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I 2,3 / r\\A r* u P u b Z 0 ^ ° mefy u L,t}rary MAR 8 0 1 9 ft d DGG® € O f ' O G O JM TIC m .C H 4 fiG € U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 1731 1972 WUMm C LLE TIO O C N if 7 P , T , J / Dayton & Montgomery Co. Public Library (ERRATA) JUN2 1972 BC WK 41€HCNi9 DOCUMENT COLLECTION A D C O V eO f- oocuf^rnorviawriGe The last sentence, paragraph 1, page 1, "Intro d u ctio n ,” should read " T h e change in the occupational distribution of black workers has had the effect of reducing their unemployment rate by 0.3 percentage point, and of in creasing earnings more than $10 a week for full-tim e w orkers.” Chart 3b, page 7, should read: IN 1970, THE BLACK UNEMPLOYMENT RATE WAS 8 .2 % • • • COMPARED WITH OVER 10% IN 1960. Part of this reduction resulted from occupational advancementespecial ly of black men. Chart 3b. UNEMPLOYMENT RATE OF BLACK WORKERS Percent Reduction due to .occupational advance Reduction due to improved •-employment opportunities 1960 1970 Occupational change had little or no effect on white unemployment rates. • ■ . BC UK d M era cfcrc rtDGGOGOf1 0CCUMTO14.awriG€ U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR J. D. Hodgson, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner Bulletin 1731 1972 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 40 cents Stock Number 2901-0867 PREFACE This chartbook was prepared by Sylvia Sm all in the Office of Eco nomic and Social Research, Bureau of Labor Statistics, under the general direction of Robert L. Stein. M axine Stewart, Program Planning O fficer of the Bureau, provided expert guidance. M arian H ester was responsible fo r th e statistical com pilations underlying th e charts and Susie Scandrett also contributed. Ill TABLE OF CONTENTS Page In tro d u c tio n __________________________________________________ 1 O pportunities fo r occupational advancem ent of black workers have been im p ro v in g ______________________ 2 The higher paid occupations tend to be m ore s e c u re _______________________________________________ 4 O ccupational change has led to higher earnings and lower unem ploym ent fo r black w o rk e rs _______________ 6 Occupational advancem ent is related to a b etter prepared black p o p u la tio n _________________________________ 8 Black youths are staying in school longer, and m ore are going to c o lle g e _________________________________ 10 The effect of educational and occupational advance is most apparent among y o u n g black w o rk e rs _____________ 12 Educational and occupational achievem ents, of both young and old, have been higher in the W est and North than in the South _________________________ 14 As a result of w ider job choices and increased job security, incomes of black w orkers have in c re a s e d __________________________________________________ 16 The im provem ent in black workers' jobs and security has reduced, but not elim inated, low earners in the labor f o r c e ____________________________________________ The fu tu re holds g reat p ro m is e _______________________________ v 18 20 INTRODUCTION Black workers have been moving up the occupational scale in recent years, away from the laborer and service occupations and toward w hite-collar, craftsm en, and operative jobs. In 1 9 6 0 , 2 in every 5 black workers were in w hite-collar, craftsm en, or operative occupations. By 1 9 7 0 , m ore than half were in such jobs. These occupations are less subject to unem ploym ent and they are b etter paid. The change in the occupational distribution of black workers has had the effect of reducing th e ir unem ploym ent rate by nearly two points (1 .8 percentage points) and of increasing earnings m ore than $ 1 0 a week for fu ll-tim e workers. The charts th at follow separate th e black labor fo rc e * into th ree occupational groups fo r analysis: The highest paid occupations, which include professional, technical, and m anagerial workers, whose usual earnings (m e d ia n ) for black men w orking fu ll tim e w ere over $ 1 5 0 a week in 1 9 7 0 ; the m iddle pay levels, including clerical and sales workers, craftsm en and forem en whose usual earnings (m edian of black men working full tim e ) were $ 1 0 0 -$ 1 5 0 a week; and the lower paid occupations whose usual earnings (m edian of black men working full tim e ) were $ 1 0 0 a week or less. The charts show th at black workers in the lowest occupational pay groupings tend to have the lowest educational atta in m e n t, and th a t as one proceeds up the occupational hierarchy education also increases. Lack of education has often been a b a rrie r to em ploym ent in the higher paid occupations, w hether required fo r perform ance of a job or not. Since educational a tta in m e n t is much g re a te r fo r young black workers than fo r older age groups, and since the trend to ward increasing education continues, prospects are encouraging for continued occupational advancem ent. *D a ta for black workers shown in this report refer to the Negro population exclusively in chart 5a, 5b, 7a, and 8b. All other charts are based on data fo r Negro and other non white races, 90 percent of whom are Negroes, according to the 1970 Census of Population. 1 O P P O R T U N IT IE S FO R O C C U P A T IO N A L A D V A N C E M E N T O F B LA C K W O R K E R S H A V E B E E N IM P R O V IN G . . . BETWEEN 1960 AND 1970, THE NUMBER OF BLACK WORKERS IN HIGHERPAID AND MIDDLE LEVEL OCCUPATIONS* INCREASED SHARPLY . . . Chart la . BLACK WORKERS Millions of employed ------------------------------------- 9 1960 1970 . . . while the number of black workers in lower-paid occupations decreased. * See Introduction, page 1, fo r occupational pay level definitions. 2 GAINS OF WHITE WORKERS WERE SMALLER, PROPORTIONATELY . . . Chart lb . WHITE WORKERS Millions of employed -------------------------------------90 Percent Change Higher paid* < Professional Technical & M anagerial Middle pay level* Clerical Sales C raftsm en & Operatives Lower paid* < Service workers workers Farm workers 1970 1960 . . . but the share and number of white workers employed in the higher- paid occupations continued to be much larger than for black workers. 3 T H E H IG H E R -P A ID O C C U P A T IO N S T E N D TO BE MORE SECURE... BLACK MEN IN THE PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS EARNED ABOUT $75 A WEEK MORE THAN LABORERS AND SERVICE WORKERS . . . Chart 2a. USUAL WEEKLY EARNINGS, MAY 1970 (MEDIAN FOR FULL TIME WORKERS) 200 Professional & technical Higher paid MEN WOMEN M anagers, officials & proprietors® C raftsm en & foremen® Middle pay level < Lower paid The usual earnings of black women in each occupation were generally lower than those of men. 'N u m b e r of women employed in this occupation is too sm all to be shown separately. ®:!N u m b e r of men employed in this occupation is too sm all to be shown separately. 4 THE HIGHER-PAID OCCUPATIONS HAVE THE LOWEST UNEMPLOYMENT RATES. . . Chart 2b. 1970 UNEMPLOYMENT RATE OF BLACK WORKERS $0 2 4 6 8 10 MEN Higher paid WOMEN Middle pay level Lower paid And black workers in the higher-paid occupations are rarely unemployed more than once in a single year. Chart 2c. PERCENT UNEMPLOYED MORE THAN ONCE IN 1970 OF ALL BLACK WORKERS Higher paid Middle paid Lower paid White men’s unemployment rates are lower, but follow the same pattern. Women as well as men have the lowest unemployment rates in the higher-paid occupations. 5 O C C U P A T IO N A L C H A N G E H A S LED TO H IG H E R E A R N IN G S W IT H LO W ER U N E M P L O Y M E N T FOR BLACK W ORKERS . . . IN 1970, AVERAGE EARNINGS OF BLACK MEN WERE 1 1 % HIGHER, AND OF BLACK WOMEN ABOUT 3 0 % HIGHER THAN THEY WOULD HAVE BEEN IF THE BLACK LABOR FORCE HAD NOT BEEN MOVING INTO THE BETTER PAYING OCCUPATIONS . . . Chart 3a. USUAL WEEKLY EARNINGS OF FULL-TIME BLACK WORKERS (MEDIAN) Dollars 125 MEN Earnings attributable to occupational advances 1960-70 Similar occupational movement of white men contributed less than 3 % , and of white^women about 4 % to 1970 earnings. 6 IN 1970, THE BLACK UNEMPLOYMENT RATE WAS 8 .2 % . . . BUT IT WOULD HAVE BEEN 1 0 % IF OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE BLACK LABOR FORCE HAD BEEN THE SAME AS IN 1960. Chart 3b. UNEMPLOYMENT RATE OF BLACK WORKERS Percent Reduction because of occupational advance Based on 1960 occupational distribution 1970 Occupational change had little or no effect on white unemployment rates. 7 O C C U P A T IO N A L A D V A N C E M E N T IS R E L A T E D T O A B E T T E R P R E P A R E D B LA C K P O P U L A T IO N . . . BETTER EDUCATED BLACK WORKERS HAVE BEEN ABLE TO FILL HIGHER-PAID JOBS. Chart 4a. Higher paid \ With 4 years of high school or more Without a high school diploma Higher educational attainment leads to higher occupational attainment for both men and women. YOUNG BLACK ADULTS HAVE BEEN CLOSING THE EDUCATION GAP. Chart 4b. MEDIAN YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED BY YOUNG ADULTS (25-29 YEARS OLD) Years By 1970, educational attainment of young black adults was within one-half year of young white people this age. Lack of education is often a barrier to employment in better paid jobs for both black and white workers, whether education is required for performance of the job or not. 9 BLACK Y O U T H S ARE S T A Y IN G IN S C H O O L L O N G E R A N D M O R E ARE G O IN G TO C O LLEG E . . . BY 1970, MORE THAN HALF OF THE YOUNG BLACK ADULTS HAD FOUR YEARS OF HIGH SCHOOL OR MORE . . . Chart 5a. PERCENT OF BLACK POPULATION AGES 25-29 WHO HAD COMPLETED 4 YEARS OF HIGH SCHOOL OR MORE, AND 4 YEARS OF COLLEGE Percent 60 “ Data refer to Negro and other races. College data not available. 10 . AND COLLEGE ENROLLMENTS INCREASED SHARPLY. Chart 5b. NUMBER OF BLACK YOUTH ENROLLED IN COLLEGE 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 5% 100,000 6% 7% Percent of total enrollment T H E EFF EC T O F E D U C A T IO N A L A N D O C C U P A T IO N A L A D V A N C E IS M O S T A P P A R E N T A M O N G Y O U N G BLACK W ORKERS .. . YOUNGER BLACK WORKERS ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE IN HIGHER PAID OCCUPATIONS THAN ARE OLDER AGE GROUPS . . . Chart 6a. Percent Ages Ages Ages 25-34 35-54 55-64 HOWEVER, DESPITE GAINS MADE BY THE YOUNG, MANY ARE STILL IN THE LOWEST PAID OCCUPATIONS. Chart 6b. BLACK WORKERS AS A PERCENT OF YOUNG WORKERS AGES 25-34, BY OCCUPATIONAL PAY LEVEL Percent > White workers > Black workers 0 —J Higher paid Middle pay level Lower paid E D U C A T IO N A L A N D O C C U P A T IO N A L A C H IE V E M E N T S OF BLACK W O R K ER S, B O T H Y O U N G A N D OLD, H A VE B E EN H IG H E R IN T H E W EST A N D N O R T H * T H A N IN T H E S O U T H NEARLY THREE-QUARTERS OF THE YOUNG BLACK MEN IN THE WEST, AND ONE-HALF OF THOSE IN THE NORTH HAD FINISHED FOUR YEARS OF HIGH SCHOOL OR MORE BY 1970, COMPARED WITH JUST OVER ONE-THIRD IN THE SOUTH . . . Chart 7a. PERCENT OF BLACK WORKERS WITH 4 YEARS OF HIGH SCHOOL OR MORE Percent 100 Young men ages 25-44 Older men ages 45-64 75 West North South West * North is composed of N ortheast and North C entral regions. 14 North South TWO-THIRDS OF THE BLACK WORKERS IN THE WEST AND NORTH ARE IN THE HIGHER OR MIDDLE PAY LEVEL OCCUPATIONS, COMPARED WITH ONE-HALF OF THE BLACK WORKERS IN THE SOUTH. Chart 7b. Higher paid > Middle pay level > Lower paid 15 AS A R E S U L T OF W ID E R JO B C H O IC E S , A N D IN C R E A S E D JO B S E C U R IT Y , IN C O M E S O F BLACK W O RKERS H A VE IN C R EA S E D . . . THE PROPORTION OF BLACK MEN WITH OVER $10,00 0 EARNINGS* QUADRUPLED BETWEEN 1959 AND 1969 . . . BUT WAS STILL FAR BELOW THAT OF WHITE MEN. Chart 8a. PERCENT WITH EARNINGS OF $ 1 0,00 0 OR MORE IN CONSTANT DOLLARS* Percent 40 -------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------- MEN WOMEN 1959 1969 Black and white women lagged behind both black and white men in achieving such earnings, despite gains during the decade. * ln constant 1969 dollars fo r Negro and oth er races. 16 THE PERCENT WITH INCOME OF $ 1 0,00 0 OR MORE WAS MUCH LARGER IN THE WEST AND THE NORTH THAN IN THE SOUTH FOR BOTH BLACK AND WHITE MEN. Chart 8b. PERCENT OF PERSONS WITH INCOMES OF $1 0,00 0 OR MORE IN 19 69 * Percent MEN WOMEN White However, few women earn such incomes in any region. *D a ta fo r black m en and women refer to Negroes, only. 17 T H E IM P R O V E M E N T IN B LACK W O R K E R S ’ JO B S A N D S E C U R IT Y H A S R E D U C E D , B U T N O T E L IM IN A T E D , LO W E A R N E R S IN T H E LA B O R F O R C E . . . THERE WAS A SHARP REDUCTION BETWEEN 1959 AND 1969 IN THE PERCENT OF BLACK MEN AND BLACK WOMEN WITH EARNINGS UNDER $ 3 ,0 0 0 *. Chart 9a But more than half of all black women and two-fifths of all white women still had such earnings in 1969. ' Annual earnings in constant dollars. 18 TWO-THIRDS OF THE BLACK MEN AND WOMEN WITH LESS THAN $3,000 EARNINGS IN 1970 WERE IN THE LOWER-PAID OCCUPATIONS. Chart 9b 19 THE FUTURE HOLDS GREAT P R O M IS E . . . BY 1980, A MUCH LARGER SHARE OF THE BLACK LABOR FORCE WILL BE YOUNG . . . Chart 10a. PERCENT OF BLACK LABOR FORCE UNDER 35 YEARS OF AGE Percent 100 ------------------------------------------- 75 50 25 — 1960 1970 * Projection 20 1980* . . . AND BETTER EDUCATED. Chart 10b. PERCENT HAVING 4 YEARS OF HIGH SCHOOL OR MORE, AGES 25-34 Percent 100 ------------------------------------------- 1970 1980* As a result, a larger proportion of black workers is expected to be in the better paid occupations. Projection SOURCES OF DATA Chart la: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Averages, 1960 and 1970. lb : See Chart 1A. 2a: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, May 1970. 2b: See Chart 1A. 2c: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Work Experience of the Population in 1969, unpublished data. 3a: See Chart 1A and Chart 2A. 3b: See Chart 1A. 4a: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Educa tional Attainment of Workers, March 1970, unpublished data. 4b: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Report Series P-20, Nos. 138, 182, and 207. 5a: See Chart 4B. 5b: Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports Series P-20, Nos. 148, 179, and 222. 6a: See Chart 1A. 6b: See Chart 1A. 7a: See Chart 4 A. 7b: See Chart 1A. 8a: Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, and unpublished data. 8b: See Chart 8A. 9a: See Chart 8A. 9b: See Chart 8A. 10a: Bureau of Labor Statistics, The U.S. Economy in 1980, BLS Bulletin 1673. (1970) 10b: Johnston, Denis. “ Education of Adult Workers: Projections to 1985," Monthly Labor Review, August 1970. U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.1972— 0-456-707 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS WASHINGTON, D. C. 20212 O F F IC IA L . B U S IN E SS P E N A L T Y F O R P R IV A T E U S E , $ 3 0 0 Postage and Fees Paid U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR T H IR D C LA SS M A IL