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' / — a K eA WAGE SURVEY Gainesville, Florida, Metropolitan Area Septem ber 1975 Bulletin 1850-57 FEB 2 3 6 http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ 1 7 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis B O e i l V f N T CO LLECTIO N FEB 18 1 7 96 Dayton & Montgom ery Cfcx Public Library/ U S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR _ Bureau of Labor Statistics Preface T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s r e s u lts o f a S e p te m b e r 1975 s u r v e y o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s in the G a in e s v ille , F lo r id a , Standard M e tro p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A r e a (A la c h u a C ou n ty). The s u r v e y w as m ad e as p a rt o f the B u reau o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ' annual a r e a w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m . T h e p r o g r a m is d e s ig n e d to y ie ld data fo r in d iv id u a l m e t r o p o lita n a r e a s , as w e l l as n a tio n a l and r e g io n a l e s tim a te s f o r a ll Standard M e tro p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A r e a s in the U n ited S ta tes, e x c lu d in g A la s k a and H a w a ii. A m a jo r c o n s id e r a tio n in the a r e a w age s u r v e y p r o g r a m is the n eed to d e s c r ib e the l e v e l and m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s in a v a r ie t y o f la b o r m a r k e ts , th ro u gh the a n a ly s is o f (1 ) the le v e l and d is trib u tio n o f w a g e s by occu p ation , and (2 ) th e m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s by o c c u p a tio n a l c a t e g o r y and s k ill le v e l. Th e p ro g r a m d e v e lo p s in fo r m a tio n that m a y be u sed f o r m an y p u rp o s e s , in clu d in g w a g e and s a la r y a d m in is tra tio n , c o l le c t iv e b a r g a in in g , and a s s is ta n c e in d e te rm in in g plant lo c a tio n . S u rvey r e s u lts a ls o a r e u sed by the U.S. D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r to m ak e w a g e d e te rm in a tio n s under the S e r v ic e C o n tr a c t A c t o f 1965. C u r r e n tly , 83 a r e a s a re in clu d ed in the p r o g r a m . (S e e l is t o f a r e a s on in s id e back c o v e r.) In each a r e a , o ccu p atio n al e a rn in g s data a r e c o lle c t e d an n u ally. In fo r m a tio n on e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p lem en ta ry w a g e b e n e fits is ob ta in ed e v e r y th ird y e a r . E ach y e a r a ft e r a ll in d iv id u a l a re a w a g e s u r v e y s h ave b een c o m p le te d , tw o s u m m a ry b u lle tin s a r e is s u e d . Th e f ir s t b rin g s to g e th e r data f o r ea c h m e tr o p o lita n a r e a s u r v e y e d . T h e second s u m m a ry b u lletin p re s e n ts n a tio n a l and r e g io n a l e s tim a te s , p r o je c t e d fr o m in d iv id u a l m e tr o p o lita n a r e a data. T h e G a in e s v ille s u r v e y w as condu cted by the B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l o f f ic e in A tla n ta , G a ., under the g e n e r a l d ir e c tio n of Donald M . C ru s e , D ep u ty R e g io n a l C o m m is s io n e r . T he s u r v e y cou ld not have been a c c o m p lis h e d w ithout the c o o p e r a tio n o f the m a n y f ir m s w h ose w a g e and s a la r y data p ro v id e d the b a s is fo r the s ta tis tic a l in fo r m a tio n in th is b u lle tin . T h e B u re a u w is h e s to e x p r e s s s in c e r e a p p re c ia tio n fo r the c o o p e r a tio n r e c e iv e d . AREA WAGE SURVEY B u l le t i n 1 8 5 0 - 5 7 U.S. D E P A R T M E N T OF LA B O R , John T. Dunlop, Secretary January 1976 BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTIC S, Julius Shiskin, Commissioner Gainesville, Florida, Metropolitan Area, September 1975 CO NTENTS Page In t r o d u c t io n ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2 T a b le s : A. E a r n in g s : A - l . W e e k ly e a r n in g s o f o ffic e w o r k e r s ________________________________________________________________________________________________ A - 2 . W e e k ly e a r n in g s o f p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s _______________________________________________________________________ A - 3 . A v e r a g e w e e k ly ea rn in g s o f o f fic e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s , by s e x ________________________________________ A - 4 . H o u rly e a r n in g s o f m ain ten an ce and p o w e rp la n t w o r k e r s ______________________________________________________________________ A - 5 . H o u rly e a r n in g s o f c u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t w o r k e r s _______________________________________________________________ A - 6 . A v e r a g e h o u rly e a rn in g s o f m a in ten an ce, p o w e rp la n t, c u s to d ia l, and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t w o r k e r s , by s e x _________ A - 7 . P e r c e n t in c r e a s e s in a v e r a g e hou rly e a rn in g s fo r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s , a d ju sted fo r e m p lo y m e n t s h ifts .__ A p p e n d ix A . A p p e n d ix B . Scope and m eth od o f s u r v e y ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r ip t io n s __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ For sale by the Superintendent o f Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington, D. C. 20402, GPO Bookstores, or BLS Regional Offices listed on back cover. Price $1.10. Make checks payable to Superintendent of Documents. 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 8 10 Introduction and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t. In th e 31 l a r g e s t s u r v e y a r e a s , ta b le s A - l a th rou gh A - 6 a p ro v id e s im ila r d ata f o r e s ta b lis h m e n ts e m p lo y in g 500 w o rk ers or m ore. T h is a r e a is 1 o f 83 in w h ich the U.S. D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r 's B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s con du cts s u r v e y s o f oc c u p a tio n a l e a rn in g s and r e la te d b e n e fits on an a r e a w id e b a s is . In th is a r e a , data w e r e ob ta in e d b y a c o m b in a tio n o f p e r s o n a l v is i t , m a il q u e s tio n n a ire , and te le p h o n e in t e r v ie w . R e p r e s e n ta tiv e e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith in s ix b ro a d in d u s try d iv is io n s w e r e c o n ta c te d : M a n u fa ctu rin g ; tr a n s p o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ; w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il tr a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s . M a jo r in d u s try grou p s e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s e stu d ies a r e g o v e rn m e n t o p e ra tio n s and the c o n s tru c tio n and e x t r a c t iv e in d u s tr ie s . E s ta b lis h m e n ts havin g fe w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m b er o f w o r k e r s a re o m itte d b e ca u s e o f in s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in the occu p a tio n s stu d ied . S e p a ra te tab u la tion s a re p r o v id e d f o r ea c h o f th e b ro a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s w h ich m e e t p u b lic a tion c r it e r ia . F o llo w in g the o c c u p a tio n a l w a g e ta b le s is ta b le A - 7 w h ich p ro v id e s p e rc e n t changes in a v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f o f f ic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , e le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g w o r k e r s , in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s , s k ille d m ain ten an ce w o r k e r s , and u n s k ille d p lan t w o r k e r s . T h is m e a s u r e o f w a g e tre n d s e lim in a te s ch an ges in a v e r a g e e a r n in g s c a u s e d b y e m p lo y m en t sh ifts am ong e s ta b lis h m e n ts as w e l l as tu r n o v e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts in clu d ed in s u rv e y s a m p le s . W h e re p o s s ib le , data a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll in d u s tr ie s , m an u factu rin g, and n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g. A p p e p d ix A d is c u s s e s th is w age tr e n d m e a s u re . A - s e r i e s ta b le s A p p en d ixes T a b le s A - 1 th ro u gh A - 6 p r o v id e e s tim a te s o f s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly o r w e e k ly e a r n in g s f o r w o r k e r s in occu p ation s com m on to a v a r ie t y o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu pation s w e r e s e le c t e d f r o m the fo llo w in g c a t e g o r ie s : (a ) O ffic e c le r ic a l, (b ) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l, (c ) m a in ten a n ce and p o w e rp la n t, and (d ) c u s to d ia l T h is b u lle tin has tw o a p p e n d ix e s . A p p e n d ix A d e s c r ib e s th e m eth od s and con cepts u sed in the a r e a w age s u r v e y p r o g r a m and p ro v id e s in fo rm a tio n on the s cop e o f the s u r v e y . A p p e n d ix B p r o v id e s jo b d e s c rip tio n s used by B u re a u f i e l d e c o n o m is ts to c l a s s i fy w o r k e r s in occupations f o r w h ich s t r a ig h t - t im e e a r n in g s in fo r m a tio n is p re s e n te d . A. Earnings Weekly earnings (standard) Number Average weekly hours1 (standard) * Number of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of— $ & 75 s J $ of workeis Mean * Median * M iddle ran ged 80 85 90 ___ Sfl---- 85 Occupation and industry division 90 95 $ 95 $ % $ s $ $ $ s $ * % 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 105 110 115 12P 125 130 LM 150 160 no 180 19Q 200 1 ------ T ----$ 200 210 220 and under _10 0 210 220 23£ ALL WORKERS $ 141.00 22 $ $ $ 127.00140.00 127.00- 146.00 145.00 1P1 ftft l l O . 00-140.00 120 00 1*0.0u” 103.Uu 57 CLA-’j 145.00 25 10 123.00 126.00 116^00 107.00-151.00 49 40.0 41 11 j 123.00-160.50 10 KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, 2 g 2 1 1 1 1 g 149.50 135.00172.00 i 2^*e2 165.50-191.50 160.00 144.00 135.00- * n 1 1 1 *- 135.00-167.00 145*5(1 8 1 JUvnL. 1AK i t J | LLA JJ 3 * oo l^ o '^ o 29 23 0 SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSNONMANUFACTURING 24 18 O 156.00 149.50 130.00-172.C ?o.o 152.00 140*00 130.00- 154.50 121.00- 163.00 * p 147.00 131.^0 10 1 40.0 110.00 100.00 9 5 .0 0 - 119.00 101.50-139.00 117.00 40.0 107.50 100.00 9 5 .0 0 114.So lfs t io See footnotes at end of tables. . * 1 160.00 145.00-17S.60 1 £ - - 3 4 6 l 1 - 3 1 1 1 - 1 - 4 1 “ - - - 6 5 3 7 7 1 1 5 5 - 1 g - - — * Weekly earnings 1 (standard) Number of workers Average weekly hours1 (standard' Number of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of— 1 5 i $ i $ $ I $ $ 1 5 $ * Mean 2 Median 2 Middle range2 135 140 145 ISO 155 16o 165 170 175 18o 185 19o 195 200 135 Occupation and industry division 130 i 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 18u 185___190 195 200 205 1 - - 1 _ - S J ? $“ I ' 205 21o 215 220 225 and under 210 215 2? 1< 22S 23Q ALL WORKERS COMPUTER OPERATORS, CLASS B ------------ 6 40.0 $ $ 179.50 179.00 $ $ 1 6Q .00 -2 00 .S O - - - - - 1 i - _ i - - - i See footnotes at end of tables. Table A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex. in Gainesville, Fla., September 1975 Sex, occupation, and industry division OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - Weakly hours * (standard) Average (m ean 2) Average (mean2 ) Average (m ean *) Number of workers Weekly earnings 1 (standard) Sex, occupation, and industry division Number of workers Weekly hour*1 (standard) Sex, occupation, and industry division Weakly earnings1 (standard) $ $ 18 40.0 138.00 55 Weakly houn 1 (standard) Weakly tamings 1 (standard) OFFICE OCCUPATIONS W OMEN— CONTINUED OFFICE OCCUPATIONS W OMEN— CONTINUED W EN OM Number of workers SECRETARIE5 MANUFACTURING 40.0 124.00 18 a $ 39.5 147.00 131.50 41 8 39.0 142.50 KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B -------— m anufacturing — — — — — — — 25 10 40.0 123.00 39.5 126.00 SECRETARIES* CLASS C — — — 40.0 152.50 40.0 152.50 18 40.0 110.00 39.0 117.00 107.50 10 40.0 154.00 40.0 149.50 22 39.0 158.50 29 KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A ------------ 40.0 152*50 8 8 SECRETARIES* CLASS B 40.0 156.00 171.50 *0 152.00 23 SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTS- See footnotes at end of tables. E a rn in g s data in tab le A - 3 r e la te on ly to w o rk e rs w h ose sex id e n tific a tio n was p ro v id e d by the establishment. E arn in gs data in ta b les A - l and A - 2 , on the oth er hand, r e la te to a ll w o r k e r s in an occu p ation . (S ee appendix A fo r p u b lica tio n c r it e r ia .) 24 Hourly earnings3 O ccupation and in d u stry d iv is io n N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u r ly e a rn in g s o f— $ S $ i $ 3 . 70 3 . Bo 3 . 9 o A .0 0 Number of workers Mean 2 Median2 Middle range 2 « A.lo S S A.2o A.3o 3 A.9o $ 5.40 $ 5»60 % 5 .1 0 $ 5.20 d 5 .0 0 b.30 6#0H A . 50 A . 6 A,7_Q A . b Q A . 90 5 .0 0 J) 5.10 5 .2 0 5 . AO 5.60 5.60 6,00 6 . 20 6 .^ 0 1 - 1 4 S S S $ * A.AO A . 5 o A .6 0 A . ? 0 A . b o i * 6 i * 6*^0 6 . 40 6 .CO and under 3 . bo 3 . 9 0 A . 00 A . l o A . 20 A . 3 0 A . A O 6 . 6 0 6 . 60 AL L W O R K E R S MECHANICS. AUTOMOTIVE OJ O J 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <1 rvj rvj 1 l 1 l 1 1 $ $ A . 50 - 5 . 7 3 A . A 3 - A . 88 l l $ 5 . 00 A . 50 1 1 $ 5 .1 5 •A.59 1 l 15 10 - - - 3 See fo o tn o tes at end o f ta b le s . Table A-5. Hourly earnings of custodial and material movement workers in Gainesville, Fla., September 1975 Hourly earnings Occupation and industry division N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly ea rn in gs of— $ 3 — 3 ------ 5 3 ------ $ I 5 2.10 2.20 2.30 2 .A0 2.50 2.60 2.70 2. 8 0 of workers M ean2 Median2 i ------ 3 $ 4 3------3 ------ $ 3 ------ 3 ------ $ $ i * $ 2.9o 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3 .A0 3.60 3.80 A .00 A. 2o A.AO 4*6 0 4*60 5.00 5.30 Middle range 2 and under 2.2Q d. Jo 2.AJ 2.50 2.60 2.70 2 .8 0 2.90 3.00 3 , 1 9 3.2g 3.30 3 ,AP 3,60 3,80 A .00 A .20 4 • 4 ij A.60 a . 8;; 5,.. 9 5.20 ALL WORKERS 8 $ $ $ $ JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS ----NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------- 83 61 2.69 2.AA 2. A0 2.25 2 .2 0- 3.A4 2.1 0- 2.50 20 20 23 do LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING -----------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------- 66 23 3.22 3.0A 3.60 2.80 2 .6 3- 3.6n 2 .AS- 3.A1 . TRUCKDRIVERS ---------------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------- 7A 57 17 3.8A 3.89 3.67 A .00 A.10 A .00 3.2 5- A. 3n 3.25- A.3o 3 .1 5- A .00 - TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM (1-1/2 TO AND INCLUDING A TONS) ------------------ 7 A .23 A. 10 3.A3- A .88 " TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY (OVER A TONS, TRAILER TYPE) --------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------- 16 6 3 .A0 3.A2 3.35 3.00 2 .8 1- A.On 2 .9 3- 3.53 TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT) -----------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------------ 23 23 2.96 2.96 3.15 3.15 2 .5 8- 3.17 2 .5 8- 3.17 See fo o tn o tes at end o f ta b le s . ' 2 2 - 2 - - - - 3 1 2 2 2 1 1 - 2 “ 4 2 1 1 _ 2 2 - 2 4 4 16 16 * 3 3 2 4 3 1 - - b 2 3 3 3 3 “ 1 1 2 - - - 2 1 1 2 - - “ “ “ 2 * “ ” ” - - 1 1 - - 2 2 2 - 1 1 - 6 6 - - 6 6 2 1 5 5 2 - - - - - 2 2 - 1 1 1 1 1 - 3 3 _ . - - - - - 28 1 - 1 l 1 1 3 1 1 1 - _ - 1 1 - - _ * ~ 1 1 - 12 6 6 13 18 - 3 3 - 5 4 i _ - 4 3 1 - “ “ ~ - i - 1 i 1 1 - - - - 1 1 - - - - ” 2 2 - - - _ - - L - " 14 1A 18 - - - - - 2 6 - - _ - i i - _ Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, powerplant, custodial, and material movement workers, by sex, in Gainesville, Fla., September 1975 Sex, occupation, and industry division Number of workers Average (m ean2 ) hourly earnings3 Sex, occupation, and industry division Number of workers Average (m ean2 ) hourly earnings3 CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL M OVEMENT OCCUPATIONS - M EN— CONTINUED and POWERPLANT OCCUPATIONS - M EN m ain ten an c e $ MECHANICS. AUTOMOTIVE TRUCKORIVERS --------------------------------------- 73 10 3 .8 4 3*67 TRUCKQRIVERS. MEDIUM <1-1/2 TO AND INCLUDING 4 TONS) ------------------ GUARDS AND WATCHMEN --------------------------- 8 52 3b 2.89 2.62 65 22 3.23 3.05 4.23 16 6 3.40 3.42 TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT) ----------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------- 23 23 2.96 2.96 31 2.37 2.96 JANITORS. PORTERS. AND CLEANERS -----NONMANUEACTURING ---------------------------------- 7 TRUCKORIVERS, HEAVY (OVER 4 TONS, TRAILER TYPE) ----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------- CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT OCCUPATIONS - M EN LABORERS. MATERIAL HANDLING --------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------- CUSTOOIAt AND MATERIAL M OVEM ENT OCCUPATIONS-WOMEN JANITORS. PORTERS, AND CLEANERS ___________ See footnotes at end of tables. Earnings data in table A-6 relate only to workers whose sex identification was provided by the establishment. Earnings data in tables A-4 and A-5, on the other hand, relate to all workers in an occupation. (See appendix A for publication criteria.) ------ __________ ___________ Table A-7. Percent increases in average hourly earnings for selected occupational groups, adjusted for employment shifts, in Gainesville, Fla., September 1974 to September 1975 Indu stry and occu pation al grou p S ep tem b er 1974 to S ep tem b er 1975 A ll in d u stries: O ffic e c le r ic a l (m en and w om en) __________________ E le c tro n ic data p ro c e s s in g (m en and w om en) .. _ _ ........ _ In d u stria l n u rses (m en and w o m e n )... . _ S k illed m aintenance tra d es (m en ) m U n sk illed plant w o r k e r s (m en) __ * * * * 11.6 M anufactur ing: O ffic e c le r ic a l (m en and wom en) E le c tr o n ic data p ro c e s s in g (m en and w om en) In d u strial n u rses (m en and w om en ) ...................... S k illed m aintenance tra d es (m e n )___________________ U n sk illed plant w o r k e r s (m en) _ _ _ _ * * > !< ❖ * Nonm anuf actu t in g: O ffic e c le r ic a l (m en and w om en) _ E le c tr o n ic data p ro c e s s in g (m e n and w om en) In d u stria l nu rses (m en and w o m e n )_ _ __ .... _ .... _. . S k illed m aintenance tra d es ( m e n )......... _ _ _ U n sk illed plant w o r k e r s (m en) * * * * 7.5 Data do not m eet pu blication c r it e r ia . NOTE: The percent increases presented in this table are based on changes in average hourly earnings for establishments reporting the trend jobs in both the current and previous year (matched establishments). They are not affected by changes in average earnings resulting from employment shifts among establishments or turnover of establishments included in survey samples. The percent increases, however, are still affected by factors other than wage increases. Hirings, layoffs, and turnover may affect an establishment average for an occupation when workers are paid under plans providing a range of wage rates for individual jobs. In periods of increased hiring, for example, new employees enter at the bottom of the-range, depressing the average without a change in wage rates. T h e s e w age tren ds a r e not lin ked to the w age in d exes p r e v io u s ly published fo r this a re a becau se the w age in d exes m e a s u re d changes in a r e a a v e r a g e s , w h erea s th ese w age tren ds m ea su re changes in m atched esta b lis h m e n t a v e r a g e s . O ther c h a r a c te r is tic s o f th ese w age tren ds which d iffe r fr o m the discon tin u ed in dexes include (1) ea rn in gs data o f o ffic e c le r ic a l w o rk e rs and in d u stria l nu rses a r e c o n v e rte d to an h o u rly b a s is , (2) tren d e s tim a te s a re p ro vid ed fo r nonm anufacturing e s ta b lis h m e n ts , w h e re p o s s ib le , and (3) tren d es tim a te s a re p ro vid ed fo r e le c tr o n ic data p r o c e s s in g jo b s . For a more detailed description Of the method used to compute these wage trends, see "Improving Area Wage Survey Indexes," Monthly Labor Review, January 1973, pp. 52-57. Footnotes 1 2 3 1 Standard hours reflect the workweek to these weekly hours. 2 The mean is computed for each job and half receive less than the rate shown. 3 Excludes premium oay for overtime for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond by totaling the earnings of all workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median designates position— half of the employees surveyed receive more The middle range is defined by 2 rates of pay; a fourth of the workers earn less than the lower of these rates and a fourth earn more than the higher rate. and for work on weekends, holidays, and* late shifts. Appendix A Area wage and related benefits data are obtained by personal visits of Bureau field represent atives at 3-year intervals.1 In each of the intervening years, information on employment and occupational earnings is collected by a combination of personal visit; mail questionnaire, and telephone interview from establishments participating in the'previous survey. In each of the 832 areas currently surveyed, data are obtained from representative estab lishments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major industry groups excluded from these studies are government operations and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted because of insufficient employment in the occupations studied. Separate tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions which meet publication criteria. Average earnings reflect composite, areawide estimates. Industries and establishments differ in pay level and job staffing, and thus contribute differently to the estimates for each job. Pay averages may fail to reflect accurately the wage differential among jobs in individual establishments. Average pay levels for men and women in selected occupations should not be assumed to reflect differences in pay of the sexes within individual establishments. Factors which may contribute to differences include progression within established rate ranges, since only the rates paid incumbents are collected, and performance of specific duties within the general survey job descriptions. Job descriptions used to classify employees in these surveys usually are more generalized than those used in individual establishments and allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties performed. Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actually surveyed. Because occupational structures among establish ments differ, estimates of occupational employment obtained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occupational structure do not affect materially the accuracy of the earnings data. These surveys are conducted on a sample basis. The sampling procedures involve detailed stratification of all establishments within the scope of an individual area survey by industry and number of employees. From this stratified universe a probability sample is selected, with each establishment having a predetermined chance of selection. To obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large than small establishments is selected. When data are combined, each establishment is weighted according to its probability of selection, so that unbiased estimates are generated. For example, if one out of four establishments is selected, it is given a weight of four to represent itself plus three others. An alternate of the same original probability is chosen in the same industry-size classification if data are not available for the original sample member. If no suitable substitute is available, additional weight is assigned to a sample member that is sim ilar to the missing unit. The Annual rates span between increased at Occupations and Earnings Occupations used to compute wage trends are: Occupations selected for study are common to a variety of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the following types: (1) Office clerical; (2) professional and technical; (3) maintenance and powerplant; and (4) custodial and material movement. Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same job. Occupations selected for study are listed and described in appendix B. Unless otherwise indicated, the earnings data following the job titles are for all industries combined. Earnings data for some of the occupations listed and described, or for some industry divisions within occupations, are not presented in the A -se rie s tables, because either (1) employment in the occupation is too small to provide enough data to merit presentation, or (2) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data. Separate men's and women's earnings data are not presented when the number of workers not identified by sex is 20 percent or more of the men or women identified in an occupation. Earnings data not shown separately for industry divisions are included in all industries combined data, where shown. Likewise, data are included in the overall classification when a sub classification of electronics technicians, secretaries, or truckdrivers is not shown or information to subclassify is not available. Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for full-time workers, i.e., those hired to work a regular weekly schedule. Earnings data exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living allowances and incentive bonuses are included. Weekly hours for office clerical and professional and technical occupations refer to the standard workweek (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which employees receive regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates). Average weekly earnings for these occupations are rounded to the nearest half dollar. These surveys measure the level of occupational earnings in an area at a particular time. Comparisons of individual occupational averages over time may not reflect expected wage changes. The averages for individual jobs are affected by changes in wages and employment patterns. For example, proportions of workers employed by high- or low-wage firms may change, or high-wage workers may advance to better jobs and be replaced by new workers at lower rates. Such shifts in employment could decrease an occupational average even though most establishments in an area increase wages during the year. Trends in earnings of occupational groupq, shown in table A -7 , are better indicators of wage trends than individual jobs within the groups.1 2 Wage trends for selected occupational groups percents of change in table A-7 relate to wage changes between the indicated dates. of increase, where shown, reflect the amount of increase for 12 months when the time surveys was other than 12 months. Annual rates are based on the assumption that wages a constant rate between surveys. Office clerical (men and women): Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B Clerks, accounting, classes A and B Clerks, file, classes A, B, and C Clerks, order Clerks, payroll Keypunch operators, classes A and B Messengers Secretaries Stenographers, general Stenographers, senior Switchboard operators Tabulating-machine operators, class B Typists, classes A and B Electronic data processing (men and women): Computer operators, classes A, B, and G Computer programmers, classes A, B, and C Electronic data processing (men and women)— Continued Computer systems analysts, classes A, B , and C Industrial nurses (men and women): Nurses, industrial (registered) Skilled maintenance (men): Carpenters Electricians Machinists Mechanics Mechanics (automotive) Painters P ip e fit t e r s Tool and die makers Unskilled plant (men): Janitors, porters, and cleaners Laborers, material handling Percent changes for individual areas in the program are computed as follows: 1 Each occupation is assigned a weight based on its proportionate employment in the selected . group of occupations in the base year. 2. These weights are used to compute group averages. Each occupation's average (mean) earnings is multiplied by its weight. The products are totaled to obtain a group average. 3. The ratio of group averages for 2 consecutive years is computed by dividing the average for the current year by the average for the earlier year. The results— expressed as a percent— less 100 is the percent change. Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions 1 Personal visits were on a 2-year cycle before July 1972. 2 Included in the 83 areas are 13 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas are Akron, Ohio; Austin, Tex. ; Binghamton, N . Y . —Pa. ; Birmingham, Ala. ; Fort Lauderdale—Hollywood and West Palm Beach—Boca Raton, Fla. ; Lexington—Fayette, Ky. ; Melbourne —T itu s v ille Cocoa, F la .; Norfolk—Virginia Beach-^Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va. —N. C. ; Poughkeepsie—Kingston—Newburgh, N. Y . ; Raleigh — Durham, N .C .; Syracuse, N . Y . ; Utica—Rome, N. Y . ; and Westchester County, N .Y . In addition, the Bureau conducts more lim ited area studies in approximately 70 areas at the request o f the Employment Standards Administration o f the U.S. Department o f Labor. Tabulations on selected establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions (B -se rie s tables) are not presented in this bulletin. Information for these, tabulations is collected at 3-year intervals.1 These tabulations on minimum entrance salaries for inexperienced office workers; shift differentials; scheduled weekly hours and days; paid holidays; paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are presented (in the B -se rie s tables) in previous bulletins for this area. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Gainesville, Fla.,1 September 1975 In du stry d iv is io n 2 A l l d iv is io n s ................................ ......... ......... . M an u factu rin g _ ____ N on m a n u fa ctu rin g__________________________ T r a n s p o rta tio n , com m u n ication , and o th e r pu b lic u tilitie s 5 _ _____ W h o le s a le tr a d e 6 _ ... _ . . R e ta il tr a d e 6 _______________ _____ _____ __ _____ F in a n c e , in su ra n ce, and r e a l e s ta te 6 _ ___ S e r v ic e s 6 7 _ M inim u m em p loym en t in e s ta b lis h m ents in scope o f study Number of establishment. Workers in establishments Within scope of study4 W ithin scope o f study* Studied Studied Number P ercen t - 58 36 7. 968 100 6 , 379 50 - 12 46 10 26 2.5 5 7 5,411 32 68 2,433 3,9 4 6 50 50 50 2 3 25 2 2 12 765 183 3,033 10 2 38 765 129 2 , 008 50 50 7 9 5 5 800 630 10 8 644 400 1 The Gainesville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget through February 1974, consists of Alachua County. The "workers within scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. Estimates are not intended, however, for comparison with other employment indexes to measure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) small establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey. 2 The 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division. 3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum limitation. A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in industries such as trade, finance, auto repair service, and motion picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment. 4 Includes all workers in all establishments with total employment (within the area) at or above the minimum limitation. 5 Abbreviated to "public utilities" in the A -se rie s tables. Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded. Gainesville's electric utilities and transit system are municipally operated and are excluded from the scope of the survey. 6 This division is represented in estimates for "all industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the A -se rie s tables. Separate presentation of data is not made for one or more of the following reasons: (1) Employment is too small to provide enough data to merit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data. 7 Hotels and motels; laundries and other personal services; business services; automobile repair, rental, and parking; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations (excluding religious and charitable organizations); and engineering and architectural services. Appendix B. Occupational Descriptions The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This permits the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau's job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are instructed to exclude working supervisors; apprentices; learners; beginners; trainees; and handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers. O FF ICE BILLER , MACHINE CLERKS, ACCOUNTING Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are classified by type of machine, as follows: Performs one or more accounting clerical tasks such as posting to registers and ledgers; reconciling bank accounts; verifying the internal consistency, completeness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting documents; assigning prescribed accounting distribution codes; examining and verifying for clerical accuracy various types of reports, lists, calculations, posting, etc.; or preparing simple or assisting in preparing more complicated journal vouchers. May work in either a manual or automated accounting system. B iller, machine (billing machine). Uses a special billing machine (combination typing and adding machine) to prepare bills and invoices from customers' purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine. B illerf machine (bookkeeping machine). Uses a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers' bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers' ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slips. The work requires a knowledge of clerical methods and office practices and procedures which relates to the clerical processing and recording of transactions and accounting information. With experience, the worker typically becomes fam iliar wltli the bookkeeping and accounting terms and procedures used in the assigned work, but is not required to have a knowledge of the form al principles of bookkeeping and accounting. Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions. Class A. Under general supervision, performs accounting clerical operations which require the application of experience and judgment, for example, clerically processing complicated or nonrepetitive accounting transactions, selecting among a substantial variety of prescribed accounting codes and classifications, or tracing transactions though previous accounting actions to determine source of discrepancies. May be assisted by one or more class B accounting clerks. BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR Operates a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions. Class B . Under close supervision, following detailed instructions and standardized procedures, performs one or more routine accounting clerical operations, such as posting to ledgers, cards, or worksheets where identification of items and locations of postings are clearly indicated; checking accuracy and completeness of standardized and repetitive records or accounting documents; and coding documents using a few prescribed accounting codes. Class A. Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and experience in basic bookkeeping principles, and familiarity with the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand. CLERK, F ILE Class B . Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll, customers' accounts (not including a simple type of billing described under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department. Files, classifies, and retrieves m aterial in an established filing system. May perform clerical and manual tasks required to maintain files. Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions. Class A. Classifies and indexes file m aterial such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an established filing system containing a number of varied subject matter files. May also file this material. May keep records of various types in conjunction with the files. May lead a small group of lpwer level file clerks. SECRET ARY— C ontinue d Class B . Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference aids. As requested, locates clearly identified material in files and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required to maintain and service files. , Class C . Perform s routine filing of material that has already been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numerical). As requested, locates readily available material in files and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and service files. CLER K, ORDER Receives customers* orders for material or merchandise by mail, phone; or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following; Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original orders. CLERK, P A Y R O LL Computes wages of company employees and enters the necessary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers* earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, ,w6rking days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine. KEYPUNCH OPERATOR Operates a keypunch machine to record or verify alphabetic and/or numeric data on tabulating cards or on tape. Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions. Class A . Work requires the application of experience and judgment in selecting procedures to be followed and in searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to be keypunched from a variety of source documents. On occasion may also perform some routine keypunch work. May train inexperienced keypunch operators. Clags B . Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision or following specific procedures or instructions, works from various standardized source documents which have been coded, and follows specified procedures which have been prescribed in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. Refers to supervisor problems arising from erroneous items or codes or missing information. MESSENGER •Exclusions Not all positions that are titled "secretary" possess the above characteristics. positions which are excluded from the definition are as follows: Examples of a. Positions which do not meet the "personal" secretary concept described above; b. Stenographers not fully trained in secretarial type duties; c. Stenographers managerial persons; serving as office assistants to a group of professional, technical, or d. Secretary positions in which the duties are either substantially more stantially more complex and responsible than those characterized in the definition; routine or sub e. Assistant type positions which involve more difficult or more responsible technical, administrative, supervisory, or specialized clerical duties which are not typical of secretarial work. NO TE: The term "corporate offic e r," used in the level definitions following, refers to those officials who have a significant corporate-wide policymaking role with regard to major company activities. The title "vice president," though normally indicative of this role, do?s not in all cases identify such positions. Vice presidents whose primary responsibility is to act personally on individual cases or transactions (e.g., approve or deny individual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts; directly supervise a clerical staff) are not considered to be "corporate officers" for purposes of applying the following level definitions. Class A 1. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5, 000 persons; or 2. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 5, 000 but fewer than 25, 000 persons; or 3. Secretary to the head, immediately below the corporate officer level, of a major segment or subsidiary of a company that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons. Class B 1. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that employs, in all, fewer than 100 persons; or2 5 4 3 2. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5, 000 persons; or 3. Secretary to the h^ad, immediately below the officer level, over either a major corporate wide functional activity (e.g., marketing, research, operations, industrial relations, etc.) or a major geographic or organizational segment (e.g., a regional headquarters; a major division) of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewefr than 25,000 employees; or Perform s variants routine duties such as running errands, operating minor office machines such as sealers or m ailers, opening and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work. Exclude positions that require operation of a motor vehicle as a significant duty. 4. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, over 5,000 persons; or SECRETARY 5. Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational segment (e.g., a middle management supervisor of an organizational segment often involving as many as several hundred persons) or a company that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons. Assigned .as personal secretary, normally to one individual. Maintains a close and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day work of the supervisor. Works fairly independently receiving a minimum of detailed supervision and guidance. Perform s varied clerical and secretarial duties, usually including most of the following: a. Receives telephone calls, personal callers, and incoming mail, answers routine inquires, and routes technical inquiries to the proper persons; b. Establishes, maintains, and revises the supervisor's files; c. Maintains the supervisor's calendar and makes appointments as instructed; d. Relays messages from supervisor to subordinates; e. Reviews correspondence, memorandums, and reports prepared by others for the super visor's signature to as siire procedural and typographic accuracy; f. Perform s stenographic and typing work. May also perform other clerical and secretarial tasks of comparable nature and difficulty. The work typically requires knowledge of office routine and understanding of the organization, program s, and procedures related to the work of the supervisor. Class C 1. Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose responsibility is not equivalent to one of the specific level situations in the definition for class B, but whose organizational unit normally numbers at least several dozen employees and is usually divided into organizational segments wfrich are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level includes a wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; or_ 2. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, fewer than 5,000 persons. Class D 1. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small organizational unit (e.g., fewer than about 25 or 30 persons); o»r 2. Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional employee, administrative officer, or assistant, skilled technician or expert. (NOTE: Many companies assign stenographers, rather than secretaries as described above, to this level of supervisory or nonsupervisory worker.) STENOGRAPHER TABULATING-M ACHINE OPERATOR (Electric Accounting Machine Operator) Prim ary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to transcribe the dictation. May also type from written copy. May operate from a stenographic pool. May occasionally transcribe from voice recordings (if primary duty is transcribing from recordings, see Tran scribing-Machine Operator, General). Operates one or a variety of machines such as the tabulator, calculator, collator, interpreter, sorter, reproducing punch, etc. Excluded from this definition are working supervisors. Also excluded are operators of electronic digital computers, even though they may also operate EAM equipment. NOTE: This job is distinguished from that of a secretary in that a secretary normally works in a confidential relationship with only one manager or executive and performs more responsible and discretionary tasks as described in the secretary job definition. Class A. Perform s complete reporting and tabulating assignments including devising difficult control panel wiring under general supervision. Assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex reports which often are irregular or nonrecurring, requiring some planning of the nature and sequencing of operations, and the use of a variety of machines. Is typically involved in training new operators in machine operations or training lower level operators in wiring from diagrams and in the operating sequences of long and complex reports. Does not include positions in which wiring responsibility is limited to selection and insertion of prewired boards. Stenographer, General Dictation involves a normal routine vocabulary. or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks. May maintain files, keep simple records, Stenographer, Senior Dictation involves a varied technical .or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc. OR Perform s stenographic duties requiring significantly greater independence and responsibility than stenographer, general, as evidenced by the following: Work requires a high degree of stenographic speed and accuracy; a thorough working knowledge of general business and office procedure; and of the specific business operations, organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical tasks such as maintaining followup files; assembling material for reports, memorandums, and letters; composing simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine questions, etc. SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR Operates a telephone switchboard or console used with a private branch exchange (P B X ) system to relay incoming, outgoing, and intra-system calls. May provide information to callers, record and transmit messages, keep record of calls placed and toll charges. Besides operating a telephone switchboard or console, may also type or perform routine clerical work (typing or routine clerical work may occupy the major portion of the worker's time, and is usually performed while at the switchboard or console). Chief or lead operators in establishments employing more than one operator are excluded. For an operator who also acts as a receptionist, see Switchboard OperatorReceptionist. SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST At a single-position telephone switchboard or console, acts both as an operator— see Switch board Operator— and as a receptionist. Receptionist's work involves such duties as greeting visitors; determining nature of visitor's business and providing appropriate information; referring visitor to appropriate person in the organization, or contacting that person by telephone and arranging an appointment; keeping a log of visitors. P R O F E S S IO N A L Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions. Class B . Perform s work according to established procedures and under specific instructions. Assignments typically involve complete but routine and recurring reports or parts of larger and more complex reports. Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical accounting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the simpler machines used by class C operators. May be required to do some wiring from diagrams. May train new employees in basic machine operations. Class C. Under specific instructions, operates simple tabulating or electrical accounting machines such as the sorter, interpreter, reproducing punch, collator, etc. Assignments typically involve portions of a work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or repetitive operations. May perform simple wiring from diagrams, and do some filing work. T R A N S C R IB IN G rM A C H IN E O P E R A T O R , G E N E R A L . Prim ary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified as a stenographer. T Y P IS T Uses a typewriter to make copies of various materials or to make out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May include typing of stencils, mats, or sim ilar materials for use in duplicating .processes. May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and distributing incoming mail. Class A. Perform s one or more of the following: Typing material in final form when it involves combining material from several sources; or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punctuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language material; or planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances. Class B . Performs one or more of the following: Copy typing from rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of forms, insurance policies, etc; or setting up simple standard tabulations; or copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly. N D T E C H N IC A L COMPUTER OPERATOR COM PUTER OPERATOR— Continued Monitors and operates the control console of a digital computer to process data cccording to operating instructions, usually prepared by a programmer. Work includes most of the following: Studies instructions to determine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required items (tape reels, cards, etc.); switches necessary auxiliary equipment into circuit, and starts and operates computer; makes adjustments to computer to correct operating problems and meet special conditions; reviews e rrors made during operation and determines cause or refers problem to supervisor or programmer; and maintains operating records. May test and assist in correcting program. Class B . Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running programs with most of the following characteristics: Most of the program s are established production runs, typically run on a regularly recurring basis; there is little or no testing of new programs required; alternate programs are provided in case original program needs major change or cannot be corrected within a reasonably time. In common e rro r situations, diagnoses cause and takes corrective action. This usually involves applying previously programmed corrective steps, or using standard correction techniques. OR For wage study purposes, computer operators are classified as follows: Class A . Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running programs with most of the following characteristics: New programs are frequently tested and introduced; scheduling requirements are of critical importance to minimize downtime; the programs are of complex design so that identification of e rror source often requires a working knowledge of the total program, and alternate programs may not be available. May give direction and guidance to lower level operators. Operates under direct supervision a computer running programs or segments of programs with the characteristics described for class A. May assist a higher level operator by independently performing less difficult tasks assigned, and performing difficult tasks following detailed instructions and with frequent review of operations performed. Class C. Works on routine programs under close supervision. Is expected to develop working knowledge of the computer equipment used and ability to detect problems involved in running routine program s. Usually has received some form al training in computer operation. May assist higher level operator on complex programs. Converts statements of business problems, typically prepared by a systems analyst, into a sequence of detailed instructions which are required to solve the problems by automatic data processing equipment. Working from charts or diagrams, the programmer develops the precise instructions which, when entered into the computer system in coded language, cause the manipulation of data to achieve desired results. Work involves most of the following: Applies knowledge of computer capabilities, mathematics, logic employed by computers, and particular subject matter involved to analyze charts and diagrams of the problem to be programmed; develops sequence of program steps; writes detailed flow charts to show order in which data will be processed; converts these charts to coded instructions for machine to follow; tests and corrects programs; prepares instructions for operating personnel during production run; analyzes, reviews, and alters programs to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements; maintains records of program development and revisions. (NOTE: Workers performing both systems analysis and programming should be classified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.) Does not include employees prim arily responsible for the management or supervision of other electronic data processing employees, or programmers primarily concerned with scientific and/or engineering problems. For wage study purposes, program m ers are classified as follows: Class A . Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems which require competence in all phases of programming concepts and practices. Working from diagrams and charts which identify the nature of desired results, major processing steps to be accomplished, and the relationships between various steps of the problem solving routine; plans the full range of programming actions needed to efficiently utilize the computer system in achieving desired end products. At this level, programming is difficult because computer equipment must be organized to produce several interrelated but diverse products from numerous and diverse data elements. A wide variety and extensive number of internal processing actions must occur. This requires such actions as development of common operations which can be reused, establishment of linkage points between operations, adjustments to data when program requirements exceed computer storage capacity, and substantial manipulation and resequencing of data elements to form a highly integrated program. May provide functional direction to lower level programmers who are Class A . Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems involving all phases of system analysis. Problems are complex because of diverse sources of input data and multiple-use requirements of output data. (For example, develops an integrated production scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales analysis record in which every item of each type is automatically processed through the full system of records and appropriate followup actions are initiated by the computer.) Confers with persons concerned to determine the data processing problems and advises subject-matter personnel on the implications of new or revised systems of data processing operations. Makes recommendations, if needed, for approval of major systems installations or changes and for obtaining equipment. May provide functional direction to lower level systems analysts who are assigned to assist. Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on problems that are relatively uncomplicated to analyze, plan, program, and operate. Problems are of limited complexity because sources of input data are homogeneous and the output data are closely related. (For example, develops systems for maintaining depositor accounts in a bank, maintaining accounts receivable in a retail establishment, or maintaining inventory accounts in a manufacturing or wholesale establishment.) Confers with persons concerned to determine the data processing problems and advises subjectmatter personnel on the implications of the data processing systems to be applied. OR Works on a segment of a complex data processing scheme or system, as described for class A. Works independently on routine assignments and receives instruction and guidance on complex assignments. Work is reviewed for accuracy of judgment, compliance with instructions, and to insure proper alignment with the overall system. Class C . Works under immediate supervision, carrying out analyses as assigned, usually of a single activity. Assignments are designed to develop and expand practical experience in the application of procedures and skills required for systems analysis work. For example, may assist a higher level systems analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required by programmers from information developed by the higher level analyst. assigned to assist. Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on relatively simple programs, or on simple segments of complex program s. Program s (or segments) usually process information to produce data in two or three varied sequences or formats. Reports and listings are produced by refining, adapting, arraying, or making minor additions to or deletions from input data which are readily available. While numerous records may be processed, the data have been refined in prior actions so that the accuracy and sequencing of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typically, the program deals with routine record-keeping type operations. OR Works on complex program s (as described for class A) under close direction of a higher level program m er or supervisor. May assist higher level programmer by independently performing leas difficult tasks assigned, and performing more difficult tasks under fairly close direction. May guide or instruct lower level programmers. Glass C . Makes practical applications of programming practices and concepts usually learned in form al training courses. Assignments are designed to develop competence in the application of standard procedures to routine problems. Receives close supervision on new aspects of assignments; and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy and conformance with required procedures. COM PUTER SYSTEMS A N A LYS T , BUSINESS Analyzes business problems to formulate procedures for solving them by use of electronic data processing equipment. Develops a complete description of all specifications needed to enable program m ers to prepare required digital computer programs. Work involves most of the following: Analyzes subject-matter operations to be automated and identifies conditions and criteria required to achieve satisfactory results; specifies number and types of records, files, and documents to be used; outlines actions to be performed by personnel and computers in sufficient detail for presentation to management and for programming (typically this involves preparation of work and data flow charts); coordinates the development of test problems and participates in trial runs of new and revised systems; and recommends equipment changes to obtain more effective overall operations. (NOTE: Workers performing both systems analysis and programming should be classified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.) Does not include employees prim arily responsible for the management or supervision of other electronic data processing employees, or systems analysts primarily concerned with scientific or engineering problems. For wage study purposes, systems analysts are classified as follows: DRAFTER Class A. Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having distinctive design features that differ significantly from established drafting precedents. Works in close support with the design originator, and may recommend minor design changes. Analyzes the effect of each change on the details of form, function, and positional relationships of components and parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory assistance. Completed work is reviewed by design originator for consistency with prior engineering determinations. May either prepare drawings, or direct their preparation by lower level drafters. Class B . Perform s nonroutine and complex drafting assignments that require the application of most of the standardized drawing techniques regularly used. Duties typically involve such work as: Prepares working drawings of subassemblies with irregular shapes, multiple functions, and precise positional relationships between components; prepares architectural drawings for construction of a building including detail drawings of foundations, wall sections, floor plans, and roof. Uses accepted formulas and manuals in making necessary computations to determine quantities of materials to be used, load capacities, strengths, stresses, etc. Receives initial instructions, requirements, and advice from supervisor. Completed work is checked for technical adequacy. Class C . Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for engineering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types of drawings prepared include isometric projections (depicting three dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning of components and convey needed information. Consolidates details from a number of sources anil adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggested methods of approach, applicable precedents, and Advice on source materials are given with initial assignments. Instructions are less complete when assignments recur. Work may be spot-checked during progress. D R AFTER -TR AC ER Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not include tracing limited to plans primarily consisting of straight lines and a large scale not requiring close delineation.) AND/OR Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized items. during progress. Work is closely supervised v a rio u s ty p es o f e le c tr o n ic equipm ent and r e la te d d e v ic e s by p e r fo r m in g one o r a fo llo w in g : In s ta llin g , m ain tain in g, re p a ir in g , o v e rh a u lin g , tro u b le s h o o tin g , m o d ify in g , te s tin g . W o rk r e q u ir e s p r a c tic a l a p p lica tion of te c h n ic a l k n ow led ge o f e le c tr o n ic s to d e te rm in e m a lfu n ctio n s, and s k ill to put equ ipm ent in r e q u ire d o p era tin g con dition . C la s s B. A p p lies com p re h e n s iv e te c h n ic a l k n o w led ge to s o lv e c o m p le x 'p r o b le m s (i. e . , th ose that ty p ic a lly can be s o lv e d s o le ly by p r o p e r ly in te r p r e tin g m a n u fa c tu re rs ' .m an u als o r s im ila r d ocu m en ts) in, w ork in g on e le c tr o n ic equipm ent. W o rk in v o lv e s : A f a m ilia r it y w ith the in t e r r e la t io n ships of c ir c u its ; and judgm ent in d e te rm in in g w o rk sequ en ce and in s e le c tin g to o ls and te s tin g in stru m en ts, usually le s s co m p lex than th ose used b y the c la s s A tech n icia n . Th e equ ipm ent— c o n s is tin g o f e ith e r m any d iffe re n t kinds o f c ir c u its o r m u ltip le re p e titio n of the sam e kind o f c ir c u it— in clu d es, but is not lim ite d to , the fo llo w in g : (a ) E le c tr o n ic tra n s m ittin g and re c e iv in g equ ipm en t (e .g ., ra d a r, ra d io , t e le v is io n , telep h o n e, son a r, n a v ig a tio n a l a id s ), (b ) d ig ita l and analog c o m p u te rs , and (c ) in d u s tria l and m e d ic a l m e a s u rin g and c o n tro llin g equ ipm ent. R e c e iv e s te c h n ic a l guidance, as r e q u ir e d , fr o m s u p e r v is o r o r h ig h e r l e v e l te c h n ic ia n , and w o rk is r e v ie w e d fo r s p e c ific com p lia n ce w ith a c c e p te d p r a c tic e s and w o rk a ssign m en ts. M a y p ro v id e te c h n ic a l guidance to lo w e r le v e l tech n icia n s. T h is c la s s ific a tio n e x clu d es r e p a ir e r s o f such stan dard e le c tr o n ic equipm ent as com m on o ffic e m achines and h ousehold ra d io and t e le v is io n s ets; produ ction a s s e m b le r s and t e s t e r s ; w o r k e r s w h ose p r im a r y duty is s e r v ic in g e le c tr o n ic te s t in stru m en ts; tech n icia n s who have a d m in is tra tiv e o r s u p e rv is o ry r e s p o n s ib ility ; and d r a fte r s , d e s ig n e r s , and p r o fe s s io n a l e n g in e e rs . C la s s C . A p p lie s w ork in g te c h n ic a l k n ow led ge to p e r fo r m s im p le o r rou tin e task s in w o rk in g on e le c tr o n ic equipm ent, fo llo w in g d eta iled in s tru c tio n s w hich c o v e r v ir t u a lly a ll p r o c e d u re s . W ork ty p ic a lly in v o lv e s such tasks as: A s s is tin g h ig h e r l e v e l te c h n ic ia n s by p e r fo r m in g such a c t iv itie s as r e p la c in g com ponents, w ir in g c ir c u its , and takin g te s t re a d in g s ; re p a ir in g sim p le e le c t r o n ic equipm ent; and using to o ls and com m on te s t in stru m en ts (e .g ., m u ltim e te r s , audio sig n a l g e n e r a to r s , tube te s t e r s , o s c illo s c o p e s ). Is not re q u ire d to be fa m ilia r w ith the in te r r e la tio n s h ip s o f c ir c u its . T h is k n o w led ge, h o w e v e r , m ay be acq u ired through a ssign m en ts d es ig n e d to in c r e a s e c o m p eten ce (in clu d in g c la s s r o o m tr a in in g ) so that w o r k e r can advance to h ig h er l e v e l te c h n ic ia n . W o rk s on com bination of the con stru ctin g, and p rin c ip le s , a b ility P o s itio n s a re c la s s ifie d in to le v e ls on the b a s is o f the fo llo w in g d e fin itio n s. C lass A . A p p lie s advan ced te c h n ic a l k n ow ledge to s o lv e unusually c o m p le x p ro b le m s ( i . e ., th ose that ty p ic a lly cannot be so lv e d s o le ly by r e fe r e n c e to m a n u fa ctu rers* m anuals o r s im ila r d ocu m en ts) in w o rk in g on e le c tr o n ic equipm ent. E x a m p les o f such p ro b le m s in clu d e lo c a tio n and d en sity of c ir c u it r y , e le c tr o - m a g n e tic ra d ia tio n , is o la tin g m a lfu n ctio n s, and frequ en t e n g in e e rin g changes. W ork in v o lv e s : A d e ta ile d u nderstanding of the in te rre la tio n s h ip s o f c ir c u its ; e x e r c is in g independent ju dgm ent in p e r fo r m in g such ta sk s as m aking c irc u it a n a ly s e s , c a lcu la tin g w a ve fo r m s , tra c in g rela tio n sh ip s in s ig n a l flow ; and r e g u la r ly using co m p le x te s t instru m ents' (e .g ., dual tr a c e o s c illo s c o p e s , Q - m e t e r s , d eviation m e te r s , pulse g e n e r a to r s ). W ork m ay be r e v ie w e d by com p lia n ce w ith a c cep ted p r a c tic e s . s u p e rv is o r (fre q u e n tly an e n g in e e r o r d e s ig n e r ) fo r g e n e r a l M ay p ro v id e te c h n ic a l guidance to lo w e r l e v e l tech n icia n s. R e c e iv e s tech n ica l guidance, as r e q u ir e d , fr o m s u p e r v is o r o r h ig h e r l e v e l te c h n ic ia n . W ork is ty p ic a lly spot checked, but is given d e ta ile d r e v ie w when new o r ad van ced a ssig n m en ts a re in v o lv e d . N U R S E , IN D U S T R IA L (R e g is t e r e d ) A r e g is te r e d nurse who g iv e s nu rsing s e r v ic e u nder g e n e r a l m e d ic a l d ir e c tio n to i l l o r in ju re d e m p lo y e e s or other p erson s who b ecom e i l l o r s u ffe r an accid en t on the p r e m is e s o f a fa c t o r y or o th e r estab lish m en t. Duties in v o lv e a com b in ation o f the fo llo w in g : G iv in g f i r s t aid to the i l l or in ju re d ; attending to subsequent d re s s in g of e m p lo y e e s ' in ju r ie s ; k eep in g r e c o r d s o f patien ts tre a te d ; p re p a rin g accident re p o rts fo r com pensation o r o th er p u rp o s e s ; a s s is tin g in p h y s ic a l exa m in a tio n s and health evalu ation s o f applicants and e m p lo y e e s ; and planning and c a r r y in g out p r o g r a m s in v o lv in g health edu cation , accident p reven tio n , evalu ation o f plant e n v iro n m e n t, o r o th e r a c tiv it ie s a ffe c tin g the health, w e lfa r e , and safety o f a ll p erso n n el. N u rsin g s u p e r v is o r s o r head n u rses in e s ta b lis h m e n ts e m p lo y in g m o r e than one nurse a re exclu ded. M A I N T E N A N C E A N D PO W E RPL ANT B O IL E R T E N D E R H E L P E R , M A IN T E N A N C E T R A D E S F ir e s s ta tio n a ry b o ile r s to fu rn ish the e sta b lish m en t in w h ich em p lo y e d w ith heat, p o w e r, o r steam . F ee d s fu els to f i r e by hand o r o p e ra te s a m e c h a n ic a l s to k e r, g a s, o r o il b u rn e r; and ch ecks w a te r and s a fe ty v a lv e s . M ay cle a n , o il, o r a s s is t in re p a irin g b o ile r r o o m equ ipm ent. A s s is ts one o r m o re w o rk e rs in the s k ille d m a in ten an ce tr a d e s , by p e r fo r m in g s p e c ific o r g e n e r a l du ties of le s s e r s k ill, such as keepin g a w o r k e r su pplied w ith m a t e r ia ls and to o ls ; clea n in g w o rk in g a re a , m ach in e, and equipm ent; a s s is tin g jo u rn ey m a n by holding m a t e r ia ls o r to o ls ; and p e r fo r m in g other u n sk illed tasks as d ire c te d by jo u rn ey m a n . T h e kind o f w o rk the h e lp e r is p e rm itte d to p e r fo r m v a r ie s fr o m tra d e to tra d e : In s o m e tra d e s the h e lp e r is co n fin ed to su p p lyin g, liftin g , and holding m a te r ia ls and t o o ls , and clean in g w o rk in g a r e a s ; and in o th e rs he is p e r m itte d to p e r fo r m s p e c ia liz e d m achine o p e ra tio n s , o r parts o f a tra d e that a re a lso p e r fo r m e d by w o r k e r s on a fu ll- t im e b a sis. C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E P e r fo r m s the c a rp e n try duties n e c e s s a r y to co n stru ct and m ain tain in good r e p a ir building w oodw ork and equipm ent such as b in s, c r ib s , co u n ters, b en ch es, p a rtitio n s , d o o r s , flo o r s , s ta ir s , ca s in g s , and t r im m ade of w ood in an esta b lish m en t. W o rk in v o lv e s m ost of the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out o f w o rk fr o m b lu e p rin ts , d ra w in g s, m o d e ls , o r v e r b a l in s tru c tio n s ; using a v a r ie t y o f c a rp e n te r's h andtools, p o rta b le p o w e r to o ls , and standard m e a s u rin g in stru m en ts; m aking standard shop com putations r e la tin g to d im en sion s o f w o rk ; and s e le c tin g m a te r ia ls n e c e s s a r y fo r the w o rk . In g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f the m ain ten an ce c a r p e n te r re q u ir e s rounded tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u su ally acq u ired throu gh a fo r m a l a p p ren ticesh ip o r e q u iva len t tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e . E L E C T R IC IA N , M A IN T E N A N C E P e r fo r m s a v a r ie t y o f e le c t r ic a l tra d e fu nctions such as the in s ta lla tio n , m a in ten a n ce, o r r e p a ir o f equipm ent fo r the g e n e ra tio n , d is trib u tio n , o r u tiliz a tio n o f e le c t r ic e n e r g y in an esta b lis h m e n t. W o rk in v o lv e s m ost o f the fo llo w in g : In s ta llin g o r re p a ir in g any of a v a r ie t y o f e le c t r ic a l equ ipm ent such as g e n e r a to r s , t r a n s fo r m e r s , s w itch b o a rd s, c o n t r o lle r s , c ir c u it b r e a k e r s , m o to r s , heatin g units, conduit s y s te m s , o r o th er tra n s m is s io n equ ipm ent; w o rk in g fr o m b lu e p rin ts , d ra w in g s , la y o u ts, o r oth er s p e c ific a tio n s ; lo c a tin g and d iagn osin g tro u b le in the e le c t r ic a l s y s te m o r equ ipm en t; w o rk in g standard com pu tation s re la tin g to lo a d re q u ire m e n ts o f w ir in g o r e le c t r ic a l equ ipm en t; and using a v a r ie t y of e le c t r ic ia n 's handtools and m e a s u rin g and te s tin g in stru m en ts. In g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f the m aintenance e le c t r ic ia n r e q u ir e s rounded tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e usu ally a c q u ire d throu gh a fo r m a l a p p ren ticesh ip o r eq u iva len t tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e . E N G IN E E R , S T A T IO N A R Y O p era tes and m ain tain s and m a y a ls o s u p e rv is e the o p era tio n o f s ta tio n a ry en gin es and equipm ent (m e c h a n ic a l o r e le c t r ic a l) to supply the e s ta b lish m en t in w hich e m p lo y e d w ith p o w e r, heat, r e fr ig e r a t io n , o r a ir-c o n d itio n in g . W o rk in v o lv e s : O p era tin g and m ain tain in g equ ipm ent such as steam en gin es, a ir c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a to r s , m o to r s , tu rb in e s , v e n tila tin g and r e fr ig e r a t in g equ ipm en t, stea m b o ile r s and b o ile r - f e d w a te r pumps; m akin g equipm ent r e p a ir s ; and k eep in g a r e c o r d o f o p era tio n o f m a c h in e ry , te m p e ra tu re , and fu el consum ption. M a y a ls o s u p e rv is e th e s e o p era tio n s. H ead o r c h ie f e n g in eers in e sta b lish m en ts e m p lo y in g m o r e than one e n g in e e r a re exclu d ed . M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R , T O O L R O O M S p e c ia liz e s in o p eratin g one o r m o re than one typ e of m a ch in e to o l (e .g ., j i g b o r e r , grin d in g m a ch in e, engine lath e, m illin g m a ch in e) to m a ch in e m e ta l fo r use in m ak in g o r m ain ta in in g jig s , fix tu r e s , cutting to o ls , gau ges, o r m e ta l d ies o r m o ld s u sed in shaping o r fo r m in g m e ta l o r n o n m e ta llic m a t e r ia l (e .g ., p la s tic , p la s te r , ru b b er, g la s s ). W o rk t y p ic a lly in v o lv e s : P la n n in g and p e r fo r m in g d iffic u lt m achining op era tio n s w hich re q u ire c o m p lic a te d setups o r a high d e g r e e o f a c c u ra c y ; settin g up m ach in e to o l o r to o ls (e .g ., in s ta ll cutting t o o ls and adjust g u id e s , s to p s, w o rk in g t a b l e s , and o th er c o n tro ls to handle the s iz e of stock to be m a ch in ed ; d e te rm in e p r o p e r fe e d s , sp e e d s , to o lin g , and op era tio n sequence o r s e le c t th o se p r e s c r ib e d in d ra w in g s , b lu e p rin ts , o r la y o u ts ); using a v a r ie t y o f p r e c is io n m ea su rin g in stru m en ts; m aking n e c e s s a r y ad ju stm en ts d u rin g m ach in in g o p e ra tio n to a c h ie v e re q u is ite dim en sion s to v e r y c lo s e to le r a n c e s . M a y be r e q u ir e d to s e le c t p r o p e r c o o la n ts and cutting and lu b ric a tin g o ils , to re c o g n iz e when to o ls n eed d r e s s in g , and to d r e s s to o ls . In g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f a m a c h in e -to o l o p e ra to r, to o lr o o m , at the s k ill l e v e l c a lle d fo r in th is c la s s ific a t io n re q u ir e s e x te n s iv e kn ow ledge o f m a ch in e-sh op and to o lr o o m p r a c t ic e u su ally a c q u ire d th rou gh c o n s id e ra b le o n -th e -jo b tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e . F o r c ro s s -in d u s try w age study p u rp o s e s , th is c la s s ific a tio n o p e r a to r s , to o lr o o m , em p lo y e d in to o l-a n d -d ie jo b b in g shops. does not in clu d e m a c h in e -to o l M A C H IN IS T , M A IN T E N A N C E P ro d u c e s rep la cem en t p a rts and new p a rts in m akin g r e p a ir s o f m e ta l p a rts o f m e c h a n ic a l equ ipm ent o p era ted in an esta b lish m en t. W o rk in v o lv e s m ost o f the fo llo w in g : in te r p r e tin g w ritte n in s tru c tio n s and s p e c ific a tio n s ; planning and la y in g out o f w o rk ; using a v a r ie t y o f m a c h in is t's handtools and p r e c is io n m easu rin g in stru m en ts; settin g up and o p e ra tin g stan d ard m ach in e to o ls ; shaping o f m e ta l p a rts to c lo s e t o le r a n c e s ; m ak in g stan d ard shop com putations re la tin g to d im en sion s o f w o r k , to o lin g , fe e d s , and speeds o f m ach in in g; k n o w led ge o f the w ork in g p r o p e r tie s of the com m on m e ta ls ; s e le c tin g stan d ard m a t e r ia ls , p a r ts , and equ ipm en t r e q u ir e d fo r th is w o rk ; and fittin g and a s s e m b lin g p a rts into m e c h a n ic a l equipm ent. In g e n e r a l, the m a c h in is t's w o rk n o r m a lly re q u ire s a rounded tra in in g in m a c h in e -s h o p p r a c tic e u su ally a c q u ire d through a fo r m a l ap p ren ticesh ip o r eq u iva len t tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e . P a in ts and r e d e c o r a te s w a lls , w o o d w o rk , and fix tu r e s o f an esta b lish m en t. W o rk in v o lv e s the fo llo w in g : K n o w led g e o f su rfa c e p e c u lia r itie s and ty p es o f paint r e q u ir e d fo r d iffe re n t a p p lication s; p re p a rin g s u rfa c e fo r painting by re m o v in g old fin is h o r by pla cin g putty o r f i l l e r in n a il h oles and in t e r s t ic e s ; and applying paint w ith s p ra y gun o r brush. M a y m ix c o lo r s , o ils , w hite lea d , and oth er paint in g re d ie n ts to obtain p r o p e r c o lo r o r c o n s is te n c y . In g e n e r a l, the w ork o f the m aintenance p a in te r re q u ir e s rounded tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u su ally a c q u ire d th rou gh a fo r m a l ap p ren ticesh ip o r eq u iva len t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e . M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (M a in te n a n c e ) P I P E F I T T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E R e p a irs a u to m o b ile s , b u ses, m o to rtru c k s , and tr a c to r s o f an esta b lish m en t. W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : E x a m in in g au to m o tive equipm ent to d iagn ose source o f tro u b le ; d is a s s e m b lin g equ ipm en t and p e r fo r m in g r e p a ir s that in v o lv e the use o f such handtools as w re n c h e s , ga u ges, d r ills , o r s p e c ia liz e d equ ipm en t in d is a s s e m b lin g o r fittin g p a rts; re p la c in g broken ox d e fe c tiv e p a rts fr o m stock ; grin d in g and adju stin g v a lv e s ; re a s s e m b lin g and in s ta llin g the va rio u s a s s e m b lie s in the v e h ic le and m aking n e c e s s a r y ad ju stm en ts; and a lign in g w h e e ls , adjusting b ra k es and lig h ts , o r tigh ten in g body b o lts. In g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f the au to m o tive m ech an ic re q u ire s rounded tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e usually a c q u ire d through a fo r m a l a p p re n tic e s h ip o r equ ivalen t tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e . T h is c la s s ific a tio n does not inclu de m ech an ics who re p a ir c u s to m e rs ' v e h ic le s in au tom obile r e p a ir shops. M E C H A N IC , M A IN T E N A N C E R e p a irs m a c h in e ry o r m e c h a n ic a l equipm ent o f an esta b lish m en t. W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : E xa m in in g m a c h in e s and m e c h a n ic a l equipm ent to diagnose sou rce o f tro u b le ; d ism an tlin g o r p a r tly d ism a n tlin g m a ch in es and p e r fo r m in g r e p a ir s that m ain ly in v o lv e the use o f handtools in s c ra p in g and fittin g p a rts ; re p la c in g b rok en o r d e fe c tiv e p arts w ith item s obtained fr o m stock ; o rd e rin g the p rod u ction o f a re p la c e m e n t p a rt b y a m ach in e shop o r sending o f the m ach in e to a m ach in e shop fo r m a jo r r e p a ir s ; p re p a rin g w r itte n s p e c ific a tio n s fo r m a jo r re p a ir s o r fo r the prod u ction of p arts o r d e r e d f r o m m a ch in e shops; r e a s s e m b lin g m ach in es; and m aking a ll n e c e s s a r y adjustm ents fo r o p e ra tio n . In g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f a m ain ten an ce m ech an ic re q u ire s rounded tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e u su ally a c q u ire d th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p re n tic e s h ip o r equ ivalen t tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e . E x clu d ed fr o m th is c la s s ific a tio n a re w o r k e r s w h ose p r im a r y duties in v o lv e settin g up o r adjusting m ach in es. M IL L W R IG H T In s ta lls n ew m a ch in es o r h ea vy equ ipm en t, and d ism an tles and in s ta lls m ach in es o r heavy equ ipm en t when changes in the plant layou t a re re q u ire d . W ork in v o lves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : P la n n in g and la y in g out o f the w o rk ; in te rp re tin g blu ep rin ts o r o th er s p e c ific a tio n s ; using a v a r ie t y of handtools and rig g in g ; m akin g stan d ard shop com putations rela tin g to s tr e s s e s , stren gth o f m a te r ia ls , and c e n te rs o f g r a v it y ; alig n in g and b a lan cin g of equipm ent; s e le c tin g standard to o ls , equ ipm en t, and p a rts to be used; and in s ta llin g and m ain ta in in g in good o r d e r p o w er tra n s m is s io n equ ipm ent such as d r iv e s and sp eed r e d u c e rs . In g e n e r a l, the m illw r ig h t 's w o rk n o rm a lly re q u ire s a rounded tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e in the tr a d e a c q u ire d th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p ren ticesh ip o r equ ivalent tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e . In s ta lls o r r e p a ir s w a te r , ste a m , g a s , o r o th e r ty p es o f pipe and p ip e fittin g s in an e s ta b lis h m en t. W o rk in v o lv e s m ost o f the fo llo w in g : L a y in g out o f w o rk and m e a s u rin g to lo c a te p o sition o f pip e fr o m d ra w in gs o r o th er w ritte n s p e c ific a tio n s ; cutting v a rio u s s iz e s o f pipe to c o r r e c t lengths w ith c h is e l and h a m m e r o r o x y a c e ty le n e to r c h o r p ip e -c u ttin g m a ch in es; th read in g pipe w ith stocks and d ie s ; bending pip e by h a n d -d riv e n o r p o w e r - d r iv e n m a ch in es; a s s e m b lin g pipe w ith couplings and fa sten in g pipe to h a n g e rs ; m aking standard shop com pu tation s re la tin g to p r e s s u r e s , flo w , and s iz e of pip e r e q u ire d ; and m akin g stan dard te s ts to d e te rm in e w h eth er fin is h e d p ip es m eet s p e c ific a tio n s . In g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f the m ain ten an ce p ip e fitte r r e q u ir e s rounded tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e usually a c q u ire d through a fo r m a l a p p ren ticesh ip o r eq u iva len t tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e . W o r k e r s p r im a r ily en ga ged in in s ta llin g and r e p a ir in g b u ild in g san itation o r h eating s y s te m s a r e exclu d ed . S H E E T - M E T A L W O R K E R , M A IN T E N A N C E F a b r ic a te s , in s ta lls , and m ain tain s in g ood r e p a ir the s h e e t-m e ta l equipm ent and fix tu re s (such as m ach in e g u a rd s, g r e a s e pans, s h e lv e s , lo c k e r s , tanks, v e n tila to r s , ch u tes, ducts, m e ta l r o o fin g ) o f an e s ta b lish m en t. W o rk in v o lv e s m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Plan n in g and la y in g out a ll typ es o f sh eetm e ta l m a in ten an ce w o rk fr o m b lu e p rin ts , m o d e ls , o r o th er s p e c ific a tio n s ; setting up and o p era tin g a ll a v a ila b le ty p es o f s h e e t-m e ta l w o rk in g m a ch in es; using a v a r ie t y o f handtools in cutting, bending, fo r m in g , shaping, fittin g , and a s s e m b lin g ; and in s ta llin g s h e e t-m e ta l a r t ic le s as re q u ire d . In g e n e ra l, the w o rk o f the m a in ten an ce s h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r r e q u ir e s rounded tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e usually a c q u ire d th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p ren ticesh ip o r eq u iva len t tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e . T O O L A N D DIE M A K E R C o n stru cts and r e p a ir s ji g s , fix tu r e s , cutting to o ls , ga u ges, o r m e ta l dies o r m old s used in shaping o r fo rm in g m e ta l or n o n -m e ta llic m a te r ia l (e .g ., p la s tic , p la s te r , ru bber, g la s s ). W ork ty p ic a lly in v o lv e s : Pieinning and la y in g out w o rk a c c o rd in g to m o d e ls , b lu ep rin ts, d ra w in g s, o r oth er w ritte n o r o r a l s p e c ific a tio n s ; understanding the w o rk in g p r o p e r tie s o f com m on m e ta ls and a llo y s ; s e le c tin g a p p ro p ria te m a t e r ia ls , to o ls , and p r o c e s s e s r e q u ir e d to c o m p le te task; m aking n e c e s s a r y shop com pu tation ; settin g up and o p e ra tin g v a rio u s m ach in e t o o ls and re la te d equipm ent; using v a rio u s to o l and die m a k e r 's handtools and p r e c is io n m e a s u rin g in stru m en ts; w o rk in g to v e r y c lo s e to le ra n c e s ; h e a t-tre a tin g m e ta l p a rts and fin is h e d to o ls and d ies to a ch ieve r e q u ire d q u a litie s ; fittin g and a s s e m b lin g p a rts to p r e s c r ib e d to le r a n c e s and a llo w a n c e s . In g e n e r a l, to o l and die m a k e r 's w o rk r e q u ir e s rounded tra in in g in m a c h in e -s h o p and to o lr o o m p r a c tic e u su ally a cqu ired through fo r m a l a p p ren ticesh ip o r eq u iva len t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e . F o r c r o s s -in d u s tr y w age study p u rp o ses, th is c la s s ific a tio n does not in clu de to o l and die m a k e rs who ( 1) a re e m p lo y e d in to o l and d ie job b in g shops o r ( 2 ) p rod u ce fo rg in g d ies (d ie s in k e rs ). C U S T O D I A L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T GUARD AND W A TC H M E N L A B O R E R , M A T E R I A L H A N D L IN G G u a rd . P e r fo r m s rou tin e p o lic e du ties, e ith e r at fix e d post o r on to u r, m ain tain in g o r d e r , using, a rm s o r fo r c e w h e re n e c e s s a r y . In clu d es guards who a re stationed at gate and check on id en tity o f e m p lo y e e s and o th e r p e rs o n s e n te r in g . A w o r k e r e m p lo y e d in a w a re h o u s e , m an u factu rin g plant, s to r e , o r oth er esta b lish m en t w hose duties in v o lv e one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : L o a d in g and unloading v a rio u s m a te r ia ls and m erch a n d ise on o r fr o m fr e ig h t c a r s , tru c k s , o r o th er tra n s p o rtin g d e v ic e s ; unpacking, s h elvin g ,, o r placin g m a te r ia ls o r m e rc h a n d is e in p r o p e r s to ra g e lo c a tio n ; and tra n s p o rtin g m a te r ia ls o r m erch a n d ise by handtruck, c a r , o r w h e e lb a rro w . L o n g s h o re w o r k e r s , who load and unload ships a re exc lu d e d . W atch m an . and i lle g a l en try . ORDER F IL L E R M ak es rounds o f p r e m is e s p e r io d ic a lly in p ro tectin g p ro p e rty a gain st f i r e , th eft, J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R C lean s and k eep s in an o r d e r ly con dition fa c to r y w ork in g a rea s and w a s h ro o m s , o r p r e m is e s o f an o ffic e , apartm en t h ou se, o r c o m m e r c ia l o r oth er esta b lish m en t. Duties in v o lv e a com b in ation of the fo llo w in g : S w eep in g, m op p in g o r scru b b in g, and p olish in g flo o r s ; rem o vin g ch ip s, tra s h , and oth er re fu s e ; dusting equ ip m en t, fu rn itu re , o r fix tu r e s ; p olish in g m e ta l fix tu res o r tr im m in g s ; p ro v id in g su p p lies and m in o r m a in ten an ce s e r v ic e s ; and clean in g la v a to r ie s , sh ow ers, and re s tr o o m s . W o r k e r s w ho s p e c ia liz e in w in dow w ash in g a re e x c lu d e d . F ills shipping o r tr a n s fe r o r d e r s fo r fin is h e d good s fr o m s to re d m erch a n d ise in accord a n ce w ith s p e c ific a tio n s on s a le s s lip s , c u s to m e r s ' o r d e r s , o r o th er in s tru c tio n s . M a y, in addition to fillin g o r d e r s and in d ica tin g ite m s f ille d o r o m itte d , k eep re c o r d s o f outgoing o r d e r s , re q u is itio n ad d ition al stock o r r e p o r t sh ort su p p lies to s u p e r v is o r , and p e r fo r m o th er r e la te d duties. P A C K E R , S H IP P IN G P r e p a r e s fin is h e d p rodu cts fo r shipm ent o r s to ra g e by p la cin g th em in shipping c o n ta in ers, the s p e c ific o p e ra tio n s p e r fo r m e d b ein g dependent upon the ty p e , s iz e , and num ber o f units to be p ack ed , the typ e o f c o n ta in e r e m p lo y e d , and m eth od o f shipm ent. W o rk r e q u ir e s the p lacin g o f ite m s in shipping c o n ta in e rs and m a y in v o lv e one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : K n o w led ge o f v a rio u s ite m s o f stock in o r d e r to v e r if y content; s e le c tio n o f a p p ro p ria te ty p e and s iz e o f c o n ta in e r; in s e rtin g en c lo s u re s in c o n ta in e r; using e x c e ls io r o r o th e r m a t e r ia l to p re v e n t b re a k a g e o r d am age; c lo s in g and sea lin g c o n ta in er; and applying la b e ls o r e n te rin g id e n tify in g data on c o n ta in e r. P a c k e r s who a ls o m ake wooden b oxes o r c r a te s a re e x c lu d e d . fo llo w s : F o r w a g e study p u rp o s e s , w o r k e r s a r e c la s s ifie d as fo llo w s : R e c e iv in g c le r k Shipping c le r k Shipping and r e c e iv in g c le r k T R U C K D R IV E R D r iv e s a tru ck w ith in a c ity o r in d u s tria l a r e a to tr a n s p o r t m a t e r ia ls , m e rc h a n d is e , equ ipm en t, o r w o rk e rs b etw een v a r io u s ty p es o f esta b lis h m e n ts such a s: M an u factu rin g p lan ts, fr e ig h t d ep ots, w a reh o u ses, w h o le s a le and r e t a il e s ta b lis h m e n ts , o r b etw een r e t a il esta b lis h m e n ts and c u s to m e r s ' houses or p la c e s of b u sin ess. M a y a ls o lo a d o r unload tru ck w ith o r w ithout h e lp e r s , m ake m in o r m ech a n ic a l r e p a ir s , and k eep tru ck in good w o rk in g o r d e r . S a le s -r o u te and o v e r - t h e - r o a d d r iv e r s a re exclu ded. as T r u c k d r iv e r (com bin ation of s iz e s lis t e d s e p a r a te ly ) T r u c k d r iv e r , ligh t (under IV2 to n s ) T r u c k d r iv e r , m ediu m (IV 2 to and in clu d in g 4 to n s ) T r u c k d r iv e r , h eavy (o v e r 4 ton s, t r a i l e r ty p e ) T r u c k d r iv e r , h eavy (o v e r 4 ton s, o th e r than t r a i l e r ty p e ) S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K P r e p a r e s m e rc h a n d is e fo r sh ip m en t, o r r e c e iv e s and is re s p o n s ib le fo r in co m in g shipm ents o f m erch a n d ise o r o th er m a t e r ia ls . Shipping w o rk in v o lv e s : A k n ow led ge o f shipping p r o c e d u re s , p r a c tic e s , r o u te s , a v a ila b le m eans o f tra n s p o rta tio n , and r a te s ; and p re p a rin g r e c o r d s o f the goods shipped, m aking up b ills o f la d in g , postin g w eig h t and shipping c h a r g e s , and k eep in g a f ile o f shipping re c o r d s . M a y d ir e c t o r a s s is t in p re p a rin g the m e rc h a n d is e fo r shipm ent. R e c e iv in g w o rk in v o lv e s : V e r ify in g o r d ir e c tin g oth e rs in v e r ify in g the c o r r e c tn e s s o f sh ipm en ts a gain st b ills o f la d in g , in v o ic e s , o r oth er r e c o r d s ; ch eckin g fo r sh o rta g e s and r e je c tin g d am aged go o d s; rou tin g m e rc h a n d is e or m a te r ia ls to p r o p e r d ep a rtm en ts; and m ain tain in g n e c e s s a r y r e c o r d s and file s . F o r w age study p u rp oses, tr u c k d r iv e r s a re c la s s ifie d by s iz e and ty p e of equ ip m en t, (T r a c t o r - t r a ile r should be ra ted on the b a s is o f t r a i l e r c a p a c ity .) T R U C K E R , POW ER goods O perates a m anu ally c o n tro lle d g a s o lin e - o r e le c t r ic - p o w e r e d tru ck o r t r a c t o r to tra n s p o rt and m a te ria ls of a ll kinds about a w a re h o u s e , m a n u fa ctu rin g plant, o r o th er e s ta b lish m en t. F o r wage study p u rp o ses, w o rk e rs a r e c la s s ifie d b y typ e o f tru c k , as fo llo w s : T r u c k e r , p ow er (fo r k lift ) T r u c k e r , p o w er (o th er than fo r k lift ) W AREHOUSEM AN A s d ire c te d , p e r fo r m s a v a r ie ty o f w a reh o u sin g duties w h ich r e q u ir e an understanding of the esta b lis h m e n t's sto ra g e plan . W ork in v o lv e s m o st q f the fo llo w in g : V e r ify in g m ate r ia ls (o r m e rc h a n d is e ) against re c e iv in g docum ents, noting and re p o r tin g d is c r e p a n c ie s and ob viou s d am ages; rou tin g m a te r ia ls to p r e s c r ib e d sto ra g e lo c a tio n s ; s to rin g , sta ck in g, o r p a lle tiz in g m a te r ia ls in a cco rd a n ce w ith p r e s c r ib e d s to ra g e m eth ods; r e a r r a n g in g and tak in g in v e n to ry of s to r e d m a te r ia ls ; exa m in in g stored m a te r ia ls and rep o rtin g d e te r io r a tio n and d am age; re m o v in g m a t e r ia l fr o m s to ra g e and p re p a rin g it fo r shipm ent. M ay o p era te hand o r p o w e r tru ck s in p e r fo r m in g w a reh o u sin g duties. Exclu de w o rk e rs whose p r im a r y du ties in v o lv e shipping and r e c e iv in g w o rk (s e e shipping and r e c e iv in g c le rk and p a c k e r, sh ippin g), o r d e r fillin g (s e e o r d e r f i l l e r ) , o r o p e ra tin g p o w e r tru ck s (s e e tr u c k e r , p o w er). Area Wage Surveys A lis t o f the la te s t a v a ila b le b u lletin s o r bu lletin supplem ents is p resen ted b elow . A d ir e c t o r y o f a re a w a ge studies including m o r e lim ite d stu dies conducted at the req u est of the E m p loym en t Standards A d m in is tr a tio n o f the D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r is a v a ila b le on req u est. B u lletin s m a y be pu rch ased fr o m any of the B LS r e g io n a l o ffic e s shown on the back c o v e r . B u lletin supplem ents m a y be obtain ed w ith ou t c o s t, w h e re in d ica ted , fr o m B L S re g io n a l o ffic e s . A rea B u lletin num ber and p r ic e * A k ro n , O h io, D ec. 1974 _______________________ ___________________________________________ Suppl. Albany—Schen ectady—T r o y , N .Y ., Sept. 1974 ___________________________________________ Suppl. A lb u qu erqu e, N . M e x ., M a r . 1974 2 ______________________________________________________ Suppl. A llen to w n —B eth leh em —E a ston , P a .—N .J ., M a y 1974 2 _________________________________ Suppl. A n ah eim —Santa A n a -G a rd e n G r o v e , C a lif., O ct. 1974 1 _______________________________ 1850-9, A tla n ta , G a., M ay 19751 ___________________________________________________________________ 1850-25, A u stin , T e x ., D e c . 1974 ________________________ ____________ ______________________________ Suppl. B a ltim o r e , M d ., A u g . 1974________________________________________________________________ Suppl. B eaum ont— o r t A rth u r—O r ange, T e x ., M a y 1974 2 ____________________________________ Suppl. P B illin g s , M on t., J u ly 1975__________________________________________ ______________ ________ 1850-46, B in gh am ton , N .Y .—P a ., J u ly 1975_________________________________________________________ 1850-50, B irm in g h a m , A la ., M a r . 1975_____________________________________________________________ Suppl. B oston , M a s s ., A ug. 1975 1________________________________________________________________ 1850-57, B u ffa lo , N .Y ., O ct. 1974 ___________________________________________________________________ Suppl. Canton, O hio, M a y 197 5 ___________________________________________ _______________________ Suppl. C h a rle s to n , W . V a . , M a r . 1974 2 _________________________________________________________ Suppl. C h a rlo tte , N .C ., Jan. 19742 _______________________________________________________________ Suppl. C h attan ooga, T e n n .-G a ., Sept. 1974 _____________________________________________________ Suppl. C h ic a g o , 111., M a y 1975____________________________________________________________________ 1850-33, C in cin n a ti, O h io -K y .—Ind., F e b . 197 5 ___________________________________________________ Suppl. C le v e la n d , O h io, Sept. 19741 ______________________________________________________________ 1850- 17, C olu m bu s, O h io, O c t. 1974 ___________________________________________________ ____________ Suppl. C orpu s C h r is ti, T e x ., J u ly 1975__________________________________________________________ 1850-37, D a lla s —F o r t W orth , T e x ., O c t. 1974 ____________________________________________________ Suppl. D a ven p ort— o c k Island—M o lin e , I o w a - I ll., F e b . 1975 ________________________________ Suppl. R D ayton, O hio, D e c . 1974 1__________________________________________________________________ 1850- 14, D aytona B ea ch , F la ., A u g. 1975______________________________________ _____ ...______________ 1850-47, D en ver—B o u ld e r, C o lo ., D e c . 1974 1 _____________________________________________________ 1850- 15, D es M o in e s , Iow a, M a y 19742 ____________________________________________________________ Suppl. D e tr o it, M ic h ., M a r . 1975___________________________________________ ______ _______________ 1850-22, F o r t L a u d e rd a le — o lly w o o d and W e s t P a lm B each — H B o c a R a ton , F la ., A p r . 1976 1___________________________________________________________ 1850-26, F r e s n o , C a l i f . 1 3 __________________________________________ ________________________________ G a in e s v ille , F la ., Sept. 1975_______________________________________________________________ 1850-57, G re e n B ay, W is ., J u ly 1975 1 ______________________________________________________________ 1850-44, G re e n s b o ro —W ins ton- S alem —H igh P o in t, N .C ., A u g. 1975____ ________________________ 1850-49, G r e e n v ille , S .C ., June 1975________________________________________________________________ 1850-42, H a r tfo r d , C onn., M a r . 19751 ______________________________________________________________ 1850-28, H ouston, T e x ., A p r . 1975__________________________________________________________________ Suppl. H u n ts v ille , A la ., F e b . 197 5 ________________________________ ___ ___________________________ Suppl. In d ia n a p o lis, Ind., O c t. 1974 ______________________________________________________________ Suppl. J ackson , M is s ., F e b . 1975________________________________ ________________________________ Suppl. J a c k s o n v ille , F la ., D ec. 1974 _____________________________________________________________ Suppl. K a n sa s C ity , M o .-K a n s ., Sept. 1975_____________________________________________________ 1850-55, L a w re n c e —H a v e r h ill, M a s s .—N .H ., June 1974 2 ________________________________________ Suppl. L e x in g to n — a y e tte , K y ., N o v . 1974 ______________________________________________________ Suppl. F L o s A n g e le s —L o n g B ea ch , C a lif., O c t. 1974 ___________________________________________ Suppl. L o u is v ille , K y .—Ind., N o v . 1974 1 _________________________________________________________ 1850-12, Lu bbock, T e x ., M a r . 19742 ________________________________________________________________ Suppl. M elb o u rn e—T it u s v ille —C o c o a , F la ., A u g. 1975__________________________________________ 1850-54, M e m p h is, Term .—A r k —M is s ., N o v . 1974 ________________________________________________ Suppl. M ia m i, F la ., O ct. 1974 ____________________________________________________________________ Suppl. * 1 2 3 Prices are determined by the Government Printing O ffice and are subject to change. Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented. No longer surveyed. To be surveyed. F re e F ree F ree F ree 85 cents $ 1.00 F re e F re e F ree 65 cents 65 cents F re e $1.05 F ree F re e F ree F ree F ree 85 cents F ree $ 1.00 F ree 65 cents F ree F re e 80 cents 65 cents 85 cents F ree 85 cents 80 cents 1.10 80 cents 65 cents 65 cents 80 cents F re e F re e F ree F ree F re e 80 cents F re e F re e F re e 80 cents F re e 65 cents F re e F re e $ B u lletin num ber and p r ic e * M idland and O d essa , T e x ., Jan. 19742 ____________________________________________________ Suppl. F ree M ilw a u k ee, W is ., A p r . 1975 1______________________________________ _________________________ 1850-21, 85 cents M in n ea p o lis—St. P au l, M inn.—W is ., Jan 1975 1 ____________________________________________ 1850-20, $1.05 M uskegon—M u skegon H eigh ts, M ic h ., June 1974 2 ________________________________________ Suppl. F ree N a ssa u -S u ffo lk , N .Y ., June 1975 1__________________________________________________________ 1850-39, $1.00 N e w a rk , N .J ., Jan. 19751____________________________________________________________________ 1850-18, $1.00 N e w a rk and J e r s e y C ity , N .J ., Jan. 1974 2 ______________________________________________ Suppl. F ree N ew H aven, C onn., Jan. 1974 2 ______________________________________________________________ Suppl. F ree N ew O rle a n s , L a ., Jan. 1975 _______________________________________________________________Suppl. F ree N ew Y o r k , N . Y . - N . J . , M a y 1975____________________________________________________________ 1850-45, $1.10 N ew Y o r k and N assau — Suffolk, N .Y ., A p r . 1974 2 _________________________________________ Suppl. F ree N o rfo lk —V ir g in ia B each—P o rts m o u th , Va.—N .C ., M a y 1975 ____________________________ 1850-29, 65 cents N o rfo lk —V ir g in ia B each—P o rtsm o u th and N e w p o rt N ew s— H am pton, V a .— .C ., M a y 1975 ____________________________________________________________ 1850-30, 65 cents N N o rth e a s t P e n n s y lv a n ia , A u g. 1975_________________________________________________________ 1850-52, 65 cents O klah om a C ity , O k la ., A u g. 1975___________________________________________________________ 1850-51, 65 cents O m aha, N e b r .—Iow a, O ct. 1975______________________________________________________________ 1850-56, $1.10 P a te r son—C lifto n —P a s s a ic , N .J ., June 1975 1______________________________________________ 1850-38, 80 cents P h ila d e lp h ia , P a —N .J ., N o v . 1974 _________________________________________________________ Suppl. F ree P h o e n ix , A r i z . , June 1974 2 _________________________________________________________________ Suppl. F ree P itts b u rg h , P a ., Jan. 197 5 ________ _________________________________ _________________________ Suppl. F ree P o rtla n d , M ain e, N o v . 1974______________________________ ___________________________________Suppl. F ree P o rtla n d , O r e g .-W a s h ., M a y 1975__________________________________________________________ 1850-40, 75 cents P o u g h k e e p s ie , N . Y . 1 3________________________________________________________________________ P ou g h k e e p s ie — in g sto n — ew bu rgh , N .Y ., June 1974 ___________________________________ Suppl. K N F ree P r o v id e n c e — a rw ick —P aw tu ck et, R .I^ -M a s s ., June 1975 ______________________________ 1850-27, 75 cents W R a le ig h — urham , N .C ., F e b . 1975 __________________________________________________________ Suppl. D F ree R ich m on d , V a ., June 1975___________________________________________________________________ 1850-41, 65 cents R o c k fo rd , 111., June 19742 __________________________________________________________________ Suppl. F ree St. L o u is , M o.—111., M a r . 197 5 ______________________________________________________________Suppl. F ree S a cra m en to , C a lif., D e c . 19741 ____________________________________________________________ 1850- 19, 80 cents Saginaw , M ic h ., N o v . 19741_________________________________________________________________ 1850- 16, 75 cents F ree S alt L a k e C ity—O gden, U tah, N o v . 1974 ___________________________________________________ Suppl. San A n ton io, T e x ., M a y 1975 ________________________________________________________________ 1850-23, 65 cents San D ie g o , C a lif., N o v . 19741 ________________________________________ ______________________ 1850-13, 80 cents San F r a n c is c o — Oakland, C a lif., M a r . 1975 1_____________________________________________ 1850-35, $1.00 San J o s e , C a lif., M a r . 1975 1________________________________________________________________ 1850-36, 85 cents Savannah, G a., M a y 1974 2 __ ________________________________________________________________ Suppl. F ree S ea ttle—E v e r e tt, W ash ., Jan. 1975 _________________________________________________________ Suppl. F ree South Bend, Ind., M a r. 1975 _______________ .______________________________________________ Suppl. F ree Spokane, W ash ., June 1974 2 ________________________________________________________________Suppl. F ree S y ra cu se, N .Y ., Ju ly 1975--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1850-43, 65 cents T o le d o , O h io -M ic h ., M a y 1975 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1850-34, 80 cents T ren to n , N .J ., Sept. 1974 ____ ______ ____ _ _____________ ___ ___ ___ __ ______________ Suppl. F ree U tic a -R o m e , N . Y . , Ju ly 1975 1-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1850-48, 80 cents W ashington, D .C .- M d .- V a ., M a r . 1975 1______________________ _____________________________ 1850-31, $1.00 W a te rb u ry , Conn., M a r . 1974 2 _______________________________ 1____________________________ Suppl. F ree W e s tc h e s te r County, N . Y . , M a y 1975 1_______________________________ _____________________ 1850-53, 80 cents W ic h ita , K a n s ., A p r . 1975___________________________________________________________________ Suppl. F ree W o r c e s t e r , M a s s ., M a y 19751 ______________________________________________________________ 1850-24, 80 cents Y o r k , P a ., F e b . 19751 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1850-32, 80 cents You n gstow n — a rre n , O h io, N o v . 1973 2 _____________________ _______________________ ______ Suppl. W F ree THIRD CLASS MAIL U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR POSTAGE AND FEES PAID U.S. D E P A R T M E N T OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS WASHINGTON, D.C. 20212 OFFICIAL BUSINESS PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE $300 LAB - 441 B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T I S T I C S R E G IO N A L O F F IC E S R e gion I R e g io n It 1603 J F K F e d e ra l B u ild in g G o v e rn m e n t C e n te r B o s to n , Mass. 0 2 2 0 3 P h o n e :2 23-6 76 1 (A re a C o de 61 7) S u ite 34 0 0 15 1 5 B ro a d w a y N e w Y o rk , N .Y . 100 3 6 P h o n e : 9 7 1 -5 4 0 5 (A re a C o d e 2 1 2 ) C o n n e c tic u t M aine M assachusetts N e w H a m p s h ire R h o d e Is la n d V e rm o n t N e w Jersey New Y o rk P u e rto R ic o V ir g in Island s Region V 9 t h F lo o r, 2 30 S. D e a rb o rn St. C h icago , III. 606 04 P h o n e :3 5 3 - 1 8 8 0 (A re a C o d e 3 1 2) I llin o is In d ia n a M ic h ig a n M in n e s o ta forhFRASER O io W iscon sin Digitized R e g io n V I R e g io n IV R e gion I II P.O. B o x 13 309 P h ila d e lp h ia , Pa. 19 101 P h o n e : 5 9 6 -1 1 5 4 (A re a C o d e 2 1 5 ) D e la w a re D is tr ic t o f C o lu m b ia M a ry la n d P e n n s y lv a n ia V irg in ia W est V irg in ia R e gion s V I I a n o V I I I S e c o n d F lo o r 5 5 5 G r i f f in S q uare B u ild in g D allas, T e x . 75 2 02 P h o n e : 7 4 9 -3 5 1 6 (A re a C o d e 21 4 ) F ed era l O ff ic e B u ild in g 911 W a ln u t S t , 15 th F lo o r Kansas C ity , M o. 6 4 1 0 6 P h o n e :3 7 4 -2 4 8 1 (A re a C o de 8 1 6 ) L o u is ia n a le w M e x ic o O k la h o m a Texa s V II Io w a Kansas M is s o u ri N e bra ska V III C o lo ra d o M o n ta n a N o rth D a k o ta S o u th D a k o ta U ta h W y o m in g S u ite 54 0 13 71 Peachtree St. N .E. A tla n ta , Ga. 30 309 P h o n e :5 2 6 -5 4 1 8 (A re a C ode 404 ) A la b a m a F lo rid a G eorgia K e n tu c k y M ississippi N o rth C a ro lin a S o u th C a ro lin a Tennessee R egions IX a n d X 45 0 G o ld e n G ate Ave. B ox 36017 San F ran c is c o , C a lif. 9 4 1 0 2 P h o n e :5 5 6 -4 6 7 8 (A re a C o de 41 5 ) IX A riz o n a C a lifo rn ia H a w a ii Nevada X A laska Id a h o O reg on W a s h in g to n