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AREA WAGE SURVEY
Youngstow n—W arren , Ohio, M etro p o litan Area,
Novem ber 1972
B u l l e t i n 1775-19




U S DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Rnrpan of Labor Statistics




Preface
T h i s b ulletin p r o v i d e s re s u lt s o f a N o v e m b e r 1972 s u r v e y o f occup ational
earnings in the Youngsto wn— a r r e n , Ohio , Standard M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a tis tic a l A r e a
W
(Mahoning and T r u m b u l l C ou n tie s). T h e s u r v e y w as m a d e as p a r t o f the B u re a u
o f L a b o r S t a ti s ti c s ' annual a r e a w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m . T h e p r o g r a m is d e s ig n e d
to y i e l d data f o r in d iv id u al m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , as w e l l as na tional and r e g i o n a l
e s t i m a t e s f o r a l l Standard M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s in the Un ite d States, exc ludin g
A l a s k a and H a w a ii, (as d e fin e d b y the U.S. O f f i c e o f M a n a g e m e n t and Bud get
through N o v e m b e r 1971).
A m a j o r c o n s i d e r a ti o n in the a r e a w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m is the need to
d e s c r i b e the l e v e l and m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s in a v a r i e t y o f l a b o r m a r k e t s , through
the an alys is o f (1) the l e v e l and d is trib u tion o f w a g e s b y occup ation, and (2) the
m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s b y occup atio nal c a t e g o r y and s k i l l l e v e l .
The p ro g r a m d e­
v e l o p s in f o r m a t i o n that m a y be used f o r m a n y p u r p o s e s , including w a g e and
s a l a r y a d m in is tr a tio n , c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a in in g , and a s s i s ta n c e in d e te rm in in g plant
location. S u r v e y re s u lt s a l s o a r e used b y the U.S. D e p a rt m e n t o f L a b o r to m ak e
w a g e d e te rm in a t io n s under the S e r v i c e C o n t ra c t A c t o f 1965.
C u r r e n t l y , 96 a r e a s a r e included in the p r o g r a m .
(See l i s t o f a r e a s on
in sid e back c o v e r . )
In eac h a r e a , occup ational e a r n in g s data a r e c o l l e c t e d
annually. I n f o r m a ti o n on e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p lem e n ta ry w a g e b e n e ­
f i t s , c o l l e c t e d e v e r y second y e a r in the p ast, is now ob ta ined e v e r y th ird y e a r .
E a c h y e a r a f t e r a l l ind ivid ual a r e a w a g e s u r v e y s ha ve been c o m p l e t e d ,
tw o s u m m a r y bulle tins a r e issued.
T h e f i r s t b r i n g s to g e t h e r data f o r eac h
m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s u r v e y e d . T h e second s u m m a r y b u lle tin p r e s e n t s national and
r e g i o n a l e s t i m a t e s , p r o j e c t e d f r o m in dividual m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a data.
T h e You n gs to w n — a r r e n s u r v e y w as con du cted b y the B u re a u 's r e g i o n a l
W
o f f i c e in C h ic a g o , 111., under the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f P e t e r J. H ebein, A c t i n g
R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r f o r O p e ra t io n s . T h e s u r v e y could not have b e en a c c o m p lis h e d
without the c o o p e r a tio n o f the m a n y f i r m s wh os e w a g e and s a l a r y data p r o v i d e d
the b as is f o r the s t a t i s t i c a l in f o r m a t i o n in this bulletin.
T h e Bureau w i s h e s to
e x p r e s s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the c o o p e r a ti o n r e c e i v e d .

Note:
A l s o a v a ila b le f o r the Y o u n g s t o w n - W a r r e n a r e a a r e l i s tin g s o f union
w a g e ra te s f o r s e v e n s e l e c t e d building tr a d e s . F r e e c o p ie s o f th ese a r e a v a i l a b l e
f r o m the B u r e a u 's r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s .
(See b ack c o v e r f o r a d d r e s s e s . )

AREA WAGE SURVEY

B u lle tin 1775-19
F e b ru ary 1 9 73

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Youngstown—Warren, Ohio, Metropolitan Area, November 1972
CONTENTS
Page
2 I n tr o d u c tio n
5 W a ge trends fo r s e le c te d occupational groups

T ab les:
4
6

10
11
12

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w i th i n s c o p e o f s u r v e y and n u m b e r stu d ied
I n d e x e s o f e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , and p e r c e n t s o f i n c r e a s e f o r s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s

A.
7
9

1.
2.

O ccupation al earn in gs:
A - l . O ffic e occupations: W e e k ly earn in gs
A - 2 . P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s : W e e k l y e a r n i n g s
A - 3 . O f f i c e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a tio n s : A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s , b y s e x
A - 4 . M a i n t e n a n c e and p o w e r p l a n t o c c u p a t i o n s : H o u r l y e a r n i n g s
A - 5. C u s t o d i a l and m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a ti o n s : H o u r l y e a r n i n g s

14 A p p e n d ix .

Occupation al d esc r ip tio n s




For sale by th e Superin ten d en t o f D ocum ents, U .S . G o vern m en t P rinting O ffic e , W ashington, D .C ., 2 0 4 0 2

In tro d u ctio n
(3) m a i n t e n a n c e and p o w e r p l a n t ; and (4) c u s t o d i a l and m a t e r i a l m o v e ­
m en t.
O c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is b a s e d on a u n i f o r m set o f jo b
d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s i g n e d to ta ke ac coun t o f i n t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t v a r i a t i o n
in duties w i th i n the s a m e j o b . T h e o c c u p a tio n s s e l e c t e d f o r study a r e
l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d in the appendix.
U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d ic a te d , the
e a r n i n g s data f o l l o w i n g the j o b t i t l e s a r e f o r a l l i n d u s t r i e s c o m b in e d .
E a r n i n g s data f o r s o m e o f the oc c u p a tio n s l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d , o r
f o r s o m e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s w i th i n o c c u p a t i o n s , a r e not p r e s e n t e d in
the A - s e r i e s t a b l e s , b e c a u s e e i t h e r (1) e m p l o y m e n t in the oc c u p a tio n
is to o s m a l l to p r o v i d e enough data to m e r i t p r e s e n t a t i o n , o r (2) t h e r e
is p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e o f i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t data. E a r n i n g s
data not shown s e p a r a t e l y f o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s a r e in c lu d e d in a l l
i n d u s t r i e s c o m b i n e d data, w h e r e shown.
L i k e w i s e , data a r e in c lu d e d
in the o v e r a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w h en a s u b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s e c r e t a r i e s
o r t r u c k d r i v e r s is not shown o r i n f o r m a t i o n to s u b c l a s s i f y is not
a vailab le.

T h i s a r e a is 1 o f 96 in w h i c h the U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r ' s
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s con du cts s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s
on an a r e a w i d e b a s i s a n n u a l l y . 1 F i e l d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , in p e r s o n a l
v i s i t s to e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the a r e a , c o l l e c t e m p l o y m e n t , e a r n i n g s ,
e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s , and r e l a t e d b e n e f i t s i n f o r m a t i o n e v e r y t h i r d
year.
In e a c h o f the i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s , i n f o r m a t i o n on e m p l o y m e n t
and e a r n i n g s is c o l l e c t e d b y m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f r o m e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the p r e v i o u s s u r v e y . T h i s b u l l e t i n p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s
o f the l a t t e r ty p e s u r v e y .
In e a c h a r e a , data a r e ob ta in e d f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s w i t h i n s i x b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s : M a n u fa c t u r i n g ; t r a n s ­
p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s ; w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ;
r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; and s e r v i c e s . M a j o r
i n d u s t r y g r o u p s e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s e s tu d ie s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a ­
tio n s and the c o n s t r u c t i o n and e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s . E s t a b l i s h m e n t s
h a v i n g f e w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m i t t e d b e c a u s e
t h e y te nd to f u r n i s h i n s u f f i c i e n t e m p l o y m e n t in the o c c u p a tio n s stu d ied
to w a r r a n t i n c lu s io n .
S e p a r a t e ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r e a c h o f
the b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s w h i c h m e e t p u b l i c a ti o n c r i t e r i a .

O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t and e a r n i n g s data a r e shown f o r
f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s , i . e . , t h o s e h i r e d to w o r k a r e g u l a r w e e k l y s c h ed ule.
E a r n i n g s data e x c l u d e p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on
w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and la t e s h ifts . N o n p r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s a r e e x ­
c lu d e d, but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g a l l o w a n c e s and i n c e n t i v e e a r n i n g s a r e i n ­
c lu d ed. W h e r e w e e k l y h o u r s a r e r e p o r t e d , as f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l o c c u ­
p a ti o n s , r e f e r e n c e is to the sta n d a rd w o r k w e e k ( r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t
h a l f hour) f o r w h i c h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e
s a l a r i e s ( e x c l u s i v e o f p a y f o r o v e r t i m e at r e g u l a r an d / o r p r e m i u m
rates).
A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s f o r t h e s e o c c u p a tio n s a r e roun ded
to the n e a r e s t h a l f d o l l a r .

T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c o n d u c t e d on a s a m p l e b a s i s . T h e s a m ­
p ling p r o c e d u r e s in v o lv e d e ta ile d s tr a tific a tio n of a ll establish m en ts
w i t h i n the s c o p e o f an i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s u r v e y b y i n d u s t r y and n u m b e r
of em p lo yees.
F r o m th is s t r a t i f i e d u n i v e r s e a p r o b a b i l i t y s a m p l e is
s e l e c t e d , w i t h e a c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t h a v in g a p r e d e t e r m i n e d chan c e o f
s e l e c t i o n . T o ob ta in o p ti m u m a c c u r a c y at m i n i m u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r
p r o p o r t i o n o f l a r g e than s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s is s e l e c t e d . W h e n data
a r e c o m b i n e d , e a c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t is w e i g h t e d a c c o r d i n g to its p r o b a ­
b i l i t y o f s e l e c t i o n , so that u n b ia s e d e s t i m a t e s a r e g e n e r a t e d . F o r e x ­
a m p l e , i f one out o f f o u r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s is s e l e c t e d , it is g i v e n a
w e i g h t o f f o u r to r e p r e s e n t i t s e l f plus t h r e e o t h e r s . A n a l t e r n a t e o f the
s a m e o r i g i n a l p r o b a b i l i t y is c h o s e n in the s a m e i n d u s t r y - s i z e c l a s s i f i ­
c a t i o n i f data a r e not a v a i l a b l e f o r the o r i g i n a l s a m p l e m e m b e r .
If
no s u ita b le s u b stitu te is a v a i l a b l e , a d d i t i o n a l w e i g h t is a s s i g n e d to a
s a m p l e m e m b e r that is s i m i l a r to the m i s s i n g unit.

T h e o c c u p a ti o n s s e l e c t e d f o r stu dy a r e c o m m o n to a v a r i e t y
o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g and n o n m a n u fa c t u rin g i n d u s t r i e s , and a r e o f the
follo w in g types:
( l ) O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ; (2) p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l ;

T h e s e s u r v e y s m e a s u r e the l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s in
an a r e a at a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e .
C o m p a r i s o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p a tio n a l
a v e r a g e s o v e r t i m e m a y not r e f l e c t e x p e c t e d w a g e c h a n g e s . T h e a v e r ­
a g e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l j o b s a r e a f f e c t e d b y c h a n g e s in w a g e s and e m p l o y ­
m ent patterns.
F o r e x a m p le, p ro p o rtio n s o f w o r k e r s em p lo yed by
h i g h - o r l o w - w a g e f i r m s m a y c han ge o r h i g h - w a g e w o r k e r s m a y a d ­
v a n c e to b e t t e r j o b s and be r e p l a c e d b y n e w w o r k e r s at l o w e r r a t e s .
Such s h ifts in e m p l o y m e n t c ould d e c r e a s e an o c c u p a ti o n a l a v e r a g e
e v e n though m o s t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in an a r e a i n c r e a s e w a g e s during
the y e a r . T r e n d s in e a r n i n g s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , shown in ta b l e 2,
a r e b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r s o f w a g e t r e n d s than i n d i v i d u a l j o b s w ith in the
groups.

1
Included in the 96 areas are 10 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract.
These areas
are Austin, T e x .; Binghamton, N. Y . (N e w York portion only); Durham, N. C . ; Fort Lauderdale—
H ollyw ood and West Palm Beach, F la .; Huntsville, A la .; Lexington, K y . ; Poughkeepsie—Kingston—
Newburgh, N . Y . ; Rochester, N . Y . (o ffic e occupations only); Syracuse, N. Y . ; and U tica—Rom e, N . Y .
In addition, the Bureau conducts more lim ited area studies in approximately 70 areas at the request
o f the Em ploym ent Standards Adm inistration o f the U. S. Department o f Labor.

A v e r a g e earn in gs r e fle c t co m p o s ite , a r e a w id e e s tim a tes.
In­
d u s t r i e s and e s t a b l i s h m e n t s d i f f e r in p a y l e v e l and j o b s ta f f i n g , and
thus c o n tr i b u t e d i f f e r e n t l y to the e s t i m a t e s f o r e ach jo b . P a y a v e r ­
a g e s m a y f a i l to r e f l e c t a c c u r a t e l y the w a g e d i f f e r e n t i a l am on g j o b s in
individual establish m en ts.

O c c u p a tio n s and E a r n i n g s




2

3
A v e r a g e p a y l e v e l s f o r m e n and w o m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a ­
tio ns should not b e a s s u m e d to r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y o f the s e x e s
w ith in i n d iv id u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
F a c t o r s w h ic h m a y c o n trib u t e to
d i f f e r e n c e s in c lu d e p r o g r e s s i o n w i th i n e s t a b l i s h e d r a te r a n g e s , s in c e
o n ly the r a t e s p a i d i n c u m b e n ts a r e c o l l e c t e d , and p e r f o r m a n c e o f s p e ­
c i f i c duties w i th i n the g e n e r a l s u r v e y j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s . Job d e s c r i p ­
tio n s used to c l a s s i f y e m p l o y e e s in t h e s e s u r v e y s u s u a l l y a r e m o r e
g e n e r a l i z e d than th o s e used in i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and a l l o w f o r
m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s am on g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in s p e c i f i c duties p e r f o r m e d .
O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t the to t a l in a l l
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith in the s c o p e o f the study and not the n u m b e r a c t u ­
a l l y s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s am on g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
d i f f e r , e s t i m a t e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t ob ta ined f r o m the s a m p l e




o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s stu d ie d s e r v e o n ly to i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e i m p o r ­
tan c e o f the j o b s studied.
T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a tio n a l s t r u c t u r e
do_ not a f f e c t m a t e r i a l l y the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n i n g s data.
E s t a b l i s h m e n t P r a c t i c e s and S u p p l e m e n t a r y W a g e P r o v i s i o n s
T a b u l a t i o n s on s e l e c t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e ­
m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s ( B - s e r i e s t a b l e s ) a r e not p r e s e n t e d in th is
b u lle tin .
I n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s e t a b u la tio n s , c o l l e c t e d e v e r y 2 y e a r s
in the p a s t, is now c o l l e c t e d e v e r y 3 y e a r s .
T h e s e ta b u la tion s on
m in im u m entrance s a la r ie s fo r in e x p e rie n c e d w o m en o ffic e w o r k e r s ;
shift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ; s c h e d u le d w o r k w e e k ; p aid h o l i d a y s ; paid v a c a t i o n s ;
and health, i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s i o n plans a r e p r e s e n t e d (in the B - s e r i e s
t a b l e s ) in p r e v i o u s b u l l e ti n s f o r th is a r e a .




T a b le 1. E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o rk e rs w ith in s c o p e o f s u rv e y and n u m b e r s tu d ie d in Y o u n g s to w n —W a r r e n , O h io ,1
by m a jo r in d u s try d iv is io n ,2 N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 2
Minimum
employment
in establishments in scope
of study

Industry division

Num ber of establishments

Within scope of study4
Within scope
of study*

Studied

Studied
Num ber

Percent

323

97

114,827

100

82,333

50
“

139
184

45
52

82,226
32,601

72
28

66,922
15,411

50
50
50
50
50

34
20
78
20
32

14
7
14
5
12

9.836
1.975
14,697
3,088
3, 005

9
2
13
2
2

6, 356
685
6,025
968
1,377

A ll divisions-----------------------------------------------Manufacturing----------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing----------------------------------------------Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities5---------------------------------Wholesale trade6------------------------------------------Retail trade6
--------------------------------------------------Finance, insurance, and rea l estate6---------S erv ices6 7 -----------------------------------------------------

W orkers in establishments

1 The Youngstown—W arren Standard Metropolitan Statistical A re a , as defined by the O ffice of Management and Budget through Novem ber 1971,
consists of Mahoning and Trum bull Counties.
The "w ork ers within scope of study*' estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate
description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis
of com parison with other employment indexes for the area to m easure employment trends or levels since (l ) planning of wage surveys requires
the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) sm all establishments arc excluded from the
scope of the survey.
2 The

1967 e d itio n o f th e S ta n d a rd In d u s tr ia l C la s s if ic a t io n M a n u a l w as u sed in c la s s if y in g

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n .

5
Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum limitation.
A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such
industries as trade, finance, auto rep air service, and motion picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes all w orkers in all establishments with total employment (within the area) at or above the minimum limitation.
5 Abbreviated to "public u tilities" in the A -s e r ie s tables.
Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estimates for "a ll ind ustries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables.
Separate presentation
of data fo r this division is not made for one or m ore of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough
data to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to perm it separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate
to perm it separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
7 Hotels and m otels; laundries and other personal services; business services; automobile re p a ir, rental, and parking; motion pictures; nonprofit
m em bership organizations (excluding religious and charitable organizations); and engineering and architectural services.

Industrial composition in manufacturing
About three-fourths of the w orkers within scope of survey in the Youngstown—W arren
area w ere employed in manufacturing firm s,
The following presents the m ajor industry
groups and specific industries as a percent of all manufacturing:
Industry groups
P rim a ry metal industries----------41
Transportation equipment---------- 28
Fabricated m etal products-------- 8
E lectrical equipment and
su pp lies_________________________ 5
M achinery, except e le c tr ic a l— 5

Specific industries
Blast furnace and basic
steel products--------------------------38
M otor vehicles and
equipment______________________ 24
F abricated structural metal
products--------------------------------- 5

This information is based on estimates of total employment derived from universe
m aterials compiled prio r to actual survey.
P: ■oportions in various industry divisions may
differ from proportions based on the results of the survey as shown in table 1 above.

W a g e T re n d s fo r S e le cte d O ccu p a tio n a l G ro u p s
P r e s e n t e d in t a b l e 2 a r e i n d e x e s and p e r c e n t s o f c han ge in
a v e r a g e w e e k l y s a l a r i e s o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and i n d u s t r i a l
n u r s e s , and in a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s o f s e l e c t e d p l a n t w o r k e r g r o u p s .
T h e i n d e x e s a r e a m e a s u r e o f w a g e s at a g i v e n t i m e , e x p r e s s e d as a
p e r c e n t o f w a g e s d u r in g the b a s e p e r i o d .
S u b tra c tin g 100 f r o m the
i n d e x y i e l d s the p e r c e n t c han ge in w a g e s f r o m the b a s e p e r i o d to the
date o f the in dex. T h e p e r c e n t s o f c han ge o r i n c r e a s e r e l a t e to w a g e
c h a n g e s b e t w e e n the i n d i c a t e d d a te s . A n n u a l r a t e s of i n c r e a s e , w h e r e
sho wn, r e f l e c t the amount o f i n c r e a s e f o r 12 m on ths w h e n the t i m e
p e r i o d b e t w e e n s u r v e y s w a s o t h e r than 12 m onths .
T h ese com pu­
ta t io n s a r e b a s e d on the a s s u m p t i o n that w a g e s i n c r e a s e d at a con stant
rate betw een su rve y s .
T h e s e e s t i m a t e s a r e m e a s u r e s o f change in
a v e r a g e s f o r the a r e a ; th e y a r e not in t e n d e d to m e a s u r e a v e r a g e p a y
ch an ge s in the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the a r e a .

T h e i n d e x is a m e a s u r e o f w a g e s at a g i v e n t i m e and is e x ­
p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t o f w a g e s in the b a s e y e a r .
T h e b a s e y e a r is
a s s i g n e d the v a l u e o f 100 p e r c e n t .
T h e in d e x is c om p u te d by m u l t i ­
p l y i n g the b a s e y e a r r e l a t i v e (100 p e r c e n t ) b y the r e l a t i v e (the p e r c e n t
c han ge plus 100 p e r c e n t ) f o r the next s u c c e e d i n g y e a r and then c o n ­
tinuing to m u l t i p l y (c o m p o u n d ) e a c h y e a r ' s r e l a t i v e b y the p r e v i o u s
y e a r ' s index.
F o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s , the w a g e
t r e n d s r e l a t e to r e g u l a r w e e k l y s a l a r i e s f o r the n o r m a l w o r k w e e k ,
e x c lu s iv e o f earn in gs fo r o v e r t im e .
F o r p l a n t w o r k e r g r o u p s , th e y
m e a s u r e c h a n ge s in a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s , e x c lu d in g
p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and
l a te s h if ts .
T h e p e r c e n t s a r e b a s e d on data f o r s e l e c t e d k e y o c c u ­
p atio ns and i n c lu d e m o s t o f the n u m e r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t jo b s w ith in
e a c h g ro u p .

M e th o d o f C o m p u tin g
E a c h o f the f o l l o w i n g k e y o c c u p a tio n s w ith in an o c c u p a tio n a l
g r o u p is a s s i g n e d a constant w e i g h t b a s e d on its p r o p o r t i o n a t e e m ­
p l o y m e n t in the o c c u p a t i o n a l g ro u p :
O ffic e c lerica l (m en and
wom en):
Bookke eping- machine
operators, class B
Clerks, accounting, classes
A and B
Clerks, file, classes
A , B, and C
Clerks, order
Clerks, payroll
Keypunch operators, classes
A and B
Messengers (o ffic e boys or
girls)

O ffice clerica l (m en and
w om en )— Continued
Secretaries
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
Switchboard operators, classes
A and B
Tabulating-m achine operators,
class B
Typists, classes A and B
Industrial nurses (m en and
wom en):
Nurses, industrial (registered)

L i m i t a t i o n s o f Data
T h e i n d e x e s and p e r c e n t s o f ch an ge , as m e a s u r e s o f chan ge
in a r e a a v e r a g e s , a r e i n f l u e n c e d b y :
(1) G e n e r a l s a l a r y and w a g e
c h a n g e s , (2) m e r i t o r o t h e r i n c r e a s e s in p a y r e c e i v e d b y i n d iv id u a l
w o r k e r s w h i l e in the s a m e j o b , and (3) c h a n ge s in a v e r a g e w a g e s due
to c h a n ge s in the l a b o r f o r c e r e s u l t i n g f r o m l a b o r t u r n o v e r , f o r c e
e x p a n s io n s , f o r c e r e d u c t i o n s , and ch an ge s in the p r o p o r t i o n s o f w o r k ­
e r s e m p l o y e d b y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith d i f f e r e n t p a y l e v e l s . C h an ge s in
the l a b o r f o r c e can c a u s e i n c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o c c u p a tio n a l
a v e r a g e s with ou t a c tu a l w a g e c h a n ge s .
It is c o n c e i v a b l e that e v e n
though a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in an a r e a g a v e w a g e i n c r e a s e s , a v e r a g e
w a g e s m a y have d eclin ed because lo w e r - p a y in g establish m en ts entered
the a r e a o r e xp an d e d t h e i r w o r k f o r c e s . S i m i l a r l y , w a g e s m a y h a ve
r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y con stan t, y e t a v e r a g e s f o r an a r e a m a y ha ve r i s e n
c o n s i d e r a b l y b e c a u s e h i g h e r - p a y i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e n t e r e d the a r e a .

Skilled maintenance (m en):
Carpenters
Electricians
Machinists
Mechanics
Mechanics (au tom otive)
Painters
Pipefitters
T o o l and die makers
Unskilled plant (m en):
Janitors, porters, and
cleaners
Laborers, m aterial handling

NOTE:
Com ptom eter operators, used in the computation o f previous trends, are no longer
surveyed by the Bureau.

T h e use o f con stan t e m p l o y m e n t w e i g h t s e l i m i n a t e s the e f f e c t
o f ch an ge s in the p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in each jo b i n ­
c lu d e d in the data.
T h e p e r c e n t s o f c han ge r e f l e c t o n l y c han ges in
a v e ra g e pay f o r s t r a ig h t - t im e hours.
T h e y a r e not i n flu e n c e d b y
ch an ge s in s ta n d a rd w o r k s c h e d u l e s , as such, o r b y p r e m i u m p a y
for ov e rtim e .
W h e r e n e c e s s a r y , data a r e a d ju s te d to r e m o v e f r o m
the i n d e x e s and p e r c e n t s o f c han ge any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t c a u s e d b y
ch an ge s in the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .

T h e a v e r a g e (m e a n ) e a r n i n g s f o r e a c h o c c u p a tio n a r e m u l t i ­
p l i e d b y the o c c u p a t i o n a l w e i g h t , and the p r o d u c t s f o r a l l oc c u p a tio n s
in the g r o u p a r e to ta l e d . T h e a g g r e g a t e s f o r 2 c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s a r e
r e l a t e d b y s u b tr a c tin g the a g g r e g a t e f o r the e a r l i e r y e a r f r o m the
a g g r e g a t e f o r the l a t e r y e a r and d i v i d i n g the r e m a i n d e r b y the a g g r e ­
g a te f o r the e a r l i e r y e a r .
T h e r e s u l t t i m e s 100 shows the p e r c e n t
o f c han ge.




5




T a b le 2 . In d e x e s o f e a rn in g s fo r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s in Y o u n g s to w n —W a r r e n , O h io ,
N o v e m b e r 19 71 and N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 2 , an d p e rc e n ts o f in c re a s e fo r s e le c te d p e rio d s
A ll industries
Weekly earnings
Period

Office
cle ric a l
(men and
women)

Industrial
nurses
(men and
women)

Manufacturing

Hourly earnings
Skilled
maintenance
trades
(men)

Weekly earnings

Unskilled
plantw orkers
(men)

Office
cle ric a l
(men and
women)

Industrial
nurses
(m en and
women)

Hourly earnings
Skilled
maintenance
trade s
(men)

Unskilled
plantw orkers
(men)

Indexes (Novem ber 19671100)
Novem ber 1971---------------------------------------------------Novem ber 1972----------------------------------------------------

125. 2
131. 6

131. 2
138. 4

131. 4
139. 8

128. 3
135.6

130.4
137. 2

131. 2
138.0

131. 6
139. 5

135. 7
146.4

5.
3.
6.
4.
4.
“13.
6.

5.
2.
6.
4.
6.
‘ 14.
7.

Percents of increase
Novem ber
Novem ber
Novem ber
Novem ber
Novem ber
Novem ber
Novem ber

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971

to
to
to
to
to
to
to

Novem ber
Novem ber
Novem ber
Novem ber
Novem ber
Novem ber
Novem ber

1966_______________
1967_______________
1968--------------------1969_______________
1970--------------------1971_______________
1972_______________

5.
3.
7.
3.
5.
7.
5.

7
0
8
0
3
1
1

4.9
5. 5
9. 2
4. 4
4. 2
10. 4
5. 5

5. 5
3. 4
5.9
4. 7
4.9
13. 0
6. 4

4.
2.
6.
3.
7.
8.
5.

9
1
3
6
3
6
7

4. 8
1. 1
7. 1
4. 1
5. 2
>11.2
5. 2

4. 4
5.9
9.2
4. 4
4. 2
10.4
5. 2

5
5
1
8
7
1
0

This increase reflects changes in employment among establishments with different pay levels in addition to general wage changes.

0
5
2
6
7
5
9

7

A.

O c c u p a tio n a l e a rn in g s

T a b le A -1. O ffic e occupations: W e e k ly earn in g s
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings of workers in selected occupations by industry division, Youngstown—
Warren, Ohio, November 1972)
Weekly earnings 1
(standard)

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

Number of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings oi
t

t
60

weekly
Median 2

(standard)

Middle ranged

1

t

*

65

70

75

t

80

It

85

$

90

*

100

$

110

$

120

t

130

t

140

t

150

t

160

t

170

t

180

t

190

t

200

t

210

t

220

and
under

230
and

___ 65____ 70____ 75____ 80

85

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230 over

MEN AND WOMEN COMBINED
BILLERS, MACHINE (BOOKKEEPING
MACHINE! ----------------------------BO OK KE EPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS 8 ------------------------------

38

$
$
39.5 100.50 111.50

$
$
78.50-115.00

“

~

3

10

39

39.5 105.00 117.00

86.50-123.00

-

-

4

3

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------MA NUFACTURING --------------------NCNMAN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

256
182
74
388
216
172

39.0 113.00 110.50 87.00-129.00
40.0 131.00 125.50 104.50-164.50
37.5
90.50
86.50 73.50-107.00

CLERKS, FILE, CLASS B --------------NCNMANUF AC TU RI NG -----------------

118
101

38.5
38.0

CLERKS, CROER -----------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------CLERKS, PAYROLL ---------------------MA NUFACTURING ---------------------

7

-

2

7

10

5

36
27
9

1

39.5 159.50 157.00 135.50-188.00
40.0 163.50 162.00 146.50-191.00
37.5 150.50 145.00 127.00-159.00

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B -------MA NUFACTURING --------------------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

1

23

1

25
7
18

12
7
5

30
15
15

41
29
12

18
18
“

19
19

19
14
5

27
25
2

21
18
3

4
3
1

4
4

_
-

9
9

22
22

36
36

4
3
1

2
1
1

-

-

-

“

7
7

10
10

-

11
11

1
1

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

9
3
6

8
8
-

—
-

_
—
-

_
—
-

i

-

-

l

-

-

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

5

27

16

16
2
14

18
18

38
16
22

46
21
25

27
21
6

62
42
20

42
26
16

14
13
1

4
4
“

69.50-124.00
68.00-120.50

17
17

14
14

7
6

2
2

4
4

4
4

16
16

9
8

6
4

21
13

a

5

10
8

64
37

40.0 120.00
94.50 77.00-163.50
40.0 153.50 162.00 154.00-182.00

6

3

6

3

6

6
6

2
2

“

-

-

“

3
“

-

*

171
133
38

39.5 147.50 146.00 118.00-186.50
40.0 158.00 166.50 126.00-187.00
39.0 110.00
97.00 78.50-131.00

1
1

5
2
3

13
3
10

5
4
i

12
12

---------------------

18
15
3

13
12
1

15
13
2

2
2
-

6
6
-

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A -------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

49
34

40.0 142.00 156.00 111.00-160.00
40.0 132.50 127.50 108.00-158.00

1
1

1
1

4
2

6
6

6
5

3
3

1
1

“

16
12

2
2

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B -------MA NUFACTURING ----- --------------NONM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

245
169
76

39.5 118.50 117.00 92.50-146.00
40.0 130.50 133.00 109.00-148.50
91.50
90.50 77.00-110.50
38.5

43
43

4
4

14
14

7

27
17
10

19
19

3

30
18
12

25
16

6

20
15
5

16

5

15
3
12

MESSENGERS (OFFICE BOVS AND GIRLS I—

39

39.5

90.50

72.00-106.00

1

5

-

10

1

1

5

-

-

1

1

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

SECRETARIES --------------------------MANUFA CT UR IN G --------------------NONMAN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------PUBLIC UT ILITIES ---------------

406
274
132
44

39.5
40.0
38.5
40.0

143.00
152.00
125.50
147.50

139.50 118.00-170.00
143.00 125.50-175.50
120.00 96.50-154.00
152.50 117.00-174.00

-

6

4

6

-

-

-

-

25
16

6

9

9

50
30
20

-

-

1

3

9

44
37
7
2

45
34
11
4

52
38
14
2

21
20
1
1

26
19
7
1

29
16
13
13

23
19
4
4

19
15
4
3

10
6
4
“

7
7
“

9
9

4

7
1
6
“

12
3

6

7
7
1

-

4
4
-

SECRETARIES, CLASS A -------------MA NUFACTURING ---------------------

46
32

39.5 152.00 141.00 118.00-196.00
39.5 155.50 142.00 119.00-189.00

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

3

15
10

2
1

1
1

11
11

_
-

_
-

-

1
1

2
1

5
1

_
-

5
5

i
i

SECRETARIES, CLASS B -------------MANUFA CT UR IN G --------------------NONMAN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

91
52
39

39.0 148.00 142.50 122.00-165.00
40.0 165.50 163.50 145.00-185.00
38.0 124.50 130.50 114.00-140.50

-

SECRETARIES, CLASS C -------------MANUFA CT UR IN G --------------------NONMANUF AC TU RI NG -----------------

146
93
53

39.0 144.00 155.00 110.00-180.00
40.0 159.00 159.00 128.00-189.50
38.0 117.50 100.00 78.00-164.00

SECRETARIES, CLASS 0 -------------MANUFA CT UR IN G --------------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

123
97
26

40.0 135.50 135.50 121.00-145.00
40.0 136.50 135.50 123.00-143.50
39.0 133.00 132.50 92.50-172.50

NONMANUFACTURING

See footnotes at end of tables.




98.50
94.50

97.00
92.50

81.50

5
-

_

27

16

-

6

1

4

-

-

-

6

-

1

4

-

-

-

-

6

7

3

-

5

-

-

“

7
i i

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

4

6

4

6
6

_

-

-

_

-

-

-

9

44

9

44

-

-

-

4
“

4

“
6
6

3
3

2
2

9

2
2

8
5
3

9

i
8

8
4
4

12
2
10

17
7
10

-

11
11

3
3

9
9

4
4

-

2
2

1
l

3
3

2

*

-

9

-

5
5
-

3
3
-

-

-

-

-

2

1
1

4
4

8
2
6

8
8
-

13
7
6

10
10
-

7
7
-

5
3
2

14
13
1

12
5
7

12
7
5

12
9
3

12
10
2

4
4
-

6
6

1
1

2
1
1

6
3
3

13
12
1

24
22
2

25
24
1

19
17
2

7
7
-

3
3
-

14
6
8

1
1

1
1

1
1

—
-

8
T a b le A -1 . O ffic e o c c u p atio n s: W e e k ly e arn in g s-----C o n tin u ed
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings of workers in selected occupations by industry division, Youngstown—
Warren, Ohio, November 1972)
Weekly earnings
(standard)

1

Occupation and industry division
workeis

standard)

Number of worker s receiving straight-time weekly earnings of---%

t

Average
weekly

60
Mean

^

Median

£

Middle ranged

*

t

65

70

$
75

t

t

t

80

85

90

$

s

100

110

t

120

*

$

$

130

140

150

*

160

S

t

170

180

t

190

i

200

*

210

$

220

and
under

230
and

65

70

75

80

85

90

100

-

29
8

-

21
1

27
14

41
6

15
5
10

13
5
8

10
10

-

120

130

140

150

160

170

5
4

17
17

7
5

11
5

43
39

28
25

9
i

3

45
13
32
7

2
1
1
1

5
5

17
16
1
-

9
9
-

*

32
22
10
10

5
5

3
3

5
1
4
4

3
3

1
1

6
6

1
1

13
7

no

180

230 over

190

200

210

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

220

M
EN AM W M
D O EM COMBI M
ED—
C iM I NUEO
O T
general ------------------NANUFACTURING ------------------------------

242
125

$
$
$
$
38.5 113.50 106.00
87.00-143.50
40.0 126.50 140.50 106.00-147.50

-

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR --------------------NANOFACTURING -----------------------------NONNANUFACTURING -----------------------PUBLIC U TILITIE S ---------------------

164
95
69
25

39.0
40.0
37.5
40.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

“

“

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS A -----NANUFACTURING ------------------------------

32
26

40.0 139.50 143.00 123.00-150.00
40.0 138.00 141.00 122.00-163.00

-

_

_

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS B -----NONNANUFACTURING ------------------------

76
52

38.0
37.0

SWITCHBOARO OPERATOR-RECEPTION ISTS-

104
82

steno graphers,

H A N U FA CT UR ING ------------------------------------

127.50
137.00
115.00
137.50

94.00
76.50

119.00 106.00-149.50
143.00 116.50-162.00
112.50 89.50-119.50
145.50 115.50-149.00

79.50
69.50

6 8 .00-110.00
67.00- 81.00

40.0 108.00 105.00
40.0 111.00 105.50

96 .5 0-120.50
98.00-124.00

_

-

-

40.0 142.00 142.00 132.00-158.50
40.0 144.00 144.00 132.50-159.00

TYPISTS, CLASS B ----------------------------NANUFACTURING ------------------------------

64
42

40.0 121.50 121.50 106.50-148.50
40.0 131.00 146.00 108.00-156.00

See footnotes at end of tables.




-

31
31

50
46

-

-

r
“

TYPISTS, CLASS A ----------------------------NANUFACTURING ------------------------------

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

5
5

5
2

1
-

-

-

-

4
4

1
1

9
“

-

3
1

1
1

7

1

28
24

31
21

12
9

15
15

5
5

1
1

4
4

1
-

i
“

“

18
17

2
2

12
8

7
3

10
2

-

2
2

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

*

*

-

-

7
1

“

2
2

-

1
1

-

*

8
2

8
8

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

5
5

-

4
4

1
1

_

-

-

-

-

-

9
8

8
8

6
6

2
2

-

1
1

*

11
11

9
9

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

“
-

-

-

-

-

-

_

“

“

-

-

9
T a b l e A - 2 . P ro fe s s io n a l and technical occu p atio n s: W e e k ly earn in g s
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings of workers in selected occupations by industry division, Youngstown—
Warren, Ohio, November 1972)
N u m b er o f w o rk e rs r e c e iv in g s tr a ig h t-tim e w e e k ly earn in gs o f—
100

120

130

Mean

^

Median 2

140

S
%
*
---- S
t
160
170
190 2 0 0
150
180

Middle range ^

120

130

140

150

160

*

s

$

Average
weekly
(standard

110

110

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
work ere

Under
$ _
and
100
under

$

$

1

170

180

190

S

*

t

*

t

$

*

»

i

210

220

230

240

250

260

270

280

290

230

240

250

260

270

280

290

300

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

1

-

-

6
6

3
3

2
2

-

-

-

-

A
A

A
4

2

200

210

220

MEM AMD WOMEN COMBINED
COMPUTER OPERATORS, CLASS A --------

31

$
$
$
39.5 174.50 180.00 155.00-189.50

COMPUTER OPERATORS, CLASS B -------MA NUFACTURING ---------------------

69
54

40.0 176.50 180.00 143.50-200.00
40.0 183.00 196.00 154.00-201.00

33

39.5 119.50

90.50-129.50

*18

55
43

40.0 218.00 227.50 195.00-244.00
40.0 233.00 233.00

-

COMPUTER PRCGRAMERS,
BUSINESS, CLASS C -----------------MA NU FACTURING ---------------------

36
28

39.5 198.50 218.00 136.00-240.50
40.0 219.00 234.00 215.00-242.50

-

-

2

2

-

-

-

-

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS A -----------------MA NUFACTURING ---------------------

92
91

40.0
40.0

227.50 200.00-248.50
227.50 200.00-249.00

_

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

1
1

1
1

-

5
5

COMPUTER PRCGRAMERS,
BUSINESS, CLASS B ------------------

2 2 2 .0 0
2 2 2 .0 0

99.00

2.

-

2

2

2

3

5

9

-

4

-

2

1
1

6

1
1

5
5

4
A

2

16
16

7
7

5

2

17
9

2

-

1
1

2

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

8

-

_

3

A

1

8

6

-

-

-

_

-

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS B -----------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------

169
165

40.0 193.00 199.00 172.C O - 2 1 2 . 50
40.0 193.00 2 0 0 . 0 0 172.00-213.00

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS C -----------------MA NUFACTURING ---------------------

80
80

40.0 17C.00 171.00 156.50-188.50
AO •0 170.00 171.00 156.50-188.50

_

NURSES, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) --MA NUFACTURING ---------------------

101

40.0 173.00 182.50 166.00-188.50
40.0 173.00 182.50 166.50-188.50

6
6

*

W o rk e rs w e r e d istrib u ted as fo llo w s :

See footn otes at end o f ta b les.




99

-

_
-

i
i

1 a t $75 to $80; 7 at $80 to $90; and 10 at $90 to $100.

_

9

5

1

_
*

1
1

1
1

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

9
9

-

6
6

8
8

i
i

10
10

5
5

i
i

8
8

7
7

16
15

7
7

8

-

5
5

12

-

2
2

12

8

i
i

A
A

8
8

14
13

6
6

21
21

16
14

16
15

25
25

33
33

13
13

A
A

4
A

2
2

-

i

-

-

-

5
5

7
7

11
11

11
11

8
8

18
18

9
9

3
3

1
1

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

3
3

6

6
6

5
5

13
13

42
A2

12

3

12

2

1
1

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

6
2

5

-

-

2

1

_

10
T a b l e A - 3 . O ffic e , p ro fe s s io n a l, and te c h n ica l o cc u p atio n s: A v e r a g e w e e k l y earn in g s , by sex
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings of workers in selected occupations by industry division, Youngstown— arren, Ohio, November 1972)
W
Average

Average

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
woikers

Weekly
(standard]

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - MEN
CLERKS. ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------MA NU FACTURING ---------------------

84
70

$
39.5 183.50
40.0 186.00

CLERKS, PAYROLL ---------------------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

A1
37

40.0 188.00
40.0 189.50

BILLERS, M A CH IN E (BOCKKEEPING
MACHINE! -----------------------------

38

39.5 100.50

B O O K KE EP IN G- MA CH IN E OPERATORS,
CLASS e -------------------------------------------

39

39.5 105.00

172
112

60

39.0 148.00
40.0 149.00
37.5 145.50

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B -------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

344
174
170

39.0 106.00
40.0 122.50
37.5
89.00

CLERKS, FILE, CLASS B --------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

114
97

38.0
38.0

CLERKS, PAYROLL ---------------------MANUFA CT UR IN G --------------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

130
96
34

39.5 134.50
40.0 146.00
39.0 102.50

KE YPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A -------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

41
34

40.0 132.50
40.0 132.50

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B -------M A N U FA CT UR IN G --------------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

245
169
76

39.5 118.50
40.0 130.50
38.5
91.50

ME SSENGERS (OFFICE GIRLS) ----------

30

See footnote at end of tables.




Number
of
workers

Weekly
(standard)

Weekly
earnings *
(standard)

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS WO ME N— CONTINUED

39.5

98.00
93.50

85.50

Average

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
Weekly
earnings^
(standard) (standard)

OFFICE OC CUPATIONS WO ME N— CONTINUED
$
143.00
152.00
125.50
147.50

SECRETARIES ----------------------------------------------------MA NUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NG NM AN UF AC TO RI NG ---------------------------------PUBLIC UTILITIES --------------------------- -

406
274
132
44

SECRETARIES, CLASS A --------------------------MA NUFACTURING ---------------------

OFFICE OC CUPATIONS - WOMEN

CLERKS, AC COUNTING, CLASS A -------M A N U FA CT UR IN G --------------------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

Sex, occupation, and industry division

46
32

SECRETARIES, CLASS B -------------MA NUFACTURING --------------------NCNM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

91
52
39

39.0 148.00
40.0 165.50
38.0 124.50

SECRETARIES, CLASS C -------------MANUFACTURING --------------------NC NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------------------------

146
93
53

39.0 144.00
40.0 159.00
38.0 117.50

SECRETARIES, CLASS C --------------------------MA NUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NC NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------------------------

123
97
26

40.0 135.50
40.0 136.50
39.0 133.00

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL --------------------------MA NUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

242
125

38.5 113.50
40.0 126.50

TYPISTS, CLASS A --------------------MA NU FACTURING ---------------------

49
45

$
40.0 141.50
40.0 143.50

TYPISTS, CLASS B --------------------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

64
42

40.0 121.50
40.0 131.00

39.5 152.00
39.5 155.50

39.5
40.0
38.5
40.0

S T E N C G R A P H E R S , SENIOR ----------------------------MA NU FACTURING ----------------------------------------NCNMANUF AC TU RI NG ----------------------------------

162
95
67

39.0 127.00
40.0 137.00
37.0 112.50

SWITCHECARC OPERATORS, CLASS A -------MA NU FA CT UR IN G -----------------------------------------

32
26

40.0 139.50
40.0 138.00

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS B -------NCNMAN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------------------------

76
52

38.0
37.0

SWITCHBOARD OPER AT OR -R EC EP TI ON IS TS MA NU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

104
82

94.00
76.50

40.0 108.00
40.0 1 1 1 . 0 0

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN
COMP UT ER OPERATORS, CLASS A --------

29

39.5 176.50

CO MPUTER OPERATORS, CLASS B -------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

63
48

40.0 177.50
40.0 185.00

CO MPUTER PROGRAMERS,
BUSINESS, CLASS B ------------------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

46
38

39.5 2 2 2 . 0 0
40.0 233.00

COMP UT ER PROGRAMERS,
BUSINESS, CLASS C -------------------

30

39.0 193.50

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS A ------------------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

92
91

40.0
40.0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS B ------------------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

169
165

40.0 193.00
40.0 193.00

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS C ------------------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

80
80

40.0 170.00
40.0 170.00

101

40.0 173.00
40.0 173.00

2 2 2 .0 0
2 2 2 .0 0

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OC CUPATIONS - WOMEN
NURSES, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) --MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

99

11
T a b l e A - 4 . M a in t e n a n c e and p o w e r p l a n t o c c u p a tio n s : H o u r ly e a rn in g s
(Average straight-time hourly earnings of workers in selected occupations by industry division, Youngstown—
Warren, Ohio, November 1972)
N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—

Hourly earnings
Number

Sex, occupation, and industry division

of

U nder

wo ricers

Mean 2

Median2

Middle range 2

t
$
*
*
t
$
4.50 4.60 4.70 4.80 4 .90 5 . 0 0

i
$
t
*
t
t
$
t
$
5.20 5.30 5.40 5.50 5.60 5.70 5.80 5.90 6 . 0 0

t

$

5.1 0

6 .1 0

6 .2 0

5.30 5.40 5.50 5.60 5.70 5.80 5.90

6.30 6.40 6.50 6.60 o v e r

t

t
$
*
*
6.30 6.40 6.50 6.60

$
and
4.50 under

arrH

4.60 4.70 4.80 4.90 5 . 0 0

5.1 0

5.2 0

6 .0 0

6 .1 0

6 .2 0

16
16

—

-

-

-

21

M
EN
CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE -----------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

151
148

$
5.22
5.22

$
5.13
5.12

$
$
4.86- 5.79
4.85- 5.80

ELECTRICIANS, MAINTENANCE -------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

1,084
1,049

5.51
5.51

5.32
5.33

5.08- 6.02
5.09- 6.02

ENGINEERS, STATIONARY --------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

146
146

5.43
5.43

5.34
5.34

FIREMEN, STATIONARY BCILER ------------MANUFACTUS- G ---------------------

53
53

4.63
4.63

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATORS, TOOLROOM —
MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

211
211

MACHINISTS, MAINTENANCE -----------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

1
1

6
6

13
13

25
25

13
13

4

4

36
36

4
4

12
12

23
23

8
8

36
32

39
39

86

74

87
87

63
62

184
181

5.13- 5.83
5.13- 5.83

5
5

-

-

6
6

-

6
6

11

“

11

33
33

7
7

4.09
A# 09

4.05- 5.36
4.05- 5.36

*30
30

4
4

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

5.56
5.56

6.03
6.03

4.84- 6.09
4.84- 6.09

22
22

3
3

-

444
443

5.42
5.42

5.45
5.39

5.07- 5.69
5.07- 5.69

-

-

MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
(MAINTENANCE) -------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

298
136

5.45
5.25

5.57
5.29

5.20- 5.94
4.94- 5.64

17
9

12

MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE ------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

1,313
1,285

5.30
5.32

5.25
5.25

4.93- 5.63
4.95- 5.64

MILLWRIGHTS -------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

317
317

5.61
5.61

5.84
5.84

5.26- 5.92
5.26- 5.92

5

PAINTERS, MAINTENANCE --------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

81
79

5.43
5.42

5.82
5.83

4.68- 5.86
4.68- 5.86

3
3

PIPEFITTERS, MAINTENANCE ---------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

383
369

5.36
5.36

5.23
5.22

4.99- 5.86
4.98- 5.87

6

TOOL AND OIE MAKERS -----------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------

492
492

5.86
5.86

6 .2 2

5.27- 6.26
5.27- 6.26

* All workers were at $ 4 to $4, 10.
See footnotes at end of tables




6 .2 2

4
4

-

4
4

-

14
14

9
9

14
14

10
10

-

-

-

“

4
4

37
37

12
12

26
26

45
45

69
69

*

2
2

4
4

19
17

6

-

53
34

18
18

16
16

103
103

87
84

5

-

4
4

5
5

11
11

8

6

4
4

-

-

“

3
“

—
“

22

73
73

35
25

33
28

12
12

53
53

10
10

224
224

4
4

24
24

2
2

14
14

1

21
21

4
4

_

9
9

-

“

18
18

-

“

7
7

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

83
83

43
43

2

_

2

-

7
7

72
72

5
5

1
1

118
18

3
3

_

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

68

50
50

3
3

56
56

-

1
1

-

32
32

-

-

*

-

—

22

4
4

_

11
11

-

18
18

11
11

1
1

9
9

14

23
21

9
4

16
13

38

11

86
86

46
46

293
293

39
39

4

10
10

19
19

19
19

10
10

13
13

_

3
3

-

-

8

2
2

13
13

36
36

24

24
24

4
4

111
111

*
22
22

22

6

-

5
5

“
-

_

-

21

11
11
-

*

-

4
4

111

8
8

11

13
13

4
4

4

117
117

38
32

25
25

67
67

12
12

11
11

5
5

3
3

5
5

94
94

_

-

2

-

_

-

5
5

17
17

56
56

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

52
52

-

-

“

-

4
4

_

-

1
1

-

-

2

52
52

2
2

-

-

14
14

28
28

59
59

30
18

1
1

15
15

30
30

10

6

8

1

10

8

38
38

8

1

112

_
-

68

1
1

*

2

-

101
101

1

l

-

68

2
2

2

_

1

_

_

68

2

-

1

-

-

-

_

_

49
49

298
298

_

_

_

_

-

12

T a b le A - 5 . C u sto d ial and m aterial m o v e m e n t occupations: H o u rly earn in g s
(Average straight-time hourly earnings of workers in selected occupations by industry division, Youngstown—
Warren, Ohio, November 1972)
Hourly earnings^

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
$
i
$
t
t
t
$
t
%
t
t
$
$
$
$
«
*
$
$
$
$
Under 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.80 4.00 4.20 4.40 4.60 4 .80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80
and
t
and
1.90 under
t

M iddle range

L

Mean ^

Median^

$
4.12
4.35

$
$
1.99- 4.40 *115
4.13- 4.73

2.00 2.10 2.20 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.80 4.00 4.20 4.40 4.60 4.80 5 .00 5.20 5.4C 5.60 5.80 over
MEN
GUARDS AND WA TCHMEN ----------------MANU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

505
329

$
3.44
4.28

GUARDS
MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

302

4.40

4.37

4.17- 4.74

JANITCRS, PORTERS, AND CL EANERS --MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------PUBLIC UT ILITIES ---------------

851
479
372
55

3.19
3.87
2.31
3.30

3.51
3.59
1.99
3.79

2.143.531.912.39-

LABORERS, MA TERIAL HA NDLING -------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

640
539

3.79
3.90

4.00
4.05

ORDER

FILLERS ------------------------

145

4.35

PACKERS, SHIP PI NG -------------------MANU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

300
290

RECEIVING CLERKS --------------------MANU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

13

11

15
”

11
~

11

20
20

i
i

14
14

13
13

10
10

60
60

87
87

10

60

87

7

113

27
3
24
24

3
3
-

1
1
1

114
112
2
2

55
55
-

-

-

30
30

30
30

-

139
139

22
22

37
37

119
119

10
10

151
106

_
-

7

-

8

-

-

-

-

-

54

60

*

9
6

”

_

48
48

51
51

1
1

*

20
20

4
4

*

4
4

3
1

5
1

*

“

“

8
6

14
13

“

2
1

1
“

14
14

-

“

1
1

*

8
7

3
“

*

5
-

-

2
2

21
21

16
16

-

-

2

4

42
42

-

2
2

4
i

11
7
4
4

-

2

4

1

_

_

11
11

13

43

12

**82

16

*

112
4

8
4

30
6

13
“

43
“

12
4

3.60- 4.45
3.63- 4.39

31
-

4
*

8

2
“

36
36

17
7

1
“

-

4.49

4.43- 4.66

-

-

-

-

2

-

2

4.35
4.42

4.71
4.72

3.72- 4.79
3.74- 4.79

-

3

*

“

1

3

*

51
35

4.04
4.11

4.31
4.32

3.39- 4.46
4.06- 4.43

*

“

“

-

“

1
“

SHIPPING CL ER KS ---------------------MANU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

53
50

4.15
4.18

4.23
4.28

3.67- 4.56
3.68- 4.57

“

*

SHIPPING ANO RE CEIVING CLERKS ----MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

106
97

4.15
4.25

4.23
4.26

3.74- 4.72
3.91- 4.73

-

“

-

“

-

-

TRUCKDRIVERS
------------------------MANU FA CT UR IN G --------------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------PUBLIC UTILITIES ---------------

911
288
623
385

4.98
4.38
5.26
5.77

5.07
4.22
5.82
5.85

4.374.064.555.82-

5.84
5.20
5.86
5.87

-

-

-

5

3

2

-

-

5

3

2

TR UCKDRIVERS, LIGHT (UNCER
1-1/2 TONS) -----------------------

26

4.04

3.98

3.29- 5.22

-

-

-

-

2

TR UCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM (1-1/2 TO
AND INCLUDING A TONS) ----------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

274
119
155

4.47
4.25
4.63

4.41
4.16
4.46

4.08- 4.49
4.05- 4.37
4.41- 5.81

_

_

5

3

TRUCKCRIVERS, HEAVY (OVER 4 TONS,
TRAILER TYPE I --------------------MANUFA CT UR IN G --------------------NONM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

474
72
402

5.36
3.92
5.62

5.83
4.12
5.84

4.64- 5.86
3.46- 4.23
5.81- 5.87

TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT) --------MA NU FACTURING --------------------NONM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

793
729
64

4.25
4.23
4.56

4.15
4.13
4.71

3.90- 4.72
3.89- 4.71
4.44- 4.77

TRUCKERS, POWER (OTHER THAN
FORKLIFT) ---------------------------MA NU FACTURING --------------------WOMEN

202
202

4.85
4.85

4.81
4.81

4.19- 5.47
4.19- 5.47

PACKERS, SHIPPING --------------------

84

3.64

3.39

2.19- 4.75




4

9
47
43
4
4

30

See footnotes at end of tables,

-

11
237
236
1
-

8

Workers were distributed as follows:
Workers were distributed as follows:
A ll workers were at $5.80 to $6.

4
4

i
16

t

*

24
22
2
2

112

*
**

113
113

27
5
22
4

82

3.68
4.44
2.72
3.88

7
7

*
-

-

-

-

_

“

-

"

-

-

'

-

15

“

-

'

'

“

-

3

“

-

5

-

*

-

-

-

*

-

12
12

-

-

-

*

'

'

'

'

7

-

-

-

-

54 at $1.60 to $1.70; 25 at $1.70 to $1.80; and 36 at $1.80 to $1.90.
34 at $1.60 to $1.70; 29 at $1.70 to $1.80; and 19 at $1.80 to $1.90.

-

23

-

_
-

-

3
3

-

*

-

-

12

-

-

-

-

-

99
99

14
14

4
4

17
17

16
16

4
4

6
6

8
8

8
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
5

14
14

6
6

2
2

_
-

-

-

2
1

25
25

_

5
5

_

-

27
27

-

-

33
2
31
4

89
89
-

43
43
“

128
6
122
2

57
21
36
“

20
4
16
”

26
26
“

72
72
-

-

6

2

1

-

1

-

-

7

1
1

21
21

57
57

27
27

87
3
84

5
5
“

*

_
-

15
15

18
18

15
15

39
3
36

36
36

4
4
-

-

256
256

43
43
*

54
29
25

192
167
25

-

1
1

-

53
53

15
15

31
31

1
1

-

-

-

-

39

'
30
30
“

2
2

_

36
30
6

31
31

122
122

‘

“

-

-

-

-

_
-

_

_

-

-

*

2 + 372
2
372
372

-

-

-

-

*

*

+42
42

.
-

_
-

-

+330
330

44
36
8

3
3
“

*

*

“

5
5

12
12

2
2

66
66

6
6

10
10

-

-

-

'

-

-

13

F o o tn o te s

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime
at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median
designates position— half of the employees surveyed receive more than the rate shown; half receive less than the rate shown. The middle
range is defined by 2 rates of pay; a fourth of the workers earn less than the lower of these rates and a fourth earn more than the higher rate.
3 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.




A p p e n d ix . O c c u p a tio n a l D e s c r ip tio n s
The p rim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the B u reau 's wage surveys is to assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate
occupations w orkers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangem ents from establishment to establishment and
from area to area. This perm its the grouping of occupational wage rates representing com parable job content. Because of this emphasis on
interestablishment and interarea com parability of occupational content, the B ureau's job descriptions m ay differ significantly from those in use in
individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the B u reau 's field economists are instructed
to exclude working su pervisors; apprentices; le a rn e rs; beginners; trainees; and handicapped, part-tim e, tem porary, and probationary w orkers.

O F F IC E
B IL L E R , M A CH IN E

CL E R K , A C C O U N T IN G — Continued

P re p a re s statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform other
clerical work incidental to billing operations. F or wage study purposes, b ille r s , machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.
C la ss A . Under general supervision, perform s accounting c le ric a l operations which
require the application of experience and judgment, for example, c le ric a lly processing com­
plicated or nonrepetitive accounting transactions, selecting among a substantial variety of
p rescrib ed accounting codes and classifications, or tracing transactions through previous
accounting actions to determine source of discrepancies. M ay be assisted by one or m ore
class B accounting clerks.

B ille r, machine (billing m achine). Uses a special billing machine (combination typing
and adding machine) to prepare b ills and invoices from custom ers' purchase ord e rs, inter­
nally prepared o rd e rs, shipping m emorandums, etc. U sually involves application of p re ­
determined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary extensions, which m ay or
may not be computed on the billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated
by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of the b ill being
prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
B ille r, machine (bookkeeping machine). Uses a bookkeeping machine (with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers' bills as part of the accounts receivable op era­
tion. G enerally involves the simultaneous entry of figures on custom ers' ledger record. The
machine automatically accumulates figures on a number of vertical columns and computes
and usually prints automatically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slips.

Class B . Under close supervision, following detailed instructions and standardized p ro­
cedures, perform s one or m ore routine accounting cle ric a l operations, such as posting to
led gers, cards, or worksheets where identification of items and locations of postings are
c learly indicated; checking accuracy and completeness of standardized and repetitive records
or accounting documents; and coding documents using a few prescribed accounting codes.
CL E R K , F IL E
F ile s, c la ssifie s, and retrieves m aterial in an established filing system. May perform
cle ric a l and manual tasks required to maintain files. Positions are classified into levels on the
basis of the following definitions.
C lass A . C la ssifie s and indexes file m aterial such as correspondence, reports, tech­
nical documents, etc., in an established filing system containing a number of varied subject
matter file s. May also file this m aterial. May keep records of various types in conjunction
with the files. May lead a sm all group of low er level file clerks.

B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P ER AT O R
Operates a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record
of business transactions.

Class B . Sorts, codes, and files
ings or partly classified m aterial by
c ro ss-re fe re n c e aids. As requested,
wards m aterial. May perform related

C lass A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and experience in basic
bookkeeping principles, and fam iliarity with the structure of the particular accounting system
used. Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each
phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records
by hand.
Class B. Keeps a record of one or m ore phases or sections of a set of records usually
requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable,
payroll, custom ers' accounts (not including a simple type of billing described under b ille r,
machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist
in preparation of tria l balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
C LER K , A C C O U N T IN G
P erform s one or m ore accounting clerical tasks such as posting to registers and ledgers;
reconciling bank accounts; verifying the internal consistency, completeness, and mathematical
accuracy of accounting documents; assigning prescribed accounting distribution codes; examining
and verifying for cle ric a l accuracy various types of reports, lists, calculations, posting, etc.;
or preparing simple or assisting in preparing m ore complicated journal vouchers. May work
in either a manual or automated accounting system.
The work requires a knowledge of cle ric a l methods and office practices and procedures
which relates to the cle ric a l processing and recording of transactions and accounting information.
With experience, the w orker typically becomes fam iliar with the bookkeeping and accounting term s
and procedures used in the assigned w ork, but is not required to have a knowledge of the form al
principles of bookkeeping and accounting.




NOTE:

unclassified m aterial by simple (subject matter) head­
finer subheadings. P re p a re s simple related index and
locates clearly identified m aterial in files and fo r­
clerical tasks required to maintain and service files.

Class C . P erform s routine filing of m aterial that has already been classified or which
is easily classified in a simple se rial classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological,
or num erical). As requested, locates readily available m aterial in files and forwards m a­
terial; and m ay fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple cle ric a l and manual tasks
required to maintain and service files.
C L E R K , ORDER
Receives custom ers' orders for m aterial or m erchandise by m ail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order
sheet listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled. May check with credit
department to determine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers,
follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check shipping
invoices with original orders.
C LE R K , P A Y R O L L
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n ecessary data on the payroll
sheets. Duties involve: Calculating w o rk e rs' earnings based on time or production records; and
posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such as w o rk e r's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. M ay make out paychecks and
a ssist paym aster in making up and distributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

The Bureau has discontinued collecting data for comptometer operators.

14

15
K E Y P U N C H O P ER AT O R

SECR ET ARY— Continued

Operates a keypunch machine to record
tabulating cards or on tape.

or verify

alphabetic

and/or numeric

data on

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.
Class A . Work requires the application of experience and judgment in selecting proce­
dures to be followed and in searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to be
keypunched from a variety of source documents. On occasion may also perform some routine
keypunch work.
May train inexperienced keypunch operators.

N O T E : The term "corporate officer, " used in the level definitions following, refe rs to
those officials who have a significant corporate-wide policymaking role with regard to m ajor
company activities. The title "vice p residen t," though norm ally indicative of this role, does not
in all cases identify such positions. Vice presidents whose prim ary responsibility is to act pe r­
sonally on individual cases or transactions (e.g., approve or deny individual loan or credit actions;
administer individual trust accounts; directly supervise a cle ric a l staff) are not considered to be
"corporate offic e rs" for purposes of applying the following level definitions.
C la ss A

all,
Class B . Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision or following specific
procedures or instructions, works from various standardized source documents which have
been coded, and follows specified procedures which have been prescribed in detail and require
little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. R efers to supervisor
problem s arisin g from erroneous items or codes or m issing information.

1. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that employs, in
over 100 but few er than 5,000 person s; or *
1

2. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the board or president)
of a company that employs, in all, over 5, 000 but few er than 25, 000 person s; or
3. Secretary to the head, immediately below the corporate officer level,
segment or subsidiary of a company that employs, in all, over 25,000 person s.

of a m ajor

Class B

MESSENGER (Office Boy or G irl)
P erform s various routine duties such as running errands, operating m inor office m a­
chines such as sealers or m a ile rs, opening and distributing m ail, and other m inor cle ric a l work.
Exclude positions that require operation of a motor vehicle as a significant duty.

SE C R E T A R Y
Assigned as personal secretary, norm ally to one individual. Maintains a close and highly
responsive relationship to the day-to-day work of the supervisor. Works fa irly independently r e ­
ceiving a minimum of detailed supervision and guidance. P erform s varied c le ric a l and secretarial
duties, usually including most of the follow ing:

a. Receives telephone calls, personal c a lle rs, and incoming m ail,
inquires, and routes technical inquiries to the proper persons;

answers

b.

Relays m essages from supervisor to subordinates;

2. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the board or president)
of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but few er than 5,000 person s; or
3. Secretary to the head, immediately below the officer level, over either a m ajor
corporate-w ide functional activity (e.g., marketing, research, operations, industrial re la tions, etc.) or~a m ajor geographic or organizational segment (e.g., a regional headquarters;
a m ajor division) of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000
em ployees; or
4. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level
of official) that employs, in all, over 5,000 person s; or
5. Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational segment (e.g., a middle
management supervisor of an organizational segment often involving as many as several
hundred persons) or a company that employs, in all, over 25,000 p e rson s.

Maintains the su perv iso r's calendar and makes appointments as instructed;

d.

1. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that employs, in
few er than 100 person s; or

Establishes, maintains, and revises the su p e rv iso r's files;

c.

routine

all,

Class C

e. Reviews correspondence, mem orandum s, and reports prepared by others for the
su perviso r's signature to assu re procedural and typographic accuracy;
f.

1. Secretary to an executive or m anagerial person whose responsibility is not equivalent
to one of the specific level situations in the definition for class B , but whose organizational
unit norm ally numbers at least several dozen employees and is usually divided into organiza­
tional segments which are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level
includes a wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; or
2. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level
of official) that employs, in all, few er than 5,000 person s.

P erform s stenographic and typing work.

May also perform other c le ric a l and se cretarial tasks of com parable nature and difficulty.
The work typically requires knowledge of office routine and understanding of the organization,
program s, and procedures related to the work of the supervisor.

Exclusions
Not a ll positions that are titled "se c reta ry " possess the above characteristics.
of positions which are excluded from the definition are as follows:

Exam ples

Class D
1. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a sm all organizational unit (e.g., few er than
about 25 or 30 persons); or
2. Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional employee, adm inistra­
tive officer, or assistant, skilled technician or expert. (N O T E : Many companies assign
stenographers, rather than secretaries as described above, to this level of supervisory or
nonsupervisory w orker.)
STENO G R APHER

a.

Positions

which do not meet the

"p erson a l"

secretary concept described above:

b.

Stenographers not fully trained in se cretarial type duties;

c. Stenographers serving as office assistants to a group of professional, technical, or
m anagerial persons;
d. Secretary positions in which the duties are either substantially m ore routine or
substantially m ore complex and responsible than those characterized in the definition;

P rim a ry duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to transcribe the dictation. May
also type from written copy. May operate from a stenographic pool. May occasionally transcribe
from voice recordings (if prim ary duty is transcribing from recordings, see Transcribing-M achine
Operator, G eneral).
N O T E : This job is distinguished from that of a secretary in that a secretary norm ally
works in a confidential relationship with only one m anager or executive and perform s m ore
responsible and discretionary tasks as described in the secretary job definition.
Stenographer, General

e. Assistant type positions which involve m ore difficult or m ore responsible tech­
nical, administrative, supervisory, or specialized clerical duties which are not typical of
se cretarial work.




Dictation involves a normal routine vocabulary. May maintain files, keep simple records,
or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks.

16
T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P ER AT O R (E lectric Accounting Machine O perator)— Continued

STENOG R APHER — Continued
Stenographer, Senior

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.

Dictation involves a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs
or reports on scientific research. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.
OR
P erfo rm s stenographic duties requiring significantly greater independence and respon­
sibility than stenographer, general, as evidenced by the following:
Work requires a high
degree of stenographic speed and accuracy; a thorough working knowledge of general business
and office procedure; and of the specific business operations, organization, policies, proce­
dures, files, w orkflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in perform ing stenographic duties and
responsible cle ric a l tasks such as maintaining followup files; assem bling m aterial for reports,
memorandums, and letters; composing simple letters from general instructions; reading and
routing incoming m ail; and answering routine questions, etc.
SW ITCH BOARD O PER AT O R
Class A . Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard handling incoming,
outgoing, intraplant or office calls. P erform s full telephone information service or handles
complex calls, such as conference, collect, ov erseas, or sim ilar calls, either in addition to
doing routine work as described for switchboard operator, class B, or as a full-tim e
assignment. (" F u ll" telephone information service occurs when the establishment has varied
functions that a re not readily understandable for telephone information purposes, e.g., because
of overlapping or interrelated functions, and consequently present frequent problem s as to
which extensions are appropriate for calls.)
Class B . Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard handling incoming,
outgoing, intraplant or office calls. May handle routine long distance calls and record tolls.
May perform lim ited telephone information service. ("L im ited " telephone information service
occurs if the functions of the establishment serviced are readily understandable for telephone
information purposes, or if the requests are routine, e.g., giving extension numbers when
specific names are furnished, or if complex calls are refe rre d to another operator.)
These classifications do not include switchboard operators in telephone companies who
assist customers in placing calls.
SW ITCH BOAR D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T
In addition to perform ing duties of operator on a single-position or monitor-type switch­
board, acts as receptionist and may also type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular
duties. This typing or c le ric a l work may take the m ajor part of this w o rk e r's time while at
switchboard.
T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R (E lectric Accounting Machine Operator)
Operates one o r a variety of machines such as the tabulator, calculator, collator, inter­
preter, sorter, reproducing punch, etc. Excluded from this definition are working supervisors.
A lso excluded are operators of electronic digital computers, even though they may also operate
EA M equipment.

C lass A . P erform s complete reporting and tabulating assignments including devising
difficult control panel w iring under general supervision. Assignments typically involve a
variety of long and complex reports which often are irre g u la r or nonrecurring, requiring
some planning of the nature and sequencing of operations, and the use of a variety of m a ­
chines. Is typically involved in training new operators in machine operations or training
low er level operators in wiring from diagram s and in the operating sequences of long and
complex reports. Does not include positions in which wiring responsibility is limited to
selection and insertion of prew ired boards.
Class B . P erform s work according to established procedures and under specific in­
structions. Assignm ents typically involve complete but routine and recu rring reports or parts
of la rg e r and m ore complex reports. Operates m ore difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the sim pler machines
used by class C operators. May be required to do some w iring from diagram s. M ay train
new employees in basic machine operations.
Class C . Under specific instructions, operates simple tabulating or electrical accounting
machines such as the sorter, interpreter, reproducing punch, collator, etc. Assignments
typically involve portions of a work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs,
or repetitive operations. May perform simple wiring from diagram s, and do some filing work.
T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E O PER AT O R , G E N E R A L
P rim a ry duty is to tran scribe dictation involving a normal routine vocabulary from
transcribing-m achine records. May also type from written copy and do simple clerical work.
W orkers transcribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as
legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation
in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is classified as a stenographer.
TYP IS T

U ses a typewriter to make copies of various m aterials or to make out bills after calcula­
tions have been made by another person. May include typing of stencils, m ats, or sim ilar m ate­
ria ls for use in duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special training, such
as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and distributing incoming m ail.
Class A . P erform s one or m ore of the following: Typing m aterial in final form when
it involves combining m aterial from several sources; or responsibility for correct spelling,
syllabication, punctuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language m ate­
rial; or planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity
and balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B . P erform s one or m ore of the following: Copy typing from rough or clear
drafts; or routine typing of form s, insurance policies, etc.; or setting up simple standard
tabulations; or copying m ore complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

P R O F E S S IO N A L A N D T E C H N IC A L
C O M PU T E R O PER ATO R — Continued

CO M PU TER O P ER AT O R
Monitors and operates the control console of a digital computer to process data according
to operating instructions, usually prepared by a program er. Work includes most of the following:
Studies instructions to determine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required
items (tape ree ls, cards, etc.); switches necessary auxiliary equipment into circuit, and starts
and operates computer; makes adjustments to computer to correct operating problem s and meet
special conditions; reviews e rr o r s made during operation and determines cause or refe rs problem
to supervisor or program er; and maintains operating records. May test and assist in correcting
program .
For wage study purposes,

computer operators are classified as follows;

Class A . Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running
program s with most of the following characteristics:
New program s are frequently tested
and introduced; scheduling requirem ents are of critical importance to m inimize downtime;
the program s are of complex design so that identification of e rro r source often requires a
working knowledge of the total program , and alternate program s may not be available. May
give direction and guidance to low er level operators.
C lass B . Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running
program s with most of the following characteristics: Most of the program s are established
production runs, typically run on a regu larly recurring basis; there is little or no testing




of new program s required; alternate program s are provided in case original program needs
m ajor change or cannot be corrected within a reasonable time. In comjnon e rro r situa­
tions, diagnoses cause and takes corrective action. This usually involves applying previously
program ed corrective steps, or using standard correction techniques.
OR
Operates under direct supervision a computer running program s or segments of program s
with the characteristics described for class A. May assist a higher level operator by inde­
pendently perform ing less difficult tasks assigned, and perform ing difficult tasks following
detailed instructions and with frequent review of operations perform ed.
Class C . Works on routine program s under close supervision. Is expected to develop
working knowledge of the computer equipment used and ability to detect problem s involved in
running routine program s. Usually has received some form al training in computer operation.
May assist higher level operator on complex program s.
C O M PU T E R PRO G R AM ER , BUSINESS
Converts statements of business problem s, typically prepared by a systems analyst, into
a sequence of detailed instructions which are required to solve the problem s by automatic data
processing equipment. Working from charts or diagram s, the program er develops the precise in­
structions which, when entered into the computer system in coded language, cause the manipulation

17
C O M PU T E R PR O G R AM ER , BUSINESS— Continued
of data to achieve desired results. Work involves most of the following: Applies knowledge of
computer capabilities, mathematics, logic employed by computers, and particular subject matter
involved to analyze charts and diagram s of the problem to be program ed; develops sequence
of program steps; w rites detailed flow charts to show order in which data w ill be processed;
converts these charts to coded instructions for machine to follow; tests and corrects program s;
prepares instructions for operating personnel during production run; analyzes, review s, and alters
program s to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements; maintains records of
program development and revisions. (N O T E : W orkers perform ing both systems analysis and p ro ­
graming should be classified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)
Does not include employees prim arily responsible for the management or supervision of
other electronic data processing employees, or p rogram ers prim arily concerned with scientific
and/or engineering problem s.
F or wage study purposes, program ers are classified as follows:
Class A . Works independently or under only general direction on complex problem s which
require competence in all phases of program ing concepts and practices. Working from dia­
gram s and charts which identify the nature of desired results, m ajor processing steps to be
accomplished, and the relationships between various steps of the problem solving routine;
plans the full range of program ing actions needed to efficiently utilize the computer system
in achieving desired end products.
At this level, program ing is difficult because computer equipment must be organized to
produce several interrelated but diverse products from numerous and diverse data elements.
A wide variety and extensive number of internal processing actions must occur. This requires
such actions as development of common operations which can be reused, establishment of
linkage points between operations, adjustments to data when program requirem ents exceed
computer storage capacity, and substantial manipulation and resequencing of data elements
to form a highly integrated program .
May provide functional direction to low er level program ers who are assigned to assist.
Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on relatively simple
program s, or on simple segments of complex program s.
Program s (or segments) usually
process information to produce data in two or three varied sequences or form ats. Reports
and listings are produced by refining, adapting, arraying, or making m inor additions to or
deletions from input data' which are readily available.
While numerous records may be
processed, the data have been refined in prior actions so that the accuracy and sequencing
of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typically, the program deals with
routine record-keeping type operations.
OR
Works on complex program s (as described for class A ) under close direction of a higher
level program er or supervisor. May assist higher level program er by independently p e r­
forming less difficult tasks assigned, and perform ing m ore difficult tasks under fa irly close
direction.
May guide or instruct low er level p rogram ers.
C lass C . Makes practical applications of program ing practices and concepts usually
learned in form al training courses. Assignm ents are designed to develop competence in the
application of standard procedures to routine problem s. Receives close supervision on new
aspects of assignments: and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy and conformance with
required procedures.
C O M PU T E R SYSTEMS A N A L Y S T , BUSINESS
Analyzes business problem s to formulate procedures for solving them by use of electronic
data processing equipment. Develops a complete description of all specifications needed to enable
p rogram ers to prepare required digital computer program s. Work involves most of the following:
Analyzes subject-m atter operations to be automated and identifies conditions and criteria required
to achieve satisfactory results; specifies number and types of records, file s, and documents to
be used; outlines actions to be perform ed by personnel and computers in sufficient detail for
presentation to management and-for program ing (typically this involves preparation of work and
data flow charts); coordinates the development of test problem s and participates in trial runs of
new and revised systems; and recommends equipment changes to obtain m ore effective overall
operations. (N O TE : W orkers perform ing both systems analysis and program ing should be c la s­
sified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)
Does not include employees p rim arily responsible for the management or supervision
of other electronic data processing employees, or systems analysts p rim arily concerned with
scientific or engineering problem s.
F or wage study purposes,

systems analysts are classified as follows:

C lass A . Works independently or under only general direction on complex problem s in­
volving all phases of systems analysis. Problem s are complex because of diverse sources of
input data and m ultiple-use requirements of output data. (F o r example, develops an integrated
production scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales analysis record in which




C O M PU T E R SYSTEMS A N A L Y S T , BUSINESS— Continued
every item of each type is automatically processed through the full system of records and
appropriate followup actions are initiated by the computer.) Confers with persons concerned to
determine the data processing problem s and advises subject-m atter personnel on the im plica­
tions of new or revised systems of data processing operations. Makes recommendations, if
needed, for approval of m ajor systems installations or changes and for obtaining equipment.
May provide functional direction to lower
as sist.

level systems analysts who are assigned to

Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on problems that are
relatively uncomplicated to analyze, plan, program , and operate. Problem s are of limited
complexity because sources of input data are homogeneous and the output data are closely
related.
(F o r example, develops systems for maintaining depositor accounts in a bank,
maintaining accounts receivable in a retail establishment, or maintaining inventory accounts
in a manufacturing or wholesale establishment.) Confers with persons concerned to determine
the data processing problem s and advises subject-m atter personnel on the implications of the
data processing systems to be applied.
OR
Works on a segment of a complex data processing scheme or system, as described for
class A. Works independently on routine assignments and receives instruction and guidance
on complex assignments. Work is reviewed for accuracy of judgment, compliance with in­
structions, and to insure proper aiinement with the overall system.
C la ss C . Works under immediate supervision, carrying out analyses as assigned, usually
of a single activity. Assignments are designed to develop and expand practical experience
in the application of procedures and skills required for systems analysis work. For example,
may assist a higher level systems analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required
by p rogram ers from information developed by the higher level analyst.
D R AF T SM AN
Class A . Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having distinctive design
features that differ significantly from established drafting precedents. Works in close sup­
port with the design originator, and may recommend minor design changes. Analyzes the
effect of each change on the details of form , function, and positional relationships of com­
ponents and parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory assistance. Completed work is
reviewed by design originator for consistency with prior engineering determinations. May
either prepare drawings, or direct their preparation by lower level draftsmen.
Class B . P erfo rm s nonroutine and complex drafting assignments that require the appli­
cation of m ost of the standardized drawing techniques regularly used. Duties typically in­
volve such work as:
P re p a re s working drawings of subassem blies with irre gu la r shapes,
multiple functions, and precise positional relationships between components; prepares archi­
tectural drawings for construction of a building including detail drawings of foundations, wall
sections, floor plans, and roof. Uses accepted form ulas and manuals in making necessary
computations to determine quantities of m aterials to be used, load capacities, strengths,
stresses, etc.
Receives initial instructions, requirements, and advice from supervisor.
Completed work is checked for technical adequacy.
C lass C . P re p a re s detail drawings of single units or parts for engineering, construction,
manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types of drawings prepared include isometric projections
(depicting three dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning of
components and convey needed information. Consolidates details from a number of sources
and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggested methods of approach, applicable
precedents, and advice on source m aterials are given with initial assignments. Instructions
are less complete when assignments recur.
Work may be spot-checked during progress.
D R A F T SM A N - TR ACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing cloth or paper over
drawings and tracing with pen or pencil.
(Does not include tracing limited to plans prim arily
consisting of straight lines and a large scale not requiring close delineation.)
AND/OR
P repares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized items.
during progress.

Work is closely supervised

E L E C T R O N IC S T EC H NIC IAN
Works on various types of electronic equipment or systems by perform ing one or m ore
of the following operations: Modifying, installing, repairing, and overhauling. These operations
require the perform ance of most or all of the following tasks: Assem bling, testing, adjusting,
calibrating, tuning, and alining.
Work is nonrepetitive and requires a knowledge of the theory and practice of electronics
pertaining to the use of general and specialized electronic test equipment; trouble analysis; and
the operation,, relationship, and aiinement of electronic systems, subsystems, and circuits having
a variety of component parts.

18
E L E C T R O N IC S T E C H N IC IA N — Continued

NU R SE, IN D U ST R IA L (R egistered)

Electronic equipment or system s worked on typically include one or m ore of the following:
Ground, vehicle, or airborne radio communications system s, relay system s, navigation aids;
airborne or ground rad a r system s; radio and television transmitting or recording system s; e lec­
tronic computers; m issile and spacecraft guidance and control system s; industrial and m edical
m easuring, indicating and controlling devices; etc.

A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general m edical direction to ill or
injured employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the prem ises of a
factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid
to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes; assisting in
physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and employees; and planning and c a rr y ­
ing out program s involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment,
or other activities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of a ll personnel. Nursing supervisors
or head nurses in establishments employing m ore than one nurse are excluded.

(Exclude production a ssem b lers and testers, craftsm en, draftsm en, designers, engineers,
and repairm en of such standard electronic equipment as office machines, radio and television
receiving sets.)

M A IN T E N A N C E A N D P O W E R P L A N T
C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

M ACHINIST, M A IN T E N A N C E

P erfo rm s the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain in good repair build­
ing woodwork and equipment such as bins, c rib s, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors,
stairs, casings, and trim made of wood in an establishment. W ork involves most of the following;
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, m odels, or verbal instructions; using a
variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools, and standard m easuring instruments; m ak­
ing standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting m aterials necessary
for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

P roduces replacement parts and new parts in making rep a irs of m etal parts of mechanical
equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves most of the follow ing: Interpreting written
instructions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of machinist's
handtools and precision m easuring instruments; setting up and operating standard machine tools;
shaping of m etal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to dimen­
sions of w ork, tooling, feeds, and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties of
the common m etals; selecting standard m aterials, parts, and equipment required for his work;
and fitting and assem bling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist's work
norm ally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

E L E C T R IC IA N , M A IN T E N A N C E
P e rfo rm s a variety of electrical trade functions such as the installation, maintenance, or
rep air of equipment for the generation, distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an estab­
lishment. W ork involves most of the following; Installing or repairing any of a variety of elec­
trical equipment such as generators, tra n sform ers, switchboards, controllers, circuit b r e a k e rs ,
m otors, heating units, conduit system s, or other transm ission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layouts, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical
system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of wiring or
electrical equipment; and using a variety of electrician ’s handtools and m easuring and testing
instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
E N G IN E E R , S TATIO N AR Y
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of stationary engines and
equipment (mechanical or ele c trica l) to supply the establishment in which employed with power,
heat, refrigeration, or air-conditioning. W ork involves: Operating and maintaining equipment
such as steam engines, a ir com pressors, generators, m otors, turbines, ventilating and r e fr ig ­
erating equipment, steam b oile rs and b o ile r-fe d water pumps; making equipment rep airs; and
keeping a record of operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consumption. May also su­
pervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing m ore than one
engineer are excluded.
F IR E M A N , S T A T IO N A R Y B O IL E R
F ire s stationary b oilers to furnish the establishment in which employed with heat, power,
or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and
checks water and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.
H E L P E R , M A IN T E N A N C E TRADES
A ssists one or m ore w orkers in the skilled maintenance trades, by perform ing specific
or general duties of le s s e r skill, such as keeping a w orker supplied with m aterials and tools;
cleaning working a rea, machine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding m aterials or
tools; and perform ing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work the
helper is permitted to perform v aries from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined
to supplying, lifting, and holding m aterials and tools, and cleaning working areas; and in others
he is permitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are also
perform ed by w orkers on a full-tim e basis.
M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R , T O O LR O O M
Specializes in the operation of one or m ore types of machine tools, such as jig b o re rs,
cylindrical or surface grin ders, engine lathes, or m illing machines, in the construction of
m achine-shop tools, gages, jig s, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and perform ing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring complicated setups or
a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of precision m easuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling, and operation sequence; and making n ecessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recognize when tools need
dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils.
For
cross-in du stry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom , in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.




M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (Maintenance)
R epairs autom obiles, buses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an establishment. W ork in­
volves most of the following: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; d is­
assem bling equipment and perform ing rep airs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, d rills , or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts; replacing broken or
defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassem bling and installing the various
assem blies in the vehicle and making n ecessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
This classification does not include mechanics who repair custom ers' vehicles in auto­
m obile rep air shops.
M E C H A N IC , M A IN T E N A N C E
Repairs m achinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment. W ork involves most
of the following: Examining machines and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble;
dismantling or partly dismantling machines and perform ing repairs that mainly involve the use
of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items obtained
from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of the
machine to a machine shop for m ajor rep airs; preparing written specifications for m ajor repairs
or for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling machines; and making
all n ecessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are w orkers whose prim ary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.
M IL LW R IG H T
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and installs machines or heavy
equipment when changes in the plant layout are required. W ork involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out of the w ork; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a variety
of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to stre sses, strength of
m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and pnaintaining in good order power transm ission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m illw righ t's work norm ally requires
a rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
P A IN T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
Paints and redecorates w a lls, woodwork, and fixtures of an establishment. Work involves
the following: Knowledge of surface peculiarities and types of paint required for different applica­
tions; preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or fille r in nail

19
P A I N T E R , M A I N T E N A N C E — C o n tin u ed

S H E E T -M E T A L

holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May m ix colors, oils, white
lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the
maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

types of sheet-m etal maintenance work from blueprints, models, or other specifications; setting
up and operating all available types of sheet-metal working machines; using a variety of handtools
in cutting, bending, form ing, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; and installing sheet-metal articles
as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-m etal worker requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.

P IP E F IT T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
Installs or rep airs water, steam, gas, o r other types of pipe and pipefittings in an
establishment. Work involves most of the follow ing; Laying out of work and m easuring to locate
position of pipe from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machines; threading
pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or pow er-driven machines; assem bling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to
p re ssu re s, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether fin­
ished pipes meet specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. W orkers prim arily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation
or heating systems are excluded.
S H E E T -M E T A L WORKER, M A IN T E N A N C E
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-m etal equipment and fixtures
(such as machine g u ards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal
roofing) of an establishment. Work involves most of the follow ing: Planning and laying out all

W O R K E R , M A I N T E N A N C E — C on tin u ed

T O O L AN D DIE M AK ER
Constructs and rep airs m achine-shop tools, gages, jig s, fixtures or dies for forgings,
punching, and other m etal-form in g work.
Work involves most of the following: Planning and
laying out of work from m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die m ak er's handtools and precision m easuring instruments; under­
standing of the working properties of common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of
machine tools and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heat-treating of metal parts during fabrication
as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assem bling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appropriate
^m aterials, tools, and p rocesses. In general, the tool and die m ak er's work requires a rounded
training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship
or equivalent training and experience.
F or cro ss-in d u stry wage study purposes, tool and die m akers in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

C U S T O D I A L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
GUARD A N D W A TCH M AN
Guard. P erform s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintaining order,
using arm s or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check
on identity of employees and other persons entering.
Watchman. Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property against fire ,
theft, and illegal entry.
JANITOR, PO R TE R , OR C L E A N E R

S H IPP IN G AN D R E C E IV IN G CLER K
P re p a re s m erchandise for shipment, or receives and is responsible for incoming ship­
ments of m erchandise or other m a te ria ls. Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping p ro­
cedures, practices, routes, available means of transportation, and rates; and preparing records
of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges, and keeping
a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments
against bills of lading, invoices, or other records: checking for shortages and rejecting dam­
aged goods; routing m erchandise or m aterials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and file s.

Cleans and keeps in an o rderly condition factory working areas and washroom s, or
prem ises of an office, apartment house, or com m ercial or other establishment. Duties involve
a combination of the follow ing: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floo rs; removing
chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing m etal fix ­
tures or trim m ings; providing supplies and m inor maintenance services; and cleaning lavatories,
showers, and restroom s. W orkers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

F or wage study purposes, w orkers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
T R UC K DR IVER

LA BO R ER , M A T E R IA L HAN D LING
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment
whose duties involve one or m ore of the follow ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and
m erchandise on or from freight c ars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving,
or placing m aterials or m erchandise in proper storage location; and transporting m aterials or
m erchandise by handtruck, car, or w heelbarrow . Longshorem en, who load and unload ships are
excluded.
ORDER F IL L E R
F ills shipping or tran sfer orders for finished goods from stored m erchandise in accord­
ance with specifications on sales slips, custom ers' o rd e rs, or other instructions. May, in addition
to filling orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing o rd e rs, requi­
sition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other related duties.

D rives a truck within a city o r industrial area to transport m aterials, m erchandise,
equipment, or men between various types of establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight
depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and
custom ers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck with or without helpers,
make m inor mechanical rep a irs, and keep truck in good working order.
D rive r-sa le sm e n and
ove r-th e-roa d driv ers are excluded.

follow s:

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size and type of equipment, as
(T ra c t o r -t r a ile r should be rated on the basis of tra ile r capacity.)
T ruckdriver
T ruck driver,
T ruck driver,
T ruck driver,
T ruck driver,

(combination of sizes listed separately)
light (under IV2 tons)
medium (l*/2 to and including 4 tons)
heavy (over 4 tons, tra ile r type)
heavy (over 4 tons, other than tra ile r type)

P A C K E R , SH IPPING
T R UC K ER , PO W ER
P re p a re s finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping con­
tainers, the specific operations perform ed being dependent upon the type, size, and number
of units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires
the placing of items in shipping containers and m ay involve one or m ore of the follow ing:
Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate type
and size of container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels or entering
identifying data on container.
Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.




Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered truck or tractor to transport
goods and m aterials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
F o r wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of truck,
T rucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

as follows:

A v a ila b le O n R e q u e s t ----T h e fo l l o w i n g a r e a s a r e s u r v e y e d p e r i o d i c a l l y fo r us e in a d m i n i s t e r i n g the S e r v i c e C on tra c t A c t o f 1965.
w i l l be a v a i l a b l e at no c os t w h ile sup plies la s t f r o m any o f the B L S r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s shown on the b ack c o v e r .
A l a m o g o r d o —L a s C r u c e s , N. M e x .
Alaska
A lb a n y , Ga.
A m a rillo, Tex.
A tla n tic C ity , N.J .
Augusta , Ga.— C.
S.
B a k e r s f i e l d , C a l i f.
Baton R o u g e , L a .
B i l o x i , G u lf p ort, and P a s c a g o u l a , M i s s .
B r i d g e p o r t , N o r w a l k , and S t a m fo rd , Conn.
C e d a r R a p id s , Iowa
Cham paign—U r b a n a , 111.
C h a r le s t o n , S.C.
C l a r k s v i l l e , T e n n ., and H o p k i n s v i l l e , Ky.
C o l o r a d o S p rin g s , Colo.
C olu m b ia, S.C .
Colum bus, G a —A l a .
Corpus C h r i s t i , T e x .
C r a n e , Ind.
Dothan, A l a .
Duluth— u p e r i o r , M inn.—W is .
S
El Paso, Tex.
Eugen e— p r i n g f i e l d , O r e g .
S
F a r g o — o o r h e a d , N. D a k —Minn.
M
F a y e t t e v i l l e , N. C.
F itc h b u r g — e o m i n s t e r , M a s s .
L
F r e d e r i c k — a g e r s t o w n , M d .—P a .—W. V a.
H
F r e s n o , C a lif.
Grand F o r k s , N. Dak.
Grand Island— a s t i n g s , N e b r .
H
G r e e n b o r o — in sto n S a le m — ig h P o in t, N .C .
W
H
H a r r i s b u r g , P a.
K n o x v i l l e , Tenn.

C op ie s o f public r e l e a s e s a r e or

Laredo, Tex.
Las Vegas, N ev.
L o w e r E a s t e r n Sh ore , M d —V a.
M a c o n , Ga.
M a r q u e t t e , E s ca nab a, Sault Ste.
M a r i e , M ic h .
M e lb o u r n e —T i t u s v i l l e —C o c o a , F l a .
( B r e v a r d C o.)
M eridian , M is s.
M i d d l e s e x , Mon mouth , Ocean, and S o m e r s e t
C o s ., N.J .
M o b i l e , A l a . , and P e n s a c o l a , F l a .
M on tgom ery, A la.
N a s h v i l l e , Tenn.
N o r t h e a s t e r n M ain e
N o r w i c h —G roton— e w Lon don, Conn.
N
Ogden, Utah
O r la n d o, F l a .
Oxn ar d— im i V a l l e y —V e n tu ra, C a lif.
S
P ana m a C ity , F l a .
P o r ts m o u th , N . H —M a in e — a s s .
M
P u e b lo , C olo.
R e n o, N e v .
S a c r a m e n to , C a lif.
Santa B a r b a r a —
Santa M a r i a —L o m p o c , C a l i f.
Sherm an —D enison , T e x .
Shreveport, La.
Spr in g f ie Id—Chic ope e— o l y o k e , M a s s —C onn.
H
T o p e k a , Kans.
T u c s on , A r i z .
V a l l e j o —F a i r f i e l d — a p a , C a lif.
N
W i lm in g to n , D e l . — J^—
N.
Md.
Yuma, A r i z .

R e p o r t s f o r the f o l l o w i n g s u r v e y s conducted in the p r i o r y e a r but since discontinued a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e :
A lp e n a , Standish, and T a w a s City, M ic h .
A s h e v i l l e , N .C .
Au s tin , T e x . *
F o r t Sm ith , A r k —Okla.
G r ea t F a l l s , Mont.
*

Expan ded to an a r e a w ag e s u r v e y in f i s c a l y e a r

1973.

L e x in g to n , K y . *
P i n e B lu ff, A r k .
Stockton, C a lif.
T a c o m a , Wash.
W ich it a F a l l s , T e x .
See in sid e b ack c o v e r .

The tw elf th annual r e p o r t on s a l a r i e s f o r accountan ts, au d ito rs , c h i e f acc ountants, a t t o r n e y s , job a n a ly s ts , d i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l, b u y e r s , c h e m i s t s ,
e n g in e e r s , e n g in e e r in g te c h n i c i a n s , d r a ft s m e n , and c l e r i c a l e m p l o y e e s . O r d e r as B L S B u ll e tin 1742, N a tion a l S u r v e y of P r o f e s s i o n a l , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e ,
T e c h n i c a l , and C l e r i c a l P a y , June 1971, 75 cents a copy, f r o m any o f the B L S r e g i o n a l s a le s o f f i c e s shown on the b ac k c o v e r , or f r o m the
Superintendent of D o cum ents, U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n ti n g O f f i c e , Washin gto n, D .C ., 20402.




A re a W a g e S u rv e y s
A l is t o f the la te s t a v a ila b le bulle tins is p r e s e n te d b e low . A d i r e c t o r y o f a r e a w a g e studies including m o r e l i m i t e d studies conducted at the
re q u e s t o f the E m p lo y m e n t Standards A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r is a v a ila b le on r eq ue st. B ulle tins m a y be purch ased f r o m any of the B L S
r e g i o n a l s a le s o f f i c e s shown on the back c o v e r , o r f r o m the Superintendent o f Docum ents , U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D .C., 20402.
Area
A k r o n , Ohio, July 1971 1___________________________________
A lb an y — c h e n e c t a d y - T r o y , N . Y . , M a r . 1972--------------S
A lb u qu erqu e, N. M e x . , M a r . 1972 1---------------- -----------A l le n t o w n — eth le h e m ^ E a ston , P a . —N .J ., M a y 1972 1 —
B
Atla nta, G a . , M a y 1972 1--------------------------------------------Austin , T e x . , Dec. 1972 1 (to be s u r ve y e d )
B a l t i m o r e , M d . , Aug. 1971_________________________________
B eaum ont— o r t Arth ur—O r a n g e , T e x . , M a y 1972-------P
Bingham ton, N . Y . , July 1972-------------------------------------B i r m i n g h a m , * A l a . , M a r . 1972------------------------------------B o i s e C ity , Idaho, N ov . 1971______________________________
Bosto n, M a s s . , Aug. 1 9 72 1 ----------------------------------------B u ffa lo , N . Y . , Oct. 19721 __________________________________
B urli n gton, V t . , Dec. 1971 -----------------------------------------Canton, Ohio, M a y 1972 1__________________________________
C h a r le sto n , W. V a . , M a r . 1972 1 -------------------------------C h a r lo tte, N .C . , Jan. 1972 1 _______________________________
Chattanooga, Tenn.—G a . , Sept. 1972 1 ----------------------- —
C h ic ag o, 111., June 1972____________________________________
C incinnati, Ohio— y.—In d ., F eb . 1972-------------------------K
C le v e la n d , Ohio, Sept. 1972 1-------------------------------------C olum bus , Ohio, Oct. 1971-----------------------------------------D a l l a s . T e x . , Oct. 1971____________________________________
D av e n p ort— o c k Island— o l i n e , Iow a—
R
M
111., F eb . 1972 1—
Dayton, Ohio, De c. 1971 1 __________________________________
D e n v e r , C o lo ., Dec. 1971 1-----------------------------------------D es M o in e s , Iowa, M a y 1972 1 ____________________________
D e t r o i t , M i c h . , F eb. 1972__________________________________
Durham , N .C . , A p r . 1972 1-----------------------------------------F o r t L a u d e r d a le — o lly w o o d and W e s t P a l m
H
B each , F l a . , A p r 1972 1__________________________________
F o r t W o rth, T e x . , Oct. 1971_______________________________
G r e e n Bay, W i s . , July 1972 1-------------------------------------G r e e n v i l l e , S.C., M a y 1972________________________________
Houston, T e x . , A p r . 1972-------------------------------------------H u n t s v i l l e , A l a . , Feb. 1972 1 ______________________________
Indianapolis , Ind ., Oct. 1971_______________________________
Jackson, M i s s . , Jan. 1972__________________________________
J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l a . , Dec. 1971_____________________________
Kansas C ity , M o.—K a n s . , Sept. 1972---------------------------L a w r e n c e — a v e r h i l l , M a s s . —N .H . , June 1972 1_________
H
L e xin gto n, K y . , N ov. 1972 1 (to be s u r ve y e d )
L i t t l e R oc k — o r th L i t t l e Rock, A r k . , July 1972 1-------N
L o s A n g e l e s —L on g B ea ch and A n a h e im —
Santa AnarG a r d en G r o v e , C a l i f . , M a r . 1972________________________
L o u i s v i l l e , K y . —I n d ., N ov . 1971 1_________________________
Lubbock, T e x . , M a r . 1972 1---------------------------------------M a n c h e s te r , N .H ., July 1972 1 -----------------------------------M e m p h i s , Tenn.—A r k . , N ov . 1971 1 ----------------------------M i a m i , F l a . , N ov. 1971_____________ _______________________
M id la nd and O d e s s a , T e x . , Jan. 1972 1 __________________

 l
Data
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ on establishment
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

B u lle tin number
and p r i c e
1685-87,
1725-49,
1725-59,
1725-87,
1725-77,

40 cents
30 cents
35 cents
35 cents
45 cents

1725-16,
1725-69,
1775-5,
1725-58,
1725-27,
1775-13,
1775-18,
1725-25,
1725-75,
1725-63,
1725-48,
1775-14,
1725-92,
1725-56,
1775-15,
1725-19,
1725-26,
1725-55,
1725-36,
1725-44,
1725-86,
1725-68,
1725-64,

35 cents
30 cents
45 cents
30 cents
30 cents
75 cents
25 cents
35 cents
35 cents
35 cents
55 cents
70 cents
35 cents
75 cents
30 cents
35 cents
35 cents
35 cents
35 cents
35 cents
40 cents
30 cents

1725-74,
1725-21,
1775- 1,
1725-66,
1725-79,
1725-50,
1725-23,
1725-38,
1725-39,
1775-17,
1725-81,

35 cents
30 cents
55 cents
30 cents
35 cents
35 cents
30 cents
30 cents
30 cents

1775-2,

55 cents

1725-76,
1725-29,
1725-57,
1775-8,
1725-40,
1725-28,
1725-37,

45 cents
35 cents
35 cents
55 cents
35 cents
30 cents
30 cents

35 cents

practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.

Area
M i l w a u k e e , W i s . , M a y 1972 1--------------------------------------M in n ea p o lis —
St. P a u l , M inn., Jan. 1972 1 --------------------M u s k eg on — usk egon H e ig h ts , M i c h . , June 1972 1 _______
M
N e w a r k and J e r s e y C i t y , N .J . , Jan. 1972 1 ------------------N e w Hav en, C onn ., J an. 1972 1_____________________________
N e w O r l e a n s , L a . , J an. 1972_______________________________
N e w Y o r k , N . Y . , A p r . 19721
________________________________
N o r f o l k — i r g i n i a B e a c h — o r t s m o u t h and
V
P
N ew port N ew s—
Hampton, V a ., Jan. 1972------------------O k lahom a C ity, O k l a . , July 1972---------------------------------Omaha, N e b r . —Iow a, Sept. 1972-----------------------------------P a t e r son— lifto n — a s s a i c , N .J ., June 1972 1 --------------C
P
P h ila d e lp h ia , P a . - N . J . , N ov. 1971 1 ----------------------------P h o e n i x , A r i z . , June 1972 1-----------------------------------------P itts b u r g h , P a . , J an. 1972------------------------------------------P o r t l a n d , M a i n e , N ov . 1971 1_______________________________
P o r t l a n d , O r e g . —W a s h . , M a y 1972 1 ----------------------------P o u g h k e e p s ie ^ K in g s to n — ew bu rgh, N . Y . ,
N
June 1972 1 ___________________________________________________
P r o v i d e n c e — a r w i c k — aw tu ck e t, R.I.—M a s s . ,
W
P
M a y 1972_____________________________________________________
R a l e i g h , N . C . , Aug. 1972--------------------------------------------Richm on d, V a . , M a r . 1972 1 ________________________________
R i v e r sid e—
San B e r n a r d i n o — n t a rio , C a l i f. ,
O
Dec. 1971____________________________________________________
R o c h e s t e r , N . Y . ( o f f i c e occ up ations on ly), July 1972---R o c k f o r d , 111., J une 1972 1 _________________________________
St. L o u i s , M o.—111., M a r . 1972_____________ ___ _____ ____
Salt L a k e C ity , Utah, N o v . 1971___________________________
San An to nio, T e x . , M a y 1972_______________________________
San D i e g o , C a l i f . , N ov. 1971 1______________________________
San F r a n c i s c o — akland, C a l i f. , Oct. 1971 1 -----------------O
San J o s e , C a l i f . , M a r . 1972_________________________________
Savannah, G a . , M a y 1972 1 ------------------------------------------Scranton, P a . , July 1972 --------------------------------------------Seat tle—E v e re tt, W a s h ., J an. 1972------------------------------Sioux F a l l s , S. Dak., D ec. 1971____________________________
South Bend, Ind ., M a y 1972 1 --------------------------------------Spokane, W ash., J une 1972 1----------------- ----------------------S y r a c u s e , N . Y . , July 1972-------------------------------------------Tampar-St. P e t e r s b u r g , F l a . , Aug. 1972---------------------T o l e d o , O h i o - M i c h . , A p r . 1 9 7 2 * __________________________
T r e n to n , N . J . , Sept. 1972 1------------------------------------------Utica— o m e , N . Y . , July 1972---------------------- ---- ---- ------R
Washington, D.C.—Md.—V a . , M a r . 1972 1 ---------------------W a t e r b u r y , C on n ., M a r . 1972 1 ____ ___ _____ ____ __ _______
W a t e r l o o , Iowa, N ov. 1971___ ______ ___ ____ ___________ ____
W ic h ita , K a n s . , A p r . 1972 1_________________________________
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , M a y 1972 1_____________________________
Y o r k , P a . , Feb. 19721 ______________________________________
Youngstown— a r r e n , Ohio, N ov. 1972------ ------ ---- — ---W

Bulletin number
and p r i c e
1725-83,
1725-45,
1725-85,
1725-52,
1725-41,
1725-35,
1725-90,

45cents
50cents
35cents
50cents
3 5 cents
30cents
50cents

1725-42,
1775-6,
1775-16,
1725-88,
1725-62,
1725-94,
1725-46,
1725-22,
1725-89,

30cents
45cents
40cents
50cents
55cents
40cents
35cents
35 cents

1725-80,

35cents

1725-70,
1775-7,
1725-72,

30cents
45cents
35 cents

1725-43,
1775-4,
1725-84,
1725-61,
1725-24,
1725-67,
1725-32,
1725-33,
1725-65,
1725-73,
1775-10,
1725-47,
1725-30,
1725-60,
1725-91,
1775-11,
1775-9,
1725-78,
1775-12,
1775-3,
1725-93,
1725-53,
1725-20,
1725-82,
1725-71,
1725-54,
1775-19,

30cents
45cents
cents
cents
30cents
cents
cents
50cents
30cents
cents
45cents
30cents
25cents
cents
35cents
45cents
45cents
35cents
55cents
45cents
70cents
cents
30cents
35cents
cents
35cents

35
35
30
35

35

35

35

35

FIRST

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

CLASS

MAIL

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON, D C. 20212
OFFICIAL BUSINESS
PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE $300

POSTAGE AND FEES PAID

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
L A B-4 4 1

B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T I S T I C S R E G IO N A L O F F IC E S
Region I
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (Area Code 617)
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Vermont

Region II
1515 Broadway
New York, N Y. 10036
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)
New Jersey
New York
Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands

Region III
406 Penn Square Building
1317 Filbert St.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107
Phone: 597-7796 (Area Code 215)
Delaware
District of Columbia
Maryland
Pennsylvania
Virginia
West Virginia

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. N.E.
Atlanta, Ga 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Mississippi
North Carolina
South Carolina
Tennessee

Region V
8th Floor, 300 South Wanker Drive
Chicago. III. 60606
Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)
Illinois
Indiana
Michigan
Minnesota
Ohio
Wisconsin

Region VI
1100 Commerce St. Rm. 6B7
Dallas. Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)
Arkansas
Louisiana
New Mexico
Oklahoma
Texas

Regions V II and V III
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St.,
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)
VII
V III
Iowa
Colorado
Kansas
Montana
Missouri
North Dakota
Nebraska
South Dakota
Utah
Wyoming

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)
IX
X
Alaska
Arizona
Idaho
California
Oregon
Hawaii
Washington
Nevada





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102