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AREA W A G E SURVEY
Birm ingham , A labam a, M etropolitan Area,
M arch 1973
Bulletin 1775 6 5




U S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Rnrppm of Labor Statistics




P re fac e
T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s r e s u lts o f a M a r c h 1973 s u r v e y o f oc c u p a tio n a l
e a rn in g s and s u p p le m e n ta ry w a g e b e n e fits in the B irm in g h a m , A la b a m a , Standard
M e tr o p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A r e a (J e ffe r s o n , Sh elby, and W a lk e r C o u n tie s ).
The
s u r v e y w as m a d e as p a rt o f the B u rea u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s ' annual a r e a w age
su rvey p ro gra m .
Th e p r o g r a m is d e s ig n e d to y ie ld data fo r in d iv id u a l m e t r o ­
p o lita n a r e a s , as w e ll as n a tio n a l and r e g io n a l e s tim a te s f o r a ll Stand ard
M e tr o p o lita n A r e a s in the U n ited S ta te s , ex c lu d in g A la s k a and H a w a ii, (a s d e ­
fin e d b y the U .S. O ffic e o f M a n a g e m en t and B u d get th ro u gh N o v e m b e r 1971).
A m a jo r c o n s id e r a tio n in the a r e a w age s u r v e y p r o g r a m is the n eed to
d e s c r ib e the l e v e l and m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s in a v a r ie t y o f la b o r m a r k e ts , th rou gh
the a n a ly s is o f (1 ) the l e v e l and d is trib u tio n o f w a g e s b y oc c u p a tio n , and (2 ) the
m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s b y oc c u p a tio n a l c a t e g o r y and s k ill l e v e l . T h e p r o g r a m d e ­
v e lo p s in fo rm a tio n that m a y be u sed f o r m a n y p u rp o s e s , in clu d in g w age and
s a la r y a d m in is tr a tio n , c o lle c t iv e b a r g a in in g , and a s s is ta n c e in d e te rm in in g plant
lo c a tio n . S u rv e y r e s u lts a ls o a r e u sed b y the U .S. D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r to m a k e
w a g e d e te rm in a tio n s under the S e r v ic e C o n tra c t A c t o f 1965.
C u r r e n tly , 96 a r e a s a r e in clu d ed in the p r o g r a m .
(S e e l is t o f a r e a s
on in s id e b ack c o v e r . )
In each a r e a , o c c u p a tio n a l e a rn in g s data a r e c o lle c t e d
an nu ally. In fo r m a tio n on e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry w a g e b e n e ­
f it s , c o lle c te d e v e r y seco n d y e a r in the p a st, is now o b ta in ed e v e r y th ird y e a r .
E a c h y e a r a ft e r a ll in d iv id u a l a r e a w a g e s u r v e y s h a ve b een c o m p le te d ,
tw o s u m m a ry b u lle tin s a r e is s u e d .
Th e f i r s t b rin g s to g e th e r data f o r each
m e tr o p o lita n a r e a s u r v e y e d .
T h e seco n d s u m m a ry b u lle tin p re s e n ts n a tion al
and r e g io n a l e s tim a te s ,
p r o je c t e d f r o m in d iv id u a l m e tr o p o lita n a r e a data.
Th e B irm in g h a m s u r v e y w as con du cted b y the B u re a u 's r e g io n a l o ffic e
in A tla n ta , G a ., under the g e n e r a l d ir e c tio n o f D on ald M . C ru s e , A s s is ta n t
R e g io n a l D ir e c t o r fo r O p e ra tio n s . Th e s u r v e y could not h a ve b een a c c o m p lis h e d
w ith out the c o o p e r a tio n o f the m a n y f ir m s w h ose w a g e and s a la r y data p ro v id e d
the b a s is fo r the s ta tis tic a l in fo rm a tio n in th is b u lle tin . T h e B u reau w is h e s to
e x p r e s s s in c e r e a p p r e c ia tio n f o r the c o o p e r a tio n r e c e iv e d .

Note:
A ls o
fo r b u ild in g
tr u c k d r iv e r s
a r e a v a ila b le

a v a ila b le f o r the B irm in g h a m a r e a a r e lis tin g s o f union w a g e r a te s
tr a d e s , p rin tin g tr a d e s , lo c a l- t r a n s it o p e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s , lo c a l
and h e lp e r s , and g r o c e r y s to r e e m p lo y e e s .
F r e e c o p ie s o f th ese
f r o m the B u re a u 's r e g io n a l o f f ic e s . (S e e b a c k c o v e r f o r a d d r e s s e s .)

AREA W A G E SU R VE Y

B u lle tin 1 7 7 5 -6 5

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, Peter J. Brennan, Secretary

J u ly 1 9 7 3

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS, Ben Burdetsky, Deputy Commissioner

Birm ingham , A labam a, M etropolitan A rea, M arch 1973
CONTENTS

Page
2 In tro d u c tio n
6 W age tren d s fo r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n a l grou p s

T a b le s :
5
7
8

9
12
13

14
15
17

1. E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s cop e o f s u r v e y and nu m b er studied
2. In d e x e s o f e a rn in g s f o r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s , and p e rc e n ts o f chan ge f o r s e le c te d p e rio d s
3. P e r c e n ts o f in c r e a s e in a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s fo r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s , a d ju sted fo r e m p lo y m e n t sh ifts
A . O ccu p ation al e a r n in g s :
A - l.
O ffic e oc c u p a tio n s : W e e k ly e a rn in g s
A -2 .
P r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s : W e e k ly e a rn in g s
A -3 ,
O ffic e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and te c h n ic a l o c cu p atio n s: A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s , b y s e x
A -4 .
M ain ten a n ce and p o w e rp la n t occu p a tio n s: H o u rly e a rn in g s
A - 5.
C u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t o c cu p atio n s: H o u r ly e a rn in g s
A -6 .
M a in ten a n c e , p o w e rp la n t, c u s to d ia l, and m a t e r ia l handling o c c u p a tio n s : A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s , b y s e x
B.

18
19
20
21
22

23
26

29

E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry w age p r o v is io n s :
B - l.
M in im u m e n tra n ce s a la r ie s f o r w om en o f fic e w o r k e r s
B -2 .
Shift d iffe r e n t ia ls
B -3 .
S ch edu led w e e k ly h ou rs and days
B -4 .
A n n u al p aid h o lid a y s
B -4 a . Id e n tific a tio n o f m a jo r p aid h o lid a y s
B -5 .
P a id v a c a tio n s
B -6 .
H e a lth , in s u ra n c e , and p en sion plans

A p p e n d ix .

O ccu p a tion a l d e s c r ip tio n s




a

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1

In tr o d u c tio n
T h is a r e a is 1 o f 96 in w h ich the U.S. D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r 's
B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s con du cts s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a rn in g s
and r e la t e d b e n e fits on an a r e a w id e b a s is . 1 In th is a r e a , data w e r e
ob ta in ed by p e r s o n a l v is it s o f B u rea u f ie ld e c o n o m is ts to r e p r e s e n t a ­
t iv e e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith in s ix b ro a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s : M a n u fa ctu rin g;
tr a n s p o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ; w h o le s a le
tr a d e ; r e t a il tr a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s .
M a jo r in d u s try g rou p s e x c lu d e d fr o m th e s e stu d ies a r e g o v e rn m e n t
o p e r a tio n s and the c o n s tru c tio n and e x t r a c t iv e in d u s tr ie s . E s ta b lis h ­
m en ts h a vin g fe w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m b er o f w o r k e r s a r e o m itte d
b e ca u s e o f in s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in th e occu p a tio n s stu d ied . S e p a ­
r a te tab u la tion s a r e p r o v id e d fo r each o f th e b ro a d in d u s try d iv is io n s
w h ich m e e t p u b lic a tio n c r it e r ia .

the A - s e r i e s ta b le s , b e c a u s e e ith e r (1 ) e m p lo y m e n t in the occu p a tio n
is to o s m a ll to p r o v id e enough data to m e r it p re s e n ta tio n , o r (2 ) th e r e
is p o s s ib ilit y o f d is c lo s u r e o f in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n t d ata. E a rn in g s
data not shown s e p a r a t e ly fo r in d u s try d iv is io n s a r e in c lu d e d in a ll
in d u s tr ie s c o m b in e d data, w h e r e shown. L ik e w is e , d ata a r e in c lu d e d
in the o v e r a ll c la s s ific a t io n w hen a s u b c la s s ific a tio n o f e le c t r o n ic s
te c h n ic ia n s , s e c r e t a r ie s , o r tr u c k d r iv e r s is not shown o r in fo r m a tio n
to s u b c la s s ify is not a v a ila b le .
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a r n in g s data a r e shown fo r
f u ll- t im e w o r k e r s , i. e . , th o s e h ir e d to w o rk a r e g u la r w e e k ly sc h e d u le .
E a rn in g s data ex c lu d e p r e m iu m p ay f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o rk on
w e e k en d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts . N on p ro d u c tio n bon u ses a r e e x ­
c lu d ed , but c o s t - o f - liv in g a llo w a n c e s and in c e n tiv e e a rn in g s a r e in ­
c lu d e d .2 W h e re w e e k ly h o u rs a r e r e p o r te d , as f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l o c c u ­
p a tio n s , r e f e r e n c e is to the stan d a rd w o rk w e e k (rou n d ed to the n e a r e s t
h a lf h o u r) f o r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e th e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e
s a la r ie s (e x c lu s iv e o f p a y fo r o v e r t im e at r e g u la r an d / o r p re m iu m
r a t e s ).
A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s f o r th e s e o c c u p a tio n s a r e rounded
to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .

T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e con du cted on a s a m p le b a s is . T h e s a m ­
p lin g p r o c e d u r e s in v o lv e d e ta ile d s t r a t ific a t io n o f a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w ith in the sc o p e o f an in d iv id u a l a r e a s u r v e y b y in d u s try and n u m b er
o f e m p lo y e e s . F r o m th is s t r a t ifie d u n iv e r s e a p r o b a b ility s a m p le is
s e le c te d , w ith each e s ta b lis h m e n t h a vin g a p r e d e te r m in e d chan ce o f
s e le c tio n . T o o b ta in op tim u m a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t, a g r e a t e r
p r o p o r tio n o f la r g e than s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts is s e le c te d . W hen data
a r e c o m b in e d , each e s ta b lis h m e n t is w e ig h te d a c c o r d in g to its p r o b a ­
b i l i t y o f s e le c tio n , so that u n bia sed e s tim a te s a r e g e n e ra te d . F o r e x ­
a m p le , i f one out o f fo u r e s ta b lis h m e n ts is s e le c te d , it is g iv e n a
w e ig h t o f fo u r to r e p r e s e n t i t s e l f plus th r e e o th e rs . A n a lte r n a te o f the
s a m e o r ig in a l p r o b a b ility is ch o sen in the s a m e in d u s t r y - s iz e c l a s s i f i ­
c a tio n i f data a r e not a v a ila b le f o r the o r ig in a l s a m p le m e m b e r .
If
no s u ita b le su b stitu te is a v a ila b le , a d d itio n a l w e ig h t is a s s ig n e d to a
s a m p le m e m b e r that is s im ila r to th e m is s in g unit.

T h e s e s u r v e y s m e a s u r e the l e v e l o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a rn in g s in
an a r e a at a p a r t ic u la r tim e . C o m p a ris o n s o f in d iv id u a l o c c u p a tio n a l
a v e r a g e s o v e r tim e m a y not r e f l e c t e x p e c te d w a g e c h a n g e s . T h e a v e r ­
a g e s fo r in d iv id u a l jo b s a r e a ffe c t e d by ch an ges in w a g e s and e m p lo y ­
m en t p a tte r n s .
F o r e x a m p le , p r o p o r tio n s o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d by
h ig h - o r lo w - w a g e f ir m s m a y chan ge o r h ig h -w a g e w o r k e r s m a y ad ­
v a n c e to b e tte r jo b s and be r e p la c e d by n ew w o r k e r s at lo w e r r a te s .
Such s h ifts in e m p lo y m e n t cou ld d e c r e a s e an o c c u p a tio n a l a v e r a g e
e v e n though m o s t e s ta b lis h m e n ts in an a r e a in c r e a s e w a g e s d u rin g
the y e a r . T re n d s in e a rn in g s o f o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s , shown in ta b le 2,
a r e b e tte r in d ic a to r s o f w a g e tr e n d s than in d iv id u a l jo b s w ith in the
g ro u p s .

O ccu p ation s and E a rn in g s
T h e o c c u p a tio n s s e le c te d f o r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie t y
o f m a n u fa c tu rin g and n o n m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s , and a r e o f the
fo llo w in g ty p e s :
(1 ) O ffic e c le r i c a l ; (2 ) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l;
(3 ) m a in te n a n c e and p o w e rp la n t; and (4 ) c u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e ­
m e n t.
O c c u p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n is b a s e d on a u n ifo rm set o f jo b
d e s c r ip tio n s d e s ig n e d to tak e accou n t o f in te r e s ta b lis h m e n t v a r ia tio n
in d u ties w ith in th e s a m e jo b . T h e o c c u p a tio n s s e le c te d f o r study a r e
lis t e d and d e s c r ib e d in the ap p en d ix. U n les s o t h e r w is e in d ic a te d , the
e a r n in g s data fo llo w in g the jo b t it le s a r e f o r a ll in d u s tr ie s co m b in e d .
E a r n in g s d ata f o r s om e o f the occ u p a tio n s lis t e d and d e s c r ib e d , o r
fo r s o m e in d u s try d iv is io n s w ith in o c c u p a tio n s , a r e not p r e s e n te d in

A v e r a g e e a rn in g s r e f l e c t c o m p o s ite , a r e a w id e e s tim a te s . In ­
d u s tr ie s and e s ta b lis h m e n ts d i f f e r in p ay l e v e l and jo b s ta ffin g , and
thus c o n trib u te d if fe r e n t ly to the e s tim a te s f o r each jo b . P a y a v e r ­
a g e s m a y fa il to r e f le c t a c c u r a te ly the w a g e d if fe r e n t ia l am ong jo b s in
in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts .

Newburgh, N. Y . ; Rochester, N .Y . (office occupations only); Syracuse, N.Y. ; and Utica—Rome, N.Y.
In addition, the Bureau conducts more limited area studies in approximately 70 areas at the request
of the Employment Standards Administration of the U. S. Department of Labor.

2
Special payments provided for work in designated parts of the area by companies not consid­
ering such payments a part of the regular salary or hourly rate were not included because of reporting
problems. Such instances are few and do not have a large im pact on the published data.

A v e r a g e p a y le v e l s fo r m en and w o m e n in s e le c te d o c c u p a ­
tio n s should not be a s s u m ed to r e f l e c t d iffe r e n c e s in p ay o f the s e x e s
w ith in in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts .
F a c t o r s w h ich m a y c o n trib u te to
d iffe r e n c e s in c lu d e p r o g r e s s io n w ith in e s ta b lis h e d r a te r a n g e s , s in c e
o n ly the r a te s p aid in cu m b en ts a r e c o lle c t e d , and p e r fo r m a n c e o f s p e ­
c if ic d u ties w ith in th e g e n e r a l s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n s . Job d e s c r i p ­
tio n s u sed to c la s s ify e m p lo y e e s in th e s e s u r v e y s u s u a lly a r e m o r e
1
Included in the 96 areas are 10 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas
g e n e r a liz e d than th o s e u sed in in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts and a llo w f o r
are Austin, T e x.; Binghamton, N .Y . (New York portion only); Durham, N. C. ; Fort Lauderdale—
m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am on g e s ta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c ific d u ties p e r fo r m e d .
Hollywood and West Palm Beach, F la .; Huntsville, A la .; Lexington, K y .; Poughkeepsie—Kingston—




2

3
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t the to ta l in all
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s within the sc op e o f the study and not the nu m b er a c tu ­
a l l y s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e oc c u p atio n al s tr u c tu r e s am on g e s ta b lis h m e n ts
d i f f e r , e s t i m a t e s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y m e n t obta in ed f r o m the s a m p le
o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s studied s e r v e on ly to in d ic a te the r e l a t i v e i m p o r ­
tan c e o f the jo b s studied. T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s in oc c u p a tio n a l s t r u c tu r e
do not a f f e c t m a t e r i a l l y the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n in g s data.

E stablishm en t P r a c t ic e s

and S u p p le m e n ta r y W a ge P r o v i s i o n s

I n f o r m a t i o n is p r e s e n t e d (in the B - s e r i e s t a b l e s ) on s e l e c t e d
e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e m e n ta r y w ag e p r o v i s i o n s f o r p lan tw o r k e r s and o f f i c e w o r k e r s . Data f o r in d u s tr y d i v i s i o n s not p r e s e n t e d
s e p a r a t e l y a r e in clu ded in the e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s . " A d m i n ­
i s t r a t i v e , e x e c u t i v e , and p r o f e s s i o n a l e m p l o y e e s , and c o n s t r u c tio n
w o r k e r s who a r e u t i l i z e d as a s e p a r a t e w o r k f o r c e a r e exc lu d e d .
" P l a n t w o r k e r s " in clu de w o r k i n g f o r e m e n and a l l n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k ­
ers
(includ in g l e a d m e n and t r a i n e e s ) e n g a g ed in n o n o ffic e fu n c ­
tio n s .
" O f f i c e w o r k e r s " inclu d e w o r k i n g s u p e r v i s o r s and n o n s u p e r ­
v i s o r y w o r k e r s p e r f o r m i n g c l e r i c a l o r r e l a t e d functions.
C afeteria
w o r k e r s and r o u te m e n a r e e x c lu d e d in m a n u fa c tu rin g i n d u s tr i e s , but
in c lu d e d in no nm anu fa ctu rin g i n d u s t r i e s .
M i n i m u m e n tr a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s
o n ly to the e s ta b l i s h m e n ts v i s i t e d .
(See tab le B - l . )
Because
o p tim u m s a m p lin g te chn iq ues used and the p r o b a b i l i t y that l a r g e
l i s h m e n t s a r e m o r e l i k e l y than s m a l l e s ta b l i s h m e n ts to ha ve
e n tr a n c e r a te s ab ov e the s u b c l e r i c a l l e v e l , the tab le is m o r e
s e n ta t iv e o f p o l i c i e s in m e d i u m and l a r g e e s ta b l i s h m e n ts .

rela te
o f the
estab­
form al
repre­

Shift d i f f e r e n t i a l data a r e l i m i t e d to p l a n t w o r k e r s in m a n u ­
f a c tu r in g i n d u s t r i e s . (S e e tab le B - 2 . ) T h is i n f o r m a t i o n is p r e s e n t e d
in t e r m s o f (1) e s ta b lis h m e n t p o l i c y 3 |for to ta l p l a n t w o r k e r e m p l o y ­
m e n t, and (2) e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e f o r w o r k e r s a c tu a l l y e m p l o y e d on the
s p e c i f i e d shift at the t i m e o f the s u r v e y .
In e s ta b l i s h m e n ts ha vin g
v a r i e d d i f f e r e n t i a l s , the amount a p p lyin g to a m a j o r i t y is us ed; i f no
amount a p p l i e s to a m a j o r i t y , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " o t h e r " is us ed. In e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s ha vin g s o m e l a t e - s h i f t hours p aid at- n o r m a l r a t e s , a d i f ­
f e r e n c e is r e c o r d e d on ly i f it ap p lie s to a m a j o r i t y o f the shift h o u r s .
T h e s c hed ule d w e e k l y hours and days o f a m a j o r i t y o f the
f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s in an e s t a b l i s h m e n t a r e tab ula te d as ap p ly in g to
a l l o f the p l a n t w o r k e r s o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s o f that e s t a b l i s h m e n t . (See
ta b le B - 3 . ) Sched uled w e e k l y h o u rs and days a r e th o s e wh ich a m a ­
j o r i t y o f f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y e e s a r e e x p e c t e d to w o r k , w h e t h e r th e y a r e
p aid s t r a i g h t - t i m e o r o v e r t i m e r a t e s .
3
An establishment is considered as having a policy if it m et
tions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time of the survey, or (2) had formal
shifts. An establishment was considered as having formal provisions if it (1)
during the 12 months before the survey, or (2) had provisions in written form




P a i d h o lid a y s ; p aid v a c a t i o n s ; and health, i n s u r a n c e , and p e n ­
sion plans a r e t r e a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y on the b a s is that th e s e a r e a p p l i ­
c a b le to a l l p l a n t w o r k e r s o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s i f a m a j o r i t y o f such w o r k ­
e r s a r e e l i g i b l e o r m a y e v e n tu a l l y q u a l i fy f o r the p r a c t i c e s lis te d .
(S e e ta b le s B - 4 th ro ugh B - 6 . ) Sums o f ind iv id u al i t e m s in ta b le s B - 2
th ro ugh B - 6 m a y not equal to ta ls b e c a u s e o f rounding.
Data on paid h o lid a y s a r e l i m i t e d to h o lid a y s g ra n te d annu­
a l l y on a f o r m a l b a s is ; i . e . , (1) a r e p r o v i d e d f o r in w r i t t e n f o r m , o r
(2) a r e e s t a b l i s h e d by c u s to m . (S ee ta b le B - 4 . ) H o l i d a y s o r d i n a r i l y
g r a n te d a r e in clud ed e v e n though th ey m a y f a l l on a n o n w o rk d ay and
the w o r k e r is not g r a n te d another day o f f . T h e f i r s t p a r t o f the paid
h o l i d a y s tab le p r e s e n t s the n u m b er o f w h ole and h a lf h o lid a y s ac tu a ll y
g ra n te d .
T h e s eco nd p a r t c o m b in e s w h o le and h a lf h o lid a y s to show
to ta l h o lid a y t i m e .
T a b l e B - 4 a r e p o r t s the in c i d e n c e o f the m o s t
c o m m o n p aid h o l i d a y s .
T h e s u m m a r y o f v a c a tio n plans is a s t a t i s t i c a l m e a s u r e o f
v a c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s r a t h e r than a m e a s u r e o f the p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s
a c tu a l l y r e c e i v i n g s p e c i f i c b e n e fits . (See tab le B - 5 . ) P r o v i s i o n s apply
to a l l p l a n t w o r k e r s o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s in an e s ta b l i s h m e n t r e g a r d l e s s
o f leng th o f s e r v i c e . P a y m e n t s on ot h e r than a t i m e b a s is a r e c o n ­
v e r t e d to a t i m e p e r i o d ; f o r e x a m p l e , 2 p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n in g s
a r e c o n s i d e r e d e q u i v a l e n t to 1 w e e k s ' pay. O nly b a s ic plans a r e i n ­
cluded. E s t i m a t e s e x c lu d e v a c a tio n bonuses, v a c a t i o n - s a v i n g s plans,
and " e x t e n d e d " o r " s a b b a t i c a l " b e n e fits beyo nd b as ic p lans.
Such
p r o v i s i o n s a r e t y p i c a l in the s t e e l , alum in u m , and can i n d u s tr ie s .
H e alt h , i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n plans f o r whic h the e m p l o y e r
p ays at l e a s t a p a r t o f the c o s t includ e th o s e (1) u n d e r w r itte n by a
c o m m e r c i a l i n s u r a n c e c o m p a n y o r n o n p r o fit o r g a n i z a t i o n , (2) p r o v i d e d
th rough a union fund, o r (3) p aid d i r e c t l y by the e m p l o y e r out o f c u r ­
ren t o p e r a t i n g funds o r f r o m a fund set a s id e f o r this p u r p o s e . (See
ta b le B - 6 . ) A n e s t a b l i s h m e n t is c o n s i d e r e d to ha ve such a plan i f the
m a j o r i t y o f e m p l o y e e s a r e c o v e r e d un der the plan e v e n i f l e s s than a
m a j o r i t y e l e c t to p a r t i c i p a t e b e ca u s e e m p l o y e e s a r e r e q u i r e d to c o n ­
tr ib u te t o w a r d the c o s t o f the plan.
E x c lu d e d a r e l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d
p la n s , such as w o r k m e n ' s c o m p e n s a tio n , s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , and r a i l r o a d
retirem en t.
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t i n s u r a n c e is l i m i t e d to that typ e o f i n ­
s u r a n c e under w h ic h p r e d e t e r m i n e d cash p ay m e n t s a r e m a d e d i r e c t l y
to the i n s u r e d durin g t e m p o r a r y i l l n e s s o r a c c id e n t d i s a b i l i t y . I n f o r ­
m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l such plans to w h ich the e m p l o y e r c o n ­
t r i b u t e s . H o w e v e r , in N e w Y o r k and N e w J e r s e y , wh ich ha ve enacted
t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e la w s r e q u i r i n g e m p l o y e r con tr ib utio ns j4
plans a r e i n c lu d e d o n ly i f the e m p l o y e r (1) c o n trib u t e s m o r e than is
l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d , o r (2) p r o v i d e s the e m p l o y e e with b e n e f its whic h e x ­
c e e d the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the la w . T a b u la tio n s o f p aid s ic k l e a v e plans

either of the following condi­
provisions covering late
had operated late shifts
4
for operating late shifts.
contributions.

The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do not require employer

4
a r e l i m i t e d to f o r m a l plans 5 w h ic h p r o v i d e fu ll pay o r a p r o p o r t i o n o f
the w o r k e r ' s p ay d urin g a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k b e ca u s e o f i l l n e s s . S e p a ­
r a te tabula tion s a r e p r e s e n t e d a c c o r d i n g to (1) plans wh ich p r o v i d e fu ll
pay and no w ait in g p e r i o d , and (2) plans which p r o v i d e e i t h e r p a r t i a l
p ay o r a w a it in g p e r i o d . In ad d ition to the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p r o p o r t i o n s
o f w o r k e r s p r o v i d e d s i c k n e s s and a c c id en t i n s u r a n c e o r paid s ic k
l e a v e , an un du plicated to ta l is shown o f w o r k e r s who r e c e i v e e i t h e r
o r both ty p e s o f b e n e f i ts .

tb o end o f the d i s a b i l i t y , a m a x i m u m a g e , o r e l i g i b i l i t y f o r r e t i r e ­
m e n t b e n e f its . F u l l o r p a r t i a l p ay m e n t s a r e a l m o s t a lw a y s re d u c e d by
s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , w o r k m e n ' s c o m p e n s a tio n , and p r i v a t e p e ns ion b e nefit s
p a y a b le to the d i s a b l e d e m p l o y e e .

M a j o r m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e plans p r o t e c t e m p l o y e e s f r o m s i c k ­
n e s s and in j u r y e x p e n s e s beyond the c o v e r a g e o f b a s ic h o s p it a liz a tio n ,
m e d i c a l , and s u r g i c a l p la n s . T y p i c a l f e a t u r e s o f m a j o r m e d i c a l plans
a r e (1) a " d e d u c t i b l e " ( e . g . , $ 5 0) p aid b y the in s u r e d b e f o r e b e n e fits
L o n g - t e r m d i s a b i l i t y in s u r a n c e plans p r o v i d e p a y m e n ts to
begin; (2) a c o i n s u r a n c e f e a t u r e r e q u i r i n g the i n s u r e d to pay a p o r tio n
t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d e m p l o y e e s upon the e x p i r a t i o n o f t h e i r p aid s ic k l e a v e
( e . g . , 20 p e r c e n t ) o f c e r t a i n exp e n s e d ; and (3) s ta te d d o l l a r m a x i m u m
and/or s ic k n e s s and a c c i d e n t in s u r a n c e , o r a f t e r a p r e d e t e r m i n e d
b e n e f its ( e . g . , $ 10,000 a y e a r ) . M e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e p r o v i d e s c o m p l e t e
p erio d of d isa b ility (ty p ic a lly 6 m onths).
P a y m e n t s a r e m a d e until
o r p a r t i a l p a y m e n t o f d o c t o r s ' f e e s . Denta l i n s u r a n c e usually c o v e r s
5
An establishment is considered as having a formal plan if it established at least the minimum f i l l i n g s , e x t r a c t i o n s , and X - r a y s . E x c lu d e d a r e plans wh ich c o v e r only
o r a l s u r g e r y o r a c c id e n t d a m a g e . R e t i r e m e n t p e n s ion plans p r o v i d e
number of days of sick leave available to each employee. Such a plan need not be written, but
p ay m e n t s f o r the r e m a i n d e r o f the w o r k e r ' s l i f e .
informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis, are excluded.




T a b le 1. E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o rk e rs w ith in s c o p e o f s u rv e y and n u m b e r stu d ied in B irm in g h a m , A la .,1 by m a jo r in d u s try d iv is io n ,2 M a rc h 1 9 7 3

Industry division

All d ivision s_____________________________
M anufacturing________________________________
Nonmanufacturing____________________________
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities 5 ___________________
Wholesale tr a d e __________________________
Retail trad e__________________________ ___
Finance, insurance, and rea l estate 6 ------S ervices 8 -------------------------------------------

Minimum
employment
in e sta b lish ­
ments in scope
of study

Number of establishm ents

Workers in establishm ents
Within scope of study

Within scope
of study3

Studied

T o tal4

Studied
Number

Percent

Plant

Office
T otal4

-

583

168

119,923

100

78, 709

20, 159

74, 695

50
-

210
37 3

52
116

57,228
62, 695

48
52

45,747
32,962

4, 379
15, 780

35, 037
39,658

50
50
50
50
50

48
79
139
51
56

17
24
36
18
21

16, 595
8, 606
19,881
9, 728
7, 885

14
7
17
7
7

8, 036
5, 408
15,334
7 240
(9)

3, 469
1, 640
2, 073
6, 904
(9)

13,059
3,654
11,427
6, 614
4, 904

1 The Birm ingham Standard M etropolitan S tatistical A rea, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget through November 1971, con sists of Jeffe rso n , Shelby, and Walker Counties.
The"w orkers within scope of study" e stim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and com position of the labor force included in the survey. The estim ates
a re
not intended, however, to serv e a s a b a sis of com parison with other employment indexes for the a re a to m easu re employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requ ires
the use of establishm ent data com piled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) sm all establishm ents are excluded from the scope of the survey.
1 The 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial C lassificatio n Manual was used in classify in g establishm ents by industry division.
3 Includes a ll establishm ents with total employment at or above the minimum lim itation. All outlets (within the area) of com panies in such industries as trade, finance, auto rep air serv ice ,
and motion picture theaters a re considered as 1 establishm ent.
4 Includes executive, p ro fessio n al, and other w orkers excluded from the sep arate plant and office cate g o rie s.
5 Abbreviated to "public u tilities" in the A- and B - se r ie s tab les. T axicabs and se rv ice s incidental to water transportation were excluded. A number of electric utilities supplying le s s
than
half the ele ctric consumption were publicly owned and excluded by definition from the scope of the study.
6 Abbreviated to "finance" in the A- and B - se r ie s tables.
7 E stim ate relate s to re a l estate establishm ents only. W orkers from the entire industry division are represented in the S erie s A tab les, but from the rea l estate portion only in "a ll
industry" e stim ates in the S e rie s B tab les.
8 Hotels and m otels; laundries and other person al se r v ic e s; busin ess se r v ic e s; automobile re p a ir, rental, and parking; motion pictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations (excluding
religious and charitable organizations); and engineering and arch itectural s e r v ic e s.
9 This industry division is represen ted in e stim ates for "a ll in du stries" and "nonm anufacturing" in the S erie s A tab le s, and for " a ll in d u strie s" in the S erie s B tab les. Separate presentation
of data for this division is not m ade for one or m ore of the following rea so n s; (1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data to m erit sep arate study, (2) the sam ple was
not designed initially to perm it sep arate presentation, (3) resp on se was insufficient or inadequate to perm it sep arate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of d isclo su re of individual
establishm ent data.

Labor-m anagem ent agreem ent coverage
Industrial com position in m anufacturing
A lm ost one-half of the w orkers within scope of the survey in the Birm ingham area
were employed in m anufacturing firm s. The following presents the m ajor industry groups
and specific indu stries a s a percent of all m anufacturing:
Industry groups

Specific industries

P r i m a r y metal
43
Fabricated metal
products___________________ .... 12
F o o d and kindred
products------------------- .... 10
Electrical equipment
and supplies-------------- .... 7

Blast furnace and basic
... 24
..
Iron and steel foundries-----. . 18
Fabricated structural
..
me t a l products_____________. . 7

This information is based on estimates of total e m p l o y m e n t derived f r o m universe
materials compiled prior to actual survey.
Proportions in various industry divisions m a y
differ f r o m proportions based on the results of the survey as s h o w n in table 1 above.




The following tabulation shows the percent of plantworkers and officew orkers em ­
ployed in establishm ents in which a contract or contracts covered a m ajority of the w orkers
in the resp ective cate g o rie s, Birm ingham , A la., March 1973:
Plantw orkers
A ll in d u strie s________________
M anufacturing---------------------Public u tilities--------------------Wholesale tr a d e ______________
R etail trade___________________
F in an ce------------------------------

61
80
87
43
11

Office workers
10
2
55
4

An establishm ent is considered to have a contract covering a ll plantworkers or
officew orkers if a m ajority of such w orkers a re covered by a labor-m anagem ent agreem ent.
Th erefore, a ll other plantworkers or officew orkers a re employed in establishm ents that
either do not have labor-m anagem ent contracts in effect, or have contracts that apply to
fewer than half of their plantworkers or officew orkers. E stim ates are not n ece ssa rily
represen tative of the extent to which all w orkers in the are a m ay be covered by the pro­
visions of labor-m anagem ent agreem en ts, because sm all establishm ents are excluded and
the industrial scope of the survey is lim ited.

W a g e T re n d s fo r S e le c te d O c c u p a tio n a l G ro u p s
P r e s e n t e d in t a b le 2 a r e i n d e x e s and p e r c e n t s o f chan ge in
a v e r a g e w e e k l y s a l a r i e s o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and i n d u s tr ia l
n u r s e s , and in a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s o f s e l e c t e d p l a n t w o r k e r g ro u p s.
T h e in d e x e s a r e a m e a s u r e o f w a g e s at a g i v e n t i m e , e x p r e s s e d as a
p e r c e n t o f w a g e s durin g the b a s e p e r i o d .
Subtra cting 100 f r o m the
in d e x y i e l d s the p e r c e n t chan ge in w a g e s f r o m the b a s e p e r i o d to the
date o f the index. T h e p e r c e n t s o f chan ge o r i n c r e a s e r e l a t e to w a g e
c han ges b e t w e e n the i n d ic a te d d ate s. Annual ra te s o f i n c r e a s e , w h e r e
shown, r e f l e c t the amount o f i n c r e a s e f o r 12 months when the t i m e
p e r i o d b e t w e e n s u r v e y s w a s o t h e r than 12 months.
T h e s e com pu­
ta tions a r e b a s e d on the a s s u m p t io n that w a g e s i n c r e a s e d at a constant
r a te b e t w e e n s u r v e y s .
T h e s e e s t i m a t e s a r e m e a s u r e s o f chan ge in
a v e r a g e s f o r the a r e a ; th ey a r e not in ten d ed to m e a s u r e a v e r a g e p ay
chan ges in the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the a r e a .

T h e in d e x is a m e a s u r e o f w a g e s at a g i v e n t i m e and is e x ­
p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t o f w a g e s in the b a s e y e a r .
T h e b a s e y e a r is
a s s ig n e d the v a lu e o f 100 p e r c e n t .
T h e in d e x is c om p u te d by m u l t i ­
p lyin g the b a s e y e a r r e l a t i v e (100 p e r c e n t ) b y the r e l a t i v e (the p e r c e n t
chan ge plus 100 p e r c e n t ) f o r the next s u c c e e d in g y e a r and then c o n ­
tinuing to m u l t i p l y (com p oun d) e ach y e a r ' s r e l a t i v e b y the p r e v i o u s
y e a r ' s index.
F o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s , the w a g e
tr e n d s r e l a t e to r e g u l a r w e e k l y s a l a r i e s f o r the n o r m a l w o r k w e e k ,
e x c l u s i v e o f e a r n in g s f o r o v e r t i m e .
F o r p l a n t w o r k e r g ro u p s, th e y
m e a s u r e chan ges in a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s , exc lu d in g
p r e m i u m p ay f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and
late shifts.
T h e p e r c e n t s a r e b a s e d on data f o r s e l e c t e d k e y o c c u ­
pations and in clude m o s t o f the n u m e r i c a l l y im p o r t a n t job s w ith in
e ach gro up.

M e th o d o f C om pu ting
E a c h o f the f o l l o w i n g k e y oc c u p atio n s w ith in an o c c u p a tio n a l
g ro u p is a s s i g n e d a con st ant w e i g h t b a s e d on its p r o p o r t i o n a t e e m ­
p l o y m e n t in the o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p :
Office clerical (men and
women):

Bookke eping- machine
operators, class B
Clerks, accounting, classes
A and B
Clerks, file, classes
A, B, and C
Clerks, order
Clerks, payroll
Keypunch operators, classes
A and B
Messengers (office boys or
girls)

Office clerical (men and
w o m e n ) — Continued

Secretaries
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
Switchboard operators, classes
A and B
Tabulating-machine operators,
class B
Typists, classes A and B
Industrial nurses (men and
women):
Nurses, industrial (registered)

L i m i t a t i o n s o f Data
T h e in d e x e s and p e r c e n t s o f change, as m e a s u r e s o f chan ge
in a r e a a v e r a g e s , a r e i n f lu e n c e d b y:
(1) G e n e r a l s a l a r y and w a g e
c h a n ge s , (2) m e r i t o r o t h e r i n c r e a s e s in p a y r e c e i v e d b y in d iv id u a l
w o r k e r s w h i l e in the s a m e j o b , and (3) c han ges in a v e r a g e w a g e s due
to c han ges in the l a b o r f o r c e r e s u l t i n g f r o m l a b o r t u r n o v e r , f o r c e
e xp a n sio n s , f o r c e r e d u c tio n s , and changes in the p r o p o r t i o n s o f w o r k ­
e r s e m p l o y e d by e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith d i f f e r e n t p a y l e v e l s . Chan ges in
the l a b o r f o r c e can cause i n c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o c c u p a tio n a l
a v e r a g e s with out actu al w a g e c h an ges.
It is c o n c e i v a b l e that e v e n
though a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in an a r e a g a v e w a g e i n c r e a s e s , a v e r a g e
w a g e s m a y ha ve d e c l i n e d b e c a u s e l o w e r - p a y i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e n t e r e d
the a r e a o r expanded t h e i r w o r k f o r c e s . S i m i l a r l y , w a g e s m a y ha ve
r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y const ant, y e t a v e r a g e s f o r an a r e a m a y have r i s e n
c o n s i d e r a b l y b e c a u s e h i g h e r - p a y i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e n t e r e d the a r e a .

Skilled maintenance (men):
Carpenters

Electricians
Machinists
Mechanics
Mechanics (automotive)
Painters
Pipefitters
Tool and die makers
Unskilled plant (men):
Janitors, porters, and
cleaners
Laborers, m aterial handling

NOTE: Comptometer operators, used in the computation of previous trends, are no longer
surveyed by the Bureau.

T h e use o f con stant e m p l o y m e n t w e i g h t s e l i m i n a t e s the e f f e c t
o f changes in the p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in each jo b i n ­
cluded in the data.
T h e p e r c e n t s o f change r e f l e c t on ly changes in
a v e r a g e p a y f o r s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o urs.
T h e y a r e not in flu e n c e d b y
changes in s tan da rd w o r k s c h e d u le s , as such, o r b y p r e m i u m p ay
for overtim e.
W h e r e n e c e s s a r y , data a r e a d ju s te d to r e m o v e f r o m
the i n d e x e s and p e r c e n t s o f chan ge any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t caus e d b y
changes in the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .

T h e a v e r a g e (m e a n ) e a r n i n g s f o r each oc c up atio n a r e m u l t i ­
p l i e d b y the o c c u p a tio n a l w e i g h t , and the p ro d u c ts f o r a l l o ccup atio ns
in the g ro u p a r e to ta le d . T h e a g g r e g a t e s f o r 2 c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s a r e
r e l a t e d b y s u b tr a c tin g the a g g r e g a t e f o r the e a r l i e r y e a r f r o m the
a g g r e g a t e f o r the l a t e r y e a r and d iv i d i n g the r e m a i n d e r b y the a g g r e ­
g ate f o r the e a r l i e r y e a r .
T h e r e s u l t t i m e s 100 shows the p e r c e n t
o f chan ge.




6




7

T a b le 2 . In d e x e s o f e a rn in g s fo r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s in B irm in g h a m , A la ., M a rc h 1 9 7 2 an d M a rc h 1 9 7 3 ,
an d p e rc e n ts o f c h a n g e * fo r s e le c te d p e rio d s
Manufacturing

All indu stries
Weekly earnings
Period

Office
c le ric a l
(men and
women)

Industrial
n urses
(men and
women)

Hourly earnings
Skilled
maintenance
trades
(men)

Unskilled
plantw orkers
(men)

Weekly earnings
Office
cle ric al
(men and
women)

Hourly earnings

Industrial
n urses
(men and
women)

Skilled
maintenance
trades
(men)

Unskilled
plantw orkers
(men)

145.3
160.8

131.9
139.0

134.6
142.3

Indexes (A pril 1967 = 100)
M arch 1972__________________________________
M arch 1973__________________________________

129.1
136.3

144.1
158.9

132.4
139.2

132.1
140.2

129.9
138.3

P ercents of change 1
A pril
April
April
A pril
April
A pril
April
A pril
A pril
A pril

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

A pril 1961_____________________
April 1962_____________________
A pril 1963_____________________
A pril 1964_____________________
A pril 1965_____________________
April 1966_____________________
April 1967_____________________
April 1968_____________________
A pril 1969_____________________
M arch 1970:

M arch 1970 to March 1971
March 1971 to M arch 1972____________________
M arch 1972 to M arch 1973 __________________

2.6
3.4
2.7
1.5
2.0
4.4
3.8
4.6
4.0

1.6
3.1
.5
.5
2.0
3.9
1.9
9.3
7.2

3.2
5.1
.7
2.6
-.2
4.3
2.0
5.6
4.0

1.5
3.8
1.3
1.2
2.7
4.4
1.5
7.1
3.4

2.7
2.3
1.9
- .3
.5
4.9
2.0
4.5
3.4

1.5
4.0
-.5
-.5
1.5
3.5
1.4
10.4
7.7

3.0
5.6
.4
2.3
-.5
4.1
1.6
5.6
3.9

.2
2.7
2.1
1.4
3.5
1.5
3.1
5.2
3.8

5.0
5.5

5.6
6.1

4.5
4.9

5.4
5.9

6.1

4.8
5.2

4.6
5.0

4.9
5.4

6.2
6.4
5.6

8.6
7.3
10.3

6.1
8.7
5.1

6.4
6.3
6.1

7.3
6.1
6.5

9.5
6.6
10.7

5.6
8.9
5.4

6.1
10.7
5.7

All changes a re in c re a se s u n less otherwise indicated.

8




T a b le 3 . P e r c e n ts o f in c re a s e in a v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s fo r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s , a d ju s te d
fo r e m p lo y m e n t s h ifts , in B ir m in g h a m , A la ., M a rc h 1 9 7 2 to M a r c h 1 9 7 3
Occupational group

A ll
in du stries

6.3
7.8
5.1
7.0

M anufac­
turing

Nonmanu­
facturing

5.6
8.5
5.0
6.8

6.6
(* )
(* )
6.8

1 Data do not m eet publication c r ite r ia .

NOTE: Table 3 provides percen ts of change in av erage hourly earn ings for selected
occupational groups, adjusted to exclude the effect of employment sh ifts. The new method
fo r computing wage tren d s is based on changes in av erage hourly earn ings for establish m en ts
reporting the index jo b s in both the current and p revious y e a r (matched estab lish m e n ts),
holding establishm ent employment in the jo b s constant.
The new wage tren ds a re not linked to the curren t indexes b ecau se the new wage trends
m ea su re changes in m atched establishm ent a v e ra g e s w hereas the curren t indexes m ea su re
changes in a re a a v e ra g e s. Other c h a ra c te ristic s of the new wage tren d s which d iffer from
the curren t ones include (1) earn ings data of office c le r ic a l w ork ers and in d u stria l n u rse s
a re converted to an hourly b a s is , and (2) trend e stim a te s a re provided fo r nonm anufacturing
e stabli shment s .
F o r a m ore detailed description of the new method used to compute a re a wage survey
in dexes, see "Im proving A rea Wage Survey In d e x e s," Monthly L ab or Review , Jan u ary 1973,
pp. 52-57.

9

A. Occupational earnings
T a b l e A -1 . O f f i c e o c c u p a tio n s : W e e k l y e a rn in g s
(A v e r a g e s tra ig h t-tim e w eek ly hours and earnings of w o rk e rs in s e lected occupations by indu stry d iv is io n . B irm in gh am , A la ., M a rch 1973)
Weekly earnings 1
(standard)

Occupation and industry division

Num ber
of

N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time w e e k l y earnings of—
t

Median ^

(standard

Middle ranged

t

i

t

60

weekly

65

70

t

t

75

80

85

$

t
90

95

t

t

*

100

110

120

130

t
i
$
$
t
$
*
$
160
1A0
150
170
180
190 200 210

and
under
65

$

220
an d

70

85

90

95

100

110

120

130

1A0

150

A
A

1
“

1
*

A

“

75

4

17
16

“

3
“

2
2

2
2

-

-

1

-

2

2

10

2

1

-

5
5

“

80

170

180

190

200

210

220

1
1

”

1
1

•

4
4

"

2

5

-

1

-

-

-

-

5
5

“

1A
1
13
13

53
39
1A
1A

3
3
-

-

160

over

MEN AND WOMEN C O M BIN ED

BILLERS. MACHINE (BILLING
MACHINE) -------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------

AO
3A

AO . O
AO.O

$
$
$
$
118.50 107.00 100.00-132.50
120.50 107.00 100.50-1A1.00

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS.
CLASS A ---------------------------

26

39.5

127.50

118.00

111.50-156.00

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE o p e r a t o r s ,
CLASS B --------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------

75
60

39 . 5
39 . 5

96.00
9A.00

92.50
90.50

80.50-112.50
78.50- 99.00

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A ------MANUFACTURING ------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------PUBLIC UTILITIES ------------WHOLESALE TRADE -------------RETAIL TRADE -----------------FINANCE -----------------------

380
11A
266
91
A8
51
65

39.5 1 5 2 . 0 0 1 A 8 . 0 0 1 2 6 . 5 0 — 17A . 00
AO . O 1 6 6 . 0 0 1 5 A . 5 0 1 A 0 . 0 0 - 2 0 6 . 5 0
39 . 5 1 A 6 . 0 0 1 A 5 . 0 0 1 2 3 . 5 0 - 1 6 2 . 5 0
39.5 172. 0 0 1 6 7 . 0 0 1 5 6 . 0 0 - 1 9 8 . 0 0
AO.O 127.00 120.50 116.50-1AA.00
38.5 1 2 6 . 5 0 1 2 A . 5 0 1 2 1 . 5 0 - 1 3 3 . 0 0
39 . 0 1 A 0 . 5 0 1 3 5 . 0 0 1 3 1 . 0 0 - 1 5 A . 0 0

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B ------MANUFACTURING ------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------PUBLIC UTILITIES ------------WHOLESALE TRADE -------------RETAIL TRADE -----------------FINANCE -----------------------

781
135
6A6
217
120
9A
151

39 . 0 1 1 1 . 0 0 1 0 8 . 5 0
39.5 1 0 9 . 0 0 1 0 6 . 5 0
3 9 . 0 1 1 1 . 5 0 109. 5 0
39 . 0 1 3 0 . 5 0 1 3 2 . 5 0
AO.O 105.50 106.50
95.50
96.50
39.5
97.00
99.00
37.0

CLERKS, FILE, CLASS A ------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------

61
5A
25

39.0
39.0
38 . 0

113.00
113.50
98.00

CLERKS, FILE, CLASS B ------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------FINANCE -----------------------

190
170
97

39.0
39 . 0
39.0

CLERKS, FILE, CLASS C ------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------FINANCE -----------------------

255
2A1
177

CLERKS, ORDER ---------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------WHOLESALE TRADE ---------------

*

-

-

-

_

8
8

10
10

13
10

1
1

11
11

7
7

5
2

10
1

15
3
12

38
9
29
1
18
3
7

50
10
AO
1
9
2A
6

53
7
A6
7
3
12
2A

36
21
15
6
3

64

58

5
59
37
5
4

_

.

-

.

-

-

_

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

19

95.00-128.50
95.00-116.50
95*00-129.50
1 1 7 . 0 0 - 1 A 7 . 50
93.50-116.00
90.00-104.00
81.00-111.50

10
3
7
-

18
1
17

A

3

1
16

7
12

109.00
109.00
95.50

96.50-119.00
96.00-119.00
91.50-102.50

-

.

88.00
86.00
81.00

8A.OO
83. 0 0
8 1 .50

77.00- 93.00
76.50- 89.50
7A.50- 86.00

38.0
38 . 0
37 . 5

7A.00
73.00
71.50

72.50
72.00
69.50

17A
156
150

AO.O
AO.O
AO.O

13A.50
135.00
137.00

CLERKS, PAYROLL -------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------NONMANUFACTURING-------- — -----

191
125
66

39 . 5
AO.O
39 . 5

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A ------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------

183
125
70

39.5
39 . 5
39.0

See footnotes at end o f ta b les.




-

-

-

19

22
8
1A
-

-

5

A

17
17
2
10

38
9
29
1
11
5
ii

73
13
60
2
29
20
5

-

2
5

62
13
A9
9
5
13
17

158
A2
116
21
36
21
32

92
15
77
29
17
11
19

9A
9

13

12
9
1

17
15
5

2
1

2
2

15
10

8

2
1

15
15
7

6

51
7

52

44

44

5

“
1A
7
7
5

4
-

17
17
6
3
1

3

4

1

36
1

2
2
-

2
2
-

2
2

1
1

1
1

-

-

3

3
3

*

-

1
1
1
-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

1
1

_

4

7

65
1A
51
28
2
6
15

8

8

_

85

37
16

1

-

1

-

.
-

2
2
2

3
2
2

8

-

_
“

8

“

8

7

-

“

36
36
26

26
26
1A

AO
AO
29

30
29
25

20
13
3

8

6A.50- 80.00
6 A . 50— 79.00
63.50- 77.00

69
69
6C

38
38
32

AO
AO
30

A5
A5
29

2A
23
16

21
15

6
5
i

5
3
1

6
3

i

8

138.00
139.00
139.50

1 2 1 . 5 0 - 1 A 8 •50
1 2 2 . 5 0 - 1A8 . 00
I23.50-1A8.50

1
1

.
-

-

-

*

*

.
*

3
3
“

4
A
3

2
2
1

19
16
16

9
6
6

22
16
16

35
35
35

A1
A1
A1

22
18
18

7
7
7

123.00
125.00
118.50

117.00
117.00
117.00

10A.50-13A.50
1 0 5 . 5 0 - 1 A 0 . 50
103.00-133.50

1
1

-

_
*

.

.

9
3
6

7
5
2

10
9
1

AA
29
15

39
26
13

1A
11
3

27
11
16

1A
10
4

11
10
1

-

117.50
106.00
103.50

111.00
10A.50
99.50

100.50-139.00
96.50-112.50
92.00-117.00

.
-

1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1

10
10
10

13
13
13

17
17
11

A6
AA

25
16
3

10
7

1A
13
9

-

4

38

-

-

1
1
1

8

5

15

6

2
2

1
1

2

-

3
3
1

-

7
7

-

_
*

1
1
-

5
5
-

-

-

5
A
1

-

1
1
-

_

1
1

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

8

_
-

-

*

10
T a b l e A -1 . O f f i c e o c c u p a tio n s : W e e k l y e a rn in g s — C o n tin u e d
(A v e r a g e s tra ig h t-tim e w e e k ly hours and earnings hi W&FkeFS ih s e le c te d occupations by industry d iv is io n , B irm in gh am , A la ., M a rch 1973)
Weekly earnings
(standard)

Occupation and industry division

1

N um ber of w o rk ers

t

Average
weekly

of

(standard)

M ean*

Median ^

Middle ranged

60

t

65

$

70

S

75

t

80

t

85

t

90

$

95

s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly e a r n in g s

r e c e iv in g

»

100

S

110

$

120

t

130

S

140

$

150

%

160

o f—

$

170

180

$

190

S

200

»

210

_ V

and
u n der

65

$

70

75

9
3
6
2
4

13
2
11
11

8
8
8

7
4
3

80

85

90

95

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

9

71
2
69
1
2
9
56

83
9
74
16
5
9
44

38
3
35
7
5
22

36
2
34
3
12
1
18

54
13
41
6
9

41
5
36
13
8
3
11

32
7
25
14
6

10
1
9
9

22
4
18
18

*

9
2
1
6

“

13
13
i
4

25
25
9
8

19
19
8
3

7
6
3

17
16
5
4

7
7
3

6
2
2

2
2
1

3
“
“

“

8
8
6

5
5
2

39
3
36
3
2
28

26
8
18
1
5
10

118
4
114
16

98
10
88
14
13
46

105
15
90
23
14
39

96
19
77
10
1
53

79
31
48
20
6
13

5
5

-

9

-

2
2

-

6

6
6

_

14
4
10
6
3

14
14
3
6
54
8

180

“

11
11
2
6

170

220

an d

200

210

“

190

$

“

220

over

M E N AND W O M E N C O M B I N E D —
CONTINUED

$

$

$

$

K E Y P U N C H O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S B -------MANUFACTURING
---------------- -N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------- - ~ i » »
P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------ —
-----WHOLESALE TRADE
----------R E T A I L T R A D E » » “ -----------------F I N A N C E - — -----------------------*

425
51
374
89
49
30
200

39.0 99.50 93.50 85.50-111.00
40.0 102.50 102.50 88.50-120.00
39.0 99.00 92.50 85.00-110.50
38.5 121.00 126.00 100.50-146.00
40.0 102.00 99.50 94.00-111.50
39.0 87.50 87.00 82 .5 0 - 92.00
39.0 90.00 87.50 82.50- 97.00

ME S S E N G E R S (OFFICE BOYS ANO GIRLSIN O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ---------------F I N A N C E ----------------------------

133
121
36
40

39.0 93.50
39.0 91.50
39.0 163.00
38.5 80.50

S E C R E T A R I E S ------------ --- ------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ---------------W H O L E S A L E T R A D E --------------—

895
182
713
e«
60
314

39.5
39.5
39l0
39.0
40.0
39.0

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S A --------------■ ^ M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------

68
48

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S B --------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------- -N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------- — -------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ---------------F I N A N C E ----------------------------

49
178
77
72

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S C --------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------F I N A N C E ---------------------------S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S D -------------- M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------- ------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------F I N A N C E ----------------------------

390
55

335
153
l§ 5

48
147
74

137.00
149*50
134.00
156.50
122.50
120.50

89.50
89.00
94.00
79.50

80.50-102.00
80.50- 99.50
88.50-109.50
69.00- 88.50

134*50
152.50
128.00
157.00
119.50
117.50

112.50-158.50
134.00-166.00
108.50-155.50
131.50-176.00
104.50-134.00
103.00-135.50

39.5 160.50 159.00 135.00-182.bo
39.0 161.06 159.00 126.00-191.00
39.5
40.0
39.0
39.0
39.0

151.50
151.00
151.50
168.00
136.00

152.00
149.50
153.00
173.50
142.50

135.50-170.00
138.50-162.50
131.50-177.50
147.50-192.50
123.00-154.00

39.0
39.0
39.0
39.0

132.00
142.00
130.50
114.50

128.50
142.50
125.50
113.50

110.00-153.50
123.00-159.00
109.00-152.00
103.00-128.50

39.5
39.5
39.5
39.0

121.50
149.00
112.50
108.50

117.00
157.00
112.00
106.50

103.50-134.00
127.00-164.50
101.50-122.50
100.50-118.00

S T E N O G R A P H E R S , G E N E R A L --------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ---------------W H O L E S A L E T R A D E -----------------F I N A N C E ----------------------------

763
121
642
367
30
135

39.0
40.0
39.0
38.5
40.0
39.5

114.50
120.50
113.50
121.50
114.00
96.50

110.00
117.50
109.00
118.50
117.50
96.50

100.00-127.50
105.00-135.00
99.00-126.50
104.00-132.00
103.00-123.50
90.00-106.00

S T E N O G R A P H E R S , S E N I O R ---------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------W H O L E S A L E T R A D E -----------------F I N A N C E ----------------------------

208
28
180
46

39.5
40.0
39.5
40.0
38.5

139.50
134.50
140.50
138.50
122.50

139.50
135.50
141.00
141.50
118.00

120.50-155.00
128.00-143.00
119.00-157.50
125.50-144.00
108.00-139.00

25

40.0 116.00 115.00 106.00-132.50

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS,

C L A S S A -----

See footn otes at end o f ta b les.




44

-

-

6
6
4
_
-

-

10
10
2
8

S

-

-

-

-

-

“

6

_
_
-

4

_

-

-

-

-

_

6

-

-

-

-

4

-

4

6

-

-

4

-

.

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

17
15
16
3
13

9

9

5

-

-

6
4

4

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

4

-

-

4
2

4
i

17

-

“

30

35
10
25

29
8
21
12
7

48
7
41
30

29
8
21
4

54
10
44

10
6
4

14
8
6

9
9

4

4

2

22

11
1
10

6
_
2

“

”

"

121
17
104
74
10
10

59
15
44
42
2
”

56
12
44
35

18

10

i
~
1
1
“

29

26
11
15
3
9
4

46

24
26

4

8

5

6

4

-

“

30
11
19
3
13

1

1

-

“

5

3

1

-

3
2

13

2

-

9

10
4

11

1

-

44
14
30
18
4

1

-

1

72
28
44
30
4

1

22

-

43
7
36
17

107
29
78
51
17

23
14
1

18

-

39
27

_

2

12

-

39

49
3
46
28

“

“

20
1
19

27
1

-

9

1

-

2

12

“

*

~

-

25
1
24

14
-

_

5

60
41

5
-

~

1
1
1

5

2
1
1

8
3

-

60

5

-

~
~

192
29
163
82
8
40

52
1
51
14

2

15
8
7

71

“

*
“

84
11
73
35
4
18

2

14

-

9

4
4
4

109
20
89
61

-

8

29

2

4

-

1

•

-

-

4

-

-

23

3

6

ii
19
6
8

3
3

5

17

“

1

22
“

22
1

31

~
~

26

9

9

5

22
14
“
3

17
ii
“
3

11
8

4
2

6

12
“
12

15
1
14

14

5

3

ii

9

9

9

3

2

~

14
4
10

10

2

"

4

1
1

“

*
“

1

-

-

“

1
14

8

14
13
•

6

i
i

i
i

5

6
1

8
”
8
7

1
“
1
1

9
3
6
5
"
1

5
5

■
2
2

5

5

2

“
5

2

4

-

-

-

2

i

-

3

-

-

~

5

9

2

9
7

8
8

2

"
33
3
30
20
4

2

30

9

4

26
6
5

9

1

8
1
7
“

2

“
2
2

6
”
6

1
1

16
16

11
T a b le A-1. O ffic e occupations: W e e k ly e arn in gs-----Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings of workers in selected occupations by industry division, Birmingham, Ala., March 1973)
Number of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of—

Weekly earnings 1
(standard)

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workere

%
t
60

Average
weekly
(standard)

M ea n i

Median ^

Middle ranged

AND

65

t

1
70

75

80

i
85

3

t

90

95

*
100

*

s
no

120

$
130

160

t

t
150

S

t

160

170

t
180

S
190

t
200

%

210

and
under
65

HEN

$

220

and
70

75

80

no

120

130

160

150

160

17

10

2
1
1

1

6

-

10
1

5
1
4
-

11

-

17
10

1

4

-

18
13
5

29
6
23
18
1

25

-

-

3
2
1
1

5
2

3

25
10
15
8

3
3

1
-

85

90

95

100

26
18
8
3

11
7
6
“
15
2
13
-

170

180

190

200

210

220 o v e r

WOMEN C O M B I N E D CONTINUED

$
SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS B -------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------RETAIL TRADE --------------------------------------

128
27
101

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------WHOLESALE TRADE ------------------------------RETAIL TRADE --------------------------------------

171
58
113
66

33

26

6 0 .0
6 0 .0
6 0 .5
3 8 .5

9 3 .5 0
9 1 .5 0
9 3 .5 0
8 2 .0 0

6 0 .0

1 0 8 .0 0

6 0 .0
3 9 .5
6 0 .0
6 0 .0

1 1 2 .0 0
1 0 6 .0 0

$
8 9 .5 0
8 9 .0 0
9 2 .5 0
7 5 .0 0

$

$
0 0 .0 0 - 1 0 1 .0 0
8 7 .0 0 - 9 2 .0 0
7 6 .5 0 - 1 0 3 .5 0

6 9 .5 0 -

6

9

-

-

-

-

9

6
*

9
1

9

9 7 .0 0

*

9

9 1 .5 0 - 1 2 5 .5 0
9 6 .5 0 - 1 2 7 .5 0
8 9 .5 0 - 1 1 9 .0 0

-

.

16

_

-

-

1 0 8 .5 0
9 7 .0 0

9 9 .0 0 - 1 1 6 .0 0
7 6 .0 0 - 1 2 7 .0 0

-

3
11
2
9

-

-

16
3
13
7

“

6

*

“

"

“

6
6

2
2

7
6

1
1

6

18
11

22

3
3

1
1

12
12

13
13

16
16

28
28

3
3

6

10
10

11
11

112
58
56
6

51
62
11

21
1
20

39
18
21

26
16
8
2

-

55

3 9 .0
3 8 .5

1 0 5 .5 0
1 0 0 .5 0

1 1 3 .0 0
1 0 1 .5 0

8 5 .0 0 - 1 2 3 .0 0
8 1 .5 0 - 1 1 8 .5 0

-

TYPISTS, CLASS A --------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------

97
96

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

1 0 9 .0 0
1 0 9 .0 0

1 0 5 .0 0
1 0 5 .0 0

9 5 .0 0 - 1 2 3 .5 0
9 6 .5 0 - 1 2 3 .5 0

-

TYPISTS, CLASS B --------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------NO NMANUFACTURING ----------------PUBLIC UTILITIES --------------RETAIL TRADE ------------------FINANCE -------------------------

385
111
276

3 9 .0
6 0 .0
3 9 .0

8 9 .5 0
9 6 .5 0
8 6 .5 0

8 8 .0 0
8 9 .5 0
8 6 .0 0

8 1 .5 0 - 9 6 .5 0
8 7 .0 0 - 1 0 7 .5 0
7 8 .5 0 - 9 3 .0 0

-

27

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 8 .0

9 6 .0 0
9 1 .0 0
8 7 .0 0

9 3 .5 0
9 0 .5 0
8 6 .5 0

9 0 .5 0 - 1 0 1 .5 0
8 6 .0 0 -1 0 2 * 0 0
8 1 . 5 0 - 9 3 .0 0

-

See footnotes at end of tables




62
130

-

11
1

1 0 6 .5 0
1 0 7 .0 0
1 0 6 .0 0
1 1 0 .5 0
8 6 .0 0

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
GENERAL
NO NMANUFACTURING -----------------

82

19
19
8

-

15

-

12

*

_

_

-

-

6

6
-

-

9

1

8

15

9
3
6

-

~

“

37

36

37
-

36
-

51
6
67

-

-

-

35

u

28

9

7
21

7

3

3

2
16

6

8

5
1

8

17

2

3
2
1

10

7
5

7
4

3

2
1

1
1

1

-

-

8

-

4

4
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12
T a b l e A - 2 . P r o fe s s io n a l and technical occupations: W e e k ly earnings
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings of workers in selected occupations by industry division, Birmingham, Ala., March 1973)
Number of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of—
Num
ber
of

Occupation and industry division

$

Average
weekly

*
80

Mean ^

(standard'

Median 2

Middle ranged

t
90

s

*
100

no

*

$

*
120

130

160

$
150

t

$

1
160

170

180

$
190

t

%

200

210

t

*
220

230

t
260

90

!

$

100

110

137.50-177.50

1

120

130

160

12
10

29
27
16

23
21

150

2

106
98
58

39.5
39.5
39.0

129.00
129.00
127.50

127.50
127.50
129.50

1 17 .00 117 .00 1 19 .00 -

138.00
138.50
136.00

19
18
10

29

39.0

115.50

109.50

1 06 .00 -

128.00

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

260

250

212I50

1

10

*n
4 0 .0 222.00

NONMANUFACTURING — — — — — — — —
— — —
— — —

197.50-268.00

J

COMPUTER PROGRAMERS*
3

1
1

COMPUTER PROGRAMERS.
39.5

190.50

182.50

64
34

39.0

196.50

183.50

165.00221.00
166.00216.00
165.00-231.00

50
36

39.5

152.50
151.50

153.00
160.50

135.50-166.00
1 33.00-169.00

87

/.rv n 2 1 1 . 5 0
y0 0

220*50

1^9
102

40*0
60.0

168.00

W4
109
62

400
60.0

1 25 00
138.50

119*~0
139.50

1 08 .50-132.00
123.00-153.50

36

60.0

226.00

215.00

2 12 .00-269.50

32
25

60.0
60.0

171.00
170.50

168.50
168.00

155 .50 1 57 .50 -

8

20
20
1

1

COMPUTER PROGRAMERS,

NURSES,

INDUSTRIAL

(REGISTERED)

See footnotes at end of tables.




------

,n

163*00
165.50

n,,A

*

t
260

270

1

1

13
9

-

197.00-231.00

1 50 .00 176.50
1 68 .00 176.00
153.50-178.00

6
15
12

8

38

20

67

61

30

19

22

23

17

2

1

^3

10

^„ ,

191.00 189.50

280
and

MEN ANO WOMEN COMBINED

39.5

t
250

and
under

20

30
28
n

?
*

n

-

-

-

-

7

34

30
17
1

21

31
23
1
1

1

2

1

2
-

31

8
1

^9

26

4

7

2

6

6

2

*

1

19

2

260

270

280

over

13
T a b l e A - 3 . O ffic e , p ro fe ssio n a l, and technical o c c u p ation s: A v e r a g e w e e k l y earn in gs, by se x
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings of workers in selected occupations by industry division, Birmingham, Ala., March 1973)
A ve rage

Sex, occupation, and industry division

3 9.0
38.5

126.50
122.50

6 0.0
6 0.0
6 0.0

139.50
139.00
160.50
165.00

95

39.0
39.0
39.0
38.5

95.00
92.50
106.00
82.00

MESSENGERS (OF FICE BOYSI --------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------------FINANCE -----------------------------------------------

W eekly
(standard )

W eekly
earnings *
(standard )

83
27
27

o
o

WOMEN

CLERKS, PAYROLL ----------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

165
101
66

39.5
60.0
39.0

$
119.50
120.50
117.50

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A --------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------FINANCE ------------------------------------------

182
125
70

39.5
39.5
39.0

117.00
106.00
103.50

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B --------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------WHOLESALE TRAOE -----------------------RETAIL TRADE ------------------------------FINANCE ------------------------------------------

623
51
372
89
67
30
200

39.0
60.0
39.0
38.5
60.0
39.0
39.0

99.00
102.50
99.00
121.00
101.00
87.50
90.00

38
38

39.0
3 9.0

89.00
89.00

SECRETARIES -------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------WHOLESALE TRADE ------------------------FINANCE ------------------------------------------

896
182
712
236
60
316

39.5
39.5
39.0
39.0
60.0
3 9.0

137.00
169.50
136.00
156.00
122.50
120.50

38
32

60.0
6 0.0

115.50
117.00

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS A ---------------------------------------------

26

39.5

127.50

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS B --------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------

75
60

39.5
39.5

96.00
96.00

SECRETARIES, CLASS A -------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

68
68

39.5
39.0

160.50
161.00

278
62

166.50
166.00

76
62
50
67

39.5
60.0
39.0
39.5
4 0.0
38.5
38.5

SECRETARIES, CLASS B -------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ----------------------FINANCE ------------------------------------------

227
69
178
77
72

39.5
60.0
39.0
39.0
39.0

151.50
151.00
151.50
168.00
136.00

726
117
60 9
213
117
96
131

39.0
39.5
39.0
39.0
60.0
39.5
37.0

SECRETARIES, CLASS C -------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------FINANCE ------------------------------------------

389
55
336
153

3 9.0
39.0
39.0
39.0

131.50
162.00
130.00
116.50

130.00
105.50
95.50
94.00

SECRETARIES, CLASS D -------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------FINANCE ------------------------------------------

195
68
167
76

39.5
39.5
39.5
39.0

121.50
169.00
112.50
108.50

CLERKS, F I L E , CLASS A
NONMANUFACTURING —
FINANCE -----------------

58
51
25

39.0
39.0
3 8.0

109.00
109.00
98.00

CLERKS, F I L E , CLASS B
NONMANUFACTURING PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S
FINANCE ------------------

181
162
32
96

39.0
39.0
38.5
39.0

87.50
86.00
108.00
81.00

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL --------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ----------------------WHOLESALE TRADE ------------------------FINANCE ------------------------------------------

763
121
662
367
30
135

3 9.0
6 0.0
39.0
38.5
60.0
39.5

116.50
120.50
113.50
121.50
116.00
98.50

CLERKS, F I L E , CLASS C
NONMANUFACTURING —
FINANCE -----------------

26 9
235
173

38.0
38.0
37.5

76.00
73.00
71.50

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR ----------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------WHOLESALE TRACE ------------------------FINANCE ------------------------------------------

208
28
180
66
66

39.5
6 0.0
39.5
6 0.0
38.5

139.50
136.50
160.50
138.50
122.50

51

60.0
60.0
60.0

122.00
123.50
126.00

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B
MANUFACTURING ---------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------' PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ----------WHOLESALE TRAOE ------------RETAIL TRADE -------------------FINANCE -------------------------------

See footnote at end of tables,




38
36

1 6 6 .5 0

173.00
122.00
125.50
139.00
110.00
105.00
1 1 1 .0 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS,

CLASS A —

25

o
o

CLERKS, ORDER ------------NONMANUFACTURING ■
WHOLESALE TRADE

216

N um ber
of
workers

standard)

W eekly

W eekly
e arn in gs1
(standard )

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS B -------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------RETAIL TRADE ------------------------------------

121
100
33

60.0
60.5
38.5

$
93.50
93.50
82.00

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSMANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------WHOLESALE TRADE -----------------------------RETAIL TRADE ------------------------------------

171
58
113
66
26

60.0
60.0
39.5
60.0
60.0

108.00
112.00
106.00
108.50
97.00

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
GENERAL -------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

82
55

39.0
38.5

105.50
100.50

T Y P I S T S , CLASS A -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

96
95

39.0
39.0

109.00
109.00

T Y P I S T S , CLASS B -------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S --------------------------RETAIL TRADE -----------------------------------FINANCE -----------------------------------------------

386
110
276
27
62
130

39.0
6 0.0
39.0
39.0
39.5
38.0

89.50
96.50
86.50
96.00
91.00
87.00

COMPUTER OPERATORS, CLASS B -------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------FINANCE

72
66
36

39.5
39.5
38.5

130.00
131.00
129.00

COMPUTER PROGRAMERS,
BUSINESS. CLASS A ----------------------------------

27

236.50

COMPUTER PROGRAMERS,
BUSINESS, CLASS B ---------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------FINANCE -----------------------------------------------

56
50
28

39.5
39.5
39.0

193.50
190.50
197.00

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN

COMPUTER PROGRAMERS,
BUSINESS, CLASS C ----------------------------------

30

39.5

160.00

JRAFTSMEN, CLASS A ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

211
86

6 0.0
6 0.0

212.00
212.00

JRAFTSMEN, CLASS B ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

265
169
96

6 0.0
6 0.0
60.0

166.00
163.00
166.00

•RAFTSMEN, CLASS C ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

168
109
59

6 0.0
6 0.0
60.0

130.00
125.00
138.50

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS -----------------------

36

O
o

BI LLE RS , MACHINE (B I L L I N G
MACHINE) -----------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A
MANUFACTURING ---------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ----------WHOLESALE TRADE ------------RETAIL TRADE -------------------FINANCE -------------------------------

Sex, occupation, and industry division

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS WOMEN— CONTINUED

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS WOMEN— CONTINUED

MESSENGERS (OFF ICE GIR LS ) -------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

114

PAYROLL

N um ber
of
wo ike is

o
o

55
37

102

A v e rage

Sex, occupation, and industry division

*

$
173.00
192.00
156.00

26

CLERKS, ORDER ------------NONMANUFACTURING •
WHOLESALE TRADE

52
50

60.0
6 0.0
60.0

123
118

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B
NONMANUFACTURING ---------------

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS -

W eekly
earnings *
(standard )

MEN

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

CLERKS,

W eekly
hours 1
(standard'

•r*

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS -

N um ber
of
workers

226.00

COMPUTER OPERATORS, CLASS 8 -------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

36
32

39.5
39.5

127.00
125.50

NURSES, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) ----MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

32
25

6 0.0
60.0

171.00
170.50

PROFESSIONAL ANO TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN

116.00

14
T a b le A-4.

M a in te n an c e and p o w e rp la n t occu p ation s: H ourly e arn in g s

(Average straight-time hourly earnings of workers in selected occupations by industry division, Birmingham, Ala,, March 1973)
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—

Hourly earnings ^

%

$

t

t

S
2 .8 0

»
2.9 0

S
3 .0 0

t
3 .1 0

3.2 0

*
3 .3 0

3.4 0

$
3 .6 0

S
3 .8 0

S
4 .00

t
4.2 0

4 .4 0

$
4.6 0

(
*
4 . 80 5 . 0 0

$
5 .2 0

*
5 .4 0

$
5 .6 0

t
5 .8 0

*
6 .0 0

6.2 0

2 .8 0

Occupation and industry division

Num ber
of
workers

2 .9 0

3 .0 0

3 .1 0

3 .2 0

3 .3 0

3 .4 0

3 .6 0

3 . 80 4 . 0 0

4 .20

4 .4 0

4.6 0

4.8 0

5 . 00 5 . 2 0

5.4 0

5 .6 0

5.8 0

6 .0 0

6*20

over

”

*

*

2
2

“

“

3
3

2
“

1
1

“

21
21

14
14

6
5

10
7

“

18
16

37
37

1
“

12
11

-

-

6
6

-

2
2

-

1
1

2
2

24
24

1
1

23
23

36
36

123
123

36
36

39
39

61
58
3
2

178
154
24
24

54
52
2
1

1

-

11
9

2
2

a
8

13
13

30
30

10
10

4
4

-

$
2 .7 0
M ean 2

M edian^

M iddle range

2

S
2.7 0

and
under

MEN AND WOMEN COMBINED
CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE ----------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

128
117

$
4.8 3
4.8 3

$
5 .0 7
5 .0 9

$
4 .2 5 4 .2 4 -

$
5.3 5
5.3 5

ELECTRICIANS, MAINTENANCE ------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------------

664
634
30
27

5.1 6
5 .1 5
5 .4 7
5.4 5

5 .2 9
5.2 6
5.4 6
5 .4 6

4 .7 4 4 .7 4 5 .4 2 5 .4 3 -

5.5 7
5.5 7
5.51
5.5 0

GINEERS, STATIONARY --------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

85
80

4.8 0
4.8 0

4*84
4 .8 5

4 .5 9 4 .6 2 -

5.0 0
4 .9 9

HELPERS, MAINTENANCE TRADES -------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------------

416
367
49
33

4.0 1
4 .1 1
3.2 7
3.7 5

4 .1 9
4.2 4
3 .5 6
3 .7 1

3 .6 3 3 .7 0 2 .5 6 3 .5 5 -

4 .4 4
4 .4 5
3.7 6
3.8 5

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATORS, TOOLROOM —
MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

144
144

4.3 5
4.3 5

4 .2 2
4 .2 2

3 .1 4 3 .1 4 -

4 .8 5
4 .8 5

MACHINISTS. MAINTENANCE ----------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

489
485

5 .0 2
5 .0 2

5.1 2
5 .1 2

4 .6 8 4 .6 9 -

5.5 5
5 .5 5

MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
(MAINTENANCE! -----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------------

562
237
325
218

4 .3 2
4.1 8
4 .4 2
4.7 7

4.1 2
4.3 7
4.0 9
4*66

3 .7 8 2 .7 9 3 .9 3 4 .0 7 -

4 .9 7
5.4 3
4.8 5
5 .4 7

MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE ------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

997
948
49

4.7 0
4.7 6
3.5 0

4 .7 8
4 .8 2
3 .0 9

4 .2 8 4 .4 1 3 .0 4 -

5.2 9
5 .3 3
4 .1 1

MILLWRIGHTS ------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

201
201

5.0 1
5.0 1

4 .7 8
4.7 8

4 .6 7 4 .6 7 -

5 .4 4
5 .4 4

PAINTERS, MAINTENANCE --------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

40
37

4 .6 2
4 .6 5

4.5 9
4.5 8

4 .3 2 4 .3 2 -

5 .2 3
5 .2 4

TOOL AND DIE MAKERS ------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

126
126

4.6 0
4 .6 2

4.7 4
4 .7 4

4 .5 5 4 .5 8 -

4.7 9
4.7 9

-

-

-

-

_

1

-

“

_

-




-

-

-

-

-

-

_

”

“

9
9

14

66
66
*

-

-

”

-

-

“

16
16

6
6

69
69

-

“

6
6

“

-

_

30
30

-

1

22
22

*

2
2

-

*15
-

1
-

i
i

1

-

-

14

1

9
9
”

28
28

2
2
-

-

-

-

*

22
21
1
1

32
18
14
14

-

-

-

38
38

-

“

5
4

“

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

1

_

40
30
10
10

17
16
1
1

61
57
4
4

53
50
3
3

135
135

_
-

11
11

5
5

-

2
2

9
9

n
ii

24
24

7
7

4
4

16
16

2
2

6
6

3
3

7
7

13
13

12
10

44
44

146
146

1
1

39
39

7
7

174
172

25
25

2

56
20
36

120
4
116
92

9
8
1
1

13
9
4
2

39
22
17
14

48
12
36
36

4
2
2
2

4
2
2
2

43
35
8
8

32
32

-

-

39
37
2

17
12
5

43
41
2

96
94
2

145
145
“

46
46
-

82
82

122
121
1

73
70
3

99
99

42
42
“

15
15
“

5
5

2
2

_

12
12

67
67

12
12

-

-

4
4

-

3
2

3
2

11
11

2
2

_

5
5

71
71

8
8

9
9

-

5
5

_

-

2
2
5
3
2

13
9
4

-

-

”

*

7

27
1
26
10

-

7

6
6

29
27
2

_

_

“

-

-

.

-

2

“
21
21

-

2

”

* Workers were distributed as follows: 8 at $ 2 to $ 2.10; 1 at $ 2.30 to $ 2.40; and 6 at $ 2.50 to $ 2.60.

See footnotes at end of tables.

38
37
1

108
108

15

-

-

i
"

-

-

-

6
6
16
16

8
8

12
12

-

17
17

_

10
10

”

”

48

3

48
48

3
3

3
3

-

_

“
-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

15
T a b le A -5 . Custodial and material m ovem ent occupations: Hourly earnings
(Average straight-time hourly earnings of workers in selected occupations by industry division, Birmingham, Ala., March 1973)
N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—

Hourly earnings ^

Occupation and industry division

*
Mean 2

Median2

Middle range 2

t

$

t

*

I

I

i

$

I

I

$

t

$

i

$

t

*

t

*

%

»

T

1 .6 0

Num ber
of

1 .6 0

1 .8 0

2 .0 0

2 .2 0

2 .6 0

2 .6 0

2 .8 0

3 .0 0

3 .2 0

3 .6 0

3 .6 0

3 .8 0

6 .0 0

6 .2 0

4 .4 0

4 .6 0

4 .8 0

5 .0 0

5 .2 0

5 .6 0

5 .6 0

5 .8 0

and
under

and

1 .6 0

1 .8 0

2 .0 0

2 .2 0

2 .6 0

2 .6 0

2 .8 0

-

682
“

22
-

7
-

682

22

21
15
6

17

-

50
18
32

7

3 .2 0

3 .6 0

3 .6 0

3 .8 0

6 .0 0

6 .2 0

6 .6 0

6 .6 0

5
-

11
-

57
33
26

-

15
15

_
_

11

46
27
19

11
11

5

38
5
33

11
1
-

11
6

1
1

12
3
9

6 .8 0

5 .0 0

5 .2 0

5 .6 0

5 .6 0

5 .8 0

_
_

_
_

over

7

3 .0 0

HEN AND WOMEN COMBINED
GUARDS AND WATCHMEN ------------MANUFACTURING ----------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------

782
125
657

$
2 .2 1
3 .3 2
2 .0 0

$
1 .7 8
3 .5 9
1 .7 7

$
1 .7 6 2 .3 9 1 .7 3 -

$
2 .5 3
3 .7 8
1 .8 6

1
16

GUARDS
MANUFACTURING -----------------

102

3 .5 3

3 .6 7

3 .5 0 -

3 .8 1

-

-

-

-

15

1

JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS
MANUFACTURING ----------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------PUBLIC UTILITIES ----------WHOLESALE TRADE -----------RETAIL TRADE ---------------FINANCE ----------------------

1 ,9 8 8
355
1 ,6 3 3
115
60
265
225

2 .0 6

2 .3 6
3 .5 2
1 .9 8
3 .0 5
2 .2 9

1063
16
1069

163
20

107

159
59

2 .5 5
2 .1 3
1 .8 8
2 .0 9

-

56
-

2 .7 2
2 .1 2
1 .9 8
2 .1 0

1
2
1
2
1

136

2 .9 8
1 .8 6

1 .7 2
3 .0 6
1 .6 8

1 .7 0 1 .7 9 -

2 .2 3
2 .6 0

LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING ---MANUFACTURING ----------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------PUBLIC UTILITIES ----------WHOLESALE TRADE -----------RETAIL TRADE ----------------

1 ,5 1 7
638
879

2 .8 8
3 .2 0
2 .6 5

2 .7 1
3 .2 3
2 .5 6

315
620
130

3 .1 1
2 .3 2
2 .5 9

2 .9 7
2 .3 5
2 .7 1

2
2
2
2

-

3 .2 7
3 .8 0
2 .9 5
6 .0 2

2 .2 1 2 .0 6 -

2 .6 6
2 .7 9

ORDER FILLERS ------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------WHOLESALE TRADE ------------

662
607

2 .5 3
2 .6 6

1 .9 1 1 .8 9 -

2 .8 2
2 .8 0

305

2 .3 0

2 .5 5
2 .5 2
2 .3 8

1 .8 7 -

2 .6 2

PACKERS, SHIPPING ---------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------WHOLESALE TRADE ------------

263

3 .7 9

73
61

2 .5 7
2 .6 8

3 .8 5
2 .6 6
2 .6 1

2 .6 7 2 .2 9 2 .2 3 -

6 .6 3
2 .8 3
2 .6 9

RECEIVING CLERKS ----------------MANUFACTURING ----------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------WHOLESALE TRADE -----------RETAIL TRADE ----------------

126
62
84
63
39

3 .1 6
3 .9 7
2 .7 2
2 .8 3
2 .6 2

3 .0 6
6 .0 2
2 .8 1
2 .8 7
2 .3 9

2
3
2
2

-

3 .9 3
6 .0 9
3 .0 8
3 .0 8

2 .1 6 -

3 .0 9

SHIPPING CLERKS -----------------• M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------

93
77

4 . i4
6 .2 9

6 .1 5
4 .3 9

3 .1 7 3 .3 3 -

5 .1 2
5 .1 6

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERKS —
MANUFACTURING -----------------

73
69

6 . 28
6 .3 2

6 .2 6
6 .2 6

3 .1 8 3 .1 9 -

5 .0 7
5 .0 9

TRUCKDRIVERS -------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------PUBLIC UTILITIES ----------WHOLESALE TRADE -----------RETAIL TRADE ----------------

1 ,8 1 3
685
1 ,3 2 8
600
499

3 .6 8
3 .1 5
3 .6 0
6 .7 0

2 .9 5
2 .8 6
3 .0 2
5 .9 1

2 .6 9 -

6 .2 8

_

2 .7 6 2 .3 6 3 .0 7 -

3 .7 0
5 .9 0
5 .9 6

-

2 .5 1
2 .7 6

2 .6 8
2 .5 6

1 .8 8 -

226
68

2 .5 6
2 .9 1

2 .7 5

178
98

2 .6 6
2 .5 6

2 .6 3
2 .6 3

68

2 .1 6

2 .3 0

TRUCKDRIVERS, LIGHT (UNDER
1-1/2 TONSI -------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------WHOLESALE TRADE ------------RETAIL TRADE ---------------- *

* All workers were at $ 5.80 to $ 6.

See footnotes at end of tables.




139

2 .5 0

.6
.6
.6
.3
.8

.3
.6
.3
.9

.5
.9
.3
.5

5
6
6
6
5

3
8
0
2

7
3
5
9

56
-

_

2
3
97
59

6
130

9
15
50
18

123
6
6
36
63

21
86
16
10
28
29

82

59

-

65
65
30

82
-

11
68
-

360
116
226
-

*

15

77
5

25
23

210
16

-

19
19

100
100
91

11

58
58

-

16
-

.

-

-

“

4
4
-

11
10

9

60

100
39
6
16
37
169
87
82
10
71
1
65
65
65

9
9

17
9
9

22
10

2

37
8
29
5
7
16
106
68
56
15
61
75
52

-

5

22

33

71
66

57
65

93
79

6

5

16
16

-

6
-

66
39
5
-

156
69

1

12
23
9
2
3
3
215

3
212
178
16
6

.

-

9

30

66

-

-

4

3

5
1

10
10

19
19

_

1
1

i
i

3

-

3

1
1

5
5

6
4

-

2
2

5
5

22
22

5

*

3

-

10
8

6
6

6
4

2
2

5
5

2
2

-

-

-

-

75
71

31
7
26

8
-

27
21
13

12
12
8

8
8

7
1
6

13
-

26
1
25
17
8

2
1

3
3
-

2

-

-

-

-

-

“

“

*

2
2

10

~

16
16

•

9

_

_

7
6

“

10
9

2 .0 5 -

2 .7 6

15

13

15
15

2 .2 6 2 .6 8 -

3 .0 1
3 .3 7

13

16
-

3 .0 1
3 .0 6
2 .5 5

-

10
-

2 .2 2 2 .2 3 1 .8 3 -

10
-

13
-

16
15

-

10

13

1

7

53
6
67
32

86
-

9
6

2

3
2
1

-

-

7

193
169
66
-

190
106
86
-

1

-

4
4

9
9

-

-

3

-

-

161

25

8

3
158

11
16
-

5

55
66
9

23
23
-

166
7
139

2

3

1
-

-

77

3

73
67

21

85

112
65

12

21

1

1

52
8

22
20

-

66

2
-

3

6
1

3

3

9

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

3

-

62
62
62

8

3

21

6

65

-

_

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

”

“

6
6

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

8

361

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

332
-

8

6

4

6
-

2

-

7
7

2

-

-

3

—

_

2

—

-

16
16

-

2

26

1
-

4

11

87

7

4

1

2
2

-

168

2

68

13
13

8

1

5

2

2 .9 1

4

_

6

11
131
-

-

_

53
53

2

162

~

2
2
2

11
9

193
62
151
72
57

1

2

11
16

65
65
33

10
2
6

30

-

-

15
15
-

5

16

30
-

-

1

-

2

16
-

161
-

1
-

-

9

-

161

10
10
-

-

-

3

*

23
-

18
17
1
-

-

6

-

31
8

_
-

2

-

3

-

-

2

11
-

3

-

-

23
21
2
-

10
-

-

-

25

16
-

-

1
1

178
176
6
-

_

_

8

12
10

-

“

8

10

-

_

_
_

5

-

"

_
_

-

_

“

_
_

12
2

-

*

6

_
_

15

35

6

_
_

—

-

’'-36 1
-

9

16
T a b le A - 5 . Custodial and material m ovem ent occupations: Hourly e arn in g s— Continued
(Average straight-time hourly earnings of workers in selected occupations by industry division, Birmingham, Ala., March 1973)
Number of workers receiving, straight-time hourly earnings of—

Hourly earnings^

Occupation and industry division

$
$
*
*
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
*
$
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
$
1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.20 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.80 4.00 4.20 4.40 4.60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80

Num ber
of
workers

and
under

and

1.60 1.80 2.00 2.20 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.80 4.00 4.20 4.40 4.60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 over
MEN AN0 WOMEN CO MBINED—
CONTINUED

TRUCKDRIVERS - CONTINUED
TRUCK0RIVERS, MEDIUM (1-1/2 TO
AND INCLUDING 4 TONS! -------MANUFACTURING -----------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------PUBLIC UTILITIES -----------WHOLESALE TRADE ------------RETAIL TRADE ---------------V E R S , HEAVY (OVER 4 TONS,
AiLER TYPE I --------------------t NUFACTURING --------------------4 MANUFACTURING ----------------UBLIC UTILITIES --------------WHOLESALE TRADE ----------------

$

3.19
3.09
3.21
4.14
2.31
3.06

$
2.80
2.93
2.78
4.03
2.24
2.54

$
2.302.432.233.011.852.09-

$
4.02
3.68
4.10
5.94
2.75
3.05

3.20
2.79
3.32
3.34
3.34

3.01
2.79
3.04
3.08
2.97

2.782.732.923.032.92-

4.01
2.98
4.05
4.04
4.41

38

3.14
3.21
2.94
2.57
3.16

2.77
2.83
2.48
2.55
2.78

2.472.682.342.502.28-

3.81
3.84
2.75
2.59
3.58

146
145

2.78
2.77

2.56
2.55

1.81- 2.98
1.81- 2.96

868
147
721
268
324
69

13
13
8
5

148
148
148

14
14

21
6

55
6
49
48
1

70
3
67
64
2
1

15
1
14
12
2

13
“
13

36
21
15

55
18
37

6
6

-

-

3

-

-

49
49
48
1

77
3
74
54
20

60
33
27

15
15
12
2

14

125
36
89
60
23
6

1
1
-

55
46
9
i
-

12
12
-

-

-

-

-

-

3
2
1
1

4
4

40

3

23

-

-

3
3

23
2
21

-

-

27
27

4
2
2

16
16
-

1
1

4
3

14
14

-

1
1
1

-

101
4
97
37
8

201
102
77

TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT)

834

--------------------

623

M A N U F A C T U R IN G

NONMANUFACTURING

--------

WHOLESALE TRADE ----RETAIL TRADE --------WAR EH0USEMEN

------NO NMANUFACTURING

* All workers were at $ 5.80 to $ 6.
See footnotes at end of tables.




211
59

2

-

2
2
-

36
36

8
8

20
8
12
-

113
55
58
-

10
159
81
78
48

180
162
18
9
9

36
36
-

2
2
-

42
42

11
11

8
8

1
1

10
4
4

2
2

-

37

2

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

40
40
-

6
6

57
47
10

43
42
1

101
101

25
25

5
5
-

“

10

1

-

-

“

2
2

8
8

2
2

1
1

-

7 *111

1

2

2
2

1
1

111
104
7

-

7
7

jCKDRI

258
57

-

1

2

-

1

2

*

“

“

11
8
3

-

“

26
2
24

3

“

“

-

-

17

Table A-6. Maintenance, powerplant, custodial, and material handling occupations:
Average hourly earnings, by sex
(Average straight-time hourly earnings of workers in selected occupations by industry division, Birmingham, Ala., M a r c h 1973)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Num ber
of
workers

A v e rage
(m e an 2 )
hourly
e arnings5

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
OCCUPATIONS - MEN

Number Average
(mean2)
of
woikers hourly
earnings5

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL HANDLING
OCCUPATIONS - MEN

CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE -----------MA NU FACTURING ---------------------

128
117

$
4.83
4.63

ELECTRICIANS, MAINTENANCE ---------MA NU FACTURING --------------------NONMAN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------PUBLIC UTILITIES ---------------

664
634
30
27

5.16
5.15
5.47
5.45

ENGINEERS, ST ATIONARY --------------MA NUFACTURING ---------------------

85
80

4.80
4.80

HELPERS, MAINTENANCE TRADES -------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------NONMAN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------PUBLIC UTILITIES ---------------

416
367
49
33

4.01
4.11
3.27
3.75

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATORS, TOOLROOM -MA NU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

144
144

4.35
4.35

MACHINISTS, MAINTENANCE -----------MA NUFACTURING ---------------------

489
485

5.02
5.02

MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
(MAINTENANCE) ----------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------PUBLIC UTILITIES --------------

562
237
325
218

4.32
4.18
4.42
4.77

MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE -------------MANUFACTURING --------------------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

997
948
49

4.70
4.76
3.50

MILLWRIGHTS --------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------

201
201

5.01
5.01

PAINTERS, MAINTENANCE --------------MA NUFACTURING ---------------------

40
37

4.62
4.65

TOOL AND DIE MAKERS
MANUFACTURING --

Sex, occupation, and industry division

128
126

4.60
4.62

GUARDS AND WATCHMEN ----------------MA NUFACTURING --------------------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number Average
mean2)
o
f
workers hourly
earnings5

CUSTCiOlAL AND MATERIAL HANDLING
UCCUPA1IONS - MEN — CONTINUED
779
125
654

$
2.21
3.32
2.00

TRUCKDRIVERS -----------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------NONMANUF AC TU RI NG ----------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ------ --------WHOLESALE TRADE ---------------RETAIL TRADE --------------------

1,812
485
1,327
600
499
138

$
3.48
3.15
3.60
4.70
2.51
2.76

GUARDS
MA NUFACTURING ------------------ -

102

3.53

JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS --MA NUFACTURING --------------------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------PUBLIC UTILITIES --------------WHOLESALE TRADE ---------------RETAIL TRADE -------------------FINANCE --------------------------

1,409
339
1,070
77
34
191
136

2.15
3.02
1.88
2.79
2.13
2.03
2.16

TRUCKDRIVERS, LIGHT (UNDER
1-1/2 TONS) ----------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------NONM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------WHOLESALE TRADE ---------------RETAIL TRADE --------------------

226
48
178
98
48

2.54
2.91
2.44
2.54
2.16

LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING -------MA NUFACTURING --------------------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------PUBLIC UTILITIES --------------WHOLESALE TRADE ---------------RETAIL TRADE --------------------

1,515
638
877
315
420
128

2.89
3.20
2.65
3.11
2.32
2.59

TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM (1-1/2 TO
AND INCLUDING 4 TONS) ----------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------NONMANUF AC TU RI NG ----------------PUBLIC UTILITIES --------------WHOLESALE TRADE ---------------RETAIL TRAOE --------------------

867
147
720
268
324
68

3. 19
3.09
3.21
4.14
2.31
3.07

ORDER
FILLERS ----------------------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------WHOLESALE TRAOE ----------------

383
281

PACKERS, SHIPPING -------------------NONMAN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------WHOLESALE TRADE ----------------

236
69
41

3*84
2.60
2.48

TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY (OVER 4 TONS,
TRAILER TYPE) --------------------MANUFA CT UR IN G --------------------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------PUBLIC UTILITIES --------------WHOLESALE TRADE ----------------

258
57
201
102
77

3.20
2.79
3.32
3.34
3.34

RECEIVING CLERKS --------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------NONMAN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------WHOLESALE TRADE ---------------RETAIL TRADE --------------------

118

3.20
3.97

43
31

2.83

TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT) --------MANU FA CT UR IN G --------------------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------WHOLESALE TRADE ---------------RETAIL TRADE --------------------

834
623
211
59
38

3.14
3.21
2.94
2.57
3.16

SHIPPING CL ERKS ---------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

93
77

4.14
4.29

WARE HO US EM EN -------------------------NONMAN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

146
145

2.78
2.77

SHIPPING AND RE CEIVING CLERKS ----MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

73
69

4.28

579
563
54
89

1.77
1.76
1.81
2.01

2.55
2.47

CUSTODIAL AMD MATERIAL HANDLING
OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN
JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS --NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------RETAIL TRAOE -------------------FINANCE

1
_________

See footnotes at end of tables.




18

B. Establishment practices and supplementary w a g e provisions
Table B-1. Minimum entrance salaries for women officeworkers
(Distribution of establishm ents studied in a ll in du stries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance sala ry for selected categories
of inexperienced women officew orkers, Birm ingham , A la., M arch 1973)
Other inexperienced cle rical workers

Inexperienced typists

All
industries

Based on standard weekly h ou rs6 of—
All
schedules

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing
Minimum weekly straight-tim e s a la r y 4

40

All
schedules

All
industries
40

Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard weekly h ou rs6 of—
All
schedules

40

All
schedule s

40

Establishm ents studied_____________________________

168

52

XXX

116

XXX

168

52

XXX

116

XXX

E stablishm ents having a specified m inim um _____________

30

10

10

20

14

57

15

15

42

31

_

_

3
1
6
3
8
1
1
2
1
2
1

2
1
3
1
1
1
-

_
2
1
3
1
1
1
-

3
1
4
2
5
1
1
1
1
1

_
2
1
3
1
4
1
1
1

1
2
3
1
2
1
1

_
2
4
4
4
1
1
6
2
3
1

-

1
2
3
1
2
1
1

1
2
4
4
4
5
3
1
7
3
3
1
1

-

1
2
5
4
4
7
3
1
10
3
4
3
1
1
1

*

-

_

_

_

1
1

_
1

1

1

-

“

1 55.00
>
$ 57.50
$ 60.00
$ 62.50
$ 65.00
$ 67.50
$ 70.00
$ 72.50
$ 75.00
$ 77.50
$ 80.00
$ 82.50
$ 5.00
$ 87.50
$ 90.00
$ 92.50
$ 95.00
$ 97.50
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

100.00
105.00
110.00
115.00
120.00
125.00
130.00
135.00
140.00
145.00

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

$ 57.50_____________________________
$ 60.00_____________________________
$ 6 2 .50_____________________________
$ 6 5 .00_____________________________
$ 67.50_____________________________
$ 70.00________________________ ____
$ 72.50________ ________ ________
$ 75.00_____________________________
$ 77.50_____________________________
$ 80.00_____________________________
$ 82.50 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ________ _
$ 85.00_____________________________
$ 87.50________ ____________________
$ 90 .0 0 _____________________________
$ 9 2 .50_ _________________________
$ 9 5 .00_____________________________
$ 97 .5 0 ____________ ______________
$ 100.00-------------------------------------

*

-

_
under $ 105.00__________________________
under $ 110.00___________________________
under $ 115.00__________________________
under $ 120.00 ___________________________________________
under $ 125.00 ---------------------------------------------------under $ 130.00 ___________________________________________
under $ 135.00 ---------------------------------------------------------1
under $ 140.00 ____________________________________________
under $ 145.00 ___________________________________________
o v e r ___________________________________________________________ -

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

1
1
3

1
1
1

1
1
1

-

2

2

32

XXX

42

XXX

E stablishm ents having no specified minimum----------------

21

9

XXX

12

XXX

44

12

E stablishm ents which did not employ w orkers
in this c a te g o ry ______________________ -________________

117

33

XXX

84

XXX

67

25

XXX




“

-

XXX

See footnotes at end of tables.

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

1
-

“

“




T a b le B -2 .

S h ift d iffe re n tia ls

(L a te - s h ift p ay p ro v is io n s fo r m an u fa ctu rin g p la n tw o rk e rs by type and am ount o f pay d iffe r e n tia l,
B irm in gh a m , A la ., M a rch 197 3)

P e rc e n t of m an u factu rin g p lan tw o rk e rs—
L a te - s h ift pay p ro v isio n

In e sta b lish m e n ts having p ro v isio n s 7
fo r la te sh ifts

A c tu a lly w orking on la te sh ifts

Second sh ift

T o ta l....

..

............

No pay d iffe re n tia l fo r w o rk on la te s h if t____
P a y d iffe re n tia l fo r w o rk on la te s h if t______

T h ird o r other
sh ift

Second sh ift

T h ird o r other
sh ift

88.1

81.6

20.0

8.0

8.0

3.7

1.5

0.5

80.1

78.0

18.5

7.5

76.6

69.4

18.1

7.1

.9
4.8
4.7
12.2
1.8
39.4
8.8
1.6
1.4

_
1.1
.9
1.8
2.3
3.6
2.9
13.9
.9
1.3
35.7
3.9
1.0

.1
1.0
.7
2.9
.6
10.7
1.5
.2
.3

.5
.1
(8)
(e)
.9
.3
(8)

Type and am ount of d iffe re n tia l:
U niform cents (per hour)
4 c e n t s _________________________
5 cents ______
6 c e n t s ___________ _______ _____
7 c e n t s ___________ _ . ________
_
8 cents
9 cents
10 c e n t s . ______
____ ..
12 cents
12 V? cents
....................
.......
13 cen ts .. .
14 ce n ts________________________
15 cents
, „
_
... ....................
16 cents
. . . _
20 ce n ts________________________ .

-

.9

-

.1

5.0
.1
.2

F o r m a l paid lunch p erio d ____________

3.5

2.5

.5

.3

F u ll d a y 's pay fo r red u ced h o u rs______

*

2.7

-

(8)

F u ll d a y 's pay fo r red u ced h ou rs
plus ce n ts d iffe re n tia l
.
..

See footnotes at end of tables.

3.4

.1

20

T a b le B -3 .

S c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u rs and d a y s

(P ercen t of p lan tw orkers and o fficew o rk ers in a ll in d u stries and in industry d ivisions by scheduled w eekly hours and days
of fir s t - s h ift w o r k e r s , B irm in gham , A la ., M arch 1973)
O fficew o rk ers

P lan tw orkers
W eekly hours and days

A ll w o rk ers — ___ ______ __ __ ___ ___
30 hours— 5 d a y s _______________________
35 hours— 5 d a y s _______________________
3 6 V4 hours— 5 d a y s _____________________
3 7 7 2 h o u rs ____________________________
5 days______________________________
6 d ays______________________________
3 8 hours— 5 d a y s ________________________
3 8 V4 hours— 5 d a y s ______________________
3 8 V4 hours— 5 d a y s ____ ______ ______
39Vio hours— 5 d a y s , - ____ ___ _______
40 h o urs------------------------------------- _ ---------4 days-----------------------------------------------------5 d ays--------------------- --- ------ ---------------5 V2 d ays-------------------------------------------------6 d ays________________ _____________
42 hours— 5Vz d a y s ______________ ____ —
4 2 V2 hours— 5 d a y s ______________________
---------------------------------44 hours------5 V2 days--- ------ -----------------------------------6 days______________________________
7 d ays______________________________
45 hours_______________________________
5 d ays_______________ ______________
5 V2 d ays-------------------------------------------------48 hours— 6 d a y s ________________________
50 hours— 5 d a y s _______________________




See footnote at end of ta b les.

A ll
in dustries

100
1
3
2
1
1
89
1
87
1
(9 )
1
(9)
1
(9 )
(9)
2
1
(9 )
2
1

Manu­
facturing

100

2
2
98
98
(9 )
(9)
-

W holesale
trade

R etail
trade

A ll
industries

Manu­
facturing

Public
u tilities

W holesale
trade

R etail
trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

2
2
91
91
6

68
68
3
5
5
20
16
5
3

13
4
4
75
5
65
3
3
3
1
1
5

42
42
58
58
-

92
92
8
2
7
-

Pu blic
u tilities

2
3
15
15
1
1
1
(’ )
75
75
(9 )
(9 )
(9 )
(9 )
1
(9)
1
(9 )

(9)
2
2
98
98
-

-

15
9
9
(9)
73
72
1
_
(9)
o
2
2
-

Finance

100

10
19
19
3
3
4
61
61
_
_
-

21

T a b le B -4 .

A n n u a l p a id h o lid a y s

(P ercen t of p lantw orkers and o fficew o rk ers in a ll in d u stries and in in d u stry d ivisio n s by num ber of paid h o lid ay s, Birm ingham * A la.* M arch 1973)
P lan tw orkers
Item

A ll w o rk ers_________________________
W orkers in establish m en ts providing
paid h o lid a y s ____-_____________________
W orkers in establish m en ts providing
no paid h o lid a y s—---------------------------------------

A ll
in dustries

Manu­
facturing

Public
u tilities

O ffice w orkers

W holesale
trade

R etail
trade

A ll
industries

Manu­
facturing

Public
u tilities

'W holesale
trade

R etail
trade

Finance

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

95

99

100

100

89

99

99

100

100

96

100

5

1

-

-

11

1

1

-

-

4

-

“
1
8
9
1
9
15
50
4
1
-

2
11
6
4
52

-

1
6
3
42
19
14
5

(9)

“
(9)
10
5
2
5
17
7
50
3
1
-

3
4
5
2
4
2
57
16
8

“
20
4
45
15
-

(9)
2
48
14
16
16
-

1
54
28
3
14
1
1

1
5
55
55
71
71
79
80
90
90
97
99
99
99
99

6
25
25
77
77
77
81
86
86
98
98
100
100
100

1
4
54
61
78
78
82
84
89
89
98
99
99
99
99

8
24
24
81
81
83
86
88
93
97
97
100
100
100

-

1
1
1
2
2
15
18
46
46
46
46
99
100
100
100
100

Number of days
1 holiday_______________________________

Zh o lid a y s ----------------------------------------------------

3 h o lid a y s ______________________________
4 h o lid a ys______________________________
5 h o lid a y s______________________________
5 holidays plus 1 half day_________________
6 h o lid a y s______________________________
6 holidays plus 1 half day_________________
7 h o lid a y s ---------------------------------------------------7 holidays plus 1 half day_________________
7 holidays plus 3 h alf d a y s ---------------------------8 h o lid a y s ---------------------------------------------------8 holidays plus 1 half day_________________
9 h o lid a y s______________________________
10 holid ays_____________________________
11 holid ays_____________________________
12 holid ays_____________________________

(9)
1
(’ )
2
15
(9)
14
1
9
15
33
3
1
-

19
6

23
1
45
9
5
9
8
-

-

1
1
32
1
7
1
14
1
(9)
21
1
16
2
1
(9 )

-

-

12
4
-

Total holiday tim e 10
12 d ays________________________________
11 days or m ore____________________ ___—
10 days or m ore_________________________
9 days or m o r e _________________________
8 Vi days or m o r e ________________________
8 days or m o r e _________________________
7 Vz days or m o r e -----------------------------------------

1
4
37
37
52
52

7 d a y s o r m o r e ________________________________________

61
62

6 l d a y s o r m o r e -------------------------- ----- ---/i
6 d a y s o r m o r e ---------------------------------------5
days or m o r e ----------------------------------------5 days or m o r e _________________________
4 days or m o r e --------------------------------------------3 days or m o r e _________________________
2 days or m o r e _________________________
1 day or m ore___________________________

l/
i

See footnotes at end of tables.




76
76
91
93
94
94
95

8
8
17
17
22
22
31
31
75
77
100
100
100
100
100

“
5
5
5
5
19
19
39
39
81
83
83
88

89

(9 )

1
3
19
21
42
43
57
58
65
66
98
98
99
99
99

4
4
16
16
16
16
31
31
76
80

100
100
100
100
100

16
16
16
16
31
31
45
45
93
95
95
95
96

T a b le B -4 a .

Id e n tific a tio n o f m a jo r p a id h o lid a y s

(P e rc e n t of p lan tw o rk ers and o ffic e w o rk e rs in a ll in d u stries and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by paid h o lid ay s,
B irm in gh a m , A la ., M a rch 1973)
P lan tw o rk e rs
H oliday

A ll w o rk e rs _________________________
New Y e a r 's D a y ______ _____ _ _ _____
_
W ashin gton's B irth d ay____________________
Good F r id a y ____________________________
E a s te r M onday_________________ _______
M e m o ria l Day
F o urth of July____________________ „ __
L a b o r Day__________________________
R osh H ashannah_________________________
Yom K ippur_____ _____________ _______
Colum bus D ay. . . _______________ _____
V e te ra n s Day_________ ____________ ___
T h a n k sgivin g Day
Day a fte r T h a n k sgivin g ___________________
C h ristm a s E v e__________________________
C h ris tm a s E v e , h alf day__________________
C h ris tm a s D ay___ ______________________
E x tra day during C h ristm a s w eek___________
New Y e a r 's E ve _ ... __
New Y e a r 's F v e . h alf day
F lo atin g h o lid ay. 1 day 12...........
..................
F lo atin g h o lid ay, 4 d ays 12
E m p lo y e e 's b ir th d a y _____________________




See footnotes at end of tables.

A ll
in d u stries

100
93
3
43
(9)
54
93
92
1
1
1
8
94
43
48
1
94
2
4
3
1
14

O ffice w o rk e rs

P u blic
u tilitie s

W holesale
trad e

R e tail
trade

A ll
in d u stries

Manu­
factu rin g

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

97
1
66

100
22
34

100

83

99

J00

95

100

-

-

21

-

75
99
99

63
98
98

100
14
60
(9)
69
97
97

-

“

Manu­
factu rin g

"

1
3
99
70
69
1
99
3
5

6
57
100
2
31
4
92

-

-

2

-

13
7
26
100
100

-

8
11

-

38

~

7
100
21
53
1
100
7

-

6

3

5

83
78
6
6

17

99
4
33
(’ )
38
99
97
(9)
(9)
2

83
4
6
-

89
2

5
26

17
99
24
40
3
99
7
2
1
5
2
8

"

65
“

67
99
99

Pu blic
u tilitie s

W holesale
trade

12
3
22
100
100

-

1
4
99
80
69
2
99
11
9
7
2
“

2

-

-

( 9)

8
75
100
6
21
8
98

-

3
100
15
70
4
100

-

2

-

3
12

F inane e

5
-

1
95
92
3
3

23
100
97

-

1
4
100
5
37
3
100
12

-

95
12
-

96
2
-

-

-

7
19

R etail
trade

-

-

4
16
24

-

23

T a b le B -5 .

P a id v a c a tio n s

(P ercen t of p lan tw o rkers and o ffic e w o rk e rs in a ll in d u stries and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by vacation pay p ro v is io n s , B irm in gh a m , A la ., M arch 1973)
P lan tw o rk e rs
V acatio n p olicy

A ll w o r k e r s _________________________

A ll
in d u stries

Manu­
facturing

Pu blic
u tilitie s

O ffice w o rk e rs
W holesale
trade

R etail
trade

A ll
in d u stries

Manu­
factu rin g

Pu blic
u tilitie s

•W holesale
trade

R etail
trade

Finance

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
95
3
1

100
95
5
.

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
95
5

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
14

8
13
-

5
27
-

13
7

10
12
-

26
3

13
9
-

1
64
10

-

-

-

5
62
2
4

55
-

-

7
49
4
1

*

-

-

-

1
81
2
15
-

93
1
5
-

39
12
49
-

71
29
-

3
75
22
-

-

-

-

-

-

62
1
34
1
1

83
2
14
1

12
76
12

41
59
-

36
64
-

-

-

-

20
73
3
3

23
71
3
2

85
12
3

24
76

23
71

17
76
3
3

19
75
3
2

85
12
3

8
81
2
7
1

8
84
1
6

83
12
5

-

-

-

“

“

Method of paym ent
W o rk ers in esta b lish m en ts providing
paid v a c a tio n s ___________ _____________
L en g th -o f-tim e paym ent________________
P ercen ta g e p aym en t--------------------------------Othe r _______________________________
W o rk ers in esta b lish m en ts providing
no paid v a c a tio n s _______________________
Am ount of vacation pay 13
A fte r 6 m onths of s e r v ic e
Under 1 w e e k ___________________________
1 w e e k _________________________________
O v er 1 and under 2 w eek s_________________
2 w eek s________________________________

(9 )

_

_

_

A fte r 1 y e a r of s e r v ic e
Under 1 w e e k ________________________
1 w e e k . __________________
__________
O v er 1 and under 2 w eek s_________________
2 w eek s____________________________ __
O v er 2 and under 3 w eek s_________________
3 w eek s________________________________

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_
99
1

29
71
-

47
53
-

68
32
-

1.

21
1
73
2
2

-

-

-

9
89
1
1

15
79
4
2

10
90
-

12
88
-

21
79
-

-

-

-

99
1

3
94
1
2

7
86
4
4

99

25
(9 )

73

(9 )

A fte r 2 y e a rs of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _________________________________
O v er 1 and under 2 w eek s_________________
2 w eek s________________________________
O v er 2 and under 3 w eek s_________________
3 w eek s________________________________

_

A fte r 3 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------2 w eek s________________________________
O v er 2 and under 3 w eek s_________________
3 w eek s________________________________

_

-

-

-

6

20
80

23
71

-

-

-

6

_

_

6
94

13
87

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

1

4
96

13
87

99

100

A fte r 4 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _________________________________
2 w eek s________________________________
O v er 2 and under 3 w eek s_________________
3 w eek s________________________________

_

3

7

95
1
2

86
4
4

2
86
4
8

6
84
4

_
100

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

A fte r 5 y e a rs of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _________________________________
2 w eek s________________________________
O v er 2 and under 3 w eek s_________________
3 w eek s________________________________
4 w eek s________________________________
5 w eek s________________________________

“
'

See footnotes at end of t a b l e s ,




_

_
97

13
69

-

-

3

13
6

(9 )
1

_

_

_

99

94

3
90

-

-

-

5

1

6

7

78
8
14

1

-

-

-

-

'

'

'

'

'

T a b le B -5 .

P a i d v a c a t i o n s ------C o n t i n u e d

(P ercen t of p lan tw o rk ers and o ffic e w o rk e rs in a ll in d u strie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by vacation pay p ro v is io n s , B irm in gh am , A la ., M arch 1973)
P la n tw o rk e rs
V acatio n p o licy

A ll
in d u stries

Manu­
factu rin g

P u blic
u tilitie s

O ffice w o rk e rs
W holesale
trad e

R etail
trade

A ll
in d u stries

M anu­
factu rin g

P u blic
u tilitie s

W holesale
trade

R e tail
trade

F inane e

A m ount of vacation pay 13— Continued
A fte r 10 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _________________________________
2 w eek s ________________________________
3 w eek s________________________________
O v er 3 and under 4 w eek s_________________
4 w e e k s___ __________________________ _
O v er 4 and under 5 w e e k s _________________
5 w eek s___ ___ _____________________ ____

_

_

_

_

_

7
22
63
2
4
-

8
18
68
1
4
-

6
79
12
3
-

56
42
3
-

13
30
52
6
-

2
40
56
1
1
(9 )
1

6
23
65
4
1
1
-

10
90
-

61
33
6
-

2
37
61
-

57
43
-

7
19
66
2
4
-

8
13
74
1
4
-

_
6
79
12
3
-

_
56
42
3
"

13
30
52
6
-

2
23
4
68
1
1
(9 )
1

6
17
71
4
1
1
-

10
90
-

61
33
6
-

2
37
61
-

13
12
74
*

7
11
64
2
10
2
1

8
5
72
4
8
1
2

6
68
14
12
-

26
64
10
-

13
26
44
17
-

2
18
68
2
9
1
1

6
13
59
8
12
2
-

10
74
16
-

15
73
13
-

2
32
62
4
-

13
81
1
5
-

7
11
37
37
3
2

8
5
44
36
3
2

_
6
2
80
12
-

13
26
25
32
4

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

6
13
12
62
4
2
1
-

15
56
22
7

1

2
18
30
4
43
1
3
(9 )
-

_
10
2
83
5

-

_
22
52
22
4
-

-

-

-

_
13
55
12
20
-

7
11
18
43

8
5
13
53
1
16

_
6
2
32
17
44
-

_
22
43
31
4
-

13
26
25
32
4
-

2
18
24
39
1
16

6
13
12
47
4
18
1

_
10
2
22
65
-

15
46
32
-

2
32
26
40
-

_
13
39
47
1
-

A fte r 12 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek _______________ __________ ___
2 w e e k s ________________________________
O v er 2 and under 3 w e e k s _________________
3 w eek s________________________________
O v er 3 and under 4 w e e k s _____________
4 w e e k s------------------------------------ -----------------O v er 4 and under 5 w eek s________________
5 w eek s________________________________
A fte r 15 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _________________________________
2 w eek s________________________________
3 w eek s________________________________
O v er 3 and under 4 w e e k s _________________
4 w e e k s ________________________________
O v er 4 and under 5 w eek s_________________
5 w eek s_______________________ ______

_

_

_

_

_

A fte r 20 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _________________________________
2 w eek s________________________________
3 w eek s________________________________
O v er 3 and under 4 w eek s__________ _____
4 w e e k s ________________________________
O v er 4 and under 5 w eek s_________________
5 w e e k s _________________________ _______
O v er 5 and under 6 w eek s_________________
6 w eek s________________________________

-

-

2
32
26
40
-

A fte r 25 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek ________________________________
2 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s________________________________
4 w e e k s ________________________________
O v e r 4 and under 5 w e e k s ________________
5 w eek s________________________________
O v er 5 and under 6 w eek s_________________
6 w eek s________________________________




See footnotes at end of ta b les.

3

15
1
1

2
2

(9 )

7

-

25

T a b le B -5 .

P a i d v a c a t i o n s ------C o n t i n u e d

(P ercen t of plan tw orkers and o fficew o rk ers in a ll in d u stries and in in dustry d ivisio n s by vacation pay p ro v isio n s, B irm in gham , A la ., M arch 1973)
P lan tw orkers
Vacation policy

A ll
in d ustries

Manu­
facturing

Public
u tilities

O fficew o rk ers
W holesale
trade

R etail
trade

A ll
industries

Manu­
facturing

Public
u tilitie s

'W holesale
trade

R etail
trade

Finance

2
32
26
40
_

13
39
40

Amount of vacation pay 13— Continued
A fte r 30 y e a rs of s e rv ic e
1 w e e k ________________________________
2 w eek s_______________________________
3 w eek s_______________________________
4 w eeks_______________________________
O ver 4 and under 5 w eek s_________________
5 w eek s_______________________________
O ver 5 and under 6 w eek s_________________
O ver 6 w eeks _

7
11
18
40
2
18
1
1

8
5
13
53
1
16
2
2

7
11
18
40
2
19
1
1

8
5
13
53
1
16
2
2

_
6
2
16
12
65
-

-

_
22
43
18
17
.
-

13
26
25
32
-

4
-

2
18
24
32
1
24
(9 )

-

6
13
12
47
4
18
1
-

_
10
2
8

_
15
46
23

-

-

80

16
-

_

-

_
_

-

7

_

_

-

-

2
32
26
40

13
39
39

-

-

M axim um vacation availab le
1 week _______________________________
2 w eek s_______________________________
3 w eek s______ _______________________
4 w eek s______________________ _______
O ver 4 and under 5 w eeks_________________
5 w eek s_______________________________
O ver 5 and under 6 w eek s_________________
O ver 6 w eeks ____________________ ___

S ee fo o tn o te s

at end o f ta b le s .




_
6
2
10

_
22
43
18

13
26
25
32

-

.

-

12
70

17

4

-

-

2
18
24
32
1
24
(9 )
(9)

6
13
12
47
4
18
1

_
10
2
8

_
15
46
23

_

-

-

80

16

-

8

-

-

-

-

1




T a b le B -6 .

H e a lth , in s u ra n c e , a n d p e n s io n p la n s

(P e r c e n t of p la n tw o rk e rs and o ffic e w o rk e rs in a l l in d u s trie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s em p lo yed in e s ta b lis h m e n ts pro vid in g
h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , or p en sio n b e n e fits, B irm in g h a m , A la ., M a rch 1 7 )
93

T ype of b en efit and
fin an cin g 1
4

A ll w o rk e r s _____________________________
W o rk ers in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g at
le a s t 1of the b en efits shown b e lo w _________
L ife in s u r a n c e ___________________________
N o ncon tributory p la n s _________________
A cc id e n ta l d eath and d ism e m b erm en t
in s u r a n c e _______________________________
N o ncon tributory p lan s
S ic k n e ss and a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e or
s ic k le a v e or both 1_____________________
5
S ic k n e ss and a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e
N o ncon tributory p la n s ______________
S ic k le a v e (fu ll p a y and no
w aitin g p erio d )
S ic k le a v e ( p a r t ia l p ay or
w a itin g p erio d )_______________________
L o n g -te rm d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e _ ,________
_
N o ncon tributory p la n s ________ j._______
H o sp italiza tio n in s u ra n c e
... l
.
N o ncon tributory plan s
S u r g ic a l in s u ra n c e
N o ncon tributory p la n s _________________
M e d ic a l in s u ra n c e
N o ncon tributory p lan s
M a jo r m e d ic a l in s u ra n c e
N o ncon tributory p l a n s ................................
D ental in s u ra n c e
_
N o ncon tributory p la n s _____________
R e tire m e n t pensionN o ncon tributory p la n s

See footnotes at end of ta b le s .

P la n tw o rk e rs
A ll
in d u strie s

M anu­
fa ctu rin g

P u b lic
u tilitie s

10
0

10
0

10
0

9
2
8
8
6
8
6
0
4
6
7
6
6
3
5
2
1
7
1
1
2
2
1
6
8
8
6
2
8
8
6
2
8
4
5
9
7
6
5
4
2
2
6
6
5
8

9
4
9
3
8
1
6
0
5
4
8
8
8
4
7
6
1
5
7
2
3
1
7
9
3
7
8
9
3
7
8
8
8
7
4
8
1
6
8
2
2
7
4
6
9

10
0
8
3
7
3
5
9
7
7
3
3
1
8
1
5
3
7
3
4
3
4
10
0
6
3
10
0
6
3
9
6
5
9
7
3
4
1
6
6
7
1
6
5

Offi ce wo rk e r s
P u blic
u tilitie s

W ho lesale
tra d e

R e ta il
tra d e

A ll
in d u strie s

M anu­
fa ctu rin g

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

9
9
8
8
4
0
7
1
3
1
6
7
5
3
2
7
2
6

8
6
7
5
3
4
5
5
2
4
5
9
3
2
1
9
2
1
1
5
1
6
4
7
1
2
6
7
1
2
6
6
6
2
6
6
2
2
9
3
4
9
3
6

9
8
9
6
6
2
5
8
4
1
7
8
3
3
2
5
5
3
1
3
4
0
3
0
8
6
5
3
8
6
5
3
8
3
5
2
9
1
5
9
1
1
7
4
6
3

9
5
9
4
8
9
6
8
6
6
8
4
7
6
7
4
5
0
2
3
4
3
1
9
3
7
6
9
3
7
6
9
2
7
5
9
1
7
4
3
3
7
6
7
0

10
0
10
0
8
8
7
4
6
7
8
3
8
7
3
6
4
3
5
1
5
0
10
0
6
7
10
0
6
7
9
6
6
4
9
3
6
1

2
8
2
5
9
8
4
6
9
8
4
6
9
8
4
6
9
3
4
2
-

-

5
8
3
8

-

-

7
3
7
2

W h o lesale
tra d e

R e ta il
tra d e

F inance

10
0

10
0

10
0

9
9
9
3
2
9
7
2
2
9
5
6
3
1
1
8
3
1
1
2
4
0
2
3
9
4
3
7
9
4
3
7
9
2
3
5
8
1
2
3

9
3
8
8
2
7
4
9
7
7
4
2
8
9
2
5
3
5
1
2
2
8
0
1
4
8
0
1
4
6
4
1
4
6
6
1
6
2
5
6
3
2

10
0
10
0
5
9
5
4
3
4
9
3
2
7
1
6
8
8
1
4
1
2
2
8
5
5
0
8
5
5
0
8
5
5
0
10
0
6
5

_

5
8
3
5

-

-

-

8
1
6
9

F o o tn o te s
A ll

of t h e s e

standard

footnotes

m ay

not

apply

to th is

bulletin.

1
S t a n d a r d h o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h i c h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s ( e x c l u s i v e of p a y f o r o v e r t i m e
r e g u l a r a n d / o r p r e m i u m r a t e s ) , a n d th e e a r n i n g s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s e w e e k l y h o u r s .
2
T h e m e a n i s c o m p u t e d f o r e a c h j o b b y t o t a l i n g th e e a r n i n g s of a l l w o r k e r s a n d d i v i d i n g b y th e n u m b e r
of w o r k e r s .
The m edian
d e s i g n a t e s p o s i t i o n — h a l f o f th e e m p l o y e e s s u r v e y e d r e c e i v e m o r e t h a n th e r a t e s h o w n ; h a l f r e c e i v e l e s s t h a n th e r a t e s h o w n .
The m id d le
r a n g e i s d e f i n e d b y 2 r a t e s of p a y ; a f o u r t h o f th e w o r k e r s e a r n l e s s t h a n th e l o w e r o f t h e s e r a t e s a n d a f o u r t h e a r n m o r e t h a n th e h i g h e r r a t e .
3
E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , a n d l a t e s h i f t s .
4
T h e s e s a l a r i e s r e l a t e to f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d m i n i m u m
startin g (h irin g ) r e g u la r
straigh t-tim e
s a l a r i e s th a t a r e p a i d f o r s t a n d a r d
w orkw eeks.
5
E x c l u d e s w o r k e r s in s u b c l e r i c a l j o b s s u c h a s m e s s e n g e r .
6
D a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l s t a n d a r d w o r k w e e k s c o m b i n e d , a n d f o r th e m o s t c o m m o n s t a n d a r d w o r k w e e k s r e p o r t e d .
7
I n c l u d e s a l l p l a n t w o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g la t e s h i f t s , a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h o s e f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r late
s h i f t s , e v e n t h o u g h th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w e r e n o t c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g l a t e s h i f t s .
8
L e s s th an 0.05 p e r c e n t .
9
L e s s th an 0.5 p e r c e n t .
1
0 A l l c o m b i n a t i o n s of f u l l a n d h a l f d a y s th a t a d d t o th e s a m e a m o u n t a r e c o m b i n e d ; f o r e x a m p l e , th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g a
t o t a l of 9 d a y s i n c l u d e s t h o s e w i t h 9 f u l l d a y s a n d n o h a l f d a y s , 8 f u l l d a y s a n d 2 h a l f d a y s , 7 f u l l d a y s a n d 4 h a l f d a y s , a n d s o on.
Proportions
then w e r e c u m u la te d .
1
1 T h e s e d a y s a r e p r o v i d e d a s p a r t o f a C h r i s t m a s —N e w Y e a r h o l i d a y p e r i o d w h i c h t y p i c a l l y b e g i n s w i t h C h r i s t m a s E v e a n d e n d s w i t h
N e w Y e a r 's Day.
S u c h a h o l i d a y p e r i o d i s c o m m o n in the a u t o m o b i l e , a e r o s p a c e , a n d f a r m i m p l e m e n t i n d u s t r i e s .
B e c a u s e of y e a r - t o - y e a r
v a r i a t i o n in th e n u m b e r o f w o r k d a y s d u r i n g th e p e r i o d , p a y f o r a S u n d a y i n D e c e m b e r , f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o a s a " b o n u s h o l i d a y , " m a y b e
p r o v i d e d to e q u a l i z e e a c h y e a r ' s t o t a l h o l i d a y p a y .
1
2 " F l o a t i n g " h o l i d a y s v a r y f r o m y e a r to y e a r a c c o r d i n g to e m p l o y e r o r e m p l o y e e c h o i c e .
1
3 I n c l u d e s p a y m e n t s o t h e r t h a n " l e n g t h o f t i m e , " s u c h a s p e r c e n t a g e o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s o r f l a t - s u m p a y m e n t s , c o n v e r t e d to a n e q u i v a l e n t
t i m e b a s i s ; f o r e x a m p l e , 2 p e r c e n t of a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 w e e k ' s p a y .
P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e a r e c h o s e n a r b i t r a r i l y a n d d o not
n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n ; f o r e x a m p l e , c h a n g e s in p r o p o r t i o n s at 10 y e a r s i n c l u d e c h a n g e s b e t w e e n 5 a n d 10
years.
E s tim a te s a r e c u m ulative.
T h u s , th e p r o p o r t i o n e l i g i b l e f o r a t l e a s t 3 w e e k s ' p a y a f t e r 10 y e a r s i n c l u d e s t h o s e e l i g i b l e f o r a t l e a s t 3
w e e k s ' p a y a ft e r f e w e r y e a r s of s e r v i c e .
1
4 E s t i m a t e s l i s t e d a f t e r t y p e o f b e n e f i t a r e f o r a l l p l a n s f o r w h i c h a t l e a s t a p a r t o f th e c o s t i s b o r n e b y th e e m p l o y e r . " N o n c o n t r i b u t o r y
p l a n s " i n c l u d e o n l y t h o s e f i n a n c e d e n t i r e l y b y th e e m p l o y e r .
E x c lu d e d a r e le g a lly r e q u ir e d p lan s, such as w o r k m e n 's com p en satio n, so cial
se c u rity , and r a i lr o a d r e tire m e n t.
1
U n d u p lic a t e d to tal of w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s i c k le a v e or s i c k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y b e lo w .
Sick le a v e p lan s a r e
l i m i t e d t o t h o s e w h i c h d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h a t l e a s t t h e m i n i m u m n u m b e r of d a y s ' p a y th a t e a c h e m p l o y e e c a n e x p e c t .
In fo rm al sick leave
a l l o w a n c e s d e t e r m i n e d on a n i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s a r e e x c l u d e d .
at







.

A p p e n d ix . O c c u p a tio n a l D e s c r ip tio n s
The p rim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the B u reau 's wage surveys is to a s s is t its field staff in classify in g into appropriate
occupations w orkers who are employed under a variety of payroll title s and different work arrangem ents from establishm ent to establishm ent and
from are a to a re a . This p erm its the grouping of occupational wage rate s representing com parable job content. B ecau se of this em phasis on
interestablishm ent and in terare a com parability of occupational content, the B u reau 's job d escriptions m ay differ significantly from those in use in
individual establishm ents or those prepared for other p urp oses. In applying these job d escrip tion s, the B u reau 's field econom ists a re instructed
to exclude working su p e rv iso rs; apprentices; le arn e rs; beginners; train e es; and handicapped, p art-tim e, tem porary, and probationary w orkers.

O F F IC E
C LER K , ACCOUNTING— Continued

B IL L E R , MACHINE

P osition s a re c la ssifie d into levels on the b a sis of the following definitions.
C la ss A. Under general supervision, p erform s accounting cle ric al operations which
require the application of experience and judgment, for exam ple, cle rically processing com ­
plicated or nonrepetitive accounting tran saction s, selecting among a substantial variety of
p rescrib ed accounting codes and c la ssifica tio n s, or tracin g tran saction s through previous
accounting actions to determ ine source of d iscre p an cies. May be a ssiste d by one or m ore
c la ss B accounting c le rk s.
C la ss B . Under close supervision, following detailed instructions and standardized p ro­
cedu res, p erform s one or m ore routine accounting c le rical operations, such as posting to
le d g e rs, c a rd s, or w orksheets where identification of item s and locations of postings are
cle arly indicated; checking accu racy and com pleteness of standardized and repetitive record s
or accounting documents; and coding documents using a few p rescribed accounting codes.

P re p a re s statem ents, b ills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep reco rd s as to billings or shipping charges or perform other
cle rical work incidental to billing operations. F o r wage study p urp oses, b ille rs, m achine, are
c la ssifie d by type of machine, as follows:
B iller, machine (billing m achine). U ses a sp ecial billing machine (combination typing
and adding machine) to p rep are bills and invoices from cu sto m ers' purchase o rd e rs, in ter­
nally prepared o rd e rs, shipping m em orandum s, etc. U sually involves application of p r e ­
determined discounts and shipping charges and entry of n ec e ssa ry extensions, which m ay or
m ay not be computed on the billing machine, and totals which are autom atically accum ulated
by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of the bill being
prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
B iller, machine (bookkeeping m achine). U ses a bookkeeping machine (with or without
a typew riter keyboard) to prepare custo m ers' bills as part of the accounts receivable o p e ra­
tion. G enerally involves the sim ultaneous entry of figu res on cu stom ers' ledger record . The
machine autom atically accum ulates figu res on a number of v ertical columns and computes
and usually prints autom atically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sale s and credit slip s.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
O perates a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record
of bu sin ess tran saction s.
C la ss A. Keeps a set of reco rd s requiring a knowledge of and experience in basic
bookkeeping p rin cip les, and fam iliarity with the structure of the p articu lar accounting system
used. Determ ines proper reco rd s and distribution of debit and cred it item s to be used in each
phase of the work. May p rep are consolidated rep o rts, balance sheets, and other record s
by hand.
C la ss B. Keeps a record of one or m ore ph ases or sections of a set of record s usually
requiring little knowledge of b asic bookkeeping. P h ases or sections include accounts payable,
payroll, cu sto m ers' accounts (not including a sim ple type of billing described under b iller,
m achine), cost distribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or a s s is t
in preparation of trial balances and p rep are control sheets for the accounting departm ent.
C LE R K , ACCOUNTING
P erfo rm s one or m ore accounting c le ric al task s such as posting to r e g iste rs and le d g e rs;
reconciling bank accounts; verifying the internal consistency, com pleteness, and m athem atical
accu racy of accounting docum ents; assignin g p rescrib ed accounting distribution codes; examining
and verifying for c le ric al accuracy various types of rep o rts, lis t s , calculations, posting, etc.;
or preparing sim ple or a ssistin g in preparing m ore com plicated journal vouchers. May work
in either a manual or automated accounting system .
The work req u ires a knowledge of c le ric al methods and office p ractices and procedures
which relate s to the c le ric al p ro cessin g and recording of tran saction s and accounting information.
With experience, the worker typically becom es fam iliar with the bookkeeping and accounting term s
and procedures used in the assign ed work, but is not required to have a knowledge of the form al
principles of bookkeeping and accounting.




C LER K , F IL E
F ile s, c la ss ifie s , and retriev es m aterial in an established filing system . May perform
cle ric al and m anual task s required to m aintain file s. Positions are cla ssifie d into levels on the
b a sis of the following definitions.
C la ss A . C la s sifie s and indexes file m aterial such as correspondence, rep orts, tech­
nical documents, e tc., in an established filing system containing a number of varied subject
m atter file s. May also file this m ate rial. May keep record s of various types in conjunction
with the file s. May lead a sm all group of lower level file cle rk s.
C la ss B . S o rts, codes, and file s un classified m aterial by sim ple (subject m atter) head­
ings or partly c la ssifie d m ate rial by finer subheadings. P re p are s sim ple related index and
c r o ss-re fe re n c e aid s. As requested, locates clearly identified m aterial in files and fo r­
w ards m ate rial. May perform related cle ric al task s required to maintain and service files.
C la ss C . P erform s routine filing of m ate rial that has already been c la ssifie d or which
is e asily c la ssifie d in a sim ple se r ia l classificatio n system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological,
or num erical). As requested, locates readily available m ate rial in files and forw ards m a ­
te ria l; and m ay fill out withdrawal charge. May perform sim ple cle ric al and manual task s
required to m aintain and service files.
C LE R K , ORDER
R eceives cu stom ers' o rd e rs for m aterial or m erchandise by m ail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the following: Quoting p rices to custom ers; making out an order
sheet listing the item s to make up the o rder; checking p rices and quantities of item s on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departm ents to be filled. May check with credit
departm ent to determ ine credit rating o{ custom er, acknowledge receipt of o rd ers from custom ers,
follow up o rd e rs to see that they have been filled, keep file of o rd ers received, and check shipping
invoices with original o rd e rs.
C LER K , PAYROLL
Computes wages of company em ployees and enters the n ece ssa ry data on the payroll
sh eets. Duties involve: Calculating w orkers' earnings based on time or production record s; and
posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such a s w ork er's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and
a s s is t pay m aster in m aking up and distributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

NOTE: Since the la st survey in this a re a , the Bureau has (1) discontinued collecting data for Com ptometer o p e rato rs, (2) changed
the electro n ics technicians c lassificatio n from a single level to a three level job, and (3) begun collecting data for warehousemen.

29

30
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR

SECRETARY— Continued

O perates a keypunch m achine to record or verify alphabetic and/or num eric data on
tabulating c a rd s or on tape.

NOTE; The term "corp orate o fficer, " used in the level definitions following, r e fe r s to
those officials who have a significant corporate-w ide policym aking role with regard to m ajor
company activ ities. The title "vice p re sid e n t," though norm ally indicative of this role, does not
in all c a se s identify such positions. Vice p residen ts whose p rim ary respon sibility is to act p e r ­
sonally on individual c a se s or tran saction s (e.g ., approve or deny individual loan or cred it actions;
adm in ister individual tru st accounts; directly sup ervise a c le ric a l staff) a re not considered to be
"corp orate o ffic e r s" for purposes of applying the following level definitions.

P osition s a re c la ssifie d into lev els on the b a sis of the following definitions.
C la ss A. Work req u ires the application of experience and judgment in selecting p ro ce ­
dures to be followed and in searching fo r, interpreting, selecting, or coding item s to be
keypunched from a variety of source docum ents. On occasion m ay a lso perform some routine
keypunch work. May train inexperienced keypunch op erators.
C la ss B . Work is routine and repetitive. Under clo se supervision or following specific
p roced ures or in struction s, works from v ariou s standardized source documents which have
been coded, and follows specified procedures which have been p rescrib e d in detail and require
little or no selectin g, coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. R e fe rs to su p ervisor
problem s a risin g from erroneous item s or codes or m issin g inform ation.
MESSENGER (Office Boy or Girl)
P erfo rm s v ariou s routine duties such a s running e rran d s, operating m inor office m a ­
chines such a s s e a le r s or m a ile r s, opening and distributing m ail, and other m inor c le ric a l work.
Exclude positions that require operation of a m otor vehicle as a significant duty.
SECRETARY
A ssigned a s p erso n al se c r e ta r y , norm ally to one individual. Maintains a close and highly
respon sive relationship to the day-to-day work of the su p e rv iso r. Works fa irly independently r e ­
ceiving a minim um of detailed supervision and guidance. P erform s varied c le r ic a l and s e c r e ta r ia l
duties, usually including m o st of the following:
a. R eceives telephone c a lls , p erson al c a lle r s , and incoming m ail, answ ers routine
in q uires, and routes technical in quiries to the proper p erson s;
b.

E sta b lish e s, m ain tain s, and re v ise s the su p e rv iso r's files;

c.

M aintains the su p e rv iso r's calendar and m akes appointments as instructed;

d.

R elays m e ssa g e s from su p e rv iso r to subordinates;

e. Reviews correspondence, m em orandum s, and reports prepared by others for the
su p e rv iso r 's signature to a ssu r e procedural and typographic accu racy;
f.

P erfo rm s stenographic and typing work.

May a lso perform other c le r ic a l and se c r e ta r ia l ta sk s of com parable nature and difficulty.
The work typically req u ires knowledge of office routine and understanding of the organization,
p ro g ra m s, and p roced ures related to the work of the su p ervisor.
Exclusions
Not a ll positions that are titled "s e c re ta r y " p o s s e s s the above c h a ra c te ristic s. E xam ples
of positions which are excluded from the definition are a s follows:
a.

P osition s which do not m eet the "p e rso n al" secre tary concept d escribed above;

b.

Stenographers not fully trained in se c r e ta r ia l type duties;

c. Stenographers servin g a s office a ss is ta n ts to a group of p ro fe ssio n al, technical, or
m an agerial p erso n s;
d. S e c re ta ry positions in which the duties a re either substantially m ore routine or
substantially m ore com plex and respon sible than those ch aracterized in the definition;
e. A ssista n t type positions which involve m ore difficult or m ore respon sible tech­
n ical, adm in istrativ e, su p erv iso ry , or sp ecialized cle ric al duties which are not typical of
s e c r e ta r ia l work.




ClassA
1. S ecre tary to the chairm an of the board or p residen t of a company that em ploys, in
a ll, over 100 but fewer than 5,000 p e rso n s; or
2. S ecre tary to a corporate officer (other than the chairm an of the board or president)
of a company that em ploys, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000 p e rso n s; or
3. S ecre tary to the head, im m ediately below the corporate officer level, of a m ajor
segm ent or su bsid iary of a company that em ploys, in a ll, over 25,000 p e rso n s.
C la ss B
1. S ecre tary to the chairm an of the board or p residen t of a company that em ploys, in
a ll, fewer than 100 p e rso n s; or
2. S ecre tary to a corporate officer (other than the chairm an of the board or president)
of a company that em ploys, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000 p e rso n s; or
3. S ecre tary to the head, im m ediately below the officer level, over either a m ajor
corporate-w ide functional activity (e.g ., m arketing, re se arch , operations, in dustrial r e la ­
tion s, etc.) or a m ajo r geographic or organizational segm ent (e.g ., a regional headquarters;
a m ajor division) of a company that em ploys, in a ll, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000
em ployees; or
4. S ecre ta ry to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level
of official) that em ploys, in a ll, over 5,000 p e rso n s; or
5. S ecre tary to the head of a la rg e and im portant organizational segm ent (e.g ., a middle
m anagem ent su p erv iso r of an organizational segm ent often involving as many a s sev e ral
hundred person s) or a company that em ploys, in a ll, over 25,000 p e rso n s.
C la ss C
1. S ecre tary to an executive or m an agerial person whose resp on sibility is not equivalent
to one of the sp ecific level situations in the definition for c la s s B, but whose organizational
unit norm ally num bers at le a st sev e ral dozen em ployees and is usually divided into o rg an iza­
tional segm ents which a re often, in turn, further subdivided. In som e com panies, this level
includes a wide range of organizational echelons; in oth ers, only one or two; or
2. S ecre tary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc*, (or other equivalent level
of official) that em ploys, in a ll, few er than 5,000 p e rso n s.
C la ss D
1. S ecre ta ry to the su p e rv iso r or head of a sm all organizational unit (e.g ., fewer than
about 25 or 30 p erson s); jor
2. S ecre tary to a n onsupervisory staff sp e c ia list, p rofession al employee, ad m in istra­
tive o fficer, or a ssista n t, skilled technician or expert. (NOTE: Many com panies assig n
sten ographers, rather than se c r e ta r ie s as d escribed above, to this level of su p ervisory or
n onsupervisory w orker.)
STENOGRAPHER
P rim ary duty i s to take dictation using shorthand, and to tran scrib e the dictation. May
a lso type from written copy. May operate from a stenographic pool. May occasion ally tran scrib e
from voice recordings (if p rim ary duty is tran scrib in g from record in gs, see Transcribing-M achine
O perator, G eneral).
NO TE: This job is distinguished from that of a se c re ta ry in that a se cre tary norm ally
works in a confidential relationship with only one m anager or executive and perform s m ore
respon sible and d iscretion ary task s a s d escribed in the se c re ta ry job definition.
Stenographer, General
Dictation involves a norm al routine vocabulary. May m aintain file s , keep sim ple re c o rd s,
or perform other relatively routine c le ric a l ta sk s.

31
STENOGRAPHER—Continued

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (Electric Accounting Machine Operator)—Continued

Stenographer, Senior
Dictation involves a varied technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such a s in legal briefs
or reports on scientific rese arc h . May also set up and m aintain file s, keep reco rd s, etc.
OR
P erfo rm s stenographic duties requiring significantly g rea ter independence and resp on ­
sibility than stenographer, general, as evidenced by the following: Work requ ires a high
degree of stenographic speed and accu racy; a thorough working knowledge of general bu sin ess
and office procedure; and of the specific bu sin ess operations, organization, p o licie s, p ro ce ­
d ures, file s, workflow, etc. U ses this knowledge in perform ing stenographic duties and
responsible c le ric al task s such as m aintaining followup file s; assem bling m aterial for rep orts,
m em orandum s, and le tte rs; composing sim ple le tters from general instructions; reading and
routing incoming m ail; and answering routine questions, etc.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
C la ss A . O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard handling incoming,
outgoing, intraplant or office c a lls. P erfo rm s full telephone information serv ice or handles
complex c a lls, such as conference, collect, o v e rse a s, or sim ilar c a lls , either in addition to
doing routine work as described for switchboard op erator, c la ss B, or a s a full-tim e
assignm ent. ("F u ll" telephone information serv ice occurs when the establishm ent has varied
functions that are not readily understandable for telephone information p urposes, e .g ., because
of overlapping or in terrelated functions, and consequently present frequent problem s as to
which extensions are appropriate for c a lls.)
C la ss B . O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard handling incoming,
outgoing, intraplant or office c a lls. May handle routine long distance calls and record tolls.
May perform lim ited telephone information serv ic e . ("L im ited " telephone information service
occurs if the functions of the establishm ent serviced are readily understandable for telephone
information p urp o ses, or if the requ ests are routine, e.g ., giving extension num bers when
specific names are furnished, or if com plex c alls are referre d to another operator.)
These c la ssific a tio n s do not include switchboard o p erato rs in telephone com panies who
a s s is t custom ers in placing c a lls.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to perform ing duties of operator on a single-position or m onitor-type switch­
board, acts as receptionist and m ay also type or perform routine c le ric al work as part of regu lar
duties. This typing or c le ric al work m ay take the m ajor part of this w orker's tim e while at
switchboard.
TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (E lectric Accounting Machine Operator)
O perates one or a variety of m achines such as the tabulator, calculator, collator, in ter­
p reter, so rte r, reproducing punch, etc. Excluded from this definition are working su p e rv iso rs.
Also excluded are operators of electronic digital com puters, even though they m ay a lso operate
EAM equipment.

P ositions are c la ssifie d into levels on the b a sis of the following definitions.
C la ss A. P erfo rm s complete reporting and tabulating assignm ents including devising
difficult control panel wiring under general supervision. Assignm ents typically involve a
variety of long and com plex rep orts which often are irreg u lar or nonrecurring, requiring
some planning of the nature and sequencing of operations, and the use of a variety of m a ­
chines. Is typically involved in training new op erators in machine operations or training
lower level op erators in wiring from d iagram s and in the operating sequences of long and
com plex rep o rts. Does not include positions in which wiring responsibility is lim ited to
selection and in sertion of prew ired boards.
C la ss B . P erfo rm s work accbrding to established procedures and under specific in­
structions. A ssignm ents typically involve com plete but routine and recurrin g reports or p arts
of la r g e r and m ore com plex rep orts. O perates m ore difficult tabulating or e lectrical a c ­
counting m achines such a s the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the sim pler m achines
used by c la ss C o p e rato rs. May be required to do some wiring from d iagram s. May train
new em ployees in basic machine operations.
C la ss C. Under specific instruction s, oper tes sim ple tabulating or e lectrical accounting
m achines such a s the so rte r, in terp reter, reproducing punch, collator, etc. Assignm ents
typically involve portions of a work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collating runs,
or repetitive operations. May perform sim ple wiring from d iag ram s, and do some filing work.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
P rim ary duty is to tran scrib e dictation involving a norm al routine vocabulary from
transcribing-m achine reco rd s. May also type from written copy and do sim ple clerical work.
W orkers tran scrib in g dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as
legal b riefs or rep orts on scien tific rese arch are not included. A worker who takes dictation
in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is c la ssifie d as a stenographer.
TYPIST
U ses a typew riter to m ake copies of various m ate rials or to make out bills after calcula­
tions have been made by another person . May include typing of sten cils, m ats, or sim ilar m ate ­
ria ls for use in duplicating p r o c e sse s. May do c le ric a l work involving little sp ecial training, such
a s keeping sim ple reco rd s, filing record s and rep orts, or sorting and distributing incoming m ail.
C la ss A. P erform s one or m ore of the following: Typing m aterial in final form when
it involves combining m aterial from sev e ral so u rces; or respon sibility for correct spelling,
syllabication, punctuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language m ate­
rial; or planning layout and typing of com plicated statistical tab les to m aintain uniformity
and balance in spacing. May type routine form le tte rs, varying details to suit circum stances.
C la ss B . P erform s one or m ore of the following: Copy typing from rough or clear
d rafts; or routine typing of form s, insurance p olicies, etc.; or setting up sim ple standard
tabulations; or copying m ore com plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
COMPUTER OPERATOR
Monitors and operates the control console of a digital computer to p ro cess data according
to operating in struction s, usually prepared by a p ro g ram er. Work includes m ost of the following:
Studies instructions to determ ine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required
item s (tape r e e ls , c a rd s, etc.); switches n ec e ssa ry auxiliary equipment into circu it, and sta rts
and operates com puter; m akes adjustm ents to computer to c o rrect operating problem s and m eet
sp ecial conditions; reviews e r r o r s made during operation and determ ines cause or r e fe r s problem
to su p erviso r or p ro gram er; and m aintains operating rec o rd s. May te st and a s s is t in correcting
program .
F or wage study p urp oses, computer o p erato rs are c la ssifie d as follows:
C la ss A. O perates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running
p rogram s with m ost of the following c h a ra c te ristic s: New p rogram s are frequently tested
and introduced; scheduling requirem ents are of c ritic al im portance to m inim ize downtime;
the p ro gram s are of com plex design so that identification of e rr o r source often requ ires a
working knowledge of the total program , and alternate p ro gram s m ay not be available. May
give direction and guidance to lower level o p erato rs.
C la ss B. Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running
p rogram s with m ost of the following c h a ra c te ristic s: Most of the p rogram s are established
production runs, typically run on a regu larly recu rrin g b a sis; there is little or no testing




COMPUTER OPERATOR— Continued
of new p rogram s required; alternate p rogram s are provided in ca se original program needs
m ajor change or cannot be corrected within a reasonable tim e. In common e rro r situ a­
tions, diagnoses cause and takes corrective action. This usually involves applying previously
program ed corrective step s, or using standard correction techniques.
OR
O perates under direct supervision a computer running p rogram s or segm ents of program s
with the ch a ra c te ristic s described for c la s s A. May a s s is t a higher level operator by inde­
pendently perform ing le s s difficult task s assign ed , and perform ing difficult task s following
detailed instructions and with frequent review of operations perform ed.
C la ss C . Works on routine p rogram s under close supervision. Is expected to develop
working knowledge of the computer equipment used and ability to detect problem s involved in
running routine p ro g ram s. Usually has received some form al training in computer operation.
May a s s is t higher level operator on com plex p ro g ram s.
COMPUTER PROGRAMER, BUSINESS
Converts statem ents of busin ess problem s, typically prepared by a system s analyst, into
a sequence of detailed instructions which a re required to solve the problem s by automatic data
p ro cessin g equipment. Working from charts or d iag ram s, the p rog ram er develops the p recise in­
structions which, when entered into the com puter system in coded language, cause the manipulation

32
COMPUTER PROGRAMER, BUSINESS—Continued
of data to achieve d esired re su lts. Work involves m ost of the following: Applies knowledge of
com puter c a p a b ilities, m ath em atics, logic employed by com puters, and p articu lar subject m atter
involved to analyze ch arts and d iag ram s of the problem to be program ed; develops sequence
of p rogram step s; w rites detailed flow charts to show order in which data will be p ro cessed ;
converts these ch arts to coded instructions for m achine to follow; te sts and c o rrects p rog ram s;
p rep a re s instructions for operating personnel during production run; an alyzes, review s, and a lte rs
p ro g ram s to in cre ase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirem ents; m aintains record s of
program development and rev isio n s. (NOTE: W orkers perform ing both sy stem s an alysis and p ro ­
gram ing should be c la ssifie d a s system s analysts if this is the sk ill used to determ ine their pay.)
Does not include em ployees p rim arily resp on sible for the m anagem ent or supervision of
other electronic data p ro cessin g em ployees, or p ro g ra m ers p rim arily concerned with scientific
and /or engineering p roblem s.
F o r wage study p u rp o se s, p ro g ram ers are c la ssifie d as follows:
C la ss A. Works independently or under only general direction on com plex problem s which
require com petence in all phases of program ing concepts and p ra c tic e s. Working from d ia­
gram s and ch arts which identify the nature of d esired r e su lts, m ajor p ro cessin g steps to be
accom plished, and the relation sh ips between variou s step s of the problem solving routine;
plans the full range of program ing actions needed to efficiently utilize the computer system
in achieving d esired end products.
At this level, program ing is difficult because com puter equipment m ust be organized to
produce sev e ral in terrelated but d iv erse products from numerous and d iv erse data elem ents.
A wide variety and extensive number of internal p ro cessin g actions m ust occur. This requ ires
such actions a s development of common operations which can be reu sed, establishm ent of
linkage points between operations, adjustm ents to data when program requirem ents exceed
com puter sto rage capacity, and substantial manipulation and re sequencing of data elements
to form a highly integrated program .
May provide functional direction to lower level p ro g ram ers who a re assign ed to a s s is t .
C la ss B . Works independently or under only general direction on relatively sim ple
p ro g ra m s, or on sim ple segm ents of com plex p ro g ra m s. P rog ram s (or segm ents) usually
p ro c e ss inform ation to produce data in two or three varied sequences or form ats. R eports
and listin g s a re produced by refining, adapting, arrayin g, or making m inor additions to or
deletions from input data which a re readily av ailable. While num erous reco rd s m ay be
p ro c e sse d , the data have been refined in p rio r actions so that the accu racy and sequencing
of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typically, the program d eals with
routine record-keeping type operations.
OR
Works on com plex p ro gram s (as d escribed for c la ss A) under close direction of a higher
level p ro g ram er or su p e rv iso r. May a s s i s t higher level program er by independently p e r ­
form ing le s s difficult ta sk s assig n ed , and perform ing m ore difficult ta sk s under fa irly close
direction.
May guide or in struct lower level p ro g ra m e rs.
C la ss C . M akes p ractical applications of program ing p ractice s and concepts usually
learned in form al training c o u rse s. A ssignm ents are designed to develop competence in the
application of standard proced ures to routine p ro blem s. R eceives close supervision on new
a sp e c ts of assign m en ts; and work is reviewed to verify its accu racy and conformance with
required p ro ced u res.
COMPUTER SYSTEM S ANALYST, BUSINESS
A nalyzes bu sin ess problem s to form ulate procedures for solving them by use of electronic
data p ro c essin g equipment. Develops a com plete description of all specification s needed to enable
p ro g ra m ers to p rep are required digital computer p ro g ra m s. Work involves m ost of the following:
A nalyzes subject-m atter operations to be automated and identifies conditions and c rite ria required
to achieve satisfa c to ry resu lts; sp ecifies number and types of reco rd s, file s , and documents to
be used; outlines actions to be perform ed by personnel and com puters in sufficient detail for
presentation to m anagem ent and for program ing (typically this involves preparation of work and
data flow ch arts); coordinates the development of te st problem s and p articip ates in tr ia l runs of
new and rev ised sy stem s; and recom m ends equipment changes to obtain m ore effective overall
operations. (NOTE: W orkers perform ing both sy stem s an alysis and program ing should be c la s ­
sified as sy stem s analysts if this is the skill used to determ ine their pay.)
Does not include em ployees p rim arily respon sible for the m anagem ent or supervision
of other electronic data p ro cessin g em ployees, or system s analysts p rim arily concerned with
scien tific or engineering problem s.
F o r wage study p u rp o ses, sy stem s analysts are cla ssifie d as follows:
C la ss A. Works independently or under only general direction on com plex problem s in­
volving all phases of system s a n aly sis. P roblem s a re com plex because of d iverse so u rces of
input data and m ultiple-u se requirem ents of output data. (For exam ple, develops an integrated
production scheduling, inventory control, cost an a ly sis, and sa le s an alysis record in which




COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS—Continued
every item of each type is autom atically p ro cessed through the full system of record s and
appropriate followup actions are initiated by the computer.) Confers with p erson s concerned to
determ ine the data p ro cessin g problem s and ad vises subject-m atter personnel on the im p lica­
tions of new or rev ise d sy stem s of data p ro cessin g operations. M akes recom m endations, if
needed, for approval of m ajor sy stem s in stallations or changes and for obtaining equipment.
May provide functional direction to lower level sy stem s an alysts who are assig n e d to
a s s is t .
C la ss B. Works independently or under only general direction on problem s that are
relatively uncom plicated to analyze, plan, p rogram , and operate. P roblem s a re of lim ited
com plexity because so u rces of input data are homogeneous and the output data are closely
related. (F or exam ple, develops sy stem s for m aintaining depositor accounts in a bank,
m aintaining accounts receivable in a reta il establishm ent, or m aintaining inventory accounts
in a m anufacturing or w holesale establishm ent.) Confers with person s concerned to determ ine
the data p ro cessin g problem s and a d vises subject-m atter personnel on the im plications of the
data p ro cessin g system s to be applied.
OR
Works on a segm ent of a com plex data p ro cessin g schem e or system , as d escribed for
c la ss A. Works independently on routine assign m en ts and receives instruction and guidance
on com plex assign m en ts. Work is reviewed for accu racy of judgment, com pliance with
in struction s, and to in su re proper alinem ent with the ov erall system .
C la ss C . Works under im m ediate supervision , carryin g out a n alyses as assign ed , usually
of a single activity. A ssignm ents are designed to develop and expand p ractical experience
in the application of proced ures and sk ills required for system s a n aly sis work. F or exam ple,
m ay a s s is t a higher level sy stem s analyst by preparing the detailed specification s requ ired
by p ro g ra m ers from inform ation developed by the higher level analyst.
DRAFTSMAN
C la ss A. Plans the graphic presentation of com plex item s having distinctive design
featu res that differ significantly from establish ed drafting preceden ts. Works in clo se sup­
port with the design originator, and m ay recom m end m inor design changes. Analyzes the
effect of each change on the details of form , function, and positional relationships of com ­
ponents and p a r ts. Works with a minimum of su p ervisory a ssista n c e . Completed work is
reviewed by design originator for consistency with p rio r engineering determ inations. May
either p rep are draw ings, or d irect their preparation by lower level draftsm en.
C la s s B . P erfo rm s nonroutine and com plex drafting assign m en ts that require the appli­
cation of m ost of the standardized drawing techniques regu larly used. Duties typically in­
volve such work a s: P re p a re s working drawings of su b a sse m b lie s with irre g u lar shapes,
m ultiple functions, and p re c ise positional relation sh ips between components; p rep a re s a rch i­
tectu ral drawings for construction of a building including detail drawings of foundations, wall
section s, floor plans, and roof. U ses accepted form ulas and m anuals in making n ec e ssa ry
com putations to determ ine quantities of m a te ria ls to be used, load ca p a citie s, stren gth s,
s t r e s s e s , etc. R eceives initial in struction s, requirem ents, and advice from su p e rv iso r.
Com pleted work is checked for technical adequacy.
C la s s C . P re p a re s detail drawings of single units or p arts for engineering, construction,
m anufacturing, or rep air p u rp oses. Types of drawings p rep ared include isom etric projections
(depicting three dim ensions in accu rate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning of
components and convey needed inform ation. Consolidates details from a number of sou rces
and adjusts or tran sp o se s scale as required. Suggested methods of approach, applicable
preceden ts, and advice on source m a te ria ls are given with initial assign m en ts. Instructions
a re le s s com plete when assignm ents recu r. Work m ay be spot-checked during p r o g re ss.
DRAFTSMAN- TRACER
Copies plans and drawings p rep ared by others by placing tracin g cloth or paper over
drawings and tracin g with pen or pencil. (Does not include tracin g lim ited to plans p rim arily
con sisting of straigh t lines and a large scale not requiring clo se delineation.)
AND/OR
P re p a re s sim ple or repetitive drawings of e asily visualized item s. Work is closely supervised
during p r o g re ss.
ELECTRON ICS TECHNICIAN
Works on variou s types of electron ic equipment and related d evices by perform ing one
or a combination of the following: Installing, maintaining, rep airin g, overhauling, troubleshooting,
m odifying, constructing, and testin g. Work req u ires p ractica l application of technical knowledge
of e lectron ics p rin cip le s, ability to determ ine m alfunctions, and sk ill to put equipment in required
operating condition.

33
ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN—Continued

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN—Continued

The equipment— consisting of either many different kinds of circu its or m ultiple repetition
of the sam e kind of circuit— includes, but is not lim ited to, the following: (a) E lectronic tr a n s­
mitting and receiving equipment (e .g ., rad a r, radio, telev isio n , telephone, son ar, navigational
a id s), (b) digital and analog com puters, and (c) in dustrial and m ed ical m easuring and controlling
equipment.
This c la ssific a tio n excludes repairm en of such standard electronic equipment a s common
office'm achines and household radio and television se ts; production a sse m b le rs and t e ste r s; work­
e rs whose p rim ary duty is servicin g electronic te st instrum ents; technicians who have adm in is­
trative or sup ervisory respon sibility; and draftsm en , d esig n e rs, and p ro fessio n al engineers.
P ositions are c la ssifie d into levels on the b a sis of the following definitions.
C la ss A. Applies advanced technical knowledge to solve unusually com plex problem s
(i.e ., those that typically cannot be solved solely by reference to m an ufacturers' m anuals or
sim ilar documents) in working on electronic equipment. E xam ples of such problem s include
location and density of circu itry , electro-m agnetic radiation, isolating m alfunctions, and
frequent engineering changes. Work involves: A detailed understanding of the in terrelation ­
ships of circu its; exercisin g independent judgment in perform ing such task s a s making circuit
an aly se s, calculating wave fo rm s, tracin g relationships in signal flow; and regu larly using
com plex test instrum ents (e.g ., dual trac e o sc illo sc o p e s, Q -m e ters, deviation m ete rs, pulse
gen erators).
Work m ay be reviewed by su p erv iso r (frequently an engineer or d esigner) for general
com pliance with accepted p ractice s. May provide technical guidance to lower level technicians.
C la ss B . Applies com prehensive technical knowledge to solve com plex problem s (i.e .,
those that typically can be solved solely by properly interpreting m an ufacturers' m anuals or
sim ilar documents) in working on electronic equipment. Work involves: A fam iliarity with
the in terrelation sh ips of c ircu its; and judgment in determining work sequence and in selectin g
tools and testing instrum ents, usually le s s com plex than those used by the c la ss A technician.

R eceives technical guidance, as required, from su p ervisor or higher level technician,
and work is reviewed for specific com pliance with accepted p ractice s and work assignm ents.
May provide technical guidance to lower level technicians.
C la ss C . Applies working technical knowledge to perform sim ple or routine task s in
working on electronic equipment, following detailed instructions which cover virtually all
proced u res. Work typically involves such task s a s: A ssistin g higher level technicians by
perform ing such a ctivities as replacing components, wiring circu its, and taking test readings;
repairing sim ple electronic equipment; and using tools and common test instrum ents (e.g.,
m u ltim eters, audio signal gen erators, tube t e s t e r s , o scillo sco p es). Is not required to be
fam iliar with the interrelation sh ips of circu its. This knowledge, however, m ay be acquired
through assign m en ts designed to in crease competence (including cla ssro o m training) so that
worker can advance to higher level technician.
R eceives technical guidance, a s required, from su p ervisor or higher level technician.
Work is typically spot checked, but is given detailed review when new or advanced assignm ents
are involved.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (R egistered)
A reg iste re d nurse who gives nursing serv ice under general m edical direction to ill or
injured em ployees or other p erson s who become ill or suffer an accident on the p rem ises of a
factory or other establishm ent. Duties involve a combination of the following: Giving fir st aid
to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent d re ssin g of em ployees' in juries; keeping records
of patients treated ; preparing accident rep orts for com pensation or other purposes; a ssistin g in
physical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants and em ployees; and planning and c a r r y ­
ing-out p rogram s involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment,
or other activities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of a ll personnel. Nursing su p ervisors
or head n u rses in establishm ents employing m ore than one nurse are excluded.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

P erfo rm s the carpentry duties n e c e ssa ry to construct and m aintain in good rep air build­
ing woodwork and equipment such a s bins, c rib s, counters, benches, p artition s, doors, flo o rs,
s t a ir s , c a sin g s, and trim made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves m ost of the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, m odels, or verbal instruction s; using a
variety of c arp e n te r's handtools, portable power to o ls, and standard m easuring instrum ents; m ak ­
ing standard shop computations relating to dim ensions of work; and selecting m a te r ia ls n ece ssa ry
for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter requ ires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ir e s station ary b oilers to furnish the establishm ent in which employed with heat, power,
or steam . F eed s fuels to fire by hand or op erates a m echanical stoker, g as, or oil burner; and
checks water and safety valves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN , MAINTENANCE
P erfo rm s a variety of e le ctric a l trad e functions such a s the installation, m aintenance, or
rep a ir of equipment fo r the generation, distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an e sta b ­
lishm ent. Work involves m ost of the following: Installing or rep airin g any of a variety of e le c ­
tr ic a l equipment such a s g en erato rs, tran sfo r m e r s, sw itchboards, con trollers, circuit b r e a k e r s ,
m otors, heating units, conduit sy ste m s, or other tran sm issio n equipment; working from blue­
p rin ts, draw ings, layouts, or other sp ecificatio n s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le ctrica l
system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirem ents of wiring or
e le ctric a l equipment; and using a v ariety of e le ctric ia n 's handtools and m easurin g and testing
instrum ents. In gen eral, the work of the m aintenance e lectrician requ ires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and m ay a lso su p erv ise the operation of station ary engines and
equipment (m echanical or e le ctrical) to supply the establishm ent in which employed with power,
heat, refrigeratio n , or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and m aintaining equipment
such a s steam engines, a ir c o m p re sso rs, g e n e rato rs, m o to rs, turbines, ventilating and r e fr ig ­
erating equipment, steam bo ilers and b o iler-fed water pum ps; making equipment re p a irs; and
keeping a record of operation of m achinery, tem p erature, and fuel consumption. May a lso su ­
p ervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishm ents employing m ore than one
engineer are excluded.




H ELPER , MAINTENANCE TRADES
A s s is t s one or m ore w orkers in the sk illed m aintenance tra d e s, by perform ing specific
or general duties of le s s e r sk ill, such a s keeping a worker supplied with m ate rials and tools;
cleaning working a re a , m achine, and equipment; a ssistin g journeym an by holding m ate rials or
to o ls; and perform ing other unskilled task s as d irected by journeym an. The kind of work the
helper is perm itted to perform v a rie s from trade to trade: In some trad es the helper is confined
to supplying, lifting, and holding m a te ria ls and tools, and cleaning working a re a s; and in others
he is perm itted to p erform sp ecialized machine operations, or p arts of a trade that are also
perform ed by w orkers on a fu ll-tim e b a sis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Sp ecializes in the operation of one or m ore types of machine tools, such as jig b o re rs,
cylindrical or su rface grin d e rs, engine lathes, or m illing m achines, in the construction of
m achine-shop too ls, g ag e s, jig s , fix tu res, or d ies. Work involves m ost of the following: Planning
and perform ing difficult machining operations; p ro cessin g item s requiring com plicated setups or
a high degree of accu racy; using a variety of p recision m easuring instrum ents; selecting feeds,
sp eed s, tooling, and operation sequence; and making n e c e ssa ry adjustm ents during operation
to achieve requ isite to le ran ces or dim ensions. May be required to recognize when tools need
d re ssin g , to d re s s to o ls, and to select proper coc.lants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For
cro ss-in d u stry wage study p u rp o se s, m achine-tool o p e ra to rs, toolroom , in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classificatio n .
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent p arts and new p arts in making r e p a irs of m etal p arts of m echanical
equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work involves m ost of the following: Interpreting written
instructions and sp ecification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of m ach in ist's

34
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE

handtools and p recisio n m easurin g instrum ents; setting up and operating standard machine tools;
shaping of m etal p arts to clo se to leran ces; making standard shop computations relating to dimen­
sions of work, tooling, feed s, and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working p roperties of
the common m eta ls; selecting standard m a te r ia ls, p a r ts, and equipment required for his work;
and fitting and assem blin g p arts into m echanical equipment. In general, the m ach in ist's work
norm ally req u ires a rounded training in m achine-shop p ractice usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Paints and red ecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an establishm ent. Work involves
the following: Knowledge of su rface p ecu liaritie s and types of paint required for different app lica­
tions; preparing su rface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or fille r in nail
holes and in te rstice s; and applying paint with sp ray gun or brush. May m ix c o lo rs, o ils, white
lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the
maintenance painter req u ires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
P IP E F IT T E R , MAINTENANCE

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (Maintenance)
R e p airs autom obiles, b u ses, m otortruck s, and tr a c to r s of an establishm ent. Work in­
volves most_of_the_foUowing: Exam ining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; d is ­
assem blin g equipment and perform ing re p a irs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
g ag e s, d rills , or sp ecialized equipment in d isassem b lin g or fitting p arts; replacing broken or
defective p arts from stock; grinding and adjusting v alves; reassem b lin g and installing the various
a sse m b lie s in the vehicle and making n ec e ssa ry adjustm ents; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive mechanic req u ires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experien ce.
This c la ssific a tio n does not include m echanics who rep a ir cu sto m ers' vehicles in auto­
m obile rep air shops.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R ep airs m achinery o r m echanical equipment of an establishm ent. Work involves m ost
of the following; Exam ining m achines and m echanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble;
dism antling or p artly dism antling m achines and perform ing re p a irs that m ainly involve the use
of handtools in scrap in g and fitting p arts; replacing broken or defective p arts with item s obtained
from stock; ordering the production of a replacem ent p art by a machine shop or sending of the
machine to a m achine shop for m ajo r r e p a ir s; preparing written sp ecification s for m ajo r re p a irs
or for the production of p arts ordered from machine shop; reassem blin g m achines; and making
all n e c e ssa ry adjustm ents fo r operation. In general, the work of a maintenance m echanic requ ires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experien ce. Excluded from this c la ssific a tio n a re w orkers whose p rim ary duties
involve setting up or adjusting m achines.
MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipment, and d ism antles and in sta lls m achines or heavy
equipment when changes in the plant layout a re required. Work involves m ost of the following:
Planning and laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a variety
of handtools and rigging: making standard shop computations relating to s t r e s s e s , strength of
m a te r ia ls, and cen ters of gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selectin g standard tools,
equipment, and p arts to be used; and in stalling and m aintaining in good order power tran sm issio n
equipment such as d riv es and speed red u ce rs. In general, the m illw right's work norm ally requ ires
a rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experien ce.

Installs or re p a irs w ater, steam , g as, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an
establishm ent. Work involves m ost of the following: Laying out of work and m easuring to locate
position of pipe from drawings or other written sp ecification s; cutting variou s siz e s of pipe to
co rrect lengths with chisel and ham m er or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting m achines; threading
pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven or pow er-driven m achines; assem blin g
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to
p r e s s u r e s , flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard te sts to determ ine whether fin­
ished pipes m eet sp ecification s. In general, the work of the m aintenance pipefitter requ ires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experien ce. W orkers p rim arily engaged in installing and rep airin g building sanitation
or heating sy stem s are excluded.
SH E ET -M E T A L WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F a b r ic a te s, in sta lls, and m aintains in good rep a ir the sh eet-m etal equipment and fixtures
(such a s machine g u a rd s, g re a se pans, sh elves, lo ck e rs, tan ks, v en tilators, chutes, ducts, m etal
roofing) of an establishm ent. Work involves m ost of the following: Planning and laying out all
types of sheet-m etal m aintenance work from blueprints, m odels, or other sp ecification s; setting
up and operating all available types of sheet-m etal working m achines; using a variety of handtools
in cutting, bending, form ing, shaping, fitting, and assem blin g; and installin g sheet-m etal a rtic le s
as required. In gen eral, the work of the m aintenance sheet-m etal worker requ ires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
Constructs and rep a irs m achine-shop to o ls, g ag e s, jig s , fixtures or dies for forgin gs,
punching, and other m etal-form in g work. Work involves m ost of the following; Planning and
laying out of work from m odels, blueprints, draw ings, or other o ral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die m a k e r's handtools and p recision m easuring instrum ents; under­
standing of the working p roperties of common m etals and alloys; setting up and operating of
machine tools and related equipment; making n e c e ssa ry shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, sp eeds, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heat-treating of m etal p arts during fabrication
as well as of finished tools and d ies to achieve required q u alities; working to close toleran ces;
fitting and assem blin g of p arts to p rescrib e d toleran ces and allow ances; and selectin g appropriate
m a te r ia ls, to o ls, and p r o c e s s e s . In general, the tool and die m a k e r's work requ ires a rounded
training in m achine-shop and toolroom p ractice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship
or equivalent training and experience.
F o r cro ss-in d u stry wage study p u rp o se s, tool and die m ak e rs in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
GUARD AND WATCHMEN
G uard. P erfo rm s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour, m aintaining ord er,
using a rm s or force where n e c e ssa ry . Includes gatem en who are stationed at gate and check
on identity of em ployees and other p erso n s entering.
Watchman. M akes rounds of p re m ise s p erio d ically in protecting p roperty again st fire ,
theft, and illeg al entry.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working a re a s and w ash room s, or
p re m ise s of an office, apartm ent house, or com m ercial or other establishm ent. Duties involve
a combination of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing flo o rs; rem oving
chips, tr a sh , and other refu se; dusting equipment, furniture, or fix tu res; polishing m etal fix ­
tu res or trim m in gs; providing supplies and m inor m aintenance s e rv ic e s; and cleaning la v a to r ie s ,
show ers, and restro o m s. W orkers who sp ecialize in window washing are excluded.




LABO RER, M ATERIAL HANDLING
A worker employed in a w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, sto re , or other establishm ent
whose duties involve one or m ore of the following: Loading and unloading various m a te ria ls and
m erchandise on or from freight c a r s , tru ck s, or other tran sportin g devices; unpacking, shelving,
or placing m a te ria ls or m erchandise in proper storage location; and transporting m ate rials or
m erchandise by handtruck, c a r, or wheelbarrow . Longshorem en, who load and unload ships are
excluded.
ORDER F IL L E R
F ills shipping or tr a n sfe r o rd e rs for finished goods from stored m erchandise in a cco rd ­
ance with specification s on s a le s slip s, c u sto m ers' o r d e r s, or other in struction s. May, in addition
to filling o rd e rs and indicating item s filled or om itted, keep reco rd s of outgoing o r d e r s , requ i­
sition additional stock or report short supplies to su p e rv iso r, and p erform other related duties.

35
PACKER, SHIPPING
P re p a re s finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping con­
tain e rs, the specific operations perform ed being dependent upon the type, siz e , and number
of units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requ ires
the placing of item s in shipping containers and may involve one or m ore of the following:
Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate type
and size of container; in serting en clo sures in container; using e x ce lsio r or other m ate rial to
prevent breakage or dam age; closing and sealing container; and applying labels or entering
identifying data on container. P ack ers who a lso make wooden boxes or crate s are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
P re p a re s m erchandise for shipment, or receiv es and is respon sible for incoming ship­
ments of m erchandise or other m a te ria ls. Shipping work involves; A knowledge of shipping p ro­
cedures, p rac tic e s, ro u tes, available m eans of transportation, and rate s; and preparing record s
of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping ch arg e s, and keeping
a file of shipping rec o rd s. May direct or a s s i s t in preparing the m erchandise for shipment.
Receiving work in volves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the co rrectn ess of shipments
against bills of lading, in voices, or other reco rd s; checking for shortages and rejecting dam ­
aged goods; routing m erchandise or m ate rials to proper departm ents; and maintaining n ece ssa ry
record s and file s.

TRUCKDRIVER— Continued
follow s:

F or wage study p urp oses, tru ck d rivers are c la ssifie d by size and type of equipment, as
(T r a c to r -tr a ile r should be rated on the b a sis of tr a ile r capacity.)
T ruckdriver
Truck d river,
Truck d river,
T ruck d river,
Truck d river,

(combination of siz e s listed separately)
light (under IV2 tons)
medium (IV 2 to and including 4 tons)
heavy (over 4 tons, t r a ile r type)
heavy (over 4 tons, other than tr a ile r type)

TRUCKER, POWER
O perates a m anually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered truck or tractor to tran sport
goods and m ate rials of all kinds about a warehouse, m anufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
F or wage study p u rp oses, w orkers are cla ssifie d by type of truck, as follows:
T ruck er, power (forklift)
T ruck er, power (other than forklift)

For wage study p urp o ses, w orkers are c la ssifie d a s follow s:

WAREHOUSEMAN

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

As directed, p erform s a variety of warehousing duties which require an understanding
of the establish m en t's storage plan. Work involves m ost of the following: Verifying m aterials
(or m erchandise) again st receiving documents, noting and reporting d iscrep an cies and obvious
dam ages; routing m ate rials to p rescrib e d storage locations; storing, stacking, or palletizing
m ate rials in accordance with p rescrib e d storage m ethods; rearran ging and taking inventory of
stored m a te ria ls; examining stored m ate rials and reporting deterioration and dam age; removing
m ate rial from storage and preparing it for shipment. May operate hand or power trucks in
perform ing warehousing duties.

TRUCKDRIVER
D rives a truck within a city or in dustrial a re a to tran sp ort m a te ria ls, m erchandise,
equipment, or men between various types of establishm ents such a s: Manufacturing plants, freight
depots, w arehouses, wholesale and retail establish m ents, or between retail establishm ents and
cu sto m ers' houses or p laces of b u sin ess. May also load or unload truck with or without h elp ers,
make m inor m echanical r e p a ir s, and keep truck in good working ord er. D riv e r-sale sm e n and
over-th e-road d riv e rs are excluded.




Exclude w orkers whose p rim ary duties involve shipping and receiving work (see shipping
and receiving clerk and pack er, shipping), order filling (see order fille r), or operating power
trucks (see tru ck er, power).

A v a i l a b l e O n R e q u e s t-

will b e

T h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s a r e s u r v e y e d p e r i o d i c a l l y for u s e in a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e S e r v i c e C o n t r a c t A c t of 1 9 6 5 .
a v a i l a b l e at n o c o s t w h i l e s u p p l i e s last f r o m a n y of t h e B L S r e g i o n a l o ffices s h o w n o n t h e b a c k c o v e r .

Copies

of p u b l i c

A l a m o g o r d o — L a s C r u c e s , N. M e x .
Alaska
Albany, G a .
Amarillo, Tex.
A t l a n t i c City, N . J .
A u g u s t a , G a . — S .C.
B a k e r s f i e l d , Calif.
B a t o n R o u g e , La.
Biloxi, G u l f p o r t , a n d P a s c a g o u l a , M i s s .
Bridgeport, Norwalk, and Stamford, Conn.
C e d a r Rapids, Iowa
C h a m p a i g n — U r b a n a , 111.
C h a r l eston, S.C.
Clarksville, Tenn., a n d H o p k i n s v i l l e , K y .
C o l o r a d o Springs, Colo.
C o l u m b i a , S.C.
C olumbu s, Ga — Ala.
C o r p u s Christi, T e x .
C r a n e , Ind.

Reports

for the

P a n a m a C ity ,

Duluth— Superior, M i n n — Wis.
El Paso, Tex.
E u g e n e — Springfield, O r e g .
F a r g o — M o o r h e a d , N. D a k — Minn.
Fa y e t t e v i l l e , N . C.
Fitchburg— L e o m i n s t e r , M a s s .
F r e d e r i c k — H a g e r s t o w n , M d — Pa.— W . Va.
F r e s n o , Calif.
G r a n d Fork s , N. Dak.
G r a n d Island— H a s t i n g s , N e b r .
G r e e n b o r o — W i n s t o n S a l e m — H i g h Point, N . C .
H a r r i s b u r g , Pa.
Knoxville, T e n n .

or

Portsmouth, N . H — Maine— Mass.
P u e blo, Colo.
Reno, Nev.
S a c r a m e n t o , Calif.
S a n t a B a r b a r a — S a n t a M a r i a — L o m p o c , Calif.
S h e r m a n — Denison, Tex.
S h r e v e p o r t , La.
Springfield— C h i c o p e e — H o l y o k e , M a s s . — C o n n .
Topeka, Kans.
T u c s o n , Ariz.
V a l l e j o — F a i r f i e l d — N a p a , Calif.
Wilmington, D e l — N . J — M d .
Y u m a , Ariz.

following

surveys

conducted

in t h e p r i o r

A l p e n a , Standish, a n d T a w a s
Asheville, N.C.
Austin, T e x . *
F o r t Sm i t h , A r k — Okla.
G r e a t Falls, M o n t .
*

are

Laredo, Tex.
Las Vegas, Nev.
L o w e r E a s t e r n Shore, M d . — Va.
M a c o n , Ga.
M a r q u e t t e , E s c a n a b a , S a u l t Ste.
Marie, Mich.
M e l b o u r n e — Titusville— C o c o a , Fla.
( B r e v a r d Co. )
Meridian, Miss.
Middlesex, M o n m o u t h , Ocean, and So m e r s e t
Cos., N.J.
M o b i l e , Ala., a n d P e n s a c o l a , Fla.
M o n t g o m e r y , Ala.
Nashville, T e n n .
Northeastern Maine
N o r w i c h — Groton— N e w London, Conn.
Ogden, Utah
O r l a n d o , Fla.
O x n a r d — S i m i V a l l e y — V e n t u r a , Calif.

D oth an , A la .

releases

E x p a n d e d to a n

area

wage

survey

year

but

since

discontinued

1973.

also

available:

L e x i n g t o n , K y .*
P i n e Bluff, A r k .
S t o c k t o n , Calif.
Tacoma, Wash.
W i c h i t a Falls, T e x .

City, M i c h .

in fiscal y e a r

are

F la .

See

inside

back

cover.

T h e t w e l f t h a n n u a l r e p o r t o n s a l a r i e s for a c c o u n t a n t s , a u d i t o r s , c h i e f a c c o u n t a n t s , a t t o r n e y s , j o b a n a l y s t s , d i r e c t o r s of p e r s o n n e l , b u y e r s , c h e m i s t s ,
e n gineers, e n g i n e e r i n g technicians, d r a f t s m e n , a n d clerical e m p l o y e e s .
O r d e r a s B L S B u l l e t i n 1 7 4 2 , N a t i o n a l S u r v e y of P r o f e s s i o n a l , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e ,
Technical, a n d Clerical P a y , J u n e
1 9 7 1 , 75 c e n t s a c o p y , f r o m a n y of t h e B L S r e g i o n a l s a l e s offices s h o w n o n t R e b a c k c o v e r , o r f r o m t h e
S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of D o c u m e n t s , U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , 2 0 4 0 2 .




U. S. O O V E R N M IN T P R IN T IN G O FFICE:

1*73 - 74* - <28/ 02

A re a W a g e S urveys
A list of t h e latest a v a i l a b l e bulletins is p r e s e n t e d b e l o w .
A d i r e c t o r y of a r e a w a g e s t u d i e s i n c l u d i n g m o r e l i m i t e d s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d at the
r e q u e s t of t h e E m p l o y m e n t S t a n d a r d s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o r is a v a i l a b l e o n r e q u e s t .
B u l l e t i n s m a y b e p u r c h a s e d f r o m a n y of t h e B L S
r e g i o n a l s a l e s offices s h o w n o n t h e b a c k c o v e r , o r f r o m the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of D o c u m e n t s , U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O ffice, W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , 2 0 4 0 2 .
Area
A k r o n , O h i o , D e c . 1 9 7 2 ------------- .----- ----- _ ----------A l b a n y - S c h e n e c t a d y - T r o y , N . Y . , M a r . 1 9 7 3 1 --- ---- —
A l b u q u e r q u e , N . M e x . , M a r . 1 9 7 3 ----------- — ------------A l l e n t o w n — B e t h l e h e m — E a s t o n , P a . — N.J., M a y 1 9 7 2 1 —
A t l a n t a , G a . , M a y 1 9 7 2 1 ------------------------------------A u s t i n , T e x . , D e c . 1 9 7 2 1 -----------------------------------B a l t i m o r e , M d . , A u g . 1 9 7 2 1 _________________________________
B e a u m o n t — P o r t A r t h u r — O r a n g e , T e x . , M a y 1 9 7 2 ----- —
B i n g h a m t o n , N . Y . , J u l y 1 9 7 2 ________________________________
B i r m i n g h a m , Ala., M a r . 1 9 7 3 *----------------------------B o i s e City, I d a h o , N o v . 1 9 7 2 1 _________ — --------- _ ------B o s t o n , M a s s . , A u g , 1 9 7 2 1 ____ _____________________________
B u f f a l o , N . Y . , O c t . 1 9 7 2 1 -----------------------------------B u r l i n g t o n , V t . , D e c . 1 9 7 2 1 _________________________________
C a n t o n , O h i o , M a y 1 9 7 2 1 ---- ------ ------------------------C h a r l e s t o n , W . V a . , M a r . 1 9 7 2 * --------------------------C h a r l o t t e . N . C . , J a n . 1 9 7 3 ___________________________________
C h a t t a n o o g a , T e n n . - G a . , Sept. 1 9 7 2 1 ----------------- --C h i c a g o , 111., J u n e 1 9 7 2 -------------------------------------C i n c i n n a t i , O h i o — K y . — I n d . , F e b . 1 9 7 3 --------------------C l e v e l a n d , O h i o , Sept. 1 9 7 2 1 -------------------------------C o l u m b u s , O h i o , .O c t . 1 9 7 2 1 _________________________________
D a l l a s , T e x . , O c t . 1 9 7 2 1 ---------- --- ---------------------D a v e n p o r t - R o c k I s l a n d — M o l i n e , I o w a — 111., F e b . 1 9 7 3 --D a y t o n , O h i o , D e c . 1 9 7 2 __ — --------------------------------D e n v e r , C o l o . , D e c . 1 9 7 2 -------- — -------------------------D e s M o i n e s , I o w a , M a y 1 9 7 2 1 -------------- --------------D e t r o i t , M i c h . , F e b . 1 9 7 2 ----------------------------------D u r h a m , N . C . , A p r . 1 9 7 3 -----------------------------------Fort Lauderdale— Hollywood and W e s t P a l m
B e a c h , F l a . , A p r . 1 9 7 3 ------------------------------------F o r t W o r t h , T e x . , O c t . 1 9 7 2 1------------------------------G r e e n B a y , W i s . , J u l y 1 9 7 2 1 — — ----- --------------------G r e e n v i l l e , S.C., M a y 1 9 7 2 ----------- — --- ----------------H o u s t o n , T e x . , A p r . 1 9 7 2 -----------------------------------H u n t s v i l l e , A l a . , F e b . 1 9 7 3 ---------------------------------I n d i a n a p o l i s , I n d . , O c t . 1 9 7 2 1 __ — -------------------------J a c k s o n , M i s s . , J a n . 1 9 7 3 — ___ — --------- ----------------J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l a . , D e c . 1 9 7 2 --- --------------------------K a n s a s City, M o . - K a n s . , Sept. 1 9 7 2 ----------------------L a w r e n c e — H a v e r h i l l , M a s s . — N . H . , J u n e 1 9 7 2 1 ___ _ ___
_
L e x i n g t o n , K y . , N o v . 1 9 7 2 1 ---------------------------------Little R o c k — N o r t h Little R o c k , A r k . , J u l y 1 9 7 2 1 ------L o s Angeles— L o n g B e a c h and A n a h e i m — Santa A n a G a r d e n G r o v e , Calif., O c t . 1 9 7 2 1-----------------------L o u i s v i l l e , K y . — I n d . , N o v . 1 9 7 2 ---------- --- --------------L u b b o c k , T e x . , M a r . 1 9 7 3 ----------- --- -------------------M a n c h e s t e r , N . H . , J u l y 1 9 7 2 1 ---- -------------- --- ------M e m p h i s , T e n n . - A r k . , N o v . 1 9 7 2 __________________________
M i a m i , F l a . , N o v . 1 9 7 2 1 _______ _ — -----------------------_
M i d l a n d a n d O d e s s a , T e x . , J a n . 1 9 7 3 ______ ___ ___________

l

Bulletin n u m b e r
a nd price

1775-65,
1775-32,
1775-13,
1775-18,
1775-28,
1725-75,
1725-63,
1775-39,
1775-14,
1725-92,
1775-53,
1775-15,
1775-23,
1775-25,
1775-57,
1775-34,
1775-35,
1725-86,
1725-68.
1775-61,

40
55
40
35
45
40
75
30
45
55
50
75
65
50
35
35
40
55
70
50
75
55
75
40
40
40
35
40
35

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1775-64,
1775-24,
1775-1,
1725-66,
1725-79,
1775-48,
1775-27,
1775-44,
1775-31,
1775-17,
1725-81,
1775-22,
1775-2,

40
50
55
30
35
40
55
40
40
50
35
50
55

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1775-38,
1775-37,
1775-55,
1775-8,
1775-30,
1775-29,
1775-41,

75
40
40
55
40
55
35

cents
cents
cents

1775-36.
1775-62,
1775-52,
1725-87,
1725-77,
1775-42,
1775-20,
1725-69,
1775-5.

Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.




cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

cents
cents
cents
cents

Area

Bulletin n u m b e r
a n d price

M i l w a u k e e , W i s . , M a y 1 9 7 2 1 ____ ____________________________ 1 7 2 5 - 8 3 ,
M i n n e a p o l i s — St. P a u l , M i n n . , J an. 1 9 7 3 ___________________
1775-49,
M u s k e g o n — M u s k e g o n H e i g h t s , M i c h . , J u n e 1 9 7 2 1 _______ 1 7 2 5 - 8 5 ,
N e w a r k a n d J e r s e y Ci t y , N. J . , J a n . 1 9 7 3 ----------------1775-50,
N e w H a v e n , C o n n . , J an. 1 9 7 3 ______ _ ______________________ 1 7 7 5 - 4 6 ,
_
N e w O r l e a n s , L a . , J an. 1 9 7 3 ____ ____________________________ 1 7 7 5 - 4 7 ,
N e w Y o r k , N . Y . , A p r . 1 9 7 2 1__________________________________ 1 7 2 5 - 9 0 ,
Norfolk-Virginia B e a c h —P o r t s m o u t h and
N e w p o r t N e w s — H a m p t o n , V a . , J an. 1 9 7 3 1--------------- 1 7 7 5 - 5 1 ,
O k l a h o m a City, O k l a . , J u l y 1 9 7 2 ____________________________ 1 7 7 5 - 6 ,
O m a h a , N e b r . — I o w a , Sept. 1 9 7 2 — _ ________________________ 1 7 7 5 - 1 6 ,
_
P a t e r s o n — C l i f t o n — P a s s a i c , N.J., J u n e 1 9 7 2 * ------------- 1 7 2 5 - 8 8 ,
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . — N. J . , N o v . 1 9 7 2 -------------------------- 1 7 7 5 - 4 5 ,
P h o e n i x , A r i z . , J u n e 1 9 7 2 1 _ ________________________________ 1 7 2 5 - 9 4 ,
_
P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , J an. 1 9 7 2 ________ _ ________________________ 1 7 2 5 - 4 6 ,
_
Portland, M a i n e , Nov.
1 9 7 2 __________________________________ 1 7 7 5 - 2 1 ,
P o r t l a n d , O r e g . — W a s h . , M a y 1 9 7 2 1 ________________________ 1 7 2 5 - 8 9 ,
P o u g h k e e p s i e — K i n g s t o n — N e w b u r g h , N.Y.,
J u n e 1 9 7 2 1 ______________________________________________________ 1 7 2 5 - 8 0 ,
P r o v i d e n c e — W a r w i c k — P a w t u c k e t , R. I.— M a s s.,
1725-70,
R a l e i g h , N . C . , A u g . 1 9 7 2 _____________________________________
1775-7,
R i c h m o n d , V a . , M a r . 1 9 7 2 1 __________________________________ 1 7 2 5 - 7 2 ,
R i v e r s i d e — S a n B e r n a r d i n o - O n t a r i o , Calif.,
1775-60,
R o c h e s t e r , N . Y . (office o c c u p a t i o n s only), J u l y 1 9 7 2 ___ 1 7 7 5 - 4 ,
R o c k f o r d , 111., J u n e 1 9 7 2 1 _ _________________________________ 1 7 2 5 - 8 4 ,
_
St. L o u i s , M o . — 111., M a r . 1 9 7 2 _______________________________ 1 7 2 5 - 6 1 ,
Salt L a k e City, U t a h , N o v . 1 9 7 2 1 ___________________________ 1 7 7 5 - 3 3 ,
S a n A n t o n i o , T e x . , M a y 1 9 7 2 _________________________________ 1 7 2 5 - 6 7 ,
S a n D i e g o , C a l i f . , N o v . 1 9 7 2 __________________________________ 1 7 7 5 - 4 0 ,
S a n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d , Calif., O c t . 1 9 7 1 1 _______________ 1 7 2 5 - 3 3 ,
S a n J o s e , C a l i f . , M a r . 1 9 7 2 ___________________________________ 1 7 2 5 - 6 5 ,
S a v a n n a h , G a . , M a y 1 9 7 2 1 ----------------------------------1725-73,
S c r a n t o n , P a . , J u l y 1 9 7 2 ______________________________________
1775-10,
S eattle— E v e r e t t , W a s h . , J an. 1 9 7 3 __________________________ 1 7 7 5 - 5 6 ,
S i o u x F a l l s , S. D a k . , D e c . 1 9 7 2 1 ____________________________ 1 7 7 5 - 4 3 ,
S o u t h B e n d , I n d . , M a r . 1 9 7 3__________________________________ 1 7 7 5 - 5 4 ,
S p o k a n e , W a s h . , J u n e 1 9 7 2 1 __________________________________ 1 7 2 5 - 9 1 ,
S y r a c u s e , N . Y . , J u l y 1 9 7 2 ____________________________________ 1 7 7 5 - 1 1 ,
T a m p a ^ S t . P e t e r s b u r g , F l a . , A u g . 1 9 7 2 ------------------- 1 7 7 5 - 9 ,
T o l e d o , O h i o — M i c h . , A p r . 1 9 7 3 ------------------------------ 1 7 7 5 - 6 3 ,
T r e n t o n , N . J . , Sept. 1 9 7 2 1____________________________________ 1 7 7 5 - 1 2 ,
U t i c a — R o m e , N . Y . , J u l y 1 9 7 2 _________________________________ 1 7 7 5 - 3 ,
W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . — M d . — V a . , M a r . 1 9 7 2 1 __________________ 1 7 2 5 - 9 3 ,
W a t e r b u r y , C o n n . , M a r . 1 9 7 3 _________________________________ 1 7 7 5 - 5 8 ,
W a t e r l o o , I o w a , N o v . 1 9 7 2 ___________________________________
1775-26,
W i c h i t a , K a n s . , A p r . 1 9 7 2 1 ___________________________________ 1 7 2 5 - 8 2 ,
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . . M a y 1 9 7 2 1 _______________________________ 1 7 2 5 - 7 1 ,
Y o r k , P a . , F e b . 1 9 7 3 __________________________________________ 1 7 7 5 - 5 9 ,
Y o u n g s t o w n — W a r r e n , O h i o , N o v . 1 9 7 2 _____________________
1775-19,

45
55
35
55
40
40
50

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

50
45
40
40
55
55
40
40
35

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

35 cents
30 cents
45 cents
35 cents
65
45
35
35
50
30
40
50
30
35
45
40
40
40
35
45
45
40
55
45
70
40
40
35
35

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

cents
cents
cents
cents
40 cents
40 cents

POSTAGE AND FEES PAID

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20212

LAB-441

OFFICIAL BUSINESS
PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE $300

THIRD CLASS MAIL

BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S REGIONAL OFFICES
Region I
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (Area Code 617)
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Vermont

Region II
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036

Region V
8th Floor, 300 South Wacker Drive
Chicago, III. 60606
Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)
Illinois
Indiana
Michigan
Minnesota
Ohio
Wisconsin

Region VI
1100 Commerce St. Rm. 6B7
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code
Arkansas
Louisiana
New Mexico
Oklahoma
Texas




Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)
New Jersey
New York
Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands

214)

Region III
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: 597-1154 (Area Code 215)
Delaware
District of Columbia
Maryland
Pennsylvania
Virginia
West Virginia

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Mississippi
North Carolina
South Carolina
Tennessee

Regions VII and VIII
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St. . 15th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)
VII
VIII
Iowa
Colorado
Kansas
Montana
Missouri
North Dakota
Nebraska
South Dakota
Utah
Wyoming

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code
IX
X
Alaska
Arizona
Idaho
California
Oregon
Hawaii
Washington
Nevada


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102