View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

/< /

Area Wage Survey
Hartford, Connecticut, Metropolitan Area, March 1976
Bulletin 1900-14
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics







Preface
T h is b u lle t in p r o v i d e s r e s u l t s o f a M a r c h
1976 s u r v e y o f o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s in th e H a r t fo r d ,
C o n n e c t ic u t , S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a t is t ic a l A r e a
(2 2 c o m m u n it ie s in H a r t fo r d C o u n ty ; 1 in L it c h f ie ld
C o u n ty ; 3 in M id d le s e x C ou n ty; 1 in N ew L o n d o n
C o u n ty ; a n d 10 in T o lla n d C o u n ty ).
The su rv e y w as
m a d e a s p a r t o f the B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s '
a n n u a l a r e a w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m , w h ic h is d e s ig n e d
to y i e l d da ta f o r in d iv id u a l m e t r o p o l it a n a r e a s a s
w e l l as. n a t io n a l and r e g i o n a l e s t im a t e s f o r a l l
S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a t is t ic a l A r e a s in th e U n ited
S ta te s , e x c lu d in g A la s k a and H a w a ii.
A m a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n in the a r e a w a g e
s u r v e y p r o g r a m is the n e e d to d e s c r i b e the l e v e l and
m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s in a v a r i e t y o f l a b o r m a r k e t s ,
th r o u g h the a n a ly s is o f (1 ) th e l e v e l and d is t r ib u t io n
o f w a g e s b y o c c u p a t io n , a nd (2) th e m o v e m e n t o f
w a g e s b y o c c u p a t io n a l c a t e g o r y a nd s k i l l l e v e l .
The
p r o g r a m d e v e lo p s in fo r m a t io n th a t m a y b e u s e d f o r
m a n y p u r p o s e s , in c lu d in g w a g e a nd s a l a r y a d m in ­
i s t r a t i o n , c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a in in g , and a s s i s t a n c e in
d e t e r m in in g p la n t lo c a t io n .
S u rvey re s u lts a ls o a re
u s e d b y the U .S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r to m a k e
w a g e d e t e r m in a t io n s u n d e r the S e r v i c e C o n t r a c t A c t
o f 19 6 5.
C u r r e n t ly , 84 a r e a s a r e in c lu d e d in th e p r o ­
gram .
(S e e l i s t o f a r e a s on in s i d e b a c k c o v e r . )
In
e a c h a r e a , o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s da ta a r e c o l l e c t e d

a n n u a lly .
I n fo r m a t io n o n e s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s
a n d s u p p le m e n t a r y w a g e b e n e f it s is o b ta in e d e v e r y
th ir d y e a r .
E a c h y e a r a f t e r a l l in d iv id u a l a r e a w a g e
s u r v e y s h av e b e e n c o m p le t e d , tw o s u m m a r y b u lle t in s
a r e is s u e d .
T h e f i r s t b r in g s t o g e t h e r d a ta f o r e a c h
m e t r o p o l it a n a r e a s u r v e y e d ; the s e c o n d p r e s e n t s
n a t io n a l and r e g i o n a l e s t im a t e s , p r o j e c t e d f r o m in d i­
v id u a l m e t r o p o l it a n a r e a da ta .
T h e H a r t f o r d s u r v e y w a s c o n d u c t e d b y th e
B u r e a u 's r e g i o n a l o f f i c e in B o s t o n , u n d e r th e g e n e r a l
d i r e c t i o n o f P a u l V . M u lk e r n , A s s i s t a n t R e g io n a l
C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r O p e r a t io n s . T h e s u r v e y c o u ld n o t
h a v e b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d w ith o u t the c o o p e r a t i o n o f
th e m a n y f i r m s w h o s e w a g e and s a l a r y da ta p r o v id e d
the b a s i s f o r the s t a t i s t i c a l in fo r m a t io n in th is b u l­
le t in .
T h e B u r e a u w is h e s to e x p r e s s s i n c e r e a p ­
p r e c i a t i o n f o r th e c o o p e r a t i o n r e c e i v e d .

Note:
A l s o a v a ila b le f o r th e H a r t f o r d a r e a a r e
l is t i n g s o f u n io n w a g e r a t e s f o r s e v e n s e l e c t e d b u i l d ­
in g t r a d e s .
F r e e c o p i e s o f t h e s e a r e a v a ila b le f r o m
th e B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l o f f i c e s .
(S e e b a c k c o v e r f o r
a d d r e s s e s .)

Bulletin 1900-14

A rea W age Survey:

July 1976

Hartford, Connecticut,
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, W. J. Usery, Jr., Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS, Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

M etropolitan A rea
M arch 1976

Contents
I n t r o d u c t i o n ___________________________________________

Page
2

Page
A ppendix A .
A pp end ix B.

S c o p e and m e t h o d o f s u r v e y _________
O c c u p a t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s ___________

11
14

T ables:
A.

E arnings:
A - l . W eek ly earn ings o f o ffic e w o r k e r s ...
3
A -2 . W eek ly earn ings o f p r o fe s s io n a l
and t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s _______________
5
A - 3 . A v e r a g e w e e k ly earn ings o f o f fi c e ,
p r o f e s s i o n a l , and t e c h n i c a l
w o r k e r s , b y s e x ______________________
6
A - 4 . H ou rly earnings o f m a in ten a n ce,
t o o l r o o m , and p o w e r p l a n t
w o r k e r s _________________________________
7
A - 5 . H ou rly earnings o f m a te r ia l
m o v e m e n t and c u s t o d i a l
w o r k e r s _________________________________
8
A - 6 . A v e r a g e h o u rly earn ings o f
m ain ten ance, t o o lr o o m , p o w e r p la n t , m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t , and
c u s t o d i a l w o r k e r s , b y s e x ___________
9
A - 7 . P e r c e n t i n c r e a s e s in a v e r a g e
h ou rly earn ings fo r s e le c te d
o ccu p a tion a l g r o u p s , adjusted
f o r e m p l o y m e n t s h i f t s _______________ 10




1

For sale by the Superintendent o f Documents, U.S. Government Printing
O ffice, Washington, D. C. 20402, GPO Bookstores, or BLS Regional
Offices listed on back cover. Price 55 cents.
Make checks payable to
Superintendent o f Documents.




Introduction
( c ) m a i n t e n a n c e , t o o l r o o m , and p o w e r p l a n t , and (d)
m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t and c u s t o d i a l .
In th e 31 l a r g e s t
s u r v e y a r e a s , ta b le s A - l a th rou gh A - 6 a p r o v id e
s i m i l a r data f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g 500 w o r k ­
ers or m ore.

T h is a r e a i s 1 o f 84 in w h i c h th e U.S.
D epa rtm en t of L a b o r 's B ureau of L a b or Statistics
c o n d u c t s s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s and r e ­
lated ben efits.
In th is a r e a , da ta w e r e o b t a i n e d b y
a com bin a tion of p e r s o n a l vis it, m a il q u estion n a ire,
and teleph on e in te rv ie w .
R epresen ta tive e s ta b lis h ­
m e n t s w it h in s i x b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s w e r e c o n ­
tacted:
M anufacturing; tran sporta tion , c o m m u n ic a ­
ti o n ,
and o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s ; w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ;
r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ;
and s e r v ic e s .
M a jo r in d u stry grou ps e x c lu d e d f r o m
these
s t u d i e s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a t i o n s and the
c o n s t r u c t i o n and e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s .
E sta b lish ­
m e n t s h a v in g f e w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f
w o r k e r s a r e om itted b e ca u se of in su fficien t e m p lo y ­
m e n t in th e o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d ie d .
S eparate tabu la­
t i o n s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r e a c h o f the b r o a d i n d u s t r y
d i v i s i o n s w h ic h m e e t p u b l i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a .

T a b l e A - 7 p r o v i d e s p e r c e n t c h a n g e s in a v ­
e r a g e h ourly ea rn in gs o f o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s ,
e l e c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s i n g
w o r k e r s , in du stria l
nurses,
s k ille d m ain ten a n ce tr a d e s w o r k e r s ,
and
u n s k i l l e d p la n t w o r k e r s .
W h e r e p o s s i b l e , da ta a r e
p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l i n d u s t r i e s , m a n u f a c t u r i n g , and
n onm an ufacturin g.
T h is ta b l e p r o v i d e s a m e a s u r e o f
w a g e t r e n d s a f t e r e l i m i n a t i o n o f c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e
ea rn in g s c a u se d by e m p lo y m e n t shifts am on g e s t a b ­
lish m e n ts as w e ll as tu rn o v e r of e sta b lish m en ts in ­
c l u d e d in s u r v e y s a m p l e s .
F o r fu rth er details, see
app en d ix A .
A pp end ixes

A - s e r i e s tables
A p p e n d i x A d e s c r i b e s the m e t h o d s a n d c o n ­
c e p t s u s e d in the a r e a w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m and
p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .

T a b le s A - 1 th rou gh A - 6 p r o v id e e s tim a te s
o f s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly o r h o u r ly earn ings f o r w o r k ­
e r s in o c c u p a t i o n s c o m m o n t o a v a r i e t y o f m a n u ­
f a c t u r i n g and n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s .
O ccupa­
t i o n s w e r e s e l e c t e d f r o m the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s :
(a) O f f i c e c l e r i c a l , (b) p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l ,

A pp end ix B p r o v id e s job d e s c r ip tio n s u sed
b y B u r e a u f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s to c l a s s i f y w o r k e r s b y
occu pation.

2

A.

Earnings

Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Hartford, Conn., March 1976
Weekly earnings
(standard)
Number

Occupation and industry division

of

1

N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of—
s

$

95

weekly
Median

(standard)

*

Middle ranged

100

S

$

$

105

no

J
115

$

120

S

i

$

130

140

150

5

$

160

1 7u

5

180

s

$

190

200

4

210

230

%

*

4

$

220

2h 0

250

Under and
$
under

260

and

95

105

no

115

120

130

1

100

ir9

140

150

170

180

190

204

179

200

. 2111

220

230

240

17

17
54

31
33

11

160

15
5

12

250

260

over

ALL WORKERS
$
*5}

1 .6 1 7

175.00
178.00
1 74.00

lr

$
^ *nn
« s?

3L

1A K I L j f

vLM j J

A

27

i t v K t 1AK 1L j t

vLAbb

-----------------------------------------

L L A jb

00

7

v

*

431

3 7 .0

879

2 1 4.50
196.50
174.00

180

L
J

LLAbb

1 9 0 .0 0 1 8 0 .0 0 -

2 4 2 .0 0
2 1 2 .5 0

b l L r iU w K A r M L K j^

b L I i I UK

1 4 0 .0 0 -

1 6 4.00

469
104

3 7 .5

1 36.00

133.00

1 4 6 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 -

187.50
1 41.00

150*00

1 4 3 .0 0 1 4 3 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 -

2 0 3 .5 0
20 7 .5 0
1 62.50

354

j

^

50

J

3 6.5

r ILl

vLtH r>Jf

LLAbb

„„

-

1
1

-

i
i

127100

-

-

2

44

86

16
55

16
58

107
29
78

164
27
77

63
19
44

55
15
40

13

23

38

^6

78

13/

6

87

106

31

35

16

1

104

2

16

117*00

33
30

u

w

Q

TP
f?

113
n

LJ
. .j

26

10

25

14

20
19

23
18

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10

8

15

2

”

77

1
46

27

26
26

-

8

g

1U

59

59

22

22

52

It
53

^9

3
39

J

12

54

42

67

39

109

8

113.0 1 -1 5 6 .5 0

50

10

32

120.0 0 -1 4 1 .0 0

C
A

OA

-

g

13K0O

-

-

10

* 50

117

487

*

-

*

152*00
152.00

78

D

-

1 5 2 .0 0

153

vLAOd

-

-

1

152.00

-v o

1T r 1 3 1 b f

*
-

00

3 7 .0

"

102

3

1 8 7.50
205 .0 0

459

-----------------------------------------

104

i

1 5 6 .0 0 1 5 8 .0 0 -

193.50

-

N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG

32

* 5 A 4- 3 • 0 0

35
b L v'* L 1AA 1 L j i

1 5 4 .00-190.00

50

O

N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG
b t w n t 1A * > I L b i

^

^

^0

226

39

$

1
32

17

D

i

122*00

43

l(JjtbU

i

i

1 i b * UU

19

122.50
1 44.00

i

76

1 0 4 .00-115.50

nLbb^>’ wLKj

39

20

41

12

10

1 1 5 .0 0 -1 6 2 .0 0
i

J

20
1 2 0 .0 0 SWITCHBOARD O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T S -

188
88

*
**

***

W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o l lo w s :
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o l l o w s :
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o l lo w s :

3 9 .0

1 42.00

1 4 0.00

1 4 9.00

1 2 5 .0 0 153.50
1 3 1 .5 0 -1 5 4 .0 0

-

2

5

1
1

50
16

34
24

38

11

29

23

n
g

5 a t $ 2 7 0 t o $ 2 8 0 ; and 4 at $ 2 8 0 t o $ 2 9 0 .
1 a t $ 2 6 0 t o $ 2 7 0 ; 2 at $ 2 7 0 t o $ 2 8 0 ; 3 at $ 2 8 0 t o $ 2 9 0 ; 2 at $ 2 9 0 to $ 3 0 0 ; and 2 at $ 3 0 0 to $ 3 1 0 .
4 a t $ 2 6 0 t o $ 2 7 0 ; 8 at $ 2 7 0 t o $ 2 8 0 ; and 2 at $ 2 8 0 t o $ 2 9 0 .

See fo o t n o t e s a t en d o f t a b le s .




1

3

7

i

1

Table A-1. W e e k ly earnings of office w orkers in H artfo rd , C onn., M arch 1 9 7 6 — Continued
Weekly earnings 1
(standard)______

N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of—
S

Average
weekly

*

$

$

S

95

100

105

11 0

115

120

130

190

150

160

170

180

190

200

$210

220

*230

$ 240

250

$ 260

100

O ccupation and in d ustry d ivision

105

11 0

115

120

130

190

150

160

170

180

19Q

200

210

220

230

290

250

260

over

14
14

4
4

31
3
28

9
9

15

15
5

37

24
4

3
3

.
-

-

_
-

_
-

-

36
4
32

-

13

-

-

1

36
5
31

74
4
70

109

211
29
182

189
84
105

(standard)

ALL WORKERS—
CONTI NUED

S

211

S

ORDER CLERKS --------------MANUFACTURING —
NONMANUFACTURING

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9.5

1 5 7 . 5C
1 62.00
1 5 6 . OC

16 0 .0 0

56
155

1 6 9.50
1 60.00

1 3 2 .50-180.00
1 9 9 .0 0 1 71.00
122. 0 0 1 60.00

ACCOUNTING C L E R K S . C LA S S A
MANUFACTURING ---------------------NUNMANUFACTURING ---------------

636
188
998

3 8 .5
3 9 .5
3 8.0

1 69.00
1 7 6.00
1 5 9.00

1 60.00
1 75.00
1 53.50

1 9 5 .0 0 1 6 2 .0 0 1 9 1 .0 0 -

ACCOUNTING C L E R K S . C LA S S 8
MANUFACTURING ----------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------

869
216

3 9 .0
9 0 .0
3 9 .0

126.50
138.50
1 22.50

126.00
135.00

1 2 2 .0 0

1 1 2 .50-136.00
1 3 0 .0 0 1 51.00
1 1 0 .0 0 1 30.00

29

3 9 .0

179.50

16 0 .0 0

1 6 0 .0 0 -1 9 a .50

2

95

15 3 .5 0
1 63.00

1 90.00
17 2 .5 0

1 3 9 .0 0 1 9 0 .0 0 -

6

BOOKKE EPI NG- MA CH INE O PE R A T O R S .
C LA SS A ---------------------------------------------------BIL LING-MACHIN E b ILLE RS
MANUFACTURING ---------------

668

S

1

1

1

-

-

-

1

1

1

1

1 79.00
1 91.00
170.00

-

3

32

-

-

3

32

58
1
57

64
2
62

1

92
11
81

44
2
42

1 79.50
1 87.00

2b

9 0 .0
9 0 .0

PAYR OLL C LERKS --------------MANUFACTURING ---------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -■
PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S

151
81
70
25

3 9 .5
9 0 .0
3 8 .5
9 0.0

1 59.00
1 69.00
1 53.50
17 4 .0 0

1 59.00
17 0 .0 0
1 50.00
160.00

1 4 9 .0 0 175.00
1 9 7 .0u -181.00
1 3 8 .0 0 169.5Q
1 5 0 .0 0 1 87.00

KEYPUNCH O P E R A T O R S . C L A SS A
MANUFACTURING ------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------

937
136
301

3 8 .5
4 0 .0
3 7.5

15 1 .5 0
1 58.00
1 49.00

1 50.00
1 63.00
147.00

1 3 9 .0 0 1 4 8 .0 0 1 3 6 .0 0 -

1 6 3.50
1 7 0.50
1 5 9.50

KEYPUNCH O P E R A T O R S . C L A SS B
MANUFACTURING ------------------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------

453
97
356

3 7.5
3 9.5
3 7 .0

1 30.00
1 36.00
1 28.50

1 28.00
133.00
1 2 7.00

1 2 1 .0 0 1 2 4 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 -

1 3 6.00
1 4 6.00
1 3b.00

2

2

3

-

2

3

2

11

17

29

2

11

15

28

.
.
See footnotes at end of tables.




-

1

4

2

1

4

2
2
1

34
5
29

7
3
4

2

19
7

10

21
16

99

89
27
62

82
33
49

82
21
61

79
50
29

15
8
7

d
4
<
4

4
3
1

3
1
2

1

1
1

5

10

2

20
9u
30

60

34
27
7

12

-

62

15

40

3

22

12

27
14
13

*
9
4
5

-

-

2

2

2

1

-

-

-

-

2

2

2

1

•
•

-

*

_
.

-

.
-

-

-

*

-

_

10

-

5

9
9

9
9

2
2

5
-

9

8

12

26

23

15

2a

29
25
4
4

1
1

2

3

-

2
2

3
3

4

11

3
9

16
10

31
7
24

84
13
71

100

147
33
114

119
23
96

47
9
38

19
81

6

17

10

8

9

15
9

10

5
5

74
25
49

81
37
44

51
33
16

29
18

14
3

11

A
3

11

1

1

-

1

1

3

10

Table A -2 . W e e k ly earnings of professional and technical w orkers in H artfo rd , C onn., M arch 1976
Weekly earnings
(standard)

$

Number
of
workeis

Occupation and industry division

1

weekly
h oun1
(standard)

Mean 2

Median 2

M iddle range2

S

130
Unde and
S
under
130
140

140

s

$
150

N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of—
S
s
S
$
S
S
$
$
S
$
$
240
190
280
160
180
200
210
250
170
220 230
260

s

$
300

$
320

s

i

340

360

380
and

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

240

250

260

280

300

320

340

29

360

30

380 over

ALL WORKERS

t,.

CO MPUTER SY ST EM S ANALYSTS

$

321.50-370.50

JJ0»j O

6

25

16

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS
1

1

1

209*00 <.94,00
CO MPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS
(B US IN ES S) . CLASS C ------------------------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG ----------------CO MPUTER P R O G RA MM ER S

CO MPUTER PR OG RA MM ER S (BUSINESS),
CLASS B -------------------------------

316
308

36.5 253.00 252.50 234.50-272.30
36.5 253.00 252.50 234.50-272.50

214
41

(BUSINESS)*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

^ nnl*"n
■V0.0 J01 *-»0 295^50

428

-

-

-

-

180.00

4
4

1
1

16
16

1 4 4. 00 40.0 226.00 227.50 2 1 6. 00 -

19
32

42

13

23

30

1

46

2

3

73

41
38

4b
44

44
43

41
39

67
67

41
39

14
14

5
5

_

-

-

52

62

48

14

10

6

3

_

i
i

_

-

-

.

-

40.0 227.50 223.00 200.00-248.50
40.0
■'10.00

-

-

-

-

-

i
i

11

23

E L EC TR ON IC S TECHNICIANS, c l a s s c -

26

40.0 202.50 202.00 186.00-22d.00

-

-

-

2

2

2

1

6

-

-

-

214.50 217.00 19 2. 00 -2 32 .5u

-

-

1

_
-

31 at $ 380 to $400; 14 at $4 00 to $420; and 2 at $4 20 to $440.

5

59

34

42

56

30

40

16

15

*

i
i

4

-

20
14

24
16

26
22

2

7
1

20
lr6

26
22

-

-

6

-

3

8

10
4

6

18
15

15

27

39

5?

-

2

17
15

16

n
3

4u

32

19
20

-

"

16
14

3

31
29

7

13

32
32

13

4

-

9

-

-

-

-

3

1

3

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8

See footnotes at end of tables.

7b
11
63
lo

15

2i

155




80
67

12

24
24

18

3

EL EC TR ON IC S TECHNICIANS, CLASS B-

* W o r k e r s we r e distributed as follows:

115

1

-

'00

48

48
40
8

239.00

Oft

53
42

17

40.0 254.50 254.00 21 6.50-281.00
-.0.0 <-47. j O c.4^.00

a-

3
3

32

118
79

technicians, class

35

2o
33

38

49

29
22

170.50

164

3

52
1
13

236.00
230.00 227.30 20 6.00-248.50
electronics

10
9

72

1 6 4. 00 195.00
174.00217.00
162.50-195,00

96
DRAFTERS, CLASS B --------------- ----

-

19

182.00 180.00

11

8

37.5 234.50 231.00 21 9.00-249.00
20 4.00-290.00
219.00-246.00
233.00

37.5 181.00

in

1

211.50

272

10

5

A

1

Table A -3 . A verage w e e k ly earnings of office, professional, and technical w o rkers, by sex,
in H a rtfo rd , C onn., M a rc h 1976
A verage
(m ean 2 )

Sex,

3

occupation, and industry division

OFFI CE

O CC UPA TI ONS

-

Number
of

Weekly
hours 1
standard)

Average
(m ean2 )

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division

Number
of

Weekly
hours 1
[standard)

$

P RO F E S S I O N A L
O CC UP AT I ONS -

ML o j L i t u u K j
71

3 7 .0

1 2 6.00

122
119

' 0 0
9 0 .0

83
39
99

3 9 .0
9 0 .0

$
115.5°
1 1 9 .j 0

CI.I

1 6 3.50

180.00
1 7 7.00
101. j O

3 0 .^

162.50

o ,,T -r r u n « .r * n

« n

C

rs . i

0

Weekly
hours 1
standard)

AND TE CHNI CA L
MEN— CONTINUED
$
236.00
2 9 6.50
■-39. j 0

_ .
rtr . L - n . T « r ,

r-x

« -r T

„ -r- r'

192.00
193.50

123.00
117.50

09

30* ^

...

_____

-.r-r-

,r.

r.
*

»T

1 8 1.00
18 1.00

t-OG

.
199.00
160.00

53

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

.

190.00

97
39

3 8 .0

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

O F F I C E O CC UPA TI ONS WOMEN— CONTINUED

MEN

95
29

Average
(m ean 2 )
Number
of
workers

15 5.00

1 3 3 . ->0

OFFICE

OC C UP AT I ONS

-

WOMEN
A vUU 1 lNO bL.t.i'i'os
v
m
2.20 0
583
1.617
59
83
27

529
93
931

3
9
3
3

8
0
7
9

.0
.0
.0
.5

175.00
1 7 8.00
179.00
2 1 9.50

3 8 .0
9 0 .0

223.00
210.00
t-,-9. j 0

3 7 .5
9 0 .0
3 7 .0

199.50
219.50

vLA
jj

M

——

3 8 .0

———

38
90
37
39

670
211

3 8 .0
9 0 .0

152.00
151.50

3 7 .0

126.50
1 3 9.00

E LE C TR O NI C S

TECHNICIANS

—

— —

9 0 ,0

I n g - m a c h INt

electron ics

te c h n ic ia n s

,

class

a-

118

39« 0

174.50

electron ics

tech n ician s

,

class

b-

155

26

b il l

9 0 .0
9 0 .0

153.50
1 6 3.00

63

9 0 .0
3 8 .5

259.50

O P ER A TO RS .

b il l e r s

— — — — ——
— —

' A

158.50
nonmanufacturing

U* LHA1 Ur w f

n o n m a n u f ACTURIn G

—

——— ——

OLA j
j

M

—

939

— — — — — — — —
— — — — — — —

3 9 .5
3 7 .5

3 7 .5

9oto

158.00
1 9 8.50

1 7 9.50
1 5 3.50

3 7 .0

P RO FE S S I O N A L

COMPUTER
82
78

3 7 .0
3 7 .0

1' 9

353

38 0
3 6 .5

481

38

133

261

3 7 .0

169
198

3 7 .5
3 7 .5
3 7 .0
3 7 .0

COMPUTER

S YSTEMS

ANA LY STS
48

79

COMPUTER SYSTEMS A NALYSTS
( B U S I N E S S ) * C LA S S C —
—
—
NUN m a n u f a c t u r i n g ——
—
—

——
— —

A NALYSTS

12 2.00

251
228

AMD TE CHNI CA L

1 3 8.50

569

SYSTEMS

AND TE CH NI CA L

13 0.00
13 6.00

16 7.50
1 3 6.00

299
81

PROFESSIONAL
151.00

3 8 * j>

953

469
109

111.00
109.50

399.00

1 3 9.00

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS

(B U S IN E S S)♦

112

230.00
104

\, L A j j

A

00

COMPUTER S YSTEMS

0

271

1 3 1.00

3 7 .5
3 7 .0

292.00
291.50

v *- A ^ ^

.3

COMPUTER S YSTEMS

C LA S S

A -------------------

3 8 .0

2 0 2.00

3 8 .5

184*50

27

A NALYSTS
3 6 .5

«-09

36. j

256.50
2J6.00

168

3 8 .0
9 0 .0

293.50
300.00

66

COMPUTER O PE R A T O R S ,
COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS

C LA S S

C ---------- --------

3 8 .0

16 0.00

3 9 ,0

213*50

(B U S IN E S S),
37

See fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le s .




COMPUTER O P E R A T O R S ,

"0

1 1 7.00

219
wLLKP' O f

229.50

ANA LY STS
213

i 1L L

2 2 7.50

152.00

.0
1 7 9.00
.0
182.50
.0
171.00
. ^

l\L PUNL.M
T

IT* i o 1 j j

2 3 6.00

Ct J

122.50

B OOKKEEPI NG- MACHI NE
C LA SS A

1 9 6.50

879
252
627

226.50

161.50
1 7 6.00
156.00

3 9 .0
4 0 •0

nonmanufacturing

6

R E G I S T ER E D

INDUSTRIAL

NURSES —

—

67
43

Table A -4 .

H ourly earnings of m a in te n an ce, toolroom , and p o w erp lan t w orkers in H artfo rd , C onn., M arch 1976
Hourly earnings

4

N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of---$
*
$
$
4
*
i
$
$
X
$
$
4
$
$
%
$
s
4
4
4* 10 4.20 4.30 4.40 4.50 4.60 4.70 4.80 4 .90 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.6o 6.00 6.20 6.40 6.60 6.80 7.00 7.20 7.40
Un de r and
4

Occupation and industry division
workers

M ean 2

Median *

Middle range

*

4. 13

4*20 4.30 4.40 4.50 4.60 4.70 4.80 4.90 5 .00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6.40 6.60 6.80 7.00 7 .20 7*40 over

ALL WORKERS
MA INTENANCE CA RP EN TE RS ----------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG ---------------

122
36

e l e c t r i c i a n s --------M A N U FA CT UR IN G -----------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ---------------

283
232
51

maintenance

6.17
5.72

6.42
5.49

$
$
5.55- 6.66
5.03- 6.28

2
2

~

6.12
6.14
6*06

6.01
6.08
5.81

5.59- 6.92
5.58- 6.92
5.63- 6.43

3
3

-

_

-

-

-

-

$

$

2
2

-

-

*

*

-

10
10

6

9
2

2
i

10
3

11
2

3
3

21
-

34
-

-

i

-

4
4

14
13
1

6
6
“

24
20
4

30
18
12

33
26
7

22
21
1

19
12
7

7
6
1

16
15
1

25
25
-

45
43
2

3

2

3

3

e

-

4

18

11

-

1

-

-

-

3
3

30
30

31
29

11
11

19
19

-

1
1

4
4

24
16

21
21

14
14

47
31

17
17

15
7

4
2

20
20

25
24

5
3
2

29
4
25
3

10
1
9
8

i
4

20

-

-

10

14
12
2

-

17
1
16
8

12
8
4

J

20
12

-

-

1
1

1
1

2
2

4
4
-

-

1

1

2

-

3
3

“

*

2
2

1
1

MA IN TE NA NC E p a i n t e r s --------------

63

5.77

6.09

5.29- 6.30

4

-

-

i

-

-

machinists

----------MA NU FA CT UR IN G -------------------

142
140

5.39
5.36

5.55
5.55

4.55- 5.65
4.55- 5.68

-

-

_

-

-

-

7
7

33
33

MA INTENANCE MECH AN IC S (MACHINERY)
MA NU FA CT UR IN G -------------------

203
167

5.74
5.74

5.77
5.77

5.24- 6.13
5.24- 6.42

-

lo

-

-

-

MA INTENANCE MECHANICS
(MOTOR VEHICLES) ----------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ------------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------P U BL IC UTIL IT IE S -------------

216
63
153
89

6.34
6.35
6.34
6.73

6.25
6.66
6.22
7.04

5.525.135.526.00-

MA IN TE NA NC E TRADES HE LP ER S -----MA NU FA CT UR IN G -------------------

135
131

4.94
4.94

5.19
5.19

4.56- 5.19
4.64- 5.19

MA CH IN E- TO OL OPER AT OR S (TOOLROOM)
MA NU FA CT UR IN G -------------------

204
203

S.62
S.61

6.00
6.06

5.00- 6.12
5.00- 6.12

TOOL AND DIE MA KE RS --------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G -------------------

626
626

6.0b
6.06

5.87
5.87

45
27

6.03
5.94

6.04
6.04

5.47- 6.55
5.40“ 6.55

*

_
*

BOILER TENDERS --------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ------------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ---------------

88
44
44

5.12
4.79
5.45

5.26
4.56
5.33

4. 56 - 5.73
4.35- 5.26
5.02- 5.78

6

-

9
9

-

11
10
1

5.40- 6.55
5.40- 6.55

STATIONARY ENGI NE ER S -------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G -------------------

-

maintenance

*
**
***

7.33
7.60
7.25
7.33

-

10

”

_

2
2

“

-

_

-

-

-

1

_

*

*

-

10
10
10

6
6
b

.

3
3

3
3

5
5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
2

_
-

5
4

-

-

12
12

-

1
1

61
61

22
22

10
10

3
3

10
10

“

•4
4

10
10

-

“

8
B

16
16

4
4

-

23
23

14
13

53
53

37
37

12
12

-

-

-

55
55

69
89

33
33

7c
76

49
49

16
16

81
81

25
25

12
12

6
8

49
49

1

9
6

2
2

_

-

5
2

_

-

82
82

-

-

-

-

4
4

15
15

“

lo
10

-

5
3
13
4
*9

-

-

1

5
2
3

b

10

.
“

*

“

*

.
“

1
1

1
“

“

3
1

6
5

6
5

2
1

1
-

7
4

-

11
10
1

3
1
2

6
6

5
3
2

-

3

1
1

i
i

4
4

17
8
9

6
2
4

13
5
8

6
3
3

-

3

See footnotes at end of tables.

7

26 ***6
3
20
16
13

26
26

i

at $7.80 to $8; 2 at $ 8 to $8.20; and 1 at $8.40 to $ 8.60.
fo l l o w s
W o r k e r s we r e distributed as follows : 3 at $ 7 .4 0 to $7.60; 2 at $7.60 to $7.80;
W o r k e r s we r e distributed as follows: 12 at $7.40 to $7.60; 16
at $7.60 to $7.80; and 8 at $7.80 to $8.
W o r k e r s we r e distributed as follows: 4 at $3.60 to $3.70; and 2 at $3.80 to $3.90.




1

1
1

4
.

4

_

1

1

1

1

1

51
51

”
*

“

T ab le A -5 .

H ourly earnings of m aterial m ovem ent and custodial w o rkers in H artfo rd , C onn., M arch 1976
N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
S
%
5
$
£
$
I
S
$
$
”5--$
*
$
$
S
$
$
S
$
$
$
2.20 2*40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3 .80 3 .A0 3 .60 3 .80 A ,00 A 20 A. AO A . 60 4 ,80 5 .00 5.20 5.40 5.60 b.80 6.00 6 .20 6.60 7.00

Number

Occupation and industry division
workers

M ean 2

M edian2

Middle range

^

and
under

and

2.A0 2.b0 2.80 3.00 3.20 3 ,A0 3 .60 3 .80 4 .00 A ,20 4 ,Ap A . 60 A . 80 5 ,(}0 5 •20 5 . AO 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6 .60 7.00
ALL WORKERS
1*365

$

$

1,038

547

87

J. ^

$
$
A . 50- 6.00
^*63

2

3.25- A . 20

^

8A

P*
(

V ?

11

2

387
75
31c.

OQ

4 * 7rt
/."in
4.J8

* Q7
, * ,3
6*18

->•25

' • 08

c-

^r-

103

1

1'
f
1'

3

1

10
1

3
3

,^

c -r
- .e "np
r
c'ncr
5 . 2 j.

3_.9

7

20j

}n
1r

*

7

7

'
_
'

•H8
•

if

3'

ni
*

A7

5
3

21

*
"

30

J
:
160

30

TR UCKDRIVERS* HEAVY TRUCK
32
8
2A

1

8

1A6

14
1A6

TR UCKDRIVERS, HEAVY TRUCK
tl
f " io
5 43

*

J * ^R
*
^ *60

12

”

4*^5

12

2
2

I

°

^*76
jFIlr ' Ai'IO A™u KLv,t. 1 V 1

10

*
A
'

60
16

n

49

A. A3

A . 02- a I36
3.<_7 A . 60

A^IO

' 16
a I 16

3 T*' " 00
A . 10- A.2A

£

i

2

Id
1

_jr1A* • ANu * Mi\C

90
23

/ on
/CO
3 71

•11
-r
,-

r
-

A9

3*^

3*30

.

«-• i->

3.02
3.97

2.75

2*53- 3.25

77

8

3

A30

7A
7A

277

189

525

103

2A2

210 at $ 7 to $7.40; and 26 at $7.40 to $7.80.

S e e fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le s .

8

86

12
8

81
61

25

51

96

151
151

80
80

09
70

58
58

8

3

A7

59

72

15

11

”
“

“
”

"

58

10

2A

10
83

“

“

*
*

”
”

“

“

“

2A

“

"

“

58

JJ

1^
A1

~
“
”

96

10

95
9A
1

13

1

10

29

37

8

18

99

f 7

Rfl
OO

"
*

18

21
21

56
A0

2

70

1A
1A

}

3

*^
* W o r k e r s we r e distributed as follows:

3

3
3

0

“
“
“

70

i

'"*13

C_.J1

15

”
”

10

8

66

n
1*795

12

«7c

^*6’
’

JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEA NE RS ---

aj
2i.

A

T Afl
3*88
957




12
10
1

2
4.

30
12

33
i

_^
_

30

10

LLLI'm J
-r.c.0

31

10

30

“

“




Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom.
powerplant, material movement, and custodial workers,
by sex, in Hartford, Conn., March 1976
Sex,

3

Number
of
workers

occupation, and industry division

(mean^ )
hourly
earnings4

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division

m a i n t e n a n c e * t o o l r o o m , ano
PO WE RP LA NT OCCU PA TI ON S - MEN

material

movement

and

Number
of
workers

Average
(m ean 2 )
hourly
earnings 4

custodial

O C CU PA TI ON S - M E N — CONT IN UE D
$
^36

-----------------------------------------

6.12
6.14
6.06

63

NO NM A N U F A C T U R I N G

5*7^

283
232
51

5.77

TRUCKDRIVERS* HEAVY TRUCK

$
93

142 5.39
5.38
140
5.74
5.74
6.34
6.35
6.34

135

(MACHINERY) -

203
167
216
63
153
89

MA IN TE NA NC E MECH AN IC S

72

4.94
4.9*

^* r

MA IN TE NA NC E ME CHANICS

-

129
_________ _____
r .

5.62
5.61
6.06
6.06

45
27

(TOOLROOM)

204
203
626
626

M A C H lN F- TO OL O P ER AT OR S

4 .4 7
. Tf%n T i i f

6.03
5.94

801
664

?

44
material

movement

ano

5

7?
I4 5

custodial

guards:

JANITORS, PORTERS,

O C C U PA TI ON S - MEN
1*365

AND CL EANERS

-------

1*077

3»ie

5.30

1*038
MA TERIAL m o v e m e n t

AND CUSTODIAL

4.06
3G7
75

1

TR UCKDRIVERS* HEAVY TRUCK

/Jo
4»00

69
359

6.18

JANITORS* PORTERS* ANO CLEANERS:

See fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le s .

9

Table A-7. Percent increases in average hourly earnings for
selected occupational groups, adjusted for employment
shifts, in Hartford, Coim., March 1975 to March 1976
M a r c h 1975
to
M a r c h 1976

In d u s tr y and o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p
(m e n and w o m e n c o m b in e d )

A l l in d u s t r ie s :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l . _____ _________ _____ _________ __
E l e c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s i n g ______________ __________
I n d u s t r ia l n u r s e s ____ _____ _____ __ _ _ _ _ _
S k ille d m a in te n a n ce t r a d e s * _____ ________ __ ___
U n s k ille d p la n t w o r k e r s * _____ _____ __ __ __ __
M a n u fa ctu r in g :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l . _____ _____ __ ------ --------- -------E l e c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s in g
_____ _____ __ __ __
In d u s t r ia l n u r s e s ____ __________ __________ ___ ___ _____
S k ille d m a in te n a n ce tr a d e s *
U n s k ille d p la n t w o r k e r s * _____ _____ __ __ __ __

6 .4
5.7
6. 7
7 .9
5.7

6 .4
**

6.0
8.2
10.1

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l . __ ______
___ _________ __ _______
E l e c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s i n g ______ __ __ __ __ ___
I n d u s t r ia l n u r s e s _ __ __ _____ __ __ _____ _______
S k ille d m a in te n a n ce t r a d e s * __ ________________ ___
U n s k ille d p la n t w o r k e r s * _______________________

*
**

6 .4
5.8
**

2.6

P e r c e n t i n c r e a s e s f o r p e r i o d s e n d in g p r i o r t o 1 9 7 6 r e l a t e t o m e n o n ly .
D a ta d o n ot m e e t p u b lic a t io n c r it e r i a .

Footnotes
1 Standard hours reflect the w o r k w e e k for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or p r e m i u m rates), and the earnings correspond
to these weekly hours.
"
2 The m e a n is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all workers and dividing by the n u m b e r of workers. Th e m e di an designates position— half of the employees surveyed receive m o r e
and half receive less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by 2 rates of pay; a fourth of the workers earn less than the lower of these rates and a fourth earn m o r e than the higher rate.
Earnings data relate only to workers whose sex identification was provided by the establishment.
4 Excludes p r e m i u m pay for overtime and for wo rk on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.




10

Appendix A
A r e a w a g e and r e l a t e d b e n e f i t s d a t a a r e o b t a i n e d b y p e r s o n a l v i s i t s
o f B u r e a u f i e l d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s at 3 - y e a r i n t e r v a l s . 1 In e a c h o f th e i n t e r ­
v e n i n g y e a r s , i n f o r m a t i o n o n e m p l o y m e n t and o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s i s c o l ­
l e c t e d b y a c o m b i n a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l v i s i t , m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t e l e p h o n e
i n t e r v i e w f r o m e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g in th e p r e v i o u s s u r v e y .

d e s c r i b e d , o r f o r s o m e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s w ith in the s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y , a r e
n o t p r e s e n t e d in th e A - s e r i e s t a b l e s , b e c a u s e e i t h e r (1) e m p l o y m e n t in the
o c c u p a t i o n i s t o o s m a l l to p r o v i d e e n o u g h da ta t o m e r i t p r e s e n t a t i o n , o r
(2) t h e r e i s p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e o f i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t da ta .
Sepa­
r a t e m e n ' s and w o m e n ' s e a r n i n g s da ta a r e not p r e s e n t e d w h e n the n u m b e r o f
w o r k e r s n o t i d e n t i f i e d b y s e x i s 20 p e r c e n t o r m o r e o f the m e n o r w o m e n
i d e n t i f i e d in an o c c u p a t i o n .
E a r n i n g s da t a n o t s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y f o r i n d u s t r y
d i v i s i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d in data f o r a ll i n d u s t r i e s c o m b i n e d .
L ik ew ise,
d a t a a r e i n c l u d e d in the o v e r a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w h e n a s u b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f
e l e c t r o n i c s t e c h n i c i a n s , s e c r e t a r i e s , o r t r u c k d r i v e r s is not shown o r i n f o r ­
m a tio n to s u b c la s s if y is not a v a ila b le .

In e a c h o f th e 84 2 a r e a s c u r r e n t l y s u r v e y e d , data a r e o b t a i n e d f r o m
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h in s i x b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s :
M anufac­
t u r i n g ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s ; w h o l e s a l e
t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; and s e r v i c e s .
M a jo r
i n d u s t r y g r o u p s e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e s e s t u d i e s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a t i o n s and
th e c o n s t r u c t i o n and e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s .
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g f e w e r th an
a p r e s c r ib e d n um ber o f w o r k e r s are om itted b e ca u s e o f in su fficien t e m p lo y ­
m e n t in the o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d i e d .
Separate tabulations are p r o v id e d f o r each
o f th e b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s w h i c h m e e t p u b l i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a .

O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t and e a r n i n g s da ta a r e s h o w n f o r f u l l - t i m e
w o r k e r s , i . e . , t h o s e h i r e d to w o r k a r e g u l a r w e e k l y s c h e d u l e .
E a r n i n g s data
e x c l u d e p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and
la te s h i f t s . N o n p r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s a r e e x c l u d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g a l l o w a n c e s
and i n c e n t i v e b o n u s e s a r e i n c l u d e d .
W e e k l y h o u r s f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l and
p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s
r e f e r to th e s t a n d a r d w o r k w e e k
( r o u n d e d to th e n e a r e s t h a l f h o u r ) f o r w h i c h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e r e g u l a r
s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s ( e x c l u s i v e o f p a y f o r o v e r t i m e at r e g u l a r a n d / o r
p rem iu m ra tes).
A v e r a g e w e e k ly ea rn in g s fo r th ese o ccu pa tion s are rounded
to th e n e a r e s t h a l f d o l l a r .

T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c o n d u c t e d on a s a m p l e b a s i s .
The sam pling
p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d e t a i l e d s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith in th e
s c o p e o f an i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s u r v e y b y i n d u s t r y and n u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s .
F r o m t h is s t r a t i f i e d u n i v e r s e a p r o b a b i l i t y s a m p l e i s s e l e c t e d , w it h e a c h
e s t a b l i s h m e n t h a v in g a p r e d e t e r m i n e d c h a n c e o f s e l e c t i o n . T o o b t a in o p t i m u m
a c c u r a c y at m i n i m u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f l a r g e th an s m a l l e s t a b ­
lish m e n ts is
selected .
W h e n da t a a r e c o m b i n e d , e a c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t i s
w e i g h t e d a c c o r d i n g t o i t s p r o b a b i l i t y o f s e l e c t i o n , s o th at u n b i a s e d e s t i m a t e s
are generated.
F o r e x a m p l e , i f o n e out o f f o u r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s s e l e c t e d ,
it i s g i v e n a w e i g h t o f f o u r t o r e p r e s e n t i t s e l f p l u s t h r e e o t h e r s .
An alternate
o f the s a m e o r i g i n a l p r o b a b i l i t y i s c h o s e n in th e s a m e i n d u s t r y - s i z e c l a s s i ­
f i c a t i o n i f da t a a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e f r o m th e o r i g i n a l s a m p l e m e m b e r .
If no
suitable substitute i s a v a ila b le , a d d itio n a l w e ig h t is a s s i g n e d to a s a m p le
m e m b e r that i s s i m i l a r t o t h e m i s s i n g unit .

T h e s e s u r v e y s m e a s u r e th e l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s in an a r e a
at a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e .
C o m p a r is o n s o f individual o ccu p a tion a l a v e r a g e s o v e r
tim e m a y not r e f l e c t e x p e c t e d w age c h a n g e s . The a v e r a g e s fo r in d iv id u a l jo b s
a r e a f f e c t e d b y c h a n g e s in w a g e s and e m p l o y m e n t p a t t e r n s .
F o r exam ple,
p r o p o rtio n s o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d by high- o r lo w -w a g e fir m s m a y change, o r
h i g h - w a g e w o r k e r s m a y a d v a n c e t o b e t t e r j o b s and b e r e p l a c e d b y n e w
w o r k e r s at l o w e r r a t e s .
S u ch s h i f t s in e m p l o y m e n t c o u l d d e c r e a s e an o c c u ­
p a t i o n a l a v e r a g e e v e n t h o u g h m o s t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in an a r e a i n c r e a s e w a g e s
d u r i n g th e y e a r .
C h a n g e s in e a r n i n g s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , s h o w n in t a b l e
A - 7 , a r e b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r s o f w a g e t r e n d s than a r e e a r n i n g s c h a n g e s f o r
i n d i v i d u a l j o b s w it h in th e g r o u p s .

O c c u p a t i o n s and e a r n i n g s
O c c u p a t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r stu dy a r e c o m m o n to a v a r i e t y o f m a n u f a c ­
t u r i n g and n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , and a r e o f the f o l l o w i n g t y p e s :
(1) O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ; (2) p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l ; (3) m a i n t e n a n c e , t o o l r o o m ,
a nd p o w e r p l a n t ; and (4) m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t and c u s t o d i a l .
O ccupational
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s b a s e d on a u n i f o r m s e t o f j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o ta k e
a c c o u n t o f i n t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t v a r i a t i o n in d u t i e s w ith in the s a m e j o b .
O ccu­
p a t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r s tu d y a r e l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d in a p p e n d i x B .
U n less
o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d , the e a r n i n g s d a t a f o l l o w i n g th e j o b t i t l e s a r e f o r a l l
in d u stries co m b in e d .
E a r n i n g s da ta f o r s o m e o f th e o c c u p a t i o n s l i s t e d and

A v e r a g e earn ings r e fle c t c o m p o s ite , a reaw ide e stim a te s.
In dustries
and e s t a b l i s h m e n t s d i f f e r in p a y l e v e l and j o b s t a f f i n g , and th u s c o n t r i b u t e
d i f f e r e n t l y t o th e e s t i m a t e s f o r e a c h j o b .
P a y a v e ra g e s m a y fa il to r e fle c t
a c c u r a t e l y th e w a g e d i f f e r e n t i a l a m o n g j o b s in in d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .

1 Personal visits were on a 2-year cy cle before July 1972.
2 Included in the 84 areas are 14 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas are
Akron, Ohio; Austin, T e x .; Binghamton, N .Y . — a .; Birmingham, A la .; Fort Lauderdale—
P
Hollywood and West
Palm Beach—
Boca Raton, F la.; Lexington—
Fayette, K y .; Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, F la.; Norfolk—
Virginia
Beach—
Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va. — C . ; Poughkeepsie—
N.
Kingston—
Newburgh, N .Y .; Raleigh—
Durham, N .C .; Stamford, Conn.; Syracuse, N. Y .; Utica—
Rome, N .Y .; and Westchester County, N .Y .
In
addition, the Bureau conducts more limited area studies in approximately 70 areas at the request o f the
Employment Standards Administration of the U. S. Department o f Labor.




11

A v e r a g e p a y l e v e l s f o r m e n and w o m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s h o u ld
n o t b e a s s u m e d to r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y o f th e s e x e s w ith in i n d i v i d u a l
establish m en ts.
F a c t o r s w h i c h m a y c o n t r i b u t e to d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l u d e p r o ­
g r e s s i o n w it h in e s t a b l i s h e d r a t e r a n g e s ( o n l y th e r a t e s p a id i n c u m b e n t s a r e
c o l l e c t e d ) and p e r f o r m a n c e o f s p e c i f i c d u t i e s w it h in th e g e n e r a l s u r v e y j o b
descriptions.
J o b d e s c r i p t i o n s u s e d t o c l a s s i f y e m p l o y e e s in t h e s e s u r v e y s
u s u a l l y a r e m o r e g e n e r a l i z e d th a n t h o s e u s e d in i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
and a l l o w f o r m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in s p e c i f i c d u t i e s
p erform ed .

O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t th e t o t a l in a l l e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s w it h in t h e s c o p e o f th e s t u d y and n o t th e n u m b e r a c t u a l l y s u r v e y e d .
B eca u se occu p a tion a l stru ctu res am on g establish m en ts d iffe r, estim a tes o f
o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t o b t a i n e d f r o m th e s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d ie d
s e r v e o n l y t o i n d i c a t e t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f th e j o b s s t u d ie d .
These
d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e d o not a f f e c t m a t e r i a l l y th e a c c u r a c y o f
the e a rn in g s data.

E l e c t r o n i c da t a p r o c e s s i n g
( m e n and w o m e n ) :
C om puter system s
an a lysts, c la s s e s
A , B , and C
C om puter p r o g r a m m e r s ,
c l a s s e s A , B , and C
Com puter op erators,
c l a s s e s A , B , and C

W age tre n d s fo r s e le cte d occu p a tio n a l grou ps

T h e p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e s p r e s e n t e d in t a b l e A - 7 a r e b a s e d o n c h a n g e s
in a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s r e p o r t i n g th e t r e n d j o b s in b o t h
t h e c u r r e n t and p r e v i o u s y e a r ( m a t c h e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ) .
T h e da t a a r e
a d j u s t e d t o r e m o v e th e e f f e c t s o n a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s o f e m p l o y m e n t s h if t s
a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and t u r n o v e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n c l u d e d in s u r v e y
sam p les.
The p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e s , h o w e v e r , a re s till a ffe cte d b y f a c t o r s
o t h e r th a n w a g e i n c r e a s e s .
H i r i n g s , l a y o f f s , and t u r n o v e r m a y a f f e c t an
e s t a b l i s h m e n t a v e r a g e f o r an o c c u p a t i o n w h e n w o r k e r s a r e p a i d u n d e r p la n s
p r o v id in g a ran ge o f w age r a te s f o r in divid ual jo b s .
In p e r i o d s o f i n c r e a s e d
h i r i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , n e w e m p l o y e e s e n t e r at th e b o t t o m o f th e r a n g e ,
d e p r e s s i n g th e a v e r a g e w it h o u t a c h a n g e in w a g e r a t e s .

S killed m a in te n a n ce (m en
and w o m e n ) ;
C arpen ters
E lectricia n s
P ain ters
M a ch in ists
M e ch a n ics (m a ch in ery )
M ech a n ics (m otor veh icle)
P ip efitters
T o o l and d i e m a k e r s

I n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s ( m e n and
w om en ):
R e g is t e r e d in d u stria l
nurses

U n s k i l l e d p la n t ( m e n and 1
2
3
w o m e n );
J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , and
clea n ers
M a t e r i a l h a n d lin g l a b o r e r s

P e r c e n t c h a n g e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s in th e p r o g r a m
as fo llo w s:

a re com puted

1.

2.

O cc u p a tio n s u s e d to c o m p u te w a g e tr e n d s a r e :

O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ( m e n and
w om en ):

T h e ra tio o f g r o u p a v e r a g e s f o r 2 c o n s e c u t iv e y e a r s is
c o m p u t e d b y d i v i d i n g th e a v e r a g e f o r th e c u r r e n t y e a r
b y th e a v e r a g e f o r th e e a r l i e r y e a r .
The result—
e x p r e s s e d a s a p e r c e n t — l e s s 100 i s th e p e r c e n t c h a n g e .

F o r a m o r e d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e m e t h o d u s e d t o c o m p u t e t h e s e
w a g e t r e n d s , s e e " I m p r o v in g A r e a W age S u rv e y I n d e x e s , " M onthly L a b o r
R e v i e w , Ja n u a ry 1973, pp . 5 2 -5 7 .

O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ( m e n and
w o m e n )— C o n t i n u e d

S ecreta ries
Stenographers, gen eral
S ten ograp h ers, sen ior
T y p i s t s , c l a s s e s A and B
File c le r k s , c la s s e s A ,
B , and C
M essengers
Sw itchboard o p e r a t o r s
O rder clerk s

T h e s e w e ig h ts a r e u se d to co m p u te gro u p a v e r a g e s .
E a ch o ccu p a tio n 's a v e ra g e (m ean) ea rn in gs is m u ltiplied
by its w eight.
T h e p r o d u c t s a r e t o t a l e d t o o b t a in a
group avera ge.

3.

T h e p e r c e n t c h a n g e s r e l a t e t o w a g e c h a n g e s b e t w e e n th e i n d i c a t e d
dates.
W h e n th e t i m e s p a n b e t w e e n s u r v e y s i s o t h e r th a n 12 m o n t h s , a n n u a l
ra te s a re shown.
(It i s a s s u m e d th at w a g e s i n c r e a s e at a c o n s t a n t r a t e
betw een s u r v e y s .)

E a ch o c c u p a t io n is a s s ig n e d a w eigh t b a s e d on its p r o ­
p o r t i o n a t e e m p l o y m e n t in th e o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p in the
base year.

A ccou n tin g c le r k s ,
c l a s s e s A a nd B
B ook k eep in g-m a ch in e
op erators, cla ss B
P a yroll cle rk s
Keypunch o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s e s A and B
T a b u la t in g - m a c hin e
op erators, cla ss B

E s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s




T a b u l a t i o n s on s e l e c t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s a nd s u p p l e m e n t a r y
w a g e p r o v i s i o n s ( B - s e r i e s t a b l e s ) a r e n o t p r e s e n t e d in t h i s b u l l e t i n .
In for­
m a t i o n f o r t h e s e t a b u l a t i o n s i s c o l l e c t e d at 3 - y e a r i n t e r v a l s . 1 T h e s e t a b u ­
l a t i o n s o n m i n i m u m e n t r a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r i n e x p e r i e n c e d o f f i c e w o r k e r s ; s h if t
d i f f e r e n t i a l s ; s c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s and d a y s ; p a i d h o l i d a y s ; p a id v a c a t i o n s ;
and h e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s i o n p l a n s a r e p r e s e n t e d (in th e B - s e r i e s t a b l e s )
in p r e v io u s b u lle tin s f o r th is a r e a .
1 Personal visits were on

12

a,

2-year cy cle before July 1972.

Appendix table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied
in Hartford, Conn., March 1976
Industry division 2

Minimum
em pl oy me nt
in establishments in scope
of study

N u m b e r of establishments

W o rk er s in establishments
Within scope of study 4

Within scope
of study 3

Studied

Studied
Number

Percent

ALL DIVI SI ON S ---------------------------------

-

560

145

148,735

100

103,194

M A N U FA CT UR IN G -------------------------------------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG ---------------------------------TRANSPORTATION, CO MM UN IC AT IO N, AND
o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 5 ---------------------WH OLESALE TRADE 6 -------------------------------retail trade 6 —
— — — — — — — — — —
f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e 6 -------S E R V I C E S 6 7----------------------------------------

50
-

201
359

50
95

69,899
78,836

47
53

49,184
54,010

50
50
50
50
50

46
64
129
52
68

13
18
26
16
22

5,829
6,652
17,909
41,366
7,080

4
12
28
5

3,231
3,644
7,977
35,738
3,420

1 The Hartford Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the Office of M a n a g e m e n t and Budget through February 1974, consists of the city of Hartford,
and
21 towns in Hartford County, N e w Hartford town in Litchfield County, 3 towns in Middlesex County, Colchester town in N e w London County, and 10 towns in
Tolland County. The "workers within scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor
force included in the survey. Estimates are not intended, however, for comparison with other employment indexes to m e a s u r e employment trends or levels since (1)
planning of w a g e surveys requires establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) small establishments are excluded fr om
the scope of the survey.
2 The 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Ma nu al wa s used in classifying establishments by industry division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the m i n i m u m limitation. All outlets (within the area) of companies in industries such as trade,
finance, auto repair service, and motion picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes all workers in all establishments with total em ployment (within the area) at or above the m i n i m u m limitation.
5 Abbreviated to "public utilities" in the A-series tables. Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation are excluded.
6 This division is represented in estimates for "all industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the A-series tables.
Separate presentation of data is not m a d e for
one
orm o r e of the following reasons: (1) E m p l o y m e n t is too small to provide enough data to merit separate study, (2) the sample wa s not designed initially to permit
separate presentation, (3) response wa s insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
7 Hotels and motels; laundries and other personal services; business services; automobile repair, rental, and parking; motion pictures; nonprofit m e m b e r s h i p
organizations (excluding religious and charitable organizations); and engineering and architectural services.




13

Appendix B.

Occupational Descriptions

T h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f p r e p a r i n g j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r th e B u r e a u ' s w a g e s u r v e y s i s t o a s s i s t
i t s f i e l d s t a f f in c l a s s i f y i n g in t o a p p r o p r i a t e o c c u p a t i o n s w o r k e r s w h o a r e e m p l o y e d u n d e r a v a r i e t y o f
p a y r o l l t i t l e s and d i f f e r e n t w o r k a r r a n g e m e n t s f r o m e s t a b l i s h m e n t t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t and f r o m a r e a to
area.
T h i s p e r m i t s th e g r o u p i n g o f o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e r a t e s r e p r e s e n t i n g c o m p a r a b l e j o b c o n t e n t .
B e c a u s e o f t h is e m p h a s i s o n i n t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t and i n t e r a r e a c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n t e n t , the
B u r e a u ' s j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s m a y d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h o s e in u s e in i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o r t h o s e
p rep a red for oth er p u rp os es .
In a p p l y i n g t h e s e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s , th e B u r e a u ' s f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s a r e
i n s t r u c t e d t o e x c l u d e w o r k i n g s u p e r v i s o r s ; a p p r e n t i c e s ; l e a r n e r s ; b e g i n n e r s ; t r a i n e e s ; and h a n d i c a p p e d ,
p a r t - t i m e , t e m p o r a r y , and p r o b a t i o n a r y w o r k e r s .

O FFICE
SECRETARY

S E C R E T A R Y— C o n t i n u e d

A s s i g n e d a s p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y , n o r m a l l y to o n e i n d i v i d u a l .
M ain ­
t a i n s a c l o s e and h i g h l y r e s p o n s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o th e d a y - t o - d a y w o r k o f th e
su p ervisor.
W ork s f a i r ly in d ep en d en tly r e c e iv in g a m in im u m o f d e ta ile d
s u p e r v i s i o n and g u i d a n c e .
P e r f o r m s v a r i e d c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l d u t i e s ,
u s u a l l y i n c l u d i n g m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :

M a y a l s o p e r f o r m o t h e r c l e r i c a l a nd s e c r e t a r i a l t a s k s o f c o m p a r a b l e
n a t u r e and d i f f i c u l t y .
T h e w o r k t y p ic a lly r e q u i r e s k n ow led g e o f o f fic e rou tin e
a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f th e o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r o g r a m s , and p r o c e d u r e s r e l a t e d to
t h e w o r k o f th e s u p e r v i s o r .
E x clu sion s

a . R e c e i v e s t e l e p h o n e c a l l s , p e r s o n a l c a l l e r s , and i n c o m i n g m a i l ,
a n s w e r s r o u t i n e i n q u i r i e s , a nd r o u t e s t e c h n i c a l i n q u i r i e s to th e p r o p e r
persons;
b.

E stablish es,

c.
in structed;
d.

m a in ta in s,

and r e v i s e s th e

M a i n t a i n s th e s u p e r v i s o r ' s
R elays m e s s a g e s

from

s u p e r v is o r 's

files;

a. P o s it io n s
ds r
c a l e n d a r and m a k e s a p p o i n t m e n te s casi b e d a b o v e ;

s u p e r v i s o r to

P erform s




b.

subord inates;

e . R e v i e w s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , m e m o r a n d u m s , and r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d b y
o t h e r s f o r the s u p e r v i s o r ' s s i g n a t u r e to a s s u r e p r o c e d u r a l and t y p o g r a p h i c
accuracy;
f.

N o t a l l p o s i t i o n s th at a r e t i t l e d " s e c r e t a r y " p o s s e s s t h e a b o v e c h a r ­
a cteristics.
E x a m p l e s o f p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m th e d e f i n i t i o n a r e
as follow s:

s t e n o g r a p h i c and t y p i n g w o r k .

sional,

which

do

not

m eet

th e

"p erson a l"

secretary concept

S t e n o g r a p h e r s n o t f u l l y t r a i n e d in s e c r e t a r i a l - t y p e

c. Sten ograp h ers serv in g as o ffic e
tech n ical, o r m a n a g e ria l p e r so n s;

du ties;

a ssista n ts to a group o f p r o f e s ­

d . S e c r e t a r y p o s i t i o n s in w h i c h t h e d u t i e s a r e e i t h e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y
m o r e r o u t i n e o r s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o r e c o m p l e x a nd r e s p o n s i b l e th an t h o s e c h a r ­
a c t e r i z e d in th e d e f i n i t i o n ;

B e g i n n i n g w ith c a l e n d a r y e a r 1976 s u r v e y s , th e B u r e a u h a s g r o u p e d o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d i e d in it s
a r e a w a g e s u r v e y s in to j o b f a m i l i e s in o r d e r t o p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n o n r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in s e q u e n c e .
J o b f a m i l i e s h a v e n o t b e e n t i t l e d , h o w e v e r , s i n c e d o i n g s o m i g h t h a v e a d d e d e x t r a n e o u s e l e m e n t s t o th e
jo b m atching p r o c e s s .
T h e B u r e a u h as a l s o r e v i s e d s e v e r a l o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s .
w o r d o r d e r and a r e m o r e d e s c r i p t i v e o f th e s u r v e y j o b s .

14

The titles m o r e

n e a r ly r e f l e c t usual

S E C R E T A R Y — Continued

S E C R E T A R Y — Continued

E x c l u s i o n s — C o n t in u e d '

C la ss

C

e.
A s s is ta n t-ty p e p osition s w hich
re sp o n sib le tech n ica l, a dm inistrative, s u p e r v is o r y ,
d u ties w hich a r e not t y p ic a l o f s e c r e t a r i a l w o r k .

in volve m o r e difficu lt o r m o r e
1. S e c r e t a r y t o an e x e c u t i v e o r m a n a g e r i a l p e r s o n w h o s e r e s p o n ­
or sp ecia lized c le r ic a l
s i b i l i t y i s n o t e q u i v a l e n t t o o n e o f the s p e c i f i c l e v e l s i t u a t i o n s in the d e f i n i t i o n
f o r c l a s s B , but w h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l unit n o r m a l l y n u m b e r s at l e a s t s e v e r a l
d o z e n e m p l o y e e s and i s u s u a l l y d i v i d e d in t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e g m e n t s w h i c h a r e
o f t e n , in t u r n , f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d .
In s o m e c o m p a n i e s , th is l e v e l i n c l u d e s a
N O T E : T h e t e r m " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r , " u s e d in th e l e v e l d e f i n i t i o n s
w i d e r a n g e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e c h e l o n s ; in o t h e r s , o n l y o n e o r t w o ; o r
fo llo w in g , r e f e r s to th ose o f f i c i a l s who have a s ig n ific a n t c o r p o r a t e w i d e
p o l i c y m a k i n g r o l e w ith r e g a r d to m a j o r c o m p a n y a c t i v i t i e s .
The title " v ic e
2 . S e c r e t a r y t o th e h e a d o f an i n d i v i d u a l p la n t, f a c t o r y , e t c . ( o r
p r e s i d e n t , " th o u g h n o r m a l l y i n d i c a t i v e o f t h is r o l e , d o e s n o t in a l l c a s e s
o t h e r e q u i v a l e n t l e v e l o f o f f i c i a l ) th at e m p l o y s , in a l l , f e w e r tha n 5 , 0 0 0
i d e n t i f y s u ch p o s i t i o n s .
V i c e p r e s i d e n t s w h o s e p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to
persons.
a c t p e r s o n a l l y on i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s o r t r a n s a c t i o n s [ e . g . , a p p r o v e o r d e n y
i n d i v i d u a l lo a n o r c r e d i t a c t i o n s ; a d m i n i s t e r i n d i v i d u a l t r u s t a c c o u n t s ; d i r e c t l y
C lass D
s u p e r v i s e a c l e r i c a l s t a f f) a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o b e " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r s " f o r
1. S e c r e t a r y to the s u p e r v i s o r o r h e a d o f a s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l unit
p u r p o s e s o f a p p l y i n g th e f o l l o w i n g l e v e l d e f i n i t i o n s .
( e . g . , f e w e r than a b o u t 25 o r 30 p e r s o n s ) ; cm
C lass A
1. S e c r e t a r y t o th e c h a i r m a n o f th e b o a r d o r p r e s i d e n t o f a c o m p a n y
that e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 100 but f e w e r th an 5, 000 p e r s o n s ; o r

2 . S e c r e t a r y to a n o n s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t , p r o f e s s i o n a l
e m p lo y e e , a dm in istra tiv e o f f i c e r , o r a ssista n t, sk illed techn ician, o r expert.
(N O TE :
M a n y c o m p a n i e s a s s i g n s t e n o g r a p h e r s , r a t h e r than s e c r e t a r i e s as
d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , to t h is l e v e l o f s u p e r v i s o r y o r n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r . )
STENOGRAPHER

2. S e c r e t a r y to a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r ( o t h e r th a n th e c h a i r m a n o f the
b o a r d o r p r e s i d e n t ) o f a c o m p a n y th at e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5, 0 00 but f e w e r
th an 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
3. S e c r e t a r y to th e h e a d , i m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w the c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r
l e v e l , o f a m a j o r s e g m e n t o r s u b s i d i a r y o f a c o m p a n y that e m p l o y s , in a l l ,
o v e r 25 ,00 0 p e r s o n s .

C la ss

B

P r i m a r y d u ty i s to ta k e d i c t a t i o n u s i n g s h o r t h a n d , and to t r a n s c r i b e
the d icta tio n .
M ay a ls o type f r o m w ritte n c o p y .
M ay operate fr o m a steno­
gra p hic p ool.
M ay o c c a s i o n a l l y t r a n s c r i b e f r o m v o i c e r e c o r d in g s (if p r im a r y
du ty i s t r a n s c r i b i n g f r o m r e c o r d i n g s ,
see T ra n s crib in g -M a ch in e T ypist).
NOTE:
T h i s j o b i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m th at o f a s e c r e t a r y in that a
s e c r e t a r y n o r m a l l y w o r k s in a c o n f i d e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w ith o n l y o n e m a n a g e r
o r e x e c u t i v e and p e r f o r m s m o r e
r e s p o n s i b l e and d i s c r e t i o n a r y t a s k s as
d e s c r i b e d in th e s e c r e t a r y j o b d e f i n i t i o n .

1. S e c r e t a r y t o th e c h a i r m a n o f th e b o a r d o r p r e s i d e n t o f a c o m p a n y
that e m p l o y s , in a l l , f e w e r than 100 p e r s o n s ; o r
2. S e c r e t a r y t o a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r ( o t h e r than th e c h a i r m a n o f the
b o a r d o r p r e s i d e n t ) o f a c o m p a n y that e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 100 but f e w e r
than 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
3. S e c r e t a r y to th e h e a d , i m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w th e o f f i c e r l e v e l , o v e r
e ith e r a m a j o r c o r p o ra tio n w id e fun ction al a ctiv ity ( e .g ., m a rk e tin g , r e s e a r c h ,
o p e r a t i o n s , i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s , e t c . ) cm a m a j o r g e o g r a p h i c o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l
s e g m e n t ( e . g . , a r e g i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s ; a m a j o r d i v i s i o n ) o f a c o m p a n y that
e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5 , 0 0 0 but f e w e r th an 2 5 , 0 0 0 e m p l o y e e s ; o r
4 . S e c r e t a r y to the h e a d o f an i n d i v i d u a l p la n t, f a c t o r y , e t c . ( o r
o t h e r e q u i v a l e n t l e v e l o f o f f i c i a l ) th at e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
5. S e c r e t a r y to th e h e a d o f a l a r g e and i m p o r t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l
s e g m e n t ( e . g . , a m i d d l e m a n a g e m e n t s u p e r v i s o r o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e g m e n t
o f t e n i n v o l v i n g a s m a n y as s e v e r a l h u n d r e d p e r s o n s ) o r a c o m p a n y that
e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 2 5 , 000 p e r s o n s .




Stenographer, General

keep

D ictation in v o lv e s a n o r m a l rou tin e v o c a b u la r y .
May m ain tain f i l e s ,
s i m p l e r e c o r d s , o r p e r f o r m o t h d r r e l a t i v e l y r o u tin e c l e r i c a l t a s k s .
S te n o g r a p h e r, S en ior

D ictation in v o lv e s a v a r ie d te c h n ic a l o r s p e c ia liz e d v o c a b u la r y such
a s in l e g a l b r i e f s o r r e p o r t s o n s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h .
M a y a l s o s e t up and
m aintain f ile s , k eep r e c o r d s , etc.
OR
P e r f o r m s ste n o g r a p h ic du ties r e q u ir in g s ig n ific an tly g r e a t e r in d e ­
p e n d e n c e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than s t e n o g r a p h e r , g e n e r a l as e v i d e n c e d b y the
follow in g:
W o r k r e q u i r e s a h ig h d e g r e e o f s t e n o g r a p h i c s p e e d and a c c u r a c y ;
a t h o r o u g h w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e o f g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s and o f f i c e p r o c e d u r e ; and
o f th e s p e c i f i c b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o l i c i e s , p r o c e d u r e s , f i l e s ,
w ork flow , etc.
U s e s th is k n o w l e d g e in p e r f o r m i n g s t e n o g r a p h i c d u t i e s and
r e s p o n s ib le c l e r i c a l ta sk s such as m ain tain in g follo w u p file s ; a s s e m b lin g
m a t e r i a l f o r r e p o r t s , m e m o r a n d u m s , and l e t t e r s ; c o m p o s i n g s i m p l e l e t t e r s
f r o m g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s ; r e a d i n g and r o u t i n g i n c o m i n g m a i l ; and a n s w e r i n g
rou tin e q u e s t io n s , e tc .

T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E T Y P IS T

SW ITC H B O A R D O P E R A T O R

P r i m a r y duty i s to t r a n s c r i b e d i c t a t i o n i n v o l v i n g a n o r m a l ro u tin e
vocabu lary from tran scrib in g -m a ch in e re c o r d s .
M a y a l s o ty p e f r o m w r i t t e n
c o p y and d o s i m p l e c l e r i c a l w o r k .
W o r k e r s t r a n s c r ib in g dictation in volvin g
a v a r ie d t e c h n ic a l o r s p e c ia liz e d v o c a b u la r y such as le g a l b r ie f s o r r e p o r t s
on s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h a r e not i n c l u d e d .
A w o r k e r w h o t a k e s d i c t a t i o n in
s h o r t h a n d o r b y S t e n o t y p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h i n e i s c l a s s i f i e d as a s t e n o g r a p h e r .

O p e r a t e s a t e l e p h o n e s w i t c h b o a r d o r c o n s o l e u s e d w ith a p r i v a t e
b r a n c h e x c h a n g e ( P B X ) s y s t e m to r e l a y i n c o m i n g , o u t g o i n g , and i n t r a s y s t e m
ca lls.
M a y p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n t o c a l l e r s , r e c o r d and t r a n s m i t m e s s a g e s ,
k e e p r e c o r d o f c a l l s p l a c e d and t o l l c h a r g e s .
B e s id e s operating a telephone
s w itc h b o a r d o r c o n s o l e , m a y a ls o type o r p e r f o r m rou tin e c l e r i c a l w o r k
(t y p in g o r r o u t i n e c l e r i c a l w o r k m a y o c c u p y the m a j o r p o r t i o n o f the w o r k e r ' s
t i m e , and i s u s u a l l y p e r f o r m e d w h i l e at th e s w i t c h b o a r d o r c o n s o l e ) .
C h ief
o r le a d o p e r a t o r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g m o r e th an o n e o p e r a t o r a r e
exclu ded .
F o r an o p e r a t o r w h o a l s o a c t s a s a r e c e p t i o n i s t , s e e S w i t c h b o a r d
O pera tor-R eception ist.

T YPIST
U ses a t y p e w r it e r to m a k e c o p i e s o f v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s o r to m a k e
ou t b i l l s a f t e r c a l c u l a t i o n s h av e b e e n m a d e by a n o t h e r p e r s o n .
M ay include
t y p in g o f s t e n c i l s , m a t s , o r s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s f o r u s e in d u p l i c a t i n g p r o ­
cesses.
M a y do c l e r i c a l w o r k i n v o l v i n g lit t le s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , s u c h as
k e e p i n g s i m p l e r e c o r d s , f i l i n g r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s , o r s o r t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g
in co m in g m a il.

SW ITC H B O A R D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T
At a
an o p e r a t o r —
w ork in volves
b u s i n e s s and
priate p e r so n
a r r a n g i n g an

C la ss A.
P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g : T y p i n g m a t e r i a l
in f i n a l f o r m w h e n it i n v o l v e s c o m b i n i n g m a t e r i a l f r o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s ; o r
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g , s y l l a b i c a t i o n , p u n c t u a t io n , e t c . , o f t e c h ­
n i c a l o r u n u su a l w o r d s , o r f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e m a t e r i a l ; o r p la n n in g la y o u t and
t y p i n g o f c o m p l i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s to m a i n t a i n u n i f o r m i t y and b a l a n c e in
s p a c i n g . M a y ty p e r o u t in e f o r m l e t t e r s , v a r y i n g d e t a i l s t o suit c i r c u m s t a n c e s .
C lass
rough o r c l e a r
o r s e tt in g up
a l r e a d y s e t up

ORDER CLERK
R e c e iv e s c u s t o m e r s ' o r d e r s for m a te r ia l o r m e r ch a n d ise by m a il,
phone, o r p e r so n a lly .
D u t ie s i n v o l v e a n y c o m b i n a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g ;
Q u o t in g p r i c e s to c u s t o m e r s ; m a k i n g ou t an o r d e r s h e e t l i s t i n g th e i t e m s to
m a k e up th e o r d e r ; c h e c k i n g p r i c e s and q u a n t i t i e s o f i t e m s o n o r d e r s h e e t ;
and d i s t r i b u t i n g o r d e r s h e e t s t o r e s p e c t i v e d e p a r t m e n t s to be f i l l e d .
May
c h e c k w ith c r e d i t d e p a r t m e n t t o d e t e r m i n e c r e d i t r a t i n g o f c u s t o m e r , a c k n o w l ­
e d g e r e c e i p t o f o r d e r s f r o m c u s t o m e r s , f o l l o w up o r d e r s to s e e th at t h e y
h a v e b e e n f i l l e d , k e e p f i l e o f o r d e r s r e c e i v e d , and c h e c k s h ip p in g i n v o i c e s
w ith o r i g i n a l o r d e r s .

B.
P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g : C o p y t y p in g f r o m
d r a f t s ; o r r o u t i n e t y p in g o f f o r m s , i n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , e t c . ;
sim p le standard tabu lation s; o r cop yin g m o r e c o m p le x ta b les
and s p a c e d p r o p e r l y .

FILE CLERK
F i l e s , c l a s s i f i e s , and r e t r i e v e s m a t e r i a l in an e s t a b l i s h e d f ilin g
system .
M a y p e r f o r m c l e r i c a l and m a n u a l t a s k s r e q u i r e d to m a i n t a i n f i l e s .
P o s i t i o n s a r e c l a s s i f i e d in to l e v e l s on the b a s i s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s .

ACCOU N TIN G C L E R K

C lass A.
C l a s s i f i e s and i n d e x e s f i l e m a t e r i a l s u c h as c o r r e s p o n d ­
e n c e , r e p o r t s , t e c h n i c a l d o c u m e n t s , e t c . , in an e s t a b l i s h e d f i l i n g s y s t e m
con tain ing a n u m be r o f v a r ie d s u b je c t m a t te r f i l e s .
M a y a l s o f i l e th is
m aterial.
M a y k e e p r e c o r d s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s in c o n j u n c t i o n w ith the f i l e s .
M a y le a d a s m a l l g r o u p o f l o w e r l e v e l f i l e c l e r k s .

P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e a c c o u n t i n g c l e r i c a l t a s k s s u c h as p o s t i n g to
r e g i s t e r s and l e d g e r s ; r e c o n c i l i n g bank a c c o u n t s ; v e r i f y i n g the i n t e r n a l c o n ­
s i s t e n c y , c o m p l e t e n e s s , and m a t h e m a t i c a l a c c u r a c y o f a c c o u n t i n g d o c u m e n t s ;
a s s i g n i n g p r e s c r i b e d a c c o u n t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n c o d e s ; e x a m i n i n g and v e r i f y i n g
fo r c l e r i c a l a c c u r a c y v a r io u s types of r e p o r ts , lis ts , c a lcu la tio n s, posting,
e t c .; o r p r e p a rin g s im p le o r a s s is t in g in 'p r e p a r in g m o r e c o m p lic a t e d jo u r n a l
vouchers.
M a y w o r k in e i t h e r a m a n u a l o r a u t o m a t e d a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m .

C lass B .
S o r t s , c o d e s , and f i l e s u n c l a s s i f i e d m a t e r i a l b y s i m p l e
(su b je c t m a t te r) h ead ings o r p a rtly c l a s s i f i e d m a t e r ia l by fin er subh eadin gs.
P r e p a r e s s i m p l e r e l a t e d i n d e x and c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e a i d s .
A s requested,
l o c a t e s c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d m a t e r i a l in f i l e s and f o r w a r d s m a t e r i a l .
May
p erform
related c l e r i c a l ta sk s
r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n and s e r v i c e f i l e s .

T h e w o r k r e q u i r e s a k n o w l e d g e o f c l e r i c a l m e t h o d s and o f f i c e p r a c ­
t i c e s and p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h r e l a t e s to th e c l e r i c a l p r o c e s s i n g and r e c o r d i n g
o f t r a n s a c t i o n s and a c c o u n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n .
With e x p e r i e n c e , th e w o r k e r
t y p i c a l l y b e c o m e s f a m i l i a r w ith th e b o o k k e e p i n g and a c c o u n t i n g t e r m s and
p r o c e d u r e s u s e d in th e a s s i g n e d w o r k , but i s n ot r e q u i r e d t o h a v e a k n o w l e d g e
o f the f o r m a l p r i n c i p l e s o f b o o k k e e p i n g and a c c o u n t i n g .

C la s s C.
P e r f o r m s r o u t i n e f i l i n g o f m a t e r i a l th at h as a l r e a d y b e e n
c l a s s i f i e d o r w h i c h i s e a s i l y c l a s s i f i e d in a s i m p l e s e r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
system
(e .g ., a lph abetical, c h ro n o lo g ica l, o r n u m e rica l).
A s requested,
l o c a t e s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l in f i l e s and f o r w a r d s m a t e r i a l ; and m a y
f i l l ou t w i t h d r a w a l c h a r g e .
M a y p e r f o r m s i m p l e c l e r i c a l and m a n u a l t a s k s
r e q u i r e d to m a i n t a i n and s e r v i c e f i l e s .

P osition s
d efin ition s.

are

cla ssified

in to

levels

on

th e

b a s i s o f the f o l l o w i n g

C la ss A .
Under g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n , p e r fo r m ^ accounting c l e r i c a l
o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h r e q u i r e th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e and j u d g m e n t , f o r
e x a m p le , c l e r i c a l l y p r o c e s s i n g c o m p lic a t e d o r n on rep etitiv e accounting t r a n s ­
a ction s, s e le c t in g am on g a su bstan tial v a r ie t y o f p r e s c r i b e d a ccou nting c o d e s
and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , o r t r a c i n g t r a n s a c t i o n s
th r o u g h p r e v i o u s a c c o u n t i n g
a c t i o n s to d e t e r m i n e s o u r c e o f d i s c r e p a n c i e s .
M a y b e a s s i s t e d by o n e o r
m o r e c la s s B accounting c le r k s .

MESSENGER
P e r f o r m s v a r i o u s r o u t i n e d u t i e s s u c h a s r u n n in g e r r a n d s , o p e r a t i n g
m i n o r o f f i c e m a c h i n e s s u c h a s s e a l e r s o r m a i l e r s , o p e n i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g
m a i l , and o t h e r m i n o r c l e r i c a l w o r k . E x c l u d e p o s i t i o n s th at r e q u i r e o p e r a t i o n
o f a m o t o r v e h i c l e a s a s i g n i f i c a n t duty .




s i n g l e - p o s i t i o n t e l e p h o n e s w i t c h b o a r d o r c o n s o l e , a c t s b o th as
s e e S w i t c h b o a r d O p e r a t o r — and a s a r e c e p t i o n i s t . R e c e p t i o n i s t ' s
s u c h d u t ie s a s g r e e t i n g v i s i t o r s ; d e t e r m i n i n g n a t u r e o f v i s i t o r ' s
p r o v i d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n ; r e f e r r i n g v i s i t o r to a p p r o ­
in the o r g a n i z a t i o n o r c o n t a c t i n g that p e r s o n b y t e l e p h o n e and
app ointm en t; k eep in g a log o f v i s i t o r s .

16

A C C O U N TIN G C L E R K — Continued

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR

C la s s B .
U n d er c l o s e s u p e r v is io n , f o llo w in g d e t a ile d i n s t r u c t io n s
and s t a n d a r d iz e d p r o c e d u r e s , p e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e r o u tin e a c c o u n t in g c l e r ­
i c a l o p e r a t i o n s , s u ch a s p o s t in g to l e d g e r s , c a r d s , o r w o r k s h e e t s w h e r e
id e n t ific a t io n o f it e m s and lo c a t i o n s o f p o s t in g s a r e c l e a r l y in d ic a t e d ; c h e c k in g
a c c u r a c y and c o m p l e t e n e s s o f s t a n d a r d iz e d and r e p e t it iv e r e c o r d s o r
a c c o u n t in g d o c u m e n t s ; and c o d i n g
d o c u m e n t s u s in g a fe w p r e s c r i b e d
a c c o u n t in g c o d e s .

O p e r a t e s a k e y p u n c h m a c h in e t o r e c o r d o r v e r i f y a lp h a b e tic a n d /o r
n u m e r ic d a ta on ta b u la tin g c a r d s o r o n ta p e .

B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
O p e r a t e s a b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e (w ith o r w ith o u t a t y p e w r it e r k e y ­
b o a r d ) to k e e p a r e c o r d o f b u s in e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s .
C la s s A . K e e p s a s e t o f r e c o r d s r e q u ir in g a k n o w le d g e o f and
e x p e r i e n c e in b a s i c b o o k k e e p in g p r i n c i p l e s , and f a m i l i a r i t y w ith th e s t r u c t u r e
o f th e p a r t ic u la r a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m u s e d .
D e t e r m in e s p r o p e r r e c o r d s and
d is t r ib u t io n o f d e b it and c r e d i t it e m s to b e u s e d in e a c h p h a s e o f th e w o r k .
M a y p r e p a r e c o n s o l id a t e d r e p o r t s , b a la n c e s h e e t s , and o t h e r r e c o r d s b y h a n d .
C la s s B .
K eep s a r e c o r d o f one o r m o r e ph a ses o r se ctio n s o f a
s e t o f r e c o r d s u s u a lly r e q u ir in g lit t le k n o w le d g e o f b a s i c b o o k k e e p in g . P h a s e s
o r s e c t i o n s in c lu d e a c c o u n t s p a y a b le , p a y r o l l , c u s t o m e r s ' a c c o u n t s (n ot
in c lu d in g a s im p le ty p e o f b illin g d e s c r i b e d u n d e r m a c h in e b i l l e r ) , c o s t d i s ­
t r ib u t io n , e x p e n s e d is t r ib u t io n , in v e n t o r y c o n t r o l , e t c .
M ay ch e ck o r a s s is t
in p r e p a r a t io n o f t r i a l b a la n c e s and p r e p a r e c o n t r o l s h e e t s f o r th e a c c o u n t in g
d ep a rtm e n t.
M A C H IN E B I L L E R
P r e p a r e s s t a t e m e n t s , b i l l s , and i n v o i c e s on a m a c h in e o t h e r th an an
o r d in a r y o r e l e c t r o m a t i c t y p e w r i t e r .
M a y a ls o k e e p r e c o r d s a s to b illin g s
o r sh ip p in g c h a r g e s o r p e r f o r m o t h e r c l e r i c a l w o r k in c id e n t a l to b illin g
o p e r a t io n s .
F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , m a c h in e b i l l e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y ty p e
o f m a c h in e , a s f o l l o w s :
B illin g - m a c h in e b i l l e r .
U s e s a s p e c i a l b illin g m a c h in e ( c o m b in a t io n
ty p in g and a d d in g m a c h in e ) to p r e p a r e b i l l s and i n v o i c e s f r o m c u s t o m e r s '
p u r c h a s e o r d e r s , in t e r n a lly p r e p a r e d o r d e r s , s h ip p in g m e m o r a n d u m s , e t c .
U s u a lly in v o lv e s a p p lic a t io n o f p r e d e t e r m in e d d is c o u n t s and s h ip p in g c h a r g e s
and e n t r y o f n e c e s s a r y e x t e n s io n s , w h ic h m a y o r m a y n ot b e c o m p u t e d on
th e b illin g m a c h in e ,
and t o t a ls w h ic h a r e a u t o m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la t e d b y
m a c h in e .
T h e o p e r a t io n u s u a lly in v o lv e s a l a r g e n u m b e r o f c a r b o n c o p i e s
o f th e b i l l b e in g p r e p a r e d and i s o ft e n d o n e on a fa n fo ld m a c h in e .
B o o k k e e p in g - m a c h in e b i l l e r .
U s e s a b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e (w ith o r
w ith o u t a t y p e w r it e r k e y b o a r d ) to p r e p a r e c u s t o m e r s ' b i l l s a s p a r t o f th e
a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e o p e r a t io n .
G e n e r a l ly i n v o lv e s th e s im u lta n e o u s e n t r y o f
f i g u r e s o n c u s t o m e r s ' le d g e r r e c o r d . T h e m a c h in e a u t o m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la t e s
f i g u r e s on a n u m b e r o f v e r t i c a l c o lu m n s an d c o m p u t e s and u s u a lly p r in t s a u t o ­
m a t i c a l l y th e d e b it o r c r e d i t b a la n c e s .
D o e s n o t in v o lv e a k n o w le d g e o f b o o k ­
k e e p in g .
W o r k s f r o m u n if o r m and s ta n d a r d t y p e s o f s a le s and c r e d i t s l i p s .
P A Y R O LL CLERK
C o m p u t e s w a g e s o f c o m p a n y e m p lo y e e s and e n t e r s th e n e c e s s a r y
d a ta on th e p a y r o l l s h e e t s .
D u tie s i n v o l v e :
C a lc u la t in g w o r k e r s ' e a r n in g s
b a s e d on t i m e o r p r o d u c t io n r e c o r d s ; and p o s t in g c a lc u la t e d d a ta on p a y r o l l
s h e e t , s h o w in g in fo r m a t io n s u c h a s w o r k e r 's n a m e , w o r k in g d a y s , t i m e , r a t e ,
d e d u c t io n s f o r i n s u r a n c e , and t o t a l w a g e s d u e .
M a y m a k e ou t p a y c h e c k s and
a s s i s t p a y m a s t e r in m a k in g up and d is t r ib u t in g p a y e n v e lo p e s .
M ay u se a
c a lc u la t in g m a c h in e .




P o s it io n s
d e f in it io n s .

are

c la s s ifie d

in to

le v e ls

on

th e

b a s is o f th e f o llo w in g

C la s s A .
W o rk r e q u i r e s th e a p p lic a t io n o f e x p e r i e n c e and ju d g m e n t
in s e l e c t i n g p r o c e d u r e s to b e f o llo w e d an d in s e a r c h i n g f o r , in t e r p r e t in g ,
s e l e c t i n g , o r c o d in g it e m s to b e k e y p u n c h e d f r o m a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e d o c u ­
m e n ts.
On o c c a s i o n m a y a ls o p e r f o r m s o m e r o u tin e k e y p u n ch w o r k .
M ay
t r a i n in e x p e r i e n c e d k e y p u n ch o p e r a t o r s .
C la s s B .
W o r k i s r o u tin e and r e p e t i t i v e .
U n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v is io n
o r f o llo w in g s p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e s o r i n s t r u c t i o n s , w o r k s f r o m v a r io u s s ta n ­
d a r d iz e d s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s w h ic h h a v e b e e n c o d e d , and f o l l o w s s p e c i f i e d
p r o c e d u r e s w h ic h h a v e b e e n p r e s c r i b e d in d e t a il and r e q u ir e lit t le o r n o
s e l e c t i n g , c o d in g , o r in t e r p r e t in g o f d a ta to b e r e c o r d e d . R e f e r s to s u p e r v i s o r
p r o b l e m s a r i s i n g f r o m e r r o n e o u s i t e m s o r c o d e s o r m i s s i n g in fo r m a t io n .

T A B U L A T I N G -M A C H I N E O P E R A T O R

O p e r a t e s o n e o r a v a r i e t y o f m a c h in e s s u c h a s th e t a b u la t o r , c a l c u ­
l a t o r , c o l l a t o r , i n t e r p r e t e r , s o r t e r , r e p r o d u c in g p u n c h , e t c .
E x c lu d e d f r o m
t h is d e f in it io n a r e w o r k in g s u p e r v i s o r s .
A l s o e x c lu d e d a r e o p e r a t o r s o f
e l e c t r o n i c d ig it a l c o m p u t e r s , e v e n th o u g h th e y m a y a ls o o p e r a t e e l e c t r i c
a c c o u n t in g m a c h in e e q u ip m e n t.
P o s itio n s
d e f in it io n s .

are

c la s s ifie d

in to

le v e ls

on

th e

b a s is o f th e f o llo w in g

C la s s A .
P e r f o r m s c o m p le t e r e p o r t in g and ta b u la tin g a s s ig n m e n t s
in c lu d in g d e v is i n g d i f f i c u l t c o n t r o l p a n e l w ir in g u n d e r g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n .
A s s ig n m e n t s t y p i c a l l y in v o lv e a v a r i e t y o f lo n g and c o m p l e x r e p o r t s w h ic h
o ft e n a r e i r r e g u l a r o r n o n r e c u r r i n g , r e q u ir in g s o m e p la n n in g o f th e n a tu r e
a nd s e q u e n c in g o f o p e r a t i o n s , and th e u s e o f a v a r i e t y o f m a c h in e s .
Is
t y p i c a l l y in v o lv e d in tr a in in g n e w o p e r a t o r s in m a c h in e o p e r a t io n s o r tr a in in g
lo w e r l e v e l o p e r a t o r s in w ir in g f r o m d ia g r a m s and in th e o p e r a t in g s e q u e n c e s
o f lo n g and c o m p l e x r e p o r t s .
D o e s n o t in c lu d e p o s it io n s in w h ic h w ir in g
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is lim it e d t o s e l e c t i o n and in s e r t i o n o f p r e w i r e d b o a r d s .
C l a s s B . ■ P e r f o r m s w o r k a c c o r d i n g t o e s t a b lis h e d p r o c e d u r e s a nd
u n d e r s p e c i f i c in s t r u c t i o n s .
A s s ig n m e n t s t y p i c a l l y in v o lv e c o m p le t e but r o u ­
tin e and r e c u r r i n g r e p o r t s o r p a r t s o f l a r g e r a nd m o r e c o m p l e x r e p o r t s .
O p e r a t e s m o r e d if f i c u l t ta b u la tin g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t in g m a c h in e s s u c h a s
th e t a b u la t o r and c a l c u l a t o r , in a d d itio n to th e s i m p l e r m a c h in e s u s e d b y
c la s s C o p e r a to r s .
M a y b e r e q u i r e d to d o s o m e w ir in g f r o m d ia g r a m s .
C la s s C .
U n d er s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s , o p e r a t e s s im p le ta b u la tin g
o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t in g m a c h in e s s u c h a s th e s o r t e r , in t e r p r e t e r , r e p r o d u c in g
punch, c o lla t o r , e tc .
A s s ig n m e n t s t y p i c a l l y in v o lv e p o r t io n s o f a w o r k u n it,
f o r e x a m p le , in d iv id u a l s o r t i n g o r c o lla t in g r u n s , o r r e p e t it iv e o p e r a t io n s .
M ay p e r fo r m
s im p le w ir in g f r o m d i a g r a m s , and d o s o m e f ilin g w o r k .

PR O FESSIO NA L A N D TEC H N IC A L
C O M P U T E R S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T , BU SIN E SS

C O M P U T E R S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T , B U SIN E SS— C o n tin u e d

A n a l y z e s b u s in e s s p r o b l e m s to fo r m u la t e p r o c e d u r e s f o r s o lv in g
th e m b y u s e o f e l e c t r o n i c d a ta p r o c e s s i n g e q u ip m e n t.
D e v e lo p s a c o m p le t e
d e s c r i p t i o n o f a ll s p e c i f i c a t i o n s n e e d e d to e n a b le p r o g r a m m e r s to p r e p a r e
r e q u i r e d d ig it a l c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s .
W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
A n a l y z e s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o p e r a t io n s to b e a u to m a te d and id e n t i fie s c o n d it io n s
a nd c r i t e r i a r e q u ir e d to a c h ie v e s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s ; s p e c i f i e s n u m b e r and
t y p e s o f r e c o r d s , f i l e s , and d o c u m e n t s to b e u s e d ; o u t lin e s a c t i o n s to be
p e r f o r m e d b y p e r s o n n e l a nd c o m p u t e r s in s u f f ic ie n t d e t a il f o r p r e s e n t a t io n
t o m a n a g e m e n t and f o r p r o g r a m m in g ( t y p ic a lly t h is i n v o lv e s p r e p a r a t io n o f
w o r k and d a ta f lo w c h a r t s ) ; c o o r d i n a t e s th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t e s t p r o b l e m s and
p a r t ic ip a t e s in t r i a l ru n s o f n e w and r e v i s e d s y s t e m s ; and r e c o m m e n d s e q u ip ­
m e n t c h a n g e s to o b ta in m o r e e f f e c t i v e o v e r a l l o p e r a t i o n s .
(N O T E :
W ork ers
p e r f o r m i n g b oth s y s t e m s a n a ly s is and p r o g r a m m in g s h o u ld b e c l a s s i f i e d a s
s y s t e m s a n a ly s t s i f th is i s th e s k ill u s e d to d e t e r m i n e t h e ir p a y .)

C la s s C .
W o r k s u n d e r im m e d ia t e s u p e r v i s i o n , c a r r y i n g ou t a n a ly ­
s e s a s a s s i g n e d , u s u a lly o f a s in g le a c t i v it y .
A s s ig n m e n t s a r e d e s ig n e d to
d e v e lo p and e x p a n d p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e in th e a p p lic a t io n o f p r o c e d u r e s and
s k i l l s r e q u ir e d f o r s y s t e m s a n a ly s is w o r k .
F o r e x a m p le , m a y a s s i s t a h ig h e r
l e v e l s y s t e m s a n a ly s t b y p r e p a r in g th e d e t a ile d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d b y
p rogram m ers
fro m
in fo r m a t io n d e v e lo p e d b y th e h ig h e r l e v e l a n a ly s t .

D o e s n o t in c lu d e e m p lo y e e s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e m a n a g e ­
m e n t o r s u p e r v is io n o f o t h e r e l e c t r o n i c da ta p r o c e s s i n g e m p l o y e e s , o r s y s ­
t e m s a n a ly s t s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w ith s c i e n t i f i c o r e n g in e e r in g p r o b l e m s .
F o r w a g e s tu d y p u r p o s e s , s y s t e m s a n a ly s t s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s f o l l o w s :
C la s s A .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n on
c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s in v o lv in g a ll p h a s e s o f s y s t e m a n a ly s is .
P r o b le m s a re
c o m p l e x b e c a u s e o f d i v e r s e s o u r c e s o f in p u t d a ta and m u lt ip le '-u s e r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s o f o u tp u t d a ta .
( F o r e x a m p le , d e v e lo p s an in t e g r a t e d p r o d u c t io n s c h e d ­
u lin g , in v e n t o r y c o n t r o l , c o s t a n a l y s i s , and s a le s a n a ly s is r e c o r d in w h ic h
e v e r y it e m o f e a c h ty p e i s a u t o m a t ic a lly p r o c e s s e d th r o u g h th e f u ll s y s t e m
o f r e c o r d s and a p p r o p r ia t e f o llo w u p a c t io n s a r e in it ia t e d b y th e c o m p u t e r .)
C o n f e r s w ith p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d to d e t e r m i n e th e d a ta p r o c e s s i n g p r o b l e m s
and a d v i s e s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r p e r s o n n e l on th e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f n e w o r r e v i s e d
s y s t e m s o f d a ta p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s .
M akes re co m m e n d a tio n s , if n ee d e d ,
f o r a p p r o v a l o f m a j o r s y s t e m s in s t a lla t io n s o r c h a n g e s and f o r o b ta in in g
e q u ip m e n t.

C O M P U T E R P R O G R A M M E R , B U SIN E SS
C o n v e r t s s ta t e m e n ts o f b u s in e s s p r o b l e m s , t y p i c a l l y p r e p a r e d b y a
s y s t e m s a n a ly s t , in to a s e q u e n c e o f d e t a ile d in s t r u c t io n s w h ich a r e r e q u i r e d
to s o lv e th e p r o b l e m s b y a u t o m a t ic d a ta p r o c e s s i n g e q u ip m e n t.
W o r k in g f r o m
c h a r t s o r d i a g r a m s , th e p r o g r a m m e r d e v e lo p s th e p r e c i s e in s t r u c t io n s w h ic h ,
w h en e n t e r e d in to th e c o m p u t e r s y s t e m in c o d e d la n g u a g e , c a u s e th e m a n ip u ­
la t io n o f d a ta t o a c h ie v e d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
A p p lie s k n o w le d g e o f c o m p u t e r c a p a b i l i t i e s , m a t h e m a t ic s , l o g i c e m p lo y e d b y
c o m p u t e r s , and p a r t i c u l a r s u b je c t m a t t e r in v o lv e d to a n a ly z e c h a r t s and
d ia g r a m s o f - t h e p r o b l e m to b e p r o g r a m m e d ; d e v e lo p s s e q u e n c e o f p r o g r a m
s t e p s ; w r i t e s d e t a ile d flo w c h a r t s to s h o w o r d e r in w h ic h d a ta w i l l b e
p r o c e s s e d ; c o n v e r t s t h e s e c h a r t s to c o d e d i n s t r u c t io n s f o r m a c h in e to f o llo w ;
t e s t s and c o r r e c t s p r o g r a m s ; p r e p a r e s in s t r u c t io n s f o r o p e r a t in g p e r s o n n e l
d u r in g p r o d u c t io n ru n ; a n a ly z e s , r e v i e w s , and a lt e r s p r o g r a m s to i n c r e a s e
o p e r a t in g e f f i c i e n c y o r a d a p t to n e w r e q u i r e m e n t s ; m a in ta in s r e c o r d s o f
p rogram
d e v e lo p m e n t and r e v i s i o n s .
(N O T E :
W o r k e r s p e r f o r m i n g b o th
s y s t e m s a n a ly s is and p r o g r a m m in g s h o u ld b e c l a s s i f i e d a s s y s t e m s a n a ly s t s
if th is is th e s k ill u s e d to d e t e r m i n e t h e ir p a y .)
D o e s n o t in c lu d e e m p l o y e e s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e m a n a g e ­
m e n t o r s u p e r v is io n o f o t h e r e l e c t r o n i c d a ta p r o c e s s i n g e m p l o y e e s , o r p r o ­
g r a m m e r s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w ith s c i e n t i f i c a n d / o r e n g in e e r in g p r o b l e m s .
F or

M a y p r o v id e f u n c t io n a l
w h o a r e a s s i g n e d to a s s i s t .

d ir e c tio n

to

lo w e r

le v e l sy s te m s

C la s s B .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n on
p r o b l e m s th at a r e r e l a t i v e l y u n c o m p lic a t e d t o a n a ly z e , p la n , p r o g r a m , and
op era te.
P r o b l e m s a r e o f li m i t e d c o m p le x it y b e c a u s e s o u r c e s o f in p u t da ta
a r e h o m o g e n e o u s and th e ou tp u t d a ta a r e c l o s e l y r e la t e d .
( F o r e x a m p le ,
d e v e lo p s s y s t e m s f o r m a in ta in in g d e p o s i t o r a c c o u n t s in a b a n k , m a in ta in in g
a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e in a r e t a i l e s t a b lis h m e n t , o r m a in ta in in g in v e n t o r y
a c c o u n t s in a m a n u fa c t u r in g o r w h o l e s a le e s t a b lis h m e n t .)
C o n fe r s w ith p e r ­
s o n s c o n c e r n e d to d e t e r m i n e th e d a ta p r o c e s s i n g p r o b l e m s and a d v i s e s
s u b j e c t - m a t t e r p e r s o n n e l on th e i m p lic a t io n s o f th e d a ta p r o c e s s i n g s y s t e m s
to b e a p p lie d .

s tu d y p u r p o s e s ,

program m ers

a re c la s s ifie d

as fo llo w s :

C la s s A . W o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n on
c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s w h ic h r e q u ir e c o m p e t e n c e in a l l p h a s e s o f p r o g r a m m in g
c o n c e p t s and p r a c t i c e s .
W o r k in g f r o m d ia g r a m s and c h a r t s w h ich id e n t ify
th e n a tu r e o f d e s i r e d r e s u l t s , m a j o r p r o c e s s i n g s t e p s to b e a c c o m p l i s h e d ,
a nd th e r e la t io n s h ip s b e tw e e n v a r io u s s t e p s o f th e p r o b l e m s o lv in g r o u t in e ;
p la n s th e f u ll r a n g e o f p r o g r a m m in g a c t i o n s n e e d e d to e f f i c i e n t l y u t iliz e th e
c o m p u t e r s y s t e m in a c h ie v in g d e s i r e d end p r o d u c t s .
A t th is l e v e l , p r o g r a m m in g is d if f ic u l t b e c a u s e c o m p u t e r e q u ip m e n t
m u s t b e o r g a n iz e d to p r o d u c e s e v e r a l i n t e r r e l a t e d b u t d i v e r s e p r o d u c t s f r o m
n u m e r o u s and d i v e r s e d a ta e le m e n t s .
A w id e v a r i e t y and e x t e n s iv e n u m b e r
o f in t e r n a l p r o c e s s i n g a c t i o n s m u s t o c c u r .
T h is r e q u i r e s s u ch a c t i o n s a s
d e v e lo p m e n t o f c o m m o n o p e r a t io n s w h ic h c a n be r e u s e d , e s t a b lis h m e n t o f
lin k a g e p o in ts b e tw e e n o p e r a t i o n s , a d ju s t m e n t s to d a ta w h e n p r o g r a m r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s e x c e e d c o m p u t e r s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y , and s u b s ta n tia l m a n ip u la tio n and
r e s e q u e n c in g o f d a ta e le m e n t s t o f o r m a h ig h ly in t e g r a t e d p r o g r a m .

OR
W o r k s on a s e g m e n t o f a c o m p l e x d a ta p r o c e s s i n g s c h e m e o r s y s t e m ,
as d e s crib e d fo r c la s s A .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly on r o u tin e a s s ig n m e n t s and
r e c e i v e s i n s t r u c t io n and g u id a n c e o n c o m p l e x a s s i g n m e n t s .
W o r k i s r e v ie w e d
f o r a c c u r a c y o f ju d g m e n t, c o m p lia n c e w ith i n s t r u c t i o n s , and t o in s u r e p r o p e r
a lig n m e n t w ith th e o v e r a l l s y s t e m .




w age

a n a ly s t s

M a y p r o v id e fu n c t io n a l d i r e c t i o n to l o w e r l e v e l p r o g r a m m e r s w h o a r e
a s s i g n e d to a s s i s t .

18

C O M P U T E R P R O G R A M M E R , BUSINESS— Continued

C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R ---- Continued

C la s s B .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n on
r e l a t i v e l y s im p le p r o g r a m s , o r on s im p le s e g m e n t s o f c o m p l e x p r o g r a m s .
P r o g r a m s ( o r s e g m e n t s ) u s'u a lly p r o c e s s in f o r m a t io n t o p r o d u c e d a ta in tw o
o r th re e v a r ie d s e q u e n ce s o r fo r m a t s .
R e p o r t s and lis t i n g s a r e p r o d u c e d b y
r e f in in g , a d a p tin g , a r r a y in g , o r m a k in g m i n o r a d d itio n s to o r d e le t io n s f r o m
in pu t d a ta w h ic h a r e r e a d il y a v a ila b le .
W h ile n u m e r o u s r e c o r d s m a y b e
p r o c e s s e d , th e d a ta h av e b e e n r e f in e d in p r i o r a c t io n s so that th e a c c u r a c y
and s e q u e n c in g o f d a ta c a n b e t e s t e d b y u s in g a fe w r o u tin e c h e c k s . T y p i c a l l y ,
th e p r o g r a m d e a ls w ith r o u tin e r e c o r d k e e p i n g o p e r a t io n s .

m a j o r ch a n g e o r ca n n o t b e c o r r e c t e d w ith in a r e a s o n a b ly s h o r t t i m e .
In
c o m m o n e r r o r s it u a t io n s , d ia g n o s e s c a u s e and ta k e s c o r r e c t i v e a c t io n .
T h is
u s u a lly i n v o lv e s a p p ly in g p r e v i o u s l y p r o g r a m m e d c o r r e c t i v e s t e p s , o r u sin g
s ta n d a r d c o r r e c t i o n t e c h n iq u e s .

OR
W ork s
d ir e c tio n o f a
le v e l p r o g r a m m
and p e r f o r m i n g

on c o m p l e x p r o g r a m s (a s d e s c r i b e d f o r c l a s s A) u n d e r c l o s e
h ig h e r l e v e l p r o g r a m m e r o r s u p e r v i s o r .
M a y a s s i s t h ig h e r
e r b y in d e p e n d e n tly p e r f o r m i n g l e s s d if f ic u l t t a s k s a s s i g n e d ,
m o r e d if f ic u l t t a s k s u n d e r f a i r l y c l o s e d i r e c t i o n .

M a y g u id e o r in s t r u c t lo w e r l e v e l p r o g r a m m e r s .
C la s s C .
M a k e s p r a c t i c a l a p p lic a t io n s o f p r o g r a m m in g p r a c t i c e s
and c o n c e p t s u s u a lly le a r n e d in f o r m a l t r a in in g c o u r s e s .
A s s ig n m e n t s a r e
d e s ig n e d to d e v e lo p c o m p e t e n c e in th e a p p lic a t io n o f s ta n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s to
r o u tin e p r o b l e m s . R e c e i v e s c l o s e s u p e r v is io n on n e w a s p e c t s o f a s s i g n m e n t s ;
and w o r k i s r e v ie w e d to v e r i f y it s a c c u r a c y and c o n f o r m a n c e w ith r e q u ir e d
p roced u res.

COM PUTER O PERATO R
M o n it o r s and o p e r a t e s th e c o n t r o l c o n s o l e o f a d ig it a l c o m p u t e r to
p r o c e s s d a ta a c c o r d i n g to o p e r a t in g i n s t r u c t i o n s , u s u a lly p r e p a r e d b y a p r o ­
gra m m er.
W o r k in c lu d e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g : S tu d ie s i n s t r u c t io n s to
d e t e r m i n e e q u ip m e n t s e tu p and o p e r a t i o n s ; lo a d s e q u ip m e n t w ith r e q u ir e d
it e m s (ta p e r e e l s , c a r d s , e t c . ) ; s w it c h e s n e c e s s a r y a u x ilia r y e q u ip m e n t in to
c i r c u i t , and s t a r t s and o p e r a t e s c o m p u t e r ; m a k e s a d ju s tm e n t s to c o m p u t e r to
c o r r e c t o p e r a t in g p r o b l e m s and m e e t s p e c i a l c o n d it io n s ; r e v ie w s e r r o r s m a d e
d u r in g o p e r a t io n and d e t e r m i n e s c a u s e o r r e f e r s p r o b le m to s u p e r v i s o r o r
p r o g r a m m e r ; and m a in ta in s o p e r a t in g r e c o r d s .
M a y t e s t and a s s i s t in
c o r r e c tin g p ro g ra m .
For

w age

s tu d y

pu rposes,

com p u ter

op erators

are

c la s s ifie d

as

fo llo w s :
C la s s A .
O p e r a t e s in d e p e n d e n tly , o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n ,
a c o m p u t e r ru n n in g p r o g r a m s w ith m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :
N e w p r o g r a m s a r e fr e q u e n t ly t e s t e d and in t r o d u c e d ; s c h e d u lin g r e q u ir e m e n t s
a r e o f c r i t i c a l im p o r t a n c e to m i n im iz e d o w n tim e ; the p r o g r a m s a r e o f
c o m p l e x d e s ig n s o th at id e n t ific a t io n o f e r r o r s o u r c e o fte n r e q u i r e s a w o r k in g
k n o w le d g e o f th e t o t a l p r o g r a m , and a lte r n a te p r o g r a m s m a y n ot b e a v a ila b le .
M a y g iv e d i r e c t i o n and g u id a n c e to lo w e r l e v e l o p e r a t o r s .
C la s s B .
O p e r a t e s in d e p e n d e n tly , o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n ,
a c o m p u t e r ru n n in g p r o g r a m s w ith m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :
M o s t o f th e p r o g r a m s a r e e s t a b lis h e d p r o d u c t io n r u n s , t y p i c a l l y ru n on a
r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r i n g b a s i s ; t h e r e is lit t le o r n o t e s t in g o f n e w p r o g r a m s
r e q u ir e d ; a lt e r n a t e p r o g r a m s a r e p r o v id e d in c a s e o r i g i n a l p r o g r a m n e e d s




OR
O p e r a t e s u n d e r d i r e c t s u p e r v is io n a c o m p u t e r ru n n in g p r o g r a m s o r
s e g m e n t s o f p r o g r a m s w ith th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d f o r c l a s s A .
M ay
a s s i s t a h ig h e r l e v e l o p e r a t o r b y in d e p e n d e n tly p e r f o r m i n g l e s s d if f ic u l t ta s k s
a s s i g n e d , and p e r f o r m i n g d if f ic u l t t a s k s f o llo w in g d e t a ile d in s t r u c t io n s and
w ith f r e q u e n t r e v ie w o f o p e r a t io n s p e r f o r m e d .

e x p ected
a b ilit y to
r e c e iv e d
op erator

C la s s C .
W o r k s o n r o u t in e p r o g r a m s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v is io n .
Is
to d e v e lo p w o r k in g k n o w le d g e o f th e c o m p u t e r e q u ip m e n t u s e d and
d e t e c t p r o b l e m s in v o lv e d in ru n n in g r o u tin e p r o g r a m s .
U s u a lly h as
s o m e f o r m a l tr a in in g in c o m p u t e r o p e r a t io n . M a y a s s i s t h ig h e r l e v e l
on c o m p l e x p r o g r a m s .

DRAFTER
C la s s A .
P la n s th e g r a p h ic p r e s e n t a t io n o f c o m p le x it e m s h av in g
d is t in c t iv e d e s ig n f e a t u r e s th a t d i f f e r s ig n ific a n t l y f r o m e s t a b lis h e d d r a ftin g
p reced en ts.
W o r k s in c l o s e s u p p o r t w ith th e d e s ig n o r i g i n a t o r , and m a y
r e c o m m e n d m i n o r d e s ig n c h a n g e s .
A n a l y z e s th e e f f e c t o f e a c h ch a n g e on th e
d e t a ils o f f o r m , f u n c t io n , and p o s it io n a l r e la t io n s h ip s o f c o m p o n e n t s and p a r t s .
W o r k s w ith a m in im u m
o f s u p e r v is o r y a s s is t a n c e .
C o m p le t e d w o r k is
r e v ie w e d b y d e s ig n o r i g i n a t o r f o r c o n s i s t e n c y w ith p r i o r e n g in e e r in g d e t e r ­
m in a tio n s .
M a y e it h e r p r e p a r e d r a w in g s o r d i r e c t t h e ir p r e p a r a t io n b y lo w e r
le v e l d r a fte r s .

C la s s B .
P e r f o r m s n o n r o u tin e and c o m p l e x d r a ftin g a s s ig n m e n t s
th a t r e q u ir e th e a p p lic a t io n o f m o s t o f th e s t a n d a r d iz e d d r a w in g t e c h n iq u e s
r e g u la r ly u se d .
D u tie s t y p i c a l l y in v o lv e s u ch w o r k a s :
P r e p a r e s w o r k in g
d r a w in g s o f s u b a s s e m b l i e s w ith i r r e g u l a r s h a p e s , m u lt ip le f u n c t io n s , and
p r e c i s e p o s i t i o n a l r e la t io n s h ip s b e tw e e n c o m p o n e n t s ; p r e p a r e s a r c h i t e c t u r a l
d r a w in g s f o r c o n s t r u c t io n o f a b u ild in g in c lu d in g d e t a il d r a w in g s o f fo u n ­
d a t io n s , w a ll s e c t i o n s , f l o o r p la n s , and r o o f .
U s e s a c c e p t e d f o r m u la s and
m a n u a ls in m a k i n g n e c e s s a r y c o m p u t a t io n s to d e t e r m in e q u a n tit ie s o f
m a t e r i a l s to b e u s e d , lo a d c a p a c i t i e s , s t r e n g t h s , s t r e s s e s , e t c .
R e c e iv e s
i n i t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , r e q u i r e m e n t s , and a d v ic e f r o m s u p e r v i s o r .
C o m p le t e d
w o r k is c h e c k e d f o r t e c h n i c a l a d e q u a c y .

C la s s C .
P r e p a r e s d e t a il d r a w in g s o f s in g le u n its o r p a r t s f o r
e n g in e e r i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n , m a n u fa c t u r in g , o r r e p a ir p u r p o s e s .
Types of
d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d in c lu d e i s o m e t r i c p r o j e c t i o n s ( d e p ic t in g t h r e e d im e n s io n s
in a c c u r a t e s c a l e ) and s e c t i o n a l v ie w s to c l a r i f y p o s it io n in g o f c o m p o n e n t s
and c o n v e y n e e d e d in f o r m a t io n .
C o n s o l id a t e s d e t a ils f r o m a n u m b e r o f
s o u r c e s and a d ju s t s o r t r a n s p o s e s s c a l e a s r e q u i r e d .
S u g g e s te d m e t h o d s o f
a p p r o a c h , a p p lic a b le p r e c e d e n t s , and a d v i c e on s o u r c e m a t e r ia ls a r e g iv e n
w ith in it ia l a s s i g n m e n t s .
I n s t r u c t io n s a r e l e s s c o m p le t e w h en a s s ig n m e n t s
recu r.
W o r k m a y b e s p o t - c h e c k e d d u r in g p r o g r e s s .

D R A F T E R -T R A C E R

E L E C T R O N IC S T E C H N IC IA N — Continued

C o p i e s p la n s and d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s b y p la c in g t r a c in g
c lo t h o r p a p e r o v e r d r a w in g s and t r a c in g w ith p e n o r p e n c i l .
(D o e s not
in c lu d e t r a c i n g lim it e d to p la n s p r i m a r i l y c o n s i s t in g o f s t r a ig h t lin e s and a
l a r g e s c a l e n ot r e q u ir in g c l o s e d e lin e a t io n .)

W o r k m a y b e r e v ie w e d b y s u p e r v i s o r ( fr e q u e n t ly an e n g in e e r o r
d e s i g n e r ) f o r g e n e r a l c o m p lia n c e w ith a c c e p t e d p r a c t i c e s .
M a y p r o v id e
t e c h n i c a l g u id a n c e to lo w e r l e v e l t e c h n ic ia n s .

A N D /O R

W o r k is

P r e p a r e s s im p le o r r e p e t it iv e d r a w in g s
c l o s e l y s u p e r v is e d d u r in g p r o g r e s s .

o f e a s i l y v i s u a l iz e d i t e m s .

E L E C T R O N I C S T E C H N IC IA N
W o r k s on v a r io u s t y p e s o f e l e c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t and r e la t e d d e v i c e s
b y p e r f o r m i n g o n e o r a c o m b in a t io n o f th e f o llo w in g :
I n s t a llin g , m a in ta in in g ,
r e p a i r i n g , o v e r h a u lin g , t r o u b le s h o o t in g , m o d if y in g , c o n s t r u c t in g , and t e s t in g .
W o r k r e q u i r e s p r a c t i c a l a p p lic a t io n o f t e c h n i c a l k n o w le d g e o f e l e c t r o n i c s
p r i n c i p l e s , a b ilit y to d e t e r m i n e m a lf u n c t io n s , and s k ill to put e q u ip m e n t in
r e q u i r e d o p e r a t in g c o n d it io n .
T h e e q u ip m e n t— c o n s i s t in g o f e it h e r m a n y d if f e r e n t k in d s o f c i r c u i t s
o r m u lt ip le r e p e t it io n o f th e s a m e k in d o f c i r c u i t — i n c l u d e s , but is n ot lim it e d
t o , th e f o llo w in g :
(a ) E l e c t r o n i c t r a n s m it t in g and r e c e i v i n g e q u ip m e n t ( e . g . ,
r a d a r , r a d io , t e l e v i s i o n , t e l e p h o n e , s o n a r , n a v ig a t io n a l a id s ) , (b ) d ig it a l and
a n a lo g c o m p u t e r s , and ( c ) in d u s t r ia l and m e d i c a l m e a s u r in g and c o n t r o lli n g
e q u ip m e n t.
T h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e x c lu d e s r e p a i r e r s o f s u c h s ta n d a r d e l e c t r o n i c
e q u ip m e n t a s c o m m o n o f f i c e m a c h in e s and h o u s e h o ld r a d io and t e l e v i s i o n
s e t s ; p r o d u c t io n a s s e m b l e r s a nd t e s t e r s ; w o r k e r s w h o s e p r i m a r y du ty is
s e r v i c i n g e l e c t r o n i c t e s t i n s t r u m e n t s ; t e c h n ic ia n s w h o h av e a d m in is t r a t iv e
o r s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; and d r a f t e r s , d e s i g n e r s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l
e n g in e e r s .
P o s it io n s
d e f in it io n s .

are

c la s s ifie d

in to

le v e ls

on

th e

b a s is

C l a s s B . A p p lie s c o m p r e h e n s i v e t e c h n i c a l k n o w le d g e to s o lv e c o m ­
p l e x p r o b l e m s ( i . e . , t h o s e th a t t y p i c a l l y c a n b e s o lv e d s o l e l y b y p r o p e r l y
in t e r p r e t in g m a n u f a c t u r e r s ' m a n u a ls o r s i m i l a r d o c u m e n t s ) in w o r k in g on
e l e c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t .
W ork in v o lv e s :
A f a m i l i a r i t y w ith th e i n t e r r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip s o f c i r c u i t s ; and ju d g m e n t in d e t e r m in in g w o r k s e q u e n c e and in s e le c t in g
t o o l s and t e s t in g i n s t r u m e n t s , u s u a lly l e s s c o m p l e x th a n t h o s e u s e d b y th e
c l a s s A t e c h n ic ia n .
R e c e i v e s t e c h n i c a l g u id a n c e , a s r e q u i r e d , f r o m s u p e r v i s o r o r h ig h e r
l e v e l t e c h n ic ia n , and w o r k is r e v ie w e d f o r s p e c i f i c c o m p lia n c e w ith a c c e p t e d
p r a c t i c e s and w o r k a s s i g n m e n t s .
M a y p r o v id e t e c h n i c a l g u id a n c e to lo w e r
l e v e l t e c h n ic ia n s .
C l a s s C . A p p lie s w o r k in g t e c h n i c a l k n o w le d g e to p e r f o r m s im p le o r
r o u t in e t a s k s in w o r k in g on e l e c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t , f o llo w in g d e t a ile d i n s t r u c ­
t io n s w h ic h c o v e r v i r t u a l l y a ll p r o c e d u r e s .
W o r k t y p i c a l l y in v o lv e s s u c h
ta sk s a s:
A s s i s t i n g h ig h e r l e v e l t e c h n ic ia n s b y p e r f o r m i n g s u c h a c t i v i t i e s a s
r e p l a c i n g c o m p o n e n t s , w ir in g c i r c u i t s , and ta k in g t e s t r e a d in g s ; r e p a ir in g
s im p le e l e c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t; and u s in g t o o l s and c o m m o n t e s t in s t r u m e n t s
( e . g . , m u l t i m e t e r s , a u d io s ig n a l g e n e r a t o r s , tu b e t e s t e r s , o s c i l l o s c o p e s ) .
Is n o t r e q u i r e d to b e f a m i l i a r w ith th e in t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c i r c u i t s .
T h is
k n o w le d g e , h o w e v e r , m a y b e a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a s s ig n m e n t s d e s ig n e d to
i n c r e a s e c o m p e t e n c e (in c lu d in g c l a s s r o o m
t r a in in g ) s o th a t w o r k e r ca n
a d v a n c e t o h ig h e r l e v e l t e c h n ic ia n .
R e c e i v e s t e c h n i c a l g u id a n c e , a s r e q u i r e d , f r o m s u p e r v i s o r o r h ig h e r
l e v e l t e c h n ic ia n .
W o r k is t y p i c a l l y s p o t c h e c k e d , but i s g iv e n d e t a ile d r e v i e w
w h en n e w o r a d v a n c e d a s s i g n m e n t s a r e in v o lv e d .
R E G IS T E R E D IN D U S T R IA L N U R SE

o f th e f o llo w in g

A r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e w h o g iv e s n u r s in g s e r v i c e u n d e r g e n e r a l m e d i c a l
d i r e c t i o n to i l l o r in ju r e d e m p l o y e e s o r o t h e r p e r s o n s w h o b e c o m e - i l l o r
s u f f e r an a c c id e n t on th e p r e m i s e s o f a f a c t o r y o r o t h e r e s t a b lis h m e n t .
D u tie s in v o lv e a c o m b in a t io n o f th e f o l l o w i n g : G iv in g f i r s t a id to th e i l l o r
in ju r e d ; a tte n d in g t o s u b s e q u e n t d r e s s i n g o f e m p l o y e e s ' i n j u r i e s ; k e e p in g
r e c o r d s o f p a t ie n t s t r e a t e d ; p r e p a r in g a c c id e n t r e p o r t s f o r c o m p e n s a t io n o r
o t h e r p u r p o s e s ; a s s i s t i n g in p h y s i c a l e x a m in a t io n s and h e a lth e v a lu a t io n s o f
a p p lic a n t s and e m p l o y e e s ; and p la n n in g and c a r r y i n g o u t p r o g r a m s in v o lv in g
h e a lth e d u c a t io n , a c c id e n t p r e v e n t io n , e v a lu a t io n o f p la n t e n v ir o n m e n t , o r
o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s a ff e c t in g th e h e a lt h , w e l f a r e , and s a fe t y o f a ll p e r s o n n e l.
N u r s in g s u p e r v i s o r s o r h e a d n u r s e s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s e m p lo y in g m o r e than
o n e n u r s e a r e e x c lu d e d .

C la s s A .
A p p lie s a d v a n c e d t e c h n i c a l k n o w le d g e to s o lv e u n u s u a lly
c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s ( i . e . , t h o s e th a t t y p i c a l l y c a n n o t b e s o lv e d s o l e l y b y r e f e r ­
e n c e to m a n u f a c t u r e r s ' m a n u a ls o r s i m i l a r d o c u m e n t s ) in w o r k in g on e l e c ­
t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t.
E x a m p le s o f s u c h p r o b l e m s in c lu d e lo c a t io n and d e n s it y o f
c i r c u i t r y , e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c r a d ia t io n , i s o la t in g m a lf u n c t io n s , and fr e q u e n t
e n g in e e r in g c h a n g e s .
W ork in v o lv e s :
A d e t a ile d u n d e r s t a n d in g o f th e i n t e r ­
r e la t io n s h ip s o f c i r c u i t s ; e x e r c i s i n g in d e p e n d e n t ju d g m e n t in p e r f o r m i n g s u ch
t a s k s a s m a k in g c i r c u i t a n a l y s e s , c a lc u la t in g w a v e f o r m s , t r a c in g r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip s in s ig n a l f lo w ; and r e g u l a r l y u s in g c o m p l e x t e s t in s t r u m e n t s ( e . g . , d u a l
t r a c e o s c i l l o s c o p e s , Q - m e t e r s , d e v ia t io n m e t e r s , p u ls e g e n e r a t o r s ) .

M A IN TE N A N C E , TO O LR O O M , A N D P O W ER PLA N T
M A IN T E N A N C E C A R P E N T E R

M A IN T E N A N C E C A R P E N T E R — C o n tin u e d

P e r f o r m s th e c a r p e n t r y d u tie s n e c e s s a r y to c o n s t r u c t and m a in ta in
in g o o d r e p a ir b u ild in g w o o d w o r k and e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s b in s , c r i b s , c o u n t e r s ,
b e n c h e s , p a r t it i o n s , d o o r s , f l o o r s , s t a i r s , c a s i n g s , and t r i m m a d e o f w o o d
in an e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
P la n n in g and
la y in g ou t o f w o r k f r o m b lu e p r in t s , d r a w in g s , m o d e l s , o r v e r b a l in s t r u c t io n s ;

u s in g a v a r i e t y o f c a r p e n t e r 's h a n d t o o ls , p o r t a b le p o w e r t o o l s , and s ta n d a r d
m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ; m a k in g s ta n d a r d s h o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g to d im e n ­
s io n s o f w o r k ; and s e l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y f o r th e w o r k .
In g e n e r a l ,
th e w o r k o f th e m a in t e n a n c e c a r p e n t e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in in g and e x p e r i ­
e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g
an d e x p e r i e n c e .




20

M A IN T E N A N C E E L E C T R IC IA N

M A IN T E N A N C E M E C H A N IC (M otor veh icle)

P e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y o f e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e f u n c t io n s s u ch a s th e i n s t a l ­
la t io n , m a in t e n a n c e , o r r e p a i r o f e q u ip m e n t f o r th e g e n e r a t io n , d is t r ib u t io n ,
o r u tiliz a t io n o f e l e c t r i c e n e r g y in an e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k i n v o lv e s m o s t
o f th e f o l l o w i n g : I n s t a llin g o r r e p a ir in g a n y o f a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c a l e q u ip ­
m e n t s u ch a s g e n e r a t o r s , t r a n s f o r m e r s , s w it c h b o a r d s , c o n t r o l l e r s , c i r c u i t
b r e a k e r s , m o t o r s , h e a tin g u n it s , c o n d u it s y s t e m s , o r o t h e r t r a n s m i s s i o n
e q u ip m e n t; w o r k in g f r o m b lu e p r in t s , d r a w in g s , la y o u t s , o r o t h e r s p e c i f i ­
c a t i o n s ; lo c a t in g and d ia g n o s in g t r o u b le in th e e l e c t r i c a l s y s t e m o r e q u ip ­
m e n t; w o r k in g s ta n d a r d c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g to lo a d r e q u ir e m e n t s o f w ir in g
o r e l e c t r i c a l e q u ip m e n t; and u s in g a v a r i e t y o f e l e c t r i c i a n 's h a n d t o o ls and
m e a s u r in g and t e s t in g in s t r u m e n t s .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f th e m a in te n a n c e
e l e c t r i c i a n r e q u i r e s ro u n d e d t r a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h
a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e .

R e p a ir s a u t o m o b ile s , b u s e s , m o t o r t r u c k s , and t r a c t o r s o f an e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t . W o r k i n v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g : E x a m in in g a u t o m o t iv e e q u ip ­
m e n t to d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ; d i s a s s e m b lin g e q u ip m e n t a nd p e r f o r m in g
r e p a i r s th a t in v o lv e th e u s e o f s u ch h a n d t o o ls a s w r e n c h e s , g a u g e s , d r i l l s ,
o r s p e c i a l i z e d e q u ip m e n t in d i s a s s e m b lin g o r fitt in g p a r t s ; r e p la c in g b r o k e n
o r d e f e c t i v e p a r t s f r o m s t o c k ; g r in d in g and a d ju s tin g v a l v e s ; r e a s s e m b lin g and
in s t a llin g th e v a r io u s a s s e m b l i e s in th e v e h i c l e and m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t ­
m e n t s ; and a lig n in g w h e e l s , a d ju s tin g b r a k e s and lig h t s , o r tig h te n in g b o d y
b o lts .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f th e m o t o r v e h i c l e m a in te n a n c e m e c h a n ic
r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d tr a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a f o r m a l
a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e .
T h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d o e s n o t in c lu d e m e c h a n ic s w h o r e p a ir c u s t o m e r s '
v e h i c l e s in a u t o m o b ile r e p a i r s h o p s .

M A IN T E N A N C E P A IN T E R

M A IN T E N A N C E P I P E F I T T E R

P a in ts and r e d e c o r a t e s w a l l s , w o o d w o r k , and f ix t u r e s o f an e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o lv e s th e f o l l o w i n g : K n o w le d g e o f s u r f a c e p e c u l i a r i t i e s
a nd t y p e s o f p a in t r e q u ir e d f o r d if f e r e n t a p p lic a t io n s ; p r e p a r in g s u r f a c e f o r
p a in tin g b y r e m o v in g o ld f in is h o r b y p la c in g p u tty o r f i l l e r in n a il h o le s and
i n t e r s t i c e s ; and a p p ly in g p a in t w ith s p r a y gun o r b r u s h .
M ay m ix c o lo r s ,
o i l s , w h ite le a d , and o t h e r p a in t in g r e d ie n t s to o b ta in p r o p e r c o l o r o r
c o n s i s t e n c y . In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f th e m a in t e n a n c e p a in te r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d
tr a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e .

I n s t a lls o r r e p a i r s w a t e r , s t e a m , g a s , o r o t h e r ty p e s o f p ip e and
p ip e fit t in g s in an e s t a b lis h m e n t . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
L a y in g
o u t w o r k and m e a s u r in g to lo c a t e p o s it io n o f p ip e f r o m d r a w in g s o r o th e r
w r it t e n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; cu ttin g v a r io u s s i z e s o f p ip e t o c o r r e c t le n g th s w ith
c h i s e l a nd h a m m e r o r o x y a c e t y le n e t o r c h o r p ip e -c u t t in g m a c h in e s ; t h r e a d in g
p ip e w ith s t o c k s and d ie s ; b e n d in g p ip e b y h a n d - d r iv e n o r p o w e r - d r i v e n
m a c h in e s ; a s s e m b lin g p ip e w ith c o u p lin g s and fa s t e n in g p ip e to h a n g e r s ;
m a k in g s ta n d a r d sh o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g to p r e s s u r e s , f lo w , and s i z e o f
p ip e r e q u ir e d ; and m a k in g s ta n d a r d t e s t s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e th e r f in is h e d p ip e s
m e e t s p e c ific a tio n s .
In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f th e m a in te n a n c e p ip e fi t t e r
r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l
a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e .
W o rk e r s p r im a r ily
e n g a g e d in in s t a llin g and r e p a ir in g b u ild in g s a n it a tio n o r h e a tin g s y s t e m s
a r e e x c lu d e d .

M A IN T E N A N C E M A C H IN IS T
P r o d u c e s r e p la c e m e n t p a r t s and n e w p a r t s in m a k in g r e p a i r s o f
m e t a l p a r t s o f m e c h a n i c a l e q u ip m e n t o p e r a t e d in an e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o rk
i n v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g ; I n t e r p r e t in g w r it t e n in s t r u c t io n s and s p e c i ­
f i c a t i o n s ; p la n n in g and la y in g ou t o f w o r k ; u s in g a v a r ie t y o f m a c h i n i s t 's
h a n d t o o ls and p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ; s e ttin g up and o p e r a t in g
s ta n d a r d m a c h in e t o o l s ; s h a p in g o f m e t a l p a r t s to c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ; m a k in g
s ta n d a r d s h o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g t o d im e n s io n s o f w o r k , t o o l in g , f e e d s ,
an d s p e e d s o f m a c h in in g ; k n o w le d g e o f th e w o r k in g p r o p e r t i e s o f th e c o m m o n
m e t a l s ; s e le c t in g s ta n d a r d m a t e r i a l s , p a r t s , and e q u ip m e n t r e q u ir e d f o r th is
w o r k ; and fitt in g and a s s e m b lin g p a r t s in to m e c h a n i c a l e q u ip m e n t. In g e n e r a l ,
th e m a c h i n i s t 's w o r k n o r m a lly r e q u i r e s a r o u n d e d t r a in in g in m a c h i n e - s h o p
p r a c t i c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t
t r a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e .

M A IN T E N A N C E S H E E T - M E T A L W O R K E R
F a b r i c a t e s , i n s t a l l s , and m a in ta in s in g o o d r e p a ir th e s h e e t - m e t a l
e q u ip m e n t and f ix t u r e s ( s u c h a s m a c h in e g u a r d s , g r e a s e p a n s , s h e lv e s ,
l o c k e r s , ta n k s , v e n t i l a t o r s , c h u t e s , d u c t s , m e t a l r o o f in g ) o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g : P la n n in g and la y in g ou t a ll t y p e s o f
s h e e t - m e t a l m a in t e n a n c e w o r k f r o m b lu e p r in t s , m o d e l s , o r o t h e r s p e c i f i ­
c a t i o n s ; s e tt in g up and o p e r a t in g a ll a v a ila b le t y p e s o f s h e e t - m e t a l w o r k in g
m a c h in e s ; u s in g a v a r i e t y o f h a n d t o o ls in c u tt in g , b e n d in g , f o r m in g , s h a p in g ,
fit t in g , and a s s e m b l i n g ; and in s t a llin g s h e e t - m e t a l a r t i c l e s a s r e q u i r e d .
In
g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f th e m a in te n a n c e s h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d
t r a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e .

M A IN T E N A N C E M E C H A N IC (M a c h in e r y )
R e p a ir s m a c h in e r y o r m e c h a n i c a l e q u ip m e n t o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g : E x a m in in g m a c h in e s and m e c h a n ic a l
e q u ip m e n t t o d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ; d is m a n t lin g o r p a r t ly d is m a n t lin g
m a c h in e s and p e r f o r m i n g r e p a i r s th a t m a in ly in v o lv e th e u s e o f h a n d t o o ls in
s c r a p in g and fit t in g p a r t s ; r e p la c in g b r o k e n o r d e f e c t iv e p a r t s w ith it e m s
o b ta in e d f r o m s t o c k ; o r d e r i n g th e p r o d u c t io n o f a r e p la c e m e n t p a r t b y a
m a c h in e s h o p o r s e n d in g th e m a c h in e to a m a c h in e s h o p f o r m a j o r r e p a i r s ;
p r e p a r in g w r it t e n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r m a j o r r e p a i r s o r f o r th e p r o d u c t io n o f
p a r t s o r d e r e d f r o m m a c h in e s h o p s ; r e a s s e m b l i n g m a c h in e s ; a nd m a k in g a ll
n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t m e n t s f o r o p e r a t io n .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f a m a c h in e r y
m a in t e n a n c e m e c h a n ic r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly
a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g an d e x p e r i ­
en ce.
E x c lu d e d f r o m th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e w o r k e r s w h o s e p r i m a r y d u tie s
in v o lv e s e tt in g up o r a d ju s tin g m a c h in e s .




M IL L W R IG H T
I n s t a lls n e w m a c h in e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m e n t, and d is m a n t le s and
i n s t a l l s m a c h in e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m e n t w h e n c h a n g e s in th e p la n t la y o u t a r e
r e q u ir e d .
W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g ;
P la n n in g and la y in g ou t
w o r k ; in t e r p r e t in g b lu e p r in t s o r o t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; u s in g a v a r i e t y o f h a n d t o o l s a nd r ig g in g ; m a k in g s ta n d a r d s h o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g t o s t r e s s e s ,
s tr e n g t h o f m a t e r i a l s , a nd c e n t e r s o f g r a v it y ; a lig n in g an d b a la n c in g e q u ip ­
m e n t ; s e l e c t i n g s ta n d a r d t o o l s , e q u ip m e n t , and p a r t s to b e u s e d ; an d in s t a llin g
and m a in ta in in g in g o o d o r d e r p o w e r t r a n s m i s s i o n e q u ip m e n t s u ch a s d r i v e s
and s p e e d r e d u c e r s .
In g e n e r a l , th e m i l l w r i g h t 's w o r k n o r m a lly r e q u i r e s a
r o u n d e d tr a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e in th e t r a d e a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l
a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e .

21

M A IN T E N A N C E T R A D E S H E LP E R

T O O L A N D DIE M AKER

A s s i s t s on e o r m o r e w o r k e r s in th e s k ille d m a in t e n a n c e t r a d e s , b y
p e r f o r m i n g s p e c i f i c o r g e n e r a l d u tie s o f l e s s e r s k ill, su ch a s k e e p in g a
w o r k e r s u p p lie d w ith m a t e r i a l s and t o o l s ; c le a n in g w o r k in g a r e a , m a c h in e ,
and e q u ip m e n t; a s s i s t in g jo u r n e y m a n b y h o ld in g m a t e r i a l s o r t o o l s ; and p e r ­
f o r m in g o t h e r u n s k ille d ta s k s a s d i r e c t e d b y jo u r n e y m a n .
T h e k in d o f w o r k
th e h e lp e r is p e r m it t e d to p e r f o r m v a r i e s f r o m t r a d e to t r a d e :
In s o m e
t r a d e s th e h e lp e r i s c o n fin e d to s u p p ly in g , lif t in g , and h o ld in g m a t e r i a l s and
t o o l s , and c le a n in g w o r k in g a r e a s ; and in o t h e r s he is p e r m it t e d to p e r f o r m
s p e c i a l i z e d m a c h in e o p e r a t i o n s , o r p a r t s o f a t r a d e th a t a r e a ls o p e r f o r m e d
b y w o r k e r s on a f u l l - t i m e b a s i s .

C o n s t r u c t s and r e p a i r s j i g s , f i x t u r e s , c u ttin g t o o l s , g a u g e s , o r m e t a l
d ie s o r m o l d s u s e d in s h a p in g o r f o r m in g m e t a l o r n o n m e t a llic m a t e r i a l ( e . g . ,
p la s t ic , p la s t e r , ru b b e r , g la s s ). W ork ty p ic a lly in v o lv e s :
P la n n in g and la y in g
ou t w o r k a c c o r d i n g to m o d e l s , b lu e p r in t s , d r a w in g s , o r o t h e r w r it t e n o r o r a l
s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; u n d e r s t a n d in g th e w o r k in g p r o p e r t i e s o f c o m m o n m e t a ls and
a l l o y s ; s e le c t in g a p p r o p r ia t e m a t e r i a l s , t o o l s , and p r o c e s s e s r e q u i r e d to
c o m p le t e t a s k s ; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y s h o p c o m p u t a t io n s ; s e tt in g up and o p e r a t in g
v a r io u s m a c h in e t o o l s and r e la t e d e q u ip m e n t; u s in g v a r io u s t o o l and d ie
m a k e r 's h a n d t o o ls and p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ; w o r k in g to v e r y
c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ; h e a t -t r e a t i n g m e t a l p a r t s and fin is h e d t o o l s and d i e s to
a c h ie v e r e q u ir e d q u a lit ie s ; fitt in g and a s s e m b lin g p a r t s t o p r e s c r i b e d t o l e r ­
a n c e s and a llo w a n c e s .
In g e n e r a l, th e t o o l and d ie m a k e r 's w o r k r e q u i r e s
r o u n d e d t r a in in g in m a c h i n e - s h o p and t o o l r o o m p r a c t i c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d
th r o u g h f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e .

M A C H I N E -T O O L O P E R A T O R ( T o o l r o o m )
S p e c i a l i z e s in o p e r a t in g o n e o r m o r e th an on e ty p e o f m a c h in e t o o l
( e . g . , j i g b o r e r , g r in d in g m a c h in e , e n g in e la th e , m i llin g m a c h in e ) to m a c h in e
m e t a l f o r u s e in m a k in g o r m a in ta in in g j i g s , f i x t u r e s , c u ttin g t o o l s , g a u g e s ,
o r m e t a l d ie s o r m o l d s u s e d in sh a p in g o r f o r m in g m e t a l o r n o n m e t a llic
m a t e r ia l (e .g ., p la s t ic , p la s t e r , ru b b e r , g la s s ).
W o r k t y p ic a lly i n v o l v e s :
P la n n in g and p e r f o r m i n g d if f ic u l t m a c h in in g o p e r a t io n s w h ich r e q u ir e c o m ­
p li c a t e d s e tu p s o r a h igh d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y ; s e tt in g up m a c h in e t o o l o r
t o o l s ( e . g . , in s t a ll cu ttin g t o o l s and a d ju s t g u id e s , s t o p s , w o r k in g t a b le s ,
and o th e r ' c o n t r o l s to h a n d le th e s i z e o f sVock to b e m a c h in e d ; d e t e r m i n e
p r o p e r f e e d s , s p e e d s , t o o l in g , and o p e r a t io n s e q u e n c e o r s e l e c t t h o s e p r e ­
s c r i b e d in d r a w in g s , b lu e p r in t s , o r la y o u t s ) ; u s in g a v a r ie t y o f p r e c i s i o n
m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s tm e n t s d u r in g m a c h in in g
o p e r a t io n to a c h ie v e r e q u is i t e d im e n s io n s to v e r y c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s .
M ay be
r e q u ir e d to s e l e c t p r o p e r c o o la n t s and c u ttin g and lu b r ic a t in g o i l s , to
r e c o g n i z e w h en t o o l s n e e d d r e s s i n g , and to d r e s s t o o l s .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k
o f a m a c h i n e - t o o l o p e r a t o r ( t o o l r o o m ) at th e s k i l l l e v e l c a l l e d f o r in th is
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e s e x t e n s iv e k n o w le d g e o f m a c h i n e - s h o p and t o o l r o o m
p r a c t i c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h c o n s i d e r a b l e o n - t h e - j o b tr a in in g a n d
e x p e r ie n c e .

in c lu d e
sh op s.

F o r c r o s s - i n d u s t r y w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d o e s n ot
in c lu d e t o o l and d ie m a k e r s w h o (1) a r e e m p lo y e d in t o o l and d ie jo b b in g
s h o p s o r (2) p r o d u c e f o r g i n g d ie s (d ie s i n k e r s ) .
S T A T IO N A R Y E N G IN E E R
O p e r a t e s and m a in ta in s and m a y a ls o s u p e r v is e th e o p e r a t io n o f
s t a t io n a r y e n g in e s and e q u ip m e n t ( m e c h a n ic a l o r e l e c t r i c a l ) to s u p p ly th e
e s t a b lis h m e n t in w h ic h e m p lo y e d w ith p o w e r , h e a t, r e f r i g e r a t i o n , o r a i r c o n d it io n in g .
W ork in v o lv e s :
O p e r a t in g and m a in ta in in g e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s
s te a m e n g in e s , a i r c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a t o r s , m o t o r s , t u r b in e s , v e n tila t in g
and r e f r i g e r a t i n g e q u ip m e n t , s te a m b o i l e r s and b o i l e r - f e d w a te r p u m p s ;
m a k in g e q u ip m e n t r e p a i r s ; and k e e p in g a r e c o r d o f o p e r a t io n o f m a c h i n e r y ,
t e m p e r a t u r e , and f u e l c o n s u m p t io n .
M a y a ls o s u p e r v is e t h e s e o p e r a t io n s .
H ead o r c h i e f e n g in e e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s e m p lo y in g m o r e th an o n e e n g in e e r
a re e x c lu d e d .
B O IL E R T E N D E R
F ir e s
s t a t io n a r y b o i l e r s to fu r n is h th e e s t a b lis h m e n t in w h ic h
e m p lo y e d w ith h e a t, p o w e r , o r
s te a m .
F e e d s f u e ls to f i r e b y h an d o r
o p e r a t e s a m e c h a n ic a l s t o k e r , g a s , o r o i l b u r n e r ; and c h e c k s w a t e r and
s a fe t y v a l v e s .
M a y c l e a n , o i l , o r a s s i s t in r e p a ir in g b o i l e r r o o m e q u ip m e n t.

F o r c r o s s - i n d u s t r y w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d o e s n ot
m a c h i n e - t o o l o p e r a t o r s ( t o o l r o o m ) e m p lo y e d in t o o l and d ie jo b b in g

M A TER IA L M O V E M E N T A N D C USTO DIAL
T R U C K D R IV E R — C o n tin u e d

T R U C K D R IV E R
D r iv e s a t r u c k w ith in a c it y o r in d u s t r ia l a r e a to t r a n s p o r t m a t e ­
r i a l s , m e r c h a n d i s e , e q u ip m e n t, o r w o r k e r s b e tw e e n v a r io u s ty p e s o f e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t s s u ch a s :
M a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t s , f r e ig h t d e p o t s , w a r e h o u s e s , w h o l e ­
s a le and r e t a i l e s t a b lis h m e n t s , o r b e tw e e n r e t a i l
e s t a b lis h m e n t s and
c u s t o m e r s ' h o u s e s o r p l a c e s o f b u s in e s s . M a y a l s o lo a d o r u n lo a d t r u c k w ith
o r w ith o u t h e l p e r s , m a k e m i n o r m e c h a n ic a l r e p a i r s , and k e e p t r u c k in g o o d
working
ord er.
S a l e s - r o u t e and o v e r - t h e - r o a d d r i v e r s
a re e x c lu d e d .

lig h t t r u c k (u n d e r 1 V2 t o n s )
m e d iu m t r u c k ( 1 V2 to and in c lu d in g 4 t o n s )
h ea v y tr u ck (tr a ile r ) (o v e r 4 to n s )
h e a v y t r u c k (o t h e r th an t r a i l e r ) ( o v e r 4 to n s )

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K
P r e p a r e s m e r c h a n d is e f o r s h ip m e n t, o r r e c e i v e s and is r e s p o n s i b l e
f o r in c o m in g s h ip m e n ts o f m e r c h a n d is e o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s .
S h ip p in g w o r k
i n v o l v e s : A k n o w le d g e o f s h ip p in g p r o c e d u r e s , p r a c t i c e s , r o u t e s , a v a ila b le
m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r t a t io n , and r a t e s ; and p r e p a r in g r e c o r d s o f th e g o o d s

F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , t r u c k d r i v e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y s iz e and
ty p e o f e q u ip m e n t, a s f o l l o w s :
( T r a c t o r - t r a i l e r s h o u ld b e r a te d on th e b a s is
o f t r a i l e r c a p a c it y .)




T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,

22

SHIPPING A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K — Continued

SHIPPING P A C K E R — Continued

s h ip p e d , m a k in g up b i l l s o f la d in g , p o s t in g w e ig h t and s h ip p in g c h a r g e s , and
k e e p in g a f i l e o f s h ip p in g r e c o r d s .
M a y d i r e c t o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r in g the
m e r c h a n d is e f o r s h ip m e n t.
R e c e iv in g w o r k i n v o l v e s :
V e r if y in g o r d ir e c t in g
o t h e r s in v e r i f y i n g th e c o r r e c t n e s s o f s h ip m e n ts a g a in s t b i l l s o f la d in g ,
i n v o i c e s , o r o t h e r r e c o r d s ; c h e c k in g f o r s h o r t a g e s and r e j e c t i n g d a m a g e d
g o o d s ; r o u tin g m e r c h a n d is e o r m a t e r i a l s to p r o p e r d e p a r t m e n t s ; and m a in ­
ta in in g n e c e s s a r y r e c o r d s and f i l e s .

s h ip p in g c o n t a in e r s and m a y in v o lv e o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o llo w in g : K n o w le d g e
o f v a r io u s it e m s o f s t o c k in o r d e r to v e r i f y c o n te n t; s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r ia t e
ty p e and s i z e o f c o n t a in e r ; in s e r t in g e n c l o s u r e s in c o n t a in e r ; u s in g e x c e l s i o r
o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l to p r e v e n t b r e a k a g e o r d a m a g e ; c l o s i n g and s e a lin g c o n ­
t a i n e r ; and a p p ly in g la b e ls o r e n t e r in g id e n t ify in g d a ta on c o n t a in e r .
P ackers
w h o a ls o m a k e w o o d e n b o x e s o r c r a t e s a r e e x c lu d e d .
M A T E R I A L H A N D L IN G L A B O R E R

F o r w age

s tu d y p u r p o s e s ,

w ork ers

a re c la s s ifie d

as fo llo w s :
A w o r k e r e m p lo y e d in a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t, s t o r e , o r
o t h e r e s t a b lis h m e n t w h o s e d u tie s in v o lv e o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
L o a d in g and u n lo a d in g v a r io u s m a t e r i a l s and m e r c h a n d is e on o r f r o m f r e ig h t
c a r s , t r u c k s , o r o t h e r t r a n s p o r t in g d e v i c e s ; u n p a c k in g , s h e lv in g , o r p la c in g
m a t e r i a l s o r m e r c h a n d is e in p r o p e r
s t o r a g e lo c a t io n ; and t r a n s p o r t in g
m a t e r i a l s o r m e r c h a n d is e b y h a n d t r u c k , c a r , o r w h e e lb a r r o w .
L on gshore
w o r k e r s , w h o lo a d and u n lo a d s h ip s , a r e e x c lu d e d .

S h ip p in g c l e r k
R e c e iv in g c l e r k
S h ip p in g and r e c e i v i n g c l e r k
W AREH OUSEM AN
A s d i r e c t e d , p e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y o f w a r e h o u s in g d u tie s w h ic h r e q u ir e
an u n d e r s t a n d in g o f th e e s t a b lis h m e n t 's s t o r a g e p la n .
W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t
o f th e f o l l o w i n g : V e r if y in g m a t e r i a l s ( o r m e r c h a n d is e ) a g a in s t r e c e i v i n g
d o c u m e n t s , n o tin g and r e p o r t in g d i s c r e p a n c i e s and o b v io u s d a m a g e s ; r o u tin g
m a t e r i a l s to p r e s c r i b e d s t o r a g e l o c a t i o n s ; s t o r i n g , s t a c k in g , o r p a lle t iz in g
m a t e r i a l s in a c c o r d a n c e w ith p r e s c r i b e d s t o r a g e m e t h o d s ; r e a r r a n g in g and
s to re d m a te r ia ls
and
t a k i n g in v e n t o r y o f s t o r e d m a t e r i a l s ; e x a m in in g
r e p o r t in g d e t e r i o r a t i o n and d a m a g e ; r e m o v in g m a t e r i a l f r o m s t o r a g e and
p r e p a r in g it f o r s h ip m e n t.
M a y o p e r a t e hand o r p o w e r t r u c k s in p e r f o r m i n g
w a r e h o u s in g d u t ie s .

P O W E R -T R U C K O P E R A T O R
O p e r a t e s a m a n u a lly c o n t r o l l e d g a s o l i n e - o r e l e c t r i c - p o w e r e d t r u c k
o r t r a c t o r to t r a n s p o r t g o o d s and m a t e r i a l s o f a ll k in d s a b ou t a w a r e h o u s e ,
m a n u fa c t u r in g p la n t, o r o t h e r e s t a b lis h m e n t .
tru ck ,

a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y ty p e o f p o w e r -

F o r k lift o p e r a t o r
P o w e r - t r u c k o p e r a t o r ( o t h e r th a n f o r k lif t )

E x c lu d e w o r k e r s w h o s e p r i m a r y d u tie s in v o lv e s h ip p in g and r e c e i v ­
in g w o r k ( s e e S h ip p in g and R e c e iv in g C le r k and S h ip p in g P a c k e r ) , o r d e r f illin g
( s e e O r d e r F i l l e r ) , o r o p e r a t in g p o w e r t r u c k s ( s e e P o w e r - T r u c k O p e r a t o r ) .

GUARD AND W ATCHM AN
G u ard.
P e r f o r m s r o u tin e p o l i c e d u t ie s , e it h e r at f ix e d p o s t o r on
t o u r , m a in ta in in g o r d e r , u s in g a r m s o r f o r c e w h e r e n e c e s s a r y .
I n c lu d e s
g u a r d s w h o a r e s ta t io n e d at g a te and c h e c k o n id e n tity o f e m p lo y e e s and
o t h e r p e r s o n s e n t e r in g .

O R D E R F IL L E R
F i l l s sh ip p in g o r t r a n s f e r o r d e r s f o r fin is h e d g o o d s f r o m s t o r e d
m e r c h a n d i s e in a c c o r d a n c e w ith s p e c i f i c a t i o n s on s a le s s l i p s , c u s t o m e r s '
o r d e r s , o r o t h e r i n s t r u c t io n s .
M a y , in a d d itio n to f illin g o r d e r s and in d i­
c a t in g it e m s f i l l e d o r o m it t e d , k e e p r e c o r d s o f o u tg o in g o r d e r s , r e q u is i t io n
a d d it io n a l s t o c k o r r e p o r t s h o r t s u p p lie s to s u p e r v i s o r , and p e r f o r m o t h e r
r e la t e d d u t ie s .

W a tch m a n .
M a k e s ro u n d s o f p r e m i s e s
p r o p e r t y a g a in s t f i r e , t h e ft, and i l l e g a l e n t r y .

p e r io d ic a lly

in

p r o t e c t in g

J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R
C le a n s and k e e p s in an o r d e r l y c o n d it io n f a c t o r y w o r k in g a r e a s and
w a s h r o o m s , o r p r e m i s e s o f an o f f i c e , a p a r t m e n t h o u s e , o r c o m m e r c i a l
o r o t h e r e s t a b lis h m e n t .
D u tie s in v o lv e a c o m b in a t io n o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
S w e e p in g , m o p p in g o r s c r u b b in g , and p o li s h in g f l o o r s ; r e m o v in g c h ip s , t r a s h ,
a nd o t h e r r e f u s e ; d u s tin g e q u ip m e n t, f u r n it u r e , o r f i x t u r e s ; p o lis h in g m e t a l
f ix t u r e s o r t r i m m i n g s ; p r o v id in g s u p p lie s and m i n o r m a in te n a n c e s e r v i c e s ;
a nd c le a n in g l a v a t o r i e s , s h o w e r s , and r e s t r o o m s .
W o rk e r s w ho s p e c ia liz e
in w in d o w w a s h in g a r e e x c l u d e d .

S H IP P IN G P A C K E R
P r e p a r e s f in is h e d p r o d u c t s f o r s h ip m e n t o r s t o r a g e b y p la c in g th e m
in s h ip p in g c o n t a i n e r s , th e s p e c i f i c o p e r a t io n s p e r f o r m e d b e in g d e p e n d e n t
u p on th e t y p e , s i z e , and n u m b e r o f u n its to b e p a c k e d , the ty p e o f c o n t a in e r
e m p lo y e d , and m e t h o d o f s h ip m e n t.
W o rk r e q u i r e s th e p la c in g o f it e m s in




F o r w a g e s tu d y p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s
as fo llo w s :

23

Available On RequestT he fo llo w in g a r e a s a r e s u r v e y e d p e r io d ic a l ly fo r u s e in a d m in is t e r in g the S e r v i c e C o n t r a c t
a v a ila b le at no c o s t f r o m any o f the B L S r e g io n a l o f f i c e s sh ow n on the b a c k c o v e r .
A la s k a
A lb a n y , G a.
A lb u q u e r q u e , N. M ex .
A le x a n d r ia , La.
A lp e n a , S ta n d ish , and T a w a s C ity , M ich .
Ann A r b o r , M ich .
A s h e v i ll e , N .C .
A tla n tic C ity , N .J.
A u g u s ta , G a.—S .C .
B a k e r s fi e ld , C a lif.
B a ton R o u g e , L a.
B a ttle C r e e k , M ich .
B ea u m on t—P o r t A rth u i^ -O ra n g e, T e x .
B ilo x i— u lfp o rt and P a s c a g o u la , M is s .
G
B o is e C it y , Idaho
B r e m e r t o n , W ash.
B r id g e p o r t , N o r w a lk , and S t a m fo r d , C onn.
B r u n s w ic k , G a.
B u r lin g t o n , V t .- N .Y .
C ape C od, M a ss.
C e d a r R a p id s , Iow a
C h a m p a ig n —U rbana—R a n tou l, 111.
C h a r le s t o n , S .C .
C h a r lo tte —G a s to n ia , N .C .
C h e y e n n e , W yo.
C l a r k s v i l l e —H o p k i n s v i l l e ,

T e n n .-K y .

C o lo r a d o S p r in g s , C o lo .
C o lu m b ia , S.C .
C o lu m b u s , G a.— la .
A
C o lu m b u s , M is s .
C r a n e , Ind.
D e c a t u r , 111.
D e s M o in e s , Iow a
D othan, A la .
D uluth—S u p e r io r , M in n .—W is.E l P a s o , T e x ., and A la m o g o r d o —L as C r u c e s , N. M ex .
E u g en e—S p r in g fie ld , O r e g .
F a y e t t e v il le , N .C .
F it c h b u r g —L e o m in s t e r , M a s s .
F o r t S m ith , A r k .—O k la.
F o r t W a yn e, Ind.
F r e d e r i c k — a g e r stow n , M d .— h a m b e r s b u r g , P a .—
H
C
M a r t in s b u r g , W . V a .
G a d sd e n and A n n is t o n , A la .
G o ld s b o r o , N .C .
G ra n d Isla n d —H a s tin g s , N e b r .
G r e a t F a l ls , M on t.
G uam , T e r r it o r y o f
H a r r is b u r g —L e b a n o n , P a .
H untington— s h la n d , W . V a .— y.— h io
A
K
O
K n o x v ille , T en n .
L a C r o s s e , W is.
L a red o, T ex.
L a s V e g a s , N ev.
L aw ton , O k la .
L im a , O h io
L ittle R o c k — orth L ittle R o c k , A r k .
N

A ct

of

1965.

S u rv e y r e s u lt s a r e p u b lis h e d

in r e l e a s e s w h ic h ,

w h ile su p p lie s

la s t ,

a r e o r w ill

be

L o g a n s p o r t —P e r u , Ind.
L o ra in —E l y r ia , O h io
L o w e r E a s t e r n S h o r e , M d.—V a .—D e l.
L y n c h b u rg , V a.
M a c o n , G a.
M a d is o n , W is.
M a n s fie ld , O hio
M a r q u e tte , E s c a n a b a , Sault Ste. M a r ie , M ich .
M c A lle n —P h a r n -E d in b u r g and B r o w n s v ille —
H a rlin g e n —
San B e n it o , T e x .
M e d fo r d — la m a th F a lls —G ra n ts P a s s , O r e g .
K
M e r id ia n , M is s .
M id d le s e x , M on m ou th , and O ce a n C o s ., N .J .
M o b ile and P e n s a c o l a , A la .—F la .
M o n t g o m e r y , A la .
N a s h v ille —D a v id s o n , T en n .
N ew B ern —J a c k s o n v ille , N .C .
N ew L ondon—N o r w ic h , C on n .—R .I.
N orth D a k ota , State o f
O r la n d o , F la .
O xn a rd —S im i V a lle y —V e n tu r a , C a lif.
P a n a m a C it y , F la .
P a r k e r s b u r g —M a r ie t t a , W. V a .—O h io
P e o r i a , III.
P h o e n ix , A r i z .
P in e B lu ff, A r k .
P o c a t e ll o —
Ida ho F a l l s , Ida ho
P o r t s m o u t h , N .H .—M a in e—M a s s .
P u e b lo , C o l o .
P u e r to R ic o
R e n o , N ev.
R ich la n d — en n e w ic k —W a lla W a lla —
K
P e n d le to n , W a sh .—O r e g .
R i v e r s id e —San B e r n a r d in o — n t a r io , C a lif.
O
S a lin a , K a n s .
S a lin a s—S e a s id e —M o n t e r e y , C a lif.
S a n d u sk y, O h io
Santa B a r b a r a —Santa M a ria —L o m p o c , C a lif.
Savannah, G a.
S e lm a , A la .
S h erm a n —D e n is o n , T e x .
S h r e v e p o r t , L a.
S iou x F a l l s , S. D ak.
S p ok a n e, W a sh .
S p r in g fie ld , 111.
S p r in g fie ld — h ic o p e e —H o ly o k e , M a s s .— on n .
C
C
S to ck to n , C a lif.
T a c o m a , W a sh .
T am p a —St. P e t e r s b u r g , F la .
T op ek a , K ans.
T u cso n , A r iz .
T u ls a , O k la .
V a ll e jo — a i r f i e ld —N ap a, C a lif.
F
W a co and K ille e n —T e m p le , T e x .
W a t e r lo o —C e d a r F a l l s , Iow a
W est T e x a s P la in s
W ilm in g to n , D e l.—N .J .—M d.

A n annual r e p o r t on s a la r i e s f o r a c c o u n ta n t s , a u d i t o r s , c h i e f a c c o u n ta n t s , a t t o r n e y s , jo b a n a ly s t s , d i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l , b u y e r s , c h e m i s t s , e n g in e e r s , e n g in e e r in g t e c h n ic ia n s , d r a f t e r s , and
c l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s is a v a ila b le .
O r d e r a s B L S B u lle tin 1 89 1, N a tion a l S u rv e y o f P r o f e s s i o n a l , A d m in is t r a t iv e , T e c h n i c a l, and C l e r i c a l P a y , M a r c h 1 9 7 5 . $ 1 .4 0 a c o p y , f r o m any o f the B L S r e g io n a l s a le s
o f f i c e s show n on the b a c k c o v e r , o r f r o m th e S u p erin ten d en t o f D o c u m e n t s , U .S. G o v e r n m e n t P r in tin g O ffi c e , W a sh in g ton , D .C . 2 0 4 0 2 .




Area Wage Surveys
A list of the latest available bulletins or bulletin supplements is presented below. A directory of area wa ge studies including m o r e limited studies conducted at the request of the Em p l o y m e n t
Standards Administration of the Department of Labor is available on request. Bulletins m a y be purchased f r o m any of the B L S regional offices shown on the back cover. Bulletin supplements m a y be
obtained without cost, where indicated, f r o m B L S regional offices.
Bulletin n u m b e r
and price *

Area
A k r o n , O h io, D e c . 1975 _______________________________________
A lb a n y — c h e n e cta d y —T r o y , N .Y ., Sept. 1975 1______________
S
A n a h e im —
Santa A na—G a r d e n G r o v e , C a lif., O ct. 1 9 7 5 1 ___
A tla n ta , G a ., M ay 1975 1 ______________________________________
A u s tin , T e x ., D e c . 1975 1---------------------------------------------------------B a lt im o r e , M d ., A u g . 1975 1 _________________________________
B illin g s , M o n t., J u ly 197 5 ____________________________________
B in g h a m ton , N .Y .—P a ., J u ly 1975 _______________________ ____
B irm in g h a m , A la ., M a r . 1976 1 ______________________________
B o s to n , M a s s ., A u g . 1975 1___________________________________
B u ffa lo , N .Y ., O ct. 1 9 7 5 1_____________________________________
C anton, O h io, M ay 1 9 7 5 _______________________________________
C h a tta n oog a , T en n .—G a ., Sept. 1975 1________________________
C h ic a g o , 111., M ay 1975 _______________________________________
C in cin n a ti, O h io— y.—I n d ., M,ar. 1 9 7 6 ____________ ____ ______
K
C le v e la n d , O h io, Sept. 1 9 7 5 __________________________________
C o lu m b u s , O h io, O c t . 1 9 7 5 1 _________________________________
C o r p u s C h r is t i, T e x ., J u ly 1 9 7 5 _____________________________
D a lla s —F o r t W o rth , T e x . , O ct. 1975 1 ______________________
D a v e n p o rt—R o c k Islan d—M o lin e , Iow a—111., F e b . 1 9 7 5 _____
D ayton , O h io, D e c . 1975_______________________________________
D aytona B e a ch , F l a . , A u g . 1975______________________________
D e n v e r—B o u ld e r , C o l o ., D e c . 1 9 7 5 ___________________________
D e t r o it, M ic h ., M a r. 1 9 7 5 ____________________________________
F o r t L a u d e rd a le —H o lly w o o d and W est P a lm B ea ch —
B o c a R aton, F la ., A p r . 197 5 1 ______________________________
F r e s n o , C a li f., June 1975 1____________________________________
G a in e s v ille , F la ., Sept. 1975 _________________________________
G r e e n B a y , W i s . , J u ly 1975 1 _________________________________
G r e e n s b o r o — in s t o n -S a le m -H ig h P o in t, N .C ., A ug. 1975
W
G r e e n v ille —S p a rta n b u rg , S .C ., June 1975 __________________
H a r t fo r d , C o n n ., M a r . 1 9 7 6 --- ------------------------------------------------H ou ston , T e x ., A p r . 1 9 7 5 _____________________________________
H u n ts v ille , A l a ., F e b . 1975 ___________________________________
I n d ia n a p o lis , Ind., O ct. 1975 1 ________________________________
J a c k s o n , M i s s ., F e b . 1976____________________________________
J a c k s o n v ille , F la ., D e c. 1975_________________________________
K an sas C ity , M o .-K a n s ., Sept. 1 9 7 5 _________________________
L e x in g to n —F a y e tte , K y., N ov . 1975 1_________________________
L o s A n g e le s —L on g B ea ch ) C a li f., O ct. 1975 1 ______________
L o u is v i ll e , K y.—I n d ., N ov. 1 9 7 5 ______________________________
M e lb o u rn e —T it u s v ille —C o c o a , F la ., A u g. 1 9 7 5 -------------------M e m p h is , T en n .— r k .—M i s s . , N ov . 1975____________________
A
* Prices are determined by the Government Printing O ffice and are subject to change.
1 Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.
2 T o be surveyed.




...
...
...
...
—
...
...
...
. ..
...
. ..

1 8 5 0 -8 0 .
1 8 5 0 -6 3 ,
1 8 5 0 -7 5 ,
1 8 5 0 -2 5 ,
1 8 5 0 -8 3 ,
1 8 5 0 -6 2 ,
1 8 5 0 -4 6 ,
1 8 5 0 -5 0 ,
1 9 0 0 -1 1 ,
1 8 5 0 -5 8 ,
1 8 5 0 -6 9 ,
Suppl.
. . . 1 8 5 0 -6 7 ,
. . . 1 8 5 0 -3 3 ,
1 9 0 0 -7 ,
. . . 1 8 5 0 -6 4 ,
. .. 1 8 5 0 -7 8 ,
. . . 1 8 5 0 -3 7 ,
. . . 1 8 5 0 -5 9 ,
__Suppl.
— 1 8 5 0 -7 3 ,
. .. 1 8 5 0 -4 7 ,
. .. 1 8 5 0 -8 2 ,
. .. 1 8 5 0 -2 2 ,

45 ce n ts
$ 1.20
85 ce n ts
$ 1.00
75 ce n ts
$ 1.30
65 ce n ts
65 cen ts
95 cen ts
$ 1.50
95 ce n ts
F re e
85 cen ts
85 cen ts
75 ce n ts
$ 1.30
95 cen ts
65 cen ts
$ 1.50
F ree
45 ce n ts
65 c e n ts
75 ce n ts
85 ce n ts

... 1 8 5 0 -2 6 ,
1 8 5 0 -6 1 ,
1 8 5 0 -5 7 ,
... 1 8 5 0 -4 4 ,
1 8 5 0 -4 9 ,
. .. 1 8 5 0 -4 2 ,
1 9 0 0 -1 4 ,
__ Suppl.
__ Suppl.
... 1 8 5 0 -6 6 .
... 1 9 0 0 -8 ,
... 1 8 5 0 -8 1 ,
1 8 5 0 -5 5 ,
... 1 8 5 0 -8 4 ,
... 1 8 5 0 -8 6 ,
... 1 8 5 0 -7 9 ,
1 8 5 0 -5 4 ,
... 1 8 5 0 -8 5 ,

80 ce n ts
$ 1.20
$ 1.10
80 cen ts
65 ce n ts
65 cen ts
55 cen ts
F ree
F re e
95 ce n ts
55 cen ts
45 ce n ts
80 ce n ts
75 cen ts
$ 1 .1 5
45 cen ts
65 cen ts
45 cen ts

Ar ea

Bulletin n u m b e r
and price *

M ia m i, F l a . , O ct. 197 5____________________________________________________________________... 1 8 5 0 -7 6 , 95 c e n t s
M ilw a u k e e , W is ., A p r . 1975 1______________________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -2 1 , 85 ce n ts
M in n e a p o lis —St. P a u l, M in n .—W is ., J an. 1 9 7 6 _____________________ ______________________ 1 9 0 0 -3 ,
95 cen ts
N a ss a u — u ffo lk , N .Y ., June 1975 1__________________________________________________ ;_____ 1 8 5 0 -3 9 , $ 1 .0 0
S
N ew a rk , N .J ., J an. 1976____________________________________________________________________ 1 9 0 0 -1 0 , 85 cen ts
75 ce n ts
N ew O r l e a n s , L a . , J an. 1976_______________________________________________________________ 1 9 0 0 -2 ,
N ew Y o r k , N .Y .- N .J ., M a y 1975 1 ______________ ____ ____________ _________________________ 1 8 5 0 -4 5 , $ 1 .1 0
N o r fo lk —V ir g in ia B ea ch — o r t s m o u t h , V a .—N .C ., M a y 1975 ___________________ ________ 1 8 5 0 -2 9 , 65 ce n ts
P
N o r fo lk —V ir g in ia B e a ch — o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o rt N ew s—
P
H a m pton , V a .—N .C ., M a y 1975 ___________________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -3 0 , 65 ce n ts
N o r th e a s t P e n n s y lv a n ia , A ug. 1975 _______________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -5 2 , 65 ce n ts
O k la h om a C ity , Ok l a . , A u g . 1 9 7 5 __________________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -5 1 , 65 ce n ts
O m ah a , N e b r .—Iow a, O ct. 1 9 7 5 __________________________________________.._________________ 1 8 5 0 -5 6 , $ 1 .1 0
P a t e r s o n — lifto n —P a s s a ic , N .J ., June 1975 1_____________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -3 8 ,
C
80 ce n ts
P h ila d e lp h ia , P a .—N .J ., N ov. 1975 ________________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -6 5 , 85 ce n ts
P itts b u rg h , P a ., J an . 1976 1_________________________________________________________________ 11900-1, $ 1 .1 5
P o r t la n d , M a in e , N ov. 1975__________________________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -7 2 ,
45 ce n ts
P o r t la n d , O r e g .—W a sh ., M a y 1975 ________________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -4 0 , 75 ce n ts
P o u g h k e e p s ie , N .Y ., J une 1 975 1____________________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -7 0 ,
65 ce n ts
P o u g h k e e p s ie —K in g ston —N ew b u rg h , N .Y ., June 1 975 1 __________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -6 8 ,
75 ce n ts
P r o v id e n c e — a rw ic k —P a w tu ck et, R .I ., —M a s s . , June 1975 ____________________________ 1 8 5 0 -2 7 , 75 ce n ts
W
R a le ig h — u rh a m , N. C . , F e b . 197 5 ________________________________________________________ Suppl.
D
F ree
R ich m o n d , V a ., June 1 9 7 5 ________________________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -4 1 ,
65 ce n ts
St. L o u is , M o .—111., M a r. 1975 ____________________________________________________________ Suppl.
F ree
S a c r a m e n t o , C a lif., D ec.' 1975_____________________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -8 7 , 45 cen ts
Sa gin a w , M ic h ., N ov. 1975____________________________________________________ ____ __ ______ 1 8 5 0 -7 1 , 35 ce n ts
S a lt L ak e C ity —O gd en , Utah, N ov. 1 9 7 5 1 ________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -7 4 , 75 ce n ts
San A n to n io , T e x ., M a y 1975 ______________________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -2 3 , 65 ce n ts
San D ie g o , C a lif., N ov. 197 5_______________________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -7 7 , 45 ce n ts
San F r a n c is c o - O a k la n d , C a lif., M a r. 1976______________________________________________ 1 9 0 0 -9 , 95 ce n ts
San J o s e , C a li f., M a r. 1 9 7 6 _______________ ________________ ________________________________ 1 9 0 0 -1 3 , 65 ce n ts
S ea ttle—E v e r e t t , W a sh ., J an. 1976________________________________________________________ 1 9 0 0 -6 , 65 ce n ts
South B en d , Ind., M a r . 1976________________________________________________________________ 1 9 0 0 -5 , 55 ce n ts
S t a m fo r d , C onn. 1 2 __________________________________________________________________________
S y r a c u s e , N. Y . , J u ly 1 9 7 5 ___________________________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -4 3 ,
65 ce n ts
T o le d o , O h io— ic h ., M ay 1975 1 ___________________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -3 4 , 80 c e n t s
M
T re n to n , N .J ., Sept. 1975 1 ___________ ______________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -6 0 , $ 1'.20
U tica—R o m e , N .Y ., J u ly 1975 1 _____________________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -4 8 , 80 ce n ts
W a sh in gton , D. C . - M d . - V a . , M a r . 1976......... ..................................................................................... 1 9 0 0 -1 2 , 85 cen ts
W e s t c h e s t e r C ounty, N. Y . , M a y 197 5 1____________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -5 3 ,
80 c e n t s
W ich ita , K a n s., A p r . 1 9 7 5 ___________________________________________________________________ Suppl.
F ree
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s ., M a y 1975 1 _____________________________________________________________ 1 8 5 0 -2 4 , 80 ce n ts
Y o r k , P a ., F e b . 1976____________________________________________________________ _____ _______ 1 9 0 0 -4 , 55 cen ts

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212

Postage and Fees Paid
U.S. Department of Labor
Third Class Mail

Official Business
Penalty for private use, $300

Lab-441

Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices
Region I
Region II
1603 JFK Federal Building
Suite 3400
Government Center
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (Area Code 617)
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)
C oneecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Vermont

New Jersey
New York
Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands

Region III
3535 Market Street,
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: 597-1154 (Area Cade 215)
Delaware
D istrict of Columbia
Maryland
Pennsylvania
Virginia
West Virginia

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St., N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
M ississippi
North Carolina
South Carolina
Tennessee

Region V
Region VI
Regions IX and X
Regions VII and V III
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Second Floor
Federal Office Building
9th Floor, 230 S. Dearborn St.
555 G riffin Square Building
Box 36017
Chicago, III. 60604
911 W alnut St., 15th Floor
San Francisco, C alif. 94102
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)
Illin o is
X
V III
IX
VII
Indiana
Arkansas
Alaska
Colorado
Arizona
Iowa
Michigan
Louisiana
Montana
C alifornia
Idaho
Kansas
New Mexico
Minnesota
Oregon
Missouri
North Dakota
Hawaii
Oklahoma
Ohio
Washington
Nebraska
South Dakota
Nevada
W isconsin
Texas
Utah
Wyoming





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102