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AREAWAGESURVEY
W orcester, M assachusetts, M etropolitan Area,
M ay 1973
Bulletin 1775 76




U S. D EPAR TM EN T OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics




Preface
T h i s b u lle tin p r o v i d e s r e s u l t s o f a M a y 1973 s u r v e y o f o c c u p a tio n a l
e a r n in g s in the W o r c e s t e r , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , Standar d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a
(the c i t y o f W o r c e s t e r and 21 towns in W o r c e s t e r Coun ty.
See ta ble 1 , ) .
The
s u r v e y was m a d e as p a r t o f the B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s ' annual a r e a w ag e
survey program .
T h e p r o g r a m is d e s ig n e d to y i e l d data f o r in d iv id u al m e t r o ­
p o lita n a r e a s , as w e l l as na tional and r e g i o n a l e s t i m a t e s f o r a l l Standard M e t r o ­
p o lita n A r e a s in the Unite d S ta te s , exc lu d in g A l a s k a and H a w a i i , (as d e fin e d by
.the U . S . O f f i c e o f M a n a g e m e n t and B ud get th ro ugh N o v e m b e r 1971).
A m a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n in the a r e a w ag e s u r v e y p r o g r a m is the need to
d e s c r i b e the l e v e l and m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s in a v a r i e t y o f l a b o r m a r k e t s , th ro ugh
the a n a ly s is o f ( 1 ) the l e v e l and d i s tr i b u t i o n o f w a g e s by o c c u p a tio n , and ( 2 ) the
m o v e m e n t o f w ag e s b y oc c u p a tio n a l c a t e g o r y and s k i l l l e v e l .
The pro gram d e ­
v e l o p s i n f o r m a t i o n that m a y be used f o r m a n y p u r p o s e s , including wage and
s a l a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , and a s s i s t a n c e in d e t e r m i n i n g plant
lo c a t io n .
S u r v e y r e s u lt s a l s o a r e used by the U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r to
m a k e w a g e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s under the S e r v i c e C o n t r a c t A c t o f 1965.
C u r r e n t l y , 96 a r e a s a r e included in the p r o g r a m .
(S e e l i s t o f a r e a s
on i n s id e b ac k c o v e r . )
In e a c h a r e a , o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s data a r e c o l l e c t e d
annually. I n f o r m a t i o n on e s ta b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e m e n t a r y wag e b e n e ­
f i t s , c o l l e c t e d e v e r y s e co n d y e a r in the p a s t, is now obta ined e v e r y th ird y e a r .
E a c h y e a r a f t e r a l l in d iv id u a l a r e a w a g e s u r v e y s have b e en c o m p l e t e d ,
tw o s u m m a r y b u lle tin s a r e is s u e d .
T h e f i r s t b rin g s t o g e t h e r data f o r eac h
m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s u r v e y e d . T h e s e co n d s u m m a r y b u lle tin p r e s e n t s national and
r e g i o n a l e s t i m a t e s , p r o j e c t e d f r o m in d iv id u al m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a data.
T h e W o r c e s t e r s u r v e y was conducted by the B u r e a u 's r e g i o n a l o f f i c e in
B o s t o n , M a s s . , under the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f P a u l V . M u l k e r n , A s s i s t a n t
R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r f o r O p e r a t i o n s . T h e s u r v e y could not have b een a c c o m p l i s h e d
without the c o o p e r a t i o n o f the m a n y f i r m s wh ose w ag e and s a l a r y data p r o v i d e d
the b as is f o r the s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n in this b u lle tin .
T h e B u re au w i s h e s to
e x p r e s s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the c o o p e r a t i o n r e c e i v e d .

N o te :
A l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r the W o r c e s t e r a r e a a r e l i s t i n g s o f union wage ra te s
f o r s e v e n s e l e c t e d buil ding t r a d e s . F r e e c o p ie s o f th es e a r e a v a i l a b l e f r o m the
B u r e a u 's r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s .
(S ee b ac k c o v e r f o r a d d r e s s e s . )

AREA W AGE SURVEY

B u lle tin 1775-76
August 1973

[JrEj U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, Peter J. Brennan, Secretary

[Vevj BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS, Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

W orcester, M assachusetts, M e tro p o lita n A rea, M a y 1973
CONTENTS
Page
2 Introd uctio n
5 W age tr e n d s f o r s e l e c t e d oc c u p a tio n a l group s

T ab les:

6

7

1.
2.
3.

E s ta b l i s h m e n ts and w o r k e r s with in s c op e o f s u r v e y and n u m b e r studied
In d exes o f e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s , and p e r c e n t s o f change f o r s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s
P e r c e n t s o f i n c r e a s e in a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s , adju ste d f o r e m p l o y m e n t shifts

A.

4

O c c u p ation al e a r n in g s :
A - l . O f f i c e oc c u p atio n s : W e e k l y e arn in g s
A - 2 . P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l oc c up atio ns : W e e k l y e a r n in g s
A - 3 . O f f i c e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a tio n s : A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s , by s e x
A - 4 . M ain ten an c e and p o w e r p l a n t oc c u p atio n s : H o u r l y e a r n in g s
A - 5 . C u s to d ia l and m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p atio n s : H o u r l y e a r n in g s

8
10
11
12

13
15

A p p e nd ix .




O c c u p atio n al d e s c r i p t i o n s

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Introduction
(3) m a in te n a n c e and p o w e r p l a n t ; and (4) c u s t o d i a l and m a t e r i a l m o v e ­
m en t.
O c c u p a tio n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is b a s e d on a u n i f o r m set o f job
d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s i g n e d to take account o f i n t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t v a r i a t i o n
in duties w ith in the s a m e job . T h e o c c u p a tio n s s e l e c t e d f o r study a r e
l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d in the ap pendix. U n le s s o t h e r w i s e i n d ic a te d , the
e a r n in g s data f o l l o w i n g the jo b t i t l e s a r e f o r a l l i n d u s t r i e s c om b in e d .
E a r n i n g s data f o r s o m e o f the o c c u p a tio n s l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d , o r
f o r s o m e i n d u s tr y d i v i s i o n s w ith in oc c u p a tio n s , a r e not p r e s e n t e d in
the A - s e r i e s t a b l e s , b e c a u s e e i t h e r (1) e m p l o y m e n t in the occup ation
is too s m a l l to p r o v i d e enough data to m e r i t p r e s e n t a t i o n , o r (2) th e r e
is p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e o f i n d iv id u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t data. E a r n i n g s
data not shown s e p a r a t e l y f o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s a r e in c lu d e d in a l l
i n d u s t r i e s c o m b i n e d data, w h e r e shown. L i k e w i s e , data a r e includ ed
in the o v e r a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n wh en a s u b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s e c r e t a r i e s
.or t r u c k d r i v e r s is not shown o r i n f o r m a t i o n to s u b c l a s s i f y is not
available.

T h i s a r e a is 1 o f 96 in w h ic h the U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r ' s
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a ti s ti c s con du cts s u r v e y s o f oc c u p a tio n a l e a r n i n g s
on an a r e a w i d e b a s i s an n u a lly .1 F i e l d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , in p e r s o n a l
v i s i t s to e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the a r e a , c o l l e c t e m p l o y m e n t , e a r n i n g s ,
e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s , and r e l a t e d b e n e f i t s i n f o r m a t i o n e v e r y t h ird
year.
In each o f the i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s , i n f o r m a t i o n on e m p l o y m e n t
and e a r n in g s is c o l l e c t e d b y m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f r o m e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the p r e v i o u s s u r v e y . T h i s b u l l e t i n p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s
o f the l a t t e r typ e s u r v e y .
In e ach a r e a , data a r e o b ta in e d f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s w ith in s ix b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s : M a n u fa c t u rin g ; t r a n s ­
p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s ; w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ;
r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v i c e s . M a j o r
i n d u s tr y g ro u p s e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s e stu d ies a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a ­
tio ns and the c o n s t r u c t i o n and e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s . E s t a b l i s h m e n t s
ha vin g f e w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m i t t e d b e c a u s e
th e y tend to fu r n is h i n s u f f i c i e n t e m p l o y m e n t in the oc c u p atio n s studied
to w a r r a n t in c lu s io n .
S e p a r a t e tab u la tion s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r e ach o f
the b r o a d i n d u s tr y d i v i s i o n s w h ic h m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r i t e r i a .

O c c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y m e n t and e a r n i n g s data a r e shown f o r
f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s , i . e . , th os e h i r e d to w o r k a r e g u l a r w e e k l y schedule.
E a r n i n g s data e x c lu d e p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on
w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and l a te s hif ts . N o n p r o d u c ti o n b on uses a r e e x ­
cluded, but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g a l l o w a n c e s and i n c e n t i v e e a r n in g s a r e i n ­
cluded. W h e r e w e e k l y ho u rs a r e r e p o r t e d , as f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l o c c u ­
p a tio n s , r e f e r e n c e is to the s tan da rd w o r k w e e k (r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t
h a l f hour) 'for w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e
s a l a r i e s ( e x c l u s i v e o f p a y f o r o v e r t i m e at r e g u l a r an d/or p r e m i u m
rates).
A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n in g s f o r th es e oc c u p a tio n s a r e roun ded
to the n e a r e s t h a l f d o l l a r .

T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c on du cted on a s a m p l e b a s i s . T h e s a m ­
p lin g p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d e t a i l e d s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
w ith in the s c o p e o f an in d i v i d u a l a r e a s u r v e y b y i n d u s tr y and n u m b e r
of em p lo yees.
F r o m th is s t r a t i f i e d u n i v e r s e a p r o b a b i l i t y s a m p le is
s e l e c t e d , w i t h eac h e s t a b l i s h m e n t ha vin g a p r e d e t e r m i n e d chance o f
s e l e c t i o n . T o obta in o p tim u m a c c u r a c y at m i n i m u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r
p r o p o r t i o n o f l a r g e than s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s is s e l e c t e d . W h en data
a r e c o m b i n e d , eac h e s t a b l i s h m e n t is w e i g h t e d a c c o r d i n g to its p r o b a ­
b i l i t y o f s e l e c t i o n , so that u n bia se d e s t i m a t e s a r e g e n e r a t e d . F o r e x ­
a m p l e , i f one out o f f o u r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s is s e l e c t e d , it is g i v e n a
w e i g h t o f f o u r to r e p r e s e n t i t s e l f plus t h r e e o t h e r s . A n a l t e r n a t e o f the
s a m e o r i g i n a l p r o b a b i l i t y is c h o s e n in the s a m e i n d u s t r y - s i z e c l a s s i f i ­
c a tio n i f data a r e not a v a i l a b l e f o r the o r i g i n a l s a m p le m e m b e r .
If
no s u it ab le sub stitute is a v a i l a b l e , a d d itio n a l w e i g h t is a s s i g n e d to a
s a m p l e m e m b e r that is s i m i l a r to the m i s s i n g unit.

T h e o c c u p a tio n s s e l e c t e d f o r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r i e t y
o f m a n u f a c tu r in g and n o n m an u fa ctu rin g i n d u s t r i e s , and a r e o f the
follo w in g types:
(1) O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ; (2) p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l ;

T h e s e s u r v e y s m e a s u r e the l e v e l o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s in
an a r e a at a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . C o m p a r i s o n s o f i n d iv id u a l o c c u p a tio n a l
a v e r a g e s o v e r t i m e m a y not r e f l e c t e x p e c t e d w a g e ch an ge s . T h e a v e r ­
a g e s f o r in d i v i d u a l jo b s a r e a f f e c t e d b y ch an ge s in w a g e s and e m p l o y ­
m e n t p a tte r n s .
F o r exa m p le, p ro p o rtio n s o f w o r k e r s em p lo yed by
h i g h - o r l o w - w a g e f i r m s m a y change o r h i g h - w a g e w o r k e r s m a y a d ­
v a n c e to b e t t e r jo b s and be r e p l a c e d b y ne w w o r k e r s at l o w e r r a t e s .
Such s hifts in e m p l o y m e n t c ould d e c r e a s e an o c c u p a tio n a l a v e r a g e
e v e n though m o s t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in an a r e a i n c r e a s e w a g e s dur ing
the y e a r . T r e n d s in e a r n i n g s o f o c c u p a ti o n a l g r o u p s , shown in ta b le 2,
a r e b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r s o f w a g e tr e n d s than i n d iv id u a l jo b s w ith in the
g ro u p s.

1 Included in the 96 areas are 10 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract.
These areas
are Austin, T e x .; Binghamton, N .Y . (New York portion only); Durham, N. C .; Fort Lauderdale—
Hollywood and West Palm Beach, F la .; Huntsville, A la .; Lexington, K y .; Poughkeepsie—
Kingston—
Newburgh, N. Y . ; Rochester, N .Y . (office occupations only); Syracuse, N. Y. ; and Utica—
Rome, N .Y .
In addition, the Bureau conducts more lim ited area studies in approximately 70 areas at the request
of the Employment Standards Administration of the U. S. Department of Labor.

A v e r a g e e a r n i n g s r e f l e c t c o m p o s i t e , a r e a w i d e e s t i m a t e s . In ­
d u s t r i e s and e s t a b l i s h m e n t s d i f f e r in p a y l e v e l and j o b s ta ffin g , and
thus c on trib u t e d i f f e r e n t l y to the e s t i m a t e s f o r each job . P a y a v e r ­
a g e s m a y f a i l to r e f l e c t a c c u r a t e l y the w a g e d i f f e r e n t i a l amon g j o b s in
i n d iv id u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .

O c c u p a tion s and E a r n i n g s




2

3
A v e r a g e pay l e v e l s f o r m e n and w o m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a ­
tions should not be a s s u m e d to r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y o f the s e x e s
w ith in in d iv id u al e s ta b lis h m e n ts .
F a c t o r s w h ich m a y c on trib u te to
d i f f e r e n c e s in clu de p r o g r e s s i o n w ith in e s t a b l i s h e d r a te r a n g e s , sin c e
on ly the r a te s p aid incum bents a r e c o l l e c t e d , and p e r f o r m a n c e o f s p e ­
c i f i c duties w ith in the g e n e r a l s u r v e y j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s . Job d e s c r i p ­
tions used to c l a s s i f y e m p l o y e e s in th e s e s u r v e y s u s u a l l y a r e m o r e
g e n e r a l i z e d than th ose used in i n d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n ts and a l l o w f o r
m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s am ong e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in s p e c i f i c duties p e r f o r m e d .
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t the to t a l in a l l
e s ta b l i s h m e n ts w ith in the s c o p e o f the study and not the n u m b er a c tu ­
a l l y s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o c c u p a tio n a l s t r u c t u r e s amon g e s ta b l i s h m e n ts
d i f f e r , e s t i m a t e s o f oc c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y m e n t obta ined f r o m the s a m p le




o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s studied s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a te the r e l a t i v e i m p o r ­
tance o f the j o b s studied. T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a tio n a l s t r u c t u r e
do not a f f e c t m a t e r i a l l y the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n in g s data.
E s t a b l i s h m e n t P r a c t i c e s and S u p p l e m e n ta r y W a g e P r o v i s i o n s
T a b u la tio n s on s e l e c t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e ­
m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s ( B - s e r i e s ta b l e s ) a r e not p r e s e n t e d in this
b ulletin.
I n f o r m a t i o n f o r th e s e ta b u la tion s, c o l l e c t e d e v e r y 2 y e a r s
in the p as t, is now c o l l e c t e d e v e r y 3 y e a r s .
T h e s e ta bula tion s on
m i n i m u m e n tr a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s ;
shift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ; s c hed uled w o r k w e e k ; paid h o lid a y s ; p aid v a c a ti o n s ;
and health, i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n plans a r e p r e s e n t e d (in the B - s e r i e s
ta b l e s ) in p r e v i o u s b u lle tin s f o r this a r e a .




T a b le 1. E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o rk e rs w ith in s c o p e o f s u rv e y and n u m b e r s tu d ie d in W o r c e s te r , M a s s .,1
by m a jo r in d u s try d iv is io n ,2 M a y 1 9 7 3
Minimum
employment
in establish ments in scope
of study

Industry division

Number of establishm ents
Within scope
of study*

All d iv isio n s_____________________________
M anufacturing________________________________
Nonmanufacturing------------------------------------T ran sp ortation , com munication, and
other public utilities 5--------------------------W holesale trade 6---------------------------------R etail trade 6--------------------------------------Finance, in su ran ce, and re a l estate 6-------S erv ic e s 6 7-----------------------------------------

W orkers in Establishm ents
Within scope of study4

Studied

Number

P ercent

Studied

276

92

56,408

100

35,622

50
-

147
129

43
49

33,641
22,767

60
40

20,215
15,407

50
50
50
50
50

12
21
67
16
13

9
6
16
8
10

4,508
2.039
9,475
5, 398
1,347

8
4
16
10
2

4, 198
789
4,814
4,519
1,087

1 The W orcester Standard M etropolitan S ta tistical A re a, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget through Novem ber 1971, con sists
of the city of W orcester, and the towns of Auburn, B e rlin , Boylston, B rookfield, E ast Brookfield, G rafton, Holden, L e ic e s te r , M illbury, Northborough,
N orthbridge, North Brookfield, Oxford, Paxton, Shrew sbury, Spen cer, Sterling, Sutton, Upton, Westborough, and West Boylston in W orcester
County. The "w o rk ers within scope of study" e stim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accu rate description of the size and com position
of the labor force included in the survey. The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve as a b a sis of com parison with other employment
indexes for the a re a to m easu re employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requ ires the use of establishm ent data compiled
con siderably in advance of the pay roll period studied, and (2) sm all establishm ents are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial C la ssificatio n Manual was used in classify in g establishm ents by industry division.
3 Includes all establishm ents with total employment at or above the minimum lim itation. All outlets (within the area) of com panies in such
indu stries as trad e , finance, auto rep a ir se rv ic e , and motion picture theaters are considered as 1 establishm ent.
4 Includes a ll w orkers in all establishm ents with total employment (within the area) at or above the minimum lim itation.
5 Abbreviated to "public u tilitie s" in the A -se rie s tab le s. T axicabs and se rv ic e s incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estim ates for "a ll in d u strie s" and "nonm anufacturing" in the S e rie s A tab le s. Separate presentation
of data for this division is not made for one or m ore of the following reaso n s: ( l ) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough
data to m erit sep arate study, (2) the sam ple was not designed initially to perm it sep arate presentation, (3) respon se was insufficient or inadequate
to perm it sep arate presentation, and (4) there is p o ssibility of d isclo su re of individual establishm ent data.
7 Hotels and m o tels; laundries and other person al se r v ic e s; bu sin ess se r v ic e s; automobile r e p a ir, ren tal, and parking; motion p ictures;
nonprofit m em bership organizations (excluding religious and charitable organizations); and engineering and arch itectural se r v ic e s.

Industrial com position in m anufacturing
T h ree-fifths of the w orkers within scope of the survey in the W orcester a re a were
employed in manufacturing firm s. The following p resen ts the m ajo r industry groups and
sp ecific in dustries as a percent of all m anufacturing:
Industry groups

Specific indu stries

M achinery, except e le c tr ic a l— 17
P rim ary m etal in d u strie s-------- 16
Stone, clay, and g la ss
products-------------------------- 16
F abricated m etal products------ 15
L eather and leather products — 6
Printing and publish ing---------- 5

M iscellaneous nonm etallic
m in eral products---------------- 15
B la st furnace and b asic
stee l products-------------------- 8
Metalworking m achinery______ 7
M iscellaneous p rim ary
m etal products______________ 6
S pecial industry m ach in ery___ 6
Footw ear, except ru b b e r----- — 5

This information is based on e stim ates of total employment derived from universe
m ate rials compiled prior to actual survey. P roportions in variou s industry d ivisions may
d iffer from proportions based on the re su lts of the survey as shown in table 1 above.

W a g e T r e n d s for S e le c te d O c c u p a tio n a l G ro u p s
P r e s e n t e d in ta b le 2 a r e i n d e x e s and p e r c e n t s o f chan ge in
a v e r a g e w e e k l y s a l a r i e s o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and i n d u s tr ia l
n u r s e s , and in a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f s e l e c t e d p l a n t w o r k e r g ro u p s.
T h e in d e x e s a r e a m e a s u r e o f w a g e s at a g i v e n t i m e , e x p r e s s e d as a
p e r c e n t o f w a g e s durin g the b a s e p e r i o d .
Su btractin g 100 f r o m the
in d ex y i e l d s the p e r c e n t chan ge in w a g e s f r o m the b a s e p e r i o d to the
date o f the index. T h e p e r c e n t s o f change o r i n c r e a s e r e l a t e to w a g e
chan ges b e t w e e n the i n d ic a te d dates. Annual ra te s o f i n c r e a s e , w h e r e
shown, r e f l e c t the amount o f i n c r e a s e f o r 12 m onths wh en the t i m e
p e r i o d b e tw e e n s u r v e y s w a s o t h e r than 12 m onths.
T h e s e com pu­
ta tio ns a r e b a s e d on the as s u m ptio n that w a g e s i n c r e a s e d at a constant
r a te b e tw e e n s u r v e y s .
T h e s e e s t i m a t e s a r e m e a s u r e s o f change in
a v e r a g e s f o r the a r e a ; th ey a r e not intended to m e a s u r e a v e r a g e p ay
changes in the e s ta b l i s h m e n ts in the a r e a .

T h e in d e x is a m e a s u r e o f w a g e s at a g i v e n t i m e and is e x ­
p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t o f w a g e s in the b a s e y e a r .
T h e b a s e y e a r is
a s s i g n e d the v a l u e o f 100 p e r c e n t . T h e in d e x is c om p u te d b y m u l t i ­
p ly in g the b a s e y e a r r e l a t i v e (100 p e r c e n t ) b y the r e l a t i v e (the p e r c e n t
chan ge plus 100 p e r c e n t ) f o r the next s u c c e e d in g y e a r and then c o n ­
tinuing to m u l t i p l y (com pou nd) each y e a r ' s r e l a t i v e b y the p r e v i o u s
y e a r ' s index.
F o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s , the w a g e
t r e n d s r e l a t e to r e g u l a r w e e k l y s a l a r i e s f o r the n o r m a l w o r k w e e k ,
e x c l u s i v e o f e a r n in g s f o r o v e r t i m e .
F o r p l a n t w o r k e r g ro u p s , th e y
m e a s u r e chan ges in a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n in g s , e xc lu d in g
p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and
la te shifts .
T h e p e r c e n t s a r e b a s e d on data f o r s e l e c t e d k e y o c c u ­
pations and in c lu d e m o s t o f the n u m e r i c a l l y im p o r t a n t jo b s w ith in
■each gro up .

M e th o d o f C om pu ting
E a c h o f the f o l l o w i n g k e y occup ations w ith in an o c c u p a tio n a l
g ro u p is a s s i g n e d a con stant w e i g h t b a s e d on its p r o p o r t i o n a t e e m ­
p l o y m e n t in the oc c u p a tio n a l group ;
Office clerical (men and
women):
Bookke eping- machine
operators, class B
Clerks, accounting, classes
A and B
Clerks, file, classes
A , B, and C
Clerks, order
Clerks, payroll
Keypunch operators, classes
A and B
Messengers (office boys or
girls)

Office clerical (men and
women)— Continued
Secretaries
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
Switchboard operators, classes
A and B
Tabulating-machine operators,
class B
Typists, classes A and B
Industrial nurses (men and
women):
Nurses, industrial (registered)

L i m i t a t i o n s o f Data
T h e in d e x e s and p e r c e n t s o f change, as m e a s u r e s o f chan ge
in a r e a a v e r a g e s , a r e in flu e n c e d b y;
(1) G e n e r a l s a l a r y and w a g e
ch an ge s , (2) m e r i t o r ot h e r i n c r e a s e s in p a y r e c e i v e d b y ind iv id u al
w o r k e r s w h i l e in the s a m e jo b , and (3) changes in a v e r a g e w a g e s due
to chan ges in the l a b o r f o r c e r e s u lt in g f r o m l a b o r t u r n o v e r , f o r c e
e xp a n s io n s , f o r c e r e d u c tio n s , and changes in the p r o p o r t i o n s o f w o r k ­
e r s e m p l o y e d by e s ta b l i s h m e n ts w ith d i f f e r e n t p a y l e v e l s . C han ges in
the l a b o r f o r c e can cause i n c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the oc c u p atio n al
a v e r a g e s w ith out a c t u a l ^ w a g e chan ges.
It is c o n c e i v a b l e that e v e n
though a l l e s ta b l i s h m e n ts in an a r e a g a v e w a g e i n c r e a s e s , a v e r a g e
w a g e s m a y h a ve d e c l i n e d b e c a u s e l o w e r - p a y i n g e s ta b lis h m e n ts e n t e r e d
the a r e a o r e xpan ded t h e i r w o r k f o r c e s . S i m i l a r l y , w a g e s m a y h a ve
r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y const ant, y e t a v e r a g e s f o r an a r e a m a y h a ve r i s e n
c o n s i d e r a b l y b e c a u s e h i g h e r - p a y i n g e s ta b l i s h m e n ts e n te r e d the a r e a .

Skilled maintenance (men):
Carpenters
Electricians
Machinists
Mechanics
Mechanics (automotive)
Painters
Pipefitters
Tool and die makers
Unskilled plant (men):
Janitors, porters, and
cleaners
Laborers, material handling

NOTE: Comptometer operators, used in the computation of previous trends, are no longer
surveyed by the Bureau.

T h e us e o f con stant e m p l o y m e n t w e i g h t s e l i m i n a t e s the e f f e c t
o f changes in the p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in eac h job i n ­
clud ed in the data.
T h e p e r c e n t s o f chan ge r e f l e c t on ly changes in
a v e r a g e p a y f o r s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u rs.
T h e y a r e not i n flu e n ce d b y
chan ges in s tan da rd w o r k s c h e d u le s , as such, o r b y p r e m i u m p ay
for overtim e.
W h e r e n e c e s s a r y , data a r e ad justed to r e m o v e f r o m
the in d e x e s and p e r c e n t s o f chan ge any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t cau s e d b y
chan ges in the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .

T h e a v e r a g e (m e a n ) e a r n i n g s f o r e ach oc c up atio n a r e m u l t i ­
p l i e d b y the o c c u p a tio n a l w e i g h t , and the p ro d u c ts f o r a l l oc c u p atio n s
in the g ro u p a r e to ta le d . T h e a g g r e g a t e s f o r 2 c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s a r e
r e l a t e d b y su b trac ting the a g g r e g a t e f o r the e a r l i e r y e a r f r o m the
a g g r e g a t e f o r the l a t e r y e a r and d i v i d i n g the r e m a i n d e r b y the a g g r e ­
g a te f o r the e a r l i e r y e a r .
T h e r e s u l t t i m e s 100 shows the p e r c e n t
o f change.




5

6




T a b le 2 . In d e x e s o f e a rn in g s fo r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s in W o r c e s te r , M a s s ., M a y 1 9 7 2 an d M a y 1 9 7 3 ,
an d p e rc e n ts o f c h a n g e ,1fo r s e le c te d p e rio d s
A ll in du stries
Weekly earnings
P eriod

Office
c le r ic a l
(men and
women)

Manufacturing

Hourly earnings

Industrial
n urses
(men and
women)

Skilled
maintenance
trad es
(men)

Unskilled
plantw orkers
(men)

Weekly earnings
Office
c le ric a l
(men and
women)

Hourly earnings

Ind ustrial
n u rses
(men and
women)

Skilled
m aintenance
trad es
(men)

Unskilled
plantw orkers
(men)

Indexes (June 1967=100)
May 1972____________________________________
May 1973------------------ ----------------------------

134. 1
140. 3

140. 2
146. 5

131. 5
137.9

132.6
142.7

135. 6
139.9

139. 8
144. 8

131.4
137. 8

138. 0
148. 6

P ercen ts of change 1
June I960 to June 1961------------------------------June 1961 to June 1962------------------------- ----June 1962 to June 1963- _________ __________
June 1963 to June 1964------------------------------June 1964 to June 1965._____________________ June 1965 to June 1966------------------------------June 1966 to June 1967 ----------------------------- June 1967 to June 1968-----------------------------June 1968 to May 1969:
11-month in c re a se ________________________
Annual rate of in c r e a s e --------------------------

3. 6
4. 2
2. 7
1. 6
1.9
5. 5
5. 7
6 .0

1. 1
5. 6
2. 1
0
3. 1
6. 1
6. 7
6. 3

3. 4
3. 2
1. 6
1. 1
2. 8
5. 7
5. 0
3.9

4. 7
3. 9
4. 2
3. 3
1. 8
6. 8
5.9
4. 2

3. 7
4. 2
3.2
1. 5
2. 0
3. 1
5. 2
5.5

1. 1
5. 6
1. 6
2— 5
.
3. 2
6 .6
5. 7
6. 3

3.4
2. 8
1.4
.9
2. 8
5. 3
5. 2
3. 2

3.
7.
3.
3.
2.
7.
5.
3.

5. 2
5. 7

6. 3
6 .9

4 .4
4. 8

4. 1
4. 5

3.9
4. 3

6. 0
6. 6

4. 5
4. 9

4. 9
5. 4

May
May
May
May

7.9
5. 1
6. 0
4, 6

8. 4
6. 7
4 .9
4 .9

7. 4
3. 0
10. 4
7. 6

10. 4
4. 0
8. 0
3. 6

8. 5
6 .6
5. 3
4. 9

9. 8
2.9
13. 0
7. 7

1969
1970
1971
1972

to
to
to
to

May
May
May
May

1970-------------------------------1971.................................................
1972------------------------------1973 ................................ .............

10.
5.
7.
4.

3
0
2
5

1 All changes are in c re a se s un less otherwise indicated.
2 This decline la rge ly re fle cts employee turnover within and between high-

9.
3.
9.
3.

7
5
0
2

and low-wage establishm ents

rath er

5
0
3
5
1
6
1
0

than wage d e c r e a s e s.




T a b le 3 .

P e r c e n t s o f i n c r e a s e in a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s ,

a d j u s t e d f o r e m p l o y m e n t s h i f t s , in W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , M a y 1 9 7 2 t o M a y 1 9 7 3
O ccu pational group

A ll
in d u stries

6.1
4.5
5.0
8.0

M anufac turing

6.3
4.1
5.0
8.5

Data do not m e et pu blication c r it e r ia .

NOTE:
T a b le 3 p ro v id e s p ercen ts o f change in a v e r a g e h ou rly ea rn in gs fo r sele cted
occu pation al grou ps, adju sted to exclu de the e ffe c t o f em ploym en t sh ifts.
Th e new method
fo r com puting w age tren ds is based on changes in a v e r a g e h ou rly earn in gs fo r establish m ents
re p o rtin g the index jobs in both the cu rren t and previo u s y e a r (m atch ed esta b lish m e n ts),
holdin g esta blish m en t em ploym en t in the jobs constant.
Th e new w age tren ds a re not linked to the cu rren t in dexes becau se the new w age
tren d s m e a s u re changes in m atch ed esta blish m en t a v e r a g e s w h erea s the cu rren t indexes
m e a s u re changes in a re a a v e r a g e s .
O ther c h a ra c te ris tic s o f the new w age tren ds which
d iffe r fr o m the cu rren t ones include (1) earn in gs data o f o ffic e c le r ic a l w o r k e r s and in du s­
t r ia l n u rses a re co n v erted to an h ou rly b a s is , and (2) tren d es tim a te s a re p ro vid ed fo r
nonm anufacturing esta b lish m en ts.
F o r a m o re d eta iled d es c rip tio n o f the new m ethod used to com pute a re a w age su rvey
in d ex es, see "Im p ro v in g A r e a W age S u rvey I n d e x e s M onthly L a b o r R e v ie w , January 1973,
pp. 52-57.

Nonm anu­
fa ctu rin g

5.8
(>)
(>)
(* )

8

A. Occupational earnings
T a b l e A -1 . O f f i c e o c c u p a tio n s : W e e k l y e a rn in g s
selected o p n b in u divisions, W
ccu atio s y d stry
orcester, M , M 1 7 )
ass. ay 9 3

(Average straight-tim w ly h u a d earn gs of w
e eek o rs n
in
orkers

Weekly earnings
(standard)
Number
of
workeis

*

Number of workers receiving straight-tim e weekly earnings of—
8

Average
weekly

>

$

80

(standard)

Mean

^

Median ^

Middle ranged

75

75

Occupation and industry division

70
and
under

80

85

1

$

$

1

85

90

95

$

8
100

105

8
n o

8

8
115

120

8
125

8

8
130

140

8
150

8

8
160

170

8
180

8
190

8
200

210
and

90

95

100

105

8

2

2

n o

115

120

125

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

o v e r

M
EN AND W EN COMBINED'
OM
BILLERS. MACHINE (BILLING
MACHINE) -----------------------------------------

32

$
$
39.5 114.50 112.00

$
$
94.00-134.00

“

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS B ------------------------------------------

37

39.0 116.00 120.00 107.00-125.00

-

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A ----------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

324
64
260

38.0 150.00 151.00 124.00-184.00
39.0 143.50 148.00 124.00-164.50
38.0 151.50 154.00 124.50-186.00

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS 8 ----------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

373
95
278

38.5 115.50 107.50 98.00-139.50
38.5 120.00 118.00 105.00-140.00
38.0 114.00 104.50 96.00-136.00

-

CLERKS, FILE, CLASS A ---------------------

42

37.0

92.50

86.00

8 0.50- 99.50

CLERKS, FILE , CLASS B ---------------------

68

38.0

92.00

89.00

CLERKS, FILE , CLASS C --------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

53
36

39.5
39.5

89.00
89.50

88.00
90.50

CLERKS, ORDER ----------------------------------

34

39.5 129.50 122.50

CLERKS, PAYROLL ------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

6

5

1

1

-

_

_

-

-

-

1
1
-

14
1
13

30
5
25

24

31

50

-

9

12

3

3

6

1

1

8 1.50- 99.50

i

11

18

6

8

9

3

4

8 2.50- 96.00
82.50- 97.00

2
-

5
5

13
8

11

8

7

1
-

97.00-162.50

-

1

2

2

3

2

2

-

-

4

3

-

129
67
62

38.5 128.00 124.50 111.00-142.00
39.0 122.50 125.50 108.50-133.00
38.5 134.00 124.00 113.00-154.00

-

_

1

2

12

2

-

-

-

1
1

10
3
7

8
3
5

10
7
3

17
4
13

18

10

4
4

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A ----------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

115
65
50

39.0 130.00 127.50 116.00-145.00
39.5 120.00 120.00 110.00-130.50
38.0 143.50 150.00 128.00-158.00

_

_

-

-

-

14
10
4

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B ----------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

139
39
100

38.5 107.00 107.00 98.50-116.50
38.5 110.00 110.00 101.50-121.00
38.5 105.50 106.50 97.50-115.50

-

_

“

MESSENGERS (OFFICE BOYS AND G IRLSIMANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

73
26
47

38.5
39.0
38.0

90.50
92.00
90.00

91.00
90.50
91.50

8 4.00- 96.00
84.50-101.00
8 4.00- 96.00

-

SECRETARIES ------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------PUBLIC UTILITIE S ---------------------

556
268
288
34

38.5
39.0
38.5
38.5

144.50
147.50
142.00
179.00

141.00
144.00
137.50
186.00

SECRETARIES, CLASS A ------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------SECRETARIES, CLASS B ------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

2

6

5

7
7

4

See footnotes at end of tables




-

-

5

-

4

6

1

10

1

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

7

24

14

18

10

14

36

26

24

17

29

95

-

_

-

-

4

1

5

2
-

4

-

1

2

5

5

4

4

4

11

11

9

-

-

-

13

6

10

32

15

17

12

6

17

7

71

3

11

6

-

6

6

22

27

36

59

39

23

15

4
19

3

2

2

5

9

24

4
4

3
3

“

”

“

22

17
6
11

27
6
21

-

-

3

1

1

1

-

8

1

22

94

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

17
54

14
14

1

1

-

4

9

16

17

6

12
3

10

9

12

2

1
1

3
3

i
i

2

7
3

-

3

8

4

-

11
7
4

5

8
3
5

2
2

9
-

-

-

9

-

_

-

5

-

-

«

_

-

-

i

30
7
23

16

10

i

~

5

10

16

16
3
13

11
6

20

-

6
4
2

6
14

12
1
11

127.50-158.00
131.50-158.50
122.00-158.00
168.00-190.50

-

-

_

2

5

3

13

-

-

-

2

5

3

13

47
36

39.0 176.00 182.50 152.50-200.00
39.0 179.00 183.00 169.00-199.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

”

165
55
110

38.5 152.00 149.50 137.00-167.00
39.0 156.50 156.50 145.00-169.00
38.5 150.00 147.50 131.00-165.50

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

2

~

3

12

■

3

1

7
7

10

5

6

7
5

8

~

13

2
2

2

9

13

7

4

-

5

9

-

9

5

15

6

20
12

3
2
1

9

8

4
3

-

1

97

4

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

• _

2

_

_

-

-

16

1

i

4
4

23
21

-

-

-

-

2
27
11
16

28
4
24

94

72

38

17

29

37

51

57

46

19

9

13

26

46

37

26

19

8

63

1
-

“

-

-

i

7

5

3

i

7

5

3

3

2

1

3

5

16
11

3
“

3
3

2

12

2

11

~

-

6

*

2

5
5

5

9

18

37

4
5

14

4

25

27

16

8

13

21

17

14

10

7
3

3

4

12
8

10
2

12

4

8

2

2

4

5
4

8

3

7

2

6

2

-

7

2

1

-

1

6

1

7

9
T a b l e A -1 . O f f ic e o c c u p a tio n s : W e e k l y e a r n in g s — C o n tin u e d
(Average straight-tim w ly h u a d earn gs of w
e eek o rs n
in
orkers in selected o p n b in u division, W
ccu atio s y d stry
orcester, M , M 1 7 )
ass. ay 9 3
W eekly earnings 1
(standard)
Num ber

O c c u p a t i o n a n d i n d u s t r y division
workers

(standard)

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly e a r n in g s o f —
$

A verage
w eekly

»

70
M ean 1

M edian *

M iddle ranged

AND

$

80

S

$

85

90

$

95

S

*

100

105

S

110

1

115

120

s

t

125

$

$

130

140

150

$
160

%

%

170

s

%

18C

190

2or-

an d
under

75

MEN

t

75

7

1C

and

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

130

140

150

160

170

1

38
23
15

43
38
5

7
3
4

9

5

2

-

-

-

-

3

9

5

2

-

160

190

200

210

t r

WOMEN COMBINED—
CONTINUED

SECRETARIES - CONTINUED
$
$
$
145.50 145.00 130.50-156.50
142.50 143.50 132.00-155.50
150.50 147.00 129.00-174.00

183
113
70

39.0
39.0
39.0

SECRETARIES, CLASS D ------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

161
64
97

38.0 127.00 126.50 116.00-136.00
39.0 129.50 130.00 124.00-138.50
37.5 125.00 122.00 113.00-135.00

-

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL ------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NCNMANUFACTURING ------------------------

82
48
34

39.0 125.50
39.5 123.00
38.5 129.00

-

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR -------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

60
41

40.0
40.0

125.50 124.50
125.50 124.50

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS A ------

43

38.5

129.00

125.00 114.00-150.00

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR—
RECEPTIONISTSMANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

96
58
38

40.0
40.0
40.0

110.00 98.50-1 14 .00
110.00 110.00 101.50-115.00
101.00 107.50 88.5 0- 11 3. 00

TYPISTS, CLASS A ----------------------------nonmanufacturing ------------------------

87
65

39.5 115.00
39.0 117.50

111.00 106.00-130.00
115.00 106.50-136.00

TYPISTS, CLASS B ----------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

148

-

See

footnotes

at e n d of table)




63

85

123.00 108.00-134.00
121.50 108.00-132.00
126.50 108.50-153.00
116.00-134.00
119.50-132.50

-

5

1

5

2

5

22

23

17

14

1

i

2

_

_

_

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

18
.

13

5

2

15

41
19

5

10

22

1

-

-

-

13

14 |

7

22

1

1

i

2

5

-

-

-

22

_

1

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

1

8
2
6

i

5
3

8
6
2

_

-

9
4
5

8

15
7

14
9
5

7

4

4
“

-

_

1

2

-

-

-

-

5
4

1

-

_

2

1

2

2

3

*
-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

2

4
4

8

3

13

-

_
-

-

8

8

2
1

15
14

5

1

_

-

_
-

9
4

3

-

2
2

3

-

3

2

-

5
1
4

15

15

12

2

6
9

7

31
19

5

12

106.50

38.0 104.50 104.50
9 6. 00 -1 13 .0 0
39.0 104.00 104.00 100.00-109.50
92.5 0- 11 7. 00
37.5 105.00 105.00

“

32
18
14

32
26

-

1

1
1

-

3
3
-

6

1

1

SECRETARIES. CLASS C ------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

-

13

3
3

i

6

-

-

-

i

-

-

-

1

_

_
-

2
1

5
5

13

4

1

5
4

11

4

12
11

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

5

7

3

4

4

3

4

6

-

-

-

-

-

33

6

3
3

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

1

2
2

_

5

-

i
i

_

16
17

3
3

i
i

18

2

18

2

i
i

-

9

5
5
25
17
25
14
11

8

3

12

5

1

9

15

13

3

5

i

2

-

2

1

5

7

9

6

12

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

10
T a b l e A - 2 . P r o f e s s i o n a l an d te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s : W e e k l y e a r n in g s
(Average straight-tim w ly h u a d earn gs o w
e eek o rs n
in f orkers in selected o p n b in u
ccu atio s y d stry division W
, orcester, M
ass., M 1 7 )
ay 9 3
Weekly earnings
(standard)

O c c u p a tio n a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
workers

1

Number of workers receiving
$

Average
weekly
(standard)

t
90

Mean

^

Median £

Middle ranged

s

*

$

*

*

100

110

120

130

140

150

110

120

130

140

150

160

$
t
s
160 170 180

and

under

100

170

180

190

HEN AND W EN COMBINED
OM
$
H55

$

$

$

1
2

38^0 154*00 138*00
54

25

53

J

2

6

J

? ? ? • ;?
30.0 214*50 252*22
217*00

2

COMPUTER PR0GRAMERS,
UUjlPiCjjy LLA j j A

-

10
10

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

2

37*5 2^2*22
246*00

JJ
frl

y

555*2? 552*22
37*5 132*50 117*^0

10

“

1
1

*

-

1
1

16
16

9
8

6
5

J

4
2

8
7

3

ft?
T9

257I 50

*

*

J
1

5

2

3

Art rt
rtrt 222.00 206.00-229.00
^0 0 2 1 7 0 0

38.5 164.00 165.50 150.50-183.00

28
J

5 i2 0 0
40.0 1^0*00 1 2 ** «2

36

31

40*0 185*50 186*00

67
NURSES, INDUSTRIAL IREGISTEREDI ----

3

224.00-302.50

*93

2
2
■

1




21

J

1
-

W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 1 at $290 to $300; 3 at $300 to $320; and 4 at $320 to $340.
W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 2 at $2 90 to $300; 10 at $300 to $320; and 2 at $320 to $340.

S fo tn tes a e d o tables.
ee o o
t n f

_

_

2
“

~

2
2

4
4

7
7

3

3

5
5

•

“

2
2

7
6

2
2

1
1

5

4

3

4

**14
11

10
10

7
7

_

_

-

-

-

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS,
260!50

-

-

5

COMPUTER PR0GRAMERS♦

37I 5

-

3

16

9

r5

Zl

-

6

2

7

7

3

6
8

-

_

_

.

-

*8
8

1
1

-

11
T a b le A -3 .

O f f i c e , p r o f e s s io n a l, a n d t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s : A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s , b y s e x

(A verage straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings of w orkers in selected occupations by industry division, W orcester, M ass., May 1973)
A ve rage

A v e rage

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Num ber
of
workers

W eekly
(standard )

OFFI CE

O CCUP A TI ONS

-

W eekly
earnings *
(standard )

O F F I C E OC CU PA TI O NS
WOMEN— C ONT INUED

MEN

41

A C C OU N T( N Gf

C L AS S

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

90.50

A

N um ber
of
workers

W eekly
hours *
(standard )

A ve rage

W eekly
e arn in g s1
(standard )

-

163.00
162.50

27

Cl E R K S f

Sex, occupation, and industry division

46

3 8 .0

i co

39 0
3 8 .5

F IL E t

C L A SS

C

48

nn

1 56 50
150.00

3 9 .0

116.00

279
60
219

3 8 .0
3 9.0
3 8 .0

148.00
142.50
149.50

3 8 .5
3 8 .0

118.00
112.00

6^
97

3 9 .0
3 7 .5

129.50
125.00

, rr „

3 8 .5
38 .0

33

142.50

, 7 ^
#

$
104.50
104.00

3 8 .0

126.50

COMPUTER PR0GR AME RS,

3 8 .0

92 .0 0

95
48
34

3 9 .5
3 8 .5

50
123.00
129.00

45
28

3 9 .5
3 9.5

88.50
89.00

60
41

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

3 8 .5
3 9 .0

127.00
122.50

43

3 8.5

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

110.00
101.00

87
65

39 .5
3 9 .0

115.00

57
43

3 8.5
3 8 .5

129.00

58
38

3 8 .0

125.50
125.50

122
63

CLERKSi

A

38 .0

i T Q nn
I r 9 .*0 0

68

C L ASS

14 8

114.50

89
26 0
F ILE i

-

179*00

37

CLERKSt

W eekly
e arn in g s1
(standard )

\ 50
147.50

SECRETARIES

16 5

„. ,

O C CU PA T I ON S

90.50

3^

_______ _

W eekly

WOMEN— CO NT INUE D

2 34

3 9 .5

N um ber
of
workers

standard)

OFFICE

268

32

Sex, occupation, and industry division

2

COMPUTER

SYSTEMS

AN ALY ST S,
3 7.5
81

217.50
217.50

92

40.0 186.00

64

159.00

34
27

16*^ 5^
3 9 .C 162.00

SWITCHBOARD 0 P E R A T 0 R - R E C E P T I O N I S T S KEYPUNCH OPERATORS t C L AS S A
MANUFACTURI NG -----------------------------------NONMANuFAC TUR IN G —— —
———— —————

11 5
65
50

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 8 .0

*
97

S fo tn te a e d of tables.
ee o o t n




130.00
120.00
143.50

^

38*5

105.50

PROFESSIONAL

AND T E C H N IC A L

117.50

12
T a b le A -4 .

M a in te n a n c e and p o w e r p la n t o c c u p a tio n s :

H o u rly e a rn in g s

(Average straight-tim hourly earn gs o w
e
in f orkers in selected o p n b in u d
ccu atio s y d stry ivision W
, orcester, M
ass., M 1 7 )
ay 9 3
Number of workers receiving straight-tim e hourly earnings of—

Hourly earnings3

3.40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3.80 3.90 4.00 4.10 4.20 4.30 4.40 4.50 4.6 0 4.70 4.8 0 4.90 5.00 5.10 5.2C 5.30 5.40 5.50
Under
*
and
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
and
3.40 under
3.50 3.60 3.70 3.8 0 3.90 4.00 4.10 4.20 4.30 4.4 0 4.50 4.60 4.7 0 4.80 4.90 5.00 5.10 5.20 5.30 5.40 5.50 over

Sex, occupation, and industry division

54
49

$
4.28
4.1 9

$
4.26
4.26

$
$
3 .7 7 - 4.63
3 .7 4 - 4.58

100
94

4.92
4.9 0

4.93
4.92

4 .4 1 - 5.25
4 .4 0 - 5.22

ENGINEERS, STATIONARY --------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

31
30

4.5 6
4.5 6

4.48
4.47

4 .0 5 - 4.89
4 .0 4 - 5.00

FIREMEN, STATIONARY BOILER -----------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

33
31

4.0 6
4.13

4.15
4.15

3 .7 8 - 4.25
3 .7 9 - 4.39

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATORS, TOOLROOM —
MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

55
55

4.09
4.09

4.09
4.09

3 .8 9 - 4.18
3 .8 9 - 4.18

116
115

4.59
4.5 8

4.29
4.29

4 .2 1 - 5.04
4 .2 1 - 5.04

78
25
53

4.54
4.66
4.48

4.47
4.82
4.14

4 .0 6 - 4.88
4 .6 1 - 4.87
4 .0 4 - 4.93

362
353

4.30
4.30

4.29
4.29

3 .7 5 - 4.91
3 .7 5 - 4.90

MILLWRIGHTS ------MANUFACTURING

33
33

4.42
4.42

4.19
4.19

4 .1 5 - 4.85
4 .1 5 - 4.85

PIPEFITTERS, MAINTENANCE
MANUFACTURING -----------

55
55

4.69
4.69

4.79
4.79

4 .2 8 - 5.04
4 .2 8 - 5.04

174
174

4.21
4.21

4.20
4.20

3 .9 5 - 4.54
3 .9 5 - 4.54

CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE
MANUFACTURING ---------ELECTRICIANS, MAINTENANCE ----MANUFACTURING --------------------

MACHINISTS, MAINTENANCE
MANUFACTURING ---------MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
(MAINTENANCE! ---------MANUFACTURING ------NONMANUFACTURING MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE
MANUFACTURING --------

TOOL AN0 DIE MAKERS
MANUFACTURING ---

* A ll w orkers w ere at $5.50 to $5.60.

S fo tn tes a e d o tables.
ee o o
t n f




4
4

4
4

3
3

4
4

4
4

2
2
6
6
1
1

3
3

2
2
4
4

-

-

24
23

15
15

4
4

2
2

30
30

1
1

15
15
10
10

3
-

12
12

19
19

2
2

3
3

-

4
4

3
3

7
7

17
17

2
1

-

7
6
4
4

15
15
6
6

1
1

-

3
3

1
1

2
2

3
2

1
1

2
2

37
37

7

1

1

1

1

2
2

5

7
7

22
22

6
6
1
1

8
8

28
28

29
29

-

5
5
19
19

1
1

5
5
-

13
13

27
27

1
1
8
7

11
11

2
2

2
2

8
8

1
1
13
13

12
12
32
32

10
10

2
2

20
20

7
7

7
2
5
43
43
6
6

-

1
1

9
6

-

*6
6

2
2

1
1

19
19

6
6

1
1

1
1

-

1
1

1
1
1
1

6
6

2
1

2
2

4
4
3
3

4
4

1
-

18
18

1
1

3
3

1
1
10
10

11
11

5
4
1

15
15

2
2

2
2

5

7

4
4

-

2
2

2
2

18

2
2
13
13

7
7

8
8

1
1

2
2

-

18

1
1

6
6

6
6

15
15
9
9

4
4

4
4

7
1
6
36
36

4
4

2
2
1
1

2
2

7
7

2
2

6
6

t
6

4
3

3

3
3

4
4

-

-

6

3

-

-

6

-

-

4

39
39

2
2
19
19
5
5

1
1

13
T a b le A -5 .

C u s to d ia l and m a te ria l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a tio n s :

H o u rly e a rn in g s

(Average straight-tim h u earn gs of w
e o rly
in
orkers in selected o p n b in u division, W
ccu atio s y d stry
orcester, M , M 1 73
ass. ay 9 )
Number of w orkers deceiving straight-time hourly earnings of—

Hourly earnings ^

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Num ber
of
workers

i
%
r$
$
$
$
$
%
%
(
r
r
r
f
$
$
s
$
%
i
%
5
r
1.80 1.90 2.00 2.20 2 . AO 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3. AO 3.60 3.80 A .00 4.20 A.AO A .60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5 .AO 5 60 5.80 6.00
M ean 2

M e d ian 2

M iddle range 2

and
under

and

1.90 2.00 2.20 2 .AO 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3 . AO 3.60 3.80 A .00 A .20 A.AO A .60 A . 80 5.00 5.20 5 .AO 5.60 5 80 6.00 over
HEN
GUARDS AND WATCHMEN ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------GUARDS
MANUFACTURING

-----------------------------------------

2A1
126

$
2.61
3.01

$
2.A9
3.01

$
$
1 .8 7 - 3.28
2 .5 0 - 3 .AO

87

63

3.30

3.33

3 .0 6 - 3.A8

-

2
2

”

22
22

15
12

26
19

9
8

11
6

30
26

12
9

7
5

13
10

7
7

-

-

-

4

A

5

6

25

5

2

9

3

WATCHMEN
MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

63

2.72

2.A9

2 .3 6 - 2.83

-

2

-

22

8

15

3

-

1

4

3

i

4

JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS ---MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING------------ -----------

560
290
270

3.02
3 . AO
2.61

2.92
3.A5
2 .AO

2 .3 8 - 3.60
3 .0 A - A .06
2.3 A - 2.66

1
1

8
8
-

6
2
4

1A7
13
13A

62
8
5A

A1
15
26

30
2A
6

53
37
16

36
30
6

37
37

A6
A3
3

16
16

72
72

A
A

1
1

LABORERS, MATERIAL HANOLING ----------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

A87
380

3.56
3.61

3.30
3.29

2 .8 7 - A .lA
2 .8 3 - A .35

A
4

1
-

ii
10

2
-

2A
23

5
.2
A9

87
73

AO
17

A8
22

A2
19

A7
A7

5
5

7
7

16
16

1A
1A

21
8

2
2

15
15

12
12

11
11

11
11

«
5
5

ORDER FILLERS ---------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------------

310
67

3.92
3.60

A .13
3.91

3 .9 3 - A .17
2 .9 9 - 3.96

-

-

_

_
-

10
10

26
1

10
-

13
13

2
1

3A
32

200
1

6
“

1
1

“

"

i
1

-

-

• 7
7

-

~

-

-

-

“

~

PACKERS, SHIPPING --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

109
108

3.77
3.79

3.52
3.53

2 .8 5 - A.A8
2 .8 7 - A.A8

-

*

1
-

10
10

8
8

6
6

5
5

4
4

6
6

31
31

1
1

_
-

2
2

2
2

8
a

2
2

3
3

-

-

1

9
9

5
5

1
1

4
4

RECEIVING CLERKS ----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

62
3A
28

3.58
3.A7
3.71

3.61
3.61
3.63

3 .2 A - 3.97
3 .1 0 - 3.92
3 .A 1- A .33

•-

_
-

_
-

_
-

i
i

6
4
2

_
-

7
6
i

6
3
3

11
4
7

10
7
3

9
9
-

10
1
9

l

1

-

-

-

-

-

l

1

“

~

SHIPPING CLERKS

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

4
2

-

1

-

108

_
-

108

~

--------------------------------------------

31

3.62

3.73

3 .A 3 - 3 .8 A

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERKS ----------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

A6
27

3.26
3.56

3.35
3.71

2 .6 4 - 3.75
3 .2 9 - 3.77

TRUCKDRIVERS --------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

503
187
316

A .53
A. 52
A . 53

A.A7
A .91
A.A5

3 .7 9 - 5.37
3 .9 5 - 5.32
3 .3 0 - 5.93

TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM 11-1/2 TO
AND INCLUDING A TONS) ---------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

99
A8

3.62
3.8A

3.28
A .37

311
212

5.03
A .99

5.00
A.A9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

7

7

9

9
-

1
-

5
-

4
A

2
1

2
2

6
6

12
12

_

“

3
3

16
9
7

2
2

6
6

27
2
25

A9
4
A5

4
4

20
13
7

A1
1A
27

7
4
3

10
9
i

100
16
84

7
6
i

4?
37
5

1
1
”

60
60
“

-

2
2

AO

_

6
2

2
2

_

8
8

16
16

i
i

8
3

1
1

_

_

“

*

1

25
25

2
2

1
1

8A
84

i
i

3A
~

_

60
“

_

-

3

-

-

-

9
7

1
1

15
15

2
2

1
l

2
2

-

-

-

A .A 5— 5.92
A .A 2- 5 .9 A

*

_

“

_

_
-

“

-

'

_

3 .2 2 - A.A1
2 .8 8 - A.A6

TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY (OVER A TONS,
TRAILER TYPE) ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

-

1C
10

_

11
9

“

_
“

A
4

5
5

A

1
_

-

TRUCKCRIVERS, HEAVY (OVER A TONS,
OTHER THAN TRAILER TYPE) -----------

70

A .00

3.78

3 .0 6 - A .38

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

25

-

-

10

12

3

1

TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT) -----------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

36A
228

A .00
3.8A

A. 20
3.67

3 .A 2 - A .36
3 .3 6 - A .20

_

_

_

_

-

4
A

11
6

19
1A

52
52

30
30

28
28

7
7

31
31

1AA
20

JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS ---NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

87
65

2.52
2.AA

2.A6
2.37

2 .3 2 - 2.82
2 .3 0 - 2.7A

i
i

1
1

3
3

36
36

10
6

11
6

3A
3A

2.57
2.57

2.A8
2.A8

2 .A 3 - 2.5A
2 .A 3- 2.5A

-

-

_

-

-

A
A

28
28

-

-

-

-

_

-

_
-

-

_

_

_
~

_
~

-

-

1A

6
fc

4
4

_

_

94
94

~

25
12

PACKERS, SHIPPING --------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

-

-

WM
O EN

See footnotes at end of tables,




-

-

-

-

-

-

-

F o o tn o te s

1 S t a n d a r d h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h i c h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s ( e x c l u s i v e o f p a y f o r o v e r t i m e
at r e g u l a r a n d / o r p r e m i u m r a t e s ) , an d the e a r n i n g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k l y h o u r s .
2 T h e m e a n is c o m p u t e d f o r e a c h j o b b y tota li ng the e a r n i n g s o f a l l w o r k e r s an d d i v i d i n g b y the n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ,
The m ed ian
d e s i g n a t e s p o s i t i o n — h a l f o f the e m p l o y e e s s u r v e y e d r e c e i v e m o r e than the r a t e s h o w n ; h a l f r e c e i v e l e s s than the r a t e shown,
The m iddle
r a n g e i s d e fi n e d b y 2 r a t e s o f p a y ; a fo u r t h o f the w o r k e r s e a r n l e s s than the l o w e r o f t h e s e r a t e s an d a fo u r t h e a r n m o r e than the h i g h e r r at e.
3 E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e an d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , an d la te s hift s .




A p p e n d ix . O c c u p a tio n a l D e s c rip tio n s
The p rim ary purpose of preparing job d escriptions for the B u reau 's wage surveys is to a s s is t its field staff in classify in g into appropriate
occupations w orkers who are employed under a variety of payroll title s and different work arrangem ents from establishm ent to establishm ent and
from a re a to a re a . This perm its the grouping of occupational wage rate s representing com parable job content. B ecause of this em phasis on
interestablishm ent and in terare a com parability of occupational content, the B u reau 's job descriptions m ay differ significantly from those in use in
individual establishm ents or those prepared for other p u rp oses. In applying these job d escrip tion s, the B u reau 's field econom ists are instructed
to exclude working su p e rv iso rs; apprentices; le a r n e r s; beginners; train e es; and handicapped, p art-tim e, tem porary, and probationary w orkers.

OFFICE
C LER K , ACCOUNTING— Continued

B IL L E R , MACHINE

P osition s a re c la ssifie d into levels on the b a sis of the following definitions.
C la ss A . Under general supervision, p erform s accounting cle ric al operations which
require the application of experience and judgment, for exam ple, cle rically processin g com ­
plicated or nonrepetitive accounting tran saction s, selecting among a substantial variety of
p rescrib e d accounting codes and c la ssifica tio n s, or tracin g tran saction s through previous
accounting actions to determ ine source of d iscre p an cies. May be a ssiste d by one or m ore
c la s s B accounting cle rk s.
C la ss B . Under close supervision, following detailed instructions and standardized pro­
cedu res, p erform s one or m ore routine accounting cle ric al operations, such as posting to
le d g e rs, c a rd s, or w orksheets where identification of item s and locations of postings are
cle arly indicated; checking accuracy and com pleteness of standardized and repetitive record s
or accounting documents; and coding documents using a few p rescrib ed accounting codes.

P re p a re s statem ents, b ills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep reco rd s as to billings or shipping ch arges or perform other
cle ric al work incidental to billing operations. F o r wage study p urp oses, b ille r s , m achine, are
c la ssifie d by type of m achine, a s follows:
B ille r, machine (billing m achine). U ses a sp ecial billing machine (combination typing
and adding machine) to prepare bills and invoices from cu sto m e rs1 purchase o rd e rs, in ter­
nally prepared o rd e rs, shipping m em orandum s, etc. U sually involves application of p r e ­
determined discounts and shipping charges and entry of n ece ssa ry extensions, which m ay or
m ay not be computed on the billing m achine, and totals which are autom atically accum ulated
by m achine. The operation usually involves a la rge number of carbon copies of the b ill being
prepared and is often done on a fanfold m achine.
B ille r, machine (bookkeeping m achine). U ses a bookkeeping machine (with or without
a typew riter keyboard) to p rep are cu sto m ers' bills as part of the accounts receivable op era­
tion. G enerally involves the simultaneous entry of figu res on cu stom ers' ledger record . The
machine autom atically accum ulates figu res on a number of v ertical columns and computes
and usually prints autom atically the debit or credit balan ces. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sa le s and cred it slip s.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
O perates a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record
of bu sin ess tran sactio n s.
C la ss A. Keeps a set of reco rd s requiring a knowledge of and experience in basic
bookkeeping p rin cip les, and fam iliarity with the structure of the p articu lar accounting system
used. D eterm ines proper reco rd s and distribution of debit and credit item s to be used in each
phase of the work. May p rep are consolidated rep o rts, balance sh eets, and other record s
by hand.
C la ss B. Keeps a record of one or m ore phases or sections of a set of record s usually
requiring little knowledge of b asic bookkeeping. P h ases or sections include accounts payable,
payroll, cu sto m ers' accounts (not including a sim ple type of billing d escribed under b iller,
m achine), cost distribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or a s s is t
in preparation of tr ia l balances and p rep are control sheets for the accounting departm ent.
C LER K , ACCOUNTING
P erfo rm s one or m ore accounting c le ric al task s such as posting to r e g iste rs and le d g e rs;
reconciling bank accounts; verifying the internal consistency, com pleteness, and m athem atical
accu racy of accounting docum ents; assignin g p rescrib ed accounting distribution codes; examining
and verifying for c le ric al accu racy various types of rep o rts, lis t s , calculations, posting, etc.;
or preparing sim ple or a ssistin g in preparing m ore com plicated journal vouchers. May work
in either a manual or automated accounting system .
The work req u ires a knowledge of c le ric al methods and office p ractice s and procedures
which re late s to the c le ric a l p ro cessin g and recording of tran saction s and accounting information.
With experience, the worker typically becom es fam iliar with the bookkeeping and accounting term s
and proced ures used in the assign ed work, but is not required to have a knowledge of the form al
p rin cip les of bookkeeping and accounting.




C LER K , F IL E
F ile s , c la s s ifie s , and retrieves m aterial in an established filing system . May perform
cle ric al and manual task s required to m aintain files. P ositions are cla ssifie d into levels on the
b a sis of the following definitions.
C la ss A . C la s sifie s and indexes file m ate rial such a s correspondence, rep orts, tech­
nical docum ents, e tc., in an established filing system containing a number of varied subject
m atter file s . May a lso file this m ate rial. May keep record s of various types in conjunction
with the file s. May lead a sm all group of lower level file cle rk s.
C la ss B . S o rts, codes, and file s u n classified m ate rial by sim ple (subject m atter) head­
ings or partly c la ssifie d m ate rial by finer subheadings. P re p a re s sim ple related index and
c r o ss-r e fe re n c e aid s. As requested, locates cle arly identified m aterial in files and fo r ­
w ards m ate rial. May perform related cle ric al task s required to maintain and service files.
C la ss C . P erfo rm s routine filing of m ate rial that has already been c la ssifie d or which
is e asily c la ssifie d in a sim ple se r ia l cla ssifica tio n system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological,
or n um erical). As requested, locates readily available m aterial in files and forw ards m a ­
te ria l; and m ay fill out withdrawal charge. May perform sim ple cle ric al and manual task s
required to m aintain and serv ice file s.
C LE R K , ORDER
R eceives cu stom ers' ord e rs for m ate rial or m erchandise by m ail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the following: Quoting p rice s to custom ers; making out an order
sheet listin g the item s to m ake up the order; checking p rices and quantities of item s on prder
sheet; and distributing order sheets to resp ective departm ents to be filled . May check with credit
departm ent to determ ine credit rating of custom er, acknowledge receipt of ord ers from cu stom ers,
follow up o rd e rs to see that they have been filled , keep file of ord ers received, and check shipping
invoices with original o rd e rs.
C LER K, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company em ployees and enters the n ece ssa ry data on the payroll
sh eets. Duties involve: Calculating w ork ers' earnings based on tim e or production reco rd s; and
posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such a s w ork er's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for in suran ce, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and
a s s is t p ay m aster in m aking up and distributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating m achine.

NOTE: The Bureau has discontinued collecting data for com ptom eter o p e rato rs.

15

16
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR

SECRETARY— Continued

O perates a keypunch m achine to reco rd or v erify alphabetic and/or num eric data on
tabulating ca rd s or on tape.

NOTE: The term "corp orate officer, " used in the level definitions following, r e fe rs to
those officials who have a significant corporate-w ide policym aking role with regard to m ajor
company activ ities. The title "vice p re sid e n t," though norm ally indicative of this role, does not
in all c a se s identify such positions. Vice presiden ts whose p rim ary respon sibility is to act p e r­
sonally on individual c a se s or tran saction s (e.g., approve or deny individual loan or credit actions;
adm inister individual tru st accounts; directly sup ervise a c le ric a l staff) are not considered to be
"corp orate o ffic e rs" for p urposes of applying the following level definition s.

P ositions are c la ssifie d into levels on the b a sis of the following definitions.
C la ss A . Work req u ires the application of experience and judgment in selecting p ro ce ­
dures to be followed and in searching fo r, interpreting, selecting, or coding item s to be
keypunched from a variety of source docum ents. On occasion may a lso perform some routine
keypunch work. May train inexperienced keypunch o p e rato rs.
C la ss B . Work is routine and repetitive. Under clo se supervision or following specific
procedures or instruction s, works from v ariou s standardized source documents which have
been coded, and follows specified p roced ures which have been p rescrib e d in detail and require
little or no selectin g, coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. R e fe rs to su p ervisor
problem s a risin g from erroneous item s or codes or m issin g information.
M ESSENGER (Office Boy or Girl)
P erfo rm s v ariou s routine duties such a s running e rra n d s, operating m inor office m a ­
chines such as s e a le r s or m a ile r s , opening and d istributing m ail, and other m inor c le r ic a l work.
Exclude positions that require operation of a m otor vehicle as a significant duty.
SECRETARY
A ssigned as p erso n al se c r e ta r y , n orm ally to one individual. Maintains a close and highly
respon sive relationship to the day-to-day work of the su p e rv iso r. Works fa irly independently r e ­
ceiving a minimum of detailed supervision and guidance. P erfo rm s varied c le r ic a l and se c r e ta r ia l
duties, usually including m ost of the following:
a. R eceives telephone c a lls , p erson al c a lle r s , and incoming m ail, answ ers routine
in quires, and routes technical in quiries to the proper p erson s;
b.

E sta b lish e s, m ain tain s, and r e v ise s the su p e rv iso r 's files;

c.

M aintains the su p e rv iso r 's calendar and m akes appointments as instructed;

d.

R elays m e ssa g e s from su p e rv iso r to subordinates;

e. Reviews correspondence, m em orandum s, and rep orts p rep ared by others for the
su p e rv iso r's signature to a ss u r e procedural and typographic accuracy;
f.

P erfo rm s stenographic and typing work.

May a lso perform other c le r ic a l and s e c r e ta r ia l ta sk s of com parable nature and difficulty.
The work typically req u ires knowledge of office routine and understanding of the organization,
p ro g ra m s, and procedures related to the work of the su p e rv iso r.
Exc lusions
Not a ll positions that a re titled "s e c re ta r y " p o s s e s s the above c h a ra c te ristic s. Exam ples
of positions which are excluded from the definition are as follow s:
a.

P osition s which do not m eet the "p e rso n al" se cre tary concept d escribed above;

b.

Stenographers not fully train ed in s e c r e ta r ia l type duties;

c. Stenographers servin g a s office a ssista n ts to a group of p ro fe ssio n al, technical, or
m an agerial p erso n s;
d. S ec re ta ry positions in which the duties are either substantially m ore routine or
substantially m ore com plex and respon sible than those ch aracterized in the definition;
e. A ssista n t type positions which involve m ore difficult or m ore resp on sible tech­
nical, adm in istrativ e, su p e rv iso ry , or sp ecialized c le r ic a l duties which are not typical of
s e c r e ta r ia l work.




C la ss A
1. S ecre tary to the chairm an of the board or president of a company that em ploys, in
a ll, over 100 but fewer than 5,000 p e rso n s; or
2. S ecre tary to a corporate officer (other than the chairm an of the board or president)
of a company that em ploys, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000 p e rso n s; or
3. S ecre tary to the head, im m ediately below the corporate officer level, of a m ajor
segm ent or su b sid iary of a company that em ploys, in all, over 25,000 p e rso n s.
C la ss B
1. S ecre tary to the chairm an of the board or p residen t of a company that em ploys, in
a ll, fewer than 100 p e rso n s; or
2. S ecre tary to a corporate officer (other than the chairm an of the board or president)
of a company that em ploys, in a ll, over 100 but fewer than 5,000 p e rso n s; or
3. S ecre tary to the head, im m ediately below the officer level, over either a m ajor
corporate-w ide functional activity (e.g ., m arketing, re se arch , operations, industrial r e la ­
tions, etc.) or a m ajo r geographic or organizational segm ent (e.g ., a regional headquarters;
a m ajor division) of a company that em ploys, in a ll, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000
em ployees; or
•4. S ecre tary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level
of official) that em ploys, in a ll, over 5,000 p e rso n s; or
5. S ecre tary to the head of a la rge and im portant organizational segm ent (e.g., a m iddle
m anagem ent su p e rv iso r of an organizational segm ent often involving as many a s sev e ral
hundred person s) or a company that em ploys, in all, over 25,000 p e rso n s.
C la ss C
1. S ecre tary to an executive or m an agerial person whose resp on sibility is not equivalent
to one of the sp ecific level situations in the definition for c la ss B, but whose organizational
unit norm ally num bers at le a st sev e ral dozen em ployees and is usually divided into o rg an iza­
tional segm ents which a re often, in turn, further subdivided. In some com panies, this level
includes a wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; or
2. S ecre ta ry to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level
of official) that em ploys, in a ll, few er than 5,000 p e rso n s.
C la ss D
1. S ecre tary to the su p ervisor or head of a sm all organizational unit (e.g., fewer than
about 25 or 30 p erson s); or
2. S ecre tary to a n onsupervisory staff sp e c ia list, p rofession al employee, ad m in istra­
tive o fficer, or a ssista n t, skilled technician or expert. (NOTE: Many com panies a ssign
sten ograp h ers, rather than se c r e ta r ie s as d escribed above, to this level of supervisory or
nonsupervisory w orker.)
STENOGRAPHER
P rim ary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to tran scrib e the dictation. May
a lso type from written copy. May operate from a stenographic pool. May occasion ally tran scrib e
from voice recordings (if p rim ary duty is tran scrib in g from record in gs, see Transcribing-M achine
O perator, G eneral).
NO TE: This job is distinguished from that of a se cre tary in that a secre tary norm ally
works in a confidential relationship with only one m an ager or executive and perform s m ore
respon sible and d iscretion ary task s as d escrib ed in the se c re ta ry job definition.
Stenographer, General
Dictation involves a norm al routine vocabulary. May m aintain file s, keep sim ple re c o rd s,
or perform other relatively routine cle ric al ta sk s.

17
STENOGRAPHER— Continued

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (Electric Accounting Machine Operator)— Continued

Stenographer, Senior
Dictation involves a varied technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such a s in legal briefs
or rep o rts on scientific rese arc h . May a lso set up and m aintain file s, keep reco rd s, etc.
OR
P erfo rm s stenographic duties requiring significantly greater independence and respon ­
sibility than stenographer, general, as evidenced by the following: Work requ ires a high
degree of stenographic speed and accu racy; a thorough working knowledge of general busin ess
and office procedure; and of the specific bu sin ess operations, organization, p olicies, proce­
d u res, file s, workflow, etc. U ses this knowledge in perform ing stenographic duties and
respon sible c le ric al task s such a s m aintaining followup files; assem bling m aterial for rep orts,
m em orandum s, and le tters; composing sim ple le tters from general instructions; reading and
routing incoming m ail; and answering routine questions, etc.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
C la ss A . O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard handling incoming,
outgoing, intraplant or office c a lls. P erfo rm s full telephone information serv ice or handles
com plex c a lls, such as conference, collect, o v e rse a s, or sim ilar c a lls, either in addition to
doing routine work as described for switchboard o p erator, c la ss B, or a s a full-tim e
assignm ent. ("F u ll" telephone information serv ice occurs when the establishm ent has varied
functions that are not readily understandable for telephone information p u rp oses, e .g ., because
of overlapping or in terrelated functions, and consequently present frequent problem s as to
which extensions are appropriate for c a lls.)
C la ss B . O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard handling incoming,
outgoing, intraplant or office c a lls. May handle routine long distance c a lls and record to lls.
May perform lim ited telephone information serv ic e . ("L im ite d " telephone information service
o ccurs if the functions of the establishm ent serviced are readily understandable for telephone
information p urp o ses, or if the requ ests a re routine, e .g ., giving extension numbers when
specific names are furnished, or if com plex c a lls are referred to another operator.)
These c la ssific a tio n s do not include switchboard o p erators in telephone com panies who
a s s is t custom ers in placing c a lls.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to perform ing duties of operator on a single-position or m onitor-type switch­
board, acts a s receptionist and m ay also type or perform routine cle rical work as p art of regular
duties. This typing or c le ric al work m ay take the m ajo r part of this w ork er's tim e while at
switchboard.
TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (E lectric Accounting Machine Operator)
O perates one or a variety of m achines such a s the tabulator, calcu lator, collator, in ter­
p rete r, so rte r, reproducing punch, etc. Excluded from this definition are working su p e rv iso rs.
Also excluded are operators of electronic digital com puters, even though they m ay also operate
EAM equipment.

P ositions are cla ssifie d into levels on the basis of the following definitions.
C la ss A. P erform s complete reporting and tabulating assignm ents including devi s.n j
difficult control panel wiring under general supervision. Assignm ents typically involve a
variety of long and com plex rep orts which often are irreg u lar or nonrecurring, requiring
some planning of the nature and sequencing of operations, and the use of a variety of m a ­
chines. Is typically involved in training new operators in machine operations or training
lower level op erators in wiring from d iag ram s and in the operating sequences of long and
com plex rep o rts. Does not include positions in which wiring responsibility is limited to
selection and insertion of prew ired boards.
C la s s B . P erform s work according to established procedures and under specific in­
stru ctions. A ssignm ents typically involve com plete but routine and recu rrin g reports or parts
of la r g e r and m ore com plex rep o rts. O perates m ore difficult tabulating or e lectrical a c ­
counting m achines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the sim pler machines
used by c la ss C op erators. May be required to do some wiring from d iagram s. May train
new em ployees in basic machine operations.
C la ss C. Under specific in struction s, operates sim ple tabulating or e lectrical accounting
m achines such a s the so rte r, in terp reter, reproducing punch, collator, etc. A ssignm ents
typically involve portions of a work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collating runs,
or repetitive operations. May perform sim ple wiring from d iag ram s, and do some filing work.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
P rim ary duty is to tran scrib e dictation involving a norm al routine vocabulary from
tran scribing-m achine reco rd s. May also type from written copy and do sim ple cle ric al work.
Workers tran scrib in g dictation involving a varied technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as
legal brie fs or rep orts on scien tific rese arch are not included. A worker who takes dictation
in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is c la ssifie d as a stenographer.
TYPIST
U se s a typew riter to make copies of various m ate rials or to m ake out bills after ca lcu la­
tions have been m ade by another person . May include typing of sten cils, m ats, or sim ilar m ate ­
ria ls for use in duplicating p r o c e sse s. May do c le rical work involving little sp ecial training, such
a s keeping sim ple reco rd s, filing record s and rep orts, or sorting and distributing incoming m ail.
C la ss A. P erform s one or m ore of the following; Typing m aterial in final form when
it involves combining m aterial from sev eral so u rces; or respon sibility for correct spelling,
syllabication, punctuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language m ate ­
rial; or planning layout and typing of com plicated statistical tab les to m aintain uniformity
and balance in spacing. May type routine form le tte r s, varying details to suit circum stan ces.
C la ss B . P erform s one or m ore of the following: Copy typing from rough or cle ar
d ra fts; or routine typing of fo rm s, insurance p o licies, etc.; or setting up sim ple standard
tabulations; or copying m ore com plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
COMPUTER OPERATOR
Monitors and op erates the control console of a digital computer to p ro c e ss data according
to operating in struction s, usually prepared by a p ro g ram er. Work includes m ost of the following:
Studies instructions to determ ine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required
item s (tape re e ls, c a rd s, etc.); switches n ec e ssa ry auxiliary equipment into circu it, and sta rts
and o p erates com puter; m akes adjustm ents to com puter to c o rrect operating problem s and m eet
sp ecial conditions; reviews e rr o r s made during operation and determ ines cause or r e fe r s problem
to su p erv iso r or p ro g ram er; and m aintains operating re c o rd s. May te st and a s s is t in correctin g
p rogram .
F or wage study p u rp o ses, computer o p erato rs are cla ssifie d as follows:
C la ss A. O perates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running
p ro gram s with m ost of the following c h a ra c te ristic s: New p rogram s a re frequently tested
and introduced; scheduling requirem ents are of c ritic al im portance to m inim ize downtime;
the p ro g ram s are of com plex design so that identification of e rro r source often requ ires a
working knowledge of the total program , and alternate p rogram s m ay not be available. May
give direction and guidance to lower level o p erato rs.
C la ss B. O perates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running
p ro gram s with m ost of the following c h a ra c te ristic s: Most of the p rogram s are established
production run s, typically run on a regu larly recu rrin g b a sis; there is little or no testing




COMPUTER OPERATOR— Continued
of new p rogram s required; alternate p rogram s are provided in ca se original program needs
m ajor change or cannot be corrected within a reasonable tim e. In common e rro r situ a­
tion s, d iagn oses cause and takes corrective action. This usually involves applying previously
program ed corrective step s, or using standard correction techniques.
OR
O perates under d irect supervision a computer running p rogram s or segm ents of p rogram s
with the ch a ra c te ristic s described for c la ss A. May a s s is t a higher level operator by inde­
pendently perform ing le s s difficult task s assig n ed , and perform ing difficult task s following
detailed instructions and with frequent review of operations perform ed.
C la ss C . Works on routine p rogram s under clo se supervision. Is expected to develop
working knowledge of the computer equipment used and ability to detect problem s involved in
running routine p ro g ra m s. Usually has received some form al training in computer operation.
May a s s is t higher level operator on com plex p rog ram s.
COMPUTER PROGRAMER, BUSINESS
Converts statem ents of busin ess problem s, typically prepared by a system s analyst, into
a sequence of detailed instructions which are required to solve the problem s by autom atic data
p ro cessin g equipment. Working from charts or d iag ram s, the p rog ram er develops the p re c ise in­
structions which, when entered into the com puter system in coded language, cause the m anipulation

18
COMPUTER PROGRAMER, BUSINESS— Continued

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS— Continued

of data to achieve d esired r e su lts. Work involves m ost of the following: Applies knowledge of
com puter capab ilities, m athem atics, logic employed by com puters, and p articu lar subject m atter
involved to analyze charts and d iag ram s of the problem to be program ed; develops sequence
of program step s; w rites detailed flow charts to show o rder in which data will be p ro cessed ;
converts these charts to coded instructions for machine to follow; te sts and c o rrects p rogram s;
p rep ares instructions for operating personnel during production run; analyzes, review s, and a lters
p ro gram s to in cre ase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirem ents; m aintains record s of
program development and rev isio n s. (NOTE: W orkers perform ing both sy stem s an alysis and p ro ­
gram ing should be cla ssifie d as system s analysts if this is the sk ill used to determ ine their pay.)
Does not include em ployees p rim arily resp o n sible for the management or supervision of
other electronic data p ro cessin g em ployees, or p ro g ra m ers p rim arily concerned with scientific
and/or engineering problem s.
F o r wage study p u rp o ses, p ro g ra m ers a re c la ssifie d as follows:
C la ss A. Works independently or under only general direction on com plex problem s which
require competence in all phases of program ing concepts and p ractice s. Working from d ia­
gram s and charts which identify the nature of d esired re su lts, m ajor p ro cessin g steps to be
accom plished, and the relationsh ips between variou s step s of the problem solving routine:
plans the full range of program ing actions needed to efficiently utilize the computer system
in achieving d esired end products.
At this level, program ing is difficult because com puter equipment m ust be organized to
produce sev eral in terrelated but d iv erse products from numerous and d iv erse data elem ents.
A wide variety and extensive number of internal p ro cessin g actions m ust occur. This requ ires
such actions as development of common operations which can be reused, establishm ent of
linkage points between operations, adjustm ents to data when program requirem ents exceed
com puter storage capacity, and substantial manipulation and resequencing of data elements
to form a highly integrated p ro gram .
May provide functional direction to lower level p ro g ram ers who a re assign ed to a s s is t .
C la ss B. Works independently or under only general direction on relatively sim ple
p ro g ra m s, or on sim ple segm ents of com plex p ro g ra m s. P rogram s (or segm ents) usually
p ro c e ss inform ation to produce data in two or three varied sequences or form ats. Reports
and listin gs are produced by refining, adapting, arrayin g, or making m inor additions to or
deletions from input data which a re readily available. While numerous record s m ay be
p ro c essed , the data have been refined in p rio r actions so that the accu racy and sequencing
of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typically, the program d eals with
routine record-keeping type operations.
OR
Works on com plex p ro gram s (as d escribed for c la ss A) under close direction of a higher
level pro gram er or su p e rv iso r. May a s s i s t higher level p rogram er by independently p e r­
form ing le s s difficult ta sk s assig n ed , and perform ing m ore difficult ta sk s under fairly close
direction.
May guide or in struct lower level p ro g ra m ers.
C la ss C. Makes p ractical applications of program ing p ractice s and concepts usually
learned in form al training c o u rse s. A ssignm ents are designed to develop competence in the
application of standard proced ures to routine problem s. R eceives close supervision on new
a sp e c ts of assign m en ts; and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy and conformance with
required p ro ced ures.

every item of each type is autom atically p ro cessed through the full system of record s and
appropriate followup actions are initiated by the computer.) Confers with person s concerned to
determine the data p ro cessin g problem s and advises su bject-m atter personnel on the im plica­
tions of new or revised system s of data p rocessin g operations. M akes recom m endations, if
needed, for approval of m ajor system s in stallations or changes and for obtaining equipment.
May provide functional direction to lower level sy stem s an alysts who are assign ed to
a s s is t .
C la ss B . Works independently or under only general direction on problem s that are
relatively uncom plicated to analyze, plan, program , and operate. P roblem s are of lim ited
com plexity becau se sou rces of input data are homogeneous and the output data are closely
related. (For exam ple, develops sy stem s for m aintaining depositor accounts in a bank,
m aintaining accounts receivable in a retail establishm ent, or m aintaining inventory accounts
in a m anufacturing or w holesale establishm ent.) Confers with p erson s concerned to determ ine
the data p ro cessin g problem s and a d vises su bject-m atter personnel on the im plications of the
data p ro cessin g sy stem s to be applied.
OR
Works on a segm ent of a com plex data p rocessin g schem e or system , as described for
c la ss A. Works independently on routine assignm ents and rece iv e s instruction and guidance
on com plex assign m en ts. Work is reviewed for accu racy of judgment, com pliance with in­
structions, and to insure proper alinement with the overall system .
C la ss C . Works under im m ediate supervision, carryin g out an alyses a s assign ed , usually
of a single activity. A ssignm ents are designed to develop and expand practical experience
in the application of procedures and sk ills required for sy stem s an alysis work. For exam ple,
m ay a s s is t a higher level sy stem s analyst by preparing the detailed sp ecification s required
by p ro g ra m ers from information developed by the higher level analyst.
DRAFTSMAN
C la ss A. Plans the graphic presentation of com plex item s having tTTstimtive design
featu res that differ significantly from established drafting preceden ts. Works in close sup­
port with the design o rigin ator, and m ay recom m end m inor design changes. Analyzes the
effect of each change on the details of form , function, and positional relationships of com ­
ponents and p a rts. Works with a minimum of su p ervisory a ssista n c e . Completed work is
reviewed by design originator for consistency with prior engineering determ inations. May
either p rep are draw ings, or d irect their preparation by lower level draftsm en.
C la s s B . P erfo rm s nonroutine and com plex drafting assign m en ts tliat require the a pp li­
cation of m ost of the standardized drawing techniques regu larly used. Duties typically in­
volve such work a s: P re p a re s working drawings of su b asse m b lie s with irreg u lar shapes,
m ultiple functions, and p re c ise positional relationships between components; p rep are s a rc h i­
tectu ral drawings for construction of a building including detail drawings of foundations, wall
section s, floor plans, and roof. U ses accepted form ulas and m anuals in making n ece ssary
com putations to determ ine quantities of m a te ria ls to be used, load cap acities, stren gth s,
s t r e s s e s , etc. R eceives initial in struction s, requ irem ents, and advice from su p e rv iso r.
Completed work is checked for technical adequacy.

COMPUTER SYSTEM S ANALYST, BUSINESS
Analyzes bu sin ess problem s to form ulate procedures for solving them by use of electronic
data p ro cessin g equipment. Develops a com plete description of all sp ecification s needed to enable
p ro g ram ers to p rep are required digital computer p ro g ram s. Work involves m ost of the following:
Analyzes subject-m atter operations to be automated and identifies conditions and c rite r ia required
to achieve satisfa c to ry re su lts; sp ecifies number and types of reco rd s, file s, and documents to
be used; outlines actions to be perform ed by personnel and com puters in sufficient detail for
presentation to management and for program ing (typically this involves preparation of work and
data flow ch arts); coordinates the development of te st problem s and p articip ates in trial runs of
new and revised sy stem s; and recom m ends equipment changes to obtain m ore effective overall
operations. (NOTE: W orkers perform ing both sy stem s an aly sis and program ing should be c la s ­
sified as sy stem s analysts if this is the skill used to determ ine their pay.)

C la ss C . P re p a re s detail drawings of single units or p arts for engineering, construction,
m anufacturing, or rep air p u rp oses. Types of drawings prepared include isom etric projections
(depicting three dim ensions in accu rate scale ) and sectional views to clarify positioning of
components and convey needed inform ation. Consolidates details from a number of sou rces
and adju sts or tran sp o se s scale as required. Suggested methods of approach, applicable
preceden ts, and advice on source m ate rials a re given with initial assign m en ts. Instructions
a re le s s com plete when assignm ents recu r. Work may be spot-checked during p ro g re ss.
DRAFTSMAN-TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracin g cloth or paper over
drawings and tracin g with pen or pencil. (Does not include tracin g lim ited to plans prim arily
consisting of straight lines and a large scale not requiring close delineation.)
AND/OR
P re p a re s sim ple or repetitive drawings of e asily visualized item s. Work is closely supervised
during p r o g re s s.

Does not include em ployees p rim arily respon sible for the m anagem ent or supervision
of other electronic data p ro cessin g em ployees, or system s analysts p rim arily concerned with
scientific or engineering problem s.
F or wage study p u rp o ses, sy stem s analysts are c la ssifie d as follows:

ELECTRO N ICS TECHNICIAN
Works on various types of electronic equipment or sy stem s by perform ing one or m ore
of the following operations: Modifying, in stallin g, rep airin g, and overhauling. These operations
require the perform ance of m ost or all of the following ta sk s: A ssem bling, testing, adjusting,
calibratin g, tuning, and alining.

C la ss A. Works independently or under only general direction on com plex problem s in­
volving all phases of sy stem s a n a ly sis. P roblem s a re com plex because of d iverse so u rces of
input data and m ultiple-u se requirem ents of output data. (F or exam ple, develops an integrated
production scheduling, inventory control, cost a n a ly sis, and sa le s an alysis record in which

Work is nonrepetitive and requ ires a knowledge of the theory and practice of electron ics
pertaining to the use of general and sp ecialized electronic te st equipment; trouble a n aly sis; and
the operation, relationship, and alinement of electron ic sy ste m s, su b sy stem s, and circu its having
a variety of component p arts.




19
ELECTRO N ICS TECHNICIAN— Continued

NU RSE, IN D U S T R IA L (R e g is te re d )

E lectron ic equipment or sy stem s worked on typically include one or m ore of the following:
Ground, vehicle, or airborne radio com munications sy ste m s, relay sy ste m s, navigation aid s;
airborne or ground rad ar system s; radio and television transm itting or recording sy stem s; e le c ­
tronic com puters; m iss ile and sp acecraft guidance and control sy stem s; in dustrial and m edical
m easurin g, indicating and controlling devices; etc.

A re g is te r e d nurse who g iv e s nursing s e r v ic e under ge n era l m e d ica l d irection to i l l or
injured em p loyees o r other persons who becom e i l l o r su ffer an accident on the p re m is e s o f a
fa c to ry o r oth er establishm ent. Duties in volve a com bination of the fo llo w in g : G ivin g fir s t aid
to the i l l o r injured; attending to subsequent d ressin g of em ployees* in ju ries; keeping re cord s
o f patients trea ted ; p rep a rin g accident re p orts fo r com pensation o r other purposes; a ssistin g in
ph ysical exam inations and health evaluations o f applicants and em p loyees; and planning and c a r r y ­
ing out p rog ra m s in volvin g health education, 'accident preven tion , evaluation o f plant environm ent,
o r other a c tiv itie s a ffec tin g the health, w e lfa r e , and safety o f a ll personn el. N ursing su p erviso rs
o r head nurses in establish m ents em ploying m o re than one nurse a re excluded.

(Exclude production a sse m b le rs and te st e r s , craftsm en , draftsm en, d e sig n e rs, engin eers,
and repairm en of such standard electronic equipment a s office m achines, radio and television
receiving s e ts .)

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

M A C H IN IS T , M A IN T E N A N C E

P erfo rm s the carpentry duties n e c e ssa ry to construct and maintain in good rep air build­
ing woodwork and equipment such as bins, c rib s, counters, benches, p artition s, d oors, flo o rs,
s t a ir s , c a sin g s, and trim made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves m ost of the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, m odels, or verbal in struction s; using a
variety of c arp en ter's handtools, portable power to o ls, and standard m easuring instrum ents; m ak­
ing standard shop computations relating to dim ensions of work; and selecting m ate rials n ece ssa ry
for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requ ires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
ELECTRICIAN , MAINTENANCE

P rod u ce s rep la cem en t parts and new parts in making re p a irs o f m eta l parts of m echan ical
equipment operated in an establish m ent. W ork in volv es m ost o f the fo llo w in g : In terp retin g w ritten
in stru ction s and sp e cifica tio n s; planning and laying out o f w ork; using a v a rie ty o f m a ch in ist's
handtools and p recisio n m easu ring instrum ents; setting up and operatin g standard m achine too ls;
shaping o f m eta l parts to clo s e tole ra n c es; making standard shop computations relatin g to dim en ­
sions o f w ork , too lin g, fee d s, and speeds of m achining; know ledge o f the w orkin g p ro p e rtie s of
the com m on m e ta ls; sele ctin g standard m a te r ia ls , p a rts, and equipment re qu ired fo r his w ork;
and fittin g and a ssem blin g parts into m ech an ical equipment.
In g e n e ra l, the m a ch in ist's w ork
n o rm a lly re q u ire s a rounded train in g in m achine-shop p r a c tic e usually acq u ired through a fo rm a l
a pprenticeship o r equ ivalent train in g and ex p erien ce.

P erfo rm s a variety of e le ctric a l trade functions such a s the installation, m aintenance, or
rep air of equipment for the generation, distribution, or utilization of e lectric energy in an e sta b ­
lishm ent. Work involves m ost of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of e le c ­
tric a l equipment such as gen erato rs, tra n sfo rm e rs, sw itchboards, con trollers, circuit b r e a k e r s ,
m o to rs, heating units, conduit sy stem s, or other tran sm issio n equipment; working from blue­
prints, draw ings, layouts, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le ctrica l
system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirem ents of wiring or
e le ctric a l equipment; and using a variety of e le ctric ia n 's handtools and m easuring and testing
instrum ents. In general, the work of the m aintenance electrician requ ires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and m aintains and may a lso sup ervise the operation of stationary engines and
equipment (m echanical or e le ctrical) to supply the establishm ent in which employed with power,
heat, refrigeratio n , or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment
such as steam engines, a ir c o m p re sso rs, ge n e rato rs, m o to rs, turbines, ventilating and r e fr ig ­
erating equipment, steam bo ilers and boiler-fed water pum ps; making equipment r e p a irs; and
keeping a record of operation of m achinery, tem p erature, and fuel consumption. May a lso su ­
p e rv ise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishm ents employing m ore than one
engineer are excluded.
FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
F ir e s stationary b o ilers to furnish the establishm ent in which employed with heat, power,
or steam . F eed s fuels to fire by hand or operates a m echanical stoker, g a s, or oil burner; and
checks w ater and safety v alv es. May clean, oil, or a s s i s t in repairing boilerroom equipment.
H E L P E R , MAINTENANCE TRADES
A s s is t s one or m ore w orkers in the skilled m aintenance tra d e s, by perform ing sp ecific
or general duties of le s s e r sk ill, such a s keeping a w orker supplied with m ate rials and tools;
cleaning working a re a , m achine, and equipment; a ssistin g journeyman by holding m ate rials or
too ls; and perform ing other unskilled ta sk s a s d irected by jburneym an. The kind of work the
helper is perm itted to perform v a rie s from trade to trad e : In som e trades the helper is confined
to supplying, lifting, and holding m ate rials and to o ls, and cleaning working a r e a s; and in others
he is perm itted to perform sp ecialized machine operations, or parts of a trad e that are also
perform ed by w orkers on a full-tim e b a sis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
S p e cialize s in the operation of one or m ore types of machine tools, such a s jig b o r e rs,
cylindrical or surface grin d e rs, engine lath es, or m illing m achines, in the construction of
m achine-shop to o ls, gag e s, jig s , fix tu res, or d ies. Work involves m ost of the following: Planning
and perform ing difficult machining operations; p ro cessin g item s requiring com plicated setups or
a high degree of accu racy; using a variety of p recisio n m easuring instrum ents; selectin g feeds,
sp eed s, tooling, and operation sequence; and making n e c e ssa ry adjustm ents during operation
to achieve requ isite toleran ces or dim ensions. May be required to recognize when tools need
d re ssin g , to d re ss to o ls, and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. F or
cro ss-in d u stry wage study p urp o ses, m achine-tool o p erato rs, toolroom , in tool and die jobbing
shops a re excluded from this c lassificatio n .




M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (M aintenance)
R ep a irs a u tom obiles, buses, m o tortru ck s, and t ra c to rs o f an establishm ent. W ork in ­
v o lves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Exam ining autom otive equipment to diagnose sou rce of tro u b le; d is ­
a ssem blin g equipment and p erfo rm in g re p a irs that in vo lv e the use o f such handtools as w ren ch es,
ga g es, d r ills , o r s p e c ia lize d equipment in disa ssem blin g o r fitting p a rts; replacing broken or
d e fe c tiv e parts fr o m stock; grind ing and adjusting v a lv e s ; re as sem b lin g and in stallin g the variou s
a ssem b lies in the v e h ic le and making n e c e s s a ry adjustm ents; and alinin g w h e els, adjusting brakes
and ligh ts, o r tightening body bolts. In ge n era l, the w ork of the autom otive mechanic re q u ires
rounded tra in in g and ex p erien c e usually acqu ired through a fo rm a l apprenticeship or equivalent
train in g and e x p erien c e.
Th is c la s s ific a tio n does not include m echan ics who re p a ir cu sto m ers' v e h icles in auto­
m o b ile re p a ir shops.
M E C H A N IC , M A IN T E N A N C E
R e p a irs m a ch in ery o r m ech an ical equipment o f an establish m ent. W ork in volv es m ost
o f the fo llo w in g : Exam ining m achines and m ech an ical equipment to diagnose sou rce of trou ble;
dism antlin g o r p a rtly dism antling m achines and p e rfo rm in g re p a irs that m a in ly in volve the use
o f handtools in scra p in g and fittin g p a rts; rep la cin g broken o r d e fe c tiv e parts with item s obtained
fr o m stock; o rd erin g the production o f a repla cem en t pa rt by a m achine shop o r sending o f the
m achine to a m achine shop fo r m a jo r re p a irs ; p rep a rin g w ritten sp e cifica tion s fo r m a jo r re p a irs
o r fo r the production o f parts o rd ered fr o m m achine shop; re a s sem b lin g m achines; and making
a ll n e c e s s a r y adjustm ents fo r operation. In ge n era l, the w ork of a maintenance m echanic re q u ires
rounded tra in in g and e x p erien c e usually acqu ired through a fo rm a l apprenticeship o r equivalent
tra in in g and ex p erien c e.
Excluded fr o m this cla s s ific a tio n a re w o rk e rs whose p rim a ry duties
in volve setting up o r adjusting m achines.
M IL L W R IG H T
In sta lls new m achines o r heavy equipm ent, and dism antles and in sta lls m achines o r heavy
equipment when changes in the plant layout a re re q u ired . W ork in vo lv es m o st o f the fo llo w in g :
Planning and layin g out o f the w ork ; in te rp retin g blueprints o r oth er sp e cifica tion s; using a v a r ie ty
o f handtools and rig g in g ; making standard shop com putations re la tin g to s tre s s e s , strength of
m a te r ia ls , and cen ters o f g r a v ity ; alinin g and balancing o f equipm ent; s ele ctin g standard to o ls ,
equipment, and parts to be used; and in stallin g and piaintaining in good o rd e r pow er tra n sm ission
equipment such as d r iv e s and speed re d u cers . In g e n e ra l, the m illw r ig h t 's w ork n o rm a lly re q u ires
a rounded tra in in g and e x p erien c e in the tra d e acqu ired through a fo rm a l apprenticeship or
equivalent tra in in g and ex p erien c e.
P A IN T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
Pain ts and re d eco ra tes w a lls , w oodw ork, and fix tu res o f an establish m ent. W ork in volves
the fo llo w in g : K n ow led ge o f su rface p e c u lia ritie s and types o f paint re q u ired fo r d ifferen t a p p lica ­
tion s; p rep a rin g su rface fo r painting by re m o vin g old fin ish or by placin g putty or f i l l e r in nail

20
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE— Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE— Continued

holes and in te r stic e s; and applying paint with sp ray gun o r brush. May m ix c o lo rs, o ils, white
lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or con sisten cy. In general, the work of the
m aintenance painter req u ires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experien ce.
'

tvpes of sheet-m etal m aintenance work from blueprints, m odels, or other specification s; setting
up and operating a ll available types of sheet-m etal working m achines; using a variety of handtools
in cutting, bending, form ing, shaping, fitting, and assem blin g; and in stalling sh eet-m etal a rticle s
a s required. In general, the work of the maintenance sh eet-m etal worker requ ires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.

P IP E F IT T E R , MAINTENANCE
In stalls or re p a irs w ater, steam , g a s, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an
establishm ent. Work involves m o st of the following: Laying out of work and m easuring to locate
position of pipe from drawings or other written sp ecification s; cutting variou s siz e s of pipe to
c o rre c t lengths with ch isel and ham m er o r oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting m achines; threading
pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven or pow er-driven m achines; assem bling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to h an gers; making standard shop computations relating to
p r e s s u r e s , flow, and size of pipe required; and m aking standard te sts to determ ine whether fin­
ished pipes m eet sp ecificatio n s. In g en eral, the work of the maintenance pipefitter requ ires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. W orkers p rim a rily engaged in installin g and repairing building sanitation
or heating system s a re excluded.
SH E ET -M E T A L WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F a b ric a te s, in sta lls, and m aintains in good re p a ir the sh eet-m etal equipment and fixtures
(such a s machine g u ards, g re a se pans, sh e lv es, lo c k e rs, tan ks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, m etal
roofing) of an establishm ent. Work involves m o st of the following; Planning and laying out all

TOOL AND DIE MAKER
C onstructs and re p a irs m achine-shop to o ls, g ag e s, jig s , fixtures or dies for forgin gs,
punching, and other m etal-form in g work. Work involves m ost of the following: Planning and
laying out of work from m od els, blueprints, draw ings, or other o ral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die m a k e r's handtools and p recision m easuring instrum ents; under­
standing of the working p roperties of common m etals and a lloys; setting up and operating of
m achine tools and related equipment; m aking n ece ssa ry shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, sp eed s, fe e d s, and tooling of m achines; heat-treating of m etal p arts during fabrication
a s well a s of finished tools and dies to achieve required q u alities; working to close toleran ces;
fitting and assem blin g of p arts to p rescrib e d toleran ces and allow ances; and selectin g appropriate
m a te r ia ls, to o ls, and p r o c e s s e s . In general, the tool and die m ak e r's work requ ires a rounded
training in m achine-shop and toolroom p ractice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship
or equivalent training and experien ce.
F o r cro ss-in d u stry wage study p u rp o ses, tool and die m ak ers in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this c la ssifica tio n .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
GUARD AND WATCHMAN
G uard. P erfo rm s routine police duties, either at fixed p ost or on tour, m aintaining o rder,
using arm s or force where n e c e ssa r y . Includes gatem en who a re stationed at gate and check
on identity of em ployees and other p e rso n s entering.
Watchman. Makes rounds of p re m ise s p erio d ically in protecting property again st fir e ,
theft, and ille g a l entry.
JANITOR, PO RTER, OR CLEANER
Cleans and keeps in an o rd erly condition factory working a re a s and w ashroom s, or
p re m ise s of an o ffice, apartm ent house, or co m m ercial or other establishm ent. Duties involve
a combination of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing flo o rs; rem oving
chips, trash , and other refu se; dusting equipment, furn iture, or fixtures; polishing m etal fix ­
tu re s or trim m in gs; providing supplies and m inor m aintenance s e rv ic e s; and cleaning la v ato rie s,
show ers, and re stro o m s. W orkers who sp ecialize in window washing are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
P re p a re s m erchandise for shipment, or rece iv e s and is resp on sible lor incoming ship­
m ents of m erchandise or other m a t e r ia ls . Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping p ro­
cedu res, p ra c tic e s, routes, available m ean s of tran sp ortation , and r a te s; and preparing record s
of the goods shipped, m aking up b ills of lading, posting weight and shipping ch arg es, and keeping
a file of shipping r e c o rd s. May d irect or a s s is t in preparing the m erchandise for shipment.
Receiving work in volves; Verifying o r directing others in verifying the co rrectn ess of shipments
again st bills of lading, in voices, or other re co rd s; checking for sh ortages and rejecting dam ­
aged goods; routing m erchandise or m a te r ia ls to proper departm ents; and maintaining n e c e ssa ry
reco rd s and file s .
F o r wage study p u rp o se s, w orkers are c la ssifie d a s follow s:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

LABO RER, MATERIAL HANDLING
A w orker employed in a w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, sto re, or other establishm ent
whose duties involve one or m ore of the following: Loading and unloading various m ate rials and
m erchandise on or from freight c a r s , tru c k s, or other tran sportin g devices; unpacking, shelving,
or placing m a te ria ls or m erchandise in proper sto rage location; and tran sportin g m ate rials or
m erchandise by handtruck, c a r, or wheelbarrow . Longshorem en, who load and unload ships are
excluded.
ORDER F IL L E R
F ills shipping or tran sfe r o rd e rs for finished goods from stored m erchandise in a cco rd ­
ance with sp ecification s on sa le s slip s, cu sto m ers' o r d e r s, or other in struction s. May, in addition
to filling o rd e rs and indicating item s filled or om itted, keep reco rd s of outgoing o rd e rs, requ i­
sition additional stock or report short supplies to su p e rv iso r, and perform other related duties.
PACKER, SHIPPING
P re p a re s finished products fo r shipment or sto rage by placing them in shipping con­
tain e rs, the sp ecific operations perform ed being dependent upon the type, siz e , and number
of units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requ ires
the placing of item s in shipping containers and m ay involve one or m ore of the following:
Knowledge of v ariou s item s of stock in o rder to verify content; selection of appropriate type
and size of container; in serting en clo su res in container; using e x ce lsio r o r other m ate rial to
prevent breakage or dam age; closing and sealin g container; and applying labels o r entering
identifying data on container. P ack ers who a lso m ake wooden boxes or c ra te s a re excluded.




D rives a truck within a city or in du strial a re a to tran sp o rt m a te ria ls, m erchandise,
equipment, or m en between variou s types of establishm ents such a s : Manufacturing plants, freight
depots, w arehouses, w holesale and r e ta il establish m ents, or between reta il establishm ents and
cu sto m ers' houses or p laces of bu sin e ss. May a lso load or unload truck with or without help ers,
m ake m inor m echanical r e p a ir s, and keep truck in good working ord e r. D riv e r-sale sm e n and
over-th e-road d riv e rs a re excluded.
follow s:

F o r wage study p u rp o se s, tru ck d rivers are c la ssifie d by size and type of equipment, as
(T r a c to r -tr a ile r should be rated on the b a sis of tr a ile r capacity.)
T ruckdriver
T ruck d river,
T ruckdriver,
T ruck d river,
T ru ck d river,

(combination of siz e s listed separately)
light (under IV2 tons)
medium (IV 2 to and including 4 tons)
heavy (over 4 tons, tr a ile r type)
heavy (over 4 tons, other than tr a ile r type)

TRUCKER, POWER
O perates a m anually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered truck or tracto r to tran sp ort
goods and m a te ria ls of a ll kinds about a w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
F o r wage study p u rp o se s, w orkers a re c la ssifie d by type of truck, as follows:
T ruck er, power (forklift)
T ruck er, power (other than forklift)
*-U . S. G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F IC E ’ l l l l - T U - I U f

14

A rea W a g e Surveys
A lis t o f the la te st a v aila b le bulletins is p resente d below. A d i r e c t o r y of a r e a w ag e studies including m o r e l i m ite d studies conducted at the
Request o f the E m p lo ym e n t Standards A d m in is tr a tio n o f the D epart ment of L a b o r is a v ail ab le on req uest . Bulle tins m a y be purchas ed f r o m any of the B L S
r e g i o n a l s ale s o f f i c e s shown on the back c o v e r , or f r o m the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. G ov e rn m en t P r in tin g O f f ic e , Washington, D.C., 20402.
Area

B ulletin number
and p r i c e

A k r o n , Ohio, Dec. 1972____________________________________ 1775-36,
40 cents
55 cents
A lb an y —
Schenectady— r o y , N . Y . , M a r . 1973 1 ------------- 1775-62,
T
Alb uquerque, N. M e x . , M a r . 1973________________________ 1775-52,
40 cents
A lle ntow n—
Bethlehem—Easton, P a . — .J ., M ay 1972 1 __ 1725-87,
N
35 cents
Atlanta, G a . , M a y 1972 1___________________________________ 1725-77,
45 cents
Austin, T e x . , Dec. 1972 1------------------------------------------- 1775-42,
40 cents
75 cents
B a l t i m o r e , M d . , Aug. 1972 1______________________________ 1775-20,
Beaumont— o r t Ar thui—O range, T e x . , M a y 1972-------- 1725-69,
P
30 cents
Binghamton, N . Y . , July 1972_____________________________
1775-5,
45 cents
B irm in g h am , A la . , M a r . 1973 1___________________________ 1775-65,
55 cents
B o is e C ity, Idaho, Nov. 19721____________________________ 1775-32,
50 cents
75 cents
Boston, M a s s ., Aug. 19721_______________________________ 1775-13,
Buffalo, N . Y . , Oct. 19721_________________________________ 1775-18,
65 cents
Burlington, V t . , Dec. 1972 1--------------------------------------- 1775-28,
50 cents
Canton, Ohio, M a y 1973__________________ ________________ 1775-73,
40 cents
C harleston, W. V a . , M ar. 1973___________________________ 1775-74,
40 cents
C harlott e, N .C ., Jan. 1973----------------------------------------- 1775-39,
40 cents
Chattanooga, T e n n . - G a . , Sept. 1972 * ------------------------- 1775-14,
55 cents
C hicag o, 111., June 1972--------------------------------------------- 1725-92,
70 cents
Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.—Ind., Feb. 1973____________________ 1775-53,
50 cents
Clevela n d, Ohio, Sept. 1972 1_____________________________
1775-15,
75 cents
Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 19721______________________________ 1775-23,
55 cents
D all as, T e x . , Oct. 1972 1------------------------------------------- 1775-25,
75 cents
Dav enport—
Rock Island— oli n e, Iowa—
M
111., Feb. 1973___ 1775-57, 40 cents
Dayton, Ohio, Dec. 1972____ —__—
1775- 34, 40 cents
D e n v e r, C olo., Dec. 1972__________________________________ 1775-35, 40 cents
Des M oin es , Iowa, M ay 1973-------------------------------------- 1775-72,
40 cents
D e tr o it, M ic h ., Feb. 1972_________________________________ 1725-68, 40 cents
Durham, N .C ., Ap r . 1973___ ________ _____________________ 1775-61,
35 cents
F o r t L au d e rda le —H olly w ood and W e s t P a l m
Bea ch, F l a . , A p r . 1973__________________________________ 1775-64,
40 cents
F o r t Worth, T e x . , Oct. 1972 1------------------------------------ 1775-24,
50 cents
G r e e n Bay, W i s . , July 1972 1------------------------------------- 1775-1,
55 cents
G r e e n v i l l e , S.C., M ay 1972---------------------------------------- 1725-66,
30 cents
Houston, T e x . , Ap r . 1973__________________________________ 1775-71,
50 cents
Hun ts vill e, A l a . , Feb. 1973---------------------------------------- 1775-48,
40 cents
Indianapolis, Ind., Oct. 1972 1----- ------------------------------- 1775-27,
55 cents
Jackson, M i s s . , Jan. 1973------------------------------------------ 1775-44, 40 cents
J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l a . , Dec. 1972------------------------------------ 1775-31,
40 cents
Kansas City, Mo.— a n s . , Sept. 1972--------------------------- 1775-17, 50 cents
K
L a w r e n c e - H a v e r h i l l , M ass.—N .H ., June 1972 1------------ 1725-81,
35 cents
Lexington, K y . , Nov. 1972 1---------------------------------------- 1775-22,
50 cents
L i ttl e R ock— orth L i ttl e Rock, A r k ., July 1972 1-------- 1775-2,
N
55 cents
L os A n g e le s —Long Bea ch and Anaheim —Santa A n a Gar den G r o v e , C a lif. , Oct. 1972 1---------------------------- 1775-38,
75 cents
L o u i s v i l l e , Ky.—Ind., Nov. 1972---------------------------------- 177 5-37, 40 cents
Lubbock, T e x . , M ar. 1973------------------------------------------ 1775-55, 40 cents
M a n c h es te r , N.H., July 1972 1____________________________ 1775-8,
55 cents
M e m p h i s , Tenn.— r k . , Nov. 1972_;______________________ 1775-30, 40 cents
A
M i a m i , F l a . , Nov. 1972 1__________________________________ 1775-29,
55 cents
M id land and Odessa, T e x . , Jan. 1973-------- --- ------------- 1775-41, 35 cents

 on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.
Data


Area
M i l w a u k e e , W i s . , M a y 1972 1---------------------------------------------M inn ea polis —St. P a u l , M i n n . , J an. 1973___________________
M u s k e g o i r - M u s k e g o n H ei gh ts , M i c h ., June 1972 1 ---------N e w a r k and J e r s e y City, N . J . , Jan. 1973------------------------N e w H av en , C o n n ., J an. 1973________________________________
N e w O r l e a n s , L a . , J an. 1973---------------------------------------------N e w Y o r k , N . Y . , A p r . 1972 1
_________________________________
N o r f o l k —V i r g i n i a B e a c h — o r t s m o u t h and
P
N e w p o r t N e w s —Hampton, V a . , J an. 1973 1---------------------O k la h o m a City, O k l a . , July 1972__ _________________________
O m a h a , N e b r . —Io wa, Sept. 1972_____________________________
P a t e r s o n — l i f t o i r - P a s s a i c , N .J ., June 1972 1 -----------------C
P h i la d e lp h i a , P a . —N . J . , No v. 1972------------------------------------P h o e n ix , A r i z . , June 1972 1___ ___ ___________________________
P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , J an. 1973 1 _________________________________
P o r t l a n d , M a i n e , No v. 1972__________________________________
P o r t l a n d , O r e g . —W a s h . , M a y 1972 1 ________________________
P o u g h k e e p s ie —K ing st o n— e w b u r g h , N . Y . ,
N
June 1972 1 ______________________________________________________
P r ov idenc e—W a r w i c k - P a w t u c k e t , R. I.—M a s s . ,
M a y 1972________________________________________________________
R a l e i g h , N . C . , Aug . 1972------ ----------------------------------------------Richmond, V a . , M a r . 1973____________________________________
R iverside—
San B e r n a r d i n o — n t a rio , C a li f.,
O
De c. 1972 1 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------R o c h e s t e r , N . Y . ( o ffi ce occupations only), July 1972____
R o c k f o r d , 111., June 1972 1 -------------------------------------------------St. L o u i s , M o.—111., M a r . 1973 1 ----------------------------------------Salt La k e City, Utah, No v. 1972 1___________________________
San Antonio, T e x . , M a y 1972_________________________________
San D i e g o , C a l i f . , No v. 1972__________________________________
San F r a n c i s c o — k la nd, C a l i f . , Oct. 1971 1 _______________
Oa
San J o s e , C a l i f . , M a r . 1973___________________________________
Savannah, G a . , M a y 1972 1 ___________________________________
Scranton , P a . , July 1972______________________________________
S e a t t l e - E v e r e t t , W a s h . , J an. 1973__________________________
Sioux F a l l s , S. D a k . , De c. 1972 1____________________________
South B en d, Ind., M a r . 1973__________________________________
Spokane, W a s h . , J une 1972 1__________________________________
S y r a c u s e , N . Y . , July 1972____________________________________
Tampa—
St. P e t e r s b u r g , F l a . , A u g . 1972___________________
T o le d o , Oh io — i c h . , A p r . 1973______________________________
M
T r e n to n , N . J . , Sept. 1972 1____________________________________
U t i c a - R o m e , N . Y . , J uly 1972_________________________________
Wash ingt on, D . C .—Md .—V a . , M a r . 1973____________________
W a t e r b u r y , C o n n ., M a r . 1973_______ ___ _____________________
W a t e r l o o , Iowa, No v. 1972__________ ___ _____________________
Wich ita , K a n s . , A p r . 1973---------------------------------------------------W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , M a y 1973_________________________________
Y o r k , P a . , F eb. 1973-----------------------------------------------------------Youngstow n—W a r r e n , Ohio, No v. 1972_____________________

Bulletin number
and p ric e
1725-83,
1775-49,
1725-85,
1775-50,
1775-46,
177 5-47,
1725-90,

45cents
55cents
35cents
55 cents
40 cents
40cents
50cents

1775-51,
1775-6,
1775-16,
1725-88,
1775-45,
1725-94,
1775-67,
1775-21,
1725-89,

50cents
45cents
40cents
40 cents
55cents
55cents
75 cents
40cents
35 cents

1725-80,

35cents

1725-70,
1775-7,
1775-68,

30cents
45cents
40cents

1775-60,
1775-4,
1725-84,
1775-69,
1775-33,
1725-67,
1775-40,
1725-33,
1775-66,
1725-73,
1775-10,
1775-56,
1775-43,
1775-54,
1725-91,
1775-11,
1775-9,
1775-63,
1775-12,
1775-3,
1775-75,
1775-58,
1775-26,
1775-70,
1775-76,
1775-59,
177 5 -19,

65cents
45cents
35cents
75cents
50cents
30cents
40cents
50cents
40cents
cents
45cents
cents
40cents
40cents
cents
cents
45cents
cents
55cents
45cents
50cents
cents
40cents
40cents
40cents
cents
40cents

35
40

35
45
40

40

40

POSTAGE AND FEES PAID
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20212

LAB-441

OFFICIAL BUSINESS
PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE $300

THIRD CLASS MAIL

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1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (Area Code 617)
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
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Region II
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)
New Jersey
New York
Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands

Region III
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: 597-1154 (Area Code 215)
Delaware
District ot Columbia
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Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Mississippi
North Carolina
South Carolina
Tennessee

Region V
8th Floor, 300 South Wacker Drive
Chicago, III. 60606
Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)
Illinois
Indiana
Michigan
Minnesota
Ohio
Wisconsin

Region VI
1100 Commerce St. Rm. 6B7
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)
Arkansas
Louisiana
New Mexico
Oklahoma
Texas

Regions VII and V III
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 15th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)
VII
V III
Iowa
Colorado
Kansas
Montana
Missouri
North Dakota
Nebraska
South Dakota
Utah
Wyoming

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)
IX
X
Arizona
Alaska
California
Idaho
Hawaii
Oregon
Nevada
Washington





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102