant universities and the U.S.
Department of Agriculture. Exten­
sion workers must be proficient in
both subject matter and teaching
Extension workers help rural
families analyze and solve their
farm and home problems and aid in
community improvement. Much of
this educational work is carried on
in groups, through meetings, tours,
demonstrations, and use of local
volunteer leaders. On problems that
cannot be solved satisfactorily by
such group methods, extension
workers give individual assistance.
In their work, they make much use
of mass communication media such
as newspapers, radio, and televi­
County extension workers help
farmers produce higher quality
crops and livestock more effi­
ciently. They also help them
develop new markets and plan
production to meet market de­
mands, including those for product
quality and variety. They also help
community leaders to improve the
community, by planning and
providing for economic develop­
adequate public facilities such as
schools, water supply and sewer

systems, and libraries. They help and events to use this new
homemakers to provide more fami­ knowledge.
Cooperative Extension Services
resources, a higher level of nutri­ employ persons with a wide range
tion, and a more pleasant home en­ of skills and with specialized train­
vironment. Some extension workers ing in all phases of crop and
help youths to become more useful livestock production, conservation,
citizens and to gain more personal environmental improvement, farm
satisfaction through programs in management and marketing, family
career selection, recreation, health, living, human development, nutri­
and leadership. The essence of ex­ tion, home management, child
tension work is to help people help development, sociology, psycholo­
themselves to achieve the goals gy, veterinary medicine, engineer­
they think are important.
ing, textiles and clothing, resource
County extension workers are economics, and business and public
aided by State Extension Service administration.
The usual career ladder for ex­
specialists. The job of these spe­
cialists is to keep abreast of the tension workers is from assistant
latest research in their particular county agent to a more responsible
fields of interest, interpret this for job within that county, or in
use in extension work, and help another county in the State, to an
county extension workers develop assignment on the State Extension
educational programs, activities, Service staff.

Extension workers help farmers produce higher quality crops.

Places of Employment
Extension workers are located in
county offices, area offices serving
multicounty units, and State offices,
the last usually on the campus of
the land-grant college or university.
Agents are located in nearly
every county in the 50 States, in
Puerto Rico, and in the District of
Columbia. County staffs range in
size from one agent (serving a wide
variety of clientele interests) to a
dozen or more specialized agents in
counties with high population den­
sity and great diversity of interests.
Staffs are located in counties rang­
ing from the most rural to the most

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Cooperative Extension Service
agents are required to be proficient
in disciplines related to the needs
and programs of the clientele with
whom they work. They must have a
bachelor’s degree in their subjectmatter field; some training in edu­
cational techniques is desirable, as
Often, they receive training in ex­
tension techniques in a pre-induc­
tion training program, and are up­
graded through regular in-service
training programs in both educa­
tional techniques and the subject
matter for which they are responsi­
ble. In addition to subject-matter
proficiency, extension workers
must like to work with people and
to help them.
In most States, specialists and
agents assigned to multicounty and
State staff jobs are required to have
at least one advanced degree and in
many they must have a Ph. D.

Employment Outlook
Extension services employ more
than 15,600 professional people.
The demand for these workers is
expected to increase, especially in
depressed rural areas. As agricul­
tural technology becomes more

complicated, and as farm people
become more aware of the need for
organized activity, more help will
be sought from trained Extension
Service personnel. The Extension
Service also will reach new seg­
ments of the population as residents
recognize the value of its assistance,
particularly in helping the disad­

The salaries of extension workers
vary by locality, but, for the most
part, they are competitive with
similar jobs in industry and govern­

Sources of Additional
Additional information is availa­
ble from County Extension offices,
the State Director of the Coopera­
tive Extension Service located at
each land-grant university; or the
Extension Service, U.S. Depart­
ment of Agriculture, Washington,
D.C. 20250.

(D.O.T. 096.128)

Nature of the Work
Home economists work to im­
prove products, services, and prac­
tices that affect the comfort and
well-being of the family. Some spe­
cialize in specific areas, such as
consumer economics, housing,
home management, home furnish­
ings and equipment, food and
nutrition, clothing and textiles,
and child development and family
relations. Others have a broad
knowledge of the whole profes­
sional field.
Most home economists teach.
Those in high schools teach stu­
dents about foods and nutrition;
clothing selection, construction and
care; child development; consumer
education; housing and home

furnishings; family relations; and
other subjects related to family liv­
ing and homemaking. They also
perform the regular duties of other
high school teachers that are
described in the statement on
Secondary School Teachers else were
in this book.
Teachers in adult education pro­
grams help men and women to in­
crease their understanding of family
relations and to improve their
homemaking skills. They also con­
duct training programs on second­
ary, postsecondary, and adult levels
for jobs related to home economics.
Special emphasis is given to
teaching those who are disad­
vantaged and handicapped. College
teachers may combine teaching and
research and often specialize in a
particular area of home economics.
Home economists employed by
private business firms and trade as­
sociations promote the develop­
ment, use, and care of specific
home products. They may do
research, test products, and prepare
advertisements and instructional
materials. They also may prepare
and present programs for radio and
television; serve as consultants; give
lectures and demonstrations before
the public; and conduct classes for
sales persons and appliance service
workers. Some home economists
study consumer needs and help
manufacturers translate these needs
into useful products.
Some home economists conduct
research for the Federal Govern­
ment, State agricultural experiment
stations, colleges, universities, and
private organizations. The U.S. De­
partment of Agriculture employs
the largest group of researchers to
do work such as study the buying
and spending habits of families in
all socioeconomic groups and
develop budget guides.
Home economists who work for
the Cooperative Extension Service
conduct adult education programs
for men and women and 4-H Club
and other youth programs for girls
and boys, in areas such as home

1974. This figure includes 33,000
dietitians and 5,800 Cooperative
Extension Service workers who are
discussed in separate statements
elsewhere in this book.
About 75,000 home economists
are teachers, about 50,000 in
secondary schools and 7,000 in col­
leges and universities. More than
15,000 are adult education instruc­
tors, some of whom teach part time
in secondary schools. Others teach
in community colleges, elementary
schools, kindergartens, nursery
schools, and recreation centers.
More than 5,000 home econo­
mists work in private business firms
and associations. Several thousand
are in research and social welfare
programs. A few are self-employed
Although most home economists
are women, men are entering the
profession in increasing numbers.
Most men specialize in foods and
institutional management, although
Some home economists work with young children.
some are in the family relations and
child development field, applied
arts, consumer education, and
management, consumer education, pervise or train workers who pro­ other areas.
family relations, and nutrition. Ex­ vide temporary or part-time help to
tension Service home economists
households disrupted by illness.
Training, Other Qualifications,
also train and supervise volunteer
Home economists in health serv­
and Advancement
leaders and paid aides who teach ices provide special help and
adults and youth. (See statement on guidance in home management,
About 360 colleges and universi­
Cooperative Extension Service consumer education and family ties offer a bachelor’s degree in
Workers elsewhere in this book.)
economics as these relate to family home economics, which qualifies
Federal, State, and local govern­ health and well-being. Activities of graduates for most entry positions
ments and private agencies employ home economists working in health in the field. A master’s or doctor’s
home economists in social welfare programs include the following: degree is required for college
programs to advise and counsel
making home visits; conducting teaching, for certain research and
clients on the practical knowledge clinic demonstrations and classes in supervisory positions, for work as
and skills needed for effective
homemaking skills; counseling in an extension specialist, and for
everyday family living. They also the management of time and some jobs in nutrition.
may help handicapped home­
Home economics majors study
makers and their families ad­
aspects; assisting mentally retarded sciences and liberal arts—particu­
just to physical as well as social and parents in developing their poten­ larly social sciences—as well as spe­
emotional limitations by changing
tial skills for child care and home cialized home economics courses.
the arrangements in the home; find­ management; working with agen­ They may concentrate in a particu­
ing efficient ways to manage
cies and community resources: and lar area of home economics or in
household chores; aiding in the
supervising nutrition and home what is called general home
economics. Advanced courses in
design, selection, and arrangement
management aides.
chemistry and nutrition are impor­
of equipment; and creating other
tant for work in foods and nutrition;
methods and devices to enable dis­
Places of Employment
science and statistics for research
abled people to function at their
highest possible level. Other home
About 128,000 people worked in work; and journalism for advertis­
economists in welfare agencies su­ home economics professions in ing, public relations work, and all

other work in the communications
field. To teach home economics in
complete the courses required for a
teacher’s certificate.
Scholarships, fellowships, and
assistantships are available for un­
dergraduate and graduate study.
Although colleges and universities
offer most of these financial grants,
government agencies, research
foundations, businesses, and the
American Home Economics As­
sociation Foundation provide addi­
tional funds.
Home economists must be able to
work with people of various in­
comes and cultural backgrounds
and should have a capacity for
leadership. Poise and an interest in
people also are essential for those
who deal with the public. The abili­
ty to write and speak well is impor­
tant. Among the subjects recom­
mended for high school students in­
terested in careers in this field are
home economics, speech, English,
health, mathematics, chemistry,
and the social sciences.
Home economists frequently gain
experience as teachers and advance
to positions in business, extension
service work, and teacher educa­

Employment Outlook
Home economists, especially
those wishing to teach in high
schools, will face keen competition
for jobs through the mid-1980’s.
Other areas of home economics
also will experience competitive job
market conditions as those unable
to find teaching jobs look for other
positions. However, for those
willing to continue their education
toward an advanced degree, em­
ployment prospects in college and
university teaching are expected to
be good.
Although employment of home
economists is expected to grow
more slowly than the average for all
many jobs will
become available each year to

replace those who die, retire, or
leave the field for other reasons.
Growth will result from increasing
awareness of the contributions that
can be made by professionally
trained home economists in quality
child care, nutrition, housing and
furnishings design, consumer edu­
cation, and ecology. They also will
be needed to promote home
products, to act as consultants to
consumers, and to do research for
improvement of home products and
services. The Vocational Education
Amendments of 1968, which pro­
vide funds for consumer and
homemaking education at the
secondary, postsecondary, and
adult levels, and focus on the needs
of low-income families, should
further stimulate the need for home

Earnings and Working
Home economics teachers in
public schools generally receive the
same salaries as other teachers. In
1974, the average starting salary of
public school teachers with a
bachelor’s degree was $7,700, ac­
cording to a National Education
Association survey. Public school
teachers with a master’s degree
received average starting salaries of
averaged $11,800. Median salaries
of women teaching in colleges and
universities in 1974 ranged from
$9,700 for instructors to $18,200
for professors.
The Federal Government paid
home economists with bachelor’s
degrees starting salaries of $8,500
and $10,500 in late 1974, depend­
ing on their scholastic record.
Those with additional education
and experience generally earned
from $12,800 to $21,800 or more,
depending on the type of position
and level of responsibility. In late
1974, the Federal Government paid
average salaries of $ 19,100 a year.
Cooperative Extension Service

workers on the county level
averaged $11,800 while those on
the State level averaged $16,400 in
1974. In general, home economists
earn about one and one-half times
as much as the average for all nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming.
Home economists usually work a
40-hour week. Those in teaching
and extension service positions,
however, frequently work longer
hours because they are expected to
be available for evening lectures,
demonstrations, and other work.
Most home economists receive
fringe benefits, such as paid vaca­
tion, sick leave, retirement pay, and
insurance benefits.

Sources of Additional
A list qf schools granting degrees
in home economics and additional
information about home economics
careers, the types of home
economics majors offered in each
school granting degrees in home
economics, and graduate scholar­
ships are available from:
American Home Economics Association,
Washington, D.C. 20036

(D.O.T. 079.1-28, 159.228, 187.118,
195.168, 195.228)

Nature of the Work
Participation in organized recrea­
tion activities has become an in­
tegral part of the increasing leisure
time enjoyed by many Americans.
Recreation workers plan, organize,
and direct individual and group
recreation activities to help people
better enjoy their nonworking
Recreation workers organize and
lead social, cultural, and physical
education programs at community
centers, hospitals, workplaces,
camps, and playgrounds for people

of various ages and interests. They
also manage recreation facilities
and study the recreation needs of
groups and communities. There are
several basic types of recreation
workers: recreation directors, su­
pervisors, leaders, and activity spe­
Recreation directors are responsi­
ble for the management and ad­
ministration of recreation pro­
grams. They may evaluate the
recreation needs of the population
they serve, and plan activities ac­
cording to these needs. They also
hire personnel and prepare an
operating budget. Particularly in
smaller recreation programs, the
director also may directly supervise
various activities.
Recreation supervisors may plan
recreation activities or assist the
director in doing this. They then im­
plement these activities, oversee
their operation, and evaluate their

success. They supervise the recrea­
tion leaders, activity specialists, and
maintenance workers, and instruct
them in many of the skills required
to efficiently run a recreation pro­
Recreation leaders work directly
with the participants in recreation
programs and are responsible for
the program’s day-to-day opera­
tion. They may give instruction in
crafts, games, sports, and other ac­
tivities and keep reports and
records relating to these activities.
Recreation leaders who give in­
struction in specialties such as art,
music, drama, swimming, or tennis
are called activity specialists. They
often conduct classes and coach
teams in the activity in which they
specialize. A camp counselor is
generally a recreation leader and
may also be an activity specialist.
Recreation leaders usually work
under the direction of a supervisor.

The services of recreation work­
ers are used in many different
settings. Recreation personnel em­
ployed by local government and
voluntary agencies provide leisure­
time activities at neighborhood
playgrounds and indoor recreation
centers. They furnish instruction in
the arts, crafts, and in sports. They
may supervise recreational activi­
ties at correctional institutions and
work closely with social workers to
organize programs for the young
and the aged. School recreation
staff organize the leisure-time ac­
tivities of school-age children dur­
ing schooldays, weekends, and va­
Under the supervision of a camp
director, recreation leaders and ac­
tivity specialists lead and instruct
campers in nature-oriented forms
of recreation such as swimming,
hiking, and horseback riding, as
well as arts, crafts, and other sports.
Some camps provide campers with
specialized instruction in a particu­
lar area such as music, drama, gym­
nastics, or tennis. In resident
camps, the staff also must insure
that the campers have adequate liv­
ing conditions.
Recreation personnel in industry
and in the Armed Forces organize
and direct recreation rooms,
athletic programs such as bowling
and softball leagues, social func­
tions, and other leisure activities for
company employees and service
men and women.
Therapeutic recreation is a spe­
cialized field within the recreation
profession. It provides recreational
services to aid in recovery or adjust­
ment to illness, disability, or a
specific social problem. Recreation
specialists may work with the physi­
cally handicapped in a school or
rehabilitation center, with mentally
ill or retarded persons in a public or
private institution, or with juvenile
delinquents, older citizens, or disa­
bled veterans. The jobs in this spe­
cialty are largely comparable to
those for recreation workers in
other settings.

Places of Employment
More than 65,000 recreation
workers were employed year-round
in 1974; nearly one-half of them
were women. Government recrea­
tion departments employed about
one-half, primarily in local recrea­
tion departments. Many others
worked for schools, commercial
camps or resort hotels, and non­
profit voluntary organizations such
as athletic or scouting organiza­
tions, churches, and community or­
Over two-fifths of all year-round
recreation workers are employed
part time. Many of these are stu­
dents who work for local govern­
ment recreation programs. An addi­
tional 100,000 recreation workers
were employed for the summer
months only, during 1974. Seasonal
workers are mostly college students
and teachers who work primarily as
recreation leaders and camp coun­
Recreation workers are em­
ployed mostly in urban areas where
many people must use the same
playgrounds and recreation centers.
Camp recreation workers, however,
often work in rural, less populated
areas of the country. Camp recrea­
tion workers are employed at re­
sident, day, family, and travel
camps. Except for the directors of
very large camps and workers at the
few camps which remain open yearround, camp recreation workers
generally are employed for 2 or 3
months only during the summer.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Formal training in a college
recreation curriculum is becoming
increasingly important for those
seeking a career in recreation.
Recreation directors generally
should have a bachelor’s degree,
preferably in recreation, as well as
considerable experience. Advanced
courses leading to a master’s degree

often are desirable for persons in­
terested in higher level administra­
tive positions and are usually neces­
sary for teaching at a college or
university. Those with a bachelor’s
degree usually begin as supervisors
or recreation leaders, and may ad­
vance to a director position.
A high school education is
generally the minimum require­
ment for recreation leaders. How­
ever, an associate degree in recrea­
tion or a related subject from a
community or junior college usually
is preferred for both year-round
and seasonal employment. In addi­
tion, those with college training
generally start at a higher salary and
have better advancement opportu­
nities. Activity specialists must have
specialized training in a particular
field, such as art, music, drama, or
athletics. In most cases, an as­
sociate degree in recreation with a
concentration in one of these areas
or a bachelor’s degree in recreation
or one of the arts is necessary for
year-round employment. In general,
camps prefer those with some
college background to work as
counselors or activity specialists.
In March 1974, 200 community
colleges and 186 4-year colleges
and universities had recreation and
parks curriculums. In addition, 92
graduate programs were offered.
The typical program of recreation
study includes courses in communi­
cations, natural sciences, the hu­
manities, philosophy, sociology,
psychology, drama, and music.
Specific courses in recreation in­
clude group leadership, program
planning and organization, health
and safety procedures, outdoor and
indoor sports, dance, arts and
crafts, and field work in which the
student obtains actual recreation
leadership experience. Students in­
terested in industrial or other types
of commercial recreation may find
it desirable to take courses in busi­
ness administration; those in­
terested in therapeutic recreation
should take courses in psychology,
health education, and sociology.

Young people planning careers
as recreation workers must have the
ability to motivate people and be
sensitive to their needs. Good
health and physical stamina often
are required. Activity planning
frequently calls for creativity and
resourcefulness. Recreation work­
ers should be able to accept re­
sponsibility and exercise judgment
since they usually work alone. To
increase their leadership skills
and understanding of people, stu­
dents should obtain related work
experience in high school and col­
lege. They may do volunteer, parttime, or summer work in recreation
departments, camps, youth-serving
organizations, institutions, and
community centers.
After a few years experience,
recreation leaders or activity spe­
cialists may become recreation su­
pervisors. Although promotions to
administrative positions may be
easier for persons with graduate
training, advancement is usually
possible through a combination of
education and experience.

Employment Outlook
The employment of recreation
workers is expected to rise faster
than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1980’s as public
pressure for recreation areas results
in the creation of many new parks,
playgrounds, and national forests.
Increased attention to physical fit­
ness by government, educators, and
others may produce a rise in public
and industrial recreation programs.
Longer life and earlier retirements
also will increase the demand for
recreation programs for retired per­
sons. All of these factors will in­
crease the need for recreation work­
ers and stimulate growth in the oc­
The level of formal education
and amount of related work ex­
perience will become increasingly
important as more recreation grad­
uates compete for positions. Those

with a 2-year degree or less will
generally be limited in advance­
ment opportunities. Those with a
bachelor’s degree should have a
favorable employment outlook,
with increasing competition during
economic slowdowns when recrea­
tion employment in both the public
and private sectors may be adverse­
ly affected. Opportunities for those
with a master’s or Ph. D. degree
should be good in teaching, super­
visory, and administrative positions.
Job experience prior to gradua­
tion will greatly help a graduate find
a position. Applicants with the most
related job experience will receive
the more responsible and higher
paying positions.
Many opportunities will be
available for part-time and summer
employment as recreation leaders
and assistants in local government
recreation programs. Many of the
summer jobs will be for counselors
and activity specialists in camps.

Earnings and Working
Starting salaries for recreation
leaders with a bachelor’s degree in
State and local governments
averaged about $8,000 in 1974, ac­
cording to a survey by the Public
Personnel Association. There was a
wide salary range among em­
ployers—in general, salaries were
highest in the west and lowest in the
south. Average earnings for recrea­
tion workers are higher than those
for nonsupervisory workers in
private industry, except in farming.
According to the National Recrea­
tion and Park Association, recrea­
tion workers with a 2-year degree
usually started at about $6,500 in
1974; those with a bachelor’s
degree, about $8,000; with a
master’s degree, $9,-10,000; with a
Ph. D., $11-12,000. A person with
at least a bachelor’s degree and
considerable (5-6 years) ex­
perience averaged about $ 1415,000. Recreation directors’ sala­
ries ranged from $ 11,000 to more

than $20,000 depending on their
Starting salaries for recreation
workers in the Federal Government
in late 1974 were $8,500 for appli­
cants having a bachelor’s degree;
$10,500 with a bachelor’s degree
plus 1 year experience; $12,841
with a bachelor’s plus 2 years ex­
perience or a master’s degree; and
$15,481 with a bachelor’s plus 3
years experience or a Ph. D.
The average week for recreation
personnel is 35-40 hours. Many
camp recreation workers live at the
camps where they work, and their
room and board is included in their
salaries. Most public and private
recreation agencies provide from 2
to 4 weeks vacation and other
fringe benefits such as sick leave
and hospital insurance.
A person entering the recreation
field should expect some night work
and irregular hours since they often
work while others are enjoying lei­
sure time. Recreation workers often
spend much of their time outdoors
when the weather permits.

Sources of Additional
Information about recreation as a
career, employment opportunities
in the field, and colleges and
universities offering recreation curriculums is available from:
National Industrial Recreation Association,
20 North Wacker Dr., Chicago, 1 1
National Recreation and Parks Association,
1601 North Kent St., Arlington, Va.

For information on careers in
camping and job referrals, contact:
American Camping Association, Bradford
Woods, Martinsville, Ind. 46151.

(D.O.T. 195.108, .118, .168, and
.208, .228)

Nature of the Work
The ability of people to live effec­
tively in society is often hampered
by problems that range from per­
sonal ones to those arising from so­
cial unrest within a group or com­
munity. These problems, ag­
gravated by the growing complexity
of society, have greatly increased
the need for social services. Social
workers assist individuals, families,
groups and communities in using
these services to solve their
The three basic approaches to so­
cial work are casework, group
work, and community organization.
The approach chosen is usually
determined by the nature of the
problem and the time and resources
available for solving it. Social work­
ers often combine these ap­
proaches in dealing with a specific
In casework, social workers use
interviews to identify the problems
of individuals and families. They
then help people to understand and
solve their problems and to secure
needed services, education, or job
training. In group work, social
workers help people to understand
both themselves and others better,
to overcome racial and cultural
prejudices, and to work together
with others in achieving a common
goal. They plan and conduct group
activities for children, adolescents,
older persons and other adults in a
variety of settings such as settle­
ment houses, hospitals, homes for
the aged, and correctional institu­
tions. In community organization,
social workers coodinate the efforts
of groups, such as political, civic,
religious, business, and union or­
ganizations, to combat social
problems through community pro­
grams. For a neighborhood or
larger area, they may help plan and
develop health, housing, welfare,

and recreation services. They often
coordinate existing social services
and organize fund raising for com­
munity social welfare activities.
The majority of social workers
provide social services directly to
individuals, families, or groups.
However, a substantial number are
executives, administrators, or su­
pervisors. Others are college
teachers, research workers, con­
sultants, or private practitioners.
Social workers can apply their
training and experience in a variety
of social service settings.
Social workers in family service
positions in State and local govern­
ment offices and voluntary agencies
provide counseling and social serv­
ices that strengthen personal rela­
tionships and help clients to im­
prove their social functioning. They
also advise their clients on the con­
structive use of financial assistance
and other social services.
Social workers in child welfare
positions work to improve the
physical and emotional well-being
of deprived and troubled children
and youth. They may advise parents
on child care and child rearing,
counsel children and youth with so­
cial adjustment difficulties, arrange
homemaker services during a
parent’s illness, institute legal ac­
tion for the protection of neglected
or mistreated children, provide
services to unmarried parents, and
counsel couples who wish to adopt
children. After making appropriate
case evaluations and home studies,
they may place children in suitable
adoption or foster homes or in spe­
cialized institutions.
School social workers aid chil­
dren whose unsatisfactory school
progress is related to their social
problems. These workers consult
and work with parents, teachers,
counselors, and other school per­
sonnel to identify and solve prob­
lems that hinder satisfactory
Social workers in medical and
hospitals, clinics, mental health
agencies, rehabilitation centers,

and public welfare agencies aid pa­
tients and their families with social
problems accompanying illness,
recovery, and rehabilitation. As
members of medical teams,* they
help patients respond to treatment
and guide them in their readjust­
ment to their homes, jobs, and com­
munities. (The related occupation
of rehabilitation counselor is
discussed in a separate section.)
Probation and parole officers and
other social workers engaged in
correctional programs help offend­
ers and persons on probation and
parole readjust to society. They
counsel on social problems encoun­
tered in relation to their return to
family and community life. Proba­
tion and parole officers also may
help secure necessary education,
training, employment, or communi­
ty services.
In addition, the services of social
workers are being sought in many
fields where they have not been
used significantly in the past. These
include private practice (as coun­
selors), industrial social work, drug

and alcohol abuse counseling, and
city and social policy planning.

Places of Employment
About 300,000 social workers
were employed in 1974; nearly twothirds of them were women. State,
county, and city government agen­
cies employ about two-thirds of all
social workers; about 3,000 work
for the Federal Government. Most
of the remainder work for voluntary
or private agencies, schools,
hospitals, and other medical
establishments. Although employ­
ment is concentrated in urban
areas, many work with rural fami­
lies. A small number of social work­
ers—employed by the Federal
Government and the United Na­
tions or one of its affiliated agen­
cies—serve in other parts of the
world as consultants, teachers, or
technicians and establish agencies,
schools, or assistance programs.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
In recent years, there has been a
bachelor’s degree in social work
(BSW), rather than the master’s
degree (MSW), as the minimum
education of the professional social
worker. The BSW programs
generally offer an introduction to
the social welfare system, the skills
and values of social work, and su­
pervised field experience. Although
the BSW is preferred, many em­
ployers will accept a bachelor’s
degree in another field as an ac­
ceptable level of education.
For many positions, a master’s
degree in social work is preferred or
required. Two years of specialized
study and supervised field instruc­
tion are generally required to earn
an MSW. Previous training in social
work is not required for entry into a
graduate program, but courses in
related fields such as psychology,
sociology, economics, political
anthropology, as well as social
work, are recommended. Some
graduate schools recently have
established 1-year MSW programs
for well-qualified BSW recipients.
In 1974, 86 colleges and universi­
ties offered accredited graduate
programs in social work.
Scholarships and fellowships are
available for graduate education.
Some social welfare agencies, both
voluntary and public, offer plans
whereby workers are granted
‘educational leave4 to obtain gradu­
ate education. The agency may pay
the expenses or a salary, or both.
A graduate degree and ex­
perience are generally required for
supervisory, administrative, or
research work, the last also requir­
ing training in social science
research methods. For teaching
positions, an MSW is required and a
doctorate usually is preferred. In
most State and many local govern­
ment agencies, applicants for em­
ployment must pass a written exam,
particularly at the bachelor’s level.

At the end of 1974, 14 States had
licensing or registration laws
providing for the use of professional
social work titles by those who
qualify. Usually work experience,
an examination, or both, are neces­
sary for licensing or registration,
with periodic renewal required. The
National Association of Social
Workers allows the use of the title
ACSW (Academy of Certified So­
cial Workers) for those members
having at least 2 years of post­
master’s job experience who have
passed the ACSW examination.
Social workers should be emo­
tionally mature, objective, and sen­
sitive and should possess a basic
concern for people and their
problems. They must be able to
handle responsibility, work inde­
pendently, and form and sustain
good working relationships with
clients and co-workers.
Students should obtain as much
related work experience as possible
during high school and college to
determine whether they have the
interest and capacity for profes­
sional social work. They may do
volunteer, part-time, or summer
work in places such as camps, set­
tlement houses, hospitals, commu­
nity centers, or social welfare agen­
cies. Some voluntary and public so­
cial welfare agencies hire students
for jobs in which they assist social

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
persons having bachelor’s degrees
in social welfare or related fields
should be favorable through the
remainder of the 1970’s and into
the 1980’s. The outlook for gradu­
ates of master’s degree programs in
social work is expected to continue
to be good through the mid-1980’s.
However, if the number of students
graduating from social work pro­
grams continue to increase at the
same rate as in the 1960’s and early
1970’s, competition for some posi­
tions will become stronger. At both
the bachelor’s and master’s levels, it

is possible that in certain geo­
graphic areas there will be greater
job competition.
Employment of social workers is
expected to increase faster than the
average for all occupations through
the mid-1980’s. Many new posi­
tions will come from the expansion
of community mental health cen­
ters, and growth of the newer social
work services such as drug and al­
cohol abuse counseling and city and
policy planning. Also, as the occu­
pational structure of the economy
continues to change, problems may
be created for unskilled and dis­
placed workers. This, coupled with
the problems caused by social
change, is expected to maintain a
strong demand for persons in the
social service field.

Earnings and Working
Salaries for social workers at all
levels vary greatly by type of agency
(private or public, Federal, State,
or local) and geographic region.
Salaries are generally highest in
large cities and in States with siza­
ble urban populations. In 1974, so­
cial workers with a bachelor’s
degree usually started at about
$8,000-$8,500; with a master’s
degree, between $9,500 and
$11,000. Salaries for experienced
MSW social workers averaged
$12,000-15,000 a year. Private
practitioners and those in adminis­
tration, teaching, and research
often earn considerably more.
In the Federal Government, so­
cial workers with an MSW and no
experience usually started at about
$10,500 in late 1974. Graduates
with an MSW and no work ex­
perience may start at $12,800 if
they are well qualified for the posi­
tion; with an MSW and 1 year of ex­
perience, usually at $12,800; with
an MSW and 2 years of experience,
at almost $15,500.
Men and women without gradu­
ate training in social work are
generally limited in the advance­
ment opportunities available to

them, since most supervisory and
administrative positions are staffed
by master’s degree recipients.
Most social workers have a 5day, 35-40-hour week. However,
many, particularly in private agen­
cies, work part time. In some agen­
cies, the nature of the duties
weekend work, for which com­
pensatory time off is given. Most so­

cial work agencies provide fringe
benefits such as paid vacation, sick
leave, and retirement plans.

Sources of Additional
For information about career op­
portunities in the various fields of
social work, contact:

National Association of Social Workers,
15th and H St. NW„ 600 Southern
Building, Washington, D.C. 20005.

Information on accredited gradu­
ate and undergraduate college pro­
grams in social work is available
Council on Social Work Education, 345 East
46th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.


The performing arts include
music, acting, singing, and the
dance. In these fields, the number
of talented persons seeking employ­
ment generally greatly exceeds the
number of full-time positions
available. As a result, many per­
formers supplement their incomes
by teaching, and others work much
of the time in different types of
The difficulty of earning a living
as a performer is one fact young
persons should remember when
they consider such a career. They
should consider, therefore, the
possible advantages of making their
art a hobby rather than a profes­
sion. Aspiring young artists usually
must spend many years in intensive
training and practice before they
are ready for public performances.
They not only need great natural
talent but also determination, a
willingness to work long and hard,
and an overwhelming interest in
their chosen field, and some luck.
The statements which follow this
introduction give detailed informa­
tion on musicians, singers, actors,
and dancers.

(D.O.T. 150.028 and 150.048)

Nature of the Work
Making a character come to life
before an audience is a job that has

In addition to the actors and ac­
“extras,” who have no lines to
deliver, are used in various ways in
almost all motion pictures and
many television shows and theatre
productions, a large number of ex­
tras take part in crowd scenes.
Some actors find alternative jobs
as coaches of drama or directors of
stage, television, radio, or motion
pictures productions. A few teach
in drama departments of colleges
and universities.

Places of Employment

great glamour and fascination. This
demanding work requires special
talent and involves many difficulties
and uncertanties.
Only a few actors and actresses
achieve recognition as stars on the
stage, in motion pictures, or on
television or radio. A somewhat
larger number are well-known, ex­
frequently are cast in supporting
roles. However, most actors and ac­
tresses struggle for a toehold in the
profession, and are glad to pick up
parts wherever they can.
New actors generally start in
“bit” parts where they speak only a
few lines. If successful, they may
progress to larger, supporting roles,
of which there are several in most
stage, television, and screen
productions. They also may serve as
understudies for the principals.
Actors who prepare for stage,
rehearse many hours. They must
memorize their lines and know their

About 10,000 actors and ac­
tresses work in stage plays, motion
pictures (including films made
especially for television), industrial
shows and commercials.
In the winter, most employment
opportunities on the stage are in
New York and other large cities.
About 400 actors and actresses
worked on Broadway in 1974. In the
summer, stock companies in subur­
ban and resort areas provide em­
ployment. In addition, many cities
now have—“little theatres,” reper­
tory companies and dinner theatres,
which provide opportunities for
local talent as well as for profes­
sional actors and actresses. Nor­
mally plays are produced and casts
selected in New York City for
shows that go “on the road.”
Employment in motion pictures
and film television is essentially
centered in Hollywood and New
York City, although a few studios
are located in Miami and other
parts of the country. In addition,
many films are shot on location,
and employ local nonprofessionals
as “extras.” A number of Amer­
ican-produced films are being shot
in foreign countries. In television,
most opportunities for actors are at
the headquarters of the major net­
works—in New York, Los Angeles,
and, to a lesser extent, Chicago. A
few local television stations occa­
sionally employ actors.

Training, and Other
Young persons who aspire to act­
ing careers should take part in high
school and college plays, or work
with little theatres and other acting
groups for experience.
Formal training in acting which is
increasingly necessary, can be ob­
tained at dramatic art schools,
located chiefly in New York, and in
more than 1,600 colleges and
universities throughout the country.
College drama curriculums usually
include courses in liberal arts,
playwriting, play production, and
history of the drama, as well as
practical courses in acting. From
these, the student develops an ap­
preciation of the great plays and a
greater understanding of the roles
he may be called on to play. Gradu­
ate degrees in fine arts or drama are
needed for college teaching posi­
Acting demands patience and
total commitment, since aspiring
actors and actresses must wait for
parts or filming schedules, work
long hours, and often do much
traveling. Flawless performances
require long rehearsal schedules
and the tedious memorizing of
lines. The actor needs stamina to
withstand the heat of stage or studio
lights, or the adverse weather con­
ditions which may exist “on loca­
tion.” Above all, young persons
who plan to pursue an acting career
must have talent and the creative
ability to portray different charac­
ters. They must have poise, stage
presence, and aggressiveness to
project themselves to the audience.
At the same time, the ability to fol­
low directions is important.
In all media, the best way to start
is to use local opportunities and to
build on the basis of such ex­
perience. Many actors successful in
local productions eventually try to
appear on the New York stage. In­
experienced actors find it extremely
difficult to obtain employment in

New York or Hollywood particu­
larly in the motion picture field
where employment often results
from previous experience on
To become a movie extra, one
must usually be listed by Central
Casting, a no-fee agency which
works with the Screen Extras Guild
and supplies all extras to the major
movie studios in Hollywood. Appli­
cants are accepted only when the
number of persons of a particular
type on the list—for example,
athletic young men, old ladies, or
small children—is below the
foreseeable need. In recent years,
only a very small proportion of the
total number of applicants have
succeeded in being listed. Extras
have very little opportunity to ad­
vance to speaking roles.
The length of an actor’s or ac­
tresses’ working life depends largely
on skill and versatility. Great actors
and actresses can work almost in­
definitely. On the other hand, em­
ployment becomes increasingly
limited by middle age, especially for
those who become typed in roman­
tic, youthful roles. Due to the fac­
tors disccussed, persons who intend
to pursue an acting career may find
unstable employment conditions
and financial pressures.

Employment Outlook
Overcrowding has existed in the

acting field for many years and this
condition is expected to persist. In
the legitimate theater, motion pic­
tures, radio, and television, job ap­
plicants greatly exceed the jobs
available. Moreover, many actors
are employed in their profession for
only a part of the year.
Motion pictures and TV have
greatly reduced employment oppor­
tunities for actors in the theater.
Although a motion picture produc­
tion may use a very large number of
actors, during filming, films are
widely distributed and may be used
for years. Also, some Americanproduced films are shot in foreign

countries resulting in reduced em­
ployment opportunites for Amer­
ican actors and actresses. Televi­
sion employs a large number of ac­
tors on TV programs and commer­
cials. However, employment on this
media has been reduced by the
FCC ruling that decreased major
TV network prime time pro­
gramming. Local stations often sub­
stitute with low cost game shows
that employ few actors or reruns.
Also, the trend toward 1 to 2-hour
programs, and more reruns shor­
tens the period of employment and
reduces the number of persons
One possibility for future growth
in the legitimate theater lies in the
establishment of year-round profes­
sional acting companies in cities.
The number of such acting groups
is growing. The recent growth of
summer and winter stock compa­
nies, outdoor and regional theatre,
repertory companies, and dinner
theaters also has increased employ­
ment opportunities. Dinner theatres
represent the fastest growing area
of employment in the country for
actors. Also, a possible growth in
“Off-Broadway” theatre could
result from the recent seating
capacity expansion. In addition,
some increases may be likely in the
employment of actors on television
in response to expansion of the
Public Broadcasting System, UHF
stations, and cable TV. The
development and wider use of video
cassettes also may result in some
employment opportunities. These
media will have a positive influence
on employment if original material
and programs result, not reruns or
old movies.
Though the field of acting as a
whole is expected to grow faster
than the average for all occupa­
tions, through the mid-1980’s, the
number of persons who want to
enter the profession is expected to
be greater than employment oppor­
tunities. Even highly talented young
people are likely to face stiff com­
petition and economic difficulties.

Earnings and Working
Actors and actresses in the legiti­
mate theater belong to the Actors’
Equity Association, in motion pic­
tures, including television films, to
the Screen Actors Guild, Inc., or to
the Screen Extras Guild, Inc., in
television or radio, to the American
Federation of Television and Radio
Artists (AFTRA). These unions
and the show producers sign basic
collective bargaining agreements
which set minimum salaries, hours
of work, and other conditions of
employment. Each actor also signs
a separate contract which may pro­
vide for higher salaries than those
specified in the basic agreement.
The minimum weekly salary for
actors in Broadway productions
was about $245 in 1974. Those in
small “off-Broadway” theaters
received a minimum of $137.50 to
$210 a week depending on the
theater’s gross receipts. For shows
on the road, the minimum rate was
about $347.50 a week. (All
minimum salaries are adjusted up­
ward automatically, by union con­
tract, commensurate with increases
in the cost of living as reflected in
the Bureau of Labor Statistics Con­
su m er P ric e In d e x .)

well-known actors and actresses
have salary rates above the
minimums. Salaries of the few top
stars are many times the figures
Eight performances amount to a
week’s work on the legitimate
stage, and any additional per­
formances are paid for as overtime.
After the show opens, the basic
workweek is 36 hours, including 12
hours for rehearsals. Before it
opens, however, the workweek
usually is longer to allow time for
rehearsals. Evening work is, of
course, a regular part of a stage
actor’s life. Rehearsals may be held
late at night and on weekends and
holidays. When plays are on the
road, weekend traveling often is
Most actors are covered by a
pension fund and a growing number
have hospitalization insurance to
which employers contribute. All
Equity and AFTRA members have
paid vacations and sick leave. Most
stage actors get little if any unem­
ployment compensation solely from
acting since they seldom have
enough employment in any State to
meet the eligibility requirements.
Consequently, when a show closes,
and while waiting for another role
they often have to take any casual
work obtainable.

In 1974, motion picture and
television actors and actresses
earned a minimum daily rate of
Sources of Additional
$172.50, or $604 for a 5-day week.
For extras, the minimum rate was
$46 a day. Actors and actresses
Information on colleges and
who did not work on prime time universities and conservatories
network television received a which offer a major in drama is
minimum program fee of about available from:
$203.50 for a single half-hour pro­ American Educational Theater Association,
gram and 8 hours of rehearsal time.
1317 F St. NW„ Washington, D.C.
Because of the frequent periods of
unemployment, characteristic of
this profession, annual earnings
may be low for many lesser-known
performers. According to a recent (D.O.T. 151.028 and 151.048)
survey by the Screen Actors Guild,
Nature of the Work
three-quarters of their members
earned less than $3,500 a year; only
Dancing is an ancient and world­
3 percent earned more than
$25,000 a year. In all fields, many wide art that has many different

forms. Professional dancers may
perform in classical ballet or
modern dance, in dance adapta­
tions for musical shows, in folk
dances, and in other popular kinds
of dancing. In classical ballet,
movements are based on certain
conventional or styled “positions,”
and women dance “en point” (on
the tips of their toes). In modern
dance, movements are more varied
but are nonetheless carefully
planned and executed to follow a
In dance productions, performers
most often work as a corps de ballet
(chorus). However, a group of
selected dancers may do special
numbers, and a very few top artists
do solo work.
Many dancers combine stage
work with full-time teaching. The
few dancers who become choreog­
raphers create new ballet or dance
routines. Others are dance directors
who train dancers in new produc­
(This section does not include in­
structors of ballroom, American or
international folk dance and other
social dancing.)

Places of Employment
About 7,000 dancers worked on
the stage, screen, and television in
1974. Many more teach at schools

About 200 colleges and universi­
ties confer bachelor’s degrees on
students who have majored in
physical education and concen­
trated on the dance; majored in a
dance; or majored in a dance pro­
gram to prepare students as profes­
sional dance artists. Some schools
also give graduate degrees.
A college education is an ad­
vantage in obtaining employment as
a teacher of professional dancing or
choreography. However, ballet
dancers who postpone their first