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EMPLOYMENT
STATISTICS,
1 9 6 0 - 6 7

BULLETIN 1643
U.S. DEPARTMENT
OF LABOR
Bureau of
Labor Statistics
1970

Dayton & Montgomery Co,
Public Library







OCCUPATIONAL
EMPLOYMENT
STATISTICS,
1 9 6 0 - 6 7

BULLETIN 1643
U.S. DEPARTMENT
OFLA BOR

George R Shultz,
Secretary
BUREAU OF
LABOR STATISTICS
Geoffrey H. Moore,
Commissioner

1970

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 50 cents




PREFACE
T h is b u lle tin is th e t h ir d in a se rie s o f b u lle tin s a n d r e p o r ts . I t c o v e rs
t h e p e r io d 1 9 6 0 t h r o u g h 1 9 6 7 . T h e f ir s t tw o p u b lic a tio n s , Occupational
Employment Statistics, Sources and Data ( R e p o r t 3 0 5 , J u n e 1 9 6 6 ) a n d Oc­
cupational Employment Statistics 1960-66 ( B u lle tin 1 5 7 9 , J a n u a r y 1 9 6 8 ) ,
t o g e t h e r p r e s e n te d i n f o r m a t io n o n o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t s ta tis tic s f r o m
1 9 4 7 t o 1 9 6 6 . T h e p u r p o s e o f th is b u lle tin is tw o f o l d . F i r s t , t o p ro v id e a
h a n d y r e fe r e n c e t o th e v a rio u s s o u rc e s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t s ta tis tic s
a n d s e c o n d , t o m a k e a v a ila b le in o n e p la c e th e m o r e r e c e n t firg u re s o n
m a jo r o c c u p a tio n s . T h is i n f o r m a tio n s h o u ld b e u s e fu l t o th e e v e r-in c re a s in g
n u m b e r o f r e s e a rc h e rs a n d s t u d e n ts o f t h e m a n p o w e r a n d e m p lo y m e n t f r a t e r n it y
c o n c e r n e d w ith t h e c h a n g in g o c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n o f th e la b o r fo rc e a n d
its im p lic a tio n s f o r tr a in in g p r o g r a m s , c o u n s e lin g , a n d m a n p o w e r p o lic y .
T h is b u lle tin w a s p r e p a r e d in th e B u r e a u ’s O ffic e o f M a n p o w e r
and E m ­
p lo y m e n t S ta tis tic s b y D o u g la s F . S c h m u d e u n d e r th e s u p e rv is io n o f R ic h a r d
E . D e m p s e y . G e o rg e S ilv e s tri d e v e lo p e d th e o c c u p a tio n a l m a tr ix s e g m e n t a n d
A r t h u r G a rta g a n is p r o v id e d te c h n ic a l a s s is ta n c e t o th e b u lle tin .




iii




CONTENTS
Page
C h a p te r s :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

I n t r o d u c t i o n .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1
S u m m a r y o f o c c u p a tio n a l c h a n g e s b e tw e e n 1 9 6 0 a n d 1 9 6 7 ................................................................................................ 1 0
T h e B L S in d u s tr y - o c c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y m e n t m a t r i x a n d i ts u s e in e s tim a tin g c u r r e n t
o c c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y m e n t le v e ls . .......................................................................................................................................................... 13
S o u rc e s o f in d u s t r y o c c u p a tio n a l p a tt e r n s ......................................................................................................................................... 1 7
E m p lo y m e n t d a ta f o r s e le c te d p r o f e s s io n a l o c c u p a t i o n s ........................................................................................................ 18
E m p lo y m e n t o f te a c h e r s a n d l ib r a r i a n s ...........................................................................................................................................................2 0
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t d a ta f r o m r e g u la te d i n te r s t a te i n d u s t r i e s ...........................................................................2 2
E m p lo y m e n t in e n g in e e rin g , s c ie n tif ic , a n d te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s in p r iv a te i n d u s t r y ..................................2 5
E m p lo y m e n t o f e n g in e e rs , s c ie n tis ts , a n d te c h n ic ia n s b y u n iv e rs itie s a n d c o lle g e s a n d
b y s c ie n tif ic a n d r e s e a r c h n o n p r o f i t o r g a n iz a tio n s . . . ........................................................................................................ 3 3
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t in F e d e r a l a n d S ta te g o v e r n m e n t ................................................................................................3 7

T a b le s :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

N u m b e r o f e m p lo y e d p e r s o n s b y o c c u p a ti o n a n d i n d u s t r y , 1 6 y e a r s o f ag e a n d o ld e r ,
1 9 6 0 a n d 1 9 6 7 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4
E s tim a te d d i s t r ib u t i o n f o r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in t h e c o m m u n ic a tio n s e q u ip m e n t i n d u s t r y ,
e x c e p t t e le p h o n e a n d te le g r a p h (S IC 3 6 6 2 ) , S e p te m b e r 1 9 6 7 a n d S e p te m b e r 1 9 6 8 ............................. 16
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t d a ta a v a ila b le f r o m p r o f e s s io n a l a s s o c ia tio n s , 1 9 6 0 -6 8
.................................... 19
E m p lo y m e n t o f te a c h e r s a n d lib r a r ia n s in fa ll o f s c h o o l y e a r , 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 t h r o u g h 1 9 6 7 -6 8 ...................... 21
E m p lo y m e n t in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s , r e g u la te d i n te r s t a te in d u s tr ie s , 1 9 6 0 -6 7 ................................................... 2 4
E m p lo y m e n t o f e n g in e e rs b y i n d u s t r y , a s o f J a n u a r y 1 9 6 1 -6 7 ......................................................................................... 2 7
E m p lo y m e n t o f s c ie n tis ts b y i n d u s t r y , a s o f J a n u a r y 1 9 6 1 - 6 7 ......................................................................................... 2 8
E m p lo y m e n t o f te c h n ic ia n s b y i n d u s t r y , a s o f J a n u a r y 1 9 6 1 -6 7 .................................................................................... 2 9
E m p lo y m e n t o f s c ie n tis ts b y o c c u p a ti o n a n d in d u s t r y , a s o f J a n u a r y 1 9 6 7 ....................................................... 3 0
E m p lo y m e n t o f t e c h n ic ia n s b y o c c u p a ti o n a n d i n d u s t r y , a s o f J a n u a r y 1 9 6 7 ................................................... 31
M in im u m e m p l o y m e n t siz e o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts b y in d u s t r y c o v e re d b y 1 9 6 1 - 6 7 s u r v e y s ..................................3 2
E m p l o y m e n t o f e n g in e e rs a n d s c ie n tis ts b y u n iv e r s itie s a n d c o lle g e s , a s o f J a n u a r y 1 9 6 5 ....................... 3 4
E m p lo y m e n t o f e n g in e e rs a n d s c ie n tis ts b y u n iv e rs itie s a n d c o lle g e s , a s o f J a n u a r y 1 9 6 7 ....................... 3 5
E m p lo y m e n t o f te c h n ic ia n s b y u n iv e rs itie s a n d c o lle g e s , a s o f J a n u a r y 1 9 6 5 a n d J a n u a r y 1 9 6 7 . . 3 6
E m p lo y m e n t o f e n g in e e rs , s c ie n tis ts , a n d te c h n ic ia n s b y i n d e p e n d e n t n o n p r o f i t in s t it u t io n s ,
a s o f J a n u a r y l 9 6 5 a n d J a n u a r y 1 9 6 7 ............................................................................................................................................. 3 6
F e d e r a l e m p l o y m e n t in s e le c te d w h ite - c o lla r o c c u p a tio n s , a s o f O c to b e r 1 9 6 4 , O c t o b e r 1 9 6 6 ,
a n d O c to b e r 1 9 6 7 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 8
E m p lo y m e n t i n s e le c te d P o s t O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s , a s o f O c to b e r 1 9 6 0 -6 7 ........................................................... 4 2
E m p lo y m e n t o f s c ie n tif ic , p r o f e s s io n a l, a n d te c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l b y S ta te g o v e r n m e n ts ,
a s o f J a n u a r y 1 9 6 4 a n d J a n u a r y 1 9 6 7 ................................................................................................................................................. 4 2




v




OCCUPATIONAL EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS 1960-67
C hapter 1. Introduction
T h e n e e d f o r re lia b le a n d t im e ly s ta tis tic s o n
th e o c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n o f t h e w o r k fo rc e
h a s lo n g b e e n r e c o g n iz e d . N e a rly th r e e d e c a d e s
a g o A lb a E d w a rd s p e r f o r m e d a v ita l r o le in
f o c u s in g a t t e n t i o n o n o c c u p a tio n a l s ta tis tic s a n d
h is in f lu e n c e w a s la rg e ly re s p o n s ib le f o r t h e im ­
p r o v e m e n ts a n d e x p a n d e d u s e o f t h e o c c u p a tio n a l
d a ta c o lle c te d i n t h e d e c e n n ia l c e n s u s e s o f 1 9 5 0
a n d 1 9 6 0 . In 1 9 4 0 , h e s t a te d th e fo llo w in g
e v a l u a t i o n t h a t e m p h a s iz e s th e e c o n o m ic a n d
s o c ia l im p o r ta n c e o f i n f o r m a t io n o n o c c u p a tio n a l
e m p lo y m e n t:

The most nearly dominant single influence in a
man’s life is probably his occupation. More than
anything else, perhaps, a man’s occupation de­
termines his course and his contribution in life.
And when life’s span is ended, quite likely there
is no other single set of facts that will tell so
well the kind of man he was and the part he
played in life as will a detailed and chronological
statement of the occupation or occupations he
pursued. Indeed, there is no other single character­
istic that tells so much abouta man and his
status— social, intellectual, and economic— as does
his occupation. A man’s occupation not only tells,
for each workday, what he does during one-half
of his waking hours, but it indicates, with some
degree of accuracy, his manner of life during the
other half— the kind of house he will live in,
and even, to some extent, the kind of food he
will eat. And, usually, it indicates, in some
degree, the cultural level of his family. In similar
manner there probably is no single set of closely
related facts that tell so much about a nation as
do detailed statistics of the occupations of its
workers. The occupations of a people influence
directly their lives, their customs, their institu­
tions— indeed, their very numbers. In fact, the
social and economic status of a people is largely
determined by the social and the economic status
of its gainful workers. And, were the figures
available, the social and industrial history of a
people might be traced more accurately through
detailed statistics of the occupations of its gainful
workers than through records of its wars, its terri­
torial conquests, and its political struggles. 1

1 Alba M. Edwards, Comparative Occupation Statistics
for the United States, 1870 to 1940, Washington, D.C.,

W h a t la te r o b s e rv e rs h a v e n o t e d is t h a t th e
N a t io n ’s e c o n o m ic g r o w th d e p e n d s g re a tly u p o n
t h e w a y i t t r a i n s a n d u s e s its m a n p o w e r
re s o u r c e s . T h is d e v e lo p m e n t c u lm in a te d in r e c e n t




le g is la tio n in th e v o c a tio n a l e d u c a tio n fie ld s w h ic h
s p e c ific a lly c a lls f o r th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f e s tim a te s
o f o c c u p a tio n a l m a n p o w e r r e q u ir e m e n ts a s a b a s ic
t o o l i n p l a n n i n g v o c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s . I t is
o b v io u s t h a t i f f u tu r e o c c u p a tio n a l m a n p o w e r r e ­
q u ir e m e n ts a re t o b e p r e p a r e d in a r e lia b le m a n ­
n e r , o c c u p a tio n a l d a ta a re n e e d e d m o r e o f t e n
t h a n o n c e in 1 0 y e a r s , a n d w ith a d e g re e o f
d e t a i l m e a n i n g f u l t o v o c a tio n a l tr a in in g a n d
e d u c a t i o n s p e c ia lis ts . U n f o r t u n a te ly , th e p r e s e n t
s o u rc e s o f o c c u p a tio n a l s ta tis tic s a re in a d e q u a te
t o m e e t th e s e d e m a n d s . H o w e v e r, t h e B u re a u is
m a k i n g a v a ila b le w h a t i n f o r m a t io n it p o s s e s s e s
a n d is h e lp in g F e d e r a l, S t a te , a n d lo c a l m a n ­
p o w e r a g e n c ie s t o m a k e m a x im u m u se o f th e s e
d a t a .2
T h e te r m “ o c c u p a ti o n ” a s u s e d in th is b u lle tin
m e a n s a n a g g re g a tio n o f s im ila r ty p e s o f w o r k .
A t th e b r o a d e s t le v e l it m a y m e a n a g ro u p in g
o f a ll p r o f e s s io n a l a n d te c h n ic a l j o b s in a ll th e
s k ille d c r a f ts ; a t a m o r e d e ta ile d le v e l it m a y
m e a n a ll th e e n g in e e rin g jo b s o r a ll t h e m e ta lw o rk in g
c r a f ts . A t a fa irly s p e c ific le v e l it m a y m e a n a
d is tin c t o c c u p a ti o n — a n e le c tr ic a l e n g in e e r o r a
p a tt e r n m a k e r . I n g e n e ra l, it is th e sa m e u se o f
th e te r m a s is f o u n d in th e d e c e n n ia l c e n s u s o f
p o p u l a t i o n , b u t n o t all th e o c c u p a tio n s s h o w n in
th is b u lle tin w e re s h o w n s e p a r a te ly in th e 1 9 6 0
c e n s u s p u b lic a tio n s , f o r e x a m p le , “ lin e , c a b le a n d
c o n d u it c r a f t s m e n .”
T h e te r m o c c u p a ti o n in e m p l o y m e n t s t a ­
t i s t i c s r e f e r s t o t h e j o b a t w h i c h a p e r s o n is
w o r k i n g r a t h e r t h a n th e s p e c ia lty , c r a f t , o r
d is c ip lin e f o r w h ic h h e c o n s id e r s h im s e lf b e s t
tr a i n e d . T h u s , a p e r s o n t r a in e d a s a s o c io lo g is t
b u t w h o w a s r e p o r te d t o b e w o r k in g a s a sa le s­
m a n is c la s s ifie d w ith sa le s j o b s r a th e r t h a n w ith
p r o f e s s io n a l j o b s .

1943. (U.S. Bureau of Census, Sixteenth Census of the
U.S.: 1940, Population.)
2 Tomorrow’s Manpower Needs (Bulletin 1606, Washing­
ton, D.C.), February 1969.

1

M a n y o f t h e e s tim a te s in ta b le 1 w e r e d e riv e d
d ir e c tly o r i n d ir e c tl y f r o m 1 9 6 0 c e n s u s s ta tis tic s ,
b u t h a v e b e e n u p d a te d b y a v a r ie ty o f t e c h ­
n i q u e s so a s t o r e f le c t t h e o c c u p a tio n a l a n d
i n d u s t r i a l t r e n d s . O v e r a l l c o n tr o ls f o r th e
e s tim a te s a t t h e b r o a d e s t o c c u p a tio n a l le v e ls w e re
o b t a i n e d f r o m h o u s e h o ld - ty p e d a ta c o lle c te d in
t h e m o n th l y s a m p le s u rv e y o f th e la b o r f o r c e .
A t t h e d e t a i l e d l e v e l s , a ty p ic a l p r o c e d u r e
i n v o l v e d t h e a p p lic a tio n o f o c c u p a tio n a l r a t i o s 3
t o c u r r e n t i n d u s tr ia l e m p l o y m e n t s ta tis tic s . In
o t h e r w o r d s , c u r r e n t ( 1 9 6 7 ) e s tim a te s o f e m p l o y ­
m e n t b y i n d u s t r y , k n o w n t o b e h ig h ly a c c u r a te ,
w e r e u s e d a s w e ig h ts a g a in s t w h ic h t h e s p e c ific
o c c u p a tio n a l r a tio s w e re a p p lie d . F o llo w in g th is
p r o c e d u r e o c c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s tim a te s a re
m a d e in e a c h in d u s t r y a n d t h e r e s u lts s u m m e d
t o n a tio n a l t o ta l s . (S e e d is c u s s io n in c h a p t e r 3 .)
V a r io u s s o u r c e s o f d a ta o t h e r t h a n t h e c e n s u s
w e re u tiliz e d w h e n t h e y a p p e a r e d t o b e r e lia b le ,
a n d th e s e s o u r c e s a re p r e s e n te d in l a t e r c h a p te r s .
A s a g e n e ra l r u le , d a ta o n o c c u p a tio n s c o lle c te d
d ir e c tly f r o m e m p lo y in g o r g a n iz a tio n s a re c o n s id e r ­
e d p r e f e r a b l e , i f m in im u m s ta tis tic a l s ta n d a r d s
h a v e b e e n o b s e r v e d . T h is p r e f e r e n c e is b a s e d o n
t h e a s s u m p tio n t h a t j o b f u n c ti o n s a re c r e a te d b y
t h e e m p lo y e r a n d t h e r e f o r e , a re b e s t k n o w n t o
h im . I f w e w e r e in te r e s t e d p r im a r ily in t h e c r a f t
o r d is c ip lin e f o r
w h ic h a p e r s o n h a s b e e n t r a i n ­
e d , th e p e rso n
h im s e lf w o u ld b e
th e lo g ic a l
so u rc e .
F o r th is r e a s o n , t h e c e n s u s d a ta
a re
c o n s id e r e d m e r e ly a “ p r o x y ” f o r t h e t y p e o f
in f o r m a t io n w h ic h t h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s
(B L S ) is t r y in g t o d e v e lo p f o r o c c u p a tio n s . S in c e
t h e o v e ra ll c o n tr o ls f o r th e e s tim a te s a t th e
b r o a d e s t o c c u p a tio n a l le v e ls w e re o b t a i n e d f r o m
h o u s e h o ld s , t h e y
m a y o r m a y n o t r e f le c t th e
a c tu a l j o b s a s m ig h t b e r e p o r te d b y e m p lo y e r s .
Som e
o f t h e s ta tis tic s
in th is b u lle tin a re
o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e B u r e a u ’s o w n d i r e c t c o lle c tio n
p r o g r a m s , w h ic h a re e x p e c te d t o c o v e r m o r e
in d u s tr ie s a n d o c c u p a tio n s in th e f u t u r e . In th e
p a s t , th is w o r k h a s b e e n m o s tly in t h e s c ie n tific
a n d e n g in e e r in g p r o f e s s io n s ( c h a p t e r 8 ) b u t in
1 9 6 8 i t w a s e x te n d e d t o b lu e - c o lla r a n d o t h e r
j o b s in s o m e m a n u f a c tu r in g in d u s tr ie s ( c h a p t e r 4 ) .
T a b le 1 p r e s e n ts t h e f u ll o c c u p a tio n a l d e ta il
o f t h e 1 9 6 0 a n d 1 9 6 7 i n d u s tr y - o c c u p a tio n a l e m ­
p l o y m e n t m a tr ic e s a t th e b r o a d in d u s t r y le v e l.
T h e in d u s t r y e m p lo y m e n t e s tim a te s p r e s e n te d in
t h e m a t r i x a re b a s e d o n th e t o ta l e m p lo y m e n t
concept
a n d d if f e r in th is r e s p e c t f r o m o t h e r
B L S e m p l o y m e n t d a ta . In a d d it i o n t o p riv a te
2



w a g e a n d s a la ry e m p l o y m e n t , th e m a t r i x i n ­
d u s tr ie s a ls o in c lu d e s e lf - e m p lo y e d p e r s o n s , u n p a id
f a m i l y w o r k e r s , a n d F e d e r a l, S t a te , a n d lo c a l
g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in a c tiv itie s h a v in g
c o u n t e r p a r t s in p r iv a te i n d u s t r y
( f o r e x a m p le ,
F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t e m p lo y e e s a t n a v a l s h ip y a r d s
a re in c lu d e d in t h e m a t r i x d u r a b le g o o d s i n ­
d u s t r y ) . O n ly g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s in v o lv e d in
a c tiv itie s u n iq u e t o g o v e r n m e n t a re c la s s ifie d i n to
t h e p u b lic a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n d u s t r y . T h e m a tr ix
e s tim a te s a re a ls o a d ju s te d t o e x c lu d e t h e s e c o n d ­
a r y j o b s o f m u ltip le j o b h o ld e r s .
In t h e p re v io u s e d it i o n o f th is b u l le t in , a n n u a l
a v e ra g e s o f e m p l o y m e n t f o r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s
f r o m t h e m o n th l y h o u s e h o ld s u rv e y w e re p r e s e n t ­
e d . T h e s e d a ta a re n o t in c lu d e d in th is e d itio n
sin c e m o r e d e ta il c a n b e o b t a i n e d f r o m ta b le 1.
C h a p te r 3 is d e v o te d t o a d e ta ile d d e s c r ip tio n o f
th e i n d u s tr y - o c c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y m e n t m a t r i x .
C a u tio n s h o u ld b e e x e r c is e d w h e n c o m p a r in g
th e 1 9 6 0 a n d
1 9 6 7 o c c u p a tio n a l e s tim a te s w ith in
t h e m a jo r in d u s t r y g r o u p s in ta b le 1 . S m a ll
c h a n g e s b e tw e e n 1 9 6 0 a n d 1 9 6 7 e s tim a te s s h o u ld
n o t c o n v e y th e n o t i o n o f g e n e ra l r e lia b ility b u t
r a t h e r s h o u l d , i n d ic a te t h e g e n e ra l le v e l a n d
p o s itio n th e e s tim a te s h o l d in r e la ti o n t o th e
o t h e r o c c u p a tio n a l e s tim a te s w ith in t h e m a jo r i n ­
d u s t r y g r o u p s . In g e n e r a l, th e s m a lle r th e o c ­
c u p a tio n a l e s tim a te s th e le s s th e r e lia b ility . S m a ll
o c c u p a tio n a l e s tim a te s d e riv e d in d e p e n d e n tl y f r o m
h ig h ly r e lia b le s o u rc e s w o u ld b e m o r e re lia b le
t h a n th o s e w h ic h w e re n o t . 4 O b v io u s ly , p r o c e ­
d u r a l f a c to r s ,
s u c h a s r o u n d in g , h a v e a g r e a te r
e ffe c t u p o n a
s m a ll o c c u p a tio n a l e s tim a te a n d its
c h a n g e t h a n u p o n a la rg e o c c u p a tio n a l e s tim a te .
T h e B u r e a u ’s s t a f f w ill a n s w e r a n y in q u ir ie s
re g a rd in g th e r e lia b ility o f s p e c ific o c c u p a tio n a l
e s tim a te s .
T a b l e 2 p r e s e n ts c o m p r e h e n s iv e o c c u p a tio n a l
d a t a o n a s p e c ific in d u s t r y c o lle c te d d ir e c tly
f r o m e m p lo y e r s b y B L S th r o u g h a m a il s u rv e y .
T h is ta b le c o n ta in s th e r e s u lts o f t h e S e p te m b e r
1 9 6 7 a n d 1 9 6 8 s u rv e y s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y m e n t
in t h e c o m m u n ic a tio n e q u ip m e n t i n d u s t r y , e x c e p t
te le p h o n e a n d te le g ra p h . C e r ta in o c c u p a tio n s w e re
s u b je c t t o a r e la tiv e ly h ig h d e g re e o f s a m p lin g e r r o r ;
t h e r e f o r e , t h e e m p l o y m e n t d a ta s h o u ld b e u s e d w ith

3 The ratio is represented by a fraction, the numerator
being the employment in a given occupation in a given
industry, and the denominator being the total employ­
ment in all occupations in that industry.
4 For example, engineers, scientists, and technicians data
used from the 1960 and 1967 surveys of scientific and
technical personnel in industry.

c a u t i o n . P r e lim in a r y a n a ly s is s h o w e d n o s ig n ific ia n t
re s p o n s e e r r o r .
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y m e n t d a ta f o r se v e n h e a l t h
o c c u p a ti o n s , r e g is te re d a r c h ite c ts a n d f o r e s te r s a re
p r e s e n te d in ta b le 3 . T h e s e d a ta a re n o t s u b je c t
t o s a m p lin g e r r o r sin c e th e d a ta , e x c e p t w h e re
i n d i c a t e d , a re b a s e d u p o n lic e n s u re d a ta a n d
m e m b e r s h i p r e c o r d s o f p r o f e s s io n a l s o c ie tie s .
R e s p o n s e e r r o r is g e n e ra lly s m a ll.
T a b l e s 4 th r o u g h 1 0 a n d 1 2 t h r o u g h 18
p r e s e n t o c c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y m e n t d a ta c o lle c te d
fro m
i n d u s t r y e s ta b lis h m e n ts . T h e s e d a ta m a y
d if f e r s o m e w h a t f r o m s im ila r o c c u p a tio n a l e s ti­
m a te s s h o w n in ta b le 1 b e c a u s e o f tim e p e r io d
d if f e r e n c e , e lim in a tio n o f d o u b le c o u n ti n g , a n d
v a r io u s o t h e r m in o r a d ju s tm e n ts t o in s u re d a ta
c o m p a r a b ility in t h e i n d u s tr y - o c c u p a tio n a l m a tr ic e s .
T a b le 4 p r e s e n ts d a ta o n e le m e n ta r y a n d s e c o n d ­
a r y s c h o o l te a c h e r s in p u b lic a n d n o n p u b lic
s c h o o ls a s w e ll a s c o lle g e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t a f f a n d
lib r a r ia n s . O c c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y m e n t s ta tis tic s f o r




th e r e g u l a r i n d u s t r i e s , s u c h a s a i r l i n e s , r a il­
r o a d s , a n d te le p h o n e c o m m u n ic a tio n s a re s h o w n
in ta b le 5 . T a b le s 6 th r o u g h 1 0 s h o w e m p l o y ­
m e n t s ta tis tic s f o r e n g in e e rs , s c ie n tis ts , a n d t e c h ­
n ic ia n s b y i n d u s t r y a n d o c c u p a ti o n d u r in g t h e
p e r io d 1 9 6 1 t h r o u g h 1 9 6 7 . T a b le s 1 2 t h r o u g h 15
s h o w e m p lo y m e n t in s e le c te d p r o f e s s io n a l a n d
t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a tio n s b y u n iv e rs itie s a n d o t h e r
r e s e a rc h o r g a n iz a tio n s in 1 9 6 5 a n d 1 9 6 7 . W h ite c o lla r e m p l o y m e n t b y o c c u p a tio n in t h e F e d e r a l
G o v e r n m e n t e x c lu d in g th e P o s t O f f ic e , is p r e s e n t ­
e d in ta b le 1 6 . T a b le 17 g iv es d a ta f o r th e
P o s t O f f i c e s e p a r a t e l y . T a b le 1 8 s h o w s o c ­
c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t d a ta in S ta te g o v e r n m e n ts
fo r Ja n u a ry 1 9 6 4 an d Ja n u a ry 1 967.
A d d i t i o n a l o c c u p a tio n a l i n f o r m a t io n w ill b e
f o r th c o m in g a s th e B u re a u e x p a n d s its d ir e c t c o l­
l e c t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p lo y m e n t s ta tis tic s .
T h e s e d a ta w ill m a te r ia lly im p r o v e t h e i d e n tif ic a ­
t io n o f o c c u p a tio n a l p a tt e r n s f o r a ll m a jo r i n ­
d u s tr ie s .

3

Table 1. Number of em ployed persons by occupation and industry, 16 years of age and older, I960 and 1967
Occupation

Total
I960

1967

T otal, a ll in d u str ie s--------------------- 65, 778. 0 74. 372. 0
P ro fessio n a l, techn ical, and k in d red ---- 7, 469. 0 9, 879. 0
E n g in e e rs------------------------------------------810. 0 1, 028. 4
A e r o n a u tic a l---------------------------------45. 8
62. 4
C h em ical------------------------------------48. 7
39. 6
C iv il----------------------------------------------146. 0
167. 3
E le c tr ic a l--------------------------------------174. 7
220. 5
In d u str ia l--------------------------------------83. 2
111. 0
M ech a n ica l-----------------------------------153. 5
201. 2
20. 1
24. 0
M etallurgical ------------------------------M in in g -------------------------------------------14. 0
13. 9
S a le s ---------------------------------------------50. 1
64. 6
M edical and other health w ork ers----D entists ----------------------------------------D ietitians and n u trition ists-----------N u rses, p r o fe ssio n a l-------------------O p to m etrists---------------------------------O steop ath s------------------------------------P h arm acists ---------------------------------P h ysician s and surgeons1 ------------P sy c h o lo g is ts -------------------------------T echnicians, m ed ical and dental —
V eterin a ria n s-------------------------------Other 2 ------------------------------------------T eachers --------------------------------------------E lem en tary -----------------------------------Secondary --------------------------------------C ollege 3 ----------------------------------------O th er---------------------------------------------Natural scien tists --------------------------- —
C h e m ists---------------------------------------A gricultural s c ie n tis ts -----------------B iological s c ie n tis ts --------------------G eologists and g e o p h y sic ists-------M athem aticians ----------------------------P h y sicists ------------------------------------O th er---------------------------------------------Social scien tists -------------------------------E c o n o m ists-----------------------------------S tatisticians and a c tu a r ie s-----------O th er---------------------------------------------T echnicians, except m ed ical and
dental ----------------------------------------------D raftsm en ------------------------------------Surveyors ------------------------------------A ir traffic controllers -----------------Radio o p er a to r s----------------------------E lectrica l and e le c tr o n ic -------------Other engineering and physical
s c ie n tis ts -------------------------------------O th er---------------------------------------------Other profession al, techn ical, and
kindred --------------------------------------------Accountants and a u d ito rs-------------Airplane pilots and n a vigato rs-----A rch itects--------------------------------------C lergym en ------------------------------------D esig n ers, except design
draftsm en ----------------------------------E ditors and r e p o r te r s------------------Lawyers and ju d g e s----------------------L ib ra ria n s------------------------------------P erson n el and labor relations
w orkers --------------------------------------P h oto gra p h ers--------------- --------------Social and w elfare w o r k e r s---------T each ers, w orkers in arts and
entertain m en t-----------------------------O th er---------------------------------------------M anagers, o fficia ls, and p rop rietors---C onductors, ra ilr o a d ------------------------O fficers, p ilo ts, engineers, s h ip ----Creditm en -----------------------------------------Purchasing a g e n ts-----------------------------P o stm a sters and a ssista n ts--------------O th er-------------------- — --------------------------See footnotes at end of table.

4




83. 0
114. 8
1, 321. 4 1, 625. 2
86. 7
92. 2
27. 1
30. 0
495. 6
629. 0
17. 0
17. 0
13. 1
12. 1
122. 4
113. 8
220. 9
259. 3
17. 0
27. 0
140. 8
228. 8
18. 6
23. 0
170. 8
184. 4
1, 945. 1 2, 706. 4
977.9 1, 197. 7
602. 7
890. 3
206. 2
399. 9
158. 3
218. 5
235. 6
305. 7
91. 0
111. 9
30. 0
35.7
35. 6
29. 5
18. 0
21. 9
20. 7
38. 0
24. 0
28. 2
22. 4
34. 4
45. 7
57. 2
17 1
22. 1
22. 8
26. 9
5. 8
8. 2
730. 9
233. 0
44. 0
12. 0
17. 0
117. 6
238. 0
69. 3

A griculture,
fo restry,
and fish eries
I960
1967
590. 9 3, 937. 7
58. 6
57. 4
1. 1
1. 4
.6
1. 1
-.
.1
.5
.2
15. 1
17. 2
.1
_
.1
.2
14. 7
17. 2
_
.1
.1
10. 8
10. 3
.2
.9
7. 7
8. 3
2. 2
1. 6
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
-

Mining
I960
719. 8
60. 2
19. 5
1. 9
1. 3
1. 2
1. 2
1. 4
.3
10. 7
1. 0
.5
.3
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
12. 4
1. 3
10. 8
.1
.2
.3
.1
.2
~

Construction

1967

I960

628. 4 4, 056. 3
58. 1 225. 9
17. 7
86. 2
1. 5
.3
75. 8
1. 3
2. 5
1. 0
1. 6
.9
1. 8
3. 7
.5
8. 3
.1
1. 0
1. 2
.7
1. 7
.2
.3
_
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.6
.1
.6
14. 0
1. 7
.5
1. 0
.1
.1
12. 3
.6
.3
.3
.2
.2
.1
.4
.5
.1
.1
.2
.4
.1
-

1967

Durable goods,
m anufac tur ing
I960
1967

Nondurable goods,
m anufacturing
I960
1967

4, 335. 8 9, 701. 0 11, 666. 2 7, 442. 7 8, 050. 6
241. 8 944. 5 1, 209. 4 420. 6
479. 1
90. 4 413. 9
512. 6
86. 0
69. 0
40. 1
.1
.1
49. 6
24. 0
.2
8. 5
10. 2
29. 4
80. 4
3. 6
3. 8
11. 3
9. 7
2. 1 109. 9
133. 0
3. 2
3. 6
.7
57. 1
72. 4
10. 5
14. 8
17. 7
3. 1 103. 6
135. 0
13. 8
18. 4
.8
16. 9
1. 2
.1
.4
.7
1. 1
1. 2
32. 0
4. 6
.8
37. 2
3. 7
3. 0
35. 7
44. 8
8. 2
9.6
.
10. 0
7. 2
6. 7
6. 2
_
.3
.5
.2
.3
5. 6
4. 6
3. 2
2. 4
.1
_
.2
.1
2. 1
1. 8
.5
.8
.6
.9
.3
.3
.1
.1
2. 8
.5
.7
.6
.1
.2
.1
.1
.3
2. 3
2. 4
1. 0
1. 2
2. 3
2. 4
.3
1. 0
1. 2
2. 3
38. 4
48. 9
68. 3
78. 0
.3
16. 0
18. 1
47. 5
55. 3
.1
.8
.4
4. 3
3. 2
.1
.3
.7
7. 3
6. 8
.4
.6
.8
1. 0
1. 0
8. 3
16. 5
2. 7
.6
1. 2
2. 5
1. 5
9. 7
9. 7
.2
2. 7
2. 7
5. 5
7. 1
.4
4. 3
6. 7
8. 0
4. 5
_
3. 5
2. 0
2. 0
2. 9
.4
4. 3
3. 6
2. 0
2. 1
.2
.2
.3
.4
-

911. 7
294. 3
41. 9
13. 5
20. 5
187. 7
258. 0
95. 8

6. 0
.2
.5
.1
.8
4. 4

8. 3
.1
.5
.1
.2
2. 2
5. 2

15. 7
5. 6
1. 7
.2
.5
6. 8
.9

11. 6
4. 4
1. 4
.2
1. 2
3. 1
1. 3

91. 7
26. 3
13. 5
.3
2. 9
46. 5
2. 2

98. 6
28. 1
15. 1
.3
5. 3
47. 0
2. 8

261. 4
117. 5
.4
.5
64. 7
7 5. 6
2. 7

324. 3
131. 7
1. 2
_
.7
91. 7
95. 3
3. 7

70. 3
11. 1
.3
_
.1
.7
43. 2
14. 9

71. 6
9. 4
.3
_
.1
3. 6
38. 5
19. 7

2, 380. 3 3, 244. 4
556. 2
429. 3
28. 5
51. 1
30. 0
32. 5
200. 0
202. 0
66. 0
87. 5
103. 3
100. 0
225. 0
270. 3
80. 0
116. 4
100. 0
140. 0
51. 0
54. 0
105. 0
155. 4
470. 0
632. 8
495. 5
842. 9
7, 067. 0 7, 495. 0
43. 3
43. 0
35. 0
35. 0
50. 0
60. 6
115. 0
145. 7
37. 9
39. 2
6, 784. 5 7,172. 8

25. 9
1. 0
1. 6
.1
.6
.1
.1
.1
.1
4. 5
17. 7
31. 1
1. 4
.3
29. 4

19. 6
.9
1. 8
.1
.6
.1
.1
.1
3. 1
12. 8
23. 0
1. 5
.2
21. 3

11. 9
7. 3
.4
.i
_
1. 4
1. 0
.1
_
1. 6
68. 0
.7
.2
1. 6
65. 5

14. 1
8. 8
.6
.1
1. 4
.1
1. 1
.1
_
1. 9
63. 7
.8
.2
1. 8
60. 9

44. 9
10. 9
.4
1. 4
3. 6
.2
1.1
.i
1.1
.2
.6
25. 3
471. 4
.1
1. 3
.1
1. 0
468. 9

49. 8
12. 6
.5
1. 3
4. 3
.1
1. 2
1. 6
.1
.8
27. 3
438. 7
.1
1. 2
.1
1. 1
436. 2

211. 8
69. 5
1. 9
.8
23. 0
4. 0
3. 8
.8
23. 2
4. 1
.2
24. 3
56. 2
557. 3
.6
.6
3. 3
45. 7
507. 1

306. 0
89. 5
3. 0
.8
30. 0
4. 5
4. 7
1. 5
30. 0
4. 6
.2
28. 3
108. 9
623. 9
.6
.7
4. 1
60. 3
558. 2

201. 0
42. 7
.6
.2
.1
14. 2
69. 6
2. 5
.6
11. 7
10. 8
.1
20. 1
27. 8
512. 6
.1
.5
5. 5
21. 7
484. 8

231. 6
50. 5
.9
.3
.1
17. 5
68. 1
2. 9
.6
14. 9
12. 6
.1
23. 5
39.6
516. 7
.1
.5
6. 0
23. 9
486. 2

Table 1. Number of em ployed persons by occupation and industry, 16 years of age and older, I960 and 1967— Continued
(in thousands)

Occupation

T ransportation,
com m unication,
and public
utilities
I960
1967

W holesale and
re ta il trade
I960

1967

Finance, in ­
surance, and
rea l estate
I960
1967

P r ivate
households
I960

1967

Total em ploym ent------------------------- 4, 508. 4 4. 756. 9 13. 208. 6 14. 509. 3 2. 832. 2 3. 408. 7 2. 303. 1 2. 012. 7
320. 6
2. 2
241. 1 307. 0
257. 1
77. 1 104. 0
P rofession al, technical, and k in d re d ---3.9
51. 7
61. 6
15. 4
24. 8
2. 6
4. 4
E n g in e e rs----------------------------------------.4
.5
A e ro n a u tic a l-------------------------------.5
.6
.6
.6
C h em ical-------------------------------------10. 3
10. 6
.7
1. 4
1. 0
C iv il-------------------------------------------.9
33. 2
1. 1
.1
26. 9
1.1
E le c tric a l-----------------------------------1.8
2. 3
.8
1. 5
2.9
2.9
In d u s tria l-----------------------------------2. 1
6. 2
7. 1
3. 0
.1
.2
M ech an ical---------------------------------.4
.1
.1
.6
“
"
M eta llu rg ica l------------------------------.6
.2
.1
.1
.2
.7
M in in g ------------- —------------------------1.6
7. 7
12. 2
1. 3
S a le s ------------------------------------------3. 1
2. 0
.1
.2
3.9
O th e r------------------------------------------3.9
111. 3
114. 4
1. 2
2. 6
1. 5
1. 1
1. 2
1. 4
M edical and other health w o rk ers----.1
.1
D entists --------------------------------------.1
.1
1. 0
.1
.2
1. 7
D ietitians and nu tritio n ists----------.6
.5
.8
.6
.5
2. 4
1. 3
.9
N urses, p ro fe ssio n a l------------------3. 2
2. 7
O ptom etrists ------------------------------- O steopaths ---------------------------------104. 7
107. 0
P h arm acists -------------------------------.4
.4
.5
.5
.4
.4
Physicians and surgeons 1-----------.1
.1
"
P sy ch o lo g ists------------------------------.2
.i
.5
.1
.1
1. 5
.1
T echnicians, m edical and dental —
.1
V e terin a rian s------------------------------.1
.2
.1
.1
.1
O ther 2 ----------------------------------------5. 2
6. 1
.5
.5
1. 7
1. 7
.6
.3
T eachers ____________________________
E lem en ta ry ---------------------------------.2
.1
.1
S econd ary-----------------------------------College 3 --------------------------------------5. 2
1. 7
1. 7
6. 1
.5
.2
.6
.2
O th e r------------------------------------------_
2. 2
2. 7
2. 5
10. 0
.7
1.4
.1
N atural sc ie n tists-----------------------------4. 3
1. 1
1. 1
1. 4
C h em ists------------------------------------.3
.3
.1
.1
1. 4
A gricultural sc ie n tis ts ----------------~
.1
.1
"
.3
Biological sc ie n tis ts -------------------.5
.4
.2
G eologists and geo p h y sicists------.2
.7
2. 3
.8
.6
1. 2
M ath em atician s--------------------------.1
.3
P h y s ic is ts ----------------------------------.1
.1
.1
.i
.1
1. 2
O th e r------------------------------------------4. 0
3. 0
3. 4
5. 5
6. 7
3.9
Social s c ie n tis ts ------------------------------1. 3
1. 6
1. 5
2. 1
1. 3
1. 8
E co n o m ists---------------------------------2. 6
2. 5
1. 4
4. 5
1. 6
3.9
S tatisticians and a c tu a rie s ----------.1
.1
.1
.1
O th e r------------------------------------------*
*
T echnicians, except m edical and
53. 0
71. 4
20. 6
31. 1
2. 0
1. 5
d e n ta l--------------------------------------------10. 1
5. 4
4. 8
.1
.7
9. 3
D ra ftsm e n ----------------------------------s ———————————— —
———————————------3. 4
3. 7
.3
.5
A ir traffic con tro llers ----------------.1
7. 6
8. 7
.2
.1
Radio o p e ra to rs --------------------------21. 8
25. 9
3. 6
17. 1
.1
~
.5
E lectrical and e le c tro n ic ------------O ther engineering and physical
7. 5
17. 9
6. 5
2. 6
.5
.4
sc ien tists ---------------------------------4. 6
3. 4
5. 1
6. 5
.3
.3
O th e r------------------------------------------O ther professional, technical, and
130. 8
64. 6
k ind r ed —— — ——— —— ——————— 127. 0 164. 6
88. 2
.7
.5
99. 1
47. 6
38. 4
58. 4
36. 3
48. 2
.1
Accountants and a u d ito rs------------31.9
.1
.5
37. 5
.8
. 1
. 1
19. 5
A irplane pilots and n a v ig a to rs----.2
.2
.3
.2
.3
A rch itects-----------------------------------.3
~
. 1
C lergym en ---------------------------------D esigners, except design
5. 8
1. 2
1. 4
7. 3
. 1
.2
d r a fts m e n --------------------------------4. 5
4. 5
2. 2
1. 8
.6
.7
E ditors and r e p o r te r s -----------------2. 7
2. 7
2. 0
8. 4
1. 6
9.9
Law yers and ju d g e s--------------------. 3
. 3
. 2
. 2
. 2
. 3
L ib ra ria n s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------P ersonnel and labor relations
7. 3
8. 8
4. 4
8. 1
11. 6
6. 1
w orkers -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. 1
. 3
. 2
1. 2
1. 5
1. 6
P h o to g ra p h e rs -------------------------------------------------------------------. 1
. 1
. 1
. 3
. 2
Social and w elfare w o rk e rs ----------------------T eachers, w orkers in a rts and
7. 3
17. 5
23. 2
. 5
. 3
. 2
8.9
. 6
en tertain m en t -----------------------------------------------------------------O ther
14. 1
50. 9
60.6
23. 3
21. 3
13. 2
. 2
. 2
M anagers, officials, and p ro p rie to rs ---------376. 4 389. 1 3, 231. 5 3, 129. 0 578. 3 721. 3
. 7
1. 0
Conductors, r a i l r o a d ---------------------------------------------------42. 2
41. 9
. 1
. 1
O fficers, pilots, engineers, sh ip ------------28. 4
28. 4
. 4
. 3
. 7
.9
C re d itm e n --------------------------------------------------— — -------------------------34. 0
1. 0
29. 2
.9
7. 9
11. 1
Purchasing a g e n ts ------------ — — ---------------— ------------4. 3
4. 7
20. 2
23. 7
3. 1
4. 1
P o stm asters and a s s is ta n ts ------------------------------O th e r-----------------------------------------------300. 5 313. 2 3, 181. 7 3, 071. 0 567. 2 706. 0
. 1
-

Services, except
private households
I960
12. 206. 2
4, 730. 9
91.9
1. 7
3. 3
21. 7
19. 1
6. 2
15. 0
1. 2
.6
3. 2
19.9
1, 158. 1
86. 1
25. 0
478. 3
13. 7
13. 1
6. 4
215. 6
14. 4
134. 5
1. 4
169. 6
1, 922. 1
977. 1
601. 9
206. 2
136. 9
61. 9
18. 1
3. 6
14.8
2. 1
4. 7
8. 4
10. 2
9. 4
3. 8
3. 5
2. 1

1967

Governm ent
public
adm inistration
I960
1967

16, 928. 2 3. 208. 8 4. 137. 5
6, 458. 0 449. 1 641. 4
152. 8
58. 7
76. 7
3. 1
3. 5
9. 1
5. 2
.5
1. 0
21. 4
24. 5
31.9
10. 7
16. 6
29. 9
10. 7
2. 7
3. 2
25. 3
7. 6
7.9
2. 6
.4
.6
.6
.7
1. 5
7. 2
35. 4
11. 3
13. 1
14. 3
16. 7
1, 459. 6
.5
.7
91. 4
26. 4
.4
.8
615. 8
3. 7
3. 0
14. 3
"
12. 1
12. 1
.8
1. 0
2. 3
2. 7
253. 8
2. 0
2. 7
23.9
224. 1
1. 6
1. 8
2. 1
2. 3
3. 5
.5
183. 6
.7
2,680.4
11. 0
13. 3
.6
.4
1, 197. 2
.7
1. 0
889. 3
399.9
194. 0
9. 7
11.9
85. 8
51. 8
37. 1
25. 0
4. 2
6. 6
7. 1
13. 1
14.8
5. 3
8. 5
16.9
3. 3
2. 4
3. 5
5. 4
8. 3
4. 5
10. 3
4. 1
5. 2
14. 9
3. 5
7. 8
14. 1
15. 7
11. 9
5. 6
5. 6
3. 7
5. 0
5. 2
6. 3
3. 5
3. 0
3. 8
198. 5
97. 8
15. 2
.6
23. 6
24. 9
36. 4

74. 3
6. 6
7. 4
12. 0
7. 6
12. 5
17. 5
10. 7

94. 8
7. 2
4. 5
13. 5
9. 7
19. 0
26. 1
14. 8

1. 351. 6 1, 866. 8
124. 1
169. 8
2. 5
1. 2
25. 5
28. 0
201. 8
199. 7
25. 4
16.9
15. 8
19. 4
167. 8
200. 0
76. 0
111. 3
15. 0
25. 1
30. 1
29. 7
42. 9
62. 1
537. 3
389. 4
247. 6
454. 0
929. 9 1, 201. 3
. 5
. 4
2. 8
4. 2
10. 5
16._ 8
_
916. 2 1, 179. 8

241. 8
57. 9
2. 3
1. 2
. 1
.5
3. 4
35. 6
1. 7
28. 1
3. 2
61. 4
5. 5
40. 9
309. 5
. 2
. 4

372. 4
79. 0
3. 4
1. 3
. 1
.7
3. 8
45. 4
2. 0
40. 7
3. 5
42. 6
6.9
93. 0
387. 6
. 2
. 4
9. 1
37. 9
340. 0

135. 9
50. 9
16. 0
.4
10. 3
33. 1
25. 2

-

6. 6

39. 2
263. 1

See footnotes at end of table.




5

Table 1. Num ber of employed persons by occupation and industry, 16 y ears of age and older, I960 and 1967— Continued
Occupation

Total
1960

C lerical and kindred w o rk e rs------------------ 9,762.0
Stenographers, ty p ists, and
s e c re ta rie s --------------------------------------- 2,383.0
375. 2
O ffice-m achine op erators ------------------O ther c leric al and k in d re d ------------------ 7,003. 8
382. 7
Accounting c le rk s--------------------------667. 3
Bookkeepers, hand -----------------------Bank te lle r s ----------------------------------127. 0
478. 8
C ashiers ---------------------------------------205. 5
M ail c a r r i e r s --------------------------------P o stal clerks --------------------------------242. 7
Shipping and receiving c le r k s --------- 325.0
Telephone o p e ra to rs ----------------------- 355. 2
4,2 19.6
S a le sw o rk e rs------------------------------------------ 4,224.0
Insurance agents --------------------------------365. 0
Real estate a g e n ts------------------------------195. 0
O th e r-------------------------------------------------- 3,664.0
C raftsm en, forem en, and k in d re d ----------- 8,554.0
C onstruction c ra ftsm e n ----------------------- 2,552. 0
C arp e n te rs-------------------------------------- 832.0
B rickm asons and tile s e tte r s --------186.0
Cem ent and concrete fin ish ers------46. 0
E le c tric ia n s----------------------------------359.0
Excavating, grading m achine
o p e ra to r s -----------------------------------245. 0
P ain ters and p a p e rh a n g e rs-----------416.0
P la ste re rs -------------------------------------50.0
P lum bers and p ip e fitte rs---------------- 303.0
Roofers and s la te r s -----------------------50. 0
S tructural m etalw o rk ers----------------65.0
F orem en, n. e. c ---------------------------------- 1,137.0
M etalworking craftsm en, except
m e c h a n ic s---------------------------------------- 1,090.0
M achinists and related occupations — 495. 3
B lacksm ith, forgem en, and
33. 6
h am m erm en --------------------------------24. 1
B o ilerm a k ers--------------------------------20. 4
H eat tre a te rs , a n n e a le rs---------------M illw righ ts-----------------------------------69. 0
M olders, m etal, except
54. 2
corem akers --------------------------------40. 4
P attern m ak ers, m etal and wood----31.5
R ollers and roll hands-------------------138. 5
S heet-m etal w orkers --------------------Toolm akers , diem akers , and
183.0
M echanics and re p a irm e n ------------------- 2,014.0
A ir conditioning, heating and
62. 7
re frig e ra tio n -------------------------------A irplane m echanics and
111.6
r e p a irm e n ----------------------------------M otor vehicle m e c h a n ic s---------------- 678. 9
51.0
Office m achine m e c h a n ic s------------Radio and television m e c h a n ic s---- 103. 3
39. 2
R ailroad and car shop m echanics —
O th e r---------------------------------------------- 967. 3
P rinting trad es c ra fts m e n ------------------ 302. 0
Com positors and ty p e s e tte rs ---------- 182. 5
9.0
E lectrotyp ers and ste reo ty p e rs-----10. 9
E ng rav ers, except photoengravers—
24. 2
Photoengravers and lithographers —
75. 4
P ressm e n and plate p r in te r s ---------T ransportation and public utility
c ra ftsm e n ----------------------------------------- 373. 8
Line and servicem en, telephone
285. 7
46. 5
Locom otive e n g in e e rs-------------------41. 6
Locom otive fire m e n ----------------------O ther craftsm en and k in d re d -------------- 1,085.25
102.
B a k e rs------------------------------------------66. 0
C abinetm akers ------------------------------C ranem en, derrickm en, and
124. 0
15. 8
G laziers ----------------------------------------37. 0
Jew elers and w a tch m a k e rs-----------25.0
Loom f ix e r s ----------------------------------O pticians, lens grind ers and
20. 4
19.5
Insp ectors, log and lu m b e r-----------95. 5
Insp ectors, other -------------------------59. 0
U p h o lste re rs---------------------------------O th e r---------------------------------------------- 520. 5
See footnotes at end of table.

6




1967

A griculture,
fo restry ,
and fish eries
I960
1967

Mining
I960

Construction

1967

12,333.0

33.1

27. 3

64. 2

3,190.0
482. 2
8,660.8
440. 5
769. 5
189. 6
691.4
230. 2
295. 6
371.5
388.9
5,283.6
4,525.0
407.0
205.0
3,913.0
9.8 45.0
2,763. 0
840.0
209. 7
54. 1
406.5
267. 1
466.5
52. 3
335.0
53. 2
78. 6
1,427.0

9. 1
.3
23. 7
1. 1
8. 2
.4
.6
.1
13. 3
8. 3
8. 3
27.4
7.9
4. 2
.3
.2
2. 1
.9
.2
5.6

7. 2
.2
19.9
.9
6.7
.1
.2
12.0
5.6
5.6
27. 6
7. 3
3.9
.4
.1
1.9
.9
.1
6. 3

21. 3
1. 1
41.8
3. 1
5.0
.1
.7
.7
32. 2
3.0
.1
2.9
172. 8
44. 5
3. 6
.7
11.0
26.0
1. 2
1.8
.2
39. 7

1,260.0
575.7
31.9
24. 8
23. 6
78. 3
60. 3
48. 4
32. 7
161.3
223.0
2,539. 0
111.2
155.0
802. 6
73.4
118. 5
37.0
1,241.3
311.5
178.0
6. 5
12. 7
33.0
81. 3

.5
.3
.2
-

.2
.2

-

10.0
3. 8
4.9
.6
.4

8. 1
3. 6
3.4
.4
.4

10. 7
.3
1.2
.1
9. 1
.1
.1
2. 6
.2
_
-

11.6
.6
1. 1
.1
'9. 8
*
.1
.1
2. 1
.1
*

.1
.2
28. 6
.1
.1
1. 3
.1
.1
26. 9
.1
.1
1.4
.1
1.2
.1
48. 5
.1
*
6. 2
-

.1
.2
32. 0
.2
.1
1.5
.2
.1
29.9
.1
.1
1.4
.1
1.2
.1
39. 3
.1
6.0
-

.2
.6
_
1.6

.2
.5
1.3

2. 6
39.6

2. 0
31.2

401.8
336. 9
43. 6
21.3
1 , 142.7
100. 0
67. 1
140.9
18. 8
35. 8
24.8
21.2
19.7
99.0
61.9
553. 5

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

67. 3

D urable goods, Nondurable goods,
m anufacturing
m anufacturing
I960
1967
I960
1967

1960

1967

175.1

199. 1 1,211.9 1,438. 6

924. 3 1,036. 6

51. 2
22. 9
319.0 392. 8 220. 5
59. 0
258.9
2. 1
68. 7
1. 7
50. 9
47.4
55.4
1.9
42. 5 122. 2 138.0
842.0 977. 1 656.4
722. 3
3. 1
21. 1
24. 5
44. 0
50. 1
45.0
45. 8
5.0
27. 5
31.0
42. 3
44. 2
55. 2
58.0
_
_
.1
.3
.4
3. 7
4. 2
6.5
6.6
_
_
_
_
1.0
.8
103. 6 120.9 101. 1
.9
106. 6
.7
1.6
15. 2
1. 6
14.0
14.5
13.9
32. 7
70. 7
79.7
634.5 742. 5 434. 6
490.8
12.5
3. 1
175. 7 198. 6 301. 3
11.9
306.9
_
.5
.1
.6
.1
.1
3.0
11. 4
175.7 198. 6 301. 2
11.9
308. 8
162.9 2,119.7 2,307.0 2,187.4 2,633. 1 1,079.0 1,163. 1
40. 3 1,803.7 1,931.2
260. 2 290. 5
81. 3
80.0
2. 8 656. 5 648. 5
15. 5
67. 1
13. 3
62.9
12.4
.7 162. 8 183. 2
2. 0
2. 1
11.9
53. 1
45.0
.3
.3
.2
.2
9.4 137.0 166. 4
31. 3
31. 6
89. 4 101.8
24. 6 184.8 203. 2
3. 2
3.7
9. 2
8.9
22.4
23. 4
3. 3
3. 6
.9 299.0 324. 3
47. 5
.3
.3
.2
.2
49. 2
38. 3
44. 1
24. 6
1.7 186.9 209. 5
24.7
46.7
.6
.4
.5
.6
49. 6
37.5
44. 2
.2
31.6
.3
.4
24.9
414. 3 541.0 297.9
41.7
90. 6 118. 3
345.0

_

_

48. 2
2. 8
1.1
4.0
.2
5.0
.1
.1
.1
34. 6
.2
96. 3
18.4

.1
40. 5
.1
102. 8
38. 4

5. 8
.8
.1
71. 2
.3
.1
.1
.1

6. 6
.8
57.0
.3
.1
.1
.1

7. 3
7. 2
.1
73. 3
.2
6. 3
16.7
5.0
-

10.7
10. 5
.1
.1
86. 8
.1
6. 7
20. 9
6. 7
-

.1
13. 1
.4
31.5

.1
17. 6
.4
34. 3

_

_

56.9
3.0
1.5
4. 8
.1
6. 8

_

_

874.9 1,032. 2
413.7 493. 6
16. 5
17. 3
10. 8
11.6
20. 0
23. 2
43. 1
48. 6
60.0
53.9
36. 7
43. 1
31. 2
32.4
77.4
92. 1
171.6 210. 3
319. 8 419. 5
5. 6
11.7
38.7
52. 4
38. 1
35.9
6.0
9. 1
6. 7
9. 6
1.2
1.6
225. 7 297. 0
13. 0
15. 0
5. 2
5. 5
.1
.2
4. 0
4. 6
1.6
2. 1
2. 1
2. 6

64. 4
29. 4
.9
3. 3
18. 5
.1
1. 3
4. 1
6. 8
167. 9
3. 1
.3
8. 5
.3
.1
.1
155. 5
271. 1
165. 1
8. 8
5. 5
21.5
70. 2

71.8
32.6
1.0
3. 1
20. 3
.2
1.8
3.8
9.0
209. 4
5. 3
.4
9.0
.3
.1
.1
194. 2
273.9
156.8
6. 2
6.6
29. 5
74. 8

8.5
6. 2
2. 1
.2
296. 7
.2
35.5
78.4
3. 2
10. 1
.2
9. 2
15.9
10. 6
26. 4
107.0

.9
.5
.4
195. 5
69. 7
.8
6. 1
.2
24. 8

1. 1
.7
.4
181.9
62.4
.8
6.6
.2
24. 6

.9
2. 1
1. 3
89. 6

1.0
1.9
1.6
82.8

14. 6
11.7
2. 7
.2
320. 3
.2
36. 2
86.8
3. 6
10. 2
.2
9. 1
15. 5
10. 6
27.0
120.9

_

_

Table 1. Num ber of em ployed persons by occupation and industry, 16 years of age and old er, I960 and 1967— Continued
(In thousands)
Occupation
C lerical and kindred w o r k e r s------------------Stenographers, typ ists, and
s e c r e ta r ie s ----------------------------------------O ffice-m achine operators -------------------Other cle r ic a l and k indred------------------Accounting c le r k s----------------------------B ookkeepers, hand-------------------------Bank te lle r s ------------------------------------M ail c a r r ie r s ----------------------------------P ostal c le r k s --------------------------- ------Shipping and receiving c le r k s --------Telephone o p er a to r s-----------------------O th er-----------------------------------------------S a lesw ork ers---------------------------------------------Insurance agents ----------------------------------R eal estate a g e n ts-------------------------------O th er----------------------------------------------------C raftsm en, forem en , and k in d red -----------C onstruction c r a ftsm en -----------------------C a r p e n te r s-------------------------------------B rickm asons and tile s e tte r s ---------Cement and concrete fin is h e r s ------E le c tr ic ia n s------------------------------------Excavating, grading m achine
operators -------------------------------------P ainters and paperhangers-------------P la s te r e r s ---- ----------------------------------P lum bers and p ip e fitte r s---------------R oofers and s la te r s ------------------------Structural m e ta lw o r k e r s---------------F orem en, n. e. c -----------------------------------M etalworking craftsm en , except
m e c h a n ic s -----------------------------------------M achinists and related occupations —
B lacksm ith, forgem en, and
h am m erm en----------------------------------B o ile r m a k e r s----------------------------------H eat treaters , a n n e a le r s---------------M illw rig h ts-------------------------------------M olders, m etal, except
c o r e m a k e r s ----------------------------------P atternm akers, m etal and w o o d ---R ollers and roll h a n d s -------------------S h eet-m etal w o r k e r s ---------------------T oolm akers, diem akers, and
s e t te r s ------------------------------------------M echanics and rep airm en -------------------Air conditioning, heating, and
r e frig era tio n --------------------------------Airplane m echanics and
r e p a ir m e n ------------------------------------Motor vehicle m e c h a n ic s---------------O ffice m achine m e c h a n ic s-------------Radio and television m echanics ---Railroad and car shop m echanics —
Other ----------------------------------------------P rinting trades c r a fts m e n ------------------Com positors and ty p e se tte r s---------E lectrotypers and stereo ty p ers------E ngravers, except ph otoengravers-Photoengravers and lithographers —
P ressm en and plate p r in te r s ---------T ransportation and public utility
cra ftsm en ------------------------------------------Line and servicem en , telephone
and p o w e r ------------------------------------L ocom otive e n g in e e rs--------------------L ocom otive fir e m e n -----------------------Other craftsm en and k in d red --------------B a k e r s -------------------------------------------C abinetm akers---------------------------------Cranem en, derrickm en, and
Jew elers and w atch m a k ers------------Loom fix e r s ------------------------------------O pticians, lens grinders and
p o lis h e r s -------------------------------------Inspectors, log and lu m b e r -----------Inspectors , o th e r ---------------------- ——
U p h o lsterers-----------------------------------O th er------------------------------------------------

Transportation,
communi cation,
and public utilities
1960
1967

Wholesale and
retail trade
I960
1967

Finance, in­
surance, and
real estate
1960
1967

Private
Services, except Government
public
households private households administration
I960
1967
1960
1967
I960
1967

1,097. 3 1,176. 6 1,865.3 2,327.2 1,286. 1 1,586.4
149. 7 270.7 321.5
129. 4
42.5
36.7
99.8 119. 2
931.2
984.4 1,494.9 1,886.5
46. 5
48.0 102. 3 116. 3
16. 2
17.8 269.9 296.5
27. 8
34. 5 348.5 513. 2
12.4
96.8 112.9
10.0
22. 2 27.9
228.0
230.9
599.8
643.7 655. 2 819.7
46. 8 3,010.9 3,163.9
39. 3
.2
.1
.2
.2
.5
.7
46.7 3,010.2 3,163.0
39. 1
959. 1 1,010.9 902. 3 1,095.6
86.6
69.0
72. 3
92. 6
13. 7
12.0
27. 6 28. 6
.7
4. 8
.6
6.0
.1
.2
.2
.1
38.4
34.8
8. 6
8. 5
7. 8
9.0
2. 8
2.9
9.5
8.8
11.8
13. 1
.1
.1
21. 2
20.0
11.4
11. 1
1.5
.1
1. 6
.2
.2
1. 2
1. 2
122. 3
131.8
98.8 136.7
44.4
30.6
2.8
3. 6
.6
.1
.1
5.8
.8
244. 2
1. 3
37. 6
56. 6
.3
3. 6
37. 5
107. 3
1.2
.8
!i
.i
.i

37. 1
24.5
2.4
2.9
.6
.1
6.0
.6
292.0
2. 5
55. 5
69.9
.2
3. 8
34.9
125. 2
1. 1
.7
.i
.i
.i

351.7
268. 0
42. 5
41.2
102. 7
.2
.4
7.6
“

367.0
307. 2
38.9
20.9
95.3
.2
.3
8.7
-

.2
46. 5
.9
46.9

.1
41.6
.7
43.7

8.0
.6
.4
.2
.7

7. 3
.6
.4
.2
.6

.2
5.0
.7
542. 8
16. 0
1.7
320. 6
33.9
32. 1
138. 5
3.5
2. 5
.6
.1
.3

179. 8
23. 5
16.8
6. 1
6. 7
17.0

.2
4.6
.5
684. 6
28. 5
2.9
394.9
49.9
34. 7
173. 7
4.0
3. 1
.6
.1
.2
.5
.5
190. 2
25.4
16. 2
8. 3
7. 6
17.0

9.3
1.9
6. 7
9. 3
82.5

9. 2
2.0
7. 1
10. 7
86. 7

.4
.4
-

369. 4 456. 7
78.5 103.7
838. 2 1,026. 1
46. 2
41.8
138. 2 166.4
127.0 189. 6
30. 3 40. 1
1.7
1. 2
13.4
16. 2
486. 3 565.9
581.4 661.9
363.9 405.9
193. 3 202.9
24. 2 53. 1
46. 1 61. 1
16.0
21.9
5.5
7. 3
.2
.2
1.3
1.2
.5
.4
7.5
11.3
.5
.6
.7
.7
5.9
3.9
.1
.1
-

_

4.0
2.9
1. 1
.2
.9
6.8
4.7
2. 3
.2
-

_

-

2. 1
.1
-

.

-

_

-

4. 3 1,729.6 2,773.6 1,371.1 1,695.9
268. 5 354.7
3.0 721. 1 1,163.6
25.0
44.5
33.8
44.0
1.- 3 983.5 1,565.5 1,068.8 1,297.2
38.8
39. 0 56.5
49._ 1
. 1 104. 6 143.8
_
6.5
54.7
84.0
8. 2
205. 5 230. 2
242.7 295. 6
7.5
11.7
3.4
2. 5
48. 7 73.0
9.7
11.8
1. 2 729.0 1,196.5
563.1 698.9
88. 5 121.4
4. 3
3.7
.7
.1
.1
.6
.2
.3
.3
.3
88. 2 121.0
2.8
3. 3
6.0 784.2 1,021. 3
269.2 356.4
69.3
81.9
3.9 102. 8 147.1
2.0
26. 5 40.4
13. 7 14. 1
1.5
2. 6
.1
1.0
1. 3
.1
.1
.1
.1
20.1
27.0
21.8
25.6
_
9.4
1.6
3.0
7.1
1.8
42.4
59.3
15.6
19.4
1.6
1. 2
.2
.3
12.4
10.7
8.9
8.9
.5
.3
.4
.4
.5
.6
.2
.2
37.0
61.2
26.9
39. 1
.
16. 3 19.2
23. 2 27. 1
11.0
3. 1
12.7
4.9
_
6.4
5.4
.4
.5
1.5
.4
.3
1. 2
.4
.8
.3
.2
"
1.5
.8
1.8
1. 2
4. 2
8.5
2.9
9.9
1.5
1.4
1. 2
.9
118. 6 167.0
1.9 467. 9 596.7
15. 1 17. 2
2.9
6.9
_
1.8
3. 8
31. 1 39. 3
20. 7
233.9 260. 4
14.9
.5
9.7
.6
12.9
51. 1 58.0
8. 7 11. 2
.1
.1
.1
.2
60. 4 88. 1
1.9 156. 2 244. 3
_
6. 1
9.0
4. 3
5. 5
4. 6
2. 1
6. 8
2. 7
_
.4
.5
.2
.2
.3
.4
.5
.7
1.0
1. 6
1. 3
1.6
1.5
4. 8
.6
2.9
_
1.5
2. 6
4. 5
.6
.2
.3
.1
“
*
24. 1 31.0
. 2 •153. 5 186.6
8. 1 11.3
.3
.3
5. 3
.8
.9
5.9
_
.7
1.2
2. 2
1.9
.5
.5
.1
.1
9.8
8.5
.1
.1
“

_

*
-

“

.1
15.4
.2

.1
21.5
.5

1.8
-

.2
.3
14.7
2.4
2.0

.4
.4
20. 2
2.6
2. 2

1.8
.
-

.1
.3

.1
.3

-

.1
.1
-

_

_

_

_

_

8. 3
.1
.1
.1
.1
:
3.0
4.9

_

_
-

_

-

.3
.1
-

9.0
.
.1
.1
.1
“

-

3. 2
-

5. 5

_

_
-

-

.2

-

.2

1.8
.2
10. 3
19.9
96.6

2.7
.7
14. 5
20. 6
120.7

.1
.1
_
.8
19. 8

.2
.1
.
.9
26. 2

See footnotes at end of table.




7

Table 1. Number of employed persons by occupation and industry, 16 y e a rs of age and older, I960 and 1967— Continued
Occupation

Total
I960

1967

O peratives and kindred w o r k e rs ----------- 11, 950. 0 13, 883. 0
D rivers and d e liv erym en------------------ 2, 367. 0 2, 511. 0
D rivers, bus, truck, and
tra c to r --------------------------------------- 1, 769. 2 1, 859. 2
D eliverym en, routem en, and
597. 8
651. 8
cab d r iv e r s -------------------------------Sem iskilled m etalw orking
occupations------------------------------------- 1, 452. 8 1 ,8 9 8 .4
A ssem b lers, m etalw orking,
101. 1
142. 7
class A -------------------------------------A ssem b lers, m etalw orking,
599.6
467. 9
class B -------------------------------------Inspectors, m etalw orking,
231. 2
179. 0
M achine-tool operators,
321. 5
class B -------------------------------------258.9
15. 8
11. 7
E le c tro p la te rs----------------------------20. 2
26. 4
E lectroplater helpers -----------------Furnacem en, sm elterm en, and
52. 1
60. 6
8. 3
6. 9
H eaters, m etal --------------------------355. 0
492. 3
W elders and fla m e c u tte rs-----------T ransportation and public utility
156. 4
148. 8
o p e ra tiv e s-------------------------------------B rakem en and switchm en,
103. 2
92. 9
r a ilr o a d -----------------------------------22. 1
20. 9
Pow er station o p e ra to rs-------------32. 3
33. 8
S ailors and deckhands-----------------780. 0
992. 6
Sem iskilled textile occupations--------47. 3
44. 0
K nitters, loopers and to p p ers-----50. 0
50. 1
Spinners, te x tile -------------------------61. 0
61. 3
W eavers, te x tile -------------------------Sew ers and stitchers,
625. 0
833. 9
m an u factu rin g --------------------------Other operatives and k in d re d ----------- 7, 193. 8 8, 332. 2
23. 6
A sbestos, insulation w o rk e rs-----19. 6
Auto attendants, gas and
380. 0
397. 0
5. 1
B lasters and powder m en-------------4.9
Laundry and drycleaning
405. 0
392. 1
o p e ra tiv e s--------------------------------Mine operatives, labo rers,
281. 0
204. 3
n. e. c ----------------------------------------M eat cu tters, except m eat
203. 4
189. 9
O th e r-------------------------------------------- 5, 926. 1 7, 094. 0
Service w o r k e rs ----------------------------------- 8, 023. 0 9, 325. 0
P rivate household w o r k e rs -------------- 1, 973. 0 1, 769. 0
P rotective serv ice w o r k e r s --------------

Policem en and other law
en fo rcem en t------------------------------G uards, w atchm en, and
doorkeepers ------------------------------Food service w o rk e rs----------------------B artenders ---------------------------------Cooks, except private
households--------------------------------Counter and fountain w o rk e rs-----W aiters and w a itre s s e s ---------------Other service w o rk e rs--------------------A irline stew ards and
s te w a rd e ss e s---------------------------A ttendants, hospital and other
in stitu tio n s--------------------------------Charwomen and c le a n e rs------------Jan ito rs and s e x to n s ------------------N urses, p r a c tic a l-----------------------L ab orers, except farm and m in e ---------F a rm e rs and farm w o r k e rs -----------------See footnotes a t end of table.

8




765. 0
148. 0
287. 0
330. 0
1, 653. 0
163. 7
530. 0
150. 4
808. 9
3, 632. 0
12. 9
450. 0
200. 0
625. 0
225. 0
2, 119. 1
3, 553. 0
5, 176. 0

A gricu Lture,
fores try,
and fisl leries
I960
1967

I960

1967

I960

1967

103. 0
65. 0
62. 3
2. 7

91. 7
60. 3
58. 3
2. 0

343. 0
33. 1
32. 7
.4

266. 1
32. 1
31. 5
.6

318. 5
144. 8
142. 4
2. 4

412. 9 3, 717. 7 4, 727. 4 3, 651. 4 4, 072. 8
162. 7
168. 8 171. 0
316. 1 311.8
160. 2
157. 3 156. 9
142. 9 136. 7
2. 5
14. 1
11. 5
173. 2 175. 1

.4

.6

7. 8

9. 5

30. 9

46. 1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

_

Mining

_

Construction

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

.4

_

.6

.2
7. 6

.3
9. 2

_

_

-

-

.6
.2
.1
.3
-

-

_

-

-

_

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

37. 6

30. 8

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

.1
37. 5
12.9

30.8
10. 3

-

-

954. 0
2. 2
1. 4
192. 0
.i
.1
396. 3
2. 1
365. 5
1. 3
2. 3
2, 061. 0
3. 5
188. 0
2. 2
676. 1
3. 3
232. 3
964. 6
.1
.2
4, 541. 0
7. 2
6. 6
23. 5
713. 1
3. 8
3. 8
273. 4
.2
.1
.8
.3
849. 2
304. 2
.1
2, 377. 6
2. 3
2. 4
3. 533. 0 140. 5 140. 8
3, 554. 0 5, 176. 0 3 ,5 5 4 .0

_
-

-

46. 1

.6
.2
.1
.3

2. 3

2. 8
_
.5
2. 3

-

-

_
-

223. 9

3. 2

2. 7

281. 0
.1
17. 2
8. 6

-

30. 9

301. 5
-

_

-

-

_

204. 3
.1
16. 8
7. 2

_

.4
1.9

_

-

140. 5
11. 4
.3
1. 2

-

_

127. 6
20. 3

_

-

201. 3
13. 4
.3
1. 5

-

_

Durable goods,
manufa c tur ing
I960
1967

1, 336. 6 1, 744. 5
101. 1 142. 7
467. 9 599. 6
179. 0 231. 2
258. 9 321. 5
15. 8
11. 7
20. 2
26.4
51. 6
59.9
8. 3
6. 9
239. 3 339. 1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3. 1
.1
3. 0
.7
.7
3. 4

7. 4
.2
.5
6. 7
1. 8
1. 1
.3
.4
ii. i

5. 7
.1
.2
5. 4
1. 6

74. 4
2. 7
2. 7
69. 0
9. 0

.9
.3
.4
11. 5

76. 7
2. 0
2. 6
72. 1
8. 1
*
2. 6
3. 6
1. 9
90. 1

-

-

_

-

_

.3
2. 2
1. 2

.4
1.9
1. 1

-

-

-

_

2. 6
4. 5
4. 0
713. 5

-

20. 6

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

_

.2
_
16. 1

.2
20. 4

-

-

-

-

.3
.2
.8
.9
186. 1 2, 170. 1 2, 757. 3 2, 557. 7 2, 776. 9
18. 8
174. 9 172. 1
153. 9 131. 3

-

-

16. 3

6. 8
7. 5
3. 6
4. 3
4. 7
.4
4. 9
.4
2. 1
2. 8
1. 7
3. 5
.4
.5
.4
.4
28. 9
750. 6 952. 9
39. 0
44. 0
47. 3
.1
.1
49. 9
49. 9
.5
.5
60. 0
60. 2
28. 3
38. 4
596. 7 795. 5
2, 176. 6 2, 765. 4 2, 564. 8 2, 783. 2
4. 2
5. 7
2. 3
2. 7
1. 4
.5
1. 6
.6
.4
.5
.3
.2
.2
.1
3. 1
2. 0

4. 2
.1
4. 1
.7
.7
'
3. 7

Nondurable goods,
manufac tur ing
I960
1967

-

3. 1
4. 9
3. 5
705. 0
-

.3
11. 6
47. 0
.5
30. 7
731. 6

-

-

2. 7
4. 2
2. 1
88. 7

.7
13. 4
46. 2
.4
28. 0
663. 1

-

40. 1
.6
1. 3
38. 2
11. 9
.1
4. 7
3. 0
4. 1
101. 9

.2
14. 7
45. 1
.2
41. 7
399.6

-

33. 4
.6
1.8
31. 0
11.5
.1
4. 3
3. 1
4. 0
86. 4

.2
12.9
40. 1
.2
33. 0
344. 1

-

Table 1. Number of em ployed persons by occupation and industry, 16 years of age and old er, I960 and 1967— Continued
(In thousands)
F inan ce, in­
T ransportation,
S e rv ices, except Governm ent
P rivate
W holesale and
surance, and
com m unication,
Drivate households admpublic
households
retail trade
inistration
real estate
Occupation
and public utilities
1967
1967
1967
1967
i 9 0 1967
6
I960
i 90
6
1967
I960
I960
I960
O peratives and kindred w o r k e r s -------------- 1 ,1 8 8 .1
D rivers and d eliv ery m en --------------------839. 6
D riv ers, bus, truck, and
700. 7
tr a c to r ------------------------------------------D eliverym en , routem en, and
cab d r iv e r s -----------------------------------138.9
S em iskilled m etalworking
15.0
occu p ation s----------------------------------------As s e m b le rs, m etalw orking,
c la ss A -----------------------------------------A ssem b lers, m etalw orking,
c la ss B -----------------------------------------Insp ectors, m etalw orking,
c la ss B ------------------------------------------M achine-tool operators , c la ss B ---E le c tr o p la te r s--------------------------------E lectroplater h e lp e r s --------------------F urnacem en, sm elterm en and
pourers -----------------------------------------.1
H ea ters, m e ta l-------------------------------W elders and fla m ecu tters--------------14.9
Transportation and public utility
140. 5
o p e r a tiv e s----------------------- ■ ------- —
9 7 .4
Brakem en and sw itchm en, railroad—
15. 2
P ow er station o p er a to r s-----------------Sailors and deckhands--------------------27.9
S em iskilled textile occu p ation s-----------K n itters, loopers and top pers--------Sp inn ers, te x tile -----------------------------W eavers, te x tile -----------------------------Sew ers and s titc h e r s,
m anufacturin g------------------------------193.0
Other operatives and kindred -------------.3
A sb estos, insulation w o r k e r s--------1.8
Auto attendants, gas and parking —
B lasters and p o w d erm en ---------------Laundry and dry cleaning
o p eratives-------------------------------------.1
Mine operatives and la b o r e r s --------M eat cu tters, except m eat
p a ck in g ------------------.-----------------------2.9
187.9
O th er-----------------------------------------------148.0
S ervice w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------P rivate household w o r k e r s -----------------33.0
P rotective ser v ice w ork ers-----------------.4
F ir e m e n ------------------------------------------P olicem en and other law
6 .6
en forcem en t----------------------------------Guards, watchm en, and
26.0
doorkeepers ----------------------------------Food serv ice w o r k e r s-------------------------19. 1
.3
B artenders -----------------------------■
C ooks, except private
10.1
h o u seh old s------------------------------------1. 1
Counter and fountain w o r k e r s--------7 .6
W aiters and w a itr e s s e s ------------------95.9
Other ser v ice w o r k e r s------------------------A irline stew ards and
s te w a r d e s s e s --------------------------------12.9
A ttendants, hospital and other
_
in stitu tion s------------------------------------6. 8
Charwomen and c le a n e r s ---------------24.0
Janitors and s e x to n s-----------------------.1
N u rses, p r a c tic a l---------------------------52. 1
O th er-----------------------------------------------L aborers, except farm and m in e ------------459.1
F arm ers and farm w o r k e r s ----------------------

1 ,2 3 5 .1 1 .6 9 5 .2 1 ,9 0 1 .8
890. 6 615.1 635. 7
758.6 420. 2 397. 5
132.0 194.9 238. 2
16. 1

15. 6

15. 1
3. 2
2.0
1. 2

13.9
10. 6
.3
10. 3

20. 1
-

-

111.4
36.4
32.5
3.9

140.5
46. 4
4 1 .8
4 .6

35. 5

3.9

5 .4

.1
35.4

3.9

5 .4

-

.1
16.0

8 .6
6. 2
.1
6. 1

1 ,0 1 1 .0
191.0
115. 6
7 5 .4

26. 3

2. 6
1.7
.9

796.4
134. 9
76. 2
58.7
26. 3

11.4

-

-

-

-

15.6

20. 1

1. 1
.3
.2
.6
.3

.9
.3
.2
.4
.4

.

-

-

-

.
-

.3
.2
.1
.2

.7
.5
.2
.2

1. 2
.2
.3
.7

.9
.2
.4
.3

-

-

.3

.4

-

-

-

-

.2

.2

-

-

8 .8
.
1 .4

11.9
1 .6

3. 3
“

2 .4
.
-

634.7
.2
22.0

783.6
.2
24.7

69.9
.2
1.1

8 7 .8
.2
2. 1

1 .4

.1

.1

*

-

385. 1

399.6

2,0

1.7

2. 5 181.9 193. 6
192. 7 527. 3 684.0
137.7 1 ,6 8 7 .7 1 ,9 5 9 .5

7. 3
207.8

3.0
5. 2
.1
2 .4 224.4
10. 2
3. 2
353.9
201. 6 2 ,0 3 7 .0 1 ,8 0 7 .7 2,991. 5 4 ,1 1 9 .9
- 1 ,9 7 3 .0 1 ,7 6 9 .0
.4
75. 6
20.8
.3
110. 5
1.2
1. 8
*
*
*
13. 3
18. 1
1. 3
19.5
.4
.3
61. 1
90. 6
4. 1
.3
555.4
. 1 399.0
22.1
23.7
*
_
_
197. 0
1. 3
269. 8
52. 2
9 1 .4
1.2
170.5
1.6
.3
. 1 127.7
176. 6
63. 3
38. 3 2,516. 9 3 ,4 5 4 .0
_
4 .5
3.9 438. 5
695.9
2. 6 103. 2
163. 1
27. 3
3. 1
5 .4
4. 1 332. 1
561.0
76. 1
26.7 179. 2
49.0
274. 0
.2
73.0
1.0 1,470. 2 1 ,7 6 0 .0
1. 3
57. 2 336.5 183. 2 155. 2
221.7
“
-

.7
65.9
580.4

.9
82.9
758.9
659. 3
186. 5
363. 5
109.3
11.7
7 .9
1.4
2. 4
88.0
8 .4
8.7
41. 4
2.5
27.0
152. 5

131. 1
86.9
14. 8
29.4
.1
.1

197. 2 1,063. 1 1 ,2 4 4 .7
.3
1.0
1. 1
1 .6 351.4 364.6
.1

1.5

28.4
17.0
16.7
.4
.1
6 .8
1 .4
1.8
15.5
21. 2
14.9
16.6 1 ,1 9 4 .3 1 ,4 4 8 .0
. 2 141. 2 164.0
9 .0 302. 6 377. 3
1.0
87. 8 129. 7
6 .4 662.7 777.0
92. 7 476 .4 494. 8
23.5
_
.2
.2
34. 6
7. 2
23. 6
51.5
47. 1
21.7
.1
.1
.1
40. 2 405.4 408. 4
453. 7 558.6 611.7
“
*
-

19.4
1.0
18.4
4. 3
*
1.4
1. 2

1.7

184. 1
-

_

26. 5
74.8
.2
82. 6
44.0

489.0
143. 5
260. 1
8 5 .4
10.0
6 .5
1. 2
2. 3
8 1 .4
2.5
7 .4
42.0
1.9
27. 6
114.4
"

1 In 1967 physicians on the faculty of m edical sch ools w ere counted as college teach ers, and those doing fu ll-tim e research w ere counted as
scien tists. In I960 all ph ysician s, regard less of function, w ere counted as ph ysicians.
2 In I960, "other m ed ical and health w orkers" included all enrolled student n u rses, but in 1967 only that portion of enrolled student nu rses actually
working and in the labor force w ere counted.
3 The I960 definition of college teachers was expanded in 1967 to include faculty for extension co u r se s, resident nondegree cred it c o u rses, in stru c­
tion by m a il, radio or television , short co u r se s, and individual le sso n s.
SOURCE: U .S . Departm ent of Labor, Bureau of Labor S tatistics.




9

Chapter 2. Summary o f Occupational Changes Between

During the past few years many new oc­
cupations have been created and the occupational
relationships of many others have been altered
by technological and other factors affecting
American industry. Many of the occupational
changes are inconsequential in themselves but the
cumulative impact is undeniable. New products
and services have been created to meet new
demands, and both the old and new industries
have been affected as occupational patterns
changed. For instance, new specialties have arisen
in the scientific and engineering profession espe­
cially in fields such as bionics, cryogenics, micro­
electronics, and ultrasonics. Electronic data
processing has eliminated many routine clerical
jobs in addressing,billing, payroll, and inventory
control but it often requires many new and
higher grade jobs in program planning and equip­
ment operation and repair. Likewise, many new skills
are required for the operation and repair of
numerically controlled machine tools of which
more than 8,000 were installed by mid-1966
mainly in the aircraft and missile, motor vehicle,
and machinery industries.
Some of the occupational effects resulting
from these technological and other changes, over
the past 7 years, and shown in table 1 are
summarized below.

Engineer employment topped 1 million in
1967, growing 218,000 or by 27 percent during
the 7-year period. Durable goods manufacturing,
by far the largest employer of engineers, experi­
enced nearly 50 percent of the employment
gains; government and service industries also
recorded significant employment increases.
The number of natural scientists was up near­
ly 30 percent as employment gains were recorded
in every major industry division. Mathematicians
experienced the sharpest employment increases
among the various scientific occupations; their
numbers rose over 83 percent during the 7-year
period as the growth in computer technology and
increases in research and development activities
spurred demand for these highly trained workers.
Technician (except medical and dental) employ­
ment rose by nearly 25 percent to over
911,000. More than two-thirds of the increase
was centered in durable goods manufacturing and
the service industry divisions. Draftsmen remained
the largest occupation among the technician
group, over 294,000 workers in 1967, up 61,000
from 1960. Electrical and electronic technicians
recorded the largest and sharpest employment
gains during the 1960-67 period, increasing by
nearly 60 percent or by 70,000 workers.
Managers and salesworkers

Managers, officials, and proprietors employment
increased by 6 percent during the 1960-67
period, the slowest growth rate experienced by a
white-collar occupational group. The trade in­
dustries recorded a decline in the number of
these workers during the 7-year period but
remained their principal employer with 3.1
million in 1967. Employment was also down
significantly in the construction industry, while
above average gains were recorded in services,
government, and durable goods manufacturing.
Over 4.5 million salesworkers were employed
in 1967, up 7 percent from 1960. Employment
remained highly concentrated, 70 percent of the

Professional, technical, and kindred workers

Between 1960 and 1967 the professional, tech­
nical, and kindred worker broad occupational
group recorded the sharpest employment gains,
increasing by 33 percent. Over 70 percent of
this growth was centered in the service industry
and largely reflects the rapid expansion in em­
ployment being experienced in the medical and
educational service industries. The number of
teachers (including college) alone jumped over
750,000 during the 1960-67 period and 300,000
new medical workers were added to the work
force.



1960 and 1967

10

workers were located in the trade industry. With
the exception of agriculture, employment gains
were recorded in all major industry divisions
during the 1960-67 period. The trade industries
had over 50 percent of the total increase but
the sharpest growth rates were experienced in the
service; and finance, insurance, and real estate
sectors where the number of salesworkers grew
by 37 and 14 percent, respectively.
C e i a and kindred workers
lrcl

Over 2.5 million new clerical jobs were added
during the 1960-67 period, the largest expansion
experienced by a broad occupational group. With
the exception of agriculture, all major industry
divisions recorded gains in clerical employment
during the 7-year period. By far the largest and
most rapid increases were centered in the service
industry division where clerical employment jump­
ed by 1 million, up 60 percent over the1960
level.
The employment of stenographers, typists, and
secretaries rose by 807,000 between 1960 and
1967, an increase of 33 percent. More than 50
percent of the rise was concentrated in the
service industries, but strong gains were also
experienced in most other industry divisions.
Bank tellers recorded the sharpest employment
growth rate among the clerical workers; the
number of such workers increased by 49 percent
over the 7-year period. Cashier employment also
rose sharply by 44 percent as population growth,
rising incomes, and the trend towards larger selfservice stores contributed to their expansion.
Telephone operators employment, while up
slightly overall, experienced a decrease in the
telephone industry where the new direct dialing
systems eliminated the need for many long
distance operators.
Craftsmen, forem en, and kindred workers

The number of craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers grew to 9.8 million workers in
1967, up 15 percent from 1960. Durable goods
manufacturing widened its lead as the largest em­
ployer of these skilled workers, employing
445,000 or more— a 20 percent increase. Durable
goods employment increases were largely centered
in production occupations such as machinists or
among the workers required to maintain and



service the increasingly complex production
machinery. Significant increases in skilled workers
were also experienced in the trade industries
where requirements for motor vehicle mechanics
rose in new car dealerships and the number of
skilled installation, maintenance, and service
workers grew sharply at wholesale distributors of
machinery and equipment.
Construction craftsmen increased by only 8
percent, considerably below the average of all
skilled workers, as growth in construction activity
was slowed by rising interest rates. The total
number of carpenters increased less than 1 per­
cent during the period, and in the construction
industry, their employment dropped slightly.
The number of skilled mechanics and repair­
men rose by 525,000 between 1960 and 1967,
an increase of over 25 percent. The spreading
residential and business use of air-conditioning
spurred especially sharp increases in the number
of air-conditioning and heating repairmen. Employ­
ment rose 77 percent over the 7-year period.
The employment of office machine mechanics and
repairmen also experienced significant gains, as
the growth in the utilization of data-processing
equipment generated a sharp rise in employment
of maintenance and installation workers. Airplane
mechanics recorded well above average increases
in employment in response to the growing main­
tenance requirements of the Nation’s larger and
more complex commercial and general aviation
aircraft fleets.
Operative and kindred workers

Operatives and kindred workers were the
largest of the broad occupational groups in 1967;
they numbered 13.9 million workers or over
one-sixth of the total work force. During the
1960-67 period, the number of these semiskilled
workers rose by nearly 2 million, an increase
of 16 percent, a rate slightly faster than the
work force as a whole.
Manufacturing continued as the principal em­
ployer of operatives in 1967, with over 8.8
million workers divided between durable and
nondurable goods manufacturing. Between 1960
and 1967, the number of operatives in durable
goods manufacturing increased by more than 1
million workers, approximately 52 percent of the
total employment growth experienced by this oc­
cupational group. A significant gain was also
recorded by nondurable goods manufacturing,
11

where over 420,000 workers were added. Most of
the operatives employed in manufacturing are
machine operators and tenders, assemblers, or
other production process workers and much of
the recent employment increases can be traced to
rapidly expanding demand for military related
products during the past 5 years. For example,
employment in semiskilled metalworking oc­
cupations, almost entirely concentrated in durable
goods manufacturing, increased by 445,000— an
increase of over 30 percent between 1960 and
1967.
Drivers— bus, truck, and tractor; experienced a
modest employment gain of 90,000 or 5 percent
during the 7-year period. Deliverymen and routemen increased at a faster pace (9 percent) with
most of the growth centered in the trade in­
dustries.
Mine operatives and laborers experienced a
significant decline in employment, a drop of 27
percent to an all-time low of 204,000 in 1967.
The continued trend towards larger more highly
mechanized mining ' operations has led to a sub­
stantial reduction in the requirements for mine
workers.
The textile occupational group recorded a
strong employment gain; sewers and stitchers in
apparel manufacturing accounted for nearly all the in­
crease. Rising personal incomes together with in­
creased military orders has resulted in a sharp
rise in demand for nearly all types of apparel.
Service workers

The employment of service workers grew by
1.3 million between 1960 and 1967, an increase
of 16 percent or only slightly above the 13 per­
cent increase experienced by the total work
force. However, if private household workers are
excluded, the remaining service worker employ­
ment shows a much sharper increase of 25 per­
cent during the 7-year period, a rate nearly
double that of total employment.
Service workers such as janitors, cleaners, and
guards are found in nearly every industry, yet,
in 1967, 6 out of 7 service workers were con­
centrated in 1 of 3 major industry divisions—
services, trade, and private households— and be­
tween 1960 and 1967, nearly all the growth in
service worker employment occurred either in the
trade or service industry divisions. The rapid
12



expansion in medical and health services resulted
in sharp employment growth in health related oc­
cupations such as practical nurses and hospital at­
tendants, up 35 and 58 percent, respectively,
over 1960 employment levels. Food service work­
ers, largely concentrated in retail trade, increased
substantially; counter and fountain workers’ em­
ployment was up by 54 percent, and cooks
(except private household) increased 28 percent.
Waiters and waitresses also recorded employment
gains, 15 5,000 workers during the 1960-67
period.
Firemen and policemen were among the service
workers experiencing significant employment gains.
Population growth, together with further urbaniza­
tion, and the growing public concern over the
rising crime rate were largely responsible for in­
creases in employment in these important oc­
cupations.
Laborers (except farm and mine)

The employment level of laborers remained
relatively stable during the 1960-67 period, de­
creasing less than 1 percent. Although little over­
all employment change was recorded, several
important shifts did occur within the individual
industries. Increased mechanization of production,
and material movement functions have reduced
the requirements for laborers in some industries.
For example, in manufacturing, the number
of laborers declined by 9 percent in durable
goods and nearly 14 percent in nondurable
goods, and during the same 7-year period total
employment in these industries was increasing.
Offsetting these decreases in manufacturing were
employment gains in the trade, service, and
government industries. The construction industry
remained a large employer of unskilled workers;
the employment of laborers experienced only a
small decrease during the 1960-67 period.
Farmers and farm workers

Farmers and farm workers employment con­
tinued its long run downward trend; it dropped
by 1.6 million between 1960 and 1967, or by
over 30 percent. Much of the decrease occurred
in the smaller marginal farms unable to keep
pace with the new agricultural technology.

Chapter 3. The BLS Industry-Occupational Employment Matrix and
in Estimating Current Occupational Employment Levels

Its Use

rapid growth in employment for the insurance in­
dustry than for the printing and publishing in­
dustry will create a greater growth of demand
for clerical workers than for printing trades
craftsmen. Thus, if a good set of occupational
patterns is available for a particular year, reason­
ably reliable employment estimates for specific
occupations in the next year can be obtained by
applying the occupational structure for each in­
dustry in the first year to estimates of total
employment for each industry in the second year
and then summing the resulting occupational em­
ployment estimates to national totals.
The first experiment using the occupational
matrix as a tool for estimating current employ­
ment was the development of a matrix for
1967. Occupational patterns for 124 specific in­
dustries were obtained by extrapolation of trends
in the structures of industries from 1950 to
1960, allowing for factors such as changing
technology of production, shifting product mix,
and changing supply of workers to each occupa­
tion.7 The pattern for each mining and manufac­
turing industry was then modified toachieve
consistency with 1960-67 production-nonproduction
worker trends reported in the BLS current in­
dustry employment statistics series.
The resulting preliminary set of occupational
patterns then were applied to the total employ­
Developm ent o f an em ploym ent matrix for 1967
their respective industries for 1967. The
The use of the BLS matrix as a tool for ment in occupational employment estimates within
resulting
estimating current occupational employment is
based on the fact that each industry’s occupa­ each industry were summed to national totals,
tional structure (defined as the percent of total 5 U n ite d States Census o f Population: 1960, Subject
R
b y Industry,
(PC(2)-7C,
industry employment found in each occupation), Meports, O ccupation Department of Final R ep o rt Bureau of
ay 1963) (U.S.
Commerce,
changes slowly, and that the occupational pattern the Census).
within many industries is relatively stable over 6 See O ccupational E m ploym en t Patterns fo r 1 960 and
1975 (Bulletin 1599),
short periods of time. Therefore, shifts in em­ description of how the December 1968, for a detailed
ployment among industries have a significant how national manpower basic matrix was developed and
requirements were projected to
effect on the short-run growth or decline of 1970 and 1975. This bulletin also describes the class­
industries and occupations in the matrix.
specific occupations, and on the changing occupa­ ification a ofcomplete discussion of the procedures followed
7 For
tional structure of total employment for the in projecting occupational patterns see Bulletin 1599, op.
United States as a whole. For example, a more cit.

An industry-occupational employment matrix is
a table showing the distribution of total employ­
ment in the economy by industry and by oc­
cupation. From the matrix it is possible to analyze the
occupational structure of industries, and also, to
determine how total employment in an oc­
cupation is distributed by industry. The Bureau
of Labor Statistics has prepared an employment
matrix for 1960 containing 124 specific industries
and 163 specific occupations or groupings of occupa­
tions. This matrix, based primarily on the occupational
statistics obtained from the decennial census 5 represents
the compilation in one comprehensive table of the best
occupational employment data obtained from
many varied sources.6
The need for a comprehensive and systematic
method of estimating current employment by oc­
cupation arose because reliable inter-census in­
formation is scanty. This chapter describes how
the BLS employment matrix has been used to
fulfill that need. It also describes the procedures
used to estimate total employment for 163
occupations for 1967. (Table 1 shows the 1960-67
trends in employment for each of these occupations
for 11 broad industry sectors, as well as in total.)




13

and analyzed for reasonableness. Outside data on
occupational employment from a variety of
sources (for example, from BLS survey programs,
from regulated industries, and other sources
shown in tables 2-10 and 12-18) were inserted
into their appropriate matrix cells. Employment
in the reamining cells were made consistent with
industry employment levels (developed from BLS
payroll data) and intermediate occupational group
employment levels (available from the current
population surveys) through an iterative forcing
procedure. This procedure forces the internal cells
of the matrix into consistency with known con­
trol levels by alternately forcing first to industry
employment controls then to occupation controls.
(The procedure is repeated until the internal cells
are consistent with both sets of marginal con­
trols.)
Once completed, the procedure results in
national employment estimates for 163 specific
occupations and occupational employment patterns
for 124 industries that are consistent with (a)
national employment by industry (b) Current
Population Survey (CPS) employment by broad
intermediate occupational groups (c) trends in
production worker employment by industry (d)
trends in occupational structure within industries,
and (e) reliable estimates of occupational employ­
ment available from other sources.
Em ploym ent estim ates for specific matrix
industries

One of the first steps necessary in developing
the 1967 occupational estimates through the
matrix system was to establish employment con­
trols for each matrix industry. The authoritative
estimate of total employment in the United
States for a particular year is an annual average
of the monthly data collected from the Census
Bureau’s Current Population Survey and published
by BLS in E m ploym en t and Earnings .8 However,
because of gaps between CPS estimates and
estimates of total employment for specific matrix
industries which are based on the current in­
dustry employment statistics (CES) collected and
published by BLS,9 CES data had to be adjusted
to CPS employment concepts.
The employment data reported for specific in­
dustries by the CES, consist only of private
wage and salary employees; government workers
are shown as a separate industry group. How­
ever, the CPS, Census, and the occupational

14



matrix estimates of employment, include all classes of
workers— self-employed workers, government
employees, unpaid family workers, as well as
private wage and salary employees. The CES data
were adjusted to include an estimate for each of
the omitted categories. Unpublished CPS estimates
for unpaid family workers were used in all in­
dustries, and also for estimates for self-employed
and government workers in industries for which
no other sources of information were available.10
Another difference between the CPS household
data and the CES establishment data is that in
the former, workers with a job but on unpaid
leave are counted as employed. Therefore, the
number of unpaid absences in each broad Month­
ly Report on the Labor Force (MRLF) industry
was distributed proportionately to specific matrix
industries. Finally, since the same worker may be
counted more than once in the CES survey
depending upon whether he is employed by more
than one establishment, the number of secondary
jobholders reported in the CPS survey was sub­
tracted proportionately from each matrix industry.
Once completed, the above procedures bridged
the gap between the two authoritative sources of
data— CES data for industry employment and
MRLF data for total employment.
8 However, recent research by the Census Bureau of
the undercount in Population Censuses and research by
BLS on the possible implication of this for the esti­
mates of employment suggest that we have not included
about 2 million workers in the CPS. See Denis F.
Johnston and James R. Wetzel, “Effect of the Census
Undercount of Labor Force Estimates,” Monthly Labor
Review, March 1969.
9 Labor force data from the Current Population Survey
are obtained from a nationwide sample of about 50,000
households and pertain to the noninstitutionalized popula­
tion 16 years of age and over. CES survey data are
based on monthly payroll reports from a sample of
establishments and provide, among other things, detailed
industry information on nonagricultural wage and salary
employment. The only industry estimates not based on
CES data were for agriculture, forestry, and fisheries,
private households, and government public administration
(except postal service) which were based on Monthly
Report of the Labor Force data.
10 Estim ates for some industries of the number of
government workers were derived from Public Employ­
ment in 1967, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau
of the Census, July 1968 and Employment and Wages
o f Workers Covered by State Unemployment Insurance
Laws and Unemployment Compensation for Federal Em­
ployees by Industry and State— Fourth Quarter 1967
and Annual Summary, U.S. Department of Labor,
Manpower Administration. Ratios on the number of selfemployed to total employed in several industries were
obtained from the 1963 Census o f Business, U.S.
Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1965.
These ratios were used to estimate the number of selfemployed for 1967.

Em ploym ent estimates for specific matrix
occupations

While the simple application of the initial set
of occupational structures to industry employment
estimates provides a complete and systematic
procedure for estimating total employment by oc­
cupation, certain reliable estimates of occupational
employment are available from other sources.
Therefore, a framework was necessary to achieve
consistency among estimates derived from the
matrix system and estimates derived from other
sources. The CPS provides this framework through
the published estimates of broad and intermediate
group occupational employment.
One major justification for using CPS data in
a census-based employment matrix is that the
classification of industries and occupations in the
monthly household survey is the same as that
used in the decennial population census. However,
the occupational data obtained from a sample of
households and complete censuses have certain
deficiencies. For example, responses obtained from
individuals concerning the occupations of family
members often do not correspond to the job
titles used by employers. In addition, the size of
the CPS sample is too small to provide reliable
results for most specific occupations.11 The data
for nine broad socioeconomic occupational groups
and a few* specific skill groups, however, are
considered to be very reliable and are published
monthly. Therefore, in developing estimates for
specific matrix occupations, the 1967 annual
averages for the following occupational categories
were used as overall control totals:12
Total employment
Professional and technical
Managers, officials, and proprietors
Clerical workers,
Stenographers, typists, and secretaries
Other clerical workers
Salesworkers
Craftsmen and foremen,
Carpenters
Construction craftsmen, except carpenters
Mechanics and repairmen
Metal craftsmen, except mechanics
Other craftsmen and kindred workers
Foremen, not elsewhere classified
Operatives,
Drivers and deliverymen
Other operatives
Nonfarm laborers



Service workers,
Private household workers
Protective service workers
Waiters, cooks, and bartenders
Other service workers
Farm workers
Wherever possible, other specific occupational
employment estimated were made independently
of the matrix. In some cases unpublished CPS
data were used when it was felt that both
response error and sampling error were relatively
small. Other estimates were derived from BLS oc­
cupational surveys, the reports of professional
societies and licensure statistics, Federal regulatory
and other agencies, and other sources.13 Estimates
derived from these sources include about 60 per­
cent of the individual occupations in the matrix.
The remaining occupational totals were developed
through the matrix system described earlier.
While there is a great overall lack of reliable
occupational information between census years,
this lack is not evenly distributed among whitecollar and blue-collar occupations. Blue-collar oc­
cupations, for example, made up about threequarters of the matrix derived employment esti­
mates. Among the white-collar occupations, most
of the independently derived estimates are found
in the professional group. In addition to the
availability of current data for many white-collar
occupations from nongovernmental sources, BLS,
in cooperation with the National Science Founda­
tion, conducts an annual survey of scientists,
engineers, and technicians in private industry.
Other industry surveys have been developed that
will provide additional information on employment
in certain white-collar occupations, and also,
much needed data on employment in many
blue-collar occupations.14 As more such data
become available and are incorporated into the
employment matrix, they will provide a more
sound basis for estimating employment changes
by occupation.
11 The reliability of the estimates was increased some­

what in 1967, when the number of households was
increased from 35,000 to about 50,000.
12 E m ploym en t and Earnings and M onthly R eport on
the Labor Force, January 1968, table A-14.
13 These sources are presented elsewhere in this bulletin.
14 BLS has just concluded a survey that will provide
data for about 60 specific blue-collar and white-collar
occupations in the metalworking industries (except
primary metals, SIC 33). In addition, a new survey will
soon be undertaken to collect data for about 100 oc­
cupations in the printing and publishing industry.

15

T a b l e 2.

E s t i m a t e d distribution for selected occupations in the c o m m u n i c a t i o n s e q u i p m e n t industry,
except telephone a n d telegraph (SIC 3662), S e p t e m b e r 1967 a n d S e p t e m b e r 1968*

1968
Selected occupation

employment

Total e m p l o y m e n t

Employment

Percent
distribution

385,300

A d m i n istrative, m a n a g e r i a l , professional, sales,
a n d technical p e r s o n n e l _____________________________

390,600

100. 0

172 , 7 0 0

172,200

44. 1

Clerical w o r k e r s ______________________________________
A c c o u n t i n g clerks __________________________________
E x p e d i t e r s _________________________________________ _
Office m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s __ _____________________
C o n s o l e o p e r a t o r s __________________________ ____
K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s _____________________________
T a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e operators, A , B, C
O t h e r office-m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s _______________
P a yroll or t i m e k e e p i n g clerks ___ _____ _ _
_ _
Secretaries _______________ _________________________
Shipping or receiving clerks ______________________
S t e n o g r a p h e r s ___________ ___________________________
T y p i s t s _____________________________________________
S t ock c l e r k s ________________________________________
O t h e r ________________________________________________

63,400
3 , 500
5,500
5, 300
1,200
2, 100
600
1,400
1,000
12,300
1,700
3,400
5, 300
2,900
22,500

64,000
3,400
5, 700
5, 200
1, 100
2, 000
700
1,500
1, 100
12,500
1,900
3, 100
5,500
3, 500
22,100

16.4
.9
1.5
1. 3
.3
.5
.2
.4
.3
3. 2
.5
.8
1.4
.9
5. 7

Skilled trades a n d o t h e r ......... .......... ..........
A s s e m b l e r s , A ____________________ __________ _____
A s s e m b l e r s , B _____________ ______ _________________
A s s e m b l e r s , C _____________________________________
Coil w i n d e r s ________________________________________
Electricians ________________________________________
Filers, grinders, a n d p o l i s h e r s __________________
F o r e m e n (n o n w o r k i n g ) _____________ ________________
Inspectors, A _______________________________________
Inspectors, B ______________________________________
Inspectors, C ___________ _________________________
M a c h i n e - t o o l operators, A ________________________
M a c h i n e - t o o l operators, B ....... ..... ..... .....
M a c h i n e - t o o l operators, C ________________________
M a c h i n i s t s __________________________________________
M e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n _________________________
M i l l w r i g h t s _________________________________________
Painters, m a i n t e n a n c e _____________________________
Painters, p r o d u c t i o n ______________________________
Platers ________________________ ___________________
Platers, h e l p e r s ______________________
___________
P l u m b e r s a n d pipefitters__________________________
P o w e r t r u c k e r s ____________________________________
P u n c h - p r e s s operators, A _________________________
P u n c h - p r e s s operators, B _________________________
S e tup m e n , m a c h i n e t o o l __________________________
S h e e t - m e t a l m e c h a n i c s ____________________________
Stationary e n g i n e e r s ______________________________
T e s ters, A ________________________________ ____ ____
Testers, B __ __ ___
___________________________
T e s ters, C ________________________ _______________
T o o l m a k e r s a n d d i e m a k e r s _______________________
T r u c k d r i v e r s _______________________________________
W e l d e r s , h a n d _____________________________________
W e l d e r s , m a c h i n e __________________________________
W i r e m e n , A ________________________________________
W i r e m e n , B _______________________________________
W i r e m e n , C ________________________________________
O t h e r skilled trades a n d other m a n u a l
occupations
_______________ __________ _______

14 3 , 4 0 0
9,400
16,100
22,000
2, 100
900
900
5, 600
4, 100
3 , 700
3 , 400
3, 100
1 ,900
1,700
4, 100
2,400
300
4 00
900
800
300
4 00
300
4 00
600
500
1,700
100
3, 500
4, 500
1,200
2, 200
700
80 0
300
2,400
2, 200
4, 500

14 8 , 1 0 0
11,0 0 0
17,700
23,600
2, 000
1, 100
1, 100
5, 700
4,200
4, 300
3 ,600
3 ,300
2,400
1,400
4,400
2, 700
200
4 00
1, 100
900
200
400
400
500
700
500
2,000
200
3, 000
4, 000
1,700
2, 000
700
700
4 00
2, 900
2, 700
5 , 900

37. 9
2.8
4. 5
6. 0
.5
.3
.3
1.5
1. 1
1. 1
.9
.8
.6
.4
1. 1
.7
.1
.1
.3
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.2
.1
.5
.1
.8
1.0
.4
.5
.2
.2
.1
.7
.7
1. 5

32,900

27, 900

7. 1

7, 100

6,400

1. 6

of individual i t e m s m a y

not equal totals.

Se r v i c e w o r k e r s ____________________________________

1

1967 data revised;

NOTE:

SOURCE:

16




Because

1968

_

data preliminary.

of rounding, s u m s

U. S. D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o r ,

B u r e a u of L a b o r Statistics.

Chapter 4. Sources o f Industry Occupational Patterns

O c c u p a t i o n a l p a tt e r n s f o r v a r io u s in d u s tr ie s
d u r i n g in te r c e n s a l y e a r s u s u a lly a re lim ite d in
t h e i r o c c u p a tio n a l d e ta il. H o w e v e r , s o m e i n d u s t r y
o c c u p a tio n a l p a tt e r n s a re a v a ila b le w h ic h s h o w a
g o o d q u a n t i t y o f d e ta il. T a b le 2 , f o r in s ta n c e ,
p r e s e n ts e m p lo y m e n t d a ta b y o c c u p a ti o n a s o f
S e p te m b e r 1 9 6 7 f o r t h e c o m m u n ic a tio n e q u ip m e n t
i n d u s t r y , e x c e p t t e le p h o n e a n d t e l e g r a p h .15 I n th e
f u t u r e , t h e B u r e a u ’s o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t
s u r v e y p r o g r a m w i l l b e e x p a n d e d a n d w ill
p r o v id e a d d itio n a l i m p o r t a n t o c c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y ­
m e n t d a ta .
T h e B u r e a u a ls o c o n d u c t s n u m e r o u s o t h e r
i n d u s t r y b a s e d s u rv e y s o n a re g u la r b a s is . I n ­
d u s t r y W ag e S u rv e y s c u r r e n t ly c o v e r a b o u t 7 0 in ­




d u s tr ie s , t h e m a jo r o f w h ic h a re s u rv e y e d e v e ry
5 y e a r s a n d m o s t o f t h e r e m a in d e r e v e ry 3
y e a r s . A re a W ag e S u rv e y s ( f o r m e r ly c a lle d C o m ­
m u n i t y W ag e S u rv e y s ) a re c o n d u c t e d a n n u a lly .
D a t a a r e c o l l e c t e d in th e s e s u r v e y s 16 f o r a p ­
p r o x i m a t e l y 5 0 o c c u p a t i o n s in s ix in d u s t r y
d iv is io n s r e p r e s e n tin g m o r e t h a n 6 0 in d u s tr ie s in
o v e r 1 6 0 r e g io n s — o v e r th r e e - q u a r te r s o f w h ic h
a re S ta n d a r d M e tr o p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A re a s .

15 “Occupations in Radio-TV Communication Equipment
Manufacturing,” Monthly Labor Review, June 1968.
16 See Occupational Employment Statistics, Sources and
Data (Report 305), June 1966, pp. 55-73, for a
detailed description of the nature and uses of these
surveys.

17

Chapter 5. Em ploym ent Data fo r Selected Professional Occupations

Osteopaths

V ir tu a lly a ll t h e in f o r m a t io n in ta b le 3 is
f r o m p r o f e s s io n a l a s s o c ia tio n s a n d s o c ie tie s , w h ic h
m a in ta in a n d p u b lis h a n n u a l o r b ie n n ia l i n f o r m a ­
t io n o n o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t f r o m lic e n s u re
s t a t i s t i c s , f r o m t h e i r o w n m e m b e r h s ip r e c o r d s ,
a n d f r o m o t h e r s o u r c e s . T h e ir e s tim a te s h a v e
b e e n a d ju s te d t o e lim in a te d o u b le c o u n tin g d u e
t o m u ltip le lic e n s in g in v a rio u s S ta te s , a s s o c ia tio n
m e m b e r s h i p o v e r la p , n o n m e m b e r s , a n d r e tir e e s .
C u r r e n t s o u r c e s a n d d e s c r ip tio n s o f th e o c c u p a ­
t io n s a re p r e s e n te d b e lo w .

T h e A m e ric a n O s te o p a th ic A s s o c ia tio n p u b lis h e s
a n a n n u a l r e p o r t , A Statistical Study o f the Os­
teopathic Professions. T h e s e e s tim a te s e x c lu d e th e
r e t i r e d a n d th o s e f o r w h o m s ta tu s w a s n o t
r e p o r te d .

Pharmacists
Licensure

Dentists
T h e e m p lo y m e n t e s tim a te s f o r d e n tis ts e x c lu d e
th e m ilita r y a n d t h e r e ti r e d . In 1 9 6 8 , 6 ,8 0 0
d e n tis ts w e re in th e A rm e d S e rv ic e s . T h e d a ta
o n t h e A m e r i c a n D e n ta l A s s o c ia tio n ’s a n n u a l
r e p o r t , Distribution o f Dentists in the U.S. by
State, Region, District and County a re b a s e d o n
a c o u n t o f l i c e n s e d d e n t i s t s lis te d in th e
A m e ric a n D e n ta l D ir e c to r y .

and

Census o f Pharmacy,

Physicians
Distribution of Physicians, Hospitals and Hos­
pital Beds in the U.S., Regional, State, County,
Metropolitan Area 1968, a n n u a l r e p o r t , p u b lis h e d

b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S u rv e y R e s e a r c h , A m e r ic a n
M e d ic a l A s s o c ia tio n (A M A ). D a ta f o r y e a r s p r io r
to
1 9 6 7 a r e f r o m AMA Directory Reports
Service, a q u a r t e r l y r e p o r t o f t h e A m e ric a n
M e d ic a l A s s o c ia tio n . D a ta in ta b le 3 r e f e r t o
lic e n s e d p h y s ic ia n s a s o f th e e n d o f e a c h y e a r
s h o w n e x c e p t f o r 1 9 6 6 , w h ic h a re m id -y e a r e s ti­
m a te s . In o r d e r t o c o n f o r m t o a c iv ilia n la b o r
fo rc e c o n c e p t th e e s tim a te s e x c lu d e m il i ta r y , r e ­
t ir e d , a n d p h y s ic ia n s o t h e r t h a n th o s e in F e d e r a l
e m p lo y m e n t w h o h a v e a te m p o r a r y f o r e ig n a d ­
d re s s .

Nurses
Facts about nursing, 1 9 6 8 e d it i o n , a n a n n u a l
r e p o r t o f t h e A m e r i c a n N u rs e s A s s o c ia tio n ,
c o n t a i n s b i e n n i a l e m p l o y m e n t e s tim a te s f o r
p r o f e s s io n a l n u r s e s . T h e in te r a g e n c y C o n f e r e n c e o n
N u rs in g S ta tis tic s , in c lu d in g r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f th e
A m e r ic a n N u rs in g A s s o c ia tio n , t h e N a tio n a l L e a g u e
f o r N u r s in g , a n d t h e U .S . P u b lic H e a lth S e rv ic e ,
m e e ts b ie n n ia lly t o p r e p a r e a j o i n t e s tim a te b a s e d
o n th e ir d a ta a n d o n r e c o r d s , r e g is tr a tio n d a ta ,
a n d e m p lo y m e n t d a ta o b ta in e d fro m
th e
A m e r i c a n H o s p ita l A s s o c ia tio n , A m e ric a n O s te ­
o p a t h i c A s s o c ia t io n , S ta te B o a rd s o f N u rs in g ,
A m e ric a n R e d C ro s s , N a tio n a l S t u d e n t N u r s e s ’ A s ­
s o c i a t i o n , N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f L ic e n s e d
P r a c tic a l N u r s e s , a n d B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .




Statistics

a n n u a l r e p o r t , p u b lis h e d b y t h e N a tio n a l A s ­
s o c ia tio n o f B o a rd s o f P h a r m a c y (N A B P ). T h e
d a t a f o r 1 9 6 8 a re p r e lim in a r y e s tim a te s f r o m
N A B P . D a ta p r io r t o 1 9 6 7 is f r o m th e NABP
Bulletin p u b lis h e d b y th e N a tio n a l A s s c ia tio n o f
B o a rd s o f P h a r m a c y . T h e d a ta f r o m b o t h s o u rc e s
r e p r e s e n t a c o u n t o f r e g is te r e d p h a r m a c is ts in
p r a c tic e o b t a i n e d f r o m N A B P c e n s u s a n d lic e n s in g
d a ta .

Podiatrists
A m e ric a n P o d ia tr y A s s o c ia tio n r e p o r ts b a s e d o n
S ta te lic e n s in g : Podiatry as a Career, b y W ilfre d
E . B e lle a u re v is e d 1 9 6 5 e d itio n f o r 1 9 6 2 d a ta ;

18

N um bers and the P odiatry Professions, b y L lo y d
E . B la u c h , f o r 1 9 6 3 d a ta , a n d Journal o f the
A m e r ic a n P o d ia tr y A sso cia tio n , M a rc h 1 9 6 5 ;
“ 1 9 6 4 S u rv e y o f t h e P o d i a tr y P r o f e s s io n : T h e
P o d i a t r i s t ; D is t r i b u ti o n , E d u c a t io n , O r g a n iz a tio n a l
R e la tio n s h ip s ,” b y L lo y d E . B la u c h , f o r 1 9 6 4 d a ta .
E s tim a te s f o r 1 9 6 5 , 1 9 6 6 , 1 9 6 7 , a n d 1 9 6 8 f u r n is h e d b y
t h e A m e r ic a n P o d i a tr y A s s o c ia tio n .

Veterinarians
D im ensions o f Veterinary M edicine a n d v a rio u s
e d i t i o n s o f A VM A D ir e c to r y a b i e n n i a l
p u b l ic a ti o n , p u b lis h e d b y t h e A m e r ic a n V e te r in a r y
M e d ic a l A s s o c ia tio n . D a ta r e fe r t o lic e n s e d v e te r ­
in a r ia n s a n d e x c lu d e s t h e m ilita r y a n d th o s e w h o
a re r e ti r e d . D a ta f o r 1 9 6 8 a re e s tim a te s m a d e b y
AVMA.

Architects
T h e 1 9 6 8 e s t i m a t e is f r o m t h e N a tio n a l
A r c h ite c tu r a l A c c re d itin g B o a r d , W a s h in g to n , D .C .
D a ta f o r p r e v io u s y e a r s a re f r o m t h e A r c h ite c ­
t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f A m e r ic a . B o th s o u rc e s m a y
in c lu d e s o m e r e tir e d r e g is te r e d a r c h ite c ts .

Foresters
D a ta f o r 1 9 6 1 a re f r o m a s u rv e y o f a lu m n i
b y c o lle g e s g r a n tin g d e g re e s in f o r e s tr y p lu s a
c o u n t o f th e n o n d e g r e e m e m b e r s o f t h e S o c ie ty
o f A m e r ic a n F o r e s te r s . T h e d a ta w e re p u b lis h e d
in a n a r tic le “ H o w M a n y F o r e s t e r s ” b y F . H .
E y r e in
t h e Journal o f F orestry, 1962. T h e
1 9 6 2 a n d 1 9 6 6 d a ta a re e s tim a te s m a d e b y t h e
S o c ie ty . T h e y a re b a s e d u p o n th e 1 9 6 1 fig u re
a n d h a v e b e e n a d ju s te d t o in c lu d e r e c e n t e n tr a n t s
(d e g re e r e c ip ie n ts ) a n d e x c lu d e r e ti r e d p e r s o n n e l.
T h e d a ta f o r 1 9 6 8 a re e s tim a te s o f t h e B u re a u
o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .

Table 3. Occupational em ploym ent data available from professional associations, 1960-68
Occupation

1968

Health professions: 1
D en tists------------------------------------ 93
Nurses, professional------------------ 659
Osteopaths -----------------------------12
Pharm acists------------------------------ 122
P hysicians-------------------------------- 289
Podiatrists-------------------------------9
V eterin arian s--------------------------- 24
Other professions:
Architects, registered -------------F oresters----------------------------------

34
25

(In thousands!
1967 1966 1965

1964

1963

1962

1961

1960

92
(2 )
12
122
275
8
23

91
621
12
121
272
8
23

91
( 2)
11
118
265
8
(2)

90
582
11
118
255
8
21

89
(2)
11
117
248
8
(2)

89
550
3 11
117
239
8
21

88
(2)
12
117
231
(2 )
(2)

87
504
12
117
224
(2)
20

(2)
(2)

32
23

32
(2)

30
(2)

(2)
(2)

27
20

(2)
18

26
(2)

* For a detailed and comprehensive presentation of em ploym ent and other characteristics o f health
professions and occupations, see Health Resources Statistics, 1968, 1968, U. S. Department of Health,
Education, and W elfare, Public Health Service.
No estim ates m ade.
3
Approxim ately 2, 200 osteopaths in California were awarded M. D. degrees in 1962, thus de­
creasing the number of Doctors o f Osteopathy in that year.
2




1

19

Chapter 6. E m ploym ent o f Teachers and Librarians

e s tim a te s in c lu d e d in t h e n a ti o n a l i n d u s t r y - o c c u p a ­
t io n a l m a t r i x in ta b le 1 a re a n n u a l a v e ra g e s .
T h e n u m b e r o f e m p lo y e d lib r a r ia n s p r e s e n te d
in ta b le 4 f o r t h e y e a r s 1 9 5 9 t o 1 9 6 6 a re
c o n ta i n e d in t h e Digest o f Educational Statistics.
T h e e s t i m a t e s f o r lib r a r ia n s e x c lu d e p a r t- tim e
p a r t l y - t r a i n e d lib r a r ia n s a n d a ll e le m e n ta r y a n d
s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l lib r a r ia n s w i t h le s s t h a n 15
s e m e s te r h o u r s o f lib r a r y s c ie n c e . M o r e o v e r , th e
lib r a r ia n e s tim a te s in c lu d e t h e f u ll-tim e e q u iv a le n ts
o f a ll t h e p a r t- tim e p r o f e s s io n a l lib r a r ia n s .

O c c u p a tio n a l d a ta r e la tin g t o th e e d u c a tio n a l
s y s te m
a re a v a ila b le fro m th e O ffic e o f
E d u c a t io n , U .S . D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a lth , E d u c a tio n
a n d W e lfa re . T h e a n n u a l p u b lic a tio n Projections
o f Educational Statistics c o n ta in s o c c u p a tio n a l
d a ta o n e le m e n ta r y a n d s e c o n d a r y a n d c o lle g e
a n d u n iv e r s ity te a c h e r s f o r t h e m o s t r e c e n t p a s t
1 0 y e a r s a s w e ll a s p r o je c tio n s f o r t h e n e x t 1 0
y e a r s . T h e o c c u p a tio n a l s ta tis tic s f o r t e a c h e r s a n d
lib r a r ia n s in e d u c a tio n a l i n s t it u t io n s p r e s e n te d in
ta b le 4 a re b a s e d o n th e a c a d e m ic y e a r ; th o s e




20

Occupation

Table 4. Em ploym ent of teach ers and librarians in fa ll of school
year, 1959—60 through 1967—68
(In thousands)
1967-68
1966-67
1965-66
1964-65
1963-64
1962-63

E lem entary and secondary te a c h e r s __________
Elem entary s c h o o l______ _________________
P u b lic___ _____________________________
Nonpublic 2_______________________________
Secondary school ___________________________
P u b lic____ _____________________________
Nonpublic 2_______________________________
C ollege instructional sta ff3
Instructors or above-----------------------------------F u ll-tim e _______ ___ ________________
P art-tim e
Junior instructional s ta ff.__________________
L ibrarians 4
Public elem entary and secon dary__________
Nonpublic elem entary and seco n d a ry ---- ---C ollege and university
Public lib ra ry 6_____________________________
Special lib r a r y ________ ___________________

*2,095
1, 193
1,040
153
902
815
87
478
406
271
135
72
<*)
(*)
<!>
(*
(*)
(*)

2 , 028

1, 159
1,006
153
869
783

86

449
382
255
127
67
(S)
(!)
*
<!>
(!)
<•>

1,951
1, 123
965
158
828
746
82
427
363
243
120
64
81
28
5
14
22
13

1,882
940
156
786
708
78
387
329
220
109
58
77
27
5

1,096

12
21
12

1,806
1,062
908
154
743
669
74
356
303

202
101
53
73
25
4

12
21
12

1,727
1,036
886
150
690
621
69
334
285
190
95
49
69
23
4

11
20
10

1961-62

1960-61

1959-60

1,668

1,600
991
858
133
609
550
59
294
253
169
84
42
63
20
3

1,531
952
832
120
580
524
56
282
243
162
81
39
62
20
3
9

1,015
869
146
653
592
61
311
265
177
88
46

66
22
4
10
20
10

10
20
10

20
10

1 P relim in ary.
2 The estim a tes of nonpublic classroom teach ers and instructional staff during 1960— through 1965— w ere revised in 1968 on the b a sis of
61
66
the 1965 Office of Education Survey.
3 Data are for the 50 States and the D istrict of Columbia. Data cover only faculty for resid ent instruction in d egree cred it c o u rses. Data
for 1964—65, 1962—63, and 1960—61 are interpolated. Data for 1967—68, 1966—67, and 1965— are estim a tes.
66
4 Includes fu ll-tim e equivalent of part-tim e profession al lib rarians. E xcludes part-tim e partly trained lib rarians. Elem entary and secondary
sch ool librarians are those with 15 or m ore sem ester hours of library scien ce.
5 Not available.
6 B ased on survey of lib raries serving population of 35,000 or over.
NOTE: B ecause of rounding, sum s of individual item s m ay not equal totals.
SOURCE: Data from U .S . Department of H ealth, Education, and W elfare, O ffice of Education: For elem entary and secondary school teach ers from
P rojections of Educational S tatistics to 1977—78, 1968 ed. , publication no. O E -10030-68, table 23, and for college instructional staff from table 28;
for librarians from D igest of Educational S ta tistics, 1965 ed. , publication no. O E -10024-65, table 128 and 1966 ed. , publication no. 10029-66, table 138.




21

Chapter 7. Occupational

Employment Data from

Occupational statistics for the regulated in­
dustries (transportation, communication, and the
utilities) engaged in interstate commerce are
compiled annually from mandatory reports filed
with the Federal regulatory agencies. Except for
trucking, industry coverage is relatively complete,
since the greater part of each of these industries
is involved in interstate commerce.
However, some of the broader occupational
classifications (construction installation and repair
employees, business office and sales employees)
included in these reports are not consistent with
generally accepted occupational classifications, for
example, U.S. Census. Nevertheless, the employment
trends indicated in the broad occupational cat­
egories provide helpful information in discerning
the change in employment of occupations. within
the broad categories.
Selected occupational data from these reports
are presented in table 5. The sources are des­
cribed below.

Railroads
Railroad companies regulated by the Interstate
Commerce Commission (ICC) which have 3-year
average operating revenues generally of $5 million
or more, are classified as class I railroads. Those
railroad companies having 3-year average operating
revenue of below $5 million are classified as
class II railroads.

Interstate Industries

Statement No. M300, ibid. These statements show
employment for 128 occupational categories. A
few of these categories consist of a mix o f oc­
cupations. Only a selected number of occupa­
tional categories which do not contain a mix of
occupations are shown in this bulletin.

Railway Express Agency
In 1967, the Railway Express Agency had
over 4 percent of the employment in the rail­
road transportation industry. Employment data for
28 occupations and occupational groups employed
by the Railway Express Agency are provided in
the annual issues of Transport Statistics in the
U nited States, Part 1, Section F; The Railway
Express Agency Inc., Interstate Commerce Com­
mission, Bureau of Transport Economics and
Statistics. Prior to 1966 these data may be
found in T ra n sp o rt Statistics in the U nited
States, Part 3.

Pullman Company
In 1967, the Pullman Company had less than
1 percent of the employment in the railroad
transportation industry. Occupational data for this
company are provided on an annual basis for 14
occupations and occupational groups. These data
may be found in the annual issues of Transport
Statistics in the U nited States, Part 1, Section E.
Prior to 1966 these data appeared in Part 2 of

Class I Railroads
In 1967, class I railroads had 88 percent of
the railroad transportation industry’s employment.
The railroad transportation industry is defined as
including class I and II line haul railroads, class
I and II switching and terminal companies, the
Pullman company, the Railway Express Agency
Inc., and electric railways.
Class I railroads submit annual reports to the
ICC, which summarizes them in Statement No.
A300, Wage Statistics o f Class I Railroads in the
U nited States. Prior to 1966, the employment
data for class I railroads were summarized in




Regulated

Transport Statistics in the U nited States.

Oil Pipelines
Ninety pipeline companies representing over 88
percent of the industry employment filed reports
with ICC for the year 1967 compared with 87
companies representing about 85 percent of the
industry employment for 1966. These data appear
in Transport Statistics in the U nited States, Part 6.

22

Scheduled Airlines
The Air Transport Association of America
annaully obtains occupational employment data
from airline industry information filed with the
Civil Aeronautics Board and publishes them in
A ir Transport Facts and Figures. In 1967, these
data covered over 90 percent of the airline in­
dustry employment. The Federal Aviation Agency
publishes an annual publication FAA Statistical
H andbook o f Aviation in which employment and
other scheduled airlines information appears in
great detail.

Telephones
Occupational employment information in the
telephone industry can be acquired from annual
reports o f the Federal Communications Com­
mission (FCC) and the U.S. Independent Tele­
phone Association. The U.S. Department of Labor
publishes an annual wage survey in the com­
munication industry entitled Industry Wage
Survey: Com munications. The data contained in
the wage survey are compiled from annual
reports filed with FCC by telephone companies




having annual revenues exceeding $1 million. Prior
to 1965 the revenue test was $250,000.
Annual employment data for the independent
telephone segment of the telephone industry is
available in the Independent Telephone Statistics
published by the U.S. Independent Telephone
Association. The combination of the two reports
covers all employment in the telephone industry
except for officials and managerial assistants em­
ployed by the Bell System.

Telegraph
Annual occupational employment data for the
telegraph industry are published in the Industry
Wage Survey: Communications. The data contained
in this survey are compiled from annual reports
filed with the FCC by all companies in the tele­
graph industry having annual revenues exceeding
$50,000. The data covers the 26,000 employees
of the Western Union Telegraph Company and
5,100 employees of six international telegraph
carriers. Approximately 2,300 employees working
outside the conterminous United States and the
District of Columbia are excluded. These data
include, substantially, the whole industry.

23

Table 5. Employm ent in selected occupations, regulated in terstate in d u stries, 1960—
67
(In thousands)
Occupation 1
1967
1966
1965
1964
1963
1962
C lass I railro a d s (line-haul) _ ___________________________
Conductor s, railro ad _______ _______________________
O ffice-m achine o p e ra to rs_______ ___________________ _
S e c re ta rie s ______________________________ _______ ______
S tenographers and ty p is ts __ ____ ______________________
Telephone o p e ra to rs__________ ___ ____________________
C a rp e n te rs _______ ____________________________________
Linem en and servicem en (telephone and telegraph)
B lacksm iths, forgem en, and h a m m e rm en ______ ______
B oilerm akers
Stationary engineers __________________________________
Locom otive engineers
_______________ ____ ____ ___
Locom otive fire m e n ___________________________________
D riv ers and deliverym en ____________________________
Railway E xpress Agency, Inc. ___________________________
D riv ers and deliverym en _____________________________
T rain m essen g ers _ __ __ _ __
__
W arehouse and platform la b o re rs _____________________
The Pullm an C om pany___________________________________
Conductors
P o rte rs
__
Oil pipelines _____________________________________________
Station engineers and p u m p e rs________________________
G ager-deliverym en and oil r e c e iv e rs _________________
Pipeline rep airm en __________________________________
O ther m echanics ______________________________________
L ab o rers --------------------------------------------------------------------Scheduled a irlin es __________ ___ __________ ____________
A irline pilots and copilots ____________________________
A irline stew ardesses and p u rsers ___________________
Other flight personnel __________________ ____________
Com m unications p e rso n n e l__ _______________________
M echanics and m aintenance p e rso n n e l________________
A ircraft and traffic service p e rso n n e l________________
Office em ployees
___ _
Other em ployees- . . . . . . ___ .
Telephone industry
P rofession al and sem iprofessional personnel _________
B usiness office and sales em p lo y e e s__________________
C lerical em ployees
Telephone o p erators ________ ______________________
F orem en, telephone cra ftsm e n ________________________
C entral office craftsm en
__
Installation and exchange rep air c ra ftsm e n ____________
Line, cable, and conduit craftsm en __________________
Building, supplies, and m otor vehicle em p lo y e e s_____
L ab o rers
_ .
O ther em p loyees__ __________________________________
T elegraph industry ______________________________________
P rofession al and sem iprofessional p erso n n el_________
Office su p erin ten d en ts________________________________
Sales em ployees
C lerical em ployees __________________________________
T elegraph o p erators __________________________________
Telephone op erators __________________________________
C onstruction, installation, and rep air em ployees
Building service e m p lo y ees___________________________
M essengers

1

610. 2
38. 0
6.0
3. 3
7. 6
1.8
5. 2
2. 1
1. 5
1. 7
.6
35. 3
19.2
5. 7
29.5
10. 0
.5
5. 0
4. 2
.4
1. 7
15.9
2. 1
2. 7
1.4
.8
1. 1
276.0
23.4
25. 1
7. 5
3. 3
50.0
74. 9
59. 3
32.4
760. 0
74. 5
59. 4
164. 1
212. 8
32. 1
78. 0
86. 8
41.2
25. 1
.5

2.8

31.4
1. 7
2. 5
.5
7. 5
6.0
1. 5
7. 2
.6
3.9

Group totals include data not shown separately.

SOURCE: See text, pp. 22 and 23.

24




630.9
38. 7
6. 1
3. 4
7.9
1. 9
5. 5
2. 2
1.7
1.8
.7
36. 2
19.6
5.9
30. 9
10. 3
.7
5. 3
4.9
.5

2.0

16.2
2. 2
2. 8
1.4
.7
1. 1
244. 0
21.0
20. 9
6. 8
3.2
45. 3
66.6
51. 0
29. 2
750. 3
72.4
58. 8
161. 9
212. 2
31.4
75. 3
85. 1
41.6
25. 2
.4
2. 7
31.9
1.7
2. 5
.5
7. 5
6. 2
1. 5
7. 4
.6
4. 1

640. 0
38.0
6. 1
3.4
8.0
2. 0
5. 7
2. 2

1.8
1.8

.7
35. 1
5.9
32. 1
10.4
.9
5.9
5. 3
.5
2. 1
16.9
2. 3
2. 9
1. 5
.7
1. 1
205. 9
16. 3
17. 1
4.8
3. 2
40. 7
56. 3
42. 9
24. 7
722. 5
67. 5
54. 3
152. 2
199. 1
28. 9
69. 0
79. 6
39. 2
24. 9
.4
2. 7
30.9
1. 4
2.6
.5
7. 2
6. 1
1. 3
6. 9
.6
4. 3

21.8

665.0
37.4
6.0
3.4
8. 3
2. 1
6. 0
2. 3
1.8
1. 9
.8
34. 3
30. 0
5.8
31.4
10. 0
1. 1
5.7
5. 5
.5
2. 2
17. 1
2. 5
2.9
1. 7
.7
1. 1
191.8
15. 1
14. 5
4.4
3. 2
39. 4
51.9
40. 3
23. 0
699.9
64. 0
52. 7
147. 9
193. 1
27. 2
65.9
77. 7
38. 3
25.4
.4
2. 3
31. 6
1. 2
2. 6
.5
7. 3
6. 3
1. 3
6.9
.6
4. 5

680. 0
37. 1
6. 0
3. 5
8. 6
2. 3
6. 1
2. 3
1.8
2. 0
.8
33.9
35.9
5. 8
30.4
9.6
1. 1
5. 3
5.9
.6
2. 2
18. 2
2. 5
3. 1
1.8
.7

700. 1
37. 0
6. 3
3. 5
9.0
2. 4
6. 3
2. 3
1.8
2. 0
.9
34. 2
36. 5
5.8
30.4
9.4
1. 2
5. 2
6.4
.6
2. 5

1.2

19.2
2.8
3. 2
2.0
.7
1.2

178. 9
14. 3
13. 1
4. 0
3. 7
34. 5
49. 1
37. 9
22.4
678. 7
60. 9
51.4
142. 5
189. 2
26. 1
63. 1
75. 1
37. 0
26.0
.4
2.4
32. 8
1.2
2. 8
.5
7. 7
7. 0
1. 5
6. 5
.7
5. 0

172. 8
13.8
12.2
4. 2
3.4
34. 9
46.7
37. 0
20. 7
669.6
53.4
52.0
142. 9
188. 5
25.9
62. 0
73.2
38. 1
27. 2
.5
1.4
34. 9
1.4
2.9
.6
8. 1
7.4
1,6
7. 1
.8
5. 1

1961

1960

717. 5
36. 9
6.6
3.6
9. 5
2. 5
6. 5
2.4
1. 7
2. 1
.9
34. 1
36.6
5. 7
30.4
9.2
1. 3
5. 3
6. 7
.6
2. 6
20. 3
3. 0
3.4
2. 1
.7
1. 1
169.9
13.9
11.9
4. 2
3.7
34. 1
44.6
36.6
20. 9
672. 5
52. 0
51.6
142. 6
196.8
25. 5
59. 1
72. 0
38. 8
27.9
.5
1. 5
36. 5
1.4
3. 0
.6
8. 5
8. 0
1.8
6. 9
.9
5. 6

780.5
39.0
7. 0
3. 8
10.4
2.8
7. 1
2. 5
2. 0
2. 3
1. 0
36. 2
38.8
5.9
30. 8
9.0
1.5
5. 5
7. 3
.7
2.9
21. 3
3. 3
3.6
2. 3
.8
1. 1
166. 1
13. 5
10.6
3.8
4.2
34.2
43. 3
35.4
21. 1
694.9
50. 5
49.8
144. 9
216. 3
26. 0
58. 0
71.2
43.0
28. 8
.5
1.7
37. 6
1.4
3. 1
.6
8. 7
8. 7
1.9
6. 6
.9
5.9

Chapter 8. Employment in Engineering, Scientific, and Technical
Occupations in Private Industry

Since the middle 1950’s, the Bureau of Labor
Statistics has been conducting a series of employ­
ment
surveys of scientists, engineers, and tech­
nicians in private industry. The results of the
1967 survey17 based on an extensive sample
(27,000 establishments) are the most reliable esti­
mates available of occupational employment
of
scientific personnel in 82 industries. Private in­
dustry constitute the largest segment of total oc­
cupational employment statistics. The remaining
segments contributing occupational employment
statistics to total employmentare colleges
and
universities, government, and nonprofit organiza­
tions all of which are providedfor in separate
surveys, and the self-employed which are esti­
mated separately. The scientific and technical
personnel data for 1966 and earlier years which
appeared as preliminary data in the previous
bulletin18have been revised in this bulletin to
agree with final estimates.
Some of the results of the 1961 through
1967
surveys are presented in tables 6 through
10 of this report. Since 1961, these surveys have
been
on an establishment basis which has im­
proved the industry classification. Consequently,
the information from the pre-1961 surveys which
were on a company basis are not exactly
comparable to those after 1961.19 Moreover, since
1961, the survey of scientific and technical
personnel in industry was refined to show a
greater subdivision o f industry detail. For
instance, the private payroll employment of
scientists, engineers, and technicians was tabulated
for 82 industries in 1967 compared with 55 in
1961. This expansion and finer classification has
provided more detail on the functions and
structure o f the occupational patterns in industry.
Furthermore, the sampling universe covers about
34 million workers in 530,000 establishments
from which a sample of 27,000 establishments
was drawn.
Some of the more significant “ out of scope”
components in the 1967 survey of private in­




dustry were those regarding the nature of the in­
dustry, the size of the establishment, and the
self-employed. For example, analysis of previous
surveys indicated that (1) some industry groupings
should be omitted from the scope of the survey
because of their negligible numbers of scientists
and engineers (for example, apparel and accessory
stores) and that (2) the minimum employment
size of an establishment to be surveyed should
be determined separately for each industry in
order to improve the efficiency of the survey.
Those establishments below the minimum size
were omitted from the survey. (See table 11.)
Tables 6, 7, and 8 present occupational em­
ployment statistics for total engineers, scientists,
and technicians by industry and year. Tables 9
and 10 include the occupational employment of
six occupations each o f scientists and technciains
by industry
for January1967. These tables
include only the people working as engineers,
scientists, and technicians for a wage or salary,
regardless of the field of degree or whether they
hold a college degree. For example, an employee
trained as an engineer but working as a chemist
was counted as a chemist.
Tables 6, 7, and 8 are a composite of several
surveys. Each year reflects the results of a
separate survey because of additions to the
sample, reports not necessarily received from the
same establishments each year, and the degree of
inconsistency in reporting where different depart-

17 A publication containing the results of the 1967
survey of scientific and technical personnel in industry
is in preparation. The latest published in the series
which also contains back year data is Scientific and
Techncial Personnel in Industry 1961-66 (Bulletin 1609,
Washington, D.C., 1968).
18Occupational Employment Statistics 1960-66 (Bulletin
1579). Bureau of Labor Statistics, January 1968.
l 9For information on the pre-1961 surveys see National
Science Foundation: Scientific and Technical Personnel
in In d u stry, 1960 (1961); Scientific and Technical
Personnel in American Industry, Report on a 1959
Survey (1962); Science and Engineering in American In­
dustry, Final Report on a 1953-54 Survey (Oct. 1956)
and 1956 Survey (Nov. 1956).

25

merits or company officials may complete the
survey for different years. Despite such fluctu­
ations on a year to year basis, the data provide
the best estimates available on the employment
of scientific and technical personnel in private in­
dustry and the only estimates on an establish­
ment basis.
The tabulation shows the relative sampling
error for employment estimates of the major
scientific and technical occupational groups sur­
veyed, as o f January 1967, for all industries.
The relative error shows the amount (in per­
centage terms) of deviation due to sampling
variability, assuming no bias due to nonresponse,
between an estimate and the figure that would
have been obtained had it been possible to take
a complete census using the same schedules and

26



Occupational group
Engineers..................
Physical scientists................
Mathematicians..........................
Technicians.................................

Relative
sampling
error
(Percent)
1.9
3.5
11.5
2.4

procedures. The tabulation shows that an estimate
will differ 2 times out o f 3 from a complete
census by less than the above relative error. The
effect o f nonsampling errors, for example,
response errors, processing errors, or bias arising
from the collection steps, is not shown in the
above tabulation.

Table 6. Em ploym ent of engineers by industry, as of January 1961—
67
------ 5IC“
code

07-09
10-14
15-17
19
22, 23
26
28
29
30
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

20

40
41-47
48
49
50-59
60-67
70-79,
81
807
891

Industry

A griculture, fo restry , and fish eries 1 ---------- ----------------M ining-----------------------------------------------------------------------------C ontract c o n stru ctio n ----- -----------------------------------------------—
M anuf ac tur ing___ _______ __________________ ___________
Ordnance and a cc e sso rie s--------------------------------------------Food and kindred pro d u cts____________________________
Textile m ill products and a p p a re l-------------------------------P aper and allied products —_____________________....——
Chem icals and allied pro d u cts_________________________
Petroleum refining and related in d u stries-------------------Rubber and m iscellaneous plastics p ro d u c ts _________
Stone, clay, and glass p ro d u cts_____________ _______ —
P rim a ry m etal industries.--------------------------------------------Fabricated m etal pro d u cts____________________________
M achinery, except e le c tr ic a l_________________________
E lectrical m achinery, equipm ent, and su p p lies_______
T ransportation equipm ent3 -----------------------------------------Professional, scientific, and controlling
instrum ents; photographic and optical goods;
----- —
w atches and clocks- ___ O th e r4 -----------------------------------------------------------------------T ransportation, com m unication, and u tilitie s___________
R ailroad tran spo rtation — -------------------- —-------------- -—
- - — — __
O ther tran spo rtation s e r v ic e s __
Communication
E lec tric, gas, and sanitary se rv ices------- ------------------W holesale and re ta il trade________________________________
Finance, insurance, and rea l e s ta te ------------- ------------- --—
S ervices - ___
—
—
. ..
Hotel, personal, business, rep air, am usem ent,
recreation , and le g a l5
_
—
___
. ___ ___
M edical and dental la b o ra to rie s__ ..
Engineering and arch itectural se rv ic e s________________

^Ir^housandsj^

1967

1966

1965

1964

1963

1962

1961

824. 0
17. 3
43. 3
577. 5
51.9
6. 2
3.7
9.4
42. 5
10. 7
9.7
9.6
21. 4
29.2
81. 5
142. 0
119. 5

776.2
17. 2
46. 7
536. 2
51. 5
4.9
3. 7
9.7
40.6
9. 9
7. 8
8.9
20. 5
27.9
75. 1
135. 5
103.6

749. 2
17. 3
42. 0
519.9
50.7
4. 8
3.4
9.6
38.6
10. 1
7. 2
8.4
20. 0
26. 2
73. 5
132. 1
100. 6

726.4
17. 0
38. 8
504.4
47.4
4.4
3. 8
9. 3
39. 4
9.8
6. 0
7. 8
18.6
24. 8
72. 7
129.6
96. 7

711.6
17. 0
38. 8
503. 3
46. 2
5. 8
2.9
9.5
34.6
9.6
5.6
8. 0
20. 3
24. 7
69. 6
133.9
97. 3

669.7
37. 5
472. 3
41. 1
5. 8
2.7
9.5
33. 2
9.5
5. 1
7.9
21. 1
23.9
65. 3
122. 7
90. 5

640. 1
(*)
36.2
450. 2
36. 2
5.8
2.6
9 .0
32. 2
9.4
5. 3
7.6
20. 5
23.9
62. 3
117.7
85. 9

32.4
7. 8
53.2
4.2
5. 1
17. 9
25.9
24. 8
4. 4
103.4
39. 4
64. 0

29.6
7. 0
51. 6
4. 1
4. 3
17. 1
26. 1
23. 0
4. 2
97. 3
36. 1
61.2

27.9
6. 7
50. 8
4. 1
4. 3
16. 8
25. 5
21. 6
4. 0
93. 7
35.2
58. 5

26.7
6. 5
46.6

26. 8
6. 7
44. 8

25.9
6 .4
44. 7

24. 3
6. 1
43.2

8. 8
13. 7
24. 1
23. 1
5. 0
90. 5
36. 5
54. 0

8. 3
12.9
23.6
18. 2
3. 1
85. 5
35. 7
49. 8

8. 7
12. 8

8. 8
12. 5
21.9
15. 0
2. 5
75. 7
28. 8
46.9

(2 )

23. 2
16. 7
3. 1
78. 9
30. 0
48. 9

1 E stim ates for engineers in this industry group are included in the total only, since they have averaged few er than 1,000 over the y ears.
2 No estim ates for engineers in mining are shown for 1961 and 1962 because the data are not com parable w ith la ter y ears.
3 Due to a change in estim ating procedure and the allocation of consolidated rep orts in the m otor vehicle industry, the 1967 data are not com ­
parable w ith 1966 and e a rlie r y e a rs. This adjustm ent also affects to a le sse r degree ordnance and ind ustries in the electrical m achinery group.
4 Included a re : Tobacco m anufactures (SIC 21); lum ber and wood products (SIC 24); furniture and fixtures (SIC 25); printing and publishing
(SIC 27); leather and leather products (SIC 31); and m iscellaneous m anufacturing (SIC 39).
5 V irtually all the em ploym ent is contained in com m ercial labo ratories, resea rch and other business services (SIC 739).
NOTE: Because of rounding, sum s of individual item s m ay not equal totals.
SOURCE: Data cover payroll em ploym ent in private industry and a re drawn from the annual surveys conducted by the U. S. D epartm ent of Labor,
B ureau of Labor S tatistics with the support of the National Science Foundation. (F or further details, see B ulletin 1609, Scientific and T echnical Personnel
in Industry, 1961-1966, and a forthcom ing bulletin soon to be published entitled Scientific and Technical P ersonnel in Industry, 1967.) Scientific and tech­
nical personnel in governm ents, colleges and u n iv ersities, and nonprofit institutions w ere excluded because they a re covered in separate surveys.




27

Table 7. Em ploym ent of scientists 1 by industry, as of January 1961—
67
(In thousands)

-------SIC
code

07-09
10-14
15-17
19
20
22,23
26
28
29
30
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
40-47
48
49
50-59
60-67
70-79,
81
807
891

Industry

A griculture, forestry, and fish eries 2 ------------------------------M in in g ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Contract construction 2--------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing_______________________________________________
Ordnance and a c c e sso r ie s--------- ------------ ------- — __
Food and kindred p rod u cts---------------------------------------------T extile m ill products and apparel--------- — — ---P aper and allied p rod u cts----------------------------------------------C hem icals and allied products _________ — ------- _
Petroleum refining and related in dustries______________
Rubber and m iscellan eous p lastics products-----------------Stone, clay, and glass products-------- ---- ---- ------------P rim ary m etal in d u stries----------------------------------------------F abricated m etal p rod u cts_________ ____ — ------- ----M achinery, except e le c tr ic a l____________________________
E lectrical m achinery, equipm ent, and s u p p lie s --------- Transportation equipm ent4— ------------------------ ------P rofession al, scien tific, and controlling instrum ents;
photographic and optical goods; watches and c lo c k s __
Othe r 5 _______ ___
_ _____________ _ - ------ ---Transportation, com m unication, and u t ilit ie s ------------------Transportation and related serv ices 2__— __
____
Com m unication 2___ ___________________ __________ ______
E lectric, gas, and sanitary ser v ice s - -------------------W holesale and retail trade --------------- ---- --------- — -----Finance, insurance, and real e sta te ------------ — __
S e r v ic e s--------------- - _________________ — — ---H otel, personal, b u sin ess, repair, am usem ent,
recreation, and le g a l6 -------------------------------- —------------—
M edical and dental la b o ra to ries------------ — ---- — —
E ngineering and architectural s e r v ic e s ---------------- —

1967

1966

1965

1964

1963

1962

1961

189. 1
14. 4

178.4
12. 0

168. 6
11. 6

164.6
10. 1

154. 3
-

146. 9
-

135. 8
9. 0
7. 4
1. 8
4. 5
56. 9
4. 0
2. 7
2. 4
7. 8
2.6
7. 1
10. 5
11. 3
5.7
2. 0
1.9
1. 2
10. 1
4. 8
21. 2
16.6
1.6
3. 0

129. 7
8. 4
6. 9
2. 5
4. 1
57. 1
4. 0
3. 2
1. 7
7 .2
2. 3
6. 5
9. 0
8. 9
6. 0
1.9
1. 8
1.2
8.6
4. 8
20. 5
16. 2
1.4
2. 9

123. 5
7. 8
7. 2
2. 3
3.9
53. 4
4. 0
3. 0
1. 5
7. 3
2.6
6. 5
8. 2
8. 7
5 .4
1. 7
1. 8
1. 2
7. 9
4. 4
18. 6
15. 1
1. 3

125.9
7. 2
7. 6
1. 2
4. 0
51. 5
5. 1
2. 0
2. 1
9 .5
2.6
7. 1
9. 7
9. 1
4. 7
1. 9
2. 0

158. 8
10. 5
122. 4
6. 7
7. 1
1. 3
3.9
50.4
5. 0
2. 1
2. 1
9.5
2. 3
5. 8
10. 4
8. 7
4. 7
1. 7
1.7
1. 1
3. 5
2. 1
17. 2
13. 8
1. 1
2. 3

(3 )
120. 1
6. 1
6. 7
1. 3
3.9
49. 9
4 .9
2. 0
2. 1
10. 5
2. 1
5. 2
9. 5
8 .9
4. 6
1. 6
1. 6
-

(3 )
115. 2
4. 5
7. 2
1. 2
3. 6
47. 2
4. 9
1.9
2. 1
9. 9
2.2
4 .9
9.2
9. 5
4. 4
1.7
1. 6
_
.
1. 0
2. 7
2. 1
13. 2
10. 3
1. 0
1.9

2.2

-

1. 2
4. 3
2. 3
19. 0
14. 7
1. 2
3. 1

-

1. 0
3. 1
2. 1
15. 3
12. 4
1. 1
1. 8

1 S cientists include chem ists, ph ysicists, m etallu rg ists, geologists and geo physicists, other physical sc ie n tists, agricu ltural scien tists, biological
scien tists, m edical scien tists, other life scientists and m athem aticians.
2 E stim ates for scientists in this industry group are included in the totals only, since they have averaged few er than 1,000 over the year.
3 No estim ates for scientists in m ining are shown for 1961 and 1962 because the data are not com parable w ith later years.
4 Due to a change in estim ating procedure and the allocation of consolidated rep orts in the m otor vehicle industry, the 1967 data are not com ­
parable with 1966 and e a rlie r y ea rs. This adjustm ent also affects to a le sse r degree ordnance and industries in the e lec trica l m achinery group.
5 Included a re : Tobacco m anufactures (SIC 21); lum ber and wood products (SIC 24); furniture and fixtures (SIC 25); printing and publishing
(SIC 27); leather and leath er products (SIC 31); and m iscellaneous m anufacturing (SIC 39).
6 V irtually all the em ploym ent is contained in com m ercial lab o rato ries, resea rch and other business services (SIC 739).
NOTE: Because of rounding, sum s of individual item s m ay not equal totals.
SOURCE: Data cover payroll em ploym ent in private industry and a re drawn from the annual surveys conducted by the U .S. D epartm ent of Labor,
Bureau of Labor S tatistics with the support of the National Science Foundation. (For further details, see B ulletin 1609, Scientific and Technical Personnel
in Industry, 1961-1966, and a forthcom ing bulletin soon to be published entitled Scientific and Technical P ersonnel in Industry, 1967.) Scientific and technical personnel in governm ents, colleges and u n iv ersities, and nonprofit institutions w ere excluded because they a re covered in separate surveys.

28




—

Table 8. Em ploym ent of technicians 1 by industry, as of January 1961—
67
(In thousands)

s ir -

Industry

code

07-09
10-14
15-17
19
20
22, 23
26
28
29
30
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
40
41-47
48
49
50-59
60-67
70-79,
81
807
891

1967

734. 7
A griculture, fo restry, and fish eries 3_____________________
Mining----------------------------------------------------------------------------------12. 3
Contract con stru ction _____________________________________ 25. 7
M anufacturing___ - ---- ------- — ________
— — __
416. 0
Ordnance and a c c e sso r ie s---------------------------------- -----------20. 9
Food and kindred prod ucts______________________________
5. 1
T extile m ill products and a p p a rel________~_________ _____
2. 4
Paper and allied products — ---- «---- . ------ ---- — __ ...
8. 1
C hem icals and allied p r o d u c ts______________________—___________________
40. 8
P etroleum refining and related in dustries -------------6. 2
Rubber and m iscellan eous p lastics products___________
5. 5
7 .4
Stone, clay, and glass prod ucts ___ ______ -__________ -___
P rim ary m etal in d u stries... . — - ___________________
18„ 2
Fabricated m etal p rod u cts ______________ -________ _______
25. 8
77. 8
M achinery, except e le ctrica l - — __ _______ — — — — .
E lectrical m achinery, equipm ent, and supplies
104.4
Transportation equipm ent5 ___ ...— ________ _______________
64.4
P rofession al, scien tific, and controlling in stru m en ts ;
22. 5
photographs and optical goods; w atches and c lo c k s___
O ther‘ -----------------------------------------------------6. 2
Transportation, com m unication, and u tilities__ ___________
62. 4
R ailroad transportation________________________________
4. 0
Other transportation serv ices -__________ _______________
2. 7
Com munication
—
_— _ ___________ . ________
34. 5
E lectric, gas, and sanitary s e r v ic e s ___________________
21. 2
W holesale and retail trad e ___________________________________
38. 0
Finance, insurance, and real e sta te ____ ___
7 .2
S e r v ic e s ____ __ ___________________ ___________________________
172. 5
H otel, personal, b u sin ess, repair, am usem ent,
recreation, and le g a l 7~ ______________________________ __
48. 5
M edical and dental lab o ra to ries________________________
20. 7
E ngineering and architectural s e r v ic e s ________________
103. 3

1966

1965

1964

1963

1962

1961

673. 2

646. 5

636. 5

619. 0

589. 5

570. 0 2

-

10. 1
30. 2
380.4
19. 3
4. 2
2.6
6. 0
38. 3
5. 8
4. 9
5.6
17. 6
24. 7
6 7 .4
100. 9
56. 8
20. 2
6. 2
58.4
4. 7
2. 1
31. 7
19. 8
31.2
5. 8
156. 2
39.9
18. 5
97. 8

-

10. 3
2 5 .4
369.4
19.4
4. 1
2. 2
6. 0
36. 7
5. 7
5. 0
5.6
17.4
24. 7
65. 5
96. 8
55. 2
19. 3
5 .8
56. 9
4. 5
2. 1
30.6
19.6
2 9 .4
5. 2
149. 1
39. 6
18.6
90. 9

-

-

-

-

10. 4
2 3 .8
370. 0
19.2
4. 7
2. 7
6. 3
38. 0
4 .6
4 .7
5. 8
17. 3
25.9
64. 9
93. 8
56. 0
18. 7
7.9
57. 9

10.4
27. 8
365. 3
19. 3
4. 0
2. 8
6. 3
36. 8
4. 7
4. 9
5. 7
16. 5
25. 3
61. 7
93.8
55.4
20.6
7. 5
55. 6

(4 )
26.2
355. 9
18. 2
3. 9
2. 8
6 .2
35. 5
5. 8
5. 1
5 .4
18. 1
25. 8
57.9
92.6
51.2
20. 0
6 .9
54. 3

(4 )
26. 0
329.6
16.9
3. 2
2 .6
5. 7
35.6
5 .4
5. 1
5. 1
16. 0
23. 3
53.8
84. 1
47. 8
18. 5
6. 5
42. 3

31. 3
20. 1
25. 8
4 .6
142. 5
40. 2
18. 7
83.6

30. 7
18.9
23. 3
4 .6
129.2
39. 8
16. 2
73. 2

30.4
17.9
21.6

29. 8
16. 3
22. 9
4. 3
106.6
37. 0
13. 5
56. 1

4. 4

113. 8
36. 0
15. 6
62. 2

1 Technicians include draftsm en, su rv ey ors, elec trica l and electronic technicians, other engineering and physical science technicians, life
science technicians, and all other technicians.
2 The 1961 technician total includes the addition of 15,000 surveyors, made to insure com parability of the tim e se ries on an occupational level,
but it has not been possible to allocate this input on an industry level.
3 E stim ates for technicians in this industry group are included in the total only, since they have averaged few er than 1,000 over the y ears.
4 No estim ates for technicians in mining are shown for 1961 and 1962 because the data are not com parable w ith la ter y ears.
5 Due to a change in estim ating procedure and the allocation of consolidated rep orts in the m otor vehicle industry, the 1967 data are not com ­
parable with 1966 and e a rlie r y ears. This adjustm ent also affects to a le sse r degree ordnance and in industries in the e lec trica l m achinery group.
6 Included a re : Tobacco m anufactures (SIC 21); lum ber and wood products (SIC 24); furniture and fixtures (SIC 25); printing and publishing
(SIC 27); leather and leather products (SIC 31); and m iscellaneous m anufacturing (SIC 39).
7 V irtually all the em ploym ent is contained in com m ercial lab o ratories, resea rch , and other business serv ices, SIC 739.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sum s of individual item s may not equal totals.
SOURCE: Data cover payroll employment in private industry and are drawn from the annual surveys conducted by the U. S. D epartm ent of Labor,
Bureau of Labor S tatistics with the support of the N ational Science Foundation. (For further details, see B ulletin 1609, Scientific and Technical Personnel
in Industry, 1961 - j 966, and a forthcom ing bulletin soon to be published entitled Scientific and Technical Personnel in Industry, 1967.) Scientific and tech­
nical personnel in governm ents, colleges and u n iv ersities, and nonprofit institutions w ere excluded because they a re covered in separate surveys.




29

Table 9. Em ploym ent of scientists by occupation and industry, as of January 1967
(In thousands)
Total
Physical scientists
physical
Industry
and life
G eologists,
Total
Chem ists P hysicists geophysicists All other
scientists

SIC
code

07-09
10-14
15-17
19
20
22, 23
26
28
29
30
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

40-47
48
49
50-59
60-67
70-79,
81
807
891

All in d u strie s------ ---- ---- — — — A griculture, fo restry , and fish e rie s-------------Mining — ____ ______ — - —
C ontract construction — —
— ---- — M anufacturing________________________________
Ordnance and accesso ries ---------- — _____
Food and kindred p ro d u c ts-----------------------Textile m ill products and apparel-------------P aper and allied p ro d u cts_________________
Chem icals and allied p ro d u cts—---------------P etroleum refining and related in d ustries—
Rubber and m iscellaneous plastics
p roduc t s _____________________ ____„____ __
Stone, clay, and glass p rod ucts-__________
P rim a ry m etal in d u strie s-------------------------F abricated m etal products — ____________
M achinery, except e lec trica l--------------------E lec trica l m achinery, equipm ent, and
supplies _________________ _______ ______
T ransportation equipm ent2________________
P rofession al, scientific, and controlling
instru m ents; photographic and optical
goods;w atches and clocks ------- ------ O th e r3 ............... .....................
- T ransportation, com m unication, and
u tilitie s-------------------------------------------------------T ransportation and related se rv ic e s---------Com m unication ---- ------ — — -------E lec tric, gas, and sanitary se rv ic e s--------W holesale and reta il tra d e -------------- —________
F inance, insurance, and rea l estate _____ —
Services - ________------- -------------------------------Hotel, person al, business, rep air,
am usem ent, recreation , and legal 4 ---------M edical and dental labo ratories — -------E ngineering and arch itectu ral se rv ic e s___

16.2

16. 4

(l )

(')
12. 3
(')

2. 3
7. 4
2. 0
3. 7
7. 0
6. 9

85. 2
C)
0 .9
(')
72.6
1. 6
4. 1
1. 5
2. 7
40. 5
3. 3
2. 2
1.4
2. 3
.9
1. 8
2. 5
2.9

5.7
2. 0

5. 0
1.4

3. 5
1. 4

1. 0

C)
C)

.5
( ')

.2
.3

.5
.3

1. 9
.4
.4
1. 2
10. 1
4. 8

.9
.2
C)
.7
5. 0
(*)
14. 5
12. 1
.4
2. 0

.5
.1
(*)
.3
4. 3
(‘ )
6. 8
6. 0
.3
.5

(’ )
(*)
(*)
(*)
.2
C)
4. 0
3. 3
(l )
.7

(‘ )
(')
(*)
C)

.4
.1
(‘ )
.3
.3
(‘ )
1.4
1. 1
(*)
.3

.2
.1
(')
.1
2.7
.2
2. 1
.7
1. 2
.2

.7
.1
.4

189. 1
0 .7
14. 4
.2
135. 8
9. 0
7.4
1. 8
4. 5
56. 9
4. 0
2. 7
2.4
7. 8
2. 6
7. 1
10. 5
11. 3

21.2
16. 6
1.6
3. 0

135. 3
(*)
14. 0

Life
M athem a­
scientists ticians

C)

100. 6

4. 9
4. 5
1. 6
3. 3
44. 3
3. 8

2.6

0.2

C)
11.7
2. 5
.1
C)
.1
2. 1
.1
.1
.2
.1
.3

.6

2.9

1.6
(l )

( >
(‘ )
.1
.3
0)
.2
.1
C)
(*)
.1
(')

<*)
15. 2
.6
.4
.1
.5
1. 5
.1
.3
.4
4.9
.8
1. 3
1.4
2.4

22.4
0. 7
.8
(‘ )
16. 3
.3
2. 6
(*)
.8
11. 2
(')
.1
(*)
.1
(‘ )
.2
.2
.2

31. 3
(*)
0. 6
<l )
18.8
3. 8
.3
.1
.3
1.4

1.2
.2
0)

.2

(')
2. 4
1. 8
(')

.6

17. 5
(')
0 .5

.2

.1
.2
.3
.6
3.2
3.4
4.2

.2

2. 3
4. 5
4. 4
3. 5
(*)
.9

1 F ew er than 50.
2 Due to a change in estim ating procedure and the allocation of consolidated rep o rts in the m otor vehicle industry, the 1967 data are not com ­

parable w ith e a rlie r y e a rs. This adjustm ent also affects to a le sse r degree certain other ind ustries, nam ely ordnance and ind ustries in the elec­
tric a l m achinery group.
3 Included are : Tobacco m anufactures (SIC 21); lum ber and wood products (SIC 24); furniture and fixtures (SIC 25); printing and publishing
(SIC 27); leather and leather products (SIC 31); and m iscellaneous m anufacturing (SIC 39).
4 V irtually all the em ploym ent is contained in com m ercial lab o rato ries, re se a rc h and other business serv ices (SIC 739)*
NOTE:

Because

of rounding, s u m s

of individual i t e m s m a y

not equal totals.

SOURCE: Data cover payroll em ploym ent in private industry and are drawn from the annual surveys conducted by the U. S. D epartm ent of Labor,
Bureau of Labor S tatistics with the support of the N ational Science Foundation. (F or fu rther details, see forthcom ing bulletin Scientific and Technical
P ersonnel in Industry, 1967. ) Scientific and technical personnel in governm ents, colleges and u n iversities, and nonprofit institutions w ere excluded
because they are covered in separate surveys.

30




Table 10. Em ploym ent of technicians by occupation and industry, as of January 1967
(In thousands)
---- BtKer---E lectrical engineering
Life
All other
and
and
Industry
Total D raftsm en Surveyors
electronic physical scientists technicians
scientists

SIC
code

07-09
10-14
15-17
19
20
22, 23
26
28
29
30
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

40-47
48
49
50-59
60-67
70-79,
81
807
891

All in d u strie s______________________________________
A griculture, fo restry , and fish e rie s----------- ------------- -——
Mining ___ ___ — ---------------------------------------C ontract co n stru ctio n -----------------------------------------------------M anufacturing________ — ------------ - ---- — —
Ordnance and a cc e sso rie s---------- ------ --------------------Food and kindred products - __ ______ — ------------Textile m ill and apparel products—-----------------------------P aper and allied pro d u cts__ ______ ___________________
Chem icals and allied pro d u cts________ ______________
Petroleum refining and related industries ——----------Rubber and m iscellaneous plastics products-------------- Stone, clay, and glass pro d u cts---------------------------------P rim a ry m etal in d u strie s------------------------------------------F abricated m etal p ro d u cts------- — ----- ---- ------ —
M achinery, except e lec trica l______ —___________ ______
E lec trica l m achinery, equipment, and su p p lie s----------T ransportation equipm ent2____________________________
P rofessional, scientific, and controlling
instrum ents; photographic and optical goods;
w atches and clocks._____ — ____ _________________
Othe r 3 - — ___ —
---- - — — ---------------- —
T ransportation, com m unication, and u tilitie s------------------T ransportation and related se rv ic e s--------------------------Com m unication ---------------------------------------------------------E lec tric, gas, and sanitary services----------------- — —
W holesale and reta il tra d e -______________________________
Finance, insurance, and rea l e s ta te -------------------------------Services --------------------- ------ ---------------------------------------Hotel, personal, business, rep air, am usem ent,
recreation , and legal 4 ______________________________
M edical and dental la b o ra to rie s— ----------------- ---------Engineering and architectural se rv ic e s -----------------------

734. 7
0. 7
12. 3
25. 7
416. 0
20. 9
5. 1
2.4
8. 1
40. 8
6. 2
5. 5
7.4
18. 2
25. 8
77. 8
104.4
64.4

270. 7
(l )
4.4
17.4
140.2
4. 8
.8
.4
1. 5
4. 2
.8
1. 4
2. 1
5. 1
17. 5
39. 1
29.9
23. 1

22. 8

161. 0

C)
1. 3
3. 1
1.4
( ')
<)
(l )
.1
.1
.1
(*>1
.
.2
.2
.1
.4
.1

(*)
1. 2
2. 3
94. 1
9. 1
.3
.2
.7
1. 5
.3
.2
1. 5
1. 5
1. 3
12. 8
47.4
9.8

22. 5
6. 2
62.4
6.7
34. 5
21. 2
38. 0
7. 2
172. 5
48. 2
20. 7
103. 3

6.6
2. 8

(’ )
.1
2. 7
1. 2
(*)
1. 5

6. 5

.7
29. 0
1. 7
21. 0

(*)
( ')
14. 1
.4
(*)
13. 8

17. 1
.1
17. 2
13. 5
(‘ )
3. 7

9. 1
2. 0
.8
6. 3
4. 8
.7
94. 0
16. 6
(*)
77. 3

6.2

167.4
(*)
3. 1
.5
128.6
5.7
1.4
.6
4.9
24. 1
3. 8
2.7
2. 3
8. 5
5. 1
17.6
19.2
26. 1

29. 3

5.4
1.4
15.8

.5
.1
.1
.1
(‘ )
.1
1. 8
.1
19.6
.7
18. 8
.1

.6
10.6

4. 5

2.6
.4
16.4
12. 4
(*)
4. 0

0.6
.1
(*)
6.9
.2
1. 1
C)
.2
3.9
(')
.1
.1
.1
C)
.2
.2
.2

83.6
0. 1
2. 1
2.4
44. 8
1. 1
1.6
1. 2
.8
7. 0
1.2
1. 1
1.2
2.9
1.6
7.9
7. 3
5. 3
3. 5
1. 1
5. 7
1. 2
2. 0
2. 5

11.6
5. 8

11. 1
4.6
1. 8
4. 5

1 Few er than 50.
2 Due to a change in estim ating prodedure and the allocation of consolidated rep orts in the m otor vehicle industry, the 1967 data are not com ­
parable w ith e a rlie r y ea rs. This adjustm ent also affects to a le sse r degree certain other ind ustries, nam ely, ordnance and industries in the e le c ­
tric a l m achinery group. However, the im pact of this adjustm ent is larg ely re stric te d to 2 occupations, engineers and engineering and physical
science technicians.
3 Included a re : Tobacco m anufactures (SIC 21); lum ber and wood products (SIC 24); furniture and fixtures (SIC 25); printing and publishing
(SIC 27); leather and leather products (SIC 31); and m iscellaneous m anufacturing (SIC 39).
4 V irtually all the em ploym ent is contained in com m ercial lab o ratories, re se a rc h and other business services (SIC 739).
NOTE: Because of rounding, sum s of individual item s m ay not equal totals.
SOURCE: Data cover payroll em ploym ent in private industry and are drawn from the annual surveys conducted by the U.S. D epartm ent of Labor,
Bureau of Labor Statistics with the support of the National Science Foundation. (For fu rther details, see forthcom ing bulletin Scientific and Technical
P ersonnel in Industry, 1967. ) Scientific and technical personnel in governm ents, colleges and un iversities, and nonprofit .institutions w ere excluded
because they a re covered in separate surveys.




31

Table 11. M inimum em ploym ent1 size of establishm ents by industry
covered by 1961— surveys
67
S IC
code

07-09

10
11-12
13
14

Industry

1961-64

19 6 5 - 6 7

Mining:
M e t a l ______________ _______________________________________________ —
Anthracite, b i tuminous, a n d lignite _______________________ _________
N o n m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s , except f u e l s ...................... ..........

15-17

50

10

10
10
1
10

10
10
4
10

10

Agriculture, forestry, a n d f i s h e r i e s ------- ----------------- ----------

4

1
10
10
50
10
50
50
10
10
1
1
10
10
10
1
1
1
1
1

4
10
50
50
100
50
50
10
100
4
10
10
50

Manufacturing:
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

34

35
36
37
38
39

F o o d a n d k i n d r e d p r o d u c t s ___________________________________________
T o b a c c o m a n u f a c t u r e s ____________________________________ __________
Textile mill p r o d u c t s _________________________________________________
A p p a r e l a n d other finished p r o d u c t s _______ _________________________
L u m b e r a n d w o o d p r o d u c t s ____ ___________________ ________________
Furn i t u r e a n d fixtures ______ ____________________ _____ ______________
P a p e r a n d allied p r o d u c t s _____ _________________________________ ___
C h e m i c a l s a n d allied p r o d u c t s ______________________________________
P e t r o l e u m refining a n d related industries ___________________ ____
R u b b e r a n d m i s c e l l a n e o u s plastics p r o d u c t s _______________________
L e a t h e r a n d leather p r o d u c t s ......... ....... ............. ........ .
Stone, clay, a n d glass produ c t s ........ ........ ........ ...........
P r i m a r y m e t a l industries ........... ....... ............... ........
F a b r i c a t e d m e t a l p r o ducts
_______ ______________________________
M a c h i n e r y , except electrical ________________________________________
Electrical m a c h i n e r y , e q u i p m e n t , a n d supplies.___________________
Tran s p o r t a t i o n e q u i p m e n t ..... ........... ............ ... .........
Professional, scientific, a n d controlling instruments;
p h o t ographic a n d optical goods; w a t c h e s a n d c l o c k s _____________
M i s c e l l a n e o u s ________________________________________________________

1
10

4

4

4

1

4
4
4

10

Transportation, c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d utilities:
Ra i l r o a d transportation _____ ____________ ______________ _____________
O t h e r transportation services __________ _______ ___________________
C o m m u n i c a t i o n _______________________________________________________
Electric, gas, a n d sanitary services _______________________________

100
1
1
1

5 0-59

W h o l e s a l e a n d retail trade _____________________________________________

50

10

60-67

Fi n a n c e , insurance, a n d real e s t a t e ___________________________________

50

50

739

Services:
C o m m e r i c a l laboratories; bu s i n e s s a n d m a n a g e m e n t
consulting s e r v i c e s ..... ......... ............... ..... .............

40
41-47
48
49

807
891

E n g i n e e r i n g a n d architectural s e r v i c e s ___________________________

70-79
(excl.
739), 81

O t h e r s e r v i c e s ____________ _______ ________________ _________ __________

1
1
1

50

50
50

4
4

1
1
1

100

1 Slightly different m inim um employm ent sizes m ay apply to some sectors w ithin m ajor in­
dustry groups.
SOURCE: 1961—66: Scientific and Technical P ersonnel in Industry, 1961— Bulletin 1609, p. 64.
66,
In 1967 the m inim um employm ent size of the surveyed establishm ents was the same as during 1965—
66.

32




Chapter 9. E m p l o y m e n t of Engineers, Scientists, and Technicians
by Universities and Colieges and by Scientific and Research
Nonprofit Organizations

This chapter contains information published by
the National Science Foundation concerning the
employment of scientific and technical personnel
employed in universities and colleges and non­
profit organizations. Included with universities and
colleges are the Federally funded research and
development centers. These research centers were
established to satisfy a particular need of a
Federal agency and are exclusively or substantially
financed by the Federal Government and
administered by universities or groups of univer­
sities, for example, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
administered by the California Institute of Tech­
nology and funded by the National Aeronautical
and Space Administration; the Los Alamos
Scientific Laboratory administered by the Univer­
sity of California and funded by the Atomic
Energy Commission; or the Applied Physics
Laboratory administered by John Hopkins Univer­
sity and funded by the Defense Department.
These centers had nearly 6 percent of the full­
time employment (4 percent of the full-time and
part-time employment combined) of engineers and
scientists employed by universities and colleges in
1967. The engineers and scientists employed by
these centers were almost exclusively engaged in
research and development and related activities.
Moreover, the research centers though small in
employment when compared with total engineering
and scientific personnel employed by universities
and colleges, nevertheless, employed 20 and 18
percent of the full-time physicists and engineers,
respectively.




Tables 12 and 13 contain employment data
for engineers and scientists employed by univer­
sities and colleges in 1965 and 1967, respective­
ly. Employment data for technicians at univer­
sities and colleges for 1965 and 1967 are
presented in table 14. Estimates on the annual
staffing requirements through 1975 of engineers
and scientists in universities and colleges are
available from the National Science Foundation.20
In another recent publication, the National
Science Foundation has noted the employment
characteristics of the 250,000 scientists and
engineers employed by universities and colleges in
the United States in 1965.21
Occupational employment data for engineers,
scientists, and technicians employed by independ­
ent nonprofit organizations in 1965 and 1967,
are presented in table 15. For the interested
reader, the National Science Foundation has
available two recent publications concerning the
number of scientists and engineers employed by
independent nonprofit organizations. 22
20 S c ie n c e an d Engineering S ta ff in Universities and
Colleges, 1965-1975 (May 1967), National Science Found­
ation.
21 Scientific A ctivities a t Universities and Colleges, 1964
(May 1968). National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.
2 2 Scientific A ctivities o f N on profit In stitu tion s — 1966, Ex­
penditures and January 1 9 6 7 M anpow er (1969), NSF 69-16,
National Science Foundation and Scientific A ctivities o f

N on profit Institu tion s— 1 964 E xpenditures and January 1965
M anpow er (1967), NSF 67-17, National Science Founda­

tion, Washington, D.C.

33

T a b l e 12.

E m p l o y m e n t of engineers a n d

scientists b y universities a n d colleges, a s of J a n u a r y 1965
(In thousands)
Full time

Part time 2

Field of e m p l o y m e n t
Total

Total

Teaching

Other 3

Total

Teaching

Other 4

159. 6

98. 2

61. 2

102. 1

60. 1

42. 0

E n g i n e e r s ____
__
—
—
A e r o n a u t i c a l ____
. C h e m i c a l -- -----Civ i l _________________________________________
E l e c t r i c a l ___________________________________
M e c h a n i c a l ___
I n d u s t r i a l ___________ ___ ___________ ____ ____
O t h e r e n g i n e e r s — ------- —

22.
1.
1.
2.
6.
4.
1.
4.

9
1
6
8
7
7
0
9

13. 2
.6
1. 0
2. 2
3. 2
2. 9
.8
2. 6

9. 7
.6
.6
.6
3. 5
1. 8
.3
2. 3

14. 5
.9
1. 6
2. 0
3. 7
2.4
.6
3. 3

7. 1
.4
.7
.9
2. 1
1. 5
.4
1. 2

7.4
.6
1. 0
1. 0
1. 6
.9
.1
2. 1

P h y s i c a l scientists_____________________________
C h e m i s t s __ — -------- —
— - —
E a r t h scientists______ ____________________
P h y s i c i s t s ___________________________________
M a t h e m a t i c i a n s _____________________________
O t h e r physical scientists

38. 7
11. 0
3. 7
10.4
11. 9
1. 8

26. 6
7. 3
2. 7
6. 0
10. 0
.7

12. 1
3. 7
1. 0
4. 4
1. 9
1. 1

29.4
9. 9
2. 8
8. 1
7. 7
1. 0

18. 2
5. 8
1. 6
4. 1
6.4
.3

11. 2
4. 2
1. 1
4. 0
1. 3
.7

Life scientists---------------------------------A g r i c u l t u r a l ---- ---------------------________
___ —
B i o l o g i c a l ______________
M e d i c a l _________________ —
-- ---

63. 4
13.4
21. 0
29. 0

29.
2.
12.
13.

34.
10.
8.
15.

38. 0
5. 0
12. 4
20. 6

20.
1.
6.
12.

17.
4.
5.
8.

P s y c h o l o g i s t s ____

-

—

O t h e r scientists, not specified

1
5
3
3

. .

5. 7

1. 3

6
4
9
9
4

22. 9
5. 1
4. 3
4. 5
9. 0

3. 6
1. 3
.5
.4
1.4

.9

-----

Social s c i e n t i s t s _______________________________
E c o n o m i s t s ____ ________ ______ _____________
Sociologists _________________
Political scientists_________________________
O t h e r social scientists---------------------

7. 1

3
9
7
7

.5

.4

26.
6.
4.
4.
10.

5. 7
14.
3.
3.
2.
5.

3
7
0
3
3

.2

2
0
7
5

3. 7
10.
2.
2.
1.
4.

8
0
7
1

2. 1

8
6
2
9
2

3.4
1. 1
.8
.4
1.1

.1

.i

1 Includes e m p l o y m e n t in F e d e r a l l y funded r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t centers a d m i n i s t e r e d b y universities a n d
colleges. T h e s e
centers a c ­
c o u n t e d for a l m o s t 5 per c e n t of e m p l o y m e n t a n d w e r e a l m o s t exclusively involved in r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t .
2 G r a d u a t e students w e r e slightly m o r e than 50 p e r c e n t of all p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y e e s a n d w e r e concen t r a t e d in the physical sciences occupations.
O t h e r p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y e e s w e r e c o n c entrated in the life sciences occupations.
3 Includes a d m inistrative a n d other functions. O v e r 70 per c e n t w e r e involved with r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t functions.
L e s s than 20 p e r c e n t
w e r e e m p l o y e d in the F e d e r a l l y fun d e d r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t centers.
4 Includes a d m i nistrative a n d other functions. A l m o s t all w e r e e m p l o y e d b y the universities a n d colleges, a n d o v e r 85 pe r c e n t w e r e involved
with r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t functions.
NOTE:

Because

of rounding,

sums

of individual i t e m s m a y

S O U R C E : Scientific Activities at Universities
S c i e n c e F o undation.

34




and

Colleges,

not equal totals.
1964, M a y

1968, National S c ience

Foundation, a n d unp u b l i s h e d

data at the National

T a b l e 13.

E m p l o y m e n t of engin e e r s a n d

scientists b y universities a n d colleges, as of J a n u a r y

1967

(In thousands)
Part time 2

Full t i m e
Field of e m p l o y m e n t
Total

Teaching

Other 3

Total

Teaching

Other 4

51.4

184. 7

107. 7

77. 2

118. 5

67. 3

E n g i n e e r s _______________________________________
---- ------ _
A e r o n a u t i c a l -------------C h e m i c a l --------------- ------------------C i v i l ........................................
------ ------ ------Ele c t r i c a l — ---M e c h a n i c a l _______________________ _________
Industrial —
_ ---------------- ---------O t h e r e n g i n e e r s _____________________________

25. 8
1. 3
1. 6
3. 3
7. 6
5. 2
.8
5. 9

13. 4
.6
.9
2. 3
3. 3
2. 7
.6
2. 9

12.4
.7
.7
1. 0
4. 2
2. 5
.2
3. 0

17. 0
1. 0
1. 7
2. 4
4. 5
2. 5
.7
4. 2

7. 5
.3
.7
1. 0
2. 2
1. 3
.5
1. 5

9. 6
.8
1. 0
1.4
2. 3
1. 1
.3
2. 7

P h y s i c a l scientists_____________________________
C h e m i s t s ____ ______________________________
E a r t h scientists--------------------- ----Phy sicists — _______________________________
M a t h e m a t i c i a n s __________________ _________
O t h e r physical scientists------------------

4 7. 1
12.9
4. 6
12. 3
15. 3
1. 9

30. 8
8. 2
3. 1
6. 4
12. 3
.8

16.
4.
1.
5.
2.
1.

3
7
6
9
9
2

34. 5
11.5
3. 7
8. 5
9. 7
1. 1

20. 8
6. 5
1. 9
4. 1
7. 9
.4

13. 7
5. 0
1. 8
4. 5
1. 8
.7

Life scientists--------A g ri c u l t u r a l - -----Biological
„
Medical

70.
15.
23.
30.

30.
3.
14.
12.

40.
12.
9.
18.

1
3
6
1

41.
5.
15.
20.

21. 2
.9
8. 0
12. 3

20.
4.
7.
8.

All o c c u p a t i o n s __________________________

---- -------------------------------- —
— —
- ------ —
—
—

P s y c h o l o g i s t s ---------------------------------Social scientists 5 ------------------------- —
Economists
— ---- -----—
------S o c i o l o g i s t s __ — — ___________ _________
Political scientists_________ — __________
O t h e r ______________ - ------ --- — —
O t h e r scientists, not s p e c i f i e d ---------------

1
3
9
9

2
0
3
8

8. 6

6. 6

2. 0

32. 3
7. 9
5.9
5. 9
12. 6

26. 4
5. 9
4. 9
5. 2
10. 4

5. 9
2. 0
1. 0
.7
2. 2

.8

.3

.5

5
4
2
9

6. 8
17.
4.
3.
2.
6.

9
8
3
9
9

.8

4. 4

3
6
2
6

2.4

1
1
6
3
1

4. 8
1. 6
.8
.6
1. 8

.3

.6

13.
3.
2.
2.
5.

1 Includes e m p l o y m e n t in F e d e r a l l y funded r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t c e nters a d m i n i s t e r e d b y universities a n d colleges.
2 P a r t - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t w a s n e a r l y 4 0 p e r c e n t of total e m p l o y m e n t ; gr a d u a t e students e m p l o y e d as scientists a n d e n g i n e e r s w e r e o v e r 60 p e rcent
of the p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y m e n t a n d w e r e c o n c entrated in the physical sciences a n d m a t h e m a t i c s group. O t h e r p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y e e s w e r e concentrated
in the life scie n c e s occupations.
3 I ncludes a d m inistrative a n d other functions. O v e r 70 p e r c e n t w e r e involved with r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t functions. L e s s than 15 p e rcent
w e r e e m p l o y e d in the F e d e r a l l y f u n ded r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t centers.
4 Includes administrative a n d other functions. A l m o s t all w e r e e m p l o y e d b y the universities a n d colleges, an d 90 p e r c e n t w e r e involved with
research a nd development.
5 T h e social s cience definition w a s e x p a n d e d in 1967 to include r e s e a r c h in education.
NOTE;
SOURCE:

Because
Based

of rounding,

sums

o n unp u b l i s h ed




of individual i t e m s m a y

not equal totals.

s u r v e y data at the National Sc i e n c e Foundation.

35

T a ble 14.

E m p l o y m e n t of technicians b y universities a n d colleges, 1 as of J a n u a r y 1965 a n d J a n u a r y 1967
(In thousands)
R e s e a r c h an d
development

Total
Field of e m p l o y m e n t
1965

T o t a l -----------------------------E n g i n e e r i n g a n d physical s c i e n c e ______
Life s c i e n c e -----------------------------Social s cience --------------------------O t h e r ______________________________ _____

Other
activities

1967

1965

1967

1965

47. 0

57. 5

36. 2

44. 8

10. 8

12. 7

16.
26.
1.
3.

22.
30.
1.
3.

14.
19.
1.
2.

19.
22.
1.
1.

1. 9
7. 1
.2
1. 6

3. 5
7. 6
.3
1. 3

0
1
2
7

6
5
3
1

1
0
0
1

0
9
0
8

1967

1 Includes e m p l o y m e n t in F e d e r a l l y fun d e d r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t centers m a n a g e d exclusively or p r i m a r i l y b y u n i ­
versities a n d colleges. T h e s e centers h a d about 20 p e rcent of e m p l o y m e n t in 1965 a n d 15 p e rcent in 1967 a n d w e r e e n g a g e d
a l m o s t exclusively in r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t .
NOTE:

Because

of rounding,

sums

of individual i t e m s m a y

not equal totals.

SOURCE:
1965 data, Scientific Activities at Universities a n d Colleges, 1 9 6 4 , M a y 1968, a n d Scientific Activities of
N o n p r o f i t Institutions - 1964 E x p e n d i t u r e s a n d J a n u a r y 1965 M a n p o w e r , National Science Foundation, 1967; 1967 data, u n p u b ­
lished at the National Sci e n c e Foundation.

T a b l e 15.

E m p l o y m e n t of engineers, scientists, a n d technicians b y independent
nonprofit institutions, as of J a n u a r y 1965 a n d J a n u a r y 1967
(In thousands)
Employment 1
Field of e m p l o y m e n t
1965 2

Engineers—

-----------

-----------------------------------

____

______

____

8
0
6
0

5. 5

1. 8
Techni c i a n s 5 - ________________

4.
4.
1.
5.

1967 3

2. 2

6. 9

7. 4

1 E m p l o y m e n t includes full- a n d part - t i m e w o r k e r s .
E m p l o y m e n t excludes that in
voluntary nonprofit hospitals a n d health agencies.
A l m o s t 90 pe r c e n t of the e m p l o y m e n t
s h o w n for both y e a r s w a s involved in r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t .
2 Includes i n dependent r e s e a r c h institutes a n d operating foundations, F e d e r a l l y funded
r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t centers a d m i n i s t e r e d b y nonprofit institutions, private philan­
thropic foundations, professional a n d technical societies, a c a d e m i e s of science, science
exhibitors, a n d other nonprofit organizations.
3 Ibid. , except that 1967 e m p l o y m e n t excludes 2, 525 scientists a n d engineers; 2, 055
in a c a d e m i e s of science a n d 4 7 0 in private philanthropic foundations.
4 T h e definition of social scientists w a s e x p a n d e d in 1*96 7 to include r e s e a r c h in
education.
5 Includes engineering a n d all science fields.
S O U R C E : 1965 data, Scientific Activities of Nonprofit Institutions - 1964 E x p e n d i t u r e s
a n d J a n u a r y 1965 M a n p o w e r , National Sci e n c e Foundation, 1967; 1967 data, Scientific A c t i v ­
ities of Nonprofit Institutions 1 9 6 6 , 1969, National Science Foundation.

36




Chapter 10. Occupational Employment in Federal and State Governments
Federal Government

January 1964 and 1967 was obtained from
sample surveys conducted by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics and is shown in table 18. State
data are for the 50 Statesand exclude
State
educational institutions. Similar surveys of State
government employment were made for 1959 and

The U.S. Civil Service Commission (CSC) complies
comprehensive occupational employment information23
on the Federal work force. In its latest publica­
tions, Occupations o f Federal White-Collar Work­
ers, O ctober 31, 1967, data are presented for
over 450 occupational series for each of 23
agencies (including one catch-all category).24 Some
of the white-collar occupational employment informa­
tion is shown in table 16 which presents data for over
150 series containing employment of 1,000 or
more persons at least once during the periods
ending October 31, 1964, October 31, 1966, and
October 31, 1967. A similar publication, Occupa­

23 Excluding the Central Intelligence Agency and the
National Security Agency.
24 Earlier data are contained in similarly titled publica­
tions dated Oct. 31, 1966; Oct, 31, 1961; Oct. 31,
1960; Oct 31, 1959; Oct. 31, 1958; Feb. 28, 1957;
and Aug. 31, 1954. Unpublished data are available for
1964 and 1962. Data for 1951 and 1947 are in
Bulletin 1117, which was published in cooperation with
the U.S. Civil Service Commission.
25 Earlier data are contained in similarly titled publica­
tions dated Oct. 31, 1960; Oct. 31, 1958; and Feb.
28, 1957. Unpublished data are available for 1961,
1962, and 1965.
26 Current Federal Workforce as o f December 1966 and
June 1967 (U.S. Civil Service Commission, June 1968).
This publication contains total government employment,
excluding the Post Office, the Central Intelligence
Agency, and the National Security Agency, as of June
30 and December 31. Data for December 1967 and
June 1968 are expected to be published in 1970. Earlier data
are contained in similarly titled publications dated Septem­
ber 1966 and August 1965.
Employment in selected postal occupations during
1960-67 is presented in table 17.
27 The fifth report in this series, covering fiscal years
1969-72 was published in July 1969. The sixth report
covering the fiscal years 1970-73, is expected to be
available in 1970.
28 Employment o f Scientific and Technical Personnel in
State Government Agencies, 1962 (Bulletin 1412).
Employment o f Scientific and Technical Personnel in State
Government Agencies, Report on a 1959 Survey, 1961, NSF 6117 National Science Foundation. This survey was sponsored by
the National Science Foundation and conducted by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics.

tions o f Federal Blue-Collar Workers, O ctober 31,
1966, contains data for nearly 1,500 categories

of craftsmen, operatives, laborers, and related
workers for each of 23 agencies (including one
catch-all category).25 Unpublished occupational data
for bothwhite-collar and blue-collar workers
in
1968 are available and will be published in
1970.
White-collar occupational employment data for most
of the series contained in table 16 are also published
by the CSC.26The mid-year data are obtained
from a 10 percentsample of each series. The
yearend data are based upon the October 31
actual count of all Federal employees. Four-year
projections of employment in these series are
provided in the Commission’s annual publication
Federal Workforce Outlook.27

State Government
Employment of scientific, professional, and
technical personnel by State government in




37

Table 16. F ed eral em ploym ent in selected w h ite-collar occupations, as of
October 1964, October 1966, and October 1967
S e ries
code

Series
All white-collar occupations

1967

1966

1964

____________________________________________________________________

1,261,697

1,204,565

1,097, 396

____ ____________ ____________ ____ ______________ __________ _______ _____

236,915

226,435

220,654

Social science ___________________________________________________________________________________________

8, 116
4, 136
lj 879
2, 101

7, 6 3 3
3, 641
l' 8 43
2, 149

P r o f e s s i o n a l occupations

0110
0180
0185

P s y c h o l o g y ___________________________________________________________________________________________
Social w o r k ___________________________________________________________________________________________

8,602
4, 451
1 j 936
2, 215

0401
0457
0460
0470
0475

B i o l o g y a n d agriculture _________________________________________________________________________________
G e n e r a l biological science ___________________________________ _____ ________________________________
Soil c o n s e r v a t i o n _____________________________________________________________________________________
F o r e s t r y _______________________________________________________________________________________
Soil s c i e n c e ___________________________________________________________________________________________
A gricultural m a n a g e m e n t
_ _

18,4 2 2
2,437
4,819
6,086
1,887
3, 173

15.3 7 0
1,235
4,825
6, 094
1,876
3, 216

16, 263
1, 027
4,780
5,974
1,9 0 3
2,579

0510
0512

Internal r e v e n u e agent _______________________________________________________________________________

33, 781
19^ 791
13^990

32,263
19,0 3 0
13^233

18^2 6 5
12 ] 773

0602
0610
0630
0644
0660
0680

M e d i c a l officer ______________________________________________________________________________________
N u r s e __________________________________________________ ______________________________________________
Dietitian _____________________________________________________________________ _________________________
M e d i c a l technologist _____________________ _____ ____________________________________________________
P h a r m a c i s t ___________________________________________________________________________________________
D e ntal officer
______________________________________________________________________________________

37, 9 3 6
10,121
22,727
1,066
1, 550
1, 184
1, 288

37,552
9,689
22,959
1,113
1,403
1, 144
1,244

38,7 4 2
11,6 5 3
22, 5 7 0
1, 161
1, 147
9 39
1,2 7 2

0 701

0 801
0808
0810
0811
0812
0813
0819
0820
0830
0840
0850
0855
0 861
0870
0 871
0893
0896

V e t e r i n a r y science _________________________________________ _______ __________________ _____ ____________

2, 393

2, 338

2, 2 85

E n g i n e e r i n g ______________________________________________________________________________________________
G e n e r a l ______________________________________________________________________ ________________________
A r c h i t e c t u r e _______________________________________________________________ __________________________
C i v i l 1 _________________________________________________________________________________________________

78,325
12, 3 9 6
1 , 513
17, 5 8 5

79,025
11,562
1,428
17,5 6 2

H y d r a u l i c ____________________________________________________ _________________________________ _______
S a n i t a r y _______________________________________________________________________________________________
H i g h w a y _________________________________________________________ __________________ __________________

1,285
9, 723
1,062
4,426
14,991
9, 371
r, 021
1 ; 184

79,358
10,3 5 9
1,3 8 3
8 , 461
3,451
1 ,286
Z , 178
9 75
1,938
8, 376
’ 87 9
4, 370
13, 176
8, 211
887

N u c l e a r _______________________________________________________________________ _______________ ________
Electrical _______________________________________________________________________________ ___________
Electronic ____________________________________________________________________________________________

N a v a l a r c h i t e c t u r e _________________________________________________________________________________
1, 544
____________________________________________________________________________________________

Industrial

_

z \ 224

1,034
8, 796
1^009
4, 388
13,9 3 5
8,898
95 3
1,045
1,326
z \ 089

1,100
1, 290
Z , 038

0905

'

A t t o r n e y _________________________________________________________________________________________________

9,447

9, 086

1224

Pate n t e x a m i n i n g ________________________________________________________________________________________

1, 149

1, 107

1, 106

1301
1310
1320
1340
1350
1370

P h y s i c a l science ________________________________________________________________________________________
G e n e r a l physical s c i e n c e ______________________________________________________________ ______________
P h y s i c s ________________________________________________________________________________________________
C h e m i s t r y ____________________________________________________________________________________________
M e t e o r o l o g y ___________________________________________________________________________________________
1,858
C a r t o g r a p h y ___________________________________________________________________________________________

27,639
6, 267
5,806
8,302
2, 394

3 ) 031

26,964
6, 227
5, 531
8, 135
2, 257
1,949
z \ 86 5

26,018
6,466
5,026
7, 716
2, 190
1,965
2, 6 55

M a t h e m a t i c s _______ ______________________________________________________________________________________
O p e r a t i o n r e s e a r c h __________________________________________________________________________________

5, 790
1,088
4, 113
589

4,961
852
3, 591
518

4, 149
63 7
3, 089
423

1515
1520
1529
1710

M a t h e m a t i c a l statistics _____________________________________________________________________________
E d u c a t i o n a n d vocational training _________________________________________________________

________

9,057

13,431

14, 6 5 3

14,0 0 5

347, 77 4

323, 159

292,001

1,781
2,602

1,646
2, 329

1,4 2 0
2, 113

0018
0080

Safety m a n a g e m e n t ______________________________________________________________________________________
Security a d m i n i s t r a t i o n _________________________________________________________________________________

0132

Intelligence______________________________________________________________________________________________

3, 152

3, 046

2, 776

0188

R e c r e a t i o n _______ __________________ ___ ____— ------------- ----------------------------- — ....-..... ....

2, 247

2,025

1,811

See footnotes at end of table.

38




T a b l e 16. F e d e r a l e m p l o y m e n t in selected white-collar occupations, as of
O c t o b e r 1964, O c t o b e r 1966, a n d O c t o b e r 1967— C o n t i n u e d
Series
code

Series

1967

1966

1964

16,952
9, 196
3, 543
2, 384
1,829

16,1 7 7
8,795
3,305
2, 339
1,738

14,987
7,959
2 , 949
2,433
1 j 646

63,371
1,231
6, 550
14, 8 0 2
2,076
3 , 048
9,574
2.291
8,820
4, 123
4,992
701
3,237
1,926

53,934
1,238
5,523
12, 0 9 2
90 3
2,842
9,444
1,992
8,479
3 , 929
2,518
877
2 , 489
1,608

44,195
1, 107
5,438
3,728
3, 354
_

9,026
1,394
4, 680
2,952

8,697
1,382
4,432
2^ 8 8 3

6,329
1,215
2, 237
2,877

26,774
10,750
12, 8 6 7
3, 157

26,100
10,581
12,553
2,966

26,805
11,0 7 3
12,990
2,742

4, 6 63
2 , 9 83
1,680

4, 551
2 , 92 0
1 j 631

4, 114
2 , 639
1,475

60,517
27,295
3 , 037
3,932
4,034
20,320
1,899

54,817
25,262
2, 985
4, 228
3 , 870
18,334
138

49,853
21,785
2, 772
4, 597
3,863
16,836

15,8 9 6
2,763
3 ,205

14,739
2, 570
2,922

13, 365
2, 369
2, 500

___ __ . .
. .
___
_ _ _

1,888
1,836
2,000
1,881

1 \ 8 28
1 , 673
1,870
1,799

1,719
1,471
1,884
1,691

B u s i n e s s a n d industry
G e n e r a l busin e s s a n d industry ___________________________________________
Contract a n d p r o c u r e m e n t
P r o p e r t y disposal
__ _
_ _
_
_ _
Industrial specialist _ _
_ _„_ _ __ _
_
_
_
_ _
P r o d u c t i o n control
__
_
_
L o a n specialist
R e alty
_
__
_
_ _
Appraising and assessing

41,962
2,799
18,036
1,224
5, 161
6,598
2 ,627
2,888
2 ,629

39,649
2,486
16,981
1,234
4, 590
6, 314
2,399
2,876
2,769

36,068
1,942
14,971
1, 336
3 , 802
6,531
2, 179
2 ,751
2, 556

9,554
3,642
2. 52 3
3, 389

9,238
3,445
2, 390
3,402

8,039
2,898
2,607
2. 534

Personnel
0201
0212
0221
0235

0330
0331
0332
0334
0335
0340
0341
0342
0343
0344
0345
0362
0392
0393

0403
0404
0458

0 501
0525
0570

0645
0647

0802
0809
0817
0818
0856
0895

.

. _ _ ______

P e r s o n n e l staffing
E m p l o y e e development

_
_
____

_

....

_
.

.. __
.
.

_ _ .
_

_

„

__

C o m p u t e r a n d m a n a g e m e n t services
_ _ _ _ _
_
Digital c o m p u t e r s y s t e m s administration _
Digital c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m e r 2
_
_ ___
_ _
_ ______ ____ _
,
Digital c o m p u t e r s y s t e m s operation
.. _
._
_
C o m p u t e r specialist3
_
_
_ _
C o m p u t e r aid a n d technician
_ _.
.
Program management
_________
A d m i n i s t r a t i v e officer
_
Office services a n d m a n a g e m e n t a n d s u p e r v i s i o n _____________________
M a n a g e m e n t analysis _________ _____ _____________________________________
M a n a g e m e n t technician
P r o g r a m analysis
... _ _
.. _
Electric accounting m a c h i n e project planning .
General communication
__ _
_
_
C o m m u n i c a t i o n specialist
....
....
Agricultural support
_
_____
M i c r o b i o l o g y _________________________________________________________
Soil c o n s ervation technician

.
.
.

___

-

___

_ _

A c c o u n t i n g , finance support
_
__ _ ______
G e n e r a l accounting, clerical, a n d administration
__
___
A c c o u n t i n g technician
__
Financial institution e x a m i n e r __________________________________________

R a d i o l o g y technician

_

E n g i n e e r i n g support
E n g i n e e r i n g technician

_ _

___

__
_

.. _
.

_ _
_ _

_____________

_________

S u r v e y i n g technician
E n g i n e e r i n g drafting ________ _____________________________________________
Electronic technician _____________________________________________________
Industrial engineering technician _
_ _
_
_ _ _ _ _ ..
..
.
F i n e a r t s ______________________________________________________________________

1020
1060
1081
1082
1 083
1085
1087

1101
1102
1104
1150
1152
1165
1170
1171

1311
1341
1371

Photography

__

_ _ _ ___
_
2, 323

W riting a n d editing
T e c h n i c a l writing a n d editing
F o r e i g n i n formation ..
..
Editorial assistance
___

P h y s i c a l science support
P h y s i c a l science technician

_

__
2, 077

_ _

_

_

1410

...
...

3, 528

3, 4 8 3

1530

Statistician

1640
1670

E q u i p m e n t a n d construction _
C o n s t r u ction a n d m a i n t e n a n c e __________________________________________
E q u i p m e n t specialist

-

1, 509
2,010
1,137

-

1,731

.......
_

2, 562
9,500
2,008
8,313
3,529

3, 387
2, 268

2, 307

2, 337

16,401
2,625
13,776

15,316
2,651
12, 6 6 5

13, 7 0 4
2, 568
11, 136

1712

9, 306

8,432

6,622

1810
1825

4, 531
2,896
1,635

4,403
2,853
1, 550

4, 373
2 ,821
1,552

G e n e r a l investigation
Aviation safety officer

S e e footnotes at e n d of table,




_ __

_ _

_

_ _

Table 16. F ed eral em ploym ent in selected w h ite-collar occupations, as of
October 1964, October 1966, and October 1967— Continued
Seri e s
code

Series

1967

1966

1964

13,696

12,841

10, 4 4 7

2, 23 3
1,957
3, 108
2 , 681
1,702
1,214
801

2,043
1 ,776
3,047
2, 381
1,619
1,063
9 12

2, 123
1,550
2, 368
1,480
1,008
82 8
1,090

30,797
9, 394
14,451
1, 146
4,206
1,600

31,190
10,1 5 2
14,431
1, 116
4,027
1 , 464

31, 2 9 9
11,7 8 5
13,033
1, 172
3 , 917
1, 392

F reight r a t e _______________________ _______________________________________
T r a v e l ..... . . _
........................ ............. ....... ....... .
Aircraft operation ________________________________________________________

8,750
1,906
1,802
2, 236
1,668
1, 138

8,239
1,784
1,706
2, 155
1,549
1,045

7, 957
1 , 794
1 , 486
Z , 26 3
1,401
1,013

A d ministrative-technician ( G o v e r n m e n t )
occupations ---------------------------------------------------------------

98,501

93,647

88,002

C o r rectional o f f i c e r __________________________________________________________

2, 703

2, 788

2, 905

9,652

9, 50 3

1903
1936
1940
1942
1948
1950

Quality control a n d inspections _____________________________________________
G e n e r a l c o m m o d i t y quality control a n d
inspection_____________ ______ _____________________________________________
Quality control a n d inspection m a n a g e m e n t _____________________________
Electronic e q u i p m e n t quality control a n d i n s p e c t i o n ___________________
M e c h a n i c a l e q u i p m e n t quality control a n d i n s p e c t i o n ______ _____ ______
Aircraft quality control a n d inspection __________________________________
A m m u n i t i o n quality control a n d inspection ____________ _________________
Missile quality control a n d i n s p e c t i o n _________ _________________________

2 001
2010
2030
2050
2090

G e n e r a l s u p p l y _____________________________________________________________
Inventory m a n a g e m e n t __________________________________ _________________
Distribution facilities a n d storage m a n a g e m e n t ________________________
Sup p l y identification s y s t e m s _____________________________________________
Publications supply _______________________________________ _______________

1901

2101
2130
2131
2132
2181

0007

T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ________________________________________________________________
G e n e r a l transportation ___________________________________________________

0105

9,922

0526
0560
0592

A c c o u n t i n g ____________________________________________________________________
T a x technician _____________________________________________________________
6, 759
T a x a c c o u n t i n g _____________________________________________________________

0685

Public health p r o g r a m specialist____________________________________________

2, 374

1,925

1,646

C l a i m s e x a m i n i n g ____________________________________________________________
Contr a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e __________________________________________________

12, 8 0 8
1, 318
2, 192
7,070
2, 228

11,808
1,285
2, 112
6 , 231
2, 180

10,177
1,168
2, 186
5, 071
1,752

0962
0963
0993
0996

Social security c l a i m s ____________________________________________________
V e t e r a n s c l a i m s ___________________________________________________________

1169

Internal r e v e n u e officers ____________________________________________________

1811
1 813
1816
1854
1 863
1890
1 896

Investigation__________________________________________________________________
C r i m i n a l investigation __________ ________________________________________
W a g e a n d h o u r l a w ________________________________________________________
I m m i g r a t i o n i n s p e c t i o n ___________________________________________________
Alcohol, t o b a c c o tax inspection _________________________________________
F o o d i n s p e c t i o n __________ ______________ ____________ ______________________
C u s t o m s inspection _______________________________________________________
I m m i g r a t i o n patrol i n s p e c t i o n ____________________________________________

18, 0 9 9
3, 012
8, 328

17,051
2, 991
6, 351
7,709

15,
2,
6,
6,

396
798
209
389

6,434

6, 199

6,422

25,181
12, 6 1 8
1, 191
1,207
1, 150
4,915
2,848
1,252

24,324
12,295
1,202
1, 186
1, 144
4,449
2, 777
1,271

22,428
11,258
1, 162
1, 159
1, 149
3,723
2, 667
1,310

1980

Agricultural c o m m o d i t y g r a d i n g _____________________________________________

2 , 931

2, 952

2, 9 2 3

2152

A i r traffic control ____________________________________________________________

18,049

16, 9 4 8

17,6 0 2

45, 691

44,674

42,194

0 621
0636
0 681
0699

M e d i c a l support ______________________________________________________________
N u r s i n g assistant _________________________________________________________
P h y s i c a l - m e d i c a l rehabilitation t h e r a p y assistant ______________________
Dental assistant ___________________________________________________________
M e d i c a l aid ________________________________________________________________

42,703
38,147
1, 115
1,972
1,469

42,115
37,427
1,061
1,758
1,869

39,903
35,955
1,047
1, 308
1,593

1411

L i b r a r y t e c h n i c i a n ___________________________ ____ ____________________________

2 , 988

2, 559

2, 291

Clerical (specialized) occupations _______________________________________

114,856

108 , 2 0 9

93, 721

P e r s o n n e l c l e r i c a l ____________________________________________________________
P e r s o n n e l clerical a n d assistance _______________________________________
Military p e r s o n n e l clerical a n d
technician ________________________________________________________________

18,0 0 0
9, 046

15, 5 6 8
7,827

13,491
7, 522

8,954

7, 741

5 , 969

Aid-assistant occupations ___________ _

0203
0204

See footnotes at end of table.

40




__

___ -----------------

Table 16. F ed eral em ploym ent in selected w h ite-collar occupations, as of
October 1964, October 1966, and October 1967— Continued
Series
code
0309

0520
0540
0544
0545
0590
0998

Series

1967

C o r r e s p o n d e n c e c l e r k ___ _____________ ______

___

1,850

1,855

1,729

29,293
11,788
5,807
4, 60 2
5, 098
1,998

28,056
11,6 3 2
5, 524
4, 515
4,517
1,868

27,080
11,6 2 6
5 , 447
4, 355
3 , 598
2,054

10, 7 3 4

9,239

2,873

6, 757

6, 778

7,019

48,222
9, 124
33,594
3j 014
2, 490

46,713
8,624
32,680
2 ’ 84 5
,
2, 564

41,529
8, 186
28,994
2 , 451
'
1,898

278,550

276,374

243,883

275,715
1,958
1, 155
27,640
51,827
6,685
59,512
93,430
1 , 704
17, 1 4 5
2 ,031
3, 773
6,610
2,245

273, 599
1,928
1, 174
26,661
53,256
6,689
57,140
93,970
1,708
16,075
1,724
4,412
6,713
2, 149

240,567
1,702
801
23,967
51,859
6,493
54,935
70,647
1,487
12, 2 7 6
1,466
5,836
6,756
2, 342

______________________________________________________

S u p p l y c l e r i c a l ____________________________ ___________ ________________________
Purchasing
__
_
_ _
_
Sales store clerical

Clerical (general) occupations

0302
0304
0305
0312
0316
0318
0322
0350
0356
0357
0359
0382
0385
0530

0301

_____

___

. ..
..

Office occupa tions ___________________________________________________________
Messenger
_
_
_ ... _
...
I n f o r m a t i on receptionist
___
__
.
M a i l a n d file
_
_
_
_ _ _ _
_
C l e r k - s t e n o g r a p h e r a n d repor t e r
Clerk-dictating m a c h i n e t r a n s c r i b i n g ___________________________________
Secretary
_ ___
C l e r k - t y p i s t ________________________________________________________________
O f f i c e - m a c h i n e operating
_
_ _ ___
_ _
_ _
_
__
_ _ ___
C a r d p u n c h operation _________________________________________________
Coding
_
_
Electric accounting m a c h i n e operation __________________________________
T e l e p h o n e operating
_
__
Teletypist _________________________________________________________________
C a s h processing
O t h e r occ upations

0081
0083
0085

1964

A c c o u n t i n g c l e r i c a l ____ _____________________________________ ________________
A c c o u n t s m a i n t e n a n c e c l e r i c a l ___________________________________________
V o u c h e r e x a m i n i n g _____________________________________________
P a y r o l l _____________________________________________________________________
Military p a y _________ ____ ______________________________________ ___________
T i m e a n d leave _____________________________________________

1531

2020
2040
2091
2 134

1966

_ ___

C l a i m s clerical

_ __________

__

___
_

_______________________________________________________

Protective
F i r e protection a n d prevention _
Police ______________________________________________________________________
G u a r d ____________ _______ ____________________________________________ __ .
G e n e r a l clerical a n d administrative

2, 83 5

2. 775

3, 316

139,410

132 , 0 6 7

1 1 6,941

28,837
12, 291
2,737
13,809

27,860
11, 8 2 9
2, 638
13,393

26,785
11,406
2, 254
13, 125

110,573

104 , 2 0 7

90,156

1 Coverage of 0870 expanded to include se r ie s 0811, 0812, 0813, and 0820, which w ere discontinued in 1966.
2 Included in 0334 com puter specialist after 1964.
3 Includes digital com puter program er after 1964.
SOURCE: 1967, Occupations of F ederal W hite-C ollar W orkers, October 31, 1967, Pam phlet SM 56-7, October 1968; 1966,
Occupations of F ederal W hite-C ollar W orkers October 31, 1966. Pam phlet MS 56-6, June 1968; 1964 unpublished data at the
U .S . C ivil Service C om m ission.




T a b l e 17.

E m p l o y m e n t in selected P o s t Office occupations,

as of O c t o b e r 1960— 67

(In thousands)

1967

Occupation

All oc c u p ations 1

_ -

P o s t m a s t e r s __
---- --- --— — --- —
Supervisors —
P o stal clerks
—
_ —
_ ----- - — -------Ma i l carriers
— _______________________ _________ ____________
Special delivery c a r riers- _______________ - ----- —
M a i l h andlers

1 Includes
SOURCE:

data not s h o w n

1966

1965

1964

1963

1962

1961

I960

705
32
34
304
230
5

692

610
33
32
250
207
4
32

593
34
32
240

590
34
32
239

585
35
31
239
198
4
31

580
35
31
239
195
4
30

568
35
30
234
190
5
29

44

33
33
300
225
5

44

202

200

32

31

4

4

separately.

P o s t Office D e p a r t m e n t ,

B u r e a u of F i n a n c e a n d A d ministration,

T a b l e 18.

Paid E m p l o y e e s

Rep o r t ,

form

1988.

E m p l o y m e n t of scientific, professional, a n d technical p e r s o n n e l b y
State g o v e r n m e n t s , as of J a n u a r y 1964 a n d J a n u a r y 1967
(In thousands)
Occupation

____

_____________________

1964

200. 5

156. 8

34. 2
30. 6
1. 3
2. 3

All occupations 1 - ____

1967

34. 5

20. 6
1. 7
1. 1
.4
4. 6
2. 4
3. 3
.3
1. 6
.3
1. 0
2. 3
.2
.5
q nr i^ 1 ^nrlfprg ^

2. 3

2. 0

.5
2. 0

42. 8

9. 2

1. 0
4. 1
4. 9
1. 2

.8
3. 8
4. 4
21. 6

Sanitarians _________________

_______________

______

__

1. 0
3. 5

7. 1
7. 8
33. 1
2. 5
2. 1
1. 8
4. 5
3. 1

3.4

30. 5
1. 5

.8

1 T h e 1964 a n d 1967 totals are not c o m p a r a b l e .
Se e footnote 3.
2 Includes electrical, m e c h a n i c a l , a n d traffic engineers.
3 D a t a for 1967 are not c o m p a r a b l e with 1964 b e c a u s e of a c h a n g e in de f ­
initional r e q u i r e m e n t s .
T h e 1967 data include holders of bachelor's d e g r e e s an d
above, while the 1964 data include only holders of m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e s a n d above.
4 T h e relevant occupations do not include physicians a n d dentists dealing
with patients.
5 D a t a for 1964 w e r e overstated to the extent that c h a i n m e n a n d r o d m e n
w e r e included.
6 C o m p u t e r p r o g r a m e r s included for the first t i m e in 1967.
NOTE:

Because

of rounding,

s u m s of individual i t e m s m a y not equal totals.

SOURCE:
1964 data, E m p l o y m e n t of Scientific. Professional, a n d T e chnical
P e r s o n n e l in State G o v e r n m e n t s J a n u a r y 1964, Bulletin 1557 (1967). 1967 data,
B u r e a u of L a b o r Statistics, u n published s a m p l e s u r v e y p r e l i m i n a r y data.

42




☆ U .s . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1970 O - 385-918




U.S. DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

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O F F IC IA L BU SIN E SS




I

THIRD CLASS MAIL


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