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AREA WAGE SURVEY
Richmond, Virginia, Metropolitan Area,
March 1974
B ulletin 1 7 9 5 - 2 5




document collection
NO V-i

1975

Dayton & .\.ont ornery Co,\

Public Library

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
_ _ _ Bureau of Labor Statistics




ANNO UNCEM ENT
A r e a W a ge S u rv e y s b u lle tin s w ill b e is s u e d o n c e e v e r y 3 y e a r s .
T h e s e b u lle tin s w ill co n ta in in fo r m a tio n on e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s
and s u p p le m e n ta r y b e n e fits as w e ll as e a r n in g s .
In the in t e r im y e a r s ,
s u p p le m e n ts co n ta in in g data on e a rn in g s o n ly w ill b e is s u e d at no
a d d itio n a l c o s t s to h o ld e r s o f the A r e a W a ge b u lle tin .
If you w ish to
r e c e i v e th e s e s u p p le m e n ts , p le a s e c o m p le t e the co u p o n s lis t e d on
p a g e 32 o f th is b u lle tin and m a il it to any o f the B L S r e g io n a l a d ­
d r e s s e s lis t e d on the b a ck c o v e r .
No fu r t h e r a c tio n on y ou r p a rt is
n ecessary.
E a ch y e a r , you w ill r e c e i v e the s u p p le m e n t w hen it is
p u b lis h e d .

Preface
T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s r e s u lt s o f a M a r c h 1974 s u r v e y o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a rn in g s ai
s u p p le m e n ta r y w a g e b e n e fit s in the R ic h m o n d , V ir g in ia , S ta n da rd M e tr o p o lit a n S ta tis tic
A r e a (the c it y o f R ich m o n d and the co u n tie s o f C h e s t e r f ie ld , H a n o v e r, and H e n r ic o ).
T1
s u r v e y w a s m a d e a s p a r t o f the B u rea u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ' annual a r e a w a g e s u r v e y prc
gra m .
T h e p r o g r a m is d e s ig n e d to y ie ld data f o r in d iv id u a l m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s , as we
as n ation a l and r e g io n a l e s tim a te s f o r a ll S tandard M e t r o p o lit a n S ta tis tic a l A r e a s in tl
U n ite d

S ta tes,

e x c lu d in g

A la s k a

an d H a w a ii .

A m a jo r c o n s id e r a t io n in the a r e a w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m is the n eed to d e s c r i b e tl
le v e l and m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s in a v a r ie t y o f la b o r m a r k e t s , th ro u g h the a n a ly s is o f ( l ) tl
l e v e l and d is t r ib u t io n o f w a g e s b y o c c u p a t io n , and (2) the m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s b y o c c u p a t io n
c a t e g o r y and s k ill le v e l .
T h e p r o g r a m d e v e lo p s in fo r m a t io n that m a y b e u s e d f o r m ai
p u r p o s e s , in clu d in g w a g e and s a la r y a d m in is t r a tio n , c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a in in g , and a s sista n t
in d e t e r m in in g pla n t lo c a t io n .
S u rv e y r e s u lt s a ls o a r e u s e d b y the U .S . D e p a rtm e n t o f Labi
to m a k e w a g e d e t e r m in a tio n s u n d er the S e r v ic e C o n tr a c t A c t o f 1965.

C u r r e n t ly , 94 a r e a s a r e in clu d e d in the p r o g r a m .
(S e e l i s t o f a r e a s on in s id e ba'
c o v e r .)
In e a ch a r e a , o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s data a r e c o l l e c t e d a n n u a lly . I n fo r m a tio n i
e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y w a g e b e n e fit s , c o l l e c t e d e v e r y s e co n d y e a r in tl
p a s t, is now o b ta in e d e v e r y th ird y e a r .
R e s u lts o f the n ext tw o annual s u r v e y s , p r o v id ii
e a rn in g s data o n ly , w ill b e is s u e d as f r e e su p p le m e n ts to th is b u lle tin .
T h e su p p le m e n
m a y b e o b ta in e d f r o m the B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l o f f i c e s . (S e e b a c k c o v e r f o r a d d r e s s e s .)

E a ch y e a r a ft e r a ll in d iv id u a l a r e a w a g e s u r v e y s h av e b e e n c o m p le t e d , tw o sun
m a r y b u lle tin s a r e is s u e d .
T h e f i r s t b r in g s to g e th e r data f o r e a ch m e t r o p o lita n ar>
su rveyed.
T h e s e c o n d s u m m a r y b u lle tin p r e s e n t s n a tio n a l and r e g io n a l e s t im a t e s , p r o je c t
f r o m in d iv id u a l m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a data.
T he R ich m o n d s u r v e y w a s c o n d u c te d b y the B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l o f f i c e in P h ila d e lp h i
P a ., u n d e r the g e n e r a l d ir e c t io n o f Irw in L . F e ig e n b a u m , A s s o c ia t e A s s is t a n t R e g io n
D ir e c t o r f o r O p e r a t io n s .
T h e s u r v e y c o u ld not h av e b e e n a c c o m p lis h e d w ith ou t the c o o
e r a tio n o f the m a n y f i r m s w h o s e w a g e and s a la r y data p r o v id e d the b a s is fo r the s ta t is tic
in fo r m a tio n in th is b u lle tin .
T he B u re a u w is h e s to e x p r e s s s in c e r e a p p r e c ia tio n f o r t
c o o p e r a t io n r e c e iv e d .

Note:

A c u r r e n t r e p o r t on o c c u p a t io n a l e a rn in g s and s u p p le m e n ta r y w age p r o v is io n s in tl
R ich m o n d a r e a is a v a ila b le f o r the m o v in g and s t o r a g e in d u s t r y .
A ls o a v a ila b le a r e lis tin
o f u n ion w a g e r a te s f o r b u ild in g t r a d e s , p r in tin g t r a d e s , l o c a l - t r a n s i t o p e r a t in g e m p lo y e e
l o c a l t r u c k d r iv e r s and h e lp e r s , and g r o c e r y s t o r e e m p lo y e e s .
F r e e c o p ie s o f th e s e a
a v a ila b le f r o m the B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l o f f i c e s .
(S e e b a c k c o v e r f o r a d d r e s s e s .)

AREA WAGE SURVEY

V

Bulletin 1795-25
September 1974

U.S. D E P A R T M E N T OF LA BO R , Peter J. Brennan, Secretary
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S , Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

Richmond, Virginia, Metropolitan Area, March 1974
CONTENTS
Page
2

In tro d u ctio n

T a b le s :
A.

E a r n in g s :
W e e k ly e a rn in g s o f o f f i c e w o r k e r s
A - 1.
W e e k ly e a rn in g s o f p r o fe s s io n a l and t e c h n ic a l w o r k e r s
A - 2.
A - 3.
A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s o f o f f i c e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s , b y s e x
A - 4.
H o u rly e a rn in g s o f m a in te n a n ce and p o w e rp la n t w o r k e r s
H o u rly e a rn in g s o f c u s t o d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t w o r k e r s
A - 5.
A - 6.
A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s o f m a in te n a n ce , p o w e rp la n t, c u s t o d ia l, and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t w o r k e r s , b y s e x
A - 7.
In d e x e s o f e a rn in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n a l g ro u p s and p e r c e n t s o f in c r e a s e f o r s e le c t e d p e r io d s
A - 8.
P e r c e n t s o f in c r e a s e in a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s , a d ju s te d f o r e m p lo y m e n t sh ifts

B.

E sta b lish m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y w a g e p r o v is io n s :
B -l.
M in im u m e n tra n ce s a la r ie s f o r in e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts and c le r k s
B -2 .
L a t e -s h ift pay p r o v is io n s f o r m a n u fa ctu rin g pla n t w o r k e r s
B -3 .
S ch e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s and d a y s o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s
B -4 .
A n n u al pa id h o lid a y s
B - 4 a . I d e n tific a tio n o f m a j o r pa id h o lid a y s
P a id v a c a tio n p r o v is io n s
B -5 .
B -6 .
H ea lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p la n p r o v is io n s

3
5
6

7
8
10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18
21

23
26

A p p e n d ix A .
A p p e n d ix B .

S c o p e and m e th o d o f s u r v e y
O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r ip t io n s




F o r m I« b y t h * S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t * . U .S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g to n , D .C . 2 0 4 0 2 , G P O B o o k s t o r e s , o r
B L S R e g io n a l O ff ic e s lis te d o n b a c k c o v e r . P r ic e 8 0 c e n ts . M a k e c h e c k s p a y a b le t o S u p e r in te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s .

1

Introduction
pla n t w o r k e r s .
T h e f i r s t o f t h e s e , ta b le A - 7 , m e a s u r e s c h a n g e s in
a v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f th e fo u r o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s o v e r t im e .
W h e re
p o s s i b l e , data a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a ll in d u s t r ie s and m a n u fa c tu r in g .
T a b le A - 8 p r e s e n t s a n o th e r m e a s u r e o f w a g e m o v e m e n t s . T he p e r c e n t s
o f ch a n g e r e p o r t e d f o r th e o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s a r e c o m p u te d to e lim in a t e
c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e e a r n in g s c a u s e d b y e m p lo y m e n t s h ifts a m o n g e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts as w e ll a s tu r n o v e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s in c lu d e d in s u r v e y
s a m p le s . W h ere p o s s i b l e , data a ls o a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g .
A p p e n d ix A d is c u s s e s m o r e f u lly d if f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n th e s e t a b le s .

T h is a r e a is 1 o f 94 in w h ich th e U.S. D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r 's
B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s c o n d u c ts s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s and
r e la t e d b e n e fit s on an a r e a w id e b a s i s . In th is a r e a , data w e r e o b ta in e d
b y p e r s o n a l v is it s o f B u re a u f ie ld e c o n o m is t s to r e p r e s e n t a t iv e e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts w ith in s ix b r o a d in d u s t r y d iv is io n s : M a n u fa ctu rin g ; t r a n s p o r ­
ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ; w h o le s a le t r a d e ; r e t a il
t r a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta t e ; and s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in d u s t r y
g r o u p s e x c lu d e d f r o m t h e s e s tu d ie s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a t io n s and the
c o n s t r u c t io n and e x t r a c t iv e in d u s t r ie s . E s ta b lis h m e n ts h av in g f e w e r than
a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m itt e d b e c a u s e o f in s u ffic ie n t
e m p lo y m e n t in th e o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d . S e p a r a te ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d
f o r e a c h o f th e b r o a d in d u s t r y d iv is io n s w h ich m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a .

B - s e r i e s t a b le s
T h e B - s e r i e s t a b le s p r e s e n t in fo r m a t io n on m in im u m e n tr a n c e
s a la r ie s f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s ; l a t e - s h if t p a y p r o v i s i o n s and p r a c t i c e s f o r
plan t w o r k e r s in m a n u fa c tu r in g ; and da ta s e p a r a t e ly f o r plan t and o f f i c e
w o r k e r s on s c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s and d a y s o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s ; p a id
h o lid a y s ; p a id v a c a t io n s ; and h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s .

A - s e r i e s t a b le s
T a b le s A - l th ro u g h A - 6 p r o v id e e s t im a t e s o f s t r a ig h t -t im e
h o u r ly o r w e e k ly e a r n in g s f o r w o r k e r s in o c c u p a t io n s c o m m o n to a
v a r ie t y o f m a n u fa c tu r in g and n on m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s t r ie s .
O cc u p a tio n s
w e r e s e le c t e d f r o m th e fo llo w in g c a t e g o r i e s : (a) O ffic e c l e r i c a l , (b) p r o ­
f e s s io n a l and t e c h n ic a l, (c ) m a in te n a n ce and p o w e r p la n t, and (d) c u s t o d ia l
and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t .
In th e 22 la r g e s t s u r v e y a r e a s , ta b le s A - l a
th ro u g h A - 6 a p r o v id e s im il a r da ta f o r e s ta b lis h m e n ts e m p lo y in g 500
w ork ers or m ore.

A p p e n d ix e s
T h is b u lle tin h as tw o a p p e n d ix e s .
A p p e n d ix A d e s c r i b e s the
m e t h o d s and c o n c e p t s u s e d in th e a r e a w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m and p r o v id e s
in fo r m a t io n on the s c o p e o f th e a r e a s u r v e y .
It a ls o p r o v id e s i n f o r ­
m a tio n on la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n t c o v e r a g e . A p p e n d ix B p r o v id e s
jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s u s e d b y B u re a u f ie ld e c o n o m is t s to c l a s s i f y w o r k e r s in
o c c u p a t io n s f o r w h ich s t r a ig h t -t im e e a r n in g s in fo r m a t io n is p r e s e n t e d .

F o llo w in g th e o c c u p a t io n a l w a ge ta b le s a re tw o t a b le s p r o v id in g
in d e x e s and p e r c e n t s o f ch a n g e in a v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s , in d u s t r ia l n u r s e s , s k ille d m a in te n a n ce w o r k e r s , and u n s k ille d




2

A. Earnings
Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Richmond, Va., March 1974
Weekly earnings 1
(standard)

O c c u p a t i o n a n d i n d u s t r y division

Number
of
workers

N u m b e r of w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g
(

Mean *

(standard)

Median *

Middle range*

4 NO

WOMEN

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE

70

s

%

s

80

75

85

90

110

100

t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s of ----

(

«

S

95

t

*

120

130

1

$

140

150

t

•

160

170

t
180

OPERATORS,

BOCKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
C L A S S B -----------------------------------------------------------------------

80

85

90

120

n o

95

100

C

75

c

C

8

3

50

130

140

150

C

160

$

$

100

$

180

190

over

210

220

230

*

“

•

12
10
2
1

8
4
4
3

6
4
2
2

9
2
7
7

16
12
4
4

3
1
2
2

2
1
1
1

11
1
10
10

8
-

13
-

8
8

13
13
-

200

38.5

108.00
i

j

107.50

ro

19

13

20
20
“

49
4
45
1

47
8
39
2

187
37
150
25

144
37
107
11

_

102.50-113.00

“

*

1

1
1

C

0

C

0

1
1

-

-

-

-

1
1

16

27
3
24
3

57
2
55
24

58

1
1

-

11
11

\ AW.-MW
j .

2

3

*

*

*

“

“

65
4
61
13

61
5
56
11

80
27
53
46

57
24
33
6

31
23
8
4

15
11

124
33
91
11

53
19
34
11

53
17
36
6

13
5
8
8

7
6
1
*

1
1
-

3
3
-

“

-

7
7

2
2

7
6

1

-

.

•

.

“

*

“

5
5

5
5

3
3

-

“

28

44
42

12
10
2

-

-

_

-

-

_

1

_

-

-

*

*

*

*

~

1

*

“

9
9

8
8

_
-

_
-

-

4
4

16
16

*

"

“

*

*

*

2
2

I
1

8
4

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

11

_

1

38.0
38.5
38.0
39.0

152.00
174.00
143.00
164.00

149.50
169.00
140.50
157.00

130.50-164.00
156.00-187.00
123.50-157.50
147.00-164.50

.
*

*

-

C L E R K S , A C C O U N T I N G , C L A S S B ---------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

780
166
614
144

38.5
38.5
38.5
39.5

118.50
124.50
117.00
138.50

114.00
121.00
110.50
119.00

102.00-127.00
110.00-134.50
100.00-124.50
99.00-154.00

-

.
-

-

*

“

*

43
41

37.0
37.0

139.00
139.00

130.00
125.00

99.00-193.00
99.00-193.50

•

1
1

-

-

*

*

‘ 'W

3,9 J

131
32
99

37.0

94.00

93.00

65.00-101.00

10

5

-

18

26

12

24

21

2

10

---------------------

37.0

92.00

88.50

83.00-

99.50

10

5

“

17

25

6

14

11

1

9

C L E R K S , O R D E R -----------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

319
159
160

38.5
38.0
39.5

136.00
145.00
127.00

125.50
123.50
128.00

118.50-137.50
120.00-170.50
117.00-136.50

.
-

-

.

-

*

*

3
3

4
4

8
5
3

7
4
3

19
11
8

45
17
28

n o
64
46

59
14
45

4
3
1

11
1
10

C L E R K S , P A Y R O L L --------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

86
64

37.5
37.5

138.00
136.50

128.00
129.00

115.50-149.50
109.00-150.00

-

.

-

-

7
7

16
7

15
10

5
4

13
11

8
7

-

-

*

5
5

_

*

4
4

-

*

1
1

*

“*

“

*

K E Y P U N C H O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S A --------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------ -

287
73
214

38.5
39.0
38.5

126.50
138.00
123.00

125.00
134.50
124.00

119.50-133.00
122.00-159.00
118.50-130.00

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

1
1

18
7

56
7

115
16

59
13

13
6

7
6

8
8

6
6

2
2

1
1

K E Y P U N C H O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S B ------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

435
110
325
97

38.0
39.0
38.0
38.5

118.50
121.50
117.50
143.00

117.00
120.50
114.00
141.00

102.00-129.50
113.00-129.00
99.50-130.00
112.50-149.00

.

2

11

7

-

-

-

-

2
*

11
*

44
15
29
13

35
3
32
32

•

-

*

75
31
44
5

-

*

79
31
48
5

1
1

33
“

88
19
69
20

6
6

7
*

33
4
29
3

-

-

2
2

-

“

-

M E SSENGERS (OFFICE BOYS AND GIRLS)N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

109
97
29

37.0
37.0
39.0

100.00
100.00
121.00

96.00
94.00
116.50

85.50-115.00
84.50-112.50
93.00-134.50

10
10

2

1
1

13
13

12
12
3

15
13
7

11
8

17
14
4

16
12
3

1
1
1

5
5
5

•

•

.

-

-

-

-

“

-

6
6
6

S E C R E T A R I E S --------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------------------------

1,523
617
906
121

38.0
38.5
37.5
39.0

147.50
153.00
143.50
168.50

145.00
150.50
138.50
166.50

129.00-162.50
137.50-164.50
122.00-160.50
130.00-199.00

2
-

6
“

86

6

116
20
96
14

172
54

2

267
109
158
16

210
114
96

221
118
103

6

6

161
81
80
5

91
41
50
6

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S A -------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------- ----

72
49

38.0
38.0

168.00
169.00

163.50
164.50

147.00-187.00
146.00-189.00

-

11
8

9
5

8

13
9

7
5

A --------------------------------------

*

*

16

r

CLASS

230

$

1^ 0 * uu

**

FILE,

1 ---------

220

1

170

478
138
340
100

NONMANUFACTURING

t
210

and

C L E R K S , A C C O U N T I N G , C L A S S A ---------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

CLERKS,

200

COMBINED

TV

CLERKS, FILE, CLASS
NONMANUFACTURING

t

*

190

and
under
70

WEN

s

%

*

65

weekly

C

------------------

24
«.vw*ww

*

ro

1

«

1

2

*

.

.

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

.

33

-

-

“

16
1
15
1

_

.

-

5
83
3

2
2

3

12
12

'

*

*

-

-

See fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le s .




58
11

-

lie

12
-

4

_

7

-

-

-

11
11

-

“

7
7

“

1
1

-

-

•

_

.

-

-

-

1

-

-

*•

-

-

-

-

-

“

*

*

49
26
23
2

63

22
9
13
2

16

35
26

6
5

8

3

2

1

2

5

2

1

1

2

28

4
12
9

*
6
2
4

4

1?
5
12
9

Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Richmond, Va., March 1974— Continued
Weekly earnings 1
(standard)______

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly e a r n in g s o f
%

Average
weekly

O c c u p a tio n and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

*

65
Middle range*

(standard)

AND

SECRETARIES

S

t

*

»

t

t

i

t

t

$

i

(

i

t

t

t

t

i

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

75

80

85

90

95

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

over

27
7

29
4
25

66

35

19
47

21

32
19
13

19
18
1

10
2

14
25
7
1

9
5
1

33
29
24

2
2

and
under
70

HEN

%

WOMEN C O M B I N E D CONTINUED

CONTINUED
330
149
181

38.0
39.0
37.5

$
162.50
168.00
157.50

$
161.00
168.00
156.50

$

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S B ---------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

1 4 5 .5 0 1 5 9 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 -

1 8 0 .0 0
1 8 4 .5 0
1 7 2 .5 0

8

8

20

2
6

5
3

4
16

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S C ---------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------

702
386
60

38.5
38.0
38.5

144.50
140.00
168.00

142.50
135.00
166.00

1 3 1 .0 0 1 2 2 .5 0 1 3 3 .5 0 -

1 5 6 .0 0
1 5 4 .0 0
1 9 7 .5 0

46
46

32
31
5

72
50
4

165
98

12

130
45
4

97
21
4

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S 0 --------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

416
129
287

38.0
39.0
37.5

136.50
139.50
135.50

131.00
136.00
126.50

1 1 8 .0 0 1 2 6 .0 0 1 1 6 .0 0 -

1 5 1 .0 0
1 4 9 .0 0
1 5 2 .5 0

34

74
14
60

80
28
52

64

42

32
32

21
21

47
19
28

S T E N O G R A P H E R S , G E N E R A L --------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------

462
82
380

131.00
128.50
131.50
158.00

124.50
125.50
124.00
151.50

1 1 1 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 109.501 1 5 .5 0 -

1 3 5 .5 0
1 3 2 .0 0
137.00
2 0 2 .5 0

80

117

11

38

71
15

$

-----------------

120

38.0
38.5
38.0
39.0

S T E N O G R A P H E R S , S E N I O R ----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

244
65
179

38.0
39.0
38.0

138.50
147.50
135.00

135.50
142.50
133.50

1 2 2 .5 0 1 3 0 .5 0 1 2 2 .0 0 -

1 4 8 .0 0
1 5 9 .5 0
1 4 5 .0 0

S W I T C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S A ---N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

58
39

39.0
39.0

136.50
135.50

129.00
126.50

1 1 7 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 -

1 4 5 .5 0
1 4 7 .5 0

129
116

37.0
37.0

98.50
96.50

1 0 0 .0 0

228
70
158

39.0
39.0
39.0

113.00
123.50
108.00

1 1 0 .0 0
119.00
106.50

9 7 .5 0 1 0 8 .0 0 9 4 .5 0 -

100
47
53

38.5
39.5
38.0

126.00
135.50
117.50

123.00
123.50
122.50

T Y P I S T S , C L A S S A ------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

176
31
145

38.0
39.0
38.0

119.00
122.50
118.00

114.00
126.50
113.50

T Y P I S T S , C L A S S 8 ------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

459
75
384

38.0
37.5
38.0

99.00

96.50
108.00
95.00

3
31

NONMANUFACTURING

PUBLIC

-----------------------

UTILITIES

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS.
NONMANUFACTURING —

CLASS

B ---

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTS
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
G E N E R A L ------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

11 1 .0 0
96.50

92.50

75
40
3

8

19

1
27
27

31
10
21

50
5
45

4
4

15
13

20

18
15

5

1 2 3 .0 0
1 3 4 .0 0
1 2 0 .5 0

43
16
27

38
15
23

106.00107.00104.50-

136.00
176.00
128.50

16
9
7

107.00108.50107.00-

129.00
133.00
126.50

40

63
13
50

41
7
34

15

1
14

24

8 0 .0 0 -1 1 3 .5 0
7 8 .5 0 1 1 2 .0 0

8
32
89

4

104

1

90.50105.00
9 8 . 5 0 - 122.00
90.00-102.50

See fo o t n o t e s a t end o f t a b le s .




20

6

103
18
85

6

32

10

3

33
13

2

20

1

9
5

5
5

11
10

-

7
7

-

4
4

4
4

4
4

-

-

-

22
45
3
42

16
3
13

41

12

4
3

29

1

1
l
-

-

-

-

1

—
1

-

-

-

4
-

—
-

-

1
-

4
1

1

-

1
-

-

-

1

-

1

—

1
-

-

-

1

—

—

-

-

-

-

-

Table A-2. Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Richmond, Va., March 1974
Weekly earnings 1
(standard)

O cc u p a tio n and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of

weekly
Median ^

(standard

Middle ranged

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly e a r n in g s of-

U n d er U °
S
and
110
und er
120

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

23 0

240

250

260

27 0

2 80

290

300
and

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

2 00

21 0

220

230

24 0

250

260

270

2 80

29 0

300

over

14
6
8

5
1
4

7
6
1

3

3
3

3
3

2
2

1
1

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

14

8
3
5

6
6

2

3

_

.

-

-

•

4
4

-

2

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

9
4
5

8
4
4

7
4
3

4

7

3
3

MEN AND WOMEN COMBINED

COMPUTER OPERATORS, CLASS A -----MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

69
27
42

38.5
38.0
38.5

$
176.50
198.00
162.50

$
$
$
172.00 1 5 5 .5 0 -1 9 4 .5 0
195.00 1 7 3 .0 0 -2 2 1 .5 0
161.00 1 5 1 .0 0 -1 7 4 .0 0

COMPUTER OPERATORS, CLASS B -----MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

205
52
153

38.0
39.0
37.5

152.50
168.00
147.00

151.50
158.00
149.00

1 3 7 .00 -1 63 .50
1 5 0 .00 -1 91 .00
1 3 4 .00 -1 60 .50

6

11

COMPUTER OPERATORS, CLASS C -----MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

78
32
46

38.5
38.5
38.5

135.00
147.00
127.00

138.00
147.50
124.00

1 1 9 .00 -1 56 .00
1 4 0 .00 -1 58 .50
1 1 3 .50 -1 43 .00

*9

12
2
10

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS,
BUSINESS, CLASS A --------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

69
25
44

38.5
38.5
38.5

252.00
270.00
242.00

249.00
265.00
2 36.00

232.50 -2 72 .50
251.00 -2 92 .50
2 30 .00 -2 59 .50

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS,
BUSINESS, CLASS B -------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------NC'NMANUFAC TORING------------------------

-

1

1

5

2

12

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

5

2

12

9
4
5

6

11

-

-

15
2
13

32
5
27

30
6
24

51
18
33

22
3
19

11

10
4
6

11
9
2

18
10
8

6
4
2

-

9

2
9

_

_

2

12

3
1

1

1

_

1

1

3

6

16

1

1

3

6

14

2
“

*

*

_

159
45
114

38.5
38.5
38.0

206.00
226.50
197.50

2 02.50
2 31.50
194.50

1 8 5 .00 -2 25 .00
202.50 -2 49 .00
180 .50 -2 10 .00

1

2

4

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

“

*

1

2

4

4

19
2
17

29
3
26

63
41

38.0
37.5

175.50
166.50

171.50
160.00

1 53 .50 -1 84 .50
152 .00 -1 82 .00

2

-------------------------------

—

—

-

—

7
7

16
14

6
4

5
3

15
10

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS,
BUSINESS, CLASS A -------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

68
50

38.5
38.5

298.00
286.50

294.00
2 85.50

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS,
BUSINESS, CLASS B --------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------

87
66

38.5
38.5

2 6 3 . GO 2 6 0 . 0 0
250.00 248.50

2 32 .50 -2 98 .00
230.50 -2 73 .00

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS A --------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------

78
74

39.5
39.5

251.00
252.50

246.50
247.00

2 39 .00 -2 61 .00
239.50 -2 67 .00

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS B --------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------

82
74

39.5
39.5

195.00
197.50

195.50
196.50

181 .00 -2 07 .50
184 .00 -2 07 .50

-

-

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS C --------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------

46
45

39.5
39.5

171.00
171.00

172.00
172.50

156 .00 -1 86 .00
157.00 -1 86 .00

-

-

*

“

*

NURSES, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
MANUFACTURING -------------------------------

59
48

39.0
39.0

184.50
187.00

178.50
179.50

1 63 .00-207.50
164.00 -2 07 .00

-

_

-

N O NMA NUFA CTURING

*
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d as fo llo w s
**
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d as fo llo w s
***• W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d as fo llo w s :
See fo o t n o t e s

11
3
8

2

4
3

4
4

6

*

6

8

8
6
2

11
7
4

1

3

11

1

3

•

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

6

_
—

—

3

2

3

2

8
8

1

1

6

1

-

2

3

3
3

3

1

-

-

8

*

*

*

•

“

1

_
6
5

_

**30
14

8
8

3

12

7

3

12

7

2

13

26

10

5

1

-

1

13

26

9

-

4

10

12

19

16

4

5

4

1

3

10

11

19

16

4

5

2
2

2

1

11

6

6

13

-

6

6

13

8

13

5

5

4

7

2

11

4

5

4

4

2

3

“

”

1

-

4
4

-

10

2

3

6

3

5

6

2

3 at $ 9 0 t o $ 100; and 6 at $ 100 t o $ 110.
11 at $ 300 t o $ 320; 9 at $ 320 t o $ 3 4 0 ; 6 at $ 3 4 0 t o $ 360; and 4 at $ 3 6 0 t o $ 380.
9 at $ 300 to $ 320; 6 at $ 320 t o $ 340; 3 at $ 3 4 0 to $ 3 6 0 ; and 1 at $ 360 t o $ 3 8 0 .

5

1

9

8

1

5

7

1

5

5

3
3

1

5

6

1

4
4

5

6

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

6 * * * 1 9

6

-

at en d o f t a b le s .




35
9
26

1

1

269.00 -3 27 .00
261.00 -3 14 .00

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS,
BUSINESS, CLASS C --------------------------

9

3

6

-

2

2

2

2

-

-

-

Table A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers
by sex, in Richmond, Va., March 1974
Average

Average

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

OFFICE

OCCUPATIONS

-

of

Weekly
hours 1
(standard)

Weekly
earnings1
( standard)

HENl

C L E R K S , A C C O U N T I N G , C L A S S A ---------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

91
A3
A8

38.5
38.5
38.5

$
179.50
196.00
16A.50

C L E R K S , A C C O U N T I N G , C L A S S B ---------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

50
AO
26

39.0
39.5
AO.O

1A9.50
1A9.50
17A.CG

C L E R K S , O R O E R -----------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

102
65

39.5
39.0

162.00
132.00

M E S S E N G E R S ( O F F I C E B O V S ! -------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

55
A6

36.5
36.5

105.50
105.00

OFFICE

OCCUPATIONS

-

N O N M A N U F AC T U R IN G

------------------------------

7A
58

38.0
38.0

125.50
122.50

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
C L A S S B -----------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------

100
28
72

38.5
38.0
38.5

108.00
117.50
10A.50

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A —
M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------

387
95
292
69

38.0
38.0
37.5
38.5

1A5.50
163.50
139.50
1 5 8 . CC

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B —
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------

730
156
57A

38.5
39.0
38.0

116.50
123.00
1 1 5 . CO

AO
38

37.0
37.0

13A.00
13A.C0

CLERKS, FILE, CLASS
NONMANUFACTURING

A ------------------------

179
169

37.5
37.5

1 0 0 . CC
99.50

C L E R K S , F I L E , C L A S S C ----------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------

131
32
99

37.0
37.5
37.0

9A.00
100.50
92.00

C L E R K S , O R D E R ----------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------

217
122
95

38.5
37.0
39.5

123.50
123.50
123.50

CLERKS, FILE, CLASS
NONMANUFACTURING

B ------------------------

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS
WOMEN— CONTINUED

Number
of
workeis

Weekly
houis *
(standard)

Weekly
earnings *
(standard)

-

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A —
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------

Weekly
hours 1
(standard)

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

105
319
97

38.0
39.0
38.0
38.5

118.50
120.50
118.00
1A3•00

C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S A ---------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------

65
26
39

38.5
38.0
38.5

$
177.00
199.00
162.50

M E S S E N G E R S ( O F F I C E G I R L S ) ----------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

5A
51

37.0
37.0

95.00
95.00

C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S 8 ---------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------

138
39
99

38.0
39.0
38.0

150.00
161.00
1A5.50

S E C R E T A R I E S -------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N C N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------

1,518
817
901
116

38.0
38.5
37.5
39.0

1A7.00
153.00
1A3.00
165.00

C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S C ---------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------

65
31
36

38.5
38.5
38.5

13A.00
1A7.00
121.50

72
A9

38.0
38.0

168.00
169.00

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS,
B U S I N E S S , C L A S S A ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

52
30

38.5
38.0

253.00
2AO . 00

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S B ---------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

330
1A9
181

38.0
39.0
37.5

162.50
168.00
157.50

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS,
B U S I N E S S , C L A S S B ----------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

121
61
80

38.5
38.5

207.00
228.50

3 8 .0

196.00

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS,
B U S I N E S S , C L A S S C ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

69
27

38.0
37.5

178.50
166.50

ANALYSTS,
A -------------------------------------------

63
66

38.5
38.5

298.50
287.00

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS,
B U S I N E S S , C L A S S B ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

67
69

38.5
38.5

263.00
2A7.50

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS
MANUFACTURING

A ------------------------------------------------

76
76

39.5
39.5

252.50
252.50

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS
MANUFACTURING

8 ------------------------------------------------

82
76

39.5
39.5

195.00
197.50

DRAFTSMEN,

C -----------------------

60

AO.O

172.00

8 ----------

67

38.0

157.50

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS,
B U S I N E S S , C L A S S B ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

38
34

38.0
38.0

202.00
202.00

N U R S E S , I N D U S T R I A L ( R E G I S T E R E D ) ---M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------

59
48

39.0
39.0

18A.50
187.00

K E Y P U N C H O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S B --------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

A2A

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S C ---------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------

700
38A
58

38.0
38.0
38.5

1AA.OO
139.00
16A.00

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S 0 ---------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

A13
129
28A

38.0
39.0
37.5

136.00
139.50
13A.50

COMPUTER SYSTEMS
BUSINESS, CLASS

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g

S T E N O G R A P H E R S , G E N E R A L ---------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N C N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------

A 59
82
377
117

38.0
38.5
38.0
39.0

130.50
128.50
130.50
157.00

S T E N O G R A P H E R S , S E N I O R ----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

2AA
65
179

38.0
39.0
38.0

138.50
1A7.50
135.00

S W I T C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S A ---N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

58
39

39.0
39.0

136.50
135.50

S W I T C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S B ---N C N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

117
10A

37.0
37.0

100.50
98.50

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTS
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

228
70
158

39.0
39.0
39.0

113.00
123.50
108.00

100
A7
53

38.5
39.5
38.0

1 2 6 . CC
135.50
117.50

77
59

37.5
37.5

128.50
129.50

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
G E N E R A L -----------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

285
73
212

38.5
39.0
38.5

127.00
138.00
123.00

T Y P I S T S , C L A S S A -----------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N C N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

176
31
1A5

38.0
39.0
38.0

1 1 9 . OC
122.50
118.00

A59
75
38A

38.0
37.5
38.0

99.00
111.CO
96.50

S ee fo o t n o t e at en d o f t a b le s .




Number
of
workers

P R O F E S S I O N A L AND T E C H N I C A L
OCCUPATIONS - MEN

T Y P I S T S , C L A S S B ------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

C L E R K S , P A Y R O L L -------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------

Sex , o c c u p a t i o n , a n d i n d u s t r y divis i o n

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S A ---------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

WOMEN

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
C L A S S A -------------------------------

S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

6

CLASS

PROFESSIONAL

AND

OCCUPATIONS

COMPUTER

OPERATORS,

-

TECHNICAL
WOMEN

CLASS

Table A-4. Hourly earnings of maintenance and powerplant workers in Richmond, Va., March 1974
N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s o f

Hourly e arn in g s3

--------- i --------- 1----- 5------- i------- $------- 5------- i------- i ------- *------- 1------Median2

Middle range 2

J ---------- 1----------- i --------1---------- i ---------- *---------- »---------- i ---------- 1---------- 1---------- i ---------- i —

T J

O cc u p a tio n and in d u str y d iv is io n

4 .2 0 4 .4 0

3 .2 0

U n d er
* _
and
3 , 2 0 u n d er

3 .3 0 3 .4 0 3 .5 0 3 .6 0 3 .7 0 3 .8 0 3 .9 0 4 .0 0 4 .1 0
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

4 .6 0 4 .8 0 5 .0 0 5 .2 0 5 .4 0 5 .6 0 5 .8 0 6 .0 0 6 .2 0 6 .4 0

_

3 .3 0 3 .4 0 3 .5 0 3 .6 0 3 .7 0 3 .8 0 3 .9 0 4 .0 0 4 .1 0 4 .2 0 4 .4 0 4 .6 0 4 .8 0 5 .0 0 5 .2 0 5 .4 0 5 .6 0 5 .8 0 6 .0 0 6 .2 0 6 .4 0

MEN

AND

WOMEN

COMSINFD

C A R P E N T E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E --------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

48
27

$
5 .3 9
5 .3 3

$
5 .4 7
5 .4 6

$
4 .9 3 5 .3 2 -

$
5 .7 9
5 .7 5

E L E C T R I C I A N S , M A I N T E N A N C E -----------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

270
227

5 .6 0
5 .6 1

5 .7 2
5 .7 2

5 .5 4 5 .5 4 -

5 .7 6
5 .7 6

E N G I N E E R S , S T A T I O N A R Y -----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

78
66

4 .9 2
4 .9 2

4 .7 6
4 .7 3

4 .6 0 4 .6 0 -

5 .7 2
5 .7 2

-

F I R E M E N , S T A T I O N A R Y B O I L E R ----------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

39
34

4 .0 8
4 .3 3

4 .3 3
4 .3 5

4 .0 4 4 .0 8 -

4 .3 9
4 .4 3

5
-

2
2

H E L P E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E T R A 0 E S --------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

134
130
106

4 .5 8
4 .6 2
4 .9 4

3 .8 8
3 .8 9
6 .0 1

3 .4 9 3 .4 9 3 .5 6 -

6 .0 5
6 .0 5
6 .0 6

*15
13
6

_
-

MACHINISTS, MAINTENANCE
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------

275
272

5 .5 2
5 .5 3

5 .7 1
5 .7 1

5 .5 2 5 .5 2 -

5 .7 5
5 .7 5

469

5 .5 9
5 .0 1
6 .3 1
6 .3 2

4 .7 0 4 .0 4 4 .7 4 5 .1 4 -

6 .3 5
5 .0 7
6 .3 5
6 .3 6

-

-

338

5 .4 9
4 .6 3
5 .6 2
5 .8 0

444
426

5 .3 8
5 .3 9

5 .7 2
5 .7 2

5 .1 1 5 .1 3 -

5 .7 6
5 .7 6

88

48

4 .6 2
5 .0 9

4 .5 0
5 .4 0

4 .0 6 4 .7 6 -

5 .4 2
5 .4 5

132
131

5 .6 5
5 .6 6

5 .7 4
5 .7 4

5 .7 1 5 .7 1 -

5 .7 7
5 .7 7

54
54

5 .6 5
5 .6 5

5 .7 4
5 .7 4

5 .7 1 5 .7 1 -

5 .7 8
5 .7 8

MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
( M A I N T E N A N C E ) ---------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------PAINTERS, MAINTENANCE
M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----PIPEFITTERS, MAINTENANCE M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------SHEET-METAL

*

, MAINTENANCE
----

w o r k e r s

m a n u f a c t u r i n g

o v er

—

W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d as fo l lo w s :

65
404

-

-

-

-

-

“

1

-

-

-

-

~

-

16
16

-

5
5
5

26
26
25

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

*

-

-

1
“

-

*

1

-

-

1
1

-

2
2

1
~

1
1

8
5

6
5

11
11

-

1
-

8
-

1
-

-

13
l

7
7

13
12

69
66

155
132

6
5

1
1

3
-

-

8
8

23
21

11
6

1
-

1
1

1
1

20
19

1
1

-

1
-

1
1

_

2
2

5
5

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8
8

2
1

-

8
8

*

16
16

-

5
4
4

-

_

-

-

-

*

-

-

6
6
6

-

1
1

-

-

3
3
*

3
3
*

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

60
60
60

-

-

_

-

“

*

2
-

1
1
-

_

-

2
*

1
-

-

*

*

_
-

1
*

15
3
12
12

-

2
2
-

-

-

“

“

1
*

“

10

_

_
*

6
6

17
17

4
3

1
"

1
1

14
14

84
84

146
145

7

6
i
“

13
1
12
-

37
6
31
21

28
1
27
25

38
1
37
23

5
5

45
31
14
6

9
9
9

28
1
27
18

4
3
2

6
5

2
2

28
28

15
14

11

20
19

56
55

23
23

16
13

26 3
25 7

-

-

-

-

6

-

-

-

*

_

13
1

-

8
3

11
7

4
2

9
8

-

3
3

26
24

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

“

*

*

l
“

4
4

12
12

1
1

114
114

*

-

-

“

12
12

2
2
-

_
“

4
4

1

“

_

7

-

7

-

1
1
-

*

“

“

-

2 at $ 2 .5 0 to $ 2 .6 0 ; 2 a t $ 2 .7 0 to $ 2 .8 0 ; 3 a t $ 2 .8 0 to $ 2 .9 0 ; 1 at $ 2 .9 0 to $3; and 7 at $3 to $ 3 .1 0 ,

See fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le s .




-

1
1

6
1
3
3

-

7

-

7

35
35

2

-

1
1

-

2 22
-

-

222
222

-

-

-

_
-

-

Table A-5. Hourly earnings of custodial and material movement workers in Richmond, Va., March 1974
Hourly e arn in gs3

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f—
4 .4 0

t
4 .6 0

4 .8 C

4 . 40 4 . 6 0

4 .8 0

5 .0 0

5 .2 0

5 .4 0

over

t
1 .7 0

t
1 .8 0

t
1 .9 0

t
2 .0 0

t
2 .1 0

t
2 .2 0

$
2 .4 0

t
2 .6 0

t
2 .8 0

3 .0 0

i
3 .2 0

t
t
3 .4 0 3 .6 0

t
3 .8 0

t
t
4 00 4 . 20

70 1 .8 0

O cc u p a tio n a n d in d u s tr y d i v is i o n

Number
of

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2 .1 0

2 .2 C

2 .4 0

2 .6 0

2 .8 0

3 .0 0

3 .2 0

3 .4 0

3 .6 0 3 .8 0

4 .0 0

4 .2 0

60
Mean 2

M edian2

Middle range 2

t

%

i

1 -------- t
5 .0 0 5 .2 0

l

5 .4 0

nd
der

HEN AND W EN COMBINED
OM
GUAROS AND WATCHMEN ---------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------

A76
116
360

$
$
2 .7 6 2 .2 7
3 .7 6 3 .8 6
2.A 3 2 .0 9

$
$
2 .0 4 - 3 .4 2
3 . 1 1 - 4 .2 8
2 . 0 1 - 2 .5 2

2
2

2
2

61
61

8
8

122
5
1 17

14
14

59
9
50

28
A
24

11
3
8

7
6
i

22
4
18

21
1
20

5
2
3

4
3
1

40
40
”

15
10
5

5
1
4

10
8
2

5
1
4

8
2
6

11
1
10

15
15

1
1

‘

"

GUARDS
MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

A7

A . 30 A. 46

3 . 7 9 - 5 .2 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

A

2

-

1

1

1

2

5

i

i

8

i

2

1

15

1

-

-

-

5

-

8

-

1

6

3

-

1

1

35

9

-

-

-

-

-

-

3 13
15
2 98
“

66
8
58

2 18
28
190
2

211
54
157
14

82
36
46
1

1 03
54
49
1

51
28
23
2

99
32
67
11

33
14
19
1

189
163
26
15

109
109

67
66
i
i

14

6

-

“

6
6

2
2
2

-

14
4

“

“

”

*

41
15
26

2
2

-

-

-

*

*

-

—
*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

WATCHMEN
MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

69

3 .3 9

3 .8 3

2 .9 5 -

3 .8 8

-

JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS ---MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------PUBLIC UTILITIES ------------------------

2 ,3 8 1
665
1 ,7 1 6
60

2 . AS
3 .2 3
2 .1 5
3 .3 7

2 .1 9
3 .6 2
2 .0 3
3 .3 5

1 .8 2 - 2 .9 4
2 . 6 1 - 3.82
1 .7 8 - 2 .3 2
2 . 5 9 - 3 .6 9

77
77
-

480
35
445
“

19A
18
176
“

67
5
62
-

LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING -----------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------

1 ,0 4 0
5A8
A92

3.0A
3 .1 2
2 .9 5

3 .0 5
3.C 6
2 .9 2

2 . 6 1 - 3 .4 6
2 . 5 6 - 3 .7 9
2 . 6 2 - 3 .3 8

~

-

6
6
“

10
7
3

46
9
37

91
57
34

37
29
8

57
32
25

148
38
110

70
27
43

152
136
16

122
8
114

73
2
71

62
61
1

67
63
4

56
56

A10
101
309

3 .3 9
3 .2 5
3.A 3

3 .4 1
3 .0 9
3.A3

3 . 0 4 - 3 .4 9
3 . 0 1 - 3 .3 8
3 . 0 6 - 3 .4 9

.
-

-

-

-

3
3

8
4
A

1
1
-

14
9
5

52
7
45

101
43
58

19
14
5

136
10
126

13
13

_
-

1
1
“

50

NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------

50

“

12
12
*

PACKERS, SHIPPING -------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

271
235

3.A 7
3 .6 1

3 .8 4
A .03

2 . 6 3 - 4 .2 7
2 . 7 9 - 4 .2 8

.

•
-

2
1

-

-

-

1
-

11
3

7
5

42
42

23
8

7
7

26
17

4
A

2
2

2
2

24
24

12
12

89
89

19
19

*

RECEIVING CLERKS ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------

1A5
93
52

3 .7 5 3 .8 9
A.OA 4 .0 6
3 .2 A 3 .1 7

3 . 1 9 - 4 .0 8
3 .9 5 - 4 .3 5
3 . 0 6 - 3 .6 0

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

*

-

-

2
2

6
1
5

2
2

A
2
2

25
5
20

3
1
2

19
12
7

2
1
1

10
1
9

45
44
1

4
3
1

5
5
*

18
18
*

*

SHIPPING CLERKS -----------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

37
27

3 .7 5
3.8A

3 .6 3
3 .8 3

3 . 4 1 - 3 .9 8
3 . 2 9 - 4 .0 9

-

5
5

3
3

9
“

4
4

7
6

2
2

l
1

“

1
1

”

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERKS -------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------

87
38
A9

A .03 4 .0 5
3 .7 2 3 .6 6
A. 27 4 .5 3

3 . 5 7 - 4 .5 8
3 . 3 6 - 4 .0 5
4 . 0 3 - 4 .7 3

-

11
3
8

8
8
-

_
-

-

12
12

17
17

*

-

-

23
13
10

TRUCKDRIVERS ---------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------PUBLIC UTILITIES ------------------------

2 ,1 1 3
A30
1 ,6 8 3
938

3 .9 9
3 .5 0
A. 12
A.A6

3 .5 7
3 .5 6
3 .5 7
3 .5 9

3 .0 7 3 .1 5 3 .0 6 3 .1 2 -

36
35
l
*

10
5
5
*

92
84
8
“

261
2
259
110

30
30
*

20
20
*

27
27

TRUCKDRIVERS, LIGHT (UNDER
1 - 1 / 2 TONS) -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------

117
109

2 .8 7
2 .8 2

2 .8 4
2 .8 3

2 .7 1 - 3 .0 6
2 . 6 9 - 3 .0 4

_

1

-

-

TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM I 1 - 1 /2 TO
ANO INCLUDING A TONS) -----------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------

317
1A1
176

3 .2 5
2 .9 8
3 .4 6

2 .9 5
2 .9 6
2 .8 5

2 . 6 0 - 3 .7 4
2 . 2 7 - 3 .7 3
2 . 7 4 - 4 .0 7

-

.

TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY I OVER A TONS,
TRAILER TYPE) ----------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------PUBLIC UTILITIES -------------------------

1 ,1 8 5
156
1 ,0 2 9
7A7

A. 33
3 .8 3
A.AO
A . 37

A .29
3 .8 7
A.AA
3 .5 8

3 .2 8 3 .3 4 3 .2 6 3 .1 5 -

ORDER

FILLERS --------------------------------------

MANUFACTURING

*

-------------------------

A l l w o r k e r s w e r e at $ 6 .2 0 t o

4 .5 7
4 .1 3
5 .0 3
6 .2 3

•
—
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

“

-

-

-

1
1

-

“

-

-

-

.

-

.

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
3
2

_
-

-

2
2
-

-

7
7
-

•
-

.
•

-

_
-

4
A

_
-

59
54
5

92
11
81

133
3
130
68

1 54
31
1 23
72

234
18
2 16
144

98
39
59
24

3 98
95
303
177

65
33
32
*

*

*

“

4
A

_

*

“

A
A

12
12

25
25

41
36

17
17

2
2

2
2

7
7

-

-

-

-

-

*

*

“

*

*

55
54
1

25
7
18

72
3
69

13
11
2

30
1
29

15
12
3

15

-

6

27
26
1

16
15
l

6
2
4

4
1
3

2

87
15
72
72

1 67

65
23
42
24

204
16
188
175

7
7
“

13
13

3
2
1

56
51
5
*

“

5 .0 7
4 .2 6
5 .3 7
6 .2 2

2

$ 6 .4 0 .

See fo o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b l e s .




“

8

9

1 58
144

9

*

-

-

2

*

22
22

239
2 39

8
8

-

90

-

.

-

*

4
4

“

”
“

“
2
2
*
5 7 * 343
57
3 43
343
-

17

17

*

20
20

27

-

27

‘

'

45 *242
“
45
242,
2 42

Table A-5. Hourly earnings of custodial and material movement workers in Richmond, Va., March 1974— Continued
N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s o f —

Hourly earnings^

S
1 .7 0

S
1 .8 0

i
1 .9 0

i

*

s

s

%

*

S

t

*

%

S

t

t

t

2 .1 0

2 .2 0

2 .4 0

2 .6 0

2 .8 0

3 .0 0

3 .2 0

3 .4 0

3 .6 0

3 .8 0

$
4 .0 0

S

2 .0 0

4 .2 0

4 .4 0

4 .6 0

4 .8 0

$
5 .0 0

*
5 .2 0

5 .4 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2 .1 0

2 .2 0

2 .4 0

2 .6 0

2 .8 0

3 .0 0

3 .2 0

3 .4 0

3 .6 0

3 .8 0

4 .0 0

4 .2 0

4 .4 0

4 .6 0

4 .8 0

5 .0 0

5 .2 0

5 .4 0

over

—
-

—
-

—
-

-

-

—
-

53
49

—
-

13
13

20
12

16
12

177
107

24
24

—
-

—
•

—

12

-

-

12

-

-

-

* 78
78
78

t

1 .6 0

O cc u p a tio n and in d u str y d iv is io n
Mean 2

MEN

AND

TRUCKDRIVERS

TRUCKERS,

*

i

and
u n d er

CCNTINUED

UTILITIES

POWER

---------------------

IFORKLI F T )

------------

M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------WAREHOUSEMEN

Middle range 2

WOMEN C O M B I N E D CONTINUED

TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY
(OVER A TONS,
O T H E R T H A N T R A I L E R T Y P E ) ----------N U N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------PUBLIC

Median2

------------------------------------

NONMANUFACTURING

------------------------

4 14
327
98

$
3 .9 7
4 .1 2
5 .9 2

$
3 .5 5
3 .5 7
6 .2 4

$
$
3 . 4 1 - 4 .5 4
3 . 3 7 - 5 .3 5
6 . 2 1 - 6 .2 7

660
4 43
217

3 .5 7
3 .5 2
3 .6 7

3 .5 5
3 .3 9
3 .5 6

3 .0 8 2 .9 7 3 .5 1 -

4 .0 0
4 .0 0
4 .2 0

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

178
171

3 .4 5
3 .4 2

3 .2 5
3 .2 2

2 .6 0 2 .5 9 -

4 .2 5
4 .2 5

-

-

-

-

-

A l l w o r k e r s w e r e at $ 6 . 20 to $ 6 . 4 0 .
S ee fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le s .




9

—
-

—
-

1
-

20

20
20

7
3
4

11
11
-

30
29
1

95
89
6

53
44
9

72
50
22

119
10
109

31
20
11

80
80
-

46
45
1

57
22
35

58
40
18

-

.

-

-

6
6

39
39

9
9

1

29
29

12
12

3
3

1
1

4

2
1

61
61

1
1

2
2

2

1

i

_
_

1

_

-

-

6
6




Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, powerplant
custodial, and material movement workers, by sex,
in Richmond, Va., March 1974
Average
(mean2 )
hourly
earnings3

S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u str y d iv is io n

MAINTENANCE

and

OCCUPATIONS

S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u str y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
JCCUPATIONS-MEN— CONTINUED

PllWERPLANT
- MEN

$
CARPENTERS* MAINTENANCE
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------

5.39
5.33

ELECTRICIANS, MAINTENANCE M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------

270
227

E N G I N E E R S , S T A T I O N A R Y ------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------

78
66

FIREMEN, STATIONARY BOILER
M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------

yi
34

HELPERS, MAINTENANCE TRADES
N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -------

134
130
106

M A C H I N I S T S , M A I N T E N A N C E ---M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------

275
272

MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
( M A I N T E N A N C E ) ---------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------NONMANUFACTURING —
PUBLIC UTILITIES ■

469
65
404
338

5.49
4.63
5.62
5.80

MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE
M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------

444
426

5.38
5. 3 9

P A I N T E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E -----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------

88
48

4.62
5.09

P I P E F I T T E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E -------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

132
131

5.65
5.66

54
54

5.65
5.65

476
116
360

2.76
3.76
2.43

GUAROS
MANUFACTURING

--------------------------

47

4.09
3.27

37
27

3.75
3.84

4.27

3.80

--------------------------

69
1,736
576
1,160
43

2.59
3.29
2.24
3.56

1

TRUCKCRIVERS, LIGHT (UNDER
1 - 1 / 2 T O N S ) ------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------T R U C K C R I V E R S , MED I U M (1-1/2 TO
A N D I N C L U D I N G 4 T O N S ) -------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------TRUCKD R I V E R S , HEAVY (OVER 4 TONS,
T R A I L E R T Y P E ) -------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------TR U C K O R I V E R S , HEAVY (OVER 4 TONS,
O T H E R T H A N T R A I L E R T Y P E ) ---------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------T R U C K E R S , P O W E R ( F O R K L I F T ) ----------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

2,107
430
1,677

4.05
3.74

3.99

938

3.50
4.12
4.46

111
103

2.87
2.82

317

3.25

141
176

2.98
3.46

1, 1 8 5
156

4.33

1,029

4.40

747

4.37

3.83

414

3.97

327

4 . 12

98

5.92

659

3.57

442

3.53
3.67

217

3.39

J A N I T O R S , P O R T E R S , A N C C L E A N E R S ---M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

CRK5

4.30

WATCHMEN
MANUFACTURING

c l

TRUCKDRIVERS
-------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ---------

AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
O C C U P A T I O N S — MEN

G U A R D S A N D W A T C H M E N --------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

3.79

4.33
SIIIPPING

CUSTODIAL

3.71

85
36
49

5.52
5.53

00

3.30
3.53

88
50

4 50
4.62
4.94

t

$
3.47

93
259

138

4.92
4.92

352

155
142

ORDER
F I L L E R S ---------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

5.60
5.61

SHEET-METAL WORKERS, MAINTENANCE —
M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

Average
(mean*)
hourly
earnings*

W A R E H O U S E M E N -------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING
M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------

1,014
527
487

3
3
2

06
17
95

178
171

3.45
3.42

J A N I T O R S , P O R T E R S , A N D C L E A N E R S ---M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

645
89

2.08
2.84

556

1.96

PACKERS, SHIPPING
MANUFACTURING

116

3.15

93

3.33

C U S T O D I A L ANO M ATERIAL MOVEMENT
OCCUPATICNS-WCMEN

S e e fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le s .
1 0

Table A t7. Indexes of earnings for selected occupational groups in Richmond, Va.,
March 1973 and March 1974, and percents of increase for selected periods
H-------------------------------

A l l in d u s t r ie s

P e rio d

M a n u fa ctu rin g

H o u r ly e a rn in g s

W e e k ly e a rn in g s
O ffic e
c le r ic a l
(m en and
w om en)

In d u s tria l
n u rses
(m en and
w om en)

S k ille d
m a in te n a n ce
tra d es
(m en )

132.8
142.8

142.2
153.9

147.5
162.3

U n s k ille d
plant
w ork ers
(m e n )

W e e k ly e a r n in g s
O ffic e
cle rica l
(m e n and
w om en)

H o u r ly e a rn in g s

I n d u s tria l
n u rses
(m en and
w om en)

S k ille d
m a in te n a n ce
t r ade s
(m en )

U n sk ille d
plant
w ork ers
(m en )

140.0
152.6

144.9
157.5

143.8
154.6

In d e x e s (N o v e m b e r 1 967= 100)
____ ___ . . _____
M a r c h 1973
...
.. .
M a r c h 1974___ _________________________ . . . ________

138.4
148.2

130.2
142.2

P e r c e n t s o f in c r e a s e
F e b r u a r y I96 0 t o D e c e m b e r 1960:
1 0 -m o n th i n c r e a s e __
. -----------------------------A nnual ra te o f i n c r e a s e __
—
- ______

2.6
3.1

3 .7
4 .5

3.4
4 .1

5.3
6 .4

2 .9
3 .5

3 .6
4 .3

3 .2
3.9

2 .5
3 .0

D e c e m b e r I960 t o N o v e m b e r 1961:
1 1 -m o n th i n c r e a s e ________________
________
Annual ra te o f i n c r e a s e __ - -------------------------

3.9
4 .3

1.5
1.6

3 .5
3 .8

8.3
9 .1

2 .8
3.1

.5
.5

3.2
3 .5

8.4
9 .2

N o v e m b e r 1961 t o N o v e m b e r 1962___ __ _____
N o v e m b e r 1962 t o N o v e m b e r 1963_______________
N o v e m b e r 1963 t o N o v e m b e r 1964_________ _____
N o v e m b e r 1964 t o N o v e m b e r 1965_______________
N o v e m b e r 1965 t o N o v e m b e r 1966_______ ______
N o v e m b e r 1966 to N o v e m b e r 1967__________ ___
N o v e m b e r 1967 t o M a r c h 1969:
1 6 -m o n th in c r e a s e „
________ ______________
Annual ra te o f i n c r e a s e .
— - ________

2.5
2.6
2 .6
5 .4
3 .8
1.6

1.0
3.5
.5
3 .8
4 .1
5 .7

2.6
2.3
2 .6
5.5
3.3
4 .3

3 .2
3.1
2 .7
4 .0
* 8 .5
3.1

2 .0
2 .8
2.1
3 .5
2 .9
3 .2

1.5
3 .4
0
4 .2
5 .0
5 .2

2 .7
1.9
2.3
5.1
3.3
4 .5

3 .2
3 .7
3 .3
5.1
4 .0
4 .7

6.1
4 .5

7.5
5 .6

7 .8
5 .8

8 .7
6 .5

6 .5
4 .8

7 .8
5 .8

7 .8
5 .8

5 .5
4 .1

M a rc h
M a rch
M a rch
M a rch
M a rch

6 .6
6 .2
4 .9
5 .4
7.5

8.1
7.9
7.3
5 .6
8 .2

7 .7
10.7
6 .4
7.9
10.0

5 .2
6 .9
4 .7
8.1
7.1

5 .8
5.1
6 .4
3.3
9 .2

7.2
8 .8
5 .2
5.9
9 .0

7.3
9 .4
5.1
8.9
8 .7

9 .4
8.2
7.5
7.1
7.5




*

1969
1970
1971
1972
1973

to
to
to
to
to

M a rch
M a rch
M a rch
M a rch
M a rch

1970________________________
1971—. ______ ___________
1972________________________
1973______ .
___________
1974............................................

T h is in c r e a s e r e f le c t s ch a n g e s in e m p lo y m e n t a m on g e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith d iffe r e n t p a y l e v e l s in a d d ition t o g e n e r a l w a g e ch a n g e s .

NOTE:
T h is m e a s u r e o f w a g e ch a n g e s w il l b e d is c o n t in u e d
b eg in n in g J u ly 1974. It w il l b e r e p la c e d b y th e m e a s u r e p r e s e n t e d in
ta b le A - 8.

11




Table A-8. Percents of increase in average hourly earnings for
selected occupational groups, adjusted for employment shifts.
in Richmond, Va., for selected periods
In d u stry and o c c u p a t io n a l
g ro u p

--------------M a r c h \ ' m ------------- --------------M a r c h 1973------------to
to
M a r c h 1974
M a r c h 1973

A l l in d u s t r ie s :
O ffi c e c l e r i c a l (m en and w o m e n ) __________________
In d u s t r ia l n u r s e s (m en and w o m e n )_________________
S k ille d m a in te n a n ce t r a d e s ( m e n ) __________________ _
U n s k ille d plant w o r k e r s ( m e n ) ___ ____ ___________

5 .8
5 .0
7.8
6.2

7 .8
8 .7
9.5
8 .6

M a n u fa ctu r in g :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l (m en and w o m e n )____________________
In d u s t r ia l n u r s e s (m e n and w o m e n )_________________
S k ille d m a in te n a n ce t r a d e s ( m e n ) ___________________
U n s k ille d plant w o r k e r s ( m e n ) _______________________

4 .5
5 .3
8 .3
6 .4

8 .9
9 .4
9.3
8.2

6.1
*
*

7.5
*
*
8 .5

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g :
O ffi c e c l e r i c a l (m en and w om en ) ____ ______________
I n d u s tria l n u r s e s (m en and w o m e n )_________________
S k ille d m a in te n a n ce t r a d e s ( m e n ) ___________________
U n s k ille d plant w o r k e r s ( m e n ) _______________________

*

6 .6

D ata do not m e e t p u b lic a t io n c r i t e r i a .

N O T E : T a b le A - 8 p r o v id e s p e r c e n t s o f ch a n g e in a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d
o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s , a d ju s t e d to e x c lu d e the e ff e c t o f e m p lo y m e n t s h ift s .
T h e n ew m e th o d
fo r co m p u tin g w ag e t r e n d s is b a s e d on ch a n g e s in a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r e s t a b lis h m e n t s
r e p o r t in g th e in d ex j o b s in b oth the c u r r e n t and p r e v io u s y e a r (m a t c h e d e s t a b lis h m e n t s ),
h o ld in g e s t a b lis h m e n t e m p lo y m e n t in the jo b s co n s ta n t.
T h e n ew w ag e t r e n d s a r e not lin k e d to the c u r r e n t in d e x e s b e c a u s e the n ew w a g e tre n d s
m e a s u r e c h a n g e s in m a tc h e d e s t a b lis h m e n t a v e r a g e s w h e r e a s th e c u r r e n t in d e x e s m e a s u r e
ch a n g e s in a r e a a v e r a g e s .
O th er c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the n ew w ag e tr e n d s w h ic h d iff e r f r o m
the c u r r e n t o n e s in c lu d e (1 ) e a r n in g s data o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u s t r ia l n u r s e s
a r e c o n v e r t e d to an h o u r ly b a s i s , and (2) t r e n d e s t im a t e s a r e p r o v id e d f o r n on m a n u fa ctu r in g
e s t a b lis h m e n t s .
F o r a m o r e d e t a ile d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the n ew m e th o d u s e d to c o m p u te a r e a w a g e s u r v e y
in d e x e s , s e e "I m p r o v in g A r e a W a ge S u r v e y I n d e x e s , " M on th ly L a b o r R e v ie w , J a n u a ry 1973,
pp . 5 2 - 5 7 .

1 2

B. Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions
Table B-1. Minimum entrance salaries for inexperienced typists and clerks in Richmond, Va., March 1974
I n e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts
M a n u fa ctu rin g
M in im u m w ee k ly s t r a ig h t -t im e s a l a r y 4

. . . .

___

.

$ 7 0 .0 0 and u n d er $ 7 2 .5 0
. . . . . . . . __ .
$ 7 2 .5 0 and u n d er $ 7 5 .0 0 ________________________ . . . . .
.
$ 7 5 .0 0 and u n d er $ 7 7 .5 0 _ .............. ...........................................
$ 7 7 .5 0 and u n d er $ 8 0 .0 0
_ ________ ______________
$ 8 0 .0 0 and u n d er $ 8 2 .5 0 ___________ ____ __ ________________
$ 8 2 .5 0 and u n d er $ 8 5 .0 0 . __ . .
_____
_. . .
. __
$ 8 5 .0 0 and u n d er $ 8 7 .5 0
_
____
$ 8 7 .5 0 and u n d er $ 9 0 .0 0
______ __ _____ __ __ __
$ 9 0 .0 0 and u n d er $ 9 2 .5 0 ___________________ ________________
$ 9 2 .5 0 and u n d er $ 9 5 .0 0
.
_
$ 9 5 .0 0 and u n d e r $ 97 .50
$ 9 7 .5 0 and u n d e r $ 1 0 0 .0 0 ____
_______ ___ . .
$ 1 0 0 .0 0 and u n d er $ 1 0 2 .5 0
__ . . . . .
$ 1 0 2 .5 0 and u n d er $ 1 0 5 .0 0
.
$ 1 0 5 .0 0 and u n d er $ 1 0 7 .5 0 __ __________
_____ __ __
$ 1 0 7 .5 0 and u n d e r $ 1 1 0 .0 0 .
..
____ . __
_____
$ 1 1 0 .0 0 and u n d er $ 1 1 2 .5 0 . .
. __ .
.
$ 1 1 2 .5 0 and u n d er $ 1 1 5 .0 0
.....................................
$ 1 1 5 .0 0 and u n d e r $ 1 1 7 .5 0 ........... .....................
......
$ 1 1 7 .5 0 and u n d er $ 1 2 0 .0 0 _________________________________
$ 1 2 0 .0 0 and o v e r . _____________
._
. . . . . . .

E s ta b lis h m e n t s w h ich did n ot e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in th is c a t e g o r y
____ ..

59

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

XXX

103

XXX

..

17

9

24

1
6
1
3
3
3

5

1
1
1
2
2
2
3
6
1
“
2
1
1
“

1
1
1
2
1
1

1
1
1
3

"
1

“

-

“
-

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

37 Vs

10

59

XXX

103

55

23

12

32

9

16

2
1
1
1
7
4
5
5
7
2
“
3
5
5
1
1
1

“
*
“
2
2
1
5

1
5
-

3 •
3
3
1

2
1
1
1
5
4
3
4
2
2
2
2
“
1
-

1
1
“
■
2
1
2
2
2
“
“
*
2
1
“

1
“
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
“
1
"
"
“
“
•
"

XXX

1

1
1
2

1
1

1
2
“
“
1
“
1
1

2
1
-

“
-

-

“
”

1

’

-

1
“

XXX

1

-

28

7

XXX

21

XXX

XXX

38

11

XXX

27

XXX

93

35

XXX

58

XXX

XXX

69

25

XXX

44

XXX

13

40

162

XXX

1
1
1
2
2
2
4
12
2
3
5
4
1
-

2
2

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

8

See fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le s .




3 7 Vs

N on m a n u fa ctu rin g

B a se d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 6 o f —

A ll
in d u s t r ie s

41

E s ta b lis h m e n t s ha vin g a s p e c i fie d m in im u m

E s ta b lis h m e n t s ha vin g no s p e c i fie d m in im u m __

162

M a n u fa ctu rin g

B a s e d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 6 o f —

A ll
in d u s t r ie s

A ll
sc h e d u le s
E s ta b lis h m e n t s stu d ie d __ _

O th er in e x p e r ie n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s 5

N on m a n u fa ctu rin g

XXX

"
"
1
1

XXX




Table B-2. Late-shift pay provisions for manufacturing plant workers
in Richmond, Va., March 1974
{A U _p la n t w o r k e r s in m a n u fa ctu rin g ■ 100 p e r c e n t )

_______
P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa ctu rin g p la n t w o r k e r s —

In e s t a b lis h m e n t s h a ving p r o v is i o n s 7
fo r la te s h ifts

L a t e - s h if t pay p r o v is io n

T h ir d o r o th e r
sh ift

S e c o n d sh ift

T ota l

............................ .............

....... ...

N o p a y d i ff e r e n t ia l f o r w o r k on la te s h i ft ______

7 4.8

69.7

-

-

A c t u a lly w o rk in g on la te sh ifts

S e c o n d s h ift

T h ir d o r o th e r
s h ift

16.5

1 0.6

-

-

7 4.8

69.7

16.5

10.6

U n ifo r m c e n t s (p e r h o u r ) ........................... __

37.2

3 6.1

8 .9

7 .2

5 cen ts
.................
. ......... .
7 c e n t s _______ ___________________________
8 cen ts
. . .
.......

2 .4
1.8
6 .0
1.5
18.2
-

2 .4

.3
.5
1 .6
.3
4 .8
-

.6
-

P a y d i ff e r e n t ia l f o r w o r k on la t e s h i f t . . _______
T y p e and a m ou n t o f d iffe r e n t ia l:

10
12
14
15
16
17
20
25
32
40
55

cen ts
... ___ _
c e n t s _________________________________
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
__
ce n ts
c e n t s . .. _ . . . . . . . .
cen ts
.
_
cen ts r
ce n ts

U n ifo r m p e r c e n t a g e _________ ___ __________
3 p ercen t
5 p ercen t
8 p e r c e n t _________________________________
10 p e r c e n t
___
_ ___ ___ .. . .
15 p e r c e n t

3 .4
1.8
3 .2
9 .6
1.8
1.5
8 .4
1. 9

-

.8
-

3 .3
-

-

1.1

2 .1

2 .1
3 7 .6

3 3 .5

.7
1.4
2 2 .6
13.0

.7

-

31.3
1.6

S ee fo o t n o t e s a t end o f t a b le s .

14

-

.2
-

.6
.2
.4
"

.7
.3
1 .0
2 .3
.1
.2
1.8
.1

7 .7

3 .4

.2

.2

-

5 .0
2.4

3 .3

Table B-3. Scheduled weekly hours and days of first-shift workers in Richmond, Va., March 1974
P e r c e n t o f pla n t w o r k e r s

P e rce n t o f o ffic e w o rk e rs

W e e k ly h o u r s and d a y s
M a n u fa ctu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s

A l l in d u s t r ie s

M a n u fa ctu rin g

100

100

100

100

100

.

_

_

2
9

1

A l l In d u s trie s

A ll w o r k e r s —
3 2 Vs h o u r s— 5 d a y s —
_
-------------35 h o u r s — 5 d a y s
.
— — .
36 h o u r s — 5 d a y s .
..
_____ ____
3 6 l/« h o u r s — 5 d a y s .
- —
- —
37 h o u r s — 5 d a y s .
.
— — .
______
3 7 l/i h o u r s — 5 d a y s
..
38V< h o u r s — 5 d a y s __
.
_______
40 h o u r s __
----- ----------------- 4 days.
. . .
.
______________
___ . -------------- ----------------5 d a y s . ____
_________
. . . .
------------- —
6 days. .
4 2 l/i h o u r s — 5 d a y s .
--------------------------44 h o u r s — 5 d a y s . .
. ________ — -----45 h o u r s _____________________________________________
_______
— —
-------------------5 d a y s_______
6 days— —
_________________________________
48 h o u r s — 6 d a y s . . _____ ______ ________________
50 h o u r s— 5 d a y s . .
.
________________ ___

3
17

<*)
71

(*>

68
4

2
1
3
2
1
2
1

85
85
12
12
-

(’ )
27
68
68
2

(!)
C)

2
1

3

S ee fo o tn o te at end o f t a b le s .




15

(*)

10

(’ )
38
8
32
32
-

7

1
27

-

27
37
37
-

-

“

(’ )
-

P u b lic u tilitie s

100

52
48
48
-

Table B-4. Annual paid holidays in Richmond, Va., March 1974
P e r c e n t o f p la n t w o r k e r s

P e rce n t o f o ff ic e w o rk e r s

Item
A l l in d u s t r ie s

M a n u fa ctu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s

A ll in d u s tr ie s

M a n u fa ctu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s

A l l w o r k e r s ------------------------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g
p a id h o l id a y s __ ___ ____ _____ ______ _______________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g
no pa id h o lid a y s
_
.. ..
_ ----

97

100

97

99

100

100

3

-

3

(’ )

-

-

3
4
1
1
5
10
(’ )
18
2
15
28
10
1
-

1
1
1
7
16
2
11
38
20

.
12
6
30
47
-

(’ )

.
-

( 9)
<’ )
2
n
1
14
(’ )
13
(*>
41
3
5
1

(’ )
(’ )
(•)
8
12
1
36
2
18
18
2
3

.
3
6
2
90
-

N u m b er o f d a y s 10
1 h o lid a y —___
—
_
—
- - ----_
—----2 h o lid a y s -----3 h o l id a y s - - —
--------— __ —
-------4 h o lid a y s —__ ____ ______ _________________ __ ______ _
_ _______ _________ __
5 h o l id a y s ______ ________
6 h o l i d a y s . _______________________ __ ______ ________
6 h o lid a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y
__________________
7 h o lid a y s _________________ ______________ ____ .
7 h o lid a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ._ ___
__ .
_
8 h o l id a y s __________________ ___ ___ _______ _________
_
8 h o lid a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ______________________ _
9 h o l id a y s ._____ — ___ __ __
_ __
___
9 h o lid a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y
_ __
_ _ _______
10 h o l i d a y s _______________ __ __
_________
10 h o lid a y s p lu s 1 h a lf day
------ -------------- _
11 h o lid a y s _____________
____
— _ -----------_ ---------------12 h o l i d a y s ___________ __ — _
13 h o lid a y s

-

(’ )

2
(’ )

-

(!)
(’ )
1
1
11
11
40
40
55
56
74
75
85
89
90
90
94
97

(’ )
(’ )
2
2
22
22
60
60
71
73
90
90
97
98
99
100
100
100

47
47
78
78
84
84
97
97
97
97
97
97

-

<*>
2
2

-

T o t a l h o lid a y t im e 11
13 d a y s
_
___ ___
_____
12 d a y s o r m o r e
- __
11 d a y s o r m o r e
10Vz d a y s o r m o r e
____
_ ___
__ _
10 d a y s o r m o r e ____________________________________
9V2 d a y s o r m o r e
__
___
_ __
9 days o r m o re
ft1 ! d a y s o r m o r e , _
/
_
8 days o r m o re
__
__ . __ —
7 Vz d a y s o r m o r e ____
__
___
_______
7 days o r m o r e ..
6*/2 d a y s o r m o r e ___________________________________
6 d a y s o r m o r e _____________________________________
_____
. __ _______
5 d a y s o r m o r e ________
4 d a y s o r m o r e . ___________ __ . __ . _______
3 days o r m o re
_ _
___
__
2 days o r m o re
__
__
__
1 day o r m o r e
. . . . . . .
.
_ . .

See fo o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b le s .




16

2
4
5
6
11
14
58
59
72
72
86
87
98
99
99
99
99
99

3
3
4
4
22
22
40
43
79
.80
92
92
99
99
99
100
100
100

_
90
90
91
91
97
97
100
100
100
100
100
100

Table B-4a. Identification of major paid holidays in Richmond, Va., March 1974
P e r c e n t o f p la n t w o r k e r s

P e rce n t o f o ffic e w o rk e rs

H o l id a y 10
M a n u fa ctu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s

A ll in d u s t r ie s

100

100

100

100

100

100

89
16
12
24
84
90
90
4
5
89
35
42
2
94
4
10
3
3
18

98
21
14
45
98
99
99
7
1
99
65
65
2
98
8
14

97
40
39
2
97
97
97
40
97

99
19
17
22
99
99
99
6

100
90
90
2
100
100
100
.
90
100

-

-

-

-

99
50
26
6
97
99
99
28
41
99
29
14
6
99
2
16
1
2
9

A ll in d u s t r ie s

A ll w o r k e r s .

-

- _

N ew Y e a r 's Day__
------- .-------------W a s h in g to n 's B ir t h d a y - G o o d F r id a y ____ - ___ __
— ___
_____
E a s t e r M o n d a y ____ ________
______
__ ______
M e m o r ia l D a y — __
__ _________________
F ou rth o f J u l y .
___
.
______ _____
L a b o r D a y _________
.
___
. _____________
C o lu m b u s D ay — —
______
V e t e r a n s D a y __ —
_ _
_____ _ _ .
T h a n k sg iv in g D ay
.
__ . .
______
D ay a ft e r T h a n k sg iv in g „
___ ______________
C h r is t m a s E v e __
- —
- __________ ____ ______
C h r is t m a s E v e , h a lf d a y _______ __ _____ __________
C h r is t m a s D a y ______
— ________________________
N ew Y e a r 's E v e ____ - _ ________________________
F lo a tin g h o lid a y , 1 d a y 13 _
__ ______________
F lo a tin g h o lid a y , 2 d a y s 15—
______________
F lo a tin g h o lid a y , 4 d a y s 13___ _____________ ____
E m p lo y e e 's b irth d a y ___ —
__
_______

-

38
-

97
-

7

6

42

See fo o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b le s .




17

M a n u fa ctu rin g

-

99
74
47
3
99
7
35
-

P u b lic u t ilit ie s

-

4
.

100
-

-

-

12

3

Table B-5. Paid vacation provisions in Richmond, Va., March 1974
P e r c e n t o f p la n t w o r k e r s

P e rce n t o f o ff ic e w o rk e r s

V a c a t io n p o l ic y
A ll in d u s t r ie s

A ll w o r k e r s

____

_ .... .

_ ___ ....

M a n u fa ctu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s

A l l in d u s tr ie s

M a n u fa ctu r in g

100

100

P u b l ic u t ilit ie s

100

100

100

99
98

100
99
(9)
-

100
100
-

99
99
(9 )
-

-

<9 )

21
11
.

9
64
8
1

2
80
2
(9 )

51
23
1
-

20
(’ )
73
7
( 9)

13
1
86
.

76
_
24
.

(»)

-

3
(9 )
84
7
6

3
1
70
-

3
.
97
-

25

-

100

M eth od o f p a y m en t
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g
p a id v a c a t io n s
L e n g t h - o f-t i m e p a y m e n t _____________________
P e r c e n t a g e p a y m en t __________________________
O t h e r ______________________________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g
no p a id v a c a t io n s

(’ )
1
( 9)

99
99
(9)

100
100
-

A m ou n t o f v a c a t io n pay 14
A f t e r 6 m o n th s o f s e r v i c e
U n der 1 w e e k _
^
_ _
1 w e e k «.______________________________________________
O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s _________________________
2 w eeks

8
30
n
n

8
36
-

55
1
43
(9)

44
3
54
-

88
.
12
-

-

-

26
4
68
(9 )
2

27
8
62
4

23
77
-

7
(9 )
88
(9)
3

9
1
85

7
93

-

-

(9 )
(9 )
86
7

5

-

6

27

6
(9 )
88
1
4

5
1
85
2
7

7
93

( 9)
( 9)
85
7
7

66

(9)

-

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s _________ __ ____________
2 w e e k s __ _______________ _______ ___ __________________
O v e r 2 and u n d er 3 w e e k s
_
3 w eeks
A f te r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w eek
_____________________________ ______________
O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s _______________________
2 w eeks
O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ...___ ___________________ ■
3 w eeks
_

-

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s __ _________ ___________
2 w eeks
_
O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s
3 w e e k s __________________

1
(9 )
72
_

1
_
99

-

-

A fte r 4 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _____________________________________________
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s ___
__________________
2 w e e k s ______________________ _ _____ __ ___________ _
O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s _________________________

-

S e e fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le s .




18

1
(9)
1
32

1
_

99
-

Table B-5. Paid vacation provisions in Richmond, Va., March 1974— Continued
P e rce n t o f o ffic e w o rk e rs

P e r c e n t o f p la n t w o r k e r s
V a ca tio n p o l ic y
M a n u fa ctu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s

2
1
71
2
25
-

.
100
-

2
(’ )
19
70
(9)
8
1

2
1
14
65

_
11
-

2
(’ )
18
70
n
8
1

2
1
13
67
<’ )
16
2

1 w e e k ________________________ _____________________
O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s . ----------------------------------2 wppkfi .
.
....

2
(’ )
15

O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s ________ ______________
4 w e e k s _______________________________________________
O v e r 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s ——— --------- — — --------—

36

2
1
11
31
2
52
2

A ll in d u s t r ie s

A l l in d u s t r ie s

M a n u fa ctu rin g

P u b lic u tilitie s

A m ou n t o f v a c a tio n pay 14— C on tin u ed

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _______________________________________________
O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s . . _____________________
2 w eeks „ .
...
. . .. . . .
....
__
O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s _________________________
3 w e e k s ____________________________ _______________
4 w e e k s _________________
________ ______________

2
(’ )
80
1
16
-

-

(’ )
(•)
70
12
13
5

(’ )
(9)
51
1
23
25

100
-

(9 )
(9 )
12
1
72
4
11
-

(9 )
(’ )
10
49
41
-

.
2
98
“

(’ )
(’ )
11
1
72
4
n
-

(’ )
(* )
8
51
41
-

(9 )
(’ )
7

(9 )
(9 )
7
25
1
67

1
92

(9)
(9 )
7

1
1

-

A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w e e k _ ____________________________________________
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s _______________________
2 w e e k s ____________________________________________
O v e r 2 and u n d er 3 w e e k s . ________________________
3 w e e k s ____________________________________________
O v e r 3 and u n d er 4 w e e k s _________________________
4 w eek s.
,
__
.... _
__r __
O v e r 4 and u n d er 5 w e e k s
_
______________

89
-

(’ >
16
2

*

A f t e r 12 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w eek
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s ________ __ _____________
2 w e e k s ____________ ______ ____ _________________
O v e r 2 and u n d er 3 w e e k s ________ ______________
3 w e e k s ______________________________________________
O v e r 3 and u n d er 4 w e e k s
_____ ________ ___
4 w e e k s ____________ ______________________________
O v e r 4 and u n d er 5 w e e k s ____ _ ____________

.
11
89
_
-

.
2
98
-

A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

1
1

_
3

44
*

6
22
-

7
‘

A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w e e k ______________________ _______________ ______ _
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s . .
--------------------- —
2 w e e k s ______________________________________________
3 w e e k s ______________________________________________
O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s _______________________
4 w e e k s ______________________________________________
O v e r 4 and u n d er 5 w e e k s _____________________
5 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------6 w e e k s ________________ _ ________ ____________

2
(’ )
13
24

_
3
7

2
1
9

19

-

-

-

47

51

54

(’ )
12
1

(’ )
16
2

-

35

S e e fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le s .




19

(9)
(9)
6
23
1
54
4
10

9
-

-

44

95

-

39

-

3

Table B-5. Paid vacation provisions in Richmond, Va., March 1974— Continued
P e r c e n t o f p la n t w o r k e r s
V a c a t io n p o l ic y

A ll in d u s t r ie s

2
(’ )
13
21
29
(’ )
24
11

2
1
9
13
25
(’ )
28
22

2
(’ )
13
21
25
(’ )
27
12
(’ )

2
1
9
13
24
(’ )
26
25
-

2
(* )
13
21
25
(’ )
22
17
<*>

P e rce n t o f o ff ic e w o rk e r s

M a n u fa ctu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s

2
1
9
13
24
(’ )
18
33

A ll in d u s tr ie s

M a n u fa ctu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s

A m ou n t o f v a c a tio n p a y 14— C on tin u ed

A f t e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w e e k _____________________________________________ _
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s . . __________________
2 w eek s
__ _____________ ___ _______ ______ _ . ___ _
3 w e e k s . . . ................. .......................... ......
4 w e e k s . _______ __ ______
. . ______
O v e r 4 and u n d er 5 w e e k s
5 w e e k s _____________________ __________________
6 w eeks.
_
.....
...... .......................
.. ....

3
7
15
75
-

(’ )
(’ )
6
23
38
4
26
2

(’ )
(’ )
7
9
23
52
8

(’ )
(’ )
6
23
36
4
27
2
(’ )

(? )
(’ )
7
9
19
54
10
*

(’ )
(’ )
6
23
36
4
26
4
n

(? )
(’ )
7
9
19

i
i
5
93
-

A f t e r 30 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w eek ___________________________________________ ___
O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ____ _____________________
2 w e e k s . ____________________ _____________________
3 w eeks
4 w e e k s . . . . _____
__
. ____
O v e r 4 and u n d er 5 w e e k s _________________________
5 w e e k s . . ___ .
_ ......................... _
....
6 w e e k s _ ____
_ _
O ver 6 w eeks
__ _

.
3
7
9
-

80
-

_
1
1
4
94
-

M a x im u m v a c a t io n a v a ila b le
1 w eek
O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ____________ ,_______ ____
2 w eeks
3 w eeks
_
_ .
4 w eeks
_
O v e r 4 and u n d er 5 w e e k s
. 5 w e e k s . ______ _ ______ ____
6 w eeks
_
_______ _______
_ __
_ ___
O ver 6 w eeks
..
.
___

_
3
7
9
-

80
-

S ee fo o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b le s .




2 0

1
1
4

-

-

47
17

94
-

Table B-6. Health, insurance, and pension plan provisions in Richmond, Va., March 1974
P e r c e n t o f p la n t w o r k e r s
T y p e o f b e n e fit and
fin a n cin g 15

A ll w o r k e r s

_

_

A l l in d u s t r ie s

_

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g at
le a s t 1 o f the b e n e fit s show n b e lo w
L ife i n s u r a n c e _________________________________
N o n c o n t r ib u to r y p la n s ___________________
A c c id e n t a l death and d is m e m b e r m e n t
in s u r a n c e _____________________________________
N o n c o n t r ib u to r y p l a n s ___ _ ___ ____________
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r
s ic k le a v e o r b oth 16 ___ ______ ________ ____ _
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t i n s u r a n c e ____
N o n c o n t r ib u to r y p la n s _______________
S ick le a v e (fu ll p a y and no
w a itin g p e r i o d ) _____ ____ ________________
S ick le a v e (p a r t ia l p a y o r
w a itin g p e r io d )
___ ____________________
L o n g - t e r m d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e
______ __
N o n c o n t r ib u to r y p l a n s ._____ ____ _________ _
H o s p ita liz a t io n in s u r a n c e
N o n c o n t r ib u to r y p l a n s _____________________
S u r g ic a l in s u r a n c e _ _________________________
N o n c o n t r ib u to r y p l a n s ______ ____ _________
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e ____ ______ ________________
__________________
N o n c o n t r ib u to r y p la n s
M a jo r m e d i c a l in s u r a n c e _ ___ ___________
N o n c o n t r ib u to r y p l a n s __________ _ ______
D ental in s u r a n c e ___________ __ ________
___
N o n c o n t r ib u to r y p la n s ___ __ ______ _______
R e t ir e m e n t p e n s io n
_____
___________
N o n c o n t r ib u to r y p la n s ___________________

M a n u fa ctu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s

A l l in d u s t r ie s

M a n u fa ctu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s

100

100

100

100

100

100

94

100

100

99

100

100

89
68

94
87

100
77

99
76

99
88

100
79

63
46

58
52

81
77

71
49

74
40

80
79

78

86

94

87

93

81

68
51

83
65

78
69

52
41

74
58

59
56

20

12

33

66

61

78

5

3

1

7

2

(’ )

29
24
91
67
91
67
89
65
78
51
6
5
80
71

38
35
100
89
100
89
98
88
79
61

20
20
100
74
100
74
100
74
100
79
30
30
86
67

55
49
98
62
98
61
97
60
96
56
5
n
94
82

47
42
100
91
100
88
99
88
88
76
i
i
97
91

54
54
100
66
100
66
100
66
100
67
(’ )
(’ )
84
64

-

88
82

See fo o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b le s .




P e rce n t o f o ffic e w o rk e rs

21

Footnotes

A ll o f th e se

s t a n d a r d f o o t n o t e s m a y n o t a p p ly t o th is b u ll e t in .

1 Stan dard h o u rs r e fle c t th e w o rk w e e k f o r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t -tim e s a la r ie s (e x c lu s iv e o f pay f o r o v e r t im e
at r e g u la r a n d /o r p r e m iu m r a t e s ), and the ea rn in g s c o r r e s p o n d t o th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 The m ea n is co m p u te d f o r e a c h jo b by tota lin g the ea rn in g s o f a ll w o r k e r s and divid in g b y the n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s .
The m ed ian
d es ig n a te s p o s itio n — h a lf o f the e m p lo y e e s su r v e y e d r e c e iv e m o r e and h a lf r e c e iv e le s s than the rate show n.
T h e m id d le ran ge is d efin ed
b y 2 r a te s o f pay; a fou rth o f the w o r k e r s ea rn le s s than the lo w e r o f th e s e r a te s and a fou rth ea rn m o r e than the h ig h e r r a te .
3 E x clu d e s p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r t im e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts.
4 T h e s e s a la r ie s r e la te to fo r m a lly e s ta b lis h e d m in im u m sta rtin g (h irin g ) r e g u la r s t r a ig h t -tim e s a la r ie s that a r e p a id f o r stan d ard
w o rk w e e k s .
5 E x clu d e s w o r k e r s in s u b c le r ic a l jo b s such as m e s s e n g e r .
6 Data a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll sta n d a rd w ork w eek s c o m b in e d , and f o r the m o s t c o m m o n stan d ard w o rk w e e k s r e p o r t e d .
7 In clu d es a ll plant w o r k e r s in e sta b lis h m e n ts c u r r e n tly op era tin g la te s h ift s , and e sta b lis h m e n ts w h ose fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r la te
s h ifts , even though the e s ta b lis h m e n ts w e r e not c u r r e n tly op era tin g la te sh ifts.
8 L e s s than 0.05 p e r c e n t.
9 L e s s than 0.5 p e r c e n t.
10

F or p u rp oses

o f t h is

s tu d y ,

p a y f o r a S u n d ay in D e c e m b e r ,

n e g o t ia t e d

in th e a u t o m o b ile in d u s t r y ,

i s n o t t r e a t e d a s a p a id h o lid a y .

1 A l l c o m b in a tio n s o f fu ll and h a lf days that add t o the sa m e am ount a r e c o m b in e d ; f o r e x a m p le , the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g
1
a to ta l o f 9 days in clu d e s th o s e w ith 9 fu ll days and n o h a lf d a y s, 8 fu ll days and 2 h a lf d a y s , 7 fu ll days and 4 h a lf d a y s , and s o on.
P r o p o r t io n s then w e r e cu m u la ted .
12 T h e s e days a r e p r o v id e d as p a rt o f a C h r istm a s—New Y e a r h o lid a y p e r io d w h ich t y p ic a lly b e g in s w ith C h r is tm a s E ve and ends w ith
New Y e a r 's D ay.
Such a h o lid a y p e r io d is c o m m o n in the a u to m o b ile , a e r o s p a c e , and fa r m im p le m e n t in d u s tr ie s .
13 " F lo a t in g " h o lid a y s v a r y fr o m y e a r to y e a r a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r o r e m p lo y e e c h o ic e .
14 In clu d e s p a y m en ts o th e r than "len g th o f t i m e , " su ch as p e r c e n ta g e o f annual e a rn in g s o r fla t -s u m p a y m e n ts , c o n v e r t e d to an
eq u iv a len t tim e b a s i s ; f o r e x a m p le , 2 p e r c e n t o f annual ea rn in g s w as c o n s id e r e d as 1 w e e k 's pa y. P e r io d s o f s e r v ic e a r e ch o s e n a r b it r a r ily
and do not n e c e s s a r il y r e fle c t in d iv id u a l p r o v is io n s f o r p r o g r e s s io n ; f o r e x a m p le , ch a n g es in p r o p o r t io n s at 10 y e a r s in clu d e ch a n g es b etw een
5 and 10 y e a r s . E s tim a te s a r e c u m u la tiv e . T h u s, the p r o p o r t io n e lig ib le f o r at le a s t 3 w e e k s ' pay a fte r 10 y e a r s in clu d e s th o s e e lig ib le f o r
at le a s t 3 w e e k s ' pa y a ft e r fe w e r y e a r s o f s e r v ic e .
15 E s tim a te s lis t e d a ft e r type o f b e n e fit a r e f o r a ll plans f o r w h ich at le a s t a p a rt o f the c o s t is b o r n e by the e m p lo y e r . "N o n c o n trib u to r y
p la n s " in clu d e on ly th o s e fin a n ce d e n tir e ly by the e m p lo y e r .
E x clu d e d a r e le g a lly r e q u ir e d p la n s , such as w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n , s o c ia l
s e c u r it y , and r a ilr o a d r e tir e m e n t.
18 U n d u p lica ted to ta l o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s ick le a v e o r s ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n ce show n s e p a r a te ly b e lo w . S ick le a v e plans a r e
lim ite d to th o se w h ich d e fin ite ly e s t a b lis h at le a s t the m in im u m n u m b er o f d a y s ' pay that ea ch e m p lo y e e can e x p e c t.
In fo r m a l s ick le a v e
a llo w a n c e s d e te r m in e d on an in d iv id u a l b a s is a r e ex clu d e d .




2 2

Appendix A
A r e a w a g e and r e la t e d b e n e fit s data a r e o b ta in e d b y p e r s o n a l v is i t s o f B u r e a u fi e ld
r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s at 3 - y e a r in t e r v a ls . 1 In e a ch o f the in te r v e n in g y e a r s , in fo r m a t io n on e m p lo y m e n t
and o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s is c o l l e c t e d b y a c o m b in a tio n o f p e r s o n a l v is i t and m a il q u e s t io n n a ir e
fr o m e s t a b lis h m e n t s p a r t ic ip a t in g in th e p r e v io u s s u r v e y .
In e a c h o f the 9 4 2 a r e a s c u r r e n t ly s u r v e y e d , data a r e o b ta in e d f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t iv e
e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in s ix b r o a d in d u s tr y d i v is io n s : M a n u fa ctu r in g ; t r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n ,
and o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ; w h o le s a le t r a d e ; r e t a il t r a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; and
s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in d u s tr y g ro u p s e x c lu d e d f r o m t h e s e s tu d ie s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a t io n s and the
c o n s t r u c t io n and e x t r a c t iv e in d u s t r ie s . E s ta b lis h m e n t s h a v in g fe w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f
w o r k e r s a r e o m it t e d b e c a u s e o f in s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in th e o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d .
S e p a ra te
ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d f o r e a c h o f th e b r o a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s w h ic h m e e t p u b lic a t io n c r i t e r i a .
T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e co n d u c te d on a s a m p le b a s i s .
T h e sa m p lin g p r o c e d u r e s in v o lv e
d e t a ile d s t r a t ific a t io n o f a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ithin th e s c o p e o f an in d iv id u a l a r e a s u r v e y b y
in d u s tr y a n d n u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s . F r o m th is s t r a t i fie d u n iv e r s e a p r o b a b ilit y sa m p le is s e l e c t e d ,
w ith e a c h e s t a b lis h m e n t h a v in g a p r e d e t e r m in e d c h a n c e o f s e l e c t i o n . T o ob ta in o p tim u m a c c u r a c y
at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t io n o f la r g e than s m a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s is s e l e c t e d .
W hen
data a r e c o m b in e d , e a c h e s t a b lis h m e n t is w e ig h te d a c c o r d i n g t o its p r o b a b ilit y o f s e l e c t i o n , s o
that u n b ia se d e s t im a t e s a r e g e n e r a t e d . F o r e x a m p le , i f on e out o f f o u r e s t a b lis h m e n t s is s e l e c t e d ,
it is g iv en a w eig h t o f fo u r t o r e p r e s e n t it s e l f p lu s t h r e e o t h e r s .
An a lte r n a te o f the sa m e
o r ig in a l p r o b a b ilit y is c h o s e n in 'the s a m e i n d u s t r y - s iz e c l a s s i f ic a t i o n i f data a re not a v a ila b le
f o r th e o r ig in a l s a m p le m e m b e r .
If n o su ita b le su b stitu te is a v a ila b le , a d d itio n a l w eig h t is
a s s ig n e d t o a s a m p le m e m b e r that is s i m il a r t o the m is s in g unit.

A v e r a g e p a y l e v e l s f o r m e n and w o m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s sh ou ld n ot b e a s s u m e d
to r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y o f the s e x e s w ith in in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s .
F a c t o r s w h ich m a y
c o n t r ib u t e to d i f f e r e n c e s in c lu d e p r o g r e s s i o n w ith in e s t a b lis h e d r a te r a n g e s , s in c e on ly the r a t e s
p a id in cu m b e n ts a r e c o l le c t e d , and p e r f o r m a n c e o f s p e c i f i c d u tie s w ith in the g e n e r a l s u r v e y j o b
d e s crip tio n s .
J ob d e s c r i p t i o n s u s e d to c l a s s i f y e m p lo y e e s in t h e s e s u r v e y s u s u a lly a r e m o r e
g e n e r a li z e d than t h o se u se d in in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s and a llo w fo r m in o r d i f f e r e n c e s a m on g
e s t a b lis h m e n t s in s p e c i f i c d u tie s p e r fo r m e d .
O c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a t e s r e p r e s e n t the t o ta l in a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in the
s c o p e o f the stu d y and n ot the n u m b e r a c t u a lly s u r v e y e d .
B e c a u s e o c c u p a t io n a l s t r u c t u r e s a m on g
e s t a b lis h m e n t s d i f f e r , e s t im a t e s o f o c c u p a t io n a l
e m p lo y m e n t o b ta in e d f r o m the s a m p le o f
e s t a b lis h m e n t s stu d ie d s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a t e the r e la t iv e im p o r t a n c e o f the j o b s stu d ie d .
T h e se
d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t io n a l s t r u c t u r e d o n ot a f f e c t m a t e r ia lly the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n in g s da ta .
W age tr e n d s fo r

s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s

In d e x e s in ta b le A - 7 m e a s u r e w a g e s a t a g iv e n tim e , e x p r e s s e d a s a p e r c e n t o f w a g e s
d u rin g the b a s e p e r io d .
S u b tra ctin g 100 fr o m the in d e x y ie l d s the p e r c e n t ch a n g e in w a g e s f r o m
the b a s e p e r io d to th e d a te o f the in d e x .
T h e p e r c e n t s o f ch a n g e o r i n c r e a s e in t a b le s A - 7
and A -8 r e la t e to w a g e ch a n g e s b e t w e e n the in d ic a t e d d a t e s .
A n n u a l r a t e s o f in c r e a s e , w h e re
sh ow n , r e f l e c t the a m o u n t o f in c r e a s e fo r 12 m on th s w hen the t im e sp an b e tw e e n s u r v e y s w a s
o t h e r than 12 m o n th s .
T h e s e c o m p u t a t io n s a r e b a s e d on the a s s u m p t io n that w a g e s in c r e a s e d a t
a c o n s ta n t r a t e b e tw e e n s u r v e y s .

O c c u p a tio n s and E a rn in g s
O c c u p a tio n s s e l e c t e d f o r stud y a r e c o m m o n t o a v a r ie t y o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n o n ­
m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s t r ie s , and a r e o f the fo llo w in g t y p e s : (1 ) O ffic e c l e r i c a l ; (2 ) p r o f e s s io n a l and
t e c h n ic a l; (3 ) m a in te n a n ce and p o w e r p la n t; and (4 ) c u s t o d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t . O c c u p a tio n a l
c l a s s i f ic a t i o n i s b a s e d on a u n ifo r m se t o f jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s ig n e d t o ta k e a c c o u n t o f i n t e r ­
e s t a b lis h m e n t v a r ia t io n in d u ties w ithin th e s a m e j o b . O c c u p a t io n s s e l e c t e d f o r stu d y a r e li s t e d
and d e s c r i b e d in a p p en d ix B .
U n le s s o t h e r w is e in d ic a t e d , th e e a r n in g s data fo llo w in g the jo b
t it le s a r e f o r a ll in d u s t r ie s c o m b in e d .
E a r n in g s data f o r s o m e o f the o c c u p a t io n s li s t e d and
d e s c r i b e d , o r f o r s o m e in d u s tr y d i v is io n s w ith in o c c u p a t io n s , a r e not p r e s e n t e d in the A - s e r i e s
t a b l e s , b e c a u s e e it h e r (1 ) e m p lo y m e n t in the o c c u p a t io n is t o o s m a ll to p r o v id e en ou g h data t o
m e r i t p r e s e n t a t io n , o r (2 ) t h e r e i s p o s s ib i li t y o f d i s c l o s u r e o f in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t data.
E a rn in g s data n ot show n s e p a r a t e ly fo r in d u s tr y d i v is io n s a r e in c lu d e d in a ll in d u s t r ie s c o m b in e d
d a ta , w h e r e sh ow n .
L ik e w is e , data a r e in c lu d e d in th e o v e r a ll c l a s s i f ic a t i o n w hen a s u b ­
c l a s s i f ic a t i o n o f e l e c t r o n i c s t e c h n ic ia n s , s e c r e t a r i e s , o r t r u c k d r iv e r s is not show n o r in fo r m a t io n
t o s u b c l a s s i fy i s not a v a ila b le .

P e r c e n t s o f ch a n g e r e p o r t e d in t a b le s A - 7 and A - 8 r e f l e c t tw o d iff e r e n t m e a s u r e s o f
w age m ov em en t.
T a b le A - 7 p r o v id e s p e r c e n t s o f ch a n g e in a v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s o f o f f ic e
c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u s t r ia l n u r s e s and a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f s k ille d m a in te n a n ce and
u n s k ille d p la n t w o r k e r s in the a r e a .
T a b le A - 8 p r o v id e s p e r c e n t s o f ch a n g e in a v e r a g e h o u r ly
e a r n in g s f o r the sa m e o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s , a d ju s t e d to e x c lu d e the e f f e c t o f e m p lo y m e n t sh ifts .
T he m e th o d u s e d t o c o m p u te w a g e t r e n d s in ta b le A - 8 is b a s e d on ch a n g e s in a v e r a g e h o u r ly
e a r n in g s f o r e s t a b lis h m e n t s r e p o r t in g in d e x j o b s in b oth the c u r r e n t and p r e v io u s y e a r (m a tch e d
e s t a b lis h m e n t s ); e s t a b lis h m e n t e m p lo y m e n t in the j o b s w a s h e ld co n s ta n t.
D ata f o r the m a tc h e d
e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e w e ig h te d to r e p r e s e n t a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t s r e p o r t in g the j o b in the p r e v io u s y e a r .
M eth od




w age

tren d s.

O c c u p a t io n s

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s B
C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s e s A and B
C le r k s , f i l e , c l a s s e s A , B, and C
C le rk s , o rd e r
C le r k s , p a y r o l l
K ey p u n ch o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s e s A and B
M e s s e n g e r s ( o f f i c e b o y s and g ir ls )
S e c r e t a r ie s
S ten ogra p h ers, g en era l
S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n io r
S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s e s A and B
T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s B
T y p is t s , c l a s s e s A and B

T h e s e s u r v e y s m e a s u r e the le v e l o f o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s in an a r e a at a p a r t i c u l a r t im e .
C o m p a r is o n s o f in d iv id u a l o c c u p a t io n a l a v e r a g e s o v e r t im e m a y n ot r e f le c t e x p e c t e d w a g e ch a n g e s .
T h e a v e r a g e s f o r in d iv id u a l j o b s a r e a ffe c t e d b y ch a n g e s in w a g e s and e m p lo y m e n t p a t t e r n s . F o r
e x a m p le , p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d b y h ig h - o r lo w - w a g e f i r m s m a y ch a n g e , o r h ig h -w a g e
w o r k e r s m a y a d v a n c e to b e t te r j o b s and b e r e p la c e d b y new w o r k e r s at lo w e r r a t e s .
S uch
s h ift s in e m p lo y m e n t c o u ld d e c r e a s e an o c c u p a t io n a l a v e r a g e e v e n th ou g h m o s t e s t a b lis h m e n t s in
an a r e a i n c r e a s e w a g e s d u rin g the y e a r .
T r e n d s in e a r n in g s o f o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s , show n in
t a b le s A - 7 and A - 8, a r e b e t t e r in d ic a t o r s o f w a g e tr e n d s than in d iv id u a l j o b s w ith in th e g r o u p s .

1 Personal visits were on a 2-y ea r c y c le before July 1972.
2 Included in the 94 areas are 8 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas are Austin, T e x .; Binghamton, N .Y . —
P a .; Durham, N. C. ;*Fort Lauderdale—H ollywood and West Palm Beach, F la .; Huntsville, A l a .; Lexington, K y .; Melbourne—Titusville—C ocoa ,
F la .; and Poughkeepsie—Kingston—Newburgh, N .Y .
In addition, the Bureau conducts more lim ited area studies in approximately 70 areas
at the request o f die Employment Standards Administration o f the U. S. Department o f Labor.

co m p u tin g

O ffic e c l e r i c a l (m e n and w o m e n ):

O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a r n in g s data a r e sh ow n f o r fu l l- t im e w o r k e r s , i . e . , t h o s e
h i r e d t o w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d u le . E a r n in g s data e x c lu d e p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and
fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s . N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d , but c o s t o f - l i v i n g a llo w a n c e s and in c e n t iv e b o n u s e s a r e in c lu d e d .
W e e k ly h o u r s f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l and
p r o f e s s io n a l and t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a t io n s r e f e r t o th e sta n d a rd w o r k w e e k (r o u n d e d t o the n e a r e s t
h a lf h o u r ) f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e r e g u la r s t r a i g h t - t im e s a la r i e s ( e x c l u s i v e o f pay f o r
o v e r t im e at r e g u la r a n d / o r p r e m iu m r a t e s ) . A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s fo r t h e s e o c c u p a t io n s a r e
ro u n d e d t o the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .

A v e r a g e e a r n in g s r e f le c t c o m p o s i t e , a r e a w id e e s t i m a t e s . I n d u s t r ie s a n d e s t a b lis h m e n t s
d i f f e r in pay le v e l and j o b s t a ffin g , and thus c o n t r ib u t e d iff e r e n t ly t o the e s t im a t e s f o r e a c h j o b .
P s y a v e r a g e s m a y fa il t o r e f le c t a c c u r a t e l y th e w a g e d i ff e r e n t ia l a m on g j o b s in in d iv id u a l
e s t a b lis h m e n t s .

of

I n d e x e s f o r in d iv id u a l a r e a s in the p r o g r a m

u se d

to

co m p u te

w age

tren d s

are:

I n d u s tr ia l n u r s e s (m e n and w o m e n ):
N u r s e s , in d u s t r ia l ( r e g i s t e r e d )
S k ille d m a in te n a n ce (m e n ):
C a rp en ters
E le ctricia n s
M a c h in is t s
M e c h a n ic s
M e c h a n ic s (a u to m o tiv e )
P a in t e r s
P ip e fit t e r s
T o o l and d ie m a k e r s
U n sk ille d p la n t ( m e n ):
J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g
a r e co m p u te d a s f o l lo w s ;

1. E a ch o c c u p a t io n is a s s ig n e d a W eight b a s e d on it s p r o p o r t io n a t e e m p lo y m e n t in the
s e l e c t e d g r o u p o f o c c u p a t io n s in the b a s e y e a r .
2. T h e s e w e ig h ts a r e u s e d t o co m p u t e g r o u p a v e r a g e s .
E a ch o c c u p a t io n 's a v e r a g e
(m e a n ) e a r n in g s is m u lt ip lie d b y it s w e ig h t.
T h e p r o d u c t s a r e to ta le d to o b ta in a g ro u p a v e r a g e .
3. T h e r a t io o f g r o u p a v e r a g e s f o r 2 c o n s e c p t i v e y e a r s i s c o m p u te d b y d iv id in g the
a v e r a g e fo r the c u r r e n t y e a r b y the a v e r a g e f o r the e a r l i e r y e a r .
T he r e s u lt s — e x p r e s s e d a s a
p e r c e n t — l e s s 100 i s the p e r c e n t c h a n g e .
4. T h e c u r r e n t y e a r 's in d e x i s o b ta in e d b y m u ltip ly in g the p r e v io u s y e a r 's in d e x b y the
r a t io o f the c u r r e n t y e a r 's g r o u p a v e r a g e to the p r e v io u s y e a r 's g r o u p a v e r a g e .

23

L im it a t io n s o f d a ta . I n d e x e s and p e r c e n t s o f ch a n g e in a r e a a v e r a g e s , as p r e s e n t e d in
t a b le A - 7 , a r e in flu e n c e d b y (1 ) g e n e r a l s a la r y and w a g e c h a n g e s , (2) m e r i t o r o t h e r p a y in c r e a s e s
r e c e i v e d in th e s a m e j o b , (3 ) c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e w a g e s due t o la b o r t u r n o v e r , f o r c e e x p a n s io n s
o r r e d u c t i o n s , and (4 ) ch a n g e s r e s u lt in g w hen e s t a b lis h m e n t s e n t e r and le a v e th e a r e a .
O c c u p a t io n a l a v e r a g e s ca n i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e w ith ou t any a c tu a l ch a n g e in w a g e s . F o r e x a m p le ,
e v e n th ou g h a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t s g iv e w a g e i n c r e a s e s , a v e r a g e w a g e s m a y d e c lin e b e c a u s e lo w e r p a y in g e s t a b lis h m e n t s e n t e r th e a r e a o r ex p a n d t h e ir w o r k f o r c e s . S im i la r l y , w a g e s m a y r e m a in
r e l a t i v e ly c o n s t a n t , y e t a v e r a g e s r i s e b e c a u s e h i g h e r -p a y in g e s t a b lis h m e n t s e n t e r th e a r e a o r
e x p a n d t h e ir w o r k f o r c e . A s m e n t io n e d , da ta in t a b le A - 8 a r e a d ju s te d t o r e m o v e s o m e o f the
lim it a t io n s t o th e in fo r m a t io n in t a b le A - 7 , p a r t i c u l a r ly ch a n g e s re s u lt in g f r o m f o r c e e x p a n s io n s
o r r e d u c t io n s and f r o m th e a d d itio n o r d e le t io n o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s in th e s u r v e y s a m p le .
E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v is i o n s
T h e B - s e r i e s t a b le s p r o v id e in fo r m a t io n on e s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s a n d s u p p le m e n t a r y
w a g e p r o v is i o n s f o r pla n t and o f f i c e w o r k e r s . " P la n t w o r k e r s " in clu d e w o r k in g fo r e m e n and a ll
n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r s (in clu d in g le a d m e n and t r a in e e s ) e n g a g e d in n o n o ff ic e fu n c t io n s . C a fe t e r ia
w o r k e r s and ro u te m e n a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m m a n u fa c t u r in g , but in c lu d e d in n on m a n u fa ctu r in g
in d u s t r ie s . " O f f i c e w o r k e r s " in c lu d e w o r k in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g
c l e r i c a l o r r e la t e d fu n c t io n s . A d m in i s t r a t iv e , e x e c u t i v e , and p r o f e s s io n a l e m p l o y e e s a r e e x c lu d e d .
M in im u m e n t r a n c e s a la r i e s f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s r e la t e on ly t o th e e s t a b lis h m e n t s v is i t e d .
(S ee ta b le B - l . ) B e c a u s e o f th e o p tim u m s a m p lin g t e c h n iq u e s u s e d and th e p r o b a b ilit y that la r g e
e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e m o r e lik e ly than s m a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s t o h a v e fo r m a l e n t r a n c e r a t e s a b o v e th e
s u b c l e r i c a l le v e l , th e t a b le is m o r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f p o l i c i e s in m e d iu m and la r g e e s t a b lis h m e n t s .
S h ift d i ff e r e n t ia l data a r e li m it e d t o p la n t w o r k e r s in m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s t r ie s .
(See
t a b le B - 2 . ) T h is in fo r m a t io n is p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f (1 ) e s t a b lis h m e n t p o l i c y 3 f o r t o t a l plant
w o r k e r e m p lo y m e n t, and (2 ) e f f e c t iv e p r a c t ic e f o r w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d on th e s p e c i f i e d sh ift at th e
t im e o f the s u r v e y .
In e s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g v a r ie d d iff e r e n t ia l s , th e a m ou n t a p p ly in g t o a
m a jo r it y i s u s e d ; i f n o a m ou n t a p p lie s t o a m a jo r it y , th e c l a s s i f ic a t i o n " o t h e r " is u s e d .
In
e s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g s o m e l a t e - s h if t h o u r s p a id at n o r m a l r a t e s , a d i ff e r e n c e i s r e c o r d e d on ly
i f it a p p lie s t o a m a jo r it y o f the sh ift h o u r s . A s e c o n d (e v e n in g ) sh ift e n d s w o r k at o r n e a r
m id n ig h t.
A t h ir d (n ig h t) s h ift s t a r t s w o r k at o r n e a r m id n ig h t.
T h e s c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s and d a y s o f a m a jo r it y o f th e f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s in an
e s t a b lis h m e n t a r e ta b u la te d a s a p p ly in g t o a ll pla n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s o f that e s t a b lis h m e n t . (S ee
t a b le B - 3 . ) S c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s and d a y s a r e t h o s e w h ic h a m a jo r it y o f f u l l- t im e e m p lo y e e s
a r e e x p e c t e d t o w o r k f o r s t r a i g h t - t im e o r o v e r t i m e r a t e s .
P a id h o l id a y s ; p a id v a c a t i o n s ; a n d h e a lt h , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s a r e t r e a t e d
s t a t is t i c a ll y a s a p p ly in g t o a ll pla n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s i f a m a jo r it y o f s u c h w o r k e r s a r e e li g ib le
o r m a y e v e n t u a lly q u a lify f o r th e p r a c t i c e s li s t e d .
(S ee t a b le s B - 4 th ro u g h B - 6 . ) S u m s o f
in d iv id u a l it e m s in t a b le s B - 2 t h ro u g h B - 5 m a y n ot e q u a l t o t a ls b e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g .

T h e s u m m a r y o f v a c a t io n p la n s i s a s t a t is t i c a l m e a s u r e o f v a c a t io n p r o v is i o n s r a th e r than
a m e a s u r e o f th e p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s a c t u a lly r e c e iv in g s p e c i f i c b e n e fit s .
(S ee ta b le B - 5 )
P r o v i s i o n s a p p ly t o a ll pla n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s in an e s t a b lis h m e n t r e g a r d le s s o f len g th o f s e r v i c e .
P a y m e n ts on o t h e r than a tim e b a s is a r e c o n v e r t e d t o a t im e p e r io d ; f o r e x a m p le , 2 p e r c e n t o f
annual e a r n in g s a r e c o n s id e r e d e q u iv a le n t t o 1 w e e k 's p a y .
O n ly b a s i c p la n s a r e in c lu d e d .
E s tim a t e s e x c lu d e v a c a t io n b o n u s e s , v a c a t i o n -s a v in g s p la n s , and " e x t e n d e d " o r " s a b b a t ic a l "
b e n e fit s b e y o n d b a s i c p la n s .
S u ch p r o v is i o n s a r e t y p i c a l in th e s t e e l , a lu m in u m , and can
in d u s t r ie s .

H ea lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s f o r w h ic h th e e m p l o y e r p a y s at le a s t a p a r t o f
the c o s t in c lu d e t h o s e (1 ) u n d e rw ritte n b y a c o m m e r c i a l in s u r a n c e c o m p a n y o r n o n p r o fit
o r g a n iz a t io n , (2 ) p r o v id e d t h ro u g h a union fu n d , o r (3 ) p a id d i r e c t ly b y th e e m p lo y e r out o f
c u r r e n t o p e r a t in g funds o r f r o m a fund s e t a s id e f o r t h is p u r p o s e .
(S ee ta b le B - 6 . ) An
e s t a b lis h m e n t is c o n s id e r e d t o h a ve su c h a p la n i f the m a jo r it y o f e m p l o y e e s a r e c o v e r e d e v en
though l e s s than a m a jo r it y p a r t ic ip a t e u n d e r th e pla n b e c a u s e e m p l o y e e s a r e r e q u ir e d to
co n t r ib u t e t o w a r d th e c o s t . E x c lu d e d a r e le g a lly r e q u ir e d p la n s , s u c h a s w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a t io n ,
s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , and r a il r o a d r e t ir e m e n t .

S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e i s li m it e d t o that ty p e o f in s u r a n c e u n d e r w h ic h p r e ­
d e t e r m in e d c a s h p a y m e n ts a r e m a d e d i r e c t ly t o th e in s u r e d d u rin g t e m p o r a r y il ln e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ilit y .
I n fo r m a t io n i s p r e s e n t e d f o r a ll s u c h p la n s t o w h ic h th e e m p l o y e r c o n t r ib u t e s .
H o w e v e r , in N ew Y o r k and N ew J e r s e y , w h ic h h a ve e n a c t e d t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e la w s
r e q u ir in g e m p l o y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s ,4 p la n s a r e in c lu d e d o n ly i f th e e m p l o y e r (1 ) c o n t r ib u t e s m o r e
than i s le g a lly r e q u i r e d , o r (2 ) p r o v id e s the e m p lo y e e w ith b e n e fit s w h ic h e x c e e d th e r e q u ir e m e n t s
o f th e la w . T a b u la tio n s o f p a id s ic k le a v e p la n s a r e lim it e d t o f o r m a l p l a n s 5 w h ic h p r o v id e fu ll
p a y o r a p r o p o r t io n o f th e w o r k e r 's p a y d u rin g a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k b e c a u s e o f i l l n e s s . S e p a ra te
ta b u la tio n s a r e p r e s e n t e d a c c o r d i n g t o (1 ) p la n s w h ic h p r o v id e fu ll p a y and n o w a itin g p e r io d ,
and (2 ) p la n s w h ic h p r o v id e e it h e r p a r t ia l p a y o r a w a itin g p e r io d . In a d d itio n t o th e p r e s e n t a t io n
o f p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r p a id s ic k le a v e , an
u n d u p lica te d t o t a l is sh ow n o f w o r k e r s w h o r e c e i v e e it h e r o r b o th ty p e s o f b e n e fit s .
L o n g t e r m d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e p la n s p r o v id e p a y m e n ts t o t o t a lly d is a b le d e m p lo y e e s upon
th e e x p ir a t io n o f t h e ir p a id s ic k le a v e a n d /o r s ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e , o r a fter*, a
p r e d e t e r m in e d p e r io d o f d is a b ilit y (t y p ic a lly 6 m o n t h s ). P a y m e n ts a r e m a d e u n til th e en d o f the
d i s a b ilit y , a m a x im u m a g e , o r e li g ib il it y f o r r e t ir e m e n t b e n e fit s . F u ll o r p a r t ia l p a y m e n ts a r e
a lm o s t a lw a y s r e d u c e d b y s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a t io n , and p r iv a t e p e n s io n s b e n e fit s
p a y a b le t o th e d is a b le d e m p lo y e e .

D ata on p a id h o lid a y s a r e lim it e d t o h o lid a y s g r a n t e d a n n u ally on a f o r m a l b a s i s , w h ic h (1 )
a r e p r o v id e d f o r in w r it te n f o r m , o r (2 ) a r e e s t a b lis h e d b y c u s t o m . (S ee ta b le B - 4 . ) H o lid a y s
o r d in a r i ly g r a n t e d a r e in c lu d e d e v e n th ou g h th e y m a y f a ll on a n o n w o rk d a y and th e w o r k e r is not
g r a n t e d a n o th e r day o ff . T h e f i r s t p a rt o f th e p a id h o lid a y s ta b le p r e s e n t s the n u m b e r o f w h o le
and h a lf h o lid a y s a c t u a lly g ra n te d .
T h e s e c o n d p a rt c o m b in e s w h o le and h a lf h o lid a y s t o show
t o ta l h o lid a y t im e .
T a b le B - 4 a r e p o r t s th e in c id e n c e o f th e m o s t c o m m o n p a id h o lid a y s .

M a jo r m e d i c a l in s u r a n c e p la n s p r o t e c t e m p lo y e e s f r o m s ic k n e s s and in ju r y e x p e n s e s
b e y o n d th e c o v e r a g e o f b a s i c h o s p it a liz a t io n , m e d i c a l , and s u r g i c a l p la n s . T y p ic a l fe a t u r e s o f
m a jo r m e d i c a l p la n s a r e (1 ) a " d e d u c t i b l e " ( e . g . , $ 5 0 ) p a id b y th e in s u r e d b e f o r e b e n e fit s
b e g in ; (2 ) a c o in s u r a n c e fe a t u r e r e q u ir in g th e in s u r e d t o p a y a p o r t io n (e .g . 20 p e r c e n t ) o f
c e r t a in e x p e n s e s ; and (3 ) s ta te d d o l la r m a x im u m b e n e fit s ( e . g . , $ 1 0 ,0 0 0 a y e a r ) .
M e d ic a l
in s u r a n c e p r o v id e s c o m p le t e o r p a r t ia l p a y m en t o f d o c t o r s ' f e e s . D en ta l in s u r a n c e u su a lly c o v e r s
f i ll in g s , e x t r a c t io n s , and X - r a y s . E x c lu d e d a r e p la n s w h ic h c o v e r o n ly o r a l s u r g e r y o r a c c id e n t
dam age.
R e t ir e m e n t p e n s io n p la n s p r o v id e p a y m e n ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f th e w o r k e r 's li fe .

3 A n establishment was considered as having a p o licy if it met either o f the following conditions: (1) d e r a t e d late shifts at the tim e
o f the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts. An establishment was considered as having formal provisions if it ( l)h a d
operated late shifts during the 12 months before the survey, or (2 ) had provisions in written form to operate late shifts.

4 The temporaiy disability laws in C alifornia and Rhode Island do not require em ployer contributions.
5 A n establishment is considered as having a formal plan if it established at least the minim um number o f days sick leave available
each em ployee.
Such a plan need not be written; but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis, are excluded.




Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Richmond, Va.,1
by major industry division,2 March 1974
N u m b er o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts

In d u s try d iv is io n

M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l is h ­
m en ts in s c o p e
o f stu d y

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
W ith in s c o p e o f stu d y

W ith in s c o p e
o f stu d y *

Studied
T o t a l4

S tudied

P la n t
N u m b er'

O ffic e

P ercen t

T o t a l4

A l l d i v is i o n s ___________________________________

-

524

162

1 1 3 ,1 1 7

100

6 6 , 185

2 2 ,2 3 5

7 4 .2 6 9

M a n u fa ctu r in g ______________________________ ____ ____
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ................................. ..........................
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and
o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s 5 _____ __________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e . ....... .................................................
R e t a il t r a d e ______
______________________ ____
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ................
S e r v i c e s 8 ________________________________________

50
-

148
376

59
103

4 6 ,8 9 9
6 6 ,2 1 8

41
59

3 3 ,2 9 1
3 2 .8 9 4

4 ,7 9 7
1 7 ,4 3 8

3 6 ,0 5 7
3 8 ,2 1 2

50
50
50
50
50

46
75
126
69
60

16
16
24

1 4 ,0 4 0
7 ,4 1 2
2 3 ,4 5 7
1 3 , 111
8 , 198

12

7. 326

21

26

7

(? )
(‘ )
n
<‘ )

21
12

7

2 .9 6 6
(‘ )
(‘ )
(‘ )
<‘ )

1 0 ,4 5 2
2 , 934
1 1 ,8 3 4
8 ,6 8 2
4 ,3 1 0

1 T h e R ic h m o n d S ta n da rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a tis t ic a l A r e a , a s d e fin e d b y th e O ffic e o f M a n a g em en t and B u d get th rou g h N o v e m b e r 1 972, c o n s is t s o f the c it y o f R ic h m o n d ; and the c o u n tie s o f
C h e s t e r fie ld , H a n o v e r , and H e n r ic o . T h e " w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s tu d y " e s t im a t e s show n in th is ta b le p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s i z e and c o m p o s it io n o f the la b o r f o r c e
in clu d e d in the s u r v e y .
E s tim a t e s a r e not in te n d e d , h o w e v e r , fo r c o m p a r is o n w ith o th e r e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t tr e n d s o r le v e l s s in c e (1 ) p la n n in g o f w ag e s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s
e s t a b lis h m e n t data c o m p il e d c o n s id e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f the p a y r o l l p e r io d s tu d ie d , and (2) s m a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1967 e d it io n o f the Sta n da rd In d u s t r ia l C l a s s if ic a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d to c l a s s i f y e s t a b lis h m e n t s b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n .
3 In clu d e s a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith t o t a l e m p lo y m e n t at o r a b o v e the m in im u m lim it a t io n . A l l o u tle ts (w ith in the a r e a ) o f c o m p a n ie s in in d u s t r ie s su c h a s t r a d e , f i n a n c e , . auto r e p a ir s e r v i c e ,
and m o t io n p ic t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s id e r e d a s 1 e s t a b lis h m e n t .
4 I n clu d e s e x e c u t iv e , p r o f e s s io n a l, a n d o th e r w o r k e r s e x c lu d e d f r o m the s e p a r a t e p la n t and o f f i c e c a t e g o r i e s .
5 A b b r e v ia t e d t o " p u b lic u t il it i e s " in the A - and B - s e r i e s t a b l e s .
T a x ic a b s and s e r v i c e s in c id e n t a l to w a te r t r a n s p o r t a t io n w e r e e x c lu d e d .
R i c h m o n d 's g a s u tilit y is m u n ic ip a lly o p e r a te d
and is e x c lu d e d b y d e fin itio n f r o m the s c o p e o f the stu d y.
6 T h is d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t im a t e s f o r " a ll in d u s t r ie s " and " n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g " in the A - s e r i e s t a b l e s , and fo r " a l l i n d u s t r ie s " in the B - s e r i e s t a b le s . S e p a ra te p r e s e n t a t io n o f
data is not m a d e f o r on e o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s : (1 ) E m p lo y m e n t is t o o s m a ll to p r o v id e en ou g h data to m e r i t s e p a r a t e stu d y , (2 ) th e sa m p le w as n ot d e s ig n e d in it ia lly to p e r m it
s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n , (3) r e s p o n s e w as in s u ffic ie n t o r in a d eq u a te
to p e r m it s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n , and (4) th e r e is p o s s ib i li t y o f d i s c lo s u r e o f in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t da ta .
7 W o r k e r s f r o m th is e n t ir e d iv is io n a r e r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t im a t e s fo r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and " n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g " in the A - s e r i e s t a b l e s , but f r o m the r e a l e s t a t e p o r t io n o n ly in e s t im a t e s fo r
" a ll in d u s t r ie s " in th e B - s e r i e s t a b le s .
S e p a ra te p r e s e n t a t io n o f data is not m a d e f o r on e o r m o r e o f the r e a s o n s g iv e n in fo o t n o t e 6.
8 H o te ls and m o t e ls ; la u n d r ie s and o th e r p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b ile r e p a i r , r e n t a l, and p a r k in g ; m o t io n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a t io n s (e x clu d in g
r e l ig i o u s and c h a r it a b le o r g a n iz a t io n s ); and e n g in e e r in g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .

I n d u s tria l c o m p o s it io n in m a n u fa ctu rin g

L a b o r -m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n t c o v e r a g e

O v e r t w o -fi ft h s o f the w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f the s u r v e y in the R ic h m o n d a r e a
w e r e e m p lo y e d in m a n u fa ctu rin g f i r m s .
T h e fo llo w in g p r e s e n t s the m a jo r in d u s tr y g r o u p s
and s p e c i f i c in d u s t r ie s a s a p e r c e n t o f a ll m a n u fa c tu r in g :
In d u s try g ro u p s

S p e c if ic in d u s t r ie s

T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s __________ 22
C h e m ic a ls and sillied p r o d u c t s .. 20
P r i m a r y m e t a l in d u s t r i e s _____ 10
P a p e r and a ll ie d p r o d u c t s _____
9
A p p a r e l and o th e r t e x t ile
p r o d u c t s _________________________ 8
F o o d and k in d r e d p r o d u c t s _____ 7
P r in tin g and p u b lis h in g _________
7

T h e fo llo w in g ta b u la tio n sh ow s the p e r c e n t o f pla n t and o f f i c e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in
e s t a b lis h m e n t s in w h ic h a c o n t r a c t o r c o n t r a c t s c o v e r e d a m a jo r it y o f the w o r k e r s in the
r e s p e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s , R ic h m o n d , V a ., M a r c h 1974:

C i g a r e t t e s ..................
18
P la s t i c s m a t e r ia ls and
s y n t h e t ic s _______________________ 17
N o n fe r r o u s r o llin g and
d r a w i n g __________________________ 9

P la n t w o r k e r s
A l l in d u s t r ie s _____________
M a n u fa ctu r in g . __
P u b lic u t il it i e s _________________

14
7
90

A n e s t a b lis h m e n t is c o n s id e r e d to h a v e a c o n t r a c t c o v e r i n g a ll plant o r o f f ic e
w o r k e r s i f a m a jo r it y o f s u c h w o r k e r s a r e c o v e r e d b y a la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n t .
T h e r e f o r e , a ll o th e r plant o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s a r e e m p lo y e d in e s t a b lis h m e n t s that e ith e r do
not h a ve la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t c o n t r a c t s in e f f e c t , o r h a ve c o n t r a c t s that a p p ly t o fe w e r tharf
h a lf o f t h e ir pla n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s .
E s tim a t e s a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n ta t iv e o f the
ex ten t to w h ic h a ll w o r k e r s in the a r e a m a y b e c o v e r e d b y th e p r o v is i o n s o f la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t
a g r e e m e n t s , b e c a u s e s m a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e e x c lu d e d and th e in d u s t r ia l s c o p e o f the
s u r v e y is lim it e d .

T h is in fo r m a t io n is b a s e d on e s t im a t e s o f t o t a l e m p lo y m e n t d e r iv e d f r o m u n iv e r s e
m a t e r ia ls c o m p il e d b e f o r e a ctu a l survey*.
P r o p o r t io n s in v a r io u s in d u s tr y d iv is io n s m a y
d i ff e r f r o m p r o p o r t io n s b a s e d on the r e s u lt s o f the s u r v e y a s sh ow n in the a p p e n d ix t a b le .




O ffi c e w o r k e r s

50
76
87

25

Appendix B. Occupational Descriptions
T h e p r im a r y p u r p o s e o f p r e p a r in g j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r the B u r e a u 's w ag e s u r v e y s is t o a s s i s t its fie ld s t a ff in c la s s i fy in g in to a p p r o p r ia t e
o c c u p a t io n s w o r k e r s w ho a r e e m p lo y e d u n d er a v a r ie t y o f p a y r o ll t it le s and d iffe r e n t w o r k a r r a n g e m e n t s f r o m e s t a b lis h m e n t to e s t a b lis h m e n t and
f r o m a r e a to a r e a .
T h is p e r m it s th e g ro u p in g o f o c c u p a t io n a l w ag e r a t e s r e p r e s e n t in g c o m p a r a b le j o b c o n te n t.
B e c a u s e o f th is e m p h a s is on
in te r e s t a b lis h m e n t and in t e r a r e a c o m p a r a b ilit y o f o c c u p a t io n a l c o n te n t, th e B u r e a u 's jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s m a y d i f f e r s ig n ific a n t ly f r o m t h o s e in u s e in
in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s o r th o s e p r e p a r e d fo r o t h e r p u r p o s e s .
In a p p ly in g t h e s e jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s , th e B u r e a u 's fie ld e c o n o m i s t s a r e in s t r u c t e d
to e x c lu d e w o rk in g s u p e r v i s o r s ; a p p r e n t ic e s ; le a r n e r s ; b e g in n e r s ; t r a in e e s ; and h a n d ica p p e d , p a r t - t im e , t e m p o r a r y , and p r o b a t io n a r y w o r k e r s .

OFFICE
B I L L E R , M A C H IN E

C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G — C on tin u ed
P o s it i o n s a r e c l a s s i f i e d in to le v e l s on the b a s is o f the fo llo w in g d e fin it io n s .

P r e p a r e s s t a t e m e n t s , b i l l s , and in v o i c e s on a m a c h in e o th e r than an o r d in a r y o r e l e c t r o m a t ic t y p e w r i t e r .
M a y a ls o k e e p r e c o r d s as to b illin g s o r sh ipp in g c h a r g e s o r p e r f o r m o th e r
c l e r i c a l w o r k in c id e n t a l t o b illin g o p e r a t i o n s . F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , b i l l e r s , m a c h in e , a r e
c l a s s i f i e d b y ty p e o f m a c h in e , a s fo l lo w s :

C l a s s A . U n d er g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n , p e r f o r m s a c c o u n tin g c l e r i c a l o p e r a t io n s w h ic h
r e q u ir e the a p p lic a t io n o f e x p e r ie n c e and ju d g m e n t, f o r e x a m p le , c l e r i c a l l y p r o c e s s in g c o m ­
p lic a t e d o r n o n r e p e t it iv e a cco u n tin g t r a n s a c t io n s , s e le c t in g a m on g a s u b sta n tia l v a r ie t y o f
p r e s c r i b e d a cco u n tin g c o d e s and c l a s s i f ic a t i o n s , o r t r a c i n g t r a n s a c t io n s th rou g h p r e v io u s
a c c o u n tin g a c t io n s to d e t e r m in e s o u r c e o f d i s c r e p a n c i e s .
M a y b e a s s i s t e d b y one o r m o r e
c l a s s B a cco u n tin g c l e r k s .

B i l l e r , m a c h in e (b illin g m a c h in e ). U s e s a s p e c i a l b illin g m a c h in e (c o m b in a t io n typin g
a nd a ddin g m a c h in e ) to p r e p a r e b il ls and in v o i c e s fr o m c u s t o m e r s ' p u r c h a s e o r d e r s , i n t e r ­
n a lly p r e p a r e d o r d e r s , sh ip p in g m e m o r a n d u m s , e t c .
U s u a lly in v o lv e s a p p lic a t io n o f p r e ­
d e t e r m in e d d is c o u n t s and sh ip p in g c h a r g e s and e n t r y o f n e c e s s a r y e x t e n s io n s , w h ich m a y o r
m a y not b e c o m p u t e d on the b illin g m a c h in e , and t o t a ls w h ich a r e a u t o m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la te d
b y m a c h in e . T h e o p e r a t io n u s u a lly in v o lv e s a la r g e n u m b e r o f c a r b o n c o p ie s o f the b il l b ein g
p r e p a r e d and is o ft e n d on e on a fa n fo ld m a c h in e .
B i l l e r , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e ).
U s e s a b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e (w ith o r w ithout
a t y p e w r i t e r k e y b o a r d ) to p r e p a r e c u s t o m e r s ' b il ls a s p a rt o f the a c c o u n ts r e c e iv a b l e o p e r a ­
t io n . G e n e r a lly in v o lv e s the sim u lta n e o u s e n try o f fig u r e s on c u s t o m e r s ' le d g e r r e c o r d . T h e
m a c h in e a u t o m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la te s fig u r e s on a n u m b e r o f v e r t i c a l c o lu m n s and co m p u t e s
and u s u a lly p r in t s a u t o m a t ic a lly th e d e b it o r c r e d i t b a la n c e s .
D o e s not in v o lv e a k n o w l­
e d g e o f b o o k k e e p in g .
W o rk s f r o m u n ifo r m and sta n d a rd ty p e s o f s a le s and c r e d i t s l ip s .

C la s s B . U n d er c l o s e s u p e r v is io n , fo llo w in g d e t a ile d in s t r u c t io n s and s t a n d a r d iz e d p r o ­
c e d u r e s , p e r f o r m s on e o r m o r e ro u tin e a cco u n tin g c l e r i c a l o p e r a t i o n s , s u c h as p o s t in g to
le d g e r s , c a r d s , o r w o r k s h e e t s w h e r e id e n t ific a t io n o f it e m s and lo c a t io n s o f p o s t in g s a r e
c l e a r l y in d ic a t e d ; ch e c k in g a c c u r a c y and c o m p le t e n e s s o f s t a n d a r d iz e d and r e p e t it iv e r e c o r d s
o r a c c o u n tin g d o c u m e n t s ; and co d in g d o c u m e n t s u sin g a fe w p r e s c r i b e d a cco u n tin g c o d e s .
C L E R K , F IL E
F i l e s , c l a s s i f i e s , and r e t r ie v e s m a t e r ia l in an e s t a b lis h e d filin g s y s t e m . M ay p e r f o r m
c l e r i c a l and m a n u a l t a s k s r e q u ir e d t o m a in ta in f i l e s . P o s it io n s a r e c l a s s i f i e d in to le v e l s on the
b a s is o f th e fo llo w in g d e f in it io n s .
C la s s A . C l a s s if ie s and in d e x e s fi le m a t e r ia l s u c h as c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , r e p o r t s , t e c h ­
n ic a l d o c u m e n t s , e t c . , in an e s t a b lis h e d filin g s y s t e m c o n ta in in g a n u m b e r o f v a r ie d s u b je c t
m a tt e r f i l e s . M a y a ls o f i le th is m a t e r ia l. M a y k e e p r e c o r d s o f v a r io u s t y p e s in co n ju n c tio n
w ith th e f i l e s .
M a y le a d a s m a ll g ro u p o f lo w e r le v e l f i l e c l e r k s .

B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
O p e r a t e s a b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e (w ith o r w ith ou t a t y p e w r it e r k e y b o a r d ) t o k e e p a r e c o r d
o f b u s in e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s .

C la s s B . S o r t s , c o d e s , and f i l e s
in gs o r p a r t ly c l a s s i f i e d m a t e r ia l b y
c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e a id s . A s r e q u e s t e d ,
w a r d s m a t e r ia l. M a y p e r f o r m r e la t e d

C la s s A .
K e e p s a s e t o f r e c o r d s r e q u ir in g a k n ow led g e o f and e x p e r ie n c e in b a s ic
b o o k k e e p in g p r i n c i p l e s , and f a m il ia r i t y w ith the s t r u c t u r e o f th e p a r t ic u la r a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m
u s e d . D e t e r m in e s p r o p e r r e c o r d s and d is t r ib u t io n o f d e b it and c r e d i t it e m s t o be u s e d in e a ch
p h a se o f the w o r k .
M a y p r e p a r e c o n s o lid a t e d r e p o r t s , b a la n c e s h e e t s , and o t h e r r e c o r d s
b y hand.
C la s s B .
K e e p s a r e c o r d o f on e o r m o r e p h a s e s o r s e c t io n s o f a se t o f r e c o r d s u su a lly
r e q u ir in g lit t le k n o w le d g e o f b a s ic b o o k k e e p in g . P h a s e s o r s e c t io n s in c lu d e a c c o u n ts p a y a b le ,
p a y r o l l, c u s t o m e r s ' a c c o u n ts (n ot in clu d in g a s im p le ty p e o f b illin g d e s c r i b e d u n d er b il le r ,
m a c h in e ), c o s t d is t r ib u t io n , e x p e n s e d is t r ib u t io n , in v e n t o r y c o n t r o l, e t c . M a y c h e c k o r a s s i s t
in p r e p a r a t io n o f t r i a l b a la n c e s and p r e p a r e c o n t r o l sh eets fo r the a cco u n tin g d e p a r tm e n t.
C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G
P e r f o r m s on e o r m o r e a c c o u n tin g c l e r i c a l ta s k s su c h as p o s tin g to r e g i s t e r s and le d g e r s ;
r e c o n c i li n g bank a c c o u n ts ; v e r ify in g th e in te r n a l c o n s is t e n c y , c o m p le t e n e s s , and m a th e m a t ic a l
a c c u r a c y o f a c c o u n tin g d o c u m e n t s ; a s s ig n in g p r e s c r i b e d a cco u n tin g d i s t r ib u t io n c o d e s ; e x a m in in g
and v e r i fy in g fo r c l e r i c a l a c c u r a c y v a r io u s t y p e s o f r e p o r t s , li s t s , c a lc u la t io n s , p o s t in g , e t c .;
o r p r e p a r in g s im p le o r a s s is t in g in p r e p a r in g m o r e c o m p lic a t e d jo u r n a l v o u c h e r s .
M ay w o rk
in e it h e r a m a n u a l o r a u to m a te d a cco u n tin g s y s t e m .
T h e w o r k r e q u i r e s a k n o w le d g e o f c l e r i c a l m e th o d s and o f f i c e p r a c t ic e s and p r o c e d u r e s
w h ic h r e l a t e s to th e c l e r i c a l p r o c e s s in g and r e c o r d in g o f t r a n s a c t io n s and a c c o u n tin g in fo r m a t io n .
W ith e x p e r ie n c e , th e w o r k e r t y p i c a ll y b e c o m e s fa m il ia r w ith th e b o o k k e e p in g and a cco u n tin g t e r m s
and p r o c e d u r e s u s e d in th e a s s ig n e d w o r k , but is not r e q u ir e d to h a ve a k n o w le d g e o f the fo r m a l
p r in c ip le s o f b o o k k e e p in g and a c c o u n tin g .




u n c la s s i fi e d m a t e r ia l b y s im p le (s u b je c t m a tt e r ) h e a d ­
fin e r s u b h e a d in g s . P r e p a r e s s im p le r e la t e d in d e x and
lo c a t e s c l e a r l y id e n t ifie d m a t e r ia l in f i le s and f o r ­
c l e r i c a l t a s k s r e q u i r e d to m a in ta in and s e r v i c e f i l e s .

C la s s C . P e r f o r m s r o u tin e filin g o f m a t e r ia l that ha s a lr e a d y b e e n c l a s s i f i e d o r w h ich
is e a s il y c l a s s i f i e d in a s im p le s e r ia l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m ( e . g . , a lp h a b e t ic a l, c h r o n o lo g i c a l,
o r n u m e r i c a l) . A s r e q u e s t e d , lo c a t e s r e a d ily a v a ila b le m a t e r ia l in f i l e s and fo r w a r d s m a ­
t e r i a l ; and m a y f i l l ou t w ith d ra w a l c h a r g e . M a y p e r f o r m s im p le c l e r i c a l and m a n u a l t a s k s
r e q u i r e d t o m a in ta in and s e r v i c e f i l e s .
C L E R K , ORDER
R e c e iv e s c u s t o m e r s ' o r d e r s fo r m a t e r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e by m a il , p h o n e , o r p e r s o n a ll y .
D u ties in v o lv e any c o m b in a t io n o f the fo l lo w i n g : Q u otin g p r i c e s to c u s t o m e r s ; m a k in g out an o r d e r
sh e e t lis t in g the it e m s to m a k e up th e o r d e r ; c h e c k in g p r i c e s and q u a n tities o f it e m s on o r d e r
s h e e t; and d is t r ib u t in g o r d e r s h e e t s to r e s p e c t i v e d e p a r t m e n t s to be f i ll e d . M a y c h e c k w ith c r e d i t
d e p a r tm e n t to d e t e r m in e c r e d i t ra tin g o ( c u s t o m e r , a ck n o w le d g e r e c e ip t o f o r d e r s fr o m c u s t o m e r s ,
fo l lo w up o r d e r s to s e e that th e y h a ve b e e n f i ll e d , k e e p fi le o f o r d e r s r e c e iv e d , and c h e c k sh ip p in g
in v o i c e s w ith o r ig in a l o r d e r s .
CLERK, PAYROLL
C o m p u te s w a g e s o f co m p a n y e m p lo y e e s and e n t e r s th e n e c e s s a r y da ta on the p a y r o l l
s h e e t s . D u ties in v o lv e : C a lc u la tin g w o r k e r s ' e a r n in g s b a s e d on t im e o r p r o d u c t io n r e c o r d s ; and
p o s tin g c a lc u la t e d data on p a y r o l l sh e e t, sh ow in g in fo r m a t io n su ch a s w o r k e r 's n a m e , w o rk in g
d a y s , t im e , r a t e , d e d u c t io n s f o r in s u r a n c e , and to t a l w a g e s d u e. M a y m a k e ou t p a y c h e c k s and
a s s i s t p a y m a s t e r in m a k in g up and d is t r ib u t in g p a y e n v e lo p e s .
M a y u s e a c a lc u la t in g m a c h in e .

26

KEYPUNCH O PE RATO R

S E C R E T A R Y — C on tin u ed

O p e r a t e s a k ey p u n ch
t a b u la tin g c a r d s o r on ta p e .

m a c h in e

to r e c o r d

o r v e r ify

a lp h a b e t ic

a n d /o r n u m e r ic

data on

P o s it io n s a r e c l a s s i f i e d in to le v e l s on the b a s is o f th e fo llo w in g d e fin it io n s .
C la s s A . W ork r e q u i r e s th e a p p lic a t io n o f e x p e r ie n c e and ju d g m e n t in s e le c t in g p r o c e ­
d u r e s to b e fo llo w e d and in s e a r c h in g f o r , in te r p r e t in g , s e l e c t i n g , o r co d in g it e m s to be
k e y p u n ch e d f r o m a v a r ie t y o f s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s . On o c c a s ig n m a y a ls o p e r f o r m s o m e ro u tin e
k e y p u n ch w o r k .
M ay t r a in in e x p e r ie n c e d k ey p u n ch o p e r a t o r s .

N O T E : T h e t e r m " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r , " u s e d in the le v e l d e fin itio n s fo llo w in g , r e f e r s to
t h o s e o f f i c i a l s w ho h a v e a s ig n ific a n t c o r p o r a t e - w i d e p o lic y m a k in g r o l e w ith r e g a r d to m a jo r
c o m p a n y a c t iv i t ie s . T h e t it le " v i c e p r e s i d e n t , " though n o r m a lly in d ic a t iv e o f th is r o l e , d o e s not
in a ll c a s e s id e n tify s u c h p o s it i o n s . V ic e p r e s id e n t s w h o se p r im a r y r e s p o n s ib ilit y is to a c t p e r ­
s o n a lly on in d iv id u a l c a s e s o r t r a n s a c t io n s ( e . g . , a p p r o v e o r den y in d iv id u a l loa n o r c r e d i t a c t io n s ;
a d m in is t e r in d iv id u a l t r u s t a c c o u n ts ; d i r e c t l y s u p e r v is e a c l e r i c a l s t a ff) a r e not c o n s id e r e d t o be
" c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r s " f o r p u r p o s e s o f a p p ly in g the fo llo w in g le v e l d e f in it io n s .
C la s s A

a ll ,
C la s s B . W ork is ro u tin e and r e p e t it iv e . U n der c l o s e s u p e r v is io n o r fo llo w in g s p e c i f ic
p r o c e d u r e s o r in s t r u c t io n s , w o r k s f r o m v a r io u s s t a n d a r d iz e d s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s w h ic h h a ve
b e e n c o d e d , and fo llo w s s p e c i f ie d p r o c e d u r e s w h ich h a ve b een p r e s c r i b e d in d e t a il and r e q u ir e
lit t le o r no s e l e c t i n g , c o d in g , o r in te r p r e t in g o f data to be r e c o r d e d . R e f e r s to s u p e r v is o r
p r o b l e m s a r is in g f r o m e r r o n e o u s ite m s o r c o d e s o r m is s in g in fo r m a t io n .

M E SSE N G E R (O ff ic e

1.
S e c r e t a r y to th e c h a ir m a n o f th e b o a r d o r p r e s id e n t o f a co m p a n y that e m p lo y s , in
o v e r 100 but fe w e r than 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r

2. S e c r e t a r y t o a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r (o t h e r than the ch a ir m a n o f the b o a r d o r p r e s id e n t )
o f a c o m p a n y that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 5 ,0 0 0 but fe w e r than 2 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
3.
S e c r e t a r y t o the h e a d , im m e d ia t e ly b e lo w th e c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r le v e l ,
s e g m e n t o r s u b s id ia r y o f a c o m p a n y that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 2 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s .

o f a m a jo r

C la s s B

B oy o r G ir l)

P e r f o r m s v a r io u s ro u tin e d u ties su ch as ru n n in g e r r a n d s , o p e r a t in g m in o r o f f i c e m a ­
c h in e s su ch as s e a le r s o r m a i l e r s , op e n in g and d is t r ib u t in g m a il, and o t h e r m in o r c l e r i c a l w o r k .
E x c lu d e p o s it io n s that r e q u ir e o p e r a t io n o f a m o t o r v e h ic le as a s ig n ific a n t du ty.

SECRETARY
A s s ig n e d a s p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y , n o r m a lly to on e in d iv id u a l. M a in ta in s a c l o s e and h ig h ly
r e s p o n s i v e r e la t io n s h ip to th e d a y - t o - d a y w o r k o f th e s u p e r v is o r . W ork s f a i r l y in d e p e n d e n tly r e ­
c e iv in g a m in im u m o f d e t a ile d s u p e r v is io n and g u id a n c e . P e r f o r m s v a r ie d c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l
d u tie s , u s u a lly in clu d in g m o s t o f th e fo l lo w i n g :

a.
R e c e iv e s te le p h o n e c a l l s , p e r s o n a l c a l l e r s , and in c o m in g
in q u i r e s , and ro u t e s t e c h n ic a l in q u ir ie s to the p r o p e r p e r s o n s ;
maintains,

and

revises

the

supervisor's

m a il,

a n sw ers

b.

Establishes,

c.

R e la y s m e s s a g e s fr o m

1.
S e c r e t a r y to the c h a ir m a n o f th e b o a r d o r p r e s id e n t o f a co m p a n y that e m p lo y s , in
fe w e r than 100 p e r s o n s ; o r

2.
S e c r e t a r y to a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r (o t h e r than the ch a ir m a n o f the b o a r d o r p r e s id e n t )
o f a c o m p a n y that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 100 but fe w e r than 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
3.
S e c r e t a r y t o th e h e a d , im m e d ia t e ly b e lo w the o f f i c e r le v e l , o v e r e it h e r a m a jo r
c o r p o r a t e - w i d e fu n c tio n a l a c t iv it y ( e . g . , m a r k e t in g , r e s e a r c h , o p e r a t io n s , in d u s tr ia l r e l a ­
t io n s , e t c .) c>r a m a jo r g e o g r a p h ic o r o r g a n iz a t io n a l s e g m e n t ( e .g ., a r e g io n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s ;
a m a jo r d iv is io n ) o f a c o m p a n y that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 5 ,0 0 0 but fe w e r than 2 5 ,0 0 0
e m p lo y e e s ; o r
4.
S e c r e t a r y to th e h ea d o f an in d iv id u a l p la n t, f a c t o r y , e t c . (o r o th e r eq u iv a le n t le v e l
o f o f f i c i a l ) that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
5.
S e c r e t a r y t o the h ea d o f a la r g e and im p o r ta n t o r g a n iz a t io n a l se g m e n t ( e .g ., a m id d le
m a n a g e m e n t s u p e r v is o r o f an o r g a n iz a t io n a l s e g m e n t o ft e n in v o lv in g as m a n y a s s e v e r a l
h u n d red p e r s o n s ) o r a c o m p a n y that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 2 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s .

M a in ta in s the s u p e r v i s o r 's c a le n d a r and m a k e s a p p o in tm e n ts as in s t r u c t e d ;

d.

ro u tin e

a ll,

files;

C la s s C

s u p e r v is o r t o s u b o r d in a t e s ;

e.
R e v ie w s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , m e m o r a n d u m s , and r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d
s u p e r v i s o r 's sig n a tu r e to a s s u r e p r o c e d u r a l and t y p o g r a p h ic a c c u r a c y ;
f.

P e r fo r m s

by

o t h e r s f o r th e

1. S e c r e t a r y t o an e x e c u t iv e o r m a n a g e r ia l p e r s o n w h o se r e s p o n s i b il it y i s not e q u iv a len t
to on e o f th e s p e c i f i c le v e l s itu a tio n s in the d e fin itio n f o r c l a s s B , but w h o se o rg a n iz a t io n a l
unit n o r m a lly n u m b e r s at le a s t s e v e r a l d o z e n e m p lo y e e s and is u s u a lly d iv id e d in to o r g a n iz a ­
tio n a l s e g m e n t s w h ic h a r e o ft e n , in tu rn , fu r t h e r s u b d iv id e d . In s o m e c o m p a n ie s , th is le v e l
in c lu d e s a w id e ra n g e o f o r g a n iz a t io n a l e c h e lo n s ; in o t h e r s , o n ly on e o r tw o; jqr
2.
S e c r e t a r y to the h ea d o f an in d iv id u a l p la n t, fa c t o r y , e t c . (o r o th e r e q u iv a le n t le v e l
o f o f f i c i a l ) that e m p lo y s , in a ll, fe w e r than 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s .

s t e n o g r a p h ic and ty p in g w o r k .

M ay a ls o p e r f o r m o t h e r c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l t a s k s o f c o m p a r a b le n a tu re and d iffic u lt y .
T h e w o r k t y p i c a ll y r e q u i r e s k n o w le d g e o f o f f i c e r o u tin e and u n d e rsta n d in g o f th e o r g a n iz a t io n ,
p r o g r a m s , and p r o c e d u r e s r e la t e d to th e w o rk o f the s u p e r v is o r .

E x c lu s io n s
N ot a ll p o s it io n s that a r e t it le d " s e c r e t a r y " p o s s e s s th e a b o v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
o f p o s it io n s w h ic h a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m th e d e fin it io n a r e a s fo l lo w s :

E x a m p le s

C la s s D
1. S e c r e t a r y t o th e s u p e r v is o r o r h ea d o f a s m a ll o r g a n iz a t io n a l unit ( e . g . , fe w e r than
a bou t 25 o r 30 p e r s o n s ) ; o r
2.
S e c r e t a r y to a n o n s u p e r v is o r y s t a ff s p e c i a l is t , p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e , a d m in is t r a ­
t iv e o f f i c e r , o r a s s is t a n t , s k ille d t e c h n ic ia n o r e x p e r t .
(N O T E :
M any c o m p a n ie s a s s ig n
s t e n o g r a p h e r s , r a t h e r than s e c r e t a r i e s as d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , to t h is le v e l o f s u p e r v is o r y o r
n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r .)
STEN O G RAPH E R

a.

P o s it io n s

w h ic h

do

not

m eet

the

" p e r s o n a l"

secreta ry

b.

con cep t

d e s crib e d

above;

S t e n o g r a p h e r s n o t fu lly t r a in e d in s e c r e t a r i a l ty p e d u tie s ;

c.
S t e n o g r a p h e r s s e r v in g as o f f i c e a s s is t a n t s t o a g r o u p o f p r o f e s s io n a l, t e c h n i c a l, o r
m a n a g e r ia l p e r s o n s ;
d.
S e c r e t a r y p o s it io n s in w h ic h th e d u tie s a r e e it h e r su b s ta n tia lly m o r e r o u tin e o r
su b s ta n tia lly m o r e c o m p le x and r e s p o n s i b le than t h o s e c h a r a c t e r iz e d in th e d e fin it io n ;

P r i m a r y du ty i s t o ta k e d ic t a t io n u s in g s h o r th a n d , and t o t r a n s c r i b e the d ic t a t io n . M a y
a ls o ty p e fr o m w r it te n c o p y . M a y o p e r a t e f r o m a s t e n o g r a p h ic p o o l. M a y o c c a s io n a ll y t r a n s c r i b e
f r o m v o ic e r e c o r d in g s ( i f p r im a r y du ty is t r a n s c r i b i n g f r o m r e c o r d in g s , s e e T r a n s c r ib in g - M a c h in e
O p e r a t o r , G e n e r a l).
N O T E : T h is j o b is d is t in g u is h e d f r o m that o f a s e c r e t a r y in that a s e c r e t a r y n o r m a lly
w o rk s in a c o n fid e n t ia l r e la t io n s h ip w ith o n ly on e m a n a g e r o r e x e c u t iv e and p e r f o r m s m o r e
r e s p o n s i b le and d i s c r e t io n a r y t a s k s as d e s c r i b e d in th e s e c r e t a r y jo b d e fin it io n .
S t e n o g r a p h e r , G e n e ra l

e.
A s s is t a n t ty p e p o s it io n s w h ic h in v o lv e m o r e d i ff ic u l t o r m o r e r e s p o n s i b le t e c h ­
n i c a l, a d m in is t r a t iv e , s u p e r v is o r y , o r s p e c i a l iz e d c l e r i c a l d u tie s w h ich a r e not t y p ic a l o f
s e c r e t a r ia l w ork .




D ic t a t io n in v o lv e s a n o r m a l r o u tin e v o c a b u la r y . M a y m a in ta in f i l e s , k e e p s im p le r e c o r d s ,
o r p e r f o r m o t h e r r e l a t i v e ly r o u tin e c l e r i c a l t a s k s .

S T E N O G R A P H E R — C o n tin u e d

T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R ( E le c t r ic A c c o u n t in g M a ch in e O p e r a t o r )— C on tin u ed

S t e n o g r a p h e r , S e n io r
or

P o s it io n s a r e c l a s s i f i e d in to le v e l s on the b a s is o f th e fo llo w in g d e fin it io n s .

D ic t a t io n in v o l v e s a v a r ie d t e c h n ic a l o r s p e c i a l iz e d v o c a b u la r y su ch a s in le g a l b r ie f s
r e p o r t s on s c ie n t i f ic r e s e a r c h .
M a y a ls o s e t up and m a in ta in f i l e s , k e e p r e c o r d s , e t c .

C la s s A .
P e r f o r m s c o m p le t e re p o r t in g and ta b u la tin g a s s ig n m e n t s in c lu d in g d e v is in g
d iff ic u lt c o n t r o l p a n el w ir in g u n d er g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n .
A s s ig n m e n t s t y p i c a ll y in v o lv e a
v a r ie t y o f lo n g and c o m p le x r e p o r t s w h ich o fte n a r e ir r e g u l a r o r n o n r e c u r r in g , r e q u ir in g
s o m e p la n n in g o f th e n a tu re and s e q u e n cin g o f o p e r a t io n s , and th e -use o f a v a r ie t y o f m a ­
c h in e s .
Is t y p i c a ll y in v o lv e d in tra in in g n ew o p e r a t o r s in m a c h in e o p e r a t io n s o r t r a in in g
lo w e r le v e l o p e r a t o r s in w ir in g f r o m d ia g r a m s and in th e o p e r a t in g s e q u e n c e s o f lo n g and
c o m p le x r e p o r t s .
D o e s n ot in clu d e p o s it io n s in w h ic h w ir in g r e s p o n s i b il it y is lim it e d to
s e l e c t i o n and in s e r t i o n o f p r e w ir e d b o a r d s .

OR
P e r f o r m s s t e n o g r a p h ic d u tie s r e q u ir in g s ig n ific a n t ly g r e a t e r in d e p e n d e n ce and r e s p o n ­
s i b i li t y than s t e n o g r a p h e r , g e n e r a l, a s e v id e n c e d b y th e fo llo w in g :
W ork r e q u i r e s a h igh
d e g r e e o f s t e n o g r a p h ic s p e e d and a c c u r a c y ; a th o ro u g h w o rk in g k n o w le d g e o f g e n e r a l b u s in e s s
and o f f i c e p r o c e d u r e ; and o f th e s p e c i f i c b u s in e s s o p e r a t i o n s , o r g a n iz a t io n , p o l i c i e s , p r o c e ­
d u r e s , f i l e s , w o r k f lo w , e t c .
U s e s th is k n o w le d g e in p e r fo r m i n g s t e n o g r a p h ic d u tie s and
r e s p o n s i b le c l e r i c a l t a s k s s u c h a s m a in ta in in g fo llo w u p f i l e s ; a s s e m b lin g m a t e r ia l fo r r e p o r t s ,
m e m o r a n d u m s , and le t t e r s ; c o m p o s in g s im p le le t t e r s fr o m g e n e r a l in s t r u c t io n s ; re a d in g and
ro u tin g in c o m in g m a il; and a n s w e r in g ro u tin e q u e s t io n s , e t c .

C la s s B .
P e r f o r m s w o r k a c c o r d i n g t o e s t a b lis h e d p r o c e d u r e s and u n d er s p e c i f i c in ­
s t r u c t io n s . A s s ig n m e n t s t y p i c a ll y in v o lv e c o m p le t e but ro u tin e and r e c u r r in g r e p o r t s o r p a r t s
o f l a r g e r and m o r e c o m p le x r e p o r t s .
O p e r a t e s m o r e d i ff ic u l t ta b u la tin g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c ­
cou n tin g m a c h in e s su ch a s the ta b u la t o r and c a lc u la t o r , in a d d itio n t o th e s i m p l e r m a c h in e s
u s e d b y c l a s s C o p e r a t o r s . M a y be r e q u ir e d t o d o s o m e w ir in g f r o m d i a g r a m s . M ay t r a in
n ew e m p lo y e e s in b a s ic m a c h in e o p e r a t io n s .

S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R
C l a s s A . O p e r a t e s a s in g le - o r m u lt ip le -p o s it io n te le p h o n e s w itc h b o a r d h a n d lin g in c o m in g ,
o u t g o in g , in tr a p la n t o r o f f i c e c a l l s . P e r f o r m s fu ll t e le p h o n e in fo r m a t io n s e r v i c e o r h a n d les
c o m p le x c a l l s , su c h a s c o n f e r e n c e , c o l l e c t , o v e r s e a s , o r s i m il a r c a l l s , e it h e r in a d d itio n to
d o in g r o u tin e w o r k as d e s c r i b e d f o r s w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r , c l a s s B , o r a s a fu l l- t im e
a s s ig n m e n t . ( " F u l l " te le p h o n e in fo r m a t io n s e r v i c e o c c u r s w hen the e s t a b lis h m e n t h a s v a r ie d
fu n c t io n s that a r e not r e a d i ly u n d e rs ta n d a b le fo r te le p h o n e in fo r m a t io n p u r p o s e s , e . g . , b e c a u s e
o f o v e r la p p in g o r in t e r r e la t e d fu n c t io n s , and c o n s e q u e n tly p r e s e n t fr e q u e n t p r o b l e m s as to
w h ic h e x t e n s io n s a r e a p p r o p r ia t e f o r c a l l s . )
C l a s s B . O p e r a t e s a s in g le - o r m u lt ip le -p o s it io n t e le p h o n e s w itc h b o a r d h a n dlin g in c o m in g ,
o u tg o in g , in tr a p la n t o r o f f i c e c a l l s . M a y h a n d le ro u tin e lo n g d is t a n c e c a ll s and r e c o r d t o ll s .
M a y p e r f o r m lim it e d te le p h o n e in fo r m a t io n s e r v i c e . ( " L i m i t e d " te le p h o n e in fo r m a t io n s e r v i c e
o c c u r s i f the fu n c tio n s o f th e e s t a b lis h m e n t s e r v i c e d a r e r e a d ily u n d e rsta n d a b le fo r te le p h o n e
in fo r m a t io n p u r p o s e s , o r i f the r e q u e s t s a r e r o u t in e , e . g . , g iv in g e x t e n s io n n u m b e rs when
s p e c i f i c n a m e s a r e fu r n is h e d , o r i f c o m p le x c a ll s a r e r e f e r r e d to a n o th e r o p e r a t o r .)
T h e s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s d o not in clu d e s w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s in te le p h o n e c o m p a n ie s w ho
a s s i s t c u s t o m e r s in p la c in g c a l l s .
S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T I O N I S T
In a d d itio n t o p e r fo r m i n g d u tie s o f o p e r a t o r on a s i n g le - p o s i t i o n o r m o n it o r -t y p e s w itc h ­
b o a r d , a c t s a s r e c e p t i o n is t and m a y a ls o ty p e o r p e r f o r m ro u tin e c l e r i c a l w o rk as p a rt o f r e g u la r
d u t ie s .
T h is ty p in g o r c l e r i c a l w o rk m a y ta k e th e m a jo r p a r t o f t h is w o r k e r 's t im e w h ile at
s w itc h b o a r d .

C la s s C .
U n d er s p e c i f i c in s t r u c t io n s , o p e r a t e s s im p le ta b u la tin g o r e l e c t r i c a l a cco u n tin g
m a c h in e s su c h a s the s o r t e r , in t e r p r e t e r , r e p r o d u c in g p u n ch , c o l l a t o r , e t c .
A s s ig n m e n t s
t y p i c a ll y in v o lv e p o r t io n s o f a w o rk unit, f o r e x a m p le , in d iv id u a l s o r t in g o r c o lla t in g ru n s,
o r r e p e t it iv e o p e r a t i o n s . M a y p e r f o r m s im p le w ir in g f r o m d i a g r a m s , and do s o m e filin g w o r k .
T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R , G E N E R A L
P r i m a r y duty is to t r a n s c r i b e d ic t a t io n in v o lv in g a n o r m a l ro u tin e v o c a b u la r y fr o m
t r a n s c r i b i n g - m a c h in e r e c o r d s .
M a y a ls o ty p e fr o m w ritte n c o p y and do s im p le c l e r i c a l w o r k .
W o r k e r s t r a n s c r i b i n g d ic t a t io n in v o lv in g a v a r ie d t e c h n ic a l o r s p e c i a l iz e d v o c a b u la r y su ch as
le g a l b r ie f s o r r e p o r t s on s c ie n t i fic r e s e a r c h a r e not in c lu d e d .
A w o r k e r w ho ta k e s d ic t a t io n
in sh orth a n d o r by S ten oty p e o r s i m il a r m a c h in e is c l a s s i f i e d as a s t e n o g r a p h e r .
T Y P IS T

U s e s a t y p e w r it e r t o m a k e c o p ie s o f v a r io u s m a t e r ia ls o r t o m a k e ou t b il ls a ft e r c a l c u l a ­
tio n s h a ve b e e n m a d e by a n o th e r p e r s o n . M a y in clu d e ty p in g o f s t e n c il s , m a t s , o r s i m il a r m a t e ­
r i a l s fo r u s e in d u p lica tin g p r o c e s s e s . M a y d o c l e r i c a l w o r k in v o lv in g lit t le s p e c i a l tr a in in g , su ch
a s k e e p in g s im p le r e c o r d s , filin g r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s , o r s o r t in g and d is t r ib u t in g in c o m in g m a il.

T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R ( E l e c t r i c A c c o u n t in g M a ch in e O p e r a t o r )
O p e r a t e s on e o r a v a r ie t y o f m a c h in e s su ch as th e ta b u la t o r , c a lc u la t o r , c o l l a t o r , i n t e r ­
p r e t e r , s o r t e r , r e p r o d u c in g p u n ch , e t c . E x c lu d e d fr o m th is d e fin it io n a r e w o rk in g s u p e r v is o r s .
A l s o e x c lu d e d a r e o p e r a t o r s o f e le c t r o n i c d ig it a l c o m p u t e r s , e v e n though th e y m a y a ls o o p e r a t e
E A M eq u ip m e n t.

C la s s A .
P e r f o r m s on e o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : T y p in g m a t e r ia l in fin a l fo r m w hen
it in v o lv e s c o m b in in g m a t e r ia l fr o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s ; o r r e s p o n s i b il it y f o r c o r r e c t s p e llin g ,
s y lla b ic a t io n , pu n ctu a tion , e t c . , o f t e c h n ic a l o r unusual w o r d s o r fo r e ig n la n g u a ge m a t e ­
r ia l; o r pla n n in g la y o u t and ty p in g o f c o m p lic a t e d s t a t is t ic a l t a b le s t o m a in ta in u n ifo r m it y
and b a la n c e in s p a c in g . M ay ty p e ro u tin e fo r m le t t e r s , v a r y in g d e t a ils to su it c i r c u m s t a n c e s .
C la s s B . P e r f o r m s on e o r m o r e o f the fo l lo w i n g : C o p y ty p in g fr o m rou g h o r c l e a r
d r a f t s ; o r rou tin e ty p in g o f f o r m s , in s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , e t c .; o r se ttin g up s im p le sta n d a rd
ta b u la tio n s ; o r c o p y in g m o r e c o m p le x t a b le s a lr e a d y s e t up and s p a c e d p r o p e r ly .

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R — C on tin u ed

COM PU TER OPERATOR
M o n it o r s and o p e r a t e s the c o n t r o l c o n s o le o f a d ig it a l c o m p u t e r to p r o c e s s data a c c o r d in g
to o p e r a t in g in s t r u c t io n s , u s u a lly p r e p a r e d b y a p r o g r a m m e r . W ork in c lu d e s m o s t o f the f o l lo w i n g :
S tu d ies in s t r u c t io n s to d e t e r m in e eq u ip m e n t setu p and o p e r a t i o n s ; lo a d s e q u ip m e n t w ith r e q u i r e d
it e m s (ta p e r e e l s , c a r d s , e t c . ) ; s w itc h e s n e c e s s a r y a u x ilia r y eq u ip m en t in to c i r c u i t , and s t a r t s
and o p e r a t e s c o m p u t e r ; m a k e s a d ju stm e n ts t o c o m p u t e r to c o r r e c t o p e r a t in g p r o b l e m s and m e e t
s p e c i a l c o n d it io n s ; r e v ie w s e r r o r s m a d e d u rin g o p e r a t io n and d e t e r m in e s c a u s e o r r e f e r s p r o b le m
t o s u p e r v is o r o r p r o g r a m m e r ; and m a in ta in s o p e r a t in g r e c o r d s . M ay t e s t and a s s i s t in c o r r e c t i n g
p rog ra m .
F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s ,

c o m p u t e r o p e r a t o r s a r e c l a s s i f ie d as fo llo w s :

C la s s A . O p e r a t e s in d e p e n d e n tly , o r u n d er o n ly g e n e r a l d i r e c t io n , a c o m p u t e r run ning
p r o g r a m s w ith m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :
N ew p r o g r a m s a r e fr e q u e n t ly t e s t e d
and in tr o d u c e d ; sc h e d u lin g r e q u ir e m e n t s a r e o f c r i t i c a l im p o r t a n c e to m in im iz e d o w n tim e ;
the p r o g r a m s a r e o f c o m p le x d e s ig n s o that id e n t ific a t io n o f e r r o r s o u r c e o fte n r e q u i r e s a
w o rk in g k n o w le d g e o f th e to ta l p r o g r a m , and a lte r n a te p r o g r a m s m a y n ot be a v a ila b le . M ay
g iv e d i r e c t io n and g u id a n c e t o lo w e r le v e l o p e r a t o r s .
C l a s s B . O p e r a t e s in d e p e n d e n tly , o r u n d er o n ly g e n e r a l d i r e c t io n , a c o m p u t e r running
p r o g r a m s w ith m o s t o f the fo llo w in g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : M o s t o f th e p r o g r a m s a r e e s t a b lis h e d
p r o d u c t io n r u n s , t y p i c a ll y run on a r e g u l a r ly r e c u r r in g b a s is ; t h e r e is lit t le o r n o t e s tin g




28

o f n ew p r o g r a m s r e q u ir e d ; a lte r n a te p r o g r a m s a r e p r o v id e d in c a s e o r ig in a l p r o g r a m n eed s
m a jo r ch a n g e o r ca n n o t be c o r r e c t e d w ithin a r e a s o n a b le t im e .
In c o m m o n e r r o r s it u a ­
t io n s , d ia g n o s e s c a u s e and t a k e s c o r r e c t i v e a c t io n . T h is u s u a lly in v o lv e s a p p ly in g p r e v io u s ly
p r o g r a m m e d c o r r e c t i v e s t e p s , o r u s in g sta n d a rd c o r r e c t i o n t e c h n iq u e s .
OR
O p e r a t e s u n d er d i r e c t s u p e r v is io n a corripu ter run ning p r o g r a m s o r ’ s e g m e n t s o f p r o g r a m s
w ith the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d f o r c l a s s A . M ay a s s i s t a h ig h e r le v e l o p e r a t o r by in d e ­
p e n d e n tly p e r fo r m i n g l e s s d iff ic u lt t a s k s a s s ig n e d , and p e r fo r m in g d iff ic u lt t a s k s fo llo w in g
d e t a ile d in s t r u c t io n s and w ith fr e q u e n t r e v ie w o f o p e r a t io n s p e r fo r m e d .
C la s s C . W o rk s o n r o u tin e p r o g r a m s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v is io n .
Is e x p e c te d to d e v e lo p
w o rk in g k n o w le d g e o f th e c o m p u t e r e q u ip m e n t u s e d and a b ilit y to d e t e c t p r o b l e m s in v o lv e d in
run ning r o u tin e p r o g r a m s . U s u a lly ha s r e c e iv e d s o m e f o r m a l t r a in in g -in c o m p u t e r o p e r a t io n .
M ay a s s i s t h ig h e r le v e l o p e r a t o r on c o m p le x p r o g r a m s .
COM PU TER PRO GR AM M ER.

BU SIN ESS

C o n v e r t s s ta te m e n ts o f b u s in e s s p r o b l e m s , t y p i c a ll y p r e p a r e d b y a s y s t e m s a n a ly s t, in to a
s e q u e n c e o f d e t a ile d in s t r u c t io n s w h ic h a r e r e q u i r e d to s o l v e the p r o b le m s b y a u to m a tic data p r o c ­
e s s in g eq u ip m e n t. W o rk in g f r o m c h a r t s o r d i a g r a m s , the p r o g r a m m e r d e v e lo p s the p r e c i s e in ­
s t r u c t io n s w h ic h , w hen e n t e r e d in to th e c o m p u t e r s y s t e m in c o d e d la n g u a g e , c a u s e the m a n ip u la tio n

C O M P U T E R S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T , BUSINESS— C o n tin u ed

C O M P U T E R P R O G R A M M E R , BUSINESS— C on tin u ed
o f data t o a c h ie v e d e s ir e d r e s u lt s . W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g : A p p lie s k n o w le d g e o f
c o m p u t e r c a p a b il it i e s , m a th e m a t ic s , l o g i c e m p lo y e d b y c o m p u t e r s , and p a r t ic u la r s u b je c t m a tt e r
in v o lv e d t o a n a ly z e c h a r t s and d ia g r a m s o f th e p r o b l e m t o b e p r o g r a m m e d ; d e v e lo p s s e q u e n c e
o f p r o g r a m s t e p s ; w r it e s d e t a ile d flo w c h a r t s t o sh ow o r d e r in w h ic h data w il l b e p r o c e s s e d ;
c o n v e r t s t h e s e c h a r t s t o c o d e d in s t r u c t io n s f o r m a c h in e t o f o l lo w ; t e s t s and c o r r e c t s p r o g r a m s ;
p r e p a r e s in s t r u c t io n s f o r o p e r a t in g p e r s o n n e l d u rin g p r o d u c t io n run ; a n a ly z e s , r e v i e w s , and a lt e r s
p r o g r a m s t o i n c r e a s e o p e r a tin g e ff ic i e n c y o r adapt t o n ew r e q u ir e m e n t s ; m a in ta in s r e c o r d s o f
p r o g r a m d e v e lo p m e n t and r e v i s io n s . (N O T E : W o r k e r s p e r fo r m i n g b oth s y s t e m s a n a ly s is and p r o ­
g r a m m in g sh ou ld b e c l a s s i f i e d as s y s t e m s a n a ly s ts i f t h is is th e s k il l u s e d t o d e t e r m in e t h e ir p a y .)

e v e r y it e m o f e a c h ty p e is a u t o m a t ic a lly p r o c e s s e d th ro u g h the fu ll s y s t e m o f r e c o r d s and
a p p r o p r ia t e fo llo w u p a c t io n s a r e in it ia t e d by th e co m p u t e r .) C o n fe r s w ith p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d to
d e t e r m in e th e da ta p r o c e s s in g p r o b l e m s and a d v is e s s u b je c t -m a t t e r p e r s o n n e l on the im p li c a ­
tio n s o f n ew o r r e v i s e d s y s t e m s o f data p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t io n s . M a k es r e c o m m e n d a t io n s , i f
n e e d e d , f o r a p p r o v a l o f m a jo r s y s t e m s in s t a lla t io n s o r c h a n g e s and fo r ob ta in in g e q u ip m en t.
M a y p r o v id e fu n c t io n a l
a s s is t.

t o lo w e r

le v e l s y s t e m s a n a ly s ts w ho a r e a s s ig n e d to

C la s s B .
W o rk s in d e p e n d e n tly o r u n d er o n ly g e n e r a l d i r e c t io n on p r o b le m s that a r e
r e l a t i v e ly u n c o m p lic a t e d to a n a ly z e , p la n , p r o g r a m , and o p e r a t e . P r o b le m s a r e o f lim it e d
c o m p le x it y b e c a u s e s o u r c e s o f input da ta a r e h o m o g e n e o u s and th e output data a r e c l o s e l y
r e la t e d .
( F o r e x a m p le , d e v e lo p s s y s t e m s f o r m a in ta in in g d e p o s it o r a c c o u n ts in a bank,
m a in ta in in g a c c o u n ts r e c e iv a b l e in a r e t a il e s t a b lis h m e n t , o r m a in ta in in g in v e n t o r y a c c o u n ts
in a m a n u fa ctu rin g o r w h o le s a le e s t a b lis h m e n t .) C o n f e r s w ith p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d to d e t e r m in e
th e data p r o c e s s i n g p r o b l e m s and a d v is e s s u b je c t -m a t t e r p e r s o n n e l on th e im p lic a t io n s o f the
da ta p r o c e s s in g s y s t e m s t o b e a p p lie d .

D oes n ot in c lu d e e m p lo y e e s p r im a r i ly r e s p o n s i b le f o r th e m a n a g e m e n t o r s u p e r v is io n o f
o th e r e l e c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s in g e m p l o y e e s , o r p r o g r a m m e r s p r im a r i ly c o n c e r n e d w ith s c ie n t i f ic
a n d /o r e n g in e e r in g p r o b l e m s .
F o r w a g e study p u r p o s e s ,

d i r e c t io n

p r o g r a m m e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d as fo llo w s :

G la s s A . W o r k s in d ep en d en tly o r u n d er on ly g e n e r a l d i r e c t io n on c o m p le x p r o b l e m s w h ich
r e q u ir e c o m p e t e n c e in a ll p h a s e s o f p r o g r a m m in g c o n c e p t s and p r a c t i c e s . W o rk in g f r o m d ia ­
g r a m s and c h a r t s w h ic h id e n tify the n a tu re o f d e s ir e d r e s u lt s , m a jo r p r o c e s s in g s te p s t o b e
a c c o m p li s h e d , and th e r e la t io n s h ip s b e tw e e n v a r io u s s te p s o f th e p r o b le m s o lv in g ro u tin e ;
p la n s th e fu ll ra n g e o f p r o g r a m m in g a c t io n s n e e d e d t o e ff ic i e n t ly u t iliz e th e c o m p u t e r s y s t e m
in a c h ie v in g d e s ir e d en d p r o d u c t s .

OR
W ork s on a s e g m e n t o f a c o m p le x data p r o c e s s i n g s c h e m e o r s y s t e m , a s d e s c r i b e d f o r
c l a s s A . W o rk s in d e p e n d e n tly on r o u tin e a s s ig n m e n t s and r e c e iv e s in s t r u c t io n and g u id a n ce
on c o m p le x a s s ig n m e n t s .
W ork is r e v ie w e d f o r a c c u r a c y o f ju d g m e n t, c o m p lia n c e w ith
in s t r u c t io n s , and to in s u r e p r o p e r a lig n m e n t w ith th e o v e r a l l s y s t e m .

A t t h is le v e l , p r o g r a m m in g is d iff ic u lt b e c a u s e c o m p u t e r e q u ip m e n t m u st b e o r g a n iz e d to
p r o d u c e s e v e r a l in t e r r e la t e d but d i v e r s e p r o d u c t s f r o m n u m e r o u s and d i v e r s e data e le m e n t s .
A w id e v a r ie t y and e x t e n s iv e n u m b e r o f in te r n a l p r o c e s s in g a c t io n s m u st o c c u r . T h is r e q u i r e s
su ch a c t io n s a s d e v e lo p m e n t o f c o m m o n o p e r a t io n s w h ic h ca n b e r e u s e d , e s t a b lis h m e n t o f
lin k a g e p o in ts b e tw e e n o p e r a t io n s , a d ju s tm e n ts t o data w h en p r o g r a m r e q u ir e m e n t s e x c e e d
c o m p u t e r s t o r a g e c a p a c it y , and su b sta n tia l m a n ip u la tio n and r e s e q u e n c in g o f data e le m e n t s
t o f o r m a h ig h ly in te g r a te d p r o g r a m .

C la s s C . W ork s u n d e r im m e d ia t e s u p e r v is io n , c a r r y i n g ou t a n a ly s e s as a s s ig n e d , u su a lly
o f a s in g le a c t iv it y .
A s s ig n m e n t s a r e d e s ig n e d t o d e v e lo p and ex p a n d p r a c t ic a l e x p e r ie n c e
in the a p p lic a t io n o f p r o c e d u r e s and s k ills r e q u ir e d f o r s y s t e m s a n a ly s is w o r k . F o r e x a m p le ,
m a y a s s i s t a h ig h e r le v e l s y s t e m s a n a ly st b y p r e p a r in g th e d e t a ile d s p e c i fic a t i o n s r e q u ir e d
b y p r o g r a m m e r s f r o m in fo r m a t io n d e v e lo p e d b y the h ig h e r le v e l a n a ly s t.

M a y p r o v id e fu n c tio n a l d ir e c t io n t o lo w e r le v e l p r o g r a m m e r s w h o a r e a s s ig n e d t o a s s i s t .
C la s s B . W o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d ir e c t io n on r e l a t i v e ly s im p le
p r o g r a m s , o r on s im p le s e g m e n ts o f c o m p le x p r o g r a m s .
P r o g r a m s (o r s e g m e n t s ) u s u a lly
p r o c e s s in fo r m a t io n t o p r o d u c e data in tw o o r t h r e e v a r ie d s e q u e n c e s o r fo r m a t s . R e p o r t s
and li s t in g s a r e p r o d u c e d b y r e fin in g , a d a p tin g , a r r a y in g , o r m a k in g m in o r a d d itio n s t o o r
d e le t io n s f r o m input data w h ic h a r e r e a d ily a v a ila b le . W h ile n u m e r o u s r e c o r d s m a y b e
p r o c e s s e d , th e data h a ve b e e n r e fin e d in p r i o r a c t io n s s o that th e a c c u r a c y a n d s e q u e n cin g
o f data ca n b e t e s t e d b y u sin g a fe w r o u tin e c h e c k s .
T y p ic a l ly , th e p r o g r a m d e a ls w ith
ro u tin e r e c o r d - k e e p in g ty p e o p e r a t io n s .

DRAFTSM AN
C la s s A . P la n s th e g r a p h ic p r e s e n t a t io n o f c o m p le x it e m s ha vin g d is t in c t iv e d e s ig n
fe a t u r e s that d i f f e r s ig n ific a n t ly f r o m e s t a b lis h e d d r a ftin g p r e c e d e n t s . W ork s in c l o s e s u p ­
p o r t w ith the d e s ig n o r i g in a t o r , and m a y r e c o m m e n d m in o r d e s ig n c h a n g e s .
A n a ly z e s the
e f f e c t o f e a c h ch a n g e on th e d e t a ils o f f o r m , fu n c t io n , and p o s it io n a l r e la t io n s h ip s o f c o m ­
p on en ts and p a r t s .
W ork s w ith a m in im u m o f s u p e r v is o r y a s s i s t a n c e .
C o m p le t e d w o rk is
r e v ie w e d b y d e s ig n o r i g in a t o r fo r c o n s is t e n c y w ith p r i o r e n g in e e r in g d e t e r m in a t io n s .
M ay
e it h e r p r e p a r e d r a w in g s , o r d i r e c t t h e ir p r e p a r a t io n b y lo w e r le v e l d r a ft s m e n .

OR

C la s s B . P e r f o r m s n on r o u tin e and c o m p le x d r a ftin g a s s ig n m e n t s that r e q u ir e the a p p li­
c a t io n o f m o s t o f th e s t a n d a r d iz e d d r a w in g te c h n iq u e s r e g u la r ly u se d .
D u ties t y p ic a lly in ­
v o lv e su c h w o r k a s :
P r e p a r e s w o r k in g d r a w in g s o f s u b a s s e m b li e s w ith ir r e g u l a r s h a p e s ,
m u lt ip le fu n c t io n s , and p r e c i s e p o s it io n a l r e la t io n s h ip s b etw een co m p o n e n t s ; p r e p a r e s a r c h i­
t e c t u r a l d r a w in g s fo r c o n s t r u c t io n o f a b u ild in g in clu d in g d e t a il d r a w in g s o f fo u n d a tio n s, w a ll
s e c t io n s , f l o o r p la n s , and r o o f . U s e s a c c e p t e d fo r m u la s and m a n u a ls in 'm a k in g n e c e s s a r y
c o m p u t a t io n s t o d e t e r m in e q u a n titie s o f m a t e r ia ls to be u s e d , lo a d c a p a c i t ie s , s tr e n g th s ,
s tr e s s e s , e tc.
R e c e iv e s in it ia l in s t r u c t io n s , r e q u ir e m e n t s , and a d v ic e f r o m s u p e r v is o r .
C o m p le t e d w o r k is c h e c k e d f o r t e c h n ic a l a d e q u a c y .

W o r k s on c o m p le x p r o g r a m s (a s d e s c r i b e d f o r c l a s s A ) u n d e r c l o s e d i r e c t io n o f a h ig h e r
le v e l p r o g r a m m e r o r s u p e r v is o r . M a y a s s i s t h ig h e r le v e l p r o g r a m m e r b y in d e p e n d e n tly p e r ­
fo r m in g l e s s d iffic u lt t a s k s a s s ig n e d , and p e r fo r m i n g m o r e d iff ic u lt t a sk s u n d e r f a ir ly c l o s e
d ir e c t io n .
M a y g u id e o r in s t r u c t lo w e r le v e l p r o g r a m m e r s .
C la s s C . M a k e s p r a c t ic a l a p p lic a t io n s o f p r o g r a m m in g p r a c t ic e s and c o n c e p t s u s u a lly
le a r n e d in f o r m a l tr a in in g c o u r s e s . A s s ig n m e n t s a r e d e s ig n e d t o d e v e lo p c o m p e t e n c e in th e
a p p lic a t io n o f sta n d a rd p r o c e d u r e s t o ro u tin e p r o b l e m s . R e c e iv e s c l o s e s u p e r v is io n on n ew
a s p e c t s o f a s s ig n m e n t s ; and w o r k is r e v ie w e d t o v e r i f y its a c c u r a c y and c o n f o r m a n c e w ith
re q u ire d p r o ce d u re s .

C l a s s C . P r e p a r e s d e t a il d r a w in g s o f s in g le u n its o r p a r t s f o r e n g in e e r in g , c o n s t r u c t io n ,
m a n u fa c t u r in g , o r r e p a ir p u r p o s e s . T y p e s o f d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d in c lu d e i s o m e t r i c p r o je c t io n s
(d e p ic t in g t h r e e d im e n s io n s in a c c u r a t e s c a l e ) and s e c t io n a l v ie w s to c l a r i f y p o s it io n in g o f
co m p o n e n t s and c o n v e y n e e d e d in fo r m a t io n . C o n s o lid a t e s d e t a ils f r o m a n u m b e r o f s o u r c e s
and a d ju s ts o r t r a n s p o s e s s c a l e as r e q u ir e d .
S u g g e s te d m e t h o d s o f a p p r o a c h , a p p lic a b le
p r e c e d e n t s , and a d v ic e on s o u r c e m a t e r ia ls a r e g iv e n w ith in it ia l a s s ig n m e n t s . In s tr u c tio n s
a r e l e s s c o m p le t e w hen a s s ig n m e n t s r e c u r .
W o rk m a y b e s p o t -c h e c k e d d u rin g p r o g r e s s .

C O M P U T E R S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T , BUSINESS
A n a ly z e s b u s in e s s p r o b l e m s t o fo r m u la t e p r o c e d u r e s f o r s o lv in g th e m b y u s e o f e l e c t r o n i c
data p r o c e s s in g eq u ip m e n t. D e v e lo p s a c o m p le t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a ll s p e c i fic a t i o n s n e e d e d t o en a b le
p r o g r a m m e r s t o p r e p a r e r e q u i r e d d ig it a l c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s .
W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f th e
fo l lo w i n g : A n a ly z e s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o p e r a t io n s t o b e a u to m a te d and id e n t ifie s c o n d it io n s and
c r i t e r i a r e q u i r e d t o a c h ie v e s a t is fa c t o r y r e s u lt s ; s p e c i f ie s n u m b e r and t y p e s o f r e c o r d s , f i l e s , and
d o c u m e n t s t o b e u s e d ; o u tlin e s a c t io n s t o b e p e r f o r m e d b y p e r s o n n e l and c o m p u t e r s in s u ffic ie n t
d e t a il f o r p r e s e n t a t io n t o m a n a g e m e n t and f o r p r o g r a m m in g (t y p ic a lly th is in v o lv e s p r e p a r a t io n o f
w o r k and data flo w c h a r t s ); c o o r d in a t e s the d e v e lo p m e n t o f t e s t p r o b l e m s and p a r t ic ip a t e s in t r i a l
ru n s o f n ew and r e v i s e d s y s t e m s ; and r e c o m m e n d s e q u ip m e n t ch a n g e s t o ob ta in m o r e e ff e c t iv e
o v e r a ll o p e r a t io n s . (N O T E : W o r k e r s p e r fo r m i n g b oth s y s t e m s a n a ly s is and p r o g r a m m in g sh ou ld
b e c l a s s i f i e d a s s y s t e m s a n a ly s ts i f t h is i s th e s k il l u s e d t o d e t e r m in e t h e ir p a y .)
D o e s n ot in c lu d e e m p l o y e e s p r im a r i ly r e s p o n s i b le f o r th e m a n a g e m e n t o r s u p e r v is io n
o f o th e r e le c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s in g e m p l o y e e s , o r s y s t e m s a n a ly s ts p r im a r i ly c o n c e r n e d w ith
s c ie n t i f ic o r e n g in e e r in g p r o b l e m s .
F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s ,

C o p ie s p la n s and d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s b y p la c in g t r a c i n g c lo t h o r p a p e r o v e r
d r a w in g s and t r a c i n g w ith p en o r p e n c il ,
(D o e s n ot in c lu d e t r a c in g lim it e d to p la n s p r im a r i ly
c o n s is t in g o f s t r a ig h t lin e s and a la r g e s c a l e n ot r e q u ir in g c l o s e d e lin e a t io n .)
A N D /O R
P r e p a r e s s im p le o r r e p e t it iv e d r a w in g s o f e a s il y v is u a l iz e d it e m s .
d u rin g p r o g r e s s .

W ork is

c l o s e l y s u p e r v is e d

E L E C T R O N IC S T E C H N IC IA N

s y s t e m s a n a ly s t s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s fo l lo w s :

C la s s A . W o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly o r tin d er o n ly g e n e r a l d i r e c t io n on c o m p le x p r o b l e m s in ­
v o lv in g a ll p h a s e s o f s y s t e m a n a ly s is . P r o b le m s a r e c o m p le x b e c a u s e o f d i v e r s e s o u r c e s o f
input data and m u lt i p l e -u s e r e q u ir e m e n t s o f output da ta . ( F o r e x a m p le , d e v e lo p s an in te g r a t e d
p r o d u c t io n s c h e d u lin g , in v e n t o r y c o n t r o l, c o s t a n a l y s is , and s a le s a n a ly s is r e c o r d in w h ic h




D RAFTSM AN - TRACER

W ork s on v a r io u s ty p e s o f e l e c t r o n i c eq u ip m e n t and r e la t e d d e v i c e s b y p e r fo r m i n g on e
o r a c o m b in a t io n o f th e fo l lo w i n g : In s t a llin g , m a in ta in in g , r e p a ir in g , o v e r h a u lin g , t r o u b le s h o o t in g ,
m o d ify in g , c o n s t r u c t in g , and t e s t in g . W ork r e q u i r e s p r a c t i c a l a p p lic a t io n o f t e c h n ic a l k n ow led g e
o f e l e c t r o n i c s p r i n c i p l e s , a b ilit y t o d e t e r m in e m a lfu n c t io n s , and s k ill t o put e q u ip m e n t in r e q u ir e d
o p e r a t in g c o n d it io n .

29

E L E C T R O N IC S T E C H N IC IA N — C on tin u ed

E L E C T R O N IC S T E C H N IC IA N — C on tin u ed

T h e eq u ip m e n t— c o n s is t i n g o f e it h e r m a n y d iff e r e n t k in d s o f c i r c u i t s o r m u lt ip le r e p e t it io n
o f th e s a m e k in d o f c i r c u i t — in c lu d e s , but is not lim it e d t o , th e fo llo w in g : (a ) E l e c t r o n i c t r a n s ­
m ittin g and r e c e iv in g e q u ip m e n t ( e . g . , r a d a r , r a d io , t e le v i s io n , te le p h o n e , s o n a r , n a v ig a tio n a l
a id s ) , (b ) d ig it a l and a n a lo g c o m p u t e r s , and (c ) in d u s t r ia l and m e d i c a l m e a s u r in g and c o n t r o llin g
e q u ip m e n t.

R e c e iv e s t e c h n i c a l g u id a n c e , a s r e q u ir e d , f r o m s u p e r v is o r o r h ig h e r le v e l t e c h n ic ia n ,
and w o r k i s r e v ie w e d f o r s p e c i f i c c o m p lia n c e w ith a c c e p t e d p r a c t i c e s and w o r k a s s ig n m e n t s .
M a y p r o v id e t e c h n i c a l g u id a n c e to lo w e r le v e l t e c h n ic ia n s .
C la s s C . A p p lie s w o r k in g t e c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e t o p e r f o r m s im p le o r r o u tin e t a s k s in
w o rk in g on e le c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t, fo llo w in g d e t a ile d in s t r u c t io n s w h ic h c o v e r v ir t u a lly a ll
proced u res.
W o rk t y p i c a ll y in v o lv e s su ch t a s k s a s :
A s s is t i n g h ig h e r le v e l te c h n ic ia n s by
p e r fo r m i n g s u c h a c t iv i t ie s a s r e p la c in g c o m p o n e n t s , w ir in g c i r c u i t s , and ta k in g t e s t r e a d in g s ;
r e p a ir in g s im p le e le c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t; and u sin g t o o ls and c o m m o n t e s t in s tr u m e n ts ( e . g . ,
m u lt i m e t e r s , a u d io s ig n a l g e n e r a t o r s , tu b e t e s t e r s , o s c i l l o s c o p e s ) .
Is n ot r e q u i r e d t o be
f a m il ia r w ith th e in t e r r e la t io n s h ip s o f c i r c u i t s . T h is k n o w le d g e , h o w e v e r , m a y b e a c q u ir e d
th ro u g h a s s ig n m e n t s d e s ig n e d t o in c r e a s e c o m p e t e n c e (in c lu d in g c l a s s r o o m tra in in g ) s o that
w o r k e r ca n a d v a n c e t o h ig h e r le v e l t e c h n ic ia n .

T h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e x c l u d e s r e p a ir m e n o f s u c h sta n d a rd e le c t r o n i c eq u ip m e n t a s c o m m o n
o f f i c e m a c h in e s and h o u s e h o ld r a d io and t e le v i s io n s e t s ; p r o d u c t io n a s s e m b le r s and t e s t e r s ; w o r k ­
e r s w h o s e p r i m a r y du ty i s s e r v i c i n g e le c t r o n i c t e s t in s t r u m e n t s ; te c h n ic ia n s w h o h a ve a d m in is ­
t r a t iv e o r s u p e r v is o r y r e s p o n s i b il it y ; and d r a f t s m e n , d e s ig n e r s , and p r o f e s s io n a l e n g in e e r s .
P o s it i o n s a r e c l a s s i f i e d in to le v e l s on the b a s is o f the fo llo w in g d e fin it io n s .
C l a s s A . A p p lie s a d v a n c e d t e c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e to s o lv e u n u s u a lly c o m p le x p r o b le m s
( i . e . , t h o s e that t y p i c a ll y ca n n ot b e s o l v e d s o l e l y b y r e f e r e n c e to m a n u fa c t u r e r s ' m a n u a ls o r
s i m il a r d o c u m e n t s ) in w o rk in g on e le c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t. E x a m p le s o f s u c h p r o b l e m s in clu d e
lo c a t i o n and d e n s it y o f c i r c u i t r y , e l e c t r o - m a g n e t i c r a d ia tio n , is o la t in g m a lfu n c t io n s , and
fr e q u e n t e n g in e e r in g c h a n g e s . W ork in v o lv e s : A d e t a ile d u n d e rsta n d in g o f th e in t e r r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip s o f c i r c u i t s ; e x e r c i s i n g in d ep en d en t ju d g m e n t in p e r fo r m i n g s u c h t a s k s a s m a k in g c i r c u it
a n a ly s e s , c a lc u la t in g w a v e f o r m s , t r a c i n g r e la t io n s h ip s in s ig n a l flo w ; and r e g u l a r ly u sin g
c o m p le x t e s t in s t r u m e n t s ( e . g . , du al t r a c e o s c i l l o s c o p e s , Q - m e t e r s , d e v ia t io n m e t e r s , p u ls e
g e n e ra to rs).
W o rk m a y b e r e v ie w e d b y s u p e r v is o r (fr e q u e n t ly an e n g in e e r o r d e s ig n e r ) f o r g e n e r a l
c o m p lia n c e w ith a c c e p t e d p r a c t ic e s . M a y p r o v id e t e c h n ic a l g u id a n c e to lo w e r le v e l t e c h n ic ia n s .
C l a s s B.
A p p lie s c o m p r e h e n s iv e t e c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e t o s o lv e c o m p le x p r o b l e m s ( i . e . ,
t h o s e that t y p i c a ll y ca n b e s o l v e d s o l e ly b y p r o p e r l y in te r p r e t in g m a n u fa c t u r e r s ' m a n u a ls o r
s i m il a r d o c u m e n t s ) in w o rk in g on e l e c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t. W ork in v o lv e s : A f a m il ia r i t y w ith
th e in t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c i r c u i t s ; and ju d g m e n t in d e t e r m in in g w o r k s e q u e n c e and in s e le c t in g
t o o l s and t e s t in g in s t r u m e n t s , u s u a lly l e s s c o m p le x than t h o s e u s e d b y th e c l a s s A t e c h n ic ia n .

R e c e i v e s t e c h n i c a l g u id a n c e , a s r e q u ir e d , f r o m s u p e r v is o r o r h ig h e r le v e l t e c h n ic ia n .
W ork i s t y p i c a ll y sp o t c h e c k e d , but i s g iv e n d e t a ile d r e v i e w w hen n e w o r a d v a n c e d a s s ig n m e n t s
a r e in v o lv e d .

N U R SE , IN D U S T R IA L (R e g i s t e r e d )
A r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e w ho g iv e s n u r s in g s e r v i c e u n d e r g e n e r a l m e d i c a l d i r e c t io n t o i l l o r
in ju r e d e m p lo y e e s o r o th e r p e r s o n s w ho b e c o m e i l l o r s u f fe r an a c c id e n t o n th e p r e m is e s o f a
f a c t o r y o r o t h e r e s t a b lis h m e n t . D u ties in v o lv e a c o m b in a t io n o f the fo l lo w i n g : G iv in g f i r s t a id
to th e i l l o r in ju r e d ; a tten d in g t o s u b se q u e n t d r e s s i n g o f e m p l o y e e s ' in ju r ie s ; k e e p in g r e c o r d s
o f p a tie n ts t r e a t e d ; p r e p a r in g a c c id e n t r e p o r t s f o r c o m p e n s a t io n o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s ; a s s is t in g in
p h y s ic a l e x a m in a t io n s and h ea lth e v a lu a tio n s o f a p p lic a n ts and e m p l o y e e s ; and p la n n in g and c a r r y ­
in g out p r o g r a m s in v o lv in g h ea lth e d u c a tio n , a c c id e n t p r e v e n t io n , e v a lu a tio n o f pla n t e n v ir o n m e n t ,
o r o t h e r a c t iv i t ie s a ffe c t in g th e h e a lth , w e lf a r e , and s a fe t y o f a ll p e r s o n n e l . N u rsin g s u p e r v is o r s
o r h e a d n u r s e s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s e m p lo y in g m o r e than on e n u r s e a r e e x c lu d e d .

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

F IR E M A N , S T A T IO N A R Y B O IL E R

P e r f o r m s th e c a r p e n t r y d u tie s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s t r u c t and m a in ta in in g o o d r e p a ir b u ild ­
in g w o o d w o r k and e q u ip m e n t s u c h as b in s , c r i b s , c o u n t e r s , b e n c h e s , p a r t it io n s , d o o r s , f l o o r s ,
s t a ir s , c a s i n g s , and t r i m m a d e o f w o o d in an e s t a b lis h m e n t . W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e fo l lo w i n g :
P la n n in g and la y in g ou t o f w o r k f r o m b lu e p r in ts , d r a w in g s , m o d e l s , o r v e r b a l in s t r u c t io n s ; u sin g a
v a r ie t y o f c a r p e n t e r 's h a n d t o o ls , p o r t a b le p o w e r t o o l s , and sta n d a rd m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ; m a k ­
in g sta n d a rd sh op c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g t o d im e n s io n s o f w o r k ; and s e le c t in g m a t e r ia ls n e c e s s a r y
f o r th e w o r k .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f th e m a in te n a n ce c a r p e n t e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in in g and
e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a fo r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

F i r e s s t a t io n a r y b o i l e r s t o fu r n is h th e e s t a b lis h m e n t in w h ic h e m p lo y e d w ith h e a t, p o w e r ,
o r s t e a m . F e e d s fu e ls to f i r e b y hand o r o p e r a t e s a m e c h a n i c a l s t o k e r , g a s , o r o i l b u r n e r ; and
c h e c k s w a t e r and s a fe t y v a l v e s .
M a y c le a n , o i l , o r a s s i s t in r e p a ir in g b o i l e r r o o m e q u ip m e n t.

E L E C T R I C I A N , M A IN T E N A N C E
P e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e fu n c tio n s s u c h a s the in s t a lla t io n , m a in t e n a n c e , o r
r e p a i r o f eq u ip m e n t f o r th e g e n e r a t io n , d is t r ib u t io n , o r u t iliz a t io n o f e l e c t r i c e n e r g y in an e s t a b ­
li s h m e n t . W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e fo l lo w i n g : I n s ta llin g o r r e p a ir in g any o f a v a r ie t y o f e l e c ­
t r i c a l eq u ip m e n t su c h a s g e n e r a t o r s , t r a n s f o r m e r s , s w itc h b o a r d s , c o n t r o l l e r s , c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s ,
m o t o r s , h e a tin g u n its, co n d u it s y s t e m s , o r o t h e r t r a n s m i s s i o n eq u ip m e n t; w o rk in g f r o m b lu e ­
p r in t s , d r a w in g s , la y o u t s , o r o t h e r s p e c i f ic a t i o n s : lo c a t in g and d ia g n o s in g t r o u b le in th e e l e c t r i c a l
s y s t e m o r e q u ip m e n t; w o rk in g sta n d a rd c o m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g t o lo a d r e q u ir e m e n t s o f w ir in g o r
e l e c t r i c a l e q u ip m e n t; and u sin g a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c i a n 's h a n d to o ls and m e a s u r in g and t e s tin g
in s t r u m e n t s .
In g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f th e m a in te n a n c e e l e c t r i c i a n r e q u i r e s ro u n d e d tr a in in g and
e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a fo r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

E N G IN E E R , S T A T IO N A R Y
O p e r a t e s and m a in t a in s and m a y a ls o s u p e r v is e th e o p e r a t io n o f s t a t io n a r y e n g in e s and
eq u ip m e n t (m e c h a n ic a l o r e l e c t r i c a l ) t o su p p ly th e e s t a b lis h m e n t in w h ic h e m p lo y e d w ith p o w e r ,
h e a t, r e f r i g e r a t i o n , o r a ir - c o n d it i o n in g .
W ork in v o l v e s :
O p e r a tin g and m a in ta in in g eq u ip m en t
s u c h a s s te a m e n g in e s , a i r c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a t o r s , m o t o r s , t u r b in e s , v e n tila tin g and r e f r i g ­
e r a t in g e q u ip m e n t, s te a m b o i l e r s and b o i l e r - f e d w a t e r p u m p s ; m a k in g e q u ip m e n t r e p a i r s ; and
k e e p in g a r e c o r d o f o p e r a t io n o f m a c h in e r y , t e m p e r a t u r e , and fu e l c o n s u m p t io n . M a y a ls o s u ­
p e r v is e t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s .
H ea d o r c h i e f e n g in e e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s e m p lo y in g m o r e than on e
e n g in e e r a r e e x c lu d e d .




H E L P E R , M A IN T E N A N C E T R A D E S
A s s i s t s o n e o r m o r e w o r k e r s in th e s k ille d m a in t e n a n c e t r a d e s , by p e r fo r m in g s p e c i f i c
o r g e n e r a l d u tie s o f l e s s e r s k il l, su c h a s k e e p in g a w o r k e r s u p p lie d w ith m a t e r ia ls and t o o ls ;
c le a n in g w o r k in g a r e a , m a c h in e , and e q u ip m e n t; a s s i s t in g jo u r n e y m a n b y h o ld in g m a t e r ia ls o r
t o o l s ; and p e r fo r m i n g o t h e r u n s k ille d t a s k s a s d i r e c t e d b y jo u r n e y m a n .
T h e k in d o f w o r k the
h e l p e r i s p e r m it t e d to p e r f o r m v a r ie s f r o m t r a d e t o t r a d e : In s o m e t r a d e s th e h e lp e r is c o n fin e d
to s u p p ly in g , lift in g , and h o ld in g m a t e r ia ls and t o o l s , and c le a n in g w o r k in g a r e a s ; and in o t h e r s
he i s p e r m it t e d t o p e r f o r m s p e c i a l iz e d m a c h in e o p e r a t i o n s , o r p a r t s o f a t r a d e that a r e a ls o
p e r f o r m e d b y w o r k e r s on a f u l l - t i m e b a s is .

M A C H I N E -T O O L O P E R A T O R , T O O L R O O M
S p e c ia li z e s in th e o p e r a t io n o f o n e o r m o r e ty p e s o f m a c h in e t o o l s , su ch a s jig b o r e r s ,
c y l in d r ic a l o r s u r fa c e g r i n d e r s , e n g in e la t h e s , o r m il li n g m a c h in e s , in the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f
m a c h in e -s h o p t o o l s , g a u g e s , j i g s , f i x t u r e s , o r d i e s . W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P la n n in g
and p e r fo r m i n g d i ff ic u l t m a c h in in g o p e r a t io n s ; p r o c e s s i n g it e m s r e q u ir in g c o m p li c a t e d se tu p s o r
a h igh d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y ; u s in g a v a r ie t y o f p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ; s e le c t in g fe e d s ,
s p e e d s , t o o li n g , and o p e r a t io n s e q u e n c e ; and m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s tm e n ts d u rin g o p e r a t io n
t o a c h ie v e r e q u is it e t o l e r a n c e s o r d im e n s io n s .
M a y b e r e q u i r e d t o r e c o g n iz e w h en t o o ls n e e d
d r e s s i n g , t o d r e s s t o o l s , and t o s e l e c t p r o p e r c o o la n t s and cu ttin g and lu b r ic a t in g o i l s .
F or
c r o s s - i n d u s t r y w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , m a c h in e - t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o l r o o m , in t o o l and d ie jo b b in g
s h o p s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m th is c l a s s i f ic a t i o n .
M A C H IN IS T , M A IN T E N A N C E
P r o d u c e s r e p la c e m e n t p a r t s and n e w p a r t s in m a k in g r e p a i r s o f m e t a l p a r t s o f m e c h a n ic a l
eq u ip m e n t o p e r a t e d in an e s t a b lis h m e n t . W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e fo l lo w i n g : In te r p r e tin g w r itte n
in s t r u c t io n s and s p e c i f ic a t i o n s ; p la n n in g and la y in g out o f w o r k ; u sin g a v a r ie t y o f m a c h in is t 's

30

M A C H IN IS T , M A IN T E N A N C E — C on tin u ed

P A IN T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

h a n d to o ls and p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ; se ttin g up and o p e r a t in g s ta n d a rd m a c h in e t o o ls ;
sh a p in g o f m e t a l p a r t s t o c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ; m a k in g sta n d a rd sh o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g t o d im e n ­
s io n s o f w o r k , t o o lin g , f e e d s , and s p e e d s o f m a c h in in g ; k n o w le d g e o f the w o r k in g p r o p e r t ie s o f
th e c o m m o n m e t a l s ; s e l e c t i n g s ta n d a rd m a t e r ia ls , p a r t s , and e q u ip m e n t r e q u i r e d f o r h is w o rk ;
and fittin g and a s s e m b lin g p a r t s in to m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t.
In g e n e r a l, the m a c h in is t 's w o rk
n o r m a ll y r e q u i r e s a ro u n d e d t r a in in g in m a c h in e -s h o p p r a c t ic e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th rou g h a f o r m a l
a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g , and e x p e r ie n c e .

P a in ts and r e d e c o r a t e s w a l ls , w o o d w o r k , and fix t u r e s o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t . W ork in v o lv e s
th e fo l lo w i n g : K n o w le d g e o f s u r fa c e p e c u li a r it i e s and ty p e s o f pa in t r e q u ir e d f o r d iffe r e n t a p p lic a ­
t io n s ; p r e p a r in g s u r fa c e f o r p a in tin g b y r e m o v in g o ld fin is h o r b y p la c in g putty o r f i l l e r in n a il
h o le s and in t e r s t i c e s ; and a p p ly in g p a in t w ith s p r a y gun o r b r u s h . M a y m ix c o l o r s , o i l s , w hite
le a d , and o t h e r pa in t in g r e d ie n t s t o o b ta in p r o p e r c o l o r o r c o n s is t e n c y . In g e n e r a l, th e w o rk o f the
m a in te n a n c e p a in te r r e q u ir e s r o u n d e d t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a fo r m a l
a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
P I P E F I T T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (M a in te n a n ce )
R e p a ir s a u t o m o b ile s , b u s e s , m o t o r t r u c k s , and t r a c t o r s o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t . W ork in ­
v o lv e s m q s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : E x a m in in g a u to m o tiv e eq u ip m e n t to d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ; d i s ­
a s s e m b lin g e q u ip m e n t and p e r fo r m i n g r e p a i r s that in v o lv e th e u s e o f su ch h a n d to o ls a s w r e n c h e s ,
g a u g e s , d r i l l s , o r s p e c i a l iz e d eq u ip m en t in d is a s s e m b lin g o r fit t in g p a r t s ; r e p la c i n g b r o k e n o r
d e f e c t i v e p a r t s f r o m s t o c k ; g r in d in g and a d ju stin g v a lv e s ; r e a s s e m b l in g and in s t a llin g th e v a r io u s
a s s e m b li e s in th e v e h ic le and m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t m e n t s ; and a lig n in g w h e e ls , a d ju stin g b r a k e s
and lig h t s , o r tig h ten in g b o d y b o lt s . In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f th e a u to m o tiv e m e c h a n ic r e q u i r e s
rou n d ed t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t
t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
T h is c l a s s i f ic a t i o n d o e s not in c lu d e m e c h a n i c s w ho r e p a ir c u s t o m e r s ' v e h i c l e s in a u to ­
m o b il e r e p a i r s h o p s .

I n s t a lls o r r e p a i r s w a t e r , s t e a m , g a s , o r o t h e r t y p e s o f p ip e and p ip e fit t in g s in an
e s t a b lis h m e n t . W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e fo l lo w i n g : L a y in g out o f w o r k and m e a s u r in g t o lo c a t e
p o s it i o n o f p ip e f r o m d r a w in g s o r o t h e r w r it te n s p e c i fic a t i o n s ; cu ttin g v a r io u s s i z e s o f p ip e to
c o r r e c t len g th s w ith c h i s e l and h a m m e r o r o x y a c e t y le n e t o r c h o r p i p e -c u t t in g m a c h in e s ; th re a d in g
p ip e w ith s t o c k s and d i e s ; b en d in g p ip e b y h a n d -d r iv e n o r p o w e r -d r iv e n m a c h in e s ; a s s e m b lin g
p ip e w ith c o u p lin g s and fa s t e n in g p ip e to h a n g e r s ; m a k in g sta n d a rd sh op co m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g to
p r e s s u r e s , flo w , and s i z e o f p ip e r e q u ir e d ; and m a k in g sta n d a rd t e s t s to d e t e r m in e w h eth er fin ­
is h e d p ip e s m e e t s p e c i f ic a t i o n s .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o rk o f the m a in te n a n ce p ip e f it t e r r e q u ir e s
ro u n d e d t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a len t
tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e . W o r k e r s p r im a r i ly e n g a g e d in in s t a llin g and r e p a ir in g b u ild in g sa n ita tion
o r h ea tin g s y s t e m s a r e e x c l u d e d .
S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

M E C H A N IC , M A IN T E N A N C E
R e p a ir s m a c h in e r y o r m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W ork in v o lv e s m o s t
o f th e fo llo w in g :
E x a m in in g m a c h in e s and m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t to d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ;
d is m a n tlin g o r p a r t ly d is m a n tlin g m a c h in e s and p e r fo r m i n g r e p a i r s that m a in ly in v o lv e the u se
o f h a n d to o ls in s c r a p in g and fittin g p a r t s ; r e p la c in g b r o k e n o r d e f e c t i v e p a r t s w ith it e m s o b ta in e d
f r o m s t o c k ; o r d e r i n g th e p r o d u c t io n o f a r e p la c e m e n t p a r t b y a m a ch in e sh op o r se n d in g o f the
m a c h in e t o a m a c h in e sh op f o r m a jo r r e p a i r s ; p r e p a r in g w r it te n s p e c i fic a t i o n s f o r m a jo r r e p a i r s
o r f o r th e p r o d u c t io n o f p a r t s o r d e r e d f r o m m a c h in e sh o p ; r e a s s e m b lin g m a c h in e s ; and m a k in g
a ll n e c e s s a r y a d ju s tm e n ts f o r o p e r a t io n . In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f a m a in te n a n ce m e c h a n ic r e q u ir e s
ro u n d e d t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th rou g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t
t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
E x c lu d e d f r o m th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e w o r k e r s w h o s e p r im a r y d u tie s
in v o lv e se ttin g up o r a d ju stin g m a c h in e s .

M IL L W R IG H T
In s t a lls n ew m a c h in e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m e n t, and d is m a n t le s and in s t a lls m a c h in e s o r h e a v y
eq u ip m e n t w hen ch a n g e s in th e pla n t la y o u t a r e r e q u ir e d . W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e fo l lo w i n g :
P la n n in g and la y in g out o f the w o r k ; in te r p r e t in g b lu e p r in ts o r o th e r s p e c i fic a t i o n s ; u sin g a v a r ie t y
o f h a n d to o ls and r ig g in g ; m a k in g s ta n d a rd sh op c o m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g t o s t r e s s e s , str e n g th o f
m a t e r ia ls , and c e n t e r s o f g r a v it y ; a lig n in g and b a la n c in g o f e q u ip m e n t; s e l e c t i n g sta n d a rd t o o ls ,
e q u ip m e n t, and p a r t s t o b e u se d ; and in s t a llin g and m a in ta in in g in g o o d o r d e r p o w e r t r a n s m i s s i o n
eq u ip m e n t s u c h as d r iv e s and s p e e d r e d u c e r s . In g e n e r a l, th e m il lw r ig h t 's w o r k n o r m a lly r e q u ir e s
a ro u n d e d t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e in th e t r a d e a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

F a b r i c a t e s , in s t a l ls , and m a in ta in s in g o o d r e p a i r th e s h e e t - m e t a l eq u ip m en t and fix tu r e s
(s u c h a s m a c h in e g u a r d s , g r e a s e p a n s , s h e l v e s , l o c k e r s , ta n k s, v e n t il a t o r s , c h u te s , d u c t s , m e t a l
r o o f in g ) o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t . W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e fo l lo w i n g : P la n n in g and la y in g ou t a ll
t y p e s o f s h e e t - m e t a l m a in t e n a n c e w o r k f r o m b lu e p r in ts , m o d e l s , o r o t h e r s p e c i fic a t i o n s ; settin g
up and o p e r a t in g a ll a v a ila b le t y p e s o f s h e e t - m e t a l w o rk in g m a c h in e s ; u sin g a v a r ie t y o f h a n d tools
in c u ttin g , b e n d in g , f o r m in g , sh a p in g , fit t in g , and a s s e m b lin g ; and in s t a llin g s h e e t - m e t a l a r t ic le s
as r e q u ir e d .
In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f th e m a in te n a n ce s h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r r e q u ir e s rou n d ed
tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tra in in g
and e x p e r ie n c e .
T O O L A N D D IE M A K E R
C o n s t r u c t s and r e p a i r s m a c h in e -s h o p t o o l s , g a u g e s , j i g s , fix t u r e s o r d ie s f o r fo r g in g s ,
p u n ch in g , and o t h e r m e t a l - f o r m in g w o r k .
W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g : P la n n in g and
la y in g ou t o f w o r k fr o m m o d e l s , b lu e p r in ts , d r a w in g s , o r o th e r o r a l and w ritte n s p e c ific a t io n s ;
u sin g a v a r ie t y o f t o o l and d ie m a k e r 's h a n d to o ls and p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ; u n d e r ­
sta n d in g o f th e w o rk in g p r o p e r t ie s o f c o m m o n m e t a ls and a ll o y s ; settin g up and o p e r a t in g o f
m a c h in e t o o l^ and r e la t e d eq u ip m e n t; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y sh o p co m p u ta tio n s re la tin g to d im e n s io n s
o f w o r k , s p e e d s , f e e d s , and t o o lin g o f m a c h in e s ; h e a t -t r e a t in g o f m e t a l p a r t s d u rin g fa b r ic a t io n
as w e ll as o f fin is h e d t o o ls and d ie s to a c h ie v e r e q u ir e d q u a lit ie s ; w o rk in g t o c l o s e t o le r a n c e s ;
fittin g and a s s e m b lin g o f p a r t s to p r e s c r i b e d t o le r a n c e s and a llo w a n c e s ; and s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r ia t e
m a t e r ia ls , t o o l s , and p r o c e s s e s . In g e n e r a l, th e t o o l and d ie m a k e r 's w o r k r e q u i r e s a rou n d ed
t r a in in g in m a c h in e -s h o p and t o o lr o o m p r a c t ic e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th rou g h a fo r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip
o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
F o r c r o s s - i n d u s t r y w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s ,
sh o p s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m th is c l a s s i f ic a t i o n .

t o o l and

d ie m a k e r s in t o o l

and d ie jo b b in g

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H A N D LIN G

GUARD AND W ATCH MEN
G u a rd . P e r f o r m s r o u tin e p o l ic e d u tie s, e it h e r at fix e d p o s t o r on t o u r , m a in ta in in g o r d e r ,
u sin g a r m s o r f o r c e w h e re n e c e s s a r y . I n clu d e s g a te m e n w ho a r e s ta tio n e d at g a te and c h e c k
on id e n t it y o f e m p lo y e e s and o t h e r p e r s o n s e n t e r in g .
W a tch m a n . M a k e s ro u n d s o f p r e m is e s p e r i o d i c a l l y in p r o t e c t in g p r o p e r t y a g a in st f i r e ,
theft^ and il le g a l e n tr y .

A w o r k e r e m p lo y e d in a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t, s t o r e , o r o t h e r e s t a b lis h m e n t
w h o s e d u tie s in v o lv e o n e o r m o r e o f th e fo l lo w i n g : L o a d in g and u n loa d in g v a r io u s m a t e r ia ls and
m e r c h a n d is e on o r f r o m fr e ig h t c a r s , t r u c k s , o r o t h e r t r a n s p o r t in g d e v i c e s ; u n p a ck in g , sh e lv in g ,
o r p la c in g m a t e r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e in p r o p e r s t o r a g e lo c a t io n ; and t r a n s p o r t in g m a t e r ia ls o r
m e r c h a n d is e b y h a n d tr u ck , c a r , o r w h e e lb a r r o w . L o n g s h o r e m e n , w ho lo a d and u n loa d sh ip s a r e
e x c lu d e d .

J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R
O R D E R F IL L E R
C le a n s and k e e p s in an o r d e r l y c o n d it io n f a c t o r y w o r k in g a r e a s a'nd w a s h r o o m s , o r
p r e m is e s o f an o f f i c e , a p a rtm e n t h o u s e , o r c o m m e r c i a l o r o t h e r e s t a b lis h m e n t . D u tie s in v o lv e
a c o m b in a t io n o f the f o l lo w i n g : S w e e p in g , m o p p in g o r s c r u b b in g , and p o lis h in g f l o o r s ; r e m o v in g
c h i p s , t r a s h , and o t h e r r e f u s e ; d u stin g e q u ip m e n t, fu r n it u r e , o r fix t u r e s ; p o lis h in g m e t a l f i x ­
t u r e s o r t r i m m in g s ; p r o v id in g s u p p lie s and m in o r m a in te n a n c e s e r v i c e s ; and c le a n in g la v a t o r ie s ,
s h o w e r s , and r f t e t r o o m s . W o r k e r s w ho s p e c i a l iz e in w in d o w w a s h in g a r e e x c l u d e d .




F il ls sh ip p in g o r t r a n s f e r o r d e r s f o r fin is h e d g o o d s f r o m s t o r e d m e r c h a n d is e in a c c o r d ­
a n c e w ith s p e c i f ic a t i o n s on s a le s s l i p s , c u s t o m e r s ' o r d e r s , o r o t h e r in s t r u c t io n s . M a y , in a d d ition
t o fi ll in g o r d e r s and in d ic a t in g it e m s f i l l e d o r o m it t e d , k e e p r e c o r d s o f o u tg o in g o r d e r s , r e q u i­
s it io n a d d itio n a l s t o c k o r r e p o r t s h o r t s u p p lie s to s u p e r v is o r , and p e r f o r m o t h e r r e la t e d d u tie s .

31

P A C K E R , S H IP P IN G

T R U C K D R IV E R — C on tin u ed

P r e p a r e s fin is h e d p r o d u c t s f o r sh ip m e n t o r s t o r a g e by p la c in g th em in sh ip p in g c o n ­
t a in e r s , th e s p e c i f i c o p e r a t io n s p e r f o r m e d b e in g dep en d en t upon the ty p e , s i z e , and n u m b e r
o f un its t o be p a c k e d , the t y p e o f c o n t a in e r e m p lo y e d , and m e th o d o f s h ip m e n t. W ork r e q u ir e s
th e p la c in g o f it e m s in sh ip p in g c o n t a in e r s and m a y in v o lv e on e o r m o r e o f th e fo l lo w i n g :
K n o w le d g e o f v a r io u s it e m s o f s t o c k in o r d e r to v e r i f y con ten t; s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r ia t e ty p e
and s i z e o f c o n t a in e r : in s e r t in g e n c l o s u r e s in c o n t a in e r : u sin g e x c e l s i o r o r o t h e r m a t e r ia l to
p r e v e n t b r e a k a g e o r d a m a g e ; c l o s i n g and s e a lin g c o n t a in e r ; and a p p ly in g la b e ls o r e n te rin g
id e n tify in g da ta o n c o n t a in e r .
P a c k e r s w ho a ls o m a k e w o o d e n b o x e s o r c r a t e s a r e e x c l u d e d .

fo llo w s :

F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , t r u c k d r iv e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d by s i z e and ty p e
( T r a c t o r - t r a i l e r sh ou ld be ra te d on th e b a s is o f t r a i l e r c a p a c it y .)
T r u c k d r iv e r
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,

o f e q u ip m e n t, as

(c o m b in a t io n o f s i z e s li s t e d s e p a r a t e ly )
lig h t (u n d er 1 */z to n s )
m e d iu m (1V2 to and in clu d in g 4 to n s )
h e a v y ( o v e r 4 t o n s , t r a i l e r ty p e )
h e a v y (o v e r 4 t o n s , o t h e r than t r a i l e r ty p e)

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K
TRU C KE R, POW ER
P r e p a r e s m e r c h a n d is e f o r s h ip m e n t, o r r e c e i v e s and is r e s p o n s i b le f o r in c o m in g s h ip ­
m e n t s o f m e r c h a n d is e o r o t h e r m a t e r ia ls . S h ipping w o rk i n v o l v e s : A k n o w le d g e o f sh ip p in g p r o ­
c e d u r e s , p r a c t i c e s , r o u t e s , a v a ila b le m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r t a t io n , and r a t e s ; and p r e p a r in g r e c o r d s
o f the g o o d s sh ip p e d , m a k in g up b il ls o f la d in g , p o s t in g w eig h t and sh ip p in g c h a r g e s , and k e e p in g
a f i le o f sh ip p in g r e c o r d s .
M a y d i r e c t o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r in g th e m e r c h a n d is e f o r sh ip m e n t.
R e c e iv in g w o r k i n v o l v e s : V e r ify in g o r d ir e c t in g o t h e r s in v e r ify in g th e c o r r e c t n e s s o f sh ip m e n ts
a g a in s t b il ls o f la d in g , i n v o i c e s , o r o t h e r r e c o r d s ; c h e c k in g fo r s h o r t a g e s and r e je c t i n g d a m ­
a g e d g o o d s ; ro u tin g m e r c h a n d is e o r m a t e r ia ls to p r o p e r d e p a r t m e n t s : and m a in ta in in g n e c e s s a r y
r e c o r d s and f i l e s .
F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s ,

O p e r a t e s a m a n u a lly c o n t r o ll e d g a s o lin e - o r e le c t r i c - p o w e r e d t r u c k o r t r a c t o r to t r a n s p o r t
g o o d s and m a t e r ia ls o f a ll k in d s a bou t a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa ctu rin g p la n t, o r o t h e r e s t a b lis h m e n t .
F o r w a g e stud y p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d by ty p e o f t r u c k , as f o l lo w s :
T r u c k e r , p o w e r (f o r k l if t )
T r u c k e r , p o w e r (o t h e r than fo r k li ft )

W A R E H O U SE M A N

w o r k e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s fo l lo w s :

R e c e iv in g c l e r k
S h ip p in g c l e r k
Sh ippin g and r e c e iv in g c l e r k
T R U C K D R IV E R
D r iv e s a t r u c k w itn in a c it y o r in d u s t r ia l a r e a to t r a n s p o r t m a t e r ia ls , m e r c h a n d is e ,
e q u ip m e n t, o r m e n b e tw e e n v a r io u s t y p e s o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s su c h a s : M a n u fa ctu r in g p la n ts , fr e ig h t
d e p o t s , w a r e h o u s e s , w h o le s a le and r e t a il e s t a b lis h m e n t s , o r b etw een r e t a il e s t a b lis h m e n t s and
c u s t o m e r s ' h o u s e s o r p l a c e s o f b u s in e s s . M ay a ls o lo a d o r u n loa d t r u c k w ith o r w ith ou t h e l p e r s ,
m a k e m in o r m e c h a n ic a l r e p a i r s , and k e e p t r u c k in g o o d w o rk in g o r d e r .
D r i v e r - s a l e s m e n and
o v e r - t h e - r o a d d r i v e r s a r e e x c lu d e d .

A s d i r e c t e d , p e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y o f w a r e h o u s in g d u tie s w h ich r e q u ir e an u n d ersta n d in g
o f the e s t a b lis h m e n t 's s t o r a g e p la n .
W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo l lo w i n g : V e r ify in g m a t e r ia ls
(o r m e r c h a n d is e ) a g a in s t r e c e iv in g d o c u m e n t s , n otin g and r e p o r t in g d i s c r e p a n c i e s and o b v io u s
d a m a g e s ; ro u tin g m a t e r ia ls t o p r e s c r i b e d s t o r a g e lo c a t i o n s ; s t o r in g , st a c k in g , o r p a lle t iz in g
m a t e r ia ls in a c c o r d a n c e w ith p r e s c r i b e d s t o r a g e m e t h o d s ; r e a r r a n g in g and taking in v e n t o r y o f
s t o r e d m a t e r ia ls ; e x a m in in g s t o r e d m a t e r ia ls and r e p o r t in g d e t e r io r a t i o n and d a m a g e ; re m o v in g
m a t e r ia l f r o m s t o r a g e and p r e p a r in g it f o r s h ip m e n t.
M a y o p e r a t e hand o r p o w e r t r u c k s in
p e r fo r m i n g w a r e h o u s in g d u tie s .
E x c lu d e w o r k e r s w h o se p r im a r y d u tie s in v o lv e sh ip p in g and r e c e iv in g w o rk (s e e sh ip p in g
and r e c e iv in g c l e r k and p a c k e r , s h ip p in g ), o r d e r fillin g (s e e o r d e r f i l l e r ) , o r o p e r a t in g p o w e r
t r u c k s (s e e t r u c k e r , p o w e r ).

A r ea Wage S u rv eys bulletins will be issued o n ce every 3 years. These bulletins w ill con ta in in form a tion o n establishm ent practices and supplem entary b en efits as well as earnings. In the in terim years, su p plem en ts con ta in in g data on
earnings o n ly will be issued at n o addition al cos ts to h old ers o f the A rea Wage bulletin.

I f y o u wish to receive these sup plem ents, please co m p le te the c o u p o n s b e lo w and m ail t o any o f the BLS regional addresses listed o n the b ack

co v e r o f this p u b lica tion . N o further a ction o n y o u r part is necessary. Each year, y o u will receive the supplem ent w hen it is pu blished .

1

1

Please sen d m e a c o p y o f S u p p lem en t I t o BLS Bulletin

Please send m e a c o p y o f S upp lem ent II to BLS Bulletin
1
1
1
1

Nam e

A ddress

Name

Address
1
1

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C ity and State




Z ip C od e

C ity and State

32

Z ip C od e

Area Wage Surveys
A l i s t o f the la te s t a v a ila b le b u lle tin s o r b u lle tin su p p le m e n ts is p r e s e n t e d b e lo w .
A d ir e c t o r y o f a r e a w a ge s tu d ie s in clu d in g m o r e lim ite d s tu d ie s
on ducted at the r e q u e s t o f the E m p lo y m e n t S ta n d a rd s A d m in is tr a tio n o f the D ep a rtm en t o f L a b o r is a v a ila b le on r e q u e s t . B u lle tin s m a y b e p u r c h a s e d f r o m any
[ the B L S r e g io n a l o f f ic e s show n on the b a ck c o v e r , o r f r o m th e S u p erin ten d en t o f D o c u m e n ts , U .S. G o v e rn m e n t P r in tin g O f fic e , W a sh in g to n , D .C ., 2 0402.
r f r o m B LS r e g io n a l
A rea
k r o n , O h io , D e c. 1973 1 _________
..
..
lbany— ch e n e cta d y —T r o y , N .Y ., M a r. 1974.
S
lb u q u e rq u e , N. M e x ., M a r . 1974____________________________
._
llen tow n — e th le h e m ^ E a s to n , P a .—N .J ., M a y 1974_______
B
tlan ta , G a ., M ay 1974________________________________________
u stin , T e x ., D e c. 1973________________________________________ ._
a lt im o r e , M d ., Aug. 1973______________________________ ______ ._
._
2 aum ont—P o r t A rth u r—O ra n g e , T e x ., M a y 1974__________
Lnghamton, N .Y .— a ., J u ly 1973 1 __________________________
P
._
Lrm ingham , A la ., M a r . 1974________________________________
.
o is e C ity , Id a h o , N ov. 1973 _________________________________
._
o s to n , M a s s ., A u g. 1973
._
u ffa lo , N .Y ., O ct. 1973.
u rlin g to n , V t ., D e c . ]
._
anton, O h io , M ay 1974 1----------------------------------------„
h a r le s t o n , W . V a . , M a r. 1974-------------------------------h a r lo tt e , N .C ., Jan. 1 9 7 4 __________________________
h atta n oo g a , T e n n .- G a ., Sept. 197 3 ________________
._
h ic a g o , 111., M a y 1973 ________________ _____________
._
in cin n a ti, O hio— y .— n d ., F e b . 1 9 7 4 1 -----------------K
I
le v e la n d , O h io , Sept. 1973__ __ ____ __ ____________
._
o lu m b u s , O h io , O ct. 1973__________________________
„
a lia s , T e x ., O ct. 1 9 7 3 ______________________________
111., F e b . 1974 1______ ._
a v en p ort—R o c k Isla n d — o lin e , Iow a—
M
._
ayton , O h io, D e c. 1 9 7 3 ______
_
..
e n v e r , C o lo ., D e c. 1973_______
..
e s M o in e s , Io w a , M a y 1974.
e t r o it , M ic h ., M a r. 1974----._
u rh a m , N .C ., D e c . 1973 1__
o rt L a u d e rd a le —H o lly w o o d and W e s t P a lm
._
B e a ch , F la ., A p r . 1974------._
o rt W o rth , T e x ., O ct. 1973__________
._
reen B a y , W is ., J u ly 1973___________
._
r e e n v ille , S .C ., M ay 1974___________
._
o u ston , T e x ., A p r . 1974 1____________ _
..
u n t s v ille , A la ., F e b . 1974 1 --------------._
d ia n a p o lis , In d ., O ct. 1973---------------._
tc k s o n , M i s s ., Jan. 1 9 7 4 1___________
..
ic k s o n v ille , F la ., D e c. 1973 1 _______
..
a n sa s C ity , M o .- K a n s ., Sept. 1973 1.
a w re n c e —H a v e r h ill, M a s s .—N .H ., June 1974e x in g ton , K y ., N ov. 1973—
ttle R o ck —N orth L it tle R o c k , A r k ., J u ly 1973___
os A n g e le s —L o n g B e a c h and A n a h eim —
Santa A na._
G arden G r o v e , C a lif ., O ct. 1973___________________
o u is v ille , K y.—In d ., N ov. 1973--------------------------------t b b o c k , T e x ., M a r. 1974________________________ ___
a n c h e s t e r , N .H ., J u ly 1 9 7 3 ________________________
Digitized e —T it u s v ille —C o c o a , F l a ., A ug. 1973 1---._
e lb o u r n for FRASER

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
1 D ata o n esta blish m en p a c tic e s and
Federal Reserve Bank tofr St. Louis

B u lle tin n u m b e r
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sup plem en tary w a g e provisions are a lso presented.

A rea

B u lle tin n u m b e r
and p r ic e

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M e m p h is , T.enn.—A r k ., N ov. 1973 1 ____ ____
___Suppl.
M ia m i, F la ., N ov. 1 9 7 3 _______________________
Suppl.
M id la n d and O d e s s a , T e x ., Jan. 1 9 7 4 ______
M ilw a u k e e , W is ., M a y 1974---------------------------Suppl.
M in n e a p o lis —
St. P a u l, M in n ., Jan . 1 9 7 4 ____
Suppl.
M u sk eg on — u sk eg on H e ig h ts , M ic h ., June 1974_______________ Suppl.
M
N ew a rk and J e r s e y C ity , N .J ., Jan. 1 9 7 4 _______________________ Suppl.
Suppl.
N ew H av en , C o n n ., Jan. 1974—
1 7 9 5 -1 5 ,
N ew O r le a n s , L a ., Jan. 1 9 7 4 1
N ew Y o r k , N .Y ., A p r . 1974Suppl.
N o rfo lk —V ir g in ia B e a ch —P o r ts m o u th and
N ew p ort N ew s— am p ton , V a . , Jan. 1974______________________ Suppl.
H
O k la h om a C ity , O k la ., J u ly 1 9 7 3 ________________________________ Suppl.
O m a h a , N e b r .—
Iow a , S ep t. 1973_____ __ __________________________ Suppl.
P a t e r s o n —C lifto n —P a s s a i c , N .J ., June 1974------------------------------ Suppl.
P h ila d e lp h ia , P a .—N .J ., N ov. 1973 1________________ - ___________ 1 7 9 5 -1 9 .
P h o e n ix , A r i z ., June 1973________________________________________
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K
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P
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R ic h m o n d , V a ., M a r . 1974 *__
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San B e r n a r d in o — n ta rio , C a lif ., D e c . 1 9 7 3 _______ Suppl.
O
R o c k f o r d , 111., June 1974____________
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Salt L a k e C ity , U tah, N ov. 1 9 7 3 ____
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San D ie g o , C a lif ., N ov. 1973___
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S avan nah , G a ., M ay 1974_____
S cra n to n , P a ., J u ly 1973 1
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South B e n d , In d ., M a r. 1974 1 ------ ---1 7 9 5 -1 8 ,
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St. P e t e r s b u r g , F l a ., Aug. 1973_
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T o le d o , O h io— ic h ., A p r . 1974_________
M
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T r e n t o n , N .J ., Sep t. 1973_________________ ________________________ Suppl.
W a s h in g to n , D . C . - M d . - V a . , M a r. 1 9 7 3 _________________________
1 7 7 5 -7 5 ,
W a t e r b u r y , C o n n ., M a r . 1 9 7 4 __________ ________________ ___ _____ Suppl.
W a t e r lo o , Iow a , N ov. 1973 1 ______________________________________ 1 7 9 5 -5 ,
W ic h ita , K a n s ., A p r . 1974 1____________
__ ___________________ 1 7 9 5 -2 0 ,
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Y o r k , P a ., F e b . 1974______________________________________________ Suppl.
Y o u n g stow n — a r r e n , O h io , N ov. 1 9 7 3 ______________ ___________ Suppl.
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1 9 7 4 - 6 4 0 - 1 1 6 /3 2

POSTAGE AND FEES PAID
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

U.S. DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20212

LAB 441

OFFICIAL BUSINESS
PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE $300

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B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S R E G IO N A L O F F IC E S
Region I
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (Area Code 617)
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Vermont

Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)
New Jersey
New York
Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands

Region III
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: 597-1154 (Area Code 215)
Delaware
District of Columbia
Maryland
Pennsylvania
Virginia
West Virginia

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Mississippi
North Carolina
South Carolina
Tennessee

Region V
8th Floor, 300 South Wacker Drive
Chicago, III. 60606
Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)
Illinois
Indiana
Michigan
Minnesota
Ohio
Wisconsin

Region VI
1100 Commerce St. Rm. 6B7
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)
Arkansas
Louisiana
New Mexico
Oklahoma
Texas

Regions VII and VIII
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 15th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)
VII
VIII
Iowa
Colorado
Kansas
Montana
Missouri
North Dakota
Nebraska
South Dakota
Utah
Wyoming

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)
IX
X
Arizona
Alaska
California
Idaho
Hawaii
Oregon
Nevada
Washington





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