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FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT of the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1928 ELEVENTH FEDERAL RESERVE DISTRICT r==ffc==!&=—ito gfr=38E==gB=383 & jaE=3E= FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT of the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1928 ELEVENTH FEDERAL RESERVE DISTRICT LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL January 22, 1929, Gentlemen: I have the honor to submit herewith the Fourteenth Annual Report of the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas coveringthe year ended December 31, 1928. Respectfully, C. C. WALSH, Federal Reserve Agent. Federal Reserve Board, Washington, D. C. DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS of the FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF DALLAS 1929 DIRECTORS CLASS A CLASS B T. H. FROST, San Antonio, Texas A. S. CLEVELAND, Houston, Texas HOWELL E. SMITH, McKinney, Texas J. R. MILAM, Waco, Texas VV. H. PATRICK, Clarendon, Texas J. J. CULBERTSON, Paris, Texas CLASS C C. C. WALSH, Dallas, Texas CLARENCE E. LINZ, Dallas, Texas S. B. PERKINS, Dallas, Texas MEMBER FEDERAL ADVISORY COUNCIL B. A. McKINNEY, Dallas, Texas OFFICERS C. C. WALSH, Chairman and Federal Re- LYNN P. TALLEY, Governor R R rrSeAri<W^?^tTr T TXT7 ™ /-t. • - - GILBERT, Deputy Governor CLARENCE E. LINZ, Deputy Chairman «„»„«»».». ~ „ R B CHAS. C. HALL, Assistant Federal Re- - COLEMAN, Deputy Governor serve Agent and Secretary FRED HARRIS, Cashier W. J. EVANS, Assistant Federal Reserve W. D. GENTRY, Ass't. Deputy Governor Agent J. L. HERMANN, Assistant Cashier W. P. CLARKE, General Auditor E. B. AUSTIN, Assistant Cashier C. C. TRUE, Assistant Auditor R. O. WEBB, Assistant Cashier CHAS. C. HUFF, General Counsel LOCKE, LOCKE, STROUD & RANDOLPH, Counsel EL PASO BRANCH DIRECTORS A. P. COLES, El Paso, Texas, Chairman E. A. CAHOON, Roswell, N. M. G. D. FLORY, El Paso, Texas A. J. CRAWFORD, Carlsbad, N. M. E. M. HURD, El Paso, Texas W. O. FORD, El Paso, Texas C. M. NEWMAN, El Paso, Texas OFFICERS W. O. FORD, Managing Director ALLEN SAYLES, Cashier HOUSTON BRANCH DIRECTORS J. C. WILSON, Beaumont, Texas, Chairman GUY M. BRYAN, Houston Texas E. F. GOSSETT, Houston, Texas FRED W. CATTERALL, Galveston, Texas E. A. PEDEN, Houston, Texas R. M. FARRAR, Houston, Texas DWIGHT P. REORDAN, Houston, Texas OFFICERS DWIGHT P. REORDAN, Managing Director L. G. PONDROM, Cashier H. R. DeMOSS, Assistant Cashier SAN ANTONIO BRANCH DIRECTORS FRANK G. CROW, McAllen, Texas, Chairman JOHN M. BENNETT, San Antonio, Texas REAGAN HOUSTON, San Antonio, Texas M. CRUMP, San Antonio, Texas R. T. HUNNICUTT, Del Rio, Texas FRANZ C. GROOS, San Antonio, Texas ERNEST STEVES, San Antonio, Texas OFFICERS M. CRUMP, Managing Director C. B. MENDEL, Cashier FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF DALLAS COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF CONDITION (In Thousands of Dollars) RESOURCES Total bills discounted _ Bills bought in open market. _ U. S. Government securities: Bonds Treasury Notes Certificates of indebtedness _ Total U. S. Government securities.— Other securities _ Total bills and securities Due from foreign banks Uncollected items Bank premises All other resources _ Total resources Total deposits Deferred availability items Capital paid in._ Surplus All other liabilities 878 22,811 4,772 15,927 18,107 2,671 11,211 3,738 3,813 15,788 31,989 23,339 55,678 44,038 17 29,964 1,785 501 28,215 1,755 358 160,337 153,686 48,585 47,472 48,803 71,017 1,111 228 92 70,970 774 162 103 62,898 1,257 985 61 Dec. 31, 1926 38,488 2,609 72,448 — _ — _ — - _ Total liabilities _ — Ratio of total reserves to deposit and Federal reserve note liabilities combined (per cent) Contingent liability on bills purchased, for foreign correspondents _ -' 1,594 3,178 25 27,587 1,920 427 LIABILITIES F. R. notes in actual circulation Deposits: Member bank—reserve account _. Government ... Foreign banks _ Other deposits—. — 611 267 53,089 _ 76,772 2,548 10,008 6,500 _ 69,203 3,189 7,813 2,175 20 _ 68,635 8,137 9,001 2,160 _ 59,812 9,391 11,161 25,420 Total reserves Non-reserve cash Bills discounted: Secured by U. S. Government obligations. Other bills discounted _ 41,097 19,090 8,448 76,604 3,410 _ 37,643 14,742 7,427 163,062 Total gold reserves Reserves other than gold.. 30,265 33,518 7,284 _. Dec. 31, 1927 35,804 1,839 71,067 5,537 Gold with Federal Reserve Agent Gold redemption fund with U. S. Treasury Gold held exclusively against F. R. Notes Gold settlement fund with F. R. Board Gold and gold certificates held by bank Dec. 31, 1928 27,480 2,785 72,009 65,201 28,654 4,329 8,690 356 27,798 4,263 8,527 268 26,781 4,302 8,215 384 63,062 160,337 153,686 63.3 57.9 67.3 11,306 8,007 1,976 FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF DALLAS Business and industry in the Eleventh Federal Reserve District during the year 1928 reflected a considerable improvement as compared to the year 1927. The distribution of merchandise in both wholesale and retail channels was in a larger volume than in the previous year and collections generally were good. The improvement in the financial status of business was reflected in, the lower business mortality rate, there being fewer commercial failures than in any year since 1924. Furthermore, the indebtedness of defaulting firms showed a noticeable reduction from the previous year. Business in general was in a stronger financial condition than in 1927 and bank deposits were at record levels. Construction activity as measured by the valuation of building permits issued at principal cities exceeded that of the previous year by a small margin. The production of petroleum in the district again reached a new level due to the discovery of new and prolific fields, and the operations in the industry were more profitable as there was some recovery from the low level reached in 1927 in the price of crude oil. The volume of agricultural production was larger than in 1927 and the gross value of crops again showed a substantial gain over the previous year. The farmers' net equity in 1923 crops was affected by higher production costs brought about largely by the adverse weather conditions during the planting season which entailed heavy expenditures for replanting and cultivation of crops. The program of diversification which gained impetus in 1927 was extended in many sections in 1928 and a larger percentage of farmers again made their living at home. The heavy production of feed crops will be of considerable aid to the farmers in efforts to hold down the cost of producing 1929 crops. The year was a very profitable one for the livestock industry. Livestock and their ranges, with few exceptions, were maintained in good physical condition throughout the year. The calf and lamb crops were large and losses generally were few. Cattle prices reflected a steady upward trend during the first eight months of the year, reaching the highest levels witnessed since the war period, and trading on the ranges was active at the high prices. The market, however, reacted somewhat during the closing months of the year. The volume of transactions handled by the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas during 1928 showed a considerable increase over that of the previous year, yet, due to a further increase in the efficiency of the personnel, the departments of the bank as a whole functioned with practically the same number of employees as during 1927. 5 FEATURES OF OPERATIONS, YEARS 1928 AND 1927 Number of Items Amount 26,094 $737,651,383 12,367 122,759,739 5,271 55,972,021 101,158,700 464 79,023,930 1,818 Loans, Rediscounts, and Investments: Notes discounted and rediscounted for member banks Bills bought for our own account _., Bills bought for other than our own account Purchase and sale of securities for own account. Purchase and sale of securities other than own accountCurrency and Coin: Bills received and counted 51,124,742 Coin received and counted 43,351,370 Check Collections: Checks collected 38,761,035 Collection items handled 128,674 Return items 1,063,800 U. S. Government checks paid 1,038,308 U. S. Government coupons paid 492,956 Transfers: Transfer of funds other than five per cent fund of national banks 108,691 Transfer of funds for five per cent fund of national banks 17,957 Fiscal Agency: U. S. Securities issued, converted, redeemed, canceled, and 126,680 exchanged Custody of Securities: Number of pieces received from outside sources 36,899 Number of pieces received inter-departmental transactions.. 51,546 Number of pieces delivered other than inter-departmental 34,761 Number of pieces delivered inter-departmental transactions.. 51,681 1927Number of Items Amount 19,275 $281,580,673 8,773 119,970,775 2,822 29,521,278 171,555,550 1,102 30,107,791 696 223,263,259 47,449,190 7,441,471 34,854,533 215,433,525 7,067,104 8,225,957,960 36,097,295 122,814 218,336,519 995,146 39,479,959 901,015 115,553,879 598,390 5,625,002 7,751,047,967 194,864,160 38,998,296 100,412,540 4,750,750 5,043,449,840 48,503,053 93,380 16,334 4,191,300,603 40,430,472 268,791,180 110,724 200,630,024 Not available Not available Not available Not available 29,650 26,757 32,364 26,818 Not available Not available Not available Not available EARNINGS AND EXPENSES The gross earnings of the bank in 1928 were $2,119,666, as compared with $1,741,921 in. 1927, an increase of $377,745 or 21.7 per cent. Of this amount $680,663 or 32.1 per cent resulted from the purchase of bills, as compared with $430,353 or 24.7 per cent in 1927; $669,514 or 31.6 per cent resulted from the discount and rediscount of paper, as compared with $254,984 or 14.6 per cent in 1927. Current net earnings in 1928 were $874,187, as compared with $474,584 in 1927, an increase of $399,603 or 84.2 per cent. The average rate on bills discounted was 4.4 per cent, compared with 3.8 per cent in 1927; and on purchased paper 4.1 per cent, as compared with 3.5 per cent in 1927. The annual rate of current net earnings to paid-in capital was 20.3 per cent in 1928, compared with 11.1 per cent in 1927. Current expenses in 1928 were $1,245,479, as compared with $1,267,337 in 1927, a decrease of $21,858 or 1.7 per cent. On December 31, 1927, after adjustments necessary in closing the books for the year had been made, the bank's capital was $4,263,450 and surplus $8,526,900. Semi-annual dividends were paid to member banks on June 30 and December 31, 1928, at the rate of 6 per cent per annum. After making provision for the usual depreciation allowances and sundry adjustments $291,609.79 was paid to the United States Government as a Franchise tax and $163,301.09 was transferred to surplus, making that account $8,690,201.09 on December 31, 1928. OPEN MARKET OPERATIONS At the beginning of the year 1928 holdings of United States Government securities were $31,989,000, of which $22,959,500 consisted of participation in purchases for the System by the Open Market Investment Committee. During the year United States Government securities, exclusive of participation in System purchases, amounting to $53,913,550, were purchased in the open market from member banks and others, while securities aggregating $52,935,200 matured or were sold, representing an increase in our independent holdings of securities of $978,350 and leaving total holdings of $10,007,850 on December 31, 1928. Our participation in the System's holdings was gradually reduced during the year to $4,306,500 on December 17, and remained at this figure until December 24, when the entire amount of our participation was sold. The yield on our holdings of Government securities averaged about 3% P e r cent for the year. At the beginning of the year holdings of bankers' acceptances amounted to $22,810,773. This amount was gradually reduced to the minimum of $9,867,451 on July 27, due to maturities during that period regularly exceeding purchases. From this figure holdings were increased to $25,857,897 on December 29, which was the maximum for the year. Bankers' acceptances amounting to $122,759,739 were purchased in the open market from other Federal Reserve Banks and member banks during the year, while bills amounting to $120,150,947 matured or were sold. Holdings amounted to $25,419,565 on December 31, 1928. At the beginning of the year buying rates on bankers' acceptances ranged from 3 per cent to 3% per cent, increasing slightly from time to time, the range at the close of the year being 4% per cent to 4% per cent. The average yield on our holdings of bankers' acceptances for the year was 4.1 per cent. During the year we purchased debentures of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Houston amounting to $9,500,000 and our holdings of such debentures at the close of business December 31, 1928, were $6,500,000. DISCOUNT OPERATIONS The volume of paper discounted and rediscounted for member banks in 1928 was $737,651,383, compared with $281,580,000 in 1927, an increase of $456,071,883 or 162 per cent. Of the total advances to member banks in 1928, 99 per cent was to national bank members and 1 per cent was to state bank members, as compared with 96 per cent to national bank members and 4 per cent to state bank members in 1927. The minimum borrowings were $2,579,131.83 on February 28 and gradually increased from this figure to $33,794,111.09 on September 4, which was the maximum for the year, and amounted to $11,161,445.48 on December 31. Of the total paper discounted in 1928, $589,613,000 or 80 per cent consisted of notes secured by United States Government obligations, as compared with $201,798,000 or 72 per cent in 1927, an increase in this class of borrowings of $387,815,000 or 192 per cent. 8 CLASSIFICATION AND DISPOSITION OF NOTES SUBMITTED BY MEMBER BANKS DURING 1928 Number 30,165 Number and amount of items received Amount $91,162,384.88 CLASSIFICATION Farming Commercial Miscellaneous $17,447,407.52* 73,027,702.55 687,274.81 $91,162,384.88 REASONS FOR RETURN OF PAPER, SHOWING PERCENTAGE RETURNED TO TOTAL RECEIVED Ineligibility !j Technical Defects Insufficient Cr. Information Credit Showing Miscellaneous Total Returned Total Accepted .. Total Percentage Amount .52 475,467.71 .33 305,094.90 .33 301.913.48 .83 758,122.56 .08 68,701.79 .$ 1,909,300.44 89,253,084.44 §91,162,384.88 2.09 97.91 100.00 Items Percentage .43 130 .62 188 .60 179 2.97 896 .15 45 1,438 28,727 4.77 95.23 30,165 100.00 C O N T R I B U T I O N O F M E M B E R BANKS TO T H E CAPITAL STOCK O F T H E F E D E R A L R E S E R V E BANK O F DALLAS A N D B R A N C H E S , S E G R E G A T E D AS TO BANKS I N G R O U P S 1, 2 A N D 3 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 $2,161,350 1,446,900 720,650 Total $4,328,900 P E R C E N T A G E S O F A V E R A G E DAILY BORROWINGS FROM T H E F E D E R A L R E S E R V E BANK O F DALLAS A N D B R A N C H E S O F E A C H G R O U P T O I T S C A P I T A L STOCK P A Y M E N T Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 506 % 186% 293% *Does n o t include $6,500,000 Debentures of t h e Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Houston. RESERVE POSITION For the first six months of the year the reserve position of the bank ranged between a maximum ratio of 70.2 per cent on February 29 (the highest of the year as of weekly reporting periods) when total cash reserves were $74,902,000, to a minimum of 54.4 per cent on January 18, when total cash reserves were $60,618,000. During the latter half of the year the ratio fluctuated between a maximum of 68.5 per cent on July 11, when total cash reserves were $66,696,000, to a minimum of 47.9 per cent on August 22, when total cash reserves were $46,354,000. CLEARING OPERATIONS The volume of checks handled during the year 1928 totaled 39,799,000, amounting to $8,341,512,000, an increase of 2,801,000 in number and value of $490,052,000 over 1927. The volume during the last three months of 1928 was exceptionally heavy, which is the seasonal trend due to utilization of funds realized through the marketing of fall crops. The daily average number of checks handled during this period was 151,432, as compared with 139,000 during 1927, and 125,000 during 1926. The maximum number of items handled in any one day was 224,110 on October 15, 1928. The privilege of routing checks direct to other Federal Reserve Banks for credit on the books of this bank was availed of by 147 member banks in 1928. Notwithstanding the number of banks availing themselves of the direct routing privilege which eliminates the handling of items in our office and in many instances enables the direct sending member to receive quicker credit, the year just ended witnessed a large increase in the number of checks which actually passed through our Transit Department. During the year 1,063,800 checks were returned for various reasons, a ratio of one check returned for every 37 items handled. During 1927 the ratio was one to 37. Clearings through the Reserve City Clearing House during the year aggregated $1,216,222,111, as compared with $1,146,943,900 in 1927. Non-cash collection items handled in 1928 totaled 128,674 amounting to $218,336,000, as compared with 122,814, amounting to 194,864,000 in 1927. The salary expense of the Transit Department was reduced 6 per cent in 1928 over 1927 at the Head Office. 10 MOVEMENT OF MEMBERSHIP On January 1, 1928, the total number of national banks in the district was 706. During the year 12 national banks were chartered; 18 were dropped through liquidation, mergers and other causes, making a net decrease of six, or a total on December 31, 1928 of 700. On January 1, 1928, the total state bank membership was 101. During the year two state banks were admitted to membership. The membership of eight state banks was terminated through liquidation, consolidations and other causes, making a net reduction of six, or a total state bank membership on December 31, 1928 of 95. The total membership, by states, on December 31, 1928, was: National State Total Arizona 4 1 5 Louisiana 15 1 16 New Mexico 19 1 20 Oklahoma 18 1 19 Texas 644 91 735 Total.... 700 95 795 DEMAND FOR CURRENCY The average amount of Federal reserve notes in circulation during 1928 was approximately $4,000,000 less than in 1927. The following table shows the average, maximum and minimum circulation for 1928, as compared with 1926 and 1927: 1928 1927 1926 Average .... $38,418,000 $42,320,000 $42,128,000 Maximum 50,811,000 51,596,000 51,970,000 Minimum 29,498,000 34,194,000 34,981,000 The minimum circulation of $29,498,000 in 1928 was in July, while the minimum in 1927 of $34,194,000 was in June. In 1928 the maximum circulation of $50,811,000 was reached December 24, while in 1927 the maximum of $51,596,000 was on November 5. Money shipments in volume began and ended a month later in 1928 than in 1927. Although both the average and maximum Federal reserve note circulation were less in 1928 than in 1927, there was an increase from minimum circulation in 1928 of $21,000,000, 11 while the increase from minimum in 1927 was only $17,000,000. During1 the autumn shipping season of 1928, the most important variation was an increased demand for all classes of currency of approximately $4,900,000 more for the months of September and October than for the same period last year. This increase was partially offset by a decreased demand of approximately $3,500,000 for a portion of the months of July and November and the month of August in 1928, as compared to same period in 1927, leaving a net increase of approximately $1,400,000 for the shipping season of 1928 over season of 1927. BANK EXAMINATIONS The Examination Department conducted 94 credit investigations during the year. These visitations covered member state banks and were made in connection with regular examinations conducted by the state authorities. Two non-member banks were examined for membership in the System, and one independent credit investigation of a national bank was made. The total number of visitations made by the department during 1928 was 97, as compared with 108 in 1927. BANK RELATIONS The Bank Relations Department continued the policy of visiting practically every member bank in the district at least once during the year. The total number of visits in 1928 was 1,048, as compared, with 1,089 in the preceding year. In addition to the usual field work carried on by the bank's regular traveling representatives, a number of banks were visited by our operating officers, including the branch managers. The field work in 1928 consisted of 770 regular visits to member banks, 261 to non-member banks, and 17 special missions handled for various departments of the bank. On two occasions the department investigated applications for the organization of new national banks. Speakers for 17 gatherings of various kinds were furnished during the year, and approximately 1,200 visitors were conducted through the head 1office and branch buildings. All bankers' conventions, group meetings and a number of formal openings of new bank buildings were attended by representatives of this bank. STOCKHOLDERS MEETING The second annual meeting of the bank's stockholders was held in Dallas on July 12, 1928, attended by 154 delegates, representing 128 member banks. While the attendance was 12 considerably smaller than that of the first stockholders' meeting in 1927, a most interesting program was carried out and the bank's relations with its member banks were materially benefited, it is) believed, by the discussions engaged in by those present. One of the constructive steps undertaken at the meeting was the appointment of special committees to study various phases of the Federal Reserve Bank's functions and operations and to submit recommendations at the next annual meeting of the Stockholders Association as to ways and means of improving the bank's service to the public and to the member banks. To this end, committees were appointed to make reports on such subjects as the following: Reserve requirements. Eligibility of paper for rediscount. Collection system. Cost of operation and disposition of earnings. Stockholders' representation on the Federal Reserve Board. Qualifications, mode of election and tenure of office of directors of Federal Reserve Banks. Open market operations. Rediscount rates; uniformity. Membership requirements. < INSOLVENT BANKS DEPARTMENT Five member banks (four national, one state) in this district suspended business in 1928, of which one was indebted to this bank. During the year the indebtedness of three was liquidated without any loss to this bank. Before the closing of our books for the year ending December 31, 1928, the indebtedness of all failed banks that had not previously been charged to funds reserved for losses was charged to this account, except one, which suspended on the above date. While there are now fourteen failed banks indebted to us, the liability of only one amounting to $6,562.52 is carried as an asset on our books. The personnel of the department consists of two regular employees. 13 INTERNAL ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL The Board of Directors held twelve meetings in 1923, with an average attendance of seven. There was no change in the personnel of the board in 1928. Mr. J. H. Nail, Class B Director, representing banks in Group 1, died at his home in Fort Worth on August 2. While Mr. Nail had been in poor health for a long period, and unable to attend the board meetings since May, his death was a shock to his associates on the board and officers of the bank. At its meeting on September 7, the Board of Directors adopted the following resolution: "WHEREAS, The members of the Board of Directors of the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas have learned with profound sorrow and regret of the death of their co-worker, James H. Nail, which occurred in Fort Worth, Texas, on August 2, 1928; and WHEREAS, The members of this Board of Directors wish to express to Mrs. Nail and other members of the family their deepest sympathy in the loss of their devoted husband and father, whose association was such a happy feature of the daily life of our friend and business associate; and WHEREAS, It was the pleasure and privilege of several members of this Board to be associated with Mr. Nail during his entire official connection with this bank; THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED, That, in the death of Mr. Nail the cattle industry has lost a leader, and the state and community one whose high character, broad vision and sound judgment readily gained for him the esteem and respect of those with whom he came in contact. Mr. Nail's life is an example of rigid honesty, perseverance, unfailing justice and unselfishness, and in his loss we mourn for one who did much to forward the interests of this great Southwest. His cooperation and sound judgment were unsparingly given in shaping the policies of the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, in accordance with conservative and sound banking principles, and his associates on this Board, and the officers of this Bank, felt honored in being associated with him. BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of this institution as an enduring memorial of our affection for our friend and former associate, and that a copy of these resolutions be furnished the family of the deceased and the Federal Reserve Board." Mr. Nail's term would have expired on December 31, and with the approval of the Federal Reserve Board the vacanc}7 created by his death was not filled until the regular election in November. At its meeting on January 12, 1928, the board re-elected B. A. McKinney, Vice President of the American Exchange National Bank of Dallas, as the representative on the Federal 14 Advisory Council for the Eleventh District, and designated W. E. Connell, President of the First National Bank of Fort Worth, as alternate. At the meeting of the directors on January 14, one of the positions of assistant cashier was abolished and the position of assistant deputy governor created. W. D. Gentry, senior Assistant Cashier, was elected to fill the position of Assistant Deputy Governor. At the same meeting, W. P. Clarke, who had been serving as Acting General Auditor since the resignation of R. L. Foulks in September, 1927, was elected General Auditor, and C. C. True, who had been serving as Acting Assistant Auditor during the same period, was elected Assistant Auditor. In the regular annual election in November, W. H. Patrick was re-elected Class A director, Group 3, and A. S. Cleveland, of Houston, was elected Class B director, Group 1, to succeed Mr. Nail, for three-year terms, beginning January 1, 1929. On December 17 the Federal Reserve Board announced the re-appointment of C. C. Walsh as a Class C director for the three-year term beginning January 1, 1929, and his redesignation as Chairman of the Board and Federal Reserve Agent for 1929. On December 20 the Federal Reserve Board announced the re-designation of Clarence E. Linz as Deputy Chairman of the Board for 1929. There were no changes in the personnel of the directorates of the El Paso and Houston Branches during 1928. At the San, Antonio Branch there were two changes. On April 3, H. H. Rogers resigned on account of removal from the district and the Federal Reserve Board appointed Frank G. Crow, of McAllen, Texas, to succeed him. On July 9, F. E. Scobey resigned on account of ill health and the Federal Reserve Board appointed John M. Bennett of San Antonio to succeed him. On December 31, 1928, the total number of officers and employees at the head office and branches was 433, a decrease of five since December 31, 1927. FISCAL AGENCY OPERATIONS The volume of business handled as fiscal agent of the United States in 1928 showed a substantial increase over the 15 year 1927. During the year ten issues of Government securities were floated, as compared with eight issues in 1927, and there were seven maturing issues, as compared with six in 1927. The volume of interest coupons handled for payment was slightly less than in 1927, while there was a substantial increase in the number of Government checks and warrants. On December 31, 1927, there were eighteen employees in the department, at an annual salary rate of $35,700, while on December 31, 1928, there were seventeen regular employees at an annual salary rate of $34,800, and one temporary employee at an annual salary rate of $960. OPERATION OF BRANCHES The volume of business handled at the El Paso Branch in 1928, compared with that handled in 1927, is reflected in the following table: Number 1928 1927 Notes discounted and rediscounted 640 349 Bills received and counted 4,292,550 4,368,108 Coin received and counted 3,430,559 3,474,640 Transfer of funds 9,839 9,294 Check collections 2,752,084 2,488,592 Treasury warrants _ „ 169,980 158,757 Non-cash collections...13,196 12,774 Return items 58,057 50,984 Amount 1928 1927 $ 11,976,903 $ 11,070.937 25,208,250 27,377,000 1,185,790 225,146,067 422,913,114 18,292,027 10,578,290 3,245,372 1,250,739 188,686,408 356,970,038 16,878,938 9,353,078 2,766,839 At the beginning of the year forty member banks (thirtyseven national and three state) were attached to the branch. Included in this number, however, was one national bank which closed in 1926, but its capital stock had not been surrendered. During the year the memberships of one state bank and one national bank were terminated by voluntary liquidation, one new national bank opened for business and the stock of the bank mentioned above was refunded, leaving total membership of thirty-eight on December 31, 1928. The expense of operation, excluding furniture and equipment, was $110,677, as against $115,432 in 1927. The personnel of the branch on December 31, 1928, comprised two officers and thirty-five employees, which was the same number in service on December 31, 1927. 16 The volume of business handled at the Houston Branch in 1928, compared with that handled in 1927, is reflected in the following table: 1928 Number 1927 Amount 1928 1927 Notes discounted and rediscounted 812 771 $146,774,494 Bills received and counted 11,003,124 11,158,705 45,718,051 Coin received and counted 14,569,378 11,319,894 1,438,404 Transfer of funds_.__ 27,806 24,638 1,638,732,616 Check collections—. 6,251,590 6,654,526 1,659,729,632 Treasury warants.... 185,329 171,991 22,454,401 Non-Cash Collections 37,441 35,442 58,700,349 Return items 156,317 156,113 6,202,204 $23,722,299 47,150,675 1,260,575 1,541,488,267 1,714,008,937 18,683,171 71,778,878 6,728,490 At the beginning of the year eighty-nine member banks (seventy-eight national and eleven state) were attached to the branch. During the year two national banks were added by the transfer of Victoria County from the San Antonio Branch and one national bank by conversion of a non-member state bank, the membership of one state bank was terminated by withdrawal from the system and one national bank consolidated with a non-member state bank, leaving total membership of ninety on December 31, 1928. The expense of operation, excluding furniture and equipment and repairs and alterations, was $149,896.97, as compared with $156,733.76 in 1927. The personnel of the branch on December 31, 1928, comprised three officers and fifty-three employees, compared with three officers and fifty-two employees on December 31, 1927. The volume of business handled at the San Antonio Branch in 1928, compared with that handled during the six months the branch was in operation in 1927, is reflected in the following table: 1928 Number 1927 Amount 1928 1927 Notes discounted and rediscounted 843 313 $ 20,782,621 $ 7,606,196 Bills received and counted 9,240,831 4,248,414 40,258,808 19,340,600 Coin received and counted 4,820,730 2,381,664 1,310,526 766,966 Transfer of funds 14,373 6,371 421,228,447 190,879,634 Check collections 5,210,087 2,454,855 1,026,920,324 490,844,269 Treasury warrants..._.. 160,856 66,952 24,834,928 12,433,023 Non-Cash Collections 14,087 8,236 17,362,878 8,036,090 Return items 113,158 51,088 6,088,601 2,748,215 17 At the beginning of the year 100 member banks (88 national and 12 state) were attached to the branch. Included in this number, however, was one national bank which consolidated with a state member bank in 1927, the capital stock of which has not been surrendered. During the year two national banks were transferred to the Houston Branch, one national bank consolidated with another national bank, one national bank went into voluntary liquidation and one state bank terminated its membership by withdrawal from the system. During the same period one new national bank and one state bank were admitted to membership, leaving total membership of ninety-six active members and three members, the capital stock of which had not been surrendered on December 31, 1928. The expense of operation, excluding furniture and equipment, was $129,452.88, as compared with $79,015.34 for the six months' operations of 1927. The personnel of the branch on December 31, 1928, comprised two officers and forty-nine employees, compared with two officers and forty-six employees on December 31, 1927. In the latter part of January construction was begun on a building consisting of two stories and basement, 80 x 60 in dimensions, which was completed and occupied by the branch on October 6, 1928. 18