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L

Area
Wage
Survey

Toledo, Ohio—Michigan,
Metropol itan Area, May 1978

Bulletin 2025-24
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics




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Preface
This bulletin provides results of a May 1978 survey of occupational
earnings and supplementary wage benefits in the Toledo, Ohio, Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Area. The survey was made as part of the Bureau
of Labor Statistics1 annual area wage survey program. It was conducted by
the Bureau's regional office in Chicago, 111., under the general direction of
Lois L. Orr, Assistant Regional Commissioner for Operations. The survey
could not have been accomplished without the cooperation of the many firms
whose wage and salary data provided the basis for the statistical information
in this bulletin. The Bureau wishes to express sincere appreciation for the
cooperation received.
Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be
reproduced without permission of the Federal Government. Please credit




the Bureau
publication.

of

Labor Statistics and

cite the name and number of this

Note:
Also available for the Toledo area are listings of union wage rates
for building trades, printing trades, local-transit operating employees, local
truckdrivers and helpers, and grocery store employees. Free copies of these
are available from the Bureau's regional offices. (See back cover for
addresses.)

Area
Wage
Survey

Toledo, Ohio—Michigan,
Metropolitan Area, May 1978

U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

Contents

Page

Introduction____________________________________

2

Page

August 1978

Bulletin 2025-24

Tables;
Earnings, all establishments:
A -l. Weekly earnings of office workers__ 3
A -2. Weekly earnings of professional
and technical workers
6
A-3. Average weekly earnings of
office, professional, and
technical workers, by sex
8
A- 4. Hourly earnings of maintenance,
toolroom, and powerplant
workers
10
A- 5. Hourly earnings of material
movement and custodial workers__ 1
1
A- 6. Average hourly earnings of
maintenance, toolroom, powerplant, material movement, and
custodial workers, by sex
1
3
A-7. Percent increases in average
hourly earnings, adjusted for
employment shifts, for selected
occupational groups______________ 14

For

sale

by

the

Superintendent

of

Documents,

U.S.

Government Printing Office,
GPO
 RegionalWashington, D C. 20402,cover.
Bookstores, or BLS
Offices listed on back


Tables— Continued
B. Establishment practices and
supplementary wage provisions:
B -l. Minimum entrance salaries for
inexperienced typists and clerks_ 1
_ 5
B-2. Late-shift pay provisions for
full-time manufacturing
production and related workers
1
6
B-3. Scheduled weekly hours and days of
full-time first-shift workers
1
7
B-4. Annual paid holidays for full-time
workers
_ _1
8
B-5. Paid vacation provisions for
full-time workers_________________ 1
9
B-6. Health, insurance, and pension
plans for full-time workers________ 22
B-7. Life insurance plans for
full-time workers_________________ 23
Appendix A. Scope and method of survey________ 27
Appendix B, Occupational descriptions.
3
2

Introduction
This area is 1 of 75 in which the U.S. Department of Labor's Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings and re­
lated benefits. (See list of areas on inside back cover.) In each area,
occupational earnings data (A -series tables) are collected annually. Infor­
mation on establishment practices and supplementary wage benefits (B series tables) is obtained every third year.
Each year after all individual area wage surveys have been com­
pleted, two summary bulletins are issued. The first brings together data
for each metropolitan area surveyed; the second presents national and re­
gional estimates, projected from individual metropolitan area data, for all
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States, excluding Alaska
and Hawaii.

Table A-7 provides percent changes in average hourly earnings of
office clerical workers, electronic data processing workers, industrial
nurses, skilled maintenance trades workers, and unskilled plant workers.
Where possible, data are presented for all industries and for manufacturing
and nonmanufacturing separately. Data are not presented for skilled main­
tenance workers in nonmanufacturing because the number of workers em­
ployed in this occupational group in nonmanufacturing is too small to warrant
separate presentation. This table provides a measure of wage- trends after
elimination of changes in average earnings caused by employment shifts
among establishments as well as turnover of establishments included in
survey samples. For further details, see appendix A.
B-series tables

A major consideration in the area wage survey program is the need
to describe the level and movement of wages in a variety of labor markets,
through the analysis of (1) the level and distribution of wages by occupation,
and (2) the movement of wages by occupational category and skill level.
The program develops information that may be used for many purposes,
including wage and salary administration, collective bargaining, and as­
sistance in determining plant location. Survey results also are used by the
U.S. Department of Labor to make wage determinations under the Service
Contract Act of 1965.

The B-series tables present information on minimum entrance
salaries for inexperienced typists and clerks; late-shift pay provisions and
practices for production and related workers in manufacturing; and data
separately for production and related workers and office workers on sched­
uled weekly hours and days of first-shift workers; paid holidays; paid vaca­
tions; health, insurance, and pension plans; and more detailed information
on life insurance plans.

A-series tables

Appendix A describes the methods and concepts used in the area
wage survey program. It provides information on the scope of the area
survey, the area's industrial composition in manufacturing, and labormanagement agreement coverage.

Tables A - l through A-6 provide estimates of straight-time weekly
or hourly earnings for workers in occupations common to a variety of
manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. For the 31 largest survey
areas, tables A - 8 through A - 13 provide similar data for establishments
employing 500 workers or more.




Appendixes

Appendix B provides job descriptions used by Bureau field econ­
omists to classify workers by occupation.

A.

E a r n in g s

Table A-1.

Weekly earnings of office workers in Toledo, Ohio—Mich., May 1978
N u m ber o f w o rk e rs re c e iv in g s tra ig h t-tim e w e e k ly earn in gs o f—

Occupation and in d u stry d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

*

Average
weekly
(standard)

$
100

Mean2

Median 2

Middle range 2

and
under
110

ALL

s

%

S

%

140

s

$

s

%

s

$

s

S

S

s

S

S

s

%

%

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

240

260

280

300

320

340

360

380

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

and

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

240

260

280

300

3 20

340

360

380

o ver

27
7
20
9

36
27
9
4

16
3
13
“

37
5
32
18

46
14
32
7

38
14
24

52
33
19
10

76
55
21
8

58
44
14
4

152
102
50
9

114
65
49
10

116
99
17
3

69
52
17
2

40
36
4
3

31
31

17
17
-

6
6
-

5
5
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

2
2

2
2

-

2
2

3
3

4
2

5
5

12
8

9
9

5
5

7
7

5
5

4
4
1
i

110

120

130

-

-

-

120

130

140

7
3
4
3
-

WORKERS

S E C R E T A R IE S ----------------------MANUFACTURING -------------NONHANUFACTURING --------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S -----

946
618
328
93

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5

$
2 3 1 .5 0
2 4 5 .0 0
2 0 5 .5 0
1 9 3 .5 0

$
$
$
2 3 3 .0 0 1 9 4 . 5 0 - 2 6 7 . 0 0
2 4 1 .0 0 2 0 7 . 0 0 - 2 7 8 . 0 0
2 0 4 .5 0 1 7 2 .0 0 - 2 4 1 . 0 0
1 9 1 .0 0 1 6 1 . 0 0 - 2 3 6 . 3 0

S E C R E T A R IE S . C LASS A —
MANUFACTURING --------------

66
54

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

2 9 0 .5 0
3 0 4 .5 0

2 9 5 .5 0
3 0 7 .5 0

2 5 0 .0 0 -3 3 8 .0 0
2 7 2 .0 0 -3 4 0 .0 0

-

S E C R E T A R IE S . C LASS B —
MANUFACTURING -------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------

182
144
38

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

2 5 5 .0 0
2 7 3 .0 0
1 9 8 .0 0

2 5 7 .0 0
2 6 6 .5 0
1 7 6 .0 0

2 1 6 .5 0 - 2 9 4 . 5 0
2 3 8 .5 0 -3 0 4 .5 0
1 7 3 .0 0 - 2 0 8 . 0 0

-

S E C R E T A R IE S . C LASS C —
MANUFACTURING -------------NONMANUFACTURING --------

346
248
98

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

2 2 5 .5 0
2 2 7 .5 0
2 1 9 .5 0

2 2 0 .0 0
2 2 0 .5 0
2 0 9 .5 0

2 0 1 .5 0 -2 5 0 .5 0
2 0 3 .5 0 -2 5 0 .0 0
1 8 0 .0 0 -2 6 1 .5 0

-

-

-

S E C R E T A R IE S . C LASS 0 —
MANUFACTURING ------------NONHANUFACTURING --------

166
111
55

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

2 1 9 .5 0
2 4 0 .5 0
1 7 7 .0 0

2 3 3 .0 0
2 5 4 .5 0
1 6 5 .5 0

1 7 4 .0 0 -2 6 7 .5 0
2 0 7 .0 0 -2 6 7 .5 0
1 3 4 .5 0 -1 9 4 .0 0

3

-

S E C R E T A R IE S . C LA SS E —
MANUFACTURING --------------

152
61

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

2 1 8 .0 0
2 1 1 .0 0

2 3 3 .0 0
2 3 3 .0 0

1 9 1 . 0 0 - 2 4 2 . OQ
1 4 8 .5 0 -2 3 9 .5 0

-

_

STENOGRAPHERS ------------------MANUFACTURING -------------NONMANUFACTURING -------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S -----

160
70
90
49

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

2 1 3 .0 0
1 9 8 .0 0
2 2 4 .5 0
2 5 0 .0 0

2 0 9 .0 0
1 9 0 .0 0
2 2 9 .0 0
2 5 4 .0 0

1 7 1 .0 0 -2 5 4 .0 0
1 6 6 .0 0 -2 2 7 .5 0
1 8 1 .5 0 -2 5 4 .0 0
2 3 7 .0 0 -2 8 6 .0 0

-

STEN O GRAPH ERS. GENERAL
MANUFACTURING ------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S -----

115
64
51
26

4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

2 0 6 .5 0
1 9 5 .0 0
2 2 0 .5 0
2 4 1 .0 0

2 0 2 .0 0
1 8 4 .5 0
2 1 8 .0 0
2 8 2 .0 0

1 6 8 .5 0 -2 3 6 .0 0
1 6 5 . J O - 2 2 1 . 00
1 7 2 .0 0 -2 8 2 .0 3
2 1 5 . J O - 2 8 6 . 00

~

3
~
3
3
-

“
_

-

-

3
3

7
7
-

7
7
-

6
3
3

13

-

-

6
6

14
14

5
~
5

10
8
2

4
3
i

8
7
1

18
16
2

26
25
1

29
26
3

19
17
2

16
15
1

13
13
“

9
9

1
1
“

2

14
5
9

8
2
6

19
7
12

21
18
3

58
41
17

38
31
7

60
51
9

38
26
12

31
20
11

29
19
10

4
4
“

9
9
”

i
1
~

-

2
-

13

9
6
3

7
5
2

7
5
2

11
11
“

5
4
1

14
12
2

13
10
3

48
45
3

6
5
i

4
t
3

4
4

-

-

13

3
3

“

”

1
“

20
17

8
3

6
6

2

9
“

2
*

3

32
2

3
3

3
3

7
7

-

“

56
20

-

-

10
4
6
6

12
5
7
~

15
13
2
“

12
5
7

17
11
6

1

13
7
6

12
6
6
1

17
8
9
6

24
6
18
18

8
4
4

19
l
18
18

_
-

-

“

-

10
4
6
6

7
5
2
“

15
13
2

9
5
4
~

15
ii
4
“

ii
6
5
5

6
6

7
3
4

_
-

-

-

-

.

~

“

5
5

-

3
3

2
2

47
14
33
1

56
16
40
"

18
7
11
~

17
13
4

14
5
9
1

15

7

2

9
5
4

-

3

-

“
~

-

STEN O GR APH ERS. SENIOR NONMANUFACTURING --------

45
39

3 9 .5
3 9 .0

2 2 9 .5 0
2 3 0 .0 0

2 4 5 .5 0
2 5 4 .0 0

2 0 3 .5 0 - 2 5 4 . 0 0
1 9 4 .5 0 -2 5 4 .0 0

-

T Y P I S T S ----------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------NONMANUF A C T U R I N 6 -------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S -----

304
106
198
33

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 8 .5
4 0 .0

1 7 1 .5 0
1 9 2 .5 0
1 6 0 .0 3
2 2 9 .5 0

1 5 1 .5 0
1 7 6 .0 0
1 4 4 .0 0
2 0 3 .5 0

1 3 8 .0 0 -1 9 2 .0 0
1 4 9 .5 0 -2 4 1 .5 0
1 3 2 .0 0 -1 8 9 .0 0
1 8 9 .5 0 - 2 4 0 . 0 0

3

T Y P I S T S . CLASS A ---------MANUFACTURING ------------NONMANUFACTURING --------

89
26
63

3 8 .5
3 8 .0
3 8 .5

1 7 6 .0 0
2 3 9 .0 0
1 4 9 .5 0

1 5 8 .5 0
2 5 4 .5 0
1 3 8 .0 0

1 3 1 .0 0 -2 0 0 .0 0
1 9 4 .0 0 -2 7 6 .5 0
1 2 0 .0 0 -1 6 1 .0 0

-

T Y P I S T S . CLASS B ---------MANUFACTURING ------------NONMANUFACTURING -------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S -----

215
80
135
30

3 9 .0
4 0 .0
3 8 .5
4 0 .0

1 6 9 .5 0
1 7 7 .0 0
1 6 5 .0 0
2 2 6 .0 0

1 5 1 .0 0
1 6 2 .0 0
1 4 5 .5 0
1 9 7 .0 0

1 3 8 .0 0 -1 8 9 .5 0
1 4 9 .5 0 -1 8 9 .0 3
1 3 7 .0 0 -1 9 0 .5 0
1 8 9 .5 0 -2 4 0 .0 0

F I L E C LE R K S ---------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------

145
133

3 8 .5
3 8 .0

1 4 1 .5 0
1 3 7 .5 0

1 3 2 .0 0
1 3 2 .0 0

1 1 5 .0 0 -1 6 0 .0 0
1 1 5 .0 0 -1 4 8 .0 0

13

-

~

~

“

“

1
1

2
2

3
”

6
4

18
18

i
~

4
4

-

24
13
11
7

19
2
17
7

11

1
~
1
1

13
9
1
1

17
11
6
6

13
10
3
3

6
6
“

“
~

4
i
3

2
1
1

1
1

6
6

~

i
1

7
7

8
5
3

6
6

~

10
4
6
i

22
12
10
7

18
2
16
7

5
5
1

1
~
1
1

9
8
i
1

10
4
6
6

5
5
~

-

-

*

”

"

8
8
“

2
2

20
17

-

1
1

3
2

5
3

7
7

-

2

-

-

_

20

15

7

2

3

5

17

3

5
“

17
*

32
14
18
1

49
16
33

16
7
9

12
12

30
30

19
19

34
32

10
8

“

”

-

11
1

“
~

-

-

-

-

-

-

‘ -

-

-

-

~

_
-

_

“

~

-

15
1
14
14

20

3

1

9
3
6
1

1
1

37

“

ii
7
4

37

3
~

-

*

6
6
~

See fo otn otes at end o f tables.




“

-

-

-

”

“

5

“
“

~

-

-

~

5
5
~

5
“
5
5
-

~

~
~

~

-

~

“

“
'

-

-

-

Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Toledo, Ohio—Mich., May 1978— Continued
N um ber o f w o r k e r s re c e iv in g stra ig h t-tim e w eek ly earn in gs o f—
IJ
Occupation and indu stry d iv is io n

W.
of
workers

Average
weekly
hours*
(standard)

*

Mean2

Median 2

Middle range 2

s

%

too

110

s
120

<

s
130

140

S
150

$
160

*
170

$
180

$

S

s
190

200

210

*i

s

S
220

240

260

S

S

280

300

s

320

%

340

%

360

and
under

380
and

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

240

260

-

3
2

3
3

1
1

“

-

-

-

-

280

300

3 20

340

360

2
~

-

-

_
-

-

380

over

A L L WORKERS—
CONTINUED

FILE

CLERKS -

CONTINUED

F I L E C L E R K S . C LASS B -------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

38
36

3 8 .5
3 8 .5

1 3 5 .5 0
1 3 2 .5 0

1 1 4 .0 0
1 1 4 .0 0

$
$
1 1 0 .0 0 - 1 4 5 .0 0
1 1 0 .0 0 - 1 3 6 .0 0

10
10

12
12

3
3

3
3

2
2

“

1
-

F I L E C LE R K S . CLASS C -------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

92
84

3 8 .0
3 8 .0

1 3 5 .0 0
1 3 1 .5 0

1 3 2 .0 0
1 3 2 .0 0

1 2 0 .0 0 - 1 4 0 .5 3
1 2 0 .0 0 - 1 3 7 . 0 0

2
2

18
18

16
16

30
28

8
6

2
2

13
11

-

MESSENGERS ---------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

91
60
31

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

1 6 5 .5 3
1 6 6 .5 0
1 6 4 .0 0

1 5 6 .5 0
1 5 8 .0 0
1 4 3 .0 0

1 3 1 .5 0 - 1 7 3 . 0 0
1 3 5 .0 0 - 1 6 6 . 5 0
1 3 0 .5 0 - 1 9 5 . 0 0

-

4

7
6
1

18
11
7

7
2
5

15
14
1

13
11
2

4
4

-

4

3
2
1

-

-

5

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS --------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

113
27
86

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

1 6 3 .0 0
2 0 8 .5 0
1 4 9 .0 0

1 5 0 .5 0
2 0 2 .5 0
1 4 4 .0 0

1 1 3 .5 0 —194 *53
1 6 5 .0 0 - 2 4 6 . 5 0
1 1 3 .5 0 - 1 7 0 . 0 0

10

20

3
3

4
2
2

12
4
8

2
2

20

19
19

10

10

3
3
“

10

2
2
-

8
2
6

SWITCHBOARD O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T S MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

187
110
77

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 8 .5

1 5 4 .0 0
1 5 6 .5 0
1 5 0 .0 0

1 4 2 .0 0
1 4 2 .0 0
1 4 7 .5 0

1 2 2 .5 0 - 1 7 3 . 0 0
1 2 4 .0 0 - 1 7 5 .0 0
1 2 0 .0 0 - 1 6 5 . 0 0

3

-

45
39
6

11
2
9

26
22
4

13
2
11

21
8
13

12
8
4

7
1
6

9
9

6
6

-

3

19
2
17

-

ORDER CLERKS ------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

228
160
68

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 7 .5

1 6 8 .0 0
1 7 3 .5 0
1 5 4 .5 0

1 6 5 .0 0
1 8 3 .5 0
1 2 2 .0 0

1 2 2 .0 0 -2 0 0 .5 0
1 3 0 .0 0 - 2 0 0 . 5 0
1 1 2 .5 0 - 2 0 2 . 5 0

16
7
9

33
21
12

18

i
i

17
14
3

18
17
1

5
5

18

17
14
3

26
25
1

14
12
2

A ------------------

53

3 9 .5

2 1 4 .5 0

2 1 9 .0 0

1 6 5 .0 0 - 2 3 9 .5 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

15

-

-

ORDER C LE R K S . CLASS B -----------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

175
1 27

3 9 .0
3 9 .5

1 5 4 .0 0
1 6 5 .5 0

1 5 3 .0 0
1 8 3 .0 0

1 1 5 .0 0 - 1 8 7 .0 0
1 3 0 .0 0 - 1 9 5 .5 0

16
7

33
21

18

17
14

i

17
14

3
2

5
5

ACCOUNTING CLERKS ---------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------

828
383
445
43

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

1 9 0 .5 0
2 1 0 .5 0
1 7 3 .0 0
2 3 3 .0 0

1 8 2 .0 0
1 9 9 .0 0
1 7 0 .0 0
2 3 3 .0 0

1 5 6 .5 0 -2 1 3 .0 0
1 6 9 .5 0 -2 3 6 .5 0
1 4 2 .0 0 - 1 9 9 . 0 0
2 0 4 .0 0 - 2 7 1 . 0 0

14

7

46
3
43
“

85
32
53
3

45
12
33

66
36
30

C LE R K S . C LASS A --------m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

353
184
169

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

2 1 6 .0 0
2 3 1 .5 0
1 9 9 .0 0

2 0 4 .0 0
2 1 3 .0 0
1 9 9 .0 0

1 7 6 .5 0 - 2 2 8 .5 0
1 8 7 .0 0 - 2 6 9 .0 0
1 7 0 .0 0 - 2 1 7 . 5 0

13
3
10

ACCOUNTING C LE R K S . C LA SS B --------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

475
199
276

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

1 7 1 .5 0
1 9 1 .5 0
1 5 7 .0 0

1 6 7 .0 0
1 8 4 .5 0
1 5 2 .0 0

1 4 2 .0 0 - 1 8 9 . 5 0
1 5 6 .5 0 - 2 3 0 . 0 0
1 3 2 .5 0 - 1 8 2 . 0 0

BOO KKEEPING -M ACHINE
OPERATORS -----NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

50
35

3 8 .5
3 8 .0

1 8 1 .0 0
1 6 2 .5 0

1 7 5 .0 0 1 4 8 .5 0 - 1 8 8 . 5 0
1 6 2 .0 3 1 4 4 .0 0 - 1 7 8 . 5 0

OROER C L E R K S .

CLASS

ACCOUNTING

BOO KKEEPING -M ACHINE O PERATORS.
CLASS A ---------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

30
28

3 8 .5
3 8 .5

1 7 2 .5 0
1 6 4 .5 0

1 7 5 .0 0
1 7 5 .0 0

1 4 4 .0 0 - 1 7 8 .5 0
1 4 4 .0 0 - 1 7 8 . 5 0

MACHINE B IL L E R S -------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

26
26

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 8 4 .0 0
1 8 4 .0 0

1 6 5 .5 0
1 6 5 .5 0

1 6 5 .5 0 - 2 0 0 . 0 0
1 6 5 .5 0 - 2 0 0 . 0 0

B ILL IN G -M A C H IN E B IL L E R S --------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

26
26

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 8 4 .0 0
1 8 4 .0 0

1 6 5 .5 0
1 6 5 .5 0

1 6 5 .5 0 - 2 0 0 . 0 0
1 6 5 .5 0 - 2 0 0 . 0 0

-

-

~

14

7
~

-

~

1
1
5

“

-

-

-

~

“

-

1
-

15
13
2

11
9
2

25
19
6

10
2
8

_
-

2

2

8

14

26
25

12
12

13
13

3
3

11
11

-

83
29
54
2

104
33
71
3

49
33
16

67
33
34
7

50
21
29

67
44
23
10

16
9
7
5

42
38
4
4

20
13
7
7

14
12
2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

25
18
7

53
17
36

28
12
16

28
15
13

38
18
20

44
15
29

44
27
17

8
6
2

12
8
4

19
12
7

14
12
2

7
7
-

5
5
-

3
3
-

-

6
6

23
17
6

8
3
5

30
30

1
1

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
-

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

i

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

32
9
23

41
18
23

30
12
18

76
21
55

21
18
3

29
15
14

-

-

13
12

5
5

2
1

16
16

1

3
1

1

_

6

_

_

“

“

-

-

-

-

_

_

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
11

1
1

1
1

1
1

2
2

12
12

1
1

1
1

1
1

2
2

12
12

4

16
16

_

1
1

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

80
30
50

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

-

31
16
15

_

_

2

-

46
3
43

_

_

9
9
-

-

-

7

_

-

2

_

-

4
4

7

_

-

-

2
1
1

14

-

-

-

2
2
"

14

”

-

5

6
2
4

3

-

-

5
2
3

-

“

-

-

-

-

~

7
7
“

i

5
2
3

-

~

6

-

3

-

-

2
2
~

-

-

S e e fo o tn o te s at end o f t a b le s .




34
16
18

-

-

_

-

7
7

-

5
5

_

3
3

-

4
4

4
4

-

2
-

-

i
i

2
2

-

i

2
2

1

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Toledo, Ohio—Mich., May 1978— Continued
Weekly earning^^™
(standard)
Occupation and ind u stry d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Average
weekly
hours1
(standard)

Num ber o f w o rk e rs re c e iv in g s tra ig h t-tim e w e ekly earnings o f —
S

%

100
Mean 2

Median 2

Middle range 2

s

%

110

*
130

120

%

140

%

150

S

%

160

170

t
180

s

S

S
190

200

210

s

s
220

240

S
260

S
280

s

S

%

300

320

340

s
360

and
under

380

and

1 10

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

24 0

260

280

300

3 20

340

2
2

19
14
5

9
3
6

29
14
15

17
4
13

8
4
4

7
6
i

6

~

13
7
6

16
7
9

15
8
7

16
1C
6

6
3
3

10
7
3

6
6

9
9

2
2

-

-

11

13
3
10
“

37
24
13

40
13
27
“

22
11
11

52
44
8
*

22
20
2
~

20
16
4

16
9
7
4

18
9
9
6

25
5
20
7

20
12
8
6

9
9
-

40
34
6
6

8

19
15
4

15
14
1

16
12
4

5
4

8

9
2
7

10
7
3

8
5
3

13
11
2

8
8
“

39
33
6

32
13
19

13
9
4

33
29
4

7
6

4
4

11
5
6

8
2
6

17

7
1
6

i
i

i
i

360

380 o ver

ALL WORKERS- CONTINUED
CLERK S --------------------NONHANUFACTURING ----

191
105
86

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5

? « .«
2 0 5 .5 0
1 7 6 .5 0

$
$
$
1 8 2 .0 0 1 4 4 .0 0 - 2 2 4 . 5 0
2 0 4 .0 0 1 4 4 . 0 0 - 2 5 2 . 5 0
1 6 5 .0 0 1 4 6 .0 0 - 2 0 5 . 5 0

KEY EN TRY OPERATORS ---MANUFACTURING --------NONNANUFACTURING ---P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S -

349
213
136
29

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
4 0 .0

1 9 6 .0 0
2 0 4 .5 0
1 8 2 .5 0
2 3 8 .5 0

1 7 9 .5 0 1 5 3 . 5 0 - 2 3 3 . 5 0
1 8 7 .5 0 1 7 1 . 5 0 - 2 4 4 . 0 0
1 6 8 .0 0 1 5 0 .0 0 - 2 1 8 . 0 0
2 3 7 .0 0 2 1 6 . 0 0 - 2 4 0 . 0 0

183
128
55

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

2 1 1 .5 0
2 2 4 .0 0
1 8 2 .0 0

1 9 6 .5 0
2 1 0 .5 0
1 6 6 .5 0

166
85
81

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0

1 7 8 .5 0
1 7 4 .5 0
1 8 2 .5 0

1 7 2 .5 0 1 5 1 .0 0 - 2 0 5 . 5 3
1 7 2 .5 0 1 5 3 . 5 0 - 1 7 9 . 5 0
1 6 9 .0 0 1 5 0 .0 0 - 2 3 3 . 5 0

PA YR O LL

m a n u fa c t u r in g

KEY ENTRY O PERATORS. C LASS
MANUFACTURING --------NONMANUFACTURING ----

A ------

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS. C LASS
MANUFACTURING --------NONMANUFACTURING ----

R ------

1 6 8 .0 0 -2 6 7 .0 3
1 8 0 .5 0 - 2 8 2 .5 0
1 4 8 .3 0 -2 0 8 .0 0

“

-

11
“

-

-

5
5

3
3

22
14
8

6

10
3
7

15
10
5

-

-

-

6

S ee footn otes at end o f ta b les.




5

U

6

i

i

17

i
1

2
2
-

2
2

i

1

-

-

-

~
~

“

~

2
2

-

”

“

1

-

i

-

_
-

-

_
-

_

Table A-2.

Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Toledo, Ohio—Mich., May 1978
N u m ber o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g stra ig h t-tim e w eek ly earnings of—

Occupation and indu stry d iv is io n

Number
of
wodcers

s

Average
weekly
(standard

$
110

Mean 2

Median 2

Middle range 2

and
under
120

ALL

s

S

%

s

s

S

%

%

$

%

S

s

S

s

5

S

i ------ i -----440
460

s
480

120

130

140

160

180

200

220

240

260

280

300

320

340

360

380

4 00

420

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

and

130

140

160

180

200

22 0

240

26 0

280

300

320

340

360

380

400

4 20

440

460

480

over

1
1

3

4
3
1

14
2
12

13
10
3

9
7
2

14
ii
3

20
19
1

12
U
1

13
13

7
7

8
7
i

6
6

3

10
2
8

_

_

2
2

5
-

5
4

4
3

11
9

6
6

9
9

11
11

6
6

8
7

6
6

2
2

i
1

-

-

WORKERS

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS
(B U S IN E S S ) ------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

134
98
36

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 8 .5

3 7 2 .5 0
3 9 5 .5 0
3 1 0 .0 0

$
3 7 6 .0 0
3 9 4 .0 0
3 0 7 .0 0

$
$
3 2 2 .8 0 - 4 2 1 .5 0
3 6 1 .5 0 - 4 2 9 .0 3
2 7 5 .3 0 - 3 2 4 .5 0

COMPUTER SYSTEMS AN ALYSTS
(B U S IN E S S ) . CLASS A ------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

73
63

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

4 0 2 .5 0
4 1 2 .0 0

4 0 9 .0 0
4 1 7 .5 0

3 6 2 .5 0 - 4 4 1 .0 0
3 7 6 .0 0 - 4 4 6 . 0 0

-

-

“

”

49
33

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

3 5 0 .5 0
3 7 0 .5 0

3 5 3 .0 0
3 8 3 .5 0

3 1 6 .5 0 - 3 9 1 .5 0
3 3 3 .5 0 - 3 9 3 .0 0

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS (B U S IN E S S ) —
MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

139
106
33

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0

2 9 9 .0 0
3 2 3 .5 0
2 1 9 .5 0

2 9 8 .0 0
3 2 2 .0 0
2 1 0 .0 0

2 6 0 .3 0 - 3 4 4 .0 0
2 7 7 .5 0 - 3 6 5 .5 3
1 9 2 .5 0 -2 3 6 .0 0

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS ( B U S I N E S S ) .
CLASS A --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

48
46

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

3 2 3 .0 0
3 2 6 .5 0

3 0 5 .5 0
3 0 6 .0 0

2 8 2 .0 0 - 3 5 4 . 5 3
2 8 7 .5 0 - 3 5 5 .0 0

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS ( B U S I N E S S ) .
CLASS B --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

61
47

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

3 0 6 .5 0
3 2 9 .5 0

3 2 2 .0 0
3 3 3 .5 0

2 5 6 .5 0 - 3 7 5 .0 3
2 8 2 .0 0 - 3 8 4 .0 0

_

_

_

_

_

~

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS
(B U S IN E S S ) . CLASS B ------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

_

"

‘

'

'

"

_

_

_

_

_

_

~

-

-

-

~

2
A
2

9
9

_

_

-

_

_

_

_

“

~

~

~

_

_

_

_

”

“

12
2
10

1

“

_

_

4
i

-

7
2

7
6

5
4

3
2

14
13

3
2

7
2
5

4
2
2

23
21
2

15
13
2

13
12
1

16
16

8
8

8
8

18
18

2
2

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

2
2
-

.

_

10
10

11
10

6
6

6
6

3
3

4
4

3
3

2
2

“

2
2

8
8

2
1

4
3

8
8

4
4

4
4

15
15

“

i

-

-

-

1
i
-

1
1
-

_

_

-

-

_
_

i
1

“

11
2

'

i
-

1

“
-

_

3
2

2
“

1

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS ( B U S I N E S S ) .
CLASS C ---------------------------------------

30

3 9 .5

2 4 4 .5 0

2 4 5 .0 0

1 9 2 .5 0 - 2 7 8 . 5 0

-

-

-

-

2

9

-

4

2

5

2

3

2

COMPUTER OPERATORS -------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

197
109
88

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

2 2 0 .5 0
2 4 3 .5 0
1 9 2 .0 0

2 1 5 .0 0
2 2 9 .0 0
1 7 5 .5 0

1 7 3 .5 0 - 2 4 8 .0 3
2 1 3 .0 0 - 2 8 0 .5 0
1 6 3 .0 0 - 2 1 7 .0 0

t
1

1
~
1

6
3
3

14
3
11

42
6
36

19
ii
8

34
27
7

19
14
5

18
10
8

6
5
1

13
10
3

6
5
1

13
10
3

COMPUTER OPERATORS. CLASS A ------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

81
61

3 9 .0
3 9 .5

2 5 4 .0 0
2 5 8 .0 0

2 3 6 .0 0
2 3 8 .0 0

2 1 5 .0 0 - 2 9 7 .0 0
2 1 5 .0 0 - 3 0 1 .5 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
4

9
7

20
15

10
5

5
4

1
1

11
8

5
5

12
9

COMPUTER O PERATORS. CLASS B ------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

76
36
40

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0

2 1 1 .5 0
2 4 3 .0 0
1 8 3 .0 0

2 1 3 .0 0
2 2 9 .0 0
1 7 5 .5 0

1 7 5 .5 0 - 2 3 5 .0 0
2 1 7 .5 0 - 2 5 1 .5 0
1 5 6 .0 0 - 1 8 7 .5 0

-

_

-

11

17

13
11
2

9
9
-

8
4
4

5
4
i

2
2

i

_

1
1

-

1

COMPUTER OPERATORS. C LASS C ------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

37
25

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

1 6 4 .5 0
1 6 0 .5 0

1 6 1 .5 0
1 6 4 .0 0

1 5 6 .5 0 - 1 7 3 . 0 0
1 6 0 .3 0 - 1 7 0 .5 0

1
1

1
1

_

2

_

_

409
225

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

2 6 7 .5 0
2 7 2 .5 0

2 6 1 .5 0
2 6 8 .0 0

2 1 5 .3 0 - 3 1 0 .5 0
2 1 8 .5 0 - 3 1 0 .5 0

_

42

4 0 .0

2 6 1 .5 0

2 4 5 .5 0

2 3 6 .5 0 - 2 8 0 .0 0

D R A FTER S. CLASS A -----------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

170
107

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

3 1 6 .5 0
3 0 7 .5 0

3 1 0 .5 0
3 0 0 .0 0

2 8 9 .5 0 - 3 4 5 .0 3
2 7 4 .5 0 - 3 3 5 .0 0

-

D R AFTERS. CLASS B -----------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

108
60

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

2 6 9 .5 0
2 7 9 .5 0

2 5 7 .5 0
2 6 3 .0 0

2 3 0 .0 0 - 2 9 4 .0 0
2 4 1 .5 0 - 2 9 8 .0 0

_

_

-

-

-

1
1
-

1
1

i
i

-

1
1

1
i

1
1

_
_

_

-

.

_

DRAFTERS ------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g :
P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------

_

_

1
1
_

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

11

17

7
3
4

6
3

3
*

20
18

3
2

1
"

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

4
“

2

30
16

31
21

42
21

26
12

66
33

28
18

55
34

28
21

37
17

27
11

10
7

8
3

5
3

5
5

2
2

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0

7

18

-

3

-

8

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

1
1

-

_

_

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

6

-

-

-

-

-

7
7

17
17

6
6

43
25

19
12

27
15

27
11

10
7

7
2

-

3
3

1
1

-

-

-

-

See footn otes at end o f tables.




_

_

_

18
9

10
4

27
12

21
11

9
9

7
7

9
i

_

_

1
1

3
3

2
2

1
1

_

Table A-2.

Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Toledo, Ohio—M ich., May 1978— Continued
Weekly earnings
(standard)
Number
of
workers

Occupation and in d u stry d iv is io n

(standard)

N u m ber o f w o rk e rs r e c e iv in g s tra ig h t-tim e w e e k ly earnings of—

s

Average
weekly

s
110

Mean2

Median 2

Middle range2

s
120

s
130

s
140

s
160

*

180

%

200

$

%

220

240

s

s

260

280

s
300

s

S

320

340

S

360

%

s

'

380

4 00

s

%

420

440

%

460

and
under
120

480

and
130

140

180

200

28
14
14

160

220

240

30
20
10

18
10
8

8
1
7

21
3
18

3
3

2
2

1
1

~

-

5
5
5

-

1
1
1

2
1
1

34
28
27

2

-

26 0

280

300

320

340

360

380

400

4 20

440

9
7
7

2
1
1

1

*

460

480

over

-

-

A LL UORKERS—
CONTINUED
DRAFTERS -

CONTINUED

51
60

0 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$
$
$
$
2 0 6 .5 0 1 9 9 .0 0 1 8 0 . 3 0 - 2 3 3 . 5 0
1 9 8 .5 0 1 8 6 .5 0 1 6 7 . 0 0 - 2 0 6 . 5 0
2 1 3 .0 0 2 0 7 .0 0 1 8 3 . 5 0 - 2 4 5 . 5 0

64
51
50

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

3 0 5 .0 0
3 0 1 .5 0
3 0 1 .5 0

2 8 8 .0 0
2 8 8 .0 0
2 8 8 .0 0

2 8 6 .0 0 - 3 4 5 .5 0
2 8 6 .0 0 - 3 4 5 .5 0
2 8 6 .0 0 - 3 4 5 .5 0

~

*

8
8
8

A-

52

3 9 .5

3 1 0 .5 0

2 8 8 .0 0

2 8 6 .0 0 - 3 4 5 .5 0

-

-

-

1

-

1

1

30

1

-

8

8

1

1

-

-

-

R EG IS TE R EO IN D U S T R IA L NURSES ---------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

75
73

4 0 .0 2 9 6 .5 0
4 0 . C 2 9 7 .5 0

2 9 1 .0 0
2 9 1 .0 0

2 6 0 .0 0 - 3 2 9 .0 0
2 6 0 .0 0 - 3 3 4 .5 0

-

-

-

1

4
4

11
11

12
12

15
15

10
10

10
9

6
6

4
4

1
1

1
1

-

-

-

D R A FT E R S t CLASS C ------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONNANUFACTURING ------------------------E L E C T R O N IC S T E C H N IC IA N S -----------------NONNANUFACTURING ------------------------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------ELE C T R O N IC S

T E C H N IC IA N S .

CLASS

in

~
~

~
~

~

“
~

-

“

“

See footnotes at end of tables.




7

“

Table A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex,
in Toledo, Ohio—M ich., May 1978
Average
(mean*)
Sex, 3 occupation, and in d u stry d iv is io n

O F F IC E

OCCUPATIONS -

Weekly
hours
(standard

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry d ivision

BEN

MESSENGERS ---------------------------------

Weekly
Weekly
earnings1
hours
(standard) (standard)

3 8 . a 2 0 2 .0 0

$
3 8 .5 1 7 4 .0 0
3 8 .5 1 4 9 .5 0

MANUFACTURING ---NONMANUFACTURING

158
76
82

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5

1 8 1 .5 0
1 8 6 .5 0
1 7 6 .5 0

T Y P I S T S . CLASS B ---MANUFACTURING ------NONMANUFACTURING —
P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S

3 9 .3
4 0 .0
3 8 .5
4 0 .0

1 6 9 .5 0
1 7 7 .0 0
1 6 5 .0 0
2 2 6 .0 0

MANUFACTURING ------NONMANUFACTURING —
P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S

347
212
135
28

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
4 0 .0

1 9 5 .0 0
2 0 4 .0 0
1 8 1 .5 0
2 3 6 .5 0

3 8 .5
3 8 .0

1 3 9 .5 0
1 3 5 .5 0

F I L E C LE R K S . CLASS B
NONMANUFACTURING ----

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

ACCOUNTING CLERKS --------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------

2 6 6 .0 0
2 7 4 .5 0

A --

3 9 .5

2 8 8 .5 0

PA YR O LL CLERK S -------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

2 4 6 .0 0
2 5 5 .0 0

C LERKS* C LA SS

3 8 .5
3 8 .5

1 3 0 .0 0
1 2 6 .5 0

F I L E C LE R K S . CLASS C
NONMANUFACTURING ----

3 8 .0
3 8 .0

1 3 4 .5 0
1 3 0 .5 0

MESSENGERS --------MANUFACTURING

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

1 6 0 .5 0
1 6 5 .5 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS
MANUFACTURING ------NONMANUFACTURING —

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

1 6 3 .0 0
2 0 8 .5 0
1 4 9 .0 0

SWITCHBOARD O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T S MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 8 .5

1 5 4 .0 0
1 5 6 .5 0
1 5 0 .0 0

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 7 .5

1 6 3 .5 0
1 7 0 .5 0
1 4 0 .5 0

3 9 .5

2 0 3 .5 0

168
126

3 9 .0
3 9 .5

1 5 5 .5 0
1 6 5 .5 0

785
355

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

1 8 6 .5 0
2 0 5 .5 0
1 7 0 .5 0
2 1 9 .5 0

319
162
157

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

2 0 8 .5 0
2 2 2 .5 0
1 9 4 .0 0

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

1 7 1 .5 0
1 9 1 .5 0
1 5 7 .0 0

3 8 .5
3 8 .0

1 8 1 .0 0
1 6 2 .5 0

3 8 .5
3 8 .5

1 7 2 .5 0
1 6 4 .5 0

-

CONTINUED

OCCUPATIONS -

WOMEN

S E C R E T A R IE S -------------------MANUFACTURING -----------NONMANUFACTURING ------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S —

9 46
618
3 28
93

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5

2 3 1 .5 0
2 4 5 .0 0
2 0 5 .5 0
1 9 3 .5 0

S E C R E T A R IE S . CLASS A —
MANUFACTURING ------------

66
54

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

2 9 0 .5 0
3 0 4 .5 0

S E C R E T A R IE S . C LASS B MANUFACTURING -----------NONMANUFACTURING -------

182
144

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

2 5 5 .0 0
2 7 0 .0 0
1 9 8 .0 0

S E C R E T A R IE S . CLASS C MANUFACTURING -----------NONMANUFACTURING -------

346
248

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

2 2 5 .5 0
2 2 7 .5 0
2 1 9 .5 0

S E C R E T A R IE S . CLASS D —
MANUFACTURING -----------NONMANUFACTURING -------

166
55

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

2 1 9 .5 0
2 4 0 .5 0
1 7 7 .0 0

S E C R E T A R IE S . CLASS E —
MANUFACTURING ------------

152
61

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

2 1 8 .0 0
2 1 1 .0 0

STENOGRAPHERS ----------------MANUFACTURING -----------NONMANUFACTURING ------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S —

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

2 1 3 .0 0
1 9 8 .0 0
2 2 4 .5 0
2 5 0 .0 0

STENOGRAPHERS. GENERAL
MANUFACTURING -----------NONMANUFACTURING ------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S —

4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

2 0 6 .5 0
1 9 5 .0 0
2 2 0 .5 0
2 4 1 .0 0

ACCOUNTING C LE R K S . C LASS A
MANUFACTURING ------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------ACCOUNTING C LE R K S . C LASS R
MANUFACTURING ------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------

111

STENOGRAPHERS. SENIOR
NONMANUFACTURING -------

45
39

3 9 .5
3 9 .0

2 2 9 .5 0
2 3 0 .0 0

T Y P IS T S --------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------NONMANUFACTURING ------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S —

302
104
198
33

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 8 .5
4 0 .0

1 7 1 .0 0
1 9 1 .0 0
1 6 0 .0 0
2 2 9 .5 0

ORDER CLERK S ----------MANUFACTURING ---NONMANUFACTURING
ORDER C L E R K S .

CLASS

2 01
151

A

ORDER C L E R K S . CLASS B
MANUFACTURING ----------ACCOUNTING CLERKS -----MANUFACTURING ------NONMANUFACTURING —
P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S

NONMANUFACTURING
B O O KKEEPIN G -M ACHIN E O PERATORS.
CLASS A ----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------

S e e fo o tn o te s at end o ft t a b le s .




8

KEY ENTRY O PERATORS.
MANUFACTURING ------NONMANUFACTURING —

C LA S S

A ------

182
128
54

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

2 1 1 .0 0
2 2 4 .0 0
1 8 0 .0 0

KEY ENTRY O PERATORS.
MANUFACTURING ------NONMANUFACTURING —

C LA SS B ------

165
84
81

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0

1 7 7 .5 0
1 7 3 .0 0
1 8 2 .5 0

122
87
35

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 8 .5

3 7 4 .0 0
3 9 9 .0 0
3 1 1 .0 0

COMPUTER SYSTEMS A N A LYSTS
(B U S IN E S S ) . CLASS A ------MANUFACTURING ------------------

68
58

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

4 0 2 .0 0
4 1 2 .5 0

COMPUTER SYSTEMS A N A LYSTS
tB U S I N E S S ) . CLASS B -------MANUFACTURING ------------------

43
28

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

3 5 3 .0 0
3 7 5 .5 0

103
84

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

3 0 8 .0 0
3 2 8 .0 0

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS ( R U S I N E S S ) i
CLASS A -------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------

40
39

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

3 2 7 .5 0
3 2 8 .5 0

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS ( B U S IN E S S ) ,
CLASS B -------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------

47
35

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

3 0 7 .5 0
3 3 5 .5 0

129
71
58

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 8 .5

2 2 3 .5 0
2 5 0 .5 0
1 9 0 .5 0

COMPUTER O PERATORS. C LASS A
MANUFACTURING ---------------------

72
55

3 9 .0
3 9 .5

2 5 2 .0 0
2 5 3 .0 0

COMPUTER O PERATORS.

F I L E CLERKS -----------NONMANUFACTURING
O F F IC E

Weekly
Weekly
earnings1
hours1
(standard) (standard)

T Y P I S T S . CLASS A NONMANUFACTURING

TYPIS T S
CLERKS ------------------------------

ACCOUNTING

Sex, 3 occupation, and in d u stry d ivision

O F F IC E OCCUPATIO NS
WOMEN— CONTINUED

O FF IC E OCCUPATIONS WOMEN— CONTINUED

$
3 9 . a 1 7 8 .5 0

ORDER

Average
(mean*)

Average
(mean2)

39

3 8 .5

2 0 1 .5 0

P R O FES S IO N A L ANO T EC H N IC A L
OCCUPATIO NS - MEN

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS
(B U S IN E S S ) ----------------------MANUFACTURING -------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------

MANUFACTURING

COMPUTER OPERATORS MANUFACTURING ---NONMANUFACTURING

C LA SS

B

Table A-3.

Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex.

in Toledo, O hio—M ich., May 1978— Continued
Average
(mean2)
Sex, 3 occupation, and in d u stry d iv is io n

PROFESSIONAL
OCCUPATIONS -

Number
of
workers

W
eek^r
hour*1
(standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry d ivision

Weekly
Weekly
earnings1
hours1
(standard) (standard)

372
223

4 0.0
4 0 .0

170
107

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

316.50
307.50

DRAFTERS. CLASS B -----------------------HANUFACTURING -----------------------------

106
60

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

270.50
279.50

Weekly
Weekly
earnings1
hours
(standard) (standard)

273.00

DRAFTERS. CLASS A -----------------------HANUFACTURING -----------------------------

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry d ivisio n

Number
of
workers

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - UOHEN— CONTINUED

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - HEN— CONTINUED

AND TECHNICAL
HEN— CONTINUED

Average
(mean2)

Average
(mean2)
Number
of
workers

PUBLIC

DRAFTERS. CLASS C -----------------------HANUFACTURING -----------------------------

80
49

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

U TILITIES -------------------A-

3 9.5

301.50

3 9 .5

310.50

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - UOHEN

See footnotes at end o f ta b les.

9

27

3 9 .5

190.00

37

3 9 .5

222.00

37

4 0 .0

220.00

CLASS C ------------------------

31

4 0 .0

228.50

REGISTERED INDUSTRIAL NURSES --------HANUFACTURING -----------------------------

69
67

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

292.50
293.50

NONHANUFACTURING -----------------------COHPUTER OPERATORS.

DRAFTERS.

198.00
198.50
COHPUTER PROGRAHHERS <BUSINESS) ----




50
52

CLASS B -------

DRAFTERS ------------------------------------------

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS. CLASS

36

3 9 .0

272.50

Table A-4.

Hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, and powerplant workers in Toledo, Ohio—M ich., M ay 1978
Hourly earnings *

N um ber of w orkers receiving straigh t-tim e hourly earning s of—

Occupation and industry d ivis io n

ALL

of
workers

Mean 2

Median2

Middle range 2

t

6 .0 0

6 .2 0

6 .40

6.60

“

s
5.60

*
%
5 .6 0 5 .8 0
and
under
5 .8 0

N um be r

-

“

“

-

10
7
3

31
31
“

6 .0 0
-

*
6 .2 0
-

S
6 .40
-

*
6.60
-

s
6 .8 0
-

6 .8 0

S
7.00
-

7 .0 0

s
7.20
-

%
s
S
7 .40 7 .60 7 .80
-

7.20 7 .40

-

S
8 .0 0
-

-

s
8 .2 0
-

s
8 .4 0
-

S
8 .6 0
-

S
8 .8 0
-

S
9.00

%
9 .2 0
-

-

s
9 .4 0
-

8 .2 0

8 .4 0

8 .6 0

8 .8 0

9 .0 0

2
2

3
1

“

“

1
1

6
6

3
2

36
27
9

37
32
5

78
78

9
3
6

1

30
27
3

79
79
-

49
48
1

2
2

2
1

1

2
2

-

_

_

3
3

6
6

_

_

-

5
5

7 .6 0

7 ,80 8 .00

9. 20 9 .4 0

t
9.60

9 .6 0

9 .8 0

WORKERS

MAINTENANCE C ARPEN TERS -------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

A3
29

$
8 .0 3
8 .1 7

$
7 .7 3
8.17

$
7 .3 8 7 .3 5 -

$
8.82
8 .82

MAINTENANCE E L E C T R IC IA N S ---------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING —-----------------------

670
629
A1

8 .4 5
8 .5 1
7 .5 1

8 .7 8
8.96
7 .6 3

7 .7 3 7 .7 4 6 .8 4 -

9.50
9.50
8.35

MAINTENANCE P A IN T E R S ----------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

60
AO

7 .7 1
8 . 16

7 .16
8.81

6 .7 2 6 .9 5 -

MAINTENANCE M A CH IN ISTS -------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

215
202

8 .4 9
8 .5 4

8 .2 6
8 .8 2

MAINTENANCE MECHANICS (M A C H IN ER Y) MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

859
718
1A1

7 .9 9
8 .1 3
7 .2 9

MAINTENANCE MECHANICS
(MOTOR V E H IC L E S ) ---------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S ----------------------

A 56
112
3AA
312

MAINTENANCE P I P E F I T T E R S -----------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

-

_

1
~

6
6

6
6

3
3

34
31
3

27
23
4

14
14

22
22

4

-

6

-

-

-

_

“

-

6
3
3

8.98
9.24

-

-

-

8
3

3

2
2

4
i

6
6

8
2

-

-

-

7 .6 8 7 .8 8 -

9.40
9.55

-

-

-

-

9
9

4
4

-

-

-

27
27

9
9

40
37

6
6

8
8

4
i

-

8 .0 4
8 .21
6 .97

6 .7 2 6 .8 1 6 .7 2 -

9.49
9.50
8.35

34
34
~

6
6

15

89
86
3

45
45

48
11
37

51
51
~

4
4

8 .9 3
8 .1 9
9 .1 7
9 .3 4

9 .5 8
8 .76
9 .58
9 .58

8 .3 5 6 .8 7 8 .3 5 9 .5 8 -

9.58
9 .32
9.58
9.58

10
3
7

14
7
7
7

37
37
37

1
1
-

15
15
-

5
5

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

259
253

8 .5 9
8 .6 2

9.32
9 .3 2

7 .8 6 7 .9 0 -

9
4

-

-

-

-

-

~

2
2

21
20

MAINTENANCE S H EET -M E TA L WORKERS ---MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

122
84

7 .9 9
8 .71

7 .9 3
9 .32

-

-

-

47
47

_

-

5
5

_

-

-

-

M ILLW RIGHTS --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

608
608

8 .5 9
8 .5 9

37
37

180
180

_

_

MAINTENANCE TRADES H E LPE R S ------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

89
83

M ACHINE-TOOL OPERATORS (TOOLROOM) MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

-

“

_

"

“

-

39
33
6

4
4
~

28
18
10

26
14
12

88
58
30

69
54
15

3
3

6
3
3

3
3
*

9
9
-

8
8
~

9
9

12
9
3

_

_

-

~

-

-

12
12

-

-

-

_

~

-

9 .32
9 .32

6
6

-

_

6 .8 2 7 .9 3 -

9 .32
9.32

6

8 .85
8 .8 5

7 .9 3 7 .9 3 -

9 .32
9.32

-

6 .9 0
6 .9 5

7.36
7 .36

6 .6 7 6 .6 7 -

7.36
7.36

203
203

9 .1 0
9 .1 0

9 .06
9.06

9 .0 6 9 .0 6 -

9 .4 0
9 .40

TOOL AND D IE MAKERS ------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

1 *02A
1.024

8 .8 2
8 .8 2

9 .1 2
9 .1 2

8 .0 4 8 .0 4 -

9.53
9.53

“

STATIO N ARY EN G INEERS ----------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

68
62

7 .9 6
8 .1 0

8 .06
8.34

6 .4 3 6 .4 3 -

9.08
9 .08

-

5

“

~

B O ILER TENDERS --------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

87
87

7 .3 9
7 .3 9

6 .9 3
6 .9 3

6 .4 2 6 .4 2 -

8 .9 5
8.95

-

9

W o r k e rs w e r e distribu ted as fo llo w s :

3

3

3

-

~

-

*10
10
-

-

_

9

3

3

6

-

-

-

i

39
39

_
-

39
39
-

-

-

-

-

7
6

-

~

..

-

15
15

-

8
6

2

-

-

-

-

”

“

-

-

-

-

“

“

“

a
8

-

18
18

-

-

-

7
4

“*

*

-

-

“
-

-

-

9

“

-

9

-

-

9

6 at $5.20 to $5.40; and 4 at $5.40 to $5.60.

10

-

-

35
35

-

-

“

18
18

3
3

-

-

-

6
6
-

”

26
26
15

75
75

4
4

-

24
24

3
3

-

107
107

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

8
8

47
47

5
5

33
33

i
-

264
264

"

-

-

46
46

i

-

1
1
-

12
12

182

73

-

-

182
180

73
73

130
1 30

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8
8

11
11

57
57

67
67

20
20

13
13

_

44
44

96
96

138
138

314
314

37
37

-

-

-

-

6
6

91
91

205
205

-

-

9
9

5
5

_

_

9

_

-

-

9

-

4
4

-

_

_

_

-

37
37

205
205

-

-

i
-

-

i

-

“

-

_

_

2
1

-

-

14
14

~

2
2

”

15

-

-

60
60

-

~

See footn otes at end o f ta b les.




”

7
~

3
3
-

*

“

202
202
~

-

-

-

25
25

-

37
37

6
6

-

_

_

11

4

4

1

4

1

18
18

-

_

_

4

11

-

7

-

Table A-5.

Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers in Toledo, Ohio—M ich., May 1978
Hourly eamings 4

Occupation and in du stry d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

N u m ber o f w o r k e r s re c e iv in g s tra ig h t-tim e h ou rly earn in gs of—
2 .6 0

Mean2

Median2

Middle range 2

2 .8 0

ALL

2 .8 0

3 .0 0

3 .2 0

3 .4 0

3 .6 0

3 .8 0

4 .0 0

4 .2 0

4 .4 0

4 .6 0

5 .0 0

5 .4 0

5 .8 0

6 .2 0

6 .6 0

7 .0 0

7 .4 0

7 .8 0

8 .2 0

8 .6 0

4 .0 0

9 .4 0

3 .0 0

3 .2 0

3 .4 0

3 .6 0

3 .8 0

4 .0 0

4 .2 0

4 .4 0

4 .6 0

5 .0 0

5 .4 0

5 .8 0

6 .2 0

6 .6 0

7 .0 0

7 .4 0

7 .8 0

8 .2 0

8 .6 0

9 .0 0

9 .4 0

9 .8 0

21

11

18

21

11

40
11
29

76
60

18

67
15
52
9

85
42
43
15

72
40
32

17
12
5

249
27
222
222

58
*
58

-

461
461
457

39
39

-

-

-

“
“

and
under

WORKERS

T R U C K 0 R IV ER S ------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S ---------------

1 .2 3 8
260
978
706

^ .9 8
6 .7 5
8 .3 1
9 .0 1

1 .3 0
6 .8 0
8 .8 9
9 .4 8

$
$
7 . 1 2 - 9 .4 8
5 . 7 2 - 7 .6 4
8 . 3 0 - 9 .4 8
8 . 3 0 - 9 .4 8

T R U C K D R IV E R S t L IG H T TRUCK ----NONMANUFACTURING -------------------

59
37

4 .9 1
4 .3 2

5 .3 3
3 .4 6

3 .4 6 3 .2 5 -

5 .6 7
5 .5 0

TRU C K O R IV ER S . MEDIUM TRUCK —
MANUFACTURING -----------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------

120
69
51

6 .3 2
6 .8 8
5 .5 7

6 .9 4
7 .6 1
5 .0 5

5 .0 5 5 .8 1 3 .2 5 -

7 .6 4
7 .6 4
7 .1 7

TRUCK -----

71

7 .7 6

7 .9 1

7 .1 5 -

TR U C K D R IV E R S . T R A C T O R -T R A IL E R
MANUFACTURING -----------------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S ---------------

918
93
825
679

8 .5 8
6 .2 5
8 .8 5
9 .1 0

9 .4 8
6 .3 9
9 .4 8
9 .4 8

S H IP P E R S ------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------

138
76
62

5 .7 4
6 .0 4
5 .3 6

5 .7 9
6 .0 2
5 .6 2

4 . 6 8 - 6 .5 0
5 . 6 7 - 7 .1 6
4 . 1 8 - 6 .5 0

R E C E IV E R S ----------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------

140
66
74

5 .5 3
5 .8 1
5 .2 8

5 .6 2
5 .7 3
5 .3 0

4 .9 3 5 .4 6 4 .6 5 -

6 .1 2
5 .9 9
6 .1 5

S H IP P E R S AND R E C E IV E R S ------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------

155
114
41

5 .9 3
6 .5 0
4 .3 6

5 .7 6
7 .6 0
3 .7 4

4 .3 3 5 .5 1 3 .4 6 -

7 .6 0
7 .7 4
4 .3 3

WAREHOUSEMEN -----------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r in g :
P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S ---------------

915
182

5 .8 4
5 .7 8

5 .8 8
4 .8 7

33

6 .2 9

ORDER F I L L E R S

351

5 .4 9

---------------------------------------------

356
341

-----MANUFACTURING ----------------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------

T R U C K O R IV ER S .

HEAVY

8
2
12
3
9

14
6
8

8 .4 8

-

27

2

5

27

4

-

8 . 3 0 - 9 .4 8
5 . 5 5 - 6 .5 7
8 . 3 0 - 9 .4 8
8 . 3 0 - 9 .4 8

55
12
43

15
15

31

222

31

7
7
-

48
48

“

”

23
10
13

6
6

1
1

6
5
1

11
4
7

8
5
3

2
1
1

65
58
7

4
4

"

11

16
11

11
12

1

12

19
7
12

26
20

16
3
13

6

222
222

6
461
~
461
457

-

-

_
_

“

i
1

2
2

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

~

“

5 . 5 3 - 5 .8 8
4 . 7 3 - 7 .6 6

22

54

49
49

-

-

-

-

-

6 .7 4

6 .3 5 -

6 .7 4

17

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

5 .9 1

4 .5 5 -

6 .1 2

6 .2 0
6 .2 7

7 .3 2
7 .5 7

3 . 9 7 - 7 .5 8
3 . 9 7 - 7 .5 8

12
12

40
40

172
172

1 .0 1 2
600
412

7 .3 4
6 .3 8
8 .7 4

7 .0 1
6 .5 5
9 .4 3

6 .1 8 5 .7 6 9 .4 3 -

9 .4 3
7 .1 0
9 .4 3

16
15
1

73
71
2

69
69

104
104
“

-

4
4

_
-

-

-----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------

1 .6 1 8
1 .4 26
192

6 .5 6
6 .4 6
7 .2 8

6 .7 8
6 .9 3
6 .0 8

5 .6 4 5 .6 4 5 .9 3 -

7 .4 8
7 .2 4
9 .4 3

12

108
108

293
291
2

368
348
20

_
-

POW ER-TRUCK o p e r a t o r s
(OTHER THAN F O R K L I F T ) -------------

105

5 .7 1

5 .7 5

5 .3 7 -

5 .8 7

3

15

-----------------------------

S H IP P IN G PACKERS
MANUFACTURING
m a t e r ia l

f o r k l if t

h a n d l in g

labo rers

o perato rs

m a n u f a c t u r in g

11
11

11

22
21

12

173
163

43
43

480
474

151
51
103

~

_

See footn otes at end o f ta b les.




11

15
14
1

11

-

-

-

“

333
333

_

~

“

8
a

_

_

_

56
56

_

Table A-5.

Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers in Toledo, Ohio—M ich., May 1978— Continued
Hourly earnings *

N um ber o f w o rk e rs re c e iv in g s tra ig h t-tim e h ou rly earnings o f—

of
workers

S
2 .8 0

1
3 .0 0

s
3 .2 0

*
3 .4 0

*

*

3 .6 0

3 .8 0

$
4 .0 0

* .2 0

2 .8 0

Occupation and industry d ivision

3 .0 0

3 .2 0

3 .4 0

3 .6 0

3 .8 0

4 .0 0

4 .2 0

if . 40 4 .6 0

s
2 .6 0
Mean 2

Median*

Middle range 2

*
4 .4 0

%

*

*

S
6 .6 0

s

5 .4 0

S
6 .2 0

s

5 .0 0

*
5 .8 0

s

4 .6 0

7 .0 0

r .4 o

7 .8 0

8 .2 0

s
8 .6 0

s
i -----9 .0 0 9 .4 0

5 .0 0

5 .4 0

5 .8 0

6 .2 0

6 .6 0

7 .0 0

7 .4 0

f .8 0

8 . 20 8 .6 0

9 .0 0

9 .4 0

61
42
19

1
1

56
50
6

4
4
“

36
36
“

1

1

1

1

“
“
~

~

42
42

_

50
50

4
4

27
27

-

-

-

-

204
190
14
14

135
129
6
1

303
300
3
3

i
i

2

2

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

2
2

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

"

and
under
9 .8 0

ALL WORKERS—
CONTINUED
GUARDS ----------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------nonmanufacturing -------------------------

1.345

$
3 .6 6
6 .3 5
3 .1 8

$
2 .8 0
6 .5 2
2 .7 0

$
2 .6 5 4 .9 7 2 .6 5 -

$
4 .1 5
7 .1 1
3 .2 0

618
618

140
140

88

73
-

11
-

14
-

88

73

11

36
3
33

14

77
3
74

9
4
5

12
11
1

33
31
2

22
14
8

7
3
4

45

201
1 .1 4 4

GUAROS. CLASS B ---------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

1 .2 9 4
192
1 .1 0 2

3 .5 3
6 .2 8
3 .0 6

2 .8 0
6 .5 2
2 .7 0

2 .6 5 4 .9 7 2 .6 5 -

3 .9 0
7 .1 1
3 .1 3

618
618

140

88
88

73
73

11
11

36
3
33

14
14

77
3
74

9
4
5

12
11
1

33
31
2

22
14
8

7
3
4

31

140

JANITORS. PORTERS. AND CLEANERS ---MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------PUBLIC U T IL ITIES -------------------------

1 .8 2 7
941
886
69

5 .0 6
6 .3 1
3 .7 3
5 .5 8

4 .7 5
6 .4 5
3 .7 0
5 .3 0

3 .7 0 5 .5 9 3 .1 5 4 .7 1 -

6 .4 5
7 .1 5
3 .9 5
6 .3 8

78

6

211

-

35

-

6

127
3
124

189
2
187

32
9
23

-

-

67
4
63
5

65
27
38
2

125
98
27
23

36
24
12
6

110
97
13
11

50
50

78

49
7
42

“

211

35

See footn otes at end o f tables.




12

-

45

_

“

31

_

-

Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, powerplant, material movement
and custodial workers, by sex, in Toledo, Ohio—M ich., May 1978
Sex,

occupation, and industry d ivision

M A IN TEN A N C E. TOOLROOM
PO UERPLAN T OCCUPATIONS

Number
of
workers

Average
(m e a n t)

hourly
earnings

AND
MEN
$
8 .0 3
8 .1 7

MAINTENANCE E L E C T R IC IA N S ---------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

670
629
41

8 . A5
8 .5 1
7 .5 1

P A IN T E R S ----------------------------------------------------

60
40

7 .7 1
8 .1 6

MAINTENANCE m a c h i n i s t s -------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

215
202

8 .4 9
8 • 5A

M AINTENANCE MECHANICS (M AC H IN ER Y! MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

859
718
1A 1

7 .9 9
8 .1 3
7 .2 9

M AINTENANCE MECHANICS
(MOTOR V E H IC L E S ) ---------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------

456
112
344
312

8 .9 3
8 .1 9
9 .1 7
9 .3 4

MAINTENANCE P I P E F I T T E R S -----------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

259
253

8 .5 9
8 .6 2

S H EET -M E TA L WORKERS --------------------------------

122
84

7 .9 9
8 .7 1

M ILLW RIG H TS -------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

608
608

8 .5 9
8 .5 9

M AINTENANCE TRADES H ELPERS ------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

87
81

6 .9 4
6 .9 9

M A CH IN E-TO O L OPERATORS (TOOLROOM) MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

203
203

9 .1 0
9 .1 0

TOOL AND D IE MAKERS ------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

1 .0 2 A
1 .0 2 A

8 .8 2
8 .8 2

S T ATIO N ARY EN G IN EERS ----------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

68
62

7 .9 6
8 .1 0

M AINTENANCE

m a n u f a c t u r in g

M AINTENANCE

m a n u f a c t u r in g




S e e fo o tn o te s

M AIN TEN ANCE. TOOLROOM. AND
POWERPLANT OCCUPATIONS MEN— CONTINUED
B O ILER TENDERS --------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------

Sex, 3 occupation, and indu stry d ivis ion

Number
of
workers

Average
(mean2)
hourly
earnings4

M A TER IA L MOVEMENT ANO CUSTO DIAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN— CONTINUED

87
87

MATERIAL MOVEMENT ANO CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN

TRUCKORIVERS ------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------

1 .2 3 8
260

7 .9 8
6 .7 5

706

9 .0 1

T RU C KO R IVER S. L IG H T TRUCK ----------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

59
37

A . 91
A . 32

TRUC KO R IVER S. MEDIUM TRUCK ---------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

120
69
51

6 .3 2
6 .8 8
5 .5 7

TRUCK -----------

71

T RU C KO R IVER S. T R A C T O R -T R A IL E R ---MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------

8 .5 8
6 .2 5
8 .8 5
9 .1 0

S H IPPER S -------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

12A
73
51

5 .8 3
5 .9 8
5 .6 2

R E C E IV E R S -----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

132
64
68

S H IPPE R S AND R E C E IV E R S -------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

1A7
11A

WAREHOUSEMEN ------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------ORDER F I L L E R S -----------------------------------

269
266

6 .4 9
6 .5 1

979
575
409

7 .3 7
6 .3 7
8 .8 0

F O R K L IF T OPERATORS -------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

1 .5 6 2
1 .3 7 3
189

6 .5 6
6 .4 6
7 .3 0

7 .7 6

918
93
825
679

S H IPPIN G PACKERS -----------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------M A TER IAL H A N 0 LIN 6 LABORERS ------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

7 .3 9
7 .3 9

TRUC KO R IVER S.

HEAVY

at end o f t a b le s .

13

POWER-TRUCK OPERATORS
(OTHER THAN F O R K L IF T )

--------------------

96

5 .7 2

GUARDS ----------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

1 .2 2 9
191
1 .0 3 8

3 .6 9
6 .4 0
3 .1 9

GUARDS. C LASS B ---------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------N0NMANUFACTURIN6 -------------------------

1 .1 8 2
183
999

3 .5 6
6 .3 3
3 .0 6

JA N IT O R S . PO R TE R S . AND C LEAN ERS ---MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------

1 .3 0 5
819
486
35

5 .4 0
6 .3 8
3 .7 5
6 .3 1

S H IP P IN G PACKERS -----------------------------5 .6 2
5 .7 9 M A TER IAL HANDLING LABORERS:
MANUFACTURING -----------------------------5 • A6

87

5 .3 0

25

6 .6 8

6 .0 9
6 .5 0

F O R K L IF T OPERATORS -------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

56
53

6 .5 2
6 .5 3

799
181

5 .8 1
5 .7 7

337

JA N IT O R S . P O R TER S . AND C LEAN ERS ---MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------

522
122
400
34

4 .2 1
5 .8 6
3 .7 0
4 .8 3

C
C

A3
29

Number Average
(mean2)
of
hourly
workers
earnings4

in

M AINTENANCE C ARPEN TERS -------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

Sex, 3 occupation, and indu stry d ivis io n

M A TER IAL MOVEMENT AND C USTO DIAL
OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN




Table A-7.

Percent increases in average hourly earnings, adjusted for employment shifts,

for selected occupational groups in Toledo, Ohio—M ich., for selected periods
A p r i l 1972
to
A p r il 1973

A p r il 1973
to
A p r il 1974

A l l in du stries:
O ffic e c l e r i c a l ________________________________________
E le c tro n ic data p ro ce ssin g _________________________
In du stria l n urses______________________________________
S killed m aintenance tra d es__________________________
U nskilled plant w o r k e r s . __________________________

4.7
(‘ >
6.2
5.5
7.6

6.6
( 6)
6.2
8.0
8.1

n. i
8.1
12.7
11.1
10.3

10.2
7.5
11.7
10.2
9.5

7.1
7.1
7.7
7.8
8.3

6.8
7.5
7.3
8.9
7.9

9.4
8.6
11.0
9.1
9.3

M anufacturing:
O ffic e c l e r i c a l ________________________________________
E le c tro n ic data p ro ce ssin g __________________________
In du strial n urses___________________ _____ ________
S killed m aintenance tra d es __________________________
U nskilled plant w o r k e r s . ___________________________

4.5
( 6)
5.9
5.4
6.7

6.3
( 6)
6.2
8.1
8.6

11.7
9.4
12.8
11.7
13.2

10.8
8.6
11.8
10.8
12.1

6.9
7.3
7.8
7.6
8.1

7.5
8.1
7.3
8.9
8.0

8.9
8.7
11.0
9.2
9.7

4.7

8.7

7.8

o

5.5

10.3

In du stry and occupational group 5

Nonm anufacturing:
O ffic e c l e r i c a l _______ _____ ______________________
E le c tro n ic data p ro ce ssin g__________________________
In d u stria l n u rses______________________________________
U nskilled plant w o r k e r s . ____________ _____ _____

*

A p r il 1974 to M ay 1975
13-month
in crea se

7.3

9.5

C>

O

C)

( 6)
9.1

( 6)
7.3

( 6)
*6 .4

12- month
in crea se

< >
4
‘

(6)
5.9

M ay 1975
to
M ay 1976

( 6)
8.6

R e v is e d estim ate.

See footn otes at end o f tables.

A re v is e d d e s crip tio n fo r com pu ter o p era to rs is being introduced in this a rea in
197 8.
The re v is e d d es crip tio n is not co n sid ered equ ivalen t to the previou s description.
T h e r e fo r e , the earnings o f com pu ter op era to rs a re not used in computing p ercen t in crea ses
fo r the e le c tro n ic data p ro ce ssin g group.

14

M a y 1976
to
M a y 1977

<‘ >

(6)
7.6

M a y 1977
to
M a y 1978

C>

( 6)
9.3

B.

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions

Table B-1.

Minimum entrance salaries for inexperienced typists and clerks in Toledo, Ohio—Mich., M ay 1978
In e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts
M a n u fa c tu rin g

M in im u m w e e k ly s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r y 7

B a s e d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u rs 9 o f-

A ll
in d u s tr ie s
AU
s c h ed u les

ESTABLISHMENTS

AND
A NO
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
and

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
A NO
A NO
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
A NO
AND

A ll
s c h e d u le s

STUDIED

UNDER $ 1 1 0 . 0 0
UNDER $ 1 1 5 .0 0
UNDER $ 1 2 0 . 0 0
UNDER $ 1 2 5 .0 0
UNDER $ 1 3 0 .0 0
UNOER $ 1 3 5 .0 0
UNDER S 1 4 0 .0 0
UNDER $ 1 4 5 . 0 0
UNDER $ 1 5 0 . 0 0
UNDER $ 1 5 5 . 0 0
UNDER $ 1 6 0 . 0 0
UNDER $ 1 6 5 . 0 0
UNOER $ 1 7 0 . 0 0
UNDER $ 1 7 5 . 0 0
UNDER $ 1 8 0 . 0 0
UNDER $ 1 8 5 .0 0
UNOER $ 1 9 0 . 0 0
UNDER $ 1 9 5 .0 0
UNDER $ 2 0 0 .0 0
UNDER $ 2 0 5 . 0 0
UNDER $ 2 1 0 . 0 0
UNOER $ 2 1 5 . 0 0
UNDER $ 2 2 0 . 0 0
UNDER $ 2 2 5 . 0 0
UNDER $ 2 3 0 . 0 0
UNDER $ 2 3 5 . 0 0
UNDER $ 2 4 0 . 0 0
UNDER $ 2 4 5 . 0 0
UNDER $ 2 5 0 . 0 0
OWER -

M a n u fa c tu r in g

N o n m a n u fa ctu r ing

B a s e d on s ta n d a rd w e e k ly h ou rs 9 o f-

A ll
in d u s tr ie s
A ll
s c h e d u le s

A ll
s c h e d u le s

90

ESTABLISHMENTS HAWING A SPECIFIED
MINIMUM -------------------$ 1 0 5 .0 0
$ 1 1 0 .0 0
$ 1 1 5 .0 0
$ 1 2 0 .0 0
$ 1 2 5 .0 0
$ 1 3 0 .0 0
$ 1 3 5 .0 0
$ 1 4 0 .0 0
$ 1 4 5 .0 0
$ 1 5 0 .0 0
$ 1 5 5 .0 0
$ 1 6 0 .0 0
$ 1 6 5 .0 0
$ 1 7 0 .0 0
$ 1 7 5 .0 0
$ 1 8 0 .0 0
$ 1 8 5 .0 0
$ 1 9 0 .0 0
$ 1 9 5 .0 0
$ 2 0 0 .0 0
$ 2 0 5 .0 0
$ 2 1 0 .0 0
$ 2 1 5 .0 0
$ 2 2 0 .0 0
$ 2 2 5 .0 0
$ 2 3 0 .0 0
$ 2 3 5 .0 0
$ 2 4 0 .0 0
$ 2 4 5 .0 0
$ 2 5 0 .0 0

O th e r in e x p e r ie n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

-

10
1

ESTABLISHMENTS HAWING NO SPECIFIED
MINIMUM ------------------------------------------

25

ESTABLISHMENTS UHICH 010 NOT EMPLOY
WORKERS IN THIS CATEGORY ---------------

35

S e e fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le s .




15




Table B-2.

Late-shift pay provisions for full-time manufacturing production

and related workers in Toledo, Ohio—M ich., May 1978
J^All_full^im ejTiam Jacturinj7_jDjroduction^ndij^elated^/orke£s^=_l£0^j)erxj_ent|
W orkers on late shifts

A ll w orkers 1
0

T h ird shift

Second shift

T h ird shift

Second shift

99.3

9 3.2

23.3

8 .3

PERCENT OF U0RKER9
IN ESTABLISHMENTS UITH LATE SHIFT PROVISIONS ------UITH NO PAY DIFFERENTIAL FOR LATE SHIFT W
ORK ------UITH PAY DIFFERENTIAL FOR LATE SHIFT UORK -----------UNIFORM CENTS-PER-HOUR DIFFERENTIAL ------------------UNIFORM PERCENTAGE DIFFERENTIAL ------------------------OTHER DIFFERENTIAL -----------------------------------------------

_

_

-

99 .3
65.5
32.9
.8

9 3 .2
56.8
32.9
3 .5

23.3
15.5
7.7
.1

8 .3
6 .5
1.7
.2

15.0
5 .3

21.3
10.0

14.8
5.1

2 0 .3
9 .9

AVERAGE PAY DIFFERENTIAL
UNIFORM CENTS-PER-HOUR DIFFERENTIAL ---------------------UNIFORM PERCENTAGE DIFFERENTIAL ----------------------------PERCENT OF UORKERS BY TYPE AND
AMOUNT OF PAY DIFFERENTIAL
UNIFORM
5
8
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
24
25
30
40
50
99

c e n t s - p e r - hour:
CENTS ----------------------------------------------------------CENTS ----------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------ANO UNDER 13 CENTS ------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------ANO UNDER 18 CENTS ------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------AND UNDER 00 CENTS -------------------------------------

percentage:
4 PERCENT --------------------------------------------------------5 PERCENT --------------------------------------------------------6 PERCEN T ----------------------------------------------------------10 PERCENT ------------------------------------------------------15 PERCENT -------------------------------------------------------

4 .6
3 .6
13.0
-

10.2
3 .3
.2
9 .6
1 .8
3 .8
2.7
4 .5
3 .9
2 .8

9 .0
1 .2
1 .2
1 .1
4 .4
3 .4
.9
5 .0
8 .2
6 .8
2 .7
3 .2
5 .3
2 .8

1 .4

*9
1.3
2.8
3.0
.7
(11)
1.5
.9
1.0
1.6
.7
.9
.2

1.1
30.0
-

1 .9

See footnotes at end of tables.

16

_
1 .2
1- 1
2 8.8
1 .9

.2
.6
1 .6
.9
.3
.1
.7
.1
.2

1.4

u n if o r m

~
1 .5
.1
.1
.2

.1
7.4
»
.1

-

(Ill
1 .6

Table B-3.

Scheduled weekly hours and days of full-time first-shift workers in Toledo, Ohio—M ich., May 1978
Production and related w orkers

O ffice w orkers

Item
A ll industries

M anufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

P u b lic u tilities

A ll industries

M anuf actur ing

Nonmanufacturing

100

100

100

100

100

100

P u b lic utilities

PERCEN T OF UORKERS BY SCHEDULEO
WEEKLY HOURS AND DAYS
ALL
,25
30
32
35

36
36
36
37
38

38
38
40

42

44
45
48
49
50
66

FU LL -T IM E

UORKERS ------------------

HOURS—5 D A Y S ---------------------------------HOURS—5 DAYS ---------------------------------1 /2 HOUR S—5 D A Y S --------------------------HOURS ---------------------------------------------5 DAYS -------------------------------------------6 DAYS -------------------------------------------HOURS-5 DAYS ---------------------------------1 /4 HOURS-5 D A Y S --------------------------1 /2 HOURS-5 DAYS --------------------------1 /2 HOUR S—5 D A Y S --------------------------HOURS ---------------------------------------------4 1 /2 D A Y S ------------------------------------5 DAYS -------------------------------------------1 /2 HOURS-5 DAYS --------------------------3 /4 HOURS-5 DAYS --------------------------HOURS ---------------------------------------------4 DAYS -------------------------------------------5 OAYS -------------------------------------------HOURS ---------------------------------------------5 OAYS -------------------------------------------6 DAYS -------------------------------------------HOURS-5 DAYS ---------------------------------HOURS-5 DAYS ---------------------------------HOURS—6 DAYS ---------------------------------HOURS-5 1 /2 DAYS --------------------------HOURS—6 DAYS ---------------------------------HOUR S—7 D A Y S ----------------------------------

100
(1 2 )
(1 2 )
(1 2 )
3
3
(12 )
1
1
1
(12 )

_
2
2

2
-

_

(1 2 )
(1 2 )
1
6
6
(1 2 )
2

“
“

2
”

2
1

-

87
(12 )
87
1
1
(12 )
1
2
1
1

94

1

40. 2

4 0 .3

94
94

1

94
-

2

_

_

~
-

-

-

-

-

2
2
-

-

-

-

~

1
-

(1 2 )

1
1
~

100

_

75
(1 2 )
74
3
1
1
2
6
3
-

15
3
12
5
1
3
2
2
59
59

25
10

4
62
62
-

-

-

-

6
5
15
9
2
6
5
1
57

93

57

93

*
-

-

7

~

-

4
(1 2 )
-

-

“

4 0 .3

3 8 .8

3 8 .8

-*

-

(12 >
-

-

-

AVERAGE SCHEDULED
WEEKLY HOURS
A LL W EEKLY

WORK SCHEDULES -----------------

4 0 .1

See footn ote at end o f tables.




17

3 8 .8

3 9 .8

Table B-4. Annual paid holidays for full-time workers in Toledo, Ohio—M ich., May 1978
Prod uction and related w orkers

O ffic e w orkers

Item
A ll industries

PERCENT

IN

Nonmanufacturing

P u b lic u tilities

A ll industries

M anufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

(12 )

-

OF WORKERS
WORKERS --------------

100

ESTABLISHM EN TS NOT PR O VID IN G
PA ID HO LIDAYS ----------------------------ES TA BLISHM EN TS PR O VID IN G
PA ID HO LIDAYS -----------------------------

2

_

6

-

(12)

98

100

99

100

99

100

99

100

11.6

1 3 .3

8.1

9 .8

10.0

1 1 .3

8 .9

9 .7

ALL F U L L - T IM E

IN

P u b lic u tilitie s

M anufacturing

AVERAGE NUMBER

OF P A ID

HO LIDAYS

FOR WORKERS IN ES TA BLISH M EN TS
PROVIDING H O LID AY S -------------------PERCENT OF WORKERS BY NUMBER
OF P A ID H O LIDAYS PRO VIDED
2 HOLIDAYS -----------------------------------< H O L I D A Y S ------------------------------------1
5 HOLIDAYS ------------------------------------6 HOLIDAYS ------------------------------------PLUS 1 OR MORE HALF DAYS -------7 HOLIDAYS ------------------------------------PLUS 1 HA LF DAY -----------------------8 HOLIDAYS -------------------------------------PLUS 1 OR MORE HALF OAYS -------9 HOLIDAYS -------------------------------------PLUS 1 OR MORE HALF OAYS -------10 HOLIDAYS -----------------------------------11 HOLIDAYS -----------------------------------PLUS 1 HA LF DAY -----------------------12 HOLIDAYS -----------------------------------13 HOLIOAYS -----------------------------------19 HOLIOAYS -----------------------------------15 HOLIDAYS -----------------------------------16 HOLIDAYS -----------------------------------19 HOLIOAYS ------------------------------------

(12 )
(12)
1
6
1
4

_
-

1
1
3
17
3
10
~
19
(12)
19
1
19
5
1
1
“
~
“
“

2
~
~
2

1
“
13
1
12
15
~
7
9
6
11
<
*
21

25
55
12
~
“
“

98
97
96
90
86
86
79
78
65
69
50
38
33
27
23
16
19

100
100
100
100
99
99
99
99
86
85
73
58
51
92
36
25
21

100
98
98
98
96
96
96
96
72
72
16

93
92
90
73
62
60
91
91
26
26
7
1

“

-

See footn otes at end o f tables.




_
_

18

4
2
3
(12)
12
3
17
1
20
21

(12)

6
3
6
2
1

13
6
12
3
2

"

7
(12)
13
1
19
11
(12 >
5
6
4
7
3
19

( 12)

PERCENT OF WORKERS RY TOTAL
PA ID HO LID AY TIME PR O V ID ED 1
3
9 OAYS OR MORE ----------------------------5 DAYS OR MORE ------------------------------6 DAYS OR MORE ------------------------------7 DAYS OR MORE ------------------------------7 1 /2 DAYS OR MORE -----------------------8 DAYS OR MORE ------------------------------8 1/2 DAYS OR MORE -----------------------9 DAYS OR MORE ------------------------------9 1 /2 OAYS OR MORE -----------------------10 DAYS OR MORE ----------------------------11 OAYS OR MORE ----------------------------12 OAYS OR MORE ----------------------------13 DAYS OR MORE ----------------------------19 DAYS OR MORE ----------------------------15 OAYS OR MORE ----------------------------16 OAYS OR MORE ----------------------------19 OAYS -------------------------------------------

_
_

_
_

"

-

3
-

5
2
5
1
16
33
_

99
99
99
96
93
92
80
77
59
59
38
17
11
8
3
1

100
100
100
99
97
97
91
91
85
84
69
36
23
18
5
2

7
3
3
(12 )
18
5
28
2
25
10
-

(12 )

_
-

3
-

12
-

2
3
56
18
_

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

99
99
99
93
89
87
69
64
36
36
10
( 12 )
-

100
100
100
97
93
93
81
81
79
79
19
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Table B-5.

Paid vacation provisions for full-time workers in Toledo, Ohio—M ich., May 1978
O ffic e w o rk e rs

Prod u ctio n and re la te d w o rk ers
Ite m
A ll industries

PERCEN T

Nonmanufacturing

P u b lic utilities

100

100

100

100

100

100

(12)

_

(12)

A ll industries

M anufacturing

100

ES TA B LIS H M EN TS NOT PR O V ID IN G
PA ID VACATIONS ------------------------IN ES TA B LIS H M EN TS PR O V ID IN G
PA ID VACATION S ------------------------L E N G T H -O F -T IM E PAYMENT ---------PERCEN TAGE PAYMENT ---------------OTHER PAYMENT -------------------------

1

-

2

-

99
69
30
(12)

100
56
44

98
92
5
1

100
100
-

6 MONTHS OF S E R V IC E :
UNDER 1 WEEK ------------------1 WEEK -----------------------------OVER 1 AND UNDER 2 WEEKS
2 WEEKS ---------------------------OVER 2 AND UNDER 3 WEEKS

21
21
7
2
”

31
25
10

3
14
3
6
~

1 YEAR OF S E R V IC E :
1 WEEK ----------------------------OVER 1 AND UNDER 2 WEEKS
2 WEEKS ---------------------------OVER 2 ANO UNDER 3 WEEKS
3 WEEKS ---------------------------OVER 3 AND UNDER 4 WEEKS
4 WEEKS ----------------------------

41
20
31
4
(12)
1
1

26
30
32
6

2 YEAR S OF S E R V IC E :
1 WEEK ----------------------------OVER I AND UNDER 2 WEEKS
2 WEEKS --------------------------OVER 2 AND UNDER 3 WEEKS
3 WEEKS ---------------------------OVER 3 AND UNDER 4 WEEKS
4 WEEKS ----------------------------

19
18
52
8
(12 )
1
1

16
28
43
11

3 YEARS OF S E R V IC E :
1 WEEK ----------------------------OVER 1 AND UNDER 2 WEEKS
2 WEEKS ---------------------------OVER 2 ANO UNDER 3 WEEKS
3 WEEKS ---------------------------OVER 3 AND UNDER 4 WEEKS
4 WEEKS ---------------------------OVER 4 AND UNOER 5 WEEKS

9
5
59
28
2
1
1
“

4 YEARS OF S E R V IC E :
1 WEEK ----------------------------OVER 1 ANO UNDER 2 WEEKS
2 WEEKS ---------------------------OVER 2 ANO UNDER 3 WEEKS
3 WEEKS ---------------------------OVER 3 AND UNDER 4 WEEKS
4 WEEKS ---------------------------OVER 4 ANO UNDER 5 WEEKS

4
3
55
28
8
i
i
~

F U LL -T IM E

IN

AMOUNT OF P A ID

Pu blic utilities

OF WORKERS
WORKERS -----------

A LL

Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing

VACATION

_

99
97
3
(12)

100
97
3

99
96
3
(12 )

100
97
3

4
51
11
5
1

5
66
4
5
2

2
37
17
6
~

3
40

20
2
67
3
3
4
~

7
3
74

32
(12 )
61
6

49
(12)
51

4
2
82
5
3
4
~

4
3
77
(12)
7
9

A F T E R : 14

~

~

12
-

2
"

68
1
28

71
3
25

1

2

1
2

'
4
91
3
2

25
70
2
1

1
2

_
8
45
41
3
1
2
~

_
5
39
41
12
1
2

"
10

_

85
2
1
~
-

96
3
2
*
'
_

10
~
85
2
1

96
3
2
~
“

See footn otes at end o f ta b le s .




100

19

i
(12)
82
5
5
4
(12)
2

1
(12)
78
7
7
4
(12)
2

~

6
9
~

1
70
5
10
9
1
4

_

_

_

_

-

-

4
-

_

87
9

95
(12)

•
5

-

_

-

_

-

1

_

-

“

_

*

1
79
1
6
9
1
4

-

-

85
9
5

3
_

97
(12)
_

-

_

-

-

1
85
9
5
-

3
-

97
(12)
-

-

Table B-5.

Paid vacation provisions for full-time workers in Toledo, Ohio—Mich., May 1978— Continued
P rod u ctio n and re la te d w o rk e rs

O ffic e w o rk e rs

Item
A ll industries

AMOUNT OF P A ID
CONTINUED

VACATION

M anufacturing

Nonmanufactur ing

P u b lic u tilitie s

(12)
52
22
17
3

M anufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

P u b lic u tilitie s

AFTER 14 -

5 YEARS OF S E R V IC E :
1 UEEK -----------------------------------OVER 1 AND UNDER 2 WEEKS ---2 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 2 AND UNDER 3 WEEKS ----3 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 3 ANO UNDER 4 WEEKS ----4 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 4 ANO UNDER 5 WEEKS ----10 YEARS OF S E R V IC E :
1 WEEK -----------------------------------2 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 2 ANO UNDER 3 WEEKS ----3 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 3 AND UNDER 4 WEEKS ----4 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 4 ANO UNDER 5 WEEKS ---5 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 5 ANO UNDER 6 WEEKS ----12 YEARS OF S E R V IC E !
1 WEEK ----------------------------------2 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 2 ANO UNOER 3 WEEKS ----3 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 3 AND UNDER 4 WEEKS ---4 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 4 AND UNOER 5 WEEKS ----5 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 5 AND UNDER 6 WEEKS ----15 YEARS OF S E R V IC E !
1 WEEK -----------------------------------2 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 2 AND UNOER 3 WEEKS ----3 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 3 AND UNDER 4 WEEKS ----4 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 4 AND UNDER 5 WEEKS ----5 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 5 AND UNOER 6 WEEKS ----20 YEARS OF S E R V IC E :
1 WEEK -----------------------------------2 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 2 AND UNOER 3 WEEKS ----3 WEEKS ---------------------------------4 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 4 ANO UNDER 5 WEEKS ----5 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 5 AND UNOER 6 WEEKS ----6 WEEKS ---------------------------------OVER 6 ANO UNDER 7 WEEKS -----

2

6

-

-

-

-

40
24
27
4
i

20
36
36
6
2

78
3
11

94
3
2
~
2

2
5
9
41
39
3
1

1
13
21
59
4
i

6
ii

-

_

2
4
9
41
38
5
1

_

6
8

i
13
20
58
6
1

-

1

(12)

-

-

78
2
1
-

96
3
2
-

-

-

_
-

~

-

78
1
4
i

93

-

-

_

2
2
2
23
14
50
6
(12)
‘
2
2
2
7
47
17
21
1

6
6
39

8
(12)
70
9
7
3
(12)
2

7
(12)
65
15
8
3
(12)

~

_

4
3

-

4
14
22
53
8
-

~
_
-

_
37

-

44
2
1

59
3
2

"

13
57
1
14
1

~

1
76

21

5
1
66

e
9
6
1
4

5
1
59
16
9
6
1
4

~

-

~

(1 2 )

10

3

70
14
6
(12 >

(12)
69

47
11
35

2

3
1
7
77
9
3
(121

28
3

20

2
49
28
12
( 12)

2
4

97

( 12)

3

14
13
59
5
3
4

2

-

2
(12)
5
64
18
8
(12)
1
2

97

74
9
6

-

31
12
47
4
1

3
88
( 12)
9

6
5
4

"

_

6
6

4
4
42
25
25
1

27
37

2

See footn otes at end o f ta b les.




A ll industries

43
54
( 12)

Table B-5.

Paid vacation provisions for full-time workers in Toledo, Ohio—M ich., May 1978— Continued
Produ ction and re la ted w o rk ers
A ll industries

AMOUNT OF P A ID
CONTINUED

VACATION

Nonm anufacturing

P u b lic u tilitie s

A ll indu stries

M anufacturing

Nonm anufacturing

Pu blic u tilitie s

2

3
1
7

“

AFTER

25 YEARS OF S E R V IC E :
. 1 WEEK -------------------------------2 WEEKS -----------------------------OVER 2 ANO UNDER 3 WEEKS 3 WEEKS -----------------------------OVER 3 ANO UNDER A WEEKS A WEEKS -----------------------------OVER A ANO UNDER 5 WEEKS 5 WEEKS -----------------------------OVER 5 AND UNDER 6 WEEKS 6 WEEKS -----------------------------OVER 7 AND UNDER 8 WEEKS -

2
2
2
5
2
19
16
A5
5

-

6
6

4

~

~
-

i

13

(12)

3
19
2A
A2
7

20
1
51
1

~
~
89
3

“

2
2
2
5
2
19
16
A3
2
4

MAXIMUM VACATION A V A IL A B L E :
1 WEEK ------------------------------2 WEEKS ----------------------------OVER 2 AND UNOER 3 WEEKS •
3 WEEKS ----------------------------OVER 3 ANO UNDER A WEEKS
A WEEKS ----------------------------OVER A AND UNDER 5 WEEKS
5 WEEKS ----------------------------OVER 5 AND UNDER 6 WEEKS
6 WEEKS ----------------------------7 WEEKS ----------------------------OVER 7 ANO UNDER 8 WEEKS

2
2
2
5
2
19
16
43
2
4
1

_
A
1
3
19
24
AO
3
6

_

“
( 12 >
“

13

8

20
1
49

“
89
3

i
2

*

-

6
6

i
3
19
24
AO
2
6

“

31
6

AO
12
1
2

30

-

~

2

21

2

38
2
12
1
2

-

i

3

7

6
“

~
29
9
50
(12 )
1

_

a
~

"

-

30
3
28
5
26
4

20
1
A9
1

7A
(12)

3

30
6
39
2
13
2

(12)
5

89
3

_

-

(12)

16

“

2

-

13

6
~

29
9
51
(12)

_

2
(12)
5

2

at end o f t a b le s .




2
-

”

-

i

-

3A
3
28
2A
3
4

-

6
6

-

2
<1?)
5
_

8

'

30 YEARS OF S E R V IC E :
1 WEEK ------------------------------2 WEEKS -----------------------------OVER 2 AND UNDER 3 WEEKS 3 WEEKS -----------------------------OVER 3 ANO UNOER A WEEKS A WEEKS -----------------------------OVER A ANO UNDER 5 WEEKS 5 WEEKS -----------------------------OVER 5 AND UNDER 6 WEEKS 6 WEEKS ----------------------------OVER 7 AND UNOER 8 WEEKS -

S e e fo o tn o te s

M anuf actu r ing

O ffic e w o rk ers

-

2

3

16

“

74
(12)

~

"

-

i

3

2

7

6

30
3
26
5
26
2

4

29
9
50
(12)
1

_

16

74

( 12 )

_

Table B-6.

Health, insurance, and pension plans for full-time workers in Toledo, Ohio—Mich., M ay 1978
O ffic e w orkers

Prod uction and related w orkers

Item
A ll Industries

PERCEN T

M anufacturing

Nonmanufactur ing

P u blic utilities

A ll industries

M anufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

P u b lic u tilitie s

100

100

100

100

OF WORKERS
WORKERS ----------

100

100

100

100

IN ES TA BLISH M EN TS PR O VID IN G AT
LEAST ONE OF THE 8 E N E F IT S
SHOWN BELOW15 -----------------------------

98

100

95

100

99

100

99

100

L I F E INSURANCE --------------------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLAN S ------------

97
89

100
96

92
75

100
80

99
87

100
90

99
85

100
68

ACC ID EN TAL DEATH AND
DISMEMBERMENT INSURANCE ---------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLAN S ------------

90
80

97
90

77
65

94
78

89
79

96
89

82
70

9ft
62

SICKNESS AND ACCIOENT INSURANCE
OR SIC K L EA V E OR BO TH 16------------

91

97

81

98

96

97

94

95

87
81

97
92

68
61

68
66

65
62

81
77

51
08

19
16

13

6

27

29

62

52

71

73

16

8

11

6

17

ALL

FU LL -T IM E

SICKNESS ANO ACCIDENT
INSURANCE -----------------------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLAN S -------SIC K LEAV E ( F U L L PAY AND NO
W AITING P E R IO D ) -------------------SIC K LEAV E ( P A R T IA L PAY OR
W AITING PE R IO D ) --------------------

2

-

6

LONG-TERM D I S A B I L I T Y
INSURANCE ---------------------------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLAN S ------------

37
30

00

03

23
18

30
32

59
09

66
50

52
07

ft
ft

H O S P IT A L IZ A T IO N INSURANCE -------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLAN S ------------

96
88

100
97

90
70

100
98

99
91

100
97

98
85

100
97

SURG ICAL INSURANCE -------------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLAN S ------------

96
88

100
97

90
70

100
98

99
91

100
97

98
85

100
97

MEDICAL INSURANCE ---------------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLAN S ------------

96
87

100
97

88
69

100
98

98
91

100
97

97
85

100
97

MAJOR MEDICAL INSURANCE -----------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLAN S ------------

60
52

50
08

79
60

100
98

95
82

95
85

95
78

100
97

DENTAL INSURANCE -----------------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLAN S ------------

52
49

62
60

33
28

73
73

51
06

69
66

30
28

58
58

RETIREM EN T PENSIO N -------------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLAN S ------------

85
80

90
89

68
62

70
70

85
80

93
89

77
73

69
69

See footnotes

at end o f tables.




22

07

Table B-7.

Life insurance plans for full-time workers in Toledo, Ohio—M ich., May 1978
P rodu ction and related w o rk ers

O ffic e w o rk ers

Manufacturing

A l l industries

A l l in du stries

Manufacturing

Ite m
A ll
plans 1
7

TYPE

N on con tribu tory
plans 1
7

A ll
p la n s 1
7

N on con tribu tory
plans 1
7

A ll
plans 1
7

N on con tribu tory
plans 1
7

A ll
plans 1
7

Noncontribu tory
plans 1
7

OF PLAN AND AMOUNT
OF INSURANCE

ALL F U L L - T I M E UORKERS ARE PR O VID ED THE SAME
FL A T -S U N DOLLAR AMOUNT:
------------------PERC EN T OF A L L F U L L - T I M E UORKERS
AMOUNT OF INSURANCE P R O V ID E D :1
9
M E A N -----------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE (5 0 P E R C E N T ) -----------------MIDDLE RANGE (8 0 P E R C E N T ) ------------------

AMOUNT OF INSURANCE IS BASED ON A SCHEOULE
WHICH IN D IC A T E S A S P E C IF IE D OOLLAR AMOUNT OF
INSURANCE FOR A S P E C IF IE D LENGTH OF S E R V IC E :
PERC EN T OF A L L F U L L - T I M E UO RKERS18 -------------------AMOUNT OF INSURANCE PR O V ID E O 1 AFTE R :
9
6 MONTHS OF S E R V IC E :
M E A N --------------------------------------------------------MEDIAN ----------------------------------------------------MIODLE RANGE (5 0 PE R C E N T ) ------------------MIDDLE RANGE (8 0 P E R C E N T ) -----------------1 YEAR OF S E R V IC E :
M E A N -----------------------------------------------------MEDIAN -------------------------------------------------MIOOLE RANGE (5 0 P E R C E N T ) -----------------MIOOLE RANGE (8 0 P E R C E N T ) -----------------5 YEARS OF S E R V IC E :
M E A N -----------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE (5 0 P E R C E N T ) -----------------MIOOLE RANGE (8 0 P E R C E N T ) -----------------io y e a r s of s e r v ic e :
M E A N ------------------------------------- ---------------MEDIAN -------------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE (5 0 P E R C E N T ) -----------------MIODLE RANGE (8 0 P E R C E N T ) -----------------20 YEARS OF S E R V IC E :
M E A N -----------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE (5 0 PE R C E N T ) -----------------MIDDLE RANGE (8 0 PE R C E N T ) ------------------

S e e fo o tn o te s a t en d o f ta b le s ,




&2
* 7 .8 0 0
* 7.50 0
* 5 . 0 0 0 - 1 1 .0 0 0
* 3 . 0 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0

5

59
* 8 .0 0 0
* 7 .5 0 0
* 5 .0 0 0 - 1 1 .5 0 0
* 3 .0 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0

5

65
* 8 .5 0 0
* 7 .5 0 0
* 6 .0 0 0 -1 2 .0 0 0
* 5 .0 0 0 - 1 2 * 5 0 0

7

62
* 8 .6 0 0
* 8 .0 0 0
*6 . 5 0 0 - 1 2 . 0 0 0
* 5 .0 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0

7

26
* 7 .0 0 0
* 6 ,0 0 0
* 5 .0 0 0 - 1 0 .0 0 0
* 3 .0 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0

4

24
* 7 .1 0 0
$ 6 .0 0 0
* 5 .0 0 0 - 1 0 ,0 0 0
* 3 .0 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0

4

22
* 8 .9 0 0
* 1 0 .0 0 0
* 6 . 0 0 0 - 1 1 .0 0 0
* 5 . 0 0 0 - 1 2 ,5 0 0

20
* 9 .4 0 0
* 1 0 ,0 0 0
* 7 , 5 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0
* 2 . 5 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0

6

6

* 0 .0 0 0
* 4 .0 0 0
* 4 . 0 0 0 - 5 .0 0 0
* 3 . 0 0 0 - 5 .0 0 0

*4 .0 0 0
*4 .0 0 0
* 4 . 0 0 0 - 5 .0 0 0
* 3 . 0 0 0 - 5 .0 0 0

* 4 .2 0 0
* 4 .0 0 0
* 4 . 0 0 0 - 5*000
* 3 . 0 0 0 - 5 .0 0 0

* 4 .2 0 0
* 4 .0 0 0
* 4 . 0 0 0 - 5 .0 0 0
* 3 . 0 0 0 - 5 .0 0 0

* 3 .1 0 0
(6 )
(6 )
(6 )

* 3 .1 0 0
(6 )
(6 )
(6 )

(6 )
(6 >
(6 )
(6 )

(6
(6
(6
(6

)
>

* 4 .4 0 0
* 5 .0 0 0
* 4 .0 0 0 - 5 .0 0 0
* 3 . 0 0 0 - 6 .0 0 0

* 4 .4 0 0
* 5 .0 0 0
* 4 . 0 0 0 - 5 .0 0 0
* 3 . 0 0 0 - 6 .0 0 0

* 4 .6 0 0
* 5 .0 0 0
* 4 . 0 0 0 - 5 .0 0 0
* 3 . 0 0 0 - 6 .0 0 0

* 4 ,6 0 0
* 5 .0 0 0
* 4 , 0 0 0 - 5 ,0 0 0
* 3 , 0 0 0 - 6 ,0 0 0

* 3 ,8 0 0
(6 )
(6 )
(6 )

* 3 .8 0 0
(6 )
(6)
( 6»

(6 )
(6)
(6 )
(6 >

(6
(6
(6
(6

>
)
>
)

* 6 .4 0 0
* 7 .0 0 0
* 6 . 0 0 0 - 7 .5 0 0
* 5 .0 0 0 - 7 .5 0 0

* 6 .4 0 0
* 7 .0 0 0
* 6 . 0 0 0 - 7 .5 0 0
* 5 . 0 0 0 - 7 .5 0 0

* 6 .6 0 0
* 7 .0 0 0
* 6 . 0 0 0 - 7 .5 0 0
* 5 . 0 0 0 - 7 .5 0 0

* 6 .6 0 0
* 7 .0 0 0
* 6 . 0 0 0 - 7 .5 0 0
* 5 , 0 0 0 - 7 .5 0 0

* 4 ,5 0 0
(6 )
(6 )
(6 )

* 4 .5 0 0
(6 )
(6 )
(6 )

(6 )
(6 )
(6 )
(6 )

(6
(6
(6
(6

)
)
)
>

* 8 .7 0 0
* 1 0 .0 0 0
* 6 . 0 0 0 - 1 0 .0 0 0
*6 . 0 0 0 - 1 4 .0 0 0

* 8 .7 0 0
* 1 0 .0 0 0
* 6 .0 0 0 - 1 0 .0 0 0
* 6 .0 0 0 -1 4 .0 0 0

* 9 .0 0 0
* 1 0 .0 0 0
* 6 .0 0 0 - 1 0 .0 0 0
* 6 .0 0 0 - 1 4 .0 0 0

S9t 000
* 1 0 ,0 0 0
* 6 .0 0 0 - 1 0 .0 0 0
* 6 ,0 0 0 - 1 4 .0 0 0

* 4 .7 0 0
(6 )
(6 )
(6 )

* 4 .7 0 0
(6 )
(6 )
(6 )

(6)
(6 )
(6)
(6)

(6
(6
(6
(6

)
)
>
)

* 8 .7 0 0
* 1 0 .0 0 0
* 6 . 0 0 0 - 1 0 .0 0 0
* 6 . 0 0 0 - 1 4 .0 0 0

* 8 .7 0 0
* 1 0 .0 0 0
* 6 .0 0 0 - 1 0 .0 0 0
* 6 .0 0 0 - 1 4 .0 0 0

* 9 .0 0 0
$ 1 0 ,0 0 0
* 6 .0 0 0 - 1 0 .0 0 0
* 6 .0 0 0 - 1 4 .0 0 0

* 9 .0 0 0
* 1 0 ,0 0 0
* 6 ,0 0 0 - 1 0 ,0 0 0
* 6 ,0 0 0 - 1 4 .0 0 0

* 5 .0 0 0
(6 )
(6 )
(6 )

*5 .0 0 0
(6 )
(6 )
(6 )

(6 )
(6)
(6)
(6)

(6
(6
(6
(6

)
)
)
>

>
»

Table B-7.

Life insurance plans for full-time workers in Toledo, Ohio—M ich., May 1978— Continued
Prod u ctio n and re la ted w o rk ers
A l l in du stries
A ll
plans 1
7

O ffic e w o r k e r s

Ma nuf ac tu r ing

N on con tribu tory
plans 1
7

A ll
plans 1
7

Manufacturing

A ll industries

N on con tribu tory
plans 1
7

A ll
plans 1
7

26

28

N on con tribu tory
plans 1
7

A ll
plans 1
7

N o n con tribu tory
plans 1
7

TYPE OF PLAN AND AMOUNT
OF IN SURAN CE-CO N TINU ED

AMOUNT OF INSURANCE IS BASEO ON A SCHEDULE
WHICH IN D IC ATES A S P E C IF IE D DOLLAR AMOUNT OF
INSURANCE FOR A S P E C IF IE D AMOUNT OF EARN IN GS:
PERCENT OF A L L F U L L - T I M E WORKERS18 --------------AMOUNT OF INSURANCE PRO VIDEO 1 I F :
9
ANNUAL EARNINGS ARE * 5 .0 0 0 1
M E A N ------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE (5 0 P E R C EN T ) ------------MIDDLE RANGE (8 0 P E R C EN T ) ------------a n n u a l e a r n in g s
are s i o . ooo:
m e a n ------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE (5 0 PE R C EN T ) ------------MIDDLE RANGE (8 0 P E R C EN T ) ------------ANNUAL EARNINGS ARE * 1 5 .0 0 0 :
M E A N ------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE (5 0 P E R C EN T ) ------------MIOOLE RANGE (8 0 PE R C E N T ) ------------ANNUAL EARNINGS ARE * 2 0 .0 0 0 :
M E A N ------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE (5 0 PE R C E N T ) ------------MIDDLE RANGE (8 0 PE R C EN T ) -------------

AMOUNT OF INSURANCE IS EXPRESSED AS A FACTOR OF
ANNUAL EA R N IN G S :2
0
PERCENT OF A L L F U L L - T I M E WORKERS1 -------------------8
FACTOR OF ANNUAL EARN IN GS USED TO CALC ULATE
a m o u n t o f i n s u r a n c e :1 2
9 0
M E A N -----------------------------------------------------MEDIAN -------------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE (50 P E R C EN T ) -----------------MIDDLE RANGE (8 0 P E R C EN T ) -----------------PERCENT OF A L L F U L L - T I M E WORKERS C0VER E0 BY
PLANS NOT S P E C IF Y IN G A MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF
INSURANCE --------------------------------------------------------PERCENT OF A L L F U L L - T I M E WORKERS COVERED BY
PLANS S P E C IF Y IN G A MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF
INSURANCE --------------------------------------------------------S P E C IF IE D MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF IN SU R AN C E:1
9
M E A N -----------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------------MIDOLE RANGE (5 0 P E R C E N T ) ----------------MIDDLE RANGE (8 0 P E R C EN T ) ------------------

AMOUNT OF INSURANCE IS BASEO ON SOME OTHER TYPE
OF p l a n :
PERCENT OF A L L F U L L - T I M E WORKERS1 ---------------8

21

19

26

38

34

S10 * 300
* 1 1 .0 0 0
* 1 0 .0 0 0 -1 2 .5 0 0
* 5 .0 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0

* 1 0 .7 0 0
* 1 1 .0 0 0
* 1 0 .0 0 0 -1 2 .5 0 0
* 8 .0 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0

* 1 C .7 0 0
* 1 1 .0 0 0
* 1 0 .0 0 0 - 1 2 * 5 0 0
* 5 .0 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0

*1 0 .7 0 0
* 1 1 ,0 0 0
* 1 0 .0 0 0 - 1 2 . 5 0 0
* 5 . 0 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0

* 9 ,5 0 0
* 1 0 ,0 0 0
* 7 .5 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0
* 5 . 0 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0

* 1 0 .1 0 0
* 1 0 .0 0 0
* 7 .5 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0
* 5 .0 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0

* 1 0 .2 0 0
* 1 2 .5 0 0
* 7 ,5 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0
* 6 .0 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0

* 1 1 *1 00
* 12 *5 00
* 8 * 0 0 0 - 1 2 ,5 0 0
* 7 .5 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0

* 1 3 .6 0 0
* 1 2 .5 0 0
* 1 1 . 5 0 0 - 1 2 .5 0 0
* 1 1 .0 0 0 -2 0 .0 0 0

* 1 3 .1 0 0
* 1 2 .5 0 0
* 1 1 .5 0 0 - 1 2 . 5 0 0
* 1 1 .0 0 0 - 2 0 . 0 0 0

* 1 2 .1 0 0
* 1 2 .0 0 0
* 1 1 .5 0 0 - 1 2 . 5 0 0
* 1 0 .0 0 0 - 1 2 . 5 0 0

* 1 2 .1 0 0
* 1 2 .0 0 0
4 1 1 .5 0 0 - 1 2 , 5 0 0
* 1 0 .0 0 0 - 1 2 , 5 0 0

* 1 8 .9 0 0
* 2 0 .0 0 0
* 1 2 .5 0 0 - 2 2 . 5 0 0
* 1 1 . 0 0 0 - 2 2 .5 0 0

* 1 8 .5 0 0
* 2 0 .0 0 0
* 1 2 ,5 0 0 -2 2 .5 0 0
* 1 1 .0 0 0 -2 2 .5 0 0

* 1 9 .2 0 0
* 2 2 .5 0 0
* 1 2 ,5 0 0 -2 2 .5 0 0
* 1 2 * 5 0 0 -2 2 * 5 0 0

* 1 9 ,0 0 0
* 2 2 .5 0 0
* 1 2 .5 0 0 -2 2 .5 0 0
* 1 2 .5 0 0 -2 2 .5 0 0

* 1 9 . MOO
* 1 6 .5 0 0
* 1 6 .5 0 0 -2 0 .0 0 0
* 1 5 .5 0 0 -3 0 .0 0 0

* 1 8 .6 0 0
* 1 6 .5 0 0
* 1 6 .5 0 0 - 1 6 . 5 0 0
* 1 5 .5 0 0 - 3 0 . 0 0 0

* 1 6 .9 0 0
* 1 6 .5 0 0
* 1 6 .5 0 0 - 1 6 . 5 0 0
* 1 5 .0 0 0 - 1 6 * 5 0 0

* 1 6 ,9 0 0
* 1 6 .5 0 0
* 1 6 .5 0 0 - 1 6 . 5 0 0
* 1 5 ,0 0 0 - 1 6 . 5 0 0

* 2 6 .3 0 0
* 3 0 ,0 0 0
*18 . 0 0 0 - 3 2 .5 0 0
* 1 5 .5 0 0 - 3 2 . 5 0 0

* 2 6 .3 0 0
* 3 0 ,0 0 0
* 1 7 ,5 0 0 -3 2 ,5 0 0
* 1 5 .5 0 0 -3 2 .5 0 0

* 2 6 *8 00
* 32 *5 00
* 1 8 * 0 0 0 -3 2 * 5 0 0
* 1 7 * 5 0 0 -3 2 * 5 0 0

* 2 7 .4 0 0
* 3 2 .5 0 0
* 1 7 .5 0 0 -3 2 ,5 0 0
* 1 7 ,5 0 0 -3 2 .5 0 0

* 2 5 .1 0 0
* 2 2 .0 0 0
* 2 2 .0 0 0 -2 2 .0 0 0
* 2 0 .0 0 0 —9 0 .0 0 0

* 2 4 .0 0 0
$ 2 2 .0 0 0
* 2 2 .0 0 0 - 2 2 . 0 0 0
* 2 0 .0 0 0 - 4 0 . 0 0 0

* 2 2 .1 0 0
* 2 2 .0 0 0
* 2 0 .5 0 0 -2 2 .0 0 0
* 2 0 .0 0 0 -2 2 .0 0 0

* 2 2 .1 0 0
* 2 2 ,0 0 0
* 2 0 .5 0 0 - 2 2 . 0 0 0
* 2 0 .0 0 0 - 2 2 . 0 0 0

* 3 3 .8 0 0
* 4 0 .0 0 0
* 2 0 ,5 0 0 - 4 2 . 5 0 0
* 2 0 .0 0 0 - 4 2 , 5 0 0

* 3 3 .7 0 0
* 4 0 .0 0 0
* 2 0 .0 0 0 -4 2 .5 0 0
* 2 0 .0 0 0 -4 2 .5 0 0

* 3 4 ,3 0 0
* 4 2 *5 00
* 2 0 ,0 0 0 - 4 2 * 5 0 0
* 2 0 * 0 0 0 -4 2 * 5 0 0

* 3 5 .3 0 0
$ 4 2 t 500
* 2 0 .0 0 0 -4 2 ,5 0 0
* 2 0 ,0 0 0 -4 2 ,5 0 0

9

1 .9 8
1 .0 0
1 .0 0 - 2 .0 0
1 .0 0 - 2 .0 0

5

1 .1 1
1 .0 0
1. 00- 1.00
1 .0 0 - 2 .0 0

8

2

1 .5 7
2 .0 0
1 .0 0 - 2 .0 0
1 .0 0 - 2 .0 0

4

2

1

2

1

(6
(6
(6
(6

1

1

* 4 8 .4 0 0
* 5 0 .0 0 0
* 5 0 .0 0 0 - 5 0 .0 0 0
* 5 0 .0 0 0 - 5 0 .0 0 0

(6)
(6)
(6 )
(6)

(6
(6
(6
(6

-

-

-

-

24

)
)
)
)

(12 )

$ 48 t 400
* 5 0 .0 0 0
* 5 0 .0 0 0 - 5 0 .0 0 0
* 5 0 .0 0 0 - 5 0 .0 0 0

See footn otes at end o f tables.




24

)
)
)
)

37

1 .6 2
1 .5 0
1 .0 0 - 2 .0 0
1 .0 0 - 2 .0 0

25

13
* 1 3 7 .2 0 0
* 7 5 .0 0 0
* 5 0 .0 0 0 - 8 0 .0 0 0
* 2 4 .0 0 0 - 5 0 0 .0 0 0

5

33

1 .5 7
1 .5 0
1 .0 0 - 2 .0 0
1 .0 0 - 2 .0 0

21

12
* 1 3 3 .8 0 0
* 7 5 .0 0 0
* 5 0 ,0 0 0 - 7 5 .0 0 0
* 2 4 . 0 0 0 - 5 0 0 ,0 0 0

2

28

1 ,8 7
1 .5 0
1 .5 0 - 2 .0 0
1 .0 0-*3 .0 0

17

10
* 25 8 * 6 0 0
* 2 0 0 ,0 0 0
* 7 5 .0 0 0 -5 0 0 ,0 0 0
* 5 0 * 0 0 0 -5 0 0 ,0 0 0

6

26

1 .8 6
1 .5 0
1 . 50- 2.00

1 .0 0 - 3 .0 0

17

9
* 2 6 6 .9 0 0
* 8 0 .0 0 0
* 7 5 ,0 0 0 -5 0 0 .0 0 0
* 5 0 .0 0 0 -5 0 0 .0 0 0

5

Footnotes

Some of these standard footnotes may not apply to this bulletin.

1 Includes payments other than "length of tim e," such as percentage
4
of annual earnings or flat-sum payments, converted to an equivalent time
basis; for example, 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week's
pay. Periods of service are chosen arbitrarily and do not necessarily reflect
individual provisions for progression; for example, changes in proportions
at 10 years include changes between 5 and 10 years. Estimates are cumula­
tive. Thus, the proportion eligible for at least 3 weeks' pay after 10 years
includes those eligible for at least 3 weeks' pay after fewer years of service.
1 Estimates listed after type of benefit are for all plans for which
5
at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer. "Noncontributory
plans" include only those financed entirely by the employer. Excluded are
legally required plans, such as workers' disability compensation, social se­
curity, and railroad retirement.
1 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and
6
accident insurance shown separately below. Sick leave plans are limited to
those which definitely establish at least the minimum number of days' pay
that each employee can expect. Informal sick leave allowances determined
on an individual basis are excluded.
1 Estimates under "A ll plans" relate to all plans for which at least
7
a part of the cost is borne by the employer. Estimates under "Noncontrib­
utory plans" include only those financed entirely by the employer.
1 For "A ll industries," all full-time production and related workers
8
or office workers equal 100 percent. For "Manufacturing," all full-time
production and related workers or office workers in manufacturing equal 100
percent.
1 The mean amount is computed by multiplying the number of workers
9
provided insurance by the amount of insurance provided, totaling the prod­
ucts, and dividing the sum by the number of workers. The median indicates
that half of the workers are provided an amount equal to or smaller and half
an amount equal to or larger than the amount shown. Middle range (50 per­
cent)— a fourth of the workers are provided an amount equal to or less than
the smaller amount and a fourth are provided an amount equal to or more
than the larger amount. Middle range (80 percent)— 10 percent of the work­
ers are provided an amount equal to or less than the smaller amount and 10
percent are provided an amount equal to or more than the larger amount.
2 A factor of annual earnings is the number by which annual earnings
0
are multiplied to determine the amount of insurance provided. For example,
a factor of 2 indicates that for annual earnings of $ 10,000 the amount of
insurance provided is $ 20,000.

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive
their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at reg­
ular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond to these weekly
hours.
2 The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of
all workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median desig­
nates position— half of the workers receive the same or more and half re­
ceive the same or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined
by two rates of pay; a fourth of the workers earn the same or less than
the lower of these rates and a fourth earn the same or more than the
higher rate.
3 Earnings data relate only to workers whose sex identification was
provided by the establishment.
4 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends,
holidays, and late shifts.
5 Estimates for periods ending prior to 1976 relate to men only for
skilled maintenance and unskilled plant workers. All other estimates re­
late to men and women.
6 Data do not meet publication criteria or data not available.
7 Formally established minimum regular straight-time hiring sal­
aries that are paid for standard workweeks.
8 Excludes workers in subclerical jobs such as messenger.
9 Data are presented for all standard workweeks combined, and for
the most common standard workweeks reported.
1 Includes all production and related workers in establishments
0
currently operating late shifts, and establishments whose formal provisions
cover late shifts, even though the establishments were not currently
operating late shifts.
1 Less than 0.05 percent.
1
1 Less than 0.5 percent.
2
1 All combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount;
3
for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 10 days
includes those with 10 full days and no half days, 9 full days and 2
half days, 8 full days and 4 half days, and so on. Proportions then
were cumulated.




25




Appendix A.
Scope and Method
of Survey
In each of the 75 1 areas currently surveyed, the Bureau obtains
wages and related benefits data from representative establishments within
six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation, communication,
and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance,
and real estate; and services. Government operations and the construction
and extractive industries are excluded. Establishments having fewer than a
prescribed number of workers are also excluded because of insufficient
employment in the occupations studied. Appendix table 1 shows the number
of establishments and workers estimated to be within the scope of this
survey, as well as the number actually studied.
Bureau field representatives obtain data by personal visits at 3-year
intervals. In each of the two intervening years, information on employment
and occupational earnings only is collected by a combination of personal
visit, mail questionnaire, and telephone interview from establishments
participating in the previous survey.
A sample of the establishments in the scope of the survey is
selected for study prior to each personal visit survey. This sample, less
establishments which go out of business or are no longer within the industrial
scope of the survey, is retained for the following two annual surveys. In
most cases, establishments new to the area afe not considered in the scope
of the survey until the selection of a sample for a personal visit survey.
The sampling procedures involve detailed stratification of all
establishments within the scope of an individual area survey by industry
and number of employees. From this stratified universe a probability
sample is selected, with each establishment having a predetermined chance
of selection. To obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater
proportion of large than small establishments is selected. When data are
combined, each establishment is weighted according to its probability of
selection so that unbiased estimates are generated. For example, if one
out of four establishments is selected, it is given a weight of 4 to represent
itself plus three others. An alternate of the same original probability is
chosen in the same industry-size classification if data are not available
from the original sample member. If no suitable substitute is available,
additional weight is assigned to a sample member that is similar to the
missing unit.

Occupations and earnings
Occupations selected for study are common to a variety of manufac­
turing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the following types: (1)
Office clerical; (2) professional and technical; (3) maintenance, toolroom,
and powerplant; and (4) material movement and custodial. Occupational
classification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to take
account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same job.
Occupations selected for study are listed and described in appendix B.
Unless otherwise indicated, the earnings data following the job titles
are for all industries combined. Earnings data for some of the occupations
listed and described, or for some industry divisions within the scope of the
survey, are not presented in the A -series tables because either (1) employ­
ment in the occupation is too small to provide enough data to merit presen­
tation, or (2) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment
data. Separate men's and women's earnings data are not presented when the
number of workers not identified by sex is 20 percent or more of the men
or women identified in an occupation. Earnings data not shown separately
for industry divisions are included in data for all industries combined.
Likewise, for occupations with more than one level, data are included in
the overall classification when a subclassification is not shown or information
to subclassify is not available.
Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for full-time
workers, i.e., those hired to work a regular weekly schedule. Earnings
data exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays,
and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living
allowances and incentive bonuses are included. Weekly hours for office
clerical and professional and technical occupations refer to the standard
workweek (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which employees receive
regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular
and/or premium rates). Average weekly earnings for these occupations
are rounded to the nearest half dollar. Vertical lines within the distribution
of workers on some A-tables indicate a change in the size of the class
intervals.

These surveys measure the level of occupational earnings in an area
at a particular time. Comparisons of individual occupational averages over
time may not reflect expected wage changes. The averages for individual
jobs are affected by changes in wages and employment patterns. For example,
proportions of workers employed by high- or low-wage firms may change,
or high-wage workers may advance to better jobs and be replaced by new
workers at lower rates. Such shifts in employment could decrease an
1
Included in the 75 areas are 5 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas are
occupational average even though most establishments in an area increase
Akron, Ohio; Birmingham, A la.; Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, V a.—N .C .;
wages during the year. Changes in earnings of occupational groups, shown in
Poughkeepsie—Kingston—Newburgh, N .Y .; and Utica—Rome, N .Y . In addition, die Bureau conducts more
table A - 7, are better indicators of wage trends than are earnings changes for
lim ited area studies in approximately 100 areas at the request of the Employment Standards Administration of
individual jobs within the groups.
the U. S. Department of Labor.



Average earnings reflect composite, areawide estimates. Industries
and establishments differ in pay level and job staffing, and thus contribute
differently to the estimates for each job. Pay averages may fail to reflect
accurately the wage differential among jobs in individual establishments.

Electronic data processing2
Computer systems
analysts, classes
A, B, and C
Computer programmers,
classes A, B, and C

Average pay levels for men and women in selected occupations
should not be assumed to reflect differences in pay of the sexes within
individual establishments. Factors which may contribute to differences
include progression within established rate ranges (only the rates paid
incumbents are collected) and performance of specific duties within the
general survey job descriptions. Job descriptions used to classify employees
in these surveys usually are more generalized than those used in individual
establishments and allow for minor differences among establishments in
specific duties performed.

Industrial nurses
Registered industrial
nurses
Skilled maintenance
Carpenters
Electricians

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all estab­
lishments within the scope of the study and not the number actually surveyed.
Because occupational structures among establishments differ, estimates of
occupational employment obtained from the sample of establishments studied
serve only to indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied. These
differences in occupational structure do not affect materially the accuracy of
the earnings data.

Percent changes for indivic
as follows:

Skilled maintenance—
Continued
P a in t e r s

Machinists
Mechanics (machinery)
Mechanics (motor vehicle)
Pipefitters
Tool and die makers
Unskilled plant
Janitors, porters, and
cleaners
Material handling laborers
areas in the program are computed

1. Average earnings are computed for each occupation for
the 2 years being compared. The averages are derived
from earnings in those establishments which are in the
survey both years; it is assumed that employment
remains unchanged.

Wage trends for selected occupational groups
2. Each occupation is assigned a weight based on its
proportionate employment in the occupational group in
the base year.

The percent increases presented in table A-7 are based on changes
in average hourly earnings of men and women in establishments reporting
the trend jobs in both the current and previous year (matched establishments).
The data are adjusted to remove the effect on average earnings of employ­
ment shifts among establishments and turnover of establishments included
in survey samples. The percent increases, however, are still affected by
factors other than wage increases. Hirings, layoffs, and turnover may
affect an establishment average for an occupation when workers are paid
under plans providing a range of wage rates for individual jobs. In periods
of increased hiring, for example, new employees may enter at the bottom
of the range, depressing the average without a change in wage rates.
The percent changes relate to wage changes between the indicated
dates. When the time span between surveys is other than 12 months, annual
rates are shown. (It is assumed that wages increase at a constant rate
between surveys.)

3. These weights are used to compute group averages.
Each occupation's average earnings (computed in step 1)
is multiplied by its weight. The products are totaled
to obtain a group average.
4. The ratio of group averages for 2 consecutive years is
computed by dividing the average for the current year
by the average for the earlier year. The result—
expressed as a percent— less 100 is the percent change.
For a more detailed description of the method used to compute
these wage trends, see "Improving Area Wage Survey Indexes," Monthly
Labor Review, January 1973, pp. 52-57.
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions

Occupations used to compute wage trends are:
Office clerical

Office clerical— Continued

Secretaries
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
Typists, classes
A and B
File clerks, classes A,
B , and C
Messengers
Switchboard operators

Order clerks, classes
A and B
Accounting clerks,
classes A and B
Bookkeeping-machine
operators, class B
Payroll clerks
Key entry operators,
classes A and B




The incidence of selected establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions is studied for full-time production and related workers and
office workers. Production and related workers (referred to hereafter as
production workers) include working supervisors and all nonsupervisory
workers (including group leaders and trainees) engaged in fabricating,
processing, assembling, inspection, receiving, storage, handling, pack­
ing, warehousing, shipping, maintenance, repair, janitorial and guard se r­
vices, product development, auxiliary production for plant's own use
(e.g., powerplant), and recordkeeping and other services closely associ­
ated with the above production operations. (Cafeteria and route workers
2
The earnings of computer operators are not included in the wage trend computation ior this group.
A revised job description is being introduced in this survey which is not equivalent to the previous description.

28

are excluded in manufacturing industries but included in nonmanufacturing
industries.) In finance and insurance, no workers are considered to be
production workers. Office workers include working supervisors and all nonsupervisory workers (including lead workers and trainees) performing
clerical or related office functions in such departments as accounting,
advertising, purchasing, collection, credit, finance, legal, payroll, personnel,
sales, industrial relations, public relations, executive, or transportation.
Administrative, executive, professional, and part-time employees as well
as construction workers utilized as separate work forces are excluded from
both the production and office worker categories.
Minimum entrance salaries (table B - l ) . Minimum entrance salaries
for office workers relate only to the establishments visited. Because of the
optimum sampling techniques used and the probability that large establish­
ments are more likely than small establishments to have formal entrance
rates above the subclerical level, the table is more representative of policies
in medium and large establishments. (The "X 's " shown under standard
weekly hours indicate that no meaningful totals are applicable.)
Shift differentials— manufacturing (table B -2 ). Data were collected
on policies of manufacturing establishments regarding pay differentials for
production workers on late shifts. Establishments considered as having
policies are those which (1) have provisions in writing covering the operation
of late shifts, or (2) have operated late shifts at any time during the 12
months preceding a survey. When establishments have several differentials
which vary by job, the differential applying to the majority of the production
workers is recorded. When establishments have differentials which apply
only to certain hours of work, the differential applying to the majority of
the shift hours is recorded.
For purposes of this study, a late shift is either a second (evening)
shift which ends at or near midnight or a third (night) shift which starts at
or near midnight.
Differentials for second and third shifts are summarized separately
for (1) establishment policies (an establishment's differentials are weighted
by all production workers in the establishment at the time of the survey)
and (2) effective practices (an establishment's differentials are weighted by
production workers employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey).
Scheduled weekly hours; paid holidays; paid vacations; and health,
insurance, and pension plans. Provisions which apply to a majority of the
production or office workers in an establishment are considered to apply to
all production or office workers in the establishment; a practice or provision
is considered nonexistent when it applies to less than a majority. Holidays;
vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are considered applicable
to employees currently eligible for the benefits as well as to employees who
will eventually become eligible.

written form or established by custom). Holidays are included even though
in a particular year they fall on a nonworkday and employees are not
granted another day off. Paid personal holiday plans, typically found in
the automobile and related industries, are included as paid holidays.
Data are tabulated to show the percent of workers who (1) are
granted specific numbers of whole and half holidays and (2) are granted
specified amounts of total holiday time (whole and half holidays are
aggregated).
Paid vacations (table B -5 ). Establishments report their method of
calculating vacation pay (time basis, percent of annual earnings, flat-sum
payment, etc.) and the amount of vacation pay granted. Only basic formal
plans are reported. Vacation bonuses, vacation-savings plans, and "extended"
or "sabbatical" benefits beyond basic plans are excluded.
For tabulating vacation pay granted, all provisions are expressed
on a time basis. Vacation pay calculated on other than a time basis is
converted to its equivalent time period. Two percent of annual earnings,
for example, is tabulated as 1 week's vacation pay.
Also, provisions after each specified length of service are related
to all production or office workers in an establishment regardless of length of
service. Vacation plans commonly provide for a larger amount of vacation
pay as service lengthens. Counts of production or office workers by length
of service were not obtained. The tabulations of vacation pay granted
present, therefore, statistical measures of these provisions rather than
proportions of workers actually receiving specific benefits.
Health, insurance, and pension plans (tables B-6 and B -7 ). Health,
insurance, and pension plans include plans for which the employer pays
either all or part of the cost. The cost may be (1) underwritten by a
commercial insurance company or nonprofit organization, (2) covered by a
union fund to which the employer has contributed, or (3) borne directly by
the employer out of operating funds or a fund set aside to cover the cost.
A plan is included even though a majority of the employees in an establish­
ment do not choose to participate in it because they are required to bear
part of its cost (provided the choice to participate is available or will
eventually become available to a majority). Legally required plans such as
social security, railroad retirement, workers' disability compensation, and
temporary disability insurance 3 are excluded.
3
Temporary disability insurance which provides benefits to covered workers disabled by injury or illness
which is not work-connected is mandatory under State laws in California, New Jersey, New York, and Rhode
Island. Establishment plans which meet only the legal requirements are excluded from these data, but those
under which (1) employers contribute more than is legally required or (2) benefits exceed those specified in the
State law are included. In Rhode Island, benefits are paid out of a State fund to which only employees
contribute. In each of the other three States, benefits are paid either from a State fund or through a private plan.
State fund financing; In California, only employees contribute to the State fund; in New Jersey,
employees and employers contribute; in New York, employees contribute up to a specified maximum
and employers pay the difference between the employees' share and the total contribution required.

Scheduled weekly hours and days (table B -3 ). Scheduled weekly
hours and days refer to the number of hours and days per week which full­
time first (day) shift workers are expected to work, whether paid for at
straight-time or overtime rates.

Private plan financing: In California and New Jersey, employees cannot be required to contribute
more than they would if they were covered by the State fund; in New York, employees can agree
to contribute more if the State rules that the additional contribution is commensurate with the
benefit provided.

Paid holidays (table B -4 ). Holidays are included if workers who
are not required to work are paid for the time off and those required to
work receive premium pay or compensatory time off. They are included
only if they are granted annually on a formal basis (provided for in



Federal legislation ( Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act) provides temporary disability insurance benefits
to railroad workers for illness or injury, whether work-connected or not. The legislation requires that employers
bear the entire cost of the insurance.

29

Life insurance includes formal plans providing indemnity (usually
through an insurance policy) in case of death of the covered worker.
Information is also provided in table B -7 on types of life insurance plans
and the amount of coverage ip all industries combined and in manufacturing.
Accidental death and dismemberment insurance is limited to plans
which provide benefit payments in case of death or loss of limb or sight as a
direct result of an accident.
Sickness and accident insurance includes only those plans which
provide that predetermined cash payments be made directly to employees
who lose time from work because of illness or injury, e.g., $ 50 a week
for up to 26 weeks of disability.
Sick leave plans are limited to formal plans4 which provide for
continuing an employee's pay during absence from work because of illness.
Data collected distinguish between (1) plans which provide full pay with no
waiting period, and (2) plans which either provide partial pay or require a
waiting period.
Long-term disability insurance plans provide payments to totally
disabled employees upon the expiration of their paid sick leave and/or sick­
ness and accident insurance, or after a predetermined period of disability
(typically 6 months). Payments are made until the end of the disability, a
maximum age, or eligibility for retirement benefits. Full or partial pay­
ments are almost always reduced by social security, workers' disability
compensation, and private pension benefits payable to the disabled employee.
Hospitalization, surgical, and medical insurance plans reported
in these surveys provide full or partial payment for basic services rendered.
Hospitalization insurance covers hospital room and board and may cover
other hospital expenses. Surgical insurance covers surgeons' fees. Medical
insurance covers doctors' fees for home, office, or hospital calls. Plans
restricted to post-operative medical care or a doctor's care for minor
ailments at a worker's place of employment are not considered to be
medical insurance.
Major medical insurance coverage applies to services which go
beyond the basic services covered under hospitalization, surgical, and
medical insurance. Major medical insurance typically (1) requires that a
"deductible" (e.g., $50) be met before benefits begin, (2) has a coinsurance
feature that requires the insured to pay a portion (e.g., 20 percent) of
certain expenses, and (3) has a specified dollar maximum of benefits (e.g.,
$ 10, 000 a year).
Dental insurance plans provide normal dental service benefits,
usually for fillings, extractions, and X -rays. Plans which provide benefits
only for oral surgery or repairing accident damage are not reported.
Retirement pension plans provide for regular payments to the
retiree for life. Included are deferred profit-sharing plans which provide
the option of purchasing a lifetime annuity.

Labor-management agreement coverage
The following tabulation shows the percent of full-time production
and office workers employed in establishments in the Toledo area in which
a union contract or contracts covered a majority of the workers in the
respective categories, May 1978:
Production and
related workers

Office workers

80
95
53
100

17
11
23
72

All industries_____________
Manufacturing__________
Nonmanufacturing_______
Public utilities______

An establishment is considered to have a contract covering all
production or office workers if a majority of such workers is covered by a
labor-management agreement. Therefore, all other production or office
workers are employed in establishments that either do not have labormanagement contracts in effect, or have contracts that apply to fewer than
half of their production or office workers. Estimates are not necessarily
representative of the extent to which all workers in the area may be covered
by the provisions of labor-management agreements, because small establish­
ments are excluded and the industrial scope of the survey is limited.

Industrial composition in manufacturing
Almost three-fifths of the workers within scope of the survey in
the Toledo area were employed in manufacturing firms. The following
presents the major industry groups and specific industries as a percent of
all manufacturing:
Industry groups
Transportation equipment
Stone, clay, and glass
products
Fabricated metal products
Prim ary metal industries
Machinery, except
electrical
Electric and electronic
equipment...
Food and kindred products

Specific industries
22
21
13
8
___ 6

Motor vehicles and
equipment
Glass and glassware,
pressed or blown
Metal forgings and
s tampings _______
Flat glass

____ 20
10
____

8
7

. 5
5

4
An establishment is considered as having a formal plan if it specifies at least the minimum number
This information is based on estimates of total employment derived
of days of sick leave available to each employee. Such a plan need not be written, but informal sick leave
from universe materials compiled before actual survey. Proportions in
allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
various industry divisions may differ from proportions based on the results




of the survey as shown in appendix table 1
.

Appendix table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied
inToledo, Ohio—M ic h .,1May 1978
N um ber o f establish m ents

In du stry d iv is io n 2

M inim um
em ploym en t
in esta b lish ­
ments in scope
of study

W o rk ers in establishm ents
W ithin scope of study

W ithin scope
o f study 3

Studied
Studied
Nu m ber

ALL

D IV IS IO N S -------------------------------------------------

MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------------------------NONHANUFACTURING ------------------------------------------------t r a n s p o r t a t i o n * c o m m u n i c a t i o n * and
other p u b l ic
u t i l i t i e s 5 --------------------------------WHOLESALE TRADE
--------------------------------------------R E T A IL TRADE
----------------------------------------------------FIN A N C E * IN SU R AN C E. AND R EAL ES TA TE
----------S E R V I C E S 7 ------------------------------------------------------------

Percen t

F u ll-tim e
o ffic e w o rk ers

T o t a l4

528

1 A3

...... -1 2 9 * 9 9 7

_______100

7 9 .1 5 5

1 6 .0 2 3

8 0 ,8 0 8

50

211
317

53
90

7 2 .8 8 2
5 7 .1 1 5

56
44

5 1 .3 8 6
2 7 .7 6 9

7 .6 8 4
8 ,3 3 9

4 7 .5 1 3
3 3 ,2 9 5

50
50
50
50
50

46
70
119
24
58

20
13
27
8
22

14* 59 0
7 .3 2 7
2 3 ,0 6 0
4 ,8 5 2
7 .3 3 6

11
6
18
4
6

7 .7 6 7
I5)

2 .2 0 0
< >
6

<6!
<5 >
t 6>

<6 >
<6 1
<6 >

1 1 .6 8 5
2 ,1 0 8
1 2 .9 2 0
2 .9 0 4
3 .6 7 8

1 Th e T o le d o Standard M etro p o lita n S tatistical A rea , as defined by the O ffic e o f M anagem ent
and Budget through F e b ru a ry 1974, co n sists o f Fulton, Lu cas, Ottawa, and W ood Counties, Ohio;
and M o n ro e County, M ich .
The " w o r k e r s w ithin scope of study" estim ates shown in this table
p ro v id e a re a s on a b ly a ccu ra te d e s c rip tio n o f the s iz e and com position o f the la b o r fo r c e included
in the s u rv e y .
E stim a tes a re not intended, h ow ever, fo r com parison with oth er em ploym en t indexes
to m e a s u re em ploym en t tren ds o r le v e ls sin ce (1) planning o f w age su rveys re q u ire s establish m ent
data co m p iled co n s id e ra b ly in advance o f the p a y ro ll period studied, and (2) sm a ll establishm ents
a re exclu ded fr o m the scope o f the su rv ey .
2 T h e 1972 edition o f the Standard Industrial C la ss ifica tio n Manual w as used to c la s s ify
esta blish m en ts by in du stry d iv is io n .
H o w e ver, all governm en t operations a re excluded fro m the
scope o f the su rv ey .
3 Inclu des a ll esta b lish m en ts w ith total em ploym ent at o r above the m inim um lim ita tio n . A ll
outlets (w ith in the a rea ) o f com pan ies in in du stries such as tra de, finance, auto re p a ir s e r v ic e ,
and m otion p ictu re th e a ters a re co n s id ere d as one establishm ent.




F u ll- tim e
production and
re la ted w o rk ers

T o t a l4

___

4 Includes execu tive, p r o fe s s io n a l, p a rt-tim e , and o th er w o rk e rs excluded fro m the separate
production and o ffic e c a te g o rie s .
5 A b b revia ted to "p u b lic u t ilitie s " in the A - and B - s e r ie s ta b les.
Ta x ica b s and s e r v ic e s
incidental to w a te r tra n sp o rta tio n are excluded.
T h e public tra n sporta tion system in T o led o is
m u n icip a lly owned and opera ted and excluded fr o m the scope o f the su rv ey.
6 Separate p resen tation o f data is not m ade fo r this d ivis io n .
7 H otels and m o te ls ; lau ndries and oth er person a l s e r v ic e s ; business s e r v ic e s ; automobile
re p a ir, ren ta l, and parking; m o tion p ictu re s; n on profit m e m b ersh ip o rga n izatio n s (exclu din g religio u s
and ch a rita b le o rg a n iz a tio n s ); and en gin eerin g and a rch itectu ra l s e r v ic e s .

31

Appendix B.
Occupational
Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the
Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its field staff in classifying into
appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of
payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to
establishment and from area to area. This permits the grouping of
occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because
of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability
of occupational content, the Bureau's job descriptions may differ sig­
nificantly from those in use in individual establishments or those pre­
pared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the
Bureau's field economists are instructed to exclude working super­
visors; apprentices; and part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
Handicapped workers whose earnings are reduced because of their
handicap are also excluded. Learners, beginners, and trainees, unless
specifically included in the job description, are excluded.

Office
SECRET ARY— Continued

SECRET A.RY
Assigned as a personal secretary, normally to one individual.
Maintains a close and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day activ­
ities of the supervisor. Works fairly independently receiving a minimum of
detailed supervision and guidance. Performs varied clerical and secretarial
duties requiring a knowledge of office routine and understanding of the
organization, programs, and procedures related to the work of the supervisor.

Exclusions— Continued
a. Positions which do not meet the "personal"
described above;

b. Stenographers not fully trained in secretarial-type duties;
c. Stenographers serving as office assistants to a group of pro­
fessional, technical, or managerial persons;

E xclusions

d. Assistant-type positions which entail more difficult or more re ­
sponsible technical, administrative, or supervisory duties which
are not typical of secretarial work, e.g., Administrative Assist­
ant, or Executive Assistant;

Not all positions that are titled "secretary" possess the above
characteristics. Examples of positions which are excluded from the definition
are as follows:




secretary concept

Listed below are several occupations for which revised descriptions or titles are being introduced
in this survey:
Guard
Shipper and receiver
(previously surveyed
as shipping and
receiving clerk)
Truckdriver

Order clerk
Payroll clerk
Secretary
Key entry operator
Transcribing-machine typist
Computer operator

The Bureau has discontinued collecting data for tabulating-machine operator.
classified as watchmen are now classified as guards under the revised description.

32

Workers previously

SE C R E T A R Y — Continued

SECRET ARY— Continued

Exclusions— Continued

Classification by Level— Continued

e. Positions which do not fit any of the situations listed in the
sections below titled ''Level of Supervisor," e.g., secretary to the
president of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 persons;

e. Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational
segment (e.g., a middle management supervisor of an organi­
zational segment often involving as many as several hundred
persons) of a company that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.

f. Trainees.
Classification by Level

LS—
4

Secretary jobs which meet the above characteristics are matched at
one of five levels according to (a) the level of the secretary's supervisor
within the company's organizational structure and, (b) the level of the
secretary's responsibility. The chart following the explanations of these two
factors indicates the level of the secretary for each combination of the
factors.

b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of
the board or president) of a company that employs, in all,
over 5, 000 but fewer than 25, 000 persons; or
c. Secretary to the head, immediately below the corporate officer
level, of a major segment or subsidiary of a company that
employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.

Level of Secretary's Supervisor (LS)
Secretaries should be matched at one of the four LS levels described
below according to the level of the secretary's supervisor within the company
organizational structure.
LS—1

a. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small organizational
unit (e.g., fewer than about 25 or 30 persons); or
b. Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional
employee, administrative officer or assistant, skilled technician
or expert. (NOTE: M a n y companies assign stenographers,
rather than secretaries as described above, to this level of
supervisory or nonsupervisory worker.)

LS—
2

a. Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose respon­
sibility is not equivalent to one of the specific level situations in
the definition for LS— but whose organizational unit normally
3,
numbers at least several dozen employees and is usually divided
into organizational segments which are often, in turn, further
subdivided. In some companies, this level includes a wide range
of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; or
b. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc., (or
other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, fewer
than 5,000 persons.

LS—
3

a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company
that employs, in all, fewer than 100 persons; or

NOTE: The term "corporate officer" used in the above LS def­
inition refers to those officials who have a significant corporatewide policy­
making role with regard to major company activities. The title "vice
president," though normally indicative of this role, does not in all cases
identify such positions. Vice presidents whose primary responsibility is to
act personally on individual cases or transactions (e.g., approve or deny
individual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts; di­
rectly supervise a clerical staff) are not considered to be "corporate
officers" for purposes of applying the definition.
Level of Secretary's Responsibility (LR)
This factor evaluates the nature of the work relationship between
the secretary and the supervisor, and the extent to which the secretary is
expected to exercise initiative and judgment. Secretaries should be matched
at LR—1 or LR— described below according to their level of responsibility.
2
Level of Responsibility 1 (LR—1)
Performs varied secretarial duties including or comparable to most
of the following:
a. Answers telephones, greets
coming mail.

b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than chairman of the
board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 100
but fewer than 5, 000 persons; or

personal

callers, and opens in­

b. Answers telephone requests which have standard answers.
reply to requests by sending a form letter.

c. Secretary to the head (immediately below the officer level) over
either a major corporatewide functional activity (e.g., marketing,
research, operations, industrial relations, etc.) or a major
geographic or organizational segment (e.g., a regional headquar­
ters; a major division) of a company that employs, in all,
over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000 employees; or

May

c. Reviews correspondence, memoranda, and reports prepared by
others for the supervisor's signature to ensure procedural and
typographical accuracy.
d. Maintains supervisor's
instructed.

d. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc.,
(or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all,
over 5,000 persons; or



a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company
that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000 persons; or

calendar

and makes appointments as

e. Types, takes and transcribes dictation, and files.

33

SEC R ETAR Y— Continued

STENOGRAPH ER— Continued

Level of Responsibility 2 (LR—
2)

Stenographer, Senior

Performs duties described under LR— and, in addition performs
1
tasks requiring greater judgment, initiative, and knowledge of office functions
including or comparable to most of the following:

Dictation involves a varied technical or specialized vocabulary
such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research. May also set up
and maintain files, keep records, etc.

a. Screens telephone and personal callers, determining which can
be handled by the supervisor's subordinates or other offices.

OR

b. Answers requests which require a detailed knowledge of of­
fice procedures or collection of information from files or
other offices. May sign routine correspondence in own or
supervisor's name.

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater in­
dependence and responsibility than stenographer, general, as evidenced by
the following: Work requires a high degree of stenographic speed and
accuracy; a thorough working knowledge of general business and office pro­
cedure; and of the specific business operations, organization, policies,
procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in performing steno­
graphic duties and responsible clerical tasks such as maintaining follow­
up files; assembling material for reports, memoranda, and letters; com­
posing simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing incoming
mail; and answering routine questions, etc.

c. Compiles or assists in compiling periodic reports on the basis
of general instructions.
d. Schedules tentative appointments without prior clearance. A s­
sembles necessary background material for scheduled meetings.
Makes arrangements for meetings and conferences.
e. Explains supervisor's requirements to other employees in super­
visor's unit. (Also types, takes dictation, and files.)
The following tabulation shows the level of the secretary for each
LS and LR combination:

Level of secretary's
_____ supervisor_____

TYPIST
Class
Class
Class
Class

E
D
C
B

LR—
2
Class
Class
Class
Class

D
C
B
A

STENOGRAPHER
Prim ary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to transcribe
the dictation. May also type from written copy. May operate from a
stenographic pool. May occasionally transcribe from voice recordings (if
primary duty is transcribing from recordings, see Transcribing-Machine
Typist).
NOTE: This job is distinguished from that of a secretary in that a
secretary normally works in a confidential relationship with only one manager
or executive and performs more responsible and discretionary tasks as
described in the secretary job definition.
Stenographer, General
Dictation involves a normal routine vocabulary. May maintain files,
keep simple records, or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks.



Primary duty is to type copy of voice recorded dictation which does
not involve varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as that used in
legal briefs or reports on scientific research. May also type from written
copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other relatively
routine clerical tasks. (See Stenographer definition for workers involved
with shorthand dictation.)

Level of secretary's responsibility
LR—1

LS—1
_______
LS—
2_______
LS—
3_______
LS—
4_______

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE TYPIST

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various materials or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May include
typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicating
processes. May do clerical work involving little special training, such
as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and
distributing incoming mail.
Class A . Performs one or more of the following: Typing material
in final form when it involves combining material from several sources; or
responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punctuation, etc., of tech­
nical or unusual words or foreign language material; or planning layout
and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and
balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit
circumstances.
Class B . Performs one or more of the following: Copy typing from
rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of forms, insurance policies, etc.;
or setting up simple standard tabulations; or copying more complex tables
already set up and spaced properly.
FILE CLERK
Files, classifies, and retrieves material in an established filing
system. May perform clerical and manual tasks required to maintain files.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.

F IL E CLER K — Continued

ORDER CLERK— Continued

Class A . Classifies and indexes file material such as correspond­
ence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an established filing system
containing a number of varied subject matter files. May also file this
material. May keep records of various types in conjunction with the files.
May lead a small group of lower level file clerks.

adequacy of information recorded; ascertaining credit rating of customer;
furnishing customer with acknowledgement of receipt of order; following-up
to see that order is delivered by the specified date or to let customer know
of a delay in delivery; maintaining order file; checking shipping invoice
against original order.

Class B . Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer subheadings.
Prepares simple related index and cross-reference aids. As requested,
locates clearly identified material in files and forwards material. May per­
form related clerical tasks required to maintain and service files.

Exclude workers paid on a commission basis or whose duties include
any of the following: Receiving orders for services rather than for material
or merchandise; providing customers with consultative advice using knowl­
edge gained from engineering or extensive technical training; emphasizing
selling skills; handling material or merchandise as an integral part of the job.

Class C. Perform s routine filing of material that has already been
classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classification
system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numerical). As requested,
locates readily available material in files and forwards material; and may
fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerical and manual tasks
required to maintain and service files.

Positions
definitions:

MESSENGER
Perform s various routine duties such as running errands, operating
minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and distributing
mail, and other minor clerical work. Exclude positions that require operation
of a motor vehicle as a significant duty.

are

classified

into

levels

according to the following

Class A . Handles orders that involve making judgments such as
choosing which specific product or material from the establishment's product
lines will satisfy the customer's needs, or determining the price to be quoted
when pricing involves more than merely referring to a price list or making
some simple mathematical calculations.
Class B . Handles orders involving items which have readily iden­
tified uses and applications. May refer to a catalog, manufacturer's manual,
or similar document to insure that proper item is supplied or to verify
price of ordered item.
ACCOUNTING CLERK

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a telephone switchboard or console used with a private
branch exchange (PBX ) system to relay incoming, outgoing, and intrasystem
calls. May provide information to callers, record and transmit messages,
keep record of calls placed and toll charges. Besides operating a telephone
switchboard or console, may also type or perform routine clerical work
(typing or routine clerical work may occupy the major portion of the worker's
time, and is usually performed while at the switchboard or console). Chief or
lead operators in establishments employing more than one operator are
excluded. For an operator who also acts as a receptionist, see Switchboard
Operator-Receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
At a single-position telephone switchboard or console, acts both as
an operator— see Switchboard Operator— and as a receptionist. Receptionist's
work involves such duties as greeting visitors; determining nature of visitor's
business and providing appropriate information; referring visitor to appro­
priate person in the organization or contacting that person by telephone and
arranging an appointment; keeping a log of visitors.
ORDER CLERK
Receives written or verbal customers' purchase orders for material
or merchandise from customers or sales people. Work typically involves
some combination of the following duties: Quoting prices; determining availa­
bility of ordered items and suggesting substitutes when necessary; advising
expected delivery date and method of delivery; recording order and customer
information on order sheets; checking order sheets for accuracy and



Performs one or more accounting clerical tasks such as posting to
registers and ledgers; reconciling bank accounts; verifying the internal con­
sistency, completeness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting documents;
assigning prescribed accounting distribution codes; examining and verifying
for clerical accuracy various types of reports, lists, calculations, posting,
etc.; or preparing simple or assisting in preparing more complicated journal
vouchers. May work in either a manual or automated accounting system.
The work requires a knowledge of clerical methods and office
practices and procedures which relates to the clerical processing and re­
cording of transactions and accounting information. With experience, the
worker typically becomes familiar with the bookkeeping and accounting terms
and procedures used in the assigned work, but is not required to have a
knowledge of the formal principles of bookkeeping and accounting.
Positions
definitions:

are

classified into levels on the basis of the following

Class A . Under general supervision, performs accounting clerical
operations which require the application of experience and judgment, for
example, clerically processing complicated or nonrepetitive accounting trans­
actions, selecting among a substantial variety of prescribed accounting codes
and classifications, or tracing transactions through previous accounting
actions to determine source of discrepancies. May be assisted by one or
more class B accounting clerks.
Class B . Under close supervision, following detailed instructions
and standardized procedures, performs one or more routine accounting
clerical operations, such as posting to ledgers, cards, or worksheets

35

ACCOUNTING CLERK— Continued

P A Y R O L L CLERK— Continued

where identification of items and locations of postings are clearly indicated;
checking accuracy and completeness of standardized and repetitive records
or accounting documents; and coding documents using a few prescribed
accounting codes.

listings against source records; tracing and correcting errors in listings;
and assisting in preparation of periodic summary payroll reports. In a nonautomated payroll system, computes wages. Work may require a practical
knowledge of governmental regulations, company payroll policy, or the
computer system for processing payrolls.

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typewriter key­
board) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and
experience in basic bookkeeping principles, and familiarity with the structure
of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper records and
distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each phase of the work.
May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B . Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of a
set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases
or sections include accounts payable, payroll, customers' accounts (not in­
cluding a simple type of billing described under machine biller), cost dis­
tribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist
in preparation of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting
department.
MACHINE BILLER
Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other than
an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings
or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental to billing
operations. For wage study purposes, machine billers are classified by type
of machine, as follows:
Billing-machine b ille r. Uses a special billing machine (combination
typing and adding machine) to prepare bills and invoices from customers'
purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memoranda, etc.
Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges
and entry of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on
the billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by
machine. The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

KEY ENTRY OPERATOR
Operates keyboard-controlled data entry device such as keypunch
machine or key-operated magnetic tape or disk encoder to transcribe
data into a form suitable for computer processing. Work requires skill in
operating an alphanumeric keyboard and an understanding of transcribing
procedures and relevant data entry equipment.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following
definitions:
Class A . Work requires the application of experience and judgment
in selecting procedures to be followed and in searching for, interpreting,
selecting, or coding items to be entered from a variety of source documents.
On occasion may also perform routine work as described for class B.
NOTE: Excluded are operators above class A using the key entry
controls to access, read, and evaluate the substance of specific records to
take substantive actions, or to make entries requiring a similar level of
knowledge.
Class B . Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision
or following specific procedures or detailed instructions, works from
various standardized source documents which have been coded and require
little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be entered. Refers
to supervisor problems arising from erroneous items, codes, or missing
information.

Professional and Technical
COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS

Bookkeeping-machine b iller. Uses a bookkeeping machine (with or
without a typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers' bills as part of the
accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the simultaneous entry of
figures on customers' ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates
figures on a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints
automatically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge
of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.
PAYROLL CLERK
Performs the clerical tasks necessary to process payrolls and to
maintain payroll records. Work involves most of the following: Processing
workers' time or production records; adjusting workers' records for changes
in wage rates, supplementary benefits, or tax deductions; editing payroll




Analyzes business problems to formulate procedures for solving
them by use of electronic data processing equipment. Develops a complete
description of all specifications needed to enable programmers to prepare
required digital computer programs. Work involves most of the following:
Analyzes subject-matter operations to be automated and identifies conditions
and criteria required to achieve satisfactory results; specifies number and
types of records, files, and documents to be used; outlines actions to be
performed by personnel and computers in sufficient detail for presentation
to management and for programming (typically this involves preparation of
work and data flow charts); coordinates the development of test problems and
participates in trial runs of new and revised systems; and recommends
equipment changes to obtain more effective overall operations. (NOTE:
Workers performing both systems analysis and programming should be
classified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)

C O M P U T E R SYSTEMS A N A L Y S T , BUSINESS— Continued

C O M PU T E R PRO G R AM M ER , BUSINESS— Continued

Does not include employees primarily responsible for the man­
agement or supervision of other electronic data processing employees,
or systems analysts primarily concerned with scientific or engineering
problems.

language, cause the manipulation of data to achieve desired results. Work
involves most of the following: Applies knowledge of computer capa­
bilities, mathematics, logic employed by computers, and particular sub­
ject matter involved to analyze charts and diagrams of the problem to
be programmed; develops sequence of program steps; writes detailed flow
charts to show order in which data will be processed; converts these
charts to coded instructions for machine to follow; tests and corrects
programs; prepares instructions for operating personnel during production
run; analyzes, reviews, and alters programs to increase operating effi­
ciency or adapt to new requirements; maintains records of program de­
velopment and revisions. (NOTE: Workers performing both systems anal­
ysis and programming should be classified as systems analysts if this is
the skill used to determine their pay.)

For wage study purposes, systems analysts are classified as follows:
Class A . Works independently or under only general direction on
complex problems involving all phases of systems analysis. Problems are
complex because of diverse sources of input data and multiple-use require­
ments of output data. (For example, develops an integrated production
scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales analysis record in
which every item of each type is automatically processed through the full
system of records and appropriate followup actions are initiated by the
computer.) Confers with persons concerned to determine the data processing
problems and advises subject-matter personnel on the implications of new or
revised systems of data processing operations. Makes recommendations, if
needed, for approval of major systems installations or changes and for
obtaining equipment.

Does not include employees primarily responsible for the man­
agement or supervision of other electronic data processing employees,
or programmers primarily concerned with scientific and/or engineering
problems.
For wage study purposes, programmers are classified as follows:

May provide functional direction to lower level systems analysts
who are assigned to assist.
Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on
problems that are relatively uncomplicated to analyze, plan, program, and
operate. Problems are of limited complexity because sources of input data
are homogeneous and the output data are closely related. (For example,
develops systems for maintaining depositor accounts in a bank, maintaining
accounts receivable in a retail establishment, or maintaining inventory
accounts in a manufacturing or wholesale establishment.) Confers with
persons concerned to determine the data processing problems and advises
subject-matter personnel on the implications of the data processing systems
to be applied.
OR
Works on a segment of a complex data processing scheme or
system, as described for class A. Works independently on routine assign­
ments and receives instruction and guidance on complex assignments. Work
is reviewed for accuracy of judgment, compliance with instructions, and to
insure proper alignment with the overall system.

Class A . Works independently or under only general direction
on complex problems which require competence in all phases of pro­
gramming concepts and practices. Working from diagrams and charts
which identify the nature of desired results, major processing steps to
be accomplished, and the relationships between various steps of the prob­
lem solving routine; plans the full range of programming actions needed
to efficiently utilize the computer system in achieving desired end products.
At this level, programming is difficult because computer equip­
ment must be organized to produce several interrelated but diverse prod­
ucts from numerous and diverse data elements. A wide variety and ex­
tensive number of internal processing actions must occur. This requires
such actions as development of common operations which can be re­
used, establishment of linkage points between operations, adjustments to
data when program requirements exceed computer storage capacity, and
substantial manipulation and resequencing of data elements to form a
highly integrated program.
May provide functional direction to lower level programmers who
are assigned to assist.

COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS

Class B. Works independently or under only general direction on
relatively simple programs, or on simple segments of complex programs.
Programs (or segments) usually process information to produce data in two
or three varied sequences or formats. Reports and listings are produced by
refining, adapting, arraying, or making minor additions to or deletions from
input data which are readily available. While numerous records may be
processed, the data have been refined in prior actions so that the accuracy
and sequencing of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typically,
the program deals with routine recordkeeping operations.

Converts statements of business problems, typically prepared by a
systems analyst, into a sequence of detailed instructions which are re­
quired to solve the problems by automatic data processing equipment.
Working from charts or diagrams, the programmer develops the pre­
cise instructions which, when entered into the computer system in coded

Works on complex programs (as described for class A) under
close direction of a higher level programmer or supervisor. May assist
higher level programmer by independently performing less difficult tasks
assigned, and performing more difficult tasks under fairly close direction.

Class C. Works under immediate supervision, carrying out analyses
as assigned, usually of a single activity. Assignments are designed to
develop and expand practical experience in the application of procedures and
skills required for systems analysis work. For example, may assist a higher
level systems analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required by
programmers from information developed by the higher level analyst.




OR

C O M PU T E R PR O G R AM M ER , BUSINESS— Continued

C O M PU T E R O PERATOR— Continued

May guide or instruct lower level programmers.

Class B . In addition to established production runs, work assign­
ments include runs involving new programs, applications, and procedures
(i.e., situations which require the operator to adapt to a variety of problems).
At this level, the operator has the training and experience to work fairly
independently in carrying out most assignments. Assignments may require
the operator to select from a variety of standard setup and operating
procedures. In responding to computer output instructions or error con­
ditions, applies standard operating or corrective procedures, but may
deviate from standard procedures when standard procedures fail if deviation
does not materially alter the computer unit's production plans. Refers the
problem or aborts the program when procedures applied do not provide a
solution. May guide lower level operators.

Class C . Makes practical applications of programming practices
and concepts usually learned in formal training courses. Assignments
are designed to develop competence in the application of standard pro­
cedures to routine problems. Receives close supervision on new aspects
of assignments; and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy and conformance
with required procedures.
COMPUTER OPERATOR
In accordance with operating instructions, monitors and operates
the control console of a digital computer to process data. Executes runs by
either serial processing (processes one program at a time) or multi­
processing (processes two or more programs simultaneously). The following
duties characterize the work of a computer operator:
- Studies operating
needed.

instructions

- Loads equipment
paper, etc.).

wi t h

to

required

determine
items

equipment

(tapes,

Class C . Work assignments are limited to established production
runs (i.e., programs which present few operating problems). Assignments
may consist primarily of on-the-job training (sometimes augmented by
classroom instruction). When learning to run programs, the supervisor or a
higher level operator provides detailed written or oral guidance to the
operator before and during the run. After the operator has gained experience
with a program, however, the operator works fairly independently in
applying standard operating or corrective procedures in responding to
computer output instructions or error conditions, but refers problems to a
higher level operator or the supervisor when standard procedures fail.

setup

cards, disks,

- Switches necessary auxilliary equipment into system.
- Starts and operates computer.

PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT OPERATOR

- Responds to operating and computer output instructions.
- Reviews error messages and makes corrections during operation
or refers problems.

Operates peripheral equipment w h i c h directly supports digital
computer operations. Such equipment is uniquely and specifically designed
for computer applications, but need not be physically or electronically
connected to a computer. Printers, plotters, card read/punches, tape
readers, tape units or drives, disk units or drives, and data display units
are examples of such equipment.

- Maintains operating record.
May test-run new or modified programs. May assist in modifying
systems or programs. The scope of this definition includes trainees working
to become fully qualified computer operators, fully qualified computer
operators, and lead operators providing technical assistance to lower level
operators. It excludes workers who monitor and operate remote terminals.

The following duties characterize the work of a peripheral equipment
ope rator:

Class A. In addition to work assignments described for a class B
operator (see below) the work of a class A operator involves at least one
of the following:

- Loading printers and plotters with correct paper; adjusting
controls for forms, thickness, tension, printing density, and
location; and unloading hard copy.

- Deviates from standard procedures to avoid the loss of infor­
mation or to conserve computer time even though the procedures
applied materially alter the computer unit's production plans.

- Labelling tape reels, disks, or card decks.
- Checking labels and mounting and dismounting designated tape
reels or disks on specified units or drives.

- Tests new program s, applications, and procedures.
- Advises programmers
techniques.

and

subject-matter

experts

- Setting controls which regulate operation of the equipment.
on s e t u p

- Observing panel lights for warnings and error indications and
taking appropriate action.

- Assists in (1) maintaining, modifying, and developing operating
systems or programs; (2) developing operating instructions and
techniques to cover problem situations; and/or (3) switching to
emergency backup procedures (such assistance requires a working
knowledge of program language, computer features, and software
systems).

- Examining tapes, cards, or other material for creases, tears,
or other defects which could cause processing problems.
This classification excludes workers (1) who monitor and operate a
control console (see computer operator) or a remote terminal, or (2) whose
duties are limited to operating decollaters, bursters, separators, or similar
equipment.

An operator at this level typically guides lower level operators.



38

C O M PU T E R D A T A LIB R A R IA N

ELECTRO NICS TECH NICIAN

Maintains library of media (tapes, disks, cards, cassettes) used
for automatic data processing applications. The following or similar duties
characterize the work of a computer data librarian: Classifying, cataloging,
and storing media in accordance with a standardized system; upon proper
requests, releasing media for processing; maintaining records of releases
and returns; inspecting returned media for damage or excessive wear to
determine whether or not they need replacing. May perform minor repairs
to damaged tapes.

Works on various types of electronic equipment and related devices
by performing one or a combination of the following: Installing, maintaining,
repairing, overhauling, troubleshooting, modifying, constructing, and testing.
Work requires practical application of technical knowledge of electronics
principles, ability to determine malfunctions, and skill to put equipment in
required operating condition.

DRAFTER
Class A . Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having
distinctive design features that differ significantly from established drafting
precedents. Works in close support with the design originator, and may
recommend minor design changes. Analyzes the effect of each change on the
details of form, function, and positional relationships of components and
parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory assistance. Completed work
is reviewed by design originator for consistency with prior engineering
determinations. May either prepare drawings or direct their preparation by
lower level drafters.
Class B . Perform s nonroutine and complex drafting assignments
that require the application of most of the standardized drawing techniques
regularly used. Duties typically involve such work as: Prepares working
drawings of subassemblies with irregular shapes, multiple functions, and
precise positional relationships between components; prepares architectural
drawings for construction of a building including detail drawings of founda­
tions, wall sections, floor plans, and roof. Uses accepted formulas and
manuals in making necessary computations to determine quantities of
materials to be used, load capacities, strengths, stresses, etc. Receives
initial instructions, requirements, and advice from supervisor. Completed
work is checked for technical adequacy.
Class C. Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for
engineering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types of
drawings prepared include isometric projections (depicting three dimensions
in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning of components
and convey needed information. Consolidates details from a number of
sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggested methods of
approach, applicable precedents, and advice on source materials are given
with initial assignments. Instructions are less complete when assignments
recur. Work may be spot-checked during progress.
DRAFTER-TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing
cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not
include tracing limited to plans primarily consisting of straight lines and a
large scale not requiring close delineation.)

The equipment— consisting of either many different kinds of circuits
or multiple repetition of the same kind of circuit— includes, but is not limited
to, the following: (a) Electronic transmitting and receiving equipment (e.g.,
radar, radio, television, telephone, sonar, navigational aids), (b) digital and
analog computers, and (c) industrial and medical measuring and controlling
equipment.
This classification excludes repairers of such standard electronic
equipment as common office machines and household radio and television
sets; production assemblers and testers; workers whose primary duty is
servicing electronic test instruments; technicians who have administrative
or supervisory responsibility; and drafters, designers, and professional
engineers.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following
definitions:
Class A . Applies advanced technical knowledge to solve unusually
complex problems (i.e., those that typically cannot be solved solely by
reference to manufacturers' manuals or similar documents! in working on
electronic equipment. Examples of such problems include location and
density of circuitry, electromagnetic radiation, isolating malfunctions, and
frequent engineering changes. Work involves: A detailed understanding of
the interrelationships of circuits; exercising independent judgment in per­
forming such tasks as making circuit analyses, calculating wave forms,
tracing relationships in signal flow; and regularly using complex test in­
struments (e.g., dual trace oscilloscopes, Q-meters, deviation meters,
pulse generators).
Work may be reviewed by supervisor (frequently an engineer or
designer) for general compliance with accepted practices. May provide
technical guidance to lower level technicians.
Class B . Applies comprehensive technical knowledge to solve com­
plex problems (i.e., those that typically can be solved solely by properly
interpreting manufacturers' manuals or similar documents) in working on
electronic equipment. Work involves: A familiarity with the interrelation­
ships of circuits; and judgment in determining work sequence and in selecting
tools and testing instruments, usually less complex than those used by the
class A technician.
Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher
level technician, and work is reviewed for specific compliance with accepted
practices and work assignments. May provide technical guidance to lower
level technicians.

AND/OR
Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized items.
Work is closely supervised during progress.



Class C. Applies working technical knowledge to perform simple or
routine tasks in working on electronic equipment, following detailed in­
structions which cover virtually all procedures. Work typically involves such

E LECTR O NICS TE C H N IC IA N — Continued

M A IN T E N A N C E E LE C T R IC IA N — Continued

tasks as: Assisting higher level technicians by performing such activities as
replacing components, wiring circuits, and taking test readings; repairing
simple electronic equipment; and using tools and common test instruments
(e.g., multimeters, audio signal generators, tube testers, oscilloscopes). Is
not required to be familiar with the interrelationships of circuits. This
knowledge, however, may be acquired through assignments designed to in­
crease competence (including classroom training) so that worker can advance
to higher level technician.

equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of
wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of electrician's handtools
and measuring and testing instruments. In general, the work of the main­
tenance electrician requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MAINTENANCE PAINTER
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an estab­
lishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface peculiarities
and types of paint required for different applications; preparing surface for
painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes
and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May mix colors,
oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or con­
sistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher
level technician. Work is typically spot checked, but is given detailed
review when new or advanced assignments are involved.
REGISTERED INDUSTRIAL NURSE
A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general medical
direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or
suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or
injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees' injuries; keeping
records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and health evaluations of
applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving
health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or
other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
Nursing supervisors or head nurses in establishments employing more than
one nurse are excluded.

MAINTENANCE MACHINIST
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work in­
volves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and specifica­
tions; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of machinist's handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard
machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making standard
shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds, and speeds
of machining; knowledge of the working properties of the common metals;
selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment required for this work;
and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the
machinist's work normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

Maintenance, Toolroom, and Powerplant
MAINTENANCE CARPENTER

MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (MACHINERY)

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain
in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters,
benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made of wood
in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Pieinning and
laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal instructions;
using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools, and standard
measuring instruments; making standard shop computations relating to di­
mensions of work; and selecting materials necessary for the work. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Examining machines and mechanical
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling
machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools in
scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items
obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a
machine shop or sending the machine to a machine shop for major repairs;
preparing written specifications for major repairs or for the production of
parts ordered from machine shops; reassembling machines; and making all
necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a machinery
maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary
duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIAN
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the in­
stallation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, distri­
bution, or utilization of electric energy in sin establishment. Work involves
most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of electrical
equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, controllers,
circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other trans­
mission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other
specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical system or



MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (MOTOR VEH ICLE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an estab­
lishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and per­
forming repairs that involve the use of such handtools as' wrenches, gauges,

40

M A IN T E N A N C E M EC H AN IC (M OTOR V E H IC L E )— Continued

M A IN T E N A N C E TRADES H E L P E R

drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; re­
assembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle and making
necessary adjustments; and aligning wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or
tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the motor vehicle maintenance
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by
performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping a
worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, machine,
and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding materials or tools; and
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding materials
and tools, and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted to
perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are also
performed by workers on a full-time basis.

This classification d o e s not i n c l u d e
customers' vehicles in automobile repair shops.

mechanics

who

repair

MAINTENANCE PIPEFITTE R

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR (TOOLROOM)
Specializes in operating one or more than one type of machine
tool (e.g., jig borer, grinding machine, engine lathe, milling machine) to
machine metal for use in making or maintaining jigs, fixtures, cutting tools,
gauges, or metal dies or molds used in shaping or forming metal or
nonmetallic material (e.g., plastic, plaster, rubber, glass). Work typically
involves: Planning and performing difficult machining operations which
require complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; setting up machine
tool or tools (e.g., install cutting tools and adjust guides, stops, working
tables, and other controls to handle the size of stock to be machined;
determine proper feeds, speeds, tooling, and operation sequence or select
those prescribed in drawings, blueprints, or layouts); using a variety of
precision measuring instruments; making necessary adjustments during
machining operation to achieve requisite dimensions to very close tolerances.
May be required to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils,
to recognize when tools need dressing, and to dress tools. In general, the
work of a machine-tool operator (toolroom) at the skill level called for in
this classification requires extensive knowledge of machine-shop and tool­
room practice usually acquired through considerable on-the-job training and
experience.

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Laying
out work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings or other
written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct lengths with
chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machines; threading
pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven
machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers;
making standard shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of
pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes
meet specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Workers primarily
engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or heating systems
are excluded.
MAINTENANCE SH EET -M E T AL WORKER
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-metal
equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves,
lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out all types of
sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models, or other specifica­
tions; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-metal working
machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping,
fitting, and assembling; and installing sheet-metal articles as required. In
general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

For cross-industry wage study purposes, this classification does not
include machine-tool operators (toolroom) employed in tool and die jobbing
shops.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
Constructs and repairs jigs, fixtures, cutting tools, gauges, or
metal dies or molds used in shaping or forming metal or nonmetallic
material (e.g., plastic, plaster, rubber, glass). Work typically involves:
Planning and laying out work according to models, blueprints, drawings, or
other written or oral specifications; understanding the working properties of
common metals and alloys; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and
processes required to complete task; making necessary shop computations;
setting up and operating various machine tools and related equipment; using
various tool and die maker's handtools and precision measuring instruments;
working to very close tolerances; heat-treating metal parts and finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; fitting and assembling parts to pre­
scribed tolerances and allowances. In general, the tool and die maker's
work requires rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are
required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out work;
interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a variety of handtools
and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to stresses, strength
of materials, and centers of gravity; aligning and balancing equipment;
selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and
maintaining in good order power transmission equipment such as drives and
speed reducers. In general, the millwright's work normally requires a
rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.



For cross-industry wage study purposes, this classification does not
include tool and die makers who (1) are employed in tool and die jobbing
shops or (2) produce forging dies (die sinkers).

41

STATIONARY E N G IN E E R

S H IPPE R AND RECEIVER— Continued

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of
stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply the
establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or airconditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment such as
steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors, turbines, ventilating
and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps;
making equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation of machinery,
temperature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise these operations.
Head or chief engineers in establishments employing more than one engineer
are excluded.

Receivers typically are responsible for most of the following:
Verifying the correctness of incoming shipments by comparing items and
quantities unloaded against bills of lading, invoices, manifests, storage
receipts, or other records; checking for damaged goods; insuring that
goods are appropriately identified for routing to departments within the
establishment; preparing and keeping records of goods received.

BOILER TENDER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which em­
ployed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water and
safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

Material Movement and Custodial
TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
materials, merchandise, equipment, or workers between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and
customers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck
with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in
good working order. Sales route and over-the-road drivers are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by type and
rated capacity of truck, as follows:
Truckdriver, light truck
(straight truck, under IV2 tons, usually 4 wheels)
Truckdriver, medium truck
(straight truck, IV2 to 4 tons inclusive, usually 6 wheels)
Truckdriver, heavy truck
(straight truck, over 4 tons, usually 10 wheels)
Truckdriver, tractor-trailer
SHIPPER AND RECEIVER
Performs clerical and physical tasks in connection with shipping
goods of the establishment in which employed and receiving incoming
shipments. In performing day-to-day, routine tasks, follows established
guidelines. In handling unusual nonroutine problems, receives specific guid­
ance from supervisor or other officials. May direct and coordinate the
activities of other workers engaged in handling goods to be shipped or being
received.
Shippers typically are responsible for most of the following:
Verifying that orders are accurately filled by comparing items and quantities
of goods gathered for shipment against documents; insuring that shipments
are properly packaged, identified with shipping information, and loaded into
transporting vehicles; preparing and keeping records of goods shipped, e.g.,
manifests, bills of lading.




For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Shipper
Receiver
Shipper and receiver
WAREHOUSEMAN
As directed, performs a variety of warehousing duties which require
an understanding of the establishment's storage plan. Work involves most
of the following: Verifying materials (or merchandise) against receiving
documents, noting and reporting discrepancies and obvious damages; routing
materials to prescribed storage locations; storing, stacking, or palletizing
materials in accordance with prescribed storage methods; rearranging and
taking inventory of stored materials; examining stored materials and re­
porting deterioration and damage; removing material from storage and
preparing it for shipment. May operate hand or power trucks in performing
warehousing duties.
Exclude workers whose primary duties involve shipping and re­
ceiving work (see Shipper and Receiver and Shipping Packer), order filling
(see Order Filler), or operating power trucks (see Power-Truck Operator).
ORDER FILLER
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers'
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and in­
dicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisition
additional stock Or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other
related duties.
SHIPPING PACKER
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them
in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being dependent
upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the type of container
employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of items in
shipping containers and may involve one or more of the following: Knowledge
of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate
type and size of container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior
or other material to prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing
container; and applying labels or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

M A T E R IA L H A N D LIN G LA B O R E R

GU ARD— C ontinue d

A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or
other establishment whose duties involve one or more of the following:
Loading and unloading various rtiaterials and merchandise on or from freight
cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving, or placing
materials or merchandise in proper storage location; and transporting
materials or merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshore
workers, who load and unload ships, are excluded.

Guards employed by establishments which provide protective ser­
vices on a contract basis are included in this occupation.
For wage study purposes, guards are classified as follows:
Class A . Enforces regulations designed to prevent breaches of
security. Exercises judgment and uses discretion in dealing with emer­
gencies and security violations encountered. Determines whether first
response should be to intervene directly (asking for assistance when deemed
necessary and time allows), to keep situation under surveillance, or to re­
port situation so that it cam be handled by appropriate authority. Duties
require specialized training in methods am techniques of protecting security
d
areas. Commonly, the guard is required to demonstrate continuing physical
fitness and proficiency with firearms or other special weapons.

POW ER-TRUCK OPERATOR
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered truck
or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a warehouse,
manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

Class B . Carries out instructions primarily oriented toward in­
suring that emergencies and security violations are readily discovered and
reported to appropriate authority. Intervenes directly only in situations which
require minimal action to safeguard property or persons. Duties require
minimal training. Commonly, the guard is not required to demonstrate
physical fitness. May be armed, but generally is not required to demonstrate
proficiency in the use of firearms or special weapons.

For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of powertruck, as follows:
Forklift operator
Power-truck operator (other than forklift)

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and
washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial or
other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following: Sweeping,
mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips, trash, and other
refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or
trimmings; providing supplies and minor maintenance services; and cleaning
lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers who specialize in window
washing are excluded.

GUARD
Protects property from theft or damage, or persons from hazards
or interference. Duties involve serving at a fixed post, making rounds on
foot or by motor vehicle, or escorting persons or property. May be deputized
to make arrests. May also help visitors and customers by answering
questions and giving directions.




43

Service Contract
Act Surveys
The following areas are sur­
veyed periodically for use in admin­
istering the Service Contract Act
of 1965. Survey results are pub­
lished in releases which are availa­
ble, at no cost, while supplies last
from any of the BLS regional offices
shown on the back cover.
Alaska (statewide)
Albany, Ga.
Alexandria—
Leesville, La.
Alpena—
Standish—
Tawas City, Mich.
Ann Arbor, Mich.
Atlantic City, N.J.
Augusta, Ga.—
S.C.
Austin, Tex.
Bakersfield, Calif'.
Baton Rouge, La.
Battle Creek, Mich.
Beaumont—
Port Arthui—Orange, Tex.
Beaumont—
Port Arthur—
Orange
and Lake Charles, Tex.—
La.
Biloxi—
Gulfport and Pascagoula—
Moss Point, Miss.
Binghamton, N.Y.
Birmingham, Ala.
Bloomington—
Vincennes, Ind.
Bremerton—
Shelton, Wash.
Brunswick, Ga.
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Champaign—
Urbana—
Rantoul, 1 1
1.
Charleston—
North Charleston—
Waiterboro, S.C.
Charlotte—
Gastonia, N.C.
Cheyenne, Wyo.
Clarksville—
Hopkinsville, Tenn.—
Ky.
Colorado Springs, Colo.
Columbia—
Sumter, S.C.
Columbus, Ga.—
Ala.
Columbus, Miss.
Decatur, 1 1
1.
Des Moines, Iowa
Duluth—
Superior, Minn.—
Wis.
El Paso—
Alamogordo—
Las Cruces,
Tex.— Mex.
N.
Eugene—
Springfield—
Medford, Oreg.
Fayetteville, N.C.




Fort Lauderdale—
Hollywood
and West Palm Beach—
Boca Raton, Fla.
Fort Smith, Ark.—
Okla.
Frederick—
Hagers town—
Chambersburg, Md.-Pa.
Goldsboro, N.C.
Grand Island—
Hastings, Nebr.
Guam, Territory of
Harrisburg—
Lebanon, Pa.
Knoxville, Tenn.
Laredo, Tex.
Las Vegas—
Tonopah, Nev.
Lima, Ohio
Little Rock^North Little Rock, Ark.
Logansport—
Peru, Ind.
Lorain—
Elyria, Ohio
Lower Eastern Shore, Md.—
Va.—
Del.
Macon, Ga.
Madison, Wis.
Maine (statewide)
Mansfield, Ohio
McAllen—
Pharr—Edinburg
and Brownsville—
Harlingen—
San Benito, Tex.
Meridian, Miss.
Middlesex, Monmouth, and
Ocean Cos., N.J.
Mobile—
Pensacola—
Panama City,
Ala.—
Fla.
Montana (statewide)
Nashville—
Davidson, Tenn.
New Bernr-Jacksonville, N.C.
New Hampshire (statewide)
New London—
Norwich, Conn.—
R.I.
North Dakota (statewide)
Northern New York
Northwest Texas
Orlando, Fla.
Oxnard—
Simi Valley—
Ventura, Calif.
Peoria, 1 1
1.
Phoenix, Ariz.
Pine Bluff, Ark.
Pueblo, Colo.
Puerto Rico
Raleigh—
Durham, N.C.
Reno, Nev.
Salina, Kans.

Salinas—
Seaside—
Monterey, Calif.
Sandusky, Ohio
Santa Barbara—
Santa Maria—
Lompoc, Calif.
Savannah, Ga.
Selma, Ala.
Shreveport, La.
South Dakota (statewide)
Southern Idaho
Southwest Virginia
Spokane, Wash.
Springfield, 1 1
1.
Stockton, Calif.
Tacoma, Wash.
Tampa—
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Topeka, Kans.
Tucson—
Douglas, Ariz.
Tulsa, Okla.
Upper Peninsula, Mich.
Vermont (statewide)
Virgin Islands of the U.S.
Waco and Killeen—
Temple, Tex.
Waterloo—
Cedar Falls, Iowa
West Virginia (statewide)
Wichita Falls—
Lawton—
Altus ,
Tex.—
Okla.
Wilmington, Del.—
N.J.—
Md.
Y akima—
Richland—
Kennewick—
Pendleton, Wash.—
Oreg.

ALSO AVAILABLE—
An annual report on salaries for
accountants, auditors, chief account­
ants, attorneys, job analysts, direc­
tors of personnel, buyers, chemists,
engineers, engineering technicians,
drafters, and clerical employees
is available. Order as BLS Bulle­
tin 1980, National Survey of P ro ­
fessional, Administrative, Technical
and Clerical Pay, March 1977, $ 2.40
a copy, from any of the BLS re­
gional sales offices shown on the
back cover, or from the Superin­
tendent of Documents, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington,
D.C. 20402.

Area Wage
Surveys
A list of the latest bulletins available is presented below. Bulletins
may be purchased from any of the BLS regional offices shown on the back
cover, or from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Make checks payable to Superintendent of
Documents. A directory of occupational wage surveys, covering the years
1970 through 197 6, is available on request.
Area
Akron, Ohio, Dec. 1977____________________________________
Albany—
Schenectady—Troy, N .Y., Sept. 1977 ------ -------------Anaheim—
Santa Ana—
Garden Grove,
Calif., Oct. 1977___________________________________________
Atlanta, Ga., May 1977---------------------------------------------------Baltimore, Md., Aug. 1977---------------------------------------------Billings, Mont., July 1977 1--------------------------------------------Birmingham, Ala., Mar. 1978______________________________
Boston, Mass., Aug. 1977 -----------------------------------------------Buffalo, N.Y., Oct. 1977 ....................................................
Canton, Ohio, May 1978____________________________________
Chattanooga, Tenn.—
Ga., Sept. 1977 --------------------------------Chicago, 111., May 1977 1___________________________________
Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.—
Ind., July 19771----------------------------Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 1977 1 ------------------------------------------Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 1977----------------------------------------------Corpus Christi, Tex., July 1977 1-----------------------------------Dallas—
Fort Worth, Tex., Oct. 1977_______________________
Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111., Feb. 1978-------Dayton, Ohio, Dec. 1977 1------------------------------------------------Daytona Beach, Fla., Aug. 1977 1------------------------------------Denver—
Boulder, Colo., Dec. 1977 1--------------------------------Detroit, Mich., Mar. 1978__________________________________
Fresno, Calif., June 1977 -----------------------------------------------Gainesville, Fla., Sept. 1977 1-----------------------------------------Green Bay, Wis., July 1977--------------------------------------------Greensboro—
Winston-Salem—
High Point,
N.C., Aug. 1977 1 __________________________________________
Greenville—
Spartanburg, S.C., June 1977 ------------------------Hartford, Conn., Mar. 19781------------------------------------------Houston, Tex., Apr. 1978__________________________________
Huntsville, Ala., Feb. 1978________________________________
Indianapolis, Ind., Oct. 1977_______________________________
Jackson, M iss., Jan. 1978__________________________________
Jacksonville, Fla., Dec. 1977______________________________
Kansas City, Mo.—
Kans., Sept. 1977--------------------------------Los Angeles—
Long Beach, Calif., Oct. 1977---------------------Louisville, Ky.—
Ind., Nov. 1977 1__________________________
Memphis, Tenn.—
Ark.— iss., Nov. 1977-------------------------M




Bulletin number
and price*
1950-70, 80 cents
1950-52, 80 cents
1950-60,
1950-17,
1950-39,
1950-40,
2025-15,
1950-50,
1950-58,
2025-22,
1950-44,
1950-41,
1950-45,
1950-53,
1950-64,
1950-35,
1950-65,
2025-6,
1950-71,
1950-43,
1950-74,
2025-11,
1950-30,
1950-46,
1950-36,

$1.00
$1.20
$1.20
$1.00
80 cents
$1.20
$1.00
70 cents
70 cents
$1.40
$1.20
$1.40
$1.00
$1.00
$1.20
70 cents
$1.10
$1.00
$1.40
$1.20
70 cents
$1.00
70 cents

1950-42,
1950-33,
2025-14,
2025-23,
2025-4,
1950-56,
2025-1,
1950-67,
1950-54,
1950-61,
1950-66,
1950-63,

$1.10
70 cents
$1.20
$1.20
70 cents
$1.00
70 cents
70 cents
$1.00
$1.20
$1.20
70 cents

Area
Miami, Fla., Oct. 1977........... ..........................................
Milwaukee, Wis., Apr. 1978 1_____________________________
Minneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn.— is., Jan. 1978 1
W
___________
Nassau—
Suffolk, N .Y., June 1977 __________________________
Newark, N.J., Jan. 1978 1__________________________________
New Orleans, La., Jan. 1978______________________________
New York, N .Y ^ N .J ., May 1977___________________________
Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth, Va.—
N.C., May 1978_________________________ __________ _______
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth and
Norfolk—
Newport News—
Hampton, Va.—
N.C., May 1978___________
Northeast Pennsylvania, Aug. 1977 1_______________________
Oklahoma City, Okla., Aug. 1977 1 ________________________
Omaha, Nebr.-Iowa, Oct. 1977 1 ___________________________
Pater son—
Clifton—
Pas saic, N.J., June1977 ________________
Philadelphia, Pa.—
N.J., Nov. 1977__________ _____________
Pittsburgh, Pa., Jan. 1978________________________________
Portland, Maine, Dec. 1977_______________________________
Portland, Oreg.-W ash., May 1977 1_______________ ________
Poughkeepsie, N.Y., June 1977 ___________________________
Poughkeepsie—
Kingston—
Newburgh, N.Y., June 1976______
Providence-Warwick—
Pawtucket, R.I.—
Mass., June 1977 1 _________________ _______________ _______
Richmond, Va., June 1977 1 _______________________________
St. Louis, M o.-m ., Mar. 1978_____________________________
Sacramento, Calif., Dec. 1977 1___________________________
Saginaw, Mich., Nov. 1977----------------------------- --------------Salt Lake City—
Ogden, Utah, Nov. 1977___________________
San Antonio, Tex., May 1978______________________________
San Diego, Calif., Nov. 1977 1_____________________________
San Francisco—
Oakland, Calif., Mar.1978 1________________
San Jose, Calif., Mar. 1978 1______________________________
Seattle—
Everett, Wash., Dec. 1977________________________
South Bend, Ind., Aug. 1977 1 ______________________________
Toledo, Ohio-Mich., May 1978 1___________________________
Trenton, N.J., Sept. 1977__________________________________
Utica-Rome, N.Y., July 1977 1 ____________________________
Washington, D.C.-M d^-Va., Mar. 1978 *___________________
Wichita, Kans., Apr. 1978_________________________________
Worcester, Mass., Apr. 1978 1
____________________________
York, Pa., Feb. 1978 1_____________________________________

Bulletin number
and price *
1950-57, $1.00
2025-18, $1.40
2025-2, $1.40
1950-27, $1.00
2025-7, $1.40
2025-5, $1.00
1950-31, $1.20
2025-20, 70 cents
2025-21, 80 cents
1950-38, $1.10
1950-49, $1.10
1950-55, $1.10
1950-34, 70 cents
1950-62, $1.20
2025-3, $1.10
1950-69, 70 cents
1950-32, $1.20
1950-25, 70 cents
1900-55, 55 cents
1950-22, $1.20
1950-23, $1.10
2025-13, $1.20
1950-72, $1.00
1950-59, 70 cents
1950-68, 80 cents
2025-17, 70 cents
1950-73, $1.10
2025-10, $1.40
2025-9, $1.20
1950-75, 80 cents
1950-51, $1.10
2025-24, $1.20
1950-47, 70 cents
1950-37, $1.10
2025-12, $1.40
2025-16, 80 cents
2025-19, $1.10
2025-8, $1.10

* Prices are determined by the Government Printing Office and are subject to change.
1 Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212

Postage and Fees Paid
U.S. Department of Labor
Third Class Mail

O fficial Business
Penalty for private use, $300

Lab-441

Burtftu of Labor Statistics Regional Offices
Kaftan I

Region N

Region IN

Region IV

1803 JFK Factor* Ruikfcng
Government Center
Boston, Mass 02303
Phone 223-8761 (Area Coda 617)

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N Y 10036
Phone: 399-5406 (Area Code 212)

3535 Market Street,
P O Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa 19101
Phone: 596-1154 (Area Code 215)

Suite 540
>371 Peachtree St., N.E.
Atlanta, Ga 30309
Phone. 881-4418 (Area Code 404)

Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Vermont

New Jersey
New York
Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands

Delaware
District of Columbia
Maryland
Pennsylvania
Virginia
West Virginia

Alabama
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Mississippi
North Carolina
South Carolina
Tennessee

Region V

Region VI

Regions VII and VIM

Regions IX and X

9th Floor, 230 S Dearborn St
Chicago, III 60604
Phone 353-1880 (Area Code 312)

Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)

Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St.. 15th Floor
Kansas City, Mo 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

450 Golden Gate Ave
Box 36017
San Francisco. Calif. 94102
Phone 556-4678 (Area Code 415)

Arkansas
Louisiana
New Mexico
Oklahoma
Texas

VN
Iowa
Kansas
Missouri
Nebraska

IX
Arizona
California
Hawaii
Nevada

Hlinois
Indiana

Michigan
Minnesota
Ohio
W is c o n s in




VIM
Colorado
Montana
North Dakota
South Dakota
Lltah
Wyoming

X
Alaska
Idaho
Oregon
Washington


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102