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Daytona Beach, Florida,
Metropolitan Area, August 1977

Area
Wage
Survey
Bulletin 1950-43

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics




v

<jV' . \>v

Preface
This bulletin provides results of an August 1977 survey of occu­
pational earnings and supplementary wage benefits in the Daytona Beach,
Florida, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. The survey was made as
part of the Bureau of Labor Statistics' annual area wage survey program.
It was conducted by the Bureau's regional office in Atlanta, Ga., under the
general direction of Jerry G. Adams, Assistant Regional Commissioner for
Operations. The survey could not have been accomplished without the




cooperation of the many firms whose wage and salary data provided the basis
for the statistical information in this bulletin. The Bureau wishes to express
sincere appreciation for the cooperation received.
Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be re­
produced without permission of the Federal Government. Please credit the
Bureau of Labor Statistics and cite the name and number of this publication.

Area
Wage
Survey

Daytona Beach, Florida,
Metropolitan Area, August 1977

U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

Contents

Page

Page

November 1977
Bulletin 1950-43

Introduction-----------------------------------------------------

2

B-4.

Tables:

B-5.

A.

B-6.

Earnings, all establishments:
A -l. Weekly earnings of office
workers------------------------------------- 3
A-2. Weekly earnings of profes­
sional and technical w orkers------ 4
A-3. Average weekly earnings of
office, professional, and
technical workers, by sex---------- 4
A-4. Hourly earnings of mainte­
nance, toolroom, and
powerplant w orkers------------------- 5
A-5. Hourly earnings of material
movement and custodial
workers------------------------------------- A-6. Average hourly earnings of
maintenance, toolroom,
powerplant, material move­
ment, and custodial workers,
A-7.

B.

B-3.




7

Establishment practices and supple­
mentary wage provisions:
B -l. Minimum entrance salaries
for inexperienced typists
B-2.

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, GPO
Bookstores, or BLS Regional Offices listed on back cover.

Percent increases in average
hourly earnings, adjusted for
employment shifts,for se­
lected occup ational g r o u p s ---------

Late-shift pay provisions for
full-time manufacturing
plant w orkers---------------------------Scheduled weekly hours and
days of full-time first-shift

9

B-7.
Appendix A.
Appendix B.

Annual paid holidays for full­
time workers----------------------------- 11
Paid vacation provisions for
full-time workers------------------------12
Health, insurance, and pension
plans for full-time workers--------14
Life insurance plans for
5
full-time workers------------------------1
Scope and method of survey----------- 19
Occupational descriptions------------- 25

Introduction
This area is 1 of 74 in which the U.S. Department of Labor's Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings and re­
lated benefits. (See list of areas on inside back cover.) In' each area,
occupational earnings data (A -series tables) are collected annually. Infor­
mation on establishment practices and supplementary wage benefits (B series tables) is obtained every third year.

Table A-7 provides percent changes in average hourly earnings of
office clerical workers, electronic data processing workers, industrial
nurses, skilled maintenance trades workers, and unskilled plant workers.
Where possible, data are presented for all industries and for manufacturing
and nonmanufacturing separately. Data are not presented for skilled main­
tenance workers in nonmanufacturing because the number of workers em­
ployed in this occupational group in nonmanufacturing is too small to warrant
separate presentation. This table provides a measure of wage trends after
elimination of changes in average earnings caused by employment shifts
among establishments as well as turnover of establishments included in
survey samples. For further details, see appendix A.

Each year after all individual area wage surveys have been com­
pleted, two summary bulletins are issued. The first brings together data
for each metropolitan area surveyed; the second presents national and re ­
gional estimates, projected from individual metropolitan area data, for all
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States, excluding Alaska
and Hawaii.

B -series tables

A major consideration in the area wage survey program is the need
to describe the level and movement of wages in a variety of labor markets,
through the analysis of (1) the level and distribution of wages by occupation,
and (2) the movement of wages by occupational category and skill level.
The program develops information that may be used for many purposes,
including wage and salary administration, collective bargaining, and a s­
sistance in determining plant location. Survey results also are used by the
U.S. Department of Labor to make wage determinations under the Service
Contract Act of 1965.

The B -series tables present information on minimum entrance
salaries for inexperienced typists and clerks; late-shift pay provisions and
practices for plant workers in manufacturing; and data separately for plant
and office workers on scheduled weekly hours and days of first-shift work­
ers; paid holidays; paid vacations; health, insurance, and pension plans;
and more detailed information on life insurance plans.
Appendixes

A -series tables

Appendix A describes the methods and concepts used in the area
wage survey program. It provides information on the scope of the area
survey, on the area's industrial composition in manufacturing, and on
labor-management agreement coverage.

Tables A - l through A-6 provide estimates of straight-time weekly
or hourly earnings for workers in occupations common to a variety of
manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. For the 31 largest survey
areas, tables A - 8 through A - 13 provide similar data for establishments
employing 500 workers or more.




Appendix B provides job descriptions used by Bureau field econ­
omists to classify workers by occupation.

2

A. Earnings
Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1977
N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly e a r n in g s o f—
Number
of
workers

Average
weekly

*

i

$

$

*

*

*

*

$

S

$

%

$

%

S

$

S

$

%

S

$

ALL WORKERS

(standard)

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

240

250

260

270

280

300

100

O c c u p a tio n and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

240

250

260

270

280

300

320

6
2

6
4
2

7
2
5

8
4

10
10
■

17
17
”

2
2
“

-

-

-

3
2
1

1

~

-

4

2
2
“

9
9

4

11
6
5

”

1

1
“

5
1

2
2

2
2

“

1
1

-

9
9

“

2
1

“

“

“

“

2
1

2
2

-

-

16
16

“

-

“

-

-

1
~

~

-

-

90
Me an2

Median 2

Middle range 2

and
u n d er

SECRETARIES -------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------

99
68
31

$
$
$
$
40.0 183.50 180.50 150.00-217.00
39.5 194.00 208.00 165.00-217.00
40.0 161.00 155.00 138.00-171.50

-

-

1

2

~

-

1

2

14
8
6

SECRETARIES. CLASS C ------------MANUFACTURING --------------------

29
17

40.0 192.50 188.00 164.00-230.00
39.5 212.00 230.00 190.00-230.00

-

-

-

-

2

4

1

1
“

SECRETARIES. CLASS 0 ------------MANUFACTURING --------------------

94

36

40.0 176.50 166.50 138.00-217.00
40.0 181.00 177.00 154.00-217.00

10
7

1
1

6
5

4
4

STENOGRAPHERS ------------------------

20

40.0 182.00 159.50 147.00-217.00

7

2

i

2

-

1

-

1

-

2

-

1

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

8
8

-

-

-

_

_
-

-

_

_

-

-

"

_

_

_

_

-

-

1
-

-

-

-

-

1
-

4
4

1
1

4
2

“

1
“

TYPISTS ------------------------------N0NMANUFACTURIN6 -----------------

23
20

39.0 164.00 160.00 129.50-219.50
39.0 167.50 156.00 137.00-219.50

1
1

2
1

3
3

-

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS --------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------

35
30

39.5 122.00 108.00 104.00-125.00
40.0 118.00 108.00 104.00-115.00

-

18
18

5
5

3
3

4

1
1

1
1

1
1

-

~

-

1
-

-

“

-

-

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSNONMANUFACTURING -----------------

27
18

39.5 122.00 112.00 110.00-135.00
39.0 117.50 110.00 108.50-134.50

2
2

5
5

8
4

2
1

6
6

3

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

ACCOUNTING CLERKS ------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------

152
44
108

39.0 144.50 131.00 115.00-167.50
38.5 156.50 163.00 126.00-180.00
39.0 139.50 125.50 114.50-147.00

10
1
9

17
4
13

15
i
14

30
6
24

14
6
8

16
2
14

9
9

3
3
-

12
9
3

9
4
5

3
3
“

4
2

3
3
“

-

-

2

ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS A -----MANUFACTURING -------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------

54
16
38

39.5 177.00 157.50 145.00-197.50
39.0 179.50 178.00 168.50-198.50
39.5 176.00 151.00 145.00-185.00

-

-

-

5
1

4
2
2

13
1
12

6

-

4
4

6

3
3

3
1

3
3

-

6

~

ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS B -----MANUFACTURING --------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------

98
28
70

38.5 126.50 123.00 108.50-133.50
38.0 143.50 135.00 122.00-173.50
38.5 120.00 117.00 106.50-125.00

10
1
9

19

38.5 133.00 124.50 114.00-155.50

3

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS ------------------

~

“

4

17
4
13

15
1
14

25
5
20

10
4

3
1
2

3
3

3
3

6

1

5

2

1

1

1

2

S e e fo o tn o te s at en d o f ta b le s .




3

1
5

6
5
3

3
3

1

1

2

~
1

i
i
~

-

-

-

1
1

-

"

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_
“

_
-

2
-

4
-

2

4

_
-

1
1

-

-

4

-

1

2

-

~

-

~

2

-

-

-

“

”

~
“

4

“

1

-

-

-

-

~

Table A-2. Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1977
Weekly earnings1
(standard)
Number

Occupation and industry division

o
f

Average
weekly
hours1
(standard) Mean2

Median 2

Middle range 2

N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time w e ekly earnings of—
*
*
$
$
i
$
s
$
(
t
$
s
210 220
230 240 250 260
1 150
160
170 180 190 200
and
under
160

190

200

210

220

230

240

250

260

270

4
-

1

8
2

5
1

4
1

14

7
2

5
3

2
1

s

t

s

$

*

$

*

280

290

300

310

320

330

340

350

280

290

300

310

3 20

330

340

350

360

-

3
3

1
-

2
1

2
2

1
1

2

$
$
$
$
39.5 233.50 222.00 201.00-247.50
40.0 261.00 248.00 230.50-298.50

1

-----------------

21

231.00 218.50 200.00-238.50

-

-

-

-

5

3

4

1

3

2

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

DRAFTERS* CLASS C -----------------

15

208.00 192.50 176.00-223.00

1

-

4

1

3

2

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

1

1

-

-

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS ------------

42

”

5

6

3

2

“

3

~

“

2

1

7

1

12

-

-

DRAFTERS -----------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------drafters* class

b

*

64
17

o
o

180

*

270

o
o

ALL WORKERS

170

%

40.0 253.50 266.00 189.00-319.50

-

See footnotes at end of tables.

Table A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex,
in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1977
Average
(m ean2)

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours4
(standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN
SECRETARIES ---------------------------

$
40.0 183.50

NONMANUFACTURING -----------------

99
68
31

SECRETARIES. CLASS C -------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------

29
17

40.0 192.50
39.5 212.00

SECRETARIES. CLASS D -------------MANUFACTURING --------------------

44
36

40.0 176.50
40.0 181.00

STENOGRAPHERS ------------------------

20

40.0 182.00

NONMANUFACTURING -----------------

23
20

40.0 161.00

39.0 164.00
39.0 167.50

Average
(m ean 2)

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division

Weekly
hours1 v
(standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

Average
(m ean2)

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours4
(standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS WOM E N — CONTINUED

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS WO M E N — CONTINUED
$

35
30

40.0 118.00

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSNONMANUFACTURING -----------------

27
18

39.5 122.00
39.0 117.50

ACCOUNTING CLERKS ------------------' MANUFACTURING -------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------

141
41
10C

ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS A ------

45
32

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN
39.0 138.00
38.5 155.00
39.0 131.50 DRAFTERS -----------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------39.5 164.00
U K A r TuRINb
NONNANUFAC 1 t K a i L L A b j o
39.5 157.50

96
28
68

38.5 126.00 ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS -----------38.0 143.50
38.5 119.00

NONMANUFACTURING ----------------- ;

ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS B -----MANUFACTURING -------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------See footnotes at end of tables.




Number
of
workers

4

19

38.5 133*00

45
16

40.0 240.50
40.0 262.50

20

40.0

42

40.0 253.50

2
-

-

-

2

Table A-4. Hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, and powerplant workers in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1977
Hourly earnings
Number
of
workers

Occupation and industry division

N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—

4

s
2.90

Median2

Middle range

2

$
3.00

s
3.10

s
3.20

s
3.30

s
*
3 . A0 3 . 5 0

s
$
$
s
s
s
s
$
s
$
3.6 0 3.80 4 .0 0 4.2 0 4.40 4 .6 0 4.80 5 .00 5.20

3.00

$
t
2 .70 2.80
Mean 2

3.10 3.2 0

3.30

3.40

3.50 3.6 0

3.80 4.00

-

2

s
$
5.40 5 .60

i
5.80 6.00

and
under
2*80 2.90

4 .20

4.40

4.60 4.8 0

5.00

5 .20 5.40 5 .6 0 5.80

over

6.00

ALL UORKERS

*

00

i

in

Sf

$
5.04

o
o

37

*

-

CO

MAINTENANCE MECHANICS (MACHINERY)

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

4

-

-

1

-

3

-

-

-

2

0

1

See footnotes at end of tables.

Table A-5. Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1977
Hourly earnings 4
Occupation and industry division
workers

Mean 2

M ed ian 2

M iddle range 2

N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
s
*
$
*
$
S
$
*
$
*
%
%
S
t
*
S
S
$
S
S
$
$
$
2.30 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.80 4.00 4 .20 4.40 4 .60 4.80 5.0U 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6*4 0 6.60
and
under
2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.80 4.00 4.20 4 .40 4.60 4 ,80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6.40 6.60 7.00

ALL UORKERS

84
73

$
3.65
3.53

$
3.53
3.53

$
$
3.27- 4.10
3.27- 3.53

-

MEDIUM TRUCK ----------

55

3.86

3.53

3.53- 4.44

RECEIVERS --------------------------------------------------

20

4.01

4.20

WAREHOUSEMEN --------------------------------------------

23

4.27

MATERIAL HANDLING LABORERS ---------------

71

3.77

JANITORS* PORTERS. AND CLEANERS —
MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------

118
43
75

3.37
3.30
3.42

3.28

TRUCKDRIVERS -------------------------------------------NONMANUF A C T U R I N 6 ----------------------------TRUCKDRIVERS*

6
6

6
6

-

-

-

-

3.41- 4.67

-

-

4

3.55

3.53- 5.10

-

-

4.17

3.40- 4.17

8

-

2.75- 4.06
3.06- 3.63
2.7 5- 4.06

_

15
4
11

3.33

3.26




1
1

12

-

1

2

2

3

1

2

-

-

39

1

3

-

-

1

2

5

1

2

5

-

1

2

-

3

-

2

8

2

-

6

3

5

4
4

7
7

6
6

25
1
24

31
30

-

-

6

30

1

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

2

-

4

-

19

11

2

2

10
10

17

9

13
7
6

5

-

4
2

9
8

See footnotes at end of tables.

15
12

1
"

6
6

1
1

“

-

1

-

1

1

-

-

-

-

'

2

2
i

~

-

2

~

-

-

~

-

-

-

1

-

-

~

-

-

1

2

1

1

1

~

”

“
“

~
~




Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom,
powerplant, material movement, and custodial workers,
by sex, in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1977
Number

Sex,

occupation, a n d industry division

of

Average
(m ean2 )
hourly
earnings4

Number

Sex, 3 occupation, a n d i n dustry division

MAINTENANCE! TOOLROOM. AND
POWERPLANT OCCUPATIONS - MEN
MAINTENANCE MECHANICS (MACHINERY) -

$
5.04

55
19

4.29

$
3.71

103
31
72

3.40
3.30
3.44

15

3.19

3.86

-----------------------------------------------------------

57

3.71
3.6C

----------------

MATERIAL HANDLING LABORERS --------JANITORS. PORTERS. AND CLEANERS --MANUFACTURING --------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------

37

80
69

TRUCKDRIVERS. MEDIUM TRUCK
WAREHOUSEMEN

Average
(m ean2 )
hourly
earnings 4

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN— CONTINUED

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN
TRUCKDRIVERS ----------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------

of

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN
JANITORS. PORTERS. AND CLEANERS

S e e footnotes at e n d of tables.

6

-------




Table A-7. Percent increases in average hourly earnings, adjusted
for employment shifts, for selected occupational groups
in Daytona Beach, Fla., for selected periods
A u g u s t 1975
Industry a n d o c cupational g r o u p 5

to
August 1976

All industries:
Office clerical______________
Electronic data p r o c e s s i n g
Industrial n u r s e s ___________
Skilled m a i n t e n a n c e trad e s
U n skilled plant w o r k e r s ___

()
(?)

(?
)
( 6)

10.6

A u g u s t 1976
to
A u g u s t 1977

(?)

()
(?)

( 6)
6.1

Manufacturing:
Office clerical_________________________________________
Electronic data p r o c e s s i n g __________________________
Industrial n u r s e s ______________________________________
Skilled m a i n t e n a n c e t r a d e s __________________________
Unskilled plant w o r k e r s ______________________________

(
(
(
(

)
)
)
)

( 6)

Nonmanufacturing:
Office clerical______________
Electronic data p r o c e s s i n g
Industrial n u r s e s ___________
Unskilled plant w o r k e r s ___

(?)

(?)
( 6)

( 6)

S e e footnotes at e n d of tables.

7

(?)
(?)

( 6)
( 6)

B. Establishm ent practices and supplem entary w a g e provisions
Table B-1. Minimum entrance salaries for inexperienced typists and clerks in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1977
Inexperienced typists
Manufacturing
M i n i m u m weekly straight-time salary7

All
industries

Other inexperienced clerical w o r k e r s 8
Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard weekly h ours9 of—
All
schedules

40

ESTABLISHMENTS STUDIED ------------

59

h a v i n g A SPECIFIED
MINIMUM -------------------------------

5

3

~
-

~
-

-

-

-

-

2

2

2

ii

Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing
All
industries

All
schedules

Based on standard weekly hours 9 of—
All
schedules

40

All
schedules

40

XXX

XXX

'

37 Vs

98

59

11

XXX

48

3

2

19

6

6

13

7

3

-

-

9

1

1

3

2

_

1
_
_

~

3
1

XXX

establishments

*90.00
*92.50
*95.00
*97.50
*100.00
*105.00
$110.00
*115.00
*120.00
*125.00
*130.00
*135.00
*190.00
*195.00
*150.00
*155.00
*160.00
*165.00
*170.00
*175.00
*180.00

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UN0ER
UNDER
UNDER

*92.50 ----------*95.00 ----------*97.50 ----------*100.00 ----------

UNDER *105.00 --------UNDER *110.00 --------UNDER $115.00 --------UNDER *120.00 --------UNDER *125.00 --------UNDER *130.00 --------UNDER *135.00 --------UNDER *190.00 --------UNDER *195.00 --------UNDER *150.00 --------UNDER *155.00 --------UNDER *160.00 --------UNDER *165.00 --------UNDER *170.00 --------UNDER *175.00 --------UNDER *180.00 --------OVER -------------------

i
•
i
i

~

2

2

-

3
1
2

1

_

_
_

_
1

1

-

3
1
2

1

_
1
_
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

1
_
_
_
_

_
_

_
_

1

1

_
_
_
_
1
_
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
1

2
1

2

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_

1
-

_
_
_
_
_

-

~

-

-

~
~

1
~

~
1
“

1

1

1

~

-

-

-

-

-

~

~
~
1

-

ESTABLISHMENTS HAVING NO SPECIFIED
MINIMUM -------------------------------

3

1

XXX

2

9

2

XXX

7

XXX

XXX

ESTABLISHMENTS UHICH OID NOT EMPLOY
WORKERS IN THIS CATEGORY -----------

51

7

XXX

99

31

3

XXX

28

XXX

XXX

S e e fo o tn o te s

a t en d o f ta b le s .




8




Table B-2. Late-shift pay provisions for full-time manufacturing
plant workers in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1977
( A l l f u l l - t i m e m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t w o r k e r s = 100 p e r c e n t )
A ll w o rk ers

W o r k e r s o n la te s h ifts

10

Ite m
S econ d s h ift

T h ir d s h ift

S econ d s h ift

T h ir d s h ift

IN ESTABLISHMENTS WITH LATE SHIFT PROVISIONS -----

91.0

73.2

12.9

6.6

WITH NO PAY DIFFERENTIAL FOR LATE SHIFT WORK ----WITH PAY DIFFERENTIAL FOR LATE SHIFT WORK --------UNIFORM CENTS-PER-HOUR DIFFERENTIAL ------------UNIFORM PERCENTA6E D I F F E R E N T I A L -----------------OTHER DIFFERENTIAL ---------------------------------

5.8
85.2
70.0
15.2

-

73.2
47.8
15.2
10. 1

1.1
11.8
10.3
1.5
“

6.6
6.3
.3
(11)

13.3
8.0

17.9
8.0

13.4
7.8

19.9
7.0

c e n t s -p e r - h o u r :
CENTS ----------------------------------------AND UNOER 14 CENTS -------------------------CENTS ----------------------------------------CENTS -----------------------------------------

20.8
10.1
39.1
“

5.9
8.3
33.7

2.5
2.3
5.5
“

.1
6.2

percentage:
7 PERCENT ---------------------------------------10 PERCENT ---------------------------------------

10.1
5.1

10. 1
5.1

1.1
.4

.3
“

PERCENT OF WORKERS

-

AVERABE PAY DIFFERENTIAL
UNIFORM CENTS-PER-HOUR DIFFERENTIAL ---------------UNIFORM PERCENTAGE DIFFERENTIAL -------------------PERCENT OF WORKERS BY TYPE AND
AMOUNT OF PAY DIFFERENTIAL
uniform

10
13
15
20
uniform

OTHER DIFFERENTIAL:
FULL

DAY'S

PAY

FOR

REDUCED

HOURS

10.1

----------------

See footnotes at end of tables.

9

111)

Table B-3. Scheduled weekly hours and days of full-time first-shift workers in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1977
Plant workers
Item

All industries

Office workers

M anufactur ing

Nonmanufacturing

Public utilities

All industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Public utilities

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

PERCENT OF yORKERS BY SCHEDULED
WEEKLY HOURS AND DAYS
ALL FULL-TIME WORKERS -----------30
32
32
35
36
37
38
38
40
44
45
46
50
55

HOURS— 5 DAYS ----------------------HOURS— 5 OAYS ----------------------1/2 HOURS— 5 DAYS -----------------HOURS ------------------------------5 OAYS -----------------------------6 DAYS -----------------------------1/4 HOURS— 5 OAYS -----------------1/2 HOURS-5 DAYS -----------------HOURS-5 DAYS ----------------------3/4 HOURS-5 DAYS -----------------HOURS ------------------------------5 DAYS -----------------------------6 DAYS -----------------------------HOURS— 6 D A Y S ----------------------HOURS-5 DAYS ----------------------HOURS— 6 DAYS ----------------------HOURS-5 DAYS ----------------------HOURS-5 1/2 DAYS ------------------

100
1
1
1
17
9
8
3
65
60
5
2
2
4
1
2

_
10
81
81

_

1
1
2
23
12
11

92
92
-

8

-

9

60
53
7
3
3
6
1
~

41.1

39.2

-

3
3
~
1
28
(12)
1
64
64
1
1
-

6
-

39.2

39.7

-

-

-

-

-

-

~
22
73
73
~

4
4
1
30
1
2
62
62

67
33
33
»
-

2
-

AVERAGE SCHEDULED
WEEKLY HOURS
ALL WEEKLY WORK SCHEDULES -----------

39.7

40.8

S e e fo o tn o te a t end o f t a b le s .




10

39.1

38.3

Table B-4. Annual paid holidays for full-time workers in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1977
Plant workers
Item

All industries

Manufacturing

Office workers

Nonmanufacturing

Public utilities

All industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Public utilities

100

PERCENT OF WORKERS
ALL FULL-TIME WORKERS ---------

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

IN ESTABLISHMENTS NOT PROVIDING
PAID H O L I D A Y S ------- '
-----------IN ESTABLISHMENTS PROVIDING
PAID HOLIDAYS --------------------

28

_

38

-

2

-

3

-

97

100

6.8

9.7

72

100

62

100

98

6.4

7-6

5.8

9.5

7.1

2
1

-

3
1
12
14
6
14
-

100

AVERAGE NUMBER OF PAID HOLIDAYS
co

FOR WORKERS IN ESTABLISHMENTS
PROVIDING HOLIDAYS
------------PERCENT OF WORKERS BY NUMBER
OF PAID HOLIDAYS PROVIDED
6
1
2
5
6
7
8

HALF DAYS -----------------------HOLIDAY --------------------------HOLIDAYS -------------------------HOLIDAYS -------------------------HOLIDAYS -------------------------HOLIDAYS -------------------------HOLIDAYS -------------------------PLUS 1 HALF DAY ---------------V HOLIDAYS -------------------------10 HOLI D A Y S -------------------------

6

13
11
14
(12)
3
11
8

9
26
15
( 12)
12
33
5

100
100
100
100
91
65
50
50
38
5

-

89

2
8
20
44
3
1
8
12

6
16
2
16
5
30
26

100
100
100
100
92
89
89
89
89
89

98
98
96
96
88
68
24
21
20
12

100
100
100
100
94
79
77
61
56
26

8
2

3
10

72
71
63
61
48
37
23
23
19
8

-

62
61
49
46
32
27
13
13
13
10

-

2
9
21
54
~
-

3
3
-

2
9

94

97
97
95
95
86

100
100
100
100
97

-

PERCENT OF WORKERS BY TOTAL
PAID HOLIDAY TIME PROVIDED 13
1 DAY OR MORE ---------------------2 DAYS OR MORE --------------------3 DAYS OR MORE --------------------5 DAYS OR MORE --------------------6 DAYS OR MORE --------------------7 DAYS OR M O R E --------------------8 DAYS OR MORE --------------------8 1/2 DAYS OR MORE ---------------9 DAYS OR MORE --------------------10 DAYS ------------------------------

See footnotes at end of tables.




11

65

94

12
12
12
9

94
94
94
94

Table B-5. Paid vacation provisions for full-time workers in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1977
Plant workers
Item

PERCENT

IN

Manufacturing

Nonmanufactur ing

100

100

Public utilities

All industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Public utilities

100

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

2
60
10

5
49
-

1
62
13

94
-

14
83

10
84

15
82

100

WORKERS
----------

100

E S T A B L I S H M E N T S NOT PRO V I O I N G
P A I D V A C A T I O N S ---------------------ESTABLISHMENTS PROVIOING
P A I D V A C A T I O N S ---------------------L E N G T H - O F - T I H E P A Y M E N T -------P E R C E N T A G E P A Y M E N T ---------------

94
84
10

100
80
20

92
85
7

11
16
4
2

39
15
-

(12)
17
5
2

65
22
3

81
10

60
27
4

11
89

2

-

20

2
98

ALL

IN

OF

All industries

Office workers

AMOUNT

6

FULL-TIME

OF

PAID

MONTHS

OF

WORKERS

VACATION

A F T E R : 14

SERVICE!

U N D E R 1 W E E K ----------------1 W E E K --------------------------OVER 1 AND UNDER 2 WEEKS
2 W E E K S ------------------------1

2

3

4

YEAR OF SERVICE:
1 W E E K -------------------------2 W E E K S ------------------------O V E R 2 AND UNOEft 3 W E E K S
OVER 3 AND UNDER 4 WEEKS
4 W E E K S ------------------------Y E A R S OF SERVICE!
1 W E E K --------------------------2 W E E K S ------------------------OVER 2 AND UNDER 3 WEEKS
OVER 3 AND UNDER 4 WEEKS
4 W E E K S ------------------------Y E A R S OF SERVICE:
1 W E E K --------------------------2 W E E K S ------------------------3 W E E K S ------------------------OVER 3 AND UNDER 4 WEEKS
4 W E E K S ------------------------Y E A R S OF SERVICE!
1 W E E K --------------------------2 W E E K S ------------------------OVER 3 AND UNOER 4 WEEKS
4 W E E K S -------------------------

5

8

6

Y E A R S OF SERVICE:
1 W E E K --------------------------2 W E E K S ------------------------OVER 2 ANO UNOER 3 WEEKS
3 W E E K S ------------------------OVER 3 ANO UNDER 4 WEEKS
4 W E E K S -------------------------

2
22
68
3

:
30
70

62
28
“

2

66

4

7
93

14
76
3

9
91

15
71
4

2
98

2
96

6
94

11
63
1
14
2

9
91

2
96
2

2
98

-

15
71
4
2

85
5
10

15
56
(12)
15

2
82
15

1
72
6
20

”

2

-

2

12

3
94

100

i
97

100

2

2

14
76
3
2

-

2

2

See footnotes at end of tables.




2
-

4
94

_

6
94

1
97
2

-

68
26
7

100
-

1
73
1
23
2

95

5
-

Table B-5. Paid vacation provisions for full-time workers ini Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1977— Continued
Plant workers

Office workers

Item
All industries

A MOUNT OF P A I D
CONTINUED
10
1
2
3

VACATION

YEARS OF SERVICE!
W E E K ------------------------------W E E K S --------------- .
-------------W E E K S ------------------------------

YEARS
1 WEEK
2 WEEKS
3 WEEKS
OVER 3
4 WEEKS
OVER 4
OVER 5

15
1
2
3
4
5
6
20

25

30

OF SERVICE:
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A N D U N D E R 4 W E E K S -------------------------------A N O U N D E R 5 W E E K S --A N D U N D E R 6 W E E K S ---

Y E A R S OF S E R VICE!
W E E K ------------------------------W E E K S -----------------------------W E E K S
WEEKS
WEEKS
W E E K S

--------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------

YEARS OF SERVICE!
1 W E E K ------------------------------2 W E E K S -----------------------------3 W E E K S -----------------------------4 W E E K S ----------------------------5 W E E K S -----------------------------O V E R 5 A N D U N O E R 6 W E E K S --7 W E E K S ------------------------------

YEARS OF SERVICE!
1 W E E K -------------------------------2 W E E K S -----------------------------3 W E E K S -----------------------------4 W E E K S -----------------------------5 W E E K S -----------------------------O V E R 5 A N O U N O E R 6 W E E K S ---6 W E E K S -----------------------------7 W E E K S -----------------------------YEARS OF SERVICE!*
1 W E E K -------------------------------2 W E E K S -----------------------------3 W E E K S -----------------------------4 W E E K S ------------------------------5 W E E K S ------------------------------O V E R 5 A N O U N O E R 6 W E E K S ---6 W E E K S ------------------------------7 W E E K S -------------------------------

*

Nonmanufacturing

Public utilities

11
27
48
4

36
64

15
24
43
6

98

-

-

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

1
7
90
(12)

7
93
-

1
7
89
1

'3
97
-

-

2

-

2

-

ii
23
52
5
3
~
11
23
31
24
4
“
11
23
22
33
2
3

_
21
79

15
24
42
7
4
~

2
91

1
7
77
13
1
2

-

21
56
23

15
24
22
25
6
“

2

“

_
21
37
42
-

2

7
”

36
62

~

Public utilities

1
7
55
36
2

_
6
94
-

1
7
73
16
1

_
3
96
-

2

1
“

6
34
60

1
7
60
30

3
29
68

-

-

-

“

2

-

“

_

_

-

_

8
82
7

1
7
34
56
(12)

6
19
76

1
7
38
52
(12)

3
3
93
1

:

15
24
17
29
3
4

2

-

2

:
3
3
25
67

2

-

_

1
7
34
42
15

6
19
36
40

1
7
38
43
9

7

(12)
2

-

(12)
2

2
8

1
7
34
40
12

6
19
36
14

1
7
38
40
11

11
23
22
23
12

21
37
37
5

15
24
17
17
14

2
8
28
55

1

-

1

11
23
22
21
12

21
37
37
-

15
24
17
14
17

82

2

5

1

7

-

Estimates of provisions fo r longer periods of. service are identical.

See footnotes at end of tables.




All industries

A F T E R 14-

4 W E E K S -----------------------------O V E R 4 A N D U N D E R 5 W E E K S --5 W E E K S -----------------------------12

Manufacturing

13

5
2

26

(12)
2

1

3
3
-

93
1

Table B-6. Health, insurance, and pension plans for full-time workers in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1977
Plant w orkers
Item

PERCENT

A ll industries

Manufacturing

O ffice w orkers

Nonmanufacturing

j

Public utilities

A ll industries

Manufacturing

No nm anuf actur ing

Public utilities

OF W O R K E R S
100

100

100

98

100

98

100

100
70

92
63

94
77

91
59

100
72

93
63

88
58

89
72

88
55

99
71

50

100

88

87

88

100

42
42

23
11

18
15

35
30

76
76

25
19

7
5

32

42

29

45

69

65

70

33

9

-

12

55

9

-

12

67

LONG-TERM DISABILITY
I N S U R A N C E ------------------------N O N C O N T R I B U T O R Y P L A N S --------

14
7

5
-

17
9

55
55

32
19

26
-

34
24

67
67

H O S P I T A L I Z A T I O N I N S U R A N C E -----N O N C O N T R I B U T O R Y P L A N S --------

87
40

100
94

82
21

100
70

98
63

100
82

98
58

100
72

S U R G I C A L I N S U R A N C E --------------N O N C O N T R I B U T O R Y . P L A N S --------

87
40

100
94

82
21

100
70

98
63

100
82

98
58

100
72

M E D I C A L I N S U R A N C E ---------------N O N C O N T R I B U T O R Y P L A N S --------

84
40

100
94

78
21

100
70

96
63

100
82

95
58

100
72

M A J O R M E D I C A L I N S U R A N C E --------N O N C O N T R I B U T O R Y P L A N S --------

84
38

100
94

79
18

100
70

95
60

100
82

93
54

100
72

DE N T A L I N S U R A N C E ----------------N O N C O N T R I B U T O R Y P L A N S --------

10
8

_

"

14
11

62
62

15
13

“

19
16

68
68

R E T I R E M E N T P E N S I O N --------------N O N C O N T R I B U T O R Y P L A N S ------—

59
51

78
73

52
43

89
89

85
73

88
63

84
76

94
94

100

100

100

IN E S T A B L I S H M E N T S P R O V I D I N G AT
L E A S T ON E OF THE B E N E F I T S
S H O W N B E L O W 15----------------------

87

100

83

L I F E I N S U R A N C E -------------------N O N C O N T R I B U T O R Y P L A N S ---------

78
43

91
85

74
28

A C C I D E N T A L D E A T H AND
D I S M E M B E R M E N T I N S U R A N C E ------N O N C O N T R I B U T O R Y P L A N S ---------

59
31

79
73

52
16

S I C K N E S S ANO A C C I D E N T I N S U R A N C E
OR S I C K L E A V E OR B O T H 16---------

51

53

29
20

ALL F U L L - T I M E

W O R K E R S -------

S I C K N E S S ANO A C C I D E N T
I N S U R A N C E ----------------------N O N C O N T R I B U T O R Y P L A N S -----S I C K L E A V E (F U L L PAY AND NO
W A I T I N G P E R I O D ) --------------S I C K L E A V E (P AR T I A L PAY OR
W A I T I N 6 P E R I O D ) ---------------

See footnotes at edd of tables.




100

100

100

Table B-7. Life insurance plans for full-time workers in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1977
Office workers

Plant workers
Manufacturing

A ll industries

Manufacturing

A ll industries

Item
A ll
plans 1
7

Noncontributory
plans 1
7

A ll
plans 1
7

Noncontributory
plans 1
7

41

22

58

58

A ll
plans 1
7

N one ont ribut o r y
plans 1
7

A ll
plans 1
7

Noncontributory
plans 1
7

TY PE OF P L A N AND A M O U N T
OF I N S U R A N C E

AL L F U L L - T I M E W O R K E R S ARE P R O V I D E D THE SAME
F L A T - S U M D O L L A R AM OU NT :
P E R C E N T OF A L L F U L L - T I M E W O R K E R S 18--------------A M O U N T OF I N S U R A N C E P R O V I D E D : 19
M E A N ---------------------------------------M E D I A N -------------------------------------M I O O L E R A N G E (SO P E R C E N T ) ------------M I D D L E R A N G E (60 P E R C E N T ) ------------A M O U N T OF I N S U R A N C E IS B A S E O O N A S C H E D U L E
W H I C H I N D I C A T E S A S P E C I F I E D D O L L A R A M O U N T OF
I N S U R A N C E FO R A S P E C I F I E D L E N G T H OF S E RV IC E:
P E R C E N T OF AL L F U L L - T I M E W O R K E R S 18--------------A M O U N T OF I N S U R A N C E P R O V I D E D 19 A F TE R:
6 M O N T H S OF S E R V I C E :
M E A N ---------------------------------------M E D I A N -------------------------------------M I D D L E R A N G E (50 P E R C E N T ) ------------M I D D L E R A N G E (80 P E R C E N T ) ------------1 YE A R OF S E R V I C E :
M E A N ---------------------------------------M E D I A N -------------------------------------M I D D L E R A N G E (50 P E R C E N T ) ------------M I D D L E R A N G E (60 P E R C E N T ) ------------5 Y E A R S OF SERV IC E:
M E A N ---------------------------------------M E D I A N ------------------------------------M I D D L E R A N G E (50 P E R C E N T ) ------------M I D D L E R A N G E (80 P E R C E N T ) ------------10 Y E A R S OF S E R V I C E !
M E A N ---------------------------------------M E D I A N -------------------------------------M I D D L E R A N G E (50 P E R C E N T ) ------------M I D D L E R A N G E (80 P E R C E N T ) ------------20 Y E A R S OF S E R V I C E !
M E A N ---------------------------------------M E D I A N -------------------------------------M I O O L E R A N G E (50 P E R C E N T ) ------------M I D D L E R A N G E (80 P E R C E N T ) -------------

$5,500
$ 5 t 000
$2 ,0 0 0 — 5 • 0 0 0
$1 . 5 0 0 - 1 2 . 5 0 0

$3,600
$5,000
$2,000- 5.000
$1,000- 5.000

$3,500
$5,000
$ 2 , 0 0 0 - 5. 0 0 0
$1,000- 5.000

$6 , 9 0 0
$5,000
$3,000-10.000
$1,000-15.000

$4,100
$2,000
$1,000- 5,000
$1,000-10.000

$2 , 3 0 0
$1,000
$ 1 , 0 0 0 - 5. 0 0 0
$ 1 , 0 0 0 - 5. 0 0 0

$2,300
$1,000
$1,000- 5,000
$1,000- 5.000

-

“

~
-

-

-

_

_
_
-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
_

_

-

_
_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

~
-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_

_

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

'

See footnotes at end of tables.




12

12

-

$3,500
$5,000
$2,000- 5.000
$1,000- 5.000

~
-

4

8

15

_
_

_

'

-

_

Table B-7. Life insurance plans for full-time workers in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1977— Continued
Plant workers

Office workers

All industries

Manufacturing

Item
All
plans 1
7

Noncontributory
plans 1
7

All industries

All
plans 1
7

Noncontributory
plans 1
7

All
plans 1
7

28

2
2

27

Manufacturing

Noncontributory
plans 1
7

All
plans 1
7

Noncontributory
plans 1
7

TYPE OF PLAN AND AMOUNT
OF INSURANCE-CONTINUED
AMOUNT OF INSURANCE IS BASED ON A SCHEDULE
UHICH INDICATES A SPECIFIED DOLLAR AMOUNT OF
INSURANCE FOR A SPECIFIED AMOUNT OF EARNIN6S:
PERCENT OF ALL FULL-TIME U O R K E R S 18----------AMOUNT OF INSURANCE PRO VIDEO 19 IF:
ANNUAL EARNINGS ARE *5.0001
M E A N ---------------------------------MEDIAN ------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE (50 PERCENT) --------MIDDLE RANGE (80 PERCENT) --------ANNUAL EARNINGS ARE *10.000:
M E A N ---------------------------------MEDIAN ------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE (50 PERCENT) --------MIODLE RANGE (80 PERCENT) --------ANNUAL EARNINGS ARE *15.000:
M E A N ---------------------------------MEDIAN ------------------------------MIODLE RANGE (50 PERCENT) --------MIDOLE RANGE (60 PERCENT) --------ANNUAL EARNINGS ARE *20.0001
M E A N ---------------------------------MEDIAN ------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE (50 PERCENT) --------MIDDLE RANGE (80 PERCENT) --------AMOUNT OF INSURANCE IS EXPRESSED AS A FACTOR OF
ANNUAL EARNINGS! 2
0
PERCENT OF ALL FULL-TIME UORKERS 18----------FACTOR OF ANNUAL EARNINGS USED TO CALCULATE
AMOUNT OF INSURANCE! 19 2
0
M E A N ----------------------------------MEDIAN -------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE (50 PERCENT) ---------MIDDLE RANGE (80 PERCENT) ---------PERCENT OF ALL FULL-TIME UORKERS COVERED BY
PLANS NOT SPECIFYING A MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF
INSURANCE ------------------------------------PERCENT OF ALL FULL-TIME UORKERS COVERED BY
PLANS SPECIFYING A MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF
INSURANCE ------------------------------------SPECIFIED MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF INSURANCE:1
9
M E A N ---------------------------------MEDIAN -------------------------------MIDOLE RANGE (50 PERCENT) --------MIDDLE RANGE (80 PERCENT) --------AMOUNT OF INSURANCE IS BASED ON SOME OTHER TYPE
OF p l a n :
PERCENT OF ALL FULL-TIME UORKERS 18----------

15

$ 1500
8
*10.000

8

57

39

*3.000-11.000

*6.400
*6.000
*3.000-10.000
*3.000-10.000

*5.800
*6.000
*3.000- 6.000
*3.000-10.000

(6 )
(6 )
(6 )
(6 >

*7.200
*5.000
*5.000- 6.000
$5,000-10.000

*5.200
(6)
(6)
(6)

*6.700
*6.000
*6.000- 9.000
*4.200- 9.000

*5.600
$6,000
*6.000- 6.000
*3.000- 6.000

*18.600
*16.000
*13.000-22.000
*5.000-35.000

*14.100
$16,000
*5.000-20.000
*5.000-20.000

*11.400
*13.000
*5.000-16.000
*5.000-16.000

(6 )
(6 )
(6 >
(6 >

*13.200
*10.000
*10.000-15.000
*10.000-18.000

*11.400
(6)
(6)
(6)

$14,800
*15.000
*15.000-18.000
*8.200-18.000

*13,700
*15,000
*15.000-15.000
*5,000-16.000

*28.900
*30.000
*17.000-30.000
*5.000-65.000

*20.600
*20.000
*5.000-30.000
*5.000-30.000

$18,300
*17.000
*5.000-30.000
*5.000-30.000

(6 )
(6 )
(6 )
(6 )

*18.800
$15,000
*15.000-20.000
*15 .000-30.000

*16.600
(6)
(6)
(6)

*20.400
*20.000
*20.000-24.000
*9.800-24.000

*19.100
*20,000
*20,000-20,000
*5,000-30,000

$40*200
*42.000
*20.000-42.000
*5 .000-99.900

$26 *40 0
*20.000
*5.000-42.000
*5.000-42.000

*24.100
*20.000
*5.000-42.000
*5.000-42.000

(6 )
(6 )
(6 )
(6 )

$ 2 6 t 800
*20.000
$20,000-30.000
*20.000-42.000

$ 2 3 t 100
(6)
(6)
(6)

$30*300
*30.000
*30.000-37.500
*11.000-37.500

*27,900
$30,000
*30,000-30.000
*5.000-42.000

$ »000-10t 000
6

2
0
1.49
1.50
1
.00-2.00
1.00-2.50
14

6
*58.700
*50.000
*40.000- 50.000
$40,000-100.000

2

5

5

(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

(6 )
(6 )

5

5

13
1.25

1.00

1
.00-2.00
1.00-2.00
1
2
1
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

(12)

(6)
(6 )

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

See footnotes at end of tables.




2
0

16

-

56

38

1.92

1.88
2.00

26

26

1.50-2.00
1.00-3.00

1.50-2.00
1.00-3.00

(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

(6 )
(6 >
(6 )
(6 >

39

27

26

26

17

1
1

2.00

*190.400
*244.400
*200.000
*300.000
*100.000-300.000 *200.000-300.000
*46.000-300.000 *200.000-300.000

1

1

-

-

_

_

-

_

-

_

-

-

Footnotes

S o m e o f t h e s e sta n d a rd f o o tn o te s m a y not a p p ly to this bulletin.

14 In c lu d e s p a y m e n t s ot h e r than " l e n g t h o f t i m e , " such as p e r c e n t a g e
o f annual e a r n i n g s o r f l a t - s u m p a y m e n t s , c o n v e r t e d to an e q u i v a l e n t t i m e
b a s i s ; f o r e x a m p l e , 2 p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n i n g s w as c o n s i d e r e d as 1 w e e k ' s
pay.
P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e a r e c h o s e n a r b i t r a r i l y and do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e ­
f l e c t i n d iv id u a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n ; f o r e x a m p l e , changes in p r o ­
p o r t i o n s at 10 y e a r s in clud e ch an ge s b e t w e e n 5 and 10 y e a r s .
E stim ates
a r e c u m u la tiv e .
T hu s , th e p r o p o r t i o n e l i g i b l e f o r at l e a s t 3 w e e k s ' pay
a f t e r 10 y e a r s in c lu d e s t h o s e e l i g i b l e f o r at l e a s t 3 w e e k s ' pay a f t e r f e w e r
y ea rs of s e r v ic e .
15 E s t i m a t e s l i s t e d a f t e r ty p e o f b e n e f i t a r e f o r a l l plans f o r w h ich
at l e a s t a p a r t of the c o s t is b o r n e b y the e m p l o y e r .
"N on co n trib u to ry
p l a n s " in c lu d e on ly th o s e f i n a n c e d e n t i r e l y by the e m p l o y e r .
E x c lu d e d a r e
l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d p la n s , such as w o r k e r s ' d i s a b i l i t y c o m p e n s a ti o n , s o c i a l s e ­
c u r i t y , and r a i l r o a d r e t i r e m e n t .
1 U n d u p lic a ted to t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s i c k l e a v e o r s ic k n e s s and
6
a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e shown s e p a r a t e l y b e l o w .
S i c k l e a v e plans a r e l i m i t e d to
th o s e w h i c h d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h at l e a s t the m i n i m u m nu m b er o f d a y s ' pay
that e a c h e m p l o y e e can e x p e c t.
In fo r m a l sick le a v e allow ances d eterm in ed
on an i n d iv id u a l b a s is a r e e x clud ed .
1 E s t i m a t e s un der " A l l p l a n s " r e l a t e to a l l plans f o r w h ich at l e a s t
7
a p a r t o f the c o s t is b o r n e b y the e m p l o y e r .
E s t i m a t e s un der " N o n c o n t r i b ­
u t o r y p l a n s " in c lu d e o n ly th o s e f i n a n c e d e n t i r e l y b y the e m p l o y e r .
18 F o r " A l l i n d u s t r i e s , " a l l f u l l - t i m e plant w o r k e r s or o f f i c e w o r k e r s
equal 100 p e r c e n t .
F o r " M a n u f a c t u r i n g , " a l l f u l l - t i m e plant w o r k e r s o r
o f f i c e w o r k e r s in m a n u f a c tu r in g equal 100 p e r c e n t .
19 T h e m e a n am ount is c o m p u te d b y m u l t i p l y i n g the n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s
p r o v i d e d i n s u r a n c e b y the am ount o f i n s u r a n c e p r o v i d e d , to ta lin g the p r o d ­
uc ts , and d i v i d i n g the s u m b y th e n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s .
T h e m e d i a n in d ic a te s
that h a l f o f th e w o r k e r s a r e p r o v i d e d an am ount equal to o r s m a l l e r and ha lf
an am ount equal to o r l a r g e r than the am ount shown.
M i d d l e r a n g e (50 p e r ­
ce n t)— a f o u r t h o f the w o r k e r s a r e p r o v i d e d an am ou nt equal to o r l e s s than
the s m a l l e r am ount and a f o u r th a r e p r o v i d e d an am ount equal to o r m o r e
than the l a r g e r am ount.
M i d d l e r a n g e (80 p e r c e n t ) — 10 p e r c e n t of the w o r k ­
e r s a r e p r o v i d e d an am ount equal to o r l e s s than the s m a l l e r amount and 10
p e r c e n t a r e p r o v i d e d an am oun t equal to o r m o r e than the l a r g e r amount.
20 A f a c t o r o f annual e a r n i n g s is the n u m b e r b y w h ic h annual e a r n in g s
a r e m u l t i p l i e d to d e t e r m i n e the amount o f i n s u r a n c e p r o v id e d .
F o r exam ple,
a f a c t o r o f 2 i n d i c a t e s that f o r annual e a r n in g s o f $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 the am ou nt of
i n s u r a n c e p r o v i d e d is $20, 000.

S ta n d a r d hours r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e
t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s ( e x c l u s i v e o f pay f o r o v e r t i m e at r e g ­
u l a r a n d / o r p r e m i u m r a t e s ) , and the e a r n i n g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k l y
h o u rs.
2 T h e m e a n is c o m p u te d f o r e a c h job b y to ta lin g the e a r n i n g s of
a l l w o r k e r s and d i v i d i n g by the n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s .
The m edian d e s i g ­
n ate s p o s i t i o n — h a lf o f the w o r k e r s r e c e i v e th e s a m e o r m o r e and h a lf r e ­
c e i v e th e s a m e o r l e s s than the r a te shown.
T h e m i d d l e r a n g e is d e fin e d
b y t w o r a t e s o f p ay; a fou rth o f the w o r k e r s e a r n the s a m e o r l e s s than
the l o w e r o f th e s e r a t e s and a fo u r th e a r n the s a m e o r m o r e than the
h i g h e r r a te .
3 E a r n i n g s data r e l a t e o n ly t o w o r k e r s w h o s e s e x i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w as
p r o v i d e d b y the e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
4 E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p ay f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s ,
h o l i d a y s , and l a t e s h ifts .
E s t i m a t e s f o r p e r i o d s ending p r i o r to 1976 r e l a t e to m e n o n ly f o r
s k i l l e d m a i n t e n a n c e and u n s k i l l e d plant w o r k e r s .
A l l ot h e r e s t i m a t e s r e ­
l a t e to m e n and w o m e n .
6 D ata do not m e e t p u b l i c a ti o n c r i t e r i a o r data not a v a i l a b l e .
7
F o r m a l l y estab lish ed m in im u m r e g u la r s tr a ig h t-tim e hiring s a l­
a r i e s that a r e p aid f o r s ta n d a rd w o r k w e e k s .
8 E x c l u d e s w o r k e r s in s u b c l e r i c a l jo b s such as m e s s e n g e r .
9 Data a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l s tan d a rd w o r k w e e k s c o m b i n e d , and f o r
the m o s t c o m m o n stan da rd w o r k w e e k s r e p o r t e d .
10 In c lu d e s a l l plant w o r k e r s
in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t ­
ing l a t e s h i f t s , and e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h o s e f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r la t e
s h i f t s , e v e n though the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w e r e not c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g la te
s h ifts .
1 L e s s than 0.05 p e r c e n t.
1
12 L e s s than 0.5 p e r c e n t .
1 A l l c o m b i n a t i o n s o f f u l l and h a l f d ays that add to the s a m e am ount
3
a r e c o m b i n e d ; f o r e x a m p l e , the p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g a to t a l of
10 d a y s in c lu d e s th o s e w ith 10 f u l l d ays and no h a l f d a y s, 9 f u ll d ays and
2 h a l f d a y s , 8 f u l l days and 4 h a lf d a y s , and so on.
P r o p o r t i o n s then
w e r e c u m u late d .




17




A ppendix A .
Scope and M ethod
of Survey
Data on a r e a w a g e s and r e l a t e d b e n e f i ts a r e o b ta in e d by p e r s o n a l
v i s i t s o f B u r e a u f i e l d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s at 3 - y e a r i n t e r v a l s .
In eac h o f th e
i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s , i n f o r m a t i o n on e m p l o y m e n t and o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n i n g s is
c o l l e c t e d by a c o m b i n a ti o n o f p e r s o n a l v i s i t , m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t e le p h o n e
i n t e r v i e w f r o m e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the p r e v i o u s s u r v e y .
In e ach o f th e 74 1 a r e a s c u r r e n t l y s u r v e y e d , data a r e ob ta in e d f r o m
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith in s i x b r o a d in d u s tr y d i v i s i o n s :
M a n u fa c ­
tu r i n g ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and o t h e r pub lic u t i l i t i e s ; w h o l e s a l e
t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v i c e s .
M ajor
in d u s tr y g r o u p s e x c lu d e d f r o m t h e s e stu d ie s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a t i o n s and
th e c o n s t r u c t i o n and e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s .
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g f e w e r than
a p r e s c r ib e d nu m ber o f w o r k e r s a r e om itted because o f insufficient e m p lo y ­
m en t in the oc c u p a tio n s stu died.
S e p a r a t e tab u la tio n s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r each
o f the b r o a d i n d u s tr y d i v i s i o n s w h ic h m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a .
T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e con d u cted on a s a m p l e b a s i s .
The sam pling
p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d e t a i l e d s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith in the
s c o p e o f an i n d iv id u a l a r e a s u r v e y by in d u s tr y and n u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s .
F r o m th is s t r a t i f i e d u n i v e r s e a p r o b a b i l i t y s a m p l e is s e l e c t e d , w ith each
e s t a b l i s h m e n t ha vin g a p r e d e t e r m i n e d chan ce o f s e l e c t i o n . T o ob ta in o p t i m u m
a c c u r a c y at m i n i m u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f l a r g e than s m a l l e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s is s e l e c t e d .
W hen data a r e c o m b i n e d , each e s ta b l i s h m e n t is w e i g h t e d
a c c o r d i n g to its p r o b a b i l i t y o f s e l e c t i o n , so that un bia sed e s t i m a t e s a r e
generated.
F o r e x a m p l e , i f one out o f f o u r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s is s e l e c t e d , it is
g i v e n a w e i g h t o f 4 to r e p r e s e n t i t s e l f plus t h r e e o t h e r s .
An altern a te o f
th e s a m e o r i g i n a l p r o b a b i l i t y is cho se n in the s a m s i n d u s t r y - s i z e c l a s s i f i ­
c a tio n i f data a r e not a v a i l a b l e f r o m th e o r i g i n a l s a m p l e m e m b e r .
I f no
s u ita b le substitu te is a v a i l a b l e , ad d itio n a l w e i g h t is a s s i g n e d to a s a m p l e
m e m b e r that is s i m i l a r to the m i s s i n g unit.
O c c u p a ti o n s and e a r n in g s
O c c u p a tio n s s e l e c t e d f o r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r i e t y o f m a n u f a c ­
t u r i n g and n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g i n d u s t r i e s , and a r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s :
(1)
O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ; (2) p r o f e s s i o n a l and te c h n i c a l ; (3) m a i n t e n a n c e , t o o l r o o m ,
and p o w e r p l a n t ; and (4) m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t and c u s to d i a l .
O c c u p a tio n a l
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is b a s e d on a u n i f o r m set o f jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s i g n e d to ta k e
account o f i n t e r e s ta b l i s h m e n t v a r i a t i o n in d uties w ith in the s a m e job.
O c c u p a tio n s s e l e c t e d f o r study a r e l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d in a p p e n d ix B.
1
A k ro n,

Included

in the

Ohio; B i r m i n g h a m ,

a n d Syracuse,

N.Y.

7 4 areas are

4 studies c o n d u c t e d

Ala.; Norfolk-Virginia

In addition,

by

the

the B u r e a u conducts m o r e limited

un de r contract.

Th e s e

areas

V a . — N. C. ;

area studies in ap pr ox im at el y 10 0 areas

at the request of the E m p l o y m e n t Standards Administration of the U. S.




B u re au

Beachr-Portsmouth a n d N e w p o r t N e w s - H a m p t o n ,
D e p a r t m e n t of Labor.

U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e in d i c a te d , the e a r n i n g s data f o l l o w i n g th e job t i t l e s
a r e f o r a l l in d u s t r i e s c o m b i n e d .
E a r n i n g s data f o r s o m e o f th e o ccup atio ns
l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d , o r f o r s o m e in d u s tr y d i v i s i o n s w ith in the s c o p e o f the
s u r v e y , a r e not p r e s e n t e d in th e A - s e r i e s t a b l e s b e c a u s e e i t h e r (1) e m p l o y ­
m en t in th e o c c u p a tio n is to o s m a l l to p r o v i d e enough data to m e r i t p r e s e n ­
ta t io n , o r (2) t h e r e is p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e o f in d iv id u al e s ta b l i s h m e n t
data.
S e p a r a t e m e n ' s and w o m e n ' s e a r n i n g s data a r e not p r e s e n t e d when the
n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s not i d e n t i f i e d by s e x is 20 p e r c e n t o r m o r e o f the m en
o r w o m e n i d e n t i f i e d in an o c c u p a tio n .
E a r n i n g s data not shown s e p a r a t e l y
f o r i n d u s tr y d i v i s i o n s a r e included in data f o r a l l in d u s tr i e s c o m b in e d .
L i k e w i s e , f o r oc c u p a tio n s w i t h m o r e than on e l e v e l , data a r e included in
th e o v e r a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w h en a s u b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is not shown o r i n f o r m a t i o n
to s u b c l a s s i f y is not a v a i l a b l e .
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y m e n t and e a r n i n g s data a r e shown f o r f u l l - t i m e
w o r k e r s , i . e . , t h o s e h i r e d to w o r k a r e g u l a r w e e k l y s c h ed ule.
E a r n in g s
data e x c lu d e p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s ,
and la t e s h ifts .
N o n p r o d u c ti o n b on uses a r e e x c lu d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g
a l l o w a n c e s and i n c e n t i v e b on uses a r e in clu d ed .
W e e k l y hours f o r o f f i c e
c l e r i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a tio n s r e f e r to th e standa rd
w o r k w e e k ( r o u n d e d to th e n e a r e s t h a lf hour) f o r w h ich e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e
r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s ( e x c l u s i v e o f p ay f o r o v e r t i m e at r e g u l a r
an d/or p r e m i u m r a t e s ) .
A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n in g s f o r t h e s e oc c u p atio n s
a r e rounded to th e n e a r e s t h a lf d o l l a r .
V e r t i c a l l i n e s w ith in th e d i s t r i b u t i o n
o f w o r k e r s on s o m e A - t a b l e s in d ic a te a change in the s i z e o f th e c l a s s
intervals.

T h e s e s u r v e y s m e a s u r e th e l e v e l o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n i n g s in an a r e a
at a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e .
C o m p a r i s o n s o f i n d iv id u a l oc c u p a tio n a l a v e r a g e s o v e r
t i m e m a y not r e f l e c t e x p e c t e d w a g e c h a n g e s .
T h e a v e r a g e s f o r i n d iv id u a l
jo b s a r e a f f e c t e d b y c han ges in w a g e s and e m p l o y m e n t p a tte r n s . F o r e x a m p l e ,
p r o p o r t i o n s o f w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d b y h i g h - o r l o w - w a g e f i r m s m a y chan ge,
o r h i g h - w a g e w o r k e r s m a y a d v a n c e to b e t t e r jo b s and be r e p l a c e d b y new
w o r k e r s at l o w e r
rates.
Such s hif ts in e m p l o y m e n t could d e c r e a s e an
o c c u p a t i o n a l a v e r a g e e v e n though m o s t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in an a r e a i n c r e a s e
w a g e s d u r in g th e y e a r .
C han ges in e a r n i n g s o f o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s , shown in
t a b l e A - 7 , a r e b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r s o f w a g e tr e n d s than a r e e a r n in g s c han ges f o r
in d iv id u a l jo b s w ith in the g r o u p s .
A v e r a g e earnings r e fle c t c o m p o s ite , a r e a w id e estim a tes.
Industries
and e s t a b l i s h m e n t s d i f f e r in p a y l e v e l and jo b s ta f f i n g , and thus c on trib u te
d i f f e r e n t l y to th e e s t i m a t e s f o r e a c h job .
P a y a v e r a g e s m a y f a i l to r e f l e c t
a c c u r a t e l y th e w a g e d i f f e r e n t i a l am on g jo b s in ind iv id u al e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .

are

A v e r a g e p a y l e v e l s f o r m e n and w o m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a tio n s
should not be a s s u m e d to r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y o f the s e x e s w ith in
i n d iv id u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
F a c t o r s w h i c h m a y c o n tr i b u t e to d i f f e r e n c e s
in c lu d e p r o g r e s s i o n w ith in e s t a b l i s h e d r a t e r a n g e s ( o n l y th e r a t e s p aid
inc um b e nts a r e c o l l e c t e d ) and p e r f o r m a n c e o f s p e c i f i c duties w ith in the
g e n e r a l s u r v e y jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s .
Job d e s c r i p t i o n s u s e d to c l a s s i f y e m p l o y e e s
in t h e s e s u r v e y s u s u a l l y a r e m o r e g e n e r a l i z e d than t h o s e used in in d iv id u a l
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and a l l o w f o r m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in
s p e c i f i c duties p e r f o r m e d .
O c c u p a ti o n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t th e to t a l in a l l e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s w ith in th e s c o p e o f the study and not th e n u m b e r a c t u a l l y s u r v e y e d .
B ecau se occupational stru ctu res am ong establish m en ts d iffe r , estim a tes of
o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t ob ta in e d f r o m th e s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s studied
s e r v e o n ly t o in d i c a te th e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f th e jo b s stu die d.
These
d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e do not a f f e c t m a t e r i a l l y th e a c c u r a c y o f
the e a r n i n g s data.

W a ge trends fo r

T h e p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e s p r e s e n t e d in t a b l e A - 7 a r e b a s e d on ch an ge s
in a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s o f m e n and w o m e n in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s r e p o r t i n g
the t r e n d j o b s in both th e c u r r e n t and p r e v i o u s y e a r ( m a t c h e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ) .
T h e data a r e a d ju s te d to r e m o v e th e e f f e c t on a v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f e m p l o y ­
m en t s h ifts a m on g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and t u r n o v e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s inclu d ed
in s u r v e y s a m p l e s .
T h e p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e s , h o w e v e r , a r e s t i l l a f f e c t e d by
f a c t o r s o t h e r than w a g e i n c r e a s e s .
H i r i n g s , l a y o f f s , and t u r n o v e r m a y
a f f e c t an e s t a b l i s h m e n t a v e r a g e f o r an o c c u p a tio n w h en w o r k e r s a r e p aid
u n de r p lans p r o v i d i n g a r a n g e o f w a g e r a t e s f o r in d i v i d u a l jo b s .
In p e r i o d s
o f i n c r e a s e d h i r i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , n e w e m p l o y e e s m a y e n t e r at th e b o tt o m
o f th e r a n g e , d e p r e s s i n g the a v e r a g e w ith out a c h a n g e in w a g e r a t e s .
T h e p e r c e n t c h a n g e s r e l a t e to w a g e ch an ge s b e tw e e n th e in d ic ate d
d a te s .
W h en th e t i m e span b e t w e e n s u r v e y s is o t h e r than 12 m o n t h s , annual
r a t e s a r e sho wn.
(It is a s s u m e d th at w a g e s i n c r e a s e at a constant r a t e
b etw een s u rvey s.)

In 1977,
areas:
Portland

P r o v i d e n c e - W a r w i c k — Pa wt uc ke t,

O rd e r c le rk s , classes
A and B
Accoun ting c le r k s ,
c l a s s e s A and B
B o o k k e e p in g - m a c h i n e
op e ra tors , class B
P a y r o ll clerk s
K e yp u n c h o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s e s A and B




Richmond,

Industrial nurses

U n s k i l l e d plant

R e g is t e r e d industrial
nurses

J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , and
cle a n e rs
M a t e r i a l ha nd lin g l a b o r e r s

P e r c e n t c h a n ge s f o r
as f o l l o w s :

i n d iv id u a l a r e a s

in th e p r o g r a m

a r e c om p ute d

San

A v e r a g e e a r n in g s a r e c o m p u te d f o r each o c c u p a tio n f o r
th e 2 y e a r s b e in g c o m p a r e d .
The a v e ra ge s a re d erived
f r o m e a r n i n g s in t h o s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h ic h a r e in the
s u r v e y both y e a r s ;
it is a s s u m e d that e m p l o y m e n t
r e m a i n s unchan ged.

2.

E a c h o c c u p a tio n is a s s i g n e d a w e i g h t b a s e d on its
p r o p o r t i o n a t e e m p l o y m e n t in th e o c c u p a t i o n a l g ro u p in
th e b a s e y e a r .

3.

T h e s e w e i g h t s a r e u s e d to c o m p u te g ro u p a v e r a g e s .
E a c h o c c u p a t i o n 's a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s ( c o m p u te d in step 1)
is m u l t i p l i e d by its w e i g h t .
T h e p r o d u c t s a r e t o ta l e d
to ob ta in a g r o u p a v e r a g e .

4.

T h e r a t i o o f g r o u p a v e r a g e s f o r 2 c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s is
c o m p u te d b y d i v i d i n g th e a v e r a g e f o r th e c u r r e n t y e a r
b y the a v e r a g e f o r th e e a r l i e r y e a r .
Th e result—
e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t — l e s s 100 is th e p e r c e n t change.

Antonio,

Seattle— Everett,

and s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s

T h e in c i d e n c e o f s e l e c t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e m e n t a r y
w a g e p r o v i s i o n s is stu d ied f o r f u l l - t i m e plant w o r k e r s and o f f i c e w o r k e r s .
P la n t w o r k e r s in clud e n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r s and w o r k i n g s u p e r v i s o r s
e n g a g e d in n o n o f f i c e f u n c tio n s .
( C a f e t e r i a w o r k e r s and r o u te w o r k e r s a r e
e x c l u d e d in m a n u f a c tu r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , but in c lu d e d in n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g
in d u stries.)
O f f i c e w o r k e r s in c lu d e n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r s and w o r k i n g
s u p e r v i s o r s p e r f o r m i n g c l e r i c a l o r r e l a t e d f u n c tio n s .
L e a d w o r k e r s and
t r a i n e e s a r e in c lu d e d a m o n g n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e x e c u ­
t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l and p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y e e s as w e l l as c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s
u t i l i z e d as s e p a r a t e w o r k f o r c e s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m both th e plant and o f f i c e
w o rk e r categories.

switchboard operators are included in the w a g e trend c o m p u t a t i o n for all e x ce pt the following

(Oregon),

C arpenters
E lectrician s
P ain ters
M achin ists
M ech an ics (m a ch in ery)
M ech anics (m o to r veh icle)
P ip efitters
T o o l and d ie m a k e r s

E stablish m en t p r a c t ic e s

O f f i c e c l e r i c a l — Continued

Ca nt on , C h ic ag o, Cincinnati, D a ve np or t— R o c k Island— Mo l i n e , Houston, Huntsville, Jackson, N e w Orleans,

a n d Wichita.

C om pu ter s ystem s
a n alysts, c la s s e s
A , B , and C
Com puter p r o g r a m m e r s ,
c l a s s e s A , B , and C
Com puter o p e r a to r s ,
c l a s s e s A , B , and C

F o r a m o r e d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e m e t h o d u s e d to c om p u te
t h e s e w a g e t r e n d s , s e e " I m p r o v i n g A r e a W a g e S u r v e y I n d e x e s , " M o n th ly
L a b o r R e v i e w , J a n u a r y 1973, pp. 5 2 -57 .

O c c u p a tio n s u s e d to c o m p u te w a g e t r e n d s a r e :

S ecretaries
Stenographers, gen era l
S ten ogra ph ers, sen ior
T y p is ts , cla s s es
A and B
F ile c le rk s , classes A ,
B , and C
M essengers
Sw itchboard o p e r a to r s 2

S k i l l e d m a i n te n a n c e

1.

s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g ro u p s

O ffic e c le r ic a l

E l e c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s i n g

So ut h

Bend,

M i n i m u m e n t r a n c e s a l a r i e s ( t a b l e B - l ) . M i n i m u m e n tr a n c e s a l a r i e s
f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s r e l a t e o n l y to th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s v i s i t e d .
B e c a u s e o f the
o p t i m u m s a m p l i n g te c h n i q u e s u s e d and th e p r o b a b i l i t y that l a r g e e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n ts a r e m o r e l i k e l y than s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s to h a ve f o r m a l e n tr a n c e

r a t e s a b o v e the s u b c l e r i c a l l e v e l , the t a b le is m o r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f p o l i c i e s
in m e d i u m and l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
( T h e " X ' s " shown un der sta ndard
w e e k l y ho u rs in d ic a te that no m e a n i n g f u l to ta l s a r e a p p l i c a b l e . )
Shift d i f f e r e n t i a l s — m a n u fa c tu rin g ( t a b l e B - 2 ) . Data w e r e c o l l e c t e d
on p o l i c i e s o f m an u fa c tu rin g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s r e g a r d i n g p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l s f o r
plant w o r k e r s on la t e s h ifts .
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o n s i d e r e d as ha vin g p o l i c i e s
a r e t h o s e w h i c h (1) h a ve p r o v i s i o n s in w r i t i n g c o v e r i n g the o p e r a t i o n o f la te
s h i f t s , o r (2) h a ve o p e r a t e d la t e s h ifts at any t i m e durin g the 12 m onths
p reced in g a survey.
W h en e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a ve s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t i a l s w h ich
v a r y b y j o b , the d i f f e r e n t i a l ap p lyin g to th e m a j o r i t y o f the plant w o r k e r s is
recorded.
W h en e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v e d i f f e r e n t i a l s w h ich ap p ly o n ly to c e r t a i n
hours o f w o r k , the d i f f e r e n t i a l a p p ly in g to th e m a j o r i t y o f the shift hours is
recorded.
F o r p u r p o s e s o f th is study, a la t e shif t is e i t h e r a s eco nd ( e v e n i n g )
shift w h i c h ends at o r n e a r m idn ig h t o r a t h i r d (night ) shift w h ic h s ta r ts at o r
n e a r m id n ig h t.
D i f f e r e n t i a l s f o r s e co n d and t h i r d s h ifts a r e s u m m a r i z e d s e p a r a t e l y
f o r (1) e s t a b l i s h m e n t p o l i c i e s (an e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' s d i f f e r e n t i a l s a r e w e i g h t e d by
a l l plant w o r k e r s in th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t at the t i m e o f th e s u r v e y ) and (2)
e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e s (an e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' s d i f f e r e n t i a l s a r e w e i g h t e d by plant
w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d on the s p e c i f i e d shif t at the t i m e o f th e s u r v e y ) .
S c h ed ule d w e e k l y h o u r s; p aid h o l i d a y s ; p aid v a c a t i o n s ; and health,
i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s i o n p l a n s .
P r o v i s i o n s w h ich ap p ly to a m a j o r i t y o f the
plant o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s in an e s ta b l i s h m e n t a r e c o n s i d e r e d to ap p ly to a l l
p lant o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s in th e e s t a b lis h m e n t; a p r a c t i c e o r p r o v i s i o n is
c o n s i d e r e d n o n e x is te n t w h en it a p p lie s to l e s s than a m a j o r i t y .
H olidays;
v a c a t i o n s ; and h e alth , i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s i o n pla ns a r e c o n s i d e r e d a p p l i c a b l e
to e m p l o y e e s c u r r e n t l y e l i g i b l e f o r th e b e n e fits as w e l l as to e m p l o y e e s who
w i l l even tu ally b e co m e e ligib le .
Sch ed uled w e e k l y ho u rs and days (ta b le B - 3 ) . Scheduled w e e k l y
h o u r s and d ays r e f e r to th e n u m b e r o f hours and d ays p e r w e e k w h ic h f u l l ­
t i m e f i r s t (d ay ) shif t w o r k e r s a r e e x p e c te d to w o r k , w h e t h e r p aid f o r at
s tr a ig h t-tim e o r o v e r tim e rates.
P a i d h o l i d a y s ( t a b l e B - 4 ) . H o l i d a y s a r e inclu ded o n l y i f th e y a r e
g r a n t e d an nually on a f o r m a l b a s i s ( p r o v i d e d f o r in w r i t t e n f o r m o r e s t a b ­
lish ed by custom ).
T h e y a r e in clu ded e v en though in a p a r t i c u l a r y e a r
t h e y f a l l on a n o n w o rk d a y and e m p l o y e e s a r e not g ra n te d a n o th er d ay o f f .
E m p l o y e e s m a y be p a id f o r th e t i m e o f f o r m a y r e c e i v e p r e m i u m p a y in
lie u o f tim e off.
Data a r e tab u la te d to show th e p e r c e n t o f w o r k e r s who (1) a r e g r a n te d
s p e c i f i c n u m b e r s o f w h o l e and h a lf h o l i d a y s and (2) a r e g r a n t e d s p e c i f i e d
am oun ts o f t o t a l h o l i d a y t i m e ( w h o l e and h a l f h o lid a y s a r e a g g r e g a t e d ) .
P a id vacations (table B - 5 ) . E stablishm en ts rep o rt th e ir m ethod of
c a l c u l a t i n g v a c a t i o n p a y ( t i m e b a s i s , p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n i n g s , f l a t - s u m
p a y m e n t , e tc .) and th e amount o f v a c a tio n p a y g r a n te d .
O n ly b a s i c f o r m a l
p la n s a r e r e p o r t e d . V a c a t i o n b o n u s es , v a c a t i o n - s a v i n g s p l a n s , and " e x t e n d e d "
o r " s a b b a t i c a l " b e n e f i t s beyond b a s i c pla ns a r e e x clud ed .

service.
V a c a t i o n plans c o m m o n l y p r o v i d e f o r a l a r g e r amount o f v a c a tio n
pay as s e r v i c e le n g th e n s .
Counts o f plant o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s by l e n g th o f
s e r v i c e w e r e not ob ta in e d .
T h e tab u la tio n s o f v a c a tio n pay g r a n t e d p r e s e n t ,
t h e r e f o r e , s t a t i s t i c a l m e a s u r e s o f th e s e p r o v i s i o n s r a t h e r than p r o p o r t i o n s
o f w o r k e r s actually r e c e iv in g s p e c ific benefits.
H e a l th , i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n plans (t a b l e s B - 6 a n d B - 7 ) . H e a lth ,
in s u r a n c e , and p e n s i o n p lans in clu d e p lans f o r w h i c h the e m p l o y e r pays
e i t h e r a l l o r p a r t o f the c o s t .
T h e c o s t m a y ' be ( l ) u n d e r w r i t t e n by a
c o m m e r c i a l i n s u r a n c e c o m p a n y o r n o n p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n , (2) c o v e r e d by a
union fund to w h i c h th e e m p l o y e r has c o n trib u t e d , o r (3) b o r n e d i r e c t l y by
the e m p l o y e r out o f o p e r a t i n g funds o r a fund set a s i d e to c o v e r th e c o s t.
A pla n is in c lu d e d e v e n though a m a j o r i t y o f the e m p l o y e e s in an e s t a b l i s h ­
m en t do not c h o o s e to p a r t i c i p a t e in it b e c a u s e th e y a r e r e q u i r e d to b e a r
p a r t o f its c o s t ( p r o v i d e d the c h o i c e to p a r t i c i p a t e is a v a i l a b l e o r w i l l
e v e n t u a l l y b e c o m e a v a i l a b l e to a m a j o r i t y ) .
L e g a l l y r e q u i r e d plans such as
s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , r a i l r o a d r e t i r e m e n t , w o r k e r s ' d i s a b i l i t y c o m p e n s a tio n , and
t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e 3 a r e e xc lu d e d .
L i f e i n s u r a n c e in clud es f o r m a l plains p r o v i d i n g i n d e m n ity ( u s u a lly
th ro u g h an i n s u r a n c e p o l i c y ) in c a s e o f death o f the c o v e r e d w o r k e r .
I n f o r m a t i o n is a l s o p r o v i d e d in t a b l e B - 7 on ty p e s o f l i f e in s u r a n c e plans
and th e amount o f c o v e r a g e in a l l i n d u s t r i e s c o m b in e d and in m a n u fa c tu rin g.
A c c i d e n t a l death and d i s m e m b e r m e n t is l i m i t e d to p lans w h ich
p r o v i d e b e n e f i t p a y m e n t s in c a s e o f death o r l o s s o f l i m b o r sight as a
d i r e c t r e s u l t o f an ac c id e n t.
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t i n s u r a n c e in clu d es o n l y th os e plans w h ich
p r o v i d e that p r e d e t e r m i n e d c a s h p a y m e n t s b e m a d e d i r e c t l y to e m p l o y e e s
who l o s e t i m e f r o m w o r k b e c a u s e o f i l l n e s s o r i n j u r y , e . g . , $50 a w e e k
f o r up to 26 w e e k s o f d i s a b i l i t y .
S ic k l e a v e plans a r e l i m i t e d to f o r m a l plans 4 w h ich p r o v i d e f o r
continuing an e m p l o y e e ' s p ay during a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k b e ca u s e o f i l l n e s s .
Data c o l l e c t e d d is tin g u is h b e t w e e n (1) p lans w h ic h p r o v i d e f u ll p a y w ith no
w a i t i n g p e r i o d , and (2) plans w h i c h e i t h e r p r o v i d e p a r t i a l p ay o r r e q u i r e a
w aiting p erio d.

3 T e m p o r a r y disability insurance w h i c h provides benefits to c o ve re d workers disabled b y injury or illngg;
w h i c h is not w o r k - c o n n e c t e d is m a n d a t o r y un de r State laws in California,
Island.

N e w Jersey, N e w Yo rk , a n d R h o d e

Establishment plans w h i c h m e e t only the legal requirements are ex cl ud ed f r o m these data, but those

un de r w h i c h (1) empl oy er s contribute more, th an is legally required or (2) benefits e x c e e d those specified in the
State l a w are included.
In R h o d e Island, benefits are paid out of a State fund to w h i c h only e m p l o y e e s
contribute.

In e a c h of the other three States, benefits are paid either f r o m a State fund or through a private plan.

State fund

financing:

In California, only

employees

e m p l o y e e s a n d e m pl oy er s ccfntribute; in N e w Yo tk ,
a n d e m pl oy er s pa y
Private plan

the difference b e t w e e n

financing:

In California a n d

contribute

to the

Jersey,

employees

c a nn ot b e required to contribute

b y the State fund; in N e w

to contribute m o r e
benefit provided.

the

State

rules that

additional

contribution

Yotk,
is

F o r tab u la tin g v a c a t i o n p ay g r a n t e d , a l l p r o v i s i o n s a r e e x p r e s s e d
on a t i m e b a s i s .
V a c a t i o n p a y c a l c u l a t e d on o t h e r than a t i m e b a s i s is
c o n v e r t e d to its e qu iv a le n t t i m e p e r i o d .
T w o p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n i n g s ,
f o r e x a m p l e , is ta b u la te d as 1 w e e k ' s v a c a t i o n pay .

benefits to railroad workers for illness or injury, w h e t h e r w o r k - c o n n e c t e d
that e m pl oy er s bear the entire cost of the insurance.

A l s o , p r o v i s i o n s a f t e r e a c h s p e c i f i e d le n g th o f s e r v i c e a r e r e l a t e d
to a l l p la nt o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s in an e s ta b l i s h m e n t r e g a r d l e s s o f le n g th o f

of days of sick leave available to e a c h e m p l o y e e .
S u c h a plan n e e d not b e written,
allowances d e t e r m i n e d o n a n individual basis are excluded.

Federal

4




An

fund; in N e w Jersey,

the em pl oy ee s' share a n d the total contribution required.
New

m o r e than they w o u l d if they w e r e co ve re d
if the

State

e m p l o y e e s contribute u p to a specified m a x i m u m

legislation (Railroad U n e m p l o y m e n t

employees

commensurate

Insurance .Act) provides t e mp or ar y
or not.

The

disability

c a n agree
with

the

insurance

legislation requires

establishment is considered as ha vi ng a fo rm al plan if it specifies at least the m i n i m u m n u m b e r
but informal sick leave

L o n g - t e r m d i s a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e p la n s p r o v i d e p a y m e n t s to t o t a l l y
d i s a b l e d e m p l o y e e s upon the e x p i r a t i o n o f t h e i r p aid s i c k l e a v e an d / o r s i c k ­
n e s s and a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e , o r a f t e r a p r e d e t e r m i n e d p e r i o d o f d i s a b i l i t y
( t y p i c a l l y 6 m o n t h s ).
P a y m e n t s a r e m a d e until the end o f th e d i s a b i l i t y , a
m a x im u m a g e, o r e lig ib ilit y fo r r e t ir e m e n t ben efits.
F u ll o r p a rtia l p a y ­
m e n ts a r e a l m o s t a l w a y s r e d u c e d by s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , w o r k e r s ' d i s a b i l i t y
c o m p e n s a t i o n , and p r i v a t e p e n s i o n b e n e f i t s p a y a b le to th e d i s a b l e d e m p l o y e e .

Labor-m anagem ent agreem ent covera ge
T h e f o l l o w i n g ta b u la tion shows the p e r c e n t o f f u l l - t i m e p lant and
o f f i c e w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the D ayton a B e a c h a r e a in
w h i c h a union c o n t r a c t o r c o n tr a c t s c o v e r e d a m a j o r i t y o f the w o r k e r s in
the r e s p e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s , A u g u s t 1977:
Plan t w o r k e r s

H o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , s u r g i c a l , and m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e plans r e p o r t e d
in t h e s e s u r v e y s p r o v i d e f u l l o r p a r t i a l p a y m e n t f o r b a s i c s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d .
H o s p i t a l i z a t i o n i n s u r a n c e c o v e r s h o s p i t a l r o o m and b o a r d and m a y c o v e r
other hospital expenses.
S u rg ic a l insuran ce c o v e r s s u r g e o n s ' fe e s .
M edical
insurance c o v e r s d o c t o r s ' fe e s fo r h om e, o ffic e , or hospital ca lls .
P la n s
r e s t r i c t e d to p o s t - o p e r a t i v e m e d i c a l c a r e o r a d o c t o r ' s c a r e f o r m i n o r
a i l m e n t s at a w o r k e r ' s p l a c e o f e m p l o y m e n t a r e not c o n s i d e r e d to be
m e d i c a l in s u r a n c e .
M a j o r m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e c o v e r a g e a p p l i e s to s e r v i c e s -which go
b e yo n d th e b a s i c
s e rvices
c o v e r e d un der h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , s u r g i c a l , and
m e d i c a l in s u r a n c e .
M a j o r m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e t y p i c a l l y (1) r e q u i r e s that a
" d e d u c t i b l e " ( e . g . , $ 5 0 ) be m e t b e f o r e b e n e f i t s b e g i n , (2) has a c o i n s u r a n c e
f e a t u r e that r e q u i r e s th e i n s u r e d to p a y a p o r t i o n ( e . g . , 20 p e r c e n t ) o f
c e r t a i n e x p e n s e s , and (3) has a s p e c i f i e d d o l l a r m a x i m u m o f b e n e f i t s ( e . g . ,
$ 10,000 a y e a r ) .

O ffic e w o rk e rs

16
16
16
98

7
8
67

A l l i n d u s t r i e s — -------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________ _
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---- --------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s __________

A n e s t a b l i s h m e n t is c o n s i d e r e d to h a ve a c o n t r a c t c o v e r i n g a l l
plant o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s i f a m a j o r i t y o f such w o r k e r s is c o v e r e d b y a
l a b o r - m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , a l l o t h e r plant o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s
a r e e m p l o y e d in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s that e i t h e r do no t ha ve l a b o r - m a n a g e m e n t
c o n t r a c t s in e f f e c t , o r h a v e c o n t r a c t s that ap p ly t o f e w e r than h a lf o f t h e i r
plant o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s .
E s t i m a t e s a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f
the exte n t to w h ic h a l l w o r k e r s in the a r e a m a y b e c o v e r e d b y the p r o v i s i o n s
o f l a b o r - m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n t s , b e c a u s e s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e e x c lu d e d
and the i n d u s t r i a l s c o p e o f the s u r v e y is l i m i t e d .

D e n ta l i n s u r a n c e pla ns p r o v i d e n o r m a l d e n tal s e r v i c e b e n e f i t s ,
u s u a l l y f o r f i l l i n g s , e x t r a c t i o n s , and X - r a y s .
Plan s which p r o v id e benefits
o n ly f o r o r a l s u r g e r y o r r e p a i r i n g a c c i d e n t d a m a g e a r e not r e p o r t e d .
R e t i r e m e n t p e n s i o n plans p r o v i d e f o r r e g u l a r p a y m e n t s to th e r e t i r e e
for life .
In clu d ed a r e d e f e r r e d p r o f i t - s h a r i n g p la ns w h i c h p r o v i d e th e option
o f p u r c h a s i n g a l i f e t i m e annuity.




I n d u s t r i a l c o m p o s i t i o n in m a n u f a c tu r i n g
A l m o s t o n e - f o u r t h o f the w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f the s u r v e y in the
D ayton a B e a c h a r e a w e r e e m p l o y e d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g f i r m s .
The follo w in g
p r e s e n t s the m a j o r in d u s t r y g ro u p s and s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i e s as a p e r c e n t o f
a ll m a n u fa c tu rin g :
S p e c ific industries

I n d u s tr y g ro u p s
E l e c t r i c and e l e c t r o n i c
e q u i p m e n t______________________
I n s t r u m e n t s and r e l a t e d
p r o d u c t s —---------------------------F a b r i c a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s ___
P r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g _______
F o o d and k i n d r e d p r o d u c t s ___
C h e m i c a l s and a l l i e d
p r o d u c t s ________________________

26
21
18
11
9

C o m m u n i c a t i o n e q u ip m e n t ____
M e d i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s and
s u p p l i e s _________________________
N e w s p a p e r s ______________________
M iscellan eou s fab ricated
m e t a l p r o d u c t s _______ _________
M e t a l f o r g i n g s and
s t a m p i n g s __ ._______

24
21
11
11
7

5

T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n is b a s e d on e s t i m a t e s o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t d e r i v e d
f r o m u n i v e r s e m a t e r i a l s c o m p i l e d b e f o r e a c tu a l s u r v e y .
P r o p o r t i o n s in
v a r i o u s i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s m a y d i f f e r f r o m p r o p o r t i o n s b a s e d on th e r e s u lt s
o f the s u r v e y as shown in a p p e nd ix t a b l e 1.

Appendix table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied
in Daytona Beach, Fla.,1 August 1977
N u m b e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
W ith in s c o p e o f stu d y

e m p lo y m e n t
In d u s tr y d i v i s i o n 2

m e n ts in s c o p e
o f stu d y

W ith in s c o p e
o f stu d y 4

S tu died
T o ta l4

Stu d ied
N u m ber

T o ta l4

59

18.499

100

11,264

2.252

11.207

50
-

18
111

11
48

4,397
14.102

24
76

3.006
8,258

429
1.823

3,687
7.520

50
50
50
50
50

6
1
61
15
28

5
1
23
7
12

1.303
58
8.598
1,380
2.763

7
1
46
7
15

891

177
<6 1
<6 )
(6 )
(6 )

1.253
58
4,040
728
1,441

1 T h e D a y to n a B e a c h S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a t is t ic a l A r e a , as d e fin e d b y th e O f f ic e o f
M a n a g e m e n t and B u d g e t th ro u g h F e b r u a r y 1974, c o n s is ts o f V o lu s ia C ou n ty.
T h e " w o r k e r s w ith in
s c o p e o f s tu d y " e s t im a t e s sh ow n in th is t a b le p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a te d e s c r ip t io n o f th e s iz e
and c o m p o s it io n o f th e la b o r f o r c e in c lu d e d in th e s u r v e y .
E s t im a t e s a r e n o t in te n d e d , h o w e v e r ,
f o r c o m p a r is o n w ith o t h e r e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t tr e n d s o r l e v e l s s in c e (1 )
p la n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s e s ta b lis h m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in a d v a n c e o f th e
p a y r o l l p e r io d s tu d ie d , and (2 ) s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1972 e d it io n o f th e S ta n d a rd In d u s t r ia l C la s s ific a t io n M a n u a l w a s u sed to c l a s s i f y
e s t a b lis h m e n ts b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n .
H o w e v e r , a ll g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a tio n s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m th e
s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
3 In c lu d e s a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith t o t a l e m p lo y m e n t at o r a b o v e th e m in im u m lim it a t io n . A l l
o u tle ts (w ith in th e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n ie s in in d u s tr ie s su ch as t r a d e , fin a n c e , auto r e p a i r s e r v i c e , and
m o tio n p ic t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s id e r e d as 1 e s ta b lis h m e n t.
4 In c lu d e s e x e c u t iv e , p r o f e s s io n a l, p a r t - t i m e , and o t h e r w o r k e r s e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s e p a r a te
p la n t and o f f i c e c a t e g o r ie s .




F u ll-tim e
o ffic e w o rk e rs

129

ALL D I V I S I O N S ----- x------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------TRANSPORTATION. COMMUNICATION. AND
OTHER PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 5 --------------------WHOLESALE TRADE ------------------------------RETAIL TRADE ----------------------------------FINANCE. INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE
------S E RV IC ES 8 ---------------------------------------

P ercen t

F u ll- tim e
p la n t w o r k e r s

<6 )

<81
(7 )
(6 )

5 A b b r e v ia t e d to "p u b lic u t i l i t i e s " in th e A - and B - s e r i e s ta b le s .
T a x ic a b s and s e r v i c e s
in c id e n ta l to w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t io n a r e e x c lu d e d .
6 T h is d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t im a t e s f o r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g " in
th e A - and B - s e r i e s t a b le s .
S e p a r a te p r e s e n t a t io n o f d a ta is n o t m a d e f o r one o r m o r e o f the
f o llo w in g r e a s o n s :
(1 ) E m p lo y m e n t is t o o s m a ll to p r o v id e en ou gh d a ta to m e r i t s e p a r a te stu d y , (2 )
th e s a m p le w a s n ot d e s ig n e d in i t i a l l y to p e r m it s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n , (3 ) r e s p o n s e w a s in s u ffic ie n t o r
in a d e q u a te to p e r m it s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n , and (4 ) t h e r e is p o s s ib ilit y o f d is c lo s u r e o f in d iv id u a l
e s ta b lis h m e n t data.
7 W o r k e r s f r o m th is e n t ir e d iv is io n a r e r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t im a t e s f o r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and
" n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g " in th e A - s e r i e s t a b le s , but f r o m th e r e a l e s ta te p o r t io n o n ly in e s t im a t e s f o r
" a l l i n d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g " in th e B - s e r i e s t a b le s . S e p a r a te p r e s e n ta tio n o f d a ta is n ot
m a d e f o r on e o r m o r e o f th e re a s o n s g iv e n in fo o tn o te 6.
8 H o te ls and m o t e ls ; la u n d r ie s and o t h e r p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u to m o b ile
r e p a i r , r e n t a l, and p a r k in g ; m o tio n p ic t u r e s ; n o n p r o fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a t io n s (e x c lu d in g r e lig io u s
and c h a r it a b le o r g a n iz a t io n s ); and e n g in e e r in g and a r c h it e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .

23




Appendix B.
Occupational
Descriptions
T h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f p r e p a r i n g jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r the B u ­
r e a u ' s w a g e s u r v e y s is to a s s i s t its f i e l d s t a f f in c l a s s i f y i n g into a p p r o ­
p r i a t e o c c u p a tio n s w o r k e r s who a r e e m p l o y e d under a v a r i e t y o f p a y r o l l
t i t l e s and d i f f e r e n t w o r k a r r a n g e m e n t s f r o m e s t a b l i s h m e n t to e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t and f r o m a r e a t o a r e a .
T h i s p e r m i t s the g ro u p in g o f o c c u p a tio n a l
w a g e r a t e s r e p r e s e n t i n g c o m p a r a b l e jo b content.
B e c a u s e o f this e m p h a ­
s i s on i n t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t and i n t e r a r e a c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f oc c u p a tio n a l
con te n t, the B u r e a u 's jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s m a y d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m th o s e
in u s e i n i n d iv id u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o r t h o s e p r e p a r e d f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s .
In a p p l y i n g t h e s e jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s , the B u r e a u 's f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s a r e
i n s t r u c t e d to e x c lu d e w o r k i n g s u p e r v i s o r s ; a p p r e n t i c e s ; l e a r n e r s ; b e g i n ­
n e r s ; and p a r t - t i m e , t e m p o r a r y , and p r o b a t i o n a r y w o r k e r s .
H a n d ic a p p e d
w o r k e r s w h o s e e a r n i n g s a r e r e d u c e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r hand ic ap a r e a l s o
e x c lu d e d .
T r a i n e e s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m the s u r v e y e x c e p t f o r t h o s e r e ­
c e i v i n g o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g in s o m e o f the l o w e r l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n a l and
t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a tio n s .

Office
S E C R E T A R Y — Continued

SECRETARY
A s s i g n e d as a p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y , n o r m a l l y to one i n d iv id u a l.
M a i n t a i n s a c l o s e and h i g h l y r e s p o n s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the d a y - t o - d a y a c t i v ­
i t i e s o f th e s u p e r v i s o r . W o r k s f a i r l y in d e p e n d e n tly r e c e i v i n g a m i n i m u m o f
d e t a i l e d s u p e r v i s i o n and g u id an c e . P e r f o r m s v a r i e d c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l
du tie s
r e q u i r i n g a k n o w l e d g e o f o f f i c e routin e and u n dersta nd in g o f the
o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r o g r a m s , and p r o c e d u r e s r e l a t e d to the w o r k o f the s u p e r v i s o r .

N ot a l l p o s i t i o n s that a r e t i t l e d " s e c r e t a r y " p o s s e s s the a b ov e
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . E x a m p l e s o f p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m the d e fi n i t i o n
a r e as f o l l o w s :

a.

P o s i t i o n s w h i c h do not
d e s c r ib e d above;

b.

S t e n o g r a p h e r s not f u l l y t r a i n e d in s e c r e t a r i a l - t y p e d uties;

c.

S t e n o g r a p h e r s s e r v i n g as o f f i c e as s is ta n t s
fe s s io n a l, tech n ica l, o r m a n a g e ria l person s;

d.

E xclu sion s




E x c l u s i o n s — Contin ued
m e e t the

"p e rs o n a l"

A s s i s t a n t - t y p e p o s itio n s w h ic h e n ta il m o r e d i f f i c u l t o r m o r e r e ­
s p o n s i b l e t e c h n i c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , o r s u p e r v i s o r y duties w h ich
a r e not t y p i c a l ’ o f s e c r e t a r i a l w o r k , e . g . , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A s s i s t ­
ant, o r E x e c u t i v e A s s i s t a n t ;

L i s t e d b e l o w a r e s e v e r a l oc c u p a tio n s f o r w h ich r e v i s e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o r t i t l e s a r e b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d
in th is s u r v e y :
T o o l and die m a k e r
G u ard
S h ip p e r and r e c e i v e r
(p re v iou sly surveyed
as shippin g and
receivin g c le rk )
T ru ck d river

O rd e r clerk
P a y r o ll clerk
S ecretary
S w itch board o p e r a to r
S w itchboard o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t io n is t
T r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e typist
M achine to o l o p e r a t o r (to o lr o o m )

T h e B u r e a u has d is co n tin u e d c o l l e c t i n g data f o r ta b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r . W o r k e r s p r e v i o u s l y
c l a s s i f i e d as w a t c h m e n a r e now c l a s s i f i e d as g u a r d s un der the r e v i s e d d e s c r i p t i o n .

25

secretary

to a g ro u p

con cept

of pro­

S E C R E T A R Y — C on tin u ed

S E C R E T A R Y — C ontinu ed

Exclusions— Continued

Classification by Level— Continued

e. Positions which do not fit any of the situations listed in the
sections below titled "Level of Supervisor," e.g., secretary to the
president of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 persons;

e. Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational
segment (e.g., a middle management supervisor of an organi­
zational segment often involving as many as several hundred
persons) of a company that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.

f. Trainees.
Classification by Level
Secretary jobs which meet the above characteristics are matched at
one of five levels according to (a) the level of the secretary's supervisor
within the company’s organizational structure and, (b) the level of the
secretary's responsibility. The chart following the explanations of these two
factors indicates the level of the secretary for each combination of the
factors.
_Level of Secretary's Supervisor (LS)
Secretaries should be matched at one of the four LS levels described
below according to the level of the secretary's supervisor within the company
organizational structure.
LS—1

a. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small organizational
unit (e.g., fewer than about 25 or 30 persons); or
b. Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional
employee, administrative officer or assistant, skilled technician
or expert. (NOTE: M a n y companies assign stenographers,
rather than secretaries as described above, to this level of
supervisory or nonsupervisory worker.)

LS—2

a. Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose respon­
sibility is not equivalent to one of the specific level situations in
the definition for LS—
3, but whose organizational unit normally
numbers at least several dozen employees and is usually divided
into organizational segments which are often, in turn, further
subdivided. In some companies, this level includes a wide range
of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; or
b. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc., (or
other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, fewer
than 5,000 persons.

LS—
3

a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company
that employs, in all, fewer than 100 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than chairman of the
board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 100
but fewer than 5, 000 persons; or
c. Secretary to the head (immediately below the officer level) over
either a major corporatewide functional activity (e.g., marketing,
research, operations, industrial relations, etc.) or a major
geographic or organizational segment (e.g., a regional headquar­
ters; a major division) of a company that employs, in all,
over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000 employees; or
d. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc.,
(or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all,
over 5,000 persons; or




LS—
4

a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company
that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of
the board or president) of a company that employs, in all,
over 5, 000 but fewer than 25, 000 persons; or
c. Secretary to the head, immediately below the corporate officer
level, of a major segment or subsidiary of a company that
employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.

NOTE: The term "corporate officer" used in the above LS def­
inition refers to those officials who have a significant corporatewide policy­
making role with regard to major company activities. The title "vice
president, " though normally indicative of this role, does not in all cases
identify such positions. Vice presidents whose primary responsibility is to
act personally on individual cases or transactions (e.g., approve or deny
individual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts; di­
rectly supervise a clerical staff) are not considered to be "corporate
officers" for purposes of applying the definition.
Level of Secretary's Responsibility (LR)
This factor evaluates the nature of the work relationship between
the secretary and the supervisor, and the extent to which the secretary is
expected to exercise initiative and judgment. Secretaries should be matched
at LR—1 or LR— described below according to their level of responsibility.
2
Level of Responsibility 1 (LR—1)
Perform s varied secretarial duties including or comparable to most
of the following:
a. Answers telephones, greets
coming mail.

personal

callers,

and opens in­

b. Answers telephone requests which have standard, answers.
reply to requests by sending a form letter.

May

c. Reviews correspondence, memoranda, and reports prepared by
others for the supervisor's signature to ensure procedural and
typographical accuracy.
d. Maintains supervisor's
instructed.

calendar

and

makes appointments as

e. Types, takes and transcribes dictation, and files.

S E C R E T A R Y — C ontinu ed

S T E N O G R A P H E R — C on tin u ed

Level of Responsibility 2 (LR—
2)

Stenographer, Senior

Perform s duties described under LR—1 and, in addition performs
tasks requiring greater judgment, initiative, and knowledge of office functions
including or comparable to most of the following:

Dictation involves a varied technical or specialized vocabulary
such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research. May also set up
and maintain files, keep records, etc.

a. Screens telephone and personal callers, determining which can
be handled by the supervisor's subordinates or other offices.
b. Answers requests which require a detailed knowledge of of­
fice procedures or collection of information from files or
other offices. May sign routine correspondence in own or
supervisor's name.
c. Compiles or assists in compiling periodic reports on the basis
of general instructions.
d. Schedules tentative appointments without prior clearance. A s­
sembles necessary background material for scheduled meetings.
Makes arrangements for meetings and conferences.
e. Explains supervisor's requirements to other employees in super­
visor's unit. (Also types, takes dictation, and files.)
The following chart shows the level of the secretary for each LS
and LR combination.

Level of secretary's
supervisor

Perform s stenographic duties requiring significantly greater in­
dependence and responsibility than stenographer, general, as evidenced by
the following: Work requires a high degree of stenographic speed and
accuracy; a thorough working knowledge of general business and office pro­
cedure; and of the specific business operations, organization, policies,
procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in performing steno­
graphic duties and responsible clerical tasks such as maintaining follow­
up files; assembling material for reports, memoranda, and letters; com­
posing simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing incoming
mail; and answering routine questions, etc.
TRANS CRIBING-MACHINE TYPIST
Prim ary duty is to type copy of voice recorded dictation which does
not involve varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as that used in
legal briefs or reports on scientific research. May also type from written
copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other relatively
routine clerical tasks. (See Stenographer definition for workers involved
with shorthand dictation.)

Level of secretary's responsibility
TYPIST
LR—1

LS—1
--------------------------------------------------LS—
2—_____ ___— --------—---- ________________
LS—
3____________________________________

OR

Class E
Clas s D
Class C

LR—
2
Class
Class
Class
Class

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various materials or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May include
typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicating
processes. May do clerical work involving little special training, such
as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and
distributing incoming mail.

D
C
B
A

STENOGRAPHER
Prim ary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to transcribe
the dictation. May also type from written copy. May operate from a
stenographic pool. May occasionally transcribe from voice recordings (if
prim ary duty is transcribing from recordings, see Transcribing-Machine
Typist).
NOTE; This job is distinguished from that of a secretary in that a
secretary normally works in a confidential relationship with only one manager
or executive and performs more responsible and discretionary tasks as
described in the secretary job definition.

Class A . Performs one or more of the following: Typing material
in final form when it involves combining material from several sources; or
responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punctuation, etc., of tech­
nical or unusual words or foreign language material; or planning layout
and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and
balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit
circumstances.
Class B . Perform s one or more of the following: Copy typing from
rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of forms, insurance policies, etc.;
or setting up simple standard tabulations; or copying more complex tables
already set up and spaced properly.
F ILE CLERK

Stenographer, General
Dictation involves a normal routine vocabulary. May maintain files,
keep simple records, or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks.




27

Files, classifies, and retrieves material in an established filing
system. May perform clerical and manual tasks required to maintain files.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.

F I L E C L E R K — C ontinued

O R D E R C L E R K — C ontinu ed

Class A . Classifies and indexes file material such as correspond­
ence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an established filing system
containing a number of varied subject matter files. May also file this
material. May keep records of various types in conjunction with the files.
May lead a small group of lower level file clerks.

adequacy of information recorded; ascertaining credit rating of customer;
furnishing customer with acknowledgement of receipt of order; following-up
to see that order is delivered by the specified date or to let customer know
of a delay in delivery; maintaining order file; checking shipping invoice
against original order.

Class B . Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer subheadings.
Prepares simple related index and cross-reference aids. As requested,
locates clearly identified material in files and forwards material. May per­
form related clerical tasks required to maintain and service files.

Exclude workers paid on a commission basis or whose duties include
any of the following: Receiving orders for services rather than for material
or merchandise; providing customers with consultative advice using knowl­
edge gained from engineering or extensive technical training; emphasizing
selling skills; handling material or merchandise as an integral part of the job.

Class C. Perform s routine filing of material that has already been
classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classification
system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numerical). As requested,
locates readily available material in files and forwards material; and may
fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerical and manual tasks
required to maintain and service files.

Positions
definitions:

MESSENGER
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, operating
minor office machines such as sealers or m ailers, opening and distributing
mail, and other minor clerical work. Exclude positions that require operation
of a motor vehicle as a significant duty.

are

classified

into

levels

according to

the following

Class A . Handles orders that involve making judgments such as
choosing which specific product or material from the establishment's product
lines will satisfy the customer's needs, or determining the price to be quoted
when pricing involves more than merely referring to a price list or making
some simple mathematical calculations.
Class B . Handles orders involving items which have readily iden­
tified uses and applications. May refer to a catalog, manufacturer's manual,
or similar document to insure that proper item is supplied or to verify
price of ordered item.
ACCOUNTING CLERK

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a telephone switchboard or console used with a private
branch exchange (PBX ) system to relay incoming, outgoing, and intrasystem
calls. May provide information to callers, record and transmit messages,
keep record of calls placed and toll charges. Besides operating a telephone
switchboard or console, may also type or perform routine clerical work
(typing or routine clerical work may occupy the major portion of the worker's
time, and is usually performed while at the switchboard or console). Chief or
lead operators in establishments employing more than one operator are
excluded. For an operator who also acts as a receptionist, see Switchboard
Ope r ato r - Re ceptioni st.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

Perform s one or more accounting clerical tasks such as posting to
registers and ledgers; reconciling bank accounts; verifying the internal con­
sistency, completeness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting documents;
assigning prescribed accounting distribution codes; examining and verifying
for clerical accuracy various types of reports’ lists, calculations, posting,
)
etc.; or preparing simple or assisting in preparing more complicated journal
vouchers. May work in either a manual or automated accounting system.
The work requires a knowledge of clerical methods and office
practices and procedures which relates to the clerical processing and re­
cording of transactions and accounting information. With experience, the
worker typically becomes familiar with the bookkeeping and accounting terms
and procedures used in the assigned work, but is not required to have a
knowledge of the formal principles of bookkeeping and accounting.

At a single-position telephone switchboard or console, acts both as
an operator— see Switchboard Operator— and as a receptionist. Receptionist's
work involves such duties as greeting visitors; determining nature of visitor’s
business and providing appropriate information; referring visitor to appro­
priate person in the organization or contacting that person by telephone and
arranging an appointment; keeping a log of visitors.

Positions
definitions:

classified into levels on the basis of the following

Class A . Under general supervision, performs accounting clerical
operations which require the application of experience and judgment, for
example, clerically processing complicated or nonrepetitive accounting trans­
actions, selecting among a substantial variety of prescribed accounting codes
and classifications, or tracing transactions through previous accounting
actions to determine source of discrepancies. May be assisted by one or
more class B accounting clerks.

ORDER CLERK
Receives written or verbal customers1 purchase orders for material
or merchandise from customers or sales people. Work typically involves
some combination of the following duties: Quoting prices; determining availa­
bility of ordered items and suggesting substitutes when necessary; advising
expected delivery date and method of delivery; recording order and customer
information on order sheets; checking order sheets for accuracy and




are

Class B . Under close supervision, following detailed instructions
and standardized procedures, performs one or more routine accounting
clerical operations, such as posting to ledgers, cards, or worksheets

28

A C C O U N T IN G C L E R K — C ontinu ed

M A C H IN E B I L L E R — C ontinu ed

where identification of items and locations of postings are clearly indicated;
checking accuracy and completeness of standardized and repetitive records
or accounting documents; and coding documents using a few prescribed
accounting codes.

Bookkeeping-machine b ille r. Uses a bookkeeping machine (with or
without a typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers' bills as part of the
accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the simultaneous entry of
figures on customers' ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates
figures on a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints
automatically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge
of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typewriter key­
board) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and
experience in basic bookkeeping principles, and familiarity with the structure
of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper records and
distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each phase of the work.
May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B . Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of a
set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases
or sections include accounts payable, payroll, customers' accounts (not in­
cluding a simple type of billing described under machine biller), cost dis­
tribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist
in preparation of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting
department.
MACHINE BILLER
Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other than
an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings
or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental to billing
operations. For wage study purposes, machine billers are classified by type
of machine, as follows:
Billing-machine biller. Uses a special billing machine (combination
typing and adding machine) to prepare bills and invoices from customers'
purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memoranda, etc.
Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges
and entry of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on
the billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by
machine. The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

PA Y R O LL CLERK
Perform s the clerical tasks necessary to process payrolls and to
maintain payroll records. Work involves most of the following: Processing
workers' time or production records; adjusting workers' records for changes
in wage rates, supplementary benefits, or tax deductions; editing payroll
listings against source records; tracing and correcting errors in listings;
and assisting in preparation of periodic summary payroll reports. In a nonautomated payroll system, computes wages. Work may require a practical
knowledge of governmental regulations, company payroll policy, or the
computer system for processing payrolls.
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Operates a keypunch machine to record or verify alphabetic and/or
numeric data on tabulating cards or on tape.
Positions are
definitions:

classified into levels on the basis of the following

Class A . Work requires the application of experience and judgment
in selecting procedures to be followed and in searching for, interpreting,
selecting, or coding items to be keypunched from a variety of source
documents. On occasion may also perform some routine keypunch work.
May train inexperienced keypunch operators.
Class B . Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision
or following specific procedures or instructions, works from various stand­
ardized source documents which have been coded, and follows specified
procedures which have been prescribed in detail and require little or no
selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. Refers to su­
pervisor problems arising from erroneous items or codes or missing
information.

Professional and Technical
COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS— Continued

Analyzes business problems to formulate procedures for solving
them by use of electronic data processing equipment. Develops a complete
description of all specifications needed to enable programmers to prepare
required digital computer programs. Work involves most of the following:
Analyzes subject-matter operations to be automated and identifies conditions
and criteria required to achieve satisfactory results; specifies number and
types of records, files, and documents to be used; outlines actions to be
performed by personnel and computers in sufficient detail for presentation
to management and for programming (typically this involves preparation of
work and data flow charts); coordinates the development of test problems and

participates in trial runs of new and revised systems; and recommends
equipment changes to obtain more effective overall operations. (NOTE:
Workers performing both systems analysis and programming should be
classified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)




Does not include employees primarily responsible for the man­
agement or supervision of other electronic data processing employees,
or systems analysts primarily concerned with scientific or engineering
problems.

C O M P U T E R S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T , B U S IN E S S — C ontinu ed

For wage study purposes, systems analysts are classified as follows:
Class A. Works independently or under only general direction on
complex problems involving all phases of systems analysis. Problems are
complex because of diverse sources of input data and multiple-use require­
ments of output data. (For example, develops an integrated production
scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales analysis record in
which every item of each type is automatically processed through the full
system of records and appropriate followup actions are initiated by the
computer.) Confers with persons concerned to determine the data processing
problems and advises subject-matter personnel on the implications of new or
revised systems of data processing operations. Makes recommendations, if
needed, for approval of major systems installations or changes and for
obtaining equipment.
May provide functional direction to lower level systems analysts
who are assigned to assist.
Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on
problems that are relatively uncomplicated to analyze, plan, program, and
operate. Problems are of limited complexity because sources of input data
are homogeneous and the output data are closely related. (For example,
develops systems for maintaining depositor accounts in a bank, maintaining
accounts receivable in a retail establishment, or maintaining inventory
accounts in a manufacturing or wholesale establishment.) Confers with
persons concerned to determine the data processing problems and advises
subject-matter personnel on the implications of the data processing systems
to be applied.
OR
Works on a segment of a complex data processing scheme or system,
as described for class A. Works independently on routine assignments and
receives instruction and guidance on complex assignments. Work is reviewed
for accuracy of judgment, compliance with instructions, and to insure
proper alignment with the overall system.
Class C. Works under immediate supervision, carrying out analyses
as assigned, usually of a single activity. Assignments are designed to develop
and expand practical experience in the application of procedures and skills
required for systems analysis work. For example, may assist a higher level
systems analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required by pro­
grammers from iniformation developed by the higher level analyst.
COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS
Converts statements of business problems, typically prepared by a
systems analyst, into a sequence of detailed instructions which are re­
quired to solve the problems by automatic data processing equipment.
Working from charts or diagrams, the programmer develops the pre­
cise instructions which, when entered into the computer system in coded
language, cause the manipulation of data to achieve desired results. Work
involves most of the following: Applies knowledge of computer capa­
bilities, mathematics, logic employed by computers, and particular sub­
ject matter involved to analyze charts and diagrams of the problem to
be programmed; develops sequence of program steps; writes detailed flow
charts to show order in which data will be processed; converts these
charts to coded instructions for machine to follow; tests and corrects




C O M P U T E R P R O G R A M M E R , B U S IN E S S — C on tin u ed

programs; prepares instructions for operating personnel during production
run; analyzes, reviews, and alters programs to increase operating effi­
ciency or adapt to new requirements; maintains records of program de­
velopment and revisions. (NOTE: Workers performing both systems anal­
ysis and programming should be classified as systems analysts if this is
the skill used to determine their pay.)
Does not include employees primarily responsible for the man­
agement or supervision of other electronic data processing employees,
or programmers prim arily concerned with scientific and/or engineering
problem s.
For wage study purposes, programmers are classified as follows:
Class A . Works independently or under only general direction
on complex problems which require competence in all phases of pro­
gramming concepts and practices. Working from diagrams and charts
which identify the nature of desired results, major processing steps to
be accomplished, and the relationships between various steps of the prob­
lem solving routine; plans the full range of programming actions needed
to efficiently utilize the computer system in achieving desired end products.
At this level, programming is difficult because computer equip­
ment must be organized to produce several interrelated but diverse prod­
ucts from numerous and diverse data elements. A wide variety and ex­
tensive number of internal processing actions must occur. This requires
such actions as development of common operations which can be re­
used, establishment of linkage points between operations, adjustments to
data when program requirements exceed computer storage capacity, and
substantial manipulation and resequencing of data elements to form a
highly integrated program.
May provide functional direction to lower level programmers who
are assigned to assist.
Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on
relatively simple programs, or on simple Segments of complex programs.
Program s (or segments) usually process information to produce data in two
or three varied sequences or formats. Reports and listings are produced by
refining, adapting, arraying, or making minor additions to or deletions from
input data which are readily available. While numerous records may be
processed, the data have been refined in prior actions so that the accuracy
and sequencing of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typically,
the program deals with routine recordkeeping operations.
OR
Works on complex programs (as described for class A) under
close direction of a higher level programmer or supervisor. May assist
higher level programmer by independently performing less difficult tasks
assigned, and performing more difficult tasks under fairly close direction.

C O M P U T E R P R O G R A M M E R , B U S IN E S S — C ontinu ed

D RAFTER

May guide or instruct lower level programmers.
Class C . Makes practical applications of programming practices
and concepts usually learned in formal training courses. Assignments
are designed to develop competence in the application of standard pro­
cedures to routine problems. Receives close supervision on new aspects
of assignments; and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy and conformance
with required procedures.
COMPUTER OPERATOR
Monitors and operates the control console of a digital computer to
process data according to operating instructions, usually prepared by a
programmer. Work includes most of the following: Studies instructions to
determine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required
items (tape reels, cards, etc.); switches necessary auxiliary equipment into
circuit, and starts and operates computer; makes adjustments to computer to
correct operating problems and meet special conditions; reviews errors
made during operation and determines cause or refers problem to super­
visor or programmer; and maintains operating records. May test and assist
in correcting program.
For wage study purposes,

computer operators are classified as

follows:
Class A . Operates independently, or under only general direction, a
computer running programs with most of the following characteristics: New
programs are frequently tested and introduced; scheduling requirements are
of critical importance to minimize downtime; the programs are of complex
design so that identification of error source often requires a working knowl­
edge of the total program, and alternate programs may not be available.
May give direction and guidance to lower level operators.
Class B . Operates independently, or under only general direction, a
computer running programs with most of the following characteristics: Most
of the programs are established production runs, typically run on a regularly
recurring basis; there is little or no testing of new programs required; alter­
nate programs are provided in case original program needs major change
or cannot be corrected within a reasonably short time. In common error
situations, diagnoses cause and takes corrective action. This usually in­
volves applying previously programmed corrective steps, or using standard
correction techniques.
OR
Operates under direct supervision a computer running programs or
segments of programs with the characteristics described for class A. May
assist a higher level operator by independently performing less difficult tasks
assigned, and performing difficult tasks following detailed instructions and
with frequent review of operations performed.
Class C. Works on routine programs under close supervision. Is
expected to develop working knowledge of the computer equipment used and
ability to detect problems involved in running routine programs. Usually has
received some formal training in computer operation. May assist higher
level operator on complex programs.




31

Class A . Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having
distinctive design features that differ significantly from established drafting
precedents. Works in close support with the design originator, and may
recommend minor design changes. Analyzes the effect of each change on the
details of form, function, and positional relationships of components and
parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory assistance. Completed work
is reviewed by design originator for consistency with prior engineering
determinations. May either prepare drawings or direct their preparation by
lower level drafters.
Class B . Performs nonroutine and complex drafting assignments
that require the application of most of the standardized drawing techniques
regularly used. Duties typically involve such work as: Prepares working
drawings of subassemblies with irregular shapes, multiple functions, and
precise positional relationships between components; prepares architectural
drawings for construction of a building including detail drawings of founda­
tions, wall sections, floor plans, and roof. Uses accepted formulas and
manuals in making necessary computations to determine quantities of
materials to be used, load capacities, strengths, stresses, etc. Receives
initial instructions, requirements, and advice from supervisor. Completed
work is checked for technical adequacy.
Class C. Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for
engineering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types of
drawings prepared include isometric projections (depicting three dimensions
in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning of components
and convey needed information. Consolidates details from a number of
sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggested methods of
approach, applicable precedents, and advice on source materials are given
with initial assignments. Instructions are less complete when assignments
recur. Work may be spot-checked during progress.
DRAFTER-TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing
cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not
include tracing limited to plans primarily consisting of straight lines and a
large scale not requiring close delineation.)
AND/OR
Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized items.
Work is closely supervised during progress.
ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN
Works on various types of electronic equipment and related devices
by performing one or a combination of the following: Installing, maintaining,
repairing, overhauling, troubleshooting, modifying, constructing, and testing.
Work requires practical application of technical knowledge of electronics
principles, ability to determine malfunctions, and skill to put equipment in
required operating condition.
The equipment— consisting of either many different kinds of circuits
or multiple repetition of the same kind of circuit— includes, but is not limited
to, the following: (a) Electronic transmitting and receiving equipment (e.g.,
radar, radio, television, telephone, sonar, navigational aids), (b) digital and
analog computers, and (c) industrial and medical measuring and controlling
equipment.

E L E C J R p N I C S T E C H N IC IA N — C ontinued

E L E C T R O N IC S T E C H N IC IA N — C ontinu ed

This classification excludes repairers of such standard electronic
equipment as common office machines and household radio and television
sets; production assemblers and testers; workers whose primary duty is
servicing electronic test instruments; technicians who have administrative
or supervisory responsibility; and drafters, designers, and professional
engineers.

Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher
level technician, and work is reviewed for specific compliance with accepted
practices and work assignments. May provide technical guidance to lower
level technicians.

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following
definitions:
Class A . Applies advanced technical knowledge to solve unusually
complex problems (i.e., those that typically cannot be solved solely by
reference to manufacturers' manuals or similar documents) in working on
electronic equipment. Examples of such problems include location and
density of circuitry, electromagnetic radiation, isolating malfunctions, and
frequent engineering changes. Work involves: A detailed understanding of
the interrelationships of circuits; exercising independent judgment in per­
forming such tasks as making circuit analyses, calculating wave forms,
tracing relationships in signal flow; and regularly using complex test in­
struments (e.g., dual trace oscilloscopes, Q-m eters, deviation meters,
pulse generators).
Work may be reviewed by supervisor (frequently an engineer or
designer) for general compliance with accepted practices. May provide
technical guidance to lower level technicians.
Class B . Applies comprehensive technical knowledge to solve com­
plex problems (i.e., those that typically can be solved solely by properly
interpreting manufacturers' manuals or similar documents) in working on
electronic equipment. Work involves: A familiarity with the interrelation­
ships of circuits; and judgment in determining work sequence and in selecting
tools and testing instruments, usually less complex than those used by the
class A technician.

Class C . Applies working technical knowledge to perform simple or
routine tasks in working on electronic equipment, following detailed in­
structions which cover virtually all procedures. Work typically involves such
tasks as: Assisting higher level technicians by performing such activities as
replacing components, wiring circuits, and taking test readings; repairing
simple electronic equipment; and using tools and common test instruments
(e.g., multimeters, audio signal generators, tube testers, oscilloscopes). Is
not required to be familiar with the interrelationships of circuits. This
knowledge, however, may be acquired through assignments designed to in­
crease competence (including classroom training) so that worker can advance
to higher level technician.
Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher
level technician. Work is typically spot checked, but is given detailed
review when new or advanced assignments are involved.
REGISTERED INDUSTRIAL NURSE
A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general medical
direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or
suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or
injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees' injuries; keeping
records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and health evaluations of
applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving
health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or
other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
Nursing supervisors or head nurses in establishments employing more than
one nurse are excluded.

Maintenance, Toolroom, and Powerplant
MAINTENANCE CARPENTER

MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIAN— Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain
in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters,
benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made of wood
in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and
laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal instructions;
using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools, and standard
measuring instruments; making standard shop computations relating to
dimensions of work; and selecting materials necessary for the work. In
general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, controllers,
circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other trans­
mission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other
specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical system or
equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of
wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of electrician's handtools
and measuring and testing instruments. In general, the work of the main­
tenance electrician requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MAINTENANCE PAINTER

MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIAN
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the in­
stallation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, distri­
bution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work involves
most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of electrical




Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an estab­
lishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface peculiarities
and types of paint required for different applications; preparing surface for
painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes

M A I N T E N A N C E P A I N T E R — C ontinued

M A IN T E N A N C E P IP E F IT T E R

and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May mix colors,
oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or con­
sistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Laying
out work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings or other
written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct lengths with
chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machines; threading
pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven
machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers;
making standard shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of
pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes
meet specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Workers primarily
engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or heating systems
are excluded.

M AINTENANCE MACHINIST
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work in­
volves most of the following; Interpreting written instructions and specifica­
tions; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of machinist's handtools
and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard
machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making standard
shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds, and speeds
of machining; knowledge of the working properties of the common metals;
selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment required for this work;
and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the
machinist's work normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (MACHINERY)
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Examining machines and mechanical
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling
machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools in
scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items
obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a
machine shop or sending the machine to a machine shop for major repairs;
preparing written specifications for major repairs or for the production of
parts ordered from machine shops; reassembling machines; and making all
necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a machinery
maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary
duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
M AINTENANCE MECHANIC (MOTOR VEHICLE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an estab­
lishment. Work involves most of the following; Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and per­
forming repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges,
drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; re­
assembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle and making
necessary adjustments; and aligning wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or
tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the motor vehicle maintenance
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
This classification does not include mechanics who repair customers'
vehicles in automobile repair shops.



MAINTENANCE SH EET-M E TAL WORKER
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-metal
equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves,
lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out all types of
sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models, or other specifica­
tions; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-metal working
machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping,
fitting, and assembling; and installing sheet-metal articles as required. In
general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are
required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out work;
interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a variety of handtools
and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to stresses, strength
of materials, and centers of gravity; aligning and balancing equipment;
selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and
maintaining in good order power transmission equipment such as drives and
speed reducers. In general, the millwright's work normally requires a
rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
M AINTENANCE TRADES HELPER
Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by
performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping a
worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, machine,
and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding materials or tools; and
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding materials
and tools, and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted to
perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are also
performed by workers on a full-time basis.

M A C H IN E - T O O L O P E R A T O R (T O O L R O O M )

T O O L A N D D IE M A K E R — C ontinued

Specializes in operating one or more than one type of machine
tool (e.g., jig borer, grinding machine, engine lather, milling machine) to
machine metal for use in making or maintaining jigs, fixtures, cutting tools,
gauges, or metal dies or molds used in shaping or forming metal or
nonmetallic material (e.g., plastic, plaster, rubber, glass). Work typically
involves: Planning and performing difficult machining operations which
require complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; setting up machine
tool or tools (e.g., install cutting tools and adjust guides, stops, working
tables, and other controls to handle the size of stock to be machined;
determine proper feeds, speeds, tooling, and operation sequence or select
those prescribed in drawings, blueprints, or layouts); using a variety of
precision measuring instruments; making necessary adjustments during
machining operation to achieve requisite dimensions to very close tolerances.
May be required to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils,
to recognize when tools need dressing, and to dress tools. In general, the
work of a machine-tool operator (toolroom) at the skill level called for in
this classification requires extensive knowledge of machine-shop and tool­
room practice usually acquired through considerable on-the-job training and
experience.

setting up and operating various machine tools and related equipment; using
various tool and die maker's handtools and precision measuring instruments;
working to very close tolerances; heat-treating metal parts and finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; fitting and assembling parts to pre­
scribed tolerances and allowances. In general, the tool and die maker's
work requires rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

For cross-industry wage study purposes, this classification does not
include machine-tool operators (toolroom) employed in tool and die jobbing
shops.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
Constructs and repairs jigs, fixtures, cutting tools, gauges, or
metal dies or molds used in shaping or forming metal or nonmetallic
material (e.g., plastic, plaster, rubber, glass). Work typically involves:
Planning and laying out work according to models, blueprints, drawings, or
other written or oral specifications; understanding the working properties of
common metals and alloys; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and
processes required to complete task; making necessary shop computations;

For cross-industry wage study purposes, this classification does not
include tool and die makers who (1) are employed in tool and die jobbing
shops or (2) produce forging dies (die sinkers).
STATIONARY ENGINEER
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of
stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply the
establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or airconditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment such as
steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors, turbines, ventilating
and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps;
making equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation of machinery,
temperature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise these operations.
Head or chief engineers in establishments employing more than one engineer
are excluded.
BOILER TENDER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which em­
ployed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water and
safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

Material Movement and Custodial
TRUCKDRIVER

SHIPPER AND RECEIVER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
materials, merchandise, equipment, or workers between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and
customers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck
with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in
good working order. Salesroute and over-the-road drivers are excluded.

Perform s clerical and physical tasks in connection with shipping
goods of the establishment in which employed and receiving incoming
shipments. In performing day-to-day, routine tasks, follows established
guidelines. In handling unusual nonroutine problems, receives specific guid­
ance from supervisor or other officials. May direct and coordinate the
activities of other workers engaged in handling goods to be shipped or being
received.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by type and
rated capacity of truck, as follows:

Shippers typically are responsible f o r most of the following:
Verifying that orders are accurately filled by comparing items and quantities
of goods gathered for shipment against documents; insuring that shipments
are properly packaged, identified with shipping information, and loaded into
transporting vehicles; preparing and keeping records of goods shipped, e.g.,
manifests, bills of lading.

Truckdriver, light truck
(straight truck, under (IV 2 tons, usually 4 wheels)
Truckdriver, medium truck
(straight truck, IV2 to 4 tons inclusive, usually 6 wheels)
Truckdriver, heavy truck
(straight truck, over 4 tons, usually 10 wheels)
Truckdriver, tractor-trailer




Receivers typically are responsible for most of the following:
Verifying the correctness of incoming shipments by comparing items and
quantities unloaded against bills of lading, invoices, manifests, storage

S H I P P E R A N D R E C E IV E R — C ontinued

M A T E R I A L H A N D L IN G L A B O R E R — C ontinued

receipts, or other records; checking for damaged goods; insuring that
goods are appropriately identified for routing to departments within the
establishment; preparing and keeping records of goods received.

materials or merchandise in proper storage location; and transporting
materials or merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshore
workers, who load and unload ships, are excluded.

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Shipper
Receiver
Shipper and receiver

POWER-TRUCK OPERATOR
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered truck
or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a warehouse,
manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of powertruck, as follows:

WAREHOUSEMAN
As directed, performs a variety of warehousing duties which require
an understanding of the establishment's storage plan. Work involves most
of the following: Verifying materials (or merchandise) against receiving
documents, noting and reporting discrepancies and obvious damages; routing
materials to prescribed storage locations; storing, stacking, or palletizing
materials in accordance with prescribed storage methods; rearranging and
taking inventory of stored materials; examining stored materials and re ­
porting deterioration and damage; removing material from storage and
preparing it for shipment. May operate hand or power trucks in performing
warehousing duties.
Exclude workers whose primary duties involve shipping and re­
ceiving work (see Shipper and Receiver and Shipping Packer), order filling
(see Order F iller), or operating power trucks (see Power-Truck Operator).
ORDER F ILLE R
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers'
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indicating
items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisition addi­
tional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other related
duties.
SHIPPING PACKER
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them
in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being dependent
upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the type of container
employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of items in
shipping containers and may involve one or more of the following: Knowledge
of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate
type and size of container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior
or other material to prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing
container; and applying labels or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
M ATERIAL HANDLING LABORER
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or
other establishment whose duties involve one or more of the following:
Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or from freight
cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving, or placing




Forklift operator
Power-truck operator (other than forklift)
GUARD
Protects property from theft or damage, or persons from hazards
or interference. Duties involve serving at a fixed post, making rounds on
foot or by motor vehicle, or escorting persons or property. May be deputized
to make arrests. May also help visitors and customers by answering
questions and giving directions.
Guards employed by establishments which provide protective se r­
vices on a contract basis are included in this occupation.
For wage study purposes, guards are classified as follows:
Guard A
Enforces regulations designed to prevent breaches of security.
Exercises judgment and uses discretion in dealing with emergencies and
security violations encountered. Determines whether first response should
be to intervene directly (asking for assistance when deemed necessary and
time allows), to keep situation under surveillance, or to report situation
so that it can be handled by appropriate authority. Duties require spe­
cialized training in methods and techniques of protecting security areas.
Commonly, the guard is required to demonstrate continuing physical fitness
and proficiency with firearms or other special weapons.
Guard B
Carries out instructions primarily oriented toward insuring that
emergencies and security violations are readily discovered and reported to
appropriate authority. Intervenes directly only in situations which require
minimal action to safeguard property or persons. Duties require minimal
training. Commonly, the guard is not required to demonstrate physical
fitness. May be armed, but generally is not required to demonstrate
proficiency in the use of firearms or special weapons.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and
washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial or
other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following: Sweeping,
mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips, trash, and other
refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or
trimmings; providing supplies and minor maintenance services; and cleaning
lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers who specialize in window
washing are excluded.

Service Contract
Act Surveys
The following areas are sur­
veyed periodically for use in admin­
istering the Service Contract Act
of 1965. Survey results are pub­
lished in releases which are availa­
ble, at no cost, while supplies last
from any of the BLS regional offices
shown on the back cover.
Alaska (statewide)
Albany, Ga.
Alexandria, La.
Alpena, Standish, and
Tawas City, Mich.
Asheville, N.C.
Atlantic City, N.J.
Augusta, Ga.—
S.C.
Austin, Tex.
Bakersfield, Calif.
Baton Rouge, La.
Battle Creek, Mich.
Beaumont—
Port ArthurO range,

Tex.

Biloxi—
Gulfport and
Pascagoula, Miss.
Bremerton, Wash.
Bridgeport, Norwalk, and
Stamford, Conn.
Brunswick, Ga.
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Champaign—
Urbana—
Rantoul, 1 1
1.
Charleston, S.C.
Cheyenne, Wyo.
Clarksville—
Hopkinsville, T enn.—
Ky.
Colorado Springs, Colo.
Columbia, S.C.
Columbus, Miss.
Crane, Ind.
Decatur, 1 1
1.
Des Moines, Iowa
Dothan, Ala.
Duluth—
Superior, Minn.—
Wis.
El Paso, Tex., and Alamogordo—
Las
Cruces, N. Mex.
Eugene—
Springfield and Medford—
Klamath Falls—
Grants Pass—
Roseburg, Oreg.
Fayetteville, N.C.
Fitchburg—
Leominster, Mass.




Fort Riley—
Junction City, Kans.
Fort Smith, Ark.—
Okla.
Fort Wayne, Ind.
Frederick—
Hagerstown—
Chambersburg, Md.—
Pa.
Gadsden and Anniston, Ala.
Goldsboro, N.C.
Grand Island—
Hastings, Nebr.
Guam, Territory of
Harrisburg—
Lebanon, Pa.
La Crosse, Wis.
Laredo, Tex.
Lawton, Okla.
Lexington—
Fayette, Ky.
Lima, Ohio
Logansport—
Peru, Ind.
Lower Eastern Shore, Md.—
Va.—
Del.
Macon, Ga.
Madison, Wis.
Maine (statewide)
McAllen—
Pharr—
Edinburg and
Brownsville—
Harlingen—
S an B e n ito ,

Tex.

Meridian, Miss.
Middlesex, Monmouth, and
Ocean Cos., N.J.
Mobile and Pensacola, Ala.—
Fla.
Montana (statewide)
Nashville—
Davidson, Tenn.
New Bern—
Jacksonville, N.C.
New Hampshire (statewide)
New London—
Norwich, Conn.—
R.I.
North Dakota (statewide)
Northern New York
Orlando, Fla.
Oxnard—
Simi Valley—
Ventura, Calif.
Phoenix, Ariz.
Pine Bluff, Ark.
Pueblo, Colo.
Puerto Rico
Raleigh—
Durham, N.C.
Reno, Nev.
Riverside—
San Bernardino—
Ontario, Calif.
Salina, Kans.
Salinas—
Seaside—
Monterey, Calif.
Sandusky, Ohio
Santa Barbara—
Santa Maria—
Lompoc, Calif.

Savannah, Ga.
Selma, Ala.
Sherman—
Denison, Tex.
Shreveport, La.
South Dakota (statewide)
Southern Idaho
Southwestern Virginia
Springfield, 1 1
1.
Springfield—
Chicopee—
Holyoke,
Mass.—
Conn.
Stockton, Calif.
Tacoma, Wash.
Tampa—
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Topeka, Kans.
Tulsa, Okla.
Upper Peninsula, Mich.
Vallejo—
Fairfield—
Napa, Calif.
Vermont (statewide)
Virgin Islands of the U.S.
Waco and Killeen—
Temple, Tex.
Waterloo—
Cedar Falls, Iowa
West Texas Plains
West Virginia (statewide)
Wilmington, Del.—
N.J.—
Md.
Yakima, Richland—
Kennewick, and
Walla Walla—
Pendleton,
Wash.—
Oreg.

ALSO A VA ILAB LE—
An annual report on salaries for
accountants, auditors, chief account­
ants, attorneys, job analysts, direc­
tors of personnel, buyers, chemists,
engineers, engineering technicians,
drafters, a n d clerical employees
is available. Order as BLS Bulle­
tin 1931, National Survey of P ro­
fessional, Administrative, Technical
and Clerical Pay, March 1976, $1.35
a copy, from any of the BLS re ­
gional sales offices shown on the
back cover, or from the Superin­
tendent of Documents, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington,
D.C. 20402.

Area Wage
Surveys
A list of the latest bulletins available is presented below. Bulletins
may be purchased from any of the BLS regional offices shown on the back
cover, or from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Make checks payable to Superintendent of
Documents. A directory of occupational wage surveys, covering the years
1950 through 1975, is available on request.
Area
Akron, Ohio, Dec. 1976 1_____________________________________
Albany—
Schenectady—
Troy, N.Y., Sept. 1976 ________________
Anaheim—
Santa Ana—
Garden Grove,
Calif., Oct. 1976____________________________________________
Atlanta, Ga., May 1977______________________________________
Baltimore, Md., Aug. 1977__________________________________
Billings, Mont., July 1977*_________________________________
Birmingham, Ala., Mar. 1977_______________________________
Boston, Mass., Aug. 1976 ___________________________________
Buffalo, N.Y., Oct. 1976 ____________________________ _________
Canton, Ohio, May 1977 1____________________________________
Chattanooga, Tenn.-Ga., Sept. 1976 ________________________
Chicago, 111., May 1977 *_____________________________________
Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.—
Ind., Mar. 1976_______________________
Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 1976_________________________________
Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 1976__________________________________
Corpus Christi, Tex., July 1977 1 ___________________________
Dallas—
Fort Worth, Tex., Oct. 1976_________________________
Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111., Feb. 1977 1------Dayton, Ohio, Dec. 1976 _____________________________________
Daytona Beach, Fla., Aug. 1977 1____________________________
Denver—
Boulder, Colo., Dec. 1976__________________________
Detroit, Mich., Mar. 1977___________________________________
Fresno, Calif., June 1977 ___________________________________
Gainesville, Fla., Sept. 1976 ________________________________
Green Bay, Wis., July 1977__________________________________
Greensboro—
Winston-Salem—
High Point,
N.C., Aug. 1977 1___________________________________________
Greenville—
Spartanburg, S.C., June 1977 ___________________
Hartford, Conn., Mar. 1977__________________________________
Houston, Tex., Apr. 1976____________________________________
Huntsville, Ala., Feb. 1977 1_________________________________
Indianapolis, Ind., Oct. 1976_________________________________
Jackson, Miss., Jan. 1977 1 _________________________________
Jacksonville, Fla., Dec. 1976 1______________________________
Kansas City, Mo.-Kans., Sept. 1976 1 _______________________
Los Angeles—
Long Beach, Calif., Oct. 1976________________
Louisville, Ky.—
Ind., Nov. 1976_____________________________
Memphis, Tenn.—
Ark.—
Miss., Nov. 1976 1 __________________




Bulletin number
and price *
1900-76, 85 cents
1900-59, 55 cents
1900-67, 75 cents
1950-17, $1.20
1950-39, $1.20
1950-40, $1.00
1950-8, 85 cents
1900-53, 85 cents
1900-70, 75 cents
1950-28, $1.10
1900-57, 55 cents
1950-41, $1.40
1900-7, 75 cents
1900-62, 95 cents
1900-68, 75 cents
1950-35, $ 1.00
1900-63, 85 cents
1950-26, $1.10
1900-78, 85 cents
1950-43, $1.00
1900-73, 85 cents
1950-13, $1.20
1950-30, 70 cents
1900-54, 45 cents
1950-36, 70 cents
1950-42,
1950-33,
1950-9,
1900-26,
1950-4,
1900-58,
1950-2,
1900-80,
1900-60,
1900-77,
1900-69,
1900-75,

$1.10
70 cents
80 cents
85 cents
$1.40
75 cents
$1.50
85 cents
$1.05
85 cents
55 cents
85 cents

Area
Miami, Fla., Oct. 1976______________________________________
Milwaukee, Wis., Apr. 1977 _________________________________
Minneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn.—
Wis., Jan. 1977_______________
Nassau—
Suffolk, N.Y., June 1977 ____________________________
Newark, N.J., Jan. 1977 ________________ ;___________________
New Orleans, La., Jan. 1977 1_______________________________
New York, N.Y .-N.J., May 1977____________________________
Norfolk—
Virginia Beach-Portsmouth, Va.—
N.C., May 1977 _____________________________________________
Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth and
Newport News—
Hampton, Va.—
N.C., May 1977____________
Northeast Pennsylvania, Aug. 1977 1________________________
Oklahoma City, Okla., Aug. 1976____________________________
Omaha, Nebr.-Iowa, Oct. 1976______________________________
Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic, N.J., June 1977_________________
Philadelphia, Pa.—
N.J., Nov. 1976 1_________________________
Pittsburgh, Pa., Jan. 1977 __________________________________
Portland, Maine, Dec. 1976 1
____________ _________________
Portland, Oreg.—
Wash., May 19771_________________________
Poughkeepsie, N.Y., June 1977 _____________________________
Poughkeepsie—
Kingston—
Newburgh, N.Y., June 1976_______
Providence—
Warwick—
Pawtucket, R.I.—
Mass., June 1977 1_________________________________________
Richmond, Va., June 1977 1 _________________________________
St. Louis, Mo.—
111., Mar. 1977 ______________________________
Sacramento, Calif., Dec. 1976 ______________________________
Saginaw, Mich., Nov. 1976 1_________________________________
Salt Lake City—
Ogden, Utah,
Nov.1976_____________________
San Antonio, Tex., May 1977 1_______________________________
San Diego, Calif., Nov. 1976________________________________
San Francisco—
Oakland, Calif., Mar. 1977 _________________
San Jose, Calif., Mar. 1977_________________________________
Seattle—
Everett, Wash., Jan. 1977 1_________________________
South Bend, Ind., Mar. 1976 _________________________________
Syracuse, N.Y., July 1976___________________________________
Toledo, Ohio—
Mich., May 1977______________________________
Trenton, N.J., Sept. 1976____________________________________
Utica—
Rome, N.Y., July 1977 1 ______________________________
Washington, D.C.—
Md.—
Va., Mar. 1977______________________
Wichita, Kans., Apr. 1977 _________________________________
Worcester, Mass., Apr. 1977 _______________________________
York, Pa., Feb. 1977 ________________________________________

*
1

Bulletin number
and price *
1900-66,
1950-14,
1950-3,
1950-27,
1950-7,
1950-5,
1950-31,

75 cents
$1.10
$1.60
$ 1.00
$ 1.60
$1.60
$1.20

1950-20, 70 cents
1950-21,
1950-38,
1900-42,
1900-61,
1950-34,
1900-64,
1950-1,
1900-72,
1950-32,
1950-25,
1900-55,

70 cents
$1.10
55 cents
55 cents
70 cents
$1.10
$1.50
85 cents
$1.20
70 cents
55 cents

1950-22,
1950-23,
1950-10,
1900-71,
1900-74,
1900-65,
1950-24,
1900-79,
1950-29,
1950-19,
1950-12,
1900-5,
1900-44,
1950-18,
1900-56,
1950-37,
1950-11,
1950-16,
1950-15,
1950-6,

$ 1.20
$1.10
$1.20
55 cents
75 cents
55 cents
$1.10
55 cents
$1.20
$1.00
$1.20
55 cents
55 cents
80 cents
55 cents
$ 1.10
$1.20
$1.10
70 cents
$1.10

Prices are determined by the Government Printing O ffice and are subject to change.
Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.

Postage and Fees Paid
U.S. Department of Labor

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212

Third Class Mail

Official Business
Penalty for private use, $300

Lab-441

Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices
Region I

Region It

Region 11
1

Region IV

1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (AreaCode617)

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N Y. 10036
Phone: 399-5406 (AreaCode212)

3535 Market Street,
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: 596-1154 (AreaCode215)

Suite 540
>371 Peachtree St., N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone:881-4418 (Area Code 404)

Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Vermont

New Jersey
New York
Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands

Delaware
District of Columbia
Maryland
Pennsylvania
Virginia
West Virginia

Alabama
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Mississippi
North Carolina
South Carolina
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Region V

Region VI

Regions VII and VIII

Regions IX and X

9th Floor, 230 S. Dearborn St.
Chicago, III 60604
Phone: 353-1880 (AreaCode312)

Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (AreaCode214)

Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 15th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone:556-4678 (Area Code 415)

Arkansas
Louisiana
New Mexico
Oklahoma
Texas

VII

VIII

IX

X

Iowa
Kansas
Missouri
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Colorado
Montana
North Dakota
South Dakota
Utah
Wyoming

Arizona
California
Hawaii
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Alaska
Idaho
Oregon
Washington

Illinois
Indiana
Michigan
Minnesota
Ohio
Wisconsin





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102