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i >  AREA WAGE SURVEY  r k  Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Florida, Metropolitan Area August 1974  ^  Bulletin 1850-5  * ■-r  Titusville  Cocoa  Melbourne  BREVARD  I-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  U S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Bureau of Labor Statistics   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ANNOUNCEMENT Area Wage Survey bulletins will be issued once every 3 years. These bulletins will contain information on establishment practices and supplementary benefits as well as earnings. In the interim years, supplements containing data on earnings only will be issued at no additional costs to holders of the Area Wage bulletin. If you wish to receive these supplements, please complete the coupons listed on page 27 of this bulletin and mail to any of the BLS regional addresses listed on the back cover. No further action on your part is necessary. Each year, you will receive the supplement when it is published.  Preface This bulletin provides results of an August 1974 survey of occupational earnings and supplementary wage benefits in the Melbourne-Titusville—Cocoa, Florida, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (Brevard County), The survey was made as part of the Bureau of Labor Statistics' annual area wage survey program. The program is designed to yield data for individual metropolitan areas, as well as national and regional estimates for all Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii. A major consideration in the area wage survey program is the need to describe the level and movement of wages in a variety of labor markets, through the analysis of (1) the level and distribution of wages by occupation, and (2) the movement of wages by occupational category and skill level. The program develops information that may be used for many purposes, including wage and salary administration, collective bargaining, and assistance in determining plant location. Survey results also are used by the U.S. Department of Labor to make wage determinations under the Service Contract Act of 1965. Currently, 79 areas are included in the program. (See list of areas on inside back cover.) In each area, occupational earnings data are collected annually. Information on establishment practices and supplementary wage benefits is obtained every third year. Results of the next two annual surveys, providing earnings data only, will be issued as free supplements to this bulletin. The supplements may be obtained from the Bureau's regional offices. (See back cover for addresses.) Each year after all individual area wage surveys have been completed, two summary bulletins are issued. The first brings together data for each metropolitan area surveyed. The second summary bulletin presents national and regional estimates, projected from individual metropolitan area data. The Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa survey was conducted by the Bureau's regional office in Atlanta, Ga., under the general direction of Donald M. Cruse, Associate Assistant Regional Director for Operations. The survey could not have been accomplished without the cooperation of the many firms whose wage and salary data provided the basis for the statistical information in this bulletin. The Bureau wishes to express sincere appreciation for the cooperation received.  Note: Current reports on occupational earnings and supplementary wage provisions in the Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa area are also available for the laundry and dry cleaning, metalworking, and moving and storage industries.  AREA WAGE SURVEY  Bulletin 1850-5  U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, Peter J. Brennan, Secretary  January 1975  BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS. Julius Shiskin, Commissioner  Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Florida, Metropolitan Area, August 1974 CONTENTS  DPage  Introduction_____________________________________________________________________  2  T able s: A.  B.  Earnings: A-l. Weekly earnings of office workers-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A-2. Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex---------------------------------------------------------A-4. Hourly earnings of maintenance and powerplant workers---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A-5. Hourly earnings of custodial and material movement workers-------------------------------------------------------------------------A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, powerplant, custodial, andmaterial movement workers, by sex-----------A-7. Percent increases in average hourly earnings for selected occupational groups, adjusted for employment shifts--  3 4 5 6 6 7 8  Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions: B-l. Minimum entrance salaries for inexperienced typists and clerks------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9 B-2. Late-shift pay provisions for full-time manufacturing plant workers----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 B-3. Scheduled weekly hours and days of full-time first-shift workers----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 B-4. Annual paid holidays for full-time workers 12 B-4a. Identification of major paid holidays for full-time workers---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13 B-5. Paid vacation provisions for full-time workers______________________________________________________ 14 B-6. Health, insurance, and pension plan provisions for full-time workers-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16  Appendix A. Appendix B.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Scope and method of survey 18 Occupational descriptions 21  ie uy uie jupcuuicuucui  BLS Regional Offices listed on back cover. ---------Price----------------75 cents.  1  w . Make checks■ payable-to Superintendent of- _ Documents.  4  Introduction This area is 1 of 79 in which the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings and related benefits on an areawide basis. In this area, data were obtained by personal visits of Bureau field economists to representative estab­ lishments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transpor­ tation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major industry groups excluded from these studies are government operations and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted because of insufficient employment in the occupations studied. Separate tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions which meet publication criteria.  maintenance workers, and unskilled plant workers. This measure of wage trends eliminates changes in average earnings caused by employ­ ment shifts among establishments as well as turnover of establishments included in survey samples. Where possible, data are presented for all industries, manufacturing, and nonmanufacturing. Appendix A discusses this wage trend measure.  B-series tables The B-series tables present information on minimum entrance salaries for office workers; late-shift pay provisions and practices for plant workers in manufacturing; and data separately for plant and office workers on scheduled weekly hours and days of first-shift workers; paid holidays; paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans.  A-series tables Tables A-l through A-6 provide estimates of straight-time hourly or weekly earnings for workers in occupations common to a variety of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupations were selected from the following categories: (a) Office clerical, (b) pro­ fessional and technical, (c) maintenance and powerplant, and (d) custodial and material movement. In the 31 largest survey areas, tables A-la through A-6a provide similar data for establishments employing 500 workers or more.  Appendixes This bulletin has two appendixes. Appendix A describes the methods and concepts used in the area wage survey program. It provides information on the scope of the area survey and information on the area's industrial composition in manufacturing. It also provides information on labor-management agreement coverage. Appendix B provides job descriptions used by Bureau field economists to classify workers in occupations for which straight-time earnings information is presented.  Following the occupational wage tables is table A-7 which provides percent changes in average earnings of office clerical work­ ers, electronic data processing workers, industrial nurses, skilled   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  2  A. Earnings Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Fla., August 1974 Weekly earnings (standard)  Occupation and industry division  Number of workere  ’  Number of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of— *  Average weekly hours1 (standard)  $ 80  Mean  ^  . Median i  Middle  ranged  $ 85  %  %  »  90  95  100  » 105  % 110  S 130  * $ $ $ $ $ S $ $ $ 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 23,0 240  130  140  150 160  17  11  $ 115  120  %  and under 85  and 90  95  100  105  110  115  120  170  180  190  200  210  220  230  240 over  MEN AND WOMEN COMBINED  $  $  $  $  38  40.0 138.00 135.00 126.50-144.50  45  40.0 127.50 111.00 101.00-126.00 39.5 136.00 111.00 94.50-211.00  £  3  14  10  12 12  11  an.i * nn ' 0*0 iIfr 00  20 1  *  16  40.0 124.50 122.00 116.00-132.00  345  40*0 80 162 00 4olo 168 177150 175.00 160.50-197.50  1  0 0 182 50 177 00 40.0 178.50 175.50 166.00-203.00  1  22 19  41  23  30  82 48  1  54  1  1 1  40.0 176.50 164.50 160.50-176.00 93 132 54  1  40.0 151.00 144.50 133.00-162.00 40.0 16 5.00 170.50 129.50-185.00  18 15  41  19  15 40.0 174.50 176.50 154.00-194.00  -------------  24  40.0 116.00 121.50 105.00-131.00  SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTS-  24  40.0 40.0  1YPISTSt CLASS A  68 47  39.5 152.00 151.00 137.00-167.50 39.5 154.00 160.50  45  y rt n HO Cft 113.00 103.00-129.50 40 0 113 00  SWITCHBLARO OPERATORS —  — —  -  —  91.00 89.50  90.00 86.00  80.00-100.00 80.00-100.00  -  -  10 10  2  3  -  6  1  10  18  3  16 4  65 42  13  11  23 22  1  See footnotes at end of tables.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  18  7  14  2  _  14  1  6  6  _  _ _  1 1  _  20 16  12 12  12 12  36  1  Ul. ,.n 1/ / * gn 00 146* 40 40*0 lao  54  NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------  15 13  17 12  7  35  55 35  1  12  -  1  27 18  21 16  10  5  3  1  30 27  _ _  _ _  _  4  -  Table A-2. Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa. Fla., August 1974 Weekly earnings 1 (standardj Average weekly hours1 (standard'  Occupation and industry division workers  Number of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of*  S 100  Median £  Middle ranged  S 110  S 120  $ 130  S 140  S 150  % 160  S 170  $ 180  S 190  S 200  $ 210  $ 220  $ 230  * 240  $ 250  $ 260  S 280  S 300  and under 110  120  130  140  150  160  170  180  190  200  210 220  * 320  340  -  and  230  240  250  260  280  300  320  340  over  _  2 2  _ -  _ -  -  -  -  -  MEN AND WOMEN COMBINED COMPUTER OPERATORS, CLASS A --------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------  39 39  $ $ $ $ 40.0 202.00 180.50 180.00-229.00 40.0 202.00 180.50 180.00-229.00  -  -  -  -  -  -  3 3  1 1  17 17  -  -  _ -  16 16  COMPUTER OPERATORS, CLASS B ---------------  37  40.0 174.00 162.50 150.00-213.00  -  -  -  2  7  6  8  1  -  -  2  9  2  COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS, BUSINESS, CLASS A ---------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------  51 43  40.0 279.50 286.00 266.00-294.00 40.0 277.00 283.00 262.50-291.00  _  _  _  _  _  .  “  “  _  _  _ “  1 1  3 3  1 1  1 1  6 5  9 7  22 22  6 1  2 2  -  1  1  3  *10  -  "  -  -  -  -  -  15 15  -  -  -  -  15 15  ■  ~  _  _  ~  “  ~  ~  40.0 358.50 368.50 327.50-383.50  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  1  64 37  40.0 230.00 239.50 209.50-250.00 40.0 247.50 250.00 242.50-270.00  -  -  _  _  _  _  _  3  6 2  3  4 1  8 1  5 1  3 1  11 11  9 8  12 12  DRAFTERS, CLASS B -------------------------------------  83  40.0 165. 50 170.00 146.00-185.50  -  -  4  4  16  8  8  13  17  10  2  1  DRAFTERS, CLASS C -------------------------------------  35  40.0 130.50 130.00 115.00-144.00  8  8  1  6  6  2  2  -  -  -  2  -  -  -  -  -  -  ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS -----------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------  726 415  40.0 211.50 242.50 170.50-245.00 40.0 240. 00 242.50 242.50-245.00  _  62  14  35 1  32 ~  10 -  28 4  19 2  16 5  34 2  45 34  11 6  15 7  28 23  308 307  9 9  _  45  -  ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS, CLASS A-  432  ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS, CLASS BNUNMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------*  277 77  * Workers were distributed as follows:  o o  16  DRAFTERS, CLASS A ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------  4"  COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS, BUSINESS, CLASS A -----------------------------------  -  ~  -  243.00 242.50 242.50-245.00  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  2  -  27  6  6  10  22  305  9  -  40.0 165.50 153.00 124.50-200.50 40.0 229.50 204.00 204.00-236.50  _  62  14  34  28  6  22 3  15 1  16 5  7 1  39 33  5 5  5 5  6 6  3 3  _  _  6 at $360 to $380; and 4 at $400 to $420.  See footnotes at end of tables.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ' -  4  45  Table A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex in Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Fla., August 1974 Average (mean2)  (mean2) Weekly Weekly hours 1 earnings1 (standard) (standard)  OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN  Sex, occupation, and industry division  OFFICE OCCUPATIONS WOMEN—CONTINUED  $  40.0 141.001 40.0 144.50 STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR ---------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------  85 54  40.0 160.00 40.0 174.50  CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B NONMANUFACTURING -------------------  63 39  40.0 123.00 39.5 129.50 SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS ----------------------------  24  40.0 116.00  KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A ----------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------  49 31  40.0 155.00 SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSNONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------40.0 161.00  24 21  40.0 40.0  40.0 124.50 TYPISTS, CLASS A --------------------------------------345 191  SECRETARIES, CLASS B ---------NGNMANUFAC TURING-----------------  40.0 168.50 40.0 177.50  144 93  40.0 176.50 40.0 182.50:  SECRETARIES, CLASS D NONMANUFACTURING ------  132 54  40.0 151.00 40.0 165.00  64 54  40.0 139.50 40.0 144.00  STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------  91.00 89.50  NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------  68 47  39.5 152.00 39.5 154.00  TYPISTS, CLASS B -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------  93 45  40.0 112.50 40.0 113.00  40.0 182.50 40.0 170.50  SECRETARIES, CLASS C -------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------  COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS, BUSINESS, CLASS A ----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------  41 34  40.0 281.50 40.0 279.50  COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS, BUSINESS, CLASS A -  34 34  40.0 197.00 40.0 197.00  COMPUTER OPERATORS, CLASS B -------------  26  40.0 172.00  40.0 358.50  62 35  40.0 229.50 40.0 247.50  DRAFTERS, CLASS B -------------------------------------  64  40.0 166.50  DRAFTERS, CLASS C ----------------------------------  27  ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS --------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------  632 414  40.0 224.00 40.0 240.00  ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS, CLASS A-  432  40.0 243.00  ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS, CLASS BNONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------  187 77  40.0 184.00 40.0 229.50  Earnings data in table A-3 relate only to workers whose sex identification was provided by the establishment. Earnings data in tables A-l and A-2, on the other hand, relate to all workers in an occupation. (See appendix A for publication criteria.)  5  —  16  PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS - MEN  COMPUTER OPERATORS, CLASS A -------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------  —  $  DRAFTERS, CLASS A ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------  See footnotes at end of table.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Weekly Weekly hours 1 earnings 1 (standard) (standard)  PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS - MEN—CONTINUED  80 48  SECRETARIES NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------  Sex, occupation, and industry division  Weekly Weekly earnings 1 hours * (standard) (standard)  CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A — NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------  KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B ---------------  Average (mean2) Number of worker.  o  workers  Number of  *o  Sex, occupation, and industry division  Number of  125.00  Table A-4. Hourly earnings of maintenance and powerplant workers in Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Fla., August 1974 Hourly earnings* Number  Occupation and industry division  of  Mean 2  Median2  Middle range 2  Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of— i 1 1 $ % 1 i r 1 S % i $ * i S $ % % * $ $ 60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00 6. 20 6.40 Under 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.50 3.60 3. 70 3.80 3.90 4.00 4.10 4.20 4.404. $ and and 3.20 under 3.30 3.40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3.80 3.90 4.00 4.10 4.20 4.40 4.604. 80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6. 40  over  HEN AND WOMEN COMBINED  $  $  $  $  4.97  5.02 5.02  5.02­ 5.02­  5.39  5.91 6.01  5.02­ 5.02- 6.01  6.01 6.01  5.02­ 6.01 5.02- 6.01  36 MECHANICS*  AUTOMOTIVE  35  NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------  157 128 101 97  5.66 5.59  2  *  -  -  "  1 1  -  -  -  2  -  -  -  *  18 15 46  1  -  -  “  -  10 10  35 35  72 72  -  1  -  57 57  See footnotes at end of tables.  Table A-5. Hourly earnings of custodial and material movement workers in Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Fla., August 1974 Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earning s of—  Hourly ea mings5 Occupation and industry division  Number of workers  i i i 1 i i t 1 $ i % t i $ $ $ $ $ * S S $ 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.20 3.403. 60 3.80 4 .00 4.20 4. 40 4.60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5.40 Mean 2  Median2  Middle range 2  and under 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.603. 80 4.00 4 .20 4.40 4. 60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60  MEN AND WOMEN COMBINED $ 4. 18  $ $ 4.18- 4.37  2  3.42 3.28  3.40 3.15  2.37- 4.45 2.19- 4.35  4 4  _  _  1 1  144 126 30  4.38 4.35 3.70  4.75 4.72 3.59  3.d3— 4.84 3.81- 4.84 3.39- 4.05  —  — -  —  61 61  4.60 4.60  4.84 4.84  4.72- 4.84 4.72- 4.84  _  ~  . -  TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY (OVER 4 TONS, OTHER THAN TRAILER TYPE) -------------  49  4.18  4.15  3.59- 4.80  -  -  -  WAREHOUSEMEN -------------------------------------------NUNMANUFACTURING ------------------------------  268 251  4.51 4.61  4.65 4.65  4.64- 4.75 4.64- 4.75  1 1  '  GUARDS AND WATCHMEN ------------------------------  257  LABORERS* MATERIAL HANDLING -------------NUNMANUFAC TURING------------------------------  17 15  TRUCKDRIVERS -------------------------------------------NQNMANUF AC TUR ING-----------------------------PUBLIC UTILITIES -------------------------TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM (1-1/2 TO AND INCLUDING 4 TONS) -------------------NUNMANUFACTURING ------------------------------  $ 4.07  2  1  2  2  -  _ _  2 2  -  — “  —  ”  2 2 -  _  -  _  2 2  2  -  -  "  '  ~  “  “  -  See footnotes at end of tables.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  6  1 1  '  3  2  -  5  5  11  1  145  76  *  ~  -  -  -  -  “  ”  1 1  “  1 1  _ -  _ ~  1 1  1 1  4 2  1 1  1 1  _ -  _ -  _  2 2 2  2 -  -  12 10 1  6 6 6  11 11 7  _ -  5 5 4  9 9 7  1 1 1  3 3 1  38 34 -  32 32  2 2 1  17 9  -  “  ~  — “  “  1 1  —  1 1  7 7  -  1 1  17 17  31 31  1 1  _ -  _ -  2  -  “  1  6  10  4  2  1  1  13  “  1  8  -  4 2  -  5 *  5 2  1  '  5 3  _ “  5 5  6 6  223 223  _ ”  4 4  _ ~  *  4 2  2 2  _  2 _ -   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, powerplant custodial, and material movement workers, by sex, in Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Fla., August 1974 Sex, occupation, and industry division  Number of  MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT OCCUPATIONS - MEN  Average (mean2) hourly earnings3  Sex, occupation, and industry division  Number of  Average (mean2) hourly earnings3  CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE ------------  36  CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL M3VEMENT OCCUPATIONS - MEN—CONTINUED $ 5.51 LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING --------------  MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE! ------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------  35 31  4.97 4.94  MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE NONMANUFACTURING ----  157 128  5.44 5.66  PAINTERS, MAINTENANCE -------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------  101 97  5.59 5.64  TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY (OVER 4 TONS, OTHER THAN TRAILER TYPE) --------------  49  4.18  255  WAREHOUSEMEN -------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------4.08  260 247  4.53 4.61  CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT OCCUPATIONS - MEN  GUARDS AND WATCHMEN ------------------------------  15  $ 3.23  TRUCKDRIVERS -------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------PUBLIC UTILITIES --------------------------  144 126 30  4.38 4.35 3.70  TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM (1-1/2 TO AND INCLUDING 4 TONS) -------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------  61 61  4.60 4.60  See footnotes at end of tables.  Earnings data in table A-6 relate only to workers whose sex identification was provided by the establishment. Earnings data in tables A-4 and A-5, on the other hand, relate to all workers in an occupation. (See appendix A for publication criteria. )  7   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Table A-7. Percent increases in average hourly earnings for selected occupational groups, adjusted for employment shifts, in Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Fla., August 1973 to August 1974 August 197 3 to  Industry and occupational group All industries: Office clerical (all workers) .................................. . _ ____ ___ ___ Electronic data processing (all workers) Industrial nurses (all workers)----------------------------------------------------------Skilled maintenance trades (men) Unskilled plant workers (men)  12.7 * * 15.5 *  * Data do not meet publication criteria.  NOTE: The percent increases presented in this table are based on changes in average hourly earnings for establishments reporting the trend jobs in both the current and previous year (matched establishments). They are not affected by changes in average earnings resulting from employment shifts among establishments or turnover of establishments included in survey samples. The percent increases, however, are still affected by factors other than wage increases. Hirings, layoffs, and turnover may affect an establishment average for an occupation when workers are paid under plans providing a range of wage rates for individual jobs. In periods of increased hiring, for example, new employees enter at the bottom of the range, depressing the average without a change in wage rates. These wage trends are not linked to the wage indexes previously published for this area because the wage indexes measured changes in area averages whereas these wage trends measure changes in matched establishment averages. Other characteristics of these wage trends which differ from the discontinued indexes include (1) earnings data of office clerical workers and industrial nurses are converted to an hourly basis, (2) trend estimates are provided for nonmanufacturing establishments where possible, and (3) trend estimates are provided for electronic data processing jobs. In Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, data for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing establishments do not meet publication criteria. For a more detailed description of the method used to compute these wage trends, see "Improving Area Wage Survey Indexes, " Monthly Labor Review, January 1973, pp. 52-57.  8  B. Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions Table B-1. Minimum entrance salaries for inexperienced typists and clerks in Melbourne— Titusville—Cocoa, Fla., August 1974 Inexperienced typists Manufacturing Minimum weekly straight-time salary4  Based on standard weekly hours6 of—  All industries  All schedules  Establishments studied  Establishments having a specified minimum $72-50 $75.00 $77.50 $80.00 $82.50 $85.00 $87.50 $90.00 $92.50 $95.00 $97.50  and and and and and and and and and and and  $ 100.00 $105.00 $ 110.00 $115.00 $ 120.00 $ 125.00 $ 130.00 $ 135.00 $ 140.00 $ 145.00 $ 150.00 $ 155.00 $160.00  under under under under under under under under under under under  and and and and and and and and and and and and and  .  $75.00 $77.50 _ ............... $80.00______________ _______ __ _ ______ $82.50 _____________________________ ____ $85.00_________ _____ _________________ $87.50_____________________________________ $90.00____________ ________________________ $92.50 $95.00____________________________ ______ _ $97.50 $ 100.00—________________ _______ __________  under under under under under under under under under under under under over  $ 105.00 $110.00___________ ____ $ 115.00 ... .. ____ $120.00....______________ ________________ $ 125.00.................................................... ............ $ 130.00 $ 135.00_____ _____ _______ _____ ___________ $140.00____________________________ ______ $ 145.00__________________________________ $150.00-------------------------- --------- ---------------$ 155.00 ________________________________ $ 160.00 .  Establishments having no specified minimum............... ............ Establishments which did not employ workers in this category  All schedules  40  Manufacturing  All schedules  40  Nonmanufacturing  Based on standard veekly hours6 of—  All industries  40  All schedules  40  54  10  XXX  44  XXX  54  10  XXX  44  XXX  14  4  4  10  10  27  6  6  21  18  . 2 1  . -  _  _  1  _ 2 1  _ _ 2  _ _ 1  _  1 8  2  1  2  2  2  _ _ "  3  -  _ *  _ 1 3  2  -  _ 2 2 5 2  _  1  _ _ 1  _ -  -  -  2 1 1  _ -  _ -  2  2  _  _  -  -  -  -  -  -  1 1  1 1  1 1  1  1  _ 1 1  _  _ 1 1  -  _  -  _  -  -  1  1  -  XXX  39  6  XXX  2  1 1  See footnotes at end of tables.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Other inexperienced clerical workers5 Nonmanufacturing  9  . 1  1 1  1  -  _ _  _  1  _  _  _  _  _  1 1  _ _  _ _  _  _  _  _  >  _  _ -  _ _  _ _  1  1  1  1 1  1  1  1  XXX  3  -  XXX  3  XXX  33  XXX  24  4  XXX  20  XXX  _ _  >   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Table B-2. Late shift pay provisions for full-time manufacturing plant workers in Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Fla., August 1974 (All full-time manufacturing plant workers = 100 percent) All workers 7  Workers on late shifts  Item Second shift  Third shift  Second shift  Third shift  Percent of workers  In establishments with late shift provisions With no pay differential for late shift work______ With pay differential for late shift work................ Uniform cents-per-hour differential Uniform percent differential Other differential------------------------------------------ ------  86. 0  85. 0  _  _  86. 0 86. 0  85. 0 80. 8  _ -  _ 4. 3  14. 4  5.4  _  14. 4 14.4  5. 4 5. 4  _ -  _ -  Average pay differential Uniform cents-per-hour differential--------------------  19.4  27. 1  19. 2  27. 0  3. 0 19. 8 63. 1  3. 0 15. 6  1. 1 2. 7 10.6  1. 1  Percent of workers by type and amount of pay differential Uniform cents-per-hour: 15 cents------------------------------------------------------------------18 cents------------------------------------------------------------------20 cents------ --------------------------------------------------------30 cents____ ___________ ___ Other differential—------------------------------- --------------------  62. 1  -  4. 3  "  See footnotes at end of tables.  10  -  4.4  “  “  Table B-3. Scheduled weekly hours and days of full-time first-shift workers in Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Fla., August 1974 Plant workers  Office workers  Item All industries  Manufacturing  Public utilities  All industries  Manufacturing  Public utilities  Percent of workers by scheduled weekly hours and days All full-time workers 30 hour s—5 days 35 hours------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 days------------------------ ---------------------------------------------------------6 days-------- ---------------------------------- ----------------------------------------36 hours—4 days----------------------------------------------------------------------37 l/z hours—5 days------------------------------------------------------------------40 hours-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 days-------- --------------------- -----------------------------------------------------6 days----------------------------------------------------------------------------------42 l/z hours—5 days------------------------------------------------------------------45 hours—5Vz days-------------------------------------------------------------------  100  100  100  _  _ _  1 1  _ _  _  100  100  100  2  5 4 (’> (’)  _ _  n  2  87 84 2  100 100  94 94  (’) 6 93 93  1 _  34  99 99  66 66  1 3  6 “  _ _  _  -  -  -  -  39. 7  40. 1  40. 0  39. 8  40. 0  39.2  Average scheduled weekly hours All weekly work schedules ------------------------------------------------------  See footnote at end of tables.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  11  Table B-4. Annual paid holidays for full-time workers in Melbourne-Titusville-Cocoa, Fla., August 1974 Plant workers  Office workers  Item All industries  Manufacturing  Public utilities  All industries  Manufacturing  Public utilities  Percent of workers All full-time workers____________________________________  100  100  In establishments not providing paid holidays-------- ---------------------------------------------------------------  11  6  In establishments providing paid holidays................—-------- -------------------------------------------------  89  94  100  9. 0  10.4  8. 7  _ 10 8 9 4 25 6 6 20 1  _ 1 8 3  . 5 _ 4  26  _ 90  56  _ _  100  -  100  100  100  -  -  99  100  100  9.4  10. 8  8.8  (’> 6 9 11 7 19 9 8 29 2  2 1 4 7  6  _ 12  91  (’)  Average number of paid holidays For workers in establishments providing holidays----------------------------------------------------------------Percent of workers by number of paid holidays provided lu 2 holidays-------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------5 holidays 6 holidays------------------------------------------------------------------------- —____ 7 holidays---------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 holidays---------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 holidays---------------------------------------------------------------------------------10 holidays-------------------------------------------------------- ---------------11 holidays-------------------------------------------------------------------------------12 holidays------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------13 holidays------------------------------------------ --------------------------------------  _  -  _ 74 -  3  '  -  Percent of workers by total paid holiday time provided 11 2 days or more------------------------------------------------------------------------5 days or more 6 days or more------------- --------------- ------------ ------------------- ---------7 days or more------------------------------------------------------------------------8 days or more 9 days or more------------------------------------------------------------------------10 days or more-----------------------------------------------------------------------11 days or more-------------------------------------------------------- --------------12 days or more----------------------------------—-------- ------------------------13 days or more------------------------------------------------------------------------  89 89 79 71 63 58 34 27 21 1  94 94 93 85 82 82 56 56 56  100 100 95 95 90 90 -  -  See footnotes at end of tables.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  12  99 98 94 85 73 66 48 39 31 2  100 98 97 93 86 86 74 74 74  100 100 97 97 91 91 _ _  Table B-4a. Identification of major paid holidays for full-time workers in Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Fla., August 1974 Plant workers  Office workers  Item 10 All industries  Manufacturing  All full-time workers...........................................................................  100  100  100  100  100  100  New Year's Day-------------- ------ ---------------------------------------------------Washington's Birthday________________ ____ Good Friday------------------------------------------------------------------------------North Atlantic Treaty Organization Day---------------------------------Memorial Day----------------------------------------------------------------------------Fourth of July—--------- ------------- -------.................. - -----------------------Labor Day----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Columbus Day----------------------------------------------------------------------------Veterans Day___________________________________________________ United Nations Day--------------------------------------------- --------------- ----Thanksgiving Day------------------------------------------------------ --- _ __ Day after Thanksgiving-------------------------------------------------------------Christmas Eve________ ______________ _______ __________________ Christmas Day---------------------------------------------------------------------------Christmas—New Year's holiday period 12------------- ------- ----------3 extra days during Christmas week New Year's Eve-------------- -------------------------------------------------------Floating holiday. 1 day 13---------------------------------------------------------Floating holiday, 2 days 13______ ______ ________________________ Floating holiday, 3 days 13___________________ Employee's birthday __ _ __ Employee's anniversary---------------------------------------------- ----------  89 31 14  94 26 26 16 90 94 94  100 69 66  99 31 6 4 88 99 99 6 36 6 99 43 39 99 12 16 32 8 1 7 7 2  98 12 12 18 90 98 98  100 34 34  Public utilities  All industries  Manufacturing  Public utilities  * *  r* *  Percent of workers  ► See footnotes at end of tables.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  4  69 89 89 5 25 5 89 32 25 89 9  _ _ 16 94 20 40 94 36  12 20 12  40 26  4  7 5 1  4  _ 16 3 3  _  95 100 100 3 90 100 _  21 100 _ _  _ _ _ 25  18 100 22 56 100 51 5 56 12 _ 18 7 7  97 100 100 1 91 100 57 100  ■ _ _  63  Table B-5. Paid vacation provisions for full-time workers in Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Fla., August 1974 Plant workers  Office workers  Item All industries  Manufacturing  Public utilities  All industries  100  100  100  100  Manufacturing  Public utilities  Percent of workers All full-time workers In establishments not providing paid vacations._____ _________________________ __________ _____ In establishments providing paid vacations.............. ............................. ................. ................................. Length-of-time payment______________________________ Percentage payment  4  6  96 93 3  94 94  100 100  -  -  3 69  70 21  -  -  100  100  99 99 1  100 100  100  38 32 5 1  25  40  -  -  9 90 1  2 98  3  -  -  2 98  3 97  -  -  1 99 1  2 98  1 99  -  -  -  1 99 1  2 98  1 99  -  -  -  O  2  <*)  Amount of paid vacation after: 14 6 months of service: Under 1 week 1 week-------- -------------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks--------------------------------------------2 weeks Over 2 and under 3 weeks_____________  2 18 30 3 2  1 year of service: 1 week-------------------------------------- --------------------------------------2 weeks-------------------------------- ---_ _____ ___ . Over 2 and under 3 weeks______ _______________________ 4 weeks----------------—  23 69 2 2  1 93  5 95  _ -  -  2 years of service: 1 week-----------------------------------------------------------------------------2 weeks —______ ________ ___ _______________ ____________ Over 2 and under 3 weeks--------------------------------------------4 weeks---------------------------------------------------------------------------  5 87 2 2  94  5 95  _ -  -  3 years of service: 1 week 2 weeks................-........ ....................................................... ................. Over 2 and under 3 weeks--------------------------------------------3 weeks--------------------------- -----------------------------------------------4 weeks----------------------------------------------------------- -----.----------  5 85 2 2 2  94  3 97  4 years of service: 1 week_____________ ______________________ ____ _______ __ 2 weeks Over 2 and under 3 weeks--------------------------------------------3 weeks 4 weeks--------------------------------------------------------------------------  5 85 2 2 2  5 years of service: 1 week--------------------------------------------------------- ----------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks 2 weeks-___________________________ ______ _.......______ _ Over 2 and under 3 weeks 3 weeks........................ ------------------ ------------------------------------4 weeks------------ ------------------------------------------------------------  2 2 66 3 21 2  10 years of service: 1 week-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Over I and under 2 weeks 2 weeks3 weeks---------------------------------------------------------------------------4 weeks------------------------------- ------------------------------- ;  2 2 9 75 8  _ -  _ -  . 94  3 97  _  _  _ -  -  _  _  _  _  ■  _  90  96  . 4  91  94  _ 4  70 3 26  7  6  -  -  -  -  -  -  <*>  -  8 86  . 8 92  "  -  See footnotes at end of tables.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1 99 1  14  6 91 2  2  _  4 94  4 96  -  Table B-5. Paid vacation provisions for full-time workers in Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Fla., August 1974—Continued Plant workers  Office workers  Item All industries  Manufacturing  Public utilities  All industries  Manufacturing  Public utilities  Amount of paid vacation after 14—Continued 12 years of service: 1 week Over 1 and under 2 weeks ............ .................. ....................... ..... 2 weeks_______ ____ ___________________________ _________ 3 weeks_________________ ________________________ _______ 4 weeks ________________________________________________ 15 years of service: 1 week------------------- -------- -------- -------- -- ------- ---------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks---------------------------------- ----------2 weeks 3 weeks........................................ ................................. ....................... Over 3 and under 4 weeks--------------------------------------------4 weeks---------------------------------------------------------------------------20 years of service: 1 week______________________________ ___________ _________ 2 weeks 3 weeks ................................................... ............... ........... ..................... Over 3 and under 4 weeks 4 weeks---------------------------------------------------------------------------25 years of service: 1 week 2 weeks---------------------------------------------------------------------------3 weeks------------- -------------------------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 weeks------------ -------------------------------4 weeks------------------------------------------------------------------------ . Over 4 and under 5 weeks--------------------------------------------5 weeks Maximum vacation available: * 1 week------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 weeksi----------------------- ---------------------------3 weeks Over 3 and under 4 weeks----------------- ---------------------------4 weeks 5 weeks ________________________________________________  2 2 9 75 8  _ _ 8 86  _ _ 8 92  -  -  2 2 7 60  _ 7 87  _ 8 87  _ 24  _ -  _ 4  2 9 12 6 67  _ 7 5  _ 8 _ _ 92  _ 82  2 9 12 6 56  _ 82  _ _ 25  11  _ -  _ 66  _  _  7 5  8  2 9 12 6 53 14  . 7 5  _ 8  -  -  82  4 87  * Estimates of provisions for 30 years of service are identical. See footnotes at end of tables.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  15  (’>  2  6 91 2 (’) 3 71 1 24 (’> 3 26 11 58 (’) 3 23 11 52 1 9 (’> 3 23 11 43 19  .  4 94  4 96  -  -  2  _  _ 3 95  4 91  -  6  2 3 10  4  _ 86  96  2 3 10  _ 4  _ 86  _ _ 63  _ -  _ 34  2 3 10  4  _ 86  _ _  _ 6 91  Table B-6. Health, insurance, and pension plans for full-time workers in Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Fla., August 1974 m Plant workers  Office workers  Item All industries  Manufacturing  Public utilities  All industries  Manufacturing  Public utilities  Percent of workers All full-time workers  100  100  100  In establishments providing at least one of the benefits shown below 15  95  100  100  Life insurance________________________ _________________ _ Noncontributory plans  92 44  100 6  100 79  Accidental death and dismemberment insurance Noncontributory plans  79 38  100 6  97 76  Sickness and accident insurance or sick leave or both 16  83  100  50 19 67 13  92 1 93  Sickness and accident insurance Noncontributory plans ____________________ ______________ Sick leave (full pay and no waiting period).............. .............. Sick leave (partial pay or waiting period)________________ Long-term disability insurance Noncontributory plans--------------------------------------------------------  -  100  100  100  99  100  100  97 39  100 7  43  90 36  7  42  98  92  100  100  7 7 28 69  58 35 83 8  87 1 98  4 6 66 34  7 6  _  -  -  24 12  -  -  ________________ ______________  90 46  100 6  100 79  96 54  100 7  100 43  Surgical insurance Noncontributory plans-------------- -----------------------------------------  90 46  100 6  100 79  96 54  100 7  100 43  Medical insurance------- ------ --------------------------- ------------------Noncontributory plans-------------- -----------------------------------------  90 46  100 6  100 79  96 54  100 7  43  Major medical insurance ------------------------------------------------------Noncontributory plans---------------------------------------------------------  84 39  100 6  100 79  94 47  100 7  43  Dental insurance------------ ------------------------------------------------------Noncontributory plans  26 15  21 5  -  32 23  22 5  Retirement pension Noncontributory plans--------------------------------------------------------  73 54  86 85  92 92  85 70  94 94  Hospitalization insurance____ Noncontributory plans  91 91  See footnotes at end of tables.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  4  16  Footnotes All of these standard footnotes may not apply to this bulletin.  1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours. The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median designates position—half of the employees surveyed receive more and half receive less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay; a fourth of the workers earn less than the lower of these rates and a fourth earn more than the higher rate. 4 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. workweeks*1686 salaries relate to formally established minimum starting (hiring) regular straight-time salaries that are paid for standard 5  Excludes workers in subclerical jobs such as messenger.  T  Data are presented for all standard workweeks combined,  and for the most common standard workweeks reported.  Includes all plant workers in establishments currently operating late shifts, and establishments whose formal provisions cover late shifts, even though the establishments were not currently operating late shifts. 8 Less than 0.05 percent. 9 Less than 0.5 percent. . n f,°ir PurPose® of this study, pay for a Sunday in December, negotiated in the automobile industry, is not treated as a paid holiday. All combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 9 days includes those with 9 full days and no half days, 8 full days and 2 half days, 7 full days and 4 half days and so on Proportions then were cumulated. ' 12 A Christmas-New Year holiday period is an unbroken series of holidays which includes Christmas Eve, Christmas Day New Year's Eve, and New Year's Day. Such a holiday period is common in the automobile, aerospace, and farm implement industries. ’ "Floating" holidays vary from year to year according to employer or employee choice. Includes payments other than "length of time," such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-sum payments, converted to an equivalent time basis; for example, 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week's pay. Periods of service are chosen arbitrarily and do not necessarily reflect individual provisions for progression; for example, changes in proportions at 10 years include changes between 5 and 10 years. Estimates are cumulative. Thus, the proportion eligible for at least 3 weeks' pay after 10 years includes those eligible for at least 3 weeks' pay after fewer years of service. 15 Estimates listed after type of benefit are for all plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer. "Noncontributory plans" include only those financed entirely by the employer. Excluded are legally required plans, such as workmen's compensation social security, and railroad retirement. 16 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below, Sick leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least the minimum number of days' pay that each employee can expect, Informal sick leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  17  Appendix A Area wage and related benefits data are obtained by personal visits of Bureau field represent­ atives at 3-year intervals.1 In each of the intervening years, information on employment and occupational earnings is collected by a combination of personal visit and mail questionnaire from establishments participating in the previous survey. In each of the 79 2 areas currently surveyed, data are obtained from representative estab­ lishments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major industry groups excluded from these studies are government operations and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having fewer them a prescribed number of workers are omitted because of insufficient employment in the occupations studied. Separate tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions which meet publication criteria. These surveys are conducted on a sample basis. The sampling procedures involve detailed stratification of all establishments within the scope of an individual area survey by industry and number of employees. From this stratified universe a probability sample is selected, with each establishment having a predetermined chance of selection. To obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large than small establishments is selected. When data are combined, each establishment is weighted according to its probability of selection, so that unbiased estimates are generated. For example, if one out of four establishments is selected, it is given a weight of four to represent itself plus three others. An alternate of the same original probability is chosen in the same industry-size classification if data are not available for the original sample member. If no suitable substitute is available, additional weight is assigned to a sample member that is similar to the missing unit. Occupations and Earnings Occupations selected for study are common to a variety of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the following types: (1) Office clerical; (2) professional and technical; (3) maintenance and powerplant; and (4) custodial and material movement. Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same job. Occupations selected for study are listed and described in appendix B. Unless otherwise indicated, the earnings data following the job titles are for all industries combined. Earnings data for some of the occupations listed and described, or for some industry divisions within occupations, are not presented in the A-series tables, because either (1) employment in the occupation is too small to provide enough data to merit presentation, or (2) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data. Separate men's and women's earnings data are not presented when the number of workers not identified by sex is 20 percent or more of the men or women identified in an occupation. Earnings data not shown separately for industry divisions are included in all industries combined data, where shown. Likewise, data are included in the overall classification when a sub­ classification of electronics technicians, secretaries, or truckdrivers is not shown or information to subclassify is not available. Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for full-time workers, i.e., those hired to work a regular weekly schedule. Earnings data exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living allowances and incentive bonuses are included. Weekly hours for office clerical and professional and technical occupations refer to the standard workweek (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which employees receive regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates). Average weekly earnings for these occupations are rounded to the nearest half dollar. These surveys measure the level of occupational earnings in an area at a particular time. Comparisons of individual occupational averages over time may not reflect expected wage changes. The averages for individual jobs are affected by changes in wages and employment patterns. For example, proportions of workers employed by high- or low-wage firms may change, or high-wage* * Personal visits were on a 2-year cycle before July 1972. 2 Included in the 79 areas are 9 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas are Austin, Tex.; Binghamton, N.Y. —Pa. i Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood and West Palm Beach-Boca Raton, Fla.; Lexington—Fayette, Ky.; Melbourne—Titusville-Cocoa, Fla.; Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Portsmouth and Newport News-Hampton, Va.-N.C.; Poughkeepsie-Kingston—Newburgh, N.Y. ; Raleigh-Durham, N.C.; and Syracuse, N.Y. In addition, the Bureau conducts more limited area studies in approximately 70 areas at the request of the Employment Standards Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  workers may advance to better jobs and be replaced by new workers at lower rates. Such shifts in employment could decrease an occupational average even though most establishments in an area increase wages during the year. Trends in earnings of occupational groups, shown in table A-7, are better indicators of wage trends than individual jobs within the groups. Average earnings reflect composite, areawide estimates. Industries and establishments differ in pay level and job staffing, and thus contribute differently to the estimates for each job. Pay averages may fail to reflect accurately the wage differential among jobs in individual establishments. Average pay levels for men and women in selected occupations should not be assumed to reflect differences in pay of the sexes within individual establishments. Factors which may contribute to differences include progression within established rate ranges, since only the rates paid incumbents are collected, and performance of specific duties within the general survey job descriptions. Job descriptions used to classify employees in these surveys usually are more generalized than those used in individual establishments and allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties performed. Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actually surveyed. Because occupational structures among establish­ ments differ, estimates of occupational employment obtained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occupational structure do not affect materially the accuracy of the earnings data. Wage trends for selected occupational groups The Annual rates span between increased at  percents of change in table A-7 relate to wage changes between the indicated dates. of increase, where shown, reflect the amount of increase for 12 months when the time surveys was other than 12 months. Annual rates are based on the assumption that wages a constant rate between surveys.  Occupations used to compute wage trends are: Office clerical (men and women): Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B Clerks, accounting, classes A and B Clerks, file, classes A, B, and C Clerks, order Clerks, payroll Keypunch operators, classes A and B Messengers Secretaries Stenographers, general Stenographers, senior Switchboard operators Tabulating-machine operators, class B Typists, classes A and B  Electronic data processing (men and women)—Continued Computer systems analysts, classes A, B, and C Industrial nurses (men and women): Nurses, industrial (registered) Skilled maintenance (men):  Electronic data processing (men and women):  Carpenters Electricians Machinists Mechanics Mechanics (automotive) Painters Pipefitters Tool and die makers  Computer operators, classes A, B, and C Computer programmers, classes A, B, and C  Janitors, porters, and cleaners Laborers, material handling  Unskilled plant (men):  Percent changes for individual areas in the program are computed as follows: 1. Each occupation is assigned a weight based on its proportionate employment in the selected group of occupations in the base year. 2. These weights are used to compute group averages. Each occupation's average (mean) earnings is multiplied by its weight. The products are totaled to obtain a group average. 3. The ratio of group averages for 2 consecutive years is computed by dividing the average for the current year by the average for the earlier year. The results—expressed as a percent—less 100 is the percent change.  18  Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions The B-series tables provide information on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions for full-time plant and office workers. ’’Plant workers" include working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions. Cafeteria workers and routemen are excluded from manufacturing, but included in nonmanufacturing industries. "Office workers" include working supervisors and nonsupervisory workers performing clerical or related functions. Administrative, executive, professional, and part-time employees are excluded. Part-time employees are those hired to work a schedule calling regularly for fewer weekly hours than the establishment's schedule for full-time employees in the same general type of work. The determination is based on the employer's distinction between the two groups which may take into account not only differences in work schedules but differences in pay and benefits. Minimum entrance salaries for office workers relate only to the establishments visited. (See table B-l.) Because of the optimum sampling techniques used and the probability that large establishments are more likely than small establishments to have formal entrance rates above the subclerical level, the table is more representative of policies in medium and large establishments. Shift differential data are limited to full-time plant workers in manufacturing industries. (See table B-2.) This information is presented in terms of (1) establishment policy 3 for total plaint worker employment, and (2) effective practice for workers employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey. In establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to a majority is used. In establishments having some late-shift hours paid at normal rates, a differential is recorded only if it applies to a majority of the shift hours. A second (evening) shift ends work at or near midnight. A third (night) shift starts work at or near midnight. The scheduled weekly hours and days of a majority of the first-shift workers in an establish­ ment are tabulated as applying to all full-time plant or office workers of that establishment. (See table B-3.) Scheduled weekly hours and days are those which a majority of full-time employees are expected to work for straight-time or overtime rates. Paid holidays; paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are treated statistically as applying to all full-time plant or office workers if a majority of such workers are eligible or may eventually qualify for the practices listed. (See tables B-4 through B-6.) Sums of individual items in tables B-2 through B-5 may not equal totals because of rounding.  The summary of vacation plans is a statistical measure of vacation provisions rather than a measure of the proportion of full-time workers actually receiving specific benefits. (See table B-5.) Provisions apply to all plant or office workers in an establishment regardless of length of service. Payments on other than a time basis are converted to a time period; for example, 2 percent of annual earnings are considered equivalent to 1 week's pay. Only basic plans are included. Estimates exclude vacation bonuses, vacation-savings plans, and "extended" or "sabbatical" benefits beyond basic plans. Such provisions are typical in the steel, aluminum, and can industries. Health, insurance, and pension plans for which the employer pays at least a part of the cost include those (1) underwritten by a commercial insurance company or nonprofit organization, (2) provided through a union fund, or (3) paid directly by the employer out of current operating funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose. (See table B-6.) An establishment is considered to have such a plan if the majority of employees are covered even though less than a majority participate under the plan because employees are required to contribute toward the cost. Excluded are legally required plans, such as workmen's compensation, social security, and railroad retirement. Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of insurance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly to the insured during temporary illness or accident disability. Information is presented for all such plans to which the employer contributes. However, in New York and New Jersey, which have enacted temporary disability insurance laws requiring employer contributions,4 plans are included only if the employer (1) contributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations of paid sick leave plans are limited to formal plans5 which provide full pay or a proportion of the worker's pay during absence from work because of illness. Separate tabulations are presented according to (1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans which provide either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition to the presentation of proportions of workers provided sickness and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits. Long term disability insurance plans provide payments to totally disabled employees upon the expiration of their paid sick leave and/or sickness and accident insurance, or after a predetermined period of disability (typically 6 months). Payments are made until the end of the disability, a maximum age, or eligibility for retirement benefits. Full or partial payments are almost always reduced by social security, workmen's compensation, and private pensions benefits payable to the disabled employee.  Data on paid holidays are limited to holidays granted annually on a formal basis, which (1) are provided for in written form, or (2) are established by custom. (See table B-4.) Holidays ordinarily granted are included even though they may fall on a nonworkday and the Worker is not granted another day off. The first part of the paid holidays table presents the number of whole and half holidays actually granted. The second part combines whole and half holidays to show total holiday time. Table B-4a reports the incidence of the most common paid holidays.  Major medical insurance plans protect employees from sickness and injury expenses beyond the coverage of basic hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans. Typical features of major medical plans are (1) a "deductible" (e.g., $50) paid by the insured before benefits begin; (2) a coinsurance feature requiring the insured to pay a portion (e.g., 20 percent) of certain expenses; and (3) stated dollar maximum benefits (e.g., $ 10,000 a year). Medical insurance provides complete or partial payment of doctors' fees. Dental insurance usually covers fillings, extractions, and X-rays. Excluded are plans which cover only oral surgery or accident damage. Retirement pension plans provide payments for the remainder of the worker's life.  3 An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met either of the following conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts. An establishment was considered as having formal provisions if it (1) had operated late shifts during the 12 months before the survey, or (2) had provisions in written form to operate late shifts.  employee.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  4 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do not require employer contributions. 5 An establishment is considered as having a formal plan if it established at least the minimum number of days sick leave available to each  19  Such a plan need not be written; but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis, are excluded.  Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Fla.,' August 1974 Number of establishments Industry division 2  Minimum employment in establish­ ments in scope of study  Workers in establishments Within scope of study  Within scope of study*  Plant Number  All divisions-------------------------------------------------Manufacturing----------------------------------------------- ------Nonmanufacturing------------------------------------------------Transportation, communication, and other public utilities 5 Wholesale trade Retail trade _ Finance, insurance, and real estate Services 9----------------------------------------------------------  Studied  Total*  Studied  Office Total*  Percent  _  113  54  27,035  100  14,733  4,047  21,114  50 -  17 96  10 44  7,789 19,246  29 71  3,673 11,060  973 3,074  6,876 14,238  50 50 50 50 50  6 2 43 11 34  6 2 12 6 18  1,654 111 5,939 1,024 10,518  6 (*) 22 4 39  308 (7)  1,654 111 3, 327 687 8,459  1.054 T)  7  8) 7)  n  (7) n  The Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget through February 1974, consists of Brevard County. The "workers within scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. Estimates are not intended, however, for comparison with other employment indexes to measure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) small establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey. 2 The 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used to classify establishments by industry division. 3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum limitation. All outlets (within the area) of companies in industries such as trade, finance, auto repair service, and motion picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment. 4 Includes executive, professional, part-time, and other workers excluded from the separate plant and office categories. 5 Abbreviated to "public utilities" in the A- and B-series tables. Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded. 6 Less than 0. 5 percent. 7 This division is represented in estimates for "all industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the A-seriestables, and for "all industries" in the B-series tables. Separate presentation of data isnot made for one or more of the following reasons: (l) Employment is too small to provide enough data to merit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data. 8 Workers from this entire division are represented in estimates for "all industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the A-series tables, but from the real estate portion only in estimates for "all industries" in the B-series tables. Separate presentation of data is not made for one or more of the reasons given in footnote 7. 9 Hotels and motels; laundries and other personal services; business services; automobile repair, rental, and parking; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations (excluding religious and charitable organizations); and engineering and architectural services.  Labor-management agreement coverage The following tabulation shows the percent of full-time plant and office workers employed in establishments in which a union contract or contracts covered a majority of the workers in the respective categories, Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Fla., August 1974:  Industrial composition in manufacturing Over one-fourth of all workers within scope of the survey in the Melbourne— Titusville—Cocoa area were employed in manufacturing firms. The following presents the major industry groups and specific industries as a percent of all manufacturing: Industry groups Electrical equipment and ---- 61 Ordnance and accessories-----___26 Transportation equipment----- ___ 5  All industries---------------------------Manufacturing----------------- ---------Public utilities--------------------------  Specific industries Communication equipment__  Office workers  45 16 95  14 40  An establishment is considered to have a contract covering all plant or office workers if a majority of such workers are covered by a labor-management agreement. Therefore, all other plant or office workers are employed in establishments that either do not have labor-management contracts in effect, or have contracts that apply to fewer than half of their plant or office workers. Estimates are not necessarily representative of the extent to which all workers in the area may be covered by the provisions of labor-management agreements, because small establishments are excluded and the industrial scope of the survey is limited.  26 Electronic components and accessories---- -------------------- ... 14  This information is based on estimates of total employment derived from universe materials compiled before actual survey. Proportions in various industry divisions may differ from proportions based on the results of the survey as shown in the appendix table.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Plant workers  20  Appendix B. Occupational Descriptions The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This permits the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau's job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are instructed to exclude working supervisors; apprentices; learners; beginners; trainees; and handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.  OFFICE BILLER, MACHINE  CLERKS, ACCOUNTING  Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are classified by type of machine, as follows:  Performs one or more accounting clerical tasks such as posting to registers and ledgers; reconciling bank accounts; verifying the interned, consistency, completeness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting documents; assigning prescribed accounting distribution codes; examining and verifying for clerical accuracy various types of reports, lists, calculations, posting, etc.; or preparing simple or assisting in preparing more complicated journal vouchers. May work in either a manual or automated accounting system.  Biller, machine (billing machine). Uses a special billing machine (combination typing and adding machine) to prepare bills and invoices from customers' purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine. Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine). Uses a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers' bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers' ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slips.  The work requires a knowledge of clerical methods and office practices and procedures which relates to the clerical processing and recording of transactions and accounting information. With experience, the worker typically becomes familiar with the bookkeeping and accounting terms and procedures used in the assigned work, but is not required to have a knowledge of the formed principles of bookkeeping and accounting. Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions. Glass A. Under general supervision, performs accounting clerical operations which require the application of experience and judgment, for example, clerically processing complicated or nonrepetitive accounting transactions, selecting among a substantial variety of prescribed accounting codes sind classifications, or tracing transactions though previous accounting actions to determine source of discrepancies. May be assisted by one or more class B accounting clerks.  BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR Operates a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.  Glass B. Under close supervision, following detailed instructions and standardized procedures, performs one or more routine accounting clerical operations, such as posting to ledgers, cards, or worksheets where identification of items and locations of postings are clearly indicated; checking accuracy and completeness of standardized and repetitive records or accounting documents; and coding documents using a few prescribed accounting codes.  Class A. Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and experience in basic bookkeeping principles, and familiarity with the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.  CLERK, FILE  Class B. Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll, customers' accounts (not including a simple type of billing described under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.  Revised occupational descriptions for switchboard operator; switchboard operator-receptionist; machine-tool operator, toolroom; and tool and die maker are being introduced this year. They are the result of the Bureau's policy of periodically reviewing area wage survey occupational descriptions in order to take into account technological developments and to clarify descriptions so that they are more readily understood and uniformly interpreted. Even though the revised descriptions reflect basically the same occupations as previously defined, some reporting changes may occur because of the revisions.  Files, classifies, and retrieves material in an established filing system. May perform clerical and manual tasks required to maintain files. Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions. Class A. Classifies and indexes file material such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an established filing system containing a number of varied subject matter files. May also file this material. May keep records of various types in conjunction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file clerks.  Listed below are stereotypes in the titles:  The new single level description for switchboard operator is the equivalent of the two levels previously defined.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  21  revised  occupational titles  introduced this  year to  eliminate  Revised title  Former title  Drafter Drafter-tracer Boiler tender  Draftsman Draftsman-tracer Fireman, stationary boiler  sex  CLERKS, FILE—Continued  SECRET ARY—C ontin ue d  Class B. Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference aids. As requested, locates clearly identified material in files and forwards material. May perform reladed clerical tasks required to maintain and service files. Class C. Performs routine filing of material that has already been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numerical). As requested, locates readily available material in files and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and service files. CLERK, ORDER Receives customers' orders for material or merchandise by mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original orders. CLERK, PAYROLL Computes wages of company employees and enters the necessary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers' earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, wdrking days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine. KEYPUNCH OPERATOR Operates a keypunch machine to record or verify alphabetic and/or numeric data on tabulating cards or on tape. Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions. Class A. Work requires the application of experience and judgment in selecting procedures to be followed and in searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to be keypunched from a variety of source documents. On occasion may also perform some routine keypunch work. May train inexperienced keypunch operators. Class B. Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision or following specific procedures or instructions, works from various standardized source documents which have been coded, and follows specified procedures which have been prescribed in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. Refers to supervisor problems arising from erroneous items or codes or missing information. MESSENGER  ■Exclusions Not all positions that are titled "secretary" possess the above characteristics. positions which are excluded from the definition are as follows:  Examples of  a.  Positions which do not meet the "personal" secretary concept described above;  b.  Stenographers not fully trained in secretarial type duties;  c. Stenographers serving managerial persons;  as  office assistants  to a group  of professional, technical, or  d. Secretary positions in which the duties are either substantially more routine or sub­ stantially more complex and responsible than those characterized in the definition; e. Assistant type positions which involve more difficult or more responsible technical, administrative, supervisory, or specialized clerical duties which are not typical of secretarial work. NOTE: The term "corporate officer," used in the level definitions following, refers to those officials who have a significant corporate-wide policymaking role with regard to major company activities. The title "vice president," though normally indicative of this role, dops not in all cases identify such positions. Vice presidents whose primary responsibility is to act personally on individual cases or transactions (e.g., approve or deny individual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts; directly supervise a clerical staff) are not considered to be "corporate officers" for purposes of applying the following level definitions. Class A 1. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5, 000 persons; or 2. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25, 000 persons; or 3. Secretary to the head, immediately below the corporate officer level, of a major segment or subsidiary of a company that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons. Class B 1. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that employs, in all, fewer than 100 persons; or 2. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5, 000 persons; or 3. Secretary to the head, immediately below the officer level, over either a major corporate­ wide functional activity (e.g., marketing, research, operations, industrial relations, etc.) or a major geographic or organizational segment (e.g., a regional headquarters; a major division) of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000 employees; or  Performs various routine duties such as running errands, operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work. Exclude positions that require operation of a motor vehicle as a significant duty.  4. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, over 5,000 persons; or  SECRETARY  5. Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational segment (e.g., a middle management supervisor of an organizational segment often involving as many as several hundred persons) or a company that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.  Assigned as personal secretary, normally to one individual. Maintains a close and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day work of the supervisor. Works fairly independently receiving a minimum of detailed supervision and guidance. Performs varied clerical and secretarial duties, usually including most of the following: a. Receives telephone calls, personal callers, and incoming mail, answers routine inquires, and routes technical inquiries to the proper persons; b.  Establishes, maintains, and revises the supervisor's files;  c.  Maintains the supervisor's calendar and makes appointments as instructed;  d.  Relays messages from supervisor to subordinates;  e. Reviews correspondence, memorandums, and reports prepared by others for the super­ visor's signature to assure procedural and typographic accuracy; f.  Performs stenographic and typing work.  May also perform other clerical and secretarial tasks of comparable nature and difficulty. The work typically requires knowledge of office routine and understanding of the organization, programs, and procedures related to the work of the supervisor.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Class C 1. Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose responsibility is not equivalent to one of the specific level situations in the definition for class B, but whose organizational unit normally numbers at least several dozen employees and is usually divided into organizational segments which are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level includes a wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; or 2. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, fewer than 5,000 persons. Class D 1. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small organizational unit (e.g., fewer than about 25 or 30 persons); or 2. Secretary to a non supervisory staff specialist, professional employee, administrative officer, or assistant, skilled technician or expert. (NOTE: Many companies assign stenographers, rather than secretaries as described above, to this level of supervisory or non supervisory worker.)  22  STENOGRAPHER  TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (Electric Accounting Machine Operator)  Primary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to transcribe the dictation. May also type from written copy. May operate from a stenographic pool. May occasionally transcribe from voice recordings (if primary duty is transcribing from recordings, see Transcribing-Machine Operator, General).  Operates one or a variety of machines such as the tabulator, calculator, collator, interpreter, sorter, reproducing punch, etc. Excluded from this definition are working supervisors. Also excluded are operators of electronic digital computers, even though they may also operate EAM equipment.  NOTE: This job is distinguished from that of a secretary in that a secretary normally works in a confidential relationship with only one manager or executive and performs more responsible and discretionary tasks as described in the secretary job definition.  Class A. Performs complete reporting and tabulating assignments including devising difficult control panel wiring under general supervision. Assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex reports which often are irregular or nonrecurring, requiring some planning of the nature and sequencing of operations, and the use of a variety of machines. Is typically involved in training new operators in machine operations or training lower level operators in wiring from diagrams and in the operating sequences of long and complex reports.. Does not include -positions in which wiring responsibility is limited to selection and insertion of prewired boards.  Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.  Stenographer, General Dictation involves a normal routine vocabulary. or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks.  May maintain files, keep simple records,  Glass B. Performs work according to established procedures and under specific instructions. Assignments typically involve complete but routine and recurring reports or parts of larger and more complex reports. Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical accounting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the simpler machines used by class C operators. May be required to do some wiring from diagrams. May train new employees in basic machine operations.  Stenographer, Senior Dictation involves a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc. OR  Class G. Under specific instructions, operates simple tabulating or electrical accounting machines such as the sorter, interpreter, reproducing punch, collator, etc. Assignments typically involve portions of a work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or repetitive operations. May perform simple wiring from diagrams, and do some filing work,  Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater independence and responsibility than stenographer, general, as evidenced by the following: Work requires a high degree of stenographic speed and accuracy; a thorough working Imowledge of general business and office procedure; and of the specific business operations, organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical tasks such as maintaining followup files; assembling material for reports, memorandums, and letters; composing simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine questions, etc.  TRANSCRIBINGrMACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified as a stenographer.  SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR Operates a telephone switchboard or console used with a private branch exchange (PBX) system to relay incoming, outgoing, and intra-system calls. May provide information to callers, record and transmit messages, keep record of ceills placed and toll charges. Besides operating a telephone switchboard or console, may also type or perform routine clerical work (typing or routine clerical work may occupy the major portion of the worker's time, and is usually performed while at the switchboard or console). Chief or lead operators in establishments employing more than one operator are excluded. For an operator who also acts as a receptionist, see Switchboard OperatorReceptionist.  TYPIST Uses a typewriter to make copies of various materials or to make out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and distributing incoming mail. Class A. Performs one or more of the following: Typing material in final form when it involves combining material from several sources; or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punctuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language material; or planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances.  SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST At a single-position telephone switchboard or console, acts both as an operator—see Switch­ board Operator—and as a receptionist. Receptionist's work involves such duties as greeting visitors; determining nature of visitor's business and providing appropriate information; referring visitor to appropriate person in the organization, or contacting that person by telephone and arranging an appointment; keeping a log of visitors.  Class B. Performs one or more of the following: Copy typing from rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of forms, insurance policies, etc; or setting up simple standard tabulations; or copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.  PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL COMPUTER OPERATOR  COMPUTER OPERATOR—Continued  Monitors and operates the control console of a digital computer to process data cccording to operating instructions, usually prepared by a programmer. Work includes most of the following: Studies instructions to determine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required items (tape reels, cards, etc.); switches necessary auxiliary equipment into circuit, and starts and operates computer; makes adjustments to computer to correct operating problems and meet special conditions; reviews errors made during operation and determines cause or refers problem to supervisor or programmer; and maintains operating records. May test and assist in correcting  ClassB. Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running programs with most of the following characteristics: Most of the programs are established production runs, typically run on a regularly recurring basis; there is little or no testing of new programs required; alternate programs are provided in case original program needs major change or cannot be corrected within a reasonably time. In common error situations, diagnoses cause and takes corrective action. This usually involves applying previously programmed corrective steps, or using standard correction techniques.  program.  OR For wage study purposes, computer operators are classified as follows:  Class A. Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running programs with most of the following characteristics: New programs are frequently tested and introduced; scheduling requirements are of critical importance to minimize downtime; the programs are of complex design so that identification of error source often requires a working knowledge of the total program, and alternate programs may not be available. May give direction and guidance to lower level operators.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Operates under direct supervision a computer running programs or segments of programs with the characteristics described for class A. May assist a higher level operator by independently performing less difficult tasks assigned, and performing difficult tasks following detailed instructions and with frequent review of operations performed. Class C. Works on routine programs under close supervision. Is expected to develop working knowledge of the computer equipment used and ability to detect problems involved in running routine programs. Usually has received some formal training in computer operation. May assist higher level operator on complex programs.  23  COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS  COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS—Continued  Converts statements of business problems, typically prepared by a systems analyst, into a sequence of detailed instructions which are required to solve the problems by automatic data processing equipment. Working from charts or diagrams, the programmer develops the precise instructions which, when entered into the computer system in coded language, cause the manipulation of data to achieve desired results. Work involves most of the following: Applies knowledge of computer capabilities, mathematics, logic employed by computers, and particular subject matter involved to analyze charts and diagrams of the problem to be programmed; develops sequence of program steps; writes detailed flow charts to show order in which data will be processed; converts these charts to coded instructions for machine to follow; tests and corrects programs; prepares instructions for operating personnel during production run; analyzes, reviews, and alters programs to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements; maintains records of program development and revisions. (NOTE: Workers performing both systems analysis and programming should be classified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.) Does not include employees primarily responsible for the management or supervision of other electronic data processing employees, or programmers primarily concerned with scientific and/or engineering problems. For wage study purposes, programmers are classified as follows: Class A. Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems which require competence in all phases of programming concepts and practices. Working from diagrams and charts which identify the nature of desired results, major processing steps to be accomplished, and the relationships between various steps of the problem solving routine; plans the full range of programming actions needed to efficiently utilize the computer system in , achieving desired end products. At this level, programming is difficult because computer equipment must be organized to produce several interrelated but diverse products from numerous and diverse data elements. A wide variety and extensive number of internal processing actions must occur. This requires such actions as development of common operations which can be reused, establishment of linkage points between operations, adjustments to data when program requirements exceed computer storage capacity, and substantial manipulation and resequencing of data elements to form a highly integrated program.  For wage study purposes, systems analysts are classified as follows: Class A. Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems involving all phases of system analysis. Problems are complex because of diverse sources of input data and multiple-use requirements of output data. (For example, develops an integrated production scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales analysis record in which every item of each type is automatically processed through the full system of records and appropriate followup actions are initiated by the computer.) Confers with persons concerned to determine the data processing problems and advises subject-matter personnel on the implications of new or revised systems of data processing operations. Makes recommendations, if needed, for approval of major systems installations or changes and for obtaining equipment. . May provide functioned direction to lower level systems analysts who are assigned to assist. Class_B. Works independently or under only general direction on problems that are relatively uncomplicated to analyze, plan, program, and operate. Problems are of limited complexity because sources of input data are homogeneous and the output data are closely related. (For example, develops systems for maintaining depositor accounts in a bank, maintaining accounts receivable in a retail establishment, or maintaining inventory accounts in a manufacturing or wholesale establishment.) Confers with persons concerned to determine the data processing problems and advises subjectmatter personnel on the implications of the data processing systems to be applied. OR Works nn a segment of a complex data processing scheme or system, as described for class A. Works independently on routine assignments and receives instruction and guidance on complex assignments. Work is reviewed for accuracy of judgment, compliance with instructions, and to insure proper alignment with the overall system. Class C. Works under immediate supervision, carrying out analyses as assigned, usually of a single activity. Assignments are designed to develop and expand practical experience in the application of procedures and skills required for systems analysis work. For example, may assist a higher level systems analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required by programmers from information developed by the higher level analyst.  May provide functional direction to lower level programmers who are assigned to assist. Class B. Works independently or under only general direction on relatively simple programs, or on simple segments of complex programs. Programs (or segments) usually process information to produce data in two or three varied sequences or formats. Reports and listings are produced by refining, adapting, arraying, or making minor additions to or deletions from input data which are readily available. While numerous records may be processed, the data have been refined in prior actions so that the accuracy and sequencing of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typically, the program deals with routine record-keeping type operations. OR Works on complex programs (as described for class A) under close direction of a higher level programmer or supervisor. May assist higher level programmer by independently performing less difficult tasks assigned, and performing more difficult tasks under fairly close direction. May guide or instruct lower level programmers. Class C. Makes practical applications of programming practices and concepts usually learned in formal training courses. Assignments are designed to develop competence in the application of standard procedures to routine problems. Receives close supervision on new aspects of assignments; and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy and conformance with required procedures. COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS Analyzes business problems to formulate procedures for solving them by use of electronic data processing equipment. Develops a complete description of all specifications needed to enable programmers to prepare required digital computer programs. Work involves most of the following: Analyzes subject-matter operations to be automated and identifies conditions and criteria required to achieve satisfactory results; specifies number and types of records, files, and documents to be used; outlines actions to be performed by personnel and computers in sufficient detail for presentation to management and for programming (typically this involves preparation of work and data flow charts); coordinates the development of test problems and participates in trial runs of new and revised systems; and recommends equipment changes to obtain more effective overall operations. (NOTE: Workers performing both systems analysis and programming should be classified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.) Does not include employees primarily responsible for the management or supervision of other electronic data processing employees, or systems analysts primarily concerned with scientific or engineering problems.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  DRAFTER Class A. Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having distinctive design features that differ significantly from established drafting precedents. Works in close support with the design originator, and may recommend minor design changes. Analyzes the effect of each change on the details of form, function, and positional relationships of components and parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory assistance. Completed work is reviewed by design originator for consistency with prior engineering determinations. May either prepare drawings, or direct their preparation by lower level drafters. Class B. Performs nonroutine and complex drafting assignments that require the application of most of the standardized drawing techniques regularly used. Duties typically involve such work as: Prepares working drawings of subassemblies with irregular shapes, multiple functions, and precise positional relationships between components; prepares architectural drawings for construction of a building including detail drawings of foundations, wall sections, floor plans, and roof. Uses accepted formulas and manuals in making necessary computations to determine quantities of materials to be used, load capacities, strengths, stresses, etc. Receives initial instructions, requirements, and advice from supervisor. Completed work is checked for technical adequacy. Class C. Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for engineering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types of drawings prepared include isometric projections (depicting three dimensions in accurate scale) and sectioned views to clarify positioning of components and convey needed information. Consolidates details from a number of sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggested methods of approach, applicable precedents, and advice on source materials are given with initial assignments. Instructions are less complete when assignments recur. Work may be spot-checked during progress. DRAFTER-TRACER Copies plan8 and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not include tracing limited to plans primarily consisting of straight lines and a large scale not requiring close delineation.) AND/OR Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized items. during progress.  Work is closely supervised  ^  f  V  ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN  ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN—Continued  Works on various types of electronic equipment and related devices by performing one or a combination of the following: Installing, maintaining, repairing, overhauling, troubleshooting, modifying, constructing, and testing. Work requires practical application of technical knowledge of electronics principles, ability to determine malfunctions, and skill to put equipment in required operating condition.  Class B. Applies comprehensive technical knowledge to solve complex problems (i.e., those that. typic ally can be solved solely by properly interpreting manufacturers' manuals or similar documents) in working on electronic equipment. Work involves: A familiarity with the interrelation­ ships of circuits; and judgment in determining work sequence and in selecting tools and testing instruments, usually less complex than those used by the class A technician.  The equipment—consisting of either many different kinds of circuits or multiple repetition of the same kind of circuit—includes, but is not limited to, the following: (a) Electronic transmitting and receiving equipment (e.g., radar, radio, television, telephone, sonar, navigational aids), (b) digital and analog computers, and (c) industrial and medical measuring and controlling equipment.  Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher level technician, and work is reviewed for specific compliance with accepted practices and work assignments. May provide technical guidance to lower level technicians.  This classification excludes repairmen of such standard electronic equipment as common office machines and household radio and television sets; production assemblers and testers; workers whose primary duty is servicing electronic test instruments; technicians who have administrative or supervisory responsibility; and drafters, designers, and professional engineers.  Class C. Applies working technical knowledge to perform simple or routine tasks in working on electronic equipment, following detailed instructions which cover virtually all procedures. Work typically involves such tasks as: Assisting higher level technicians by performing such activities as replacing components, wiring circuits, and taking test readings; repairing simple electronic equipment; and using tools and common test instruments (e.g., multimeters, audio signal generators, tube testers, oscilloscopes). Is not required to be familiar with the interrelationships of circuits. This knowledge, however, may be acquired through assignments designed to increase competence (including classroom training) so that worker can advance to higher level technician.  Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions. L ^  Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher level technician. Work is typically spot checked, but is given detailed review when new or advanced assignments are involved.  Class A. Applies advanced technical knowledge to solve unusually complex problems (i.e., those that typically cannot be solved solely by reference to manufacturers' manuals or similar documents) in working on electronic equipment. Examples of such problems include location and density of circuitry, electro-magnetic radiation, isolating malfunctions, and frequent engineering changes. Work involves: A detailed understanding of the interrelationships of circuits; exercising independent judgment in performing such tasks as making circuit analyses, calculating wave forms, tracing relationships in signal flow; and regularly using complex test instruments (e.g., dual trace oscilloscopes, Q-meters, deviation meters, pulse generators). Work may be reviewed by supervisor (frequently an engineer or designer) for general compliance with accepted practices. May provide technical guidance to lower level technicians.  NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (Registered) A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general medical direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees' injuries; keeping records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel. Nursing supervisors or head nurses in establishments employing more than one nurse are excluded.  MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES  BOILER TENDER *  Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment. CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE  ^  ^  ^  ^  Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of electrician's handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. ENGINEER, STATIONARY Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors, turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, machine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding materials or tools; and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding materials and tools, and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis. MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM Specializes in operating one or more than one type of machine tool (e.g., jig borer, grinding machine, engine lathe, milling machine) to machine metal for use in making or maintaining jigs, fixtures, cutting tools, gauges, or metal dies or molds used in shaping or forming metal or nonmetallic material (e.g., plastic, plaster, rubber, glass). Work typically involves: Planning and performing difficult machining operations which require complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; setting up machine tool or tools (e.g., install cutting tools and adjust guides, stops, working tables, and other controls to handle the size of stock to be machined; determine proper feeds, speeds, tooling, and operation sequence or select those prescribed in drawings, blueprints, or layouts); using a variety of precision measuring instruments; making necessary adjustments during machining operation to achieve requisite dimensions to very close tolerances. May be required to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils, to recognize when tools need dressing, and to dress tools. In general, the work of a machine-tool operator, toolroom, at the skill level called for in this classification requires extensive knowledge of machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through considerable on-the-job training and experience. For cross-industry wage study purposes, this classification does not include machine-tool operators, toolroom, employed in tool-and-die jobbing shops. MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: interpreting written instructions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of machinist's handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal  25  MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE—Continued  PAINTER, MAINTENANCE  Parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds, and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties of the common metals; selecting' standard materials, parts, and equipment required for this work; and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist's work normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.  Paints and redecorates wadis, woodwork, and fixtures of an establishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface peculiarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.  MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (Maintenance)  PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE  Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; and aligning wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.  Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an establish­ ment. Work involves most of the following: Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machines; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or heating systems are excluded.  This classification does not include mechanics who repair customers' vehicles in automobile repair shops.  •SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-metal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out all types of sheetmetal maintenance work from blueprints, models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-metal working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.  MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment. Work involves most of the following; Examining machines and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered from machine shops; reassembling machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.  TOOL AND DIE MAKER Constructs and repairs jigs, fixtures, cutting tools, gauges, or metal dies or molds used in shaping or forming metal or non-metallic material (e.g., plastic, plaster, rubber, glass). Work typically involves: Planning and laying out work according to models, blueprints, drawings, or other written or oral specifications; understanding the working properties of common metals and alloys; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and processes required to complete task; making necessary shop computation; setting up and operating various machine tools and related equipment; using various tool and die maker's handtools and precision measuring instruments; working to very close tolerances; heat-treating metal parts and finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; fitting and assembling parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances. In general, tool and die maker's work requires rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.  MILLWRIGHT Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; aligning and balancing of equipment; selecting .standard tools, equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the millwright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.  For cross-industry wage study purposes, this classification does not include tool and die makers who (1) are employed in tool and die jobbing shops or (2) produce forging dies (die sinkers).  CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT GUARD AND WATCHMEN  LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING  Guard. Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and other persons entering.  A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of the following: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; and transporting materials or merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.  Watchman. and illegal entry.  ORDER FILLER  Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property against fire, theft,  Fill8 shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers' orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other related duties.  JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER  Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor maintenance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded. —   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  PACKER, SHIPPING Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of the following: Knowledge of various items of  26  PACKER, SHIPPING—Continued in order to verify  content;  TRUCKDRIVER—Continued  **  stock  selection of appropriate  type and size of container; inserting  *  enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.  follows:  Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately) Truckdriver, light (under IV2 tons) Truckdriver, medium (1V2 to and including 4 tons) Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type) Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)  SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK  y  ,  Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is responsible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes, available means of transportation, and rates; and preparing records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary records and files.  TRUCKER, POWER Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment. For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of truck, as follows: Trucker, power (forklift) Trucker, power (other them forklift)  For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows: '  Receiving clerk Shipping cle rk Shipping and receiving clerk  WAREHOUSEMAN  y-  ►  For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size and type of equipment, as (Tractor-trailer should be rated on the basis of trailer capacity.)  TRUCKDRIVER Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport materials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and customers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers are excluded. 7  As directed, performs a variety of warehousing duties which require an understanding of the establishment's storage plan. Work involves most of the following: Verifying materials (or merchandise) against receiving documents, noting and reporting discrepancies and obvious damages; routing materials to prescribed storage locations; storing, stacking, or palletizing materials in accordance with prescribed storage methods; rearranging and taking inventory of stored materials; examining stored materials and reporting deterioration and damage; removing material from storage and preparing it for shipment. May operate hand or power trucks in performing warehousing duties. Exclude workers whose primary duties involve shipping and receiving work (see shipping and receiving clerk and packer, shipping), order filling (see order filler), or operating power trucks (see trucker, power).  Area Wage Survey bulletins will be issued once every 3 years. These bulletins will contain information on establishment practices and supplementary benefits as well as earnings. In the interim years, supplements containing data on earnings only will be issued at no additional cost to holders of the Area Wage bulletin. If you wish to receive these supplements, please complete the coupons below and mail to any of the BLS regional addresses listed on the back cover of this publication. No further action on your part is necessary. Each year, you will receive the supplement when it is published.  1 Please send a copy of Supplement I to BLS Bulletin  Please send a copy of Supplement 11 to BLS Bulletin  Name  Name  Address  Address  City and State   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Zip Code  City and State  27  Zip Code  Available On Request— The following areas are surveyed periodically for use in administering the Service Contract Act of 1965. the BLS regional offices shown on the back cover. Alamogordo— Las Cruces, N. Mex. Alaska Albany, Ga. Albuquerque, N. Mex. Alexandria, La. Alpena, Standish and Tawas City, Mich. Ann Arbor, Mich. Atlantic City, N.J. Augusta, Ga.—S.C. Bakersfield, Calif. Baton Rouge, La. Battle Creek, Mich. Beaumont—Port Arthur— Orange, Tex. Biloxi—Gulfport and Pascagoula, Miss. Birmingham, Ala. Boise City, Idaho Bremerton, Wash. Bridgeport, Norwalk and Stamford, Conn. Brunswick, Ga. Burlington, Vt.—N.Y. Cape Cod, Mass. Cedar Rapids, Iowa Champaign—Urbana, 111. Charleston, S.C. Charlotte—Gastonia, N.C. Cheyenne, Wyo. Clarksville,. Tenn. and Hopkinsville, Ky. Colorado Springs, Colo. Columbia, S.C. Columbus, Ga.—Ala. Columbus, Miss. Crane, Ind. Decatur, 111. Des Moines, Iowa Dothan, Ala. Duluth-Superior, Minn.-Wis. El Paso, Tex. Eugene—Springfield, Oreg. Fayetteville, N.C. Fitchburg—Leominster, Mass. Fort Smith, Ark.—Okla. Frederick—Hagerstown, Md.—Chambersburg, Pa.—Martinsburg, W. Va. Gadsden—Anniston, Ala. Goldsboro, N.C. Grand Island—Hastings, Nebr. Great Falls, Mont. Guam Harrisburg—Lebanon, Pa. Huntington—Ashland, W, Va.—Ky.—Ohio Knoxville, Tenn. Laredo, Tex. Las Vegas, Nev. Little Rock—North Little Rock, Ark.  Copies of public releases are or will be available at no cost while supplies, last from any of Lima, Ohio Logansport—Peru, Ind. Lorain—Elyria, Ohio Lower Eastern Shore, Md.—Va.—Del. Lynchburg, Va. Macon, Ga. Madison, Wis. Mansfield, Ohio Marquette, Escanaba, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. McAllen— Pharr^Edinburg and Brownsville— Harlingen—San Benito, Tex. Medford—Klamath Falls—Grants Pass, Oreg. Meridian, Miss. Middlesex, Monmouth, and Ocean Cos., N.J. Mobile, Ala. and Pensacola, Fla. Montgomery, Ala. Nashville—Davidson, Tenn. New Bern—Jacksonville, N.C. North Dakota Norwich—Groton—New London, Conn. Orlando, Fla. Qxnard-Simi Valley^-Ventura, Calif. Panama City, Fla. Peoria, 111. Phoenix, Ariz. Pine Bluff, Ark. Portsmouth, N.H.—Me.—Mass. Pueblo, Colo. Puerto Rico Reno, Nev. Richland—Kennewick—Walla Walla— Pendleton, Wash.—Oreg. Riverside—San Bernardino—Ontario, Calif. Salina, Kans. Sandusky, Ohio Santa Barbara^Santa Marie— Lompoc, Calif. Savannah, Ga. Selma, Ala. Sherman—Denison, Tex. Shreveport, La. . Sioux Falls, S. Dak. Spokane, Wash. Springfield, 111. Springfield-Chicopee—Holyoke, Mass.—Conn. Stockton, Calif. Tacoma, Wash. Tampa—St. Petersburg, Fla. Topeka, Kans. Tucson, Ariz. Vallejo-Fairfield—Napa, Calif. Waco and Killeen—Temple, Tex. Waterloo—Cedar Falls, Iowa West Texas Plains  Reports for the following surveys conducted in the prior year but since discontinued are also available: Grand Forks, N. Dak. Sacramento, Calif* San Angelo, Tex** Wilmington, Del.—N.J.—Md.*  Abilene, Tex.** Billings, Mont.* Corpus Christi, Tex* Fresno, Calif.* * Expanded to an area wage survey in fiscal year 1975. ** Included in West Texas Plains.  See inside back cover.  The fourteenth annual report on salaries for accountants, auditors, chief accountants, attorneys, job analysts, directors of personnel buyers chemists engineers, engineering technicians draftsmen, and clerical employees is available. Order as BLS Bulletin 1804, National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1973, $ 1.05 a copy, from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the back cover, or from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Area Wage Surveys A list of the latest available bulletins or bulletin supplements is presented below. A directory of area wage studies including more limited studies conducted at the request of the Employment Standards Administration of the Department of Labor is available on request. Bulletins may be purchased from any of the BLS regional offices shown on the back cover. Bulletin supplements may be obtained without cost, where indicated, from BLS regional offices. Bulletin number and price*  Bulletin number and price* danis7~Po^-m^r-______________________________________________________________ 1795-10 Mar. 1974Suppl N. Mtitn Mar. 1974 __Suppl N.J., May 1974 Ea  65 cents Free Free Free  MaU Aik., Uvv: I9T3 '  Aas hp im-Santa-Aa  Atlanta-)  Free  i May 1974r.________  WrrHWN  MOm h«gr-l9T9 Airthw B > sm i■ gh-vm,  . Suppl  Ma Aayr-4973Suppl  Buffalo LZ3&-«-3 OiukI....... Jan. 1974 Suppl Ga.j Sept  ChaJJ  Suppl 1795  1850-3  Shmsti  Denver  May 1974  Dos Mo COM Durham  Prices are determined by the Government Printing Office and are subject to changeData on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented. No longer surveyed, To be surveyed.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Free  Jan. 1974 2 Suppl. "74 1 1795-15, JTT^¥-erwi»i TIT If  1M1 f -1 3-  New York and Nassau—Suffolk, N.Y., Apr. 1974 2 _______ Suppl. viibLiiiu Diftnr'Tui1 ~ Suppl SMM  75 cents Free  Raleigh-Durham, N.C.  Suppl Suppl. 1795-9,  Free Free 65 cents Free Free Free 80 cents Free 85 cents 65 cents Free 65 cents 65 cents Free Free Free Free  ___Suppl. Suppl Suppl 1795-19, Suppl. — Suppl 19TT - 1795-6,  65 cents  FcrrtrWorth, •'Feiu, Oct. 1973 2 Fresno; OaTTIT 1 Qa w e s oi 11 s r'Fln . Suppl. July 4-9 i -Bap, ■ -Aug. 1974 1___ . 1850-2, - Galen.X"'High Point, . Suppl. -May mt-. rd, GOlTTl. . 1795-22, m, Toiih Apr WS4-1 H® . 1795-13, Hwntoo . Suppl. Oct. 1973 ................. . 1795-12, J.. . Tin 1 --------------. 1795-8, T >i i Ti ■ ■ n • i 11 I I . ......... . Suppl. KiTTTIin. Oil) i Mi'i ......... i ,!■—I 1771 -N.H., June 1974 2 Suppl. Lawrence- Haverhill, Maw ________________ -_____________ Suppl. -1W. eh Nui'tULittle -ft or fry "Ark., July 1973 2 ---------------_____ Suppl. Little-^ Los Angeles—Long Beach, Calif. 3----------------------------------------Los Angeles—Long Beach and Anaheim—Santa Ana—Garden Grove, Calif., Oct. 1973 2----------------------------------------------------. Suppl. L-rMiiaviUi- Ky. "Tllll.. MllV. 1 . Suppl. J..K1------ l,.Tn.. .M» 1 Q7A-&— . Suppl. ily 1973 2-----------------. Suppl. * 1 2 3  Free F ree Free Free Free Free 80 cents Free Free Free $1. 10 75 cents Free Free 7 5 cents Free  1850-1, Cole  75 cents 65 cents Free Free Free  Free Free  Poughkeepsie, N.Y. PxbmM*  d~ Mulino  Davenport Okie  Hniphtiiii Mi oh  1850-5 1795-11, — Suppl Suppl Suppl Suppl Suppl.  ■hi 11 M  itpbJ  St. bantui Mu: -111.""Mai . 19T4 il • 1 3 -rrft . S>;H Tii'ilin fiityy Utah;"" ■gnn fi w».ww7rrr-9aM M'hhu 1W-------Saa W4 Savannah, Ga., May 1974 .------------Sioux Falls",1 s! Dak., Dec. 1973 2 ...  u  r~i1  Spa Tampa—St. Petersburg, Fla., Aug. 1973 T. aeptr-W^r— T,  Suppl. Free 1795-24, ents 1795-7 65 cents 1795-25, ------------- Suppl. Suppl __Suppl  80 cents Free Free Free  __ Suppl. .... 1795-21, __ Suppl. __ Suppl. __ Suppl. __ Suppl. ___ 1795-3, __ 1795-17, __ Suppl. .... 1795-18, __ Suppl . 1850-4, Suppl  Free 65 cents Free Free Free Free 55 cents 65 cents Free 65 cents Free 80 cents Free Free Free Free Free 60 cents 65 cents Free Free Free  __ Suppl 1795-5 1795-20  Wntow* Free Free Free Free  85 cents Free Free 65 cents 1795-26, 85 cents  ----------------- ------- ------------ -——-------—  Bggru-j' m 11  ~i mri..... ini  Free  May 197  Youngstown—Warren, Ohio, Nov. 1973  POSTAGE AND FEES PAID  U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR  U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR  BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS WASHINGTON, D.C. 20212  LAB 441  OFFICIAL BUSINESS PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE $300  THIRD CLASS MAH.  BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS REGIONAL OFFICES Region I 1603 JFK Federal Building Government Center Boston, Mass. 02203 Phone: 223-6761 (Area Code 617) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont  Region II Suite 3400 1515 Broadway New York, N.Y. 10036 Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)  Region V 8th Floor, 300 South Wacker Drive Chicago, III. 60606 Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312) Illinois Indiana Michigan Minnesota Ohio Wisconsin  Region VI 1100 Commerce St. Rm. 6B7 Dallas, Tex. 75202 Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214) Arkansas Louisiana New Mexico Oklahoma Texas   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  New Jersey New York Puerto Rico Virgin Islands  Region III P.O. Box 13309 Philadelphia. Pa. 19101 Phone: 597-1154 (Area Code 215) Delaware District of Columbia Maryland Pennsylvania Virginia West Virginia  Region IV Suite 540 1371 Peachtree St. N.E. Atlanta, Ga. 30309 Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404) Alabama Florida Georgia Kentucky Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee  Regions VII and VIII Federal Office Building 911 Walnut St., 15th Floor Kansas City, Mo. 64106 Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816) VII VIII Iowa Colorado Kansas Montana Missouri North Dakota Nebraska South Dakota Utah Wyoming  Regions IX and X 450 Golden Gate Ave. Box 36017 San Francisco, Calif. 94102 Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415) IX X Arizona Alaska California Idaho Hawaii Oregon Nevada Washington
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102