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Employer Expenditures for Selected Supplementary
Remuneration Practices for Production Workers in—




MINING INDUSTRIES
I960

Bulletin No. 13 3 2
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

Employer Expenditures for Selected Supplementary
Remuneration Practices for Production W orkers in

MINING INDUSTRIES
1960

B u lle t in N o .

1332

M a rc h 1963

1

UNITED STATES DEPARTM ENT O F LABO R
W . W illard Wirtz, Secretary

....

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B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
Ewan C la g u e , Com m issioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, W ashington 25, D.C.




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Price 4 5 cents




Preface
This study is the second in a program of surveys
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the magnitude of em­
ployer expenditures for supplementary employee remunera­
tion practices on a national basis. The results of the first
survey were published in Bulletin 1308, Employer Expendi­
tures for Selected Supplementary Remuneration Practices
for Production Workers in Manufacturing Industries, 1959.
The program provides for surveys in manufacturing indus­
tries every 3 years and in selected nonmanufacturing in­
dustries in the intervening 2 years.
This bulletin was prepared by Aloysius Robert
Pfeffer, under the supervision of Enzo A. Puglisi, in the
Bureau*s Division of National Wage and Salary Income,
under the general direction of H. M. Douty, Assistant
Commissioner for Wages and Industrial Relations.
The
statistical and sampling techniques were developed by
Samuel E. Cohen and Theodore J. Golonka.




iii

Contents
Page

Chapter I. Introduction and su m m ary ----------------------------------Prevalence of supplements ------------------------------------- ——--------------------------------------------------Growth of supplements ___________________________________________________________________
Supplemental expenditures ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Mining industry totals_____________________________________
Industry variations --------------------------------------------------------------Establishment variations---------------------------------Composition of payroll hours -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1
1
2
5
6
6
7
7

Chapter II. Paid leave ______________________________________________________________________
Total le a v e ________________________________________________________________________________
Paid vacations-----------------------------------------------------------------------Paid holidays -------------------------------------------------------------------------Paid sick leave _____________________________________ ___ — ------- ------- ---------------------------------Other paid leave (military, jury, witness, voting, and personal) ------------------------------

11
11
12
13
13
14

Chapter III. Premium p a y __________________________________________________________ ______ —
Total premium __________________________________________
Premium pay for daily overtime, weekly overtime, weekend, and holiday w o r k ---Differentials for shift work ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

21
21
22
22

Chapter IV. Legally required payments --------------------------------- ,-----------------------------------------Total legally required payments -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Old-age, survivors, and disability insurance (social security)— ------------------------------Unemployment compensation ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------Workmen1s com pensation________________________________________________________________
Other legally required insurance -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

29
29
29
30
30
31

Chapter V. Private welfare plans ------------------------------------ ------------------------- — --------------------Total private welfare plans -------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------- ------- —Health, accident, and life insurance ------------------------------------------------------------------------ -----Pension and retirement plains -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------Vacation and holiday funds _______________________________________________ —-----------------Supplemental unemployment benefits ----------------------------Severance or dism issal p a y ---------------------------------------------------------------------------Savings and thrift plans_______________________________ ________________ ________ ___________
Yearend and Christmas b on u ses____ ________________ ___________________ ______ „____ ____

35
35
36
38
38
38
39
39
40

Chapter VI. Variations in expenditures by selected establishment characteristics-----Introduction__________________________________________________-— ------ --------------------------------Variations by average hourly earnings---------------------------------------------------------------------------Variations by size of establishment -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Variations on basis of collective bargaining agreements ---------------------------------------------

49
49
49
50
51

Chapter VII.

56

Composition of payroll hours

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Tables:
Summary:
1.
2.

Average expenditures for selected supplementary employee
remuneration practices in mining industries, I960 -----------------------------------Average expenditures for selected supplementary employee
remuneration practices by mining industry group, I960 -----------------------------




iv

8
9

Contents— Continued
Page

T able s— Continued
Paid leave:
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Percent of production, development, and related workers in establishments
reporting expenditures for paid leave by mining industry group, I960 ----------Average expenditures for paid leave by all establishments and
establishments reporting expenditures and mining industry group, I960 ------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by leave
expenditures as a percent of gross payroll and mining
industry group, I960 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by vacation
expenditures as a percent of gross payroll and mining industry group, I960 —
Distribution of production, development, and related workers by holiday
expenditures as a percent of gross payroll and mining industry group, I9 6 0 —
Distribution of production, development, and related workers by leave
expenditures in cents per hour paid for and mining industry group, I960 ----Distribution of production, development, and related workers by vacation
expenditures in cents per hour paid for and mining industry group, I9 6 0 -------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by holiday
expenditures in cents per hour paid for and mining industry group, I960 ------

15
16
18
18
19
19
20
20

Premium pay:
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Percent of production, development, and related workers in establishments
reporting expenditures for premium pay by mining industry group, I9 6 0 ------Average expenditures for premium pay by all establishments and
establishments reporting expenditures and mining industry group, I9 6 0 -------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by
premium pay expenditures as a percent of gross payroll and
mining industry group, I960 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by
expenditures for overtime, weekend, and holiday work premiums as a
percent of gross payroll and mining industry group, I960 -------------------------------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by
expenditures for premium pay in cents per hour paid for and mining
industry group, I960 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by
expenditures for overtime, weekend, and holiday work premiums in
cents per hour paid for and mining industry group, I960 ----------------------------------

24
25
26
27
28
28

Legally required payments:
17.
18.
19.

Average expenditures for legally required payments by all establishments
and mining industry group, I960 -------------------------------------------------------------------------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by
expenditures for legally required payments as a percent of gross payroll
and mining industry group, I960 -------------------------------------------------------------------------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by
expenditures for legally required payments in cents per hour paid for
and mining industry group, I960 --------------------------------------------------------------------------

32
33
34

Private welfare plans:
20.

21.
22.

Percent of production, development, and related workers in establishments
reporting expenditures for private welfare plans by mining
industry group, I9 6 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Average expenditures for private welfare plans by all establishments and
establishments reporting expenditures and mining industry group, i9 6 0 -------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by
expenditures for private welfare plans as a percent of gross payroll and
mining industry group, I960 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------




41
42

44

Contents— Continued
Page

T able s— Continued
Private welfare plans— Continued
23.
24.
25.

26.
27.

Distribution of production, development, and related workers by
expenditures for health, accident, and life insurance as a percent of
gross payroll and mining industry group, I960 -------------------------------------------------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by
expenditures for pension and retirement plans as a percent of gross
payroll and mining industry group, I960 -----------------------------------------------------------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by
expenditures for private welfare plans in cents per hour paid for and
mining industry group, I960 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by
expenditures for health, accident, and life insurance in cents per hour
paid for and mining industry group, I960 ----------------------------------------------------------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by
expenditures for pension and retirement plans in cents per hour paid
for and mining industry group, I960 ----------------------------------------------------------------- —

45
45
46
47
47

Variations in expenditures by selected establishment characteristics:
28. Average expenditures for selected supplementary employee remuneration
practices in mining industries by average hourly earnings group, I960 -------29. Average expenditures for selected supplementary employee remuneration
practices in mining industries by establishment size group, I960 ----------------30. Average expenditures for selected supplementary employee remuneration
practices in mining industries by collective bargaining
agreement coverage, I960 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

53
54

55

Composition of payroll hours:
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.

39.

Plant hours and paid leave hours as a percent of total hours paid for by
mining industry group, I960 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Plant hours and paid leave hours as a percent of total hours paid for by
establishment size and mining industry group, I960 ------------------------ ---------------Plant hours and paid leave hours as a percent of total hours paid for by
collective bargaining agreement coverage and mining industry group, I960 —
Distribution of production, development, and related workers by paid leave
hours as a percent of total hours paid for and mining industry group, I9 6 0 ---Distribution of production, development, and related workers by paid
vacation hours as a percent of total hours paid for and mining
industry group, I960 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by paid
holiday hours as a percent of total hours paid for and mining
industry group, I960 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Distribution of production, development, and related workers by
paid sick leave hours as a percent of total hours paid for and mining
industry group, I960 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Distribution of production, development, and related workers receiving
vacation pay by number of weeks of vacation pay and mining
industry group, I9 6 0 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- —
Distribution of production, development, and related workers by
number of days of paid holidays and mining industry group, I9 6 0 ---------------------

59
60
61
61
62
62
63
63
64

Appendixe s :
A.
B.

Survey methods and definitions -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Questionnaire ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Instruction sheet---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




vi

65
71

75

Employer Expenditures for Selected Supplementary Remuneration
Practices for Production Workers in—

Mining Industries, I960

Chapter I. Introduction and Summary

This survey provides estimates of expenditures for selected supplemen­
tary pay practices in I960 in the Nation*s mining industries.
It indicates the
level of such expenditures and form s the base for future estimates of trends.
Although other expenditures undoubtedly exist, those accounted for in this study
are believed to represent the major elements of supplementary employee r e ­
muneration in mining. Because of its importance in mining, attention should be
called specifically to the fact that pay for travel time within mines (p ortal-toportal pay), which has been held to be working time, was not one of the selected
pay practices examined in the study.

The area of study was confined to production, development, and related
workers. Expenditures for the practices surveyed are commonly made for non­
production workers as well, and the exclusion of this employee category from
the survey should be noted.
One part of this survey reflects a general concern with current measures
of hours of work.
A few decades ago, hours paid for and hours spent at the
plant were not significantly different for most purposes.
The growth of paid
leave hours, particularly for vacations and holidays, has introduced substantial
variation between the two statistical measures and, consequently, the necessity of
making a distinction. The percentage of hours paid for which are leave hours away
from the plant are reported in the chapter on the composition of payroll hours.
Prevalence of Supplements
Monetary supplements to the w orker's basic wage are now an established
element of employee remuneration in this country.
In I960, supplemental r e ­
muneration in the form of legally required payments, such as for old-age, su r­
vivors, and disability insurance, was payable for all production, development, and
related workers in the Nation1s mining industries.
In addition, according to this
survey, establishments employing 93.7 percent of the production workers in mining
reported premium payments for overtime, weekend, holiday, or late-shift work;
those employing 86. 3 percent of the workers made contributions to private welfare
plans, usually for health and life insurance and pensions; and those employing
8 1 .6 percent reported expenditures for paid le a v e .1

1
It should be noted that these figures apply only to the proportions who
worked in establishments which had expenditures for the selected supplements in
I960, not to those who were eligible for them or received them.
A company
may normally pay supplements for items such as overtime, for example, but if
it scheduled no overtime in I960, its workers would not be included among those
for whom expenditures were made. Conversely, it cannot be assumed that all the
workers in an establishment that reported expenditures participated in the benefit.




1

2

Growth of Supplements
Although scattered supplemental pay practices date back many years, it
was not until the past two or three decades that real growth took place.
The
historical development of the practices in the mining industries appears to have
paralleled the development in other industries.
To a considerable extent, legally required insurance programs providing
income protection to workers were established prior to the adoption by employers
of private supplementary pay practices.
Workmen’ s compensation laws were
the first form of social insurance to be adopted widely in the United States.
The
Federal Government established the precedent in 1908 with the passage of a
statute covering its own civil employees.
Between 1910 and 1920, most of the
States and Territories enacted laws covering workers within their areas. By 1948,
workmen's compensation laws had been adopted in all the States. 2
During the depression of the 19 30’ s, the economic problems of workers
faced with forced idleness and old age received considerable public attention.
The Social Security Act of 19 35 provided for the continuation at retirement of a
portion of the income of covered w orkers.
In 19 39, the act was amended to add
dependents' and survivors' benefits; and in 1956, provision was made for disability
benefits. The Social Security Act of 1935 also provided the basis for the present
Federal-State system of unemployment insurance.
Although the act set up a
Federal system of old-age benefits for retired w orkers, it did not create a Federal
program of unemployment compensation.
Instead, it encouraged the States to set
up their own programs by establishing a Federal unemployment tax on covered
employers and relieving these employers of the obligation to pay most of this
tax if they were making payments under an approved State unemployment insurance
system. Wisconsin was the first of the States to adopt an unemployment insurance
law. Its statute was enacted in 1932, but it did not become fully operative until
after the passage of the Social Security Act 3 years later.
By June 30, 1937,
when Illinois enacted its law, all 48 States, the then Territories of Alaska and
Hawaii, and the District of Columbia were under the Federal-State system . 3
Temporary disability insurance is the most recent of the legally required
social insurance program s.
It is in effect in four States, all of which adopted
their programs during the 1940's— Rhode Island in 1942, California in 1946,
New Jersey in 1948, and New York in 1949. 4
The big impetus to the growth of most types of private benefits now
prevalent in Am erican industry was provided by conditions during World War II.
Many companies adopted wage supplements during this period of wage controls
when, under the Little Steel Form ula, general wage increases were limited to

2 State Workmen's Compensation Law s, U .S . Department of Labor, Bureau
of Labor Standards (Bulletin 161, rev. I960), pp. 1—2.
3 "Twenty Years of Unemployment Insurance in the U .S .A ., 1935—1955,"
Employment Security Review, August 1955; and "Unemployment Insurance in the
U .S .A ., 1956—1960," Employment Security Review, August I960 (U .S . Department
of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security); William L . M itchell, "P ast and
Future Perspectives in Social Security, "
and Victor Christgau, "O ld -A g e,
Survivors, and Disability Insurance After Twenty-Five Y e a r s ," Social Security
Bulletin, August I960 (U .S . Department of Health, Education, and W elfare,
Social Security Administration).
4 In addition, railroad workers receive temporary disability benefits through
Federal legislation enacted in 1946. See Margaret Dahm, Experience and P roblems
under Temporary Disability Insurance Laws (U .S . Department of Labor, Bureau
of Employment Security, October 1955), pT 1.



3

15 percent of the January 1941 levels.
Within lim its, the National War Labor
Board sanctioned indirect increases, such as paid vacations and holidays, shift
differentials, employer-financed life insurance, severance pay plans , and yearend
bonuses.
The postwar period witnessed a dramatic development, under union
stimulus, of supplementary pay practices, especially with regard to vacations,
health and life insurance plans, and private pensions.
Paid vacations for wage earners became common in the crude petroleum
producing industry during the 1920’ s; by 1937, 86. 1 percent of the wage earners
in this important segment of the mining industries were under vacation plans.
In other areas of mining, paid vacation practices developed much more slowly.
By 1937, only 0 .9 percent of the wage earners in coal mining, 20. 1 percent in
mining and quarrying of nonmetallic m inerals, and 2 6 .9 percent in metal mining
were under these plans. 5 When the Bureau examined all the agreements in its
union agreements file in 1940, it found that a large proportion of the agreements
in petroleum contained paid vacation provisions, only a moderate proportion in
nonferrous metal mining, and practically none in coal mining and quarrying.
In
the spring of 1941, vacation pay provisions appeared for the first time in the
United Mine Workers national agreements with the anthracite and bituminous coal
operators.
In 1949, when BLS made a sample study of 31 contracts in mining,
quarrying, and petroleum extraction, paid vacation provisions were found in all
the contracts studied. 6 Obviously, the prevalence of vacations found in the 1949
agreements cannot be considered typical of all unionized and nonunion firm s in
mining in that period; but it provides a clear indication of trend when considered
with the results of earlier union agreement studies.
Detailed information on the development of holiday practices in the mining
industries is not available.
The Bureau study of 464 selected union agreements
in effect in 1948—
49, including 17 in the mining industries, found that all of
9 agreements in nonferrous mining had provisions for paid holidays, but the
1 coal mining agreement and the 7 iron mining agreements had no such
provisions. 7 Of the 52 mining agreements in a 1950 BLS study, 66 percent had
paid holiday provisions. 8 By 1958, when the Bureau examined 16 major mining
agreements, 13 contained such provisions; however, these 13 agreements included
only 11 percent of the 261,000 mining workers in the study.9 The three agreements

5
Of a group of 7 2 crude petroleum producers who introduced paid vacation
plans for wage earners in 1937 or earlier, 1 reported introducing the practice
between 1900 and 1909 and 7 between 1910 and 1919; out of 54 companies in
mining and quarrying, only 3 reported introducing plans between 1910 and 1919.
Monthly Labor Review, August 1938, p. 274.
b Information on the history of paid vacations in mining is found in the
following BLS publications: Monthly Labor Review, August 1938, pp. 269"” 274;
November 1940, pp. 1070—1077; November 1949, pp. 518—522; August 1952, pp. 16 2 167; The Wage Chronology Series, Anthracite Mining Industry. 1930 (1951),
Series 4, No. 30, pp. 5r-6, and Bituminous-Coal M ines, 1933 (1948), Series 4,
No. 4, p. 4; and Paid Vacation Provisions in Major Union Contracts, 1957 (Bul­
letin 1233, 1958).
7 Premium Pay, Holiday and Shift Provisions in Selected Union Agreem ents,
1948—49 (mimeographed, 1949), p. 18.
’’Holiday Provisions in Union Agreements, 1950, ” Monthly Labor Review,
January 1951, p. 24.
9
Paid Holiday Provisions in Major Union Contracts, 1958 (BLS Bulletin
1248, 1959), p~ 3]
The study covered a total of 1,7 36 major contracts in
manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries.
A major contract was defined
as one covering 1,000 or more workers.




4

without paid holiday benefits included the UMW national bituminous coal wage
contract, the UMW anthracite contract, and a crude petroleum and natural gas
contract. W orkers in coal mining accounted for alm ost all of the 23 1,000 workers
under agreement without paid holiday provisions.
Paid sick leave has never been widely prevalent for production w orkers.
The extension of sick benefits to production workers in the 1940's was prim arily
in the form of health and accident insurance rather than paid sick leave. 1
0
Premium pay for overtim e, established through custom, company policy,
and labor-management agreement, was strengthened and expanded by legislation
passed in the late 1930's. The proportion of workers employed in establishments
with provisions for such benefits, prior to the passage of the Fair Labor Standards
Act of 1938, is not known, but there is evidence that it was growing.
In 1937,
for example, all miners working under the United Mine W orkers national bitumi­
nous agreement were entitled to time and one-half after 7 hours per day or
35 hours per week.
The act greatly extended weekly overtime benefits by r e ­
quiring time and one-half after 40 hours for workers in interstate commerce or
producing for such com m erce.
Before this, only a minute portion of the labor
force had overtime premiums guaranteed to them through legislation such as the
W alsh-H ealey Public Contracts Act of 1936 which provided time and one-half after
8 hours in 1 day or 40 hours in 1 week for those employed on Federal Government
contracts.
Unlike the W alsh-H ealey A ct, the Fair Labor Standards Act makes
no provision for daily overtime. 1
1
Prior to the emergence of strong unions, some employers introduced
shift differentials to attract workers to less desirable shifts, but the extension
of the practice is attributable in large part to union effort.
It was during World
War II that these premiums spread into some of the mining industries.
For
example, the July 27, 1944, War Labor Board Directive in the nonferrous metal
cases allowed late shift premiums in the three-shift, continuously operated
sm elters, refineries, and m ills and in the two-shift mine operations.
(These
had been included in some collective bargaining agreements negotiated in 1943. )
In coal mining, provisions for second- and third-shift differentials were con­
tained in the UMW national bituminous and anthracite contracts effective the
second quarter of 1945. 1 By 1948—
2
49, when the Bureau examined 464 selected
union agreem ents, including 1 in coal mining and 7 in iron mining, it found
that the agreement in coal and all the agreements in iron mining provided for
premiums for workers employed on other than the day shift. 1
3

1 Paid Sick Leave Provisions in Major Union Contracts, 1959 (BLS Bulletin
0
I960), p. 1.
1 Prem ium Pay Practices in Private Industry, U. S. Department of Labor,
1
Bureau of Labor Statistics, and Wage and Hour and Public Contracts Divisions,
January 10, 1931, mimeographed.
12 Termination Report of the National War Labor Board: Industrial Disputes
and Wage Stabilization in Wartime. January 12, 1942—
December 31, 1945 (1947),
vol. I, pp. 306, 351—360, and vol. Ill, pp. 659~660; Wage Chronology:
The
Anaconda Co. , 1941—58 (BLS Report 197, 1961), p. 3; Anthracite Mining Industry,
1930, op. cit. , p. 5; and Bituminous-Coal M ines, 1933, op. cit.
13 Premium Pay Practices in Private Industry, op. c i t ., pp. 3, 34; and
Premium Pay, Holiday and Shift Provisions in Selected Union Agreem ents, 1948—49.
op. cit, p. 30.
(Among the 464 agreements 9 were in nonferrous mining, but
their provisions were not discussed separately in the publication.)
1282,




5

Some data on the introduction of private welfare benefits into the mining
industries are available from the BLS wage chronologies.
The chronology for
the Anaconda Co. , which starts with the company's 1941 contract with the
International Union of Mine, M ill, and Smelter W orkers, indicates that the company
started to contribute for hospital and medical insurance for its workers in 1941
or earlier. 1 According to the Sinclair Oil Companies chronology, noncontributory
4
life insurance was /already in effect when the Bureau started its study with the
1941 contract with the Oil W orkers International Union (CIO); employer-financed
sickness and accident benefits appeared in the 1945 contract; and accidental
death, dismemberment, hospitalization, medical, and surgical benefits appeared
in the 1950 contract. 1 These, of course, were provided through individual company
5
agreements and, while they may be indicative of the trend, do not necessarily
represent all developments in their respective industries.
The UMW contracts
in the bituminous coal and anthracite industries, however, are multiemployer
agreements and better indicate benefit developments in these industries.
In 1946, almost 45 0 ,0 0 0 coal miners (375,000 bituminous and 75,000
anthracite) in about 3,000 mines obtained employer-financed welfare and retirement
funds through their UMW contracts.
Both funds were intended to provide benefit
payments to miners and their dependents or survivors in case of sickness, d isa­
bility, death, or upon retirement, and for other related purposes.
In 1947, the
employee-financed bituminous medical and hospital fund became employer-financed
and was combined with the bituminous welfare and retirement fund. 1
6
With respect to pensions, a collectively bargained contributory plan was
established by Sinclair Oil Companies as early as 1942.
As described above,
in 1946, about 45 0,00 0 coal miners were brought under employer-financed pension
plans through the bituminous coal industry's UMW Welfare and Retirement Fund
and the Anthracite Health and Welfare Fund. And, finally, the Anaconda Company's
1952 contract with the International Union of Mine, M ill, and Smelter Workers
contained a noncontributory pension provision. 1 In crude petroleum production,
7
31 percent of the production workers in 1951 were employed by companies which
provided retire ment pensions. 1
8
Supplemental Expenditures
In this bulletin, the employer expenditures data are summarized in four
different types of m easures, each of which has relevance for particular types of
analysis.
These measures are (1) expenditures as a percent of gross payroll;
(2) expenditures as a percent of straight-time payroll; (3) expenditures in terms
of cents per hour paid for; and (4) expenditures in term s of cents per plant
man-hour. For each m easure, two broad types of ratios were computed;
(1) the
ratio for all establishments in the group— both those with and without expendi­
tures— and (2) the ratio for only those establishments reporting the expenditure. 19
For all m easures, the expenditures, payroll, and man-hours data relate only to
production, development, and related workers.

14 BLS Report 197, op. cit. , p. 5.
15 The Wage Chronology Series, Sinclair Oil Companies, 1941 (1952),
Series 4, No. 31, pp. 8—
9.
16 Union Health and Welfare Plans (BLS Bulletin 900, 1947), pp. 3 -4 ;
Bituminous-Coal Mines, 1933, op. cit. ; and Anthracite Mining Industry, 1930,
op. cit. , p. 6.
17 See the various publications cited in footnotes 14—
16.
18 Wage Structure: Petroleum Production and Refining, October—
November
1951 (1952), Series 2, No. 83, p. 16.
9 The significance of the two ratios is discussed in appendix A.




6

Mining Industry T otals.
Employer payments for supplemental employee
remuneration are paid either directly to the employee, or indirectly to insurance
companies, the government, or private funds.
Payments direct to employees in
I960 included paid leave expenditures, amounting to 4 .7 percent of the gross
payroll for production, development, and related workers in all establishments,
and expenditures for premium pay amounting to 5. 5 percent of gross pay.
In
the category of indirect payments were employer contributions towards legally
required payments, which equaled 6 .8 percent of the gross payroll, and contri­
butions for private welfare plans, which equaled 8 .8 percent of gross payroll. 2
0
In term s of cents per production worker hour paid for by all establishments, the
selected expenditures amounted to 12.0 cents an hour for paid leave, 14.0 cents
for premium pay, 17. 3 cents for legally required payments, and 2 2 .4 cents for
private welfare plans. (See table 1.)

Industry Variations. There was considerable variation among the major
industry groups in the ratios of expenditures to gross payroll, but no one major
industry group overshadowed all the others on all the supplements.
Probably the
most significant difference appeared for the coal mining groups whose private
welfare plan expenditure ratios were about two to four times larger than those
of the other groups.
The bituminous coal operators reported outlays equivalent
to 18. 1 percent of the gross production worker payrolls of all establishments in
their group.
These outlays consisted prim arily of contributions to the UMW
Welfare and Retirement Fund for pensions, hospital and medical care, funeral
expenses, and widows' and survivors' benefits.
Sim ilarly, the bulk of the 14.3
percent reported by the anthracite group constituted the operators' contributions
to the Anthracite Health and Welfare Fund for pensions and retirement benefits.
The anthracite mines also had the highest relative contributions, of any major
group, for legally required payments (8. 5 percent of gross pay) and the bituminous
mines ranked third with 7. 0 percent.
In contrast, both had the lowest relative
expenditures for paid leave among the major groups— 3. 2 percent of gross payroll
in anthracite mining and 3. 3 percent in bituminous coal mining.
P ay for holidays
not worked is almost nonexistent in these industries.
(See table 2.)
Metal mining showed the highest expenditure ratio for paid leave, 6. 2 p er­
cent of the gross production worker payroll of all establishments in the major
group; and its expenditures for private welfare plans (7. 0 percent) were second
only to the exceptionally high ratios of the two major coal mining groups.
On
premium pay, the metal mines were in the median position, with expenditures of
4. 4 percent, and on legally required payments they ranked well below all the
other major groups.
The crude petroleum and natural gas major group had the highest relative
expenditure, of the five major groups, for premium pay (6. 8 percent of the gross
pay of all establishments in the group), the second highest for paid leave (5. 3 p er­
cent) and legally required payments (7 .2 percent), and the next to lowest for
private welfare plans (5. 7 percent). It should be noted, however, that the averages
by major industry group may obscure the variations that can exist among industries
comprising the groups.
For example, this major group's average for premium
pay included both the highest and the lowest industry group ratios for which
separate premium pay data were tabulated— 10. 8 percent of gross production
worker payroll for the oil and gas field services industry (SIC No. 138) and

2 Yearend and Christmas bonuses and severance and dism issal pay,
0
although paid directly to the w orker, have been included with private welfare plans.




7

3 .2 percent for the crude petroleum and natural gas industry (SIC No. 131). 2
1
Sim ilarly, the major group's averages for paid leave and legally required payments
included the highest and the lowest group averages tabulated for each benefit; for
leave, 8. 2 percent for the crude petroleum and natural gas industry and 2. 0 p er­
cent for the oil and gas field services industry; for legally required payments,
4. 1 and 10. 5 percent, respectively.
Establishments engaged in the mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
minerals (except fuels) reported the lowest major group expenditures, relative
to gross payroll of all the establishments in the group, for private welfare plans
(4. 6 percent). They ranked second on premium pay (6 .0 percent), third on paid
leave (4 .2 percent), and fourth on legally required payments (6 .8 percent).
Establishment V ariations. In addition to interindustry variations, it was
not uncommon to find significant differences in expenditures among establishments
within a given industry.
Thus, in iron ore mining, with respect to paid leave,
0. 2 percent of the production workers were in establishments with no paid leave
expenditures; and another 0. 2 percent were in establishments with expenditures
of under 1. 0 percent of gross payroll.
At the other extrem e, 3. 2 percent of the
production workers in this industry were in establishments with paid leave ex­
penditures of 11.0 percent or more of gross payroll.
(See table 5.)
In a rather limited effort to explain such variations, establishments were
grouped in accordance with, first, their level of average hourly earnings, then
their size of work force, and finally their degree of collective bargaining agree­
ment coverage. Separate expenditure ratios were computed for each of the groups.
Clear relationships were found, for at least some form s of supplementary ex­
penditure, between level of expenditure and standing with respect to the analyzed
establishment characteristics.
The procedures utilized do not reveal causal
relations. They are, however, useful in developing hypotheses for more intensive
investigation.
Composition of Payroll Hours
With respect to paid leave it is important to consider, in addition to
employer expenditures, the relation between total hours paid for and plant hours
(i. e. , total hours less paid leave hours).
In I960, plant hours constituted 95. 4
percent of the total hours for which all mining industry production workers were
paid.
This figure varied among the industry's major groups, ranging from a
low of 93. 5 percent in metal mining to a high of 96. 9 percent in bituminous coal
mining.
Vacations were the primary type of paid leave in each of the major
groups.
For mining as a whole, vacations accounted for 2. 9 percent of total
hours paid for, or more than three-fifths of the total paid leave hours.
(See
table 31.)

2 Under the Standard Industrial Classification Manual (U. S. Bureau of the
1
Budget, 1957), the title "crude petroleum and natural g as" refers both to a major
industry group (SIC 13) and one of its subdivisions— an industry group (SIC 131).
In this bulletin, the major industry group will be called "m ajor group" and the
subdivision, an "industry. "







Table 1.

00

Average Expenditures for Selected Supplementary Employee Remuneration
Practices in Mining Industries, I960
Cents per
hour
paid for

Cents per
plant
man-hour

Percent of
gross
payroll

Percent of
straight-tim e
payroll

Paid leave __________________ _______ — ------------------V a c a tio n s__ ________ __________________ — _____
Holidays __________ ___
________ ______ ___ Sick leave ------------ ---------------- -------------- ------- ----------M ilitary, jury, w itness, voting, and
personal leave _____ ______
_______
_________

4. 7
3. 1
1 .2
.4

5. 0
3. 3
1. 3
.5

(M

(l )

. 1

. 1

Prem ium p a y ____ ___ ____ _____ ___ __ _____ ________
Daily overtim e, weekly overtime, and
weekend and holiday w o r k __
______ _____
Shift differentials __________________________________

5 .5

5. 8

14. 0

14.7

5. 1
.4

5 .4
.4

13. 0
1.0

13.6
1. 1

Legally required p ay m e n ts_________________________—
O ld -a g e , survivors, and disability
insurance (social se c u rity )_____ _____ __ __ __
Unemployment compensation ------ ------- -------------W orkm en's compens at ion _______ __ _ __ _
Other, including temporary disability
insurance -----------------------------------------------------------------

6 .8

7. 2

17. 3

18. 1

2. 5
1 .3
3. 0

2. 7
1 .4
3. 1

6 .4
3 .4
7. 5

6. 7
3. 5
7 .9

(‘ )

(M

C )

C )

Private welfare p la n s _________ ________ __ ------ --Health, accident, and life in su ra n ce _____________
Pension and retirement plans ___ ____ _____ _
Vacation and holiday funds ________________________
Supplemental unemployment b e n e fits_____ __
Severance or dism issa l p a y __ „ __ ------------ Savings and thrift plans ______ _ _____ — -------Yearend and Christm as bon u ses__________ _____

8 .8
3. 3
4 .6
(M
. 1
. 1
.4
.3

9 .3
3. 4
4 .9
(M
. 1
. 1
.5
. 3

2 2 .4
8. 3
11.7
n
.2
.3
1. 1
.8

2 3 .4
8 .7
12. 3
(M
.2
.3
1. 2
.8

Practice

1 L ess than 0. 05 percent or 0. 05 cent.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

12.
7.
3.
1.

0
8
0
1

12.6
8 .2
3. 2
1. 1

Table 2.

Average Expenditures for Selected Supplementary Employee Remuneration Practices by Mining Industry Group,
Percent of gross payroll

Industry group
Paid leave

Premium pay

All industries _______________________________

4. 7

5. 5

Metal mining 1 ----------------------------------------------Iron ores _________________________________

6. 2
7. 3
6. 2
5 .7
3. 2
3. 3
5. 3
8. 2
2. 0

4. 4
3. 8
4 .9
3 .7
3. 3
3. 8
6. 8
3. 2
10. 8

4. 2

6. 0

Lead and zinc ores --------------------------------Anthracite m in in g ----------------------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite mining ----------Crude petroleum and natural gas 1
-------- -----Crude petroleum and natural g a s --------Oil and gas field services --------------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ___________________

Legally
required
payments

6. 8

I960

Percent of straight-tim e payroll
Private welfare
plans

Paid leave

Premium pay

Legally
required
payments

Private welfare
plans

8. 8

5. 0

5 .8

7. 2

9. 3

5
1
6
0
5
0
2
1
5

7. 0
10. 0
6 .6
4. 3
14. 3
18. 1
5. 7
9. 1
2. 0

6. 5
7. 6
6. 5
5 .9
3. 3
3 .4
5 .7
8. 5
2. 2

4. 7
3. 9
5. 1
3. 8
3. 4
3 .9
7. 3
3. 3
12. 1

5. 8
5. 3
4 .9
7. 2
8. 8
7. 3
7 .7
4. 3
11. 8

7. 3
10. 3
6 .9
4. 5
14. 8
18. 8
6. 1
9 .4
2. 2

6. 8

4. 6

4. 5

6. 4

7. 2

4 .9

5.
5.
4.
7.
8.
7.
7.
4.
10.

Cents per hour paid for

Cents per plant man-hour

All in d u s tr ie s __

12. 0

14. 0

17. 3

2 2 .4

12. 6

14. 7

18. 1

23. 4

Metal mining 1 ----------------------------------------------Iron ores _________________________________

17. 1
21. 1
17. 0
13.8
8 .4
9 .8
12.8
21. 7
4. 4

12. 3
1 0 .9
13. 3
8 .9
8. 8
11. 2
16. 5
8. 4
23. 9

15. 2
14.7
12. 8
1 6.9
22. 5
2 0 .7
1 7.4
10. 9
23. 4

19.4
2 8 .8
18. 0
10. 5
38. 1
5 3 .8
13.8
2 3 .8
4 .4

18. 3
22. 8
18. 3
14.7
8. 7
10. 1
13. 5
23. 5
4. 5

13. 2
11.8
14. 3
9 .5
9. 0
11. 6
17.4
9. 1
24. 5

16. 3
15.9
13. 7
18. 0
23. 2
21. 4
18. 3
11. 8
2 3 .9

20. 7
31. 1
19. 4
11. 2
39. 3
55. 5
14. 5
25.9
4. 5

9. 1

13. 1

14. 8

9 .9

9 .5

13. 6

15.4

10. 3

Lead and zinc ores _____________________
Anthracite m in in g ___________________________
Bituminous coal and lignite mining ----------Crude petroleum and natural gas 1 -----------Crude petroleum and natural g a s --------Oil and gas field services --------------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ___________________

1 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE: Under the Standard Industrial Classification Manual (U. S. Bureau of the Budget, 1957), the title "crude petroleum and natural g a s " refers both to a
m ajor industry group (SIC 13) and one of its subdivisions— an industry group (SIC 131).
In this bulletin, the m ajor industry group will be called "m ajor group "
and the subdivision, an "industry. "




SO




Chapter II. Paid Leave

Total Leave
More than four-fifths of the production, development, and related workers
in the mining industries were in establishments which paid for some type of
leave during I960.
Paid vacation was the principal item, available in estab­
lishments employing 81 percent of the production workers.
To a le sse r extent,
production workers were in establishments which provided paid holidays (5 4 .8
percent), sick leave (26. 8 percent), and other leave (m ilitary, jury, witness,
voting, and personal) (28. 4 percent).
(See table 3.)
Expenditures for all form s of paid leave averaged 4. 7 percent of the
gross production worker payroll of all establishments in mining.
The average
increased to 5. 6 percent for those establishments which reported leave expend­
itures in I960.
Similarly, the ratio of vacation pay to gross payroll for the
two categories of establishments increased from 3 .1 to 3 .7 percent.
Owing to
the sm aller proportions of workers in establishments providing the other types
of paid leave studied, the difference in the expenditure ratios between all e s ­
tablishments and only those with expenditures were somewhat greater— 1 .2 to
2. 0 percent for holidays; 0 .4 to 1 .4 percent for sick leave; and less than 0. 05 to
0.1 percent for other leave.
(See table 4 .)
In anthracite and bituminous coal mining, which had 8 4 .3 and 8 1 .4 per­
cent, respectively, of their production workers in establishments with paid lea.ve,
the respective ratios for all establishments and only those reporting expenditures
were 3. 2 and 3. 7 percent in anthracite and 3. 3 and 3. 8 percent in bituminous
coal.
In the crude petroleum and natural gas major group and in nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels, where only 77. 6 and 77. 0 percent, respectively, of the
production, development, and related workers were in establishments which had
some paid leave, greater differences were found between the expenditure ratios
for all establishments and those reporting the practice— 5. 3 and 6. 5 percent in
the form er and 4. 2 and 5. 3 percent in the latter.
Virtually all (99. 3 percent)
of the workers in metal mining were in establishments granting paid leave and
the rounded expenditure ratio for all establishments was equal to the ratio for
only those with the practice.
The 5. 3 percent average for all establishments in the crude petroleum
and natural gas major group included both the highest and the lowest industry
group ratios for which separate paid leave data were tabulated— 8. 2 percent of
gross production worker payroll for the crude petroleum and natural gas in­
dustry and 2. 0 percent for the oil and gas field services industry.
In metal
mining, which was the only other major group for which data were tabulated
separately for some of the subdivisions, less variation existed among the in­
dustry groups.
When total pay for leave was divided by the total production w orkers’
hours paid for by all establishments, the I960 expenditures amounted to 12.0
cents per hour— including 7 .8 cents for vacation, 3 .0 for holidays, 1.1 for sick
leave, and 0. 1 cent for other paid leave. For only those establishments having
the various practices, the averages increase to 14. 8 cents for all leave, 9. 7 cents
for vacation, 5 .2 for holidays, 3 .8 for sick leave, and 0 .4 cents an hour for
other paid leave.




11

12

Presentation of paid leave expenditures in terms of averages for all
establishments fails to show the variations in practices among individual estab­
lishments. Expenditure ratios for paid leave in mining industry establishments
ranged from less than 1 percent of gross payroll to 12 percent and over. Ap­
proximately one-fourth of the industry's production workers were in establish­
ments with expenditure ratios for paid leave of 3 to 5 percent.
In anthracite
mining, 48. 7 percent of the production workers were in establishments with ex­
penditure ratios of 3 and under 4 percent, and almost two-thirds of the workers
were in establishments with paid leave expenditures constituting between 3 and
5 percent of gross payroll. Bituminous coal mining exhibited somewhat greater
variation, but even here over 56 percent of the workers were employed in e s ­
tablishments with expenditure ratios between 3 and 5 percent. In metal mining,
one-fifth of the production workers were in establishments whose expenditure
ratios were 5 and under 6 percent, and a sim ilar number were in establish­
ments with ratios between 8 and 9 percent.
Considerably greater variation in
expenditure ratios for paid leave was found in the remaining major industry
groups, crude petroleum and natural gas, and nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels.
(See table 5.)
For purposes of this study, paid leave includes only payments made
directly to the worker by the company; employer payments to vacation and
holiday funds (which occur only rarely in mining) were treated as private welfare
plans.
Similarly, company payments to insurance carriers or special funds,
which pay sickness benefits to workers, were classified as private welfare plans
rather than sick leave. In the few States where temporary disability insurance
is required by law, company payments made directly to the worker under
self-insurance provisions of the law were considered legally required payments
rather than sick leave.
Paid Vacations
According to the present survey, establishments granting paid vacations
in I960 employed 81 percent of the production, development, and related workers
in mining.
Paid vacations were least prevalent in the mining and quarrying of
nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, where 74. 7 percent of the production workers
were in establishments with such expenditures and were most common in metal
mining, where virtually all the miners (99. 1 percent) were covered by vacation
provisions.
Vacation payments averaged 3. 1 percent of the gross payroll of pro­
duction, development, and related workers in all establishments in the mining
industries during I960. Among the five major groups studied, the ratios ranged
from 2 .7 percent for nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, to 3 .9 percent for
metal mining. In crude petroleum and natural gas production, anthracite mining,
and bituminous coal mining, these ratios were 2. 9, 3 .0 , and 3. 2 percent, r e ­
spectively.
When only those establishments which reported the practice were
considered, the ratios rose and the differences among the major groups dimin­
ished.
Three of these major groups— anthracite, crude petroleum and natural
gas, and nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels— averaged 3. 5 percent of gross
payroll; bituminous coal, 3 .7 percent; and metal mining, 3 .9 percent.
Average expenditures for vacations were 7 .8 cents per production worker
hour paid for by all mining establishments and 9. 7 cents for only those estab­
lishments reporting actual vacation expenditures.
The lowest rate, by major
group, was the 5 .9 cents for the nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, industries;
the two highest were the 9. 6 cents of the bituminous coal and lignite companies
and the 10.7 cents of the metal mining industries.
The averages for these
groups, for only those establishments reporting vacation expenditures, were
7 .9 , 1 1 .9 , and 10.8 cents, respectively.




13

Paid Holidays
At the time of this survey, the UMW national agreements with the an­
thracite and bituminous coal operators had no provisions for pay for holidays
not worked.
Only 3. 9 percent of the workers in bituminous coal mining and
18. 3 percent of those in anthracite were in establishments providing paid hol­
idays, whereas 97. 9 percent of the metal miners were in such establishments,
66 .7 percent of those in nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, and 66.1 percent
in crude petroleum and natural gas.
For mining as a whole, 5 4 .8 percent of
the production, development, and related workers were in establishments that
reported paid holiday expenditures.
Expenditures for paid holidays averaged 1 .2 percent of gross payroll
for production, development, and related workers in all establishments in mining
and 2 .0 percent for those in establishments which reported holiday expenditures.
Only 0. 1 percent of the gross payroll of all establishments in each of the coal
mining groups was spent on paid holidays.
The averages in the other three
major groups were 1.3 percent for nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, 1 .5 per­
cent for crude petroleum and natural gas, and 2. 1 percent for metal mining.
The proportions of gross payroll, for only the establishments which reported
paying for holidays in I960, were 0. 6, 1. 3, and 1. 9 percent in anthracite
mining, bituminous coal and lignite mining, and the mining of nonmetallic min­
erals, except fuels, respectively, and 2. 1 percent of the gross payrolls in both
metal mining and in crude petroleum and natural gas.
On the basis of cents per production worker hour paid for, holiday ex­
penditures averaged 3. 0 cents for all establishments and 5. 2 cents for only
those establishments reporting the practice.
Anthracite and bituminous coal
mining had average hourly expenditures of 0. 3 and 0. 2 cents per hour paid for,
respectively, for all establishments; this increased to 1.7 and 3 .8 cents when
only the hours of those establishments reporting the practice were considered.
In the other major groups studied, the comparisons of cents per hour paid for
between all establishments and those reporting the practice were nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels, 2 .9 and 4 .3 cents; crude petroleum and natural gas,
3. 6 and 5. 3 cents; and metal mining, 5. 8 and 5. 9 cents, respectively.

Paid Sick Leave
Only 26. 8 percent of the production, development, and related workers
in the mining industries were in establishments providing some paid sick leave
during I960. Among the major groups, this included almost half (46. 8 percent)
of those in crude petroleum and natural gas, but only 4. 6 percent in bituminous
coal, 10. 9 in anthracite, 16. 4 percent in metal mining, and 19. 2 percent in the
mining and quarrying of nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels.
For mining as a whole, sick leave expenditures averaged 0 .4 percent
of the gross payroll for production, development, and related workers in all
establishments.
The highest average of the several major groups was the 0 .9
percent found in crude petroleum and natural gas.
In both metal mining and
nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, 0. 2 percent of gross payrolls were spent
on paid sick leave.
The coal industries reported less than 0. 05 percent.
When
the ratios were based on the payrolls of those establishments which reported
sick leave payments, the average for total mining increased to 1 .4 percent of
gross payroll; that for crude petroleum and natural gas increased to 1.6 percent;
metal mining to 1.3 percent; and nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, 0 .8 per­
cent.
The ratios in the coal mining groups increased to 0. 2 percent in anthra­
cite, and 0 .3 percent in bituminous.




14

Only the crude petroleum and natural gas producers among the major
industry groups, with an average of 2. 1 cents per production worker hour paid
for by all establishments, had an average exceeding 1 cent an hour.
The av­
erage for all of the mining groups was 1. 1 cents. When the hours for only the
establishments reporting actual sick leave expenditures during I960 were used,
the rate for total mining rose to 3 .8 cents per hour paid for.
Crude petroleum
and natural gas production with 4. 3 cents and metal mining with 3. 7 cents had
the highest averages of the major groups.
The other three— nonmetallic m in­
erals, except fuels; bituminous coal; and anthracite— had average expenditures
of 1. 8, 1. 0, and 0. 7 cents per hour, respectively.
Other Paid Leave (Military, Jury, Witness, Voting, and Personal)
Other paid leave was composed of m ilitary, jury, witness, voting, and
personal leave (such as for death in the family).
Such leave often is not paid
for at the regular straight-time rate. For example, many firm s pay the worker
the difference between his regular rate and what he receives for serving on a
jury. Here, as well as for all types of leave, respondents were asked to report
their actual expenditures for the practice but only the man-hours equivalent to
these expenditures.
Establishments employing 28 . 4 percent of the production, development,
and related workers in mining reported expenditures for other paid leave in
I960.
The proportion of workers in such establishments varied widely among
the major industry groups.
More than half ( 51. 6 percent) of the metal miners
and 40 percent of the crude petroleum and natural gas workers were in such
establishments, but only a small proportion of those in nonmetallic m inerals,
except fuels ( 20. 4 percent), and a very few of those in coal mining ( 2 . 8 per­
cent in bituminous and 2. 2 percent in anthracite).
Expenditures for other paid leave amounted to less than 0. 05 percent
of the production, development, and related worker gross payroll of all estab­
lishments in mining. Only in the crude petroleum and natural gas major group
was a ratio as high as 0. 1 percent found; all the others averaged less than 0. 05
percent.
For only the establishments reporting actual other leave payments,
the I960 ratio was 0. 1 percent for all mining industries. Crude petroleum and
natural gas, with 0 .2 percent, and nonmetallic minerals (except fuels), with
0. 1 percent, were the only two major groups which averaged over 0. 05 percent.




Table 3.

Percent of Production, Development, and Related Workers in Establishments Reporting Expenditures for
Paid Leave by Mining Industry Group, I960

Industry group

A ll industries ______________________ _______
Metal m ining2 _________________________________
Iron ores
________________________________ _
Copper ores
______________________________
Lead and zinc ores -----------------------------------Anthracite mining ____________________________
Bituminous coal and lignite mining
________
Crude petroleum and natural gas 2 _________
____
Crude petroleum and natural gas
Oil and gas field services
_______________
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels
______________ __




Paid
leave

Paid
vacations

Paid
holidays

Paid
sick
leave

Other
paid
leave 1

81. 6

8 1 .0

54. 8

26. 8

2 8 .4

9 9 .3
99. 8
9 9 .6
100. 0
84. 3
8 1 .4
77. 6
9 4 .4
60. 9

99. 1
9 9 .8
99. 6
100. 0
84. 3
8 1 .4
77. 3
93. 7
6 0 .9

9 7 .9
9 9 .2
9 9 .6
9 8 .4
18. 3
3 .9
66. 1
89. 0
43. 2

1 6 .4
.3
42. 0
11.5
10. 9
4. 6
46. 8
76. 3
17. 1

5 1 .6
5 1 .8
74. 0
17. 6
2. 2
2. 8
40. 0
6 9 .9
9 .7

7 7 .0

74. 7

66. 7

19. 2

20. 4

1 Includes m ilitary, jury, witness, voting, and personal leave.
2 Includes industries not shown separately.

Table 4.

Average Expenditures for Paid Leave by All Establishments and Establishments Reporting Expenditures and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of gross payroll
All establishments

Industry group
Total

Vaca­
tions

Holi­
days

Establishments reporting expenditures
Sick
leave

A ll industries -------------------------------------------------------

4. 7

3. 1

1.2

0. 4

Metal mining 3 ------------------------------------------------------Iron ores ---------------------------------------------------------Copper ores -----------------------------------------------------Lead and zinc ores ----------------------------------------Anthracite mining ----------------------------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite mining -----------------Crude petroleum and natural gas 3--------------------Crude petroleum and natural gas-----------------Oil and gas field services __________________
Mining and quarrying of nonmetaliic
m inerals, except fuels ________________________

6. 2
7. 3
6. 2
5. 7
3 .2
3. 3
5. 3
8 .2
2 .0

3 .9
4. 8
3. 5
3. 8
3. 0
3. 2
2 .9
4 .4
1. 1

2. 1
2 .4
2. 0
1 .7
.1
. 1
1.5
2. 2
.6

0 .2

4. 2

2. 7

1.3

.2

(4 )

Vaca­
tions

H oli­
days

Sick
leave

5 .6

3. 7

2. 0

1 .4

(4 )

6 .2
7. 3
6. 2
5. 7
3. 7
3. 8
6. 5
8. 5
3. 1

3. 9
4. 8
3. 5
3. 8
3. 5
3. 7
3. 5
4. 6
1 .8

2. 1
2 .4
2. 0
1 .8
.6
1. 3
2. 1
2. 4
1 .3

1 .3
.4
1. 7
.5
.2
.3
1 .6
1 .7
1 .2

(4)

5 .3

3. 5

1 .9

.8

.1

0. 1

Other 1

(4 )

(')
(4 )

.6
.1
(*)
(4)
.9
1 .4
.2

(4 )
(4 )
(4 )

(4)
0 .1
.2

Total 2

Other 1

0. 1

{V

(4 )
(4 )

0. 1
(4 )
(4 )

.2
.2
.1

Percent of straight-tim e payroll
A ll industries -------------------------------------------------------

5. 0

3. 3

1.3

0. 5

(4 )

Metal mining 3 ------------------------------------------------------Iron ores _____________________________________
Copper ores ---------------------------------------------------Lead and zinc ores ----------------------------------------Anthracite mining ----------------------------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite mining -----------------Crude petroleum and natural gas 3--------------------Crude petroleum and natural gas-----------------Oil and gas field services ----------------------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetaliic
m inerals, except fuels -------------------------------------

6 .5
7. 6
6 .5
5 .9
3. 3
3 .4
5. 7
8. 5
2. 2

4. 1
5. 0
3. 7
4. 0
3. 1
3 .4
3. 1
4 .6
1 .3

2. 2
2. 5
2. 1
1.8
.1
.1
1 .6
2. 3
.7

0 .2

(4 )

(4 )

(4 )

4 .5

2. 9

1 .4

.2

See footnotes at end of table.




.7
.1
(4)

5 .9

3. 9

2. 2

1. 5

4.
5.
3.
4.
3.
3.
3.
4.
2.

1
0
7
0
6
8
8
7
0

2 .2
2. 5
2. 1
1 .8
.6
1.3
2 .2
2. 5
1 .5

1 .4
.4
1 .7
.6
.2
.3
1 .7
1 .7
1 .4

0. 1
(4)

(4 )

6. 5
7. 6
6. 5
5. 9
3. 8
3 .9
6. 9
8. 7
3. 5

(4 )

5 .6

3. 7

2. 0

.8

. 1

(4 )
(4 )

(4)

(4 )

(4 )

.9
1 .5
.3

0. 1
.2

(4 )
(4 )
(4 )

(4 )

.2
.2
. 1

Table 4.

Average Expenditures for Paid Leave by All Establishments and Establishments Reporting Expenditures and Mining Industry Group, I960— Continued
Cents per hour paid for
Establishments reporting expenditures

A ll establishments

Industry group
Total

Vaca­
tions

H oli­
days

Sick
leave

Other 1

T o ta l2

Vaca­
tions

H oli­
days

Sick
leave

Other 1

A ll industries -------------------------------------------------------

12. 0

7. 8

3. 0

1. 1

0. 1

14. 8

9. 7

5. 2

3. 8

0. 4

Metal mining 3 ------------------------------------------------------Iron ores ______________________________________
Copper ores ----------------- •
----------------------------------Lead and zinc ores _________________________
Anthracite mining ----------------------------------------------B if ominous coal and lignite mining ----------------Crude petroleum and natural gas 3 -------------------Crude petroleum and natural gas----------------Oil and gas field services ---------------------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels _______________________

17. 1
21. 1
17. 0
13. 8
8. 4
9 .8
12. 8
2 1 .7
4. 4

10. 7
14. 0
9 .7
9 .3
8. 0
9 .6
6 .9
1 1.6
2. 5

5. 8
7. 0
5. 5
4 .2
.3
.2
3 .6
5 .9
1 .4

0. 6
(4)
1 .8
.2
.1
(4)
2. 1
3. 8
.5

(4)
0. 1
. 1
(4)
(*)
(4)
.2
.4
(4)

17. 2
2 1.1
17. 1
13. 8
10. 1
12. 2
16. 2
22. 7
7. 0

10. 8
14. 1
9. 7
9. 3
9 .6
11.9
8. 8
12. 3
3 .9

5 .9
7. 1
5. 5
4. 3
1 .7
3. 8
5. 3
6 .4
3. 0

3. 7
.7
4. 4
1 .4
.7
1 .0
4. 3
4. 7
2. 7

0. 1
.1
.1
.2
(4)
(4)
.5
.6
.2

9. 1

5 .9

2 .9

.3

(4)

12. 0

7. 9

4. 3

1 .8

.2

Cents per plant man-hour
8 .2

3. 2

1. 1

0. 1

15. 7

10. 3

5 .6

4. 1

0. 4

3
8
3
7
7
1
5
5
5

11.5
15. 1
1 0 .4
10. 0
8 .2
9 .9
7. 3
12. 6
2. 6

6. 2
7 .6
5 .9
4. 5
.3
.2
3. 8
6 .4
1 .4

0 .6
(4 )
1 .9
.2
. 1
(4)
2. 2
4. 1
.5

0. 1
. 1
. 1
(4)
(*)
(4)
.2
.5
(4)

1 8 .4
22. 8
18. 3
14. 7
10. 5
12. 7
17. 3
24. 7
7. 2

11.6
15. 2
10. 4
10. 0
10. 0
1 2 .4
9 .4
13 .4
4. 1

6. 3
7. 6
5 .9
4 .6
1 .8
4. 0
5. 7
7 .0
3. 1

4. 0
.7
4 .9
1.5
.7
1 .0
4. 7
5. 2
2 .9

0. 1
.1
.1
.2

9. 5

6. 1

3. 0

.4

(4)

12.6

8 .4

4. 6

2. 0

.2

A ll industries ____________________________________

12.6

Metal mining 3 ------------------------------------------------------Iron ores ----------- ---------------------------------------------Copper ores __________________________________
Lead and zinc ores _________________________
Anthracite mining ______________________________
Bituminous coal and lignite mining ----------------Crude petroleum and natural gas 3_____________
Crude petroleum and natural gas___________
Oil and gas field services __________________
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels _______________________

18.
22.
18.
14.
8.
10.
13.
23.
4.

1
2
3
4

Includes m ilitary, jury, witness, voting, and personal leave.
The individual items do not add to total because each practice was treated separately and all establishments did not have expenditures for each practice.
Includes industries not shown separately.
L ess than 0. 05 percent or 0. 05 cent.

NOTE:

Because of rounding,




sums of individual items may not equal totals.

(J)

(4)
.6
.7
.2

Table 5.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Leave Expenditures as a Percent of G ross Payroll
and Mining Industry Group, I960

00

Percent of workers in establishments with—
W orkers
in all
Paid leave expenditures as a percent of gross payroll of—
No paid
estab­
leave
4 and
5 and
6 and
7 and
2 and
3 and
8 and
10 and
1 and
9 and
12
11 and
lish ­
expend­ Under 1
under 2 under 3 under 4 under 5 under 6 under 7 under 8 under 9 under 10 under 11 under 12 percent
ments
itures percent
percent percent percent percent percent percent percent percent percent percent percent and over

Industry group

All industries ___________________ _______

100. 0

18. 4

4. 8

5 .4

8. 6

13. 0

12.7

7 .7

Metal mining 1 ---------------------- ----------------Iron ores ____________________________
Copper ores --------------------- __ _____
Lead and zinc ores _________________
Anthracite m in in g ---------------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite mining _ _
Crude petroleum and natural gas1 -----Crude petroleum and
natural g a s __ _____________________
Oil and gas field services -------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ----------------------

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0 .7
.2
.4
15.7
18. 6
2 2 .4

0. 3
.2
.9
8. 3

1. 2
.3
1. 6
.9
2 .4
8. 7

5. 5
.2
9. 5
13. 8
13. 1
8. 0

6. 2
2 .4
3. 2
4 8 .7
2 9 .9
3 .7

12. 8
10. 5
2 1 .7
11.7
17. 6
2 6 .6
5. 8

20. 5
11. 0
18. 6
41. 2
1. 3
4 .9
4 .4

13. 1
14.4
22. 6
9 .0
1. 7
6. 3

100. 0
100. 0

5. 6
39. 1

3. 7
1 2.9

1. 8
1 5.4

2 .4
13. 7

3. 1
4. 4

9 .6
2. 6

4. 1
5. 0

23. 0

5 .8

5. 6

5. 5

13 .4

9 .5

9 .8

5. 6

2. 6

4. 5

20. 4
40. 6
6 .4
2. 3
. 5
.9

5. 3
9. 2
5. 9
.8
.3
10. 1

0. 3
.7
. 1
6. 0

1. 2
3. 2
10. 2

0 .6
1. 3

1. 2
.7

17. 5
-

12. 2
.4

21. 8
-

.5
1. 8

8. 6

11. 3

4. 0

7 .4
-

9. 1
4. 1

100. 0

5. 0

3. 5

2. 7

”

6 .9

12.
7.
21.
24.
1.
.
3.

5
2
2
7
1
3
8

0. 9

_

1. 0

1 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding,

Table 6.

sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Vacation Expenditures as a Percent of G ross Payroll
and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of workers in establishments with—
Workers
in all
establish­
ments

Industry group

All industries --------------------------------- -----

100. 0

Metal mining 1 --------------- -------------- --------Iron ores -------------- ---------------------------Copper ores ----- ----------- — --------Lead and zinc ores
_____________
Anthracite m in in g ---------------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite mining —
Crude petroleum and natural ga s1
Crude petroleum and
natural g a s -------------------------------------Oil and gas field s e r v i c e s _________
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ----------------------

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

No paid
vacation
expenditures

Paid vacation expenditures as a percent of gross payroll of—
Under 1
percent

1 and
under 2
percent

rounding,

3 and
under 4
percent

4 and
under 5
percent

5 and
under 6
percent

6 and
under 7
percent

7 and
under 8
percent

8
percent
and over

19. 0

7 .4

9. 3

12. 3

21. 3

14. 3

12. 3

2 .7

0. 2

1. 1

0 .9
.2
.4

7 .9
2 .4
6. 1
9 .8
3. 3
2. 6
13. 3

15. 2
14. 6
18. 8
5 .4
19.6
14. 2
9 .2

34. 5
14. 6
55. 8
56. 3
44. 3
3 0 .8
10. 1

10. 7
12. 6
18. 9
1. 6
13. 8
26. 1
9 .6

21. 7
3 9 .6
26. 2
1. 3
3. 6
17. 6

4. 5
11. 7
.8
1 .4
3 .6

0. 3
.7
1. 1
.3
.2

1. 2
3. 2
.8
1. 5
1. 1

7 .7
-

(2)

.5
1. 8

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

15.7
18. 6
22. 7

3. 2
.4
.9
12. 6

100. 0
100. 0

6 .3
39. 1

5. 0
2 0 .4

1,6
24. 7

11. 3
7. 8

15. 0
5. 3

18. 5
.5

33 .9
.4

100. 0

25. 3

8. 0

10 .6

13.9

2 1 .9

12.7

5. 3

-

1 Includes industries not shown separately.
2 L ess than 0. 05 percent.


NOTE: Because of


2 and
under 3
percent

sums of individual items may not equal totals.

1. 3

.9

Table 7.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Holiday Expenditures as a Percent of Gross Payroll
and Mining Industry Group, 1960
Percent of workers in establishments with—

Industry group

A ll industries ______

__________________

Metal mining 1 ___________ _______ __
Iron o r e s __ __________________________
Copper ores ________ _________ _____ _
Lead and zinc ores ______________ _
Anthracite m in in g ______________________
Bituminous coal and lignite mining —
Crude petroleum and natural g a s1
_____
Crude petroleum and
natural gas _________________________
Oil and gas field services _________
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ______________

Paid holiday expenditures as a percent of gross payroll of—

No paid
holiday
expend­
itures

Under 1
percent

100. 0

45. 2

8. 0

15.2

26. 5

4. 7

0. 3

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2. 1
.8
.4
1.6
81. 7
96. 1
33. 9

1. 7
4. 2
15.7
1. 5
12.6

2 8 .6
13.9
30. 3
6 1 .4
1.6
16.6

6 6 .6
8 3 .4
68. 8
32. 8
2. 6
.9
26. 2

0 .9
1 .9
10. 0

0. 2
.5
.6

100. 0
100. 0

11. 0
56. 8

8. 2
17. 4

17. 7
16. 2

42. 7
8 .4

20. 3
"

1. 2

100. 0

33. 3

9 .6

21. 8

33. 0

2. 2

in all
establish­
ments

2 and
under 3
percent

1 and
under 2
percent

3 and
under 4
percent

4 and
under 5
percent

5 percent
and over
0. 1

_
-

0 .2
. 1

1 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 8.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Leave Expenditures in Cents Per Hour Paid For
and Mining Industry Group, 1960

Industry group

Percent of workers in establishments with—
Workers
in all
Paid leave expenditures per hour paid for of—
No paid
estabreave
20 and
16 and
18 and
10 and
12 and
14 and
22 and
24 and
2 and 4 and 6 and 8 and
lish 26 cents
expend­ Under 2
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under under under under
ments
and over
itures
cents
4 cents 6 cents 8 cents 10 cents 12 cents 14 cents 16 cents 18 cents 20 cents 22 cents 24 cents 26 cents

A ll industries __________________________

100. 0

Metal mining 1 __________________________
Iron ores ____________ __ _____
Copper ores ______ ____________ ___
Lead and zinc ores _________________
Anthracite mining
__
__ _______
Bituminous coal and lignite m in in g ___
Crude petroleum and natural gas 1
______
Crude petroleum and
natural g a s _____ ______ ________ _
Oil and gas field services _________ _
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ______________

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

1. 8

5. 2

1. 0

12.7

5 .9
7. 5
9 .6
2. 2
2. 7
1. 3

5. 0
7. 5
6 .4
1. 5
1. 2
.2
.7

25. 2
41. 0
20. 7
.8
2. 0

2. 7
7. 4
.5
.8
.9

4. 0
10. 5
.5
.7
26. 3

2. 1
5 .2

1 0 .4
3. 7

4. 1
1. 2

2. 2
-

1.6
-

4. 0
.2

1 .9
-

48. 3
3. 1

4. 3

7. 7

5. 2

1. 7

3 .6

4. 7

.2

4. 5

3 .6

5. 6

4. 9

6. 7

8. 2

11. 0

0. 3
.2
-

-

-

.9
9. 7

1 .8
3 .6
3 .2
5. 8

3. 2
.2
1 .4
6. 0
16. 2
2 .6
5. 7

8. 3
2 .4
3. 8

15. 7
18.6
22. 4

0. 6
.3
_
1.6
.8
6 .4

18. 2
12. 2
3. 7

2. 0
.7
7. 9
2 9 .9
17.6
2. 0

9 .7
7 .4
8 .7
30. 2
16. 3
29. 6
3 .6

5. 6
39. 1

3. 7
15. 8

1. 9
10. 8

2. 1
9 .6

5. 3
6 .4

2. 4
5. 0

4. 4
(2)

23. 0

6. 7

4. 2

11. 9

6. 2

3 .9

12. 2

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




2 .4

17 .9
3. 1
2 6 .6
37. 6
. 3
3. 1
2 .6

5. 5

0. 7
.2
.4

1 Includes industries not shown separately.
2 L ess than 0. 05 percent.
NOTE:

5. 2

1
5
8
7
2
2
8

18 .4

-

7. 7
13.
12.
21.
8.
1.
7.
6.

-

Table 9.

N
>
o

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Vacation Expenditures in Cents Per Hour Paid For
and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of workers in <
establishments with—

Worke rs
in all
No paid
estab­
vacation
lis h ­
expend­
ments
itures

Industry group

A ll industries _________________________

100. 0

Metal mining 1 _________________________
Tron ores
_ _ _
Copper ores
....
_
. _
Lead and zinc ores
.............. .
Anthracite mining
..
.. _
Bituminous coal and lignite
mining
_
. .... ___ _.
......... _
Crude petroleum and natural
g a s1------------------------------------------------------Crude petroleum and natural
gas -------------------------------------------------Oil and gas field services ________
Mining and quarrying of nonm etallic m inerals, except fu e ls------

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

Paid vacation expenditures per hour paid for of—
Under
2
cents

2 and
under 4
cents

4 and
under 6
cents

12 and
6 and
8 and
10 and
under 8 under 10 under 12 under 14
cents
cents
cents
cents

19. 0

7. 3

7 .7

7. 0

7 .9

0 .9
.2
.4

1.0
.4

5. 1

-

7. 0
2. 4
6. 1
6. 0
-

14. 0
14. 7
13. 7
13.4
19.2

3. 5

2. 6

0
0
0
0
0

-

-

15. 7

-

.7
5. 2
2. 6

100. 0

18. 6

.9

1 .0

-

1 1 .4

10. 2

11. 2

18.
5.
26.
33.
14.

18.
9.
43.
15.
36.

8.
10.
4.
26.
7.

6
4
5
2
4

13. 4

5
2
7
2
9

18. 6

14 and
16 and
unde r 16 under 18
cents
cents

18 and
under 20
cents

20 and
under 22
cents

22 cents
and
over

6. 0

7. 7

2. 6

1. 1

0 .9

0
5
0
1
6

9. 0
10. 1
4 .9

1. 1
2. 7
_
_
_

1 .9
5. 1
_

1. 2

13. 0
34. 0
_
.8
.3

1. 2

2. 0
5. 4
_
1 .0

28. 9

6. 1

2. 2

2. 7

.2

1 .5

-

-

100. 0

22. 7

13. 8

10. 1

7. 2

6. 5

8. 5

2. 0

5. 2

6. 5

11.9

3. 8

1. 7

.2

100. 0
100. 0

6. 3
39. 1

5. 0
22. 6

3. 2
16.9

5. 6
9. 0

4. 7
8 .4

16. 8
. 7

4. 2
(2)

10. 1
.6

9 .5

23. 1
1 .8

7. 1
.9

3. 7
-

.5
-

100. 0

25. 3

6. 5

13.4

12. 0

12. 1

10. 1

8. 7

4. 9

3. 0

2. 1

1. 1

-

.9

-

1 Includes industries not shown separately.
2 Less than 0. 05 percent.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 10.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Holiday Expenditures in Cents Per Hour Paid For
and Mining Industry Group, I960

Industry group

Workers
in all
estab­
lish ­
ments

Percent of workers in establishments with—
No paid
holiday
expend­
itures

Paid holiday expenditures per hour paid for of—
Under
2
cents

2 and
under 4
cents

4 and
under 6
cents

6 and
under 8
cents

8 and
under 10
cents

10 and
under 12
cents

12 cents
and
over

A ll industries ____________________________________

100. 0

45. 2

7. 5

10. 9

12. 1

15. 4

6. 3

2. 3

0. 2

Metal mining 1 ------------------------------------------------------Iron o r e s _________________ ______ ____________
Copper ores -----------------------------------------------------Lead and zinc o r e s ___________________________
Anthracite mining ----------------------------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite mining -----------------Crude petroleum and natural gas 1--------------------Crude petroleum and natural gas _____ ____
Oil and gas field services ----------- ----------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels -------------------------------------

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2. 1
.8
.4
1. 6
81. 7
96. 1
3 3 .9
11 .0
56. 8

1 .0

12. 5
-

4. 3
15. 7
1. 5
11.7
7. 8
16. 0

15. 0
27. 5
.3
13. 0
10. 9
15. 4

2 6 .4
13 .0
29. 2
5 9 .2
2. 3
1 .9
12. 5
17. 6
8. 0

52. 4
71. 1
54. 8
7. 5
.6
11. 9
19. 1
2. 8

5. 0
13. 6
12. 1
25. 6
.2

0. 7
1 .5
.5
4. 7
8. 1
.9

-

-

0. 2
-

100. 0

33. 3

9. 8

20. 7

15. 0

16. 8

2. 8

.9

.7

1 Includes industries not shown separately.


NOTE: Because


of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Chapter III. Premium Pay

Total Premium
This survey indicates that 93. 7 percent of the mine workers were in
establishments which had actual expenditures for premium pay in I960, including
92. 7 percent in those with expenditures for overtime, weekend, and holiday work
premiums and 46. 9 percent in those with shift differentials.
A ll of the major
mining groups showed a high proportion of workers in establishments paying
premiums, the lowest being 89. 1 percent in anthracite mining.
Not all of the
workers in these establishments necessarily received premium pay, of course,
nor should it be assumed that establishments without expenditures in I960 did
not have provisions for premium pay.
(See table 11.)
Throughout this report, expenditures for premium pay refer only to the
extra pay for the practice; they do not include the regular p a y .22 Premium
payments averaged 5. 5 percent of the gross payroll of production, development,
and related workers in all establishments in the mining industries, with 5. 1
percent paid for daily overtime, weekly overtime, and weekend and holiday
work, and 0 .4 percent for shift differentials.
By major industry group, re l­
ative expenditures for premium pay fell into two distinct clusters— the anthra­
cite, bituminous coal, and metal mining major groups with averages of 3 .3 to
4. 4 percent of gross payroll, and mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals
(except fuels) and crude petroleum and natural gas production with 6 to 6 .8 per­
cent. The high figure for petroleum and natural gas is attributable to relatively
high expenditures for premium pay for overtime, weekend, and holiday work by
establishments in the oil and gas field services industry.
For every production worker hour paid for by all establishments in
these industries, an average of 14 cents was expended on premium pay— 13 cents
for overtime, weekend, and holiday work, and 1 cent for late shift work.
Ex­
penditures by major group ranged from 8 .8 cents in anthracite to 16. 5 cents
in crude petroleum and natural gas.
(See table 12.)
Expenditure ratios for premium pay varied considerably among the
mining industry establishments which reported such payments.
The ratios ranged
from under 1 percent of gross payroll in some establishments to 15 percent
and over in others.
Over half of the production workers in mining were em ­
ployed in establishments where premium pay expenditures accounted for less
than 5 percent of gross payroll.
In anthracite mining, three-fourths of the
production workers were in establishments with expenditures for premium pay
under 5 percent of gross payroll.
Approximately two-thirds of the workers in
bituminous coal mining were in establishments with expenditure ratios under
4 percent.
Greater uniformity existed in metal mining, where more than half
of the production workers were employed in establishments with premium pay
expenditure ratios between 1 and 4 percent.
On the other hand, there was
greater variation in establishment expenditure ratios in the crude petroleum and
natural gas, and nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, major groups. (See table 13.)

22 See appendix A for a discussion of the concept of premium pay used in
this bulletin.




21

22

Premium Pay for Daily Overtime, Weekly Overtime, Weekend,

and Holiday Work

Premium pay for overtime, weekend, and holiday work serves to com ­
pensate employees for work performed outside the normal workweek.
Overtime
premiums may be determined on a daily or weekly basis.
Establishments employing 92. 7 percent of the production, development,
and related workers in mining in I960 reported expenditures for premium pay
for daily overtime, weekly overtime, weekend, and holiday work.
All of the
major groups, except anthracite with 85 percent, had more than 90 percent of
their production employees in such establishments.
In metal mining, the pro­
portion was 99. 8 percent.
Without exception, overtime, weekend, and holiday work premiums were
the predominant form of premium pay and the relationships previously described
for the total premiums were duplicated here.
Payments for these premiums,
as proportions of the gross production worker payroll of all establishments in
the major group, were highest in crude petroleum and natural gas ( 6. 6 percent)
and nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, ( 5. 7 percent).
The level of the crude
petroleum and natural gas major group was influenced primarily by the above
average expenditure ratio of the oil and gas field services industry (10. 8 percent);
in the crude petroleum and natural gas industry, relative expenditures for over­
time, weekend, and holiday work premiums (2. 9 percent) were among the lowest
for the industries shown separately.
The proportions were roughly sim ilar in
the remaining three major groups— metal mining, 3 .4 percent; bituminous coal
and lignite, 3. 3 percent; and anthracite, 3. 0 percent.
When the payrolls of
only the establishments which reported actual expenditures were used, the ratios
for the latter three groups rose slightly and were more sim ilar— 3 .4 , 3. 6, and
3. 5 percent, respectively.
Mining of nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, rose
to 5. 9 percent and crude petroleum and natural gas production, to 7.1 percent.
In term s of cents per production worker hour paid for by all estab­
lishments, the crude petroleum and natural gas producers and the nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels, companies again had the highest expenditures ( 16. 0 and
12. 4 cents, respectively) among the five major groups in mining.
The other
three groups ranged from 9 .9 to 8. 1 cents, the lowest again being anthracite.
For the establishments which actually had overtime, weekend, and holiday work
premium payments, average expenditures among major groups ranged from 17. 2
cents an hour in crude petroleum and 13.1 cents in nonmetallic m inerals, except
fuels, to 11 cents in bituminous coal, 9 .5 cents in metal mining, and 9 .4 cents
in anthracite.

Differentials for Shift Work
Shift differentials are designed to provide compensation for working less
desirable hours. Reports to this survey for I960 show that 46. 9 percent of the
production, development, and related workers in the mining industries were in
establishments that had expenditures for shift differentials. In addition to these,
of course, there were many who were employed in establishments that have pro­
visions for late shift premiums, either through collective bargaining agreement
or company personnel policy, but did not have employees on extra shifts during
I960.
Among the major mining groups studied, the proportion of workers in
establishments which actually had shift differential payments in I960 ranged from
28. 2 percent in crude petroleum and natural gas production to 89. 4 percent in
metal mining. In nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, 32 . 4 percent were in such
establishments; in anthracite mining, 59. 4 percent; and in bituminous coal,
65. 1 percent.




23

Shift premiums may be in the form of wage differentials, time differ­
entials, or a combination of the two.
Where wage differentials are paid, they
may be in term s of cents per hour, cents per shift, or as a percentage of
straight-time rates.
Time differentials can be in form s such as shorter hours
at the same pay as the day shift and paid meal periods not given to the day shift.
In mining in I960, the shift differentials were usually in cents per hour; and
the premiums paid for third-shift work were generally greater than those paid
on the second shift.
For mining as a whole, expenditures for late shift premiums averaged
0 .4 percent of the gross production worker payroll of all establishments.
In
metal mining the average reached 1 percent, but in the other four major groups
it ranged from 0 .2 to 0 .4 percent. For the establishments which reported such
payments in I960, the ratios were higher: 0 .8 percent for total mining; 0 .4 per­
cent in anthracite mining; 0. 6 percent in both bituminous coal mining and crude
petroleum and natural gas production; 0 .9 percent in nonmetallic m inerals,
except fuels; and 1. 1 percent in metal mining.
A comparison of shift differential expenditures, in cents per production
worker hour paid for, shows an average for all mining industries of 1 cent
when the hours of all establishments are considered, and 2. 3 cents for those
establishments reporting actual expenditures. Metal mining produced the highest
major group rates both for all establishments ( 2. 8 cents) and for those with
actual expenditures (3. 1 cents).
In the remaining major industry groups, the
rates were 1 .3 and 2 .0 cents in bituminous coal and lignite; 0 .7 and 1.1 cents
in anthracite; 0 .7 and 2 .4 cents in nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels; and
0 .5 and 1.7 cents in crude petroleum and natural gas.




Table 11.

Percent of Production, Development, and Related Workers in Establishments Reporting Expenditures
for Premium Pay by Mining Industry Group, I960
Premium pay

Industry group

A ll industries

----- — --------------- --------------------

-

Metal mining 1 --- ------------- ------ ----- ---------—
Iron ores
----- ----- --------- ---------------------- Copper o r e s ---------—----------—---------------------------____ — — - — --------Lead and zinc ores
Anthracite mining ------------------------- ------- --------Bituminous coal and lignite mining
---- —
_
Crude petroleum and natural gas 1 _ _ — —
Crude petroleum and natural g a s ___________
Oil and gas field services
— - --------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except f u e l s ------_ _
__ — _




1 Includes industries not shown separately.

Overtim e, weekend, and
holiday work premiums

Shift differentials

9 3 .7

9 2 .7

46. 9

9 9 .8
9 9 .8
9 9 .6
100. 0
89. 1
9 0 .4
9 3 .7
88. 5
98. 1

9 9 .8
9 9 .8
9 9 .6
100. 0
85. 0
90. 2
9 1 .8
84. 4
98. 1

8 9 .4
98. 6
91. 1
80. 1
5 9 .4
65. 1
28. 2
52. 0
2. 8

9 3 .7

93. 7

3 2 .4

K
>
4.
*

Table 12.

Average Expenditures for Premium Pay by All Establishments and Establishments Reporting Expenditures
and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of gross payroll
Establishments reporting
expenditures

All establishments
Industry group
Total

Overtime,
weekend,
and holiday
work

Percent of straight-tim e payroll

Shift
differ­
entials

T o ta l1

Overtime,
weekend,
and holiday
work

Shift
d iffer­
entials

Establishments reporting
expenditures

All establishments

Total

Overtime,
weekend,
and holiday
wo rk

Shift
differ­
entials

T otal1

Overtim e,
weekend,
and holiday
work

Shift
differ­
entials

All industries----------------------- ------------------

5. 5

5. 1

0 .4

5 .8

5 .4

0. 8

5 .8

5. 4

0 .4

6. 2

5. 7

0. 8

------- -----------------------Metal mining 2
Iron ores —-------------- —---------- -------------------------- ----------------Copper ores
Lead and zinc ores ------------------------- Anthracite m in in g __________________ ____
Bituminous coal and lignite mining —
Crude petroleum and natural gas * ----Crude petroleum and
natural gas ----------------------------------- —
Oil and gas field services — ------- —
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ----------------------

4. 4
3. 8
4 .9
3 .7
3. 3
3 .8
6. 8

3 .4
2. 5
4. 0
2 .9
3. 0
3. 3
6. 6

1. 0
1. 3
.9
.7
.2
.4
.2

4. 5
3 .8
4 .9
3.7
3. 6
4. 1
7. 1

3 .4
2. 5
4. 0
2 .9
3 .5
3. 6
7. 1

1. 1
1. 3
1. 0
.9
.4
.6
.6

4 .7
3 .9
5. 1
3 .8
3. 4
3 .9
7. 3

3.
2.
4.
3.
3.
3.
7.

1. 1
1. 3
.9
.8
.3
.4
•2

4. 7
3 .9
5. 1
3. 8
3. 7
4. 3
7 .7

3. 6
2. 6
4. 2
3. 0
3. 6
3 .8
7. 6

1. 2
1. 3
1. 0
1. 0
.4
.6
.6

3. 2
10.8

2 .9
10.8

.3
(3 )

3 .5
1 0.9

3. 2
10.9

.6
.6

3. 3
12. 1

2. 9
12. 1

3 .6
1 2 .2

3 .4
12. 2

.6
.6

6. 0

5. 7

.3

6. 3

5 .9

.9

6 .4

6. 0

6. 7

6. 3

1. 0

6
6
2
0
1
5
1

Cents per hour paid for

.4
(3)
.4

Cents per plant man-hour

All industries -----------------------------------------

14. 0

13. 0

1. 0

14. 9

13.8

2. 3

14.7

13 .6

1. 1

15. 6

14. 5

2. 5

Metal mining 2
__ ___ — ----------------- -----Iron ores ____________________________
Copper ores ________________________Lead and zinc o r e s -------------------------Anthracite mining _ -----------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite mining —
Crude petroleum and natural gas * ----Crude petroleum and
natural g a s -------------------------------------Oil and gas field, services -------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels
-----------------

12. 3
10.9
13. 3
8 .9
8. 8
11. 2
16. 5

9 .5
7. 2
10.9
7. 1
8. 1
9 .9
1 6.0

2. 8
3 .7
2 .4
1 .8
.7
1. 3
.5

12. 3
11. 0
13. 4
8 .9
9 .8
12 .4
1 7 .4

9 .5
7. 2
1 1 .0
7. 1
9 .4
11. 0
17. 2

3. 1
3 .8
2. 6
2. 2
1. 1
2. 0
1. 7

13. 1
11.8
14. 3
9. 5
9 .0
1 1 .6
1 7 .4

10. 2
7 .9
11.7
7. 6
8 .4
10. 3
1 6.9

3. 0
4. 0
2 .6
1 .9
.7
1. 3
. 5

13. 2
11 .8
1 4 .4
9 .5
10. 2
12.8
18. 3

10. 2
7. 8
11. 8
7. 6
9 .8
11.4
18. 1

3 .4
4. 1
2. 9
2. 4
1. 2
2. 1
1 .9

8 .4
2 3 .9

7. 5
2 3 .9

.9
(3 )

9. 3
24. 2

8 .7
24. 2

1.7
1. 5

9. 1
24. 5

8. 1
24. 4

1. 0
(3 )

10. 1
24. 7

9 .5
24. 7

1.9
1. 6

13. 1

12. 4

.7

1 3.8

13. 1

2 .4

1 3.6

1 2.9

.8

14.4

13. 6

2. 5

1 Items do not add to total because some establishments did not report expenditures for each practice.
2 Includes industries not shown separately.
3 L ess than 0. 05 percent or 0. 05 cent.
NOTE:

Because of rounding,




sums of individual items may not equal totals.

N>
\J«

Table 13.

to
C
N

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Premium Pay Expenditures as a Percent of G ross Payroll
and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of workers in establishments with—
Workers
in all

Industry group

Premium pay expenditures as a percent of gross payroll of—
iN premium
O
pay
expenditures

Under 1
percent

1 and
under 2
percent

2 and
under 3
percent

6 .3

8. 0

11. 1

0 .2
.2
.4
_
10. 9

3.4
3 .4
7. 1
8.6

18.6
12. 7
2 7 .2
17. 7
10.6

100. 0

9 .6

11. 3

100. 0

6. 3

9 .8

100. 0
100. 0

11. 5
1.9

100. 0

6. 3

ments

All in d u s tr ie s _________________ ________

100. 0

Metal mining 1 _
_
Iron ores
_
Copper ores
Lead and zinc ores . . . . __ _____ .____
Anthracite mining
Bituminous coal and lignite
mining _____ __ .....
Crude petroleum and
natural gas 1
_
.
_.
Crude petroleum and
natural gas
_
Oil and gas field services
Mining and quarrying of
nonmetallic m inerals,
except fuels
. _

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0

3 and
under 4
percent

4 and
under 5
percent

15. 5

10. 0

9 .6

5 .7

18. 8
16. 5
8 .4
37. 7
2 5 .9

16. 5
28. 1
15 .7
_
12. 2

9 .9
17.9
5. 3
11.6
18.5

7. 2
10.6
12. 8
.9

1 3.5

24. 1

16. 3

6. 0

9 .2

9. 1

5 .4

11. 3

17.7
_

18. 8
.8

16.9
2. 2

6. 2
4. 2

2. 9

6. 5

15. 0

7 .2

9 and
under 10
percent

10 and
unde r 11
percent

11 and
under 12
percent

8 and
under 9
percent
A ll industries _ ___

__

___

_

_

_____ _

4. 5

9. 3
8 .6
19.4
1.6
4 .6

8 .6
.8
23. 0
4 .7
1 .9

6. 3

1. 8

2 .6

4. 0

6 .9

3. 4

14. 1
9. 1

2 .9
5. 2

1 .9
11. 8

2. 1
3 .9

9. 1

8. 3

11.9

7. 0

13 and
under 14
percent

14 and
under 15
percent

1c
lb percent
and over
3 .9

12 and
under 13
percent

3 .2

2. 0

1 .4

1 .4

0. 5

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 .2

-

-

-

-

1. 5
-

1 .9

1. 7

.2

. 3

0. 1

0. 2

1 .4

3. 1

4 .5

4 .9

6 .5

3. 3

3 .2

3. 0

6. 0

1. 0
5. 3

—

3 .4
0. 6
1. 2
-

2 .7
■
_-».-r..,.r.r-r_____

3. 3
0. 8
.2

.6
8 .2

2 .9
6 .9

.5
1 2 .5

6. 5

6 .2

6. 0

2. 8
9 .5

7. 1

4 .6

4. 8

1. 8

2 .9

.4

.3

3 .7

Because of rounding, sum s of individual items may not equal totals.




6 .9

7 and
under 8
percent

3.8

1 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE:

6 and
under 7
percent

4. 1
.
.5
6 .7
1.5

__

Metal mining 1 __
______
Iron ores __
__
__ __ ______
Copper ores _ _
_ __ ____ _
Lead and 7.inr ores
------- _
Anthracite mining
---------Bituminous coal and lignite
mining __ _
_ ____
_____ ___ _
Crude petroleum and
natural gas 1 _______ ___ ______ _
Crude petroleum and
natural gas _
__ ____ _
___ _
Oil and gas field services __ _ - Mining and quarrying of
nonmetallic m inerals,
except f u e ls __ _ ______ _ ___________—

3 and
under 6
percent

-

-

-

2. 3

Table 14.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Expenditures for Overtim e, Weekend, and
Holiday Work Premiums as a Percent of G ross Payroll and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of workers in establishments with—
Workers
in all

Industry group

ments

A ll industries ____________

_____ __

Metal m ining1 ______ _ __ ________
Iron ores ______________ _____________
Copper ores ____ __ __ __ __ „
Lead and zinc o r e s __ ________
Anthracite mining ___________________
Bituminous coal and lignite
m ining
.
Crude petroleum and
natural gas 1 _________________________
Crude petroleum and
natural g a s _____ _______ ____
Oil and gas field services _ ___
Mining and quarrying of
nonmetallic m inerals,
except f u e ls ______ _____
_______

100. 0
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

No overtime
weekend, and
holiday work
premium
expenditures
7. 3

Overtime, weekend, and holiday work premium expenditures as a percent of gross payroll of—
2 and
under 3
percent

1 1 .4

15. 5

1 3 .4

7. 8

8. 2

5. 3

5 .4

4. 1

17.
19.
10.
16.
12.

29.
32.
24.
42.
8.

8
1
9
8
3

6. 3
9 .3
7. 1
3 .8
2 7 .9

16.6
2 6 .6
12. 8
11.6
1 5.9

6 .2
9 .7
6. 2
4 .6
7 .6

6 .5
.8
1 0 .9
8 .2
3. 8

7. 1
.9
19. 3
1.6
3. 0

6. 5
7 .7
11 .4
2. 0

20. 8

24. 2

7 .7

7. 0

3 .8

1.6

2 .6

1
1
8
0
0

_______

__

3 and
under 4
percent

5 and
under 6
percent

6 and
under 7
percent

—

n sa—
tinder 8
percent

0
0
0
0
0

0. 2
.2
.4
15. 0

100. 0

9 .8

14.6

100. 0

8. 2

1 0.2

1 1 .4

7. 2

4 .9

9 .9

3 .5

6 .9

3. 1

100. 0
100. 0

15.6
1.9

18. 1
.4

2 3 .9
. 3

12. 8
2 .2

5. 3
4 .2

11. 4
9. 1

1 .2
5 .2

1 .9
11. 8

2. 1
3 .9

100. 0

6. 3

6. 1

7. 1

_____ __

Metal mining 1 ___________________________
_
Iron ores ______________________________ _____ ______ ___ ____ _____
Copper o r e s __
_
____
Lead and zinc ores ___ __ __ _____
Anthracite mining „ _ _____ __________
Bituminous coal and lignite
m in in g__ ________ _____ __ __ „ __
Crude petroleum and
natural gas 1 __ _____ ________________
Crude petroleum and
natural gas _____ __ ______ „ __
Oil and gas field services _
Mining and quarrying of
nonmetallic m inerals,
except f u e ls ___ _ ________ _ _ ___

7 .9

17. 3

6 .7

7 .6

10. 7

9 and
under 10
percent

10 and
tinder 11
percent

11 and
under 12
percent

12 and
under 13
percent

13 and
under 14
percent

3 .4

2 .8

5. 3
8 and
under 9
percent

A ll in d u s tr ie s __

4 and
under 5
percent

1 and
under 2
percent

Under 1
percent

3. 5
1. 5
1. 0

0. 2
.2

0. 1
.2

14 and
under 15
percent

15 percent
and over

3. 2

2. 0

1.6

1.6

3.6

0. 5
-

_

1. 0
-

0 .1

0. 3

2. 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

. 3

.2

.7

.8

6. 5

3. 3

3 .2

3. 0

6. 0

2. 1
6 .4

.5
1 2.5

-

-

-

6. 5

6. 2

6. 0

2. 8
9 .5

4. 8

1 .8

2 .9

.4

.9

3. 2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 .2

-

-

2 .6

2. 1

.9

. 1

3 .4

4 .9

4 .2

1. 0
5. 8

1. 5
8 .2

7 .2

4. 0

1 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




K
)
-4

K
>

Table 15.

00

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Expenditures for Premium Pay in Cents Per Hour Paid For
and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of workers in establishments with—
Workers
in all
Premium pay expenditures per hour paid for of—
estao - premium
Tb and
6 and 8 and
2 and 4 and
12 and
14 and
16 and
18 and
20 and
22 and
24 and
lish PaY,.
26 cents
Under under under under under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
ments expendi­ 2 cents
4 cents 6 cents 8 cents 10 cents 12 cents 14 cents 16 cents 18 cents 20 cents 22 cents 24 cents 26 cents and over
tures

Industry group

A ll industries _

100. 0

6. 3

4. 3

7. 8

12.6

7. 2

10. 8

8. 8

6 .7

6. 1

4. 1

3. 3

4 .4

3. 3

2. 5

11. 5

___ _ ____
Metal m ining1 __ __
Iron ores _______________ __________
Copper ores _____
Lead and zinc ores ______________
Anthracite mining ____________________
Bituminous coal and lignite m ining..
Crude petroleum and natural gas 1___
Crude petroleum and
natural gas
.
_. ___
Oil and gas field s e r v i c e s ________
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels . _ ___ ______

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0. 2
.2
.4

1 .5

12 .2
8. 5
8 .6
10. 0
7 .7
15. 8
1 .6

14. 9
23. 2
16.6
2 .9
11. 5
14.6
8. 0

5. 8
10. 8
4. 2

6. 8
12. 8
5. 1

7. 3
10. 8
7. 8

5. 3
3 .8
.7
14.6
6 .6
4. 2
7 .9

7 .6
15. 6

-

21.6
15.4
26. 6
38. 1
22. 0
5. 9
11.9

7. 7
.8
17. 7
6 .7
_
2. 3
3. 7

6 .8
.6
1 9 .4
_
1. 5
1. 3
3. 0

1. 3
.8
4. 3

4. 0
1 .4
_
_
4. 5
7 .6
19. 3

1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

10. 9
9 .6
6. 3

.8
5 .9
8. 0
4. 2

3. 7
4. 7
.7
13.8
9 .7
8. 0
9. 8

100. 0
100. 0

11. 5
1.9

9 .2
-

16.6
1. 2

20. 3
4. 7

1. 2
2. 1

10. 5
5 .9

11. 1
4 .9

100. 0

6. 3

1 .9

5 .6

14. 9

5. 1

9 .0

11. 1

-

-

7
3
7
2

1 .9
3. 1
4 .6

2. 1
2. 3
_
2. 5
2. 1
3 .4
1. 2

1. 8
13. 3

8. 9
4. 0

2. 2
6. 7

.9
.9

7 .2

. 1
5 .7

1. 3
7 .4

4. 6
34. 2

8. 2

6. 6

2 .9

9. 2

6 .4

4. 2

2 .7

5 .9

-

10.
7.
4.
6.

-

-

Includes industries not shown separately.

NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 16.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Expenditures for Overtim e, Weekend, and
Holiday Work Premiums in Cents Per Hour Paid For and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of workers in establishments with—

Industry group

All industries --------------------------------------Metal mining 1 --------------------------------------Iron o r e s ------------------------------------------Copper ores ------------------------------------Lead and zinc ores -----------------------Anthracite mining ---------------------- --------Bituminous coal and lignite mining ----Crude petroleum and natural gas 1------Crude petroleum and
natural gas ------------------------------------Oil and gas field services ------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ---------------------

No over­
Overtime, weekend, and holiday work premium expenditures per hour paid for of—
Workers
time,
in all
weekend,
estab­
and holi­
22 and 24 and
20 and
18 and
14 and
16 and
10 and
12 and
6 and 8 and
2 and 4 and
lish ­
26 cents
day work Under under under under under
under under
under
under
under
under
under
under
ments
and over
premium 2 cents
4 cents 6 cents 8 cents 10 cents 12 cents 14 cents 16 cents 18 cents 20 cents 22 cents 24 cents 26 cents
expendi­
tures
100. 0

7. 3

7 .0

13. 1

7. 2

rounding,

6 .9

7 .6

4. 3

3. 8

3. 4

2. 1

2. 6

2 .0
.6
4. 0
1.5
3 .4
3. 7

_

_

1. 3
.2
3 .0

1. 3
4. 3

4. 0
1. 4
4 .5
6. 3
18. 6

3 .7

11. 1

6 .9
2. 3
11.6
4 .8

14.8
19.8
3.6
11.0
28. 1
16.2
7. 1

8. 5
8. 5
1 5.8
5 .0
8. 1
10. 1
6 .5

7 .6
11. 2
5. 3
8 .9
5 .7
15. 6
5. 2

10. 2
20. 2
5 .8
5. 1
5. 2
6. 1

6. 5
7. 0
12.8
13.9
2. 8
10.8

0 .6
.5
3. 8
1.5
4 .4
4. 8

2. 5
.8
5 .6
2 .5
2. 5
4 .0
3. 6

15.6
1.9

9 .8
.4

2 2 .8
.8

10.0
4 .7

11. 4
2. 1

3.7
5 .9

7 .6
4 .9

8. 5
13. 3

3. 7
5 .5

6. 7

.9
.9

7. 2

. 1
5. 7

1. 3
7. 4

4. 6
32. 6

6. 3

4. 3

6 .2

19.9

3. 8

8 .5

8 .6

6 .2

6. 3

5. 6

5 .9

5. 6

4. 3

2. 6

6. 0

10. 3
13.7

-

15. 0
9 .8
8 .2

100.0
100.0
100. 0

-

1 Includes industries not shown separately.


NOTE: Because of


8 .6

2 1 .6
16.6
32. 1
42. 5
10.6
7. 5
12. 6

0. 2
.2
.4

100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0
100. 0
100. 0
100.0

11. 5

sums of individual items may not equal totals

11.0
27. 1
6 .7
1 .6
.9

Chapter IV. Legally Required Payments

Total Legally Required Payments
Employer contributions for legally required payments, unlike expendi­
tures for leave and premiums, are in addition to payroll. In I960, they equaled
6.8 percent of gross payroll for production, development, and related workers in
all establishments in the mining industries. Total employer contributions included
2.5 percent for old-age, survivors, and disability insurance (OASDI), 1.3 percent
for unemployment compensation, 3.0 percent for workmen’ s compensation, and
less than 0.05 percent for other legally required payments (consisting entirely
of State temporary disability insurance). Among the five major industry groups
studied, total payments ranged from a high of 8.5 percent in anthracite mining
to a low of 5.5 percent in metal mining, with the other three groups clustering
close to the all-mining average— mining and quarrying of nonmetallic m inerals,
except fuels, 6.8 percent; bituminous coal and lignite mining, 7.0 percent; and
crude petroleum and natural gas production, 7.2 percent. (See table 17.)
These payments represented 17.3 cents per production worker hour paid
for by all mining establishments, of which 6.4 cents was for social security,
3.4 cents for unemployment insurance, 7.5 cents for workmen’ s compensation,
and less than 0.05 cents for State temporary disability insurance.
For these
benefits as a whole, average expenditures per hour were highest in the coal
mining major groups (22.5 cents in anthracite and 20.7 cents in bituminous coal).
In the other major groups— crude petroleum and natural gas, metal mining, and
nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels— the average hourly expenditures were 17.4,
15.2, and 14.8 cents, respectively.
In each of the mining industry establishments, legally required payments
equaled at least 2 percent of the gross production worker payroll. In some e s ­
tablishments the expenditure ratio was 15 percent or more.
Nearly two-thirds
of the production workers in mining were employed in establishments whose le ­
gally required payments equaled between 3 and 8 percent of gross payroll. S ig­
nificant clusterings were observed in the individual major industry groups. Thus,
over half of the production workers in metal mining were in establishments with
expenditure ratios between 3 and 5 percent. Anthracite mining establishments
with expenditure ratios of between 7 and 10 percent employed almost two-thirds
of the industry group's production workers. In bituminous coal mining, close to
three-fifths of the workers were in establishments whose legally required pay­
ments were equal to between 5 and 8 percent of payroll. In crude petroleum and
natural gas, legally required payments equal to between 2 and 6 percent of gross
payroll were found in establishments employing over half of the production
workers. In nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, the 4 and under 9 percent range
included establishments employing approximately four-fifths of the workers. (See
table 18.)
O ld-Age,

Survivors,

and Disability Insurance (Social Security)

In I960, the employers' contribution for old-age, survivors, and disability
insurance amounted to 3.0 percent of the first $4 , 800 earned by each employee.
Only limited variation existed among the major groups when social security con­
tributions are considered as percentages of gross payroll of production workers
in all establishments.
In three of the major groups the contribution ratio was
equal to the all-mining average of 2.5 percent; in nonmetallic m inerals, except
fuels, it was 2.6 percent; and in anthracite, 2.8 percent.




29

30

When these expenditures, on the basis of all establishments, were com ­
puted as cents per production worker hour paid
for, the coal groups had the
highest expenditure rates— 7.5 cents in bituminous coal and lignite and 7.4 cents
in anthracite— and the mining and quarrying of nonmetallic m inerals, except
fuels, had the lowest— 5.6 cents. Metal mining and crude petroleum and natural
gas had social security tax expenses
equaling 6.9 and 6.1 cents, respectively,
for every hour paid for in those major groups.
For all mining, the average
was 6.4 cents.
Unemployment Compensation
Unlike OASDI, unemployment compensation, to a considerable extent, is
regulated by the individual States, and variations among the States in the rules
affect employer contributions, e.g ., differing statutory ceilings on the earnings
base, differing maximum contribution rates, and differences in the use of e x ­
perience rating system s which may, for some establishments, require no pay­
ments to the State. Therefore, expenditure ratios for unemployment compensation
varied more widely than for OASDI among the major industry groups studied.
Among the major groups, anthracite and bituminous coal and lignite mining had
the highest average contribution ratios, equaling 2.8 percent and 1.8 percent,
respectively, of the gross production worker payrolls of all establishments; in
nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, the ratio was 1.5 percent; and in metal
mining and crude petroleum and natural gas production, average expenditures
were the lowest, equaling 1.0 percent of each group's gross payroll. The average
for all these mining groups was 1.3 percent.
In cents per production worker hour paid for, as in the percent of pay­
roll comparisons, the coal groups again showed the highest expenditures (7.3 cents
for the anthracite producers and 5.2 cents for the bituminous coal and lignite
producers); operators of crude petroleum and natural gas properties showed the
lowest per hour expenditures (2.5 cents).
Metal mines reported expenditures
of 2.8 cents and nonmetallic mineral (except fuel) mines and quarries had e x ­
penditures of 3.4 cents for each hour paid for.
W orkmen's Compensation
About half of the workmen's compensation laws in the United States are
compulsory and the remainder are elective for most of the types of employment
covered. Under compulsory laws, the employer is required to provide his e m ­
ployees with the protections of the law and an injured worker receives benefits
without having to initiate court action.
The benefits generally include medical
services, maintenance, rehabilitation services, payments for disfigurement, and
death benefits.
The method of insurance varies from State to State, including
State funds, private ca rriers, or self-insurance. The net expenditures of co m ­
panies qualifying as self-in su rers are included in this survey. Under the elective
type of law the employer has the option of rejecting the act, and under such
circumstances an injured worker would have to institute court action in order
to obtain compensation from his employer.
Few em ployers, however, reject
coverage.23
For mining as a whole and for each of the major industry groups except
metal mining, workmen's compensation was the most expensive of the legally
required benefits.
This appears to be a special characteristic of the mining
industries. In a sim ilar survey conducted by the Bureau in the manufacturing

23

State Workmen1s Compensation Law s, op. cit. , pp. 1, 2, and 9.




31

industries in 1959, workmen’ s compensation expenditures were almost invariably
sm aller than those for social security and unemployment insurance. Overall
expenditures in mining averaged 3 percent of gross production worker payroll of
all industries with the expenditure ratios by major group ranging from 2.0 p er­
cent in metal mining to 3.6 percent in crude petroleum and natural gas. In nonmetallic minerals (except fuels), bituminous coal, and anthracite, expenditures
equaled 2.6, 2.7, and 2.9 percent, respectively, of the gross payrolls of those
groups.
Calculating these expenditures as cents per production worker hour paid
for produced the following rates: crude petroleum and natural gas, 8.8 cents;
bituminous coal and lignite, 8 cents; anthracite, 7.7 cents; nonmetallic minerals
(except fuels), 5.7 cents; and metal mining, 5.4 cents.

Other Legally Required Insurance
Other legally required benefits consisted entirely of temporary disability
insurance. This insurance is the most recent of the legally required benefits to
be enacted. The earlier legally required programs protected a worker when he
was incapacitated by an on-the-job injury, when he was unable to find work for
short periods of time, or had reached retirement age.
Temporary disability
insurance is designed prim arily to provide cash benefits for the worker who is
unable to work owing to nonwork-connected illness or accident. Employers must
contribute towards the State programs only in New Jersey and may do so, under
certain conditions, in New York and California; the Rhode Island program is
entirely employee financed.24 As a result of its limited coverage and employer
liability, expenditures averaged less than 0.05 percent of the gross payroll for
production workers in all establishments in each major mining group and in
mining as a whole. In cents per production worker hour paid for, only in non­
metallic m inerals, except fuels, did the rate average as high as 0.1 cent.
In
all the other major groups and for total mining, the rate was less than 0.05 cent.

24
d i g e s t of One Hundred Selected Health and Insurance Plans Under Col­
lective Bargaining, Early 19i>3 (BLS Bulletin 1236, 1958), appendix A , pp. 245—
247;
and Dahm, Experience and Problem s under Temporary Disability Insurance Laws,

op. c i t . , pp.



i v 14, and 15,

Table 17.

to

Average Expenditures for Legally Required Payments by A ll Establishments and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of gross payroll

Percent of straight-tim e payroll

A ll establishments
Industry group

Unemploy­
ment
compen­
sation

A ll establishments

Work­
men’ s
compen­
sation

A ll industries

-------------------------------------------------------

Work­
men’ s
compen­
sation

M etal mining 3 ------- —— —----------------—— ---------—----Iron ores ----------------------------------------------------------Copper ores -----------------------------------------------------Lead and zinc ores -----------------------------------------Anthracite mining ------------------------------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite mining -------------------Crude petroleum and natural gas ---------------------Crude petroleum and natural g a s -----------------Oil and gas field services -----------------------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels --------------------------------------

6. 8

2. 5

1. 3

3 .0

(2)

7. 2

2 .7

1. 4

3. 1

(1

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

5
5
5
7
8
5
5
3
7

1. 0
1. 3
. 7
.9
2. 8
1. 8
1. 0
.7
1. 5

2 .0
1. 3
1. 5
3. 3
2 .9
2 .7
3 .6
1. 1
6 .4

(2)
0. 1
-

(2)

5. 8
5. 3
4 .9
7. 2
8. 8
7. 3
7. 7
4. 3
11. 8

2 .6
2. 6
2. 6
2. 8
2 .9
2. 6
2 .7
2. 4
3. 0

1. 1
1. 4
.7
.9
2 .9
1. 8
1. 1
.7
1. 6

2. 1
1. 3
1. 6
3. 5
3. 0
2. 8
3 .9
1. 1
7. 2

(2)
0. 1
(*)
?)
(2)

2. 6

1. 5

2. 6

(2)

7. 2

2. 7

1. 6

2. 8

(2)

5. 5
5. 1
4. 6
7 .0
8. 5
7 .0
7. 2
4. 1
10. 5
6. 8

Other 1

(?)

0

Total

Cents per hour paid for

OASDI
(social
security)

Unemploy­
ment
compen­
sation

Total

OASDI
(social
security)

Other 1

Cents per plant man-hour

A ll industries ---------------------------------------------------------

17. 3

6 .4

3. 4

7. 5

(2)

18. 1

6. 7

3. 5

7 .9

<*>

M etal mining 3 --------------------------------------------------------Iron ores _ -------------------------------------------------------Copper o r e s __ ____ __ ____ ___________________
Lead and zinc ores ___________________________
Anthracite mining -------------------------------------- -— -----Bituminous coal and lignite mining ---------- ———
Crude petroleum and natural gas 3 --------------------Crude petroleum and natural gas ----------------O il and gas field services -----------------------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels --------------------------------------

15. 2
14.7
12. 8
16.9
22. 5
2 0 .7
17. 4
1 0 .9
2 3 .4

6 .9
7. 2
6 .8
6 .4
7 .4
7. 5
6. 1
6. 2
5 .9

2. 8
3 .9
1. 8
2. 1
7. 3
5. 2
2. 5
1. 8
3. 2

5 .4
3. 7
4. 2
8. 1
7 .7
8 .0
8. 8
2 .9
14. 2

(2)
0. 3
(?)

16. 3
15.9
13. 7
18. 0
23. 2
21. 4
18. 3
11 .8
2 3 .9

7 .4
7 .8
7. 3
6 .9
7 .7
7 .7
6 .4
6 .7
6. 1

3 .0
4. 2
1 .9
2. 2
7. 6
5. 4
2. 7
1 .9
3. 3

5. 8
3 .9
4. 5
8. 6
8 .0
8. 3
9 .2
3. 2
14. 5

(2>
-

14. 8

5. 6

3. 4

5 .7

. 1

15. 4

5. 8

3. 5

5 .9

1 Consists entirely of tem porary disability insurance.
2 Less than 0. 05 percent or 0. 05 cent.
3 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding,




sums of individual items may not equal totals,

(?)

(2)

-

0. 3
-

(2)
( )
(2)
. 1

Table 18.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Expenditures for Legally Required Payments as a Percent
of Gross Payroll and Mining Industry Group, I960
Workers
in all
establish­
ments

Industry group

Percent of workers in establishments with legally required payments as a percent of grossi payroll of—
2 and
under 3
percent

3 and
under 4
percent

4 and
under 5
percent

5 and
under 6
percent

6 and
under 7
percent

A ll industries ------------------------------------------

100 .0

4. 1

12. 2

14. 3

1 5 .4

1 2 .6

M etal mining 1 -----------------------------------------Iron ores _____________________________
Copper ores --------------------------------------Lead and zinc ores --------------------------Anthr. -.ite m in in g ----------------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite mining ---Crude petroleum and natural gas 1------Crude petroleum and natural gas —
Oil and gas field services --------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels -----------------------

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100 .0

0. 3
_
_
_

22. 1
20. 8
32. 1
_

13. 8
1 6 .6

-

-

9 .6
20. 1
. 2

2. 5
18. 7
32 .9
2. 3

31. 1
40. 7
46. 4
1. 4
2 .9
8. 5
12. 3
18. 6
6. 2

13.
15.
5.
38.
10.
21.
5.
3.
7.

100. 0
100 .0

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

-

24. 8
3. 3
23. 2
11. 2
14. 5
8 .8

8 and
under 9
percent

10. 4

6. 2

4. 3
1. 3
4. 1
13. 6
30. 1
14. 5
5 .9
3. 1
8 .9

4. 5
1.9
4. 2
4 .8
12. 2
7 .9
3. 2
1. 3
5. 1

1 7.9

17. 6

11.8

13 and
under 14
percent

14 and
under 15
percent

.

4
5
7
6
5
0
5
2
8

-

3. 6

15. 1

9 and
under 10
percent

10 and
under 11
percent

11 and
under 12
percent

A ll industries -----------------------------------------

6. 7

4. 5

3. 4

1 .9

1. 4

Metal mining 1 ----------------------------------------Iron ores -------------------------------------------Copper ores --------------------------------------Lead and zinc ores --------------------------Anthracite m in in g ----------------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite mining —
Crude petroleum and natural gas 1------Crude petroleum and natural gas —
Oil and gas field services --------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except f u e l s -----------------------

5 .7
1. 8
7. 2
8 .9
23. 7
4. 3
6. 7
2 .9
10. 5

1. 6
1. 2
. 2
7 .9
3. 6
6 .6
4. 7
2. 1
7. 3

1. 8
. 3

1. 1

0. 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4. 4
2 .9
4. 4
1. 2
7. 6

4. 7
1. 7
2 .4
4. 8

1. 0
2. 0
1 .9
_
3 .7

1. 7
.6
4. 2

1 .9
4 .4
9 .4
18. 5

8. 6

3. 5

2. 8

1. 0

. 5

100. 0

1 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding,




sums of individual items may not equal totals.

1 7 .4

7 and
under 8
percent

12 and
under 13
percent

2 .0

15
percent
and over
5. 1

.

-

8. 4
-

. 1

Table 19.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Expenditures for Legally Required Payments in Cents Per Hour
Paid For and Mining Industry Group, I960
Workers
in all
establish
ments

Industry group

A ll industries

_____________________________

Metal mining 1 ----------------------------------------------Iron ores ----------------------------------------------- -Lead and zinc ores - — - — _____ _________
Anthracite m in in g------- -------------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite mining ---------Crude petroleum and natural g a s 1-----------Crude petroleum and natural g a s -------Oil and gas field services -------------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ----------------------------

Percent of workers in establishments with legally required payments per hour paid for of—
7 and
under
9 cents

9 and
under
11 cents

11 and
under
13 cents

13 and
under
15 cents

15 and
under
17 cents

9. 8

13. 1

11. 3

11. 3

-9. 6

7^9

100 . 0

1. 2

25. 6
26. 3
38. 0

100 .0

1. 4

19. 8
28. 0
26. 2
5. 0
2. 1
2. 5
9 .9
15. 1
5. 0

16.9
7. 8
15. 0
39. 3
3. 5
5 .9
10.0
11. 6
8. 8

8. 1
1 1.9
5. 8
6. 3
6. 3
10. 6
6 .4
8 .0
5. 3

9 .4
8. 5
5 .9
25. 6
7 .4
12. 7
4. 7
2 .9
6. 5

3 and
under
5 cents

5 and
under
7 cents

10
.

100. 0

100. 0
100. 0

.2

1. 0

100. 0
1 00 .0
1 00 .0

100. 0
100. 0

1.0
2. 2

1 .4
2 .9

.7
19.7
2 9 .7
8. 3

3. 0
16. 2

26. 3
6. 4

2 2

.

6 6

.

11.0

20.8

18.0

17. 2

19 and
under
21 cents

100 .0

21 and
under
23 cents

23 and
under
25 cents

25 and
under
27 cents

27 and
under
29 cents

29 and
under
31 cents

Metal mining 1 ---------------------------------------------------------Iron ores ---------------------------------------------------------- —
Copper ores —---------------------------------------------- —
Lead and zinc ores ------------------------------------------Anthracite m in in g --------------------------------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite mining -------------------Crude petroleum and natural gas 1—-------------------Crude petroleum and natural g a s ------------------Oil and gas field services ------------------------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ---------------------------------------

Because of rounding,




3 .0

2 .0

2 .9

0. 8

0. 2

11
.
1. 8
.2

1.8
6 .9
1 3 .5
1 1 .0
2.4

6. 0

4.8

5 .6

4. 2

3.0

2. 5

.1

sums of individual items may not equal totals.

2.7

1. 3
1. 3

8. 1
11.7
6.8
7 .8
1 9 .0
2 6 .0
3. 1

1 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE:

4, 2

9 .8

A ll industries

7. 7
18. 8

8.0
2. 8

1. 3

.2

17 and
under
19 cents

1
31 cents
and over
8. 8
7
2

1 8

.

2 .9
3 .0

1 .4
3. 3
3 .7

3. 5

6.0

7. 3

9 .1
7. 2
1 3 .8
1. 2
2 6 .4

1. 8

.2

2 .5

1 .8

17.9

6.0

Chapter V. Private Welfare Plans

Total Private W elfare Plans
At the time of this study, 86. 3 percent of the production, development,
and related workers were in mining establishments which provided at least one
of the private welfare plans studied. In metal mining, 98. 2 percent were in such
establishments, and in the four remaining major groups coverage ranged from
8 5 .9 percent in crude petroleum and natural gas to 8 2 .4 percent in bituminous
c o a l.25 For the selected private welfare plans studied, the proportion of workers
in all mining establishments which provided benefits were health, accident, and
life insurance, 79. 1 percent; pension and retirement plans, 5 7 .6 percent; yearend
and Christmas bonuses, 2 1 .8 percent; savings and thrift plans, 13.2 percent;
severance or dism issal pay, 12.1 percent; supplemental unemployment benefits,
5.7 percent; and vacation and holiday funds, 0. 9 percent. (See table 20 .)
The private welfare payments for all mining represented an expenditure
by employers equaling 8 .8 percent of the gross payrolls for production, develop­
ment, and related workers in all establishments in I960.
Expenditures for a l­
most all of these plans (bonuses and severance pay generally are exceptions)
were in addition to wages included in gross payroll.
The two m ajor items of
private welfare were health, accident, and life insurance and pension and re tire­
ment plans, which were equal to 3 .3 and 4 .6 percent, respectively, of these
gross payrolls.
For the other benefits studied, the expenditure ratios were
much sm aller, amounting to: savings and thrift plans, 0 .4 percent; yearend and
Christmas bonuses, 0. 3 percent; supplemental unemployment benefits and se v ­
erance and d ism issal pay, 0. 1 percent each; and vacation and holiday funds, less
than 0. 05 percent.
The averages for only the mining establishments reporting
expenditures for these benefits were 9. 7 percent of gross pay for total private
welfare plans, including 3 .9 percent for health, accident, and life insurance,
7 .3 percent for pension and retirement plans, 2 .9 percent for savings and thrift
plans, 1 .6 percent for yearend and Christmas bonuses, 1.1 percent for supple­
mental unemployment benefits, 0 .7 percent for severance or dism issal pay, and
0. 1 percent for vacation and holiday funds. (See table 21 .)
Relative expenditures for the total number of plans were highest in the
two coal mining groups----18. 1 percent of gross production worker payroll of all
establishments in bituminous coal and 14. 3 percent in anthracite— this being at­
tributable, prim arily, to the tonnage royalties to the UMW welfare funds. In the
other major groups, expenditure ratios were only one-fourth to one-half as large.

25
Contributions to the UMW welfare funds in coal mining are made on a
tonnage basis at the point where the coal is shipped to market or for use. As a
result, the tonnage royalty for coal mined by some union establishments was paid
by establishments which further processed the coal. The above prevalence rates,
unlike those in previous chapters, were adjusted to include union coal mines which
did not actually report contributions to the bituminous coal UMW W elfare and
Retirement Fund or to the Anthracite Health and W elfare Fund. Thus, all data
for establishments which provided health, accident, and life insurance or pensions
and retirement (and, of course, for the sum of the private welfare plans) include
predominantly nonunion establishments with expenditures and all predominantly
union establishments, whether or not they reported expenditures. (See appendix A
for further explanations.)




35

36

For only those establishments whose workers were covered by these benefits, the
expenditure ratios were slightly higher:
Bituminous coal and anthracite led all
the other major groups with 20. 1 and 16. 7 percent, respectively; and well below
them were metal mining with 7. 1 percent, crude petroleum and natural gas with
6. 3 percent, and nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, with 5. 3 percent.
For each production worker hour paid for in wages in I960, the mining
industries spent 2 2 .4 cents for private welfare benefits.
The figures amounted
to 25. 6 cents per hour paid for when the amount spent was related to the hours
of only those establishments which provided the benefits. These private welfare
plan expenditures, when related to hours of all establishments and separately to
those of establishments with expenditures, included 11.7 and 2 0 .6 cents per hour
for pension and retirement plans; 8 .3 and 10.4 cents for health, accident, and
life insurance; 1. 1 and 8 .0 cents for savings and thrift plans; 0 .8 and 3 .6 cents
for yearend and Christmas bonuses; 0. 3 and 2. 0 cents for severance or dism issal
pay; 0. 2 and 3. 1 cents for supplemental unemployment benefits; and less than
0 .0 5 and 0. 2 cents for vacation and holiday funds.
The coal mining industries were the principal contributors to the rela­
tively high average levels of expenditures for private welfare plans in the mining
industry as a whole.
Bituminous coal and lignite reported 53. 8 cents per hour
paid for by all establishments and 64. 6 cents per hour paid for by those whose
workers were covered by some plan, and anthracite reported 38. 1 cents and
4 5 .0 cents per hour, respectively.
The rates of contribution were decidedly
lower in the other major groups, ranging from 19.4 and 19.7 cents in metal
mining to 9. 9 and 12. 0 cents in nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels.
As noted above, royalties to the UMW welfare funds are payable at the
point where the coal is shipped to market or for use; consequently, some e s ­
tablishments organized by the UMW made no payments to a welfare fund, even
though their employees were eligible to receive benefits from a fund. For this
reason, distributions of workers by employer expenditure ratios for total private
welfare plans; health, accident, and life insurance; and pension and retirement
plans were not tabulated for all mining nor for the bituminous coal and anthracite
major groups. In the remaining major groups, considerable variation in estab­
lishment expenditure ratios existed for total private welfare plans although sig ­
nificant concentrations were found. For example, approximately one-fifth of the
production workers in crude petroleum and natural gas were in establishments
with expenditures which were under 1 percent of gross payroll.
Similar ex­
penditure ratios were found in establishments including 15.6 percent of the pro­
duction workers in nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels. In metal mining, on the
other hand, 15. 6 percent of the workers were in establishments having expenditure
ratios for total private welfare plans between 8 and 9 percent.
(See table 22.)
Health, Accident, and Life Insurance
Health, accident, and life insurance in this report covers a variety of
benefit programs for nonwork-incurred disabilities.
(Since work-incurred d is­
abilities are covered by workmen’s compensation, these plans are, for the most
part, limited to disabilities from nonoccupational cau ses.) These insurance pro­
grams may be financed entirely by the employer, jointly by the employer and
the employee, or by the employee alone; but only employer contributions are in­
cluded in this report.
The scope of the programs vary with the individual employer and may
include one or more of the following benefits: medical and surgical benefits;
hospitalization, sickness and accident insurance; accidental death and dism em ber­
ment insurance; and life insurance.




37

This survey showed that in I960, establishments employing 79. 1 percent
of the production, development, and related workers in mining provided some
health, accident, and life insurance benefits.
In anthracite, 8 2 .2 percent were
in "union" and "nonunion" establishments reporting actual expenditures or in
"union" establishments whose workers were presumed to be covered by the UMW
fund; and in bituminous coal and lignite establishments, 8 1 .9 p ercen t.26 The
highest proportions reporting expenditures were found in metal mining (97. 5 p er­
cent), the lowest in crude petroleum and natural gas (7 4 .7 percent) and nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels (71. 0 percent).
An amount equal to 3. 3 percent of the gross production worker payroll
of all establishments was contributed for health, accident, and life insurance in
I960.
Bituminous coal and lignite, with 8. 2 percent, had the highest relative
expenditures of the five major mining groups studied.
The percentage figures
among the other four major groups ranged from highs of 3. 5 percent in metal
mining and 2 .0 in nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, to a low of 1 percent in
crude petroleum and natural gas and 0 .4 percent in anthracite. As explained in
detail in appendix A , the coal operators under collective bargaining agreements
with the UMW pay a lum p-sum tonnage royalty for the several benefits provided
by their funds. 7 They reported this total to the survey and the allocation, among
the benefits shown in this report, was made by BL.S on the basis of information
in the annual reports of the bituminous and anthracite funds.28 The coal groups
had both the highest and the lowest figures— 9. 2 percent in bituminous coal and
0. 5 percent in anthracite— when these proportions of gross payroll were computed
for only the establishments whose workers were covered. The metal mines which
had such expenditures made payments equaling 3 .6 percent of their gross payrolls;
nonmetallic mineral (except fuel) mines and quarries, 2 .6 percent; and crude
petroleum and natural gas producers, 1. 3 percent.
Translating these expenditures into cents per production worker hour
paid for shows that in mining 8. 3 cents per hour was spent by all establishments
and 10.4 by only those whose workers were covered, including 2 4 .3 and 2 9 .4
cents per hour, respectively, in bituminous coal; 9. 8 and 10. 0 cents in metal
mining; 4^3 and 6 .0 cents in nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels; 2 .4 and 3 .2
cents in crude petroleum and natural gas; and 1. 2 and 1. 5 cents in anthracite.

26 As previously noted, these precentages were adjusted to include some
union coal mines which did not actually report contributions to the bituminous coal
UMW Welfare and Retirement Fund or to the Anthracite Health and W elfare Fund.
27 In I960, the employer contribution to the bituminous coal UMW W elfare
and Retirement Fund was 40 cents per ton, whereas the rate of payment to the
Anthracite Health and W elfare Fund was 70 cents per ton.
28 Disbursements from the two funds have differed, reflecting variations
in their financial status. According to the annual report of the anthracite fund,
virtually all of the money paid out during I960 was for pensions and retirement
benefits and just a little over 1 percent for health benefits in the form of silicosis
research and treatment. During the same period, the bituminous fund spent well
over half of its contributions for pensions, slightly less than half for hospital
and medical care, funeral expenses, and widows' and other survivors' benefits,
and a very sm all proportion for disaster benefits.
See Anthracite Health and
Welfare Fund Report for the Year Ending December 31, I960 (Hazelton, Pa. ,
1961), p. 5; U .M .W .A . W elfare and Retirement Fund Report for the Year Ending
June 30, I960 (Washington, D. C. , 1960), p^ 3; and U .M .W .A . W elfare and Re tirement Fund Report for the Year Ending June 3"0^ 1961 (Washington, D. C. ,
1961), p. 3.




38

Pension and Retirement Plans
In I960, a total of 57. 6 percent of the production workers in mining were
in establishments with pension and retirement plans. Among the major groups,
fewer than half of the production workers in nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels,
and crude petroleum and natural gas (more specifically, 42. 9 and 45. 2 percent,
respectively) were in establishments with such expenditures in I960; whereas, in
metal mining, anthracite, and bituminous coal and lignite, the proportion was
over three-quarters (75. 9 percent, 7 7 .0 percent, and 7 8 .1 percent, respectively).
Pension and retirement expenditures equaled 4. 6 percent of the gross
production worker payroll of all establishments in mining.
Anthracite', which
had the lowest health, accident, and life insurance expenditure ratio, had, by far,
the highest for pension and retirement plans.
Its pension expenditures equaled
13. 9 percent of the group!s gross payroll. Bituminous coal, at 9 .9 percent, was
well below anthracite in this respect, but still much higher than the 3 percent r e ­
ported by the third-ranking crude petroleum and natural gas major group. The
contributions for metal mining and nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, were
equivalent to 2 .9 and 1 .8 percent of those groups1 gross payrolls, respectively.
In those establishments for whose production workers contributions were made,
expenditures averaged 7. 3 percent of gross payroll for mining as a whole and
were as follows by major group: anthracite, 18. 1 percent; bituminous coal, 11.5
percent; crude petroleum, 5 .7 percent; metal mining, 3 .8 percent; and nonme­
tallic minerals (except fuels), 3. 6 percent.
Contributions towards pension and retirement benefits were 11.7 cents
for each production worker hour paid for by all mining establishments. Anthra­
cite, with 3 6 .8 cents for each hour paid for, again led all the other major groups
by a considerable margin. The bituminous coal and lignite group, at 2 9 .4 cents,
had the next highest expenditure rate. The remaining three major groups were
much lower— 8. 1 cents in metal mining, 7. 2 cents in crude petroleum and natural
gas, and 4 .0 cents in nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels. Considering only the
establishments which had production workers for whom payments were made, the
average cents per hour paid for were 50. 1 and 37. 5 cents in anthracite and b i­
tuminous coalm ining, respectively; 15.4 cents in the crude petroleum and natural
gas major group; 10. 9 cents in metal mining; and 9. 2 cents in nonmetallic m in­
era ls, except fuels.
Vacation and Holiday Funds
In some industries, employers contribute to a fund from which vacation
and holiday pay are distributed to the workers. This method of providing vacation
and holiday benefits is rather rare in mining.
Expenditures of this type were
reported only by a few establishments in the crude petroleum and natural gas
major group.
These establishments employed only 2. 1 percent of the workers
in the major group and their expenditures amounted to less than 0. 05 percent of
the gross production worker payroll of all establishments in the group.
Even
when considered in relation to the payrolls of only the establishments that r e ­
ported expenditures, the ratio was no more than 0. 1 percent.
Supplemental Unemployment Benefits
Supplemental unemployment benefits are the result of recent developments
in the collective bargaining process, first appearing in the Ford Motor C o .—
United
Automobile Workers contract of June 1955.
Such benefits generally supplement
the amount the worker receives under legally required unemployment insurance.
Under most plans, the worker is entitled to the difference between his State un­
employment benefits plus any other earnings and a fixed percentage of his weekly
after-tax straight-tim e earnings.




39

In mining, supplemental unemployment benefits were reported only in
metal mining and in the mining and quarrying of nonmetallic m inerals, except
fuels. In the form er, it was confined prim arily to iron ores mining.
In I960,
only 5.7 percent of all production workers in mining were in establishments with
expenditures for SUB: in metal mining it was 33.6 percent; and in nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels, 5.6 percent.
Payments to SUB plans averaged 0.1 percent of the production worker
gross payroll of all establishments in mining and 1.1 percent of the gross pay­
roll of only the establishments reporting expenditures. The metal mining major
group had expenditures equaling 0.4 percent of its all-establishm ents payroll and
1.2 percent of the gross payroll of those reporting such expenditures. In the
only other major group which reported such expenditures— nonmetallic m inerals,
except fuels— the expenditures averaged 0.1 percent and 0.7 percent.
These expenditures computed as cents per production worker hour paid
for amounted to 0.2 cents for all mining establishments and 3.1 cents for only
those establishments reporting expenditures.
The equivalent figures for metal
mining were 1.1 cents for all establishments and 3.4 cents for those with the
practice; for nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, they were 0.1 and 2.0 cents,
respectively.
Severance or D ism issal Pay
Severance pay is designed to provide payments to workers in cases of
permanent loss of employment in contrast to temporary loss of employment pay­
ment under SUB.
Every major group, except coal mining, reported some expenditures for
severance or dism issal pay in I960. In crude petroleum and natural gas, the
proportion of workers in establishments with such expenditures was 25.1 percent.
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, and metal mining
had 5.9 and 3.2 percent, respectively; and the average overall of mining was
12.1 percent.
As a proportion of the gross payroll of production workers in all estab­
lishments, expenditures in mining averaged 0.1 percent, although expenditures
did not exceed 0.05 percent in any industry group other than the crude petroleum
and natural gas major group, in which they equaled 0.2 percent of the gross
payroll. In establishments with actual expenditures, the payments by major group
were 0.8 percent of gross payroll in crude petroleum, 0.6 percent in metal
mining, 0.2 percent in nonmetallic minerals (except fuels), and 0.7 percent for
mining as a whole.
Severance pay expenditures were 0.6 cents per production worker hour
paid for by all establishments in the crude petroleum and natural gas major
group and 2.1 cents for only those reporting the practices.
In metal mining,
the rates were 0.1 and 1.7 cents; in mining and quarrying of nonmetallic m inerals,
except fuels, less than 0.05 cents and 0.6 cents; and in the total mining, 0.3 and
2.0 cents, respectively.
Savings and Thrift Plans
Savings and thrift plans are arrangements under which worker savings
are supplemented by company contributions.
Considerable variation may exist
among companies as to plan provisions, particularly in reference to vesting and
disposition of employer contributions.



40

Savings and thrift plans were important only in the crude petroleum and
natural gas major group, in which establishments employing 30.9 percent of the
production workers reported expenditures in I960. In the only other major group
reporting such expenditures, nonmetallic minerals (except fuels), the proportion
of workers in covered establishments was less than 1.0 percent.
The average
for mining as a whole was 13.2 percent.
Among the major groups, crude petroleum and natural gas producers
contributed, for savings and thrift plans, an amount equal to 1.1 percent of the
gross production worker payroll of all establishments in the group, or 2.9 p er­
cent of payroll for those establishments with actual expenditures. In the mining
and quarrying of nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, the expenditure ratios were
0.2 and 1.7 percent. The contributions made within these two major groups aver­
aged 0.4 percent of the gross payroll of all mining establishments.

Year end and Christmas Bonuses
Special bonus payments made in cash at the end of the year or during
the Christmas season were reported by establishments employing 21.8 percent
of the production and development workers in mining. Of the five major groups,
the highest proportions of workers in establishments paying such bonuses were
found in nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, and crude petroleum and natural
gas— 31.9 and 30.7 percent, respectively.
The corresponding percentages of
workers were much lower in the other three major groups studied— bituminous
coal and lignite, 8.1 percent; metal mining, 7.8 percent; and anthracite, 6.0
percent.
These bonus payments equaled 0.3 percent of the gross payroll for pro­
duction workers in all mining establishments and 1.6 percent of the gross pay­
roll of only those mining establishments that reported the practice. Among the
major groups studied, expenditures as a proportion of gross pay of all establish­
ments in the group ranged from 0.7, 0.4, and 0.1 percent in nonmetallic minerals
(except fuels), crude petroleum and natural gas, and metal mining, respectively,
to less than 0.05 percent in both of the coal groups. The expenditures for e s ­
tablishments reporting the practice were 2.4 percent for nonmetallic minerals
(except fuels), 1.6 percent for metal mining, 1.4 percent for crude petroleum
and natural gas, 0.4 percent for bituminous coal, and 0.3 percent for anthracite.
For all mining, disbursements for bonuses averaged 0.8 cents per pro­
duction worker hour paid for by all establishments; 3.6 cents an hour when only
the hours of establishments . reporting the practice are considered.
The major
group mining and quarrying of nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, had the highest
cents-per-hour expenditures, 1.5 cents for all establishments and 4.8 cents for
only those reporting the practice.
The crude petroleum and natural gas and
metal mining major groups had the next highest expenditures— 1.0 and 0.3 cents,
respectively, for all establishments and 3.2 and 4.1 cents, respectively, for only
those reporting the practice. In the two coal groups the same contribution rate
appeared for all establishments (0.1 cents); for only the establishments reporting
actual payments in I960, these figures were 1.2 cents for bituminous coal mining
and 0.7 cents for anthracite.




Table 20.

Percent of Production, Development, and Related Workers in Establishments Reporting Expenditure
for Private Welfare Plans by Mining Industry Group, I960

Industry group

Private
welfare
plans

Health,
accident,
and life
insurance

Pension
and
retirement
plans

A ll industries --------------------------------------------------------

86. 3

79. 1

57. 6

Metal mining 1 ------------------------------------------------------Iron o r e s ----------------------------------------------------------Copper ores ------- --------------------------------------------Lead and zinc o r e s -----------------------------------------Anthracite mining -----------------------------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite mining -----------------Crude petroleum and natural gas 1 -------------------Crude petroleum and natural gas ---------------Oil and gas field s e r v ic e s -----------------------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fu e ls --------------------------------------

98. 2
9 9 .8
99. 6
98. 6
85. 8
82. 4
85. 9
91. 0
80. 4

97. 5
9 9 .8
9 9 .6
9 2 .7
82. 2
81. 9
74. 7
84. 6
64. 1

7 5 .9
93. 3
84. 0
58. 6
77. 0
78. 1
45. 2
72. 5
17. 2

83. 2

71. 0

42. 9

Vacation
and
holiday
funds

0 .9

Supplemental
unemploy­
ment benefits

5. 7

Severance or
dism issal pay

Savings and
thrift plans

Yearend
and
Christmas
bonuses

.

13. 2

21. 8

1

2

1

3. 2
2. 8
6. 4

-

33. 6
80. 7
7. 5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

25. 1
38. 6
10. 3

30. 9
54. 8
6. 1

5. 6

5 .9

-

2. 1
4. 1
. 3

-

_

-

.8

7.
8.
3.
11.
6.
8.
30.
25.
37.

8
0
8
4
0
1
7
2
2

31.9

1 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE: The data for anthracite and bituminous coal, for total private welfare plans, health plans, and pension plans, have been adjusted to include all union
mines whether or not tonnage royalties were paid for each such mine directly.
See appendix A , p. 69, for explanation.




Table 21.

4
^
r
o

Average Expenditures for Private Welfare Plans by A ll Establishments and Establishments
Reporting Expenditures and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of gross payroll
Establishments reporting expenditures

A ll establishments
Industry group

A ll industries ---------------------------------Metal mining3----------------------------------Iron ores ------------------------------ -----Copper o r e s --------------------------------Lead and zinc ores ------------------Anthracite m in in g --------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite
mining ------------------------------------------Crude petroleum and natural
gas3-------------------------------------------------Crude petroleum and
natural gas — --------------------------Oil and gas field s e r v ic e s --------Mining and quarrying of
nonmetallic m inerals,
except f u e l s -----------------------------------

Y earSupple­
Y earSupple­
Sever­
Sever­
end
Health, Pension Vacation mental
end
Savings
Savings
Health,
Pension Vacation mental
ance
ance
unem­
and
and
and
and
unem­
and
accident, and r e ­
and
Total1 accident, and r e ­
or d is­
or d is­
Total and life tirement
ploy­
thrift Christ­
ploy­
and life tirement holiday
thrift Christ­
holiday
m issal
m issal
mas
ment
ment
plans
plans
mas
insurance plans
funds
insurance plans
funds
pay
pay
bonuses
benefits
bonuses
benefits
8. 8
7.
10.
6.
4.
14.

0
0
6
3
3

18. 1

3. 3
3.
4.
3.
2.
.

5
6
5
4
4

8. 2

4. 6

(2)

2 .9
4. 3
2 .9
1.8
13.9

-

9 .9

-

0. 1

0. 1

0. 4

0. 4
.9
(2)

(*)
(2)
(2)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0. 3

9. 7
1
0
6
4
7

3 .9

0. 1
. 1
. 2
( 2)
(2)

7.
10.
6.
4.
16.

(2)

20. 1

9. 2

3.
4.
3.
2.
.

6
6
5
6
5

0. 1

1. 1

0. 7

2 .9

8
6
3
2
1

-

1. 2
1. 1
.4
-

0. 6
1. 5
. 1

-

-

-

11. 5

-

-

-

-

7. 3
3.
4.
3.
3.
18.

-

-

1. 6
1.
1.
5.
.
..

6
7
5
2
3

.4

5. 7

1. 0

3. 0

(2)

-

0. 2

1. 1

.4

6. 3

1. 3

5. 7

0. 1

_

.8

2 .9

1. 4

9. 1
2. 0

1. 3
. 7

4 .9
.8

(2)
(2)

-

. 5
(2)

1 .9
. 1

. 5
. 3

9. 5
2. 4

1. 5
1. 0

6. 0
4. 3

(2)
. 3

-

1. 1
(2)

3. 1
1. 6

2. 2
.9

4. 6

2. 0

1. 8

“

. 1

(2)

. 2

. 7

5. 3

2. 6

3. 6

~

. 7

. 2

1. 7

2. 4

7. 5

0. 1

1. 1

0. 8

3. 0

1. 7

_
-

1. 2
1. 2
. 5
-

0. 6
1. 5
. 1
-

_
-

-

Percent of straight-tim e payroll
A 11 industries ----------------------------------

9. 3

Metal mining 3 ---------------------------------Iron ores ------------------------------------Copper ores ------------------------------Lead and zinc o r e s --------------------Anthracite m in in g --------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite
mining ------------------------------------------Crude petroleum and natural
gas 3 -----------------------------------------------Crude petroleum and
natural gas ---------- --------------------Oil and gas field s e r v ic e s --------Mining and quarrying of
nonmetallic m inerals,
except fuels -----------------------------------

7. 3
10. 3
6 .9
4. 5
14. 8

3.
4.
3.
2.
.

7
8
7
5
5

3. 1
4. 5
3. 1
1 .9
14. 3

18. 8

8. 5

10. 3

6. 1

1. 1

3. 2

9. 4
2. 2

1. 4
.8

5. 0
.9

4 .9

2. 1

1. 9

See footnotes at end of table.




3. 4

4 .9

(2)

0. 1

0. 1

4. 1

0. 3

-

0. 1
. 1
. 2
(2)
(2)

7.
10.
6.
4.
17.

-

-

(2)

20. 9

9. 5

11.9

-

-

-

-

.4

0. 3

1. 1

.4

6. 8

1. 4

6. 0

0. 1

-

.8

3. 0

1. 5

.5
(2)

2. 0
. 1

. 5
.4

9 .8
2. 7

‘ 1. 5
1. 2

6. 2
4. 9

(2)
. 3

-

1. 1
(2)

3. 2
1. 8

2. 2
1. 0

(2)

.2

.8

5. 6

2. 7

3 .9

-

. 2

1. 8

2. 6

( 2)
( 2)
(2)

(2)

-

(2)
(2)

-

.1

-

8. 6

0. 5

0. 4
.9
(2)

-

-

4
4
9
5
2

3.
4.
3.
2.
.

8
8
7
7
6

4.
4.
3.
3.
18.

0
8
5
3
7

. 7

1.
1.
5.
.
.

7
7
7
3
3

Table 21.

Average Expenditures for Private W elfare Plans by A ll Establishments and Establishments
Reporting Expenditures and Mining Industry Group, I960— Continued
Cents per hour paid for
All establishments

Industry group

A ll in dustries----------------------------------Metal mining 3 ---------------------------------Iron ores ------------------------------------Copper ores ------------------------------Lead and zinc o r e s --------------------Anthracite mining --------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite
in ining----------- — ----------------------------—
Crude petroleum and natural
gas 3 ------------------------------------------------Crude petroleum and
natural gas ------------------------------Oil and gas field s e r v ic e s --------Mining and quarrying of
nonmetallic m inerals,
except fuels -----------------------------------

Establishments reporting expenditures

Supple Y earSupple­
Y earSever­
Sever­
Health,
Health,
Pension Vacation mental
Pension Vacation mental
Savings
end
Savings
end
ance
ance
unem­
accident, and r e ­
accident,
and r e ­
and
and
unem­
and
and
and
and
Total
or d is­
or d is­
Total1
and life tirement holiday
Christ­
and life tirement holiday
ploy­
thrift
thrift
Christ­
ploy­
m issal
m issal
ment
insurance
plans
plans
funds
plans
ment
insurance
m as
funds
plans
mas
pay
pay
benefits
bonuses
benefits
bonuses
22. 4

8. 3

11. 7

4
8
0
5
1

9 .8
13. 2
9 .6
5 .9
1. 2

8.
12.
8.
4.
36.

1
5
0
4
8

53. 8

24. 3

29. 4

13. 8

2. 4

7. 2

23. 8
4. 4

3. 5
1. 5

12. 8
1. 8

9 .9

4. 3

4. 0

19.
28.
18.
10.
38.

0. 2

0. 3

-

1. 1
2. 6
. 1
-

0. 1
. 1
(2)

-

-

-

-

(2)

-

.6

2. 6

(2)
( 2)

-

1. 3
(2)

5. 0
. 2

. 1

(2)

. 4

(2)

“

-

1. 1

-

25. 6

10. 4

19.
28.
18.
10.
<5.

7
9
1
6
0

10. 0
13. 3
9 .6
6. 4
1. 5

10.
13.
9.
7.
50.

. 1

64. 6

29. 4

37. 5

-

-

-

-

1. 2

1. 0

15. 7

3. 2

15. 4

0. 2

-

2. 1

8. 1

3. 2

1. 3
.8

25. 6
5. 3

4. 0
2. 3

17. 0
9. 5

. 1
1. 3

-

3. 1
. 1

8. 8
3. 5

5. 2
2. 1

1. 5

12. 0

6. 0

9. 2

“

2. 0

.6

4. 8

4. 8

22. 1

0. 2

3. 4

2. 2

8. 8

3. 7

0. 8
0.
.
.
.
.

3
4
5
1
1

20. 6
9
4
5
7
1

0. 2

3. 1

-

3. 4
3. 3
1. 2
-

-

2. 0
1. 7
4. 4
. 4
-

8. 0

3 .6

-

4. 1
4. 4
12. 1
.6
.7

Cents per plant man--hour
A ll industries ---------------------------------Metal mining 3 ---------------------------------Iron ores ------------------------------------Cooper ores -----------------------------Lead and zinc ores ------------------Anthracite mining --------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite
mining --------------------------------------------Crude petroleum and natural
gas 3---------- ---------------------------------------Crude petroleum and
natural gas ------------------------------Oil and gas field s e r v ic e s --------Mining and quarrying of
nonmetallic m inerals,
except f u e l s -----------------------------------

23. 4
20.
31.
19.
11.
39.

7
1
4
2
3

8. 7
10.
14.
10.
6.
1.

5
3
3
3
2

12. 3
8.
13.
8.
4.
38.

(2)

0. 2

7
5
5
7
0

-

1. 2
2. 8
. 1
-

0. 3
0. 1
. 1
(2)
-

1. 2
-

0. 8
0.
.
.
.
.

4
4
5
1
1

27. 0
21.
31.
19.
11.
46.

1
2
4
3
6

11. 0
10.
14.
10.
6.
1.

7
3
3
8
5

7
5
3
3
1

3. 6
3. 5
1. 3
-

38. 9

-

-

-

-

1. 2

2. 4

8 .9

3. 4

9 .7
3. 6

5. 5
2. 2

5. 2

5. 0

11.
14.
10.
8.
52.

1. 8
4. 7
. 4
_

55. 5

25. 1

30. 3

-

-

-

. 1

67. 0

30. 5

14. 5

2. 6

7. 6

(2)

-

. 6

2. 7

1. 0

16. 6

3. 4

1 6 .9

0. 2

-

2 5.9
4. 5

3. 8
1. 5

13.9
1 .9

( 2)
(2)

-

1. 4
( 2)

5. 4
. 2

1. 4
.8

28. 0
5. 4

4. 4
2. 4

18. 8
10. 1

. 1
1. 3

-

-

3. 4
. 1

10. 3

4. 4

4. 1

. 1

(2)

. 4

1. 6

12. 5

6. 3

9 .8

-

2. 2

.6

■

-

_

_
-

-

-

4.
4.
12.
.
.

3
7
6
6
7

1 For "establishm ents reporting expenditures for the p ra ctices" the individual items do not add tothe total because each practice was treated separately and the
same establishments did not all have expenditures for each practice.
2 L ess than 0. 05 percent or 0. 05 cent.
3 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE:
Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
The data for anthracite and bituminous coal, for total private welfare plans, for
health plans, and for pension plans, have been adjusted to include all union mines whether or not tonnage royalties were paid for each such mine directly.
See
appendix A, p. 69, for explanation.




4^

Table 22.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Expenditures for Private Welfare Plans as a Percent of Gross Payroll
and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of workers in establishments with—
Workers
in all
establish­
ments

Industry group 1

No private
welfare plan
expenditures

Private welfare plan expenditures as a percent of gross payroll of—
Under 1
percent

2 and
under 3
percent

3 and
under 4
percent

4 and
under 5
percent

7
5
1
1
6

2. 8
_
10. 1
5. 2

5. 9
2 .4
1. 1
21. 5
3. 7

5. 2
_
15. 2
1. 5
3. 0

1 and
under 2
percent

Metal mining 2 ________________________
Iron ores __________________________
Copper ores ----------------------------------Lead and zinc ores ----------------------Crude petroleum and natural gas 2 __
Crude petroleum and
natural g a s _______________________
Oil and gas field services _______
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels -------------------

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

.4
1 .4
14. 1

7. 6
20 . 2

9.
1.
11.
11.
9.

100. 0
100. 0

9. 1
19.6

3. 5
36. 8

2. 9
16. 3

2. 7
7. 7

.9
6. 4

4. 6
1. 7

100.0

16.8

15. 6

6 .9

10. 4

6. 8

9 and
under 10
percent

10 and
under 11
percent

3. 8
9 .7

Metal mining 2 _________________________
Iron ores ------------------------------------------Copper ores -------------------------------------Lead and zinc ores -------------------------Crude petroleum and natural gas 2-----Crude petroleum and
natural g a s _________________________
Oil and gas field services _________
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ----------------------

1.8

.2

4. 5

.2

-

5 and
under 6
percent

15.
13.
32.
7.
5.

6
2
6
5
8

6. 8
1. 8

8. 2
.7

16. 4
2. 7

8. 2
3. 9

10. 9

4. 1

7. 1

4. 2

2. 6

11 and
under 12
percent

12 and
under 13
percent

13 and
under 14
percent

14 and
under 15
percent

15 and
under 16
percent

16
percent
and over

6 .4
4. 3
5 .9

1 .4
3. 2

12. 3
31. 3
2. 7

3. 0
8. 2

0. 8
1. 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
1 .9

2. 6
1 . 1

3. 4

_
3. 0

3. 5
-

2. 3
-

7. 2
-

6. 4
-

2. 6

6. 5
2 .4

5. 6
-

5. 1
-

5. 6

2. 4

2. 5

-

_
1 .9

7.
5.
13.
.
4.

8 and
under 9
percent

7. 3
16. 1
4. 7
10. 7

2. 2
2. 8

4
7
0
2
1

7 and
under 8
percent

0
8
3
8
2

1.6
4. 5

12.
2.
13.
32.
4.

6 and
under 7
percent

.7

0. 1

1. 5

1 Data are not shown for all industries, anthracite and bituminous coal mining, because they would not be meaningful.
Contributions to the welfare and re­
tirement funds in the 2 coal industries are made on a tonnage basis at the point where the coal is shipped to market or for use. As a result, the tonnage royalty
for coal mined by some union establishments was paid by establishments which further processed the coal.
2 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding,




sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 23.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Expenditures for Health, Accident, and Life Insurance as a
Percent of Gross Payroll and Mining Industry Group, I960

Workers
in all
estab­
lish ­
ments

Industry group 1

Metal m ining2 ------------------- --------------------------________ _ ____________ _______ Iron ores
Copper ores ________ ___ ___ __________ ___ _
Lead and zinc o r e s ----------------------------------------Crude petroleum and natural gas 2 ---------------- Crude petroleum and
natural gas __________________ __ ---------Oil and gas field services __________________
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
minerals, except fuels _______________________

Percent of workers in. establishments with—
No
insurance
expend­
itures

Health, accident, and life insurance expenditures as a percent of gross payroll of—
Under
percent

2 and
under 3
percent

1 and
under 2
percent

0
0
0
0
0

2. 5
.2
.4
7. 3
25. 3

9 .5
2. 6
10. 3
8. 3
39. 8

9. 7
3 .4
.7
2 8 .4
2 2 .4

100. 0
100. 0

1 5 .4
3 5 .9

33. 7
43. 7

3 1 .7
13. 8

100. 0

29. 0

15. 8

16. 8

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

3 and
under 4
percent
8
7
7
3
6

2 2 .4
43. 6
18. 0
7. 5
.6

8 .9
2. 8

5. 6
3. 8

1. 3
-

18. 3

8 .9

3. 4

6 and
under 7
percent

16. 1
3 2 .9
2. 7
1. 6

10.
.
17.
18.
5.

0
6
7
7
6

25.
11.
43.
27.
4.

5 and
under 6
percent

4 and
under 5
percent

7 and
under 8
percent

8
percent
and over

0. 7
1 .8
-

1. 3
3. 2
.5
-

2. 1
5 .9
2. 6
-

3. 5
-

-

-

-

5. 2

.2

1. 6

.9

1 See footnote 1, table 22.
2 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 24.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Expenditures for Pension and Retirement Plans as a Percent of Gross Payroll
and Mining Industry Group, I960

Industry group1

Metal mining2
----------------------Iron ores __ ____ ____________________
Copper ores ________________________
Lead and zinc ores _______________
Crude petroleum and natural gasf____
Crude petroleum and
natural gas ______________________
Oil and gas fi«1H sfirvirps ..... .
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels
________________

Workers
in all
estab­
lish ­
ments

Percent of workers in establishments with—
No
Pension and retirement plan expenditures as ia percent of gross payroll of
.
pension
7 and
3 and
8 and
Under
2 and
10 and
plan
5 and
6 and
4 and
9 and
1 and
under 5 under 6 under 7 under 8 under 9 under 10 under 11
expend­
1
under 2 under 3 under 4
percent
itures
percent percent percent percent
percent percent percent percent percent percent

0
0
0
0
0

24. 1
6. 7
16. 0
4 1 .4
54. 8

3.
7.
1.
1.
2.

6
6
1
7
0

1 1.5
3. 5
16. 2
8. 5
3. 5

100. 0

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

17.
15.
29.
14.
1.

3
3
8
6
7

11.
12.
.
27.
3.

11
percent
and over

7
3
7
3
5

7. 5
11. 6
10. 6
5. 7

10. 4
11. 3
20. 7
9. 2

9 .9
21. 7
4. 9
4. 2
8. 9

2. 2
5. 2

1 .8
4. 8

0. 1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2. 2
5. 0

-

-

11. 7
5 .9

10. 1
. 5

.

0

27. 5
82. 8

3. 5
. 8

4 .9
2 .4

.3
3. 2

5. 4
1. 9

9. 3
2. 5

16. 2

1 0 0

1 0 0

.

0

57. 1

5 .4

4. 3

12. 5

3. 2

5. 3

8. 8

-

2. 2

-

-

0. 9

1. 7

.2

.9

3. 7

.
-

-

-

2 .9

4

6. 1
1

.

2

1 See footnote 1, table 22.
2 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




4
^

Table 25.

ft
C
N

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Expenditures for Private Welfare Plans in Cents Per Hour Paid For
and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of workers in establishments with—
Workers
in all

Industry group 1

Private welfare plan expenditures per hour paid for of—
welfare plan
expenditures

Metal mining 2
___________________________
Iron ores ____________________________
Copper ores _________________________
Lead and zinc ores _________________
Crude petroleum and natural gas 2 ----Crude petroleum and
natural gas _______________________
Oil and gas field services _________
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ----------------------

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

TT x Ci
Ua

2 and
under
4 cents




10 and
under
12 cents

12 and
under
14 cents

14 and
under
16 cents

7. 6
18. 5

12. 1
7. 8

9. 1
19.6

4. 2
32. 6

2 .8
14. 8

1. 6
14. 0

3. 0
5. 2

1 .4
1. 0

4. 5

3. 1
1.8

4. 3

-

16. 8

13. 0

12.4

5. 5

8 .4

6. 4

2. 8

6. 0

9 .6

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

2. 7
.2
-

6.
2.
17.
.
4.

4 .7
1. 3
-

18 and
under
20 cents

5. 6
-

20 and
under
22 cents

2
5
2
8
0

6. 8
11. 6
5. 6
1.6
4 .8

2. 0
1 .8
4. 2

4. 5
3 .8

5. 8
4. 1

2. 9

2. 1

1 .2

1 .2

See footnote 1, table 22.
Includes industries not shown separately.
Because of rounding,

8 and
under
10 cents

10. 3
4. 6
4. 0

1. 8
.2
.4
1 .4
14. 1

1 6 and
under
18 cents

NOTE:

6 and
under
8 cents

4. 3
.2
.7
4. 5
8 .8

0
0
0
0
0

Metal mining 2 __________________________
Iron ores _____________________________
Copper ores --------------------------------------Lead and zinc ores ------- -------------------Crude petroleum and natural gas 2 -----Crude petroleum and
natural g a s --------------------------------------Oil and gas field services --------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels -----------------------

4 and
under
6 cents

sums of individual items may not equal totals.

-

1.5

-

5.
.
7.
23.
1.

2
3
7
0
1

22 and
under
24 cents

3. 0
-

7. 1
7. 5
7. 7

4. 8
2 .4
-

24. 5
2. 1

3. 6
8. 7
-

2. 4

6. 0
-

4. 0
7. 7
1. 9

-

24 and
under
26 cents

26 and
under
28 cents

13. 3
14. 1
26. 6

6 .6
10. 7
7. 6
2. 2
3. 9

23. 7
54. 9

-

3. 6

28 cents
and over

-

2. 6
13. 6

10. 3
2. 4

7. 6

7. 5
.9

27. 2

-

2. 0

2. 7

1 .9

8. 0

-

Table 26.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Expenditures for Health, Accident, and Life Insurance in Cents Per Hour Paid For
and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of workers in establishments with—
Workers
in all
establish­
ments

Industry group 1

Metal mining 2 --------------------------------------Iron ores ____________________________
----------------------------------Copper ores
Lead and zinc ores _________________
Crude petroleum and natural gas 2 ___
Crude petroleum and
natural gas -------------------------------------Oil and gas field services _________
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ______________

No
insurance
expenditures

Health, accident, and life insurance expenditures per hour paid for of—
Under
2 cents

6 and
under
8 cents

2 and
under
4 cents

4 and
under
6 cents
5. 2
1. 3

5 .9

-

13.5
13. 7

9 .5
13. 1
4 .9

0
0
0
0
0

2. 5
.2
.4
7. 3
25. 3

8. 3
34. 1

1 1.4
2. 0
11. 0
24. 3
18. 1

100. 0
100. 0

15.4
35.9

29. 2
37. 4

21. 1
15. 2

19. 8
7 .9

1 0 0 . 0

29. 0

11 .2

20. 0

12. 1

-

14 and
under
16 cents

16 cents
and over

5
0
4
5
5

14. 6
35. 0
5. 8
-

-

.4

-

.4
.7

.8
-

-

2. 7
-

4. 1

4. 1

1. 5

2. 5

19.
5.
44.
23.
1.

-

2
1
4
6
7

14.
6.
22.
7.
.

12 and
under
14 cents

5. 2

10. 5

3. 7
2. 8

10 and
under
12 cents

3. 3
-

7. 3
3. 0

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

8 and
under
10 cents

17. 9
40. 1

4. 9
7. 6
6 .4
2. 6
1. 3

-

1 See footnote 1, table 22.
2 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding,

Table 27.

sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Expenditures for Pension and Retirement Plans in Cents Per Hour Paid For
and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of workers in establishments with—
Workers
in all
establish­
ments

Industry group1

Metal mining 2
________ _____________
Iron ores ____________________________
Copper ores -------------------------------------Lead and zinc ores _________________
Crude petroleum and natural gas 2 __
Crude petroleum and
natural gas
--------------- -------------Oil and gas field services _________
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ___ _
__

No
pension
plan
expend­
itures

Pension and retirement plan expenditures per hour paid for of—
Under
2 cents

2 and
under
4 cents

4 and
under
6 cents

6 and
under
8 cents

8 and
under
10 cents

10 and
under
12 cents

12 and
under
14 cents

0
0
0
0
0

24. 1
6 .7
16. 0
4 1 .4
54.8

2. 0
3. 6
1. 1
1.9

5. 3
4. 7
10. 3
3 .6
1 .4

11.6
8. 2
9 .5
12. 8
3. 7

14. 0
7 .4
26. 3
28. 3
1 .9

3 .4
4. 1
.7
2. 6

9 .0
13. 6
7. 5
2. 5

4 .9
4. 0
10.5
1 .6
7. 2

100. 0
100. 0

27. 5
82. 8

3. 1
.8

.4
2. 5

4. 6
2 .9

3. 0
.8

2. 8
2. 7

4. 7
.7

100. 0

57. 1

5. 0

3. 9

5. 2

10. 0

2. 2

6. 2

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

14 and
under
16 cents

7.
3.
20.
2.
7.

16 and
under
18 cents

18 cents
and over

8
3
7
6
9

11. 2
3 0 .6

12. 6
2. 6

9. 3
3. 8

2 .4
.5

29. 5

3 .4

.6

4. 0

2. 2

_
_

1. 5

6.
13.
4.
2.
14.

8
7
9
2
6

_

1 See footnote 1, table 22.
2 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding,




sums of individual items may not equal totals

-4




Chapter VI. Variations in Expenditures by Selected Establishment Characteristics

Introduction
Many factors affect the level of expenditures for supplementary pay
practices in individual establishments.
These factors are not only numerous,
but often subtle and unmeasurable, and always interrelated in a complex of over­
lapping conditions. The survey permitted identification of establishments by three
characteristics which properly belong among the factors influencing expenditures:
the level of average hourly earnings, the size of establishment in term s of number
of employees, and unionization defined in term s of collective bargaining agreement
coverage.
By grouping establishments with sim ilar characteristics within each
of the three factors, a basis for explaining some of the differences in relative
level of expenditures may be found. It should be emphasized that these procedures
offer only a limited basis for such explanation— they do not reveal true causal
relationships— but are useful prelim inaries to further explorations.
To summarize the findings, when the mining establishments were thus
grouped, the average percent of payroll (and the cents per hour) spent for the
sum of the paid leave items and the sum of the private welfare plans were higher
for the classes of establishments with higher average hourly earnings, larger
w o rk fo rc e, and where a majority of employees were covered by collective bar­
gaining agreements.
For total premium pay expenditures and for total legally
required benefits, relationships were mixed with respect to average hourly earn­
ings and size of establishment groupings, but the ratios tended to be lower in the
’'unionized" than in the "nonunionized” establishment class. 2
9

Variations by Average Hourly Earnings
Each establishment in the survey was classified according to its production
worker gross average hourly earnings into a lo w -, m edium -, or high-earnings
group.
The average hourly earnings groups, each containing approximately
one-third of the establishments, were under $ 1 .8 0 an hour, $ 1 .8 0 and under
$ 2 . 40 an hour, and $ 2 .4 0 or m ore.
Although, as noted above, data so broadly
grouped have many limitations for detailed analysis of relationships, they do
provide a general framework from which some conclusions may be drawn.
Paid leave expenditures averaged 2. 2 percent of the gross production
worker payroll of all establishments in the lowest earnings c la ss, 3. 0 percent
of the payroll for those in the middle third, and 5. 7 percent for the highest third.
Thus, it can be seen that there was a direct relationship between the expenditure
ratios for the sum of the paid leave items and the hourly earnings levels.
This
relationship held also for each of the leave items where the expenditure ratios
for vacations went from 1. 3 to 1.7 to 3 .7 percent; those for holidays, from
0. 7 to 0. 9 to 1 .3 percent; and those for sick leave, from 0. 1 to 0. 3 to 0. 5 percent.
(See table 28. )

2
9
The ratios computed represent expenditures for each supplement by
establishments having the given characteristics expressed as a proportion of pay­
roll of all establishments with this given characteristic, whether or not they had
expenditures.
The computations made using man-hours are sim ilar.




49

50

This progression was even more marked in total expenditures for private
welfare plans.
The lowest paying and middle groups contributed the equivalent
of 2. 1 and 3. 4 percent, respectively, of their gross production worker payrolls;
in the highest earnings group, contributions averaged 11.5 percent.
The major
reason for the dramatic jump between the middle and the highest third was the
high contributions to the coal mining welfare and pension funds, the unionized
coal mines being in the highest hourly earnings group.
For the health, accident,
and life insurance segment, expenditures went from 1.0 to 1.2 to 4. 2 percent of
gross payroll as average hourly earnings increased; and for pension and re tire­
ment plans, the other item included in the coal industry funds, the contributions
ratios went from 0 .5 to 1 .4 to 6. 2 percent of gross payroll.
For yearend and
Christmas bonuses, the only other private welfare plan with relative contributions
of some significance, the pattern was reversed.
Payments were 0 .2 percent in
the highest paying group, 0. 5 percent in the lowest paying group, and 0. 7 percent
in the intermediate group.
As a proportion of gross production worker payroll of all establishments
in the group, total premium pay expenditures were 6. 1 percent in the lowest
earnings group; rose to 8. 0 percent in the middle third; and then, in the highest
earnings group, dropped to 4. 7 percent.
Legally required payments revealed
similar relationships— 8. 6 percent of gross payroll going towards such benefits
in the lowest paying group, 9. 0 percent in the middle group, and 5. 9 percent in the
highest paying group. Alm ost one-half of the payroll within the middle-earnings
group was accounted for by establishments in the oil and gas field services
industries, which generally had higher relative premium expenditures for over­
tim e, weekend, and holiday work and for workmen’ s compensation.
When the
figures for this group were eliminated, an inverse relationship existed between
average expenditure ratios and average hourly earnings for the remainder
of mining.
The computation of these expenditures as cents per production worker
hour paid for d iscloses, for paid leave and for private welfare plans, the same
relationships— but more pronounced— as were found in the percent of payroll
comparisons.
A s group average hourly earnings increase, total expenditures
increase from 3. 3 to 6. 2 to 17. 1 cents an hour for paid leave and from 3. 2 to
7. 1 to 34. 6 cents for private welfare plans.
For premium pay, average expenditures were 9. 3 cents in the low group,
16. 8 cents in the middle group, and 14. 1 cents in the high-earnings group.
For
legally required payments, they were 1 3 .1 , 1 9 .0 , and 17.7 cents, respectively.
The inclusion of a large proportion of oil and gas field services establishments
in the middle-earnings group obscures the relationship that exists for the rest
of mining.
A direct relationship between group average hourly earnings and
average expenditure rates existed when these establishments were excluded.
Variations by Size of Establishment
For the purpose of determining the relative variations in expenditures
for supplementary remuneration practices by size of establishment, four size
classes were used— under 20 em ployees, 20 to 99, 100 to 499, and 500 employees
and over.
For leave and private welfare plans, the relationships by size of estab­
lishment were similar to those found in the average hourly earnings comparisons.
Total paid leave expenditures, as a percent of gross production worker payroll
of all establishments in the group, increased with each increase in size cla ss,
increasing from 2. 0 to 3. 0 to 5. 2 and then to 6. 8 percent.
Private welfare plan
expenditure ratios increased sim ilarly— 2 .6 , 4 .8 , 1 1 .6 , and 11.8 percent— as the




51

size of the establishment increased.
These ratios represent prim arily relation­
ships produced by expenditures for health, accident, and life insurance and for
pension plans. In contrast, yearend and Christmas bonuses were found principally
in the sm aller establishment size classes.
(See table 29. )
Expenditures for the sum of the premium pay items averaged 5. 6 percent
in the under-20-employee-establishment size, rose to 7.7 percent in the 20—
99 size,
and then declined to 5. 3 percent in the 100—
499 size, and 3 .8 percent in the
largest employee size group. For legally required item s, the contribution ratios
w ere, without exception, inversely related to the establishment size classes— going
from 8. 8 percent in the sm allest to 4. 8 percent in the largest.
The relationships found in the percent of gross payroll computations
generally remained true when the expenditures were computed as cents per
production worker hour paid for.
Again, relative expenditures for the sum of
the paid leave items and private welfare plans increased as the establishment
size class increased.
The average for paid leave expenditures rose from
4. 1 cents per hour for the sm allest establishments to 19. 8 cents for the largest,
and those for private welfare plans, from 5. 3 to 3 4 .2 cents per hour paid for.
Both premium pay and legally required payments per hour paid for in­
creased between the u n d er-20-em p loyee-size class to the 20—
99 size and then
declined for each succeeding size class.
By item , the expenditure rates were:
for premium pay— under 20 em ployees, 11.6 cents; 20 to 99 em ployees, 17.5
cents; 100 to 499 em ployees, 14. 2 cents; and 500 or more em ployees, 11.1 cents
per hour paid for.
For legally required payments, the equivalent figures were
1 8 .3 , 1 9 .7 , 1 7 .6 , and 13.9 cents, respectively.

Variations on Basis of Collective Bargaining Agreements
To determine whether there were differences in expenditures for supple­
mentary benefits between relatively "organized1 and "unorganized" establishm ents,
1
respondents were asked to report whether a majority of their employees were
covered by collective bargaining agreements or whether none or a minority were
under agreements.
The union establishments grouping reported higher expenditures, both
on the basis of percent of gross production worker payroll and of cents per
production worker hour paid for, for total paid leave and total private welfare
plans and reported lower expenditures for the sum of the premium pay items
and legally required payments.
(See table 30. )
The most significant differences were found in the private welfare plans,
for which the union mines contributed 12. 7 percent of gross payroll (primarily
contributions for health, accident, and life insurance and for pension and re tire­
ment plans), compared with 3. 9 percent for those mines with none or a minority
under contract.
On a cents per hour paid for b asis, these differences in ex­
penditure ratios were even more pronounced, 37. 0 cents as compared with
8.6 cents, respectively. Relative expenditures for yearend and Christmas bonuses,
in contrast with the insurance and pension plans, were higher in the group of
establishments with none or a minority of the workers under collective bargaining.
The differences for the sum of paid leave items were not quite as significant— 5. 9
percent of the gross production worker payroll for the class of establishments
with a majority of employees under contract compared with 3. 3 percent for the
relatively unorganized class. In cents per production worker hour paid for, these
expenditures were 17. 2 and 7. 1 cents, respectively.




52

Total premium pay expenditures in the union establishments amounted
to 4. 0 percent of gross production worker payroll as compared with 7 .4 percent
of the payroll for mines with none or a minority of employees under collective
bargaining.
The premium pay comparisons in terms of cents per production
worker hour paid for were 11.7 cents for union and 16. Z cents for nonunion.
Similarly, for the sum o f the legally required payments, the establishments in
the relatively organized category spent an amount equal to 5. 8 percent of their
gross production worker payroll, whereas the relatively unorganized establishments
spent an average of 8. 1 percent.
These payments ratios are much more sim ilar
when computed as cents per hour paid for— union establishments paying 16. 9 cents
and nonunion paying 17.7 cents per hour for legally required benefits.




Table 28.

Average Expenditures for Selected Supplementary Employee Remuneration Practices in Mining Industries by
Average Hourly Earnings Group, 1 I960
Percent of gross payroll

Percent of straight-tim e payroll

Cents pe r plant man-■hour

Average hourly earnings group—

Practice
Low

Middle

High

Low

7
7
5
3

2. 3
1 .4
.1
.8

3.
1.
.
1.

2
9
3
0

5 .9
3. 9
.5
1 .4

3.
2.
.
1.

(2)

. 1

(2)

(2)

. 1

6. 1

8. 0

4. 7

6. 5

8. 7

6. 1
(2)

7. 8
. 1

4. 1
.5

6. 5
(2)

8. 5
.2

8. 6

9 .0

5 .9

9 .2

9. 8

2 .9
1. 7
4. 1

2. 7
1 .4
4. 9

2. 4
1. 2
2. 2

3. 0
1 .8
4. 3

(2)

(2)

(2)

2. 1

3 .4

1 .0
.5
-

1. 2
1 .4
-

(2)
(2)
.1
.5

Low

Middle

Paid leave _____________________________
Vacations ___________________________
Sick leav e___________________________
Holidays_____________________________
M ilitary, jury, witness, voting,
and personal le a v e _______________

2. 2
1. 3
.1
.7

3. 0
1 .7
.3
.9

(2)

Premium pay-----------------------------------------Daily overtim e, weekly overtim e,
and weekend and holiday w o rk __
Shift differentials__________________
Legally required payments --------------O ld-age, survivors, and d is­
ability insurance (social
security) --------------------------------------Unemployment compensation _____
Workmen's compensation ________
Other, including temporary
disability insurance _____________
Private welfare plans _________________
Health, accident, and life
insurance _________________________
Pension and retirement plans_____
Vacation and holiday funds ______
Supplemental unemployment
benefits ___________________________
Severance or d ism issal p a y ______
Savings and thrift plans --------------Yearend and Christmas
bonuses ------------------------- -----------------

Cents. per hour paid for

High

5.
3.
.
1.

3
0
2
1

Middle

6. 2
3. 7
.6
1 .9

High

Low

17.
11.
1.
4.

3 .4
2. 1
.2
1. 1

6. 4
3. 8
.6
2. 0

1
3
6
0

Middle

High

18.
12.
1.
4.

2
0
7
3

(2)

(2)

.2

(2)

(2 )

.2

4 .9

9. 3

16. 8

14. 1

9. 5

17. 3

15. 0

4. 3
.6

9. 2
.1

16. 5
.3

12. 5
1. 6

9 .4
, 1

17. 0
.3

13. 2
1. 7

6. 2

13. 1

19. 0

17. 7

1 3 .4

19. 6

18. 8

2 .9
1. 6
5. 3

2. 5
1 .3
2. 3

4. 3
2. 6
6. 2

5. 7
3. 0
10. 3

7. 3
3. 7
6. 6

4. 4
2, 6
6. 3

5. 9
3. 1
10. 6

7. 8
4. 0
7. 0

(2)

(2 )

(2 )

(2)

(2)

. 1

(2)

(2)

1 1.5

2. 2

3. 6

12. 0

3. 2

7. 1

34. 6

3. 3

7. 3

36. 8

4. 2
6. 2
(2)

1 .0
.5
-

1. 3
1. 5
-

4. 4
6. 5
(2)

1 .4
.8
-

2. 6
2 .9
-

12. 7
18. 7
(2)

1. 5
.8
-

2. 7
3. 0
-

13. 5
19. 9
(2 )

(2)
(*)
(2)

.1
. 1
.6

(2)
(2)
. 1

(2 )
<*>
(2)

. 1
.2
.7

(2)
(2)
.1

(2)
(?)
(2)

.3
.4
1. 9

(2)
(2)
. 1

(2)
(*)
(2 )

.3
.5
2. 0

. 7

.2

.6

.2

.8

1 .5

.5

.8

1. 5

.5

.8

. 1

1 The establishments reporting to the survey were divided into 3 groups, each containing about one-third of the establishments.
The lower average hourly
earnings group included establishments reporting under $ 1 .8 0 per hour; the middle third, $ 1 .8 0 but under $ 2 .4 0 ; the higher earnings establishments, $ 2 .4 0 or more.
2 Less than 0. 05 percent or 0. 05 cent.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




VJI

Table 29.

Average Expenditures for Selected Supplementary Employee Remuneration Practices
in Mining Industries by Establishment Size Group, I960
Percent of straight-tim e payroll

Percent of gross payroll

Cents per hour paid for

Cents per plant man-hour

Establishments with—
500
Under 20 20-99
Under 20 20-99 100-499
or more
em ­
em­
em ­
em ­
em ­
em ­
ploy­
ploy­
ploy­
ploy­ ploy­
ploy­
ees
ees
ees
ees
ees
ees

Practice

3. 0
1.9
.9
.2

5. 2
3 .4
1 .2
.5

6. 8
4. 3
1.7
.8

2. 1
1 .5
.5
. 1

3.
2.
1.
.

2
1
0
2

500
500
Under 20 20-99 100-499
Under 20 20-99
100-499
or m ore
or m ore
em ­
em ­
em ­
em ­
em ­
em ­
em ­
em ­
ploy­
ploy­
ploy­ ploy­
ploy­
ploy­
ploy­
ploy­
ees
ees
ees
ees
ees
ees
ees
ees
5 .5
3. 6
1. 3
.5

7. 1
4. 5
1.7
.8

4. 1
2 .9
.9
. 1

6. 8
4. 4
2. 0
.3

19.8
12. 6
4 .8
2. 2

4. 1
3. 0
.9
. 1

7. 0
4. 5
2. 1
.4

500
100-499
or more
em ­
em ­
ploy­
ploy­
ees
ees
14.
9.
3.
1.

7
8
5
3

2 1 .4
13. 6
5. 2
2 .4

Paid le a v e _______________________________
V acation s____________________________
Holidays ------------------------------- ------- Sick leave ___________________________
M ilitary, jury, witness, voting,
and personal le a v e ________________

2. 0
1 .4
.4
. 1
(M

(M

(M

. 1

(l )

(l )

. 1

. 1

(l )

. 1

.2

(M

. 1

.2

Prem ium pay _______ ___________________
Daily overtim e, weekly overtim e,
and weekend and holiday w o r k ___
Shift differentials
_________________

5. 6

7. 7

5. 3

3. 8

5 .9

8 .4

5. 5

4. 0

11.6

17. 5

14. 2

11. 1

11.8

18. 0

14. 9

12. 0

5. 6
(M

7. 6
.1

4. 7
.5

3. 1
.7

5 .9
(M

8. 3
.1

5. 0
.5

3. 3
.7

11. 6
(M

17. 3
.2

12. 8
1 .4

9. 1
2. 0

11. 8
(M

17. 8
.2

13. 5
1. 5

9 .8
2. 2

8. 8

8. 7

6. 5

4. 8

9. 3

9 .4

6 .9

5. 0

18. 3

19.7

17. 6

13. 9

18. 6

20. 3

18. 5

15. 0

2. 7
1 .8
4. 3

2. 7
1.6
4. 4

2. 5
1. 3
2. 8

2 .4
1. 0
1.4

2 .9
1 .9
4. 5

2 .9
1.7
4. 8

2. 6
1. 3
3. 0

2. 5
1 .0
1 .4

5. 7
3.7
8 .9

6. 0
3. 6
10. 0

6. 6
3. 4
7. 5

7. 0
2 .9
4. 0

5. 8
3 .8
9. 1

6. 2
3. 7
10. 3

7. 0
3. 6
7 .9

7. 5
3. 2
4. 3

Legally required p ay m e n ts___________
O ld-age, survivors, and disability
insurance (social s e c u rity )______
Unemployment compensation _____
Workmen's com pensation__________
Other, including temporary
disability insurance ______________
Private welfare p la n s --------------------------Health, accident, and life
insurance __________________________
Pension and retirement plans _____
Vacation and holiday funds ________
Supplemental unemployment
benefits ____________________________
Severance or dism issal p a y _______
Savings and thrift plans -----------------Yearend and Christmas
bonuses ____________________________

n

Because of rounding,




. 1

(M

(l )

(l )

(l )

n

(l >

(M

(l )

(M

. 1

n

(M

(M

(M

(M

2. 6

4. 8

11.6

11.8

2. 7

5. 2

12. 3

12. 2

5. 3

11. 0

31. 3

34. 2

5. 4

11.3

33. 0

36. 9

1. 1
.9
“

2. 0
2. 2
“

4. 3
6. 2
(M

4. 0
6. 5

1 .2
.9
“

2. 2
2. 3
•

4. 6
6 .6
(l )

4. 2
6. 8
(M

2 .4
1. 8
-

4 .6
4 .9
-

11.7
16. 8

11.7
19. 0
(l )

2. 4
1. 8
-

4 .7
5. 0
-

12. 4
17. 7
(M

12. 6
20. 5
(M

(M
(M
. i

. 1
. 1
.5

. 1
.2
.8

-

(l )
. 1

. 1
.2
.8

-

n
(i >

. 1
. 1
.6

.3
.6
2. 5

.5

.3

.1

.5

.6

.3

. 1

-

( !)
(M
.5

C)

C)

1 Less than 0 .0 5 percent or 0 .0 5 cent.
NOTE:

13.9
9. 3
3. 3
1. 2

sums of individual items may not equal totals.

(')

•1

(l )

. 1
(M
.2

.2
.3
1 .4

.3
.6
2 .4

. 1
(l )

. 1
(M
.3

.3
.3
1. 5

1. 1

1. 2

.9

.2

1. 1

1 .2

.9

-

. 1

. 3

Table 30,

Average Expenditures for Selected Supplementary Employee Remuneration Practices in Mining Industries
by Collective Bargaining Agreement Coverage, I960
Percent of gross payroll

Percent oi!
straight-tim e payroll

Majority
covered

None or
minority
covered

Majority
covered

None or
minority
covered

Paid le a v e -----------------------------------------------Vacations --------------- — ---------------------Holidays -------------------------------------- -----Sick leave -----------------------------------------M ilitary, jury, w itness, voting,
and personal le a v e -------------------------

5 .9
4 .0
1 .4
. 5

3. 3
1.9
1.0
.4

6.
4.
1.
.

3. 5
2 .0
1 .0
.4

n

(*>

(l )

Prem ium p a y -------------—-------------------------Daily overtim e, weekly overtim e,
and weekend and holiday w o r k ----Shift differentials -----------------------------

4 .0

7 .4

3 .4
.6

7. 3
. 1

Legally required p ay m en ts-----------------O ld-age, survivors, and d is ­
ability insurance (social
s e c u rity )-----------------------------------------Unemployment com pen sation --------W orkm en s com pensation--------------Other, including temporary
disability in su ra n c e ------------- — —--

5. 8

Because of rounding,




Majority
covered

None or
minority
covered

Majority
covered

None or
minority
covered

2
8
0
4

7. 1
4. 1
2. 1
.8

0)

. 1

. 1

4. 2

8 .0

11 .7

16. 2

12. 5

16. 7

3. 5
.7

7 .9
. 1

9 .9
1 .9

15.9
. 2

10. 5
2. 0

16. 4
. 2

8. 1

6 .0

8. 8

1 6 .9

17.7

18.0

18. 3

2 .4
1. 3
2 .0

2 .6
1. 3
4. 2

2. 5
1 .4
2. 1

2. 8
1 .4
4. 5

7. 1
3 .9
5. 8

5. 7
2 .9
9. 1

7. 6
4. 1
6. 2

5 .9
3 .0
9 .4

(l )

(l )

(l )

(l )

. 1

(l )

. 1

(l )

1 2.7

3.9

13. 2

4. 2

3 7 .0

8 .6

39. 4

8 .8

5. 1
6 .9

.9
1. 8
■

5. 3
7. 2
(M

1 .0
1 .9
“

14. 8
2 0 .0
(l )

2. 1
3 .9
-

15. 8
21. 3
(')

2. 1
4 .0
-

C)

.2
.4

. 1
(l >
. 5

(l )
. 2
.4

.4
. 1
1. 4

(M
.4
.8

.4
. 1
1. 5

(l )
. 5
.9

.6

. 1

.7

. 3

1. 3

. 3

1 .4

n

. i
(l )
.5
. 1

2
2
4
5

1 L ess than 0 ,0 5 percent or 0 ,0 5 cent.
NOTE:

Cents per plant man-hour

Establishments with—

Practice

Private welfare plans —-----------------—— Health, accident, and life
insurance , -------------------------------------Pension and retirement plans — —
Vacation and holiday fu n d s ------------Supplemental unemployment
benefits — — ----------------------------------Severance or dism issa l p a y ----------Savings and thrift p l a n s ------ —— ----Yearend and Christmas
bonu s e s ------ --------. ---------- -----------------

Cents per hour paid for

sums of individual items may not equal totals.

17.
11.
4.
1.

18.
12.
4.
1.

4
5
2
4

7. 3
4. 2
2. 2
.9

. 1

. 1

Chapter VII. Composition o f Payroll Hours

During the past two decades, the practice of granting paid leave has
been extended progressively to production workers. As the number of paid leave
hours has grown, a need has evolved for statistics on plant hours, as well as
hours paid for, as a measure of the labor input factor of production.3
0
Previous chapters of this report have discussed paid leave in term s of
the relation of the expenditures to payroll or man-hours; this chapter presents
sim ilar comparisons of the paid leave hours (and plant hours) to total hours
paid for.
In I960, paid leave hours averaged 4.6 percent and plant hours 95.4
percent of the total hours for which production, development, and related work­
ers in the mining industries received pay.
The plant hours ratio ranged from
93.5 percent in metal mining to 96.8 and 96.9 percent in anthracite and bituminous
coal mining, respectively. In the other major groups studied, crude petroleum
and natural gas production registered 95.3 percent, and the mining and quarrying
of nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, 96.1 percent.
(See table 31.)
Paid leave hours as a percent of total hours paid for ranged from under
1 percent in some establishments to 12 percent and over in others. More than
one-fourth of the workers were in mining industry establishments with paid leave
hours constituting between 3 and 5 percent of total hours paid for.
There was
much uniformity of practice in anthracite mining, where 47.7 percent of the pro­
duction workers were in establishments whose paid leave hours fell into the
3 and under 4 percent class interval.
Bituminous coal was somewhat sim ilar,
but to a lesser degree; in establishments employing over half the workers, paid
leave hours were between 3 and 5 percent of total hours paid for. In metal
mining, 22.4 and 27.4 percent of the workers were in establishments whose paid
leave hours were 6 and under 7 percent and 8 and under 9 percent, respectively.
Significant clusterings were less apparent in the crude petroleum and natural gas,
and nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, major groups. (See table 34.)
For mining as a whole, the paid leave hours were distributed among
the several items of leave as follows: vacations, 2.9 percent of total hours paid
for; holidays, 1.2 percent; sick leave, 0.4 percent; and other leave, less than
0.0 5 percent.' Thus, vacations were the principal type of leave paid for, account­
ing for more than three-fifths of the total.
In each of the mining industries, also, vacations were of primary im ­
portance. In coal mining, they were virtually the only type of leave for which
pay was given, and in the other three major groups they accounted for well over
half o f all the leave paid for. As a proportion of total production worker hours
paid for, these paid vacation hours amounted to 4.0 percent in metal mining,
3.0 percent in both of the coal groups, 2.7 percent in crude petroleum and nat­
ural gas, and 2.4 percent in nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels.

3
0
The term "plant hours, " as used in this survey, covers all hours spent
at the place of work (e.g ., the mine, quarry, or oil property), and includes such
nonwork time as paid rest periods, paid lunch periods, standby time, reporting
time, and portal-to-portal time.
These plant hours were derived by deducting
the leave hours paid for from the total hours paid for.
Paid leave hours are
defined as the number of hours for which pay was received rather than the time
actually spent away from the plant. If a worker did not receive full pay for an
absence, leave hours represented the man-hours equivalent to the pay received.




56

57

Vacation benefits may also be appraised in term s of the length of vaca­
tion for which pay was received. (See table 38.) Respondents with paid vacation
plans were asked to specify the number of weeks’ vacation for which their pro­
duction, development, and related workers received pay.
The most typical
vacation period paid for in mining in I960 was 1 but less than 2 weeks, accounting
for almost half (47.5 percent) of the workers getting paid vacations. Alm ost a
third (30.5 percent) of the workers received pay for 2 but less than 3 weeks.
The preponderance of 1 but under 2 weeks’ vacation in mining as a whole reflects
primarily the practices in the coal mining industries, where virtually all the
workers (92.5 percent in anthracite and 88.4 percent in bituminous coal) were
paid for such vacations. In metal mining, 43.4 percent of the workers with paid
vacations were paid for 2 but less than 3 weeks; slightly more than one quarter
were paid for vacations of 1 but less than 2 weeks; and approximately an equal
number for 3 but less than 4 weeks. The principal proportions in the crude pe­
troleum and natural gas major groups were almost one-half with 2 but less than
3 weeks and one-fourth with 3 but less than 4 weeks; and in nonmetallic m inerals,
except fuels, they were almost one-half with 2 but less than 3 weeks and over
one-third with 1 but less than 2 weeks. It should be noted that these data refer
to the time paid fo r , not time off. Where, as is often the practice in coal mining,
the worker did not receive full pay for the absence, only the time equivalent to
the pay received was reported. A lso, the proportions here are percentages of
the total number of workers who received vacations, whereas in most of the
other distributions, the proportions are the ratio of workers in establishments
with (or without) the practices to workers in all establishments.

Paid holidays are of relatively less importance than paid vacations as a
source of paid leave in the mining industries. In I960, 1.2 percent of the hours
paid for were holiday hours, as compared with 2.9 percent for vacations. This
reflects both the fewer holiday hours paid for in those establishments which pay
for both holidays and vacations and the virtual absence of paid holidays in the
coal mining industries.
The UMW national bituminous coal and anthracite con­
tracts have no provisions for paid holidays. Only 0.1 percent of the hours paid
for in both the anthracite and bituminous coal groups were for paid holidays.
The proportions in the other major groups ranged from 1.3 percent in mining
and quarrying of nonmetallic m inerals, except fuels, and 1.4 percent in crude
petroleum and natural gas production, to 2.2 percent in metal mining.

Also of interest is the total of the number of holidays for which pro­
duction workers received holiday pay. Six to eight paid holidays was the general
practice in mining in I960. Establishments employing 14.7 percent of the workers
reported 6 days; those employing 15.6 percent reported 7 days; and those e m ­
ploying 16.1 percent, 8 days. However, as many as 45.2 percent of the workers,
primarily in coal mining, were in establishments which had no provisions for
paid holidays. In anthracite mining, the typical number of holidays was 7 days,
applying to 12.9 percent of the workers. However, 81.7 percent of the workers
were in establishments which provided no paid holidays. In bituminous coal and
lignite mining, so few workers were in establishments with a paid holiday prac­
tice— only 3.7 percent— that there seems to be no typical number of paid holidays.
In metal mining, the great bulk (74.3 percent) of the workers were in establish­
ments with 7 paid holidays, 16.4 percent in those with 6, and only 2.1 percent
in those with none. The principal proportions in the crude petroleum and natural
gas major group were 8 holidays, 33.1 percent; 6 holidays, 16.8 percent; no
paid holidays, 33.9 percent; and in mining and quarrying of nonmetallic m inerals,
except fuels, 6 days, 25.8 percent; 7 days, 16.4 percent; and no paid holidays,
33.3 percent.



58

Some sick leave hours were paid for in all major segments of mining.
These hours amounted to a maximum of 0.8 percent of the production worker
hours paid for in crude petroleum and natural gas production. In other major
groups, the proportion ranged from 0.3 percent of hours paid for in metal mining
down to less than 0.05 percent in both anthracite and bituminous coal.

Crude petroleum and natural gas producers were the only major group
that had a significant amount of other paid leave, constituting 0.1 percent of the
total production worker hours paid for for this group. In the other major groups,
such paid leave amounted to less than 0.05 percent of the payroll hours.




Table 31.

Plant Hours and Paid Leave Hours as a Percent of Total Hours Paid For by Mining Industry Group, I960

Total hours
paid for

Industry group

Paid leave hours 1
Plant hours
Total

Vacations

Holidays

Sick leave

Other 2

A ll industries ------------------------------------------— ------- —

100.0

95. 4

4 .6

2 .9

1. 2

0 .4

M etal mining 4 ---------------------------------- ------------------- —
Iron ores —------------------------------------- — — ----------Copper ores -----------------------------------------------------Lead and zinc ores ------------------------------ —--------Anthracite m in in g ---------------------------------------------- —
Bituminous coal and lignite m in in g ------------Crude petroleum and natural gas - - ------------------ —
Crude petroleum and natural gas
Oil and gas field services -------------- ----------——
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels — ------------------- ---------

100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100. 0
100.0

9 3 .5
92. 6
93. 2
93. 8
96. 8
9 6 .9
9 5 .3
92. 1
9 7 .9

6. 5
7 .4
6. 8
6. 2
3. 2
3. 1
4 .9
7 .9
2. 1

4. 0
4. 8
3. 8
4. 2
3 .0
3 .0
2. 7
4. 2
1. 2

2. 2
2. 5
2. 2
1 .9
. 1
. 1
1. 4
2. 1
.7

0. 3
(3)
.8
. 1
<3)
(3)
.8
1. 4
.2

(3)
0 •1
.2
(3)

100. 0

96. 1

3 .9

2. 4

1. 3

. 1

(3)

1
2
3
4

(?)

_

(\ )

(?)
(?)
(?)

Includes only leave for which the employer made payment direct to the worker. Employer contributions to funds that distribute benefits to workers are excluded.
Includes m ilitary, jury, witness, voting, and personal leave.
L ess than 0 .0 5 percent.
Includes industries not shown separately.

NOTE:

Because of rounding,




sums of individual items may not equal totals.

\
ji
NO

Table 32.

Plant Hours and Paid Leave Hours as a Percent of Total Hours Paid For by Establishment Size and Mining Industry Group, i960
Paid leave hours 1

Plant hours
Industry group

Vacations

Total
Under 20
100-499
20-99
employees employees employees

500
500
Under 20
20-99
100-499
or m ore
or more
employees employees employees
employees
employees

------------------------------

98. 1

97. 2

0
0

500
or more
employees

s
O

Under 20
20-99
100-499
employees employees employees

92. 8

1*9 _

2. 8

7. 2

1. 4

1. 8

3. 3

Metal mining - ------------------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite m in in g ----Crude petroleum and natural g a s --------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels --------- ------— -

9 7 .2
98. 2
98. 2

9 5 .7
97. 7
97. 6

9 3 .4
96. 6
93. 8

9 2 .9
96. 1
90. 5

2. 8
1. 8
1. 8

4. 3
2. 3
2. 4

6 .6
3. 4
6. 2

7. 1
3 .9
9. 5

1 .7
1. 7
1. 3

2. 6
2. 1
1 .4

4. 2
3. 3
3. 2

4. 3
3 .9
5 .0

97. 8

96. 6

95. 3

93. 0

2. 2

3. 4

4. 7

7 .0

1. 4

2. 2

2 .9

4. 3

A ll industries 2 ------

- 5. 2 . . .

-

4. 4

Paid leave hours 1— Continued

500
500
500
Under 20
Under 20
20-99
100-499
100-499
20-99
o r mo r 6
o r mo r 6
or more
employees employees employees
employees employees employees
employees
employees
employees

A ll industries 2 ---------------------------------------

0. 4

0 .9

1. 3

18
.

Metal mining ------------------------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite m in in g ----Crude petroleum and natural g a s --------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels -----------------------

1.

1
. 1
.4

1. 6
. 2
.8

2. 3
1. 7

2. 3
(4)
2. 6

.7

12
.

L 6

2. 1

1
2
3
4

Includes only leave for which the employer made payments direct to worker.
Includes industries not shown separately.
Includes m ilitary, jury, w itness, voting, and personal leave.
L ess than 0. 05 percent.

NOTE:

Because of rounding,




Other 3

Sick leave

Holidays
Under 20
20-99
100-499
employees employees employees

sums of individual items may not equal totals.

0. 1

0. 1

12
.

(4)
(4 )

0. 4
(4)
1. 8

0. 1

(4)

. 2

. 6

(?)

0.1

0. 1

-

(4)
(4)

0. 1

(4 )
-

(4 )
4
(4)
0 .2

(4)

(4)

(4 )

(4)

- J 4>

(4 )
0. 2

(4)

(4 )

0. 8

(4)

0

(4)

0. 5

Employer contributions to funds that distribute benefits to workers are excluded.

Table 33.

Plant Hours and Paid Leave Hours as a Percent of Total Hours Paid For by Collective Bargaining Agreement Coverage
and Mining Industry Group, I960
Plant hours

I

Paid lea/ve hours *
Establishments with.—

Industry group
covered

Vacations

Total

None or
minority
covered

Majority
covered

None or
minority
covered

Majority
covered

Holidays

TTone or
minority
covered

Majority
covered

Sick leave

None or
minority
covered

Majority
covered

Other 1
2

None or
minority
covered

None or
minority
covered

Majority
covered

All industries 3 --------------------------------------

9 3 .8

9 6 .9

6. 2

3. 1

4. 1

1 .8

1. 5

0 .9

0. 5

0. 3

Metal mining ---------------------- — — -----Bituminous coal and lignite mining —
Crude petroleum and natural g a s ------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ----------------------

9 3 .2
96. 3
8 9 .4

96. 0
98. 8
9 6 .5

6. 8
3 7
'f. 6

3. 9
1 .2
3. 5

4. 2
3 .7
5 .4

2. 2
1. 0
2. 0

2. 3
(4 )
2. 8

1.7
.2
1. 0

0. 3
(4 )
2. 2

(J)
(4 )
0. 5

(4 )
(4 )
0. 2

(4 )
'4 )

9 4 .4

9 7 .9

5 .6

2. 1

3. 6

1. 2

1. 8

.8

.2

. 1

(4 )

(4 )

1
2
3
4

Includes only leave for which the employer made payment direct to worker.
Includes m ilitary, jury, witness, voting, and personal leave.
Includes industries not shown separately.
L ess than 0. 05 percent.

NOTE: Because of rounding,

Table 34.

(4 )

Employer contributions to funds that distribute benefits to workers are excluded.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Paid Leave H ours1 as a Percent of Total Hours Paid For
and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of workers in establishments with—
Workers
in all
Paid leave hours as a percent of total hours paid for of—
estab­
No paid
lish­
5 and
2 and
3 and
4 and
6 and
8 and
1 and
7 and
12
9 and
10 and
11 and
Under 1
leave
ments
under 2 under 3 under 4 under 5 under 6 under 7 under 8 under 9 under 10 under 11 under 12 percent
percent
percent percent percent percent percent percent percent percent percent percent percent and over

A ll industries __________________________

100. 0

18.4

Metal mining 2 — -----------------------------------Iron ores
_________________ _________
Copper ores
_____________________
Lead and zinc ores _________________
Anthracite mining ____________ _ ___
Bituminous coal and lignite mining —
Crude petroleum and natural gas 2 ___
Crude petroleum and
natural gas ________________ _— ----Oil and gas field services _________
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ______________

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0. 7
.2
.4
15. 7
18. 6
2 2 .4

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

6. 1

4 .7

6. 2

14. 3

Because of rounding,

11. 8

6. 2

7. 2

5. 0

6 .4

5 .8

2. 0

3. 0

2 2 .4
13.9
2 5 .9
43. 0
.9
2. 6
3 .5

9 .2
8 .4
1 1.9
22. 4
1. 1
.3
6. 3

2 7 .4
41. 0
27. 0
2. 2

1.6
3 .9

0. 5
1. 5

. 1
2 .5

4. 7
7. 3
5. 9
.8
.3
.7
10. 6

2'. 9
10. 1

0 .9
.3
1.6
.9
2. 6
7. 2

3. 3
.2
2. 2
13. 0
U .9
4. 0

7. 2
2 .4
3. 5
7. 3
47. 7
25 .7
8. 6

9. 3
1 4.4
6. 0
5. 1
16. 5
28. 1
4. 7

12. 5
6 .4
1 9 .4
13. 7
3. 3
5 .7
2. 9

5 .6
39. 1

3. 7
16. 6

.6
13.7

1.8
6. 1

6 .9
10.6

7. 8
2. 2

4 .4
1.7

6. 1
1. 3

10. 0
2. 6

1.5
3. 4

18. 6
.5

23. 0

5 .9

5. 1

5. 2

13.7

8. 1

10. 3

10. 8

5. 2

8. 6

3. 0

0 .3
.2
-

1 Includes only leave for which the employer made payment direct to worker.
2 Includes industries not shown separately.




■ ) .......
■
“

sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Industry group

NOTE:

.

sums of individual items may not equal totals.

-

-

-

1.5
.5
. 1
4. 2

-

8 .9
-

3 .0

_
-

-■

-

-

-

6 .9

0 .9
6. 1

13. 2
.4

10.8
1.8
1. 0

Employer contributions to funds that distribute benefits to workers are excluded.

OS

Table 35.

Cs

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Paid Vacation Hours 1 as a Percent
of Total Hours Paid For and Mining Industry Group, I960

to

Percent of workers in establishments with—
W orkers
in all
establish­
ments

No paid
vacations

A ll industries -----------------------------------------------

100. 0

Metal mining 1 ------------- ----------------------------—
2
Iron o r e s __ __ ________ ________ ___ ___ __
Copper ores ---------- —-------------------------------Lead and zinc ores --------------------------------Anthracite mining _____ - ___________________
Bituminous coal and lignite mining ---------Crude petroleum and natural gas * ----------Crude petroleum and natural g a s --------Oil and gas field services --------------- -----Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fu e ls------------------------------

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

100. 0

Industry group

Paid vacation hours as a percent of total hours paid for of—

Because of rounding,

6 and
under 7
percent

7 and
under 8
percent

17. 3

11. 3

4. 2

0. 5

1. 3

26. 3
11 .9
58. 2
35. 6
10. 9
29. 0
10. 8
18. 6
3. 7

20 .0
37. 3
22. 4
3. 3
5. 1
14. 2
25. 7
.4

4. 1
8. 6
3 .7
.9
1. 4
7. 2
15. 4
“

2. 6
6, 5
.8
1. 1
. 2
(3)
”

1. 4
3. 9
. 8
1. 8
1. 1
. 5
1. 8

7. 0

1. 5

. 1

1 and
under 2
percent

2 and
under 3
percent

3 and
under 4
percent

19. 0

7 .9

8. 2

11.9

18. 4

0 .9
.2
.4
15. 7
18. 6
22. 7
6. 3
39. 1

1. 8
.4
2 .9
13.9
3. 7
24.0

7 .0
2. 4
5. 0
3. 8
3. 3
2. 8
10. 6
3. 2
18. 0

1 6 .4
20. 0
9 .5
1 1 .4
16. 5
13. 2
8. 2
9 .8
7. 1

1 9 .6
8. 6
26. 8
22. 3
47. 4
25. 3
11. 1
16. 7
5 .9

25. 3

6. 5

11. 3

14. 6

21. 8

11 .0

_

1 Includes only vacation hours for which the employer made payment direct to the worker.
to workers are excluded.
2 Includes industries not shown separately.
3 L ess than 0 .0 5 percent.
NOTE:

5 and
under 6
percent

Under 1
percent

4 and
under 5
percent

8
percent
and over

.9

Employer contributions to funds which distribute vacation benefits

sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 36.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Paid Holiday H ours1 as a Percent
of Total Hours Paid For and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of workers in establishments with—
W orkers
in all
establish­
ments

No paid
holidays

All industries -----------------------------------------------

100. 0

45. 2

Metal mining 3 ----------------------------------------------Iron ores -------------------------------------------------Copper ores --------------------------------------------Lead and zinc ores --------------------------------Anthracite m in in g ----------------------------------------Bituminous coal and lignite mining ---------Crude petroleum and natural gas ------------Crude petroleum and natural g a s --------Oil and gas field services --------------------Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels -----------------------------

1 0 0 .0
100. 0
100. 0
10 0 .0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
10 0 .0
10 0 .0

2. 1
.8
.4
1. 6
81. 7
96. 1
33.9
11. 0
56. 8

100. 0

33. 3

Industry group

Paid holiday hours as a percent of total hours paid for of—
Under 1
percent

1 and
under 2
percent

of rounding,

3 and
under 4
percent

4 and
under 5
percent

5 and
under 6
percent

0. 3

0. 1

7 .4

14. 4

26. 8

5. 8

1. 1
4. 2
15. 7
1. 5
1 1 .4
7 .0
16. 3

28. 1
12. 6
29. 6
56. 1
1. 1
16. 5
18. 4
1 5 .4

67. 6
84. 5
6 9 .4
3 8 .0
2. 6
1. 3
26. 2
40. 0
1 1 .0

1. 1
2. 1
. 5
11. 2
23. 3
~

9 .6

1 8 .4

33. 0

5 .4

. 1

-

1 Includes only holiday leave for which the employer made payment direct to the worker.
to workers are excluded.
2 L ess than 0. 05 percent.
3 Includes industries not shown separately.


NOTE:
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ Because
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2 and
under 3
percent

sums of individual items may not equal totals.

6
percent
and over
(2)

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0. 6
. 3
. 5

0. 2
~

-

“

0. 1

Employer contributions to funds which distribute holiday benefits




Table 37.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Paid Sick Leave Hours
as a Percent of Total Hours Paid For and Mining Industry Group, I960
Percent of workers in establishments with—

Industry group

Workers
in all
establish­
ments

No paid
sick leave

A ll industries ___________________________________

100. 0

73. 7

Metal mining 1 ______________ _____ ______________
2
Iron ores _____________________________________
Copper ores _________________________________
Lead and zinc o r e s __________________________
Anthracite m in in g_______________________________
Bituminous coal and lignite mining ___________
Crude petroleum and natural gas 2 ____________
Crude petroleum and natural g a s __________
Oil and gas field services __________________
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ------------------------------------

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

83.
99.
58.
88.
89.
95.
53.
23.
82.

Paid sick leave hours as a percent of
total hours paid for of—
1 and
2 and
3 and
Under 1
under 2
under 3
under 4
percent
percent
percent
percent

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

100. 0

8. 2

6
7
0
5
1
4
2
7
9

4.
.
4.
10.
10.
4.
10.
14.
7.

12. 1

4. 2

1. 9

9. 6

0. 1

1. 8

-

-

-

31. 2
1. 5
.6
22. 9
33. 6
9. 6

-

9. 9
21. 1
-

5. 9
3. 9
7. 4
.4

13. 6

80. 8

9
3
9
0
9
1
2
1
1

5. 5

. 1

“

1 Includes only sick leave for which the employer made payment direct to the worker.
2 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 38.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers Receiving Vacation Pay 1 by Number of Weeks
of Vacation Pay and Mining Industry Group, I960

Industry group

A ll workers
receiving
vacation pay

Percent of workers receiving vacation pay of—
Under 1
week

1 and
under 2
weeks

2 and
under 3
weeks

3 and
under 4
weeks

4
weeks
and over

A ll industries ____________________________________

100. 0

4. 2

47. 5

30. 5

14. 0

3. 9

Metal mining 2 __________________________________
Iron ores _____________________________________
Copper ores -------- ------ -----------------------------------Lead and zinc ores __________________________
Anthracite m in in g_______________________________
Bituminous coal and lignite mining ___________
Crude petroleum and natural ga s2 ____________
Crude petroleum and natural g a s __________
Oil and gas field services __________________
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
m inerals, except fuels ___________ ____________

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2. 9
2. 1
.7
5 .4
2. 8
7. 7
1. 9
.4
5. 9

26. 4
26. 7
2 2 .4
25. 6
92. 5
88. 4
13. 4
7. 3
30. 8

4 3 .4
39. 5
51. 9
35. 3
4. 6
3. 1
48. 4
45. 8
54. 5

26. 5
30. 7
24. 9
33. 7
.5
25. 0
31. 0
8. 3

0 .9
1. 0
. 1
. 3
11. 2
15. 5
.4

100. 0

2. 0

34. 1

49. 7

12. 3

1. 9

1 Includes only vacations for which the employer made payment direct to the worker.
Employer contributions to funds which
distribute vacation benefits to workers are excluded. Data are in term s of the number of weeks equivalent to the pay received. Where
vacation benefits are a percentage of the w orkers’ annual earnings, the pay was converted to equivalent weeks.
2 Includes industries not shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 39.

Distribution of Production, Development, and Related Workers by Number of Days of Paid Holidays
and Mining Industry Group, I960

No paid
holidays

100. 0

45. 2

100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2. 1
.8
.4
1.6
8 1 .7
96. 1
33 .9

_

_

_

_

2. 2

-

-

100. 0
100. 0

11. 0
56. 8

2 .5
2. 0

_
_

100. 0

Industry group

33. 3

.

All industries ___________________________

Lead and zinc ores _________________
Anthracite m in in g ________ „_____________
Bituminous coal and lignite mining ___
Crude petroleum and natural gas * ----Crude petroleum and
n a tu r a l
O il

an rl

p a s

g a s

.

______

fie ld

Percent of workers in establishments providing—

Workers
in all
establishments

s e rv ir .e s

Paid holidays of—
1 day

2 days

IV2 days

2 V2

days

3 days

0 .4

days

0 .5

4 V2

(2 )

_

_
_

-

-

1. 1

_

_

.3

-

3. 0
3. 2

_
_

9 .8

.3
2. 5

.6
5

_
_

1. 1
3. 0

0. 2

2 .7

0 .3

_

_

_

_

0. 2

-

-

.

5 V2 days

3. 1

_

_

5 days

1.6

..

_

days

2. 5

5. 5
.5

-

4 days

0. 1

0. 5

0 .7

1 ,0

3 V2

.4
4 .6

_

-

Mining and quarrying of nonmetaiiic
r n in p r g ls (

e v r e p t

fu e ls

.

__ -

7

.

6 days

All industries
\/fe ta l

Iro n

o r e s

C o p p e r

..

_

_____

o r e s

I ,ea^ ^n r l
A n tV > ra rite

14.7

---------------------------------------------------------------------

3

m in ln o '

....

7,i n r

o r e s

.

.......................

_
___ _

............................ . . . . . . . . . . .
__. . . .

_

_______ _
_

.
.........

m in in o

g a s

_ _

_

__ _____

Oil an^ gaR
s e r v ir e s
Mining and quarrying of nonmetaiiic
m i n e r a ls

1
workers
2
3

e v r e n t

fu e ls

16.4
2 .4
18. 0
57. 9

days

0.8

_
_

1.8
2. 6
16. 8

_
1 .9

10. 6

_

23. 5

_____

_______

Bituminous coal and lignite mining ----- _____________ _____________
Crude petroleum and natural gas T ------ _____________ _____________ ____________
Crude petroleum and
n a tu r a l

6 V2

6

3. 7

25. 8

Includes only holidays for which the employer made payment direct to the worker.
are excluded.
L ess than 0. 05 percent.
Includes industries not shown separately.

NOTE:

Because of rounding,




sums of individual items may not equal totals.

1.9

7 days

7 V2

days

1. 1

8

days

15. 6

16. 1

74. 3
9 1 .9
78. 9
35. 0
12. 9
1. 1
4. 2

8 V2

days

3. 1
4. 8

5. 5
2. 6
16 .4

_

_
_

2. 2
-

_
_

33. 1
62. 3
3. 1
9. 4

0. 1

9

days

9 V2

days

0 .4

1 0 days
or m ore

0, 1

_

_

_

_
0. 3

_
1. 0

_
-

_
-

.6

2. 2

_
_

0 .8

Employer contributions to funds which distribute holiday benefits to the

Appendix A: Survey Methods and Definitions
Scope of Survey and Industry Classification
This study of expenditures for selected supplementary remuneration practices for
production, development, and related workers covers all establishments having one or more
paid employees and primarily engaged in mining, as defined in the 1957 edition of the Standard
Industrial Classification Manual prepared by the Office of Statistical Standards, U. S. Bureau
of the Budget. Mining is here used in the broad sense to include the extraction of minerals
occurring naturally, i. e. , solids, such as coal and ores; liquids, such as crude petroleum;
and gases, such as natural gas.
The term "m ining" is also used in the broad sense to
include quarrying, well operation, milling (crushing, screening, washing, flotation, e t c .), and
other preparation needed to render the material marketable. Exploration and development of
mineral properties are included. Services performed on a contract, fee, or other basis in
the development of mineral properties are classified separately but within this division. A l­
though the definition includes central offices of mining establishments and auxiliary units
operated primarily for the use of the mining establishments rather than public use, such as
laboratories, warehouses, and repair shops, these offices or units were included in this
survey only if they employed production, development, and related workers.
Mining operations are classified by industry, on the basis of the principal mineral
produced, or, if there is no production, on .the basis of the principal mineral for which
development work is in process.
The mining of culm banks, ore dumps, and tailing piles
is classified as mining according to the mineral product derived.
Excluded from the SIC definition of mining are the purification and distribution of
water, harvesting and storage of natural ice, bottling and distributing of natural spring and
mineral waters, and the crushing, grinding, or otherwise treating of certain earths, rocks,
and minerals not in conjunction with mining activities.
The classification of the individual industry groups also follows the 1957 SIC.
The
tables by industry generally show separate data for the 5 major industry groups (i. e. ,
2-digit SIC major group) and 5 of the 20 industry groups (i. e . , 3-digit SIC group within
the major groups).
Survey coverage extended to the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Data relate
to the calendar year I960, and were limited to production, development, and related workers.
Collection of Data
Data were collected primarily by mail questionnaire.
A copy of the questionnaire is
reproduced in appendix B.
Bureau economists collected data by personal visit to large multiunit employers and to a sample of the nonrespondents to two mail requests.
Sampling Procedure
The survey was conducted on the basis of a highly stratified probability sample.
Data were obtained from establishments selected in accordance with industry, location, and
establishment size.
The sample design was such as to permit presentation of data for major
industry groups (2-digit SIC codes) and a selected number of subgroups (3-digit SIC codes)
on a national level.
In all cases, the lists of establishments from which the sample was selected were
those maintained by the State agencies administering the unemployment compensation laws.
These lists show the employment, industry classification, and location of all establishments
covered by those laws in each State.
Since a number of States do not include under such
laws establishments with fewer than four employees, the sample did not include such units.
(See Method of Estimation for treatment of the employment in such establishm ents.)




65

66
Within each industry grouping, the sample was so selected as to yield the most
accurate estimates possible with the resources available. This was done by including in the
sample a greater proportion of large establishments than of small— in general, an estab­
lishment’ s chance of inclusion was roughly proportionate to its employment size.
The initial solicitations, either by mail or personal visit, included some 1,500 estab­
lishments. In addition, personal visits were made to almost 200 establishments out of about
675 nonrespondents to the two mail requests. In all, usable replies were obtained from about
825 establishments, employing over 165,000 production, development, and related workers.
Method of Estimation
Data for each sample establishment were weighted in accordance with the probability
of selection of that establishment. For instance, where 1 establishment out of 10 was s e ­
lected in a size-industry class, it was considered as representing itself as well as 9 other
establishments, i. e ., it was given a weight of 10. Thus, if the establishment had 2, 000 hours
of vacation leave and 100,000 hours of paid hours of all classes, it would contribute 20,000 va­
cation hours and 1, 000,000 total hours to the final estimate.
All estimated totals derived from such weighting procedures were further adjusted
in accordance with the level of gross man-hours for I960, as based on data from the Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics monthly employment, hours, and earnings se ries.
For instance,
if an industry class had estimated gross man-hours of 900, 000, as derived from the weighting
process, and the corresponding man-hours as estimated from the employment, hours, and
earnings series was 990, 000, the total for that industry was multiplied by 1 .1 .
In bitu­
minous coal mining, employment— rather than man-hours— was the basis of adjustment be­
cause of the effect of unpaid holidays.
Data for establishments with 1 to 3 employees, which were not included in the
sample, were imputed to the establishments with 4 to 10 employees in the same industry
class.
The former accounted for less than 3 percent of mining employment.
In order to minimize the bias of nonresponse, the sample returns (obtained by
personal visit) from the nonrespondents to the mail inquiry were weighted to represent all
other nonrespondents in the same industry-size cla sses. No assumption has been made that
the nonrespondents were similar to the respondents in their expenditures for the selected
items studied.
Reporting Problems
Separate data by establishment, practice, and class of employee (production worker)
were collected in most cases. However, all companies do not keep records in such manner
as to be able to furnish actual figures in this detail, and some approximations had to be ac­
cepted.
Two types of estimates were used.
F irst, where records were kept only for a
broader group of employees than production, development, and related workers in the sample
establishment, the prorated share for the employees included in the survey was estimated on
the basis of employment, man-hours, or payroll, whichever was most appropriate. Second,
using collateral data, estimates were made in certain cases where records were not kept or
were summarized only for specific practices.
For example, the expenditures for holiday
pay might be estimated by multiplying the number of hours paid for holiday leave by average
hourly earnings.
It should be noted that errors in the use of estimating procedures would have to be
in the same direction in each case (overstatement or understatement of actual values) to
have a cumulative effect on the accuracy of the results.
Analysis of the data from two
similar surveys provided evidence to support acceptance of estimated data where necessary.
Thus, a methodological study led to the conclusion that nVirtually no significant difference
was reflected by the averages for actual figures and for all reporting establishments com­
bined; that is, the inclusion of estimated figures had only a negligible effect on overall




67
data. 1,31 A study of the composition of payroll hours in manufacturing concluded that "The
difference in level of paid leave between establishments supplying actual and those providing
estimated figures is generally small . . . within most industry divisions. 1,3
2
Production, Development,

and Related Workers

The definition of "production, development, and related w orkers" as used in this
bulletin is identical with that in the Bureau's monthly employment, hours, and earnings series.
The term includes:
For coal, metal and nonmetallic mining, and quarrying— working
foremen and all nonsupervisory workers (including leadmen and trainees)
engaged in excavation, haulage, trucking, hoisting, ventilation, drainage,
drilling, blasting, loading, crushing, processing, inspecting, receiving,
storing, handling, warehousing, shipping, maintenance, repair, janitorial,
watchman services, development (except construction performed by a sepa­
rate work force), auxiliary production for plant*s own use (e. g. , powerplant), and recordkeeping, and other services closely associated with the
above production operations.
For crude petroleum, natural gas, and nat­
ural gasoline production— working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers
(including leadmen and trainees) engaged in rig building, drilling, flowcontrol, pumping, cleaning, processing, inspecting, storing, handling, ship­
ping, maintenance, repair, janitorial, watchman services, development (ex­
cept construction performed by a separate work force), auxiliary production
for plant*s own use (e. g. , powerplant), clerical field force working on the
producing property, and recordkeeping, and other services closely a sso ­
ciated with the above production operations.
For all industries covered, the term "production, development, and related w orkers"
excludes employees engaged in the following activities: Executive; supervisory (above the
working foreman level); purchasing; finance; accounting; legal; personnel; cafeteria; medical,
professional, and technical; sales; sales-delivery; advertising; credit; collection; and routine
office functions.
Gross Payroll
Gross payroll covers the total amount paid to production, development, and related
workers during I960.
It includes pay for overtime, standby time, travel time within mines(portal-to-portal pay), holidays, vacations, sick leave, and other leave paid by the establish­
ment directly to the worker.
Also included are bonuses not paid regularly each pay period
(e. g. , Christmas bonuses) and pay not earned during the year (e. g. , retroactive pay, d is­
m issal pay).
A ll payments are prior to deductions such as employee*s OASDI, withholding
taxes, group insurance, union dues, and savings bonds.
It follows the definition of gross pay
that is used for the Federal income tax withholding form.
Straight-Time Payroll
Straight-time payroll is the gross payroll less premium pay for overtime and for
work on weekends, paid holidays, and late shifts.
Hours Paid For
Hours paid for includes the total number of man-hours for which jaay was given in
I960.
(Total man-hours are those that are related to the gross pay.)
They include "plant"
man-hours (i. e. , man-hours spent at the establishment during regular workdays as well as
during holiday and vacation periods that were not taken), man-hours paid for standby or r e ­
porting time, and the man-hours equivalent to pay for time spent away from the "plant"
during paid holidays, paid vacations, etc.
31 Problems in Measurement of Expenditures on Selected Items of Supplementary E m ­
ployee Remuneration, Manufacturing Establishments, 19$3 (BLS B u lle tin 1186, 1956), p.
32 Composition of Payroll Hours in Manufacturing, 1958 (BLS Bulletin 1283, I960), p. 25.




68
Plant Hours
"Plant1 hours are total hours paid for less paid leave (i. e. , vacations; sick leave;
1
holidays; and military, jury, witness, voting, and personal leave).
They include all hours
spent at work, including paid travel time within mines (portal-to-portal pay), paid rest
periods, paid lunch periods, and standby or reporting time.
Paid Leave
Paid leave expenditures include only payments made by the company directly to the
worker; employer payments to union or other vacation funds (which occur only rarely in
mining) were treated as private welfare plans. Similarly, company payments to insurance
carriers or special funds, which pay health and sickness benefits to workers, were clas­
sified as private welfare plans rather than paid sick leave.
In the few States where tem­
porary disability insurance is required by law, company payments made directly to workers
under self-insurance provisions of the law were considered legally required payments rather
than sick leave pay.
The hours of paid leave include man-hours or man-hour equivalents
of the pay given to the worker directly by the company for vacations, holidays, sick leave,
and "other leave" (military, jury, witness, voting, or personal). Man-hour equivalents were
determined by dividing the amount of the payment for the item by average hourly earnings.
Premium Pay
Premium pay for overtime includes only the pay above the regular straight-time
rates.
Thus, if overtime was paid at time and one-half, only the half time was reported.
Premium pay for work on a paid holiday excludes the regular straight-time pay for the work
performed and the holiday pay the worker would have received if he had not worked.
Only
the extra pay was reported.
Shift differential payments include only the extra pay above
the regular hourly rates for the day shift.
They cover not only differentials paid in the
form of higher hourly rates, but also special payments to late-shift workers for meal
periods and for any other hours not worked by them but paid for (e. g. , if late-shift work­
ers receive 8 hours1 pay for l lf z hours1 work, compared with 8 hours* work for the day
shift, total expenditures for the V2 hour*s pay were reported as shift differential).
Expenditure Ratios (Rates) for All Establishments vs. Ratios
(Rates) for Establishments with Expenditures for the Practice
Expenditure ratios for "a ll establishments" represent the expenditures for the supple­
ment divided by the payroll for all establishments-— both those with and without expenditures—
whereas the ratios for "establishments with expenditures for the practice" relate the same
expenditures to the payroll of only those establishments that reported actual expenditures for
the supplement. The former measure can be related to published data for entire industries,
such as average hourly earnings shown in the BLS monthly series. The latter measure is
useful for determining the average expenditure by firm s that actually have the practice.
The
expenditure rates represent the same expenditures divided by the corresponding man-hours.
Both the expenditures and the payrolls (man-hours) to which they are related pertain
to production, development, and related workers only.
Reporting and Presentation Problems of the Coal Mining
Welfare and Pension Funds
The coal industries provided special problems regarding the treatment of the bitu­
minous coal industry UMW Welfare and Retirement Fund and the Anthracite Health and
Welfare Fund.
Employers with collective bargaining agreements with the UMW make contributions to
these funds for each ton of coal produced for use or sale. In I960, the royalty per ton was
40 cents under the bituminous coal fund and 70 cents under the anthracite fund.
These
royalties were paid in lump sums by the mine operators who were not in a position to report
on the exact breakdown of the contributions among the various benefits provided by their in­
dustry fund.
The operators reported total expenditures to the survey which were then pro­
rated by BLS among the applicable benefits on the basis of the two funds* expenditures, as
stated in their annual reports.




69
Since the tonnage royalties are payable at the point where the coal is shipped to
market or for use, the payments are not necessarily made where the coal leaves the mine
shaft but may be made where the coal is further processed by another establishment of the
same company or by another company.
As a result, some mines with contracts with the
UMW had no contributions to report on the coal they mined, although the workers who dug this
coal were eligible for the benefits of the funds; on the other hand, some breakers and washers
which processed coal mined by others reported fund payments for all of the coal they proc­
essed. The payments of the latter were therefore disproportionately high in relation to their
payrolls. These situations could distort the industry averages shown for only establishments
reporting expenditures and the individual establishment expenditure ratios shown in the distrir
bution tables.
Therefore, for total private welfare plans; health, accident, and life insur­
ance; and pension and retirement plans the industry ratios of expenditures to payroll for
"only the establishments reporting expenditures" were adjusted to include the payrolls of
union establishments which reported no contributions to the funds.
(Similar adjustments
were made on the hours used to derive the rates for m a n -h o u rs.) The assumption that all
"union" establishments without such expenditures had contracts with the UMW introduces a
very minor bias because other unions are relatively unimportant in the coal mining indus­
tries.
No such adjustments were possible for the distribution tables for the benefits in­
volved.
Therefore, for mining as a whole, and for anthracite and bituminous coal mining
separately, no distributions of workers by cents per hour and by percent of payroll were
tabulated for total private welfare plans; health, accident, and life insurance; and pension
and retirement plans.
Practices Covered
This study is limited to employer outlays paid either directly to employees or in­
directly in the form of legally required social insurance payments or contributions to private
welfare plans.
Consequently, expenditures for such items as in-plant medical care, cafe­
terias, and parking facilities have been excluded.

Furthermore, no attempt has been made to cover all types of payments to em ­
ployees. The data relate only to the selected practices itemized in the tables.
Generally
those omitted either were not commonly applicable to production workers in mining or
were practiced largely on an informal basis which precluded valid measurement.
A l­
though some of the omitted practices may occasion important expenditures in particular e s ­
tablishments, the selected expenditures for which data are presented are believed to con­
stitute the major elements of supplementary employee remuneration in the broad industry
groups shown in the tables. Among the excluded practices were in-plant nonwork time paid
for, such as paid rest periods, stock bonus plans, and some other irregular payments.
As
noted in the introduction, travel time within mines, which has been held to be working time,
was not examined.







Appendix B: Questionnaire
Budget Bureau No. 44—
6023
Approval expires December 31, 1961

BLS 2713
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

Your report w ill be held in confidence.
It w ill be seen only by sworn employ*
ees of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
W a s h i n g t o n 25, D .C .

EXPENDITURES FOR SELECTED SUPPLEMENTARY EMPLOYEE REMUNERATION
PRACTICES IN M
INING INDUSTRIES, 1960
1, CO PAN IDENTIFICATION:
M
Y

2. ESTABUSHM
ENT IDENTIFICATION:
Location of establishment for which data are requested
if different from company address. An ’ ’ establishm ent"
is generally defined as a single physical location where
mining or development of mineral properties takes place.

Many employers in the United States are financing private, as w ell as legally required plans, for their employees* health,
welfare, security, and leisure. These employer expenditures often represent substantial elements of cost to the employer as well
as income to the employee. The Bureau of Labor Statistics is conducting its first comprehensive survey of the extent and amount
of these expenditures in the Nation’ s mining industries. The statistical summaries w ill be published in a form that will not dis­
close any information relating to an individual company and no data will be published by company name.

P L E A S E R E A D I N S T R U C T IO N S H E E T S B E F O R E C O M P L E T IN G T H IS F O R M .
3.

M A JO R P R O D U C T :
What w a s th e p r in c ip le m in e r a l (s ) p r o d u c e d o r fo r w h ic h d e v e lo p m e n t w a s in p r o g r e s s a t t h is e s t a b l is h m e n t d u rin g i 9 6 0 ?

4.

S IZ E O F

E S T A B L I S H M E N T ------- A L L

EM PLOYEES:

What w a s th e t o t a l nu m b er o f a ll e m p l o y e e s ( i n c l u d i n g fu ll-t im e a n d p a r t-tim e ) o n th e p a y r o l l o f t h is e s t a b l is h m e n t d u rin g
th e p a y

5.

p e r io d

e n d in g n e a r e s t M arch 1 5 , I 9 6 0 ?

_____________________________,

E M P L O Y M E N T -------P R O D U C T I O N , D E V E L O P M E N T , A N D R E L A T E D W O R K E R S :
E n te r th e t o t a l n u m b er o f p r o d u c t io n , d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d r e la t e d w o rk e r s w h o w o rk e d or r e c e i v e d p a y
e n d in g n e a r e s t th e 15th o f e a c h m onth o f I 9 6 0 .

January

August

March

Septem ber
FOR BLS USE ONLY

A pril

O ctob er

May

Novem ber

Tune

W ORKERS

D ecem ber

b e r e p o r t e d , in t h e
in

th e

th e c o m b in e d

it e m s w h ic h

e s t a b lis h m e n t

fig u r e s on

th e co m p a n y

c o m b in e d

fig u r e

and

F o r a fig u r e re la tin g
th at

are

do

th e

fo llo w , o n ly

id e n t ifie d

p a y r o l l, o r o t h e r a p p r o p r ia t e m e a n s .
th e

above.

books.

fo r

Average annual employment

P R O D U C T IO N , D E V E L O P M E N T ,

If co m p a n y r e c o r d s

P r o r a t io n

m ay be m ade

on

r_
th e

b a s is

NO

of

w ork ers

“ R em ark s”

a re

m a n -h o u r s ,

o n e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , i n d i c a t e in t h e

“ R em a rk s”

s e c t io n th e e s t a b lis h m e n t s

THE

OR

“ R em a rk s”

s e c tio n

w hat

lin e s

a re

E X P E N D IT U R E S

A P P R O P R IA T E

SPACE.

l i n e s i n c l u l e d in t h e c o m b i n e d

f i g u r e o r e x p l a i n in

in c lu d e d .
W ERE

IN V O L V E D

PLEASE

DO

NOT

D U R IN G
LEAVE

I96 0
ANY

FOR

A

L IN E S

G IV E N

IT E M ,

EN TER

BLANK.

F O R B L S USE O N L Y

Schedule
number




Reg.

o th e r

in c lu d e d .

s e c t i o n w h ic h

M A N -H O U R S
IN

e m p lo y m e n t,

fo llo w in g :

t o m ore th a n

F o r a fig u r e c o m b in in g d a ta fo r s e v e r a l li n e s , b r a c k e t th e

“ N on e”

of

I f a r e a s o n a b l e m e t h o d o f p r o r a t in g a c o m b i n e d f i g u r e c a n n o t b e f o u n d , e n t e r

F o r a f i g u r e t h a t c o v e r s m o r e th a n p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e in t h e

IF

AND R E LA TE D

n o t s o m a in ta in e d , p l e a s e p r o r a te

in c lu d e d .

c a te g o r ie s

th e

p e r io d

July

February

D a ta s h o u ld

fo r the p a y

State

City
size

SIC
code

71

Est.
size

Weight

Special
charac.

72

P R O D U C T IO N , D E V E L O P M E N T ,
AND R E L A T E D W ORKERS
Man-hours
6.

E xpend itures

G R O S S P A Y R O L L A N D T O T A L M A N -H O U R S :

FOR BLS
U SE O N L Y
A v era g e annual
hours

E n te r a l l w a g e s a n d s a l a r i e s fo r p r o d u c t io n , d e v e l o p m en t, a n d r e la t e d w o r k e r s , p r io r t o a l l p a y r o l l d e d u c d o n s , in I 9 6 0 . Y o u m ay u s e th e d e f i n i d o n o f g r o s s
p a y th a t i s u s e d fo r th e W ith h o ld in g T a x form . R e p o r t
a l s o th e t o t a l nu m b er o f m a n -h o u rs ( i n c l u d i n g e q u iv a ­
le n t m a n -h o u r s ) fo r w h ic h t h e s e w o r k e r s r e c e i v e d t h is
pay.
(E q u i v a l e n t m a n -h o u rs a re d e f in e d in Item 7 .)
7.

P A ID

A v era g e hourly
earnings
$

LEAVE:

R e p o r t p a y m e n ts m a d e d i r e c t l y t o th e w o r k e r b y th e
c o m p a n y , fo r th e f o l lo w i n g l e a v e it e m s an d th e m an ­
h o u r s e q u iv a le n t to t h e s e p a y m e n t s . I f a w o rk e r r e ­
c e i v e d b o th p a y in li e u o f v a c a t i o n or h o l id a y l e a v e
a n d p a y fo r w o r k , r e p o r t h e re o n ly th e p a y m e n ts in
li e u o f tim e o f f a n d th e m a n -h o u rs o f l e a v e p a id f o r .
( I f a w o r k e r d id n o t r e c e i v e f u l l p a y fo r a n e x c u s e d
a b s e n c e , r e p o r t o n l y th e m a n -h o u rs e q u iv a le n t t o th e
p a y r e c e i v e d . T o d e te r m in e m a n -h o u rs e q u iv a le n t ,
d i v i d e th e w o r k e r 's t o t a l p a y fo r th e e x c u s e d a b s e n c e
b y h i s s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly r a t e .)
A.

P a id v a c a tio n s

---------------------------------------------------------------

B.

P a id s i c k le a v e

-------------------------------------------------------------

C.

P a i d m ilit a r y , ju r y , w i t n e s s , or v o t in g l e a v e ---------

E.

8.

P a id h o lid a y s

D.

$

-----------------------------------------------------------------

P a i d p e r s o n a l le a v e ( s p e c i f y )

P R E M IU M S A B O V E

REGULAR

R e p o r t t o t a l e x p e n d it u r e s
A.

fo r

PAY:
p rem iu m

pay o n ly .

P rem iu m p a y fo r d a i l y o v e r t i m e , w e e k l y

E x c lu d e

r e g u la r

o v e r t im e , an d w e e k e n d w o r k .

R eport expend itures for pay a b ov e the regular straight-tim e ra te s. (T h u s, if
overtim e is paid at time and on e -h a lf, report only the half-tim e h ere.)
B.

P rem iu m p a y fo r h o l id a y

P ercen t of
g ro s s p a y roll

pay.

$

w o rk .

Report only expend itures for premium pay for the work on a paid h o lid a y ;
e x clu d e the regular straight-tim e pay for the w ork perform ed and the h olid ay
pay the worker w ould have r e c e iv e d if he had not w orked .
C.

D if fe r e n t i a l fo r s h i ft w o rk .
Report expend itures for premium pay a bov e the regular ra tes for day s h ift.

9.

LEGALLY

R E Q U IR E D

PAYM ENTS:

R e p o r t o n ly c o m p a n y e x p e n d it u r e s fo r p r o d u c t io n , d e v e lo p m e n t , an d r e la t e d
w o rk e r s fo r I 9 6 0 . E x c l u d e w o r k e r c o n t r ib u t io n s and c o m p a n y c o n t r ib u t io n s
f o r o th e r th a n p r o d u c t io n , d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d r e l a t e d w o r k e r s .
A.

S o c i a l S e c u r it y

B.

U n e m p lo y m e n t C o m p e n s a tio n —
1. P a y m e n t s t o S ta te g o v e r n m e n t
2.

C.
D.

(O l d A g e , S u r v i v o r s , a n d D i s a b i l i t y I n s c . a n c e ) ---------------

$

— ------------------ ------------------- -----------------------

P a y m e n ts t o F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t fo r F U T A

-------------------------------------------

W ork m en’ s C o m p e n s a tio n I n s u r a n c e (r e p o r t n e t p a y m e n ts ,
_______ _ ___ ___________________________
i c
p a y m e n ts l e s s r e b a t e s e t c ) ___ —
O th e r, in c lu d in g S ta te T e m p o r a r y D i s a b i l i t y I n s u r a n c e
(s p e c ify )

10.




P R IV A T E

W ELFARE

PLANS:

E x c l u d e w o rk e r c o n t r ib u t io n s and p a y m e n ts a lr e a d y re p o r te d u n d e r Item 7 —
P a id L e a v e , a n d Item 9 — L e g a l l y R e q u ir e d P a y m e n t s . I n c lu d e p a y m e n ts
t o u n io n fu n d s , in s u r a n c e c a r r ie r s , or d i r e c t ly t o th e w o r k e r . F o r p a y m e n ts
to in s u r a n c e c a r r ie r s re p o rt o n ly n et e x p e n d it u r e s ( i . e . , p rem iu m s l e s s
r e b a t e s , r e f u n d s , a n d d i v id e n d s r e c e i v e d in I 9 6 0 , u n l e s s th e y g o t o pu r­
ch a se

a d d i t io n a l i n s u r a n c e ) .

A.

H e a lth (i n c l u d i n g m e d i c a l a n d s u r g i c a l ) , a c c i d e n t , an d l i f e in s u r a n c e ___

B.

po p l a n s )
P e n s i o n an d re tire m e n t p la n s ( i n c l u d i n g p a y - a s - y o u - 5 V ^***‘ *>3/ _________

C
Csi vr u £ o nsl vmut.
_________________________ __ ___ _________.___________ _ _ _
A • j a v i«ftg o» auu *Vir if* t t l o n e ------------- ------------------------------------G.

Y e a r e n d a n d C h r is tm a s b o n u s e s ( c a s h

H.

O th e r ( s p e c i f y )

b on u ses

on ly )

_________________

$

73

11. ESTABLISHM
ENT PRACTICES A D POLICIES FOR PRODUCTION, DEVELOPM
N
ENT, A D RELATED W R E S:
N
OKR
The following inform
ation is needed for the interpretation of the data you have reported. NO COMPUTATIONS ARE NECESSARY, w the exception of the question on vacations.
ith

A.

R ep ort
n u m b er o f
w ork ers

N u m ber o f w e e k s
p a id fo r
( o r e q u iv a le n t )

P a id v a c a tio n s :

Report the number of production, development, and related workers
who were on the payroll at any time during I960 receiving vacation
pay directly from the company. If vacation benefits were determined
as a percentage of the worker’ s annual earnings: 2% or slightly more
is to be considered equivalent to l week’ s vacation; 4% or slightly
more to 2 w eeks’ vacation; etc.

N o n e ------------------------------------------L e s s th a n 1 w e e k

xxxx

-----------------

1 but l e s s th a n 2 w e e k s

—

2 but l e s s th an 3 w e e k s

—

3 but l e s s th a n 4 w e e k s

—

4 w e e k s or m o r e --------------------B.

P a i d h o l i d a y s o b s e r v e d d u rin g I 9 6 0 :

Report number of paid holidays.
1.

C.

F u ll -d a y h o l id a y s

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.

H a lf -d a y h o l id a y s

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

S ic k l e a v e p a id by th e e s t a b l is h m e n t d i r e c t l y t o th e w o rk e r (n o n i n s u r e d ) :
D id th e e s t a b l is h m e n t h a v e a d e f in i t e an d fo r m a l p a id s i c k l e a v e p la n ?

D.

YES

-

D id th e c o m p a n y fin a n c e a n y p a rt o f p r i v a t e ------a.

L i f e in s u r a n c e o r a c c i d e n t a l d e a t h a n d d is m e m b e rm e n t in s u r a n c e ?

YES

b.

H o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , m e d i c a l, o r s u r g i c a l i n s u r a n c e ? --------------------------------

YES

c.

S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in su ra n ce ?

YES

d.

O th e r ( s p e c i f y )

----------------------------------------------------------

______________________________________________________________
YES

2.

If " Y E S ,”

d id th e w o r k e r s c o n t r ib u t e t o th e p a y m e n ts fo r th e c o s t o f

a n y o f th e a b o v e b e n e f i t s ?

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

YES

P e n s i o n or r e tire m e n t p la n s ( o t h e r th a n l e g a l l y r e q u ir e d p l a n s ) :
1.

D id th e c o m p a n y f i n a n c e a n y p art o f a p r iv a t e p e n s io n or r e tire m e n t p l a n ? -------------------

YES

2.

F.

If " Y E S ,”

YES

d id th e w o r k e r s c o n t r ib u t e t o th e p a y m e n ts fo r the c o s t o f t h is p l a n ? ____

V a c a t io n a n d h o l id a y

1.

V a c a t io n

2.

H o lid a y b e n e f it s ?

C o lle c t iv e

b e n e f i t s ? ----------------------------------- — -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

b a r g a in in g

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

YES
YES

□
□
□
□
□
□
□

NO
NO
NO

NO

NO

NO
NO

□
□
□
□
□
□
□

□
□

NO
NO

□
□

a g reem en ts:

D id c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a in in g a g r e e m e n ts c o v e r th e m a jo r ity o f th e p r o d u c t io n ,
d e v e lo p m e n t , an d r e l a t e d w o r k e r s in th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t ? _______________________________________

H.

□

fu n d s :

D id th e c o m p a n y c o n t r ib u t e t o a u n io n or o th e r fu n d w h ic h p r o v i d e d -------

G.

NO

H e a lt h , a c c i d e n t , an d l i f e in s u r a n c e ( o t h e r th a n l e g a l l y r e q u ir e d p l a n s ) :
1.

E.

□

YES

□

NO

□

S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s :

Report the premium, above the regular hourly rate for the day shift, paid for work in the 2d, 3d, and other shifts. (Use the
definition o f shift differential given in the instructions for Item 8—C. Thus, if iate-shift workers receive 8 hours’ pay for 7%
hours’ work, compared to 8 hours* work for the day shift, report the Vi hours* pay as the differential rate.)

N u m ber o f p r o d u c t io n , d e v e lo p m e n t ,
S h ift

E v e n in g (2 d s h i ft )

and r e l a t e d w o r k e r s n o rm a lly
w o r k in g on s h i f t

R a te o f s h i ft d i f f e r e n t i a l

-----------------------------------------------------

N ig h t (3 d s h i f t ) ----------------------------------------------------------O t h e r ( e . g . , 4 th , r e lie f , e t c . ) — S p e c if y

I.

S ta n d a rd w o r k w e e k :

How many hours were there in the standard regularly scheduled workweek (not the hours
actually worked) for the majority in each o f the following categories? What was the
average number of persons employed in each category in I960?
N u m b er o f
hours
per w eek
1.

N o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s :
a.

2.




P r o d u c t io n , d e v e lo p m e n t , a n d r e l a t e d w o r k e r s

b.

C l e r i c a l an d o th e r n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r s —

E x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , a n d s u p e r v is o r y e m p l o y e e s

A v era g e
n u m b er o f
e m p lo y e e s

74

REM ARKS

I f a n y p a rt o f t h is r e p o r t in c l u d e s d a ta fo r m ore th an o n e e s t a b l is h m e n t , in d i c a t e th e lo c a t i o n , m a jo r p r o d u c t , a n d
t o t a l e m p lo y m e n t, a s o f

March 1 5 , I 9 6 0 , fo r e a c h o f t h e s e e s t a b l is h m e n t s an d th e it e m s in w h ic h c o m b in e d d a ta

w e re e n t e r e d .
Maj o r
Pr o d u c t

E s ta b lis h m e n t lo c a t i o n

I f a n y li n e in Ite m s 5 th rou g h 10 c o n t a in s d a ta

T o t a l n u m b er o f
e m p lo y e e s a s o f
M a rch 1 5 . I 9 6 0

Ite m s

fo r o t h e r th a n p r o d u c t io n , d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d r e l a t e d w o r k e r s , in d i ­

c a t e w h ic h o t h e r e m p l o y e e g r o u p s a re in c lu d e d , th e n u m b er o f s u c h e m p l o y e e s , a n d th e it e m s in w h ic h c o m b in e d
d a ta w e r e e n t e r e d .
O th e r e m p l o y e e g r o u p s i n c lu d e d

N u m b er

I te m s

I F A N Y E S T IM A T E D D A T A A R E IN C L U D E D IN A N Y O F T H E IT E M S , I D E N T I F Y T H E IT E M A N D IN D IC A T E
TH E M ETH OD O F

E S T IM A T IO N .

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

N a m e o f a u t h o r iz in g o f f i c i a l

T it le

D a te

(Please print or type.)

D o y ou w ant a co p y




o f th e B u r e a u ’ s re p o rt fo r t h is s u r v e y ? —

Y es

□

No

Q

75

INSTRUCTION
SHEET
BLS 2713
Expenditures for Selected Supplem
entary Employee Rem
uneration
Practices in M
ining Industries, I960
Please Limit the Report to the Establishment Identified on the Form :
In the case of companies with more than one establishment, it is preferred that a
separate report be prepared for the establishment identified in Item 2 of the
questionnaire form. If individual establishment records are not maintained, please
assign to the individual establishment its proportionate share of the combined
figure.
Should it be necessary to report combined figures, please indicate in the
"R em arks" section which item contains data for more than one establishment and
which establishments are included.
Please Report Separate Figures for Each Item:
If separate data are not available for individual item s, please prorate the com ­
bined figure among the items to which it relates.
If reporting of a combined
figure cannot be avoided, please bracket (or otherwise indicate) the lines inclu­
ded in the combined figure.
IF NO MAN-HOURS OR EXPENDITURES WERE
INVOLVED DURING I960 FOR A GIVEN ITEM, ENTER "N O N E" IN THE A P ­
PROPRIATE SPACE.
Please do not leave any spaces blank.
What to Report as Production, Development, and Related Workers:
For coal, metal and nonmetallic mining, and quarrying:
Working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers (including leadmen and trainees)
engaged in excavation, haulage, trucking, hoisting, ventilation, drainage, drilling,
blasting, loading, crushing, processing, inspecting, receiving, storing, handling,
warehousing, shipping, maintenance, repair, janitorial, watchman services, de­
velopment (except construction performed by a separate work force), auxiliary
production for plant’ s own use ( e .g ., powerplant), recordkeeping and other se r­
vices closely associated with the above production operations.
For crude petroleum, natural gas, and natural gasoline production:
Working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers (including leadmen and trainees)
engaged in rig building, drilling, flow-control, pumping, cleaning, processing,
inspecting, receiving, storing, handling, warehousing, shipping, trucking, hauling,
maintenance, repair, janitorial, watchman services, development (except con­
struction performed by a separate work force), auxiliary production for plant's
own use ( e .g ., powerplant), clerical field force working on the producing property,
recordkeeping and other services closely associated with the above production
operations.
For all industries covered, the term "production, development, and related work­
e r s " excludes employees engaged in the following activities: Executive, supervisory
(above the working foreman level), purchasing, finance, accounting, legal, per­
sonnel, cafeteria, medical, professional and technical, sales, sales-delivery,
advertising, credit, collection, and in routine office functions.
In Items 5 thru 11-H, LIMIT REPORTING TO PRODUCTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND RE­
LATED WORKERS.
If these workers are not carried separately on the company
books, please assign to them their proportionate share of the combined figures.
Should it be impossible to prorate the combined figures, please indicate in the
"R em arks" section which items contain data for other than production, develop­
ment, and related workers and what other employee categories are included.
4.

Size of Establishment— All Employees:
Report the total number of persons (both full-time and part-time) in all activities
who worked or received pay for any part of the pay period ending nearest
March 15, I960.

5.

Employment— Production, Development, and Related Workers:
Report only the number of production, development, and related workers (both
full-time and part-time) who worked or received pay for any part of the pay
period ending nearest the 15th of each month of I960.

6.

Gross Pay and Total Man-Hours:
Report the total amount paid to production, development, and related workers
during I960.
Include pay for overtime, standby time, holidays, vacations, and
sick leave, paid by the establishment directly to the worker.
Also include bo­
nuses not paid regularly each pay period ( e .g ., Christmas bonuses) and pay not
earned during the year ( e .g ., retroactive pay, dismissal pay).
All payments
should be shown prior to such deductions as employees' Social Security contribu­
tions, withholding taxes, group insurance, union dues, and savings bonds-.
You
may follow the definition of gross pay that is used for the Withholding Tax form.




76

Also report the total number of man-hours for which pay was given in I960.
(Total man-hours are the man-hours that are related to the gross pay.) This
should include plant man-hours (i.e . , man-hours spent at the establishment during
regular workdays as well as during holiday and vacation periods that were not
taken), man-hours paid for standby or reporting time, and the man-hours equiv­
alent to pay for time spent away from the plant during paid holidays, paid vaca­
tions, etc.
To determine the man-hours equivalent to the pay received, divide the payment
for the item by the worker’ s average hourly earnings.
For example, if a worker
who is regularly paid $2 an hour was given $5 for a day's absence for jury duty,
the man-hours equivalent to the pay received would be 21 hours (i.e . , $5 -r $2).
/z
Similarly, if a worker received a day's sick leave at half his regular rate of pay,
the man-hours equivalent would be 4, even though the worker was absent from
8 hours.
Do not convert overtime or other premium paid hours to straight-time
equivalent hours.
7.

Paid Leave:
This section is intended to measure the extent to which production, development,
and related workers were granted paid leave during I960.
For each type of ex­
cused absence listed, report total payments made directly to the worker by the
company and the man-hours equivalent to the payments made.
If a worker did
not receive full pay for an excused absence, report only the man-hours equivalent
to the pay received.
A.

Paid vacations. — Report total vacation payments made by the company directly
to the workers during I960, and the total man-hours equivalent to those pay­
ments, whether vacations were taken or not.
If a worker worked during his
vacation period, and was given both pay for work and pay in lieu of vacation,
report here only the payments in lieu of vacation and the man-hours equivalent
to them.
If workers who left the company were paid for unused vacation, report the
payments made and the man-hours equivalent to the payment.
Exclude contributions to union or other vacation funds.
ported in Item 10-C , Vacation and Holiday Funds.

These are to be re­

B.

C.

Paid military, jury, witness, and voting leave. — Report total payments made,
by the company, directly to the workers during I960 and the man-hours equiv­
alent to these payments for military, jury, witness, or voting leave.

E.




Paid holidays. — Report total holiday payments made by the company directly
to the workers during I960, and the total man-hours equivalent to these pay­
ments, whether the holidays were taken or not.
For workers who worked on
a paid holiday, and received both pay for work and pay in lieu of time off,
report only the holiday pay the worker would have received if he had not
worked and the man-hours equivalent of this holiday pay.
Exclude the regular
straight-time pay for work actually performed and premium pay for work on a
holiday.
(Premium Pay is described in Item 8-B on page 3 .)

D.

8.

Paid sick leave. — Report total sick leave payments made by the company
directly to the workers during I960 and the man-hours equivalent to these
sick leave payments.
Payments made directly to the worker under selfinsurance provision of State Temporary Disability Insurance laws should be
reported in Item 9-D , Other Legally Required Payments.

Paid personal leave. — Report total payments made, by the company, directly
to the workers during I960 and the man-hours equivalent to these payments
for leave granted for personal reasons su^-h as death in the family.

Premiums Above Regular Pay Rates:
In this section it is necessary to distinguish between the regular hourly rate
for work during the normal day hours and the extra amounts paid for work
after the regular day hours, on holidays, etc.
Only expenditures for the ex­
tra pay are to be reported here; exclude the portion that represents the regular
rate.
For production, development, and related workers, report total expen­
ditures during I960 for the premiums for each type of work listed; do not
report the rate of pay.
A.

Premium pay for daily overtime, weekly overtime, and weekend work. — In­
clude only pay above the regular hourly rates.
Thus, if a worker, who re­
ceived $ 1 .50 an hour for straight-time, was paid an additional $ 0 .75 an hour
as premium for overtime, the overtime expenditures reported here should in­
clude only the $ 0 .7 5 overtime premium.
Include premium pay for Saturday
and Sunday or for 6th and 7th days as such.

77

B.

Premium pay for holiday work.— For the purpose of this question, it is nec­
essary to distinguish between the extra pay for work on a holiday, the pay­
ment at the regular hourly rate for work performed, and the holiday pay the
worker would have received if he had not worked.
Total expenditures for
holidays which were worked should be refined as follows to obtain expenditures
for premium pay.
Exclude regular straight-time pay for work actually performed.
Exclude the
holiday pay the worker would have received if he had not worked.
The balance
is the premium for work on holidays, which should be reported here.

EXAM PLE:

EXAM PLE:

EXAM PLE:

EXAM PLE:

C.

9.

Worker was paid double-time for work on a paid holiday.
That
is, he was paid his regular straight-time pay for work performed
and the holiday pay he would have received if he had not worked.
In thip case, no expenditure for premium pay would be re­
ported here.
Worker was paid double-time and one-half for work on a paid
holiday.
That is, he was paid his regular straight-time pay for
work performed, the holiday pay he would have received if he
had not worked, and an extra half-time as a holiday premium.
In this case, only the expenditures for the one-half time should
be reported here.
Worker was paid triple-time for work on what would have been a
paid holiday. One-third of this pay should be reported as ex­
penditures for premium pay.
Worker was paid time and one-half for work on an unpaid holi­
day.
That is, he would have received no pay if he had not
worked.
In this case, the expenditures on the one-half time
should be reported as premium pay for work on a holiday.

Differential for shift work. — Include only shift premium pay above regular
hourly rates for the day shift.
This covers not only differential paid in the
form of a higher hourly rate, but special payments to late shift workers for
meal periods and for any other hours not worked by them but paid for (e .g . ,
if late shift workers receive 8 hours' pay for l lU hours' work, compared
with 8 hours' work for the day shift, total expenditures for the V2 hour's pay
should be reported as shift differential).

Legally Required Payments:
For production, development, and related workers only, report the net liability
incurred by the company for the year I960 for employee benefit programs that
are required by law.
Exclude worker contributions to the payments and company
contributions for other than production, development, and related workers. Report
the net liability incurred for I960 rather than the amount paid during I960.
For
example, report Social Security tax payments for the fourth quarter of I960 even
though they were paid in the first quarter of 1961. Exclude payments for the
fourth quarter of 1959 even though they were paid in the first quarter of I960.
A.

Social Security Taxes (FICA) for Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insur­
ance. — Report the liability incurred for I960 rather than the amount paid
during I960.
Note: If you obtain your figures from your "Quarterly Report
of Wages Taxable Under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (For Social
Security)" (Form 941), please exclude amounts deducted from employees'
pay and company payments for other than production, development, and
related workers.

B.

Unemployment Compensation.— Report separately payments to State govern­
ments and to the Federal government. Exclude payments for other than pro­
duction, development, and related workers.

C.

Workmen's Compensation Insurance. — Report net expenditures during I960 for
insurance premiums (i.e ., premiums less refunds) and payments to State funds.




If under State laws your company qualifies as a self-insurer, report the total
net expenditures made during I960 for Workmen's Compensation benefits that
are required by law.
Do not include costs of medical and first aid services
normally supplied by the company.

78

D.

10 .

Other, including State Temporary Disability Insurance. — Specify each other
legally required program for which expenditures were made.
Include total
payments made to insurance carriers, to State or other funds, or directly to
the employee, for those benefits required by law which have not been accounted
for elsewhere in this section.
Examples of items to be included here are:
Railroad retirement benefits, railroad unemployment insurance, and State
Temporary Disability Insurance.
(State Temporary Disability Insurance laws
cover workers in the States of California, New Jersey, New York, and Rhode
Island, and in the railroad industry throughout the country.
Include payments
made by the establishment, directly to workers, under self-insurance pro­
visions of the law. )

Private Welfare Plans :
Exclude payments already reported under Item 7, Paid Leave, and Item 9, Legally
Required Payments.
Exclude worker contributions to the payments and company
payments for other than production, development, and related workers. Include
company payments to union funds and to plans financed through profit sharing.
For payments to insurance carriers report only net expenditures (i.e . , premiums
less rebates, refunds, and dividends received in I960, unless they go to purchase
additional insurance).
A.

Health (including medical and surgical), accident, and life insurance. — Report
net expenditures for insurance premiums and payments to welfare funds.
Exclude administrative expenses incurred by the company and worker contri­
butions to the payments for the plan.

B.

Pension and retirement plans.— Report premiums paid by the company to an
insurance carrier, less dividends or other credits; company payments into an
irrevocable trust fund; and company payments to pensioners under pay-as-yougo plans.
Payments for past service liability as well as current service
credits should be reported.
Exclude administrative costs incurred by the
company and worker contributions to the payments for the plant.

C.

Vacation and holiday funds. — Report total payments during I960 to separate
funds (such as union funds) which are given the responsibility for disbursing
vacation and holiday benefits to workers.
Exclude worker payments into such
furfjls.
Company payments directly to the worker should be reported under
Paid Leave (Item 7-A and 7-C).

D.

Supplemental unemployment benefits. — This item covers plans which are de­
signed primarily to provide benefits which supplement legally required unem­
ployment compensation benefits.
Report payments during I960 to separate
funds and net expenditures for insurance premiums ( i .e ., total premiums
less dividends and other refunds received in I960),
Expenditures for sev­
erance pay plans should be reported in Item 10-E .

E.

Severance or dismissal pay. — This item covers plans which are designed to
provide payments in case of loss of employment.
These plans are also re­
ferred to as termination or layoff pay plans.
Normally, they provide lump­
sum payments.
Report payments made by the company during I960, directly
to separated workers or to funds which are responsible for making such pay­
ments to separated workers.
Payments to plans which are primarily sup­
plemental unemployment benefit plans, should be reported in Item 10-D ,
Supplemental Unemployment Benefits.

F.

Savings and thrift plans. — Under these plans, worker savings are supplemented
by company contributions. Report cash payments, made by the company during
I960, to a -separate fund or to worker accounts.
Exclude interest credited
to the worker's account.
Also exclude payments made in the form of stock
and payments made under arrangements which are primarily pension plans.
Payments to funds which are primarily designed to provide pension or retire­
ment benefits are to be reported in Item 10-B , Pension and Retirement Plans.

G.

Yearend and Christmas bonuses. — Report special bonus payments made at the
end of the calendar or fiscal year or during the Christmas season.
Include
only cash payments.
Exclude regularly paid bonuses (such as weekly and
monthly production bonuses) and bonuses in the form of merchandise.

H.

Other. — Report total payments made to insurance carriers, to union or other
funds, or directly to the worker for those plans which have not been covered
elsewhere in this section.

U N ITE D STA TES D E P A R T M E N T OF LABO R
BU REAU OF L A B O R STA T IST IC S
W A S H I N G T O N 25, D .C .




☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1963 O - 681732




BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS REGIONAL OFFICES


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