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A•

)

Area
Wage
Survey

b 'O




o .
*

S'

Poughkeepsie, New York,
Metropolitan Area, June 1977

Preface
T h is b u lle t in p r o v i d e s r e s u l t s o f a June 1977 s u r v e y o f o c c u p a t io n a l
e a r n in g s in th e P o u g h k e e p s ie , N ew Y o r k , S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a t is t ic a l
A rea.
T h e s u r v e y w a s m a d e a s p a r t o f th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s '
an n u a l a r e a w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m .
It w a s c o n d u c t e d b y th e B u r e a u 's
r e g io n a l o f f i c e in N ew Y o r k , N .Y ., u n d e r th e g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f A n th o n y
J. F e r r a r a , A s s is t a n t R e g io n a l C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r O p e r a t io n s .
The su rvey
c o u ld n o t h a v e b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d w ith o u t th e c o o p e r a t i o n o f th e m a n y f i r m s
w h o s e w a g e an d s a la r y da ta p r o v id e d th e b a s is f o r th e s t a t is t ic a l in fo r m a t io n
in th is b u lle tin .
T h e B u r e a u w is h e s t o e x p r e s s s i n c e r e a p p r e c ia t io n f o r th e
c o o p e r a tio n r e c e iv e d .




M a t e r ia l in th is p u b lic a t io n is in th e p u b lic d o m a in a n d m a y b e
r e p r o d u c e d w ith o u t p e r m i s s i o n o f th e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t .
P le a s e c r e d it
th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s an d c it e th e n a m e an d n u m b e r o f th is
p u b lic a t io n .

Note:
C u r r e n t r e p o r t s o n o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s in th e P o u g h k e e p s ie —
K in g s to n —N e w b u r g a r e a a r e a v a ila b le f o r th e m o v in g an d s t o r a g e and la u n d r y
in d u s t r ie s (J u n e 1 9 7 7).

Area
Wage
Survey

Poughkeepsie, New York,
Metropolitan Area, June 1977

U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

Contents

Page

September 1977
Bulletin 1950-25

Introduction-------------------------Tables:
A.

Earnings, all establishments:
A - l . Weekly earnings of office
A -2 .

Weekly earnings of profes­
sional and technical w ork ers-------A -3 . Average weekly earnings of
office, professional, and
technical workers, by sex------------A -4 . Hourly earnings of mainte­
nance, toolroom, and
powerplant w orkers-----------------------A -5 , Hourly earnings of material
movement and custodial
workers------------------------------------------—
A - 6 . Average hourly earnings of
maintenance, toolroom,
powerplant, material move­
ment, and custodial workers,
by s e x ----------------------------------------------A-l. Percent increases in average
hourly earnings, adjusted for
employment shifts, for s e ­
lected occupational groups------------

Appendix A.
Appendix B.

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing O ffice, W ashington, D.C. 20402, GPO
Bookstores, or BLS Regional Offices listed on back cover.




Scope and method of su rvey-----------Occupational descriptions----------------

4
4

8

9
13

Introduction
This area is 1 of 74 in which the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau
of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings and related
benefits. (See list of areas on inside back cover.) In each area, occupational
earnings data (A -se r ie s tables) are collected annually. Information on estab­
lishment practices and supplementary wage benefits (B -se r ie s tables) is
obtained every third year. This report has no B -s e r ie s tables.

Each year after all individual area wage surveys have been com ­
pleted, two summary bulletins are issued. The first brings together data
for each metropolitan area surveyed; the second presents national and
regional estim ates, projected from individual metropolitan area data, for
all Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States, excluding
Alaska and Hawaii.

A m ajor consideration in the area wage survey program is the need
to describe the level and movement of wages in a variety of labor m arkets,
through the analysis of ( 1 ) the level and distribution of wages by occupation,
and (2 ) the movement of wages by occupational category and skill level. The
program develops information that may be used for many purposes, including
wage and salary administration, collective bargaining, and assistance in
determining plant location. Survey results also are used by the U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor to make wage determinations under the Service Contract Act
of 1965.




A -s e r ie s tables
Tables A - 1 through A - 6 provide estimates of straight-tim e weekly
or hourly earnings for workers in occupations common to a variety of
manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. For the 31 largest survey
areas, tables A - 8 through A - 13 provide sim ilar data for establishments
employing 500 workers or m ore.
Table A -7 provides percent changes in average hourly earnings
of office clerical w orkers, electronic data processing workers, industrial
nurses, skilled maintenance trades w orkers, and unskilled plant workers.
Where possible, data are presented for all industries and for manufac­
turing and nonmanufacturing separately. Data are not presented for skilled
maintenance workers in nonmanufacturing because the number of workers
employed in this occupational group in nonmanufacturing is too sm all to
warrant separate presentation.
This table provides a measure of wage
trends after elinimation of changes in average earnings caused by employ­
ment shifts among establishments as well as turnover of establishments
included in survey sam ples. For further details, see appendix A.
Appendixes
Appendix A describes the methods and concepts used in the area
wage survey program and provides information on the scope of the survey.
Appendix B provides job descriptions used by Bureau field econo­
m ists to classify workers by occupation.

A.

E a rn in g s

Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., June 1977
Weekly earnings
(standard)
Number
of
workers

1

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s tr a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly e a rn in g s o f—

$

A verage
weekly
hours *
(standard)

S

$

$

*

$

5

4

b

5

S

$

$

4

$

4

M e an

2

M edian

Middle range

2

lo o

llo

120

130

14o

IPO

160

170

18(j

190

200

210

100

llo

120

130

l4 e

1^0

160

170

180

190

200

210

230

2

4

-

2

95

95

O c c u p a t io n a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

-

-

-

-

7

-

2

-

-

-

1

-

6

3

2
-

4
2

6
6

7
6

3

3
3

1
1

•

?

10
9

2
-

4
2

c

5
5

3

3
3

1
1

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
1

*

“

9
2

2
2

1
1

-

-

7

-

5

3
2
1

3

2
i

3
2

$

S

5

$

-

2

5
4

90

25g

27C

290

310

330

350

250

270

290

310

330

350

370

2

1

7

6

2

2

-

-

1

1

1

5

8

and
under

ALL WORKERS
SECRETARIES*
w L L H L 1M n l t i l
1U r i v v

$
LLM j

j

A

-31

mm

$

$
f .

$

.

A r 1V C H O

1 j ' •00

1 >

. j O

.

39.5 182.00

-

-

2
-

2

-

-

-

35

7

7

uu

-

6
-

_
-

3

2
3

-

<
L

6

4
4

3

2

3

2

-

1

-

4

2
2

-

2

-

-

2

3

3

39.0 147.50 144.50 136.00-170.50

1

-

-

2

3

5

4

1

3

6

122.5C-255.C0

26

14
•
14

1

9

13

8

-

-

4

9

9

3
5

6
4
2

6
5
1

2
1

i
i

1

6
i
5

3

-

-

—

—

50

-

_

-

3
1

1
1

2
1

3
2

1
“

13

5

5

4

3

—

—

5

6
4
2

2
1
1

3
3
-

3
2
1

-

2
1

3
3

3

1

56

38.0 123.50 122.50 102.50-139.50

60

ACCOUNTING CLERKS, CLASS B

AA

*

186.00

148.00-224.00

•

-

-

-

14

-

-

“

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A

—

—

39

40.0 198.00 206.00 165.0C-225.0C

-

-

9
-

-

-

*

-

-

at en d o f t a b le s .




3

13
8

2

5

i
1

2
2

5

4

1
1

*

3

6

5

-

•

-

S ee fo o tn o te s

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

1
1

6
6
-

.

•

-

-

9

-

11

3
2

1
1

1
1

6
6

-

9
~

“

11
-

3
3
-

15
10
5

3
3
-

5
2
3

•

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

10
10

3
3

5

•

2

-

-

-

-

-

•

5

*

-

*

-

~

*

-

2

1
l

39.5 259.00 276.00 190.50-314.00

•

*

ACCOUNTING CLERKS, CLASS A

-

i

170.00
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTS-

-

2

_

1

3

*

*

5

i
i

2

5

5

1
1

9

11
.

Table A-2. Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Poughkeepsie,N.Y., June 1977
W eek ly earnings^
(standard)

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

A vera ge
w eek ly
hours1
(standard)

N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of—
S

S
160

M ean2

M edian 2

M iddle range 2

S

S

S

S

$

S

$

S

$

I

S

S

S

s

S

S

S

S

S

170

180

190

200

210

220

23o

240

250

26o

270

28o

290

300

310

320

330

340

360

380

180

190

200

210

220

230

240

250

260

270

280

29o

300

310

32f»

330

34o

360

38Q

400

7

8

and
under
170

ALL WORKERS
$
$
$
256.00 247.50 218.00-288.00
tlo*Q0*cnJjUO

kcO.00s bO
ccO.0G~coJ.0U

J

1

*
5

J
^0*0
REGISTERED INDUSTRIAL NURSES

15

40.0 242.50 248.00 208.00-278.50

1

1

*

*

1

See footnotes at end of tables.

Table A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex.
in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., June 1977
A vera ge
(m e a n 2 )

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

W eek ly
(standard)

W eek ly
earnings1
(standard)

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN
$

A vera ge
(m ean 2 )

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

W eekly
hours
(standard)

W eek ly
earnings1
(standard)

A vera g e
(m e a n 2 )

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

W eekly
hours4
£standard)

W eek ly
earnings1
(standard)

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS WOMEN— CONTINUED

$

218.00
r f- r -

188.00
133.00

a
/%

ST tN0GRAPHc.RS

31

vL A5 j

•

c53.00

121.00

180.00

185.00
188.00

21

1 70 .00

3 9.0

38

— PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL

198.00
195.00
j 1 tf\ L U

40.0
See footnotes at end of tables.




••••• •••••••••••••

216.50

20
D

1 UK I N U

1 70 .03

155.50

40

M A nU r A v 1UK iN u

M AiNUr A C

4

1 NUU J 1 K i A L

N U N vIb w

"

" " "

Table A-4. Hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, and powerplant workers in Poughkeepsie, N.Y. June 1977
Hourly earnings

*

N u m b e r of worker's receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
3
s
s
s
5
I
$
s
1
s
1
1
A,40 4.60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6.40 6. 60 6 . 8 0

S
$
J
1
s
$
S
S
s
*
7.00 7.20 7.40 7.60 7.80 8.00 8.20 8.40 8.60 8 . 8 0

and
under
4.60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6.40 6.60 6. 80 7.00

7.20 7.40 7.60 7.80 8.00 8.20 8.40 8.60 8.80 over

S

Occupation and industry division

of
workers

Mean 2

Median*

Middle range 2

ALL WORKERS
$
6.72
6.61

$
6.69
6.69

$
$
6*06* 7*17
6« 06* 7*17

*

•
*

*

*

2
2

58

6.76
6.76

7.17
7.17

5.88- 7.17
5.88- 7.17

*

*

.
*

2
2

2
2

111
111

6.82
6.82

6.86
6.86

5.88- 7.59
5.88- 7.59

2
2

-

3
3

-

1
1

MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIANS ----------MANUFACTURING ---------------------

35
33

MAINTENANCE MACHINISTS ------ ------MANUFACTURING ---------------------

se

TOOL AND DIE MAKERS ----------------MANUFACTURING --------------- -----

See footnotes at end of tables.




5

-

4
4

2
16
16

-

-

1
1

7
7

2
2

17
17

3
3

2

6
6

*
*

2
2

*

11
11

1
1

1
1

-

4
4

-

2
2

"

19
19

5
5

1
1

1
1

-

17
17

1
1

9
9

3
3

9
9

9
9

8
8

2
2

1
1

-

-

1
1

8
a

6
6

•
_

1

2
2

2
1

-

-

-

4
4

1
1

1

2

l

2

Table A-5. Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., June 1977
N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

H o u rly e a r n in g s *

Number

Occupation and industry division

2 .3 0

of

workers

M ean 2

M id d le r a n g e 2

5

1

5

2 .6 o

2*80

3 * 0 0 3 .2 0

3 .4 y

3 .6 0

3 .8 0

4 .0 0

$
4 .4 t ) 4 . 6 0

S

2 .5 0

&
4 .2 0

S

2 .4 0

4 .8 0

5 .2 0

5 . 6 0 6 .0 0

S

6 .4 0

6 . do 7 .2 0

5

S

2 .5 P

2 .6 0

2 .6 0

3 .0 0

3 .2 0

3 .4 0

3 .6 0

3 .8 0 4 .0 0

4 .2 0

4 .4 0

4 ,6 0

4 .8 0

5 .2 fl 5 .6 0

6 .0 0

6 .4 0

6 . dp 7 . 2 c

4
4

•

6
4

4
4

9

-

15
15

.

-

*

9

10
5

4
4

12
11

4
4

6
6

.
*

1
1

7
5

4
4

4

-

4

-

-

-

15
15

5

7 .6 0

8 .0 0

and
under
2 .4 0

7 . up d.QQ 6.4Q

ALL WORKERS

.

127
87

$
5.72
4.94

$
5.32
4.95

$
$
4.45- 6.88
3.75- 6.00

.
*

-

*

TRUCKDRIVERS. MEDIUM TRUCK
NQNMANUF A C T U R I N G ----- ----

27
25

4.34
4.30

4.68
4.68

3.35- 5.25
3.35- 5.25

•
*

•
-

_

-

-

-

“

4
4

7
7

•
*

*

*

-

“

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERKS

20

3.86

3.93

2.75- 4.65

-

-

-

7

-

1

2

-

*

-

-

-

3

6

-

WAREHOUSEMEN
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----- -

30
25

4.02
A . 01

3.92
3.92

3.61- 4.62
3.60- 4.77

-

-

2

2
1

4
3

6

1
1

2

2

1
1

1

-

2
2

6

-

“

•

-

2

6
4

3
3

129
128

4.57
4.57

5.05
5.05

4.25- 5.10
4.25- 5.10

3
3

1
1

52
52

72
62

5.20
5.19

5.39
5.39

5.23- 5.40
5.10- 5.40

*

-

*

*

9
9

422

2.98

2.50

2.30- 2.60

162

40

111

22

4.12

3.32

2.75- 5.56

-

-

4

333
60
273
16

3.89
4 . SC
3.75
5.25

4-00
4.78
4.00
5.03

3.254.033.204.94-

-

-

-

-

6
-

*

*

TRUCKORIVERS — — --------NONMANUFACTURING —

MATERIAL HANDLING LABORERS
MANUFACTURING ----------FORKLIFT OPERATORS ---m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----GUARDS AND WATCHMEN
WATCHMEN!
MANUFACTURING
JANITORS. PORTERS* AND CLEANERS
MANUFACTURING ----------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------- ■
PUBLIC UTILITIES -----------

4.10
4.97
4.00
5.82

.

.

-

*

-

*

1
1

4

2
2

1
1

8
8

3
2

3
3

4
4

32
32

.

•

-

-

-

-

6

-

-

-

-

-

6

*

*

*

*

?
2

1
1

18

2

4

6

4

3

1

3

2

1

5

4

-

-

4

-

-

1

1

-

1

6

1

56

1°

5

32
2
30

6
-

-

a

143
13
130

6
*

-

8
*

4

1

*

See footnotes at end of tables.




6

3
53

6

12
"
*

1
4
*

"
"

6
1

1
15
12
3
3

30
-

21
21

2
-

-

-

-

•

•

-

-

*

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

2

35

3
3

4

2

-

-

11

16

14

11

4

1

2

-

-

-

3

-

20
15
5
5

6
6
-

&

4 5

“

1
7
7

-

•

*

-

-

-

•

*
1

1

-

2

-

-

1

_

_

-

-

-

-

*

*

*

*

1
-

-




Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom,
powerplant, material movement, and custodial workers,
by sex, in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., June 1977
S ex, 3 o c cu p a tio n , and in d u stry d iv isio n

Number
of
workers

A vera ge
(m e a n 2 )
hourly
earnings4

Sex, 3 o c c u p a tio n , and in d u stry d iv is io n

MAINTENANCE * TOOLROOM* AND
POwERPLANT o c c u p a t i o n s - MEN

Number
of
workers

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - M E N — CONTINUED
$

$
manufacturing

--------------- — ---------------

MANUFACTURING — ----- -— --------- ---------

A verage
(m e a n 2 )
hourly
earnings 4

33

in

6 .6 1

M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----- -— ------------- — -----

128

4 .5 7

256

3 .9 3

0 .8 2
watchmen:

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL

j a n i t o r s * p o r t e r s , and

cleaners

—

r! «

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN

WAREHOUSEMEN -----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING — --------- — — ------- -----

30
25

4 .0 2
4 .0 1

See fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le s .

7

Table A-7. Percent increases in average hourly earnings, adjusted for
employment shifts, for selected occupational groups
in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., for selected periods
June 1975
to
June 1976

Industry and o ccu p a tio n a l gro u p 5

June 1976
to
June 1977

A ll in d u s trie s :
(6 )
(?)
(? )
(6)
5.3

In du strial n u r s e s _______________________ _________

( 6)

(6)

(6 )
(‘ )
6.7

M anufacturin g:
(6 )
(? )
(
U n skilled plant w o r k e r s

M

.. .

3.7

(6)

n

(?)
(&)
8.1

See fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le s .

Footnotes
1 Standard h ou rs r e fle c t the w o rk w e e k fo r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir re g u la r s tr a ig h t-tim e
s a la r ie s (e x c lu s iv e o f pay fo r o v e r tim e at r e g u la r a n d /o r p r e m iu m r a t e s ), and the e a rn in gs c o r r e s p o n d
to th ese w eek ly h ou rs.
2 The m ean is com p u ted fo r ea ch jo b by totalin g the ea rn in gs o f a ll w o r k e r s and dividin g by
the num ber o f w o r k e r s .
T he m ed ian d e sig n a te s p o s itio n — h alf o f the w o r k e r s r e c e iv e the sa m e or
m o r e and h alf r e c e iv e the sa m e o r le s s than the rate shown.
The m id d le ran ge is d efin ed by tw o
ra tes o f pay; a fou rth o f the w o r k e r s ea rn the sam e o r le s s than the lo w e r o f th e se ra te s and a
fourth ea rn the sa m e o r m o r e than the h igh er rate.




3 E a rn in g s data r e la te o n ly to w o r k e r s w h ose s e x id e n tific a tio n w as p r o v i d e d by the
e stablish m en t.
4 E x clu d e s p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r t im e and fo r w ork on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and late sh ifts.
5 E s tim a te s f o r p e r io d s ending p r io r to 1976 re la te to m en only fo r sk illed m ain ten an ce and
u n sk illed plant w o r k e r s .
A ll o th er es tim a te s r e la te to m en and w om en .
6 Data d o not m e e t p u b lica tio n c r it e r i a o r data not a v a ila b le.

8

Appendix A.
Scope and Method
of Survey
Data on area wages and related benefits are obtained by personal
visits of Bureau field representatives at 3-year intervals. In each of the
intervening years, information on employment and occupational earnings is
collected by a combination of personal visit, mail questionnaire, and te le ­
phone interview from establishments participating in the previous survey.

Unless otherwise indicated, the earnings data following the job
titles are for all industries combined. Earnings data for some of the
occupations listed and described, or for some industry divisions within the
scope of the survey, are not presented in the A -s e r ie s tables because
either (1) employment in the occupation is too sm all to provide enough data
to m erit presentation, or (2) there is possibility of disclosure of individual
establishment data. Separate m en's and women's earnings data are not
presented when the number of workers not identified by sex is 20 percent
or m ore of the men or women identified in an occupation. Earnings data
not shown separately for industry divisions are included in data for all
industries combined. Likewise, for occupations with more than one level,
data are included in the overall classification when a subclassification is
not shown or information to subclassify is not available.

In each of the 74 * areas currently surveyed, data are obtained from
1
representative establishments within six broad industry divisions: Manufac­
turing; transportation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale
trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major
industry groups excluded from these studies are government operations and
the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having fewer than
a prescribed number of workers are omitted because of insufficient em ploy­
ment in the occupations studied. Separate tabulations are provided for each
of the broad industry divisions which m eet publication criteria.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for full-tim e
workers, i.e ., those hired to work a regular weekly schedule. Earnings
data exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays,
and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-livin g
allowances and incentive bonuses are included. Weekly hours for office
clerical and professional and technical occupations refer to the standard
workweek (rounded to the nearest half h o u r ) for which employees receive
regular straight-tim e salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular
and/or premium rates). Average weekly earnings for these occupations are
rounded to the nearest half dollar. Vertical lines within the distribution of
workers on some A -tables indicate a change in the size of the class intervals.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis.
The sampling
procedures involve detailed stratification of all establishments within the
scope of an individual area survey by industry and number of em ployees.
From this stratified universe a probability sample is selected, with each
establishment having a predetermined chance of selection. To obtain optimum
accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large than sm all estab­
lishments is selected. When data are combined, each establishment is
weighted according to its probability of selection, so that unbiased estimates
are generated. For example, if one out of four establishments is selected,
it is given a weight of 4 to represent itself plus three others. An alternate
of the same original probability is chosen in the same industry-size c la s s i­
fication if data are not available from the original sample m em ber. If no
suitable substitute is available, additional weight is assigned to a sample
member that is sim ilar to the m issing unit.

These surveys m easure the level of occupational earnings in an area
at a particular tim e. Comparisons of individual occupational averages over
time may not reflect expected wage changes. The averages for individual jobs
are affected by changes in wages and employment patterns. For example,
proportions of workers employed by high- or low-wage firm s may change, or
high-wage workers m ay advance to better jobs and be replaced by new
workers at lower rates. Such shifts in employment could decrease an occu­
pational average even though m ost establishments in an area increase wages
during the year. Changes in earnings of occupational groups, shown in table
A -7 , are better indicators of wage trends than are earnings changes for
individual jobs within the groups.

Occupations and earnings
Occupations selected for study are common to a variety of manufac­
turing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the following types: (1)
Office clerical; (2) professional and technical; (3) maintenance, toolroom,
and powerplant; and (4) m aterial movement and custodial. Occupational
classification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to take
account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same job.
Occupations selected for study are listed and described in appendix B.

Average earnings reflect composite, areawide estim ates. Industries
1
Included in the 74 areas are 4 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas are Akron,
and establishments differ in pay level and job staffing, and thus contribute
Ohio; Birmingham, A la .; Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va. —N. C. ; and
differently to the estim ates for each job. Pay averages may fail to reflect
Syracuse, N .Y . In addition, the Bureau conducts more lim ited area studies in approximately 100 areas at the
request of the Employment Standards Administration of the U. S. Department of Labor.
accurately the wage differential among jobs in individual establishments.




9

Average pay levels for men and women in selected occupations should
not be assumed to reflect differences in pay of the sexes within individual
establishments. Factors which m ay contribute to differences include p ro ­
gression within established rate ranges (only the rates paid incumbents are
collected) and performance of specific duties within the general survey job
descriptions. Job descriptions used to cla ssify employees in these surveys
usually are m ore generalized than those used in individual establishments
and allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
pe rformed.

Electronic data processing

Skilled maintenance

Computer system s
analysts, classes
A , B, and C
Computer program m ers,
c la sses A , B, and C
Computer operators,
cla sses A , B, and C

Carpenters
Electricians
Painters
Machinists
Mechanics (machinery)
Mechanics (motor vehicle)
Pipefitters
Tool and die makers

Occupational employment estim ates represent the total in all estab­
lishments within the scope of the study and not the number actually surveyed.
Because occupational structures among establishments differ, estimates of
occupational employment obtained from the sample of establishments studied
serve only to indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied.
These
differences in occupational structure do not affect m aterially the accuracy of
the earnings data.

Industrial nurses

Unskilled plant

Registered industrial
nurses

Janitors, porters, and
cleaners
M aterial handling laborers

Wage trends for selected occupational groups
The percent increases presented in table A -7 are based on changes
in average hourly earnings of men and women in establishments reporting the
trend jobs in both the current and previous year (matched establishments).
The data are adjusted to remove the effects on average earnings of em ploy­
ment shifts among establishments and turnover of establishments included
in survey sam ples.
The percent increases, however, are still affected by
factors other than wage in creases. H irings, layoffs, and turnover m ay affect
an establishment average for an occupation when workers are paid under plans
providing a range of wage rates for individual job s. In periods of increased
hiring, for example, new employees m ay enter at the bottom of the range,
depressing the average without a change in wage rates.
The percent changes relate to wage changes between the indicated
dates. When the time span between surveys is other than 12 months, annual
rates are shown, (it is assum ed that wages increase at a constant rate
between surveys.)
Occupations used to compute wage trends are:

Office clerical

Order clerks
Accounting clerks,
cla sses A and B
Bookkeeping -machine
operators, class B
Payroll clerks
Keypunch operators,
cla sses A and B

areas in the program are computed

1. Average earnings are computed for each occupation for
the 2 years being compared. The averages are derived
from earnings in those establishments which are in
the survey both years; it is assumed that employment
remains unchanged.
2. Each occupation is assigned a weight based on its p ro ­
portionate employment in the occupational group in the
base yea r.

3.

These weights are used to compute group averages.
Each occupation's average earnings (computed in step 1)
is multiplied by its weight. The products are totaled to
obtain a group average.

4.

The ratio of group averages for 2 consecutive years is
computed by dividing the average for the current year by
the average for the earlier year. The result— expressed
as a percent— less 100 is the percent change.

For a m ore detailed description of the method used to compute these
wage trends, see "Improving Area Wage Survey Indexes, " Monthly Labor
Review, January 1973, pp. 5 2 -5 7 .

Office clerical— Continued

Secretaries
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
Typists, c la sses A and B
File clerks, cla sses A ,
B, and C
M essengers
Switchboard operators

Percent changes for i
as follow s:

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions




Tabulations on selected establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions (B -s e r ie s tables) are not presented in this bulletin. Infor­
mation for these tabulations is collected at 3-year intervals. These tabu­
lations on minimum entrance salaries for inexperienced office w orkers; shift
differentials; scheduled weekly hours and days; paid holidays; paid vacations;
and health, insurance, and pension plans are presented (in the B -s e r ie s tables)
in previous bulletins for this area.

Appendix table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied
in Poughkeepsie, N .Y .,1June 1977
In du stry d iv is io n 2

all

divisions

--------------------------------

------ ------------- ----- --------------------NONMANUFACTURING — — — — — — — — ----------------------TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATION, ANO
OTHER PUBLIC.UTILITIES 5 ---------------------------------------wholesale trade 6 — —
— — — — --------------------RETAIL T R A D E 6 ----------------------------------- --------------------------FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 6 -------------SERVICES
manufacturing

M in im um
em p lo ym e n t
in e s t a b lis h ­
m en ts in s c o p e
o f study

W ithin s c o p e o f study 4
W ithin s c o p e
o f study J

Studied

Studied
N um ber

Percent

135

64

3 5 .6 3 6

100

2 9 ,6 2 3

50
-

55
80

26
38

2 5 ,9 1 6
9 ,7 2 0

73
27

2 3 ,3 4 5
6 ,2 7 8

50
50
50
50
50

5
7
45
7
16

3
4
17
5
9

1 ,3 8 7
978
4 ,9 9 9
815
1 ,5 4 1

4
3
14
2
4

1 ,2 5 5
539
2 ,9 2 9
653
902

1 T he P o u g h k e e p sie Standard M e tro p o lit a n -S t a t is t ic a l A r e a , as d e fin e d by the
O ffic e o f M anagem ent arid Budget th rou gh F e b ru a r y 1974, c o n s is t s o f D u tch ess
Cou nty. Th e "w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f s tu d y" e s tim a te s show n in th is ta b le p r o v id e
a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a te d e s c r ip tio n o f the s iz e and c o m p o s itio n o f the la b o r f o r c e
in clu d ed in the s u r v e y .
E s tim a te s a r e not in ten ded, h o w e v e r , f o r c o m p a r is o n w ith
o th e r em ploym en t in d exes to m e a s u r e em p lo ym e n t tr e n d s o r le v e ls s in c e (1) planning
o f w age s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s e sta b lish m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in adva n ce o f
the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu died, and (2) s m a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e e x clu d e d fr o m the
s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .
2 The 1972 ed itio n o f the Standard In d u stria l C la s s ific a t io n M anual w as u s e d
in c la s s ify in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts b y in d u stry d iv is io n . H o w e v e r , a l l
go ve rn m e n t
o p e r a tio n s a r e e x clu d e d fr o m th e s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .
3 In clu d es a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith to ta l em p lo ym e n t at o r a b o v e the m in im u m
lim ita tio n . AH. o u tle ts (w ithin the a re a ) o f c o m p a n ie s in in d u s trie s such as tr a d e ,
fin a n c e , auto r e p a ir s e r v ic e , and m o tio n p ic tu re th e a te r s a r e c o n s id e r e d as 1
es ta b lis h m en t.




W o r k e r s in es ta b lis h m en ts

N um ber o f es ta b lis h m e n ts

4 In clu d e s a ll w o r k e r s in a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith to ta l em p loym en t (within
the a rea ) at o r a b o v e the m in im u m lim ita tio n .
5 A b b r e v ia te d to "p u b lic u t ilit ie s " in the A - s e r i e s t a b le s .
T a x ic a b s and
s e r v ic e s in cid e n ta l to w a te r tr a n s p o r ta tio n a r e ex c lu d e d .
6 T h is d iv isio n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s tim a te s fo r " a ll in d u s t r ie s " and " n o n ­
m an u fa ctu rin g " in the A - s e r i e s t a b le s .
S ep a ra te p r e s e n ta tio n o f data is not m ade
f o r on e o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s : (1) E m p loym en t is to o sm a ll to p r o v id e
enough data to m e r it s e p a r a te stu dy, (2) the sa m p le w as not d es ig n e d in itia lly to
p e r m it s e p a r a te p r e s e n ta tio n , (3) r e s p o n s e w as in s u ffic ie n t o r inadequate to p e r m it
se p a ra te p r e s e n ta tio n , and (4) t h e r e is p o s s ib ilit y o f d is c lo s u r e o f individ ual
e sta b lish m e n t data.
7 H o te ls and m o t e ls ; la u n d rie s and o th e r p e r s o n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ;
a u to m o b ile r e p a ir , r e n ta l, and p a rk in g; m otion p ic tu r e s ; n on p rofit m e m b e r s h ip
o r g a n iz a tio n s (e x clu d in g r e lig io u s and c h a r ita b le o r g a n iz a tio n s ); and en gin eerin g
and a r c h ite c t u r a l s e r v ic e s .

11




Appendix B.
Occupational
Descriptions
The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bu­
reau's wage surveys is to a ssist its field staff in classifying into appro­
priate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establish­
ment and from area to area. This perm its the grouping of occupational
wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this empha­
sis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational
content, the Bureau's job descriptions may differ significantly from those
in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes.
In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors; apprentices; learn ers; begin­
n ers; and part-tim e, temporary, and probationary w orkers. Handicapped
workers whose earnings are reduced because of their handicap are also
excluded. Trainees are excluded from the survey except for those r e ­
ceiving on-th e-job training in some of the lower level professional and
technical occupations.

Office
SECRETARY

SE C R E TAR Y— C ontinue d

Assigned as personal secretary, norm ally to one individual. Main­
tains a close and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day work of the
supervisor. W orks fairly independently receiving a minimum of detailed
supervision and guidance. P erform s varied clerical and secretarial duties,
usually including m ost of the following:

May also perform other clerical and secretarial tasks of comparable
nature and difficulty. The work typically requires knowledge of office routine
and understanding of the organization, program s, and procedures related to
the work of the supervisor.

Exclusions
a. Receives telephone calls, personal ca llers, and incoming m ail,
answers routine inquiries, and routes technical inquiries to the proper
persons;
b. E stablishes,
c.
instructed;

maintains,

and revises the supervisor's files;

Maintains the su pervisor's calenda'r and makes appointments as

Not all positions that are titled "se c r e ta r y " possess the above char­
a cteristics. Exam ples of positions which are excluded from the definition are
as follow s:
a.
described above;

Positions which do not m eet the "p erso n a l" secretary conce

b. Stenographers not fully trained in secretarial-type duties;
d. Relays m e ssag es from supervisor to subordinates;
e. Reviews correspondence, memoranda, and reports prepared by
others for the su pervisor's signature to assure procedural and typographic
accuracy;
f.

P erform s stenographic and typing work.




sional,

c. Stenographers serving as office assistants to a group of p ro fes­
technical, or managerial persons;

d. Secretary positions in which the duties are either substantially
m ore routine or substantially m ore complex and responsible that those char­
acterized in the definition;

SEC R E TA R Y— C ontinued

SECRETARY— Continued
C lass C

Exclusions— Continued

e.
A ssistant-type positions which involve m ore difficult or more
1. Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose respon­
responsible technical, administrative, supervisory, or specialized clerical
sibility is not equivalent to one of the specific level situations in the definition
duties which are not typical of secretarial work.
for class B , but whose organizational unit normally numbers at least several
dozen employees and is usually divided into organizational segments which are
often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level includes a
N O TE : The term "corporate officer, " used in the level definitions
wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; o£
following, refers to those officials who have a significant corporatewide
policymaking role with regard to major company activities. The title "vice
2. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or
president, " though norm ally indicative of this role, does not in all cases
other equivalent level of official) that em ploys, in all, fewer than 5 ,0 0 0
identify such positions. Vice presidents whose prim ary responsibility is to
persons.
act personally on individual cases or transactions (e .g ., approve or deny
individual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts; directly
C lass D
supervise a clerica l staff) are not considered to be "corporate o ffic e r s" for
1. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a sm all organizational unit
purposes of applying the following level definitions.
(e .g ., fewer than about 25 or 30 persons); c£
j
C la ss A
1. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company
that e m p lo y s,' in a ll, over 100 but fewer than 5 ,0 0 0 persons; or

2. Secretary to a non supervisory s t a f f specialist, professional
em ployee, administrative officer, or assistant, skilled technician, or expert.
(NOTE: Many companies assign stenographers, rather than secretaries as
described above, to this level of supervisory or nonsupervisory worker.)
STENOGRAPHER

2. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the
board or president) of a company that em ploys, in all, over 5, 000 but fewer
than 2 5 ,0 0 0 persons; or
3. Secretary to the head, immediately below the corporate officer
level, of a m ajor segment or subsidiary of a company that em ploys, in all,
over 2 5 ,0 0 0 persons.
C lass B

Prim ary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to transcribe
the dictation. May also type from written copy.
May operate from a steno­
graphic pool. May occasionally transcribe from voice recordings (if primary
duty is transcribing from recordings, see Transcribing-M achine Typist).
N O TE : This job is distinguished from that of a secretary in that a
secretary norm ally works in a confidential relationship with only one manager
or executive and perform s m ore responsible and discretionary tasks as
described in the secretary job definition.

1. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company
that em ploys, in a ll, fewer than 100 persons; or
2. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the
board or president) of a company that em ploys, in all, over 100 but fewer
than 5 ,0 0 0 persons; or
3. Secretary to the head, immediately below the officer level, over
either a m ajor corporationwide functional activity (e .g ., marketing, research,
operations, industrial relations, etc.) or a m ajor geographic or organizational
segment (e .g ., a regional headquarters; a m ajor division) of a company that
em ploys, in all, over 5 ,0 0 0 but fewer than 2 5 ,0 0 0 em ployees; or
4 . Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or
other equivalent level of official) that em ploys, in a ll, over 5 ,0 0 0 persons; or 5
5. Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational
segment (e .g ., a middle management supervisor of an organizational segment
often involving as many as several hundred persons) or a company that
em ploys, in a ll, over 2 5 ,0 0 0 persons.




Stenographer, General
keep

Dictation involves a norm al routine vocabulary. May maintain file s,
simple records, or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks.
Stenographer, Senior

Dictation involves a varied technical dr specialized vocabulary such
as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research. May also set up and
maintain file s, keep records, etc.
OR
P erform s stenographic duties requiring significantly greater inde­
pendence and responsibility than stenographer, general, as evidenced by the
following: Work requires a high degree of stenographic speed and accuracy;
a thorough working knowledge of general business and office procedure; and
of the specific business operations, organization, policies, procedures, file s,
workflow, etc.
Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic duties and
responsible clerica l tasks such as maintaining followup files; assembling
m aterial for reports, m emoranda, and letters; composing simple letters
from general instructions; reading and routing incoming m a il; and answering
routine questions, etc.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE TYPIST

MESSENGER

P rim ary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written
copy and do simple clerica l work. W orkers transcribing dictation involving
a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports
on scientific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation in
shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is classified as a stenographer.

P erform s various routine duties such as running errands, operating
minor office machines such as sealers or m a ile rs, opening and distributing
m ail, and other minor clerical work. Exclude positions that require operation
of a motor vehicle as a significant duty.

TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various m aterials or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May include
typing of sten cils, m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicating proc­
e sse s.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such as
keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and distributing
incoming m ail.
C lass A .
Perform s one or m ore of the following: Typing m aterial
in final form when it involves combining m aterial from several sources; or
responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punctuation, etc., of tech­
nical or unusual words or foreign language m aterial; or planning layout and
typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance in
spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit circum stances.
C lass B.
P erform s one or m ore of the following: Copy typing from
rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of form s, insurance policies, etc.;
or setting up simple standard tabulations; or copying more complex tables
already set up and spaced properly.

FILE CLERK
F iles, c la ssifies, and retrieves m aterial in an established filing
system . May perform clerical and manual tasks required to maintain file s.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.
Class A . C lassifies and indexes file m aterial such as correspond­
ence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an established filing system
containing a number of varied subject matter file s. May also file this
m aterial. May keep records of various types in conjunction with the file s.
May lead a small group of lower level file clerks.
C lass B. Sorts, codes, and files unclassified m aterial by simple
(subject matter) headings or partly classified m aterial by finer subheadings.
Prepares simple related index and cro ss-re fe re n c e aids. A s requested,
locates clearly identified m aterial in files and forwards m aterial. May
perform related clerical tasks required to maintain and service file s.
Class C . Perform s routine filing of m aterial that has already been
classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classification
system (e .g ., alphabetical, chronological, or numerical). A s requested,
locates readily available m aterial in files and forwards m aterials; and may
fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerical and manual tasks
required to maintain and service file s.




SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a telephone switchboard or console used with a private
branch exchange (PBX) system to relay incoming, outgoing, and intrasystem
ca lls. May provide information to c a llers, record and transmit m essages,
keep record of calls placed and toll charges. Besides operating a telephone
switchboard or console, may also type or perform routine clerical work
(typing or routine clerical work m ay occupy the major portion of the worker's
tim e, and is usually performed while at the switchboard or console). Chief
or lead operators in establishments employing more than one operator are
excluded. For an operator who also acts as a receptionist, see Switchboard
Operator-Receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
At a single-position telephone switchboard or console, acts both as
an operator— see Switchboard Operator— and as a receptionist. Receptionist's
work involves such duties as greeting visitors; determining nature of visitor's
business and providing appropriate information; referring visitor to appro­
priate person in the organization or contacting that person by telephone and
arranging an appointment; keeping a log of visitors.
ORDER CLERK
Receives custom ers' orders for m aterial or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to custom ers; making out an order sheet listing the items to
make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order sheet;
and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled. May
check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer, acknowl­
edge receipt of orders from custom ers, follow up orders to see that they
have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check shipping invoices
with original orders.
ACCOUNTING CLERK
P erform s one or m ore accounting clerical tasks such as posting to
registers and ledgers; reconciling bank accounts; verifying the internal con­
sistency, com pleteness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting documents;
assigning prescribed accounting distribution codes; examining and verifying
for clerica l accuracy various types of reports, lists, calculations, posting,
etc.; or preparing simple or assisting in preparing more complicated journal
vouchers. May work in either a manual or automated accounting system .
The work requires a knowledge of clerical methods and office prac­
tices and procedures which relates to the clerical processing and recording
of transactions and accounting information. With experience, the worker
typically becom es fam iliar with the bookkeeping and accounting term s and
procedures used in the assigned work, but is not required to have a knowledge
of the form al principles of bookkeeping and accounting.
Positions
definitions;

are

classified

into levels on the basis of the following

ACCOUNTING CLERK— Continued

MACHINE BILLER----Continued

C lass A .
Under general supervision, performs accounting clerical
operations which require the application of experience and judgment, for
example, clerically processing complicated or nonrepetitive accounting trans­
actions, selecting among a substantial variety of prescribed accounting codes
and classifications, or tracing transactions through previous accounting
actions to determine source of discrepancies.
May be assisted by one or
m ore class B accounting clerks.

Bookkeeping-machine biller. Uses a bookkeeping machine (with or
without a typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers' bills as part of the
accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the simultaneous entry of
figures on custom ers' ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates
figures on a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints
automatically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge
of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.

C lass B. Under close su pervision / following detailed instructions
and standardized procedures, performs one or more routine accounting c le r ­
ical operations, such as posting to ledgers, cards, or worksheets where
identification of item s and locations of postings are clearly indicated; checking
accuracy and completeness of standardized and repetitive r e c o r d s or
accounting documents; and c o d i n g documents using a few prescribed
accounting codes.

PAYROLL CLERK

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typewriter key­
board) to keep a record of business transactions.
C lass A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and
experience in basic bookkeeping principles, and familiarity with the structure
of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper records and
distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each phase of the work.
May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B. Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of a
set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases
or sections include accounts payable, payroll, custom ers' accounts (not
including a simple type of billing described under machine biller), cost d is­
tribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist
in preparation of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting
department.

Computes wages of company employees and enters the necessary
data on the payroll sheets.
Duties involve: Calculating workers' earnings
based on time or production records; and posting calculated data on payroll
sheet, showing information such as w orker's name, working days, tim e, rate,
deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and
assist paymaster in making up and distributing pay envelopes.
May use a
calculating machine.
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Operates a keypunch machine to record or verify alphabetic and/or
numeric data on tabulating cards or on tape.
Positions
definitions.

are

classified into levels

on the basis of the following

C lass A . Work requires the application of experience and judgment
in selecting procedures to be followed and in searching for, interpreting,
selecting, or coding item s to be keypunched from a variety of source docu­
ments. On occasion may also perform some routine keypunch work. May
train inexperienced keypunch operators.
Class B . Work is routine and repetitive.
Under close supervision
or following specific procedures or instructions, works from various stan­
dardized source documents which have been coded, and follows specified
procedures which have been prescribed in detail and require little or no
selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. Refers to supervisor
problems arising from erroneous item s or codes or m issing information.

MACHINE BILLER
TABULATING-M ACHINE OPERATOR
Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other than an
ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings
or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental to billing
operations. For wage study purposes, machine billers are classified by type
of machine, as follows:
Billing-machine b ille r . Uses a special billing machine (combination
typing and adding machine) to prepare bills and invoices from custom ers'
purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memoranda, etc.
Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges
and entry of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on
the billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by
machine. The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies
of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.




Operates one or a variety of machines such as the tabulator, calcu­
lator, collator, interpreter, sorter, reproducing punch, etc. Excluded from
this definition are working supervisors. A lso excluded are operators of
electronic digital computers, even though they may also operate electric
accounting machine equipment.
Positions
definitions.

are

classified into

levels

on the basis of the following

C lass A . Perform s complete reporting and tabulating assignments
including devising difficult control panel wiring under general supervision.
Assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex reports which
often are irregular or nonrecurring, requiring some planning of the nature
and sequencing of operations, and the use of a variety of machines. Is

TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR— Continued

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR— Continued

typically involved in training new operators in machine operations or training
lower level operators in wiring from diagrams and in the operating sequences
of long and complex reports. Does not include positions in which wiring
responsibility is limited to selection and insertion of prewired boards.

the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the simpler machines used by
class C operators. May be required to do some wiring from diagram s.
May train new employees in basic machine operations.
C lass C . Under specific instructions, operates simple tabulating
or electrical accounting machines such as the sorter, interpreter, reproducing
punch, collator, etc. Assignments typically involve portions of a work unit,
for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or repetitive operations.
May perform simple wiring from diagram s, and do some filing work.

C lass B . P erform s work according to established procedures and
under specific instructions. Assignments typically involve complete but rou­
tine and recurring reports or parts of larger and m ore complex reports.
Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical accounting machines such as

Professional and Technical
COMPUTER SYSTEMS A N A LYST , BUSINESS

COMPUTER SYSTEMS A N A LYST , BUSINESS— Continued

Analyzes business problems to formulate procedures for solving
them by use of electronic data processing equipment. Develops a complete
description of all specifications needed to enable program m ers to prepare
required digital computer program s.
Work involves most of the following:
Analyzes subject-m atter operations to be automated and identifies conditions
and criteria required to achieve satisfactory results; specifies number and
types of records, file s, and documents to be used; outlines actions to be
performed by personnel and computers in sufficient detail for presentation
to management and for programming (typically this involves preparation of
work and data flow charts); coordinates the development of test problems and
participates in tria l runs of new and revised system s; and recommends equip­
ment changes to obtain more effective overall operations. (NOTE:
Workers
performing both system s analysis and programming should be classified as
system s analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)

develops system s for maintaining depositor accounts in a bank, maintaining
accounts receivable in a retail establishment, or maintaining inventory
accounts in a manufacturing or wholesale establishment.) Confers with per­
sons concerned to determine the data processing problems and advises
subject-m atter personnel on the implications of the data processing systems
to be applied.
OR
Works on a segment of a complex data processing scheme or system ,
as described for class A .
Works independently on routine assignments and
receives instruction and guidance on complex assignments. Work is reviewed
for accuracy of judgment, compliance with instructions, and to insure proper
alignment with the overall system .
C lass C . Works under immediate supervision, carrying out analy­
ses as assigned, usually of a single activity. Assignments are designed to
develop and expand practical experience in the application of procedures and
skills required for system s analysis work. For example, may assist a higher
level system s analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required by
program m ers from information developed by the higher level analyst.

Does not include employees prim arily responsible for the manage­
ment or supervision of other electronic data processing em ployees, or sy s­
tems analysts prim arily concerned with scientific or engineering problem s.
For wage study purposes, system s analysts are classified as follows:
C lass A . Works independently or under only general direction on
complex problems involving all phases of system analysis. Problem s are
complex because of diverse sources of input data and m ultiple-use require­
ments of output data.
(For example, develops an integrated production sched­
uling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales analysis record in which
every item of each type is automatically processed through the full system
of records and appropriate followup actions are initiated by the computer.)
Confers with persons concerned to determine the data processing problems
and advises subject-m atter personnel on the implications of new or revised
system s of data processing operations. Makes recommendations, if needed,
for approval of m ajor system s installations or changes and for obtaining
equipment.
May provide functional direction to lower
who are assigned to a ssist.

COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS
Converts statements of business problem s, typically prepared by a
system s analyst, into a sequence of detailed instructions which are required
to solve the problems by automatic data processing equipment. Working from
charts or diagram s, the programm er develops the precise instructions which,
when entered into the computer system in coded language, cause the manipu­
lation of data to achieve desired results. Work involves m ost of the following:
Applies knowledge of computer capabilities, mathematics, logic employed by
computers, and particular subject matter involved to analyze charts and
diagrams of the problem to be programmed; develops sequence of program
steps; writes detailed flow charts to show order in which data will be
processed; converts these charts to coded instructions for machine to follow;
tests and corrects program s; prepares instructions for operating personnel
during production run; analyzes, review s, and alters programs to increase
operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements; maintains records of
program development and revisions. (NOTE: Workers performing both
system s analysis and programming should be classified as system s analysts
if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)

level system s analysts

Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on
problems that are relatively uncomplicated to analyze, plan, program, and
operate. Problem s are of limited complexity because sources of input data
are homogeneous and the output data are closely related. (For example,




17

COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS— Continued

COMPUTER OPERATOR

Does not include employees prim arily responsible for the manage­
ment or supervision of other electronic data processing em ployees, or pro­
gram m ers prim arily concerned with scientific and/or engineering problem s.

Monitors and operates the control console of a digital computer to
process data according to operating instructions, usually prepared by a pro­
gram m er. Work includes m ost of the following: Studies instructions to
determine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required
item s (tape r e e ls, cards, etc.); switches necessary auxiliary equipment into
circuit, and starts and operates computer; makes adjustments to computer to
correct operating problems and m eet special conditions; reviews erro rs made
during operation and determines cause or refers problem to supervisor or
program m er; and maintains operating records. May test and assist in
correcting program .

For wage study purposes, program m ers are classified as follow s:
C lass A . Works independently or under only general direction on
complex problems which require competence in all phases of programming
concepts and practices. Working from diagrams and charts which identify
the nature of desired resu lts, m ajor processing steps to be accomplished,
and the relationships between various steps of the problem solving routine;
plans the full range of programming actions needed to efficiently utilize the
computer system in achieving desired end products.

At this level, programming is difficult because computer equipment
must be organized to produce several interrelated but diverse products from
numerous and diverse data elem ents. A wide variety and extensive number
of internal processing actions must occur. This requires such actions as
development of common operations which can be reused, establishment of
linkage points between operations, adjustments to data when program require­
ments exceed computer storage capacity, and substantial manipulation and
resequencing of data elements to form a highly integrated program .

May provide functional direction to lower level program m ers who are
assigned to a ssist.
C lass B . Works independently or under only general direction on
relatively simple program s, or on simple segments of complex program s.
Program s (or segments) usually process information to produce data in two
or three varied sequences or form ats. Reports and listings are produced by
refining, adapting, arraying, or making minor additions to or deletions from
input data which are readily available. While numerous records may be
processed, the data have been refined in prior actions so that the accuracy
and sequencing of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typically,
the program deals with routine recordkeeping operations.
OR
Works on complex program s (as described for class A) under close
direction of a higher level program m er or supervisor. May a ssist higher
level program m er by independently performing le ss difficult tasks assigned,
and performing m ore difficult tasks under fairly close direction.
May guide or instruct lower level program m ers.
C lass C . Makes practical applications of programming practices
and concepts usually learned in form al training cou rses. Assignm ents are
designed to develop competence in the application of standard procedures to
routine problem s. Receives close supervision on new aspects of assignm ents;
and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy and conformance with required
procedures.




For wage

study purposes, computer

operators

are

classified

as

follow s:
C lass A . Operates independently, or under only general direction,
a computer running program s with m ost of the following characteristics:
New program s are frequently tested and introduced; scheduling requirements
are of critical importance to m inim ize downtime; the programs are of
complex design so that identification of error source often requires a working
knowledge of the total program , and alternate program s may not be available.
May give direction and guidance to lower level operators.
C lass B . Operates independently, or under only general direction,
a computer running program s with m ost of the following characteristics:
Most of the program s are established production runs, typically run on a
regularly recurring b a sis; there is little or no testing of new programs
required; alternate program s are provided in case original program needs
m ajor change or cannot be corrected within a reasonably short tim e. In
common error situations, diagnoses cause and takes corrective action. This
usually involves applying previously programm ed corrective steps, or using
standard correction techniques.
OR
Operates under direct supervision a computer running program s or
segments of program s with the characteristics described for cla ss A . May
a ssist a higher level operator by independently performing less difficult tasks
assigned, and performing difficult tasks following detailed instructions and
with frequent review of operations perform ed.

expected
ability to
received
operator

C lass C . Works on routine program s under close supervision. Is
to develop working knowledge of the computer equipment used and
detect problems involved in running routine program s.
Usually has
some form al training in computer operation. May assist higher level
on complex program s.

DRAFTER
C lass A . Plans the graphic presentation of complex item s having
distinctive design features that differ significantly from established drafting
precedents. Works in close support with the design originator, and may
recommend minor design changes. Analyzes the effect of each change on the
details of form , function, and positional relationships of components and parts.
Works with a minimum of supervisory assistance. Completed work is
reviewed by design originator for consistency with prior engineering deter­
minations. May either prepare drawings or direct their preparation by lower
level drafters.

DRAFT ER— Continued

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN— Continued

C lass B . Perform s nonroutine and complex drafting assignments
that require the application of m ost of the standardized drawing techniques
regularly used. Duties typically involve such work a s: Prepares working
drawings of subassem blies with irregular shapes, multiple functions, and
precise positional relationships between components; prepares architectural
drawings for construction of a building including detail drawings of foun­
dations, wall sections, floor plans, and roof.
Uses accepted formulas and
manuals in m a k i n g necessary computations to determine quantities of
m aterials to be used, load capacities, strengths, str e sse s, etc. Receives
initial instructions, requirements, and advice from supervisor. Completed
work is checked for technical adequacy.

This classification excludes repairers of such standard electronic
equipment as common office machines and household radio and television
sets; production assem blers and testers; workers whose primary duty is
servicing electronic test instruments; technicians who have administrative
or supervisory responsibility; and drafters, designers, and professional
engineers.

C lass C . Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for
engineering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types of
drawings prepared include isom etric projections (depicting three dimensions
in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning of components
and convey needed information. Consolidates details from a number of
sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggested methods of
approach, applicable precedents, and advice on source m aterials are given
with initial assignm ents. Instructions are le ss complete when assignments
recur.
Work may be spot-checked during progress.

Positions
definitions.

are

classified into

levels

on the basis of the following

C lass A . Applies advanced technical knowledge to solve unusually
complex problems (i.e ., those that typically cannot be solved solely by refer­
ence to m anufacturers' manuals or sim ilar documents) in working on elec­
tronic equipment. Examples of such problems include location and density of
circuitry, electromagnetic radiation, isolating malfunctions, and frequent
engineering changes. Work involves: A detailed understanding of the inter­
relationships of circuits; exercising independent judgment in performing such
tasks as making circuit analyses, calculating wave fo rm s, tracing relation­
ships in signal flow; and regularly using complex test instruments (e .g ., dual
trace oscilloscop es, Q -m e te r s, deviation m eters, pulse generators).
Work may be reviewed by supervisor (frequently an engineer or
designer) for general compliance with accepted practices. May provide
technical guidance to lower level technicians.

D R A FTER -TR A C E R
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing
cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not
include tracing limited to plans prim arily consisting of straight lines and a
large scale not requiring close delineation.)
A N D /O R
Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized item s.
Work is closely supervised during p ro gress.

C lass B . Applies comprehensive technical knowledge to solve com ­
plex problems fi.e .; those that typically can be solved solely by properly
interpreting m anufacturers' manuals or sim ilar documents) in working on
electronic equipment. Work involves: A fam iliarity with the interrelation­
ships of circuits; and judgment in determining work sequence and in selecting
tools and testing instruments, usually less complex than those used by the
cla ss A technician.
Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher
level technician, and work is reviewed for specific compliance with accepted
practices and work assignm ents. May provide technical guidance to lower
level technicians.

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN

Works on various types of electronic equipment and related devices
by performing one or a combination of the following: Installing, maintaining,
repairing, overhauling, troubleshooting, modifying, constructing, and testing.
Work requires practical application of technical knowledge of electronics
principles, ability to determine malfunctions, and skill to put equipment in
required operating condition.
The equipment— consisting of either many different kinds of circuits
or multiple repetition of the same kind of circuit— includes, but is not limited
to, the following: (a) Electronic transmitting and receiving equipment (e .g .,
radar, radio, television, telephone, sonar, navigational aids), (b) digital and
analog com puters, and (c) industrial and m edical measuring and controlling
equipment.




C la ss C . Applies working technical knowledge to perform simple or
routine tasks in working on electronic equipment, following detailed instruc­
tions which cover virtually all procedures. Work typically involves such
tasks a s: A ssisting higher level technicians by performing such activities as
replacing components, wiring circu its, and taking test readings; repairing
simple electronic equipment; and using tools and common test instruments
(e .g ., m ultim eters, audio signal generators, tube teste rs, oscilloscopes).
Is not required to be fam iliar with the interrelationships of circuits. This
knowledge, however, may be acquired through assignments designed to
increase competence (including classroom training) so that worker can
advance to higher level technician.
Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher
level technician. Work is typically spot checked, but is given detailed review
when new or advanced assignments are involved.

REGISTERED INDUSTRIAL NURSE

REGISTERED INDUSTRIAL NURSE— Continued

A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general medical
direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or
suffer an accident on the prem ises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or
injured; attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping
records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or

other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and health evaluations of
applicants and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving
health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or
other activities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of all personnel.
Nursing supervisors or head nurses in establishments employing m ore than
one nurse are excluded.

Maintenance, Toolroom, and Powerplant
MAINTENANCE CARPENTER

MAINTENANCE MACHINIST

Perform s the carpentry duties necessary to construct arid maintain
in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, crib s, counters,
benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made of wood
in an establishment. Work involves most of the following; Planning and
laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, m odels, or verbal instructions;
using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools, and standard
measuring instruments; making standard shop computations relating to dimen­
sions of work; and selecting m aterials necessary for the work. In general,
the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experi­
ence usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment.
Work
involves m ost of the following: Interpreting written instructions and speci­
fications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of m achinist's
handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating
standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to close tolerances; making
standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds,
and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties of the common
m etals; selecting standard m aterials, parts, and equipment required for this
work; and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general,
the m achinist's work normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop
practice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIAN
MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (Machinery)
P erform s a variety of electrical trade functions such as the instal­
lation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, distribution,
or utilization of electric energy in an establishment.
Work involves m ost
of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of electrical equip­
ment such as generators, tran sform ers, switchboards, con trollers, circuit
breakers, m otors, heating units, conduit system s, or other transm ission
equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other specifi­
cations; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical system or equip­
ment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of wiring
or electrical equipment; and using a variety of electrician's handtools and
measuring and testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MAINTENANCE PAINTER

Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an estab­
lishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface peculiarities
and types of paint required for different applications; preparing surface for
painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes and
interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May m ix co lo rs,
o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or
consistency. In 'general, the work of the maintenance painter requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.




Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves m ost of the following: Examining machines and mechanical
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling
machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools in
scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items
obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a
machine shop or sending the. machine to a machine shop for m ajor repairs;
preparing written specifications for m ajor repairs or for the production of
parts ordered from machine shops; reassem bling machines; and making all
necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a machinery
maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experi­
ence. Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (Motor Vehicles)
Repairs automobiles, buses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an estab­
lishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Examining automotive equip­
ment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipment and performing
repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills,
or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts; replacing broken
or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassem bling and
installing the various assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjust­
m ents; and aligning wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body
bolts. In general, the work of the motor vehicle maintenance mechanic
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (Motor Vehicles)— Continued

MAINTENANCE TRADES HELPER— Continued

This classification does not include mechanics who repair custom ers'
vehicles in automobile repair shops.

the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some
trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding m aterials and
tools, and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted to perform
specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed
by workers on a fu ll-tim e basis.

MAINTENANCE PIPEFITTER
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Laying
out work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings or other
written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct lengths with
chisel and ham mer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machines; threading
pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven
machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers;
making standard shop computations relating to p ressu res, flow, and size of
pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes
meet specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. W orkers prim arily
engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or heating system s
are excluded.
MAINTENANCE S H E E T -M E T A L WORKER
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-m etal
equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves,
lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment.
Work involves m ost of the following: Planning and laying out all types of
sheet-m etal maintenance work from blueprints, m odels, or other specifi­
cations; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-m etal working
machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping,
fitting, and assem bling; and installing sheet-m etal articles as required. In
general, the work of the maintenance sheet-m etal worker requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

M ACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR (TOOLROOM)
Specializes in operating one or more than one type of machine
tool (e .g ., jig borer, grinding machine, engine lathe, milling machine) to
machine metal for use in making or maintaining jig s, fixtures, cutting tools,
gauges, or metal dies or molds used in shaping or forming metal or
nonmetallic m aterial (e.g ., plastic, plaster, rubber, glass). Work typically
involves: Planning and performing difficult machining operations which
require complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; setting up machine
tool or tools (e .g ., install cutting tools and adjust guides, stops, working
tables, and other controls to handle the size of stock to be machined;
determine proper feeds, speeds, tooling, and operation sequence or select
those prescribed in drawings, blueprints, or layouts); using a variety of
precision measuring instruments; making necessary adjustments during
machining operation to achieve requisite dimensions to very close tolerances.
May be required to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils,
to recognize when tools need dressing, and to dress tools. In general, the
work of a m achine-tool operator (toolroom) at the skill level called for in
this classification requires extensive knowledge of machine-shop and tool­
room practice usually acquired through considerable on-the-job training and
experience.
For cross-in du stry wage study purposes, this classific?tion does not
include m achine-tool operators (toolroom) employed in tool and die jobbing
shops.

MILLWRIGHT

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are
required. Work involves m ost of the following: Planning and laying out
work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to stresses,
strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; aligning and balancing equip­
ment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts to be used; and installing
and maintaining in good order power transm ission equipment such as drives
and speed reducers. In general, the m illwright's work norm ally requires a
rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Constructs and repairs jigs, fixtures, cutting tools, gauges, or
m etal dies or molds used in shaping or forming metal or nonmetallic
m aterial (e .g ., plastic, plaster, rubber, glass). Work typically involves:
Planning and laying out work according to models, blueprints, drawings, or
other written or oral specifications; understanding the working properties of
common metals and alloys; selecting appropriate m aterials, tools, and
processes required to complete task; making necessary shop computations;
setting up and operating various machine tools and related equipment; using
various tool and die m aker's handtools and precision measuring instruments;
working to very close tolerances; heat-treating metal parts and finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; fitting and assembling parts to p re­
scribed tolerances and allowances. In general, the tool and die m aker's
work requires rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MAINTENANCE TRADES HELPER
A ssists one or m ore workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by
performing specific or general duties of le sse r skill, such as keeping a
worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, machine,
and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding m aterials or tools; and p er­
forming other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work




For cross-in du stry wage study purposes, this classification does not
include tool and die makers who ( 1 ) are employed in tool and die jobbing
shops or (2 ) produce forging dies (die sinkers).

STATIONARY ENGINEER

STATIONARY ENGINEER— Continued

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of
stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply the
establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or a ir conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment such as
steam engines, air co m p ressors, generators, m otors, turbines, ventilating
and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps;
making equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation of machinery,
temperature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise these operations.

Head or chief engineers in establishments employing m ore than one engineer
are excluded.
BOILER TENDER
F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water and
safety valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

Material Movement and Custodial
TRUCKDRIVER

WAREHOUSEMAN

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport m ate­
rials, m erchandise, equipment, or workers between various types of estab­
lishments such a s: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses, whole­
sale and retail establishm ents, or between r e t a i l establishments and
cu stom ers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck with
or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good
working order. Salesroute and over-th e-roa d drivers are excluded.

A s directed, perform s a variety of warehousing duties which require
an understanding of the establishm ent's storage plan. Work involves most
of the following: Verifying m aterials (or merchandise) against receiving
documents, noting and reporting discrepancies and obvious damages; routing
m aterials to prescribed storage locations; storing, stacking, or palletizing
m aterials in accordance with prescribed storage methods; rearranging and
t a k i n g inventory of stored m aterials; examining stored m aterials and
reporting deterioration and damage; removing m aterial from storage and
preparing it for shipment. May operate hand or power trucks in performing
w a r e h o u s i n g duties.

For

w age

stu d y

p u rp oses,

type of equipment, as follow s:
of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,

tr u c k d r iv e r s

are

c la s s ifie d

by

s iz e

an d

(T ra c to r-tra iler should be rated on the basis
Exclude workers whose prim ary duties involve shipping and receiving
work (see Shipping and Receiving Clerk and Shipping Packer), order filling
(see Order F ille r), or operating power trucks (see Pow er-Truck Operator).

light truck (under IV2 tons)
medium truck (IV 2 to and including 4 tons)
heavy truck (trailer) (over 4 tons)
heavy truck (other than trailer) (over 4 tons)

ORDER FILLER

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK

Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is responsible
for incoming shipments of merchandise or other m aterials. Shipping work
involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes, available
means of transportation, and rates; and preparing records of the goods
shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping changes, and
keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in preparing the
merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Verifying or directing
others in verifying the correctness of shipments against bills of lading,
invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged
goods; routing merchandise or m aterials to proper departments; and m ain­
taining necessary, records and file s.

For

wage

study

purposes,

Shipping clerk
Receiving clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk




workers

are

classified

as

follow s:

F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, custom ers'
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisition
additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other
related duties.

SHIPPING PACKER

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them
in shipping containers, the specific operations perform ed being dependent upon
the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the type of container
employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of item s in
shipping containers and m ay involve one or m ore of the following: Knowledge
of various item s of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate
type and size of container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior
or other m aterial to prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing con­
tainer; and applying labels or entering identifying data on container. Packers
who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

MATERIAL HANDLING LABORER

GUARD AND WATCHMAN

A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or
other establishment whose duties involve one or m ore of the following;
Loading and unloading various m aterials and merchandise on or from freight
cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving, or placing
m aterials or merchandise in proper storage location; and transporting
m aterials or merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshore
workers, who load and unload ships, are excluded.

Guard. Perform s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arm s or force where n ecessary. Includes
guards who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and
other persons entering.
Watchman. Makes rounds of prem ises
property against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

periodically in protecting

POW ER-TRUCK OPERATOR
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
Operates a manually controlled gasolin e- or electric-pow ered truck
or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a warehouse,
manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

truck,

For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of pow eras follow s:
Forklift operator
Pow er-truck operator (other than forklift)




23

Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and
washroom s, or prem ises of an office, apartment house, or com m erical
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips, trash,
and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing metal
fixtures or trim m ings; providing supplies and minor maintenance services;
and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restroom s. W orkers who specialize
in window washing are excluded.

Service Contract
Act Surveys
The following areas are sur­
veyed periodically for use in admin­
istering the Service Contract Act
of 1965. Survey results are pub­
lished in releases which are availa­
ble, at no cost, while supplies last
from any of the BLS regional offices
shown on the back cover.
Alaska (statewide)
Albany, Ga.
Alexandria, La.
Alpena, Standish, and
Tawas City, Mich.
A sheville, N.C.
Atlantic City, N.J.
Augusta, Ga.—
S.C.
Austin, Tex.
Bakersfield, Calif.
Baton Rouge, La.
Battle Creek, Mich.
B e a u m o n t —P o r t A r t h u r -

Orange, Tex.
Biloxi—
Gulfport and
Pascagoula, M iss.
Brem erton, Wash.
Bridgeport, Norwalk, and
Stamford, Conn.
Brunswick, Ga.
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Champaign-Urbana—
Rantoul, 111.
Charleston, S.C.
Cheyenne, Wyo.
Clarksville—
Hopkinsville, Tenn.—
Ky.
Colorado Springs, Colo.
Columbia, S.C.
Columbus, Mis s .
Crane, Ind.
Decatur, 111.
Des Moines, Iowa
Dothan, Ala.
Duluth—
Superior, Minn.—
Wis.
El P aso, T ex ., and Alamogordo—
Las
C ruces, N. Mex.
Eugene—
Springfield and Medford—
Klamath Falls—
Grants Pass—
Roseburg, Or eg.
Fayetteville, N.C.
Fitchburg—
Leom in ster, M ass.




Fort Riley—
Junction City, Kans.
Fort Smith, Ark.—
Okla.
Fort Wayne, Ind.
Frederick—
Hagerstown—
Chambersburg, Md.—
Pa.
Gadsden and Anniston, Ala.
Goldsboro, N.C.
Grand Island-H astings, Nebr.
Guam, T erritory of
Harrisburg—
Lebanon, Pa.
La C rosse, Wis.
Laredo, Tex.
Lawton, Okla.
Lexington—
Fayette, Ky.
Lim a, Ohio
Logansport—Peru, Ind.
Lower Eastern Shore, Md.—
Va.—
Del.
Macon, Ga.
Madison, W is.
Maine (statewide)
McAllen—
Pharr—
Edinburg and
B r own s vill e— r 1ing e n—
Ha
San Benito, Tex.
Meridian, M iss.
M iddlesex, Monmouth, and
Ocean C o s., N.J.
Mobile and Pensacola, A la.—
Fla.
Montana (statewide)
Nashville—
Davidson, Tenn.
New Bern—
Jacksonville, N.C.
New Hampshire (statewide)
New London—
Norwich, Conn.—
R.I.
North Dakota (statewide)
Northern New York
Orlando, Fla.
Oxnard—
Sim i Valley—
Ventura, Calif.
Phoenix, A riz.
Pine Bluff, Ark.
Pueblo, Colo.
Puerto Rico
Raleigh—
Durham,' N.C.
Reno, Nev.
Riverside—
San Bernardino—
Ontario, Calif.
Salina, Kans.
Salinas—
Seaside—
Monterey, Calif.
Sandusky, Ohio
Santa Barbara—
Santa Maria—
Lom poc, Calif.

Savannah, Ga.
Selm a, Ala.
Sherman-Denison, Tex.
Shreveport, La.
South Dakota (statewide)
Southern Idaho
Southwestern Virginia
Springfield, 111.
S p r i n g f i e l d —C h i c o p e e —H o l y o k e ,
M a s s . —Conn.

Stockton, Calif.
T a c o m a , Wash.

Tampa-St. Petersburg, Fla.
Topeka, Kans.
Tulsa, Okla.
Upper Peninsula, Mich.
Vallejo—
Fairfield—
Napa, Calif.
Vermont (statewide)
Virgin Islands of the U.S.
Waco and Killeen—
Tem ple, Tex.
Waterloo—
Cedar F a lls, Iowa
West Texas Plains
West Virginia (statewide)
Wilmington, Del.— J.—
N.
Md.
Yakima, Richland—Kennewick, and
Walla Walla—Pendleton,
Wash.—
Oreg.

ALSO AVAILABLE—
An annual report on salaries for
accountants, auditors, chief account­
ants, attorneys, job analysts, direc­
tors of personnel, buyers, chem ists,
engineers, engineering technicians,
drafters, a n d clerical employees
is available.
Order as BLS B ulle­
tin 1931, National Survey of P ro­
fessional, Administrative, Technical
and Clerical Pay, March 1976, $1.35
a copy, from any of the BLS r e ­
gional sales offices shown on the
back cover, or from the Superin­
tendent of Documents, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington,
D.C. 20402.

Area Wage
Surveys
A list of the latest bulletins available is presented below. Bulletins
may be purchased from any of the BLS regional offices shown on the back
cover, or from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D .C. 20402.
Make checks payable to Superintendent of
Documents. A directory of occupational wage surveys, covering the years
1950 through 1975, is available on request.

Area
Akron, Ohio, Dec. 1 9 7 6 1 ______________________________________
Albany—
Schenectady— roy, N. Y ., Sept. 1976 ________________
T
Anaheim—
Santa Ana—
Garden Grove,
C alif., Oct. 1976______________________________________________
Atlanta, G a ., May 1977________________________________________
Baltim ore, M d ., Aug. 1976___________________________________
B illings, Mont., July 1976____________________________________
Birmingham, A la ., Mar. 1977________________________________
Boston, M a ss., Aug. 1976 ____________________________________
Buffalo, N .Y ., Oct. 1976 ______________________________________
Canton, Ohio, May 1976_______________________________________
Chattanooga, Tenn.— a ., Sept. 1976 _________________________
G
Chicago, 111., May 1976 _______________________________________
Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.—
Ind., Mar. 1976________________________
Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 1976___________________________________
Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 1976____________________________________
Corpus Christi, T e x ., July 1976______________________________
Dallas—
Fort Worth, T ex ., Oct. 1976_________________________
Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111., Feb. 197 6 ______
Dayton, Ohio, Dec. 1976 ______________________________________
Daytona Beach, F la ., Aug. 1976 ______________________________
Denver—
Boulder, C olo., Dec. 1976___________________________
Detroit, M ich., Mar. 1977_____________________________________
Fresno, C alif., June 1976 _____________________________________
Gainesville, F la ., Sept. 1976 _________________________________
Green Bay, W is., July 1976___________________________________
Greensboro—
Winston-Salem—
High Point,
N .C ., Aug. 1976_______________________________________________
Greenville—
Spartanburg, S .C ., June 1976 1 __________________
Hartford, Conn., Mar. 1977___________________________________
Houston, T ex ., Apr. 1976_____________________________________
Huntsville, A la ., Feb. 1977 1 __________________________________
Indianapolis, Ind., Oct. 197 6 __________________________________
Jackson, M is s ., Feb. 1 9 7 7 1 ___________________________________
Jacksonville, F la ., Dec. 1976 1 _______________________________
Kansas City, M o .-K a n s., Sept. 1976 1 ________________________
Los A ngeles—
Long Beach, C alif., Oct. 1976_________________
Louisville, Ky.—
Ind., Nov. 1976_______________________________




Bulletin number
and price *
1900-76, 85 cents
1900-59, 55 cents
1900-67,
1950-17,
1900-52,
1900-39,
1950-8,
1900-53,
1900-70,
1900-28,
1900-57,
1900-32,
1900-7,
1900-62,
1900-68,
1900-41,
1900-63,
1900-25,
1900-78,
1900-45,
1900-73,
1950-13,
1900-29,
1900-54,
1900-37,

75 cents
$ 1 .2 0
85 cents
55 cents
85 cents
85 cents
75 cents
55 cents
55 cents
$ 1.05
75 cents
95 cents
75 cents
55 cfints
85 cents
55 cents
85 cents
45 cents
85 cents
$ 1.20
55 cents
45 cents
55 cents

1900-47,
1900-36,
1950-9,
1900-26,
1950-4,
1900-58,
1950-2,
1900-80,
1900-60,
1900-77,
1900-69,

65 cents
85 cents
80 cents
85 cents
$ 1.40
75 cents
$ 1 .5 0
85 cents
$ 1.05
85 cents
55 cents

Area
M e m p h i s , T e n n . — r k . — i s s . , N o v . 1976 1_____________________
A
M
M i a m i , F l a . , O ct. 197 6 ___________________________________________
M i l w a u k e e , W i s . , A p r . 1977 ____________________________________
M in neapolis—
St. P a u l , M i n n . —W i s . , Jan. 1 9 7 7 ________________
N a s s a u — u f f o l k , N . Y . , June 1976 _______________________________
S
N e w a r k , N . J . , J a n 1977 __________________________________________
N e w O r l e a n s , L a . , Jan. 1977 1__________________________________
N e w Y o r k , N . Y . —N . J . , M a y 1 9 7 6 ________________________________
N o r f o l k —V i r g i n i a B e a c h —P o r t s m o u t h , V a . —
N . C . , M a y 1977_____________________________________ ________ _____
N o r f o l k — i r g i n i a B e a c h —P o r t s m o u t h and
V
N e w p o r t N e w s — a m p t o n , V a . — . C . , M a y 1977_____________
H
N
N o r t h e a s t P e n n s y l v a n i a , A u g . 1976 ____________________________
O k l a h o m a C i t y , O k l a . , A u g . 1 9 7 6 _______________________________
O m a h a , N e b r . — o w a , O ct . 1 9 7 6 __________________________________
I
P a t e r s o n —C l i f t o n —P a s s a i c , N . J . , June 1976 __________________
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . —N . J . , N o v . 1976 1____________________________
P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , Jan. 1977 ______________________________________
P o r t l a n d , M a i n e , D e c . 1 9 7 6 1 ___________________________________
P o r t l a n d , O r e g . —W a s h . , M a y 197 6 _____________________________
P o u g h k e e p s i e , N . Y . , June 1977 _________________________________
P o u g h k e e p s i e —K i n g s t o n — e w b u r g h , N . Y . , June 1 9 7 6 ____ ,___
N
P r o v i d e n c e —W a r w i c k —P a w t u c k e t , R . I . —
M a s s . , June 1977 1_______________________________________________
R i c h m o n d , V a . , June 1977 1______________________________________
St. L o u i s , M o . —111., M a r . 1977 __________________________________
S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f . , D e c . 1976 __________________________________
S a g in a w , M i c h . , N o v . 1 9 7 6 1_____________________________________
S a lt L a k e C it y —O g d e n , Utah , N o v . 1 9 7 6 _______________________
San A n t o n i o , T e x . , M a y 1977 1__________________________________
S a n D i e g o , C a l i f . , N o v . 1 9 7 6 ____________________________________
San F r a n c i s c o —O a k la n d , C a l i f . , M a r . 197 6 ___________________
San J o s e , C a l i f . , M a r . 1 9 7 7 _____________________________________
S e a t t l e — v e r e t t , W a s h . , Jan 1977 1_____________________________
E
So u th B e n d , I n d ., M a r . 1976 ____________________________________
S y r a c u s e , N . Y . , J u ly 1 9 7 6 _______________________________________
T o l e d o , O h i o —M i c h . , M a y 1 9 7 7 __________________________________
T r e n t o n , N . J . , Sept. 197 6 ________________________________________
W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . — d . —V a . , M a r . 1977 _______________________
M
W i c h i t a , K a n s . , A p r . 1977 1______________________________________
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , A p r . 1977 __________________________________
Y o r k , P a . , F e b . 1977 _____________________________________________

Bulletin number
and price *
1900-75,
1900-66,
1950-14,
1950-3,
1900-35,
1950-7,
1950-5,
1900-48,

85 cents
75 cents
$ 1 .1 0
$ 1.60
85 cents
$ 1 .6 0
$ 1.60
$ 1.05

1950-20, 70 cents
1950-21,
1900-43,
1900-42,
1900-61,
1900-38,
1900-64,
1950-1,
1900-72,
1900-51,
1950-25,
1900-55,

70 cents
65 cents
55 cents
55 cents
55 cents
$ 1.10
$ 1 .5 0
85 cents
75 cents
70 cents
55 cents

1950-22,
1950-23,
1950-10,
1900-71,
1900-74,
1900-65,
1950-24,
1900-79,
1900-9,
1950-19,
1950-12,
1900-5,
1900-44,
1950-18,
1900-56,
1950-11,
1950-16,
1950-15,
1950-6,

$ 1.20
$ 1.10
$ 1.20
55 cents
75 cents
55 cents
$ 1.10
55 cents
95 cents
$ 1.00
$ 1.20
55 cents
55 cents
80 cents
55 cents
$ 1.20
$ 1.10
70 cents
$ 1.10

* Prices are determined by the Government Printing Office and are subject tc1 change,
1 Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212

Postage and Fees Paid
U.S. Department of Labor
Third Class Mail

Official Business
Penalty for private use, $300

Lab-441

Bureau off Labor Statistics Regional Offices
Region I

Region II

Region 11
1

Region IV

1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (A reaC o de617)

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: 399-5406 (A reaC ode212)

3535 Market Street,
P.O. Box13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: 596-1154 (A reaC o de215)

Suite 540
>371 Peachtree S t., N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone:881-4418 (Area Code 404)

Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Vermont

New Jersey
New York
Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands

Delaware
District o f Colum bia
Maryland
Pennsylvania
Virginia
West Virginia

Alabama
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
M ississippi
North Carolina
South Carolina
Tennessee

Region V

Region VI

Regions VII and VIII

Regions IX and X

9th Floor, 230 S. Dearborn St.
Chicago, III. 60604
P hone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)

Second Floor
555 G riffin Square B uilding
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (A reaC o de214)

Federal O ffice Building
911 W alnut St., 15th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone:556-4678 (Area Code 415)

Arkansas
Louisiana
New Mexico
Oklahoma
Texas

VII
Iowa
Kansas
M issouri
Nebraska

IX
Arizona
California
Hawaii
Nevada

Illinois
Indiana
Michigan
M innesota
Ohio
W isconsin




V III
Colorado
Montana
North Dakota
South Dakota
Utah
Wyoming

X
Alaska
Idaho
Oregon
W ashington


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102