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Area
Wage
Survey

Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Portsmouth
and Newport News—Hampton,
Virginia—North Carolina,
Metropolitan Areas, May 1977

Bulletin 1950-21
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics

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Preface
T h i s b u l l e t i n p r o v i d e s r e s u l t s o f a M a y 1977 s u r v e y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l
e a r n i n g s and s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a g e b e n e f i t s in the N o r f o l k — i r g i n i a B e a c h —
V
P o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o r t N e w s — a m p t o n , V i r g i n i a — o r t h C a r o l i n a , S t a n d a r d
H
N
M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a s . T h e s u r v e y w a s m a d e a s p a r t o f the B u r e a u
o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s ' a n n u a l a r e a w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m . It w a s c o n d u c t e d b y
the B u r e a u ' s r e g i o n a l o f f i c e in P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . , u n d e r the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n
o f Irw in L . F e ig e n b a u m , A s s is t a n t R e g io n a l C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r O p e r a t io n s .
T h e s u r v e y c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d w it h o u t the c o o p e r a t i o n o f the
m a n y f i r m s w h o s e w a g e and s a l a r y da ta p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r the s t a t i s t i c a l
i n f o r m a t i o n in th is b u l l e t i n . T h e B u r e a u w i s h e s to e x p r e s s s i n c e r e a p p r e ­
c i a t i o n f o r th e c o o p e r a t i o n r e c e i v e d .
M a t e r i a l in t h is p u b l i c a t i o n i s in the p u b l i c d o m a i n and m a y be
r e p r o d u c e d w it h o u t p e r m i s s i o n o f the F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t .
P lease cred it




the B u r e a u
publication.

of

Labor

Statistics

and

cite

the

nam e

and

num ber

of

th is

Note:
C u r r e n t r e p o r t s o n o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s in the N o r f o l k — i r g i n i a
V
B e a c h —P o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o r t N e w s — a m p t o n a r e a s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r the
H
m o v i n g and s t o r a g e ( M a y 1977) and l a u n d r y and d r y c l e a n i n g ( M a y 1977)
i n d u s t r i e s . A l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r th e N o r f o l k a r e a a r e l i s t i n g s o f u n i o n w a g e
ra tes f o r buildin g t r a d e s , p rin tin g t r a d e s , l o c a l - t r a n s i t op eratin g e m p lo y e e s ,
l o c a l t r u c k d r i v e r s and h e l p e r s , and g r o c e r y s t o r e e m p l o y e e s . F r e e c o p i e s
o f t h e s e a r e a v a i l a b l e f r o m the B u r e a u ' s r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s . (S e e b a c k c o v e r
fo r a d d re sse s.)

Area
Wage
Survey

Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Portsmouth
and Newport News—Hampton,
Virginia—North Carolina,
Metropolitan Areas, May 1977

U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

Contents

Page

August 1977
Bulletin 1950-21
Tables:
A.

Earnings, all establishments:
A - l . Weekly earnings of office
A -2 .
A -3 .
A -4 .
A -5 .
A -6 .

A -7 .

Appendix A.
Appendix B.

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, GPO
Bookstores, or BLS Regional Offices listed on back cover.




Weekly earnings of profes­
sional and technical w orkers-------5
Average weekly earnings of
office, professional, and
technical workers, by sex-------------- 6
Hourly earnings of mainte­
nance, toolroom, and
7
powerplant w orkers-----------------------Hourly earnings of material
movement and custodial
workers--------------------------------------------- 8
Average hourly earnings of
maintenance, toolroom,
powerplant, material move­
ment, and custodial workers,
by sex —--------------------------------------------- 10
Percent increases in average
hourly earnings, adjusted for
employment shifts, for s e ­
lected occupational groups------------- 11
Scope and method of
su rvey-J_2
Occupational descriptions--------------- 15

Introduction
This area is 1 of 74 in which the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau
of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings and related
benefits. (See list of areas on inside back cover.) In each area, occupational
earnings data (A -se r ie s tables) are collected annually. Information on establishment practices and supplementary wage benefits (B -se r ie s tables) is
obtained every third year. This report has no B -s e r ie s tables.

Each year after all individual area wage surveys have been com ­
pleted, two summary bulletins are issued. The first brings together data
for each metropolitan area surveyed; the second presents national and
regional estim ates, projected from individual metropolitan area data, for
all Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States, excluding
Alaska and Hawaii.

A m ajor consideration in the area wage survey program is the need
to describe the level and movement of wages in a variety of labor m arkets,
through the analysis of (l) t h e level and distribution of wages by occupation,
and (2) the movement of wages by occupational category and skill level. The
program develops information that may be used for many purposes, including
wage and salary administration, collective bargaining, and assistance in
determining plant location. Survey results also are used by the U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor to make wage determinations under the Service Contract Act
of 1965.




A -s e r ie s tables
Tables A - l through A -6 provide estimates of straight-tim e weekly
or hourly earnings for workers in occupations common to a variety of
manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. For the 31 largest survey
areas, tables A -8 through A - 13 provide sim ilar data for establishments
employing 500 workers or m ore.
Table A - 7 provides percent changes iii average hourly earnings
of office clerical w orkers, electronic data processing w orkers, industrial
n urses, skilled maintenance trades w orkers, and unskilled plant w orkers.
Where possible, data are presented for all industries and for manufac­
turing and nonmanufacturing separately. Data are not presented for skilled
maintenance workers in nonmanufacturing because the number of workers
employed in this occupational group in nonmanufacturing is too sm all to
warrant separate presentation. This table provides a measure of wage
trends after elinimation of changes in average earnings caused by employ­
ment shifts among establishments as well as turnover of establishments
included in survey sam ples. For further details, see appendix A.
Appendixes
Appendix A describes the methods and concepts used in the area
wage survey program and provides information on the scope of the survey.
Appendix B provides job descriptions used by Bureau field econo­
m ists to classify workers by occupation.

A. Earnings
Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1977
W e e k l y e a r n in g s 1
(s ta n d a r d )
A vera ge

Occupation and industry division

w e e k ly

o
f
xkers

hours1
(s ta n d a r d )

M ean2

M e d ia n 2

M id d le r a n g e 2

N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time w e ekly earning s of—
s
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
s
S
s
180
80
loo
140
iso 160
110
120
90
130
170
and
under

S

S

S

S

$

S

S

s

S

S

190

200

210

220

23o

240

260

280

300

320

90

100

llo

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

240

260

280

300

320

340

-

-

5
5
-

17
2
15
-

46
5
41
3

123
23
100
7

92
29
63
12

109
36
73
2

82
19
63
7

77
51
26
9

61
30
31
4

55
34
21
12

22
10
12
1

61
49
12
2

6
5
1
-

17
9
8
5

34
13
21
19

7
7
7

12
11
1
1

2
1
1
1

9
9
-

ALL WORKERS
SECRETARIES -----------MANUFACTURING -----NONMANUFACTURING —
PUBLIC UTILITIES -

837
336
501
92

39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5

$
172.50
189.00
161.00
198.00

$
163.00
180.50
151.00
192.50

$
$
141.00-194.00
157.50-214.00
135.00-175.00
157.00-255.00

SECRETARIES* CLASS A

36

40.0 213.00 206.00 181.00-231.50

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

2

7

1

1

3

4

6

1

-

1

2

1

SECRETARIES, CLASS B
m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----- nonmanufacturing —

143
67
76

39.5 189.50 187.50 150.00-213.00
40.0 215.00 201.50 185.00-236.50
39.5 167.00 160.00 131.50-195.50

_
-

.
•
-

.
•
-

4
4

*

24
6
18

3
3

13
13

10
1
9

7
6
1

16
11
5

14
8
6

13
5
8

12
7
5

2
1
1

6
5
1

10
9
1

1
•
1

•
-

-

8
8
-

secretaries, class

39.5
39.5
40.0
40.0

173.00
184.50
162.00
188.50

165.00
176.00
159.50
180.00

149.00-186,50
155.50-215.50
141.00-174.50
165.00-197.00

-

PUBLIC UTILITIES -

332
162
170
45

-

•
-

1
1
-

2
2
-

11
1
10
-

27
6
21
-

51
21
30
7

45
23
22
2

43
8
35
7

55
37
18
6

20
12
8
4

19
7
12
10

4
4
-

32
29
3
1

-

3
3
3

4
4
-

4
4
4

11
10
1
1

•
-

-

SECRETARIES, CLASS D
MANUFACTURING ---- —
NONMANUFACTURING —
PUBLIC UTILITIES -

307
94
213
40

39.0
39.5
39.0
38.5

158.50
170.50
153.00
205.00

148.50
168.00
141.00
250.50

133.50-172.00
147.50-197.50
131.00-156.00
139.00-255.00

•
*

•
•
-

4
4
-

11
2
9
-

32
4
28
3

72
11
61
7

38
8
30
4

51
13
38
*

19
10
9
*

13
8
5
3

13
7
6
-

19
19

-

-

12
11
1
1

•
-

2
1
1
1

19
•
19
19

2
2
2

-

•
-

•
-

•

-

-

-

*

-

STENOGRAPHERS --------- MANUFACTURING -----NONMANUFACTURING --PUBLIC UTILITIES -

192
38
154
57

39.5
40.0
39.5
39.5

161.00
161.50
161.00
196.00

151.00
157.00
145.00
169.00

127.50-176.00
141.50-179.00
126.00-176.O0
151.00-265.00

4

22

23
1
22
9

19
6
13
3

8
4
4
4

•

•

-

-

-

22
-

19
7
12
11

-

4
i

26
7
19
. 2

•

-

-

17
6
11
S

17

-

24
2
22
1

3

-

-

-

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL ---NONMANUFACTURING ------ --PUBLIC UTILITIES -------

130
105
35

39.5 155.50 137.50 124.50-159,50
39.5 157.00 131.50 120.00-165.00
39.5 218.00 260.00 152.50-271.00

22
22
-

24
22
1

17
11
5

24
18
2

7
1
*

3
2
1

6
2
2

2
2
2

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR ----NONMANUFACTURING -----

62
49

40.0 173.00 165.50 163.50-176.00
39.5 170.00 165.00 162.50-176.00

2
1

12
11

20
20

13
11

6
2

2

-

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE TYPISTS ----

32

39.0 128.50 127.00 125.00-132.00

15

10

1

-

-

-

-

TYPISTS ------ * -------------------MANUFACTURING ------ ----------NONMANUFACTURING -------------PUBLIC UTILITIES ------------

275
86
189
47

6

2

6
6

2

TYPISTS, CLASS A --- --------- --NONMANUFACTURING --- -----------

77
29

40.0 149.00 138.00 127.50-180.00
40.0 140.00 137.00 125.00-147.00

2
2

TYPISTS, CLASS B ---------------NONMANUFACTURING --- ---------- PUBLIC UTILITIES ------------

198
160
39

38.5 127.00 121.0C 109.5C-138.00
38.5 127.50 122.50 104.00-140.50
38.5 159.00 153.50 142.00-189.00

-

FILE CLERKS -----------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------

123
116

39.5 107.50 100.00 100.00-108.00
39.5 105.50 101.00 100.00-108.00

*

FILE CLERKS, CLASS C ----------NONMANUFACTURING --------------

102
100

39.5 103.00 100.00 100.00-103.50
39.5 103.00 100.00 100.00-103.50

c

MANUFACTURING ------

NONMANUFACTURING --

39.0
39.0
39.0
39.0

133.00
141.00
129.50
157.00

126.00
128.00
125.00
148.00

116.00-142.00
118.50-180.00
113.00-140.50
142.00-179.50

-

-

-

4
4
1

-

-

4

_

*

-

•
*

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
-

-

-

3
2
1
1

-

4
-

46
7
39
2

47
15
32
3

68
26
42
1

27
6
21
3

28
2
26
15

4
1
3
3

5
5
5

8
4
4
4

30
25
5
5

-

24
8

11
10

4
4

3
2

1
1

-

25
-

-

-

7
2

-

-

4
4
-

46
39
2

40
30
3

44
34
1

16
11
-

24
22
13

1
1
1

4
4
4

8
4
4

5
5
5

26
22

74
74

9
9

4
4

6
6

1
1

_

_

.

.

2

24
22

69
69

6
6

3
3

-

4

-

-

-

*
•

-

•

3

-

-

4
-

•

-

3
3

17
17

-

-

*

—

17
17
17

•

•

•

•

•

•

-

-

-

4
-

-

-

1
1
1

.

•

*

-

•

•

-

-

3
3
3

2

1

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6
6

•

1
1
-

-

2

S ee fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le s .




-

-

1

-

-

•

Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1977— Continued
W e e k l y e a r n in g s 1
(s ta n d a r d )
N um ber

N u m b e r

$

A vera ge

o f w o r k e r s

r e c e iv in g

s tr a ig h t-tim e

$

S

S

w e e k ly

e a r n in g s

o f—

*

%

of
w orkers

s

S

i

S

$

$

s

S

S

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

240

260

280

300

320

90

Occupation and industry division

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

240

260

280

300

320

340

$
$
97.00-104.00

*

*

*

1

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

•
*

1
1

*

.
*

*

*

1
1

-

•
-

-

-

-

-

.
-

10
8
2
2

16
16
*

9
8
1
1

*

*

16
16
-

-

*

9
8
1
1

—
*

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

—

1
1

*
*

—
*

1
1

*

*

80

w e e k ly
h o u rs

*

[sta n d a rd )

M ean2

M e d ia n 2

M id d le r a n g e 2

an d
u n d er

ALU WORKERS —
CONTINUED
$
$
39.5 108.50 100.00

M E S S E N G E R S --- ------ -----------------

34

*

10

16

2

2

2

*

*

1

*

-

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS --------------NONMANUFACTURING --- --------------

106
91

39.5 127.50 120.50 109.50-140.00
39.5 125.50 119.00 108.50-138.00

*

3
3

26
26

22
17

12
10

16
14

5
4

12
9

7
6

_
*

2
1

*

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSMANUFACTURING ---- ----------- ---NONMANUFACTURING ------------ ----

195
49
146

39.5 123.50 120.00 110.00-134.00
39.5 141.00 130.00 128.00-143.50
39.5 118.00 113.00 108.50-120.50

-

24
1
23

21
21

47
1
46

43
19
24

23
12
11

17
4
13

2
2

4
4

2
2

11
7
4

*

ORDER CLERKS

•-•••••••••••••

JU

100.00*123.00
19
16
3
3

47
21
26
5

59
12
47
12

107
26
81
24

68
21
47
9

54
13
41
14

52
18
34
9

73
15
58
1

34
14
20
1

33
11
22
2

16
8
8
*

24
19
5
3

5
3
2
2

10
10
•

-

-

3
1
2

8
3
5

12
2
10

13
1
12
8

17
3
14
6

32
8
24
1

25
11
14
1

17
3
14
2

16
8
8

*

23
19
4
2

5
3
2
2

10
10
-

•
-

*

14
2
12
6

•

*

10
8
2
2

51

93

56

41

35

41

9

16

-

1

-

-

-

-

1

7

4

1

3

5

i

2

1

n

6
6

12
12

3
3

15
12

1
1

2

6

*

8
6

*

•

*

*

27
7
20

46
9
37

17
9
8

*

1
1

17
16
1

5
2
3

2
2

1
1

*

*

20
20

2
2

*

*

*
*

8

24

3
5

9
3
6

2
2

1
1

17
16

5
2
3

2
2

1
1

24

20
20

2
2

*
*

*
*

c l e r k s ------ ---- ---- --MANUFACTURING --------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------PUBLIC UTILITIES ---------------

636
239
397
86

39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0

151.50
166.50
142.50
141.CO

144.00
157.00
138.00
130.00

121.00-169.00
122.00-205.CO
120.00-161.00
121.00-146.50

“

ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS A ------MANUFACTURING --- ----------------NONMANUFACTURING —
—
— — —
PUBLIC UTILITIES --- ---- -------

230
106
124
31

39.5
40.0
39.5
39.5

184.00
211.00
161.00
166.00

175.50
207.00
160.50
157.00

156.50-207.00
176.00-252.00
143.50-178.50
144.00-186.00

•
*

-

*

*

--------— —

406

40.0 133.00 129.50 117.50-149.50
128.00

-

19

44

— —

25

39.5 147.50 146.50 126.50-166.00

PAYROLL CLERKS ------- ---------------------MANUFACTURING ---- ------------—-------

79
59

39.5 156.50 155.50 135.00-174.00
39.5 159.50 155.50 139.00-172.50

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS ----— —
—
MANUFACTURING --------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------- -— — -------

398
99
299

39.0 128.50 120.00 103.00-141.00
39.5 168.00 160.50 132.00-200.00
38.5 115.50 112.50
99.50-126.00

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A —
MANUFACTURING ---------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------

162
63
99

39.5 151.50 140.00 122.00-187.00
39.5 186.50 188.5b 156.50-224.00
39.0 129.50 122.00 121.00-140.00

36

39.5 136.00 142.50 120.00-152.00

accounting

ACCOUNTING CLERKS, CLASS B
MANUFACTURING — —— —

'

1

25

nonmanufacturing

'

*

-

*

-

nonmanufacturing
b o o k k e e p i n g -m a c h i n e

MACHINE BILLERS

operators

— —— —

—

—

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B1
MANUFACTURING — — ———
——

*

*

15
11

4

*
-

81
1
80

60
5
55

57
10
47

55
7
48

.

18

10
5
5

42
3
39

*
*

2

*

16

1

See fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le s .




4

*

*

6
6

*

*

i

*

m

—

—

*

*

*

"

Table A-2. Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and
Newport News—Hampton, Va.'-N.C., May 1977
W e e k l y e a r n in g s 1

N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of—

( sta n d a rd )
N um ber

Occupation and industry division

of
w orkers

s

A v era g e
w e e k ly
h ou rs1
M ean2

’s ta n d a r d )

S

100

$

110

s

120

s

s
130

140

140

16 q

s

160

$

180

1

200

s

220

I

240

$

260

%

28q

I

3Q0

s

320

$

34 q

s

360

$

360

$

400

s

42q

i

44 q

and

M id d le r a n g e 2

M e d ia n 2

90

llo

130

200

220

24Q

26Q

280

300

320

34Q

360

11
10

2
*

10
•

10
1

16
7

15
5

25
9

34
21

15
11

2

120

180

*

100

10

16

27

8

5

7

5

380

4QQ

42Q

44Q

460

4
1

1
*

3
1

1
*

*

14

4

1

3

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

ALL WORKERS
computer

SYSTEMS ANALYSTS

$

$

$

323.00

J

$

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS
1 D U 3 A IM L v j

t♦

vLA jb

^

«

■ ■ ■ ii 1* ii

i

c

.

i

v

y

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS
-

1

2

-

10

-

6

3

6

-

2

2

1

-

-

-

-

-

12

3

6

17

15

6

8

4

2

1

-

-

-

-

1

5

..74.00

3

3

7

4

2

l

-

-

-

-

-

12

12

2

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
•

-

4

7

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS
2 3 9 . 5Q
COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS (BUSINESS) —
COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS
COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS

75

40.0 243.00 239.00 217.50-271.50

(BUSINESS),
(BUSINESS),

34

39.5 244.00 238.00 227.50-249.00

-

1

5

56
11
45

-

48
8
40

1«

4
3
1

12
1
11

3
3

-

-

45
36

25
24

10
5

4

10
6

19
13

30
19

23
16

13
6

23
18

7

2

8

10

19

20

6

5

-

2 6 0 • 00

J J t

(L 1 O .

0[>

bU 1

•

•

•

!
1

1
1

1
1

-

1
1

1
1

•

•

2

7

2b
2

5
-

-

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

ao

2

9

11

1

29
10
19
9

46
19
27
16

54
9
45
14

68
24
44
14

60
17
43
24

120
69
51
16

58
11
47
14

<54
12
72
2

*

-

-

*

*

8
6
6

9
2

25
11
7

25
17
14

12
2
2

-

-

-

>

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
6

lb
14

15
10

36
17

41
31

64
10

3

2

2

_

1

4
4

4
4

5
5

6
6

8
8

2

9
9

40.0 276.50 279.00 262.50-296.00
^0*0

187

40.0 245.50 249.00 223.0C-27o.00
224.00

See fo o tn o te s at end of ta b le s .




-

2

1
1

9

. uD

40.0

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS, CLASS B-

7
7

c

10

U

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS, CLASS A-

-

12

j j

3
3

12

♦

16
1
15

9

j

12
7
5

2

UK A r 1 C n

2b
14
12

11

^0*3

75
11
64

.
-

5

3
3

-

l

-

-

-

•

-

1
•

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

•

-

-

-

•

1

Table A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex, in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1977
A v era g e
(m e a n ^ )

Sex,

3

occupation, and industry division

W e e k ly

of

W e e k ly

h ou rs1

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division

e a r n in g s 1

(s ta n d a r d )

w o ik e r s

1An i t

J

"

" " "

vLAo j

of

W e e k ly

W e e k ly

h ou rs1

172.00
39.5 189.00
161.00

-

A

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division

N um ber
°f

W e e k iv

w orkers

e a r n in g s 1

[s ta n d a rd )

w o ik e r s

(s t a n d a r d )

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS WOMEN— CONTINUED
m

336

1

(m e a n 2 )

N um ber

(s ta n d a r d )

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN
J tv K t

A v era g e

A v era g e
(m e a n 2 )

N um ber

W e e k ly
e a r n in g s 1

h o u rs 1
sta n d a rd )

(s ta n d a r d )

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN— CONTINUED

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTS-

213.00

195

111

$
39.5 123.50
39.5 191.00

46
1U

K iN y

— L""

$
90.0 296.50
235.50

91

NU nnAN U i A v

'00
39.5 207.00

"

39.5 120.50
39.5

_

67
1A'3It if vLAvb L

AC v w U'T 1l“v LLL“i «
>J

L w M rU I t K

O r t r ' A 1w K 51

L L

a

J

j

0

300
233.50
A

JUv'3» 1M" iu v

f

LL

39 0 1*“0

u

v v v

Um

1l>.v vLLKlVo f

LLA j j A

“ &

UKAr 1Cn Jf vLA J J O
406

/A

273

A

173

252.50

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS* CLASS A-

80

90.0 276.50
^9*9

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS. CLASS B-

139.50

185

90.0 296.00
90.0

n A N O r A l>

1U “

IN u

“ • • • •

N ON M AN U r A O 1u r l r iO

PUBLIC UTILITIES ---------------

51

39.5 1B7.0U

•■ • •

• • • • ” *'

147 50
MACHIKE

billers

----------- ---- —

—

31

90.0 193.50

15Q.Q0

. .l. . ' I n i
j i r /T , r

uOvU'

39.0

t
-

NONMANUFACTUPING -----------------

169

39.0 129.SO
I'Ll ^ U'tvn UrtiH lUKjf LL A j j O*
iJO.JU

TYPISTS. CLASS A ------------------

i 1L u

77

90.0 199.00

^

128
r 1L t

L L t w ,\ J ♦

L L A

j

o

L

• "*’

ICO

103.00
39.b 103.00

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS

71

See fo o tn o te s at end o f t a b le s .

6

40 0

26

125.50




y 0 300.50
i0

90.0 239.00

a

ilUPib • wunti'i

Table A-4. Hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, and powerplant workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1977
N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s o f—

Hourly earnings 4

S
3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40

Occupation and industry division

and
under

—

—

S
$
S
*
3.60 3.90 4.00 4.20

$
s
“5
5.20 5.60 6.00

i
S
*
3
4.40 4.60 4.80 3.00

5
s
I
3
5
s
S
6.40 6.8c 7.20 7.60 8.00 9.40 6.8 q

—

3.10 3,20 3.3 q 3.4 q 3 .6 0 3.8Q 4.QQ 4,20 4.40 4.60 4.60 3.00 5.2p 5«6p 6.00 6.40 6.80 7«2o 7.6C 9.00 8.4Q 8.80 9.2C

ALL WORKERS
MAINTENANCE CARPENTERS --- ---------MANUFACTURING --------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------- -----

82
31
51

$
6.54
5.92
6.92

$
6.90
6.04
6.90

$
6.045.296.90-

$
7.16
6.21
7.16

*

*

MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIANS ----------MANUFACTURING ----- — — ----------NONMANUFACTURING ---- -----------PUBLIC UTILITIES --- --- --------

375
292
83
70

7.2u
7.20
7.24
7.39

7.16
6.66
7.16
7.16

6.t>46.P36.907.16-

8*83
8.83
7.99
7.99

.
-

-

MAINTENANCE P A I N T E R S --------- -----

39

6.22

6.35

5.96- 6.60

-

MAINTENANCE MACHINISTS ------------MANUFACTURING -----— -------------

182
147

7.50
7.61

7.99
8.83

6.51- 8.83
5.96- 8.83

•
*

MAINTENANCE MECHANICS (MACHINERY) MANUFACTURING -------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------.PUBLIC UTILITIES ------ --- ----

328
276
52
33

5.85
5.56
7.41
7.57

5.78
5.75
7.20
7.24

4.894.897.167.16-

6.37
6.37
7.99
7.99

•
-

.
-

-

-

MAINTENANCE MECHANICS
(MOTOR VEHICLES) ------ --- -----MANUFACTURING ----------------—
NONMANUFACTURING -------------PUBLIC UTILITIES -----------

235
59
176
142

5.79
5.19
5.99
5.97

5.87
4.75
6.35
6.35

4.734.115.735.87-

6.58
5.36
6.60
6.60

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
2

MAINTENANCE PIPEFITTERS --- — MANUFACTURING -----------------

91
80

6.73
6.68

6.21
6.21

6.04- 7.16
6» 04 — 8* 63

-

"

-

.
-

-

-

•

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
-

,

14
3
1)

39
)
3»

-

-

~

19
19
-

58
54
4
*

40
34
6
5

44
1
43
37

3
3
-

2«
l
27
27

-

1
1

2
2
“

-

4
4
*

3
3
-

-

-

3
3
-

10
10
-

12
12
-

25
22
3
1

2
2

1
1

_
-

130
130
*

1
1
-

-

2
2
-

-

-

-

-

-

8

-

-

-

2

14

10

-

-

1

-

4

-

.
*

2
2

1
1

.
“

5
5

7
7

4
4

10
5

14
14

c
.

-

-

2

14
14

26
-

3
3

6
2

.
*

*

68
88

-

8
8
-

•
-

26
26
-

-

6
6
-

20
20
-

23
23
-

20
20
-

24
24
-

40
39
1

101
99
2

7
6
1

2?
22
15

2
2
2

24
24
16

5
5
-

.
*

-

6
4
?
?

4
4
4

11
5
6
6

17
9
8

2
2
“

13
5
8
“

2
2
-

6
5
1
1

19
7
12
8

38
1
37
35

13
13

15
15
15

?
-

2

9
9
-

-

\c

63
2
61
48

3

a

8
8
*

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

4
4

35
35

13
13

11
-

.

-

3
3

-

-

2
2

_

-

-

-

21
21

*

-

-

_

_

MAINTENANCE SHEET-METAL WORKERS •

35

6.66

6.21

6.04- 7.16

-

-

-

MAINTENANCE TRADES HELPERS — —
N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------- — —
PUBLIC UTILITIES ------------

60
33
28

4.48
5.05
5.11

3.95
4.83
4.76

3.70- 4.90
4.65- 5.97
4.65- 5.97

-

•

.

-

-

-

*

-

STATIONARY ENGINEERS -------------

76

6.57

BOILER T E N O E R S -------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---- --- ---- -----

26
26

4.91
4.91

3.88
3.88

3.79- 5.70
3.79- 5.70

6
6

.

-

6.04

-

-

3
l

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

l

17

6

10
2
2

15
3
3

1
1
-

-

•

3
3
1

2
2
“

1
1
1

6
6
6

6
6
6

5

5

3

5

31

-

13

3
3

7
7

.

1
1

-

4
4

-

-

.

-

-

-

-

-

•

•

See footnotes at end of tables.




14
14

“

7

-

-

*

*

10
9
9

.

_

.

-

?
-

-

-

-

3

-

-

_

-

*

*

*

*

-

-

-

4

10

-

-

-

5
5

-

-

13

-

_

•

-

-

-

-

-

-

Table A-5. Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1977
Hourly earnings 4
Occupation and industry division

workers

Mean 2 Median2

N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
S
*
S
5
S
S
%
S
$
S
S
S
S
1
S
$
i
S
S
s
s
i
s
2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 3 .00 3.20 3.40 3 .60 3.80 4 .00 4 .20 4,40 4 .8 0 5.2c 5.60 6.00 6.40 6.80 7.20 7.60 8.00

Middle range 2

and
under
2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2 . 8 0

6 i 4Q 5.80 7.20, 7.60

3.00 3 .20 3.40 3.60 3 .80 4.00 4 •20 4 ,4Q 4.80 5 tiSL 5.60

8.40

ALL WORKERS
1,744
315
1,429
429

$
4.31
4.24
4.33
6.04

$
3.85
4,20
3.80
6.50

$
2.883.752.603.96-

$
5.95
4.55
6.50
6.50

72
72
*

11
11
“

115
6
109
*

185
185
-

29
10
19
-

98
5
S3
*

62
15
47
*

87
9
78
-

104
19
85
*

28
16
12

220
29
191
144

26
24
2
-

91
41
50
-

TRUCKORIVERS. LIGHT TRUCK —
NONMANUFACTURING ---- --------

287
275

2.69
2.63

2.50
2.50

2.40- 2.88
2.40- 2.83

62
62

11
11

90
90

.
-

19
19

75
75

a
8

1
“

1
*

8
8

4
“

2
2

6

TRUCKORIVERS. MEOIUM TRUCK —
MANUFACTURING ---------------NONMANUFACTUhING ------------

727
104
623

3.90
4.3o
3.84

3.50
4.12
3.50

2.60- 4.50
3.53- 4.93
2.60- 4.50

lu
10

•
-

19
19

185
185

•
"

18
18

44
5
39

33
6
27

100
15
85

20
16
4

55
5
50

24
24
*

TRUCKORIVERS. HEAVY TRUCK
(TRAILER) -----------------—
MANUFACTURING --- — — ---- --NONMANUFACTURING ----- ---- —
PUBLIC UTILITIES --- ------

432
57
375
230

5.28
4.51
5.40
4.93

5.10
4.59
5.80
3.96

3.963.853.963.96-

*

*

*

•

*

*

*

2
2
*

*

*

161
20
141
140

TRUCKORIVERS. HEAVY TRUCK
(OTHER THAN T R A I L E R ) ------- MANUFACTURING ----------------

191
140

3.92
**.06

4.20
4.55

3.38- 4.55
3.50- 4.55

SHIPPING CLERKS ------ ---------MANUFACTURING ----- ---------NONMANUFACTURING — — ------

117
34
83

4.34
4.64
4.22

4.48
4.95
4.38

3.71- 4.63
3.71- 5.18
3.75- 4.63

.
-

c l e r k s ---------------MANUFACTURING ---------------NONMANUFACT o RIMG — ----------

130
46
84

4.89
5.94
4.31

4.18
7.16
4.13

4.00- 5.71
3.97- 7.16
4.00- 4.96

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERKS NONMANUFACTURING --------- ---

65
50

4.10
3.78

4.29
3.25

WAREHOUSEMEN --------------- — --MANUFACTURING ---------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------- --PUBLIC UTILITIES ----------

353
196
157
93

4.67
4.30
5.14
5.74

ORDER F I L L E R S --------- — ---- --m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----- — ----- —

208
67

TRUCKCHIVERS ------------MANUFACTURING ----- —
NONMANUFACTURING ----PUBLIC UTILITIES ---

receiving

SHIPPING PACKERS ---------- m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------material handling laborers
manufacturing
nonmanufacturing —
forklift operators
m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----nonmanufacturing —

PUBLIC UTILITIES ----

6.50
5.10
6.50
6.50

32
28
4
-

5
3
2
-

41
23
18
-

30
6
24

40
40

3
3
*

1
1

25
23
2

•
*

31
5
26
*

5
5
*

29
25
4
*

4
2
2
*

16
16
*

269
269
174

2
2
•
-

6
6
-

24
24
-

105
105
105

4

114
114

*

2
2

*

•
*

3
3
*

155
155
90

*

4
4
*

22
22
*

*

7
7
1

4

_

6
6

-

10
10

5
5

10
10

51
2

3
3

“

"

-

24
24

80
80

-

*

-

-

-

5
1
4

1
1

*

2b
10
16

15
15

1
1

10
10

31
31

21
19
2

4
4
-

*

.
*

*

“

-

7
7

4
1
3

2
2

2
2
*

2
2

13
10
3

35
35

6
1
5

3
3

6
6

2.85- 5.00
2.85- 4.94

-

.

*

.
-

•
-

20
20

2
*

6
6

_
*

1
*

3
3

-

8
6

2
2

4.11
4.11
4.00
6.36

3.914.113.913.91-

4.60
4.45
6.36
8.26

6
6
6

.
-

1
1
*

_
-

.
-

3
3
-

6
6

3
3
-

4
4
*

13
8
5
*

69
24
45
40

93
81
12
-

24
23
1
-

4.30
3.55

3.75
3.25

3.75- 5.77
2.30- 4.88

21
21

7
7

-

-

-

3
-

6
3

3
*

6
6

3
*

64
2

*

-

88
82

3.52
3.56

3.59
3.65

3.28- 3.88
3.42- 3.88

2
2

-

•
“

2
2

2
-

2
-

10
10

6
4

20
20

20
20

24
24

1.076
485
591

3.71
3.56
3.83

3.49
3.59
3.00

2.7C- 4.16
2.99- 3.92
2.70- 5.40

33
24
9

9
7
2

49
33
16

9*0
16
74

160
2
158

96
69
27

47
19
28

45
13
32

104
96
8

93
63
30

39
35
4

534
326
208
59

4.23
4.36
4.02
4.93

4.05
4.18
3.90
3.91

3.513.883.193.91-

2
2
-

42
2
40

1
1
-

.
-

18
e
10

3
3
-

5
3
2

24
15
9

49
31
18

21
6
15
6

93
40
53
24

4.83
4.83
5.74
5.74

-

See footn otes at end o f ta b le s .




125
85
40
5

8

2

14
2
12

7
4
3

3

13
12

2
*

1
1

7
7
-

9
8
1
-

7
4
3
-

19

.
-

•
-

28
28

-

67
“

46
34
12

15
14
1

61
41
20

17
17

22
22

•33
33

57
54
3

64
61
3

8
8
-

63
63
-

-

43
43
17

•
•
-

•
•
-

•
•
-

-

26
26
-

•
-

-

•
-

-

“

•
-

-

5
5
5

-

•
-

-

33
33
33

-

-

•
-

•
-

-

19
19
-

-

“

-

29
29
-

•
-

7

51
41
10
-

•
-

-

2
2

•
-

-

1
•.
1

3

19
9

98
98
-

12
12
12

-

-

Table A-5. Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1977— Continued
Hourly earnings 4
Number
of
workers

Occupation and industry division

M ean2

M edian 2

M iddle range 2

N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
s
3
$
$
$
$
*
S
S
$
s
S
$
2.30 2.40 2.5o 2.6o 2.70 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.6o 3.80 4.00 4.20
and
under
2.40

2.50 2.60 2.70 2 .8 0

3.00 3.20 3 ?40 3.60 3.80 4.00 4.20 4.40

S
$
4
S
S
s
S
S
$ ---------- 1 -------4.40 4.80 5.20 5. 60 6.00 6.40 6.80 7.20 7.60 8.00

4.80 5.20 5.60 6. 00 6.40 6.83 7.20 7.60 8.00 8.40

ALL WORKERS—
CONTINUED
PO«ER-TRUCK OPERATORS

(OTHER

$

$

$

$

9

2*8C" 6«57

9

6

11

*

18

-

*

WATCHMENS
JANITORS. PORTERS. ANO CLEANERS

--------

1.122

3.24

2 .8 b

2.50- 4.01

246

20

167

73

41

41

73

71

52

37

19

47

51

57

92

J3
JJ

S ee footn otes at end o f ta b le s .




9

^4

6

7

4

7

-

-

-

Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, powerplant, material movement,
and custodial workers, by sex, in Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and
Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1977
N um ber

S e x , 3 o c c u p a t i o n , a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

of
w orkers

A vera ge
(m e a n t)
h o u r ly

N um ber

S e x , 3 o c c u p a t io n , a n d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

e a r n in g s 4

N um ber

)

S e x , 3 o c c u p a t i o n , a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

h o u rly

62

6 .5 4

h o u rly
e a r n in g s 4

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN— CONTINUED

$

^a

A vera ge
(m e a n 2 )

of
w o rk e rs

e a r n in g s 4

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN

MAINTENANCE * TOOLROOM, AND
POWERPLANT OCCUPATIONS - MEN
. ,#,r

A v era g e
(m e a n 2

of
w orkers

1 .7 A 0

$

4 .3 1

J i i l r r i 1, v

r

J

«■ ■■■ ■!■

'i * *

$

ta mm

1 ,4 2 5
429

3*52
3 •56
I * 02b

3*73

HA lNTENANLL LLL L 1K 1 1flNo
292

7.2 0

70

NON HANUFACTURING

7 .3 9

• • • • • • • • • • "• • • •

r
104
623

6 .2 2

^

MAINTENANCE MECHANICS (MACHINERY) -

1'

•

Ur l K p 1uKj

4 .3 0
3 .8 4

432
57

rr.

J <J

NONHANUr

A v 1UH INu

52
33

""

r-

230

a

4 l9 3

7 .5 7

TRUCKORIVERS, HEAVY TRUCK
MAINTENANCE MECHANICS
watchmen:

d. j j

59

JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS —
.
*%r-

91
80

MAINTENANCE SHEET-METAL WORKERS
MAINTENANCE TRADES HELPERS
NONMANUFACTURING

—1 ■

1 1—

3 .4 3

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN
60

7?

j j

5 .11

76

JANITORS* PORTERS* AN0 CLEANERS —

6 .5 7

26

4*91

67

" " "

See footnotes at end of tables.




715

4 .9 3
4 .3 1

-------

28

BOILER T E N D E R S --MAN Ur A v I U K i r l w ——

123
81

6 .7 3

10

3 .5 5

407

3 .2 0
2 .9 0

Table A-7. Percent increases in average hourly earnings, adjusted for
employment shifts, for selected occupational groups in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va.—N.C., for selected periods
Industry and o ccu p a tio n a l grou p 5

Jan u ary 1972 Jan uary 197: jja n u a ry 1974 to M ay 1975
to
A nnual rate
16- m o nth
Jan uary 1973 Jan uary 1974
in c r e a s e
in c r e a s e

M ay 1975
M ay 1976

M ay 1976
to
M ay 1977

A ll in d u s tr ie s :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l
E le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g
_______
Industrial n u rs e s ___
_
____ ,
S k ille d m ain ten an ce t r a d e s _________________________
U n sk illed plant w o r k e r s

5.3
( 6)
(‘ )
7.4
7.0

5.7
( 6)
4.3
7.5
8.7

10.9
11.4
12.2
12.4
14.2

8.1
8.4
9.0
9.2
10.5

6.3
5.7
4 .8
7.2
8.3

7.0
6.1
12.8
6.3
6.8

M anufacturin g:
O ffic e c le r i c a l
E le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g
In du strial n u r s e s
........
S k ille d m ain ten an ce t r a d e s ________ ____
U n skilled plant w o r k e r s _____________________________

( 6)
(6)
( 6)
6.3
7.6

( 6)
(6)
(6 )
7.9
9.2

( 6)
(6 )
( 6)
12.3
17.3

( 6)
(6 )
(6)
9.1
12.7

( 6)
(6)
( 6)
7.2
9.0

(6)
(6)
13.5
5.8
8.2

Nonm a nufac tur in g :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l ________________________________________
E le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g _________________________
In du strial n u rse s
U n skilled plant w o r k e r s _____________________________

5.3
(6 )
(6)
6.1

5.6
(‘ )
(6 )
8.3

10.9
(* )
( 6)
12.4

8.1
(6 )

6.9
( 6)
(‘ )
8.0

6.5

(6 )

9.2

(‘ )
(* )
6.1

Footnotes
1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time
3 Earnings data relate only to workers whose sex identification was p r o v i d e d by the
salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or p r e m i u m rates), and the earnings correspond
establishment.
to these weekly hours.
4 Excludes p r e m i u m pay for overtime and for w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
3
The m e a n is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all workers and dividing by
5 Estimates for periods ending prior to 1976 relate to m e n only for skilled maintenance and
the number of workers. The median designates position— half of the workers receive the s a m e or
unskilled plant workers. All other estimates relate to m e n and women.
m o r e and half receive the s a m e or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two
6 Data do not meet publication criteria or data not available.
rates of pay; a fourth of the workers earn the s a m e or less than the lower of these rates and a
fourth earn the sam e or m o r e than the higher rate.




11

Appendix A.
Scope and Method
of Survey
Data on area wages and related benefits are obtained by personal
visits of Bureau field representatives at 3-year intervals. In each of the
intervening years, information on employment and occupational earnings is
collected by a combination of personal visit, m ail questionnaire, and te le ­
phone interview from establishments participating in the previous survey.
In each of the 74 1 areas currently surveyed, data are obtained from
representative establishments within six broad industry divisions: Manufac­
turing; transportation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale
trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and serv ices. Major
industry groups excluded from these studies are government operations and
the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having fewer than
a prescribed number of workers are omitted because of insufficient em ploy­
ment in the occupations studied. Separate tabulations are provided for each
of the broad industry divisions which m eet publication criteria.
These surveys are conducted on a sample basis.
The sampling
procedures involve detailed stratification of all establishments within the
scope of an individual area survey by industry and number of em ployees.
From this stratified universe a probability sample is selected, with each
establishment having a predetermined chance of selection. To obtain optimum
accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large than sm all estab­
lishments is selected. When data are combined, each establishment is
weighted according to its probability of selection, so that unbiased estimates
are generated. For example, if one out of four establishments is selected,
it is given a weight of 4 to represent itself plus three others. An alternate
of the same original probability is chosen in the same industry-size c la s s i­
fication if data are not available from the original sample m em ber. If no
suitable substitute is available, additional weight is assigned to a sample
mem ber that is sim ilar to the m issing unit.
Occupations and earnings
Occupations selected for study are common to a variety of manufac­
turing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the following types: (1)
Office clerica l; (2) professional and technical; (3) maintenance, toolroom,
and powerplant; and (4) m aterial movement and custodial. Occupational
classification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to take
account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same job.
Occupations selected for study are listed and described in appendix B.
1 Included in the 74 areas are 4 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas are Akron,
Ohio; Birmingham, Ala.; Norfolk— Virginia Beach— Portsmouth and Newport News— Hampton, Va. — N. C . ; and
Syracuse, N.Y. In addition, the Bureau conducts more limited area studies in approximately 100 areas at the
request of the Employment Standards Administration of the U. S. Department of Labor.




Unless otherwise indicated, the earnings data following the job
titles are for all industries combined. Earnings data for some of the
occupations listed and described, or for some industry divisions within the
scope of the survey, are not presented in the A -s e r ie s tables because
either (1) employment in the occupation is too sm all to provide enough data
to m erit presentation, or (2) there is possibility of disclosure of individual
establishment data. Separate m en's and women's earnings data are not
presented when the number of workers not identified by sex is 20 percent
or m ore of the men or women identified in an occupation. Earnings data
not shown separately for industry divisions are included in data for all
industries combined. Likewise, for occupations with m ore than one level,
data are included in the overall classification when a subclassification is
not shown or information to subclassify is not available.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for fu ll-tim e
workers, i.e ., those hired to work a regular weekly schedule. Earnings
data exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays,
and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but co st-of-liv in g
allowances and incentive bonuses are included. Weekly hours for office
clerical and professional and technical occupations refer to the standard
workweek (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which employees receive
regular straight-tim e salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular
and/or premium rates). Average weekly earnings for these occupations are
rounded to the nearest half dollar. V ertical lines within the distribution of
workers on some A -tab les indicate a change in the size of the class intervals.

These surveys m easure the level of occupational earnings in an area
at a particular tim e. Comparisons of individual occupational averages over
time may not reflect expected wage changes. The averages for individual jobs
are affected by changes in wages and employment patterns. For example,
proportions of workers employed by high- or low-wage firm s may change, or
high-wage workers m ay advance to better jobs and be replaced by new
workers at lower rates. Such shifts in employment could decrease an occu­
pational average even though m ost establishments in an area increase wages
during the year. Changes in earnings of occupational groups, shown in table
A -7 , are better indicators of wage trends than are earnings changes for
individual jobs within the groups.

Average earnings reflect composite, areawide estim ates. Industries
and establishments differ in pay level and job staffing, and thus contribute
differently to the estim ates for each job. Pay averages m ay fail to reflect
accurately the wage differential among jobs in individual establishments.

Average pay levels f_ ' men and women in selected occupations should
not be assumed to reflect differences in pay of the sexes within individual
establishments. Factors which may contribute to differences include pro­
gression within established rate ranges (only the rates paid incumbents are
collected) and performance of specific duties within the general survey job
descriptions. Job descriptions used to classify employees in these surveys
usually are more generalized than those used in individual establishments
and allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
pe rformed.

Electronic data processing

Skilled maintenance

Computer system s
analysts, classes
A , B, and C
Computer program m ers,
cla sses A , B, and C
Computer operators,
cla sses A , B, and C

Carpenters
Electricians
Painters
Machinists
Mechanics (machinery)
Mechanics (motor vehicle)
Pipefitters
Tool and die makers

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all estab­
lishments within the scope of the study and not the number actually surveyed.
Because occupational structures among establishments differ, estimates of
occupational employment obtained from the sample of establishments studied
serve only to indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied. These
differences in occupational structure do not affect m aterially the accuracy of
the earnings data.

Industrial nurses

Unskilled plant

Registered industrial
nurses

Janitors, porters, and
cleaners
Material handling laborers

Wage trends for selected occupational groups
The percent increases presented in table A -7 are based on changes
in average hourly earnings of men and women in establishments reporting the
trend jobs in both the current and previous year (matched establishments).
The data are adjusted to remove the effects on average earnings of em ploy­
ment shifts among establishments and turnover of establishments included
in survey sam ples. The percent increases, however, are still affected by
factors other than wage increases. Hirings, layoffs, and turnover may affect
an establishment average for an occupation when workers are paid under plans
providing a range of wage rates for individual jobs. In periods of increased
hiring, for example, new employees may enter at the bottom of the range,
depressing the average without a change in wage rates.
The percent changes relate to wage changes between the indicated
dates. When the time span between surveys is other than 12 months, annual
rates are shown. (It is assumed that wages increase at a constant rate
between surveys.)

Percent changes for individual areas in the program are computed
as follow s:
1. Average earnings are computed for each occupation for
the 2 years being compared. The averages are derived
from earnings in those establishments which are in
the survey both years; it is assumed that employment
remains unchanged.
2. Each occupation is assigned a weight based on its pro­
portionate employment in the occupational group in the
base year.
3.

These weights are used to compute group averages.
Each occupation's average earnings (computed in step 1)
is multiplied by its weight. The products are totaled to
obtain a group average.

4.

The ratio of group averages for 2 consecutive years is
computed by dividing the average for the current year by
the average for the earlier year. The result— expressed
as a percent— less 100 is the percent change.

Occupations used to compute wage trends are:
Office clerical

Office clerica l— Continued

Secretaries
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
Typists, classes
A and B
File clerks, classes A,
B, and C
M essengers
Switchboard operators

Order clerks, classes
A and B
Accounting clerks,
cla sses A and B
Bookkeeping-machine
operators, class B
Payroll clerks
Keypunch operators,
cla sses A and B




For a m ore detailed description of the method used to compute these
wage trends, see "Improving Area Wage Survey In d e x e s," Monthly Labor
Review, January 1973, pp. 5 2 -5 7 .
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions
Tabulations on selected establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions (B -se r ie s tables) are not presented in this bulletin. Infor­
mation for these tabulations is collected at 3-year intervals. These tabu­
lations on minimum entrance salaries for inexperienced office workers; shift
differentials; scheduled weekly hours and days; paid holidays; paid vacations;
and health, insurance, and pension plans are presented (in the B -se r ie s tables)
in previous bulletins for this area.

Appendix table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N .C .,1 May 1977
Industry division 2

Minimum
employment
in establishments in scope
of study

SERVICES

...............

Within scope of study 4
Within scope
of study 3

so

Number

Percent

-

50
so
SO

50
50

163

124,790

100

80.681

132
407

48
115

54,220
70.570

43
57

44,386
36,295

48
62
173
47
77

21
13
39
14
28

12.B10
5,426
34,821
6,835
10,678

10
4
28
5
9

9,937
1,561
14.949
3,428
6,420

1 The Norfolk— Virginia Beach— Portsmouth and Newport N e w s — H a m p t o n Stand­
ard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, as defined'by the Office of M a n a g e m e n t and
Budget through February 1974, consist of the cities of Chesapeake, Hampton,
Newport N e w s , Norfolk, Poquoson, Portsmouth, Suffolk, Virginia Beach, and
Williamsburg, Va.; and the counties of Gloucester, James City, and York, Va.,
and Currituck, N.C. The "workers within scope of study1 estimates shown in this
1
table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the
labor force included in the survey. Estimates are not intended, however, for c o m ­
parison with other employment indexes to measur e employment trends or levels
since (1) planning of wage surveys requires establishment data compiled considerably
in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) small establishments are excluded
f rom the scope of the survey.
2 The 1972 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used
in classifying^ establishments by industry division. However, all government op­
erations are excluded from the scope of the survey.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the m i n i m u m
limitation. All outlets (within the area) of companies in industries such as trade,
finance, auto repair service, and motion picture theaters are considered as 1
establishment.




Studied

Studied

539

ALL DIVISIONS ---------------------------MANUFACTURING-------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING-----------------------------TRANSPORTATIONS COMMUNICATION* AND
OTHER PUBLIC'UTILITIES5 --------- ------------w h o l e s a l e TRADE4 ------------------------------RETAIL TRADE4 ----------------------------------FINANCE. INSURANCE. AND REAL ESTATE4 --------

Workers in establishments

N u m b e r of establishments

4 Includes all workers in all establishments with total employment (within
the area) at or above the m i n i m u m limitation.
5 Abbreviated to "public utilities" in the A-series tables. Taxicabs and
services incidental to water transportation are excluded.
4 This division is represented in estimates for "all industries" and "non­
manufacturing" in the A-series tables. Separate presentation of data is not m a d e
for one or m o r e of the following reasons: (1) E m p l o y m e n t is too small to provide
enough data to merit separate study, (2) the sample w a s not designed initially to
permit separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit
separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual es­
tablishment data.
7
Hotels and motels; laundries and other personal services; business services;
automobile repair, rental, and parking; motion pictures; nonprofit mem b e r s h i p
organizations (excluding religious and charitable organizations); and engineering
and architectural services.

14

Appendix B.
Occupational
Descriptions
The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bu­
reau's wage surveys is to assist its field staff in classifying into appro­
priate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establish­
ment and from area to area.
This perm its the grouping of occupational
wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this empha­
sis on inter establishment and interarea comparability of occupational
content, the Bureau's job descriptions may differ significantly from those
in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes.
In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors; apprentices; learn ers; begin­
n ers; and p a rt-tim e, tem porary, and probationary workers. Handicapped
workers whose earnings are reduced because of their handicap are also
excluded. Trainees are excluded from the survey except for those r e ­
ceiving on-th e-job training in some of the lower level professional and
technical occupations.

Office
SECRETARY

SECRETARY— Continued

Assigned as personal secretary, norm ally to one individual. M ain­
tains a close and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day work of the
supervisor. Works fairly independently receiving a minimum of detailed
supervision and guidance. P erform s varied clerica l and secretarial duties,
usually including m ost of the following:

Exclusions

answers
persons;

Not all positions that are titled "s e c r e ta r y " possess the above ch ar­
acteristics.
Examples of positions which are excluded from the definition are
as follows:
a. Positions
described above;

a. Receives telephone ca lls, personal c a lle r s, and incoming m ail,
routine inquiries, and routes technical inquiries to the proper

b.
b.

E stablishes, maintains, and revises the supervisor's files;

Stenographers not fully trained in secretarial-type duties;

d. Secretary positions in which the duties are either substantially
m ore routine or substantially more complex and responsible than those char­
acterized in the definition;

Relays m essages from supervisor to subordinates;

e. Reviews correspondence, memoranda, and reports prepared by
others for the supervisor's signature to assure procedural and typographic
accuracy;

e. Assistant -type positions which involve more difficult or more
responsible technical, administrative, supervisory, or specialized clerical
duties which are not typical of secretarial work.

f. . Perform s stenographic and typing work.

N O TE : The term "corporate o f f i c e r ," used in the level definitions
following, refers to those officials who have a significant corporatewide
policymaking role with regard to m ajor company activities. The title "vice
p r e sid e n t," though norm ally indicative of this role, does not in all cases

May also perform other clerical and secretarial tasks of comparable
nature and difficulty. The work typically requires knowledge of office routine
and understanding of the organization, program s, and procedures related to
the work of the supervisor.




concept

c. Stenographers serving as office assistants to a group of p ro fes­
sional, technical, or m anagerial persons;

c. Maintains the su pervisor's calendar and makes appointments as
instructed;
d.

which do not meet the "p erso n a l" secretary

15

SECRETARY— Continued

STENOGRAPHER

Exclusions— Continued
identify such positions. Vice presidents whose prim ary responsibility is to
act personally on individual cases or transactions (e .g ., approve or deny
individual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts; directly
supervise a clerical staff) are not considered to be "corporate o ffic e r s " for
purposes of applying the following level definitions.
C lass A
1. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company
that em ploys, in a ll, over 100 but fewer than 5 ,0 0 0 persons; or
2.
Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the
board or president) of a company that em ploys, in a ll, over 5 ,0 0 0 but fewer
than 2 5 ,0 0 0 persons; or
3. Secretary to the head, immediately below the corporate officer
level, of a major segment or subsidiary of a company that em ploys, in all,
over 2 5 ,0 0 0 persons.
Class B

Prim ary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to transcribe
the dictation. May also type from written copy. May operate from a steno­
graphic pool. May occasionally transcribe from voice recordings (if prim ary
duty is transcribing from recordings, seq Transcribing-M achine Typist).
N O TE : This job is distinguished from that of a secretary in that a
secretary norm ally works in a confidential relationship with only one manager
or executive and perform s m ore responsible and discretionary tasks as
described in the secretary job definition.
Stenographer, General

keep

Dictation involves a normal routine vocabulary. May maintain files,
simple records, or perform other relatively routine clerical tarfks.
Stenographer, Senior

Dictation involves a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such
as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research. May also set up and
maintain file s , keep records, etc.

1. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company
that em ploys, in a ll, fewer than 100 persons; or
2. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the
board or president) of a company that em ploys, in all, over 100 but fewer
than 5 ,0 0 0 persons; or
3. Secretary to the head, immediately below the officer level, over
either a major corporationwide functional activity (e .g ., marketing, research,
operations, industrial relations, etc.) or a major geographic or organizational
segment (e .g ., a regional headquarters; a major division) of a company that
em ploys, in all, over 5 ,0 0 0 but fewer than 2 5 ,0 0 0 em ployees; or
4. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or
other equivalent level of official) that em ploys, in a ll, over 5 ,0 0 0 persons; or
5. Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational
segment (e .g ., a middle management supervisor of an organizational segment
often involving as many as several hundred persons) or a company that
em ploys, in a ll, over 2 5 ,0 0 0 person s.
Class C
1. Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose respon­
sibility is not equivalent to one of the specific level situations in the definition
for class B , but whose organizational unit norm ally numbers at least several
dozen employees and is usually divided into organizational segments which are
often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level includes a
wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; w
2.
Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other
equivalent level of official) that em ploys, in a ll, fewer than 5 ,0 0 0 p erso n s.
Class D
(e .g .,

1. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a sm all organizational unit
fewer than about 25 or 30 persons); o_r

2.
Secretary to
em ployee, administrative
(NOTE: Many companies
described above, to this




a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional
officer, or assistant, skilled technician, or expert.
assign stenographers, rather than secretaries as
level of supervisory or nonsupervisory worker.)

OR
P erform s stenographic duties requiring significantly greater inde­
pendence and responsibility than stenographer, general, as evidenced by the
following: Work requires a high degree of stenographic speed and accuracy;
a thorough working knowledge of general business and office procedure; and
of the specific business operations, organization, p o licies, procedures, file s,
workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic duties and
responsible clerical tasks such as maintaining followup files; assembling
m aterial for reports, memoranda, and letters; composing simple letters
from general instructions; reading and routing incoming m ail; and answering
routine questions, etc.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE TYPIST
Prim ary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-m achine records. May also type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. W orkers transcribing dictation involving
a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports
on scientific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation in
shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is classified as a stenographer.
TYPIST
Uses a typewritfer to make copies of various m aterials or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May include
typing of sten cils, m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicating proc­
e sse s.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such as
keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and distributing
incoming m ail.
Class A . P erform s one or m ore of the following: Typing material
in final form when it involves combining m aterial from several sources; or
responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punctuation, etc., of tech ­
nical or unusual words or foreign language m aterial; or planning layout and
typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance in
spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit circum stances.

TY PIST— Continued

ORDER CLERK

Class B . P erform s one or more of the following; Copy typing from
rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of fo rm s, insurance policies, etc.;
or setting up simple standard tabulations; or copying m ore complex tables
already set up and spaced properly.

Receives written or verbal cu stom ers' purchase orders for material
or merchandise from custom ers or sales people. W ork typically involves
som e combination of the following duties: Quoting prices; determining availa­
bility of ordered items and suggesting substitutes when necessary; advising
expected delivery date and method of delivery; recording order and customer
information on order sheets; checking order sheets for accuracy and
adequacy of information recorded; ascertaining credit rating of customer;
furnishing customer with acknowledgement of receipt of order; following-up
to see that order is delivered by the specified date or to let customer know
of a delay in delivery; maintaining order file; checking shipping invoice
against original order.

FILE CLERK
F ile s, c la ssifie s, and retrieves m aterial in an established filing
system . May perform clerical and manual tasks required to maintain files.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.
Class A . C lassifies and indexes file m aterial such as correspond­
ence, reports, technical documents, etc.i in an established filing system
containing a number of varied subject matter file s. May also file this
m aterial. May keep records of various types in conjunction with the file s.
May lead a sm all group of lower level file clerks.

Exclude workers paid on a com m ission basis or whose duties include
any of the following: Receiving orders for services rather than for material
or merchandise; providing customers with consultative advice using knowledge
gained from engineering or extensive technical training; emphasizing selling
skills; handling m aterial or merchandise as an integral part of the job.

Class B . Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject matter) headings or partly classified m aterial by finer subheadings.
Prepares simple related index and cro ss-re fe re n c e aids. As requested,
locates clearly identified m aterial in files and forwards m aterial. May
perform related clerical tasks required to maintain and service files.

Positions
definitions:

are

classified

into

levels

according

to

the

following

C lass A . Handles orders that involve making judgments such as
choosing which specific product or m aterial from the establishment's product
lines will satisfy the cu stom er's needs, or determining the price to be quoted
when pricing involves m ore than m erely referring to a price list or making
some simple mathematical calculations.

Class C . Perform s routine filing of m aterial that has already been
classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classification
system (e .g ., alphabetical, chronological, or numerical). As requested,
locates readily available m aterial in files and forwards m aterial; and may
fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerical and manual tasks
required to maintain and service files.

Class B . Handles orders involving items which have readily iden­
tified uses and applications. May refer to a catalog, manufacturer's manual,
or sim ilar document to insure that proper item is supplied or to verify
price of ordered item.

MESSENGER
Perform s various routine duties such as running errands, operating
minor office machines such as sealers or m a ile rs, opening and distributing
m ail, and other minor clerical work. Exclude positions that require operation
of a motor vehicle as a significant duty.

ACCOUNTING CLERK
P erform s one or m ore accounting clerical tasks such as posting to
registers and ledgers; reconciling bank accounts; verifying the internal con­
sistency, com pleteness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting documents;
assigning prescribed accounting distribution codes; examining and verifying
for clerical accuracy various types of reports, lis ts , calculations, posting,
etc.; or preparing simple or assisting in preparing more complicated journal
vouchers. May work in either a manual or automated accounting system .

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a telephone switchboard or console used with a private
branch exchange (PBX) system to relay incoming, outgoing, and intrasystem
c a lls. May provide information to ca llers, record and transmit m essag es,
keep record of calls placed and toll charges. Besides operating a telephone
switchboard or console, may also type or perform routine clerical work
(typing or routine clerical work may occupy the major portion of the w orker's
tim e, and is usually performed while at the switchboard or console). Chief
or lead operators in establishments employing m ore than one operator are
excluded. For an operator who also acts as a receptionist, see Switchboard
Operator -Receptionist.

The work requires a knowledge of clerical methods and office p ra c­
tices and procedures which relates to the clerical processing and recording
of transactions and accounting information. With experience, the worker
typically becom es fam iliar with the bookkeeping and accounting term s and
procedures used in the assigned work, but is not required to have a knowledge
of the form al principles of bookkeeping and accounting.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
Positions
definitions:

At a single-position telephone switchboard or console, acts both as
an operator— see Switchboard Operator— and as a receptionist. Receptionist's
work involves such duties as greeting v isitors; determining nature of v isitor's
business and providing appropriate information; referring visitor to appro­
priate person in the organization or contacting that person by telephone and
arranging an appointment; keeping a log of visitors.




are

classified

into levels on the basis of the following

Class A . Under general supervision, perform s accounting clerical
operations which require the application of experience and judgment, for
example, clerically processing complicated or nonrepetitive accounting tra n s­
actions, selecting among a substantial variety of prescribed accounting codes

17

ACCOUNTING CLERK— Continued

PAYROLL CLERK— Continued

and classification s, or tracing transactions through previous accounting
actions to determine source of discrepancies. May be assisted by one or
more class B accounting clerks.

listings against source records; tracing and correcting errors in listings;
and assisting in preparation of periodic summary payroll reports. In a nonautomated payroll system , computes wages. Work may require a practical
knowledge of governmental regulations, company payroll policy, or the
computer system for processing payrolls.

Class B . Under close supervision, following detailed instructions
and standardized procedures, perform s one or m ore routine accounting c le r ­
ical operations, such as posting to led g ers, cards, or worksheets where
identification of items and locations of postings are clearly indicated; checking
accuracy and completeness of standardized a n d
repetitive records or
accounting documents; and coding documents u s i n g
a few prescribed
accounting codes.

Operates a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typewriter key­
board) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and
experience in basic bookkeeping principles, and fam iliarity with the structure
of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper records and
distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each phase of the work.
May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B . Keeps a record of one or m ore phases or sections of a
set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases
or sections include accounts payable, payroll, cu stom ers' accounts (not
including a simple type of billing described under machine b iller), cost d is ­
tribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist
in preparation of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting
department.
MACHINE BILLER
than an
billings
billing
by type

Billing-m achine b ille r . Uses a special billing machine (combination
typing and adding machine) to prepare bills and invoices from cu stom ers'
purchase o rd ers, internally prepared o rd ers, shipping memoranda, etc.
Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges
and entry of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on
the billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by
machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies
of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
Bookkeeping-machine b ille r . Uses a bookkeeping machine (with or
without a typewriter keyboard) to prepare cu stom ers' bills as part of the
accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the simultaneous entry of
figures on cu stom ers' ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates
figures on a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
m atically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slips.
P A YR O LL CLERK
P erform s the clerical tasks n ecessary to process payrolls and to
maintain payroll records. Work involves most of the following: Processing
w o rk ers' tim e or production records;, adjusting w o rk ers' records for changes
in wage rates, supplementary benefits, or tax deductions; editing payroll




Operates a keypunch machine to record or verify alphabetic and/or
numeric data on tabulating cards or on tape.
Positions
definitions:

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statem ents, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to
or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental to
operations.
For wage study purposes, machine billers are classified
of machine, as follow s:

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR

are classified

into levels on the basis of the following

Class A . W ork requires the application of experience and judgment
in selecting procedures to be followed and in searching fo r, interpreting,
selecting, or coding items to be keypunched from a variety of source docu­
ments. On occasion may also perform some routine keypunch work. May
train inexperienced keypunch operators.
C lass B . Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision
or following specific procedures or instructions, works from various stan­
dardized source documents which have been coded, and follows specified
procedures which have been prescribed in detail and require little or no
selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. Refers to supervisor
problems arising from erroneous items or codes or m issing information.
TABULATING-M ACH INE OPERATOR
Operates one or a variety of machines such as the tabulator, calcu­
lator, collator, interpreter, sorter, reproducing punch, etc. Excluded from
this definition are working su pervisors. A lso excluded are operators of
electronic digital com puters, even though they may also operate electric
accounting machine equipment.
Positions
definitions:

are classified

into levels

on the basis of the following

Class A . P erform s complete reporting and tabulating assignments
including devising difficult control panel wiring under general supervision.
Assignm ents typically involve a variety of long and complex reports which
often are irregular or nonrecurring, requiring some planning of the nature
and sequencing of operations, and the use of a variety of machines. Is
typically involved in training new operators in machine operations or training
lower level operators in wiring from diagrams auid in the operating sequences
of long and complex reports.
Does not include positions in which wiring
responsibility is lim ited to selection and insertion of prewired boards.
Class B . P erform s work according to established procedures and
under specific instructions. Assignm ents typically involve complete but rou­
tine and recurring reports or parts of larger and m ore complex reports.
Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical accounting machines such as
the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the simpler machines used by
class C operators. May be required to do som e wiring from diagram s.
Class C . Under specific instructions, operates simple tabulating
or electrical accounting machines such as the so rter, interpreter, reproducing
punch, collator, etc. Assignm ents typically involve portions of a work unit,
for exam ple, individual sorting or collating runs, or repetitive operations.
May perform simple wiring from diagram s, and do some filing work.

18

Professional and Technical
COMPUTER SYSTEMS A N A LYST , BUSINESS

COMPUTER SYSTEMS A N A LYST , BUSINESS— Continued

Analyzes business problems to formulate procedures for solving
them by use of electronic data processing equipment. Develops a complete
description of all specifications needed to enable program m ers to prepare
required digital computer program s.
Work involves m ost of the following:
Analyzes subject-m atter operations to be automated and identifies conditions
and criteria required to achieve satisfactory results; specifies number and
types of records, file s , and documents to be used; outlines actions to be
performed by personnel and computers in sufficient detail for presentation
to management and for programming (typically this involves preparation of
work and data flow charts); coordinates the development of test problems and
participates in trial runs of new and revised system s; and recommends equip­
ment changes to obtain m ore effective overall operations. (NOTE: Workers
performing both system s analysis and programming should be classified as
system s analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)

C lass C . Works under immediate supervision, carrying out analy­
ses as assigned, usually of a single activity. Assignments are designed to
develop and expand practical experience in the application of procedures and
skills required for system s analysis work. For example, may assist a higher
level system s analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required by
program m ers from information developed by the higher level analyst.

Does not include employees prim arily responsible for the manage­
ment or supervision of other electronic data processing em ployees, or sy s­
tem s analysts prim arily concerned with scientific or engineering problem s.
For wage study purposes, system s analysts are classified as follow s:
C lass A . Works independently or under only general direction on
complex problems involving all phases of system analysis.
Problem s are
complex because of diverse sources of input data and m ultiple-use require­
ments of output data. (For example, develops an integrated production sched­
uling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales analysis record in which
every item of each type is automatically processed through the full system
of records and appropriate followup actions are initiated by the computer.)
Confers with persons concerned to determine the data processing problems
and advises subject-m atter personnel on the implications of new or revised
system s of data processing operations. Makes recommendations, if needed,
for approval of m ajor system s installations or changes and for obtaining
equipment.

COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS
Converts statements of business problem s, typically prepared by a
system s analyst, into a sequence of detailed instructions which are required
to solve the problems by automatic data processing equipment. Working from
charts or diagram s, the program m er develops the precise instructions which,
when entered into the computer system in coded language, cause the manipu­
lation of data to achieve desired resu lts. Work involves most of the following:
Applies knowledge of computer capabilities, mathematics, logic employed by
com puters, and particular subject matter involved to analyze charts and
diagrams of the problem to be programmed; develops sequence of program
steps; writes detailed flow charts to show order in which data will be
processed; converts these charts to coded instructions for machine to follow;
tests and corrects program s; prepares instructions for operating personnel
during production run; analyzes, review s, and alters programs to increase
operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements; maintains records of
program development and revisions.
(NOTE: Workers performing both
system s analysis and programming should be classified as system s analysts
if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)
Does not include employees prim arily responsible for the manage­
ment or supervision of other electronic data processing em ployees, or pro­
gram m ers prim arily concerned with scientific and/or engineering problems.
For wage study purposes, program m ers are classified as follow s:

May provide functional direction to lower
who are assigned to a ssist.

level system s analysts

C lass B . Works independently or under only general direction on
problems that are relatively uncomplicated to analyze, plan, program , and
operate.
P roblem s are of limited complexity because sources of input data
are homogeneous and the output data are closely related. (For example,
develops system s for maintaining depositor accounts in a bank, maintaining
accounts receivable in a retail establishment, or maintaining inventory
accounts in a manufacturing or wholesale establishment.) Confers with p er­
sons concerned to determine the data processing problems and advises
subject-m atter personnel on the implications of the data processing system s
to be applied.
OR
Works on a segment of a complex data processing scheme or system ,
as described for cla ss A .
Works independently on routine assignments and
receives instruction and guidance on complex assignm ents.
Work is reviewed
for accuracy of judgment, compliance with instructions, and to insure proper
alignment with the overall system .




C lass A . Works independently or under only general direction on
complex problems which require competence in all phases of programming
concepts and practices.
Working from diagrams and charts which identify
the nature of desired resu lts, m ajor processing steps to be accomplished,
and the relationships between various steps of the problem solving routine;
plans the full range of programming actions needed to efficiently utilize the
computer system in achieving desired end products.
At this level, programming is difficult because computer equipment
must be organized to produce several interrelated but diverse products from
numerous and diverse data elem ents. A wide variety and extensive number
of internal processing actions must occur.
This requires such actions as
development of common operations which can be reused, establishment of
linkage points between operations, adjustments to data when program require­
ments exceed computer storage capacity, and substantial manipulation and
resequencing of data elem ents to form a highly integrated program.
May provide functional direction to lower level program m ers who are
assigned to assist.

COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS— Continued

COMPUTER OPERATOR— Continued

C lass B . Works independently or under only general direction on
relatively simple program s, or on simple segments of complex program s.
Program s (or segments) usually process information to produce data in two
or three varied sequences or form ats. Reports and listings are produced by
refining, adapting, arraying, or making minor additions to or deletions from
input data which are readily available. While numerous records may be
processed, the data have been refined in prior actions so that the accuracy
and sequencing of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typically,
the program deals with routine recordkeeping operations.

m ajor change or cannot be corrected within a reasonably short tim e. In
common error situations, diagnoses cause and takes corrective action. This
usually involves applying previously programmed corrective steps, or using
standard correction techniques.

OR
Works on complex programs (as described for class A) under close
direction of a higher level programm er or supervisor. May a ssist higher
level program m er by independently performing less difficult tasks assigned,
and performing m ore difficult tasks under fairly close direction.
May guide or instruct lower level program m ers.
%
C lass C . Makes practical applications of programming practices
and concepts usually learned in form al training courses. Assignments are
designed to develop competence in the application of standard procedures to
routine problem s. Receives close supervision on new aspects of assignments;
and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy and conformance with required
procedures.
COMPUTER OPERATOR
Monitors and operates the control console of a digital computer to
process data according to operating instructions, usually prepared by a pro­
gram m er.
Work includes most of the following: Studies instructions to
determine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required
items (tape ree ls, cards, etc.); switches necessary auxiliary equipment into
circuit, and starts and operates computer; makes adjustments to computer to
correct operating problems and meet special conditions; reviews errors made
during operation and determines cause or refers problem to supervisor or
program m er; and maintains operating records.
May test and a ssist in
correcting program.
For wage

study purposes, computer

operators

are

classified

as

follows:
C lass A . Operates independently, or under only general direction,
a computer running programs with most of the following characteristics:
New programs are frequently tested and introduced; scheduling requirements
are of critical importance to minimize downtime; the programs are of
complex design so that identification of error source often requires a working
knowledge of the total program , and alternate programs may not be available.
May give direction and guidance to lower level operators.
C lass B . Operates independently, or under only general direction,
a computer running programs with most of the following characteristics:
Most of the programs are established production runs, typically run on a
regularly recurring basis; there is little or no testing of new programs
required; alternate programs are provided in case original program needs




OR
Operates under direct supervision a computer running programs or
segments of programs with the characteristics described for class A .
May
a ssist a higher level operator by independently performing less difficult tasks
assigned, and performing difficult tasks following detailed instructions and
with frequent review of operations performed.

expected
ability to
received
operator

C lass C . Works on routine program s under close supervision. Is
to develop working' knowledge of the computer equipment used and
detect problems involved in running routine program s. Usually has
some form al training in computer operation. May assist higher level
on complex program s.

DRAFTER
C lass A . Plans the graphic presentation of complex item s having
distinctive design features that differ significantly from established drafting
precedents. Works in close support with the design originator, and may
recommend minor design changes. Analyzes the effect of each change on the
details of form , function, and positional relationships of components and parts.
Works with a minimum of supervisory assistance. Completed work is
reviewed by design originator for consistency with prior engineering deter­
minations.
May either prepare drawings or direct their preparation by lower
level drafters.

Class B . P erform s nonroutine and complex drafting assignments
that require the application of most of the standardized drawing techniques
regularly used. Duties typically involve such work a s:
Prepares working
drawings of subassem blies with irregular shapes, multiple functions, and
precise positional relationships between components; prepares architectural
drawings for construction of a building including detail drawings of foun­
dations, wall sections, floor plans, and roof.
Uses accepted formulas and
manuals in m a k i n g necessary computations to determine quantities of
m aterials to be used, load capacities, strengths, stre sse s, etc. Receives
initial instructions, requirements, and advice from supervisor. Completed
work is checked for technical adequacy.

Class C . Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for
engineering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types of
drawings prepared include isom etric projections (depicting three dimensions
in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning of components
and convey needed information. Consolidates details from a number of
sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggested methods of
approach, applicable precedents, and advice on source m aterials are given
with initial assignments. Instructions are less complete when assignments
recur.
Work may be spot-checked during progress.

DRAFTER-TRACER

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN— Continued

Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing
cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not
include tracing limited to plans prim arily consisting of straight lines and a
large scale not requiring close delineation.)

Work may be reviewed by supervisor (frequently an engineer or
designer) for general compliance with accepted practices. May provide
technical guidance to lower level technicians.

AN D /O R
Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized item s.
Work is closely supervised during p rogress.
ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN
Works on various types of electronic equipment and related devices
by performing one or a combination of the following: Installing, maintaining,
repairing, overhauling, troubleshooting, modifying, constructing, and testing.
Work requires practical application of technical knowledge of electronics
principles, ability to determine malfunctions, and skill to put equipment in
required operating condition.
The equipment— consisting of either many different kinds of circuits
or multiple repetition of the same kind of circuit— includes, but is not limited
to, the following: (a) Electronic transmitting and receiving equipment (e .g .,
radar, radio, television, telephone, sonar, navigational aids), (b) digital and
analog computers, and (c) industrial and medical measuring and controlling
equipment.
This classification excludes repairers of such standard electronic
equipment as common office machines and household radio and television
sets; production assem blers and testers; workers whose prim ary duty is
servicing electronic test instruments; technicians who have administrative
or supervisory responsibility; and drafters, designers, and professional
engineers.
Positions
definitions.

are

classified into levels

on the basis of the following

C lass A . Applies advanced technical knowledge to solve unusually
complex problems (i.e ., those that typically cannot be solved solely by refer­
ence to manufacturers' manuals or sim ilar documents) in working on e lec­
tronic equipment. Examples of such problems include location and density of
circuitry, electromagnetic radiation, isolating malfunctions, and frequent
engineering changes. Work involves: A detailed under standing of the inter­
relationships of circuits; exercising independent judgment in performing such
tasks as making circuit analyses, calculating wave fo r m s, tracing relation­
ships in signal flow; and regularly using complex test instruments (e .g ., dual
trace oscilloscopes, Q -m e te r s, deviation m e te rs, pulse generators).

C lass B . Applies comprehensive technical knowledge to solve com ­
plex problems [i.e ., those that typically can be solved solely by properly
interpreting manufacturers' manuals or sim ilar documents) in working on
electronic equipment. Work involves: A fam iliarity with the interrelation­
ships of circuits; and judgment in determining work sequence and in selecting
tools and testing instruments, usually less complex than those used by the
cla ss A technician.
Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher
level technician, and work is reviewed for specific compliance with accepted
practices and work assignments.
May provide technical guidance to lower
level technicians.
C la ss C . Applies working technical knowledge to perform simple or
routine tasks in working on electronic equipment, following detailed instruc­
tions which cover virtually all procedures.
Work typically involves such
tasks as: A ssisting higher level technicians by performing such activities as
replacing components, wiring circu its, and taking test readings; repairing
simple electronic equipment; and using tools and common test instruments
(e .g ., m ultim eters, audio signal generators, tube teste rs, oscilloscopes).
Is not required to be fam iliar with the interrelationships of circuits.
This
knowledge, however, may be acquired through assignments designed to
increase competence (including classroom training) so that worker can
advance to higher level technician.
Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher
level technician. Work is typically spot checked, but is given detailed review
when new or advanced assignments are involved.
REGISTERED INDUSTRIAL NURSE
A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general m edical
direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or
suffer an accident on the prem ises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or
injured; attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping
records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and health evaluations of
applicants and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving
health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or
other activities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of all personnel.
Nursing supervisors or head nurses in establishments employing more than
one nurse are excluded.

Maintenance, Toolroom, and Powerplant
MAINTENANCE CARPENTER

MAINTENANCE CARPENTER— Continued

P erform s the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain
in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, crib s, counters,
benches, partitions, doors, flo o rs, stairs, casings, and trim made of wood
in an establishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Planning and
laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, m odels, or verbal instructions;

using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools, and standard
measuring instruments; making standard shop computations relating to dimen­
sions of work; and selecting m aterials n ecessary for the work. In general,
the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experi­
ence usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.




MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIAN

MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (Motor vehicle)

P erform s a variety of electrical trade functions such as the instal­
lation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, distribution,
or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work involves most
of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of electrical equip­
ment such as generators, tran sform ers, switchboards, controllers, circuit
breakers, m otors, heating units, conduit sy stem s, or other transm ission
equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other specifi­
cations; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical system or equip­
ment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of wiring
or electrical equipment; and using a variety of electrician 's handtools and
measuring and testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Repairs automobiles, buses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an estab­
lishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Examining automotive equip­
ment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipment and performing
repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, d r ills,
or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts; replacing broken
or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassem bling and
installing the various assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjust­
m ents; and aligning wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body
bolts. In general, the work of the motor vehicle maintenance mechanic
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MAINTENANCE PAINTER
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an estab­
lishment.
Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface peculiarities
and types of paint required for different applications; preparing surface for
painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes and
interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May m ix c o lo rs,
o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or
consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
MAINTENANCE MACHINIST
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves m ost of the following: Interpreting written instructions and speci­
fications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of m achinist's
handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating
standard machine too ls; shaping of m etal parts to close tolerances; making
standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds,
and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties of the common
m etals; selecting standard m aterials, parts, and equipment required for this
work; and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general,
the m achinist's work norm ally requires a rounded training in machine-shop
practice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (Machinery)
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves m ost of the following: Examining machines and mechanical
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling
machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools in
scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items
obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a
machine shop or sending the machine to a machine shop for m ajor repairs;
preparing written specifications for m ajor repairs or for the production of
parts ordered from machine shops; reassem bling machines; and making all
necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a machinery
maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experi­
ence. Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.




This classification does not include mechanics who repair custom ers'
vehicles in automobile repair shops.
MAINTENANCE PIPEFITTER
Installs or repairs water, steam , gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Laying
out work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings or other
written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct lengths with
chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machines; threading
pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven
machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers;
making standard shop computations relating to p ressu res, flow, and size of
pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether finished’ pipes
meet specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Workers prim arily
engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or heating system s
are excluded.
MAINTENANCE S H E E T -M E T A L WORKER
Fabricates, in stalls, and maintains in good repair the sheet-m etal
equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves,
lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, m etal roofing) of an establishment.
Work involves most of the following; Planning and laying out all types of
sh eet-m etal maintenance work from blueprints, m odels, or other specifi­
cations; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-m etal working
machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping,
fitting, and assem bling; and installing sh eet-m etal articles as required. In
general, the work of the maintenance sh eet-m etal worker requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are
required.
Work involves m ost of the following: Planning and laying out
work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to s tr e sse s,
strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; aligning and balancing equip­
ment; selecting standard to o ls, equipment, and parts to be used; and installing
and maintaining in good order power transm ission equipment such as drives
and speed reducers. In general, the m illw right's work normally requires a
rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MAINTENANCE TRADES HELPER

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

A ssists one or m ore workers in the skilled maintenance trades, byperforming specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping a
worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, machine,
and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding m aterials or tools; and per­
forming other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work
the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some
trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding m aterials and
tools, and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted to perform
specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed
by workers on a fu ll-tim e basis.

Constructs and repairs jig s, fixtures, cutting tools, gauges, or metal
dies or molds used in shaping or forming m etal or nonmetallic m aterial (e .g .,
plastic, plastqr, rubber, g la ss). Work typically involves: Planning and laying
out work according to m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other written or oral
specifications; understanding the working properties of common metals and
alloys; selecting appropriate m aterials, tools, and processes required to
complete tasks; making necessary shop computations; setting up and operating
various machine tools and related equipment; using various tool and die
m aker's handtools and precision measuring instruments; working to very
close tolerances; heat-treating metal parts and finished tools and dies to
achieve required qualities; fitting and assembling parts to prescribed toler­
ances and allowances. In general, the tool and die m aker's work requires
rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired
through form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

M ACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR (Toolroom)
Specializes in operating one or m ore than one type of machine tool
(e .g ., jig borer, grinding machine, engine lathe, milling machine) to machine
metal for use in making or maintaining jig s , fixtures, cutting tools, gauges,
or metal dies or molds used in shaping or forming metal or nonmetallic
m aterial (e .g ., plastic, plaster, rubber, glass).
Work typically involves:
Planning and performing difficult machining operations which require com ­
plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; setting up machine tool or
tools (e .g ., install cutting tools and adjust guides, stops, working tables,
and other controls to handle the size of stock to be machined; determine
proper feeds, speeds, tooling, and operation sequence or select those pre­
scribed in drawings, blueprints, or layouts); using a variety of precision
measuring instruments; making necessary adjustments during machining
operation to achieve requisite dimensions to very close tolerances. May be
required to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils, to
recognize when tools need dressing, and to dress tools. In general, the work
of a m achine-tool operator (toolroom) at the skill level called for in this
cla ssifica tio n

req u ires

practice usually
experience.

e xten sive

acquired

know ledge

through

of

m a c h i n e - s h o p and t o o l r o o m

considerable

on-the-job

training an d

For cross-in du stry wage study purposes, this classification does not
include m achine-tool operators (toolroom) employed in tool and die jobbing
shops.

For cross-in du stry wage study purposes, this classification does not
include tool and die m akers who (l) are employed in tool and die jobbing
shops or (2) produce forging dies (die sinkers).
STATIONARY ENGINEER
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of
stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or" electrical) to supply the
establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or a irconditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment such as
steam engines, air co m p ressors, generators, m otors, turbines, ventilating
and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps;
making equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation of machinery,
temperature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise these operations.
Head or chief engineers in establishments employing m ore than one engineer
are excluded.
BOILER TENDER
F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water and
safety valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

Material Movement and Custodial
TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport m ate­
ria ls, merchandise, equipment, or workers between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses, whole­
sale and retail -establishments, or between r e t a i l establishments and
custom ers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck with
or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good
working order. Salesroute and over-th e-road drivers are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size and
type of equipment, as follow s: (T racto r-trailer should be rated on the basis
of trailer capacity.)




TRUCKDRIVER— Continued
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,

light truck (under 1 V tons)
2
medium truck ( 1 V to and including 4 tons)
2
heavy truck (trailer) (over 4 tons)
heavy truck (other than trailer) (over 4 tons)

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is responsible
for incoming shipments of merchandise or other m aterials. Shipping work
involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes, available
means of transportation, and rates; and preparing records of the goods

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued

SHIPPING PACKER— Continued

shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges, and
keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in preparing the
merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves; Verifying or directing
others in verifying the correctness of shipments against bills of lading,
invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged
goods; routing merchandise or m aterials to proper departments; and main­
taining necessary records and files.

shipping containers and may involve one or more of the following: Knowledge
of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate
type and size of container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior
or other m aterial to prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing con­
tainer; and applying labels or entering identifying data on container.
Packers
who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
M A TE R IA L HANDLING LABORER

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follow s:
Shipping clerk
Receiving clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
WAREHOUSEMAN
As directed, perform s a variety of warehousing duties which require
an understanding of the establishm ent's storage plan. Work involves most
of the following: Verifying m aterials (or merchandise) against receiving
documents, noting and reporting discrepancies and obvious damages; routing
m aterials to prescribed storage locations; storing, stacking, or palletizing
m aterials in accordance with prescribed storage methods; rearranging and
t a k i n g inventory of stored m aterials; examining stored m aterials and
reporting deterioration and damage; removing m aterial from storage and
preparing it for shipment. May operate hand or power trucks in performing
warehousing duties.
Exclude workers whose prim ary duties involve shipping and receiv­
ing work (see Shipping and Receiving Clerk and Shipping Packer), order filling
(see Order F ille r), or operating power trucks (see Pow er-Truck Operator).
ORDER FILLER

A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or
other establishment whose duties involve one or m ore of the following:
Loading and unloading various m aterials and merchandise on or from freight
c a r s, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving, or placing
m aterials or merchandise in proper storage location; and transporting
m aterials or merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshore
w orkers, who load and unload ships, are excluded.
POW ER-TRUCK OPERATOR
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered truck
or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a warehouse,
manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
truck,

Forklift operator
Pow er-truck operator (other than forklift)
GUARD AND WATCHMAN
Guard. P erform s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arm s or force where n ecessary. Includes
guards who are stationed at gate and check on identity of em ployees and
other persons entering.

F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, custom ers'
o rd ers, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating item s filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing ord ers, requisition
additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other
related duties.

Watchman. Makes rounds of p rem ises
property against fir e , theft, and illegal entry.

periodically in protecting

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and
w ashroom s, or prem ises of an office, apartment house, or com m ercial
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing flo o rs; removing chips, trash,
and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing metal
fixtures or trim m ings; providing supplies and minor maintenance serv ices;
and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restro o m s. Workers who specialize
in window washing are excluded.

SHIPPING PACKER
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them
in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being dependent
upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the type of container
employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of item s in




For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of pow eras follow s:

24

Area Wage
Surveys
A l i s t o f th e l a t e s t b u l l e t i n s a v a i l a b l e i s p r e s e n t e d b e l o w .
B u lletin s
m a y b e p u r c h a s e d f r o m a n y o f the B L S r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s s h o w n on th e b a c k
c o v e r , o r f r o m the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s , U.S; G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g
O f fi c e , W ash ington, D .C . 20402.
M a k e c h e c k s p a ya b le to S u perin ten den t of
D ocum ents.
A d i r e c t o r y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e s u r v e y s , c o v e r i n g th e y e a r s
1950 t h r o u g h 1 9 7 5 , i s a v a i l a b l e o n r e q u e s t .

A rea
A k r o n , O h i o , D e c . 1976 1_________________________________________
A l b a n y — c h e n e c t a d y — r o y , N . Y . , Sept. 1976 _________________
S
T
A n a h e i m — nta A n a — a r d e n G r o v e ,
Sa
G
C a l i f . , O ct . 1 9 7 6 ___________________ , _____________________________
A t l a n t a , G a . , M a y 1 9 7 7 ___________________________________________
B a l t i m o r e , M d . , A u g . 1 9 7 6 ______________________________________
B i l l i n g s , M o n t . , J u ly 1 9 7 6 _______________________________.________
B i r m i n g h a m , A l a . , M a r . 1 9 7 7 ___________________________________
B o s t o n , M a s s . , A u g . 1976 _______________________________________
B u f f a l o , N . Y . , O ct . 1976 _________________________________________
C a n t o n , O h i o , M a y 1 9 7 6 __________________________________________
C h a t t a n o o g a , T e n n . — a . , Se p t. 1976 ___________________________
G
C h i c a g o , 111., M a y 1976 __________________________________________
C i n c i n n a t i , O h i o —K y . — n d . , M a r . 1 9 7 6 _________________________
I
C l e v e l a n d , O h i o , Sept. 1 9 7 6 ______________________________________
C o l u m b u s , O h i o , O c t . 1 9 7 6 ______________________________________
C o r p u s C h r i s t i , T e x . , J u ly 1 9 7 6 ________________________________
D a l l a s —F o r t W o r t h , T e x . , O ct. 197 6 ___________________________
D a v e n p o r t — o c k I s la n d —M o l i n e , I o w a —
R
111., F e b . 1 9 7 6 _______
D a y t o n , O h i o , D e c . 1976 _________________________________________
D a y to n a B e a c h , F l a . , A u g . 1976 ________________________________
D e n v e r —B o u l d e r , C o l o . , D e c . 1 9 7 6 _____________________________
D e t r o i t , M i c h . , M a r . 1 9 7 7 _______________________________________
F r e s n o , C a l i f . , June 1976 _______________________________________
G a i n e s v i l l e , F l a . , S e p t. 1976 ____________________________________
G r e e n B a y , W i s . , J u ly 1 9 7 6 _____________________________________
G r e e n s b o r o —W i n s t o n - S a l e m — ig h P o i n t ,
H
N . C . , A u g . 1 9 7 6 ___________________________________________________
G r e e n v i l l e — p a r t a n b u r g , S . C . , June 1976 1____________________
S
H a r t f o r d , C o n n . , M a r . 1 9 7 7 ______________________________________
H o u s t o n , T e x . , A p r . 1 9 7 6 ________________________________________
H u n t s v i l l e , A l a . , F e b . 1977 1______ _______ _______________________
I n d i a n a p o l i s , I n d ., O ct . 1 9 7 6 _____________________________________
J a c k s o n , M i s s . , F e b . 1977 1______________________________________
J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l a . , D e c . 1 9 7 6 1__________________________________
K a n s a s C i t y , M o . - K a n s . , Sept. 1976 1 _________________________
L o s A n g e l e s —L o n g B e a c h , C a l i f . , O ct . 1 9 7 6 __________________
L o u i s v i l l e , K y . — n d ., N o v . 1 9 7 6 _________________________________
I




B u lletin n um ber
a nd p r i c e *
1 9 0 0 - 7 6 , 85 c e n t s
1 9 0 0 - 5 9 , 55 c e n t s
1900-67,
1950-17,
1900-52,
1900-39,
1950-8,
1900-53,
1900-70,
1900-28,
1900-57,
1900-32,
1900-7,
1900-62,
1900-68,
1900-41,
1900-63,
1900-25,
1900-78,
1900-45,
1900-73,
1950-13,
1900-29,
1900-54,
1900-37,

7 5 cents
$ 1 .2 0
85 c e n t s
55 c e n t s
85 c e n t s
85 c e n t s
75 c e n t s
55 c e n t s
55 c e n t s
$ 1.05
7 5 cents
95 c e n t s
75 c e n t s
55 cS n ts
85 c e n t s
55 c e n t s
85 c e n t s
45 c e n t s
85 c e n t s
$ 1 .2 0
55 c e n t s
45 c e n t s
55 c e n t s

1900-47,
1900-36,
1950-9,
1900-26,
1950-4,
1900-58,
1950-2,
1900-80,
1900-60,
1900-77,
1900-69,

65 c e n t s
85 c e n t s
80 c e n t s
85 c e n t s
$ 1 .4 0
75 c e n t s
$ 1 .50
85 c e n t s
$ 1.05
85 c e n t s
55 c e n t s

A rea
M e m p h i s , T e n n . — r k . — i s s . , N o v . 1976 1_____________________
A
M
M i a m i , F l a . , O ct. 1 9 7 6 ___________________________________________
M i l w a u k e e , W i s . , A p r . 1977 ____________________________________
M in neapolis—
St. P a u l , M i n n . —W i s . , Jan. 1 9 7 7 ________________
N a s s a u — u f f o l k , N. Y . , June 1976 _______________________________
S
N e w a r k , N . J . , J a n 1977 __________________________________________
N e w O r l e a n s , L a . , Jan. 1 9 7 7 1__________________________________
N e w Y o r k , N . Y . - N . J . , M a y 1 9 7 6 ________________________________
N o r f o l k —V i r g i n i a B e a c h —P o r t s m o u t h , V a . —
N . C . , M a y 1977___________________________________________________
N o r f o l k —V i r g i n i a B e a c h —P o r t s m o u t h and
N e w p o r t N e w s — a m p t o n , V a . — . C . , M a y 1977_______________
H
N
N o r t h e a s t P e n n s y l v a n i a , A u g . 1976 ____________________________
O k l a h o m a C i t y , O k l a . , A u g . 1 9 7 6 _______________________________
O m a h a , N e b r . — o w a , O c t . 1 9 7 6 _________________________________
I
P a t e r s o n —C l i f t o n —P a s s a i c , N . J . , June 1976 ___________________
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . - N . J . , N o v . 1976 1____________________________
P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , Jan. 1977 ______________________________________
P o r t l a n d , M a i n e , D e c . 1 9 7 6 1 ___________________________________
P o r t l a n d , O r e g . —W a s h . , M a y 1976 _____________________________
P o u g h k e e p s i e , N . Y . , June 1976 ________________________________
P o u g h k e e p s i e —K i n g s t o n —N e w b u r g h , N . Y . , June 1 9 7 6 ____ ,___
P r o v i d e n c e —W a r w i c k —P a w t u c k e t , R . I . —
M a s s . , June 197 6 ________________________________________________
R i c h m o n d , V a . , June 197 6 _______________________________________
St. L o u i s , M o . —111., M a r . 1977 ____ __ _______ ___________________
S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f . , D e c . 1976 _________________________________
S a g i n a w , M i c h . , N o v . 1 9 7 6 1_____________________________________
S a lt L a k e C it y —O g d e n , U tah, N o v . 197 6 _______________________
San A n t o n i o , T e x . , M a y 1976 ___________________________________
S a n D i e g o , C a l i f . , N o v . 1 9 7 6 ____________________________________
San F r a n c i s c o —O a k la n d , C a l i f . , M a r . 1976 ____________________
San J o s e , C a l i f . , M a r . 1977 ............. .......................................................
S e a t t l e —E v e r e t t , W a s h . , J a n 1977 1_____________________________
So u th B e n d , I n d ., M a r . 197 6 ____________________________________
S y r a c u s e , N . Y . , J u ly 1 9 7 6 _______________________________________
T o l e d o , O h i o — i c h . , M a y 1 9 7 7 _________________________________
M
T r e n t o n , N . J . , Sept. 1 9 7 6 ________________________________________
W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . — d . —V a . , M a r . 1977 _______________________
M
W i c h i t a , K a n s . , A p r . 1977 1
______________________________________
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , A p r . 1977 ___________________________________
Y o r k , P a . , F e b . 1977 _____________________________________________

B u lletin n u m ber
and p r i c e *
1900-75,
1900-66,
1950-14,
1950-3,
1900-35,
1950-7,
1950-5,
1900-48,

85 c e n t s
75 c e n t s
$ 1 .1 0
$ 1 .6 0
85 c e n t s
$ 1 .60
$ 1 .6 0
$ 1 .0 5

1950-20,

70 c e n ts

1950-21,
1900-43,
1900-42,
1900-61,
1900-38,
1900-64,
1950-1,
1900-72,
1900-51,
1900-50,
1900-55,

70 c e n ts
65 c e n t s
55 c e n t s
55 c e n t s
55 c e n t s
$ 1 .1 0
$ 1.50
85 c e n t s
75 c e n t s
45 c e n t s
55 c e n t s

1900-31,
1900-34,
1950-10,
1900-71,
1900-74,
1900-65,
1900-23,
1900-79,
1900-9,
1950-19,
1950-12,
1900-5,
1900-44,
1950-18,
1900-56,
1950-11,
1950-16,
1950-15,
1950-6,

75 c e n t s
65 c e n t s
$ 1 .2 0
55 c e n t s
75 c e n t s
55 c e n t s
65 c e n t s
55 c e n t s
95 c e n t s
$1 .00
$ 1.20
55 c e n t s
55 c e n t s
80 c e n ts
55 c e n t s
$ 1 .2 0
$1.10
70 c e n t s
$ 1 .1 0

* Prices are determined by the Government Printing Office and are subject to change.
1 Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212

Postage and Fees Paid
U.S. Department of Labor
Third Class Mail

Official Business
Penalty for private use, $300

Lab-441

Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices
Region I

Region tl

Region 11
1

Region IV

1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (Area C ode617)

Suite 3400
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New York, N Y. 10036
Phone: 399-5406 (A reaC o de212)

3535 Market Street,
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone:596-1154 (Area Code 215)

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Phone :881-4418 (Area Code 404)

Connecticut
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New Jersey
New York
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Alabama
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M ississippi
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Region V

Region VI

Regions VII and VIII

Regions IX and X

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Phone. 353-1880 (A reaC o de312)

Second Floor
555 G riffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)

Federal O ffice Building
911 W alnut St., 15th Floor
Kansas City, Mo 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (A reaC o de816)

450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone:556-4678 (Area Code 415)

Arkansas
Louisiana
New Mexico
Oklahoma
Texas

VII
Iowa
Kansas
M issouri
Nebraska

IX
Arizona
California
Hawaii
Nevada

Illinois
Indiana
Michigan
Minnesota
Ohio
Wisconsin




VIII
Colorado
Montana
North Dakota
South Dakota
Utah
Wyoming

X
Alaska
Idaho
Oregon
W ashington


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102