View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

BUCK

Dayton & Montgomery Co.
Public Library

JAN 2 4 ia/3

dlY O d 't'i
O
4D€01D€a

DOCUMENT COLLECTION

a cu m rM M G
o R o LO M e
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bulletin 1760
Revised 1972




BUCK
/ OW
4M0
dDGGDGOf

oocufyrnoviow
riGG
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James D. Hodgson, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner

Bulletin 1760
Revised 1972

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office




Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 40 cents
Stock Number 2901—00967




PREFACE
This chartbook was prepared by Sylvia Small in the Office of
Economic and Social Research, Bureau of Labor Statistics, under
the general direction of Robert L. Stein. It grew out of an occupa­
tional analysis presented in a paper by Paul Ryscavage.
Maxine Stewart, Program Planning Officer of the Bureau, provided
expert guidance.
Marian Hester was responsible for the statistical compilations
underlying the charts and Susie Scandrett also contributed.




Ill




TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction_______________________________________

Page
1

Opportunities for occupational advancement of
black workers have been improving__________________

2

The higher paid occupations tend to be
more secure_____________________________________

4

Occupational change has led to higher earnings
and lower unemployment for black workers____________

6

Occupational advancement is related to a better
prepared black population__________________________

8

Black youths are staying in school longer, and
more are going to college__________________________

10

The effect of educational and occupational advance
is most apparent among youngblack workers___________

12

Educational and occupational achievements, of
both young and old, have been higher in the
West and North than in the South ____________________

14

As a result of wider job choices and increased job
security, incomes of black workers have
increased_______________________________________

16

The improvement in black workers’ jobs and security
has reduced, but not eliminated, low earners in
the labor force___________________________________

18

The future holds great promise________________________

20

Appendix tables ___________________________________

22




v




INTRODUCTION
Black workers have been moving up the occupational scale in
recent years, away from the labor and service occupations and
toward white-collar, craftsmen, and operative jobs. In 1960, 2 in
every 5 black workers were in white-collar, craftsmen, or operative
occupations. By 1970, more than half were in such jobs. These
occupations are less subject to unemployment and they are better
paid. The change in the occupational distribution of black workers
has had the effect of reducing their unemployment rate by threetenths of a percentage point and increasing earnings more than
$10 a week.
The charts that follow separate the black labor force* into three
occupational groups for analysis: The highest paid occupations,
which include professional, technical, and managerial workers,
whose usual earnings (median) for black men working full time were
over $150 a week in 1970; the middle pay levels, including clerical
and sales workers, craftsmen and foremen whose usual earnings
(median of black men working full time) were $100-$150 a week;
and the lower paid occupations whose usual earnings (median of
black men working full time) were $100 a week or less. The charts
show that black workers in the lowest occupational pay groupings
tend to have the lowest educational attainment, and that as one
proceeds up the occupational hierarchy education also increases.
Lack of education has often been a barrier to employment in the
higher paid occupations, whether required for performance of a
job or not. Since educational attainment is much greater for young
black workers than for older age groups, and since the trend to­
ward increasing education continues, prospects are encouraging
for continued occupational advancement.
* D a t a fo r b la c k w o rk e rs sh o w n in th is re p o rt r e fe r to th e N e g ro p o p u la tio n e x c lu s iv e ly in
c h a rt 5a, 5b, 7 a , and 8b . A ll o th e r c h a rts a re b ased on d a ta fo r N e g ro a n d o th e r n o n ­
w h ite races , 9 0 p e rc e n t o f w h o m a r e N e g ro e s , a c c o rd in g to th e 1 9 7 0 C e n su s o f P o p u la tio n .




1

OPPORTUNITIES FOR
OCCUPATIONAL AD VAN C EM EN T OF BLACK W O R K E R S
HAVE BEEN IMPROVING . . .

BETWEEN 1 9 6 0 AND 1 9 7 0, TH E N U M B ER OF BLACK WORKERS IN HIG HERPAID AND M IDDLE LEVEL O CCUPATIO NS* INCREASED SHARPLY . . .

Chart la .
BLACK WORKERS

Millions of employed
----------------------------------------

Higher paid*
P ro fe s s io n a l
T e c h n ic a l &
M a n a g e ria l

Middle pay level*
C le ric a l
S a le s

C raftsm en &
O p e ra tiv e s

Lower paid*
N o n fa rm la b o re rs
S e rv ic e w o rk e rs
P riv a te h o u seh o ld
w o rk e rs
F a rm w o rk e rs

1960

1970

. . . while the num ber of black workers in lower-paid o ccu pa tion s decreased.

*S e e In tro d u c tio n , pag e 1, f o r o c c u p a tio n a l p ay level d e fin itio n s .




2

9

GAINS OF WHITE WORKERS WERE SMALLER, PROPORTIONATELY . . .

Chart lb .
W HITE WORKERS

Millions of employed
----------------------------------------9 0

Higher paid*

<

P ro fe s s io n a l
T e c h n ic a l &
M a n a g e ria l

Middle pay level*

<

C le ric a l
S a le s
C ra fts m e n &
O p e ra tiv e s

Lower paid*

<

N o n fa rm la b o re rs
S e rv ic e w o rk e rs
P riv a te h o u s e h o ld
w o rk e rs
F a rm w o rk e rs

. . . but the share and num ber of white workers em ployed in the higher- paid
occu pation s continued to be m uch larger than for black workers.




3

TH E HIGHER-PAID
O C C U PATIO N S TEN D TO BE
M ORE SE C U R E . . .

B L A C K M EN IN THE PR O FESSIO N AL, T ECH N ICAL, A N D M A N A G ER IA L
O CCU PAT IO N S EARN ED ABO U T $75 A W EEK M O RE THAN L A B O R ER S AN D
SERVICE W O RKERS . . .

Chart 2a.
U S U A L W EEKLY EARNING S, M AY 1970
(M ED IAN FOR F U LL TIM E W O RKERS)
$0

50

100

150

200

Higher
paid

Middle
pay

level

Lower
paid

The usual earnings of black women in each occupation were generally lower than
those of men.

- N u m b e r o f w o m e n e m p lo y e d in th is o c c u p a tio n is to o s m a ll to be sho w n s e p a r a te ly .
''N u m b e r o f m e n e m p lo y e d in th is o c c u p a tio n is to o s m a ll to be sh o w n s e p a r a te ly .




4

THE HIGHER-PAID O CCU PATIO N S HAVE TH E LOWEST U N E M P L O Y M E N T
RATES...

C hart 2b.
1970 U N E M P L O Y M E N T RATE
OF B L A C K W O RKERS
0

2

4

6

8

10

Higher paid

Middle pay level

Lower paid

And black workers in the higher-paid occu pation s are rarely unem ployed more than
once in a single year.
C hart 2c.
P ER C EN T U N E M P LO Y E D M O RE THAN O N C E IN 1970 OF
A L L B L A C K W O RKERS
0

Higher paid

2

4

J
_J

6

8

MEN

WOMEN

Middle pay level

Lower paid

White m en’ s unem ploym ent rates are lower, but follow the sam e pattern.
Women as well as men have the lowest unem ploym ent rates in the
higher-paid occupations.




5

10

O C CU PATION AL C H A N G E H A S LED
TO H IG H ER E A R N IN G S W ITH LO W ER U N E M P L O Y M E N T
FOR BLACK W ORKERS ...

IN 1970, AVERAG E EAR N IN G S OF B L A C K M EN W ERE 1 1 % HIGH ER, A N D OF
B LA C K W OM EN AB O U T 3 0 % H IGH ER T H AN TH EY W O U LD HAVE BEEN IF THE
B L A C K LABO R FO RCE HAD NOT BEEN M OVING INTO TH E BETTER PAYING
O CCU PAT IO N S . . .
C hart 3a.
U S U A L W EEKLY EAR N IN G S OF B L A C K W O R K ER S (M ED IAN )

Dollars
125
MEN

Earnings
attributable to
occupational
advances 1960-70

S im ila r occu pation al m ovem ent of white men contributed less than 3 % , and of
white women about 4 % to 1970 earnings.




6

IN 1970, T H E B L A C K U N E M P L O Y M E N T RATE W AS 8 .2 % . . . CO M PA R ED
WITH OVER 1 0 % IN 1960. PART OF TH IS RED UCTIO N R E S U LT E D FROM
O C C U PA T IO N A L A D V A N C E M E N T - E S PE C IA LLY OF B L A C K M EN .

Chart 3b.
U N E M P L O Y M E N T RATE O F B L A C K W O R K ER S

Reduction due to
occupational advance

10

Reduction due to improved
employment opportunities

8

6

4

2

0
1960

1970

O ccupational change had little or n o effect on white unem ploym ent rates.




7

OCCUPATIONAL AD VAN C EM EN T
IS R E L A T E D TO A B E T T E R P R E P A R E D
BLACK PO PULATIO N . . .

BETTER ED U CATED B L A C K W O R K ER S HAVE BEEN A B L E TO FILL
HIGH ER-PAID JO BS.

C h art 4a.
O C C U PA T IO N A L DISTRIBUTION OF B L A C K M EN
BY ED U CAT IO N AL AT TAIN M EN T

With 4 years
of high school
or more

Without
a high school
diploma

Higher educational attain m ent leads to higher occu pation al attain m ent for both
men and women.




Y O U N G B L A C K A D U LTS HAVE BEEN CLO SIN G T H E ED UCATIO N GAP.

C hart 4b.
M EDIAN YEAR S OF S CH O O L C O M PLET ED BY YO U N G A D U LTS
(25-29 YE A R S OLD)

By 1970, educational attain m ent of young black adults was within one-half year of
young white people th is age. Lack of education is often a barrier to em ploym ent
in better paid jobs for both black and white workers, whether education is
required for perform ance of the job or not.




9

BLACK YOUTHS ARE
ST A Y IN G IN SC H O O L L O N G E R A N D M O R E
ARE GOING TO COLLEGE . . .

BY 1970, M O RE TH AN H A LF OF TH E YO U N G B L A C K A D U LT S HAD FO U R YEAR S
OF HIGH S CH O O L OR M O RE . . .

C hart 5a.
P ER C EN T OF B L A C K PO PULATIO N AGES 25-29 WHO HAD C O M PLET ED
4 YEAR S OF HIGH S C H O O L OR M ORE, A N D 4 Y E A R S OF C O LLE G E
Percent

60*

* D a t a r e fe r to N e g ro an d o th e r races .




10

. . A N D CO LLEG E E N R O L L M E N T S IN C R EA SED S H A R P LY .

C hart 5b.

N U M B E R OF B L A C K YO UTH EN R O LLE D IN CO LLE G E

500,000

400,000

300,000

200,000
Percent of
total
enrollm ent

100,000

0 -J




1964

1968

1970

TH E EFFECT OF EDUCATIO NAL
A N D O C C U P A TIO N A L A D V A N C E IS M O S T A P P A R E N T
AM O NG YO UNG BLACK W O RK ERS .. .

YO U N G E R B L A C K W O RK ERS A R E M O R E LIK ELY TO BE IN H IGH ER PAID
O CCU PAT IO N S THAN A R E O LD E R AGE G R O U PS . . .

C h art 6a.
O C C U PA T IO N A L DISTRIBUTION OF B L A C K W O R K ER S
B Y AG E

Percent
Higher paid

> Middle pay level

> Lower paid

0
Ages

Ages

Ages

25-34

35-54

55-64




HOW EVER, DESPITE GAINS M AD E BY T H E YO UNG, M A N Y A R E S TILL IN TH E
LOW EST PAID O CCU PATIO NS.

Chart 6b.
B L A C K W O RKERS AS A P E R C E N T OF YO U N G W O RKERS AG ES 25-34,
BY O CCU PAT IO N AL PAY LEVEL

Percent

100 H

80

—\

60

—\

40

—\

> White workers

> Black workers

0

— I

Higher
paid




Middle pay
level

Lower
paid

ED UCATIO NAL AN D OCCU PATIONAL AC H IEVEM ENTS
OF BLA C K W O R K E R S, BO TH YO U N G A N D OLD, H AVE B EE N H IG H ER
IN TH E W E S T A N D N O R T H

*TH

A N IN T H E S O U T H

N E A R LY T H R EE-Q U AR T ER S OF TH E YO U N G B L A C K M EN IN T H E WEST, AN D
O N E-H A LF OF THO SE IN T H E NORTH HAD FIN ISH ED FO U R YE A R S OF HIGH
S C H O O L OR M ORE BY 1970, CO M PA R ED WITH JU S T OVER O N E-TH IRD IN
TH E SO UTH . . .
C hart 7a.
P E R C E N T OF B L A C K W O R K ER S WITH 4 YEAR S OF HIGH S C H O O L OR M ORE

Percent
100

Young men
ages 25-44

* N o r t h is c o m p o s e d o f N o rth e a s t an d N o rth C e n tra l re g io n s .




Older men
ages 45-64

TW O-THIRDS OF TH E B L A C K W O R K ER S IN T H E W EST A N D N O RTH A R E IN
T H E H IG H ER OR M IDD LE PAY LEVEL OCCU PATIO NS, CO M PA R ED WITH
O N E-H A LF OF THE B L A C K W O R K ER S IN T H E SOUTH.

C h art 7b.
O C CU PAT IO N AL DISTRIBUTION OF B L A C K M EN BY REGION

Percent
Higher paid

> Middle pay level

25 —

> Lower paid

West




North

South

A S A R E S U L T OF W ID E R J O B C H O ICES,
A N D IN C R E A SE D JO B SEC U RITY, IN C O M E S OF
BLACK W O RK ERS HAVE INCREASED . . .

TH E PROPORTION OF B L A C K M EN WITH O VER $ 1 0 ,0 0 0 EARN IN G S*
Q U A D R U P L E D BETW EEN 1959 AN D 1969 . . . BU T WAS S TILL FAR BELOW
TH AT OF WHITE M EN.

C h art 8a.
P E R C E N T WITH EAR N IN G S OF $ 1 0 ,0 0 0 OR M O R E IN C O N S T AN T DOLLARS*

Percent

MEN

WOMEN

30

20

White

I I

Black

0

—

1959

1969

1959

1969

Black and white women lagged behind both black and white men in achieving
such earnings, despite gain s during the decade.

* In C o n s ta n t 19 6 9 d o lla rs . D a ta fo r b la c k m e n an d w o m e n r e fe r to N e g ro a n d o th e r races.




16

TH E P E R C E N T WITH IN CO M E OF $10 ,0 0 0 OR M O RE WAS M U C H LA R G ER IN
TH E W EST A N D TH E N O RTH TH AN IN T H E SO UTH FOR BOTH B L A C K AN D
W HITE MEN.

C hart 8b.
P E R C E N T OF P ER SO N S WITH IN CO M ES OF $ 1 0 ,0 0 0 OR M O RE IN 1969*

Percent

MEN

WOMEN

White

However, few women earn such incom es in any region.

* D a t a fo r b la c k m e n an d w o m e n r e fe r to N e g ro e s , only.




17

TH E IM P R O V E M E N T IN B L A C K W O R K E R S ’ J O B S A N D S E C U R IT Y
H A S RED U C ED . B U T N O T ELIM INATED,
N O N FARM

LABOR FORCE .

L O W E A R N E R S IN THE

..

T H ER E WAS A S H A R P RED UCTIO N BETW EEN 1959 A N D 1969 IN TH E PER C EN T
OF B L A C K M EN A N D B L A C K W OM EN WITH EAR N IN G S U N D ER $3,000*.

C h art 9a

BLACK MEN

Less than 1 5% of w hite men were earning at th is level com pared with over
2 0 % of black men, in 1969.

‘ A n n u a l e a rn in g s in c o n s ta n t 1 9 6 9 d o lla rs .




18

B U T M O RE TH AN H A L F O F A L L B L A C K W OM EN
STILL HAD S U C H EAR N IN G S IN 1969 . . .

C h a rt 9b

BLACK WOMEN

1959

Two-fifths of white women were earning at th is level in 1969.

• A n n u a l e a rn in g s in c o n s ta n t 1 9 6 9 d o lla rs .




19

THE FUTURE
HOLDS
G R E A TP R O M ISE .. .

BY 1980, A M U C H LAR G ER S H A R E OF TH E B L A C K LABO R FO RCE
WILL BE YO U N G . . .

C hart 10a.
PER C EN T OF B L A C K LABO R FORCE U N D ER 3 5 YE A R S OF AGE

Percent

100 -----------------------------------------------------------------

75

^ P ro je c tio n — T o ta l la b o r fo rc e .




20

. . . A N D BETTER EDUCATED.

Chart 10b.
P ER C EN T HAVING 4 YE A R S OF HIGH S CH O O L OR MORE, AG ES 25-34

Percent
100

-----------------------------------------------------------------

1970

1980*

As a result, a larger proportion of black w orkers is expected to be in the better
paid occupations.

P ro je c tio n — C iv ilia n la b o r fo rc e .




APPENDIX TABLES
C h arts l-a & b . Change in em ploym ent by occu pation and race 1960-70
(num bers in m illions)

Race and occupation
level
Negro and other races
All occupations
Higher paid
Middle pay level
Lower paid
White
All occupations
Higher paid
Middle pay level
Lower paid

Percent change Percent of total
1960-70
1970 employment

1960

1970

6.9
.5
2.4
4.0

8.4
1.1
4.0
3.4

22
109
64
-1 5

100
13
47
40

58.9
14.0
32.1
12.8

70.2
18.4
38.6
13.2

19
31
21
3

100
26
55
19

Source: U.S. Departm ent of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, E m p lo y m e n t a n d
Decem ber 1369 and January 1971.

E a rn in g s ,

C h art 2-a. Usual weekly earnings by occupation, m edian fo r full-tim e
workers, Negro and other races, M ay 1970

Occupation

Male

Female

Total
Higher paid — Professional and technical
Managers, officials, and proprietors

$114
174
169

$ 82
146
1

123
125
129
112

98
71
1
75

Middle pay
level
— Clerical
Sales workers
Craftsmen and foremen
Operatives
Lower pay
scale

— Nonfarm laborers
Private household
Service workers
Farmers and farm laborers

1
42
72
1

98
1
95
55

1 Data base below 40,000 — too sm all to show separately.
Source: U.S. Departm ent of C om m erce, Bureau of The Census, C u rre n t P o p u la tio n S u rve y ,
May 1970.

C hart 2-b. U nem ploym ent rates of Negro and other races, m ales and
fem ales — 1970

Occupation level

Males

Females

Higher paid
Middle pay level
Lower paid

2.1
6.5
8.3

2.1
9.8
7.3

Source: C u rre n t P o p u la tio n S u rve y , annual averages, 1970.

C h art 2-c. Percent of w orkers with two or m ore sp e lls o f unem ploym ent,
Negro and other races, by occupation of longest job, 1970

Occupation level

Total

Male

Female

Higher paid
Middle pay level
Lower paid

2.1
7.7
8.1

2.6
7.9
11.0

1.5
7.4
5.3

Source: C u rre n t P o p u la tio n S u rve y , w ork experience tabulations, March 1971




22

C h art 3-a. 1970 weekly earnings weighted by 1960 em ploym ent
distrib u tion com pared with 1970 earnings weighted by 1970
em ploym en t distribution

Race
Negro and other
Men
Women
White
Men
Women

Using 1970
weights

Using 1960
weights

Difference
Amount
Percent

$110.34
75.13

$ 99.57
57.56

$10.77
17.57

10.8
30.5

155.77
85.72

152.44
82.12

3.33
3.60

2.2
4.4

Source: C u r r e n t P o p u la tio n S u rv e y , annual averages 1970, and M ay 1970.

C h art 3-b. 1960 and 1970 unem ploym ent rate Negro and other races, both
sexes

Actual
unemployment rate of:
Total
Experienced
labor
labor
force
force
Actual 1960 Rate
Actual 1970 Rate
Change: 1960-70

10.2
8.2

Computed
unemployment
rate of
experienced
labor force

9.3
7.1
-2 .2

Computed Unemployment Rate
1960 Labor Force Distribution
x 1960 Unemployment Rates
1970 Labor Force Distribution
x 1960 Unemployment Rates
Change because of occupational advance, 1960-70

9.3
9.0
-0 .3

Source: U.S. Departm ent of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a rn in g s ,
Decem ber 1969 and January 1971 and C u r r e n t P o p u la tio n S u rv e y , annual averages,
1970.

C h art 4-a. D istribution of em ployed men by occupation and educational
a ttain m ent (18 years of age and over)

Race and
occupation level

Less than
4 years of
high school
(percent)

4 years
high school
or more
(percent)

4 years
college
or more
(percent)

Negro and other
Higher paid
Middle level
Lower paid

100
4
53
42

100
24
55
21

100
78
15
6

White
Higher paid
Middle level
Lower paid

100
11
64
25

100
42
48
11

100
83
15
2

Source: C u r r e n t P o p u la tio n S u rv e y , M arch 1970, educational attainm ent tabulations.




23

C h art 4-b. M edian years of sch ool com pleted by persons 25-29 years old

Negro and
other races
1940
1950
1960
1970

White
10.9
12.2
12.3
12.6

7.1
8.7
10.8'
12.2

' Total population, not total civilian population as in other years.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
Series P-20, No. 77, 99, 194, and 207, and Census ol Population 1960, PC(2)-5B,
table 2.

C h art 5-a. Percent of population ages 25-29 with 4 years of high sch ool or
more, and 4 years of college or more

Year
1960
1964
1968
1970

38.6’
45.1
55.9
56.1

4 years college
or more
White
Negro

4 years high school
or more
Negro
White

11.8
13.6
15.6
17.2

5.4’
5.6
5.4
7.3

63.7
72.1
75.2
77.8

1 Negro and other races
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, Current Population Reports, Series
P-20, Numbers 138, 182, 194, and 207.

C h art 5-b. N e groe s enrolled in college

Year

Number

Percent of total
enrollments

1964
1968
1970

234,000
434,000
522,000

5
6
7

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
Series P-20, No. 190, and P-20, No. 148.

C h art 6-a. D istribution o f o ccu pation s by age and race, 1970

25-34 yrs.

Negro and other races
35-54 yrs.

55-64 yrs.

Higher paid
Middle level
Lower paid

16
55
29

15
44
42

10
35
55

Higher paid
Middle level
Lower paid

31
55
13

White
29
56
15

27
52
21

Source: Current Population Survey, annual averages, 1970.




24

C h art 6-b. Percent Negro and other races of total em ploym en t by age and
occupation, 1970

Total

25-34 years
of age
12

35-54 years
of age
11

Higher paid
Middle level
Lower paid

6
12
23

6
9
25

Occupation level

55-64
of age
9
4
6
21

Source: Current Population Survey, annual averages, 1970.

C h art 7-a. Percent of Negro men with 4 years of high sch ool o r more, 1970,
by region

Region

Younger men
Ages 25-44

Older men
Ages 45-64

West
North
South

72.4
50.0
36.0

45.6
29.5
17.3

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports,
Series P-20, No. 207.

C h art 7-b. O ccupational d istribution of em ployed persons by region, 1970

Occupation level

North

West

South

Negro and other
Higher paid
Middle level
Lower paid

14
55
31

21
49
30

9
41
50

White
Higher paid
Middle level
Lower paid

25
56
19

29
51
20

27
56
18

Source: Current Population Survey, 1970 special area annual averages.

C h art 8-a. Percent of persons em ployed in nonfarm occupations, with
earnings of $1 0 ,0 0 0 or more; 1959 and 196 9 1

Sex and race

1959

1969

Males
Negro and other races
White

2.3
15.5

8.9
31.7

Females
Negro and other races
White

0.2
1.3

2.1
3.1

' In constant 1969 dollars.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Survey.




25

C h art 8-b. Percent of w orkers with incom es of $ 1 0 ,0 0 0 or m ore in 1969, by
sex and race

Negro and other races
Men
Women
Total
Total
Negro
Negro

White
Women

5.5

1.3

1.2

26.1

2.6

9.4
2.6
15.4

North
South
West

Men

6.8

Region
Total

8.7
2.3
12.2

1.7
0.9
2.1

1.7
0.9
1.1

27.5
20.9
30.2

2.6
2.1
3.4

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Survey.

C hart 9-a&b. Percent of persons em ployed in nonfarm occu pa tion s with
earnings under $ 3,000' in 1959 and 1969

Sex and race

1959

1969

Men
White
Negro and other races

18.0
15.9
39.5

14.6
14.0
22.1

Women
White
Negro and other races

51.9
48.6
75.3

43.3
42.0
52.0

' In constant 1969 dollars.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Survey.

C h art 10-a.
1980'

D istribution of the total la b o r force by age, 1960, 1970, and

Race and age

1960

1970

1980'

Negro and other
Under 35 years of age
35 years and over

100
42
58

100
48
52

100
55
45

White
Under 35 years of age
35 years and over

100
38
62

100
43
57

100
48
52

' Projection
Source: Travis, Sophia C. The U.S. Labor Force Projections to 1985, Special Labor Force
Report No. 119, and U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Employment and Earnings, January 1972.

C hart 10-b. Percent with 4 years of high sch ool or m ore in the civilia n labor
force, ages 25-34, 1970 and 1980

Negro and other_______ White
1970
1980'

59
74

78
84

' Projection
Sourcp: Johnston, Dennis, Education of Adult Workers, Special Labor Force Report No. 122,
and William Deutermann, Educational Attainment of Workers, March 1969 and 1970,
Special Labor Force Report No. 125.




26

<r GPO : 1972 O - 474-354




U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

THIRD CLASS MAIL

B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A TIS T IC S
W ASHING TO N, D.C. 20212
POSTAGE A N D FEES PAID
O F F IC IA L BUSINESS

U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R

PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE, $300




LAB - 4 4 6


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102